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Location of Amritsar in India Location Amritsar, India Coordinates 31°37′14″N 74°52′49″E / 31.62053°N 74.88031°E / 31.62053; 74.88031Coordinates: 31°37′14″N 74°52′49″E / 31.62053°N 74.88031°E / 31.62053; 74.88031 Date 13 April 1919 5:30 pm (UTC+5:30) Target Hindu, Muslim and Sikh religious and political gathering Attack type massacre Weapon(s) Rifles Deaths 379-1500 Injured 1100-1500 Perpetrator(s) British Indian Army unit under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer Number of participant(s) 50
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre (Punjabi:
Urdu: عام ب اغ ج ل يان وال ہJallianwala Bāġa Hatyākāṇḍ), also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place in the Jallianwala Bagh public garden in the northern Indian city of Amritsar, and was ordered by Brigadier-General Reginald E.H. Dyer. On Sunday 13 April 1919, Dyer was convinced that a major insurrection was at hand. He banned all meetings, and hearing a meeting of 15,000 to 20,000 people had assembled he marched his fifty riflemen to a raised bank and ordered them to shoot at the crowd which included men, women, and children. Dyer kept the firing up for about ten minutes. Official Government of India sources estimated the fatalities at 379, with 1,100 wounded. The casualty number estimated by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500, with approximately 1,000 killed.
Dyer was removed from duty and forced to retire, but he became a celebrated hero in Britain among people with connections to the British Raj. The massacre caused a reevaluation in the Army's role in which the new policy became minimum force, and the Army was retrained and developed suitable
Bengal and Punjab remained sources of anticolonial .tactics such as crowd control.1 India during World War I 1. and ammunition. Historians consider the episode was a decisive step towards the end of British rule in India. However.2 After the war 2 Prelude to the massacre 3 The massacre 3. money. while both the Indian administration and the princes sent large supplies of food.25 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe.1 Tagore's response 3. About 1.3 Regret 6 Assassination of Michael O'Dwyer 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links  Background India during World War IMain article: Ghadar Conspiracy World War I began with loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom from mainstream politicians in India. Africa. British India contributed massively to the British war effort by providing men and resources. contrary to initial British fears of a revolt while they were committed militarily to a European war.2 British responses 4 Demonstration at Gujranwala 5 Monument and legacy 5.2 Artistic portrayals 5. and the Middle East.1 Formation of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee 5. Contents [hide] 1 Background 1.
and they prepared for the worst. the Congress succeeded in establishing the Lucknow Pact. Revolt was in the air. increasing inflation compounded by heavy taxation. In Amritsar. in 1919. high casualty rates.  Prelude to the massacreBritish officials in India. James Houssemayne Du Boulay is said to have ascribed a direct relationship between the fear of a . Indians were restless for independence. the third Anglo-Afghan war began and in India. Rumours of young Mohajirs who fought on behalf of the Turkish Caliphate. more than 15. This situation deteriorated perceptibly during the next few days. and the disruption of trade during the war escalated human suffering in India. The Russian Revolution had also begun to influence Indians. were significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration. In India. The pre-war Indian nationalist sentiment revived as moderate and extremist groups of the Indian National Congress ended their differences in order to unify. were circulated in Army circles. The attempts at mutiny during 1915 and the Lahore conspiracy trials were still causing fear among the British. In 1916. Michael O'Dwyer is said to have believed that these were the early and illconcealed signs of a conspiracy for a coordinated revolt around May. a widespread influenza epidemic. many Army officers believed. contrary to being an isolated incident. associated increasingly with disturbances in Punjab. The situation especially in Punjab was deteriorating rapidly. was the end result of a concerted plan of response from the Punjab administration to suppress such a conspiracy.  After the warIn the aftermath of World War I.activities. The Amritsar massacre. The events that ensued from the passage of the Rowlatt Act in 1919 were also influenced by activities associated with the Ghadar conspiracy. and later. British Indian Army troops were returning from Europe and Mesopotamia to an economic depression in India. More than 43. with disruptions of rail. as well as responses preceding and succeeding it. Indian soldiers smuggled arms into India to fight British rule. long the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire. telegraph and communication systems. Revolutionary attacks in Bengal. The costs of the protracted war in both money and manpower were great. ever since the Rebellion of 1857. Investigators at the time and historians since have found no conspiratorial links whatever to the events in Amristsar. they warned each other the natives were most suspicious when they seemed superficially innocent.000 Indian soldiers had died fighting for Britain. at a time when British troops would have withdrawn to the hills for the summer. in the ranks of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. lived in fear of native conspiracies and revolts. Ominously for the British. a temporary alliance with the All-India Muslim League. but the British fears animated their responses--General Dyer believed a violent thrashing would dampen conspiracies--and afterwards he was hailed in Britain for having preempted a terrorist attack.000 people gathered at Jallianwala Bagh. Gandhi's call for protest against the Rowlatt act achieved an unprecedented response of furious unrest and protests.
