GMAT MATH REFERENCE

1. How to use the PERCENT/DECREASE formulas
% Increase =
Amount of increase Original whole
X 100%

% Decrease = Amount of decrease
Original whole

X 100%

2. How to recognize MULTIPLES OF 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 12
• • • • • • • • 2: Last digit is even. 3: Sum of digits is multiple of 3. 4: Last two digits are multiple of 4 5: Las digit 5 or 0 6: Sum of digits is a multiple of 3 and last digit is even 9: Sum of digits is multiple of 9 10: Last digit 0 12: Sum of digits is multiple of 3 and last two multiple of 4

3. How to find an AVERAGE and how to use it to find the SUM
Average =
Sum of terms Number of terms

Sum = (Average) x (Number of terms)

4. CONSECUTIVE NUMBERS
Average: Is simply the average of the smallest number and the largest number. Count: The number of integers from A to B inclusive is B-A+1. Sum:
Sum = (Average) x (Number of terms)

5. MEDIAN, MODE & RANGE
Median: Put the numbers in numerical order and take the middle number. Mode: The Mode is the number that appears most often. Range: Is the difference between the highest and the lowest values.

6.5 hours.2ab + b² 11. The number of possibilities is generally so small that the best approach s just to write them out systematically and count them. Then set up a rate with words on top and minutes on bottom. Example: Anders typed 9450 words in 3. how many girls are there? 3 = 135 4 x 7. How to calculate a simple PROBABILITY Probability = Number of favorable outcomes Total number of possible outcomes Example: What is the probability of throwing a 5 on a fair six-sided die? There is one favourable outcome (throwing 5).5 hours to 210 minutes. How to FACTOR certain POLYNOMIALS (a+b)² = a² + 2ab + b² a². RATIO How to use actual numbers to find a Ratio Ratio = of to How to use ratio to find actual numbers: Example: The ratio of boys to girls is 3 to 4. How to use actual numbers to determine a RATE Identify the quantities and the units to be compared. you won’t need to apply the combination the permutation formulas on the GMAT. and unit after per goes on the bottom 8. 9. If there are 135 boys. Keep the units straight. SPECIAL RIGHT TRIANGLES 3-4-5 5 4 3 5 12 5-12-13 13 30º-60º-90º 2 √3 60º 45º-45º-90º √2 1 45º 45º 1 1 . HINT: Unit before per goes on top.b² = (a-b)(a+b) (a-b)² = a² . How to count the NUMBER OF POSSIBILITIES In most cases. What was his rate in words per minute? First convert 3. Geometry – HYPOTENUSE – Pythagorean Theorem h² = a² + b² 12. There are six possible outcomes (one for each side of the die) PROBABILITY= 1/6 10.

How to find an AVERAGE RATE Average A per B = Total A Total B Average Speed = Total distance Total time . AREA of a CIRCLE Area = πr² 15. the new average is -3. CIRCUMFERENCE of a CIRCLE Circumference = 2πr 14. SLOPE of a LINE Slope= change in y change in x 16. what number was deleted? Find the original sum from the original average = 5x2=10 Find the new sum from the new average = 4x(-3) = (-12) The difference between the original sum and the new sum is Number deleted = 10 – (-12)= 22 20. COMPOUND INTEREST Final balance = (principal) x (1 + interest rate) C (time)(c) Where C = the number of times compounded annually 19.13. SIMPLE INTEREST problem decimals years Interest = (principal) x (interest rate) x (time) 18. COMBINED PERCENT INCREASE/DECREASE Always start with 100 as original value and see what happens 17. after one number is deleted. How to use the ORIGINAL AVERAGE and NEW AVERAGE to figure out WHAT WAS ADDED or DELETED Number added = (new sum) – (original sum) Number deleted = (original sum) – (new sum) Example: the average of five numbers is 2.

