French
Language Course
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Contents

004 - Lessons
• • • •

005 - Introductory lessons 039 - Level one lessons 081 - Level two lessons 129 - Level three lessons

• • •

170 - Grammar 209 - Appendices 244 - About this Wikibooks
• •

245 - Authors 246 - GNU Free Documentation License

Third Edition
Published: May 05, 2006

PDF created by Hagindaz

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The current version of this book can be found at

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LESSONS

Vue de Paris depuis la terrasse de la Samaritaine

Introductory French Logo officiel du gouvernement français Welcome to the course dedicated to teaching you the best and most beautiful language in the world*! * The views and opinions expressed do not necessarily state or reflect those of Wikibooks as a whole or any of its affiliates. .French Introductory Lessons Bonjour! .

08 Leçon 08 : Les numéros Cardinal Numbers Ordinal Numbers 024 Lesson 08 : Numbers 0. Grave Accent Tonic Accent. Times of Day Asking for the time 029 Lesson 10 : Telling Time Aiguilles d'Arves.09 Leçon 09 : Les dates Numbers 01-31. Months of the Year 027 Lesson 09 : Dates 0. Book Organization 009 Lesson 02 : Learning French Advice on Studying French 0. Seasons Days of the week.Introductory Level Contents 0.10 Leçon 10 : L'heure Numbers 30-60.03 Leçon 03 : L'alphabet Letters Punctuation 011 Lesson 03 : The Alphabet 0. France . tu.01 Leçon 01 : L'introduction History of the French Language Extent of the French Language 007 Lesson 01 : Introduction 0.05 Leçon 05 : Les salutations Greetings Good-byes. Stress 015 Lesson 04 : Accents 0. Asking For One's Name 019 Lesson 06 : Formal Speech 0.02 Leçon 02 : Apprendre le français Reasons To Learn French.06 Leçon 06 : Le discours formel Vous vs. Courtesy Titles.07 Leçon 07 : Ça va? Asking How One Is Doing 021 Lesson 07 : How are you? 0.04 Leçon 04 : Les accents Acute Accent. Names 017 Lesson 05 : Greetings 0.

most noticeably in the Norman Invasion of 1066. Spanish. It is the native tongue of over 87 million people and has an additional 68 million non-native speakers. royal courts across Europe and also in trade. although English is a Germanic language. it was often the language used in diplomacy.01 • Introduction Introduction See also: French language French is a Romance language. For this reason. culture. French-speaking people have made incursions upon the British Isles many times in the past.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question History Further information: History of the French language In medieval times and until the 19th century. descended from Latin and closely related to Portuguese. administration. and Romanian. thus appropriately becoming the lingua franca of its time. Italian. at least a third of the English lexicon is derived from French. .

it is still significantly used as a diplomatic language. where it is the primary language. Belgium. Gabon. the Congo. Tunisia. Rwanda. Haiti. Morocco.01 • Introduction live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Allons-y! Bonne chance! congratulations on completing Lesson 0. Main article: La Francophonie Main article: French colonial empires In modern terms. and the European Union. All consumer product packages in Canada are required by law to have both English and French labels). which is the only bilingual province.Extent of the Language French is spoken all around the world. Burkina Faso. Madagascar. Cameroon. Luxemburg. and Canada (mostly in the province of Québec. but it is also used in other parts of the country notably New Brunswick. Switzerland. It is the official language of 29 countries and is spoken in France. Togo. Mauritius. the Olympic Games. Senegal. Burundi. being an official language of the United Nations. Mali. Djibouti. the Seychelles. Algeria. the Ivory Coast. Chad. Niger.

Try to make it a part of your schedule. Rent or buy French-language movies. Learning any new language requires some commitment. Most countries are in the relative vicinity of a French-speaking country. . most of us are unwilling to take that step. and yet we learnt it without the benefit of already knowing a language. Again. a period of immersion (where you go to live in a Francophone culture) is a good idea once you are moderately studied. Listen. And if you do not practice your French regularly.02 • Learning French Reasons To Learn French As mentioned earlier. If you can't travel to a French-speaking country. which links to French-language news stories. A written document cannot teach much about listening to and speaking French. it requires a certain amount of effort. and they will reinforce one another. there exist dozens of famous French novels and nonfiction works in a variety of subjects. Because much can be lost in translation. even if it's not daily. or the Internet. TV. Remember that. In fact. Try to master the simple stuff before moving on to the more complex. For listening and speaking. as babies do. French is a complete language. However. You are bound to find speakers almost everywhere in the world. the best way to go about reading these works is in the native language. then try listening to French-language programs on the radio. Grab a French speaker you meet and talk to him or her in French. finding a native speaker to help you once you have some skill will help you with these skills. Remember that you are learning a new skill. which will enrich your vocabulary. the French language can be learned in only ten months. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Advice on Studying French Main article: How to learn a language French tends to have a bad reputation amongst English speakers as hard to learn. at least make it regular. The very best way to learn French is to get amnesia in France or another French-speaking country. it is highly likely that you will begin to forget it. it may be noted that English is also considered to be 'difficult'. The next best thing is immersion. We all have to add and subtract before we can do calculus. While it is true that it poses certain difficulties to native English-speakers.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. In addition to societal reasons. You must train all of these skills. generally long-term. French is significantly used as a diplomatic language. this is only half of the skills that make up fluency. like any skill. Pay attention to pronunciation. This allows you to start with a clean slate. Read French newspapers and magazines. If you are serious about learning French. speak. and practice. an excellent source is Google's news page. While this course can teach you to read and write in French.

In the first level. The introductory lessons will teach you pronunciation and phrases.02 • Learning French live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . is given. For more on course structure. and information on how you can help improve this book. In the third level. The fourth level (still in development). most common present tense. and several irregularly-conjugated verbs. the present indicative. see the lessons planning page. including pronouns. along with many other irregular verbs. will be conducted in French and will focus on French literature and prose writing. you will learn several more tenses and complex grammar rules. the page of which you are reading now. In the second level. the passé composé.Book Organization This book is divided into one set of preliminary lessons. congratulations on completing Lesson 0. and four increasingly complex lesson levels. the most common past tense. you will learn basic grammar.

These are: à. ë. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ. ï. ù. French uses several accents which are worth understanding.03 • Alphabet Introduction French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash Characters Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Pronunciation zhee kah el emm enn oh pay ku Characters Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Pronunciation ess tay oo vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Ii ee Rr air In addition.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. ê. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. ü. . î. ô. ö. û. è.

like u in nut Oo /o/ open: like o in nose Pp like p in pen* /pe/ /ky/ see 'u' Qq like k in kite for details force air through the back of your throat Rr /ɛʀ/ just as if you were gargling like s in sister at begining Ss of word or with two s's /ɛs/ or like z in amazing if only one s Tt like t in top /te/ Say the English letter e. /dubləve/ like v as in violin. like u in burp** /ə/ Ff like f in fog /ɛf/ before e and i: like s in measure Gg /ʒe/ before a. or u: like c in cat Dd like d in dog /de/ Ee approx. o. Xx /iks/ or /gz/ in exit Yy like ea in leak /igrək/ . or w in water either /ks/ in socks. Uu /y/ but make your lips say "oo". Vv like v in violin /ve/ Depending on the derivation of the Ww word. or u: like g in get aspirated h: see note below* Hh /aʃ/ non-aspirated h: not pronounced*** Ii like ea in team /i/ Jj like s in measure /ʒi/ Kk like k in kite /ka/ Ll like l in lemon /ɛl/ Mm like m in minute /ɛm/ Nn like n in note /ɛn/ closed: approx.Letters and Examples French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français name in French letter pronunciation (in IPA transcription) Aa like a in father /a/ Bb like b in baby* /be/ before e and i: like c in center Cc /se/ before a. o.

Exercise 1. Therefore. without making the piece of paper move. pronounced like the English 'bell. the result is le héros. Notice how the paper moved when you said the 'b' and the 'p' respectively. The only way to tell if the h at the beginning of a word is aspirated is to look it up in the dictionary.'). If the paper didn't move. Fortunately. non-aspirated h In French. it becomes l'héroïne. when you pronounce the letters 'b' and 'p' in French. and papa. say the word 'pit' and then the word 'spit' out loud. the feminine form of héros. 3. Concentrate. and puppy like you normally would in English. Hold the piece of paper about one inch (or a couple of centimeters) in front of your face. little to no air should be expended from your mouth. Other dictionaries will include it in the pronunciation guide after the key word by placing a (') before the pronunciation. (the French equivalent of "Dad"). depending on which language the word was borrowed from. héroïne is a non-aspirated h. Say the words baby. Now. (h aspiré). and try it again. d (as in 'marchand). (h non aspiré). are never pronounced at the end of a word. congratulations! You pronounced the words correctly! Aspirated vs. Some dictionaries will place an asterisk (*) in front of the entry word in the French-English H section if the h is aspirated. • • If the paper moved. but is a slight extra puff of air accompanies the stop). the letter h can be aspirated. t (as in 'chat').: the word héros. because when the definite article le is placed before it.Zz like z in zebra /zɛd/ Final consonants and the liaison In French. (hero) has an aspirated h. If you're a native speaker. and is pronounced as one word. 4. the difference in the French 'b' and 'p' and their English counterparts is one of aspiration (this is not related to the similarly named concept of 'h' aspiré below. the words must be memorized. In short. Get a loose piece of printer paper or notebook paper. . in English both aspirated and unaspirated variants (allophones) actually exist. In terms of phonetics. the 'p' in 'spit' is not (like the 'p' in any position in French). However. and both words must be pronounced separately. but only in specific environments. What do these terms mean? • Ex. certain consonants are silent when they are the final letter of a word. The letters p (as in 'coup'). 2. when you put the definite artcle in front of it. s (as in 'héros'). your pronunciation is slightly off. and x (as in 'paresseux'). say the words belle (the feminine form of beautiful in French. b and p Unlike English. Did you notice the extra puff of air in the first word that doesn't come with the second? The 'p' in 'pit' is aspirated [pʰ]. or not aspirated.

Look at it every day and memorize the columns.. hero (le héros) haïr. and ten nonaspirated h words 2.) huit. Punctuation French Vocabulary • Alphabet • audio (info •608 kb • help) Punctuation • La ponctuation esperluette. to hate (je hais or j'haïs. eight (le huit novembre) non-aspirated héroïne. 3. Grab an English-French-English dictionary. Make a column of the two categories of h-word.03 • Alphabet live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .Here is a table of some basic h words that are aspirated and not aspirated: aspirated héros. heroine (l'héroïne) habiter. and find at least ten aspirated h words. virgule { } accolades ~ tilde & commercial = égal % pourcent arobase.) harmonie. harmony (l'harmonie) Exercise 1. arobe $ dollar . et .. a @ ' apostrophe commercial.. point * astérisque point + plus ! « » guillemets d'exclamation # dièse barre oblique > supérieur à point \ ? inverse < inférieur à d'interrogation [ ] crochets moins. tiret _ soulignement : deux points ( ) parenthèses / barre oblique .. point virgule congratulations on completing Lesson 0. to live (j'habite.

ù éléphant: elephant fièvre: fever. à. dû: past participle of devoir Noël: Christmas.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. ambigüe and not ambiguë (acute(fem). maïs: corn. loved regarder. ü. watched . île: island. conium. (accent circonflexe) ô.04 • Accents Introduction There are five different kinds of accent marks used in written French. chômage: unemployment. They are: accent acute accent (accent aigu) grave accent (accent grave) letters used é only è. ê. û diaeresis (tréma) cedilla (cédille) ë. là. to love past participle aimé. î. Since this reform is relatively recent and not known in vulgar surrounding. ambiguous). ÿ** ç only Note : As of the spelling reform of 1990. ï.Accent aigu The acute accent (French. Pronounced like ï. the diaresis indicating gu is not a digraph on words finishing in guë is now placed on the u in standard (AKA "académie française" French) : aigüe and not aiguë. it happened to me!) Note : The letter ÿ is only used in very rare words. infinitive aimer. most old town names : L'Haÿ-Les-Roses (Paris surburb). aigüe: acute(fem)* français: French examples live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question circumflex â. accent aigu) is the most common accent used in written French. both spellings can be used interchangeably (you might even get a point knocked off if you write "aigüe" in a text. être: to be. to watch regardé. One use of the accent aigu is to form the past participle of regular -er verbs. there où: where gâteau: cake. It is only used with the letter e and is always pronounced /ay/. Acute Accent . cigüe and not ciguë.

et al. the grave accent (Fr. è is not used to distinguish words from one another. replace that with the letter s and you will occasionally get the English word. congratulations on completing Lesson 0. or) • è with accent grave à (preposition. or an approximation thereof: • Ex.Accent grave • à and ù In the case of the letters à and ù. is used to graphically distinguish one word from another. you pronounce each syllable evenly. sing of avoir.04 • Accents live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . In careful speech. and the word begins with é. without accent grave a (3rd pers. accent grave).L’accent tonique In English. The è used for pronunciation. Grave Accent .: • • • étable --> stable (for horses) école --> scole --> school il étudie --> il studie --> he studies • And to combine what you already know about the accent aigu. you stress certain syllables more than others. The è is pronounced like the letter e in pet.) là (there) où (where) Unlike à and ù. an unaccented e is pronounced /euh/. Speech: Tonic Accent . here is one last example: • étranglé (from étrangler) --> stranglé --> strangled NB: This will not work with every word that begins with é. at. However in French. to. and in rapid speech is sometimes not pronounced at all.Another thing to note is if you are unsure of how to translate certain words into English from French. to have) la (definite article for feminine nouns) ou (conjunction.

Euh ? Tu t'appelles comment ? Moi[1]. je m'appelle Jacques. Et toi ?[3] Je suis Olivier. Marie. Jacques ? Pas grand-chose. Marie. à demain. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all Bonjour Hello day) Bonsoir Good evening Bonne nuit Good night bun nwee What's up (about you)? (lit. Olivier et Luc Salut. à bientôt./Bye. me V: Greetings French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (info •276 kb • help) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Hi. Alors. Ah. then 3. Bonjour. Alors[2]. Jacques. Not much.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. so. oui. À la prochaine. Tu t'appelles comment ? Luc. what's Quoi de neuf ? new) Pas grand-chose. Quoi de neuf. oui. And you ? (informal) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Jacques Marie Jacques Marie Jacques Marie Olivier Luc Olivier Luc Olivier Luc Olivier 1. Luc ! 2.05 • Greetings D: Greetings French Dialogue • Greetings Greetings • Les salutations Jacques et Marie Bonsoir. no big-thing) . (lit. au revoir. Olivier. Salut. Ah.

Good-bye. ah byantoe Ciao Bye. chow (Italian) Formal Lesson . Tomorrow) Au revoir. an Italian word commonly used in France. and ask "What's up?" congratulations on completing Lesson 0. it should only be used among friends. is used to say Good evening. ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until À demain. is used. It's English equivalents would be hi and hey. Another informal greeting is ciao. Salut! is used as a greeting.Formal Lesson . À demain. Bonjour. In the next lesson. tell him your name. you will learn more formal ways of asking someone for their name.Greetings When talking to one's peers or to children. À bientôt. before going to bed. À tout à l'heure. You respond to this with Je m'appelle [name]. Check for understanding One of your good friends is introducing you to his younger cousin who is visiting on a trip from France. Au revoir is the only formal way to say Good-bye. and doesn't speak a word of English. Salut. Bonsoir. Again. See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr À la prochaine. See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn À bientôt. or À tout à l'heure.Good-byes In addition to being used as an informal greeting. Hi./Bye. If you will be meeting someone again soon. V: Good-bye French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (info •202 kb • help) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. See you tomorrow. should be used for anyone else. à Bye. is used if you will be seeing the person the following day. See you soon. (informal) Au revoir. also means bye. V: Names Tu t'appelles comment ? is used to informally ask someone for his or her name. Bonne nuit. tomorrow. is used to say Good night. see you demain. literally meaning good day.05 • Greetings live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . You want to introduce yourself to him.

Note the conversation between M. English doesn't have a singular and plural. Comment vous appelez-vous ? Monsieur Lambert Je m'appelle Jean-Paul Lambert. otherwise use "vous". "you guys". Nice to meet you (lit. This is known as w:Vouvoiement. "Vous" is also used to refer to single individuals to show respect. Bernard and M. 1. French people will make it known when they would like you to refer to them by "tu". or someone you are unfamiliar with. It is used in occasions when talking to someone who is important. Et vous ? Monsieur Bernard Moi. it signals disrespect. "Vous" is a plural form of "you". If it is used when speaking to a stranger. Enchanté. "youse". This is known as w:Tutoiement. formal version of "you" (although "thou" used to be the informal (arguably archaic) singular version in the days of Shakespeare). enchanted) G: Vous vs. to be polite or to be neutral. use "tu" only when you would call that person by his first name. . and also used between children or when addressing a child. beginning a sentence)) 2. It is commonly used when referring to a friend and a family member. In French. This is somewhat equivalent to "y'all". of course. someone who is older than you are. Conversely. Lambert above as an example of this use. except that it is much more formal than all but the last example. it is important to know when to use "vous" and when to use "tu". "all of you". As a rule of thumb. je[1] suis Marc Bernard.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. Monsieur Lambert Enchanté[2]. I (I is not capitalized in French (unless.06 • Formal speech live version discussion D: A Formal Conversation exercises French Dialogue • Formal speech • audio (info •65 kb • help) edit lesson A Formal Conversation • Une conversation formelle comment Two people—Monsieur Bernard and Monsieur Lambert—are meeting for the first report an error time: ask a question Monsieur Bernard Bonjour. "tu" is the singular and informal form of "vous" (you) in French. tu This is an important difference between French and English.

mehsyeu Gentlemen. it is polite to say monsieur. Pronunciation English. Mme maydahm Plural Mesdames Ladies Singular Mademoiselle mahdmwahzell Miss. or generally someone older than you. Ma'am. De rien..) (Lit: Not of what.) Please S'il vous plaît. problem. Je t'en prie. Usage Singular Monsieur muhsyeu Mr. M. Sir. madame. employer.) (No Pas de quoi.. without the last name of the person.Titles The titles monsieur. Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup). shtahn pree (informal) Je vous en prie jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal) V: Titles French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •325 kb • help) Titles • Les titres French Abbr. Plural Messieurs.) You're welcome. Singular Madame mahdamn Mrs. (Lit: Of nothing. (Lit: If you please. (formal). When beginning to speak to a professor. Young lady Mlle mehdmwahzell Young ladies Plural Mesdemoiselles Formal Lesson . madame. or mademoiselle. and mademoiselle are almost always used alone.V: Courtesy French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •434 kb • help) Courtesy • La politesse S'il te plaît. .

V: Asking For One's Name
French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •403 kb • help) Asking For One's Name • Demander le nom de quelqu'un Comment vous appelezHow do you call yourself? vous? (formal) Quel est votre nom? What is your name? What is your name? (informal) Tu t'appelles comment? (lit: You call yourself how?) Je m'appelle... My name is... (lit. I call myself...) Je suis... I am... congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.06 • Formal speech
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.07 • How are you?
D: A Simple Conversation
Two good friends—Marie and Jean—are meeting:
• • • • • • •

Marie: Salut Jean. Ça va ? Jean: Ça va bien, merci. Et toi, ça va ? Marie: Pas mal. Jean: Quoi de neuf ? Marie: Pas grand-chose. Marie: Au revoir Jean. Jean: Au revoir, à demain.

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question

V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • How are you? • audio (info •311 kb • help) How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) I'm doing (very) well Ça va (très) bien (lit. It's going (very) well) Oui, ça va. Yes, it goes. Très bien, merci. Very well, thanks. Pas mal. Not Bad pas si bien/pas très bien not so well (très) mal (very) bad Comme ci, comme ça. So-So. Désolé(e). I'm sorry. Et toi? And you? (informal) Et vous? And you? (formal) Check for understanding
Write down as many ways to respond to Ça va? as you can think of off the top off your head. Then go back to the vocabulary and learn other ways.

E: 1.01 1 - Basic Phrases - Dialogue
French Exercise • How are you? • audio (info •266 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Expressions de base Exercise Put the following conversation in order: First Second Third Je ne vais pas très Bonjour, Jacques Au revoir bien. Ça va très bien! Et Désolé. vous? À demain. Allez-vous bien? Solution: First Second Third Je ne vais pas très Bonjour, Jacques. Comment ça va? bien. Ça va très bien! Et Salut, Michel! vous? Désolé. Allez-vous bien?

Fourth Comment ça va? Salut, Michel!

1. Michel 2. Jacques

Fourth Au revoir. À demain.

1. Michel 2. Jacques

Formal Lesson - Asking How One Is Doing
Ça va? is used to ask someone how they are doing. The phrase literally means It goes?, referring to the body and life. A more formal way to say this is Comment allez-vous?. You can respond by using ça va as a statement; Ça va. roughly means I'm fine. The adverb bien is used to say well, and is often said both alone and as Ça va bien. Bien is preceded by certain adverbs to specify the degree to which you are well. Common phrases are assez bien, meaning rather well, très bien, meaning very well, and vraiment bien, meaning really well. The adverb mal is used to say badly. Pas is commonly added to mal to form Pas mal., meaning Not bad. Comme-ci, comme-ça., literally translating to Like this, like that., is used to say So, so. To be polite, add merci, meaning thank you to responses to questions. Check for understanding
Pretend to have (or actually have) a verbal conversation with various people that you know, such as siblings, friends, children, teachers, coworkers, or heads of state. Address them in different ways, depending on their relation to you. Ask them how they are doing, and finally say goodbye.

congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.07 • How are you?
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.08 • Numbers
V: Cardinal Numbers
Main article: French/Appendices/Dates, time, and numbers#Les numéros live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question

French Vocabulary • Numbers • audio (info •337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un 1 une unité (a unity) deux 2 trois 3 quatre 4 cinq 5 six 6 sept 7 huit 8 neuf 9 dix 10 une dizaine (one ten) onze 11 douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen) treize 13 quatorze 14 quinze 15 seize 16 dix-sept 17 dix-huit 18 dix-neuf 19 vingt 20 vingt et un 21 vingt [deux - neuf] 22-29 trente 30 trente et un 31 trente [deux - neuf] 32-39 quarante 40 cinquante 50 soixante 60

soixante-dix soixante-et-onze soixante-[douze - dix-neuf] quatre-vingts quatre-vingt-un quatre-vingt-[deux - neuf] quatre-vingt-dix quatre-vingt-[onze - dixneuf] cent [deux - neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million (un) milliard

70 71 72-79 80 81 82-89 90 91-99 100 une centaine (one hundred) 200-900 201 901 1.000 un millier (one thousand) 1.000.000 1.000.000.000

Things of note about numbers:
• • • •

For 70-79, it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21,31,41,51,etc) have "et un"; but past this it is simply both words consecutively (vingt-six, trente-trois, etc) For 100-199, it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number; this continues up to 1000 and onward. Many speakers of French outside of France refer to the numbers 70 to 99 in the same pattern as the other numbers. For instance, in Switzerland and Belgium, seventy is "septante," 71 is "septante et un," 72 "septante deux," and so on. Ninety is "nonante". In Switzerland, Eighty is "huitante" or "octante".

V: Mathematics Exercices
• • • • • • • • • •

huit plus cinq égal : (treize) cinq et un égal : (six) neuf plus huit égal (dix-sept) trente-deux plus quarante-neuf égal (quatre-vingt-un) soixante plus vingt égal (quatre-vingts) cinquante-trois plus douze égal (soixante-cinq) dix-neuf plus cinquante égal (soixante-neuf) quarante-sept plus vingt-sept égal (soixante-quatorze) Soixante-trois plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-quinze) soixante plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-douze)

D: In School
Toto est un personnage imaginaire qui est cancre à l'école. Il y a beaucoup d'histoires drôles sur Toto, un jour je vous en raconterai une ! Toto is an imaginary person that is a dunce at school. There are a lot of funny stories about Toto, one day I will tell you one of them! - L'instituteur : Bonjour, les enfants ! Aujourd'hui c'est mardi, nous allons réviser la table d'addition. Combien font huit plus six ? - Toto : Treize, monsieur ! - L'instituteur : Non Toto tu t'es trompé ! Huit plus six égal quatorze. Et combien font cinq plus neuf ? - Clément : Quatorze ! - L'instituteur : Très bien Clément. congratulations on finishing

Lesson 0.08 • Numbers
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.09 • Dates
V: The days of the week.
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •420 kb • help) The Days of the Week. • Les jours de la semaine. # French Pronunciation English Origin 1 lundi luhndee Monday Moon 2 mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars 3 mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury 4 jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus 6 samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun Notes:
• • • •

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What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes..., C'est... or On est... (last two are less formal). Nous sommes... is not used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly. The days of the week are not capitalized in French.

1a 1b 2a 2b

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •320 kb • help) Asking For The Day • Demander le jour Aujourd'hui on est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee on ay kell jzoor jour ? Aujourd'hui on est [jour]. Today is [day]. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour ? Duhman on ay kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. Tomorrow is [day].

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •164 kb • help) Relative Days • Les jours relatifs avant hier the day before yesterday hier yesterday aujourd'hui today ce soir tonight demain tomorrow le lendemain the day after tomorrow

V: The Months of the Year
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •561 kb • help) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron. English 01 janvier jzahnveeyay January 02 février fayvreeyay February 03 mars mahrse March 04 avril ahvrill April 05 mai maye May 06 juin jzwan Juin 07 juillet jzooeeyay July 08 août oot/oo August 09 septembre septahmbruh September 10 octobre oktuhbruh October 11 novembre novahmbruh November 12 décembre daysahmbruh December • The months of the year are not capitalized in French. • For phrases relating to the months of the year, see the phrasebook French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •99 kb • help) Asking For The Date • Demander la date Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (d'aujourd'hui) ? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. It's [month] [#]. say leuh...