Dyer had also brought two armoured cars armed with machine guns. For the next two days. most of which were kept permanently locked. he explained later. General Dyer ordered his troops to begin shooting towards the densest sections of the crowd. The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919. several banks and other government buildings. however the vehicles were left outside as they were unable to enter the Bagh through the narrow entrance. the British government had decided to put most of the Punjab under martial law. The legislation restricted a number of civil liberties. and the British response that ended in the massacre. There was retaliatory shooting at crowds from the military several times during the day. Later the same day. His goal. including the Town Hall and the railway station were attacked and set afire. and between eight and twenty people were killed. He . 1919. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 4:30 pm. who had been earlier arrested by the government and removed to a secret location. The demonstration was to demand the release of two popular leaders of the Indian Independence Movement. The violence continued to escalate. Most were unaware of the political meeting. The crowd was shot at by a military picket. but violence continued in other parts of the Punjab. including freedom of assembly. fifty of whom were armed with rifles. The Jallianwala Bagh was bounded on all sides by houses and buildings and had few narrow entrances. culminating in the deaths of at least five Europeans. and government buildings burnt. indeed he blocked the main exits. Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew. On April 10. including the women and children. the city of Amritsar was quiet. but was guarded by the troops backed by the armoured vehicles. thousands of Hindus.  The massacreOn April 13. "The Martyrs' Well" at Jallianwala Bagh. including government employees and civilians.Ghadarite uprising in the midst of an increasingly tense situation in Punjab. a city in Punjab. Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer marched a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers into the Bagh. killing several protesters. Gatherings of more than four people were banned. General Dyer did not order the crowd to disperse. a large province in the northwestern part of India. the traditional festival of Baisakhi. Railway lines were cut. Sikhs and Muslims gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh (garden) near the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar. The main entrance was relatively wider. By April 13. months after the massacre. Three Europeans were murdered. was not to disperse the meeting but to punish the Indians for disobedience. Both were proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. telegraph posts destroyed. The shooting set off a series of violent events. there was a protest at the residence of the Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar.
the method used by the inquiry has been subject to criticism. dated 30 May 1919. This information was likely incomplete due to fear that those who participated would be identified as having been present at the meeting..  Tagore's responseTagore received the news of the massacre by 22 May 1919.500. news spread elsewhere in India and widespread outrage ensued. Additionally.continued the shooting. shorn. In the repudiation letter. The number of deaths caused by the shooting is disputed.000 killed. with approximately 1. he tried to arrange a protest meeting in Calcutta. by the side of those of my countrymen who. as a curfew had been declared – many more died during the night. A number of people died in stampedes at the narrow gates or by jumping into the solitary well on the compound to escape the shooting. three months after the massacre. approximately 1. wish to stand. While the official figure given by the British inquiry into the massacre is 379 deaths. the details of the massacre did not become known in Britain until December 1919. The casualty number quoted by the INC was more than 1. finally he decided to renounce his knighthood as "a symbolic act of protest". The wounded could not be moved from where they had fallen..650 rounds in all.000). the number of rounds shot and the period of shooting. Since the official figures were probably flawed regarding the size of the crowd (15. however.the Vicerory. addressed to Chelmsford . A plaque in the monument at the site. and some of the dead may not have had close relations in the area. the politically interested Indian National Congress instituted a separate inquiry of its own. set up after independence. for their so called insignificance. Despite the Government's best efforts to suppress information of the massacre. says that 120 bodies were pulled out of the well. In July 1919. officials were tasked with finding who had been killed by inviting inhabitants of the city to volunteer information about those who had died. until the ammunition supply was almost exhausted. with conclusions that differed considerably from the Government's. of all special distinctions. are liable to suffer degradation not fit for human beings ”  . he wrote “ I . a senior civil servant in the Punjab interviewed by the members of the committee admitted that the actual figure could be higher.000–20. The crowd made no effort to attack the soldiers in any way.
