Mini Project Report, March 2012

Automatic Bell


Manual operation of school bell / college bell creates lot of disturbances caused by human errors. If the bell operator forgets to ring the bell for a specific period, or delayed to ring the bell, it creates disturbances for entire the institution. All the classes on that day will be completely disturbed. This problem is more present if the bell operator is on leave. Automatic Periodic College Bell is the only solution to avoid all these problems. In today’s life, everyone gives importance to time. Time does not wait for anybody. Everything should be performed in time & accurately. Now a day’s school/college bells are manually operated. Hence there is a big question of accuracy. Also there is necessity of manpower and money. Hence here we should use automatic control system, which saves our manpower and money and also highest accuracy. Hence we have selected the project. In market there many digital clocks available with bells but rings only at specific time. For e.g. Alarm Clock and some bells that ring after some time intervals and that cannot stop after specific time. For e.g. Musical Clock But all these limitation have been removed by our project. It rings only according to our college time table. Our Project takes over the task of Ringing of the Bell in Schools / Colleges. It replaces the Manual Switching of the Bell in the College. It has an inbuilt Real Time Clock which tracks over the Real Time. When this time equals to the Bell Ringing time, then the Relay for the Bell is switched on. The Bell Ringing time can be edited at any Time, so that it can be used at Normal Class Timings as well as Exam Times. The Real Time Clock is displayed on LCD display. Microcontroller acts as the brain of the Automatic Bell. Microcontroller controls RTC, EEPROM, LCD, keypad and relay. Microcontroller is preprogrammed with required operation. Microcontroller continuously monitors the real time. Bell timings entered with keypad are stored in EEPROM. Whenever the bell timing is equal to real time, microcontroller produces a signal for a predetermined time, and this signal is given to relay and bell rang. Using Real Time Clock chip, entire calendar can be programmed into the microcontroller. Real-time clock (RTC) counts seconds, minutes, hours, date of the month,

Dept. of ECE, SBCE


Mini Project Report, March 2012

Automatic Bell

month, day of the week, and year with leap-year compensation valid up to 2100. A 3V battery can be connected to RTC to avoid time disturbances caused by power failures The real time, bell timings and relay time for bell is stored in EEPROM. Bell timing stored in EEPROM is taken by microcontroller and compares it with real time. When real time and bell time gets equal, bell will ring. Two power supplies used are 12V, 500mA and 5V, 500mA. 12 volt supply is given to relay.

Dept. of ECE, SBCE


RTC DC1307 is used here. Whenever the bell timing is equal to real time. keypad and relay. SBCE 3 . Dept. entire calendar can be programmed into the microcontroller.2 Real Time Clock Using Real Time Clock (RTC) chip.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig 2. of ECE.1 Microcontroller Microcontroller acts as the brain of the Automatic Bell. Microcontroller is preprogrammed with required operation. Microcontroller continuously monitors the real time.2 FUNCTIONS OF BLOCK 2.1 Block Diagram of Automatic Bell 2. Microcontroller controls RTC. March 2012 Automatic Bell CHAPTER 2 BLOCK DESCRIPTION 2. A 3V battery can be connected to DS1307 to avoid time disturbances caused by power failures. LCD. EEPROM.2. microcontroller produces a signal for a predetermined time. Bell timings entered with keypad are stored in EEPROM.2. Microcontroller AT89S52 is used here. 2. and this signal is given to relay and bell rang.Mini Project Report.

we can edit the real time settings. Here 5 Pin relay is used.2. Using keypad. Control signals are provided by microcontroller.5 Keypad Keypad is provided to enter the required time for bell ringing. Relay is connected to a buzzer. set new bell timings.2.Mini Project Report. 2. Contrast of LCD Display can be controlled. 2.7 Buzzer Buzzer produces an alarm sound when connected to power supply. 2. Buzzer used here is an electromagnetic bell. Dept. March 2012 2.6 Relay Relay is a switching device activated by control signals.2. 16*2 LCD is used here.3 Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory Automatic Bell Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) is used to store the bell timings. It can display 16 characters of 2 lines each.2. 2. 4*3 keypad is used here. SBCE 4 . whenever bell timing becomes equal to real time. and set the delay for bell. Data’s once written will be stored for many years in EEPROM.4 LCD Display LCD displays the current time and next ringing time. EEPROM AT24C08 is used here.2. Whenever relay switch is closed bell will rang. of ECE.

of ECE.Mini Project Report.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 3. SBCE 5 .1 Automatic Bell Fig 3.1 Circuit Diagram of Automatic Bell Dept. March 2012 Automatic Bell CHAPTER 3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 3.1.

