French I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Nouns, Articles and Demonstratives 5.

Useful Words and General Vocabulary 6. Subject Pronouns 7. To Be and to Have 8. Question Words 9. Numbers / Ordinals 10. Days of the Week 11. Months of the Year 12. Seasons 13. Directions 14. Color and Shapes 15. Weather 16. Time 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Prepositions and Contractions 24. Countries and Nationalities 25. Negative Sentences 26. To / In and From places 27. To Come and to Go 28. Conjugating Regular Verbs 29. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs 30. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 31. Past Indefinite Tense 32. Irregular Past Participles 33. Etre Verbs 34. Food and Meals 35. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 36. To Take, Eat or Drink 37. Quantities 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases French National Anthem Canadian National Anthem

French II 41. Imperfect Tense 42. Places 43. Transportation 44. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to

45. House 46. Furniture 47. Comparative and Superlative 48. Irregular Forms 49. Clothing 50. To Wear 51. Future Tenses 52. Preceding and Plural Adjectives 53. Adjectives: Feminine 54. Adjectives: Plurals 55. More Adjectives 56. Rendre plus Adjective 57. C'est vs. Il est 58. Sports and Hobbies 59. Nature 60. To Live 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Asking Questions 64. Interrogative Pronouns 65. Forms of Lequel 66. Relative Pronouns 67. Demonstrative Pronouns 68. To Read, to Laugh, to Say 69. Disjunctive Pronouns 70. Y and En

Adverbs 80. Shopping 84. Post Office and Bank 85. Plaire and Manquer 74. Depuis.71. to See. il y a. Direct / Indirect Discourse 90. Passive Voice 82. Office / School Supplies 91. To Receive 86. False Cognates 78. Colloquial Expressions 77. to Believe 72. Faire Causative 89. To Follow 88. To Drive . Indefinite Pronouns Déjeuner du matin Le corbeau et le renard French III 76. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 87. Pluperfect 75. Animals 73. and pendant in past contexts 83. More Useful Words 79. Forms of Tout 81. To Write. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 93. Conditional Tenses 92.

Present participle 98. In Space 103. In the Ocean 101.94. Make-Believe Stuff 107. Cosmetics / Toiletries 97. Simple Past 106. Abbreviations / Slang 99. Quebec French 1. Special Uses of Devoir 96. Subjunctive Mood 104. Possessive Pronouns 105. Past Infinitive 100. Some Basic Phrases Bonsoir / Bonne nuit (bohn-swahr/bun nwee) Good evening / Good night (only said when going to bed) Bonjour (bohn-zhoor) Hello / Good day Au revoir! (ohr-vwah) Goodbye! Merci beaucoup (mair-see boh-koo) S'il vous plaît (seel voo pleh) Please Je vous en prie / de rien (In Canada: Bienvenu) (zhuh voo zawn pree/duh ree-ahn/bee-awn-vuh- . Travelling / Airport 95. To Die 102.

. Tu as quel âge? (tew ah kell ahzh) How old are you? (informal) Oui / non (wee/nohn) Yes / no Comment allez-vous? (koh-mawn tahl-ay voo) How are you? (formal) Je vais bien (zhuh vay bee-ahn) I'm fine Je suis fatigué(e) (zhuh swee fah-tee-gay) I'm tired J'ai faim (zhay fawn) I'm hungry Comment vous appelez-vous? (koh-mawn voo zah-play voo) What's your name? (formal) Je m'appelle.. (zhuh mah-pell) I am called. (zhuh swee day zay-tahz-ew-nee/dew kah-nahdah) I am from the United States / Canada. Mademoiselle (muh-syuh.. Parlez-vous français? Parles-tu anglais? . mah-dahm.Thank you very much new) You're welcome..S. / Canada. Madame. (zhay ____ awn) I am ____ years old. Vous êtes d'où? (voo zet doo) Where are you from? (formal) Où habitez-vous? (ooh ah-bee-tay voo) Where do you live? (formal) Je suis des Etats-Unis / du Canada.. (zhah-beet oh zay-tahz-ew-nee/ oh kah-nah-dah) I live in the U. (mohn nohm ay) My name is.. Vous avez quel âge? (voo za-vay kell ahzh) How old are you? (formal) J'ai ____ ans. Miss Ça va? (sah vah) How are you? (informal) Ça va bien / mal / pas mal (sah vah bee-ahn/mahl/pah mahl) I'm good / bad / not bad Je suis malade (zhuh swee mah-lahd) I'm sick J'ai soif (zhay swahf) I'm thirsty Comment t'appelles-tu? (koh-mawn tah-pell tew) What's your name? (informal) Mon nom est.. Monsieur. Misses. Tu es d'où? (tew ay doo) Where are you from? (informal) Où habites-tu? (ooh ah-beet tew) Where do you live? (informal) J'habite aux Etats-Unis / au Canada. mahd-mwah-zell) Mister..

o. o) g (before a.. ahll-uh-mawn... y o o ou oy. Je (ne) comprends (pas) (zhuh nuh com-prawn pah) I (don't) understand Excusez-moi / Pardonnez-moi (eg-scew-zay mwah/par-dohn-ay mwah) Excuse me / Pardon me A tout à l'heure / A bientôt (ah too tah luhr/ah bee-ahn-toh) See you later / See you soon Je t'aime (zhuh tem) I love you (singular) (parl tew on-glay) Do you speak English? (informal) Russe.. o. o.(par-lay voo frahn-say) Do you speak French? (formal) Italien. Pronunciation French letter(s) a. ê.. y) ç (before a. Je (ne) sais (pas) (zhuhn say pah) I (don't) know Je regrette / Je suis désolé(e) (zhuh re-gret/zhuh swee day-zoh-lay) I'm sorry Salut (sah-lew) Hi / Bye Je vous aime (zhuh voo zem) I love you! (plural) 2. zhah-po-neh. Japanese. oi u u + vowel c (before e. Chinese Je ne parle pas. ais i. es-pahn-yol) Italian. (zhuh parl) I speak. u) c (before a. y) ge (before a. i. Chinois (rooss. German. and final er and ez ay .. u) gn English Sound ah eh ee oh shorter and more open than aw in bought oo wah ew wee s s k zh zh g nyuh é. â e. è.. ai. shee-nwah) Russian. Allemand. u) g (before e. Espagnol (ee-tahl-ee-ahn. i. à. (zhuh nuh parl pah) I don't speak. Japonais. Spanish Je parle.. et. ei.

