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( PH – 401 )
Text/Reference Books: 1. Introduction to Nanoelectronics Vladimir V. Mitin, V. A. Kochelap and Michael A. Stroscio Cambridge University Press 2. Introduction to Nanotechnology Charles P. Poole and Frank J. Owen John Wiley & Sons 3. Nanotechnology – Principle and practices Sulbha K. Kulkarni Captial Publishing Company
Nanotechnology Jeremy Ramsden Free study books: www.bookboon.com
Nanoelectronics and Nanosystems K. Goser, P. Glosekotter and J. Dienstuhal Springer India Pvt. Ltd
What is Nanotechnology?
What is nanotechnology?
The prefix nano in the word nanotechnology means a billionth ( 1x 10-9 ). The nanotechnology deals with structure of matter having dimensions of the order of billionth of a meter. Carbon bond lengths - 0.12 – 0.15 nm DNA double helix has a diameter – 2 nm Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma – 200nm The ratio of the size of a marble to the size of the earth is same as that of a nanometer to a meter.
Nanotechnology is a new technology but the nanostructures occurs in nature and even man has used it without knowing.
Abolone – a mollusk constructs a very strong shell having
iridescent inner surface by organising calcium carbonate into nanostructured bricks glued by carbohydrate-protein gel. The shells represents strong natural structures fabricated from nano particles. Lycurgus cup – made from the soda lime glass containing silvergold-nano particles ( by Romans). The colour of the cup changes from green to deep red when light is placed in it. Photography – a technology using nanosized particles. It uses a film containing silver halides. The light decomposes the silver halides, producing nano particle of silver which are the pixels of the image.
R. that can be done because we are too big.Silicon chip Existence of nanostructures in biological systems. . do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering thing atom by atom. Feynman. P. New small structures. P. Feynman Surely. Feynman The principle of physics as for as I can see . (1960) R. Electron beam lithography .in principle. Manipulating individual atoms to make new small structures having different properties. you are joking. It is not an attempt to violate any laws: it is something .There is plenty of room at the bottom. Mr.
production. Eric Drexler promoted technological significance of the nano scale phenomena and devices.He also predicted that the scaling issues would also arise from the changing of the various dimensions: gravity would become less important. devices and systems by controlling the size at nanoscale. Nanotechnology is the design. K. separation and consolidations. and deformation of the material by one atom or by one molecule. and application of structures. surface tension and van der waals attraction would become increasingly more significant. characterization. Professor Norio Taniguchi (1974) defined the term nanotechnology for the first time as: Nanotechnology consists of the processing of. . Dr.
Every property of a material has a critical length associated with it. For example. When size of a semi conducting material is in the order of the wavelength of the electron or holes that carry current. the resistance of a material that results from conduction electrons being scattered out of the direction of the flow by collisions with atoms and impurities can be characterized by length called scattering length. The fundamental physics and chemistry changes when the dimensions of the solid become comparable to one or more of its characteristic length. This length is the average distance an electron travels before being deflected.. The confinement takes place.Characteristic or critical length…. .
V= 4/3 π r3 Surface area A= 4 π r2 Object is divided into n parts the surface area becomes n1/3 4 π r2 . Object of radius r.Surface area of the nanostructures….
Nanotechnology can be used to fabricate material literally molecule by molecule. . Performance Enhancement in functionalities.Why nanotechnology? Economizing on material. devices and systems. Custom design ultra precise new structure.
.Properties of the new materials… Vastly increased strength Reduced weight Greater electrical conductivity Ability to change shape or colour on demand.
Quantum wells. . wires and dots Quantum well is a structure in which one dimension is reduced to the nanorange while the other two dimensions remain large.
Quantum wire is a structure in which two dimensions are reduced to the nanorange. Quantum dot is a structure in which three dimensions are reduced to the nanorange. .