The accuracy of the clock is dependent upon the accuracy of the crystal and the accuracy of the match between the capacitive load of the oscillator circuit and the capacitive load for which the crystal was trimmed.C.2 Circuit Diagram of Power Supply 3.C. March 2012 3. 220V A. memory and RTC. For RTC. It is a low-power clock/calendar with 56 bytes of Battery-backed SRAM. supply to operate microcontroller. is converted into 12V D.C. “Atmel AT89S52” microcontroller is used to control various timing of the ringing. We have used two 33pF capacitors which are acting as a High Pass Filter.2 FUNCTION OF CIRCUIT In the circuit shown above. A “12MHz Crystal” is provided to the microcontroller. to operate relay switch. Second is 5V D. For this purpose use voltage regulators IC “LM7812” and “LM7805” which provide 12V and 5V constant voltage as output respectively.C. SBCE 6 . Now this 12V A. into 12V A.C. Dept.768 kHz crystal. of ECE. Using keypad we can change the real time settings. IC DS 1307 is provided. power supply is given to the “Step-Down Transformer” which converts 220V A.1.C.2 Power Supply Automatic Bell Fig 3. “Assembly Language” is used to program this microcontroller by using a microcontroller programmer.Mini Project Report.C. A 4x3 keypad is provided. We have used different types of capacitors and resistors in this circuit. update the bell timings and change the delay for bell ringing. with the help of “Full Wave Rectifier” which consists of 2 Diodes & 2 Condensers. Two different voltage levels are required for circuit – One is 12V D. It uses an external 32.

we have to amplify this current and voltage. Microcontroller takes data from EEPROM and compares it with real time. In LCD Display the real time will be displayed. It displays 2 lines of 16 characters each. input the desire time from the keypad provided. Dept. At the set time the buzzer will ring. For changing the bell time. It has an Inbuilt Real Time Clock which tracks over the Real Time. Whenever real time and bell time gets equal bell will ring for predetermined time. then the Relay for the Bell is switched on. IC ULN2003 is used as driver for the relay circuit. Dial *25 to change 25th Bell Time Dial *26 to change the Time delay in seconds Dial # to update the time settings. When this time equals to the Bell Ringing time. The microcontroller can operate on 5V and 10mA current maximum but we have to operate 12V relay switch which consumes more than 100mA current. Operating procedure for setting time       Dial *00 to change Real Time Dial *01 to change first Bell Time Dial *02 to change second Bell Time and so on.Mini Project Report. 3. press * and set the ringing time. So. March 2012 Automatic Bell A 16x2 LCD display is used for the displaying the real time. The input time must be set with respect of RTC. of ECE. If one wants to change the ringing time. SBCE 7 . One can set many ringing time at a time.3 OPERATION      Switch ON the power. It displays the current date and time and alarm time. An EEPROM AT24C08 is used which store the bell time and relay time in it.

SBCE 8 .Mini Project Report.4 PCB LAYOUT Automatic Bell Fig 3.3 PCB Layout of Automatic Bell Dept. of ECE. March 2012 3.

1 4*3 1 1N4700 4 12V 1 General 3 10K 2 56E..1K.10K 1.1 COMPONENT LIST SL. 10.2200u 2. 2. 12.1. 18. 13. 8. 9. 11.2. 4.3 10K 1 33p. 5.1 6-12 V operated 1 3V 1 4 1 Table 4. 15.768kHZ 1. 32.1 List of components used in automatic bell Dept. 3.1u. 17.10u.C. 7.1. 6.1u. NAME OF COMPONENTS IC 89S52 IC DS 1307 IC AT24C08 LCD IC ULN2003 IC 7805 Voltage Regulator IC 7812 Voltage Regulator Transformer Crystal Keypad Diode Relay Switch.5 Pin LED SIP Resistors Potentiometer Capacitors Buzzer Battery I. NO.3. March 2012 Automatic Bell CHAPTER 4 HARDWARE DESCRIPTION 4. of ECE. Base Battery Stand TYPE QUANTITY Microcontroller 1 Real Time Clock 1 EEPROM 1 16*2 1 Driver 1 5V 1 12V 1 Step-Down 1 12 MHz. 21.4.7K. 16.1. 1. 19.Mini Project Report. SBCE 9 . 14. 20.

