PDH & SDH

PDH
 PLESIOCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY.  A TECHNOLOGY USED IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK TO TRANSPORT LARGE QUANTITY OF DATA OVER DIGITAL TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT SUCH AS FIBRE OPTIC AND MICROWAVE RADIO WAVE SYSTEMS.  THE TERM “PLESIOCHRONOUS” IS DERIVED FROM Greek plesio which means near, and chronous, time.  IT MEANS THAT PDH NETWORKS RUN IN A STATE WHERE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE NETWORK ARE ALMOST, BUT NOT QUITE PERFECTLY SYNCHRONISED.

PDH
 SENDING A LARGE QUANTITY OF DATA ON FIBRE OPTIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM.  TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION ARE SYNCHRONIZED BUT TIMING IS NOT.  THE CHANNEL CLOCKS ARE DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT MASTER CLOCKS WHOSE RANGE IS SPECIFIED TO LIE WITHIN CERTAIN LIMITS. THE MULTIPLEXED SIGNAL IS CALLED A “PLESIOCHRONOUS” SIGNAL.  PDH SIGNALS ARE NEITHER SYNCHRONOUS NOR ASYNCHRONOUS.

PDH
 PDH ALLOWS TRANSMISSION OF DATA STREAMS THAT ARE NOMINALLY RUNNING AT THE SAME RATE, BUT ALLOWING SOME VARIATION ON THE SPEED AROUND A NOMINAL RATE.  BY ANALOGY, ANY TWO WATCHES ARE NOMINALLY RUNNING AT THE SAME RATE, CLOCKING UP 60 SECONDS EVERY MINUTE.  HOWEVER, THERE IS NO LINK BETWEEN WATCHES TO GUARANTEE THEY RUN AT EXACTLY THE SAME RATE.  IT IS HIGHLY LIKELY THAT ONE IS RUNNING SLIGHTLY FASTER THAN THE OTHER.

VERSIONS OF PDH
 THERE ARE TWO VERSIONS OF PDH NAMELY  1) THE EUROPEAN AND 2 ) THE AMERICAN.  THEY DIFER SLIGHTLY IN THE DETAIL OF THEIR WORKING BUT THE PRINCIPLES ARE THE SAME.  EUROPEAN PCM = 30 CHANNELS  NORTH AMERICAN PCM = 24 CHANNELS  JAPANESE PCM = 24 CHANNELS  IN INDIA WE FOLLOW THE EUROPEAN PCM OF 30 CHANNELS SYSTEM WORKING.

EUROPEAN DIGITAL HIERARCHY • • • • • 30 Channel PCM = 2 Mbps 2 Mbps x 4 = 8 Mbps 8 Mbps x 4 = 34 Mbps 34 Mbps x 4 = 140 Mbps 140 Mbps x 4 = 565 Mbps .

264 Mbps +/.048 Mbps +/.15 ppm .30 ppm 120 +/.368 Mbps 480 1920 139.EUROPEAN PDH HIERARCHY WITH BIT RATES MUX BIT RATE PARTS PER MILLION CHANNELS 2 Mbps 2.20 ppm 34.448 Mbps +/.50 ppm 30 8 Mbps 34 Mbps 140 Mbps 8.

 THE EXACT RATE IS ALLOWED TO VARY SOME PERCENTAGE (+/50 PPM) EITHER SIDE OF AN EXACT 2.  DIFERENT 2 MBPS DATA STREAMS CAN BE RUNNING AT SLIGHTLY DIFERENT RATES TO ONE ANOTHER.  THE EXACT DATA RATE OF THE 2 MBPS DATA STREAM IS CONTROLLED BY A CLOCK IN THE EQUIPMENT GENERATING THE DATA. .048 MBPS. FOR EXAMPLE. DATA TRANSMISSION.  ALTERNATIVELY. THIS IS BROKEN DOWN INTO 30 X 64 KBIT/S CHANNELS PLUS 2 X 64 KBPS CHANNELS USED FOR SIGNALLING AND SYNCHRONIZATION. THE WHOLE 2 MB/S MAY BE USED FOR NON SPEECH PURPOSES.DESCRIPTION OF EUROPEAN E-CARRIER SYSTEM  THE BASIC DATA TRANSFER RATE IS A STREAM OF 2048 KBPS.  FOR SPEECH TRANSMISSION.

