VANCOUVER Reference Style Guide

Notes:  Your reference list should appear at the end of your assignment/report with the entries listed numerically and in the same order that they were cited in the text.  It is very important that you use the right punctuation and that the order of details in the reference is also correct.  No use of & between author names  Book and journal titles are not italicised or placed in quotation marks.  Abbreviate page numbers to p. eg p. 12-25.  Only first words of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalised.  Journal titles are abbreviated. A list of abbreviations for the titles is available online at either List of Journals in MEDLINE with abbreviations (NB: Use the binoculars in the toolbar to search for a title) or Medical Journal Abbreviations (Internationally recognised abbreviations for journal titles). Other sources: Caltech Library Services and Bioscience  More than 6 authors, first 3 authors are listed; thereafter add an et al. after the third author.  If the journal has continuous page numbering, you may omit month/issue number  Place superscript reference number after commas and full stops and before colons and semi-colons – unless the superscript is attached to authors name or title of book/database – then always before punctuation.  If the reference number is connected to a year or number, place a space between the number and the reference number for clarity. [example: back as 1915 35 …] Books Single author In-Text Example The theory was first propounded in 1993 by Comfort1 that … OR Comfort1 claimed that ‘…’ ‘… new definition of disability’2 OR Madden and Hogan have stated that ‘…’2 Numerous academic librarians 3 ‘ …the most-accepted definition.’4 University research 5,6 has indicated that… [if not previously cited] Reference List Example 1. Comfort A. A good age. London: Mitchell Beazley; 1997.

2 – 6 authors

2. Madden R, Hogan T. The definition of disability in Australia: Moving towards national consistency. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 1997.

More than 6 authors No author Multiple works by same author

3. Rodgers P, Smith K, Williams D, et al. The way forward for Australian libraries. Perth: Wombat Press; 2002. 4. Advertising in the Western Cape. Cape Town: ABC Publishers; 1990. 5. Brown P. Corals in the Capricorn group. Rockhampton: Central Queensland University; 1982. 6. Brown P. The effects of anchor on corals. Rockhampton: Central Queensland University; 1988. 7. Kastenbaum R, editor. Encyclopedia of adult development. Phoenix: Oryx Press; 1993. 8. Renton N. Compendium of good writing. 3rd ed. Milton: John Wiley & Sons;