in late 1919. Dyer was called to appear before the Hunter Commission.. "I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed. British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab. The time has come when badges of honour make our shame glaring in the incongruous context of humiliation..  British responses Cartoon in Punch 14 July 1920. a commission of inquiry into the massacre that was ordered to convene by Secretary of State for India. In a telegram sent to Dyer. surprised into a dumb anguish of terror. Lord Chelmsford. Patterson says Dyer explained his sense of honour to the Hunter Commission by saying. he writes that Tagore. Edwin Montagu. [T]he very least that I can do for my country is to take all consequences upon myself in giving voice to the protest of the millions of my countrymen.. with a rude shock. General Dyer reported to his superiors that he had been "confronted by a revolutionary army". Dyer said before the commission that he came to know about the meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh at 12:40 hours that day but did not attempt to prevent it. revealed to our minds the helplessness of our position as British subjects in India ." . and I would have made. he quotes Tagore's letter to the Viceroy “ The enormity of the measures taken by the Government in the Punjab for quelling some local disturbances has. what I consider. after the massacre. calls the letter Tagore wrote as "historic". "renounced his knighthood in protest against the inhuman cruelty of the British Government to the people of Punjab".. on the occasion of Montagu labelling as "frightful" General Dyer for his role in the Amritsar massacreBack in his headquarters. The "crawling order"was posted on Aug 19 under the auspices of martial law. this was granted by the Viceroy.Gupta. a fool of myself. Sir Michael O'Dwyer wrote: "Your action is correct and the Lieutenant Governor approves. He stated that he had gone to the Bagh with the deliberate intention of opening fire if he found a crowd assembled there. ”  English Writings Of Rabindranath Tagore Miscellaneous Writings Vol# 8 carries a facsimile of this hand written letter." O'Dwyer requested that martial law be imposed upon Amritsar and other areas.
where the crowd when looking at its nastiest was absolutely dispersed by a machine using bombs and Lewis guns. . "(but) there was no rebellion which required to be crushed. He stated that he did not make any effort to tend to the wounded after the shooting: "Certainly not. it appears to us that General Dyer committed a grave error.  Demonstration at GujranwalaTwo days later on April 15. demonstrations occurred in Gujranwala protesting the killings at Amritsar. Brigadier General N D K MacEwen stated later that: "I think we can fairly claim to have been of great use in the late riots. arguing that in "continuing firing as long as he did. However. and that a little shooting would not do any good.Dyer said he would have used his machine guns if he could have got them into the enclosure." The committee reported lack of notice to disperse from the Bagh in the beginning was an error length of firing showed a grave error Dyer's motive of producing a sufficient moral effect was to be condemned lack of attention to the wounded was not acceptable The Hunter Commission did not impose any penal or disciplinary action because Dyer's actions were condoned by various superiors (later upheld by the Army Council). The Officer Commanding the Royal Air Force in India. He said he did not stop the shooting when the crowd began to disperse because he thought it was his duty to keep shooting until the crowd dispersed. he was finally found guilty of a mistaken notion of duty and relieved of his command. condemned Dyer."  Monument and legacy Jallianwala Bagh memorial Entrance to the present-day Jallianwala Bagh. particularly at Gujranwala. "General Dyer thought he had crushed the rebellion and Sir Michael O'Dwyer was of the same view. Police and aircraft were used against the demonstrators. resulting in 12 deaths and 27 injuries. Hospitals were open and they could have gone there. but these were mounted on armoured cars." they wrote." Dissenting members argued that the martial law regime's use of force was wholly unjustified. In fact he continued the shooting until the ammunition was almost exhausted." The inquiry. It was not my job. chaired by Lord William Hunter.