 THE TRANSMITTING MULIPLEXER ALSO ADDS ADDITIONAL BITS IN ORDER TO ALLOW THE FAR END RECEIVING MULTIPLEXER TO DECODE WHICH BITS BELONG TO WHICH 2 MBPS DATA STREAM. AND SO CORRECTLY RECONSTITUTE THE ORIGINAL DATA STREAMS.  THESE ADDITIONAL BITS ARE CALLED “JUSTIFICATION” BITS OR “STUFFING BITS” . THEY ARE COMBINED TOGETHER OR “MULTIPLEXED” IN GROUPS OF FOUR.  THIS IS DONE BY TAKING 1 BIT FROM STREAM #1. THEN #4. FOLLOWED BY 1 BIT FROM STREAM #2. THEN #3.MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE  IN ORDER TO MOVE MULTIPLE 2 MBPS DATA STREAMS FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER.

448 Mbps 34.264 Mbps Primary Mux 30 Chls II order Mux 120 Chls III Order Mux 480 Chls IV Order Mux 1920 Chls X4 X4 .048 Mbps 8.30 Chl Digital Hierarchy 2.368 Mbps 139.

THE MULTIPLEXED SIGNAL IS CALLED A “BIT INTERLEAVED SIGNAL”.DIGITAL MUX CONCEPTS • BIT INTERLEAVING: • ALTERNATELY EACH CHANNEL CODE CAN BE SCANNED ONE DIGIT AT A TIME. • “BIT INTERLEAVING” IS USED IN HIGHER ORDER MULTIPLEXING. A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 D1 D2 D3 D4 .

DIGITAL MUX CONCEPTS • BYTE INTERLEAVING • WORD / BYTE / BLOCK INTERLEAVING: • IF THE CHANNEL TIME SLOT IS LONG ENOUGH TO ACCOMMODATE A GROUP OF BITS THEN THE MULTIPLEXED SIGNAL IS CALLED A “ BYTE INTERLEAVED OR WORD INTERLEAVED SIGNAL”. A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3 A4 B4 C4 D4 .

SLIP. SAME BIT MAY BE READ TWICE OR LOSS OF BITS WILL OCCUR.IT IS A PROCESS OF ADDING ADDITIONAL BITS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF SLIP. JUSTIFICATION AND JITTER SLIP – THIS OCCURS WHEN THE INCOMING BIT RATE DOES NOT MATCH WITH THE DIVIDED MUX/DEMUX CLOCK RATE. . JUSTIFICATION:.DISPLACE MENT OF A PULSE FROM ITS NORMAL SIGNIFICANT INSTANT IS CALLED JITTER.  JITTER:.

JUSTIFICATION -TYPES POSITIVE JUSTIFICATION • JUSTIFICATION NEGATIVE JUSTIFIATION POSITIVE-NEGATIVE JUSTIFICATION .

IT IS KNOWN AS POSITIVE JUSTIFICATION.  IF ON AN AVERAGE.JUSTIFICATION  IF MUX CLOCK RATE IS HIGHER THAN TRIBUTARY RATE. IT IS KNOWN AS NEGATIVE JUSTIFICATION. IT IS CALLED POSITIVE-NEGATIVE JUSTIFICATION. MUX CLOCK RATE AND TRIBUTARY BIT RATE ARE EQUAL. . THIS IS USED UPTO 140 MBPS SYSTEMS.  IF MUX CLOCK RATE IS LOWER THAN TRIBUTARY RATE.

2. MUX CLOCK SPEEDS SHOULD BE SAME AT BOTH THE ENDS.SOLVED BY PULSE STUFFING OR BIT STUFFING OR “ JUSTIFICATION” PROCESS.SOLUTION .THIS IS SOLVED BY FRAME ALIGNMENT WORD (FAW). .SOLUTION. TRIBUTARY BIT RATE AND MUX CLOCK (DIVIDED) SHOULD BE THE SAME:. SYNCHRONIZATION:.PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN HIGHER ORDER MULTIPLEXING AND SOLUTIONS FOR THEM 1. THISMEANS ADDING ADDITIONAL BITS. 3.THIS PROBLEM IS SOLVED BY USING P L L CIRCUIT AT TERMINAL “B” TO RECOVER THE CLOCK. – SOLUTION :.