It is a process which is widespread in biology where.. This is carried out by a sequence of chemical reactions controlled by catalysts. catalysts called enzymes assemble amino acids to living tissue that forms and supports the organs of the body. Bottom-up method 2. Top-down method Bottom-up method : In this method one collects. and fashion individual atoms and molecules into structure. consolidates. for example. .Preparation of the quantum nanostructures. There are two approaches to prepare quantum nanostructures: 1.
large-scale object or pattern and gradually reduces its dimension or dimensions. . is coated on the metal thin film. Radiation resist. The unexposed part is chemically treated to produce nanostructures. usually a polymer. Top-down method: In this approach one starts with a Lithography: A thin film coating of a metal is deposited on a suitable substrate. This can be accomplished by a technique called lithography. A mask is placed between the resist coated substrate and the radiation source. By using suitable chemical ( developer) resist is removed.
stay in the body of the patient. Organic light emitting diodes etc .particularly in the case of those designed to target cancer. The layers are nanometer thick. Nanoparticle paints. As these molecules can sometimes be very toxic . Quantum-dot lasers are used to read compact discs. Photovoltaic film that converts light into electricity. Hipjoints made of biocompatible materials. Scratch proof coated windows that can clean themselves with UV light. It is used for increasing storage capacity of the magnetic tapes.Applications of the nanotechnology Approximately 99 per cent of medicinal molecules don't reach their targets and subsequently. Intelligent clothes. Giant magneto-resistivity of the nano structures: It consists of layers of metal magnetic and nonmagnetic materials which display the property of giant magneto resistivity. Nanotechnology is being used to safely transporting and delivering drugs.
one has to understand the basic physics and chemistry of the bulk solid state. It is a interdisciplinary field. The driving force behind the nanotechnology is the recognition that the nanostructure materials have the physics and chemistry different from the bulk materials. Self assembly process – has been developed to form periodica Single walled carbon nanotubes are used to make field effect transistors.Applications of the nanotechnology Single walled carbon nanotubes are used to make gas sensors. To explain these difference and the reasons for them. .
geometrical folding. . and patterns at nanoscale. nucleic acids. Nanoelectronics – deals with the electronic devices that has length scales of approximately 1 to 100 nanometers.proteins. molecule by molecule. and nanostructure –bynanostructure.Nanoelectronics Microelectronics – deals with the electronic devices that has length scales of approximately a micrometer. At the nanoscale. Innovative nanoscale properties and functions will be achieved through the control of matter at the level of its building blocks. atom by atom. most phenomenon and processes are dominated by quantum physics. carbohydrates – are examples of materials that possess impressive properties determined by their size. Molecular building blocks of life.
with respect to minimum component cost. Gorden Moore. doubles every 18 months – Dr. This is only possible if progressive scaling down of all electronic components is realized. This statement formulated 40 year’s ago is known as Moore’s Law. It predicts that the number of devices – transistors – on a microchip doubles every one to two years.The continuous demands for steady growth in memory and computational capabilities and for increasing processing and transmission speeds of signals has lead to the development of electronics at nanoscale. Technological Motivations The complexity of integrated circuits. . The Moore’s provides an estimate of the rate of progress in the electronics industry.
In the Fig.1 cm3.01μm2 and voltages from 10V to 1V. .01μm3. whereas in 2000 these numbers were reduced to 107 atoms in 0. In the same way the energy for charging or operating 1 bit decreased. since the energy for charging and discharging capacities was lowered by the facts that one reduces the area of the capacitors from 1 cm2 to . the changes in the characteristics of the integrated circuits since its invention. The number of atoms required for storing or operating 1 bit changes by several order of magnitude. In 1960 one transistor consisted of 1020 atoms in a volume of 0. The 12 orders of magnitude has made possible such high integration levels without running into the problems of power dissipation and thermal heating.
To overcome this restriction. It is assumed that the silicon technology has its limits for further miniaturization to approximately 10 nm.The increase of the integration level was possible first of all by reducing the feature size of the devices and in second place by enlarging the chip area and by functional integration. An alternative approach is nanoelectronics. . functional integration and threedimensional integration are possible solution.
.The Region of Nanostructure: Figure displays different physical levels if the features size of the devices are scaled down.
. These times are correlated to different physical effects.The characteristic times in semiconductor are plotted against the structural dimensions of the devices.
For a p+ n junction the depletion width can be approximated by ln = 2ε (VD −V ) qN D . Outside this region the domain of nanoelectronics and molecular electronics is reached. The shaded area covers presentday microelectronics. The characteristic times in semiconductors are plotted against the structural dimensions of devices. These times are correlated to different physical effects.Figure shows different physical levels if the feature sizes of the devices are scaled down. Depletion layer width limits the reduction in size of the p-n junction in a diode. The characteristic times and dimensions are less than 1 ps and less than 10 nm respectively.