. The short e is more closed. dix. pah duh. The "slurring" that I mentioned is called liaison. trop fort. (eel yahd. and pronounced like eh. quels) before or after a pronoun (vous avez. The French slur most words together in a sentence. The long u is pronounced oooh. des. as in hoot. shortening the syllables and slurring more words. plewd. not eel ee ah duh. je les ai) after a preceding adjective (bon ami. plus. pas d(e). . not ra-peed-uh-mawn) sous l(e) bureau. However. if a word ends in C. not eel ah duh bohn ko-pahn) il y a d(e). bien) after est It is optional after pas. not zhuh tuh or suh kuh . To pronounce is correctly.. dans un livre) after some one syllable adverbs (très.. but it is never made after et. or plew duh) je n(e). The short u does not exist in English though. not soo luh bewr-oh) il a d(e) bons copains (eel ahd bohn ko-pahn. except as s in six. F or L (except verbs that end in -r) you usually pronounce the final consonant. Their vowels tend to be shorter as well. In general. 4. The long and short e are relatively easy to pronounce. c(e) que (shtuh. R. les.. 2. lent(e)ment. and soixante in liaisons. It is always made: • • • • • • after a determiner (words like un.note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well) 3. The long e is pronounced openly. pahd. as in bed. not zhuh nuh or duh nuh) j(e) te. and then say eee. like z Note: French pronunciation is tricky because it uses nasal sounds which we do not have in English and there are a lot of silent letters. plus d(e). as in play. and the forms of être. like ay.. petits enfants) after one syllable prepositions (en avion. mon. intonation only rises for yes/no questions. . but sometimes it is difficult to hear the difference. ces. Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases. More about Pronunciation 1.h j qu. • • • • • • rapid(e)ment. Two sounds that are tricky to an American English speaker are the differences between the long and short u and e. sauv(e)tage (pronounced ra-peed-mawn... chez l(e) docteur (pronounced sool bewr-oh. round your lips as if to whistle. duhn. so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h. skuh. de n(e) (zhuhn. slur the two together as if it were one word. final q r s (between vowels) th x silent zh k rolled z t ekss. and all other times. it goes down at the end of the sentence.

These are what present the most problems for English speakers. -té. and -ette are usually feminine. eng. as are nouns ending with a consonant. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles. -ence. eim. 3. Nouns ending in -ure. ain. -tion. Articles and Demonstrative Adjectives All nouns in French have a gender. an. My Representation ahn awn ohn Pronunciation an apple on the desk my own book Orthographical Representation in. aen on. Nouns. im. yen. a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. the inprefix is pronounce een before a vowel. the nasals. Otherwise. am. Here are the orthographical representations. oing. so don't actually pronounce the n fully. you must memorize the gender. oint. aon. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i ah beh seh deh uh eff zheh ahsh ee j k l m n o p q r zhee kah ell em en oh peh koo air s t u v w x y z ess teh ooh veh doo-blah-veh eeks ee-grek zed 4. and you may have to repeat the article in some cases. but there are some endings of words that will help you decide which gender a noun is. en. -ance. ein. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify.6. Nasal means that you expel air through your nose while saying the words. éen en. om In words beginning with in-. ien. For the most part. Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Before Vowel Plural . And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English. um. And of course. oin. em. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine. aim. yn. either masculine or feminine. -sion. and approximate pronunciations. un. ym.

Before Vowel cet oiseau this/that bird Fem. Those) Masc. Some) Masculine un lit a bed Feminine une pomme an apple Plural des gants some gloves Demonstrative Adjectives (This. it means ago. That. Subject Pronouns Subject Pronouns . 5. you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago. For example. ce lit-ci is this bed. too again almost friend (fem) woman man girl boy voici toujours souvent d'habitude aussi encore en retard presque une amie eel-ee-yah vwah-see too-zhoor soo-vawn dah-bee-tewd oh-see awn-kore awn-ruh-tar presk ew nah-mee ah-nah-mee ah-nohm feey gar-sohn There is/are voilà quelquefois kell-kuh-fwah comme ci. Useful Words and General Vocabulary It's / That's and but now especially except of course so so not bad book pencil pen paper dog cat c'est et mais maintenant surtout sauf bien sûr pas mal le livre le crayon le stylo le papier le chien le chat say vwah-lah ay may mahnt-nawn sir-too sohf bee-ahn sir pah mal leevr krah-yohn stee-loh pah-pyaya shee-ahn shah There is/are il y a Here is/are always often sometimes usually also. These. cette pomme this/that apple Plural ces gants these/those gloves If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those. and -là to the end of the noun for that and those.le lit the bed la pomme the apple l'oiseau the bird les gants the gloves Indefinite Articles (A. ce lit this/that bed Masc. while ce lit-là is that bed. comme ça kohm see kohm sah late friend (masc) un ami un homme une fille un garçon une femme ewn fawn Note: When il y a is followed by a number. 6. An.

to be (eh-truh) I am Je suis zhuh swee We are tew ay You are Nous sommes noo sohm Vous êtes voo zett eel sohn ell sohn You are Tu es He is She is One is Il est eel ay Elle est ell ay On est ohn ay They are Ils sont They are Elles sont Past tense of être . they.Je Tu Il Elle On zhuh I tew eel ell ohn Nous noo We You (informal) Vous voo You (formal and plural) He She One Ils Elles eel They (masc. or you. Future Tense of être . and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's be I was (being) j'étais zhay-teh ay-teh We were (being) You were (being) nous étions ay-tee-ohn vous étiez ay-tee-ay You were (being) tu étais He was (being) il était ay-teh She was (being) elle était ay-teh One was (being) on était ay-teh They were (being) ils étaient ay-teh They were (being) elles étaient ay-teh Note: Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation. or to someone you don't know or who is older. To Be and To Have Present tense of être . Tu is used when speaking to children. or close friends and relativs. but I will leave them out of future conjugations. Vous is used when speaking to more than one be I will be je serai suh-reh We will be You will be nous serons suh-rohn vous seriez suh-ree-ay You will be tu seras suh-rah He will be il sera suh-rah She will be elle sera suh-rah One will be on sera suh-rah They will be ils seront suh-rohn They will be elles seront suh-rohn Note: You must use the subject have (ah-vwahr) I have You have j'ai zhay We have as ah You have avons ah-vohn avez ah-vay . we. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way.) Note: Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns. 7. On can be translated into English as one. Notice there are two ways to say you. Present tense of avoir .) ell They (fem. animals. the people.