OPTICAL LINE TRANSMISSION SUB SYSTEM. • CENTRAL SUPERVISORY SUB SYSTEM • POWER SUB SYSTEM • ALARM SUB SYSTEM . SUB SYSTEMS – DIGITAL MULTIPLEX SUB SYSTEM.FOTS • • • • FIBRE OPTIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM.

6 .Fiber Optic Cable • Fig 6.

FIBRE OPTIC CABLE  Fiber Optic Cable  Consists of many extremely thin strands of solid glass or plastic bound together in a sheathing  Transmits signals with light beams  No risk of sparks. safe for explosive environments  More expensive than coaxial. but more bandwidth  Different colors of light are used to simultaneously send  Multiple signals .

• LINE SWITCHING EQUIPMENTS • LINE SUPERVISORY EQUIPMENTS • ORDERWIRE EQUIPMENTS.OPTICAL LINE TRANSMISSION SUB SYSTEM • OPTICAL LINE TERMINATING EQUIPMENT. • SUPERVISORY SERVICE DATA • REMOTE SERVICE DATA .

• COMPLEX MULTIPLEXING AND DEMULTIPLEXING. • NO UNIVERSAL STANDARD • INTERWORKING BETWEEN HIERARCHIES COMPLEX. .LIMITATIONS • LOWER CAPACITY. • ADD AND DROP DIFFICULT.

 POINT TO POINT CONFIGURATION ( LINEAR WORKING ) ONLY IS POSSIBLE.  TO ACCESS THE LOWER ORDER TRIBUTARY.  PDH IS NO LONGER EFFICIENT TO MEET THE DEMANDS PLACED ON IT.  NO PROVISIONING FOR NMS. .  BANDWIDTH LIMITATIONS – MAX CAPACITY IS 566 MBPS ONLY.  IT DOES NOT SUPPORT HUB.DISADVANTAGES OF PDH SYSTEM  PDH IS NOT IDEALLY SUITED TO THE EFFICIENT DELIVERY AND MANAGEMENT OF HIGH BANDWIDH CONNECTIONS.  TOLERANCE IS ALLOWED IN BIT RATES. THE WHOLE SYSTEM SHOULD BE DEMULTIPLEXED.  NO COMMON STANDARDS AMONG VENDORS.

EVOLUTION OF SDH • FIBER OPTIC BANDWIDTH:Bandwidth of the optical fiber can be increased and there is no limit • TECHNICAL SOPHISTICATION:Using VLSI techniques which is also cost effective • INTELLIGENCE:Availability of cheaper memory opens new possibilities • CUSTOMER SERVICE NEEDS:Requirement of customer services can be easily met w/o much additional equipments .

 DISADVANTAGES OF PDH LED TO THE INVENTION OF SDH.  THE MAIN AIM IS TO ACCOMMODATE THE EXISTING PDH SIGNALS ALSO.  ADOPTING THE DIFFERENT VENDORS EQUIPMENTS.  IN 1988. (ITU-T) 18TH STUDY GROUP FORMULATED CERTAIN STANDARDS FOR MULTIPLEXING.EVOLUTION OF SDH  TOTALLY SYNCHRONOUS SYSTEM. .  INTERNATIONAL STANDARD/SYSTEM – MULTIPLEXING STANDARD.

DIFFERENT SERVICES • • • • • • LOW/HIGH SPEED DATA VOICE INTERCONNECTION OF LAN COMPUTER LINKS FEATURE SERVICES LIKE HDTV BROAD BAND ISDN TRANSPORT .

EXISTING NETWORK • 565 Mbps 5 6 5 TH ORDER 5 m 4 RTH ORDER b / s 140 Mbps 34 Mbps 3RD ORDER 8 Mbps 2 ND ORDER 2 Mbps .

. HIERARCHY: SET OF BIT RATES IN A HIERARCHIAL ORDER. DIGITAL: INFORMATION IN BINARY.WHAT IS SDH ? SYNCHRONOUS : ONE MASTER CLOCK & ALL ELEMENTS SYNCHRONISE WITH IT.