the official Sikh clergy of the Golden Temple conferred upon General Dyer the "Saropa" (the mark of distinguished service to the Sikh faith or. The natural result of this action was the formation of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee on November 15. sending shock waves among the Sikh masses. On October 12 1920. 2006: Portions of the Hindi movie Rang De Basanti nonlinearly depict the massacre and the influence it had on the freedom fighters. was built on the site and inaugurated by the President of India. 1961.  RegretAlthough she had not made any comments on the incident during her state visits later 1961 and 1983. students and faculty of the Amritsar Khalsa College called a meeting to demand the immediate removal of the Gurudwaras from the control of corrupt Mahants. A flame was later added to the site. Dr Rajendra Prasad on April 13. 1997: . recounted by the fictional widow of a British officer who is haunted by the inhumanity of it and who tells how she came to be reviled because she defied the honouring of Dyer and instead donated money to the Indian victims. humanity). 2002: In the Hindi movie The Legend of Bhagat Singh directed by Rajkumar Santoshi. The bullet holes can be seen on the walls and adjoining buildings to this day.Bullet marks. A memorial. eventually inspiring him to become a revolutionary in the Indian independence movement. Queen Elizabeth II spoke about the events at a state banquet in India on October 13. the trust purchased land for the project. The well into which many people jumped and drowned attempting to save themselves from the bullets is also a protected monument inside the park.  Formation of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak CommitteeA most glaring incident following the massacre was that. visible on a preserved wall. 1920 to manage and reform Sikh shrines. in general. at present-day Jallianwala Bagh. the massacre is reconstructed with the child Bhagat Singh as a witness. shortly afterwards. in the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders. designed by American architect Benjamin Polk.  Artistic portrayals1982: The massacre is depicted in Richard Attenborough's film Gandhi with the role of General Dyer played by Edward Fox. In 1923.A trust was formed later 1920 to build a memorial at the site after a resolution passed by the Indian National Congress. The film depicts most of the details of the massacre as well as the subsequent inquiry by the Montague commission. 1984: The story of the massacre also occurs in the 7th episode of Granada TV's 1984 series The Jewel in the Crown.
" . Singh was termed a "fighter for freedom" and his action was referred to in The Times newspaper as "an expression of the pent-up fury of the down-trodden Indian People". 1940. is a distressing example. The then-Prime Minister of India Inder Kumar Gujral defended the Queen. which was of religious significance to Hindus and Sikhs. as well as gladness. Much of the press worldwide recalled the story of Jallianwala Bagh and alleged Michael O'Dwyer to have been responsible for the massacre. We must learn from the sadness and build on the gladness. Udham Singh. an Indian independence activist from Sunam who had witnessed the events in Amritsar and was himself wounded. German radio reportedly broadcast: "The cry of tormented people spoke with shots. published in large scale from Rome at that time. It has its moments of sadness. who had approved Dyer's action and was believed to be the main planner. During the visit. 1997 Queen Elizabeth II visited Jallianwala Bagh and paid her respects with a 30‑ second moment of silence. 1912 Wide view of Jallianwala Bagh memorialOn March 13. others criticised it for being less than an apology. at Caxton Hall in London. The Berliner Börsen Zeitung termed the event "The torch of Indian freedom". But history cannot be rewritten. In Fascist countries. ascribed the greatest significance to the circumstance and praised the action of Udham Singh as courageous. ” On October 14. the British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab at the time of the massacre.“ It is no secret that there have been some difficult episodes in our past – Jallianwala Bagh. while commenting upon the Caxton Hall assassination. The common people and revolutionaries glorified the action of Udham Singh. also made positive statements. She removed her shoes while visiting the monument and laid a wreath at the monument.) The action by Singh was condemned generally. but some press. which I shall visit tomorrow. the incident was used for antiBritish propaganda: Bergeret. shot and killed Michael O'Dwyer. however much we might sometimes wish otherwise. While some Indians welcomed the expression of regret and sadness in the Queen's statement. like nationalist newspaper Amrita Bazar Patrika.  Assassination of Michael O'DwyerMain article: Udham Singh Michael O'Dwyer ca. she wore a dress of a colour described as pink apricot or saffron. (Dyer himself had died in 1927. stating that the Queen herself had played no part in the events and should not be required to apologise.