Mini Project Report. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features:         8K bytes of Flash 256 bytes of RAM 32 I/O lines Watchdog timer Two data pointers Three 16-bit timer/counters. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION:4. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industrystandard 80C51 instruction set and pin out.2. of ECE. SBCE 10 .1 AT89S52 (Micro-controller):Pin Configuration:- Automatic Bell Fig 4. March 2012 4. the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highlyflexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.2.1 Diagram of AT89S52 The AT89S52 is a low-power. A six-vector two-level interrupt architecture A full duplex serial port Dept. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip.

1 – TXD Port 3.2 Diagram of DS1307 The DS1307 serial real-time clock (RTC) is a low power.0 – AD0 VCC Automatic Bell Pin description: Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Table 4.3 –A11 Port 2.6 – MISO Port 1. March 2012   On-chip oscillator Clock circuitry Description Port 1. day.Mini Project Report.SS Port 1.6 .4 – A12 Port 2.1 – T2 EX Port 1.2 – INT0 Port 3.AD4 Port 0. date. of ECE.2 Pin description of AT89S52 4.T2 Port 1.1 – A9 Port 2.5 – MOSI Port 1.3 – Port1 Port 1.1 – AD1 Port0.5 – AD5 Port 0.5 – T1 Port 3. SBCE 11 . full binary-coded decimal (BCD) clock/calendar plus 56 bytes of NV SRAM.4 – T0 Port 3.0 – A8 Port 2.7 – A 15 PSEN ALE/PROG EA/VPP Port 0. hours. The clock/calendar provides seconds. Address and data are transferred serially through a bidirectional bus.2 – AD2 Port 0.4 .2 – Port1 Port 1.6 – WR Port 3.3 – INT1 Port 3.5 – A13 Port 2.7 – AD7 Port 0.3 – AD3 Port 0. minutes.6 –AD6 Port 0.7 – SCK RST Port 3.0 .2 DS 1307 (Real Time Clock):Pin Configurations:- Fig 4.7 – RD XTAL2 – Crystal XTAL1 – Crystal GND Pin No 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Description Port 2.0 – RXD Port 3.2 – A10 Port 2.6 – A14 Port 2. Dept.2.

The DS1307 has a built-in power-sense circuit that detects power failures and automatically switches to the backup supply. General-Purpose RAM with Unlimited Writes Automatic Power-Fail Detect and Switch Circuitry Mode with Oscillator Running Pin Description:Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pin Name X1 – Crystal X2 – Crystal VBAT GND SDA SCL SQW/OUT VCC Description 32.3 Diagram of AT24C08 Dept. Month. and year information. March 2012 Automatic Bell month. Timekeeping operation continues while the part operates from the backup supply. Battery-Backed. including corrections for leap year.768kHz Crystal Connection +3V Battery Input Ground Serial Data Serial Clock Square Wave/Output Driver Primary Power Supply Table 4.3 Pin description of DS1307 4. The end of the month date is automatically adjusted for months with fewer than 31 days. of ECE. Minutes. The clock operates in either the 24-hour or 12-hour format with AM/PM indicator. Hours. Features of IC DS1307 are as follows:  Real-Time Clock Counts Seconds. SBCE 12 . and Year with Leap-Year    56-Byte. Day of the week.Mini Project Report.3 AT24C08 (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory):Pin Configuration:- Fig 4. Date of the Month.768kHz Crystal Connection 32.2.