V: Seasons
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •142 kb • help) Seasons • Les Saisons la saison season le printemps Spring l'été (m) Summer l'automne (m) Autumn l'hiver (m) Winter congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.09 • Dates
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It is four thirty. “il est” is used to express the time. Il est quatre heures et quart. It is [number] hours. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. Date. Il est quatre heures trente. . Il est quatre heures quarante. Il est quatre heures moins le It is a quarter till 4. quart Il est quatre heures quinze. It is midnight. “It’s nine. 4a Quelle heure est-il ? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? 4b Quelle heure il est ? kell er eel ay 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). Time • Demander le jour/la date/le temps Asking for the time. though it would literally translate as “he is”. Il est trois heures. Il est midi. eelay [nombre] er live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question V: Time In French. It is one o’clock.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. It is a quarter past four. Il est dix heures. Il est quatre heures et demie. It is half past four. It is ten o’clock. It is four forty. It is noon. it is actually. It is twenty to five. it is OK to say. It is three o’clock. It is five past four. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. It is four fifteen. Il est quatre heures cinq. in this case. French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? Il est une heure.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0.10 • Time V: Asking for the time French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. Il est minuit. Unlike in English. In English. equivalent to “it is” (impersonal "il").

V: Times of Day French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •618 kb • help) Times of Day • L'heure relatif daybreak le lever du jour lit:the rise of the day sunrise le lever du soleil lit: the rise of the sun le soleil levant rising sun.. le matin morning .du soir P.. lit: of the mornng hier matin yesterday morning le midi noon. lit: of the evening la nuit night congratulations on completing Lesson 0.10 • Time live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .. in the evening .du matin A...M.M. midday l'après-midi (m) afternoon le soir evening.

A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. ü. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ V: Basic Phrases French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •353 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Les expressions de base bonjour. It's going (very) well) merci thank you et toi ? et vous ? and you? (informal) and you? (formal) pas mal not bad bien well pas si bien/pas très bien not so well comme ci. quoi de neuf ? what's up (about you)? (lit.Introductory Lessons Introductory Level • Review G: The French alphabet French Grammar • Review • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee zhee kah el Characters Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy dubleePronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay eeks vay grehk live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Mm em Zz zedh In addition. akin to German auf au revoir Wiedersehen) à demain see you tomorrow (lit. ô. what's new) pas grand-chose not much (lit. with reseeing. see you tomorrow . û. ö. at tomorrow) Au revoir. How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) ça va (très) bien I'm doing (very) well (lit. î. ù. ï. These are: à. comme ça so-so Désolé(e) I'm sorry. ë. salut hello (formal). And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. è. Comment vas-tu? (informal). Bye. hi (informal) Comment allez-vous? (formal). French uses several accents which are worth understanding. no big-thing) bye (lit. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. à demain. ê.

dix91-99 neuf] .neuf] 82-89 quatre-vingt-dix 90 quatre-vingt-[onze .V: Numbers French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un 1 une unité (a unity) deux 2 trois 3 quatre 4 cinq 5 six 6 sept 7 huit 8 neuf 9 dix 10 une dizaine (one ten) onze 11 douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen) treize 13 quatorze 14 quinze 15 seize 16 dix-sept 17 dix-huit 18 dix-neuf 19 vingt 20 vingt et un 21 vingt [deux .neuf] 32-39 quarante 40 cinquante 50 soixante 60 soixante-dix 70 soixante-et-onze 71 soixante-[douze .dix-neuf] 72-79 quatre-vingts 80 quatre-vingt-un 81 quatre-vingt-[deux .neuf] 22-29 trente 30 trente et un 31 trente [deux .

etc) For 100-199. Asking for the date. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour Duhman say kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. this continues up to 1000 and onward. It is [number] hours. le temps Asking for the day. Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (aujourd'hui)? (today)? C'est le [#] [month].51. Tomorrow is [day].000 1. Aujourd'hui c'est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor jour? Aujourd'hui c'est [jour].etc) have "et un". la date. V: Asking for the day/date/time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. Quelle heure est-il? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? Il est quelle heure? eel ay kell er Il est [nombre] heure(s). trente-trois. Time • Demander le jour.000. Date.cent [deux .41. Today is [day]. It's [month] [#].neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million (un) milliard 100 une centaine (one hundred) 200-900 201 901 1. it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number. but past this it is simply both words consecutivly (vingt-six.000 Things of note about numbers: • • • For 70-79. Asking for the time.000 un millier (one thousand) 1. it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21. eelay [nombre] er 1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b 5 .31.000.000.

Il est cinq heures moins vingt. Il est midi. . It is four fifteen. It is a quarter past four. It is half past four. Il est quatre heures quarante. in this case. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. Il est trois heures. It is four thirty. “il est” is used to express the time. Il est quatre heures trente. it is actually. Il est minuit. It is midnight. In English. “It’s nine. It is three o’clock. though it would literally translate as “he is”. Unlike in English. It is five past four. Il est quatre heures cinq.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. It is twenty to five. It is one o’clock. equivalent to “it is” (unpersonal "il"). French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? Il est une heure. It is noon. Il est quatre heures quinze. it is OK to say. Il est quatre heures et demie. Il est quatre heures et quart. Il est dix heures. It is four forty.V: Time In French. It is ten o’clock.

... English 01 janvier jzahnveeyay January 02 février fayvreeyay February 03 mars mahrse March 04 avril ahvrill April 05 mai maye May 06 juin jzwan Juin 07 juillet jzooeeyay July 08 août oot/oo August 09 septembre septahmbruh September 10 octobre oktuhbruh October 11 novembre novahmbruh November 12 decembre daysahmbruh December . is not used with hier.... aujourd’hui.. (last two are less formal). see the phrasebook.V: The days of the week. Les jours de la semaine [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •420 kb • help) The Days of the Week.. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly. or On est. • For phrases relating to the day of the week. • Les jours de la semaine. Notes: • • • What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. Nous sommes.. or demain. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes. C'est. # French Pronunciation English Origin 1 lundi luhndee Monday Moon 2 mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars 3 mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury 4 jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus 6 samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • The days of the week are not capitalized in French. V: The Months of the Year French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •561 kb • help) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron.

..du soir P. lit: of the evening la nuit night Relative Days avant hier the day before yesterday hier yesterday aujord'hui today ce soir tonight demain tomorrow lendemain the day after tomorrow V: Seasons French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •142 kb • help) Seasons • Les Saisons la saison season le printemps Spring l'été (m) Summer l'automne (m) Autumn l'hiver (m) Winter . le matin morning .. in the evening ... lit: of the mornng hier matin yesterday morning le midi noon. midday l'après-midi (m) afternoon le soir evening.V: Relative Date and Time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •883 kb • help) Relative Date and Time • Date et heure relatives Times of Day daybreak le lever du jour lit:the rise of the day sunrise le lever du soleil lit: the rise of the sun le soleil levant rising sun.du matin A.M.M.

Daniel Yes. We4 are going to dance all night.. You're coming to my party? I'm organizing a little party. And you.. Daniel Until tomorrow. and is often used to start questions. Et toi ça va ? Hervé I'm good. which uses the linking verb am. So long..1 thank you. Since je vais. the adjective bien is used. Tu fais ça chez toi ? March 3rd. Comment vas-tu ? Daniel Hello.. It goes well. agreed. C'est très gentil de m'inviter. merci. literally means Is is that.. 3 chez. A bientôt. merci. How are you? [lit: How go you?] Je vais bien. I have invited (a set of) twenty friends. J'ai invité une vingtaine d'amis. You're having it at your place? Oui c'est chez moi. 4 on can mean we or one.D: A Conversation Between Friends French Dialogue • Review A Coversation Between Friends • Une conversation entre amis Bonjour Hervé. Instead of You want it?. Hervé It's very nice to invite me. C'est quand ? Hervé When is it? [lit: It is when?] Le 3 mars à 20h. is a preposition meaning at the house of.. Chez [name] is used to say at [name's] place. 1 Bien is an adverb meaning well. one can say Do you want it? Est-ce que. other than signifying that a question follows.. uses an action verb. A demain.. has no real meaning. bonne journée. which means good. Its adjective equivalent is bon(ne). Daniel March 3rd at 08:00 PM. 3 Hervé Le 3 mars. thank you.. Hervé.. In English. This is used in a similar manner to do in English. Chez moi is used to say at my place. On va danser toute la nuit. entendu. meaning I go. it goes (fine)? 2 Daniel Ça va bien.. good day. I'm good. Est-ce que tu viens à mon anniversaire ? J'organise une petite fête. is followed by an adjective rather than an adverb. . it's at my place. 2 Est-ce que.

Director. how are you? Je vais bien. comment allez-vous ? I am well. Entendu! J'espère que je serais invité ? Agreed! I hope that I would be invited? Bien sûr ! Merci Beaucoup ! Of course! Thanks a lot! Au revoir ! Good-bye! Au revoir et encore merci ! Good-bye and thanks again. thank you.D: The Principal French Dialogue • Review • audio (info •505 kb • help) The Principal • Le directeur (frappe à la porte : toc toc toc) (knocks on the door: knock knock knock) Entrez ! Enter! Bonjour. Mr. I'm well. le temps de tout nettoyer. I want to ask you if it is possible to organize a party for my birthday. We would need it until 04:00 PM. In the large conference room on the second floor. I would organize it the third of March around 02:00 PM. Are you well? Je vais bien merci. Est-ce que vous allez bien ? Hello. monsieur le directeur. And you. Je veux vous demander s'il est possible d'organiser une fête pour mon anniversaire. Et vous. Et vous voulez l'organiser où ? And you want to organize it where? Dans la grande salle de réunion au deuxième étage. Je l'organiserais le 3 mars vers 14 h. the time of cleaning everything. congratulations on completing Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Introductory Level • Review live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . On en aurait besoin jusqu'à 16 h.

Neouvielle and lac d' aumar . you're ready to begin your very first traditional French lesson! After you have completed this level.French Level One Lessons Allons! .Basic French If you haven't done so already. go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. spend a few minutes to first read the course's introductory lessons. Once that's done. you can move on to the next level. Finally.

Être V: G: Conjugation.09 074 1. Astronomy . Être. Playing G: Faire.03 051 1. Nouveau. Music. le.05 057 1.04 054 1. Possessive Adjectives V: Hotels. Plays G: Prendre V: Elements. lui and leur V: Games. Contractions.01 041 1. Housework. Numbers G: Avoir. te.06 062 1. Adjectives V: Colors. Articles. Aller V: Weather G: -ir Verbs. Furniture G: Negation. nous. and vous V: Household. and les V: Family G: -er Verbs. me. Subject Pronouns V: People G: Conjugation. and Vieux V: Museums.10 078 Leçon 01 : Grammaire de base Lesson 01 : Basic Grammar Leçon 02 : Être Lesson 02 : To Be Leçon 03 : La description Lesson 03 : Description Leçon 04 : La famille Lesson 04 : Family Leçon 05 : Récréation Lesson 05 : Recreation Leçon 06 : La maison Lesson 06 : The House Leçon 07 : Le temps Lesson 07 : Weather Leçon 08 : Les voyages Lesson 08 : Travel Leçon 09 : L'art Lesson 09 : Art Leçon 10 : La science Lesson 10 : Science G: Gender.Level One Contents 1.07 067 1. Places. Beau. la.08 072 1. Directions G: -re Verbs.02 047 1. Sports.

Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. is always feminine. all nouns have a grammatical gender. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. the word for person. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. is always masculine even if the teacher is female[1]. la voiture (the car) can only be feminine. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f).g. for example. This form can be masculine or feminine. personne. and the word for teacher. that is.. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. For example. The nouns that express entities without gender (e.01 • Basic grammar G: Gender of Nouns In French. professeur. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . for example. even if the person is male.

and vice versa. un livre (m) means a book. (m) will follow a noun to denote a masculine gender and (f) will follow a noun to denote a feminine gender. whereas le foie means liver.Examples French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Common Endings Used Masculine With Masculine Nouns: le fromage le cheval[2] the horse -age the cheese le professeur[1] le chien the dog -r the teacher le chat le livre the book -t the cat le capitalisme le bruit the noise -isme capitalism Common Endings Used Feminine With Feminine Nouns: la boulangerie la colombe the dove -ie the bakery la nation la chemise the shirt -ion the nation la fraternité la maison the house -ite/-ité brotherhood la balance la liberté liberty -nce the scales la fille -nne the girl -mme l’indienne -lle the Indian 1. even when referring to female teachers. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. the definate article will come before a noun in vocabulary charts. Professeur can be shortened to prof. While the long form. In this book. professeur. prof can be either masculine or feminine. but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. If the definate article is l due to elision. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine.the (male) teacher) (la prof . is always masculine. there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. la foi is feminine and means a belief.the (female) teacher) '2. (le prof . To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. Unfortunately. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. Then there are some that just don't make sense. for example. . There are even words that are spelled the same.

Fils is one exception. In French. Unlike English. the final consonant is almost always not pronounced unless followed by an -e (or another vowel). The -s is added for the plural form of the noun. Whenever the singular form of a noun ends in -s. Gender 2. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. 3. It is the article that tells the listener whether the noun is singular or plural. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini feminine la la fille the daughter singular [3] masculine le le fils the son singular. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. It is similar to english. Fils (pronounced feece) is also an exception to this rule. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1.G: Definite and Indefinite Articles The Definite Article In English. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. the definite article is always “the”. the -s ending is not pronounced. Plurality 3. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. Pronunciation. Fils: Most singular nouns do not end in -s. there is no change in the plural form. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. "La" is used for feminine nouns. . However. le fils les fils un fils des fils the son the sons a son (some) sons le cours les cours un cours des cours the course the courses a course (some) courses Secondly. starting with a vowel l’ l’enfant the child sound les filles the daughters plural les les fils the sons les enfants the children Plurality. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). and Exceptions The plural of most nouns is formed by adding an -s.

• • (un) ami . When pronounced.lay lev . When a vowel goes directly after un.l'amie . • • • (le) ami .deszamie (dayzahmee) .a student un garçon (uh gairsoh) Compare the pronunciation to words without liaiison: • Une is unaffected by liaison.” also occurs before a silent h.leur .lahmee the (female) friend (le) élève .Elision The definite articles le and la are shortened to l’ when they come before a noun that begins with a vowel.deszami (dayzahmee) .the (male) friend (la) amie .the hour/the time This process. .(some) (female) friends In this book.the student (la) heure .(some) (male) friends (des) amie . you will see liaison denoted with n or z between two words.lahmee . the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". the consonant often becomes pronounced. the normally unpronounced n sound becomes pronounced.unnami (uhnahmee) .l'élève .l'heure . • The Indefinite Article In English.l'ami . French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini feminine une oon une fille a daughter singular masculine un uh un fils a son des filles some daughters plural des day des fils1 some sons 1"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" (when pronounced like "fill") Liaison Remember that the last consonant of a word is typically not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. Liaison also occurs with des. This is a process called liaison. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality.unnélève (uhnay lev) .a (male) friend (un) élève . • • (des) ami . called “elision. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. Again. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. Well when a word ending in a consonant is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound. the vowel sound is dropped.

.. C'est une chemise. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. • Qu’est-ce que c’est? . "Je regarde photographies.. C'est un chien. meaning It is a [noun]. you would say "Je regarde les photographies.") If you were just flipping through the album.. we would say "I am looking at photographs. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album.? at the beginning of sentences. Qu’est-ce que c’est? translates to What is it that it is? You will be using Qu'est-ce que. • . In English. ." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article." ("I am looking at some photographs.It's a book.") V: People French Vocabulary • Basic grammar People • Les personnes la personne person pehr son Gender and Age l'homme (m) man ohm la femme woman fehm le garçon boy gehrsoh la fille girl fee la fillette little girl fee let Friends l'ami (m) ahmee male friend le copain co pahn l'amie (f) ahmee female friend la copine co peen V: Expressions Qu’est-ce que c’est? To say What is it? or What is that? in French.It's a shirt. . "Je regarde des photographies.What is it? Literally." In French. • • C'est un livre.It's a dog."Some" Note that des. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures." ("I am looking at the photographs. you say C’est un(e) [nom]. Remember that the indefinate article (un or une) must agree with the noun it modifies. looking at nothing in particular. To respond to this question... you cannot say. you would say.? often to say What. Qu’est-ce que c’est? (pronounced kehss keuh say) is used.

... and here are. They are used to point out objects in front of you or in exclamatory sentences. • Il y a des pommes. voilà means there is and there are. the verb meaing to have.There are (some) apples. You will soon learn that a is the present third person singular form of avoir. • Il y a une pomme. voici and voilà are used.There is an apple. . . literally translates to he has there. The phrase is used for both singular and plural nouns. when both the singular and plural forms almost always sound the same. il y a does not change form.. To say that. The -s at the end of the most plural of most nouns tells you that the phrase is there are instead of there is. and that y is a pronoun meaning there. Like in English. then.. In spoken French. Unlike in English (is => are). It is important to remember that verb stays as a form of be and not have. congratulations on completing Lesson 1.. translates to here is. il y a. Voici et Voilà Voici.. You will see this phrase used in all French tenses. is not often used to point out an object in front of you. The phrase il y a. the article (and perhaps other adjectives modifying the noun) is used to distinguish between singular and plural versions. Il y a (pronounced eel ee ah) is used to say there is (or there's) and there are.Il y a.. Similarly.01 • Basic grammar live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

Au revoir.02 • To Be D: Where are you from? French Dialogue • To be • audio (info •226 kb • help) Where are you from? • Tu es d’où? Quentin Bonjour. Elle est française. elles they (feminine) . she. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. Léon. exactement. Quentin Alors. Tu es d’où? Léon Je suis de Paris.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. Quentin Merci. tu es français? Léon Oui. elle est d’où? Elle est de Marseille. Quentin. Dis donc. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question G: Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. 2nd. and 3rd person plural. elle. Léon. on he. Quentin Et Marie. French Grammar • To be • audio (info •61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis singular je I 1st person plural nous we singular tu you 2nd person plural vous you singular il. one 3rd person they (masculine) plural ils. 2nd. Léon aussi.

as discussed earlier. When referring to a single person. Conjugation French verbs conjugate. parler translates to to speak. however. we are. which means that they conjugate in the same way. Also. Also.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. you are.When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person. “vous” must be used. we see. Each mood has a varying number of tenses. they are. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". when pronounced. There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns. more commonly called the present indicative. and aller translates to to go. Most French verbs will conjugate into many different forms. he/she sees. (thou art). the infinitive form of the verb will be used to identify it. instead of “nous”. English verbs only have one conjugation. G: Introduction to Verbs A verb is a word that describes an action or mental or physical state. The pronoun it does not exist in French. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. to express “we”. Infinitives In this book.” (formal). Tenses and Moods French verbs can be formed in four moods. if a group of people consists of both males and females. are irregular. In the next section. the infinitive form is to ___. “on” is used. The most common verbs. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. which means they take different shapes depending on the subject. see notes in the introductory lessons. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. you see. the male form is used. In everyday language. that is the third person singular (I see. For more. For example. However.). he/she is. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. The French third person "on" has several meanings. In English. each of which express a unique feeling. we will look at the conjugations in the present tense of the indicative mood. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. Most verbs are regular. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures. While in English. the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. Il replaces all masculine nouns. they see). while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. even those that are not human. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". the infinitive is one word. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". which indicate the time when an action takes place. . In French. see the Wikipedia entry. finir translates to to finish. For example. The only exception is the verb "to be" (I am. The same is true with elle and feminine nouns.

I've done it! Finished! J'y suis! . you say Oui. or simply D'accord? is used informally to ask whether someone agrees with you. jzeuh swee ah voh cah You are at the Tu es à la banque. It is an irregular verb. when D'accord.G: Être . They will become very useful in forming tenses. or mized) third person elle est ell ay she is on est ohn ay one is elles sont ellsohn they are (fem. too ay ah lah bahnk bank. I am (a) lawyer. Tu es d’accord? (lit: You are of agreement?). He is handsome. is used in French. or simply D'accord. Formation French Verb • To be • audio (info •103 kb • help) être • to be Singular Plural first person je suis jeuh swee I am nous sommes noo sum we are second person tu es too ay you are vous êtes voozett you are il est eel ay he is they are ils sont eelsohn (masc. Il est beau.) Examples French Grammar • To be • audio (info •87 kb • help) To Be Examples • Exemples d'Être Je suis avocat. Idioms • • • Ça y est! . To respond poitevely. eel ay boh Try to learn all these conjugations. and is not conjugated like any other verb. In English. .Are you ready? Expressing Agreement Tu es d’accord ou pas?. one would say Okay.To Be Être translates as to be in English. je suis d'accord.I get it! Vous y êtes? .

.02 • To Be live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . • • Il est Australien. This is an exception to the normal rule. Then say what nationality some of your friends are. Then say what city you are from and what nationality you are.He is Australian. For example. Check for understanding Please use the the nationalities list to find out what your nationality is in French.G: Cities and Nationalities To say what city you are from. There is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality .for males and females respectively. it is not necessary to include the article. you will learn how to say the nationality of more than one person.I am Australian. Marie est italienne. Elle est Australienne. • Je suis Australien(ne). . • Il est de Paris.She is Australian. Elle est de Rome. When stating your nationality or job. . In the next lesson. you use the preposition de. congratulations on completing Lesson 1. and what city they are from.

amusant. ends in -s. Most adjectives. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. Exceptions and Irregularities Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender. such as gros.Les adjectifs Main article: French/Grammar/Adjectives Just like articles. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. When an adjective. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. it does not change in the masculine plural form. lent With plural adjectives. so the adjective will sound exactly the same as the singular form.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. See French/Grammar/Adjectives for more. are affected by this rule. the -s ending is not pronounced. Sometimes the final consonant is doubled in the feminine form. len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. .03 • Description G: Adjectives . amusan. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Regular Formation Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes Pronunciation Generally. such as those above.

Il est intéressant. Il est gros. Elle est grande. Elles sont intelligentes. Il est grand. Elle est grosse. Elles sont grandes. Elle est blonde. Elles sont blondes. Elle est petite. Ils sont bruns. Ils sont blonds.V: Describing People French Grammar • Description • audio (info •1636 kb • help) Describing People • Décrire des personnes Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Plural size and weight Il est petit. hair color Il est blond. Ils sont intéressants. Ils sont grands. Elles sont amusantes. Elle est intéressante. Elles sont intéressantes. Elle est moyenne. Ils sont petits. Elles sont grosses. Il est amusant. gentle Difficulty strict(e)(s) strict facile(s) easy fort(e)(s) strong difficile(s) difficult . Elle est amusante. Il est brun. Elles sont moyennes. attitude and personality Ils sont Il est intelligent. Elle est brune. Il est moyen. Ils sont gros. Elles sont petites. Ils sont amusants. intelligents'. V: Common Adjectives French Vocabulary • Description Common Adjectives • Les adjectifs communs Attitude and Personality Size and Weight sympa(thique)(s) nice gros(se)(ses) fat amusant(e)(s) funny petit(e)(s) small intelligent(e)(s) intelligent moyen(ne)(s) average intéressant(e)(s) interesting grand(e)(s) big patient(e)(s) patient sociable(s) sociable Actions timide(s) timid bon(ne(s) good mauvais(e)(s dynamique(s) outgoing bad ) gentil(le)(s) nice. Elle est intelligente. Elles sont brunes. Ils sont moyens.

the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable. will will show that the sound is connected usung z. très .V: Colors French Vocabulary • Description • audio (info •160 kb • help) Colors • Les couleurs Masculine Feminine English blanc blanche white gris grise gray noir noire black rouge rouge red orange orange orange jaune jaune yellow vert verte green bleu bleue blue violet violette violet marron marron brown (everything but hair) brun brune brown (hair . congratulations on finishing Lesson 1. really • Il est vraiment intelligent.He is very intelligent. enough • Il est assez intelligent. . . In this book.very [1] • Il est très intelligent.He is really intelligent. . z vraiment . Trèszin is pronounced trayzahn.03 • Description live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .He is rather intelligent.truly.rather. This process is called liaison.dark haired) rose rose pink safran safranne saffron G: Adverbs Expressing Degree • • • assez . ^ Often when a vowel sound comes after a consonant.

Tu as trois frères. Il a une idée. You have three brothers. . • • Il y a un livre. [lit: I have thirty years] There is/are . • • Tu as quel âge? .There are books. .Il y a The expression il y a means there is or there are. He has an idea.04 • Family G: The verb avoir "Avoir" can be translated as "to have". Il y a des livres. or mized) they have (fem.How old are you? [lit: You have what age?] J'ai trente ans.There is a book.) elleszont ellzohnt Examples J'ai deux stylos. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation French Verb • Present Indicative • audio (100 kb • help) avoir • to have Singular Plural first person j'ai zjay I have nouszavons noozahvohn we have second person tu as too ah you have il a eel ah he has third person elle a ell ah she has onna ohnah one has vouszavez voozahvay you have ilszont eelzohnt they have (masc. I have two pens. Expressing Age Avoir is used to express age. .Level One Lessons Lesson 1. .I'm thirty (years old).

such as "my grandmother's cousin". tonton uncle child (m or l'enfant la tante."le cousin de ma grandmère".V: The Family French Vocabulary • Family • audio (info •1245 kb • help) The Family • La Famille Immediate Family Extended Family ma famille ma famille my family my extended family éloignée les parents parents les grand-parents grandparents la mère mother le grand-père grandfather le père father la grand-mère grandmother la femme wife les petits-enfants grandchildren le mari husband le petit-fils grandson la soeur sister la petite-fille granddaughter le frère brother l'oncle. tati aunt f) les enfants children le neveu nephew la fille daughter la nièce niece le fils son le/la cousin(e) cousin (m or f) Step Family la belle-mère stepmother la demi-soeur half sister le beau-père stepfather le demi-frère half brother To speak about more complex family relations. you must use the de mon/ma/mes form . .

and les le. Il les jette. la. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je. • Il jette la boule.G: Direct Object Pronouns le.replaces plural direct objects. congratulations on completing The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to. A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb. you guessed it. • • Le. tu. Lesson 1. la. such as "la boule". . . In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. and les are called direct object pronouns. both masculine and feminine Il la jette.replaces a masculine singular direct object la . la. direct objects.04 • Family live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . because they are pronouns that are. and les can replace either people or inanimate objects.). can be replaced by pronouns.He throws it.He throws them. • • • • le .. Similary.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . used as direct objects.. .He throws the ball.replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les .

ne changes to n'. je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel.to play French Grammar • Recreation • audio (info •184 kb • help) -er Verb Formation • Formation de verbes en -er pronoun ending verb je -e joue tu -es joues il/elle -e joue nous -ons jouons vous -ez jouez ils/elles -ent jouent Elision and Liaison In all conjugations. To conjugate. drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root".. the s at the end of each subject pronoun.. as in J'habite. Also.05 • Recreation G: Regular -er Verbs Formation Most French verbs fall into the category of -er verbs. In all plural forms. Example: J'attends. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question jouer ..Level One Lessons Lesson 1. . normally unpronounced. as a rule of thumb: h is considered a vowel. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. becomes a z sound and the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel. If a phrase is negative.