Editor Different Editions

The most comprehensive work on the Subject7 … The latest preferred style8

-1– Updated 8 Aug 2009 by OpenJournals Publishing

Encyclopedia or Dictionary ‘is defined as …’9 2004. p. Reid DB.3. Available from: Health and Medical Complete. 1996. 2006 Jun 15-17.K. 1969. Austtralasian association of doctors’ health advisory services.18 … ‘… not responsible’. editors. Paper presented at: APSB 1986. 15. Watersmith C. Sydney Morning Herald 2000 Jan 24. Doctor not at fault: coroner.’20 As stated by the company21 In-Text Example The economic policy issues raised by the Internet are discussed in detail by Madden22 The internet has had a huge impact on the Australian economy 23 … Full text from an electronic database – no -2– Updated 8 Aug 2009 by OpenJournals Publishing . In: Carter C. 1997. Mothers and Babies. Anorexia nervosa. Poster session presented at: Excellence in clinical practice. 16. Wharton N. Solving the Y2K problem.19 ‘…not responsible. p. Med J Australia [serial online]. 89. 9. J Adventure Ed Outdoor Lead. 2000 Mar 1. Article or chapter in a book Article or chapter in a book – no author Conference Proceeding (the whole conference) Conference Paper As discussed by Blaxter10… Achieving a life of its own11… This was discussed at the conference15 …. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference. Current status of chorion villus biopsy. In: Bowd D. Oxford: Clarendon. Health and safety in outdoor activity centres. 369-380. 2005. editor Technology today and tomorrow. Joffe JK. BHP enters new era [press release]. p. 2002. Doctor cleared by coroner.this is not necessary for a first edition. 1986 Sep 8-10. Germ cell tumours V. Harnden P. The Australian 2000 Jan 18. Reference List Example 17. 10. An edition number is placed after the title of the work . Int J Med Microbiol [serial online]. 20.2(1):529-530. The art of apple branding. [include the definition looked up – in this case ‘Parabola’. Conference Poster/workshop This was discussed at the conference15 …. New York:Springer.182(5):255. The effects of occupation on preserved cognitive functioning in dementia. 18.12(4):8-9. Oxford dictionary for scientific writers and editors. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1976. 19. editors. Equalities and inequalities in health. Kaplan RF.… It’s a growing problem in the U. Philadelpia. 15. Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the Australian Perinatal Society. 2005 [cited 2006 Mar 28]. Cowle C. 4th Annual Conference of the Amercian Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology. PA. UK. This was discussed at the conference15 …. 182-191. Reference List Example 22. Available from: Health and Medical Complete. Hobart:Apples from Oz. 2004 [cited 2006 Mar 28]. 21. Peel J. Walker D. p. 27-40. Blaxter M. Berlin: Springer. Chasman J. Parabola. Queensland. Anderson JC. Australian. 11.Melbourne: BHP Limited. London: Academic Press. 2001 Sep 13-15. Jones WG. Image in a book Print Journals Article Article – no author Newspaper article – with or without author Newspaper article – no author Press release Electronic Journals Full text from an electronic database The poster “Buy Australian Apples”16 In-Text Example As mentioned by Wharton17. 15. 1991.12. 1986. 23. Leeds. Br Med J. 294(4):225-33. Cell tropism of Salmonella enterica. Social class and health inequalities. Towers K.

No date [cited 2003 Feb 7]. Dearne K. Department of Health. c2002 [cited 2004 Dec 21]. Information Today [serial on CD-ROM] 1992 [cited 2002 Oct 16].26 Available from: Curtin Library and Information Service E-Reserve. Available from: UMI Business Periodicals Ondisc. Sopensky E.html 33. Jepson R. and alternative medicine. Available from http://www.windspeed.doh. Available from: http://www. Marketing slays the downsizing dragon. Ice rink becomes hot business. even in hard times. 60. Public Health [serial online]. Iyer V.nih. 2005 Jun 14 [cited 2005 Jun 30].pdf 30. Bodeker G. Austin Business Journal [serial on the Internet]. The effectiveness of oral contraceptive pills versus placebo or any other medical treatment for menorrhagia. [Cochrane review] In: The Cochrane Library. according to La Rosa27. WA packed with overseas appeal. cited 2004 Dec 10]. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority [image on the Internet].uk/pdfs/cjdguidance. Kronenberg 25. c2004 [updated 2004 May 21. 10(4).. 32. WA [statute on the Internet]. 28.31 A link between these conditions has been noted by McCook. Article from a CD-ROM (BPO) Newspaper article from online database Cochrane Review Marketing is money well spent. The West Australian [serial online].gov/medlineplus/news_11531. c2001 [updated 2001 Aug 1. 2002 [cited 2002 Oct 16]. even in hard times.html. Reference List Example 29. The Australian [newspaper online]. 26. This is debated by Iver. according to Dearne60.gbrmpa. Pre-diabetic condition linked to memory loss [homepage on the Internet]. Available from: http://www. Dispensing with the chemist. Available from: http://www. The State of New South Wales v. Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons [homepage on the Internet].au/corp_site/info_services/science/bleaching/ Reference List Example 31. Curtin University of Technology [homepage on the Internet]. newswire or magazine from an electronic database – no author Full text from the internet Article from Curtin E-Reserve Promoted as a ‘frontier state’24. c2003 [updated 2003 Mar 23. The image of the bleached coral33 In-Text Example The Environmental Protection Act 198634. J. cited 2003 Nov 9]. State-federal relations in this issue were tested in court as far World Wide Web Document on WWW Document on WWW – no article title Document on WWW – No author Document on WWW – No date Image on the web Government Publications Acts of Parliament Cases -3– Updated 8 Aug 2009 by OpenJournals Publishing . Issue 4. cited 2004 Dec 10] Available from: http://www. Am. 2002 [cited 2006 Mar 29] 92(10):1582-91. 27. Available from: Factiva. Available from: http://www. 1998. Creutzfeldt Jakob disease: Guidance for healthcare workers [homepage on the Internet]. Perth: Curtin University.factiva.29 … Curtin University Library launched an improved version of their homepage 30 Both Leafy Seadragons and Weedy Seadragons are protected text newspaper. McCook A. 9(3):58-9. c2002 [updated 2006 Jan 28.nlm. Marketing is money well spent. A public health agenda for Farquhar C.. Available from: State Law[about 8 screens]. Oxford: Update Software. 35. http://global. cited 2006 Feb 15]. Farquhar and Jepson28 In-Text Example A good example of how students can learn online about referencing at their own pace can found at Curtin University. Environmental Protection Act of 1986. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 5. Available from: Factiva. La Rosa SM.bizjournals. Western Australia is seen by overseas tourists as … Recreational venues of a seasonal nature can still be profitable25 … ‘ …tips on speaking to groups of health care professionals. 2003 [cited 2004 Nov 13] Nov 12.