How to determine a COMBINED RATIO Multiply one or both ratios by whatever you need to in order to get the terms they have in common to match. How to solve a PERMUTATION problem If you are asked to find the number of ways to arrange a smaller group that’s being drawn from a larger group.. That is: (%/price difference between the weaker solution and the desired solution) x (amount of weaker solution) = (%/price difference between the stronger solution and the desired solution) x (amount of stronger solution) n(15-10) = 2(50-15) n = 70/5 = 14.4) = 9. and 53 are studying neither language. you can use the permutation formula P= n! (n-k)! Where n = # in the larger group k = # you are arranging . alternatively. How to solve a DILUTION or MIXTURE problem You have to determine the characteristics of the resulting mixture when substances with different characteristics are combined.8 ….40 Balancing method Example: How many liters of a solution that is 10% alcohol by volume must be added to 2 liters of a solution that is 50% alcohol by volume to create a solution that is 15% alcohol by volume? Solution: Make the weaker and stronger (or cheaper and more expensive. what is the cost per pound of the resulting mixture? Solution: 5(1) + 2(2. What is the ratio of a to c? Multiply each member of a:b by 2 and multiply each member of b:c by 3 and you get a:b= 14:16 and b:c = 6:15. How to solve a GROUP problem involving BOTH/NEITHER Some GMAT word problems involve two groups with overlapping members. and asked to compute the rate at which they work together (or vice-versa). Group1 + Group 2 + Neither – Both = Total Example: Of the 120 students at a certain language school.B = 169 – 120 = 49 25. etc. How to solve a WORK problem In a work problem.8/7= \$1. you have to determine how to combine substances with different characteristics to produce a desired mixture. Now that the b´s match. The ratio of b to c is 2:5. 65 are studying French. The work formula states: 1/r + 1/t = 1/t 22. Example: The ratio of a to b is 7:3. you can just take a and c and say a:c = 14:15 23.40 per pound. How many are studying both French and Spanish? Solution: 120 = 65 + 51 + 53 – B --. 51 are studying Spanish. you are given a rate at which people or machines perform work individually. There are two approaches to such problems: Straight forward Example: If 5 pounds of raisins that cost \$1 per pound are mixed with 2 pounds of almonds that cost \$2. The cost per pound is 9. So 14 liters of the 10% solution must be added. Or.) substances balance. 24.21. It’s easy to identify this type of question because the words “both” and/or “neither” appear in the question. and possibly elements that belong to neither group.

How to solve a MULTIPLE-EVENT PROBABILITY problem Many hard probability questions involve finding the probability of a certain outcome after multiple events (a coin being tossed several times. Thus.). so after 4 tosses there are a total of 2x2x2x2 = 16 possible outcomes. the probability the both students chosen will be girls is: 1/2 x 4/9 = 2/9 To determine multiple event probability where individual events can have different outcomes: • Find the total number of possible outcomes by determining the number of possible outcomes for each individual event and multiplying these numbers together. and those in which individual events can have different outcomes. what’s the probability that at least 3 of the 4 tosses will come up heads? Solution: There are 2 possible outcomes for each toss. the probability that at least 3 of the 4 tosses will come up heads is: Number of desired outcomes = 5 Number of possible outcomes 16 . and since there would be 4 girls left the probability that the second student chosen will be a girl is 4/9. etc. you are looking for the numbers of combinations.26. To determine multiple event probability where each individual event must occur a certain way: • Figure out the probability for each individual event. How to solve a COMBINATION PROBLEM If the order or arrangement of the smaller group that’s being drawn from the larger group does NOT matter. • Multiply the individual probabilities together. Example: if 2 students are chosen at random from a class with 5 girls and 5 boys. what’s the probability that both students chosen will be girls? Solution: The probability that the first student chosen will be girl is 5/10 = 1/2. These questions come into two forms: those in which each individual event must occur a certain way. Thus. List out all the possibilities where “at least 3 of the 4 tosses” come up heads: HHHT HHTH HTHH THHH HHHH So there’s a total of 5 possible desired outcomes. and a different formula is called for: C= n! k!(n-k)! Where n = # in the larger group k = # you are arranging 27. Example: If a fair coin is tossed 4 times. • Find the number of desired outcomes by listing out the possibilities.

What is the range of possible lengths for the third side? Solution: The third side is greater than the difference (7-3=4) and less than the sum (7+3=10) 31. Example: The length of one side of a triangle is 7. x2 = -b +/. … whose nth term is n²(n-1). on either n or on the previous term in the sequence.28. How to solve a SEQUENCE problem In a sequence problem. How to find one angle or the sum of all the ANGLES of a REGULAR POLYGON Sum= (n-2) x 180 Degree of one angle = (n-2) x 180 n 32. which will be defined for you. Solution: Use the operation given to come up with the values for your terms: n5 = 5² (5-1) = 25(4) = 100 n4 = 4² (4-1) = 16(3) = 48 So. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS x1. How to find the LENGTH of an ARC Length of arc = n x 2πr 360 r Length nº . then you now that the third side is somewhere between the difference and the sum. the nth term in the sequence is generated by performing an operation. The length of another side is 3. 18.√ b² . 4.4ac 2a 29. Example: What is the difference between the fifth and fourth terms in the sequence 0. the difference between the fifth and the fourth terms in the sequence is = 100 – 48 = 52 30. Familiarize yourself with sequence notation and you should have no problem. How to find the MAXIMUM and MINIMUM lengths for a SIDE of a TRIANGLE If you now two sides of a triangle.

VOLUME of a CYLINDER Volume = πr² h h=height 35. How to find the AREA of a SECTOR Area of arc = n x πr² 360 nº Area 34.33. VOLUME of a SPHERE Volume = ¾ πr³ .