I am not scared of death. Similar comment may be made on British rule in India.^ Derek Sayer.At a public meeting in Kanpur. I have been trying to wreak vengeance. Udham Singh received the title of Shaheed. Fortnightly reports of the political situation in Bihar mentioned: "It is true that we had no love lost for Sir Michael. I am dying for my country. Prime Minister) honoured Udham Singh with the following statement which had appeared in the daily Partap: "I salute Shaheed-i-Azam Udham Singh with reverence who had kissed the noose so that we may be free. so I have crushed him. May 1991. 1940. End of Empire. p. p." Small Wars and Insurgencies. He was the real culprit. Amrita Bazar Patrika wrote: "O'Dwyer's name is connected with Punjab incidents which India will never forget. I have seen my people starving in India under the British rule. 1919–39. What a greater honour could be bestowed on me than death for the sake of my motherland?" Singh was hanged for the murder on July 31. He deserved it. Similar sentiments were expressed in numerous other places countrywide. I am happy that I have done the job. 13 Issue 10." In its March 18. pp 666-676 5. The indignities he heaped upon our countrymen in Punjab have not been forgotten. He wanted to crush the spirit of my people. 1940 issue. Issue 131." History Today. a name given to someone who has attained martyrdom or done something heroic on behalf of their country or religion. condemned the action of Udham as senseless but courageous.^ Brian Lapping." The New Statesman observed: "British conservativism has not discovered how to deal with Ireland after two centuries of rule. 201 . many. In 1952.^ Srinath Raghaven. I have protested against this.^ Popplewell 1995. 12 6. it was my duty. Nehru (by then. (Fall 2005). 38. Sept 1963.  See alsoList of massacres in India  References1. Vol. pp 130-164 3. 1985 2. At that time. c . Will the historians of the future have to record that it was not the Nazis but the British ruling class which destroyed the British Empire?" Singh had told the court at his trial: "I did it because I had a grudge against him. "Protecting the Raj: The Army in India and Internal Security. 16#3 pp 253-279 online 4.^ Gupta 1997. "Amritsar 1919. including Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi. For full 21 years.^ Brain Bond. a spokesman had stated that "at last an insult and humiliation of the nation had been avenged"." Past & Present. p. "British Reaction to the Amritsar Massacre 1919-1920." Soon after this recognition by the Prime Minister.
com/books?id=KmurjO7AQ1sC&pg=PA1021. Retrieved 17 February 2012. The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer (2006) p. 24. 17. Retrieved 17 February 2012.^ Sarkar 1983.com/books?id=EZOu04e1bNQC&pg=PA982.^ Nigel Collett (2007). 263 18. 1997). pp.176 9.^ Hunter Report. p137 14. The philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore.^ Townshend. A miscellany. The Hindu. 22. http://books.google.^ Nigel Collett.^ Rabindranath Tagore.^ Hunter Report.^ Sarkar 1983. p117 19.indiatimes.^ Kalyan Sen Gupta (2005). The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer p 255-58 15.^ Rabindranath Tagore. Hambledon and London.7.^ "Tagore renounced his Knighthood in protest for Jalianwalla Bagh mass killing" (in English). 177 11.^ Nigel Collett. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. ISBN 978-81-260-0094-4. 3–. 20. The Times of India (Mumbai: Bennett.webcitation. Ray (1 January 2007).timesofindia. "The Imperial Idea: Ideas of Honor in British India. http://www. "Jallianwala Bagh revisited". 169–172.^ Steven Patterson. 982–. 23.hinduonnet. ISBN 97881-269-0761-8.^ "Amritsar Massacre – ninemsn Encarta". Retrieved 17 February 2012. p116-117. http://books. Retrieved 17 February 2012.com/books?id=B15fqPp2BSwC&pg=PA3." Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History (2007) 8:1 8. 1021–. p.^ Collett. Ltd. English Writings Of Rabindranath TagoreMiscellaneous Writings Vol# 8.com/2011-04-13/india/29413338_1_knighthood-protesthonour. Coleman & Co. Ashgate Publishing. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 523 13. The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer (2006) p. Introduction By Mohit K.^ Swami P (November 1. 10. http://www. pp.^ Collett. 67 12. Britains Civil Wars.htm. ISBN 978-0-7546-3036-4.. http://articles. The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer. p. 267 25. 2011-04-13.org/5kwriIrvt.337 16. 372 . p.).com/fline/fl1422/14220500. Sahitya Akademi.^ Brown 1973. http://books.google. 21. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. p. Sisir Kumar Das (January 1996). pp.google. The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer pp 266. Ltd.^ Cell 2002.