Question Words Who What Why When Where How How much / many Which / what Qui Quoi Pourquoi Quand Où Comment Combien Quel(le) kee kwah poor-kwah kawn ooh kohn-mawn kohn-bee-ahn kehl .He/she has a ah They have ont ohn Past tense of avoir .to be afraid avoir raison . Elle a de la chance! She's lucky! Nous aurons faim plus be late être en avance . They were afraid yesterday. Vouz aviez tort. You were have a cold nous + être (un jour) .to be cold avoir peur .to be back être en retard .to be right avoir tort . Elles avaient peur hier. Il aura sommeil ce soir. They are hot. Elle sera d'accord. Tu avais be about to être en train de . They were about to be early être d'accord .to be wrong avoir faim . 8. Vous étiez enrhumé.to be in the act of être enrhumée .to be hot avoir froid .to have I will have You will have j'aurai zhoh-reh auras oh-rah oh-rah We will have You will have aurons oh-rohn aurez oh-ray He/she will have aura They will have auront oh-rohn Avoir and être are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized: avoir chaud .to be lucky J'ai froid. seem avoir envie de . They will be (in the act of) studying. On est de retour. Ils seront en train d'é have I had You had j'avais zhah-veh avais ah-veh ah-veh We had You had avions ah-vee-ohn aviez ah-vee-ay He/she had avait They had avaient ah-veh Future tense of avoir . Nous sommes lundi. It is Monday. I'm be in agreement être sur le point de .to be ashamed avoir besoin de . She will agree. être de retour .to be hungry avoir soif . Ils ont be thirsty avoir sommeil .to need avoir l'air de . He will be tired be sleepy avoir honte . You were look like. We will be hungry later. You were early. Elles étaient sur le point de be (a day) Je suis en retard! I'm late! Tu étais en avance. We/you/they/the people are feel like avoir de la chance . You had a cold.

Numbers / Les numéros Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Thirty Thirty-one Thirty-two Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Seventy-one Seventy-two Eighty Eighty-one Eighty-two Ninety Zéro Un Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Onze Douze Treize Quatorze Quinze Seize Dix-sept Dix-huit Dix-neuf Vingt Vingt et un Vingt-deux Vingt-trois Trente Trente et un Trente-deux Quarante Cinquante Soixante Soixante-diz Soixante et onze Soixante-douze Quatre-vingts Quatre-vingt-un Quatre-vingt-dix zay-roh ahn duh twah kat sahn seess set weet nuhf deess ohnz dooz trehz kah-tohrz kanz sez dee-set deez-weet deez-nuhf vahn vahn tay ahn vahn duh vahn twah trawnt trawnt ay uhn trawnt duh kuh-rawnt sank-awnt swah-ssawnt swah-ssawnt deez seh-tahnt swah-ssawnt ay ohnz swah-ssawnt dooz ka-truh vahn weet-ahnt ka-truh vahn tahn ka-truh vahn deez noh-nahnt (Belgium & Switzerland) Septante (Belgium & Switzerland) Huitante Quatre-vingt-deux ka-truh vahn duh (Belgium & Switzerland) Nonante .9.

00 in English. But if a number ends in an e. and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant.Ninety-one Ninety-two One Hundred Two Hundred Thousand Two Thousand Million Quatre-vingt-onze Cent Deux cents Mille Deux mille Un million ka-truh vahn ohnz sawnt sawnt ahn duh sawnt duh sawnt ahn meel duh meel ahn meel-ee-ohn Quatre-vingt-douze ka-truh vahn dooz One Hundred One Cent un Two Hundred One Deux cent un Note: French switches the use of commas and periods. première deuxième troisième quatrième cinquième sixième septième huitième neuvième dixième onzième douzième vingtième trentième twenty-first vingt et unième Note: The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ième. Days of the Week / Les jours de la semaine Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi lahn-dee mahr-dee mare-kruh-dee zhuh-dee vahn-druh-dee . huitante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70. 8. 80. 6. 1. you must drop it before adding the -ième. you must add a u before the -ième. their final consonants are not pronounced. And an f becomes a v before the -ième. Also. when the numbers 5. Ordinal Numbers first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth twentieth thirtieth premier. After a q. 10. Belgian and Swiss French use septante. and 90.00 would be 1.

except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin. Also note that days of the weeks and months of the year are all masculine and not capitalized in French. as in "le lundi") 11.Saturday Sunday day week today yesterday tomorrow samedi dimanche le jour la semaine aujourd'hui hier demain sahm-dee dee-mahnsh luh zhoor lah suh-men oh-zhoor-dwee ee-air duh-mahn Note: Articles are not used before days. Seasons / Les saisons Summer l'été Fall Winter Spring l'automne l'hiver lay-tay loh-tohn lee-vair in the summer en été in the fall in the winter en automne en hiver awn ay-tay aw noh-tohn aw nee-vair le printemps luh prahn-tawn in the spring au printemps oh prahn-tawn 13. 12. except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day." use en before the month as in "en mai. such as "on Monday. such as "in May." (you would use le before the day. Directions / Les directions ." With dates. Months of the Year / Les mois de l'année January February March April May June July August September October November December Month Year janvier février mars avril mai juin juillet août septembre octobre novembre décembre le mois zhan-vee-ay fay-vree-ay marz ah-vril may-ee zhwahn zhwee-ay oot sep-tawm-bruh ahk-toh-bruh noh-vawm-bruh day-sawm-bruh luh mwah l'an / l'année lawn/law-nay Note: To express in a certain month. the ordinal numbers are not used.

bad cool cold warm. Almost all adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they modify (except marron and orange. 15. verte is the feminine form. nouns and adjectives have a gender. Colors and Shapes / Les couleurs et les formes Red rouge roozh oh-rahnzh zhohn vehr/t bluh poo-pruh vee-oh-leh/lett square circle triangle le carré le cercle le triangle kah-ray sair-kluh tree-awn-gluh Orange orange Yellow jaune Green Blue Purple White Brown Black Pink Gold Silver Gray vert/e bleu/e pourpre violet/te rectangle le rectangle ruhk-tawn-gluh oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon box l'ovale le cube la sphère le cylindre le cône l'octogone une boîte loh-vahl kewb sfair see-lahn-druh kohn ok-toh-gohn bwaht blanc/he blawn/sh brun/e marron noir/e rose doré/e brahn/brewn mah-rohn nwahr roze doh-ray argenté/e ahr-zhawn-tay gris/e gree/z Note: In French. hot cloudy beautiful mild stormy Il fait bon. Weather / Le temps What's the weather like? Quel temps fait-il? kell tawn fay-teel It's nice.North le nord luh nor South le sud luh sewd East l'est lest West l'ouest lwest 14. as well as colors that are modified with the words clair-light and foncé-dark) and most are placed after the noun. Un carré brun would be a brown square and une boîte noire would be a black box. Il fait mauvais Il fait frais Il fait froid Il fait chaud Il fait nuageux Il fait beau Il fait doux Il fait orageux eel fay bohn moh-vay fray fwah shoh noo-ah-zhuh boh dooh oh-rah-zhuh . Ex: vert/e = vert is the masculine form of green.