. Christophe : Je viens du stade. When negating a sentence.I like to speak. .I don't like to speak. • D: Recreation Here is a short dialog about people planning/doing leisure activities. Formation Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Like in English. the verb means I amuse myself. The most common -er verbs used in this manner are aimer and détester. which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto the subject. Je n'aime pas parler.Common -er Verbs French Grammar • Recreation Formation of Common -er Verbs • Formation des verbes communs en -er Infinitive Stem Present Indicative Conjuagtion First Person Second Person Thrid Person parler parl Je parle Tu parles Il parle Singular to speak Nous parlons Vous parlez Ils parlent Plural habiter habit J'habite Tu habite Il habite Singular to live Nous habitons Vous habitez Ils habitent Plural écouter écout J'écoute Tu écoutes Il écoute Singular to listen Nous écoutons Vous écoutez Ils écoutent Plural S'amuser Main article: French/Grammar/Verbs/Pronominal The verb s'amuser means to have fun in English.We hate working. remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. Marie : Je finis mes devoirs. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. It is a type of pronominal verb (a verb that includes a pronoun as part of it) called a reflexive verb. • • J'aime parler. Nous détestons travailler. Pierre : Je vais au parc. . . Michel : J'attends mon ami. some verbs can be followed by infinitives. • • • • • • Jean-Paul : Qu'est-ce que vous faites ? Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis. Literally translated.

salle de concert concert hall .V: Recreation Qu'est-ce que vous faîtes? What are you doing? jouer to play finir[1] to finish attendre[1] to wait (for) aimer to like détester to hate rigoler to joke around[2] (mon/ma) ami(e) (my) friend ^ Finir and attendre are not regular -er verbs. ^ Tu rigoles! means You’re joking! or You don’t mean it! V: Places la bibliothèque library1 le parc la piscine la plage le restaurant le stade le théâtre 1Caution: park swimming pool beach restaurant stadium theater a librairie is a bookshop. You will learn their conjuagtion in a later lesson.

He throws the ball to Mary.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary. Il lui jette la boule. and means the same thing. In English. la.He throws the ball to Jack. "He throws him the ball" is also said. Il leur jette la boule. • Il la lui jette. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively. . and les.He throws the ball to him. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects.G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. . Also note that unlike le and la.He throws the ball to them. lui and leur come after those pronouns. An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. Note that while le. Il jette la boule à Marie. When used with the direct object pronouns le.He throws the ball to her. lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. lui is never shortened . . . .replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur . la.replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule. . • • lui . Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. .He throws it to him. • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques.

French Vocabulary • Recreation Play • Jouer jouer à. use jouer à. football de la guitare guitar American football du violon violin au baseball au basket au football au football américain au golf au tennis au volley aux cartes aux dames aux échecs golf de la batterie drums tennis (singular in French) volleyball cards checkers/ draughts chess congratulations on completing Lesson 1. jouer de.. As always. but when referring to instruments...05 • Recreation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . When referring to sports. use jouer de. baseball de la clarinette clarinet basketball du piano piano soccer...V: Jouer The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play. jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments..

Level One Lessons Lesson 1.L.M.06 • The house V: The House live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question French Vocabulary • The house The House • La maison General Actions la rue[1] street arriver (à la maison) to arrive (home) la (belle) vue (beautiful) sight. home habiter en ville to live downtown la maisonnette small house habiter en banlieue to live in the suburb le pavillon individual house l’immeuble (appartment) building Floors l'appartement (m) flat/apartment l'étage (m) level le studio studio le rez-de-chaussée lobby. le premier étage second floor (Habitations à low income housing le deuxième étage third floor Loyer Modéré) le troisième étage fourth floor Cities and Neigborhoods le quartier neigborhood le centre ville downtown l'arrondissement (m) district la ville city la banlieue the suburb le village town Rooms Parts of a Room la pièce room le plafond ceiling la chambre la salle de séjour family room le sol ground la cave basement la fenêtre window le grenier attic le toit roof la cuisine kitchen Entering and Exiting . view rentrer (à la maison) to go back home quitter (la (tout) près (de) (very) close (to) to leave (home) maison)[2] (pas) (tout) loin (de) (not) (very) far (from) to leave (a room) quitter (une salle) at the house of donner sur la rue to overlook the street chez [person] [person] donner sur la cour to overlook the courtyard at [person]'s house Houses habiter to live (somewhere) la maison house. ground floor H.

le mur wall l'escalier (m) stairs monter à pied to walk up stairs l'ascenseur (m) elevator monter en ascenseur to go up by elevator prendre l'ascenseur to take the elevator monter à pied to go up by foot la porte door l'entrée (f) entry(way) Furniture le rideau curtain la chaise chair la table table l'armoire (f) cupboard le lit bed le tapis carpet le fauteuil armchair ^ To express to live on ____ street.I live on Lecourbe Street.He lives on Rennes Street. . Partir is used in other phrases. usually a room or building. . you say habiter rue ____ • • la salle à manger dining room la salle de bains bathroom la chambre à coucher bedroom le garage Garage les toilettes water-closet. restroom (f) (no singular) (only toliet. You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson. ^ Quitter must be followed by a direct object. . Il habite Rue de Rennes.. no bath) le bureau office Outside a House la voiture car la terrase patio le balcon balcony le jardin garden la fleur flower l'arbre (m) tree la cour courtyard le (la) voisin(e) neigbor J'habite Rue Lecourbe.

to scold faire la queue . or mized) they do (fem.to get acquainted faire la morale . Related Words • • • défaire .) Uses For Faire • • • • sports weather tasks le faire causatif • faire (conjugated) + infinitive . Formation French Verb • Present Indicative • audio (432 kb • help) faire • to do. .I make/have the stove repaired.to remake Expressions with Faire • • • • • faire attention . to make Singular Plural first person je fais jzeuh fay I do nous faisons noo fezohn we do second person tu fais too fay il fait eel fay third person elle fait ell fay on fait oh fay you do vous faites voo feht he does ils font eel fohnt she does one does elles font ell fohnt you do they do (masc.G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make.to have something done for oneself • Je fais réparer le fourneau.to demolish malfaire . It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb).to worry .to do badly refaire .to wait in line s'en faire .to pay attention faire connaissance .

V: Housework French Vocabulary • The house • audio (info •524 kb • help) Housework • Le ménage faire la cuisine to do the cooking faire la lessive/le linge to do the laundry faire le jardin to do the gardening faire le lit to make the bed faire le ménage to do the housework faire la vaiselle to do the dishes faire les carreaux to do the windows faire les courses to do the shopping/errands faire le repassage to do the ironing G: me. to you (plural. .you. Il te voit.me.He sees you. .us. Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit. If a perfect tense is used. nous. • Je t'ai vu.I want to see you.He sees you.He sees me.I see you. Il vous voit. to me te .. . . te.I saw you. to us vous . . . .you.He sees us. to you (singular. . and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Meanings • • • • me . Il nous voit. formal) Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb. • Je veux te voir. informal) nous .

Ma maison a 2 chambres : la première pour moi et ma femme avec un grand lit.there ^ l'ordinateur (m) ^ aimer regarder . Il vous le jette. à coté de[3] Lyon en France. il y a un petit salon. ^ à coté de .He throws it to you. . . Il nous le jette. Il te le jette.to eat congratulations on completing Lesson 1.Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle. Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs. . La maison est de plein pied et ne comporte pas d'étage.He throws it to us. Exercises Try to describe your house or bedrooom using the vocabulary.06 • The house live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . You may also wish to talk about what housework you do. Chez moi J'habite une villa à Mornant. next to ^ y (ee) . Il y a une petite table et 4 chaises. Nous avons aussi un bureau avec 3 ordinateurs[4] : un par personne ! La salle de séjour est très grande et à coté. Nous aimons regarder[5] la télévision allongés dans le fauteuil.at the side of. La cuisine est toute petite et nous y[6] mangeons[7] le soir.He throws it to you.He calls to me. Don't forget prepositions. .to like to watch computer ^ manger . La deuxième est plus petite : c'est la chambre de mon fils.

Vous ne vendez pas votre voiture..I want to not steal. You sell your car. We are not doing our homework.Level One Lessons Lesson 1.07 • Weather G: Standard Negation In order to say that one did not do something.pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb. . You do not sell your car. • Je n'ai pas volé. Il n'est pas avocat. .I do not steal. ne. pas construction must be used. I do not play the piano. I play the piano.. . • Je ne veux pas voler.I have not stolen. In a perfect tense. ne. • Je veux ne pas voler. . The ne is placed before the verb.. not the participle. ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects. . He is not [a] lawyer. Je ne joue pas du piano. while the pas is placed after. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation and Rules • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne. We are doing our homework. Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs. He is [a] lawyer... Examples French Grammar • Weather • audio (info •262 kb • help) Negation Formation Examples • Exemples de formation de négation Il est avocat. ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning. • Je ne le vole pas. Vous vendez votre voiture.I did not steal it. Je joue du piano.pas around the verb.I do not want to steal.. • Je ne vole pas. When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together.pas wraps around the auxillary verb. Nous faisons nos devoirs... the ne . .

Je n'ai pas de livres.Negation of Indefinate Articles The indefinite articles un.I have some books. .I have a book. I do not eat a cherry. une. . J'ai des livres. We read a book. We do not read a book.. Je ne mange pas de cerise. . Nous ne lisons pas de livre. Je n'ai pas de livre. Nous lisons un livre. Il n'est pas belge. He is Belgian. .I don't have any book. • • • • J'ai un livre. I eat a cherry. He is not Belgian. Je mange une cerise. . Examples Il est belge.I don't have any books. and des change to de (or d’) when negating a sentence.

clouds. haze. Le soleil brille. The wind blows. The skiy is clearing up. rainy. une goutte de pluie a drop of rain Extreme weather un orage a storm la pluie rain orageux(-euse) stormy La pluie tombe.V: Weather . la rafale gust of wind Rainy Weather Snowy Weather la brume fog. agitated l'averse (f) downpour le tonnerre thunder ^ Le temps means both the weather and the time. la grêle hail Il tombe de la la bruine drizzle It's hailing. It's going to rain. rainy pluvieux(-euse) It's raining. It's windy. Il fait du vent. It rained. The rain falls. Le ciel se dégage. The sun is shining. It's snowing. . lit: There are some . Le ciel est dégagé. Il y a un orage! There's a storm! Il pleut. Cold and Windy Weather Il fait chaud. Il fait froid. It's warm. la tempête storm. .Le temps[1] French Vocabulary • Weather Weather • Le temps General Cloudy Weather cloud le nuage It's cloudy. large black clouds agité(e)(s) stormy. Le vent souffle. le vent wind lit: The sky is freed. The skiy is clear. tempest lit: The weather is . It's cold. mist l'hiver (m) winter la neige snow le brouillard fog Il neige. Le temps est pluvieux. lit: covered Warm Weather l'éclaircie (f) clearing. break (in clouds) Il fait beau It's nice. de gros nuages noirs. grêle. le ciel sky nuageux(-euse) cloudy couvert(e)(s) overcast. It's raining. lit: It falls of the hail. l'éclair (m) flash (of lightening) il a plu. l'éclairage (m) lightening Il va pleuvoir. le soleil sun Il y a des nuages.

or to. Aller must be used with a place and cannot stand alone. . meaing in.It's not going to rain tomorrow. Nous y allons. Je vais au stade. at. aller is conjugated as follows: French Verb • Weather • audio (info •327 kb • help) aller • to go Singular Plural nouszallons nouzah lohn we go first person je vais jeuh vay I go second person tu vas too vah you go vouszallez vouzah lay you go they go (masc. Remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. • • Il va pleuvoir demain. . • . Remember that aller must be used with a place (there or a name) when indicating that you are going somewhere. Remember that à le contracts to au and à les contracts to aux. .) il va eel vah he goes ils vont eel vohn third person elle va ell vah she goes on va ohn vah one goes elles vont ell vohn Usage There is no present progressive tense in French. • • • J'y vais.You're going there.We're going there. followed by the place.G: Aller The verb aller is translated to to go. meaning there. Y comes before the verb.I'm going there. . even if a place wouldn't normally be given in English. Il va faire froid.You're going to school.It's going to rain tomorrow. Futur Proche The strucure aller + infinitive is used to say that something is going to happen in the near future. . Formation In the present indicative. . Il ne va pas pleuvoir demain. is used. • Tu vas a l'école? . The preposition à. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -er verb). Tu y vas. so aller in the present indicative is used to express both I go and I am going. • Instead of a preposition and place.I'm going to the stage. . or mized) they go (fem. you can use the pronoun y.It's going to be cold.

nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay..Should we go? Liaison Usually. In the phrase vous et Marie allez à l'école?".Let's get going! On y va? . In order to have a pleasing and clean sound.ez.) However. two liaisons should not go connsecultively. There is therefore no liaison in allons à when it comes right after nous and allez à when it comes after vous. (This process is called liaison. the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable.ons or .Let's go! (impératif) Ça va? ..Idioms • • • • Allons-y .07 • Weather live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .. since allons and allez begins with vowels.How are you? (lit: It goes?) On y va! . whenever a vowel sound comes after . allez à is pronounced ahlayzah. vous allez à is pronounced vouzahlay ah. • • In the phrase Vous allez à l'école?.ahlonzee .. congratulations on completing Lesson 1.

notre. tes your son.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. ma. nos our votre. her leur.08 • Travel live version discussion G: Regular -ir Verbs exercises The second category of regular French verbs is -ir verbs. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. comment report an error finir . mes my ton. leur. To conjugate. votre. vos your their leurs . drop the -ir edit lesson to find the "stem" or "root". sa. ta. Plural notre.to finish ask a question French Grammar • Travel -ir Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -ir pronoun ending verb je -is finis tu -is finis il/elle -it finit nous -issons finissons vous -issez finissez ils/elles -issent finissent G: Possessive Adjectives Formation French Grammar • Travel Possessive Adjectives • Les adjectifs possessifs First Person Second Person Third Person Singular mon. ses his.

Ils sont mesz . • C'est mon livre. possessive adjective are used to express possession of an object. Elle est monnamie. • • Mon. . possessive adjectives act like all other adjectives: they must agree with the noun they modify. t'. congratulations on completing Liaison also occurs with all plural forms.He is his/her friend. French Grammar • Travel Possesive Adjective Usage • Utilisation des adjectifs possesive Masculine Noun Feminine Noun le livre la voiture le livre de Marc son livre la voiture de Marc sa voiture the book of Marc his book the car of Marc his car les livres de Marc ses livres les voitures de Marc ses voitures the books of Marc his books the cars of Marc his cars le livre de Marie son livre la voiture de Marie sa voiture the book of Marie her book the car of Marie her car les livres de Marie ses livres les voitures de Marie ses voitures the books of Marie her books the cars of Marie her cars Whether the third person singular possessive adjectives son.He is your friend. her brother). ton. Liaison and Adjective Changes Liaison occurs when mon. sa and ses are his or her is indicated by context.They are my friends. since they all end in s. . .She is my friend. or s') does not occur. Ils sont nosz .Usage As you can probably tell from their name. . and son are followed by a vowel. ton. • Elle lit son livre.She reads her book.08 • Travel live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .It's my book. Elision (to m'. .They are our friends. . In English the possessive adjective agrees with the subject (his sister. and son are used before a feminine singular noun. • • • Il est monnami. • Lesson 1. Il est tonnami. Il est sonnami.He is my friend. But in French.

09 • Art live version discussion G: Regular -re Verbs exercises The third category of regular verbs is made up of -re' verbs. . as demonstrated below for the present tense. -re verbs are not very common.) first person second person tu vends il vend third person elle vend on vend Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. report an error ask a question Formation attendre – to wait French Grammar • Art -re Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -re pronoun ending verb je (j') -s attends tu -s attends il/elle attend nous -ons attendons vous -ez attendez ils/elles -ent attendent Vendre The verb vendre is a regular -re verb: French Verb • Present Indicative vendre • to sell Singular Plural je vends jzeuh vahn I sell nous vendons noo vahn dohn we sell too vahn eel vahn ell vahn oh vahn you sell vous vendez voo vahn day' he sells ils vendent eel vahnde she sells one sells elles vendent ell vahnde you sell they sell (masc. Add endings to the root based on the subject and comment tense. You will however see the following verbs fairly often. or mized) they sell (fem. To conjugate. drop the edit lesson -re to find the "stem" or "root".

Theaters. and Opera Houses The Louvre The Louvre Pyramid .V: Going to a Museum la portraitiste portraitist V: Music French Vocabulary • Art • audio (info •287 kb • help) Music • La musique écouter la musique to listen to music des paroles lurics (le parole = word) Composing le musicien musician le compositeur composer l’auteur (des paroles) (lyrics) writer Instruments l'instrument (m) instruement la clarinette clarient le violon violin la harpe harp la guitare guitar le piano piano V: French Museums.

New. including beau. most adjectives come after the noun they modify in French. . des in very often used in place of de. (all) Singular un beau garçon un bel individu une belle fillette Beau de beauxzindividus de belles fillettes Plural de beaux garçons Singular un nouveau camion Nouveau de nouveaux Plural camions Singular un vieux camion Vieux Plural de vieux camions un nouvel ordre une nouvelle idée de nouveauxzordres de nouvelles idées un vieil ordre de vieuxzordres une vieille idée de vieilles idées Sentences Placement As you have already learned. nouveau. and vieux come before the noun.pretty cars However. and Vieux Formation French Grammar • Art The Adjectives Beautiful. • • un homme intelligent .an intelligent man des hommes intelligents . some common French adjectives. Nouveau. • Des is replaced with de when an adjective comes before the noun.a pretty car de jolies voitures . • Note that in informal speech. Nouveau.G: Beau. Consonant Masc.intelligent men une jolie voiture . and Old • Beau. and Vieux Masc. Sing. Vowel Fem.

V: Plays French Vocabulary • Art Plays • Les pièces At the Theater Play Genres le théâtre theater le ballet ballet (theatrical) play la pièce (de théâtre) lit: (theatrical) la comédie comedy piece l'acte (f) act la comédie la scène scene musical comedy musicale l'entracte (m) intermission chanter to sing le (la) chanteur le drame drama singer (-euse) danser to dance la tragédie tragedy le (la) danseur (-euse) dancer V: French Artists and Entertainers • • • • • • • • • • Charles Aznavour Gilbert Becaud Jacques Brel Robert Charlebois Joe Dassin Raymond Devos Celine Dion Garou Juliette Greco Edith Piaf congratulations on completing Lesson 1.09 • Art live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

to mistake . and is conjuagted differntly.to learn comprendre .) third person ils prennent eel prehn elles prennent ell prehn Related Words • • • • prendre .10 • Science G: Prendre Prendre is not a regular -re verb.to comprehend/understand méprendre .to take apprendre . or mized) they take (fem.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation first person second person French Verb • Present Indicative prendre • to take Singular Plural noo prenn je jzeuh nous I take prends prahn prennons ohn tu too prahn prends eel il prend prahnn elle ell prend prahnn on oh prend prahnn you take he takes she takes one takes vous prenez voo prennay we take you take they take (masc.

Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • • prendre .to gain weight prendre part (à) .to take.La biologie le savant une personne qui expérimente la bio(logie) l’étude des organismes vivants scientist a person who experiments biology the study of living organisms observer to observe la botanique l’étude des plantes analyser to analyse botany the study of plants l’anatomie (f) l’étude du corps humain Physics .to eat breakfast prendre rendez-vous .to make a decision prendre des kilos .to change trains prendre une décision .La chimie la cellule a cell des microbes germs la chimie l’étude des éléments des bactéries baceria chemistry the study of elements des virus viri le chimiste chemist le microscope microscope .La physique anatomy the study of the human body l’étude de la matière et de la physique la zoologie l’étude des animaux l’énergie physics zoology the study of animals the study of matter and energy le physicien physicist le biologiste biologist Chemistry .to surpass prendre le petit déjeuner .to make an appointment V: The Sciences . to have something to eat prendre conscience (de) .to become aware (of) prendre la correspondance .to take part (in) prendre la parole .to start talking prendre le pas sur .Les Sciences French Vocabulary • Science The Sciences and Scientists • Les sciences et les savants General Biology .

V: Astronomy French Vocabulary • Science Astronomy The Planets Mercure Mercury Venus Mercury La (planete) terre Earth Mars Mars Jupiter Jupiter Saturne Saturn Uranus Uranus Neptune Neptune Pluton Pluto Other Obejcts Le soleil sun La lune moon congratulations on completing Lesson 1.10 • Science live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

and each lesson now gives much more information. The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced. Inside. you can continue on to Wikibook's second French course.Slightly More Advanced French Now that you know how to compose French sentences in the present indicative. the most common French past tense.French Level Two Lessons Toujours Là? . After you have completed this level. and review the grammar you have already learned. Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. you will learn the passé composé. you can move on to the next level. la Catedral de Notre Dame en París .

Drinks. Dairy Products.03 Leçon 03 : Faire des courses 092 Lesson 03 : Shopping 2. -yer Verbs (Payer). Shoes G: Sortir & Partir. Clothing. Naître. Vivre. Envoyer.04 Leçon 04 : Sortir 098 Lesson 04 : Going Out 2. -aître Verbs.09 120 2. Écire V: School.02 Leçon 02 : La culture 089 Lesson 02 : Culture 2. Dining at a Restaurant G: Dire. Partitive Article. Connaître & Savoir. Sleep G: Suivre. Places to go.01 Leçon 01 : L'école 083 Lesson 01 : School 2. Directions.05 Leçon 05 : Le transport 103 Lesson 05 : Transportation 2. Preparing for work. Celebrations (Birthdays. Waking up. Passé Composé with Reflexive Verbs V: Pets. Driving to Work. How to Get to Places. Object Pronoun Review. Lire. Calling Others. Silverware. Methods of transportation G: Devoir.08 114 2. Irregular Past Participles (so far) V: Shopping. En.07 111 2. Servir. Recevoir V: Mail. Passé Composé with Être V: Local Travelling. Boire. Religions.06 Leçon 06 : Le quotidien 108 Lesson 06 : Everyday Life 2. -éxer Verbs V: Leisure Activities. -enir Verbs (Venir). Bastille Day) G: exer Verbs (Acheter). Farm Animals G: Manger. Desserts G: -cer Verbs. School Subjects G: Regular Verbs Review. Croire & Voir V: Life. Movies G: -uire Verbs (Conduire). Vouloir & Pouvoir V: Meals. Falloir. -rir Verbs (Ouvrir). Computers . Holidays. Mettre V: Meat. Y. Christmas.Level Two Contents 2. Reflexive Verbs V: Employment.10 124 Leçon 07 : La vie rurale Lesson 07 : Rural Life Leçon 08 : La nourriture Lesson 08 : Food and Drink Leçon 09 : Dîner Lesson 09 : Dining Leçon 10 : La communication Lesson 10 : Communication G: Passé Composé of Regular Verbs.

• J'ai fini. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative. . The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in.01 • School live version discussion G: Introduction to Perfect Tenses exercises The next section is optional. continue on to the school comment section. read it. but if you would like a preview. Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs . The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle. for example. and if not.replace -ir with i -re verbs . • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. report an error ask a question Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Composed • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.replace -er with é -ir verbs .must be memorized .replace -re with u irregular verbs .I have finished. You will eventually learn everything that is covered in edit lesson it.

• J'ai fini les tâches. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. 2. • the direct object is masculine plural . . • Je l'ai fini. Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances. under certain situations. • Je les ai finis. In the next lesson. 6.I have finished it.I have finished the tasks. List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. the passé composé is introduced. • Je l'ai finie.I have finished it.Past Participle Agreement • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb. the auxillary verb becomes avoir. • the direct object is feminine singular . the auxillary verb is être. However. . Le passé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive) Don't worry if you don't completely understand the perfect tenses. . .no change • J'ai fini le jeu. . Each tense and lists of irregular verb conjuagtions will be given later in this course. These are: 1.I have finished the task. 3. 7.I have finished the game.add an s to the past participle.add an es to the past participle.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche. • The verb is reflexive. • That is. • Je l'ai finies. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. . the auxillary verb is avoir. • the direct object is masculine singular . .I have finished them. the subject of the verb is also its object.I have finished them. . • J'ai fini les jeux. • the direct object is feminine plural .I have finished the games. 4. . 5.

. 6th Grade) 5th Grade CM2 (CM = cours moyen) en cours de [. high school le collégien déjeuner to (have) lunch student le lycée high school (classes 6-4) (grades 10-12) le lycéen high school student Describing Teachers and Students intelligent(e) intelligent l'université (f) university la fac(ulté) nul(le) not good.] in [.] class 4th Grade CM1 Pendant les cours ...V: School French Vocabulary • School School • L'école General Classes / Grades[1] teacher 12th Grade Classe Terminale scholarship 11th Grade 1ère (la première classe) le professeur[2] la bourse le diplôme diploma 10th Grade 2ème (la deuxième classe) (professionnel) le bac(calauréat) high school exit exam 9th Grade 3ème (la troisième classe) la bibliothèque library 8th Grade 4ème (la quatrième classe) les notes grades (as on a test) 7th Grade 5ème (la cinquième classe) les cours classes or courses 6th Grade 6ème (la sixième classe) la classe grade (e.g. not bright higher education l'enseignement supérieur strict(e) strict graduate school . high school regarder to watch (classes 3-terminale) (grades 6-9) jr.During Classes 3rd Grade CE2 (CE=cours élémentaire) le tableau chalkboard 2nd Grade CE1 la craie chalk 1st Grade CP1 (CP = cours préparatoire) le pupitre desk Verbs passer l'examen (m) test to take a test un examen les devoirs homework étudier to study la classe class écrire[3] to write la cantine cafeteria lever (la main)[4] to raise (your hand) déjeuner to (eat) lunch la récré(ation) recess poser to ask (a question) la cour courtyard (une question) Schools and Students parler to speak l'école (f) school écouter to listen (to)[5] l'étudiant student (m) entendre to hear (of)[5] l'étudiante student (f) le collège jr..