March 2012 Automatic Bell The AT24C08A provides 8192 bits of serial electrically erasable and programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) organized as 1024 words of 8 bits each.4 Diagram of 16*2 LCD LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications.4 16x2 LCD Display:Pin configuration:- Fig 4.2. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used Dept. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pin Name A0 A1 A2 GND SDA SCL WP VCC Description Address Input Address Input Address Input Ground Serial Data Serial Clock Input Write Protection Power Supply Table 4. of ECE. Features of AT24C08 are as follows:        Low-voltage and Standard-voltage Operation Internally Organized 1024 x 8 (8K) 2-wire Serial Interface Schmitt Trigger. Filtered Inputs for Noise Suppression Bi-directional Data Transfer Write Protect Pin for Hardware Data Protection High-reliability Pin description:Pin No. The device is optimized for use in many industrial and commercial applications where low-power and lowvoltage operation are essential.Mini Project Report.4 Pin description of AT24C08 4. SBCE 13 .

The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. of ECE. SBCE 14 .5 Pin description of 16x2 LCD Dept. controlling display etc. easily programmable.Mini Project Report. Features of 16x2 LCD are as follows:    5 x 8 dots with cursor 16 Characters of 2 lines each Built-in controller Pin Description:Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Pin Name VSS VDD VO RS R/W E DB0 DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 DB7 A/VEE K Description Ground +5 or +3 volt Contrast adjustment H/L select pin H/L Read/Write Pin H to L enable signal H/L Data Bus Line H/L Data Bus Line H/L Data Bus Line H/L Data Bus Line H/L Data Bus Line H/L Data Bus Line H/L Data Bus Line H/L Data Bus Line +4. animations and so on. setting the cursor position.2 for led/ negative voltage output Power supply for B/L(0V) Table4. This LCD has two registers. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it. The reasons being: LCDs are economical. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. have no limitation of displaying special and even custom characters. Command and Data. clearing its screen. namely. March 2012 Automatic Bell in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred over seven and other multi segment LEDs. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD. A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines.

and logic buffers. March 2012 4. lamp drivers. SBCE 15 . The ULN2003 has a 2.5 ULN2003 (Driver IC):Pin Configuration:- Automatic Bell Fig 4. Applications include relay drivers. display drivers (LED gas discharge). It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that feature high-voltage outputs with common-cathode clamp diode for switching inductive loads. of ECE. Relay driver application Dept.7kW series base resistor for each Darlington pair for operation directly with TTL or 5V CMOS devices Features of ULN2003are as follows:     500mA rated collector current High-voltage outputs: 50V Inputs compatible with various types of logic. hammer drivers. The collector-current rating of a single Darlington pair is 500mA. line drivers.2.5 Diagram of ULN2003 The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays. The Darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher current capability.Mini Project Report.

SBCE 16 .6.6 Pin description of ULN2003 4. The 78xx family is a very popular choice for many electronic circuits which require a regulated power supply. the xx is replaced with a two-digit number.Mini Project Report. due to their ease of use and relative cheapness.2. When specifying individual ICs within this family. of ECE. Voltage Regulator:- Fig 4. March 2012 Pin Description: Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Function Input for 1st channel Input for 2nd channel Input for 3rd channel Input for 4th channel Input for 5th channel Input for 6th channel Input for 7th channel Ground (0V) Common freewheeling diodes Output for 7th channel Output for 6th channel Output for 5th channel Output for 4th channel Output for 3rd channel Output for 2nd channel Output for 1st channel Name Input 1 Input 2 Input 3 Input 4 Input 5 Input 6 Input 7 Ground Common Output 7 Output 6 Output 5 Output 4 Output 3 Output 2 Output 1 Automatic Bell Table 4. which indicates the output voltage the particular device is designed to provide (for Dept.6 Diagram of LM78xx The 78xx series of devices is a family of self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator integrated circuits.