Time / Le temps What time is it? It is. maman la belle-mère le père. pa-pa .) 17.. Family and Animals / La famille et les animaux Family Relatives Grand-parents Parents Mom Stepmother/Mother-in-Law Dad la famille des parents les grands-parents les parents la mère. papa fah-mee pahr-awn grawn-pahr-awn pahr-awn mehr... du is often not said. In Canada. but in France it is common.. 16.sunny windy foggy snowing raining freezing Il fait (du) soleil Il fait du vent Il neige Il pleut Il gèle eel fay (dew) so-lay vawn eel nezh pluh zhell Il fait du brouillard broo-ee-yar Note: The du in "il fait (du) soleil" is optional. une heure deux heures midi minuit une heure précise quatre heures précises midi (minuit) et demi six heures et demie cinq heures vingt onze heures moins dix du matin du soir kell urr ay-teel eel ay oon urr duh zurr mee-dee meen-wee twa zurr ay car oon urr pray-sees ka-truh urr pray-sees meee-dee (meen-wee) ay duh-mee see zurr ay duh-mee sank urr vahn ohnz urr mwan dees doo mah-tahn duh lah-pray mih-dee doo swahr a quarter after three trois heures et quart sept heures moins le quart set urr mwahn luh car in the afternoon/PM de l'après-midi Note: Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock. ma-ma bell-mehr pehr. one o'clock two o'clock noon midnight one o'clock sharp four o'clock sharp twelve thirty six thirty a quarter to seven five twenty ten fifty in the morning/AM in the evening/PM Quelle heure est-il? Il est.

Stepfather/Father-in-Law Daughter Son Sister Half/Step Sister Sister-in-Law Brother Half/Step Brother Brother-in-Law Stepson/Son-in-Law Twins (m) Twins (f) Uncle Aunt Grandmother Grandfather Cousin (f) Cousin (m) Wife Husband Woman Man Girl Boy Niece Nephew Grandchildren Granddaughter Grandson Distant Relatives Single Married Separated Divorced Widower / Widow Dog Cat Puppy Kitten Pig Rooster le beau-père la fille le fils la sœur la demi-sœur la belle-sœur le frère le demi-frère le beau-frère le beau-fils les jumeaux les jumelles l'oncle la tante la grand-mère le grand-père la cousine le cousin la femme le mari la femme l'homme la fille le garçon la nièce le neveu les petits-enfants la petite-fille le petit-fils célibataire marié(e) séparé(e) divorcé(e) veuf / veuve boh-pehr fee feess sir duh-mee-sir bell-sir bell-fee frehr duh-mee-frehr boh-frair boh-feess zhoo-moh zhoo-mell ohnk-luh tawnt grawn-mehr grawn-pehr koo-zeen koo-zahn fawn mah-ree fawn ohm fee gar-sohn nee-ess nuh-vuh puh-tee-zawn-fawn puh-teet fee puh-tee feez say-lee-bah-tair mah-ree-ay say-pah-ray dee-vor-say vuhf / vuhv Stepdaughter/Daughter-in-Law la belle-fille des parents éloignés pahr-awn zay-lwawn-yay le chien / la chienne shee-ahn / shee-enn le chat / la chatte le chiot le chaton le cochon le coq shah / shaht shee-oh shah-tohn koh-shohn kohk .

Formation of Plural Nouns To make a noun plural. some weird exceptions: un œil (eye) . I know your brother. Je sais que ton frère s'appelle Jean. savoir is used when you know facts. bus boat horse knee Sing. Tu sais où Grenoble se trouve. nous connaissons Grenoble. Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -s. change it to -aux. add nothing. we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. 19. . But there are some exceptions: If a noun already ends in an -s. Je connais ton frère. and un jeune homme (a young man) .Rabbit Cow Horse Duck Goat Goose Sheep Lamb Donkey Mouse le lapin la vache le cheval le canard la chèvre l'oie le mouton l'agneau l'âne la souris lah-pahn vahsh chuh-val kah-nahr shev-ruh lwah moo-tohn lon-yoh lon soo-ree 18. You know where Grenoble is located. le bus le bateau le cheval le genou Plural les bus les bateaux les chevaux les genoux There are.des jeunes gens (young men). They know how to swim. add an x. To Know People and Places connaître-to know people (koh-net-truh) connais koh-neh connaissons koh-nezz-ohn connais koh-neh connaissez koh-nezz-ay savoir-to know facts (sahv-wahr) sais sais sait say say say savons savez savent sah-vohn sav-ay sahv connaît koh-neh connaissent koh-nezz Note: Connaître is used when you know people or places. Ils savent nager. you usually add an -s. le ciel (sky) . If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail. of course. Connaissez-vous Grenoble? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? Oui. I know that your brother is named John. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how.des yeux (eyes).les cieux (skies). If a noun ends in -eu or -eau. Yes.

ta sa votre leur Plural tes ses nos (noh) vos leurs (luhr) ma (mah) mes (may) His/Her/Its son votre leur (luhr) notre (noh-truh) notre Note: Possessive pronouns go before the take a walk faire une voyage . mais notre sœur est célibataire. but our sister is single. His grandmother is a act deaf / innocent faire le (subject in school) . Ce sont vos petits-enfants? These are your grandchildren? Mes parents sont divorcés. Their cousins are do the housework faire la cuisine .to exercise faire attention . To Do or Make Faire-to do. My parents are pay attention faire la queue . Sa grand-mère est veuve. C'est ma mère et mon pè do the dishes faire une promenade . make (fair) fais fay faisons fezz-ohn fais fay faites fait fay font fett fohnt Faire is used in expressions of weather (il fait beau) and many other idiomatic expressions: faire de (a sport) . This is my mother and my father. Possessive Adjectives Masc. Our brother is run errands faire des achats . Notre frère est marié. even though amie is stand in line . Ton oncle est architecte. you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of do the cooking faire la lessive . When a feminine noun begins with a play (a sport) faire le sourd / l'innocent . My Your Our Your Their mon (mohn) ton go shopping faire de l'exercice .to do laundry faire la vaisselle . isn't he? Leurs cousines sont do / study (subject) faire le ménage .to take a trip faire les courses . n'est-ce pas? Your uncle is an architect. Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie. 21.