Particles moving due to thermal energy have mean free path between two collision l = vth τc l .The width ln of the depletion layer increases with voltage V and decreases with the doping density ND of the region. The voltage is replaced by kT/q and doping density ND by intrinsic doping ni of a semiconductor. For a doped semiconductor ni is substituted by the density of the majority carriers. Another important dimension is Debye length εVT LD = qni The definition of the Debye length is similar to that of the depletion layer. The permittivity is denoted by ε and q is the elementary charge.
Quantum effects become relevant in devices if the λ wavelength λ of the electrons is in the range of the feature size of the devices. . λ h/mev = Most of the nanoelectronic devices function in this range so wave behaviour becomes important. If one continues to decrease the structural dimension the domain of the atoms and molecules is reached.Mean free path depends on the thermal velocity vth and on the mean free time τc of the particles. which determines the mobility μ of the charge carriers.
In particular the compound semiconductors constitute a general class of semiconductors that are currently widely used. Every element in column III of the periodic table of elements may be combined with every element in column V to form a so called III-V compound. However. . which is semiconducting. Si and compound semiconductors are widely used to make the electronic devices. For transistor the two parameters of the host material are: the ultimate electron velocity and the limiting electric field which does not induce electric breakdown. semiconductors other than silicon can be used. it is necessary to identify the limiting and critical parameters for improved performance.Improving Materials on the nanoscale To achieve minimum device sizes and ultra-high levels of integration.
and fraction 1-x is occupied by Ga atoms. A common example is AlxGa1− x As where x is the fraction of column III sites in the crystal occupied by Al atoms. but also to realize a continuous range of materials for tailoring necessary properties. As a result. it becomes possible not only to make discrete compounds.Two or more discrete compounds may be used to form alloys. The growth of SiliconGermanium ( SixGe1− x ) alloys facilitates the control of the properties of materials over a considerable range of the electrical parameters. These techniques are exploited widely in microelectronics. .
Hetrostructures with nanoscale features Hetrostructures are structures with two or more abrupt interfaces at the boundaries between the different semiconductor materials. a single hetrojunction structure is made of two different materials. The simplest multilayered structure has a single hetrojunction. i.e. At the interface of such a hetrojunction. . With the available material growth techniques. This allows one to fabricate multilayered semiconductor structures with nanoscale thickness. In particular the electrons are confined in a thin layer near the interface. the electronic properties are changed to improve selected physical characteristics. it is possible to grow structures with transition regions between adjacent materials that have thickness of only one or two atomic mono-layers.
By using nanostructures. it is possible to modify the electronic properties of a great variety of nanoscale devices. In fact.In particular. quantum-mechanical behavior of the electrons become apparent. Quantum effects on the nanoscale determine the properties of electrons in nanostructures: the nanostructures can be made in such a way that the electron motion becomes two dimensional. or . electrons can be confined in a thin layer near the interface. The same phenomena occur for diverse multilayered nanoscale structures that can be grown with high quality. the layers with confined electrons can be made so thin that wave-like behavior that is. one-dimensional.
two. for the cases where the electrons are confined in one. respectively . and three dimensions. quantum wires. and quantum dots.These nanostructures are known as lowdimensional quantum hetrostructures and are called quantum wells.
Fabrication techniques on the nanoscale Growth and fabrication methods: Molecular-beam epitaxy Ultra-thin-layer fabrication Superlattice fabrication Characterization methods: Lithographic nanostructuring Qualitative electron-beam and X-ray microscopes Advances in Growth and fabrication methods: Metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy Metal-organic molecular-beam epitaxy Fabrication to atomic-layer-accuracy .
delta-doping Controlled strained layers Fabrication methods based on chemistry and biology Assembling inorganic nanoblocks with biomolecules Characterization Methods Lithography and etching for nanostructuring Dip-pen nanolithography Qualitative electron-beam and X-ray microscopies Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Pico second and femtosecond spectroscopoy Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy .
In particular composition and dopant distribution. Picosecond and femtosecond spectroscopy have progressed . the manipulation of a single atom (ion) in a solid is possible. Currently. lattice strain. and other parameters within nanostructures must be known within atomic scale precision.Improvements in characterization methods for the nanoscale Progress in the refinement of fabrication techniques for making nanostructures depends on the great improvement made in characterization methods. New tools – scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic-force-microscopy – which portend numerous applications in high-precision fabrication have emerged.
Finally. which makes it possible to measure −12 electric signals with time resolutions at the level of 10 seconds.substantially and they have been applied to characterize the electronic properties of hetrostructures. terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was developed. .
Carbon nanotube transistor Microwave double barrier tunneling diode (DBRTD) Single electron transistor . Sub-terahertz INP and SiGe bipolar transistors.Nanostructure Devices The quantum-wire carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. The injection quantum-well laser Sub-terahertz III-V compound nanoscale field effect transistor.
New principle of device operations at the nanoscale: In the nanoscale domain the new principles of device operations are. Indeed the scaling down of the devices and their integration above the level corresponding to 250 Mbits on a single chip makes it necessary to take into account new regimes and even to modify the principle underlying device operation. Collisionless motion – ballistic motion Resonant-tunneling phenomenona in nanoscale multilayered structures. . Nanoscale domain is the realm of quantum physics. Further device downscaling and higher integration densities for information capacities 1 Gbit per chip imply the need to investigate using quantum regimes of operation.
Various novel single-electron devices have been proposed and demonstrated. it is possible to operate with single electrons at temperatures near or close to room temperature. By reducing the sizes of quantum dots to 100 A or less. nano-scale devices may operate on the basis of single-electron transfer. As a result. .Beside quantum effects. reducing device dimensions results in a decrease in the number of electrons participating in the transfer of an electron signal.
Optoelectronics compliments microelectronics. Optoelectronic devices . • Transmission via optical fiber • Communication between processing machines as well as within them • Storage of information on laser disks.Nanotechnology for optoelectronics Electronic devices . and processing of information. storage.are based on both operate electrical and optical properties of materials and operate with both optical and electrical signal. Applications of the optoelectronics. • Acquisition. .operate with electrical input and output signals.
quantum wires.Components of optoelectronic systems – • Light sources. . Passive optical elements fabricated with optically active semiconductor materials Enhancing optical and electro-optical effects by using semiconductor nanostructure and quantum hetrostructure. sensitive optical detectors. and quantum dots are exploited as active elements. and properly designed light waveguides. The light emitting diodes and laser diodes may be improved greatly when nanostructures such as quantum wells.
Modern microelectronic systems contain upto 100 million devices on a single chip. Larger development time 3. Larger time for testing such systems Complexity in Memory chips – A memory chip with n memory cells. A 16 bit memory chip therefore requires 32 million test cycles . Large number of devices 2.Nanoelectronic systems are more complex as compared to the microelectronic systems. in which each cell can store 1 bit requires 2n test cycles for reading and writing 0’s and 1’s. Complexity of the Nanoelectronics: 1. Nanoelectronics will push this number upto 1 billion devices or even more.
the testing of the whole chip would last longer than the age of the universe. Wiring of an integrated circuit . . Software for error corrections are used. The price to be paid for such type of pragmatic solution is that memory can have soft failures. A chip with 16777216 cells requires about 216777216 ≈ 105000000 test cycles. If n denotes the number of points or devices to be connected then there are m = n! possibilities of connecting them. A chip with n cells has 2n different patterns that can be stored on it.Minimizing the length of the signal or bus lines is very complex problem. If 1 ns is required for each test cycle. Economic considerations. In practice the test engineering restricts itself to the sensitive cases in regard to the interference between the cell. The problem will rise exponentially with increasing complexity of the chips. Concerns – Time .If the testing includes all possible bit patterns that can be stored on a chip the number of testing cycles will get increased.
These problems will force further developments of Nanoelectronics.The problems of this nature are said to be NP complete problems. This problem is more complex than testing of a chip and is well known as travelling salesman problem (TSP). Parallel computing with the present day microelectronics is not capable of finding a solution for this problem for large values of n. The verification of a possible solution is as difficult as problem itself. .
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