and can typically provide up to around 1 or 1. amplifying it. with a slice or tuning fork of quartz crystal sandwiched between them. to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits.7 Diagram of Crystal A piezoelectric crystal is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. while the 7812 produces 12 volts). During startup. and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The 78xx lines are positive voltage regulators. an oscillation can be sustained. up to a maximum of 35 or 40 volts. The rate of expansion and contraction of the quartz is the resonant frequency. and feeding it back to the resonator. and is determined by the cut and size of the crystal. The crystal oscillator circuit sustains oscillation by taking a voltage signal from the quartz resonator. so oscillator circuits designed around them were called "crystal oscillators". March 2012 Automatic Bell example.5 amps of current. 78xx ICs have three terminals and are most commonly found in the TO220 form factor. There is a related line of 79xx devices which are complementary negative voltage regulators.2. of ECE. the 7805 has a 5 volt output. 78xx and 79xx ICs can be used in combination to provide both positive and negative supply voltages in the same circuit. SBCE 17 . although smaller surface-mount and larger TO3 packages are also available from some manufacturers. the circuit around the Dept. These devices typically support an input voltage which can be anywhere from a couple of volts over the intended output voltage. Crystal:- Fig 4.7. 4. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time. When the energy of the generated output frequencies matches the losses in the circuit. A regular timing crystal contains two electrically conductive plates. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal. meaning that they are designed to produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground. if necessary.Mini Project Report.

The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block the current in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). which depends on the particular type of diode technology. the signals in the crystal's frequency band will become stronger.8 Diagram of Diode A diode is a two-terminal device. Thus.8 Diode:- Fig 4. Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow. March 2012 Automatic Bell crystal applies a random noise AC signal to it. The unidirectionality most diodes exhibit is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. Natural resistance in the circuit and in quartz crystal filters out all the unwanted frequencies. and most are used for their unidirectional electric current property.Mini Project Report. The crystal will therefore start oscillating in synchrony with that signal. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. a tiny fraction of the noise will be at the resonant frequency of the crystal. of ECE. and purely by chance. Real diodes do not display such a perfect on-off directionality but have a more complex non-linear electrical characteristic. SBCE 18 .9 Diagram of LED Dept. Diodes also have many other functions in which they are not designed to operate in this on-off manner.2. As the oscillator amplifies the signals coming out of the crystal.9 LED (Light Emitting Diode): - Fig 4.2. eventually dominating the output of the oscillator. 4. 4.

Mini Project Report. SBCE 19 . some of the energy is given up in the form of heat and light. A spring is connected to attract the plunger upper side. of ECE. Flow code macros for driving this E-block are available.10 Diagram of Keypad A simple 4x3 keyboard that allows data entry into bus based systems. When output is received by relay. the plunger is attracted and the bulb glows. Dept. 4. Charge carrier recombination takes place when electrons from the N-side cross the junction and recombine with the holes on the P side. During recombination. LED emits no light when junction is reverse biased.2. which emits light when forward biased.2. In magnetic relay.The plunger is normally connected to N/C terminal. In the case of semiconductor materials like Gallium arsenide (GaAs). Gallium phosphide (GaP) and Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) a greater percentage of energy is released during recombination and is given out in the form of light.10 Relay: - Fig 4. March 2012 Automatic Bell As its name implies it is a diode. insulated copper wire coil is used to magnetize and attract the plunger .11 4*3 Keypad:- Fig 4.9 Diagram of Relay In this circuit a 12V magnetic relay is used. Electrons are in the higher conduction band on the N side whereas holes are in the lower valence band on the P side. 4.

The layout of a PCB has to incorporate all the information of the board before one can go on the artwork preparation.1.1 BOARD TYPES:The two most popular PCB types are: 5. The production of boards with plated through holes is fairly expensive. Automatic Bell CHAPTER 5 PCB MANUFACTURING PROCESS It is an important process in the fabrication of electronic equipment. The target becomes especially important for customer tailored equipments in the area of industrial electronics. However in industrial electronics cost factors cannot be neglected and single sided boards should be used wherever a particular circuit can be accommodated on such boards.1. High power PCBs requires a special design strategy. 5. is prerequisite before the actual lay out can start.2 Double Sided Boards Double-sided PCBs can be made with or without plated through holes. This means that a concept which clearly defines all the details of the circuit and partly defines the final equipment. The fabrication process to the printed circuit board will determine to a large extent the price and reliability of the equipment. working frequency and voltage levels etc. A common target aimed is the fabrication of small series of highly reliable professional quality PCBs with low investment. SBCE 20 . Dept. Therefore plated through hole boards are only chosen where the circuit complexities and density of components does not leave any other choice.1 Single Sided Boards The single sided PCBs are mostly used in entertainment electronics where manufacturing costs have to be kept at a minimum. 5.Mini Project Report. March 2012 . of ECE. The design of PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards) depends on circuit requirements like noise immunity. The detailed circuit diagram is very important for the layout designer but he must also be familiar with the design concept and with the philosophy behind the equipment.