Work and School Masculine architect accountant judge business peron baker hair dresser computer programmer secretary electrician mechanic cook salesperson fire fighter plumber librarian police officer reporter factory worker banker lawyer postal worker carpenter engineer doctor nurse pharmacist psychologist dentist veterinarian taxi driver writer teacher l'architecte le comptable le juge l'homme d'affaires le boulanger le coiffeur le programmeur le secrétaire l'électricien le mécanicien le cuisinier le vendeur le pompier le plombier le bibliothécaire l'agent de police le journaliste l'ouvrier le banquier l'avocat le facteur le charpentier l'ingénieur le médecin l'infirmier le pharmacien le psychologue le dentiste le vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivain l'instituteur lar-shee-tekt kohn-tahbl zhoozh lohn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur proh-grah-mur suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyahn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur Feminine l'architecte la comptable la juge la femme d'affaires la boulangère la coiffeuse lar-shee-tekt kohn-tabl zhoozh fahn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur la programmeuse proh-grah-mur la secrétaire l'électricien la mécanicienne la cuisinière la vendeuse le pompier le plombier la bibliothécaire l'agent de police la journaliste l'ouvrière la banquière l'avocate la factrice le charpentier l'ingénieure la médecine l'infirmière le pharmacienne la psychologue la dentiste la vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivaine l'institutrice suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyenn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur .22.

) Où est-ce que vous faites les études? Where do you study? Je vais à l'université de Michigan. unless they are preceded by an adjective. Qu'est-ce que vous étudiez? What do you study? . I am a student (masc. Qu'est-ce que vous faites dans la vie? What do you do for a living? Je suis avocate. I am a lawyer. There are also words that are always feminine (such as la victime) even if the person is a man. Math Algebra Calculus Geometry Economics les mathématiques l'algèbre le calcul la géométrie maht-ee-mah-teek lal-zheb kahl-kool zhay-oh-may-tree les sciences économiques see-awns ay-kon-oh-meek lawn zay-trawn-zhair lahn-gee-steek lee-tay-rah-tur fee-loh-soh-fee p-see-kol-oh-zhee see-awns poh-lee-teek ees-twahr zhay-oh-grahf-ee fees-eek bee-ol-oh-zhee shee-mee zoh-ol-oh-zhee boh-tah-neek zahr mew-zeek dahns duh-sahn pahn-tur ahn-for-mah-teek teck-no-loh-zhee lay-dew-kah-see-ohn fee-zeek Foreign Languages les langues étrangères Linguistics Literature Philosophy Psychology Political Science History Geography Physics Biology Chemistry Zoology Botany Art Music Dance Drawing Painting la linguistique la littérature la philosophie la psychologie les sciences politiques l'histoire (f) la géographie la physique la biologie la chimie la zoologie la botanique les arts la musique la danse le dessin la peinture Computer Science l'informatique Technology la technologie Physical Education l'éducation physique (f) Notice that you do not use an indefinite article before professions. I go to the university of Michigan. even if the person is a woman.) Je suis professeur. I study at the University of Toronto. Je suis étudiant. I am a professor. (fem. Je fais mes études à l'université de Toronto.professor student le professeur l'étudiant proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awn le professeur l'étudiante proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awnt Note: Notice that some professions are always masculine.

She thanks me with a smile. 24.) In: Dans vs. à is used when referring to someone's attributes. de is used in phrases of manner and in many idiomatic expressions. les mains dans les poches. 23. no extra word is used. He walks with his hands in his pockets. Je pars dans quinze minutes. I'm going to France with my sister. while en shows the length of time an action takes. With: Avec vs. The man with the red hair is very tall. My major is biology. I'm leaving in 15 minutes. Countries and Nationalities / Les pays and les nationalités . Je vais en France avec ma sœur.Quelles matières étudiez-vous? What subjects do you study? J'étudie les langues étrangères et la linguistique. Prepositions and Contractions among at / to / in at the house of between for parmi par-mee à chez ah shay entre on-truh pour poohr duh dawn sir ah-veck sawn from / of / about de in on with without à + le = au de + le = du oh dans sur avec sans Prepositional Contractions at / to / in the at / to / in the (pl. Il marche. Ma spécialization est la biologie. tout est simple. I study foreign languages and linguistics. Chez Avec implies doing something or going along with someone. Elle me remercie d'un sourire. He can read this book in a half hour. Il peut lire ce livre en une demi-heure. Je fais des mathématiques. De vs. everything is simple.) à + les = aux oh dew of / from / about the de + les = des day of / from / about the (pl. En Dans is used to show the time when an action will begin. Chez cet enfant. A vs. L'homme aux cheveux roux est très grand." To describe the way a person carries him/herself. With this child. I study/do math. and chez is used to mean "as far as (person) is concerned.

To make them plural. and singular vs. I am from Canada. they must agree with the subject of the verb (masculine vs. then add nothing. feminine.) The masculine forms of the nationalities are also used to signify the language. however. just add an -s (unless it already ends in an -s.) Je ne suis pas suisse. And when you are replying "yes" to a negative question. Je suis française.France Switzerland Italy Germany Spain Belgium Netherlands China England Russia Poland Canada Mexico Japan Portugal Brazil Sweden Norway Finland Denmark Greece Austria Australia Africa India Ireland la France la Suisse l'Italie l'Allemagne l'Espagne la Belgique les Pays-Bas la Chine l'Angleterre la Russie la Pologne le Canada le Mexique le Japon le Portugal le Brésil la Suède la Norvège la Finlande le Danemark la Grèce l'Autriche l'Australie l'Afrique l'Inde l'Irlande frahns sweess lee-tah-lee lahl-mawn-yuh leh-spawn-yuh bell-zheek pay-ee-bah sheen lawn-gluh-tair roo-see poh-lohn-yuh kah-nah-dah meks-eek zhap-ohn pore-tew-gahl bray-zeel ay-tah-zew-nee soo-ed nor-vehzh feen-lahnd dahn-mark grehs loh-treesh loh-strah-lee lah-freek lahnd leer-lawnd français/e suisse italien/ne allemand/e espagnol/e belge chinois/e anglais/e russe polonais/e mexicain/e japonais/e portugais/e brésilien/ne américain/e suèdois/e finlandais/e danois/e frawn-say/sez sweess ee-tahl-ee-awn/enn ahl-mawn/d es-pan-yohl belzh sheen-wah/wez bree-tahn-eek an-glay/ez rewss poh-lon-ay/ez mek-see-kahn/enn zhah-poh-nay/nez por-tew-gay/gez bray-zeel-ee-awn/enn ah-may-ree-kahn/kenn soo-ed-wah/wez feen-lan-day/dez dahn-wah/wez hollandais/e oh-lawn-day/dehz Great Britain la Grande-Bretagne grahnd bruh-tawn-yuh britannique canadien/ne kah-nah-dee-awn/enn United States les États-Unis norvègien/ne nor-vehzh-ee-awn/enn grec/grecque grek autrichien/ne oh-trees-ee-awn/enn australien/ne oh-strahl-ee-awn/enn africain/e indien/ne irlandais/e ah-free-kahn/kenn ahn-dee-ahn/enn eer-lahn-day/dez Note: When the nationalities are used as adjectives. I am not Swiss. the ne is frequently omitted. I am French (feminine. you use si and not oui.) 25. (masculine or feminine) . I am not from Mexico. And the definite article is not used before a language when it follows the verb parler (to speak. Je ne suis pas du Mexique. plural. Je suis du Canada. Negative Sentences To make sentences negative. In spoken French.) The extra ending shown above is added to signify a feminine subject. but it cannot be omitted in written French. simply put ne and pas around the verb.

