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Nitrogen Products

Ariziel Ruth D. Marquez

AMMONIA
Once called Spirit of Hartshorn Chemical Formula is NH3
Uses: 1. Fertilizers 2. Manufacture of fertilizers and other nitrogen compounds like nitric acid and nitrates 3. Refrigerant 4. Manufacture of explosives

AMMONIA
Common manufacturing process: Haber Process by Haber Bosch in 1913.
N2 + 3H2 2NH3, a reversible and exothermic process)

To favor forward reaction:


a. low temperature of 500oC b. High pressure of 200 atm c. Use catalyst such as Fe with oxides of Al, K and Fe

This yields a n 8% to 10% conversion Sources are Air (destructive distillation to produce N2), water and hydrocarbons

AMMONIA
Steps in the manufacture of NH3
Production of reactant gases Purification of reactant gases (CO is removed since it will poison the catalyst) Compression Catalytic conversion Recovery of NH3 : a. Liquefaction b. Absorption (NH3 + H2O NH4OH) Recycling

FLOW CHART
NH3, H2 N2
Converter Condenser

Compressed H2 & N2

Product NH3

Recycle

NITRIC ACID
Common name: Aqua fortis Chemical Formula: HNO3
Uses: 1. Manufacture of explosives 2. Preparation of inorganic nitrates and fertilizers 3. Metal pickling 4. Separation of gold and silver

NITRIC ACID
Manufacturing process
Batch process (Pot still process) (H2SO4 + NaNO3 NaHSO4 + HNO3) When the reaction ceases, the pot still may be emptied and another batch of the feed will be charged.
Reactant cooler
Pot Still

HNO3

Niter cake

NITRIC ACID
Manufacturing process Continuous process (Ostwald process)
The raw feed is a mixture of ammonia and air. A mixture of about NH3 is mixed with 10 volumes of compressed air is heated at 600 700oC and is then fed to a converter using Pt as catalyst. The remaining O2 is then used to oxidize the NO to NO2.
(4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O : ammonia oxidation)
(NO + 1/2 O2 NO2)

The nitrogen dioxide is then cooled and absorbed by water. NO is then mixed with air again to be oxidized to NO2. The overall reaction: NH3 + 2O2 HNO3 + H2O
(2NO2 + H2O 2HNO3 + NO)

FLOW DIAGRAM
1o Air Burner Gas
Burner
Converter Absorber Gas A B S O R B E R
Absorbing medium

Converter Gas

Charge

Product