2. Most straight forward circuit designs can be easily converted in to printed wiring layer the thought required to carry out the inversion cab footed high light an possible error that would otherwise be missed in conventional point to point wiring .2 Layout Design:When designing the layout one should observe the minimum size (component body length and weight).2 DESIGN SPECIFICATION:- Automatic Bell 5. Before starting to design the layout we need all the required components in hand so that an accurate assessment of space can be made. of ECE. March 2012 5. The PCB provides an ideal baseboard upon which to assemble and hold firmly most of the small components. Now the petrol washes out the paint and the copper layout on PCB is rubbed with a smooth sand paper slowly and lightly such that only the oxide layers over the Cu are removed. SBCE 21 . 5. Actual size PCB layout for the circuit shown is drawn on the copper board.2. From the constructor’s point of view.The finished project is usually neater and truly a work of art. the main attraction of using PCB is its role as the mechanical support for small components. Other space considerations might also be included from case to case of mounted components over the printed circuit board or to access path of present components. Now the holes are drilled at the respective places according to component layout as shown in figure. Dept. The board is then immersed in FeCl3 solution for 12 hours.Mini Project Report. This base is manufactured with an integrally bounded layer of thin copper foil which has to be partly etched or removed to arrive at a pre-designed pattern to suit the circuit connections or other applications as required. In this process only the exposed copper portion is etched out by the solution.1 PCB Designing:The main purpose of printed circuit is in the routing of electric currents and signal through a thin copper layer that is bounded firmly to an insulating base material sometimes called the substrate. The term printed circuit board is derived from the original method where a printed pattern is used as the mask over wanted areas of copper. There is less need for complicated and time consuming metal work of chassis contraception except perhaps in providing the final enclosure.

check the whole pattern and cross check with the circuit diagram. First this should be translated inversely. Check for any free metal on the copper.Mini Project Report. It is important to bear in mind always that copper track width must be according to the recommended minimum dimensions and allowance must be made for increased width where termination holes are needed. All common or earth lines should ideally be connected to a common line routed around the perimeter of the layout. If possible try to route the other supply lines around the opposite edge of the layout through the center. The scale can be checked by positioning the components on the squared paper. Then apply the resistant solution. Acid resistant dishes and running water supply. test all the components. There are basically two ways of copper interconnection patterns under side the board. If any connection crosses.2. While the board is drying. The first is the removal of only the amount of copper necessary to isolate the junctions of the components to one another. The etching bath should be in a glass or Dept. later for the etching pattern large areas are recommended to maintain good copper adhesion. which can be a kind of ink solution for the purpose of maintaining smooth clean outlines as far as possible. of ECE. Plan the layout looking at the topside to this board. The second is to make the interconnection pattern looking more like conventional point wiring by routing uniform width of copper from component to component. From this aspect. then one can reroute to avoid such condition. The pattern prepared is glued to the copper surface of the board using a latex type of adhesive that can be cubed after use. The pattern is laid firmly on the copper using a very sharp knife to cut round the pattern carefully to remove the paper corresponding to the required copper pattern areas. The first set is tearing the circuit to eliminate the crossover without altering the circuit detail in any way. If possible try to route the outer supply line to the ground plane. 5. Nitric acid can be used but in general it is not used due to poisonous fumes. it can become little tricky to negotiate the route to connect small transistors. March 2012 Automatic Bell It might be necessary to turn some components around to a different angular position so that terminals are closer to the connections of the components. SBCE 22 .3 Etching Process:Etching process requires the use of chemicals. This will act as the ground plane. Ferric chloride is mostly used solution but other etching materials such as ammonium per sulphate can be used. Before going to next stage.