to get. Louisiane. w/ Vowel Masc. Pennsylvanie. They are not from Portugal. To Come and to Go Venir-to come (vuh-neer) viens vee-ahn venons viens vee-ahn venez vuh-nohn vuh-nay Aller-to go (ah-lay) vais vay allons ah-lohn vas va vah allez vah vont ah-lay vohn vient vee-ahn viennent vee-enn Other verbs that are conjugated like venir: tenir . obtenir . revenir . She is not Danish. Prepositions with American States To / In Feminine Islands Masc. To / In and From places. The exception to the masculine beginning with a consonant rule is Texas: in / to Texas is au Texas. 26. and Virginie are the feminine states. the gender is feminine. Yes. à la de la Vowel à l' de l' Plural aux des Cities à à à de de d' Countries au en en du de d' aux des aux des If the name of a country. Je parle chinois et japonais. Vous n'êtes pas du Brésil? You aren't from Brazil? Si. devenir . and countries Places Masc. Géorgie. it is masculine. 27. He is Australian. Elle n'est pas danoise. we are from Brazil. such as La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans). I don't speak Swedish. nous sommes du Brésil. Elles sont des Etats-Unis. I speak Chinese and Japanese. They are from the United States. Floride. If it ends in anything else. state or province ends with an become. au du Fem.Il est australien. hold. Some cities have an article as well. w/ Consonant en à dans le From de de / d' du en / dans l' d' / de l' Californie. . le Zaïre and le come back. Ils ne sont pas du Portugal. le Maine. cities. Caroline du Nord / Sud. continent. le Mexique. Je ne parle pas suèdois. The exceptions are le Cambodge.

these three English present tenses are all translated by the present indicative tense in French. The verb before it is conjugated is called the infinitive. He's holding a pencil. I do run. etc.) and the emphatic (I do write." Ils vont aller en Angleterre. I run.) The present indicative tense indicates an ongoing action. Venir de + an infinitive means "to have just done something. general state. etc. -er -e -ons -re -s -ons -s -ez -ent 1st -ir -is -issons -is -issez -it -issent 2nd -ir* -s -ons -s -ez -t -ent -es -ez -e -ent Sample Regular Verbs aimer -to like. -re. I come from the United States. I see). I'm fine. Comment vas-tu? How are you? Je vais bien. Nous allons en Espagne. use the stem and add the following endings. To conjugate verbs in the present tense. They are going to go to England. or -ir. I'm going to become a sell vends vawn vendons vawn-dohn vends vawn vendez vend vawn-day vawn vendent vawn finir . Vous venez de manger une pomme. He just went to Finland. You just ate an apple. Elle va parler russe. Je vais devenir professeur. Conjugating Regular Verbs in the Present Indicative Tense Verbs in French end in -er. aim. I am finish finis finis finit fee-nee finissons fee-nee-sohn fee-nee finissez fee-nee-say pars pars part partir .) However. Il tient un the stem. there are two other forms of the present tense in English: the progressive (I am writing. Removing the last two letters leaves you with the stem (aimer is the infinitive. You're not going to Brazil this summer. Aller is also used idiomatically when talking about health. We're going to Spain. She's going to speak Russian. Tu ne vas pas au Brésil cet été.Je viens des Etats-Unis. or habitual activity." Il vient d'aller à la leave pahr partons pahr partez pahr partent pahr-tohn pahr-tay pahrt fee-nee finissent fee-neess Regular verbs -er -re . Besides the simple present tense (I write. Aller + an infinitive means "going to do something. love j'aime zhem aimes em aime em aimons aimez aiment em-ohn em-ay em vendre . 28.

Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs These verbs are conjugated like normal verbs. love to sing to look for vendre attendre entendre perdre vawn-druh ah-tawn-druh awn-tawn-druh pair-druh to sell to wait for to listen to lose commencer koh-mawn-say to begin donner étudier fermer habiter jouer manger montrer parler penser travailler trouver dohn-nay to give répondre (à) ray-pohn-druh (ah) to answer descendre deh-sawn-druh 1st -ir bâtir finir choisir punir remplir obéir (à) réussir guérir bah-teer fee-neer shwa-zeer poo-neer rawn-pleer oh-bay-eer (ah) ray-oo-seer gay-reer to build to finish to choose to punish to fill to obey to succeed to cure.) 29. The pronouns are: me nous te vous se se Some Pronominal Verbs s'amuser se lever se laver se peigner s'habiller se marier to have fun to get up se reposer to rest se souvenir de to remember se coucher se brosser se maquiller se casser to go to bed to brush to put on makeup to break (arm.aimer chanter chercher em-ay shahn-tay share-shay to like. feel) and servir (to serve. dormir (to sleep). Je vais me coucher maintenant. Ex: Je réponds au téléphone. Other verbs like partir are sortir (to go out). heal to go down ay-too-dee-ay to study fehr-may ah-bee-tay zhoo-ay mawn-zhay mohn-tray par-lay pawn-say trah-vy-yay troo-vay to close to live to play to eat to show to speak to think to work to find Note: If a verb is followed by à (like répondre) you have to use the à and any contractions after the conjugated verb. Most indicate a reflexive action but some are idiomatic and can't be translated literally. leg. but they require an extra pronoun before the verb. etc. I'm going to go to bed. * The 2nd -ir verbs are considered irregular sometimes because there are only a few verbs which follow that pattern. such as after another verb. sentir (to smell.) to wash (oneself) s'entendre bien to get along well to comb to get dressed to get married se dépêcher to hurry Note: When used in the infinitive. the reflexive pronoun agrees with the subject of the sentence. mentir (to lie). .