A PROCEDURE BY WHICH MULTIPLE LOWER ORDER PATH LAYER SIGNALS ARE ADAPTED INTO HIGHER ORDER PATH OR MULTIPLE HIGHER PATH LAYER SIGNALS ARE ADAPTED INTO MUX SECTION LAYER.  SDH MAPPING:.  SDH MULTIPLEXING:. .WHAT IS SDH?  SDH IS A HIERARCHICAL SET OF INFORMATION STRUCTURE (DIGITAL TRANSPORT STRUCTURE) TO CARRY PAY LOAD.THE PROCEDURE BY WHICH THE TRIBUTARY ARE ADAPTED INTO VIRTUAL CONTAINERS AT THE BOUNDARY OF THE SDH NETWORK.  POINTER DEFINES FRAME OFFSET VALUE OF A VIRTUAL CONTAINER.

2. . 7. ENHANCED BANDWIDTH. UNLIMITED BANDWIDTH GROWTH OF THE EXISTING TO THE HIGHER ORDER SYSTEM IS SIMPLE. MULTI-VENDOR. PROTECTION SWITCHING TO TRAFFIC IS OFFERED BY RINGS. SIMPLIFIED MULTIPLEXING/DEMULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUES. 5. 3. ACCOMMODATES EXISTING PDH SIGNALS. 4. MULTI OPERATOR ENVIRONMENT. 9. NMS FACILITY. DIRECT ACCESS TO LOWER ORDER TRIBUTARIES. CAPABLE OF TRANSPORTING BROADBAND SIGNALS. 8. 6. 10.ADVANTAGES OF SDH 1.

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• The Container (C) – Basic packaging unit for tributary signals (PDH) – Synchronous to the STM-1 – Bitrate adaptation is done via a positive stuffing procedure – Adaptation of synchronous tributaries by fixed stuffing bits – Bit by bit stuffing • The Virtual Container (VC) – Formation of the Container by adding of a POH (Path Overhead) – Transport as a unit through the network (SDH) – A VC containing several VCs has also a pointer area .

• The Tributary Unit (TU) – Is formed via adding a pointer to the VC • The Tributary Unit Group (TUG) – Combines several TUs for a new VC • The Administrative Unit (AU) – Is shaped if a pointer is allocated to the VC formed at last • The Syncronous Transport Module Level 1 (STM-1) – Formed by adding a Section Overhead (SOH) to AUs – Clock justification through positive-zero-negative stuffing in the AU pointer area – byte by byte stuffing .

STM1 Frames .

270 Columns (Bytes) 1 1 9 270 transmit row by row RSOH 3 4 5 AU Pointer Payload (transport capacity) MSOH 9 RSOH: Regenerator section overhead MSOH: Multiplex section overhead Payload: Area for information transport Transport capacity of one Byte: 64 kbit/s Frame capacity: 270 x 9 x 8 x 8000 = 155.520 Mbit/s Frame repetition time: 125 µs .

FRAME REPRESENTATION 1ST ROW 9 261 I 9 2ND ROW 9 I 261 3RD ROW 9 261 261 9TH ROW 9 I 261 S O H PAY LOAD I 270 I (MATRIX REPRESENTATION) .

REDUCED MUX STRUCTURE STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 TUG-3 C-4 140Mbps TU-3 VC-3 C-3 TUG-2 TU-1 VC-1 C-1 2Mbps 34Mbps (REDUCED DIAGRAM FOR SDH-MULTIPLEXING) .

264 Mbit/s .368 Mbit/s and 44. C-12 and C-11 Container C-11 C-12 Carries signals at 1.312 Mbit/s C-3 34.048 Mbit/s C-2 6.736 Mbit/s C-4 139.Containers: C-3.544 Mbit/s 2. C-2.

standardized for the transport of suitably adapted pay load over physical transmission network • STM:Synchronous transport module • It is the information structure used to support section layer connections in SDH • VIRTUAL CONTAINER :used to support path layer connections in the SDH • LOWER ORDER VC ( VC1.VC2.VC4) .TERMINOLOGY & DEFINITIONS • SDH:Set of hierarchical structures.VC3) • HIGHER ORDER VC (VC3 .