United States patent 20020103498.37 … information from the 2001 census now becoming dated..Australian Bureau of Statistics Bulletin Australian Bureau of Statistics from ABS website Census Information back as 1915 35 … … change from the figures published in 1999 by the ABS. Australian Bureau of Statistics.0.abs. 2002 Aug 1. e-mail. ageing and carers: Summary of findings [serial online]. Science and Children [serial online]. 2007 [cited 2007 Apr 13]. 41.abs. no date [cited 2009 Feb 21]. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Standards Australia. personal communication. Size clothing scheme for infants’ and children’s clothing – underwear and outerwear [standard online]. 44(7): 44. 43. Child rights in focus. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press: 1984 Record the book that you actually used. First release processing [data table online]. Ancel Surgical R&D Inc. ABS publication 4430. Patent US Patent 20020103498 40 from Standards Australia41 Online Standard Secondary Sources Book In-Text Example Higgins discusses Newman’s research in his work…42 Journal article Clements quoted Chandler in his article…43 Other Sources Personal communication. c1997 [cited 2006 Feb 22]. 1991. Available from: http://www. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. Record the journal that you actually Disability. c1999 [cited 2004 Oct 14]. Canberra: ABS. April 24) that an outbreak occurred in London at this time. Childrens c2001 [cited 2002 Nov 20]. assignee. 37. Forest and timber enquiry.39 36. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Draft report. Resource Assessment Commission. ABS publication 4430. inventor. Available from: UCT. Disability.Clements C. Horizons: The poetics and theory of the intermedia. Reference List Example Not included in reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader. 39. Higgins D.0. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Reference List Example 42. Census of population and housing: 2001 Census Basic Community Profiles and Snapshots: Postal Areas: postal area 6050: B01 selected characteristics. 38. University of Cape Town. Available from: Standards Australia Online. ageing and carers: summary of findings. 1999. Available from: xxxx. Annual report 2004/2005 [document on the Internet]. 40.38 Government Reports … a new approach to resource assessment on the macro level. The facts about cocaine (drugs). Also: 39. Volume 1.36 … change from the figures published in 1999 by the ABS. discussion lists (no web archive) In-Text Example This was later confirmed (Savieri S 1999. Pagedas AC. -4– Updated 8 Aug 2009 by OpenJournals Publishing . Available from: http://www. AS 1182-1997.