^ The way that grades are numbered in France is opposite the way they are in the US. • • • la main . The only case when "professeur" can be preceded by feminine determinant is either when contracting it in colloquial language "la prof". G: Écire & Lire French Verb • School écrire • to write past participle: écrit first person j' écris second person tu écris il écrit third person elle écrit on écrit Singular jay cree too aycree eel aycree ell aycree ohn aycree I write you write he writes she writes one writes Plural nous écrivons newzay creevohn we write vous écrivez voozay creevay you write they write ils écrivent eel aycreeve (masc.Des fournitures scolaires . Whereas American grade numbers go up as you approach your senior year.my arm ^ To and of are built into the verbs écouter and entendre respectively.) . you would say my hand or your hand. or when adding a few words before : "madame/mademoiselle la/le professeur". even if the teacher is female. you do not "own" body parts.my hand la jambe . the definate article is always used in French. they descend in France. You will learn to conjugate it in the next section. such as répondre {à). ^ Écrire is an irregular verb. While in English. are almost always followed by a preposition.School Supllies la craie chalk cray le papier paper la feuille de pahpeeyay le tableau the board tahbloh sheet of paper papier le stylo(pen steeloh (bee) le bloc-notes (small) notepad block nut bille) le classeur three-ring binder le crayon pencil krayoh le sac à dos backpack sack ah doe la calculatrice calculator la gomme eraser gum le livre book leevr le bouquin le règle ruler rehgluh le cahier notebook kie ay le feutre marker feuhtr ^ The word professeur is considered masculine at all times. meaning to respond (to). It is not necessary to add a preposition to the verb. ^ In French.my leg le bras . or mized) elles écrivent ell aycreeve they write (fem. Other verbs.

. or mized) ell leez they read (fem.) V: School Subjects French Vocabulary • School School Subjects • Les matières d'enseignement les mathématiques les langues languages mathematics les maths l'anglais English l'algèbre (f) algebra le français French le calcul calculus l'espagnol Spanish la géométrie geometry les sciences social l'allemand German sociales sciences le russe Russian l'économie economics l'italien Italian la géo(graphie) geography l'histoire (f) history les sciences natural d'autres other subjects naturelles sciences matières la biologie biology le dessin drawing la bio la chimie chemistry l'informatique (f) computer science la technologie engineering la littérature literature la physique physics la musique music G: Passé Composé with Regular Verbs Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Present perfect The passé composé is a perfect tense.first person je lis second person tu lis il lit third person elle lit on lit French Verb • School lire • to read past participle: lu Singular jeuh lee I read nous lisons too lee you read vous lisez eel dee he reads ils lisent ell lee she reads ohn dee one reads elles lisent Plural noo leezohn we read voo leezay you read they read eel leez (masc. that auxililary verb is avoir. and is therefore composed of an auxiliary verb and a past participle. With most verbs.

[avoir] parlé. You have played. He has played. it is only used in formal writing. is conjugated in the present indicative and the past participle is then added. so verbs conjugated in the passé composé can also be used to mean the English simple tense. literally mean has/have spoken. j'ai I have nous avons we have tu as you have vous avez you have il a he has ils ont they have Past Participle • • • -er verbs .Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative. Auxiliary Verb . verbs comjugated in the passé composé literally mean have/has ____ed.replace -er with é -ir verbs . Ils ont joué. We have played. the passé composé form of parler (to speak). • For example. but also means spoke. Tu as joué. congratulations on completing Lesson 2. Vous avez joué. usually avoir.replace -ir with i -re verbs .replace -re with u Formation of the Past Participle Verb Group Infinitive Stem Past Participle -er verbs jouer jou joué -ir verbs finir fin fini -re verbs répondre répond répondu Avoir + Past Participle J'ai joué. Il a joué. the helping verb.01 • School live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .Meaning In English. They have played. While there is a simple past tense in French. Basic Formation To conjugate a verb in the passé composé. I have played Nous avons joué. You have played.

Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.. The culture of France is diverse.. Formation French Grammar • Culture Regular Verbs • Les verbes réguliers -er Verbs -ir Verbs -re Verbs parl. Ending Example Ending Verb Ending Example -e parle -is finis -s vends -es parle -is finis -s vends -e parle -it finit vend -ons parlons -issons finissons -ons vendons -ez parlez -issez finissez -ez vendez -e parlent -issent finissent -ent vendent Stem: Subject Je Tu Il Nous Vous Ils Irregular Verbs Ending in -er aller Irregular Verbs Ending in -ir acquérir | avoir | s'asseoir | devoir | dormir | falloir | ouvrir | partir | pleuvoir | pouvoir | recevoir | savoir | servir | venir | voir | vouloir Common -re Verbs attendre . exercises edit lesson comment G: General Verbs Review report an error Most verbs in French are regular -er verbs. vend. try and discussion reflect on how your culture is similar and different to French culture. Also...to wait (for) | répondre .to answer Irregular Verbs Ending in -re boire | conduire | connaître | croire | dire | écrire | être | faire | lire | mettre | prendre | rire | suivre | vivre . fin. Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are ask a question simply irregular. reflecting live version regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration...02 • Culture This lesson is on the culture of France.

and is conjugated irregularly. French Verb • Present Indicative voir • to see (past participle . French Verb • Present Indicative croire • to believe (past participle .cru) Singular Plural jzeuh crah I believe nous croyons noo croy oh too crah you believe vous croyez voo croy ay eel crah he believes ils croient eel crah ell crah she believes oh crah one believes elles croient ell crah first person je crois second person tu crois il croit third person elle croit on croit we believe you believe they believe (masc. and is conjugated irregularly. or mized) they believe (fem.) V: Religion la religion Chrétien L'Islam religion Christian Islam le musulman Muslim l'athée (m.vu) Singular Plural jzeuh vwah I see nous voyons noo vwahyoh too vwah you see vous voyez voo vwah ay eel vwah he sees ils voient eel vwah ell vwah she sees oh vwah one sees elles voient ell vwah first person je vois second person tu vois il voit third person elle voit on voit we see you see they see (masc. or mized) they see (fem.) Voir is not a regular -ir verb.) athiest Le Père noël Santa Clause le 14 juillet Bastille Day .G: Croire & Voir Croire is not a regular -re verb.

] le gâteau cake le cadeau gift la bougie candle la fête party inviter to invite donner une fête to throw a party V: Holidays Les jours fériés New Year's Day Labor Day Memorial Day . Yule le Nouvel An La Fête du Travail l'Armistice la Fête Nationale le Reveillon Noel congratulations on completing Lesson 2. J'ai ____ ans. Armistice Day Independance Day Christmas Eve Christmas .V: Birthday Birthdays l'anniversaire (m) birthday Tu as quel âge? How old are you? I am ____ years old. [lit: I have ___ years.02 • Culture live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. store le supermarché supermarket le centre mall. fishmonger grocery 4 . chemist outdoor market la boulangerie le dépôt de pain la charcuterie la crémerie la pâtisserie la poissonnerie l'épicerie (f) bakery 2 a place that sells bread 2 delicatessen 3 dairy store pastry shop. big supermarket commercial le grand magasin department store la boucherie butcher shop 1 le rayon la boutique la pharmacie le marché department small store pharmacy. shopping centre le hypermarché hypermarket.to ask for the price payer to pay cash register la caisse payer à la caisse to pay at the counter checkout counter vendre to sell coûter to cost How much is it? acheter to buy C’est combien? [lit: It's how much?] Ça coûte combien? [lit:It costs how much?] How much does [noun] cost? Combien coûte [nom]? [lit: How much costs [noun]?] General Goods Stores Foods Stores le magasin shop. to carry en solde on sale demander to ask (for) le prix price demander le prix . pâtisserie seafood store.03 • Shopping V: Shopping live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question French Vocabulary • Shopping Shopping • Les achats To Go Shopping Buying Goods faire des courses le(la) vendeur(euse) salesperson to go shopping faire du shopping le(la) cassier(-ière) cashier faire le marché to go grocery shopping (plus/moins) cher(ère) (more/less) expensive faire du lècheto go window la vitrine display window vitrine shopping porter to wear.

Pierre le vois. e. les. He gives bread to him. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. Pierre sees the burglar. or I had them... the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them .. pork products. l' him.g. 2. quiches and pizzas. cold meats. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). 4.? or From whom. In France. te. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. was referring to a masculine object. including pâte. to you. Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom.. to us. the bread is baked on site. For these products. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products. bakeries only sell fresh bread. 3. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. t' le. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: French me. salads. Pierre sees him.?. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. a tense that uses a past participle. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. go to a charcuterie. Il lui donne du pain. l' nous vous les her. G: Object Pronouns Review Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb). Pierre. French butchers do not sell pork.1. m' te. nous. salami. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur. For example. in te phrase Je les ai eus. m' te. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense. nor horsemeat. and to you respectively. it us1 you1 them 1 me. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à The man gives some bread to Pierre.

to bring surmener . G: -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. but also are stem changing.to take along amener .acheté) Singular Plural nouszachetons noozashtoh we buy j'achète jzah shet I buy vouszachetez voozahshtay you buy they buy (masc. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. you. te. nous. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous.• • • • 1 me. and you respectively. the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. and vous are used in a perfect tense.) first person second person tu achètes too ahshet you buy il achète eel ahshet he buys ilszachètent eelzahshet elle achète ell ahshet she buys third person onnachète ohnahshet one buys elleszachètent ellzahshet Other -exer Verbs • • • • • • • peser .to raise soulever . The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do.to weigh mener . or mized) they buy (fem.to raise . The bread is given by the man (direct). The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. te. nous.to overwork lever .to carry out emmener . us. When me. Pierre gets the given apple (indirect). Formation French Verb • Present Indicative acheter • to buy (past participle .

However. Payer The verb payer translates to to pay. when y is part of the last syllable.dress les vêtements sport . In the present indicative of -yer verbs.shoes clothes clothes la chemise button down shirt la casquestte cap les chaussures shoes la paire de la cravate tie le tee-shirt t-shirt pair of shoes chaussures basketball le pantalon pants le polo polo shirt les baskets shoes trainers le complet suit le pull(over) a sweater les tennis tennis shoes le costume le manteau coat le sweat-shirt sweatshirt les sandales sandals le blouson le tailleur women's suit jacket la veste la robe dress le jean jeans le chemisier blouse les chaussettes socks la jupe skirt G: -yer verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs.casual les chaussures .V: Clothing French Vocabulary • Shopping Clothing • Habillement les vêtements habillés . payer (and all other -yer verbs) is conjuagted as follows: . Formation In the present indicative. this affects all forms except nous and vous. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound.

) Other -yer Verbs • • • • • • appuyer .été faire .to address as tu. À la boulangerie (At the bakery) Bernard (le boulanger) : Bonjour madame Camille (la cliente) : Bonjour monsieur Bernard : Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ? Camille : Je voudrais acheter une baguette.to clean tutoyer .cru être .payé) Singular Plural jzeuh pay I pay nous payons noo pay oh too pay you pay vous payez voo pay yay eel pay he pays ils paient eel ell pay she pays ou payent elles paient oh pay one pays ell ou payent we pay you pay they pay (masc.to support employer . or mized) they pay (fem.first person je paie second person tu paies il paie elle paie third person on paie French Verb • Present Indicative payer • to pay (past participle . je voudrais deux croissants aussi Bernard : Très bien .to employ essayer .to wipe nettoyer .to try essuyer .vu D: Practice Conversations Let's practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk: 1.ça fait deux euros. to call someone informally G: Irregular Past Participles Many of the verbs you have learned so far have irregular past participles. s'il vous plaît Bernard : C'est tout ? Camille : Non. • • • • • avoir .eu croire .fait voir . s'il vous plaît Camille : Merci beaucoup .

congratulations on completing Lesson 2." . Same for "C'est tout ?". pour trois kilos il faut payer six euros. s'il vous plaît.Some cherries "Elles coûtent deux euros le kilo" . 2..What do you have? "Un grand choix" .. je voudrais trois kilos. Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous avez. Note of a frenchman : "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" is a little abrupt.. s'il vous plaît Marie : Très bien. . Alors. elles coûtent deux euros le kilo Clément : Bon.What would you like? "Je voudrais. "C'est tout ?" .acheter (to buy).One must/You need to Remember your verbs .vendre (to sell) and payer (to pay).Is that all? "Ça fait deux euros" .I would like . we use most of the time "Ce sera tout ?" (future tense) or "Et avec ceci ?" (and with this?).. monsieur. .. ?" .A large range "Des cerises" ..03 • Shopping live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Au marché (At the market) Marie (la marchande) : Bonjour monsieur Clément (le client) : Bonjour madame Clément : Qu'est-ce que vous avez à vendre ? Marie : J'ai un grand choix de fruits et légumes Clément : Très bien. We use mostly "Que voulez-vous ?" or "Que désirezvous ?".Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" .They (feminine) cost two euros per kilo "Il faut" .That'll be two euros Remember your verb . Est-ce que vous avez des cerises ? Marie : Oui.

contents. and several other things which will be covered later. When le follows de. purpose. de and les combine into des. and several other things which will be covered later. The preposition de can indicate an origin. a location. measurement. à and les combine into aux. the à and le combine into au. a point in time. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question V: Leisure Activites Les loisirs le cinéma la musique le baladeur une sortie un spectacle le théâtre le repos le vacancier la danse allumer/éteindre la télévision le(la) téléspectateur(trice) le sport cinema music walkman going out a show the theater rest a vacationer dance to turn on/turn off television television viewer sport . the de and le combine into du. a characteristic. When le follows à.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. Similarly.04 • Going out G: À and De The preposition à can indicate a destination. manner. cause. possession. Similarly.

or mized) they leave (fem.) first person je sors second person tu sors il sort third person elle sort on sort French Verb • Present Indicative sortir • to go out.G: Partir & Sortir French Verb • Present Indicative partir • to leave (past participle .sorti(e)(s)) Singular Plural jzeuh sore I go out nous sortons noo sortoh we go out too sore you go out vous sortez voo sortay you go out eel sore he goes out they go out ils sortent eel sort (masc. to take out (past participle .to distribute . • • repartir . or mized) ell sore she goes out oh sore one goes out elles sortent ell sort they go out (fem.parti(e)(s)) Singular Plural jzeuh pahr I leave nous partons noo partoh too pahr you leave vous partez voo pahrtay eel pahr he leaves ils partent eel part ell pahr she leaves oh pahr one leaves elles partent ell part first person je pars second person tu pars il part third person elle part on part we leave you leave they leave (masc.) Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems.to set out again répartir .

On achète les places au guichet.Take a seat! Les films sont fascinants! Vous allez au cinéma? Pourquoi? Vous aimez les films? On parle Qu’est-ce qu’on joue au cinéma? pour démander les films qui jouent. One would normally use "une place" • whenever "a seat" is used in English. (Version unaltered vidéo) video) originale) sub-titles le film (étranger) (en DVD) (foreign) movie (on DVD) les sous-titres l'acteur (m) actor la vidéo video l'actrice (f) actrice le DVD DVD louer to rent The Movie Theater Film Genres le cinéma the (movie) theater le dessin animé cartoon theater showing room la salle du cinéma le documentaire documentary lit: room of the the theater la séance showing le film d’amour love story le guichet ticket window le film d’aventures adventure movie seat/place to sit la place le film d’horreur horror film le fauteuil chair1 coûter to cost le film policier police film le film de sciencejouer to play sci-fi film fiction 1Un fauteuil is the physical chair that one sits on.V: Movies French Vocabulary • Going out Movies • Les films General le film (domestique) (en (domestic) movie (on V. On entre la salle du cinéma pour regarder un film.O. où l'employé(e) vous les vend. Quel est votre genre de film préféré? Vous louez les vidéos? les DVDs? . • Prenez la place! .

to come back.to belong contenir .to hold • • • • • • • .) Other -enir Verbs • • revenir . to detain retenir . Formation In the present indicative. The verb venir is translated to to come.to retain se souvenir .to contain détenir . Venir • • • • The most common -enir verb is venir.G: -enir verbs • -enir verbs are irregularly conjugated (they does not count as regular -ir verbs). • Nous venons du stade.to support tenir .to keep.to remember soutenir . to return devenir . or mized) ell vee ehn they come (fem.to become appartenir .venu(e)(s)) Singular jzeuh vee ehn I come nous venons too vee ehn you come vous venez eel vee ehn he comes ils viennent ell vee ehn she comes oh vee ehn one comes elles viennent first person je viens second person tu viens il vient third person elle vient on vient Plural noo venn oh we come voo vennay you come they come eel vee ehn (masc. venir (and all other -enir verbs) is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Present Indicative venir • to come (past participle . **Je viens de finir mes devoirs (I've just finished my homework). venir is used with the preposition de. You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action. When it means to come from.

to prefer sécher .suggéré) Singular Plural jzeuh soo nous noo soo first person je suggère I suggest zjair suggérons zjairoh second voo soo tu suggères too soo zjair you suggest vous suggérez person zjairay il suggère eel soo zjair he suggests ils suggèrent eel soo zjair she elle suggère ell soo zjair third person suggests one on suggère oh soo zjair elles suggèrent ell soo zjair suggests we suggest you suggest they suggest (masc. or mized) they suggest (fem.) Other -éxer Verbs • • • • • • accélérer .G: -éxer Verbs -éxer verbs are regular -er verbs. Formation French Verb • Present Indicative suggérer • to suggest (past participle . but are also stem changing.to celebrate espérer .to accelerate célébrer .to hope oblitérer .to dry congratulations on completing Lesson 2.to obliterate préférer .04 • Going out live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation French Verb • Present Indicative conduire • to drive (past participle .05 • Transportation G: -uire Verbs -uire verbs are conjugated irregularly.conduit) Singular Plural jzeuh I drive nous noo cohndwee conduisons cohndweezoh too you vous voo cohndwee drive conduisez cohndweezay eel he ils eel cohndweez cohndwee drives conduisent ell she cohndwee drives oh one elles ell cohndweez cohndwee drives conduisent first person second person third person je conduis tu conduis il conduit elle conduit on conduit we drive you drive they drive (masc.to produce V: Driving ouvrir to open fermer to close .Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. or mized) they drive (fem.) Other -uire Verbs • produire .

to offer souffrir . A common -rir verb is ouvrir.to cover découvrir . following the -er conjugation scheme. • • • • couvrir .G: -rir Verbs These verbs are conjugated irregularly.To Run • • • • • • • je cours tu cours il court nous courons vous courez ils courent past participle: couru Mourir .to discover offrir .To Die • • • • • • • je meurs tu meurs il meurt nous mourons vous mourez ils meurent past participle: mort(e)(s)1 . -rir is replaced with -ert for these verbs. Formation • • • • • • • j'ouvre tu ouvres il ouvre nous ouvrons vous ouvrez ils ouvrent past participle: ouvert Other Standard -rir verbs In past participle form.to suffer -rir Verb Exceptions Courir .

He returned to the restaurant. partir Elle est partie travailler. He got out of the train. tomber Je suis tombé dans la piscine. I came to France. retourner Il est retourné au restaurant. venir Je suis venu en france. He came back early from school. rentre Il est rentré tôt de l'école. I stayed home. chambre. I fell into the pool. rester Je suis resté à la maison. Acquérir .1Mourir is the only -rir verb that takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in a perfect tense). I went to the cinema. monter Je suis monté au sommet.To Acquire • • • • • • • j'acquiers tu acquiers il acquiert nous acquérons vous acquérez ils acquièrent past participle: acquis G: Passé Composé with Être Most verbs form the passé composé with avoir. descendre Il est descendu du train. Je suis entré dans ma entrer I entered my room. I climbed to the top. She left to go to work. arriver Le train est arrivé. The train has arrived. naître Je suis né en octobre. I went out with my friends. mourir Il est mort en 1917. house. sortir Je suis sorti avec mes amies. however there are a small number of verbs that are always conjugated with être. It happened in front of the passer Il est passé devant la maison. I was born in october. He died in 1917. . List of Verbs French Grammar • Transportation Perfect Past with Être • Passé composé avec être Verb Example aller Je suis allé au cinéma.

Nous sommes allé(e)s. an -e is added to the past participle. Vous êtes allé(e)(s). Ils sont allés. Il est allé. Elles sont allées. Elle est allés. RD VANDERTRAMP: M R S R D monté resté sorti revenu devenu V A N D E R T R A M P venu arrivé né descendu entré rentré tombé retourné allé mort parti Direct Objects One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object • For Example: • Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai descendu mes baggages. Another example: • Je suis monté with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai monté mes baggages. If the subject is masculine plural. Tu es allé(e). J suis allé(e). • • Subject-Past Participle Agreement The past participles of the above verbs must agree with the the subject of a sentence in gender and plurality. there is no change in the past participle. .The verbs that take être can be easily remebered by the acronym MRS. an -s is added to the past participle. If the subject is feminine singular. • • • • If the subject is masculine singular. Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir. an -es is added to the past participle. If the subject is masculine singular. Yet another example but with ils instead of Je: • Ils sont sortis with direct object "leur passport" • becomes: • Ils ont sorti leur passport.

Idioms • • Ça y est! . are used when the the object refers the a person or persons.G: The Pronoun Y Indirect Object Pronoun . . • • Je réponds à les questions. • • Les hommes vont en France. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. The men go to France .05 • Transportation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . . . and not y. Replacement of Places . Note that en.The men go there.I respond to them. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de.to it. I respond to the questions.Les hommes y vont.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used).I get it! congratulations on completing Lesson 2.J' y réponds. Note that lui and leur.It's Done! J'y suis! .

. instead the reflexive pronoun becomes a direct object. the verbs are reflexive.) V: Waking up and Getting Yourself Ready • • • • • • • • se lever: to get up se laver: to wash (oneself) se raser : to shave se doucher: to shower se baigner: to bathe (oneself) se brosser les cheveux/les dents: to brush one's hair/teeth se peigner les cheveux: to comb one's hair s'habiller: to dress (oneself) If the subject is performing the action on him or herself. However.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. Je t'habille: I get you dressed.dormi) Singular Plural first person je dors jzeuh I sleep nous noo door dormons doormoh second tu dors too door you vous voo person sleep dormez doormay third il dort eel door he sleeps ils dorment eel dorm person elle ell door she dort sleeps on oh door one elles ell dorm dort sleeps dorment live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question we sleep you sleep they sleep (masc. • • Je m'habille: I get (myself) dressed. if the subject were to act on someone else. the verb is no longer reflexive.06 • Everyday life G: Dormir French Verb • Present Indicative dormir • to sleep (past participle . or mized) they sleep (fem.

and naturally pronominal verbs. Ils se lavent. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. Marc et Claire se sont habillés. Nous nous lavons. people perform actions to each other. Alice s'est habillée. Je vais ne pas me laver. se. depending on the verb that they modify.In the passé composé. • • Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs. nous. These pronouns are me. Je vais me laver. te. Georges et Martin se sont habillés.I wash myself. Lisette et Rose se sont habillées. . .I'm going to not wash myself. Jean et Paul. • • • Je me lave. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject.I'm going to wash myself. put simply. . et je me suis levée à six heures. reciprocal verbs. • Nous nous aimons. vous vous avez levés assez tard. • • • • • • • Pierre s'est habillé.You remember? V: At Work travailler: to work travailler pour: to work for (somebody) .We wash ourselves. . G: Pronominal Verbs Pronominal verbs are verbs that. Je m'appelle Lucie. Tu te souviens? . . Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action.We like each other. the participle must agree in gender and number with the subject. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. . include pronouns. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs.They wash themselves.

one must conjugate verbs correctly.it was necessary (passé composé) il fallait . whereas devoir can be used with all subject pronouns in all tenses. so I must study verb conjugations.to be necessary il faut .it would be necessary The verb falloir differs from similar verbs such as avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] (to need [to do something]) and devoir (must. or mized) they have to (fem. such as "To live. Falloir is always used with the impersonal il only in the 3rd person singular.G: Devoir French Verb • Everyday life devoir • to have to. Falloir expresses general necessities.it was necessary (imparfait) il faudra . "I want to pass my French test. "I need to study for my test. duty." Avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] expresses need. congratulations on completing Lesson 2. one must eat" or "To speak French well. to owe past participle: dû Singular Plural jeuh dwah I have to nous devons noo dehvohn too dwah you have to vous devez voo dehvay eel dwah he has to ils doivent eel dwahve ell dwah she has to ohn dwah one has to elles doivent ell dwahve first person je dois second person tu dois il doit third person elle doit on doit we have to you have to they have to (masc.) G: Falloir • • • • • • falloir . it's tomorrow"." Devoir expresses more personally what someone must do.06 • Everyday life live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .it will be necessary il faudrait . owe).it is necessary il a fallu .

07 • Rural life G: Suivre French Verb • Rural life suivre • to follow past participle: suivi Singular Plural jeuh nous noo first person je suis I follow swee suivons sweevohn second too you voo tu suis vous suivez person swee follow sweevay il suit eel dee he follows ils suivent eel sweeve elle she third ell swee suit follows person ohn one elles on suit ell sweeve swee follows suivent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question we follow you follow they follow (masc. or mized) they live (fem.) G: Vivre French Verb • Rural life vivre • to live past participle: vécu [vaycoo] Singular Plural jeuh vee I live nous vivons noo veevohn too vee you live vous vivez voo veevay eel vee he lives ils vivent eel veeve ell vee she lives ohn vee one lives elles vivent ell veeve first person je vis second person tu vis il vit third person elle vit on vit we live you live they live (masc.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. or mized) they follow (fem.) .

or mized) third person elle naît ell nay she is born on naît ohn nay one is born elles naissent ell nesse they are born (fem.G: Naître French Verb • Rural life naître • to be born past participle: né(e)(s)1 Singular Plural first person je nais jeuh nay I am born nous naissons noo nehssohn we are born second person tu nais too nay you are born vous naissez voo nehssay you are born il naît eel nay he is born they are born ils naissent eel nesse (masc.) 1 Naître is the only -aître verb that takes être as its helping verb (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in perfect tenses). .

Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. the past participle agrees with the subject. être is used as the auxiliary verb.She remembered.07 • Rural life live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. congratulations on completing Lesson 2.We liked each other. . Elle s'est souvenue.We washed our hands.They called to one another. .You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. but not the indirect object pronoun. Nous nous sommes parlé. the past participle of s'asseoir (to sit). the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. Otherwise. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. . Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. • • • • Elle s'est lavée. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. . Le chien se couche. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb.We spoke to each other. Elle s'est lavé les mains.The dog lies down. Elles se sont téléphoné.G: Reflexive Verbs with Perfect Tenses When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. .She washed her hands. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Reflexive Verbs In perfect tenses. Reciprocal Verbs • • Like reflexive verbs. . . in gender and plurality. Note that assis(e)(es). . Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? .We wash ourselves. . does not change in the masculine plural form. • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs • • • In perfect tenses.She was herself.

to swim soulager . or mized) they eat (fem.to change exiger .to travel .) Other -ger Verbs • • • • • changer . This only applies in the nous form. the stem change is comment adding an e after the g. the change report an error is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be ask a question present if the e were not included.to require nager .Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.to relieve voyager . For manger and all other regular -ger verbs. The most common -ger edit lesson verb is manger.mangé Singular Plural jeuh mahnge I eat nous mangeons noo vmahnge ohn too mahnge you eat vous mangez voo mahngay eel mahnge he eats ils mangent eel mahnge ell mahnge she eats ohn mahnge one eats elles mangent ell mahnge first person je mange second person tu manges il mange third person elle mange on mange we eat you eat they eat (masc. Formation French Verb • Food and drink manger • to eat past participle .08 • Food and drink live version discussion G: -ger Verbs exercises -ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing. In this case.

fish le poulet chicken les anchois (m pl) anchovies le boeuf beef le saumon salmon la saucisse sausage l'anguille (f) eel les produits laitiers .vegetables la banane banana la carotte carrot la cerise cherry les épinards (m pl) spinach le citron lemon l'oignon (m) onion la fraise strawberry les petits pois (m pl) peas l'orange (f) orange la pomme de terre potato la pomme apple la tomate tomato le raisin grape les asperges (f pl) asparagus le pamplemousse grapefruit les haricots (m pl) beans la viande .fruits les légumes . seafood La coquille Saint-Jacques l'agneau (m) lamb scallop (f) la dinde turkey le crabe crab le jambon ham le porc pork le poisson .dairy products Other Foods le beurre butter le croissant crescent roll le fromage cheese les frites (f pl) "French fries" le lait milk la crêpe crepe le yaourt/le yoghurt yogurt la mayonnaise mayonnaise le dessert .V: Food French Vocabulary • Food and drink Food • La nourriture les fruits .meat les fruits de mer (m pl) .dessert la moutarde mustard le bonbon candy le pain bread le chocolat chocolate le beurre butter le gâteau cake la tartine de pain beurré slice of buttered bread la glace ice cream le poivre pepper la mousse mousse le riz rice la tarte (aux (apple) pie le sel salt pommes) (chocolate) ice la glace (au chocolat) le sucre sugar cream la glace (à la vanille) (vanilla) ice cream la confiture jam .shellfish.

) V: Drinks les boissons drinks la bière beer le café coffee le chocolat chaud hot chocolate le coca soda la limonade lemon soda le citron pressé lemonade l'eau (f) water le jus juice le jus d'orange orange juice le jus de pomme apple juice le jus de raisin grape juice le jus de tomate tomato juice le thé tea le vin wine . or mized) they drink (fem.bu Singular Plural jeuh bwah I drink nous buvons noo boovohn too bwah you drink vous buvez voo boovay eel bwah he drinks ils boivent eel bwahve ell bwah she drinks ohn bwah one drinks elles boivent ell bwahve first person je bois second person tu bois il boit third person elle boit on boit we drink you drink they drink (masc. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb) as follows: French Verb • Food and drink boire • to drink past participle .G: Boire The verb boire is translated to to drink.

I ate a pie. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. du. We ate a pie. de la. in this context. les) is used at other times. In the negative construction. Nous avons mangé une tarte. Also. "Quoi de plus beau?!" (what is there prettier?) . de and le contract (combine) into du. specific/whole items I ate the (whole) pie. and the indefinite article (un. any) in a negative construction. Ind. Def. J'ai mangé de la tarte. the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le.G: Partitive Article The partitive article de indicates. certain rules apply. As learnt earlier. When speaking about preferences. Similarly. Nous préférons le steak. Part. une) in yet another set of situations. un or une changes to de (meaning.. We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat any pie. I like ice cream. In general "de" refers to a part of food (a piece of pie) whereas the definite article (le) refers to a food in general (I like pie (in general)). instead of du or de la. la. or des change to de in negative constructions. When speaking about food. de l' is used in front of vowels.. Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf?"(what's new?) encountered in the very first lesson was constructed. use the definite article: J'aime la glace. known quantity unknown quantity J'ai mangé une tarte. As one has learnt in a previous lesson. there are specific situations for the use of each article. art. art. the word some. We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie. I ate some pie. as de and les contract into des. We prefer steak. J'ai mangé la tarte. Vous aimez les frites You like French fries. We ate some pie. The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food (I would like a (whole) pie). art. among other things. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. Nous avons mangé de la tarte. When speaking about eating or drinking an item.

to submit se remettre .) Related Words • • • • • • • mettre . or mized) they put (fem.G: En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. This is because what en does is replace du.to allow remettre .to put on. nous en avons commandé. see French Pronouns Do you play piano? No.to set back into place soumettre . we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'. For instance. to place permettre . Tu joue du piano? Non. Did you order some water? Yes. Are you having fish? Yes. if the idea of money has already been raised.to put back remettre en place . I'm having some. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified.to recover from an illness se remettre en route . For more detailed information. 'te' and other pronouns. we use the pronoun 'en'. to turn on. As well. de la or des when there is nothing after it. j'en prends. Like with 'me'. I don't play it. G: Mettre Formation French Verb • Food and drink mettre • to put past participle .to get back on the road . en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb.mis Singular Plural jeuh may I put nous mettons noo mettohn too may you put vous mettez voo mettay eel may he puts ils mettent eel met ell may she puts ohn may one puts elles mettent ell met first person je mets second person tu mets il met third person elle met on met we put you put they put (masc. we ordered some.

to pitch in mettre le contact .to put an end to mettre la main à la pâte .to bring to light mettre de l'argent de coté .Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • mettre au jour .08 • Food and drink live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .to set the table se mettre à table .to start the car mettre le couvert .to sit down to eat se mettre d'accord .to get in shape congratulations on completing Lesson 2.to agree se mettre en forme .to put money aside mettre fin à .

pork products. 2. 5. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore).Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. cold meats. bakeries only sell fresh bread. salads. Do not confuse with le livre (book). quiches and pizzas. 3. -eille is pronounced ay 6. go to a charcuterie. In France. 4. lunch is called dîner and dinner is souper. . French butchers do not sell pork. including pâte. For these products. salami. 1. nor horsemeat.09 • Dining V: General Dining French Vocabulary • Dining Dining • Diner Places Actions and Feelings kitchen avoir faim to be hungry dining room avoir soif to be thirsty live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question la cuisine la salle à manger le restaurant restaurant Meals le repas the meal le petit-déjeuner breakfast le déjeuner lunch le dîner dinner le goûter snack Food Stores la boucherie butcher shop 1 la boulangerie 2 manger to eat boire to drink prendre to take vouloir to want mettre le couvert to set the table préparer un repas to prepare a meal Quantity gram le gramme le kilo(gramme) kilogran bakery a place that sells bread le dépôt de pain 2 le litre liter la charcuterie l'épicerie (f) delicatessen 3 la bouteille la boîte la livre le paquet le pot grocery 4 la crémerie dairy store la poissonnerie seafood store le marché outdoor market la pâtisserie pastry shop bottle 5 can pack 6 packet pot Canadian and Belgian French has an off-by-one behaviour with meals : breakfast is called déjeuner. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain.

or mized) ell veuhl they want (fem.G: Vouloir & Pouvoir The verb vouloir is translated to to want. or mized) they can/are able to (fem.pu first person je peux second person tu peux Singular jeuh nous I can/am able to peuh pouvons you can/are able too peuh vous pouvez to eel peuh he can/is able to ils peuvent she can/is able ell peuh to one can/is able ohn peuh elles peuvent to Plural noo poovohn we can/are able to voo poovay you can/are able to eel peuhve ell peuhve they can/are able to (masc.) il peut elle third person peut on peut . It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -ir verb) as follows: French Verb • Dining vouloir • to want past participle .) Pouvoir is conjugated in a similar manner: French Verb • Dining pouvoir • to be able to past participle .voulu Singular jeuh veuh I want nous voulons too veuh you want vous voulez eel veuh he wants ils veulent ell veuh she wants ohn veuh one wants elles veulent first person je veux second person tu veux il veut third person elle veut on veut Plural noo voolohn we want voo voolay you want they want eel veuhl (masc.

but are also stem changing. or mized) ell sairve they serve (fem.) G: -cer Verbs -cer verbs are ragular -er verbs. The most common -cer verb is commencer. to arrive an occupied table a free table to find to order to eat lunch to dine to eat dinner to desire waiter waitresse menu check tip to leave I would like. ...V: Dining at a Restaurant arriver la table occupée la table libre trouver commander déjeuner dîner désirer le serveur la serveuse la carte l'addition le pourboire laisser je voudrais.. G: Servir French Verb • Dining servir • to serve past participle: servi Singular jeuh sair I serve nous servons too sair you serve vous servez eel sair he serves ils servent ell sair she serves ohn sair one serves elles servent first person je sers second person tu sers il sert third person elle sert on sert Plural noo sairvohn we serve voo sairvay you serve they serve eel sairve (masc.

Formation French Verb • Dining commencer • to begin past participle .09 • Dining live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . le couvert le bol le couteau la cuillère la serviette la nappe la tasse le verre cover bowl knife spoon napkin tablecloth cup glass congratulations on completing l'assiette (f) plate la soucoupe saucer la fourchette fork Lesson 2.commencé Singular Plural jeuh coe nous noo coe first person je commence I begin mahnce commençons mahnsohn second tu too coe you voo coe vous commencez person commences mahnce begin mahnsay eel coe il commence he begins mahnce ils commencent eel coe mahnce third elle ell coe she person commence mahnce begins ohn coe one elles on commence ell coe mahnce mahnce begins commencent we begin you begin they begin (masc. or mized) they begin (fem.to erase V: Silverware.) Other -cer Verbs • effacer . Etc.

10 • Communication G: -aître Verbs Formation French Verb • Communication connaître • to know (personally) past participle: connu Singular Plural je jeuh nous noo I know connais cohnay connaissons cohnehssohn tu too you vous voo connais cohnay know connaissez cohnehssay eel he il connaît cohnay knows ils eel cohnesse connaissent elle ell she connaît cohnay knows on ohn one elles ell cohnesse connaît cohnay knows connaissent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question first person second person we know you know they know (masc.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.to be born1 has an irregular past participle (né) and takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses. 1Naître .to disappear naître . or mized) they know (fem.) third person Other -aître verbs • • • • apparaître .to appear connaître .to know disparaître .

. literally means I call myself.. but. Je m'appelle. as you may have noticed. G: Appeler Appeler is used to say what your name is. it is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Communication appeler • to call past participle: appelé Singular Plural first person j' appelle jahhpell I call nous appelons newzahh pell ohn second person tu appelles too ahhpell you call vous appelez voozahh pellay il appelle eel ahhpell he calls ils appellent eel ahhpell third person elle appelle ell ahhpell she calls on appelle ohn ahhpell one calls elles appellent ell ahhpell we call you call they call (masc.. In the present indicative. and not direct.I'm calling Jacques. . French Verb • Communication savoir • to know (as a fact) past participle: su Singular Plural jeuh say I know nous savons noo sahvohn too say you know vous savez voo sahvay eel say he knows ils savent eel sahve ell say she knows ohn say one knows elles savent ell sahve first person je sais second person tu sais il sait third person elle sait on sait we know you know they know (masc. In French.) . or mized) they know (fem. Savoir is used to say that you know someone by reputation or that you know a fact or piece of information. so the verb is used with indirect. but in English you would say My name is.. you call to someone.. Appeler is a regular -er verb. objects.. or mized) they call (fem. is also stem changing.) V: Calling Others Téléphoner (à) is used to say that you are calling (to) someone. • Je téléphone à Jacques.G: Connaître & Savoir Connaître is used to say that you know someone personally.

G: Dire French Verb • Communication dire • to say past participle: dit Singular Plural jeuh dee I say nous disons noo deezohn too dee you say vous dites voo deet eel dee he says ils disent eel deez ell dee she says ohn dee one says elles disent ell deez first person je dis second person tu dis il dit third person elle dit on dit we say you say they say (masc. or mized) they say (fem.) V: Mail • • • • • • le poste le courier le lettre le boîte des lettres envoyer recevoir .

) . or mized) they receive (fem.) first person second person French Verb • Communication recevoir • to receive past participle: reçu Singular Plural jeuh nous newzay first person je reçois I receive rehswah recevons rehsevohn second tu reçois too rehswah you receive vous recevez voo resehvay person il reçoit eel rehswah he receives ils reçoivent eel rehswahve elle she ell rehswah third person reçoit receives one elles on reçoit ohn rehswah ell rehswahve receives reçoivent we receive you receive they receive (masc. or mized) they send (fem.G: Envoyer & Recevoir French Verb • Communication envoyer • to send past participle: envoyé Singular Plural nous j' envoie jahnvwah I send newzahnvwahyohn we send envoyons tu envoies too ahnvwah you send vous envoyons voozahnvwahyay you send il envoie eel aycree third person elle envoie ell aycree on envoie ohn ahnvwah he sends she sends one sends ils envoient eelzahnvwah elles envoient ellzahnvwah they send (masc.

congratulations on completing Lesson 2.10 • Communication live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . carry exécuter l'e-mail (m) e-mail out naviguer (sur stocker (des données) to store (data) to navigate (the Internet) Internet) cliquer to click télécharger to download allumer to turn on transmettre to transmit to turn off éteindre (to extinguish) French fact: the name of the company Logitech comes from the French term logiciel technolgie.V: Computers & the Internet French Vocabulary • Communication Technology • La technologie la technologie technology Computer Hardware Computer Software le hardware hardware le software software l'ordinateur (m) computer l’information information l'écran (m) monitor le logiciel software (program) le programme program le clavier keyboard programmation programming (adj) le document document la souris mouse le fichier file l'imprimante (f) printer le CD-ROM CD-ROM The Internet la disquette floppy disk aller sur Internet to go on the Internet Computer Use le modem modem utiliser to use la connexion connection connecter to connect taper (un texte) to type (a text) être connecté to be connected sauvegarder (un to save (a file) le site site fichier) to run.

you can graduate to the third level.Intermediate French After having completed the second level of the Wikibooks French language course. you can move on to the next level.French Level Three Lessons Formidable! . But we didn't decide to stop there! This level will include longer lectures about a lesson's subject and will introduce you to real French literary works and news articles. After you have completed this level. and there will now be more vocabulary sections in each lesson. Several verb tenses will be introduced in this level. Drapeau de la France . This is a much more rigorous presentation of the French language. go to the lessons planning page. Also remember that if you would like to help develop this course. such as Jean de La Fontaine's Fables.

05 153 3.02 141 3. Service. Lesson 03 : Health Healthcare Leçon 04 : L'argent G: Personal Pronouns Review. Emergencies. Government. Industrial Rev. Faire Causitif) V: Companies. French Rev. White-collar. European Union. International Travelling. Lesson 10 : Current Events Social Problems. Payment. Que. Medecine. V: News.04 149 3. Stating If. the Dentist. Lesson 02 : Work The Office. Adverbs. The Reformation Leçon 08 : Révolution! G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs.08 162 3.. Lesson 08 : Revolution! Post-Napoleon France. Handling Money. Office Supplies Leçon 03 : La santé G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs. Democracy. French Children's Poems.09 165 3.. Simple Future of Regular Verbs Lesson 01 : Vacations V: General Travelling. Interrogative Pronouns V: Farming and Peasant Life. Part-Time Jobs Leçon 07 : L'histoire Antique G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs. Stem Changing Verbs Review V: Children's Games and Toys. 20th Century Advancements and Changes. Noble Life.06 157 3.03 143 3.. The King. Blue-collar. Passé Composé. Asking Questions Review Lesson 09 : Modern France V: The 20th Century. Plus-Que-Parfait Lesson 06 : Adolescence V: Pop Culture. Lesson 05 : Life as a Child and Stories Leçon 06 : L'adolescence G: Imparfait vs. Pronouns with Commands Lesson 04 : Money V: Forms of Money.Level Three Contents 3.01 Leçon 01 : Les vacances 131 3. Napoleonic Era. Demonstrative Pronouns. Modern War Leçon 10 : L'actualité G: Future Perfect. Possesive Pronouns. Relative Pronouns (Qui. Politics .10 166 G: Geography Prepositions. Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review (Futur Proche. Going to a Bank Leçon 05 : Jeunesse G: Imparfait. Perfect Tenses Introduction. Comparative & Superlative. Nationalities Leçon 02 : Le travail G: Irregular Past Participles Review. Pronominal Verbs Review. Present Conditional. Dont) V: Enlightenment.07 160 3. France's Role in Global Politics. The Lesson 07 : Ancient History Rennaissance. Songs. Leçon 09 : La France moderne G: Past Conditional. Mass Media. Commands V: Visiting the Doctor. Government.

) aircraft.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. métro) le train train la valise suitcase la voiture car Audio : French native speaker Visiting Other Cities 1a Tu es d'où? (informal) Where are you from? D'où êtes-vous? 1b (formal) 1c Je suis de. airplane les bagages baggage le billet ticket (for train.. underground la poste post office le taxi taxi le ticket ticket (for bus.) airport l’autobus (m.01 • Vacations V: General Traveling Audio: Ogg French native speaker General il y a there is.. (d') I am from..) bus l’avion (m. airplane) le métro subway.. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . there are l’aéroport (m.

Je reviens du Caire. . .Je vais au Havre. .Je vais à la Nouvelle-Orléans. .Je reviens de la NouvelleOrléans. .V: Geography Audio : French native speaker Geography the world le monde Political Geography a city une ville a village un village a country un pays a state un état Natural Geography river le fleuve mountain la montagne lake le lac ocean l'océan (m) Cardinal Directions north le nord south le sud east l'est west l'ouest G: Geography Prepositions Cities French native speaker • • • à is used to say in. • le Havre . • la Nouvelle-Orléans .Je reviens du Havre. • Je reviens de Paris. .Je vais au Caire.I'm going to Paris de is used to say from. cities that have articles as part of their names contract with the preposition if the city is masculine. to • Je vais à Paris. • le Caire .I return from Paris. at.

provinces. a contraction of à + les.I'm going to the United States. .I return from Portugal.I return from Limousin.I return from France. and states • Je reviens du Limousin. (pronounced aytahzoohnee) des. to for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je vais en France. that ends in -e is feminine. as if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je vais aux Êtats-Unis.Je reviens du Québec. . . to. • Je vais au Texas. is used to say from if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je reviens des Êtats-Unis. and states • Je vais dans le Limousin. en is used to say in. is used to say in. to for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je vais au Portugal. . • Je vais en Espagne. . Countries. If a region is thought of or considered as its own sovereign state.Je reviens d' Espagne • • • Masculine Regions • all regions that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline dans le is used to say in.I go to France.I'm going to Limousin. a contraction of de + les. a contraction of de + le. . • Plural Countries Audio : French native speaker • • aux. to for most masculine regions. au is used instead of dans le • Je vais au Québec. with one or two exceptions. . and Continents • • • Most geographical areas are feminine Every French geographical area. . de is contracted to d' when followed by a vowel. provinces. Audio : French native speaker • • • Masculine Countries Starting With a Consonant • • all countries that do not end in a silent e are mascuiline le Cambodge and le Mexique are masculine au is used to say in.I return from the United States.Je reviens du Texas. du. . at. Every continent is feminine.I'm going to Portugal. is used to say from for most regions. .Feminine Regions. • du is used to say from for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je reviens du Portugal. . at. at. de is used to say from for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je reviens de France. .

d' is used to say from for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je reviens d' Israël.I return from Israel.I'm going to Israel. Check For Understanding • • • • Are all French countries ending in e feminine? What geographical areas use the preposition dans le? What prepositions do countries beginning with vowels use? What prepositions does the city of Quebec use? . (body) la compagnie (aérienne) a(n airline) company l'appareil (m) system le billet (plane/one-way/round trip) décoller to take off (d'avion/simple/aller-retour) ticket le décollage take-off la classe tourisme coach le vol flight (also theft) la première classe first class passer à la douane to go through customs le pilote pilot le contrôleur security officer l'hôtesse (de l'air) (f) flight attendant le contrôle de sécurité security check la porte gate (also door) le passager passenger atterrir to land embarquer to board l'atterrissage (m) landing . . at.the province of Quebec? V: Airports and Airplanes French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two (258 + 205 kb • help) Airports and Airplanes • Les aéroports et les avions The Airport Baggage airport (pronounced l'aéroport (m) les bagages (f pl) baggage ahehrohpor) le passeport passport les bagages à main carry-on bagage la livraison des un chariot a (shopping/baggage) cart baggage claim bagages enregistrer (ses to check in (one's les arrivées (f pl) arrivals bagages) baggage) les départs (m pl) departures arriver (en avance/en to arrive (early/late) retard) The Terminal The Airplane l'aérogare terminal l'avion (m) plane plane. machine. ... to for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je vais en Israël.Masculine Countries Starting With a Vowel • • en is used to say in.

Caen Bourgogne .Rennes Continents l'Afrique (f) l'Amérique du nord (f) l'Amérique du sud (f) l'Antarctique (f) l'Asie (f) l'Australie (f) l'Europe (f) Oceans l'Océan atlantique (m) l'Océan glacial arctique (m) l'Océan indien (m) l'Océan pacifique (m) Audio : French native speaker Audio : French native speaker European Countries la France France * Paris * Paris la Belgique Belgium * Bruxelles * Bruxelles le Portugal Portugal * Lisbonne * Lisbon l'Espagne Spain * Madrid * Madrid l'Italie Italy * Rome * Rome la Grande-Bretagne Great Britain * Londres * London l'Irlande Ireland * Dublin * Dublin .Paris Basse-Normandie .V: Places Audio : French native speaker French Regions Île-de-France .Dijon Bretagne .

le (grand-duché du) Luxembourg * Luxembourg les Pays-Bas * Amsterdam l'Allemagne * Berlin l'Autriche * Vienne la Suisse * berne La principauté de Monaco * Monaco la Pologne * Varsovie la République Tchèque * Prague la Slovaquie * Bratislava la Hongrie * Budapest la Roumanie * Bucarest la Grèce * Athènes La principauté d'Andorre * Andorre-la-Vieille la Moldavie * Chisinau la Biélorussie * Minsk la Lituanie * Vilnius la Lettonie * Riga l'Estonie * Tallinn la Finlande * Helsinki la Suède * Stockholm la Norvège * Oslo la Russie Luxemburg * Luxemburg Netherlands * Amsterdam Germany * Berlin Austria * Vienna Switzerland * Bern Monaco * Moncao Poland * Warsaw Czech Republic * Slovakia * Hungary * Romania * Greece * Athens Andorra * Moldavia * Belarus * Lithuania * Latvia * Estonia * Finland * Helsinki Sweden * Stockholm Norway * Oslo Russia .

V: Nationalities French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two • Three (v2 300kb) (250 + 234 +186 kb • help) Nationalities • Les nationalités Masculine Feminine English allemand allemande German américain américaine American anglais anglaise English australien australienne Australian belge belge Belgian birman birmane Burmese cambodgien cambodgienne Cambodian canadien canadienne Canadian chinois chinoise Chinese coréen coréenne Korean espagnol espagnole Spanish français française French indien indienne Indian indonésien indonésienne Indonesian italien italienne Italian japonais japonaise Japanese malaisien malaisienne Malaysian mauricien mauricienne Mauritian néerlandais néerlandaise Dutch philippin philippine Filipino portugais portugaise Portuguese singapourien singapourienne Singaporean suédois suédoise Swedish suisse suisse Swiss thaïlandais thaïlandaise Thai vénézuélien vénézuéliene Venezuelan vietnamien vietnamienne Vietnamese .* Moscou * Moscow l'Ukraine Ukraine * Kiev * Kiev • Nations of the World • More audio pronunciation: here.

• the direct object is masculine plural .I have finished. • J'ai fini.I have finished it.replace -er with é -ir verbs . If the nationality is used as an adjective.I have finished the games.replace -re with u irregular verbs . The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in.add an es to the past participle.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche.I have finished them. If you are referring to a person. .add an s to the past participle. make sure you know all the rules. . it is normally left uncapitalized. • the direct object is feminine plural . Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs . if you are referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language. . • Je l'ai finie.I have finished the task. • J'ai fini les tâches. • Je les ai finis. G: Perfect Tenses You will be learning several new perfect tenses in this level. le chinois. . the French equivalent is un Arabe or un Chinois. . . Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. • J'ai fini les jeux. un livre chinois. • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses. un tapis arabe. However. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle.replace -ir with i -re verbs .I have finished the tasks. This time. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative. as in an Arab person or a Chinese person. • the direct object is masculine singular .must be memorized Past Participle Agreement Audio: French native speaker • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb. .I have finished them. .Nationalities are not capitalized as often in French as they are in English. • Je les ai finies. Review the grammar behind them. . • Je l'ai fini. for example. the French would not capitalize: l'arabe. .I have finished it.I have finished the game. • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. • the direct object is feminine singular .no change • J'ai fini le jeu.

2. These are: 1. elle va réussir (she will pass. the auxillary verb becomes avoir.Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances. However. Le pssé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive) G: Simple Future of Regular Verbs There are three versions of the futur tense in French. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. or she is going to pass) is the futur composé of elle réussit To conjugate a verb in the futur simple. the subject of the verb is also its object. the auxillary verb is avoir. the futur simple the futur composé. • The verb is reflexive. 4. one takes the infinitive and appends the right form of avoir except for nous and vous which takes -ons or -ez. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. 7. under certain situations. 6. • That is.g. List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. 3. 5. and the futur antérieur(future perfect). the auxillary verb is être. as according to the table: Audio: French native speaker Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ai réussirai Tu -as réussiras Il / Elle / On -a réussira Nous -ons réussirons Vous -ez réussirez Ils / Elles -ont Réussiront Subject . The futur composé is formed by inserting the present form of aller before the infinitive. e.