to sit down je m'assieds mah-see-ay nous nous asseyons noo-zah-say-ohn tu t'assieds tah-see-ay vous vous asseyez il s'assied sah-see-ay ils s'asseyent vous-zah-say-yay sah-say-ee 30. The nous form of commencer isn't commencons.Sample Irregular Pronominal Verb s'asseoir . essayer-to try (ess-ah-yay) envoyer-to send j'envoie zhawn-vwah envoyons awn-vwah-yohn envoies awn-vwah envoie awn-vwah envoyez awn-vwah-yay envoient awn-vwah . give. acheter-to buy achètes ah-shet achète ah-shet achetez ahsh-tay espérer-to hope espères ess-pehr espère ess-pehr espérez ess-pay-ray j'achète zhah-shet achetons ahsh-tohn j'espère zhess-pehr espérons ess-pay-rohn achètent ah-shet espèrent ess-pehr 3. couvrir-to cover. but commençons. Verbs that add or change to an accent grave: Some verbs add or change to an accent grave (è) in all the forms except the nous and vous. The e has to stay so the g can retain the soft sound. offrir-to offer j'offre zhaw-fruh offrons aw-frohn offres aw-fruh offre aw-fruh offrez aw-fray offrent aw-fruh 4. manger-to eat mange mawnzh mangeons mawnzhohn mawn-zhay mawnzh commence commences commence commencer-to begin kohmawnz kohmawnz kohmawnz commençons commencez koh-mawnsohn koh-mawnsay manges mawnzh mangez mange mawnzh mangent commencent koh-mawnz 2. Examples: envoyer-to send (awn-vwah-yay). ouvrir-to open. but mangeons. Verbs that end in -ger and -cer: The nous form of manger isn't mangons. nettoyer-to clean (nuh-twah-yay). découvrir-to discover and souffrir-to suffer. Verbs that end in -yer: Change the y to an i in all forms except the nous and vous. Verbs that are conjugated as -er verbs: Some -ir verbs are conjugated with -er endings. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 1. The c must have the accent (called a cedilla) under it to make the c sound soft. For example: offrir-to offer.

or does happen now. To make it negative. Il n'a pas répondu. you have to use the passé composé. which expresses what happens. and jeter-to throw double the consonant in all forms except the nous and vous. The Past Indefinite Tense or Passé Composé You have learned the present indicative so far. He didn't answer (or hasn't answered) . Elles n'ont pas rempli les tasses. You lived here? We finished (or have finished) the project. They didn't fill (or haven't filled) the glasses. Verbs that double the consonant: Some verbs.(zheh-tay) 5. 32. Il a répondu au téléphone. but if you want to say something happened. is happening. and as a result or consequence of another action. Irregular Past Participles avoir to have eu (ew) connu cru had known believed ouvrir offrir pouvoir to open to offer ouvert (oovehr) offert opened offered was connaître to know croire to believe to be able to pu . Regular Verbs: Formation of the Past Participle -er -é -re -u -ir -i Then conjugate avoir and add the past participle: J'ai aimé le concert. or has happened. The passé composé is used for actions that happened only once. appeler-to call j'appelle zhah-pell appelons ahp-lohn appelles ah-pell appelle ah-pell appelez ahp-lay appellent ah-pell 31. put the ne and pas around the conjugated form of avoir. a specified number of times or during a specified period of time. Tu as habité ici? Nous avons fini le projet. I liked the concert. All you need to learn are the past participles of the verbs. They filled (or have filled) the cups. I didn't like the concert. Elles ont rempli les tasses. such as appeler-to call (ahp-lay). Je n'ai pas aimé le concert. He answered (or has answered) the telephone.

Vous can have any of the endings. Conjugation of a Pronominal Verb Je me suis amusé(e) Nous nous sommes amusé(e)s Tu t'es amusé(e) Il s'est amusé Elle s'est amusée Vous vous êtes amusé(e)(s) Ils se sont amusés Elles se sont amusées . mourirmort. make to read to put dit écrit été fait lu mis (me) permis had to said written been made read put permitted promised prendre apprendre comprendre surprendre recevoir rire savoir voir vouloir to take to learn to understand to surprise to receive to laugh to know to see to want pris (pree) appris compris surpris reçu (rehsew) ri su vu voulu (voolew) taken learned understood surprised received laughed known seen wanted permettre to permit promettre to promise promis 33. And five of these verbs. and naître-né. Conjugation of an être verb Je suis resté(e) Nous sommes resté(e)s Tu es resté(e) Il est resté Vous êtes resté(e)(s) Ils sont restés Elle est restée Elles sont restées You add the e for feminine and s for to devoir dire écrire être faire lire mettre to have to dû to tell to write to be to do. and they must agree in gender and number with the subject. descendre. Elle a rentré le livre à la bibliothèque. revenir-revenu. The house verbs are: aller-to go arriver-to arrive entrer-to enter sortir-to go out partir-to leave tomber-to fall venir-to come devenir-to become revenir-to come back mourir-to die monter-to go up rester-to stay rentrer-to return home naître-to be born passer-to go by (pass) descendre-to go down Most have regular past participles. and passer can sometimes be conjugated with avoir if they are used with a direct object. except venir-venu. monter. Etre Verbs Sixteen "house" verbs and all pronominal verbs are conjugated with être. She returned the book to the library. sortir. rentrer. devenir-devenu.

34. se sourire. se demander. Food and Meals / La Nourriture et Les Repas Breakfast Lunch Dinner Cup Slice Bowl Glass Fork Spoon Knife Plate Napkin Ice cream Juice Fruit Cheese Chicken Egg Cake Pie Milk Coffee Butter Water Ham Fish Tea Salad Jam Meat French fries Beer Wine le petit déjeuner puh-tee day-zhew-nay le déjeuner le dîner la tasse la tranche le bol le verre la fourchette la cuillère le couteau l'assiette (f) la serviette la glace le jus le fruit le fromage le poulet l'œuf (m) le gâteau la tarte le lait le café le beurre l'eau le jambon le poisson le thé la salade la confiture la viande les frites (f) la bière le vin day-zhew-nay dee-nay tahss trawnsh bohl verr foor-shett kwee-yehr koo-toh ah-syett ser-vyett glahss zhew fwee froh-mawzh poo-lay luff gah-toh tart leh kah-fay burr loh zham-bohn pwah-sohn tay sah-lahd kon-fee-chur vee-awnd freet bee-ehr vahn Salt and Pepper le sel et le poivre luh sell ay luh pwahv-ruh . 2. With verbs where the reflexive pronoun is an indirect object.There are only two cases with pronominal verbs where the past participle does not agree: 1. and se téléphoner. Compare: Elles se sont lavées. but elles se sont lavé les mains. When the pronominal verb is followed by a direct object. Ils se sont téléphoné. such as se parler. se dire. s'écrire.