When fitting each group of components mark off each one on the circuit as it is fitted so that if we have to leave the job we know where to recommence.2. which runs into thousands of different types it is often a perplexing task to know which is right for a given job. If using crystal of ferric.chloride these should be thoroughly dissolved in water to the proportion suggested.5 lt. Next will probably be the resistor. If there are. Dept. of water for 125 gm of crystal. To prevent particles of copper hindering further etching.5mm drill is used. This will hold the component in position ready for soldering. The most popular method of holding all the items is to bring the wires far apart after they have been inserted in the appropriate holes.So it is best to start mounting the smallest first and progressing through to the largest. There should be 0. Some capacitors are also very small but it would be best to fit these afterwards. Some components will be considerably larger . March 2012 Automatic Bell enamel disc. This leads to over etching. they could be internally damaged. SBCE 23 . Although transistors and integrated circuits are small items there are good reasons for leaving the soldering of these until the last step. 5. For most purposes a 0. The board should not be left in the bath a moment longer than is needed to remove just the right amount of copper. be certain that no further drilling is likely to be necessary because access may be impossible later. This will halt etching immediately. Have running water ready so that etched board can be removed properly and rinsed. Drilling is one of those operations that call for great care.Mini Project Report. small signal diodes or other similar size components. agitate the solutions carefully by gently twisting or rocking the tray.4 Component Assembly: From the greatest variety of electronic components available. Before starting. then they can be repaired by soldering a short link of bare copper wire over the affected part. of ECE. There could be damage such as hairline crack on PCB. Inspite of there being a resistive coating there is no protection against etching away through exposed copper edges. The main point is that these components are very sensitive to heat and if subjected to prolonged application of the soldering iron. Drill all holes with this size first those that need to be larger can be easily drilled again with the appropriate larger size.

We should select the soldering wire with proper ratio of Pb and Tn to provide the suitable melting temperature. 5. of ECE. 2.5 Soldering: This is the operation of joining the components with PCB after this operation the circuit will be ready to use to avoid any damage or fault during this operation following care must be taken. The wattage of soldering iron should be selected as minimum as permissible for that soldering place. 1. 5. 3. March 2012 Automatic Bell All the components before mounting are rubbed with sand paper so that oxide layer is removed from the tips.2. To protect the devices by leakage current of iron its bit should be earthed properly. Proper amount of good quality flux must be applied on the soldering point to avoid dry soldering. Hence before soldering we must carefully read the maximum soldering temperature & soldering time for device. 4.Mini Project Report. Dept. SBCE 24 . Now they are mounted according to the component layout. A longer duration contact between soldering iron bit & components lead can exceed the temperature rating of device & cause partial or total damage of the device.

manpower and money. school for belling purpose. also it stops ringing of bell in holidays. An automatic control system saves manpower. March 2012 Automatic Bell CHAPTER 6 RESULT AND DISCUSSION APPLICATION & ADVANTAGES  It can be used in the college. Some technical knowledge is required to operate bell FUTURE SCOPE  By interfacing microcontroller to computer. money and has highest accuracy.  Automatic scheduling of college bell is possible. LIMITATIONS   The all ringing time should be given at a time.  It can also be used in Churches and other Academic institutions  It can be used in the any type of examination for belling because we can set the ringing time. SBCE 25 .Mini Project Report. it becomes more user friendly. Manual operation of bell causes necessity of accuracy. Exam day and normal class day time for more than a month can be set at a single time. Dept.  Time editable facility is available. CONCLUSION    Everything must be done in time and accurately. of ECE.  Compact in size so takes less space. because time does not wait for anyone.

2nd ed. Rolin D. The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Using Assembly and C. Janice Gillispie Mazidi. March 2012 Automatic Bell REFERENCE [1] Muhammad Ali Mazidi. of ECE.. 8051 Forum.8051projects. McKinlay.html Dept. Gadre.8051projects. 2010 [3] 8051 Projects. Pearson Education Inc. Dhananjay V. SBCE 26 . http://www. Free http://freecircuitdiagram. Cengage Learning. World of Microcontrollers and Microprocessors.Mini Project [5] Automatic school / College Timer. The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Using Assembly and C. 2006 [2] Kenneth J.html Circuit Ayala. India Edition.html [4] Bell Timer Circuit Using AT89S52.

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