L'après-midi.01 • Vacations live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Vivement les vacances ! congratulations on completing Lesson 3. Nous allons passer une semaine à Nice sur la côte d'Azur. nous partirons en vacances au bord de la mer. Nous partirons en voiture et il y aura certainement beaucoup de bouchons sur l'autoroute. nous irons visiter des expositions de peintures ou alors nous irons dans des parc d'attractions. Nous nous baignerons le matin et je ferai des châteaux de sable avec mon fils. A midi nous mangerons puis nous ferons une bonne sieste car il fera certainement très chaud.Les vacances Audio: French native speaker Cet été.

su (to know (as a fact)) sourire .été (to be) faire .eu (to have) boire . to owe) être .dû (to have to.pris (to take) recevoir .dit (to say) devoir .conduit (to drive) (and all other -uire verbs) connaître . to make) falloir .vécu (to live) voir .plu (to rain) prendre .lu (to read) mettre .ri (to laugh) savoir .Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.mis (to put (on)) (and all words adding prefixes to mettre) ouvrir .reçu (to receive) rire .vu (to see) vouloir .cru (to believe) dire .couru (to run) croire .fait (to do.02 • Work G: Irregular Past Participles Review Audio : french native speaker Audio : french native speaker • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • avoir .souri (to smile) suivre .connu (to know (personally)) courir .pu (to be able to) pleuvoir .suivi (to follow) vivre .voulu (to want) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question .bu (to drink) conduire .ouvert (to open) (and most other -rir verbs) pouvoir .fallu (to be necessary) lire .

Negation Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated. Pronouns Pronouns come before the verb they modify.I like to not run. which is not necessarily the first verb in a sentence • Je vais le voir. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. J'aime ne pas marcher.I don't like to run. j'obtiendrais le travail. Mais la banque a fermé et je me suis retrouvé au chomage. . Futur Proche The future proche tense is formed by conjugating aller in the present indicative and adding an infinitive • Je vais aller.G: Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review Faire Causitif Audio : french native speaker The faire causitif is formed by conjugating faire and adding an infinitive. .. Avec un peu de chance. Je n'ai pas souvent une réponse.I have it fixed.I'm going to go.. Je n'ai plus de travail et j'en cherche tous les jours. .02 • Work live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Le chomage Audio : french native speaker Avant j'avais un travail : je travaillais dans une banque. j'ai obtenu un entretien d'embauche.I'm going to see it. . . • Je le fais fixer. Mais aujourd'hui. each meaning slightly different things. Je lis les petites annonces et j'envoie des lettres de candidature. • • Je n'aime pas marcher.

French Grammar • Health • audio (info •104 kb • help) The Imperative • L'impératif -er Verbs -ir Verbs -re Verbs Subject Ending Verb Ending Verb Ending Verb Tu -e Parle! -is Finis! -s Vends! Nous -ons Parlons! -issons Finissons! -ons Vendons! Vous -ez Parlez! -issez Finissez! -ez Vendez! . Formation Take away the ending and add on the following shown in the table.. to have an earache l'oreille cœur nauseaus avoir mal aux to have a toothache Actions dents Sickness and Pain éternuer to sneeze être malade to be sick s'évanouir to faint avoir la grippe to have the flu saigner to bleed avoir de la fièvre to have a fever tousser to cough être enrhumé to have a cold vomir to throw up G: Issuing Commands in French .03 • Health live version discussion V: Illness exercises French Vocabulary • Health • audio (115 kb • help) edit lesson Illness • La maladie comment To ache report an error to have a ... to avoir mal à.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. The subject is not used when giving a command.l'impératif • • The nous form commands are used to say "Let's.ache... avoir mal au ventre to have a bellyache ask a question hurt avoir mal à la to have a headache avoir mal partout to ache all over tête avoir mal â avoir des maux de to feel sick."..

so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). other adverbs. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • . As in English. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. nor any characteristics of what they modify. For example. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. that is. They do not display any inflection. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: Audio : Native French Speaker • • • If the adjective ends in an i. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. Formation In French. as in English. as in English. their form does not change to reflect their precise role. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. like their English counterparts. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). In most cases.G: Adverbs French adverbs. and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. are used to modify French/Grammar/Adjectives. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions. similarly. not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. however.

Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. or before the clause: • Note that. Je vomis. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). Je tousse. (I cough) Comment allez-vous ? Prenez de l'aspirine. and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. (I am ill). Il faut vous opérer. J'ai de la fièvre. unlike in English. (I am fevrish) J'ai mal au ventre. plus ("not any more"). midi et soir Il faut passer un "scanner" Il faut passer des radios. Prenez une cuillère de sirop matin. Audio : Native French Speaker An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. Je vais vous prescrire un médicament. (I have a headache). Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. J'ai mal à la tête. this is true even of negative adverbs: • D: Visiting the Doctor Audio : Native French Speaker Le patient : • • • • • • Je suis malade. such as pas ("not"). Le docteur • • • • • • • .

Vous avez une carie. Je vais utiliser la roulette. J'ai eu un accident de voiture. il faut téléphoner au SAMU (15) ou aux pompiers (18) ou au 112. (Il va enlever la dent) J'ai un appareil dentaire. Ahhhhhhhhhh ! D: Emergencies Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • Je vais à l'hôpital.D: Visiting the Dentist Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • J'ai mal aux dents. Je dois procéder à une extraction. C'est grave ! Je vais aux urgences. . SAMU=Service Ambulancier Médical d'Urgence En cas d'accident grave.

les yeux) La bouche Mouth La dent Tooth Le nez Nose L'oreille (f) Ear Le cou Neck La langue Tongue Les cheveux Hair L'ongle (m) Nail Le poumon Lung L'estomac (m) Stomach Le coeur Heart Le foie Liver L'instestin (m) Intestine L'os (m) Bone Le crâne Skull Le muscle Muscle Le cerveau Brain La rate Spleen L'utérus (m) Womb Le nombril Navel.V: Body parts Here is the vocabulary to speak about body parts : (Audio : One (Native French Speaker) Two French English La tête Head Le corps Body Le bras Arm La jambe Leg La poitrine Chest Le ventre Belly L'épaule (f) Shoulder Le coude Elbow Le poignet Wrist La main Hand Le doigt Finger Le genou Knee Le pied Foot L'orteil (m) Toe L'oeil (m) Eye (pl. belly button .

When you wish to say that parts of your body are sore.V: Body position And here is the vocabulary for body positions : French Debout Assis Couché À genoux Accroupi English Standing Seating Laying down Kneeling Squatted V: Common sentencies When you 'catch a cold' you 'attrapes un rhume'. you say "J'ai mal à [body part] . J'ai mal aux dents (My teeth hurt)...03 1 .03 • Health live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Example: J'ai mal à la tete. tu es malade.Body Parts .Visual Memorization • Point to different parts of the body and recite its name in French par cœur. When you're sick.". E: 3. (I have a headache). congratulations on completing Lesson 3.

or I had them. it us1 you1 them 1 me. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur. in te phrase Je les ai eus. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense. l' nous vous les her. Pierre le vois.04 • Money G: Personal Pronouns Review Main article: French personal pronouns live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb). t' le. to you. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. and to you respectively. nous. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. . the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. te. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. Pierre sees the burglar. Pierre sees him. For example. a tense that uses a past participle. m' te. l' him. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. les.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. to us. was referring to a masculine object.

Idioms • • Ça y est! . The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.. Pierre gets the given apple (indirect). . .?. • • Les hommes vont en France.J' y réponds. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. The man gives some bread to Pierre. When me.? or From whom.to it. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them 1 me.Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. .I get it! . Replacement of Places . m' te.. The Pronoun Y Indirect Object Pronoun . nous. • • Je réponds à les questions. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à Pierre. and not y.. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à.I respond to them. He gives bread to him.Les hommes y vont. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. and you respectively. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: • • • • French me. Il lui donne du pain. The bread is given by the man (direct). and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. The men go to France . te.The men go there.It's Done! J'y suis! . te. nous. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. I respond to the questions.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). and vous are used in a perfect tense. Note that en. the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns.. you. us. Note that lui and leur.

we ordered some. if the idea of money has already been raised. This is because what en does is replace du. Like with 'me'. • Retrouve-la. Tu joues du piano? Non. je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui. Me and Te become moi and toi. . . we use the pronoun 'en'. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. de la or des when there is nothing after it.En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. j'en prends. • Donnez-le-moi. For instance. and les precede all other object pronouns.Find it. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. nous en avons commandé. G: Commands with Pronouns . Did you order some water? Yes.Give it to me. I don't play it. Le. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. Are you having fish? Yes. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. . . 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. 'te' and other pronouns. Do you play piano? No.Give me the videos.L'impératif When expressing positive commands. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'. la. I'm having some. As well.

G: Present Conditional To conjugate a verb in the Conditional. one takes the infinitive and appends the same endings as when using the imparfait.04 • Money live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . as according to the table: Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ais réussirais Tu -ais réussirais Il / Elle / On -ait réussirait Nous -ions réussirions Vous -iez réussiriez Ils / Elles -aient réussiraient Subject congratulations on completing Lesson 3.

to play singular plural first person je joue nous jouons second person tu joues vous jouez third person il joue ils jouent • Remove the -ons ending to find the stem. • take the 1st person plural of the verb you want to conjugate: jouer . The imperfect ending are added to ét___. the above example would be: "Nous report an error chantions quand papa est rentré." ask a question In order to conjugate the imperfect.Imparfait exercises The imparfait is used to "set the tone" of a past situation. and add these endings: French Grammar • Youth • audio (info •181 kb • help) The Imperfect • L'imparfait jouer finir attendre subject ending (nous jouons) (nous finissons) (nous attendons) je -ais jouais finissais attendais tu -ais jouais finissais attendais il/elle/on -ait jouait finissait attendait nous -ions jouions finissions attendions vous -iez jouiez finissiez attendiez ils/elles -aient jouaient finissaient attendaient • Note: The only verb that has an irregular stem (one not derived from the nous form of the present idicative) is être. In French. .05 • Youth live version discussion G: Imperfect . An example in English edit lesson being: "We were singing when Dad came home." It tells what was going on when a comment particular action or event occured.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. Every other verb uses the nous form of the present indicative as its root.

. À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence.You have your car? • Oui. nous avons la nôtre.Yes.G: Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets. This usually occurs in sentences with être.Is that your car? Oui.Yes. we have ours. • • Elle est ta voiture? . it is mine. . French Grammar • Youth • audio: One • Two (238 + 232 kb • help) Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain leur copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le mien le tien le sien le nôtre le vôtre le leur mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ses copains mes copains tes copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends their friends friends les miens les tiens les siens les nôtres les vôtres les leurs mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ma copine ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine leurs copine my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend la mienne le tienne le sienne la nôtre la vôtre la leur mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends their friends friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres les leurs mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs • Vous avez votre voiture? . elle est à moi. .

G: Stem Changing Verbs Review -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. when y is part of the last syllable. but also are stem changing. -ger Verbs An e is added after the g in the nous form. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. la bonne paye des "transformers" . une ps2) des jeux de société : le monopoly. -cer Verbs The last c in the verb changes to ç in the nous form. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. une gameboy. -yer Verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. this affects all forms except nous and vous. Appeler All forms except nous and vous have the l doubled. V: Children's Games and Toys • • • • • • • • • • un hochet un cheval de bois une poupée une dinette un train électrique des légos un ours en peluche une console de jeu (une nintendo. In the present indicative of -yer verbs. le cluedo. the accent aigu above the e ( é ) changes to an accent grave ( è ). However. -éxer Verbs Like -exer verbs.

05 • Youth live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . congratulations on completing Lesson 3.. and Stories Petit Papa Noël Petit Papa Noël Quand tu descendras du ciel Avec des jouets par milliers N'oublies pas mes petits souliers Mais avant de partir Il faudra bien te couvrir Dehors tu vas avoir si froid C'est un peu à cause de moi . Songs.V: French Children's Poems..

and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects.She was herself. . reciprocal verbs. in gender and plurality. . Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. Je ne vais pas me laver. nous. but not the indirect object pronoun. se. . . comment depending on the verb that they modify. • In perfect tenses. • • • Je me lave. Je vais me laver. . Nous nous lavons. .We wash ourselves. When proniminal verbs are conjugated in report an error perfect tenses.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.We wash ourselves. Elle s'est lavé les mains.I'm going to wash myself.06 • Adolescence live version discussion G: Pronominal Verbs Review exercises Pronominal verbs are verbs that. . Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb.She washed her hands. Ils se lavent. the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun.I'm not going to wash myself. • Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. . être is used as the auxiliary verb.I wash myself.They wash themselves.We washed our hands. • • • • Elle s'est lavée. These pronouns are edit lesson me. and naturally pronominal verbs. . . te. put simply. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. There are three types of ask a question pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. include pronouns.

We like each other.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. Like reflexive verbs.You remember? • • In perfect tenses.She remembered. . Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . the past participle agrees with the subject.to return. to give back se rendre (à) .We liked each other.We spoke to each other. Elles se sont téléphoné. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb.Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs. • • . Elle s'est souvenue. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s.They called to one another. . rendre . . • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. • • • Nous nous aimons. Tu te souvenu? . these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb.to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs. Otherwise. . people perform actions to each other. Nous nous sommes parlé. .

congratulations on completing Lesson 3. I spoke French (during a period of time. conjugates it (avais) and finds the past participle of manger (mangé). . It should be noted that these examples are making use of all the possible past tenses. but they occur at different times. He was my friend when . So. So to conjugate je mange (I eat) in the plus-que-parfait." In this example. The plus-que-parfait can be used to indicate the occurrence of one before the other.. In French. Je parlais français. Essentially. He was my friend (and he is not my friend any more) Il était mon ami lorsque. not just the plusque-parfait.. in English. I had eaten. Nous avons réussi We passed the test. and I don't speak French any more). Il est venu. Examples J'ai parlé français. the conjugation of Je mange in the plus-que-parfait becomes j'avais mangé or. They did their homework. In English. . Il était déjà venu. He had already come. I spoke French (on one particular occasion). the plus-que-parfait is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb in the imparfait and adding the past participle. this is used in a phrase like "I had given him the toy before he went to sleep. one finds the appropriate auxiliary verb (avoir). the past before the past. He came/used to come every day.06 • Adolescence live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .G: Plus-Que-Parfait The plus-que-parfait is used when there are two occurrences in the past and one wants to symbolise that one occurrence happened before the other. l'examen. Ils ont fait leurs devoirs. Il a été mon ami. He came (and I don't need to say when) Il vint le lendemain. He came the day after. Il venait tous les jours. there are two past tenses.

there is a literary past tense.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. and therefore does not have an auxiliary verb like the passé composé does. . Il -a Il dansa. Note that the passé simple is not a composed tense. You danced. as according to the table: French Grammar • History The Simple Past • Le passé simple Subject Edning Conjugated Verb English Je -ai Je dansai. one finds the stem and appends the following. one simply uses ask a question the passé simple in literary French. Ils -èrent Ils dansèrent. Formation To conjugate in this tense. We danced Vous -âtes Vous dansâtes. He danced. L'histoire de la France jusqu'en 1700. Nous -âmes Nous dansâmes. Tu -as Tu dansas. You danced. I danced. It is relatively simple to predict when to use this tense: for report an error every occurrence of the passé composé in conversational French.07 • History live version discussion exercises G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs edit lesson comment Unlike English. This past tense is the passé simple. They danced. used when writing formally.

07 • History live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .. Stem Je. put are regular in their passé simple stems. -ir verbs dormir dorm dormis partir part partis sentir sent sentis servir serv servis sortir sort sortis -rir Verbs couvrir couvr couvris découvrir décrouvr découvris offrir offr offris ouvrir ouvr ouvris souffrir souffr souffris -re Verbs combattre combatt combattis rompre romp rompis suivre suiv suivis Infinitive congratulations on completing Lesson 3..Regular Normally-Irregular Verbs The following verbs are irregular in the present indicative.

Others must be memorized.Historical Text for this lesson. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Ending Formation je -is je -in_ Endings -ins je -u_ Endings -us -i_ Endings tu -is tu -ins tu -us il -it il -int il -ut nous -îmes nous -înmes nous -ûmes vous -îtes vous -întes vous -ûtes ils irent ils inrent ils urent Irregular Verb List French Grammar • Revolution! Simple Past Irregular Verbs • Des verbes irréguliers du passé simple Past Stem Passé simple Part. je tu il nous vous -i_ Endings assis ass m'assis t'assis s'assit nous assîmes vous assîtes conduis conduisis conduisis conduisit conduisîmes conduisîtes conquis conqu conquis conquis conquit conquîmes conquîtes contruis construisis construisis construisit construisîmes construisîtes craign craignis craignis craignit craignîmes craignîtes dit d dis dis dit dîmes dîtes f fis fis fit fîmes fîtes écriv écrivis écrivis écrivit écrivîmes écrivîtes mis m mis mis mit mîmes mîtes naqu naquis naquis naquit naquîmes naquîtes peign peignis peignis peignit peignîmes peignîtes pris pr pris pris prit prîmes prîtes rejoin rejoignis rejoignis rejoignit rejoignîmes rejoignîtes Infinitive ils s'assirent conduisirent conquirent construisirent craignirent dirent firent écrivirent mirent naquirent peignirent prirent rejoignirent s'asseoir conduire conquérir construire craindre dire faire écrire mettre naître peindre prendre rejoindre .08 • Revolution! Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen .Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs Some passé simple stems are based off the past participle.

rire sourire vaincre devenir tenir venir ri souri avoir eu boire bu connaître connus courir couru croire cru devoir dû être falloir fallu lire lut mourir plaire plu pleuvoir plu pouvoir p recevoir reçu savoir su valoir valu vivre vécu vouloir voulu r ris ris sour souris souris vainqu vainquis vainquis -in_ Endings dev devins devins t tins tins v vins vins -u_ Endings e eus eus b bus bus conn connus connus cour courus courus cr crus crus d dus dus f fus fus fall fallus fallus l lus lus mour mourus mourus pl plus plus pl plus plus pus pus put reç reçus reçus s sus sus val valus valus véc vécus vécus voul voulus voulus rit sourit vainquit devin tint vint eut but connut courut crut dut fut fallut lut mourut plut plut pûmes reçut sut valut vécut voulut rîmes sourîmes vainquîmes devînmes tînmes vînmes eûmes bûmes connûmes courûmes crûmes dûmes fûmes fallûmes lûmes mourûmes plûmes plûmes pûtes reçûmes suûmes valûmes vécûmes voulûmes rîtes sourîtes vainquîtes devîntes tîntes vîntes eûtes bûtes connûtes courûtes crûtes dûtes fûtes fallûtes lûtes mourûtes plûtes plûtes purent reçûtes sûtes valûtes vécûtes voulûtes rirent sourirent vainquirent devinrent tinrent vinrent eurent burent connurent coururent crurent durent furent fallurent lurent moururent plurent plurent reçurent surent valurent vécurent voulurent .

I see the man that did it.They are the women that I have seen. . qui and que can modify both masculine and feminine nouns qui and que can modify both singular and plural nouns in the phrases ce qui and ce que. which literally mean that which. . • L'homme qui l'a fait est ici. qui is never shortened. the past participle agrees with the direct object in gender and plurality if the direct object comes before the verb • Elles sont les femmes que j'ai vues. remember that in perfect tenses. . .He is the man that I have seen. .The man that did it is here.I see the car that is broken. ce is the noun congratulations on completing Lesson 3.08 • Revolution! live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . but more naturally mean what. it is shortened to qu'. . If que is folled by a vowel. • Il est l'homme qu'il a vu. even when followed by a vowel qui and que can modify both people and things • Je vois la voiture qui est cassé. que is the direct object of the clause it introduces • Il est l'homme que j'ai vu.He is the man that he has seen.G: Relative Pronouns Qui and Que Les pronoms relatifs qui et que • • • • • • • • • • relative pronouns begin adjective clauses • the man that was here • the man that I saw qui is the subject of the clause it introduces • Je vois l'homme qui l'a fait.

+ Verb Comparative Noun Comparative plus de Je joue à autant de jeux que moins de more than I play as many games as less than live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Object toi. Object toi. you toi. Object toi toi.09 • Modern France live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Lesson 3. Verb Comparative Comparative Je joue plus/autant/moins que more than I play as much as less than Nouns Sub. Object toi. you.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.09 • Modern France G: Comparative French Grammar • Modern France The Comparative • Le Comparatif Adjectives Sub. + Verb Comparative Adjective Comparative Je suis plus intelligent que I am more intelligent than Je suis moins intelligent que I am less intelligent than Je suis aussi intelligent que I am as intelligent as Adverbs Sub. you toi. + Verb Comparative Adverb Comparative Je vois plus/aussi/moins clairement que more than I see as clearly as less than Verbs Sub. you. you.

is conjugated in the future tense. such as certain verbs using être as an auxiliary verb.10 • Current events G: Future Perfect In French. The auxiliary verb. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation The future perfect is a perfect tense. j' aurai parlé je serai passé(e) tu auras parlé tu seras passé(e) il aura parlé il sera passé elle aura parlé elle sera passée nous aurons parlé nous serons passé(e)s vous aurez parlé vous serez passé(e)(s) ils auront parlé ils seront passés elles auront parlé elles seront passées Use Phrases constructed in the future perfect tense mean "will have ___ed" in both French and English. Past Part. appy to the future perfect as well.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. the future perfect tense is called the futur antérieur. French Grammar • Current events The Future Perfect • Le futur antérieur parler passer Subject Avoir Conj. avoir or être. and therefore consists of an auxiliary verb and a past perfect. . This construction is used to say that before an event occurs. something else "will have" occured by that time. All rules that apply to the passé composé and other perfect tenses. Past Part. Subject Être Conj.

) le vandalisme l'acte de terrorisme (m.V: News un quotidien l'actualité les nouvelles les faits divers la une a daily newspaper news. current events news local news items the frontpage un hebdomadaire a weekly magazine se tenir informé(e) to stay informed V: French Social Problems le cambrioleur un voleur l'incendie (f.) or un attentat la criminalité burglar a thief fire vandalism terrorism crime .

Les 2 candidats arrivant en tête au premier tour s'affrontent lors du deuxième tour. Jacques Chirac l'a largement emporté avec 80% des voix. Le Président de la République est donc obligé de choisir un Premier Ministre ayant la majorité des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale. Le second tour a donc opposé Jacques Chirac (UMP) et Jean-Marie Lepen (FN). petits ou grands.V: French Government • • L'élection présidentielle : • Le président de la république est élu pour 5 ans au suffrage universel direct. • Les députés peuvent renversé le gouvernement si la politique qu'il conduit ne leur convient pas. • Le Président de la République est le chef des armées et il désigne le Premier Ministre. Les sénateurs peuvent modifier certaines lois mais ont assez peu de pouvoir. Le sénat : • Il est élu au suffrage indirect : seul les maires et les autres élus peuvent voter pour les sénateurs. proposent un candidat. • L'Assemblée Nationale vote les lois proposées par le gouvernement. Il y a souvent entre 10 et 15 candidats au premier tour. Jean-Marie Lepen (FN) est arrivé deuxième au premier tour devant Lionel Jospin (PS). Il existe aussi de nombreux candidats soutenus par aucun parti. Le Premier Ministre doit alors démissionner. à la surprise générale. il y a un candidat du PS et un candidat de l'UMP au deuxième tour. L'Assemblée Nationale : • Les députés sont élus au suffrage universel direct à 2 tours. . L'élection comporte 2 tours : au premier tour la plupart des partis. • En 2002. En général.

. Les gouvernements de gauche sont composés de membres du Parti Socialiste. • • • • • • • • La politique en France • • En france.10 • Current events live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . En 2005. Le Parti Communiste Français (PCF) : MarieGeorges Buffet Les Verts : Dominique Voynet Front national (FN) : Jean-Marie Lepen (extrême droite) La ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire (LCR) : Olivier Besancenot. Nicolas Sarkozy L'UDF : François Bayrou. les partis politiques sont de droite ou de gauche... La LCR et LO sont souvent classés à l'extrême gauche et refusent de participer à tout gouvernement. Ségolène Royal. L'UDF et l'UMP sont actuellement fachés mais ils ont souvent gouverné ensemble. Dominique de Villepin (Premier ministre). François Hollande. • à droite : l'UMP. la LCR et LO. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. le PCF. Lutte Ouvrière(LO) : Arlette Laguiller. les Verts. • à gauche : le PS.V: French Politics Quelques hommes politiques Le Parti Socialiste (PS) : Lionel jospin. de quelques membres du PCF et des Verts.. Jack Lang. le gouvernement est soutenu par l'UMP. l'UDF et le Front National (FN). Le FN est un parti souvent classé à l'extrême-droite et certains l'accusent de racisme. L'UMP et l'UDF refusent tout contact avec le FN. L'UMP : Jacques Chirac (Président de la République).

GRA M R M A une fleuve au pont de Sainte-Marguerite .

Prepositions 185 – Pronouns 191 – Sentences 192.Tenses 195 – Verbs • • 196 .Adverbs 177 .Negation 183 .Adjectives 175 .Irregular Conjugations 205 .Gender 181 .Grammar Contents • • • • • • • • • 172 .Pronominal .

Regular Formation Spelling Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes Pronunciation Generally. amusant. such as those above. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. lent .Grammar Adjectives Just like articles. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. Most adjectives. are affected by this rule. amusan. len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant.

