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Dr. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. Devdas Menon

8.1 Cantilever Beams

This section covers the following topics.

• • •

Analysis Determination of Limiting Zone Tendon Profile

Introduction Prestressed cantilever beams are present in buildings and bridges. Usually, the

cantilever is provided with a back span (anchor span) to reduce the torsion in the supporting member. In a building, the cantilever can be an extension of a continuous beam. In a bridge, the cantilever is a part of the “balanced cantilever” girder. The construction can be in-situ, where the concrete is cast in formwork that is temporarily supported. Else, a segmental construction can be adopted, wherein slices of the girder are placed and temporarily prestressed.

The following figure illustrates the cantilevers in buildings and bridges schematically.

Segment

Back span

Cantilever span

Cantilever spans

(b) Cantilevers in a bridge girder

(a) Cantilever in a building frame Figure 8-1.1

Cantilevers in buildings and bridges

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

2 Segmental construction. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. Devdas Menon Figure 8-1. Bridge over Hooghly. West Bengal (Courtesy: L & T Ramboll) Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr.

1) Certain portions of the back span are subjected to both positive and negative moments. there will be two design moments at service loads. 2) The beam may be subjected to partial loading and point loading. The difference is that for gravity loads. 8. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 3) The sequence of loading is important to design the prestressing force. the bending moment in cantilever is negative. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. Thus.1 Analysis The analysis of a cantilever beam with a back span. The bending moment diagrams for the following load cases are shown schematically in the following figure. 1) Dead load (DL) 2) Live load (LL) only on the back span 3) Live load only on the cantilever span 4) Dead load and live load along full length. The following aspects need to be considered in the analysis and design of a prestressed cantilever beam.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. the CGS is placed above the CGC and the eccentricity e is negative. that is compression is generated at the bottom. Hence. Devdas Menon The analysis of a section of a prestressed cantilever for flexural stresses is similar to that for a simply supported beam. 4) High values of moment and shear occur simultaneously near the support. is illustrated to highlight the aspects stated earlier.1.

Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. Devdas Menon wDL Moment diagram for DL wLL Moment diagram for LL on back span wLL Moment diagram for LL on cantilever span wDL + wLL Moment diagram for DL + LL along full length Figure 8-1.3 Moment diagrams for dead and live loads Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

If tension is also not allowed at transfer. due to the variation of the position of a unit point load. In the following envelop moment diagrams. r change with position along the length. The limiting zone is defined as the zone for placing the CGS of Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the compression in concrete (C) always lies within the kern zone.2 Determination of Limiting Zone The limiting zone of placing the CGS of the tendons is helpful in selecting a tendon profile. The vehicle load is placed based on the influence line diagram to get the worst effect. Here the concept and the equations are first reviewed for a simply supported beam with positive moment. The limiting zone was explained for a simply supported beam in Section 4. kb. kt. Devdas Menon The envelop moment diagrams are calculated from the analysis of each load case and their combinations. 8. Design of Sections for Flexure (Part III). Mmax Mmin Figure 8-1.4. I. Mmax and Mmin represent the highest and lowest values (algebraic values with sign) of the moments at a section. For full prestressed members (Type 1).4 Envelop moment diagrams for dead and live loads For moving point loads as in bridges. the section properties such as A. The influence line diagram shows the variation of the moment or shear for a particular location in the girder. tension is not allowed under service conditions. respectively.1. Note that certain portions of the beam are subjected to both positive and negative moments. first the influence line diagram is drawn. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. Note that for a non-prismatic section.