SDH BIT RATES SDH Levels STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 Bit rates in Kbps 155520 622080 2488320 9953.28 .

D12 E1-E2 F1 J0 K1 K2 S1 Frame alignment Error monitoring Data comm channel for RSOH Data comm channel for MSOH Order wire channel Maintenance STM Identifier Automatic protection switching SYNCHRONISATION STATUS M1 Txmn Error acknowledgement Media dependent bytes ..D3 D4.SOH BYTE ALLOCATION A1A2 B1B2 D1..

048Mb/s .2 Mbps mapping STM-1 AUG AU-4 VC-4 x3 TUG-3 x7 STM-n AUG AU-n VC-n Synchronous Transport Module Administrative Unit Group: One or more AU(s) Administrative Unit: VC + pointers Virtual Container: payload + path overhead TUG-2 x3 TU-12 VC-12 C-12 E1: 2.

The following are the different steps in the mapping of 2Mbps stream • • • • • • • • Formation of container C12 Formation of virtual container VC12 Formation of tributary unit TU12 Multiplexing of TU12 „s to form TUG3 Multiplexing of TUG3„s to form VC4 Formation of administrative unit AU4 Formation of administrative unit group AUG Adding SOH to form STM1 .

SDH NETWORK ELEMENTS • The different network elements are SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXER SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL CROSS CONNECT REGENERATOR NMS .

NETWORK ELEMENTS • SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXER • As per ITU-T Rec. • synchronous multiplexer replaces a bank of plesiochronous multiplexers and associated line terminating equipment. . synchronous multiplexer performs both multiplexing and live line terminating functions.

SYNCHRONOUS MUX • Types of synchronous multiplexers • TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM) • ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM) .

STM4. Of tributary signals and multiplex them to appropriate optical/electrical aggregate signal viz STM1.TM • TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM) • TM Accepts a no. .STM16 etc.

TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM) .

• ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(TM) • ADM is designed for „THRU‟ mode of operation. • Within ADM its possible to ADD channels or DROP channels from „THROUGH CHANNELS‟ .

• ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(TM) • At an ADM site .only those signals that need to be accessed are dropped or inserted • The remaining traffic continues thru the NE without requiring special pass thru units or other signal processing .

ADM • ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(TM) AGGREGATE SIGNAL SDH(E/O) ADM AGGREGATE SIGNAL SDH(E/O) TRIBUTARY SIGNALS (PDH/SDH) .

ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM) • ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM) .

• CROSS CONNECT EQUIPMENT • Cross connect equipment functions as a semi permanent switch for varying bandwidth control it can pick out one or more lower order channels for transmitting signal without transmission channels • Channels can be 64Kbps up to STM1 • Under software program the need of demultiplexing .

TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY • • • • STRING/BUS/LINEAR Topology RING Topology STAR Topology MESH Topology .

STRING/BUS/LINEAR TOPOLOGY TM ADM REG ADM ADM TM Aggregate signal Tributary signal (STM1/STM4/STM16) (2/34/140Mbps/STM1(e)/ STM1(o)) .

.RING TOPOLOGY • Ring is a linear network looped back to itself • Network elements are ADM‟s or REGENERATORS • Every node on a ring has two communication paths to each other node via the two directions around the ring.

RING TOPOLOGY ADM ADM Aggregate signal Tributary (2/34/140Mbps/STM1(e)/ STM1(o)) signal (STM1/STM4/STM16) .

RING TOPOLOGY • Ring network is self healing type(allowing rerouting of traffic when a link fails). • The simple topology of a ring facilitates the implementation of protocols that can detect failure of a fiber segment or node and rapidly reestablish communications. typically in timeframes on the order of milliseconds. This is referred to as protection or protection switching .

. Core Network.RING TOPOLOGY • Rings gives greater flexibility in the allocation of band width to the different users.WAN. • Normally used in LAN.Regional Network etc.

• The HUB is a DXC.total traffic fails. . • If HUB fails .STAR TOPOLOGY • Traffic passes thru a central node called HUB.

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