> Pl. -Masc. knee) . stone)). récital et régal take an 's' Notes:While most -ou adjectives have an s added in the plural form. un hibou (des hiboux. sarrau (sarraus) Exceptions:bleu (bleus). un genou (des genoux. owl). cabbage). Plural Sing.M. jewel). toy ). These are: un bijou (des bijoux. seven are the exception. pal. un joujou (des joujoux.Irregular Formation Irregular Plural Formation Katy Leeanne Jones Examples M -. Masc. un caillou (des cailloux. un chou (des choux. louse). carnaval. chacal. pneu (pneus) Exceptions:bal. festival. un pou (des poux. cal. Singular > -s un plafond bas des plafonds -s un gros porc bas -x des gros porcs un homme généreux des hommes No -x un garçon généreux change furieux des garçons -z furieux un gaz -z des gaz dangereux dangereux -au -aux un journal des journaux -eu -eux un pieu -eau -eaux un château des pieux -al -aux un journal des châteaux des journaux __x -ou -oux un bijou des bijoux Notes Exceptions:landau (landaus).

votre. it means great.ton. when pauvre goes before a noun. However. ta. Plural de beaux garçons de nouveaux ordres de vieux camions Fem. it means financially poor. Sing Cons. (all) une belle fillette une nouvelle idée une vieille idée Fem. Sing. mes Second person singular (informal) . These are: • • • beau nouveau vieux bon mauvais petit grand long joli jeune gros Changes in Meaning When grand goes before a noun. "pauvre" can mean "financially poor" even when used before the nouns. leurs Grammar Adjectives live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . it means unfortunate.leur. votre. vos Third person plural . ses First person plural . we say "her car" when the owner of the car is a woman and "his car" when the owner is a man. First person singular . ma. notre. tes Third person singular . leur. Sing. Vowel Beau un beau garçon un bel individu un nouveau Nouveau un nouvel ordre camion Vieux un vieux camion un vieil ordre Masc. sa. Nouveau. When it comes after the noun.son. nos Second person plural (and polite form) .notre. This rule works most of the time.mon. It is not the owner who determines the gender of the possessive adjective but the object owned. they say "sa voiture" even if the owner is a male. Beau. but be careful. Likewise. when it goes after the noun. In French. and Vieux Masc. Plural de belles fillettes de nouvelles idées de vieilles idées Possessive Adjectives In English. it means tall. Masc.Special Rules Adjectives That Precede Nouns Adjectives that are used frequently go before nouns.

In most cases. as in English. For example. similarly. are used to modify live version French/Grammar/Adjectives. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form.Grammar Adverbs French adverbs. other adverbs. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: • • • If the adjective ends in an i. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. however. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). that is. discussion They do not display any inflection. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • . As in English. edit lesson comment report an error Formation ask a question In French. like their English counterparts. as in English. and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. their form does not change to reflect exercises their precise role. not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. nor any characteristics of what they modify. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily").

such as pas ("not").Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). afterwards On va au cinéma après We'll go the cinema afterwards 2. or before the clause: • Note that. this is true even of negative adverbs: • List of Common Adverbs • après 1. plus ("not any more"). Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. unlike in English. An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. also a preposition Grammar Adverbs live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

For example. that is.Grammar Gender Gender of Nouns In French.. and the word for teacher. This form can be masculine or feminine. personne. la voiture (the car) can only be feminine. is always masculine even if the teacher is female. the word for person. for example. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). professeur. all nouns have a grammatical gender. The nouns that express entities without gender (e. for example. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. even if the person is male.g. is always feminine. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question .

for example.Examples French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Common Endings Used Masculine With Masculine Nouns: le fromage le cheval the horse -age the cheese le professeur le chien the dog -r the teacher le chat le livre the book -t the cat le capitalisme le bruit the noise -isme capitalism Common Endings Used Feminine With Feminine Nouns: la boulangerie la colombe the dove -ie the bakery la nation la chemise the shirt -ion the nation la fraternité la maison the house -ite/-ité brotherhood la balance la liberté liberty -nce the scales la fille -nne the girl -mme l’indienne -lle the Indian Unfortunately. There are even words that are spelled the same. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. la foi is feminine and means a belief. and vice versa. un livre (m) means a book. Then there are some that just don't make sense. . there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. whereas le foie means liver.

Gender 2. starting with a vowel l’ l’enfant the child sound les filles the daughters plural les les fils the sons les enfants the children Note: Unlike English. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French.Definite and Indefinite Articles The Definite Article In English. The Indefinite Article In English. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. Again. Plurality 3. the definite article is always “the”. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". It is similar to english. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini feminine la la fille the daughter singular le le fils the son singular. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. "La" is used for feminine nouns. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini feminine une une fille a daughter singular masculine un un fils a son des filles some daughters plural des des fils1 some sons . In French.

If you were looking at a set of specific pictures.1"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" Also note that des. 2nd. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. “on” is used.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. when pronounced. The French third person "on" has several meanings. When referring to a single person. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis singular je I 1st person plural nous we singular tu you 2nd person plural vous you singular il. Grammar Gender live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . she." ("I am looking at the photographs. "Je regard des photographies. In English. looking at nothing in particular. However. on he. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". "Je regarde photographies. you would say "Je regarde les photographies." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. While in English. Also. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. we would say "I am looking at photographs. Also.") If you were just flipping through the album. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. elles they (feminine) When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person. if a group of people consists of both males and females.” (formal). and 3rd person singular and the 1st. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". elle. “vous” must be used. In everyday language. as discussed in lesson 1. the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. see notes in lesson 1. instead of “nous”. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. you would say. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures. For example. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. the male form is used. see the Wikipedia entry. For more. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". and 3rd person plural. you cannot say." In French. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. 2nd. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album.") Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st." ("I am looking at some photographs. one 3rd person they (masculine) plural ils. to express “we”.

I want to not steal. .I have never stolen.I do not steal. In a perfect tense. ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects. ne. • Je ne vole pas.pas wraps around the auxillary verb.pas • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne. • Je ne le vole pas..I do not want to steal.. • Je veux ne pas voler. ne. .pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb.I did not steal it. • Je n'ai pas volé.. .pas around the verb. . When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together..Grammar Negation ne. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question .. . • Je ne veux pas voler. ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning. not the participle...

.... . However. • Il n'a aucune feuille de papier. Spoken French Now..ni not any.pas du tout not at all ne.. • Je ne veux le donner à personne. the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks. None.I do not want to give it to anybody.ni requires two objects. either direct or indirect.. it is always used in written French and in formal conversations.....ni. • Je ne l'ai donné à personne.personne ne.....He has only one piece of paper. ... Il Je ne peux guère voir mon frère et ma sœur .aucun(e) ne.guère ne. none. . .He has no sheet of paper. Aucune. .nor ne. aucun(e) goes before an object. and comes before them.pas encore not yet ne.. .. ni à ma sœur. • Je ne l'ai donné ni à mon frère.aucun(e).personne wraps around the entire verb set.ni...I can hardly see my brother and sister. • • Je l'ai donné à personne (I didn't give it to anyone) Je sais pas (I don't know) Grammar Negation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Aucun.I am not able to see neither my brother nor my sister. In ne.Other Negative Expressions ne.que • nobody no longer hardly only • • • • ne.I did not give it too anyone. ne...He has no friend..jamais ne..I gave it neither to my brother nor my sister.. • Il n'a aucun ami. Il n'a qu'une feuille de papier.plus ne.. no never neither.. • Je ne peux voir ni mon frère ni ma sœur. None.. ..

means. . manner. Also a conjugation of the verb entrer. Also a pronoun. Contractions: du. -. a complement of the name or adjective.This is a friend of mine. -. Prepostion Translation à 1. possession (of or 's). of. -This is John's car. from 2.I am going to Paris. C'est la voiture à John. -. at 3. besides inside after beyond with at the home of against in 1. price. La paille est contre la maison the straw is against the house Synonym: en Also an indefinite artcle. Alternative: dedans (rarely used as a preposition) On mange après avoir bu We eat after we drink Also an adverb. in Example Je vais à Paris. time (at). à côté de à l'intérieur de après au-dela avec chez contre dans de dehors derrière devant en entre ici loin de next to.I am leaving at five C'est un ami à moi.Introduced a complement of indirect object or a complement of attribution. to 2. Je pars à cinq heures. of 4.Grammar Prepositions Common Prepositions live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Notes -Expresses a report/ratio of place (to). about outside behind in front of in between here far Used mostly to indicate distance in time or space. des IPA: /də/ .

au-dessous-de (below) Also an adjective: m sing. sept sur dix (seven out of ten) Grammar Also a noun: le par . out of 6.(golf) par IPA: /pur/ sous Related term: dessous Also a noun: m pl of sou . upon 3.par près de pour sans selon 1.penny. peanuts Synonyms: au-dessus de (above) Antonyms: sous (below. through 2. according to 2. on 2. in accordance with below. for near for without 1. wothless thing. above 5. meaning sure IPA: /syr/ (audio) sur Prepositions live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . by. under) Antonyms: dessous. under 1. on top of 4.

in the same way that one and someone are sometimes interchangeable in English. Elles (female) The pronoun on The subject pronoun on is analogous to the English personal pronoun one. On (indeterminate) ask a question • First person plural (we) . Because of French's limited passive voice. only the reflexive pronoun se. "We're American").Ils (male). » ("It is by blacksmithing that one becomes a blacksmith. "They gave it to us. "to think oneself right"). is only used when on is the subject and soi refers to the same entity.Grammar Pronouns live version discussion Subject Pronouns exercises • First person singular (I. note that the other forms of nous (direct object. Also. (Hence.Nous • Second person plural (you) . . indirect object." i. and is more common.Il (male). On does not have ordinary direct.") It is used as a less formal substitute for the subject pronoun nous (we). "We gave it to ourselves. and therefore is not used to mean "one of them. Tu (informal. it is often used as an empty subject when the agent is unknown or unimportant: « On me l'a donné. numbers can be used as pronouns — « Deux sont entrés et un est ressorti ». Elle (female). moi edit lesson • Second person singular (you) . me) . well-known comment acquaintances only) report an error • Third person singular (he. its disjunctive-pronoun form. note that even though on always takes a third-person singular verb. The pronoun quelqu'un ("someone") can fill some of the roles of on. It has a number of uses: • • • • It is used in the same ways as the English personal pronoun one: • It is used in expressing generalities: « C'est en forgeant qu'on devient forgeur.and indirect-object pronouns. In this case.") It is not the number 1.e. » ("[On] gave it to me" or "I was given it" or "It was given to me. "Two went in and one came back out" — but the number 1 is un(e). except that it is not so formal. she) .Je. « Ils nous l'ont donné ». it takes plural adjectives (« On est américains ». not on. Similarly." In French as in English." but « On se l'est donné ».Vous • Third person plural (them) .") • It is the implicit subject for an infinitive that has no other implicit subject: « penser qu'on a raison » ("to think that one is right.Vous (polite). and disjunctive) are not replaced by forms of on unless on is the subject as well. soi.

Il nous voit.He sees me. Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit. to me te . you guessed it.you. . . . • Il jette la boule. used as direct object. .He throws the ball. because they are pronouns that are. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb. A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. informal) lui . nous. and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Meanings • • • • • • me . .to him nous . • Je t'ai vu. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. . Il vous le jette.I saw you.He sees you. Il vous voit. la. .He throws it to us.He sees you.you. • Je veux te voir. . and les le. and les are called direct object pronouns. to you (singular. to us vous .He sees us. formal) leurs . Il nous le jette. .me. te. la.He throws it to you. Il te le jette.I want to see you.me.I see you.us.He calls to me. . . Il te voit. le. . Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle.to them Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois.He throws it to you. If a perfect tense is used. . to you (plural.

Similary. both masculine and feminine Il la jette. la.replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule. Il lui jette la boule.He throws the ball to him. Note that while le.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary. and means the same thing. . can be replaced by pronouns.replaces a masculine singular direct object la . lui and leur come after those pronouns. • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques. The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to. . Il leur jette la boule. .He throws the ball to her. .).replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur .He throws them. • • lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.. direct objects.He throws it. • Il la lui jette. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects. such as "la boule".replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. tu. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively.He throws the ball to Jack. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. lui is never shortened y Indirect Object Pronoun .replaces plural direct objects. "He throws him the ball" is also said. When used with the direct object pronouns le.You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. • • • • le . Also note that unlike le and la.He throws the ball to them. and les. la. • • lui .He throws the ball to Mary. .replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les . Il les jette.. In English. Il jette la boule à Marie. . . . Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. .to it. . lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context.He throws it to him.

• • Les hommes vont en France. Note that stress pronouns.It's Done! J'y suis! . I respond to the questions.The men go there. Idioms • • Ça y est! . • J' en viens. • Je viens de Paris. and not en are used if the object refers to a person or persons. Replacement of Places .• • Je réponds aux questions. . Pronoun Order Order Chart If a sentence uses no infinitive.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de (for which en is used). and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de.Les hommes y vont. .I come from Paris. .I get it! en Replacement of a Partitive Construction Replacement of Quantified Nouns Replacement of Phrases with de • • The pronoun en replaces prepositional phrases beginning with de if the object of the preposition is referring to a thing or place. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. Note that lui and leur. and not y. .I come from it. the pronouns are embedded as follows: . . The men go to France . Note that en.I respond to them.J' y réponds.

Y in conjunction with en is only used in a few cases. there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. la. . When y is used in the same sentence as other pronouns. and les precede all other object pronouns. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. la. . . . .Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le te pas il (elle) la lui conjugated past ne nous y en plus nous l' leur verb participle vous etc. When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns lui and leur with the direct object pronouns le.Give me the videos. the pronouns are embedded as follows: Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le pas te il (elle) conjugated past la lui ne plus nous y en infinitive nous verb participle l' leur etc.He takes me there.Give it to me. .. vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) If a sentence uses an infinitive. me. la. • Donnez-le-moi. and vous go first..He gave it to me. Me and Te become moi and toi. and vous with the direct object pronouns le. and les. and les. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. en always go last.. • Il m'emmène à Paris. • Il me le donne.. L'impératif When expressing positive commands.Find it. y goes after all of them with the exception of en. . vous vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) Order Rules • • • • • When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns me. Le. . . • Il le lui donne. nous.He takes me to Paris. • Retrouve-la. When there are two pronouns in a sentence. nous. and les go first. la.There exist several ones. • Il m'y emmène. te. te. • Il y en a. le.He gave it to him/her.

we have ours. leur copain their friend le leur theirs leurs copains their friends les leurs theirs leurs copine their friend la leur theirs leurs copines their friends les leurs theirs À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence. . This usually occurs in sentences with être. • • Elle est ta voiture? .Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets. elle est à moi. nous avons la nôtre. .Is that your car? Oui.Yes. French Grammar • Pronouns Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend le mien le tien le sien le nôtre le vôtre mine yours his/hers ours yours ses copains mes copains tes copains nos copains vos copains his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends friends les miens les tiens les siens les nôtres les vôtres mine yours his/hers ours yours ma copine ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend la mienne le tienne le sienne la nôtre la vôtre mine yours his/hers ours yours ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres mine yours his/hers ours yours • Vous avez votre voiture? .You have your car? • Oui. it is mine. Grammar Pronouns live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .Yes.

Where? Quand? .When? Pourquoi? .How? Quel/Quels/Quelle/Quelles? .Who? live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Commands Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Imperative Grammar Sentences live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .Why? Comment? .What? Qui? .Grammar Sentences Interrogation Question Words • • • • • • Où? .

Grammar Tenses Verb Tenses Sorted by Mood Non-finite Forms • • • • • Le participe présent (The Present Participle) Le participe passé (The Past Participle) Le Verbe Auxiliaire (The Auxiliary Verb) L'infinitif (The Infinitive) L'infinitif passé (The Past Infinitive) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question L'indicatif (The Indicative Mood) Simple Tenses • • • • Le présent de l'indicatif (The Present Indicative) L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The Imperfect) Le passé simple (The Past Historic) Le futur (The Future) Perfect Tenses • • • • • Le passé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le passé du subjonctif (The Subjunctive Past) Other Tenses • • Le passé récent (The Near Past) Le futur proche (The Near Future) Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive Mood) • • • • Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Le subjonctif passé (The Past Subjunctive) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) .

L'impératif (The Imperative Mood) • • L'impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) Le conditionnel (The Conditional Mood) • • • Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le deuxième forme du conditionnel passé (The Second Form of the Past Conditional) Verb Tenses Sorted by Type Simple Tenses • • • • • • • Le présent de l'indicatif (The Present Indicative) L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The Imperfect) Le passé simple (The Past Historic) Le futur (The Future) Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le présent du subjonctif (The Present Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Perfect Tenses • • • • • • • Le passé composé (The Present perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect of the Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Conditional Past) Le passé du subjonctif (The Subjunctive Past) Perfect Tense Components • • • Le participe présent (The Present Participle) Le participe passé (The Past Participle) Le verbe auxiliaire (The Auxiliary Verb) .

Other Tenses • • • • Le passé récent (The Near Past) Le futur proche (The Near Future) L'Impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) Grammar Tenses live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

The general uses of a particular mood will be covered in the page linkd to by the section heading. The verb tenses here are organized by mood. when the conjugation of the root verb is given. which are only used in formal writing. In this appendix. devenir and revenir follow the same patterns as venir. Grammar Verbs live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . For instance. One may assume that il includes elle and ils includes elles unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. In tables showing the endings or conjugations of verbs.Grammar Verbs • • • • Irregular Verb Conjugations Verb Negations Pronominal verbs Verb Tenses live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question General Notes • • • • • The masculine form and feminine form of the third person are conjugated in exactly the same manner. are in italics. Instead of mentioning both. an accent mark is shown without a letter below it indicates that the accent mark is placed above the last letter of the stem. Derivatives of a verb are conjugated in the same manner as that verb. it is assumed that the reader will know that derivative verbs are similarly conjugated. Literary tenses. only the masculine form will be used for the sake of brevity.

there are some words which break these rules. Also see wiktionary:Category:French verbs and wiktionary:fr:Catégorie:Verbes français. and they are listed below.[aj-] all.[iR-] aill. with what they do. .Grammar Verbs Irregular Conjugations You spend a lot of time in French learning the grammatical rules . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question aller indicatif présent je vais [vE] tu vas [va] il va [va] j'allai [alE] tu allas [ala] il alla [ala] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) nous allons [alO~] vous allez [ale] ils vont [vO~] passé simple nous allâmes [alAm] vous allâtes [alAt] ils allèrent [alER] impératif va [va] allons [alO~] allez [ale] participes allé1 [ale] allant [alA~] radicaux ir.[al-] imparfait 1 The verb aller uses the auxiliary verb être in the passé composé.

[akER-] acquièr.[akeR-] .[akjER-] acquér.[akeR-] acquér.acquérir indicatif présent j'acquiers [akjER] tu acquiers [akjER] il acquiert [akjER] j'acquis [aki] tu acquis [aki] il acquit [aki] tu nous vous passé conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) imparfait nous acquérons [akerO~] vous acquérez [akeRe] ils acquièrent [akjER] passé simple nous acquîmes [akim] vous acquîtes [akit] ils acquirent [akiR] impératif acquiers [akjER] acquérons [akeRO~] acquérez [akeRe] participes acquis [aki] radicaux acquerr.

avoir indicatif présent j'ai [e] ou [E] tu as [a] il a [a] j'eus [y] tu eus [y] il eut [y] que j'aie [E] que tu aies [E] qu'il ait [E] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple imparfait nous avons [avO~] vous avez [ave] ils ont [O~] passé simple nous eûmes [ym] vous eûtes [yt] ils eurent [yR] subjonctif que nous ayons [EjO~] que vous ayez [eje] qu'ils aient [E] impératif aie [E] ayons [EjO~] ayez [eje] participes eu [y] ayant [ajA~] radicaux aur.[av-] .[Or-] av.

to sit participe présent: s'asseyant participe passé: assis(e)(es) présent je m'assieds nous nous asseyons tu t'assieds vous vous asseyez il s'assied ils s'asseyent impératif asseyons-nous assieds-toi asseyez-vous passé simple je m'assis tu t'assis il s'assit nous nous assîmes vous vous assîtes ils s'assirent être indicatif présent je suis [sHi] tu es [E] il est [E] je fus [fy] tu fus [fy] il fut [fy] nous sommes [sOm] vous êtes [Et] ils sont [sO~] passé simple nous fûmes [fym] vous fûtes [fyt] ils furent [fyR] subjonctif que je sois [swa] que tu sois [swa] qu'il soit [swa] tu nous vous que nous soyons [swajO~] que vous soyez [swaje] qu'ils soient [swa] impératif sois [swa] soyons [swajO~] soyez [swaje] .s'asseoir .

[fER-] fass.[fEz-] .[et-] faire indicatif présent je fais [fE] tu fais [fE] il fait [fE] je fis [fi] tu fis [fi] il fit [fi] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif imparfait nous faisons [f(@)zO~] vous faites [fEt] ils font [fO~] passé simple nous fîmes [fim] vous fîtes [fit] ils firent [fiR] impératif fais [fE] faisons [f(@)zO~] faites [fEt] participes fait [fE] faisant [f(@)zA~] radicaux fer.[s(@)r-] ét.participes passé présent conditionnel futur simple imparfait été [ete] étant [etA~] radicaux ser.[fas-] fais.

falloir indicatif présent il faut [fo] passé simple il fallut [faly] participe passé fallu [faly] radicaux conditionnel futur simple subjonctif imparfait faudr.[fal-] savoir indicatif présent je sais [sE] tu sais [sE] il sait [sE] je sus [sy] tu sus [sy] il sut [sy] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple nous savons [savO~] vous savez [save] ils savent [sav] passé simple nous sûmes [sym] vous sûtes [syt] ils surent [syR] impératif sache [saS] sachons [saSO~] sachez [saSe] participes su [sy] sachant [saSA~] radicaux saur.[fOdR-] faill.[sOR-] .[faj-] fall.

and revenir use the auxiliary verb être in the passé composé.[v(@)n-] imparfait 1 The verbs venir.subjonctif imparfait sach.[vjE~dR-] vienn.[sav-] venir The verb tenir and verbs ending in -tenir and -venir also follow this pattern. indicatif présent je viens [vjE~] tu viens [vjE~] il vient [vjE~] je vins [vE~] tu vins [vE~] il vint [vE~] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) nous venons [v(@)nO~] vous venez [v(@)ne] ils viennent [vjEn] passé simple nous vînmes [vE~m] vous vîntes [vE~t] ils vinrent [vE~R] impératif viens [vyE~] venons [v(@)nO~] venez [v(@)ne] participes venu1 [v(@)ny] venant [v(@)nA~] radicaux viendr.[vjEn-] ven. . devenir.[saS-] sav.

(e.[vul-] imparfait 1 The imperative forms veux. voulons.[vudR-] veuill.g.vouloir indicatif présent je veux [v2] tu veux [v2] il veut [v2] je voulus [vuly] tu voulus [vuly] il voulut [vuly] nous voulons [vulO~] vous voulez [vule] ils veulent [v9l] passé simple nous voulûmes [vulym] vous voulûtes [vulyt] ils voulurent [vulyR] impératif tu nous vous veux1 [v2] or veuille [v9j] voulons1 [vulO~] voulez1 [vule] or veuillez2 [v9je] participes passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) voulu [vuly] voulant [vulA~] radicaux voudr. "Veuillez suivre les instructions ci-dessous.[v9j-] voul. and voulez are rare. 2 The imperative form veuillez is used to make very polite requests. It is most often used on signs and in impersonal writing.") .

devoir indicatif présent je dois tu dois il doit je dus tu dus il dut tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) imparfait nous devons vous devez ils doivent passé simple nous dûmes vous dûtes ils durent impératif dois devons devez participes dû1 devant radicaux devrdoive devGrammar Verbs Irregular Conjugations live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

in gender and plurality. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. .She washed her hands.I wash myself. . These pronouns are me. and naturally pronominal verbs.She was herself. the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. . • • • • Elle s'est lavée.We wash ourselves. Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. depending on the verb that they modify.They wash themselves. se. Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs. . .Grammar Verbs Pronominal Pronominal verbs are verbs that.We wash ourselves. Elle s'est lavé les mains. te. • • • Je me lave. . When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. . Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. nous. Nous nous lavons.We washed our hands. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. put simply.I'm going to wash myself. • Je ne vais pas me laver.I'm not going to wash myself. Ils se lavent. • Je vais me laver. . être is used as the auxiliary verb. In perfect tenses. include pronouns. reciprocal verbs. . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. . but not the indirect object pronoun. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains.

Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. • • . Otherwise. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. .Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. Elle s'est souvenue.to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs. Elles se sont téléphoné. .We liked each other. Nous nous sommes parlé.We like each other.She remembered.You remember? • • In perfect tenses. Tu te souvenu? . .They called to one another. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. rendre . . Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . .We spoke to each other. • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. Like reflexive verbs. • • • Nous nous aimons. the past participle agrees with the subject.to return. people perform actions to each other. to give back se rendre (à) .

to go to bed Present Je me couche Tu te couches Il se couche Elle se couche Nous nous couchons Vous cous couchez Ils se couchent Elles se couchent NB The futur simple. passé simple. The following tables show which reflexive pronoun to use with each form of the verb: Subject je tu il nous vous ils Reflexive Pronoun me te se nous vous se Here is an example conjugation of a reflexive verb: Se coucher .Reflexive Verbs Details Reflexive Verbs in French are actions that one does to oneself. . When conjugating a reflexive verb you must use the correct reflexive pronoun. imperfect. They can be recognised because their infinitive form has the pronoun se in front of it or s' before a vowel. conditional and subjuntive are all conjugated with the reflexive pronoun in this position.

g.) it still takes the appropriate reflexive pronoun..Passé Composé Je me suis couché Tu t'es couché(e) Il s'est couché Elle s'est couchée Nous nous sommes couché(e)s Vous vous êtes couché(e)(s) Ils se sont couchés Elles se sone couchées NB All reflexive verbs are take être in the passé composé and therefore have an e added to the past participle for females and an s for plural. pouvoir. aller.. vouloir. Futur Proche Je vais me coucher Tu vas te coucher Il va se coucher Elle va se coucher Nous allons nous coucher Vous allez vous coucher Ils vont se coucher Elles vont se coucher NB When a reflexive verb is put as an infinitive behind any other verb (e. Grammar Verbs Pronominal live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

Appendices Le midi d'ossau dans les pyrénées .

215 . 211 . 229 .Nations of the World 4.Web Resources . 226 .French Authors 3. 242 . Time. and Numbers 2.Appendices Contents 1.Phrasebook 5.Typing Characters 7. 213 .Slang 6.Dates. 240 .

time. [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Dates. and numbers • audio (info •420 kb • help) live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Days of the Week.Appendices Appendix A. French Pronunciation English Origin lundi luhndee Monday Moon mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • • The days of the week are not capitalized in French.01 • Dates. • Les jours de la semaine. and numbers Les jours de la semaine • The days of the week. time. For phrases relating to the day of the week. . see the phrasebook.