New York Times. 3–27. University of British Columbia. The Butcher of Amritsar p. Oxford University Press. Hailey: A Study in British Imperialism.Social Scientist. No. 522–523. Books. India Office Library and Records. 35. 337 29.htm Retrieved on 14 Sep 2010. pp 13–14 37.pdf. Defying Death: Nationalist Revolutionism in India.^ Indian critiques of Gandhi – Google Books. Winston Churchill's speech in the House of Commons. pp. 31. retrieved 24 October 2010. The Amritsar Massacre: Twilight of the Raj (1985) Gupta.^ Royal Air Force Power Review. retrieved 2011-02-01 34.^ The Times. – Oct. John W (2002). The cult of imperial honor in British India (2009) P.^ Ajit Singh Sarhadi. 67 27. http://books. ISBN 0521521173 . ISSN 09700293 . Social Scientist. 1.^ Winston Churchill (8 July 1920). "The evolution of India and Pakistan. National Archives of India. ISBN 9780791459102. New Delhi. 32.bluehaze. Delhi. 3. Vol. 25.mod. p40 38.google.com. http://www.uk/rafcms/mediafiles/BC18F893_1143_EC82_2E16AC19F19FE2D2. 1973). 1970.214. pp. Queen Bows Her Head Over a Massacre in 1919". 1858 to 1947: select documents" p. (May. 1940 36. 157 28.^ Nick Lloyd.com/?id=GGGudMuE4PIC&pg=PA173&dq=sgpc+saropa+general+dyer#v=onepa ge&q=sgpc%20saropa%20general%20dyer&f=false. Caxton Hall outrage. Political File No 18/3/1940. (Sep. The Journal of Asian Studies.26. Public Record Office.com. spring 2008.^ Steven Patterson.^ Cyril Henry Philips. London. Amit K (1997).^ Government of India. . South Asia).. 1997-1015. 2003. "Punjabi Suba: The Story of the Struggle". Cell. Alfred. 32.google.^ Collett. London.^ CRIM 1/1177. The Amritsar Massacre: The Untold Story of One Fateful Day (2011) p. 1897–1938.au/churchill/amritsar. 1872–1969. Home Department. http://lachlan. 9/10. Collett. p. Kapur Printing Press. File No L/P + J/7/3822. ISSN 0030851X . (in Book Reviews. March 16. London.^ Public and Judicial Department. No. 19 33. The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer (2006) Draper. 1962 30. Emily (1973). Vol. Cambridge University Press. Nigel. p 64  Further readingBrown.^ a b c d e f "In India. 1997). Pacific Affairs.raf.
Churchill's speech after the incident. The Amritsar Massacre: The Untold Story of One Fateful Day (2011) Narain. ISBN 071464580X. (1921). (Oct. Amritsar Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh Listen to the Shaheed song of the Amritsar Massacre at Jallian Wala Bagh.com/shopping_cart/products/product_detail. Sage Publications. 89–107.K. ISBN 1568361270 . Vol. Dennis. pp. Modern India.asp?sku=&isbn=071464580X&p arent_id=&pc= . Savita. Sarkar. 1996) pp 258. http://www. Empire: The British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present (Basic Books. 1919 (New Delhi.routledge. Richard J (1995). Judd. B. 4. 1885–1947. India in the First World War and after. "The Amritsar Massacre of 1919: Gandhi. 1968)." in Judd.. Intelligence and Imperial Defence: British Intelligence and the Defence of the Indian Empire 1904–1924. 1915-39. 1998) 76pp ISBN 1897829361 Popplewell.Hopkirk.. Kodansha Globe.72 online edition Lloyd. The historiography of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Like Hidden Fire: The Plot to Bring Down the British Empire. Six Minutes to Sunset: The Story of General Dyer and the Amritsar Affair (London: Peter Davies. Delhi:Macmillan. No. Sumit (1983). Routledge. No. 1921). Journal of Contemporary History. Spantech and Lancer. A description of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Amritsar Massacre as a turning point in the British Raj – Description and analysis of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. pp. Political Science Quarterly. Peter (1997). Arthur. 1918–19: From War to Peace. The Acedemy of Political Science. 136–138. Swinson. Sarkar. 1964) Tinker. 36. 1. ISBN 9780333904251 . ISSN 00220094 . ISSN 00323195 . Vol. Hugh (1968).  External linksAn NPR interview with Bapu Shingara Singh – the last known surviving witness. [show]v ·d ·eIndian independence movement History Colonisation ·East India Company ·British India ·French India ·Portuguese India ·Plassey ·Buxar ·Anglo-Mysore Wars ·Anglo-Maratha Wars (First ·Second ·Third) ·Polygar War ·Vellore Mutiny ·First Anglo-Sikh War ·Second Anglo-Sikh War ·Rebellion of 1857 ·British Raj ·more . 3. the Raj and the Growth of Indian Nationalism. Nick. (Mar.
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