Devdas Menon the tendons such that C always lies within the kern zone. The maximum compressive stress at the bottom should be within the allowable value. The maximum compressive stress at the top should be within the allowable value. the following expression of emax is derived. Else. The following material gives the expressions of emax and emin for Type 1 and Type 2 sections. The limiting zone is determined from the maximum or minimum eccentricities of the CGS along the beam corresponding to the extreme positions of C. The values of emax and emin can be determined at regular intervals along the length of the beam. the maximum compressive stresses at transfer and service should be within the allowable values. The limiting zone is defined as the zone for placing the CGS such that the tensile stresses in the extreme edges are within the allowable values. the maximum compressive stresses at transfer and service should be within the allowable values. explicit expressions of emax and emin can be developed.k b = or. The equations are summarised Type 1 Section Based on the stress at the top at transfer. For limited prestressed members (Type 2 and Type 3). that generates allowable tensile stress at the top of the section. Note that. For a simply supported beam. Also.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. tension is allowed at transfer and under service conditions. the maximum eccentricity (emax) at any section corresponds to the lowest possible location of C at transfer. The values of emax and emin can be determined by equating the stresses at the edges of concrete with the allowable values. the limiting zone is related with the CGS of the tendons. The minimum eccentricity (emin) at any section corresponds to the highest possible location of C at service. Also. that generates allowable tensile stress at the bottom of the section.1) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. emax . The zone between the loci of emax and emin is the limiting zone of the section for placing the CGS. emax = Msw P0 Msw + kb P0 (8-1. Individual tendons may lie outside the limiting zone.

obtained from the envelop moment diagrams. the following expression of emin is derived. emax . Similarly.all Akt . another set of emax and emin are calculated at transfer from MSW and the prestress P0.kb = or. The maximum moment is under service loads.2) Also. For cantilever beams. the stress at the top should be less than the allowable value at service. The final emax is the lower of the two values calculated at service and at transfer.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. the external moments are always positive.fct.4) (8-1. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. emin = MT Pe MT . The minimum moment is due to self weight. respectively. Also. the minimum external moment need not be at transfer.kt Pe (8-1. Type 2 Section The corresponding equations for a Type 2 section are given below.all Akb P0 Msw + fct. The maximum and minimum eccentricities emax and emin at a particular location are first determined for service loads from Mmin and Mmax .3) emin + kt = or. the final emin is the higher of the two values calculated at service and at transfer.fct. Based on the stress at the bottom at service. emin + kt = or.kt Pe (8-1.all Akt Pe MT . Next. If for a particular section emin is negative. emin = In a simply supported beam. at that location and the effective prestress Pe. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This happens near the supports.all Akb + kb P0 MT . under service loads there are two moments Mmin and Mmax at a location. emax = Msw + fct. the stress at the bottom should be less than the allowable value at transfer. when the moment is due to self weight (MSW). Devdas Menon Also. it implies that the CGS can be placed above the CGC.

9) (8-1. the The expressions for a eccentricity implies that the CGS is located above CGC.all Ak b + kb Pe M max .6) emax = emin = Msw + kb P0 Msw .11) (8-1.kt P0 (8-1.kt Pe (8-1.7) (8-1. corresponding to a negative moment. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr.all Akt + kt Pe (8-1. cantilever are given below. For a cantilever.10) MSW + fct. Devdas Menon The expressions of emax and emin for the simply supported beam were developed for positive moments. Type 1 section At Service emax = emin = At Transfer Mmin + kb Pe Mmax .8) Type 2 section At Service emax = emin = At Transfer emax = emin = M min + fct.fct.fct.12) Indian Institute of Technology Madras .all Akt .all Ak b + kb P0 MSW .5) (8-1.kt P0 (8-1.

kt Limiting zone kb Figure 8-1.6 Beams with single cantilever span Indian Institute of Technology Madras . a) Uniform cross section b) Varying cross section in the cantilever span Figure 8-1. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.3 Tendon Profile The tendon profiles for a few beams with cantilever spans are shown schematically in the following figures.1. The vertical scale is enlarged to show the location of the CGS with respect to CGC. Devdas Menon A typical limiting zone is shown in the following figure.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr.5 Limiting zone for a non-prismatic beam 8.

For a beam with varying depth. Devdas Menon a) Uniform cross section b) Varying level of soffit c) Varying level of top of beam Figure 8-1. Thus for regions of negative moment. Since there cannot be a sharp kink in the tendons and. the CGS is located above the CGC.7 Beams with double cantilever spans For a prismatic beam with uniform cross section along the length. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. the supports are not true point supports.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. the profile is shown curved at the right support. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the tendon profile is similar to the moment diagram under uniform load. the tendon profile can be adjusted (within emax and emin) to be straight for convenience of layout of the tendons.

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