01 • Dates. and numbers live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . and numbers • audio (info •142 kb • help) la saison le printemps l'été (m) l'automne (m) l'hiver (m) Seasons • Les Saisons season Spring Summer Autumn Winter Appendices Appendix A.Les mois de l'année • The months of the year. time. time. and numbers • audio (info •561 kb • # 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 • • The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année French Pron. For phrases relating to the months of the year. see the phrasebook Les Saisons French Vocabulary • Dates. [lay mwah duh lahnay] help) French Vocabulary • Dates. English janvier jzahnveeyay January février fayvreeyay February mars mahrse March avril ahvrill April mai maye May juin jzwan Juin juillet jzooeeyay July août oot/oo August septembre septahmbruh September octobre oktuhbruh October novembre novahmbruh November decembre daysahmbruh December The months of the year are not capitalized in French. time.

02 • List of authors Middle Age • Chrétien de Troyes (around 1135 .Appendices Appendix A.around 1183) 16th century • • • live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Francois Rabelais (around 1483 or 1494 – 1553) Pierre de Ronsard (1524 – 1585) Louise Labé (a.1565) 17th century • • • • • • • René Descartes (1596 .a.1799) .1526 .1778) Denis Diderot (1713 .1784) Beaumarchais (1732 .1650) Pierre Corneille (1606–1684) Jean de La Fontaine (1621–1695) Molière (1622–1673) Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Charles Perrault (1628–1703) Jean Racine (1639–1699) 18th century • • • • • • Marivaux (1688–1763) Montesquieu (1689–1755) Voltaire (1694–1778) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 .

1867) Gustave Flaubert (1821 .2004) Nicolas Bouvier (1929 .1870) George Sand (1804 .1970) Marcel Pagnol (1895 .1896) Henri Bergson (1859 .1905) Alphonse Daudet (1840 . Appendices Appendix A.1955) Marcel Proust (1871 .1961) Jean Giono (1895 .1977) André Malraux (1901 .1880) Jules Verne (1828 .1976) Jean-Paul Sartre (1905 .1897) Emile Zola (1840 .1857) Charles Baudelaire (1821 .1876) Alfred de Musset (1810 .1885) Alexandre Dumas (1802 .1980) Robert Merle (1908 .1848) Honoré de Balzac (1799 .1918) 20th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Paul Claudel (1868 .1998) Georges Perec (1936 .1974) André Breton (1896 .1918) Jean Cocteau (1892 .1976) Raymond Queneau (1903 .1902) Paul Verlaine (1844 .1982) Links List of French authors in the French Wikipedia.1922) Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 .1850) Victor Hugo (1802 .02 • List of authors live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .1941) Edmond Rostand (1868 .1966) Jacques Prévert (1900 .19th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • François-René de Chateaubriand (1768 .1870) Prosper Mérimée (1803 .1963) Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894 .

03 • Nations of the world Les pays du monde (Nations of the World) A French l'Afghanistan (m) l'Afrique du Sud (f) l'Albanie (f) l'Algérie (f) l'Allemagne (f) Andorre (f) l'Angleterre (f) l'Angola (f) l'Arabie saoudite (f) l'Argentine (f) l'Arménie (f) Aruba l'Australie (f) l'Autriche (f) l'Azerbaïdjan (f) English Afghanistan South Africa Albania Algeria Germany Andorra England Angola Saudi Arabia Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Antigua-et-Barbuda (m) Antigua and Barbuda .Appendices Appendix A.

B French le Bahreïn le Bangladesh la Barbade la Belgique le Belize le Bénin le Bhoutan la Biélorussie la Birmanie la Bolivie le Botswana le Brésil le Brunéi la Bulgarie le Burundi English Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Belarus Burma Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burundi les Bahamas (f) The Bahamas le Burkina-Faso Burkina Faso .

C French le Cambodge le Cameroun le Canada le Cap-Vert le Chili la Chine Chypre (f) la Colombie les Comores (f) le Congo English Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chile China Cyprus Columbia Comores Congo la Corée du Nord North Korea la Corée du Sud South Korea le Costa Rica la Côte d'Ivoire la Croatie Cuba Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba D French Djibouti English Djibouti le Danemark Denmark la Dominique Dominica .

E French l'Écosse (f) l'Égypte (f) les Émirats arabes unis (m) l'Équateur (m) l'Érythrée (f) l'Espagne (f) l'Estonie (f) les Étas-Unis (m) l'Éthiopie (f) Scotland Egypt The United Arab Emirates Equador Eritrea Spain Estonia The United States Ethiopia English F French English les Fidji (f) Fiji la Finlande Finland la France France G French le Gabon la Gambie la Géorgie le Ghana la Grèce la Grenade le Guatemala la Guinée la Guinée-Bissao la Guyana English Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guniea Guinea-Bissau Guyana la Guinée-équatoriale Equatorial Guinea .

H French Haïti la Hongrie English Haiti Hungary le Honduras Honduras I French l'Île Maurice (f) les Îles Cook (f) les Îles Marshall (f) les Îles Salomon (f) l'Inde (f) l'Indonésie (f) l'Iran (m) l'Iraq/l'Irak (m) l'Irlande (f) l'Islande (f) Israël (m) l'Italie (f) English Mauritius Cook Islands Marshall Islands Solomon Islands India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Iceland Israel Italy J French le Japon English Japan la Jamaïque Jamaica la Jordanie Jordan .

K French le Kenya Kiribati (f) le Koweït English Kenya Kiribati Kuwait le Kazakhstan Kazakhstan le Kirghizstan Kyrgyzstan L French le Laos le Lesotho la Lettonie le Liban le Libéria la Libye la Lituanie English Laos Lesotho Latvia Lebanon Liberia Libya Lithuania le Lichtenstein Lichtenstein le Luxembourg Luxembourg .

M French la Macédoine la Malaisie le Malawi le Mali Malte le Maroc la Mauritanie le Mexique la Micronésie la Moldavie Monaco la Mongolie English Macedonia Malaysia Malawi Mali Malta Morocco Mauritania Mexico Micronesia Moldavia Monaco Mongolia Madagascar (f) Madagascar les Maldives (f) The Maldives le Mozambique Mozambique N French la Namibie la Nauru le Népal le Nicaragua le Niger le Nigeria la Norvège English Namibia Nauru Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway la Nouvelle-Zélande New Zealand .

O French l'Oman (m) English Oman l'Ouganda (m) Uganda l'Ouzbékistan Uzbekistan P French le Pakistan le Panama le Paraguay les Pays-Bas (m) le Pays de Galles (m) le Pérou les Philippines (f) la Pologne la Polynésie français le Portugal English Pakistan Panama Paraguay The Netherlands Wales Peru The Philippines Poland French Polynesia Portugal la Papouaise-Nouvelle-Guinée Papua New Guinea Q French English le Qatar Qatar R .

French English la République centrafricaine Central African Republic la République dominicaine Dominican Republic la République tchèque la Roumanie le Royaume-Uni la Russie le Rwanda Czech Republic Romania The United Kingdom Russia Rwanda S French Saint-Christophe-et-Niévès (m) Sainte-Lucie (f) Saint-Marin (m) le Saint-Siège (le Vatican) Saint-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines (m) le Salvador les Samoa (f) Sao Tomé et Principe (m) le Sénégal les Seychelles (f) la Sierra Leone Singapour la Slovaquie la Slovénie la Somalie le Soudan le Sri Lanka la Suède la Suisse le Surinam le Swaziland la Syrie Saint Lucia San Marino The Holy See (The Vatican) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines El Salvador Samoa Sao Tomé and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Somalia Sudan Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland Surinam Swaziland Syria English Saint Kitts and Nevis .

T
French la Tanzanie le Tchad la Thaïlande le Togo les Tonga (f) la Tunisie le Turkménistan la Turquie Tuvalu English Tanzania Chad Thailand Togo Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Turkey Tuvalu le Tadjikistan (m) Tajikistan

Trinité-et-Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

U
French l'Ukraine (f) English Ukraine

l'Uruguay (m) Uruguay

V
French Vanuatu le Vatican English Vanuatu The Vatican

le Venezuela Venezuela le Viêt-Nam Vietnam

W
[None]

X
[None]

Y
le Yémen la Yougoslavie (m) Yemen Yugoslavia

Z
French la Zambie English Zambia Appendices

le Zimbabwe Zimbabwe

Appendix A.03 • Nations of the world
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Appendices

Appendix A.04 • Phrasebook
TravelWiki phrase book

V: Greetings
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •276 kb • help) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Hi./Bye. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all Bonjour Hello day) Bonsoir Good evening Bonne nuit Good night bun nwee What's up (about you)? (lit. what's Quoi de neuf ? new) Pas grandNot much. (lit. no big-thing) chose.

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V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •311 kb •
help)

How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) I'm doing (very) well Ça va (très) bien (lit. It's going (very) well) Oui, ça va. Yes, it goes. Très bien, merci. Very well, thanks. Pas mal. Not Bad pas si bien/pas très bien not so well (très) mal (very) bad Comme ci, comme ça. So-So. Désolé(e). I'm sorry. Et toi? And you? (informal) Et vous? And you? (formal)

Titles
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •325 kb • help) Titles • Les titres French Abbr. Pronunciation English, Usage Singular Monsieur muhsyur Mr., Sir. M. Plural Messieurs. mehsyur Gentlemen. Singular Madame mahdahmn Mrs., Ma'am. Mme maydahm Plural Mesdames Ladies Singular Mademoiselle lle mahdmwoizell Miss, Young lady Plural Mesdemoiselles M maydmwahzell Young ladies

V: Courtesy
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •434 kb • help) Courtesy • La politesse S'il te plaît. (Lit: If you please.) Please S'il vous plaît. (formal). Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup). De rien. (Lit: Of nothing.) (Lit: Not of what.) (No Pas de quoi. problem.) You're welcome. Je t'en prie. shtahn pree (informal) Je vous en prie jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal)

V: Good-bye
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •202 kb • help) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. Hi./Bye. (informal) Au revoir. Good-bye. ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until À demain. See you tomorrow. Tomorrow) Au revoir, à Bye, see you demain. tomorrow. À tout à l'heure. See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr À la prochaine. See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn À bientôt. See you soon. ah byantoe Ciao Bye. chow (Italian)

V: Asking for the day/date/time
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day, Date, Time • Demander le jour, la date, le temps Asking for the day. Aujourd'hui c'est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor jour? Aujourd'hui c'est [jour]. Today is [day]. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour Duhman say kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. Tomorrow is [day]. Asking for the date. Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (aujourd'hui)? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. It's [month] [#]. Asking for the time. Quelle heure est-il? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? Il est quelle heure? eel ay kell er Il est [nombre] heure(s). It is [number] hours. eelay [nombre] er

1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b 5

Appendices

Appendix A.04 • Phrasebook
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Appendices

Appendix A.05 • Slang
Notes on how to use slang
Foreign speakers
It is important to note that, as a foreigner, your use of slang will often be received as cute or funny, depending greatly upon your overall fluency in spoken French. To understand this, think on how it would sound to you if a foreigner—with a strong accent and odd rythym of speech—came up to you and said "Dude, what a sketchyass hater that bizz-natch was, I totally was just like 'fuck off o-sheezy'". Therefore, no matter how much slang you use in your native language, limiting your use of slang in French (proportionally to your level of fluency) will also limit how much you are patronized and giggled at by native listeners. live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question

Slang: consistency & style
To use slang effeciently, it is important to maintain a consistency of style. Mixing styles might sound like saying: "Thy face, it is quite finely rawkin'".
• •

Avoid vous unless a plural is necessary. Avoid subject-verb inversion in questions. Use rather question formations where there is no inversion or 'est-ce que', only the raised tone at the end of the sentence. When doing this with interrogatives (qui, quand, comment, etc.), place them at the end of the sentence; i.e. "On va bouffer quand?"

Translating 'Fuck'
The English term 'fuck' is exceptional as it can serve as noun, verb, adjective, exclamation, and others. There is no such equivalent usage of any word in the French language. Therefore the translation of 'fuck' into french depends on the corresponding part of speech. Examples noun "He's a great fuck" = "Il est bien baisable" (although 'baisable' = fuckable) "He is such a fuck(er)" = "C'est un enfoiré/enculé/connard/salaud" (insert any insult) "He's such a fuck-up" = "C'est un pauvre con/un raté" verb sexual: baiser, niquer, coucher avec ; insulting: foutre, enculer "I fucked up on my French test" = "J'ai raté/niqué mon examen de français" "I fucked (up) my car" = "J'ai niqué ma bagnole" "He fucked me over" = "Il m'a trahi" "I fucked your mom" = "J'ai baisé/niqué ta mère" "Fuck off" = "Fous-moi la paix", "Fous le camp" (see the verb 'Foutre') "Fuck you"/"Go fuck yourself" = "Va te faire foutre/enculer" adjective "This is fucking awful" = "Putain, ça craint"/"C'est bordelique"/"C'est de la merde" "I am so fucked-up" = "Ça va pas du tout" (mental state); "J'suis totalement bourré(e)" (drunk) adverb "I am trying to fucking work here" = "Putain, là, j'essaie de bosser" exclamation "Fuck!" = "Merde !" ; "Putain !" ; "Bordel !" n.b.: these can also be compounded in French, i.e., "Putain de merde !" "Putain de bordel de merde" (for stringing these together, see the scene in the film Matrix Reloaded with the Frenchman in the restaurant)

Glossary
Notes on Pronunciation: *To feel how R should be pronounced, gargle with water, then try gargling without water. That is what your throat should be doing when pronouncing the R. *The U is hardest for English speakers. The back of the throat should be stretched out as if you see a mouse and are saying "eee!", but the lips should be in a tight circle as if you are saying "ooo".

Look up Category:fr:Slang on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Audio1 Audio2 Audio3 Audio4 Abruti(e) n., A retard, an idiot ah-BROO-tee Accro n., addict ack-RO Ado n., teenager; short for 'adolescent' AH-doh Apero n., Short for apéritif. ah-PAIR-roh Appart n., flat or apartment; short for 'appartement' ah-PARR Aprèm n., Short for après-midi. ah-PRIm Bagnole n., Slang for 'car' ban-YOLE Bahut n., Slang for 'high school' (formerly for 'factory') Barj' or Barjot

..e.. dick bEEt Blaireau n... job bOOL-oh Se Branler v. Synonym for 'tête'.. a crazy person BARge BAHR-joe Bander v. crazy n. to wobble) suh BRAhn-lay . la bouffe. to get a hard-on BAHN-day Ben interj. Loser bl-AIR-roh Le Bled n. or 'head' in its slang usage.. to become erect.. to eat n. and followed by "ouais" or "non" Baañ ('baa' like the sound a sheep makes with a nasalized sound at the end) Bite n.. often used at the beginning of a phrase.adj. food BOOF-fay Bosser v. the boondocks blED Boule n.. a rough equivalent in English would be 'face' rather than 'head'.. to masturbate (lit.. 'ball'. litt.: "Ta boule me manque" = "I miss seeing your sweet face" bOOL Bouffer v. for 'well'. i. to work boss-SAY Boulot n.

"Quel con" = "What an idiot" exp. or adj. 'cunt' (as used in UK English). exhausted.: "J'ai la crève".. stupid. As in "Je suis crevé(e)" = "I'm exhausted" n. exp. ça a été" (Yes. crevé(e). to die. slang for "stupid" DAY-beel Dirlo n. 'to kick the bucket' adj. Widely used under the form "va te faire enculer" (litt. : "enculer des mouches" (litt. Also. also a question "Ta présentation. to bugger. it went well. A night at the movies SEE-noh-sh La Cité n. and means "bastard" or "asshole". "à la con".. exp. ghetto see-TAY Con adj. Sex maniac (lit. ça a été ?" = "How'd your presentation go?" . in a stupid way.Ça a été exp. "J'ai cet examen à la con" = "I have this stupid test" cohÑ Crever v. "go get fucked in the ass") which stands for "fuck off". "to fuck flies in the ass") means "to nit-pick". dear-loh Enculer v. Equivalent to "fuck in the ass" ("cul"="ass"). hot rabbit) show lah-PAÑ Cinoche n. the flu. Answers to this question: "Ouais.... Colloquial word meaning 'headmaster'. To fuck. la crève. it went well) / "Pas du tout" (Not at all) saw ah AY-TAY Chaud Lapin n. eñ-CU-lay . stupid "J'ai été con quand j'ai décidé de sortir" = "I was dumb when I decided to go out" n. litt.. "enculé" is the participle turned into a substantive. to burst or explode... a cold.. creh-vay lah crehve Débile n.

guh-lay . "brilliant". slang for 'mouth' or 'face'. lui!" or "il est grave débile. roughly meaning "a lot" or "really" e.La Fac n. "Je suis hyper triste" = "I'm really sad" EE-pair Kiffer v. Vulgar equivalent of the verb 'faire'.. Colloquial word meaning "genius" (as used in UK English). it can be placed before or after it. litt.. Sperm. "great". gull Gueuler v. e. "sensational" or "awesome" j-knee-al Grave adj. Sometimes used under the form faire kiffer. e..g. Commonly employed in vulgar/familiar expressions such as: "Va te faire foutre" = "Go get fucked" "J'en ai rien à foutre (ici. slang. oñ-guh-lay . "severe". college or university fack Faire la tête exp. 'really' ..g Tu me fais trop kiffer. v. Synonyms: 'bouder'(to brood).g "je la kiffe grave!" (I really like her). Colloquial word from arabic meaning 'to like'. Exists also engueuler. to pout.g "il est débile grave. lui!" (he's really stupid) grah-ve Gueule n. with you)" FOO-truh Hyper adj. to do or to make.. keef-ay Génial adj. When used with a predicate. avec toi)" = "I have nothing to do (here. Means 'to shout'. slang for 'to reprimand'. "faire la gueule". e.g "mes parents sont graves" (my parents are stupid) adv. roughly means "stupid" e. It can be used in "Ta gueule!" which can be translated into 'Shut up!'. fer lah tet Foutre n. 'Arrête de me gueuler dessus' could be translated into 'Stop shouting at me'. 'very'.

'whatever' n.. As a name.. sometimes reduced to 'Ta mère!'.. adults use it often.) NEEK-ay Ouais 'yeah' (as opposed to "oui" = "yes") waay Putain n. ce qu'il dit" nahm-poRt-UH-kwah Niquer v. slang for 'to break' or 'to be great'. translated as 'shit'. bullshit as in "C'est du n'importe quoi. 'Je vais te niquer ta gueule (vulgaire)' : je vais me battre contre toi ! e.Macdo Short for MacDonald's. work.) 'Ce jeu nique tout. Slang for 'to have sexual intercourse'.. as well as the youth. or 'The meal is crap' This word has produced the phrase «le mot de cinq lettres». It can also mean 'rubbish'. task taff Truc n. "Je suis super content" = "I'm really happy" soup-air Taff n. pew-tAÑ Super adj. for example 'Ce repas. Roughly equivalent to 'merde' when used as an exclamation.g.. Often used in insults such as 'Nique ta mère' (Fuck your mother).' (This game is great. an exact transcribed meaning of the English phase "four-letter word". 'Cette porte est niquée. merde is not seen as vulgar as 'shit'. 'very'. old form for 'pute' (whore).. Stuff trew-uhk Tronche . job. c'est de la merde'. excl.' (This door is out of order. 'really' . 'Putain' is the closest equivalent to the English 'fuck' (see note on 'fuck'). maRed / with emphasis or in exclamation: mare-DUH N'importe quoi exp. excl. Metaphorically. That is to say. mack-doh Merde n.

Colloquial word meaning 'face'. TRon-shuh Vachement adj.'Il est vachement idiot' could be translated as 'He is quite stupid'. vachement is a synonym for "very". ..'tu as perdu!' could be greeted with 'la vache!' or 'mince!' or other such expressions of discontent. Colloquial word meaning 'crazy'. It can however be used sometimes as an exclamation of surprise or amazement 'la vache! c'est genial ce truc' vah-shuh.n. France. Literally "cowly". Whilst on the subject of 'vache'. means 'damn!' or 'darn!'. vah-shuh-MAWÑ Zinzin n. For example . as an exclamation. For instance . slang. and can be translated in some cases for the English adjective 'quite'. a popular French phrase is 'la vache!' which.

. Ripou adj. quite commonly used among young adults and even adults. from fête. from arabe. The word verlan is in itself an example of this. chick. angry. ridiculous. Relou adj. Woman. in that certain words are split in half.. Ouf adj. it comes from the word l'envers (meaning 'backwards'). Not funny. heavy. Keuf Policeman (not polite) from flic "Il est chelou ce mec ! j'vais le balancer aux keufs.. Party. . Venère adj.. awful. Chelou adj. and the two componenents switch positions. from louche. shady.. but do not necessarily retain all letters (due to French pronunciation patterns). from enervé(e). aggravated. Fishy. Crazy." Meuf n.Verlan Verlan is roughly similar to English Pig Latin. For example. girl. gross. Used commonly in the expression "c'est un truc de ouf" ("that is some crazy shit"). A person of Arab descent. something that sucks.. Verlan is. in verlan it will become [2-1]. (the d is dropped in Verlan because the final d does not pronounce in lourd). if you have word [12]. suspicious. ('Beur' is so commonly used that it now has its own Verlan form. from pourri Ripou = un policier qui commet des actes graves illégaux pl : des ripoux Teuf n. unlike Pig Latin. from fou. difficult.. pissed off. from femme. Rotten. Common verlan expressions include: Beur ou rebeu n. from lourd. 'reub')..

peté(e) de rire. désolé(e). c'est. . "therefore.Common Chat Abbreviations There are two general guidelines: • • é can be susbstituted for all homophonic equivalents including "-ais". laughing out loud). also seen in pourkoi. donc. que.. "sorry". and relative pronoun.. ct subj+verb. "kisses". mé conj.. qui. ki interr. and vois (voi). dc conj. quoi.. and the verb "est" (third person sing. ke interr. pron. "it is". mort(e) de rire.. dsl adj. "bursting with laughter". mdr exp. "-es" (such as in the articles les and des). "that" or "which". words that end in a silent -s commonly drop this s: such as pas (pa). "it was". and rel. "for"... biz c subj+verb. "-ait". conjugation of être. bisous. laughing out loud). c'était. koi interrogative. "that". fok exp. mais.. (equivalent of lol. stronger than mdr. ptdr exp. n. (equivalent of lol. "it is necessary". the conjunction "et" (and). "but". il faut que. imparfait (past) conjugation of c'est. "to be").. "laughing myself to death". pr prep. so". "what". pour. "why".

also seen in the expression tout le monde.05 • Slang live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .. pissed off. Appendices Appendix A.tt adj. vnr adj. aggravated. from the Verlan form of enervé(e).. angry. tout(e). "all".

4. however. Click Add.. 6. In Windows XP: 1.06 • Typing characters International Keyboard Configuration Commonly one memorises the alt-number code for inserting non-English characters (below).net/kbh for more information. one types " and then E. è.. or ù. One can change their keyboard configuration from their previous setting to a US (Qwerty) International setting. ì. Start -> Settings -> Control Panel Regional and Language Options Languages -> Details . See http://www. 5.starr.. ò. For instance if you want to create an "`" accent you would press option+` then press the vowel you want to appear under the letter to create à. choose United States-International. The keystrokes for the diffent accents are. choose your native language. 2. this can become quite tedious. but there is a much better method. option option option option + + + + "`" "e" "i" "u" = = = = ` ´ ˆ ¨ Copy & Paste This method can be useful if you are just writing a short text (for example an e-mail) and don't have a computer where you can/want change language settings. Under Keyboard layout/IME. to get è. 3. ù Alt+151 or Alt+0249 û Alt+150 or Alt+0251 ü Alt+129 or Alt+0252 In Mac OS X You could change your keyboard layout in System Preferences->International->Input Menu or with the default qwerty keyboard layout you can use meta keys to create the accents. one types ` and then e. you prefix the letter with either ` ' " ~ or ^ So. To get Ë. For longer texts.Appendices Appendix A.. Under Input language. live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Now to form accents. . Just try to pull up a web page or a document that contains the special characters and paste them into your text.

06 • Typing characters live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . then type two characters. for example typing ~a when you mean à. Unix and the Compose key If you are using Unix or a derivative operating system (such as Linux) with XFree86. This feature can be used to 'type' special characters. you can define a compose key by opening a terminal window and typing: To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e Windows menu key (between the right Windows key and right Ctrl key: "keysym Menu = Multi_key" right Windows key: "keysym R_Meta = Multi_key" right Alt key: "keysym Alt_Gr = Multi_key" To use the Compose key. but the point is that you only have to do it once for the whole text and not for every single à that you want to type. After you have written your text you replace marked characters (the ~a) with special characters (the à). Of course you have to either type in the Alt number code or paste the character. è é ê ë É Compose Compose Compose Compose Compose + + + + + e e e e E + + + + + ` ' ^ " ' î Compose + i + ^ ï Compose + i + " ô Compose + o + ^ ö Compose + o + " ù Compose + u + ` û Compose + u + ^ ü Compose + u + " Appendices Appendix A.Search & Replace If you are working with a text editor you have the option to search for text and replace it with other text. Combinations useful for typing in French follow: à Compose + a + ` â Compose + a + ^ ä Compose + a + " ç Compose + c + . press and release the Compose key. The idea is to mark a character for becoming a special character.

Dictionnaire francais/anglais.com French Language Anne Fox BBC Jump-Gate University of Adelaide.automatic translate on mouseover of a word (English to French only) live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Learning french • • • • • • • • • • • • • About. Dictionnaire de synonymes.07 • Web resources Wikipedia French language external links .org) Dictionnaire de langue francaise. and lots more! French grammar Wikipedia has more about this subject: French language French grammar • • • • • Portail lettres Clo7 French grammar lessons Exercises on French grammar (Dr. Translators • • • Google Translator Babelfish Translation : A translation website Google Toolbar . Dictionnaire anglais/francais.Appendices Appendix A.tv5.Dozens of valuable links. Australia French Language Learning Software Free Online French Tutorial BBC Bitesize grammar TravelWiki Phrasebook Orbis Latinus French MIT French I Assignments MIT French II Assignments Useful information on the French language can be found on the site of tv5 (www. Conjugaisons. Meul Etienne) Online verb conjugator .

07 • Web resources live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .Dictionaries • • Lexilogos : all online French dictionaries French dictionary French Culture • • • Le portail de la culture Cortland Ambassade de France en Nouvelle-Zélande Travel in France • • Ministère des Affaires Etrangères français TravelWiki French Administration • Le portail de l'administration Appendices Appendix A.

About the Book Plouhinec .Bucht von Pors Poulhan .

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