Little L. Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica: with comment on behavioural adaptation. ANARE scientific reports. cited 2005 Sep 16]. teenagers and anxiety [podcast on the Internet]. The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. 1977. c2005 [updated 2005 Sep 10. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic -5– Updated 8 Aug 2009 by OpenJournals Publishing . Wilhelmsen I. Australian Bureau of Statistics. The medical profession in the 1990s [television broadcast]. in a television 2002. ECPOLICY [discussion list on the Internet]. director. producer. Sydney: ABC Radio National. The potential of syndromic management to improve the care of patients at an STD clinic in Cape The Wings of a Butterfly – Children. Washington D. …then AMA chief. University of Cape Town. 1998 (Unpublished). 1993 Oct 11. Australian Government Department of Science. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Australian Gulf War veterans' health study 2003.: Public Broadcasting Service. 2003. United States: Paramount Pictures. Series B(4). Co-operation with the University of Botswana. Disability. Available from: http://www.askeric. Anderson SC. Hypertension. insulin. Canberra: ABS. and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance.html Australia. Ellingsen AE.Citing unpublished numbered references: work using Give “(Unpublished)” at the end of a reference if the information is not readily available or obvious. 2000. [Disease anxiety among medical students and law students]. 1999. Anderson’s electronic atlas of haematology [CDROM].40(5):679-86. Films and video recordings Television and radio programmes Podcast CD-ROM E-mail discussion list – web archive Government publication Examples Association/organisation as author Examples Foreign/Translated works Scientific / Technical report Examples Examples Unpublished dissertation/thesis Example Borkowski MM. 45. Coetzee N.htm#mind. 49. Title of book. Teenagers and Anxiety 46 …in Anderson’s Electronic Atlas of Haematology47 … as discussed by Little49. 47.45 ….122(8):785-7. [Personal interview. You Can Count on Me44. ABS publication 4430. 44. Van Rensburg A. Two new policy OLICY/2002/Apr_2002/Msg0003. Medical science No. Lonergan K.S. 46. Hypertension.P. Norwegian. The wings of a butterfly – children. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. Available from: http://www. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. year. You can count on me [motion picture]. Thapisa A. Scorsese M. … as seen in the Lonergan film. ageing and carers: summary of findings. 1997 (Unpublished report). Medical Research Council and Department of Community Health.. Canberra: A.0. 2002. 0126. Place of publication: Poulsen KB. Name of organisation.C. 10 March] Cape New York. 2002 Mar 20. 2002 Apr 16 [cited 2002 Nov 13]. Lugg DJ. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Commonwealth Department of Veterans' Affairs and Defence. Schierhout G. Antarctic Division. Matthews C. Page(s).

ills = illustrator(s) http://wwwlib. Stahl E. American Medical Association manual of style: a guide for authors and editors. Refer to the following publications for more information on citing references: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). = and others 9th ed. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University. ICMJE.ShowTOC&rid=citmed.murdoch.fcgi?call=bv. Tian -6– Updated 8 Aug 2009 by OpenJournals Publishing .curtin. Glass RM. Only the most often-used types of references are listed here. Lantz JC. Kreitman M.lib. figs = figure(s) ill. Available from: http://www. paras = paragraph(s) pt. et al. Acknowledgements University of Queensland and = page(s) para.nih.In Press Example Americans [unpublished dissertation].au/find/citation/vancouver. Bergelson J. pts = part(s) rev = revised suppl = Supplement Other Sources of Information Note: This list of examples is in no way exhaustive.nlm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. = Chapter ed. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis.icmje.ncbi. ‘How to’ guide National Library of Medicine Monash University Library Curtin University of Technology Other resources: http://www. In press 2002. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication [document on the Internet].nlm. approximately) ch. = circa ( Iverson C.TOC&depth=2 http://library.View. cited 2005 Apr 14]. 2002. = edition et al.html#World%20Wide%20Web%20Documents http://www.2003 [updated 2004 Oct. Fontanarosa PB. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Flanagin A. Abbreviations: These are commonly used abbreviations: http://www. Glitman P. Araki H.