P. 1
Milk Infant Formula

Milk Infant Formula

|Views: 35|Likes:
Published by Tino Verduca
Neonatal animal testing paradigms and their suitability for testing infant formula
Neonatal animal testing paradigms and their suitability for testing infant formula

More info:

Published by: Tino Verduca on Sep 09, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/09/2012

pdf

text

original

Most neonatal pig studies using the Autosow have one Autosow fed control group, one sow

fed control group and the dosed groups. This was also the case in a study which was done by

FDA investigators on trypsin inhibitors at what was the Beltsville Research Facility in Beltsville

Maryland (Garthoff et al. 2002a; Garthoff et al. 2002b). Minature swine from FDA’s breeding

colony were utilized (Hormel-Hanford). Following birth, the piglets were left with the sow for 3

days in order to consume the necessary colostrum. Following 3 days of nursing 37 male piglets

(Autosow control group 18, test group 19) were taken to the Autosow where they were

weaned and exposed to the test substance until 6 weeks of age. The sow fed control group used 6

male piglets. When weaning was completed, the pigs were removed from the Autosow and were

fed a liquid-based diet which contained in the exposed group trypsin inhibitor followed by a

regular chow diet. The pigs were sacrificed when they were 39 weeks of age. This study was

performed on trypsin inhibitors to study previously reported adverse pancreatic effects in rat

studies done mainly on 21-day and 10 week-old animals along with a 2-year study. These studies

raised concerns about soy-based infant formula. However, there were questions about

extrapolating the rat data to neonatal humans due to the age of the rats used. Also, the rat has

cholecystokinin-A receptors predominantly in the pancreas which were shown to mediate

pancreatic preneoplastic lesions when azaserine was administered. Humans and pigs on the other

Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by 85.210.39.49 on 09/09/12

For personal use only.

JU

S

T

A

C

C

E

P

T

E

D

22

hand have predominantly cholecystokinin-B receptors . This is another indication that the pig

may be a more suitable animal model to assess the potential for human effects (Garthoff et al.

Neonatal Animal Testing Paradigms

2002a). Swine were chosen because of the developmental stages which can be determined by

reproductive and central nervous system development (neonate, infancy, childhood, and

adolescence) of the pig could be more easily correlated to similar stages in humans and, because

of the physiological and anatomical similarities between humans and swine in infancy. However,

it was noted that the sequence of miniature swine development is some what different than

humans. An example was given reporting that miniature swine reach sexual maturity unlike

humans long before epiphysial closure occurs (Garthoff et al. 2002a). The neonatal pig trypsin

inhibitor study was published in two separate articles, the first one dealt more with the

methodology and the second one dealt more with the results. No neoplastic effects on the

pancreas were observed in the swine study. This result replicates what was observed in every

other species tested with the exception of the rat. The article also reported that the study provided

added assurance that there is no increased risk of pancreatic neoplasia, from consuming foods

which contain natural trypsin inhibitors (Garthoff et al. 2002b). Neonatal piglet studies will

most likely be more expensive than rodent studies. However, since the results of the swine

studies will be more relevant in the case of testing new compounds to be used in infant formula

this must be taken into consideration. The author of this article believes that the Autosow will

help to reduce the cost of maintaining piglets due to the fact that there should be less hands on

activity concerning feeding and dosing. Due to the anatomical and physiological similarities

Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by 85.210.39.49 on 09/09/12

For personal use only.

JU

S

T

A

C

C

E

P

T

E

D

23

between pigs and humans and the non-invasiveness of the Autosow feeding method, it would be

the author’s choice for testing new substances for infant formulas.

Neonatal Animal Testing Paradigms

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->