Vegetables and Meat fruit apple apricot banana blueberry cherry coconut date fig grape grapefruit lemon lime melon olive orange peach pear pineapple plum prune raisin raspberry un fruit une pomme un abricot une banane une myrtille une cerise une noix de coco une date une figue un raisin un pamplemousse un citron un limon un melon une olive une orange une pêche une poire un ananas une prune un pruneau un raisin sec une framboise fwee pohm ah-bree-koh bah-nahn meer-tee suh-reez corn cucumber eggplant lettuce mushroom onion le maïs un concombre une aubergine la laitue un champignon un oignon les pois un piment une citrouille le riz des épinards une courge une tomate un navet des courgettes une viande du lard. bah-kohn beef-teck poo-lay kah-nar shev-ruh zhahm-bohn awn-yoh fwah boo-lett duh veeawnd kote-lett duh pork lah-pahn kote duh buf so-seess dahnd voh shuv-ruh-ee nwah duh kohpeas koh daht feeg reh-zahn pahm-pluhmoos see-trohn lee-mohn mel-ohn oh-leev oh-ranzh pesh pwahr ah-nah-nah prewn proo-noh reh-zahn sek frez pah-stek leh-goom ar-tee-sho ahs-pehrzh bett-rahv broh-coh-lee shoo cah-roht shoo-flir pepper potato pumpkin rice spinach squash tomato turnip zucchini meat bacon beef chicken duck goat lamb liver meatballs pork chop rabbit T-bone steak sausage turkey veal venison une pomme de terre pohm duh tehr frwahm-bwahz ham strawberry une fraise watermelon une pastèque vegetable artichoke une légume un artichaut asparagus des asperges beet broccoli cabbage carrot une betterave le brocoli un chou une carotte cauliflower un chou-fleur . du bacon le bifteck un poulet un canard une chèvre le jambon l'agneau le foie des boulettes de viande une côtelette de porc un lapin une côte de bœuf la saucisse une dinde le veau un chevreuil mah-eez cohn-cohn-bruh oh-behr-zheen leh-tew shahm-peenyohn wawn-yohn pwah pee-mawn see-troo-ee reez ay-pee-nar koorzh to-maht nah-vay koor-zhett vee-awnd lar. Fruits.Sugar Soup le sucre le potage soo-kruh poh-tawzh 35.

Je voudrais un morceau de tarte. He is eating some meat. Boire is literally the verb to drink and is also used in a general sense only. Eat or Drink Prendre-to take." the French translation is "Je prends du understand and surprendre . Je bois du vin tout le temps. such as Je mange le poulet tous les samedis. Nous prenons du riz et du brocoli. many plus de a glass of un bouquet de Note: With quantities and negatives. but no fruit. Il prend de la viande. eat or drink (prawn-druh) prends prends prend prawn prawn prawn prenons prenez prennent pruh-nohn pru-nay prenn Boire-to drink (bwahr) bois bwah buvons bew-vohn bois bwah buvez bew-vay boit bwah boivent bwahv Other verbs that are conjugated like prendre: apprendre . We are having some rice and broccoli. you never use partitives. I would like one piece of pie. Commands . l'.to surprise. mais pas de fruit. I eat chicken every Saturday. Je voudrais prendre du fromage. I would like to have some cheese. I drink wine all the time. 38. or les and the proper contractions (called partitives) because in French you must also express some. Est-ce que je peux prendre un verre de vin? May I have a glass of wine? Je prends du vin. I'm drinking some wine. Note: When you want to say "I am having wine. Il y a trop de lait dans la tasse. la. There is too much milk in the cup." but manger is used in a general sense. Manger is a regular verb meaning "to eat. So "je prends de la bière" literally means "I am having some beer" even though in English we would usually only say I am having learn. To Take. 37." You must use de and le. comprendre . Je ne prends pas de vin.celery un céléri say-lay-ree 36. Quantities assez de une assiette de beaucoup de une boîte de enough (of) un morceau de a piece of a plate of a lot of a box of un peu de une tasse de a little (bit) of a cup of une douzaine de a dozen of un paquet de un panier de une poignée de a packet of a basket of a handful of more a bunch of une tranche de a slice of trop de un verre de une bouteille de a bottle of un kilo de a kilo of too much. The construction is always de or d' + noun. I am not drinking any wine.

She hates no one..nor ne...rien ne.que ne. all articles are dropped except definite articles.....personne nobody ne. You were not bored.. the pronoun is placed after the verb connected by a hyphen... We want to go shopping only on no longer never nothing only neither.que is placed directly before the noun it limits. (Or: He doesn't like to work anymore) Nous ne voulons faire des achats que lundi. and ne.nulle part nowhere The negatives are used exactly like ne. as in Ne nous reposons pas..rien Ne comes before auxiliary Irregular Command Forms être (be) tu sois swah tu avoir (have) aie ay tu savoir (know) sache sahsh nous soyons swah-yohn nous ayons ay-yohn nous sachons sah-shohn vous soyez swah-yay vous ayez ay-yay vous sachez sah-shay Ne sois pas méchant à ta sœur! Don't be mean to your sister! N'ayez pas peur! Don't be afraid! Sachez les mots pour l'examen demain! Know the words for the exam tomorrow! 39... Elle ne déteste personne....jamais. (Or: She doesn't hate anyone.... Rien and personne may be used as subjects: Personne n'est ici. Tu te dépêches becomes Dépêche-toi! And in negative commands... Note: With using pronominal verbs as commands. Vous ne vous êtes pas ennuyés.. ne. but Regarde! Watch! drop -s for -er verbs Same as verb form Allons! Let's go! Nous form Let's. Aucun(e) by definition is singular.. the pronoun precedes the Negatives with Passé Composé 1. Je n'ai ni caméra ni caméscope.pas... Ne.aucun(e) not a single one .Use the vous.jamais ne. Nous n'avons rien fait.. More Negatives ne. ne. He no longer likes to work. Il n'aime plus travailler. With ni. and the other part is between auxiliary and past participle. but Je n'aime ni les chats ni les chiens.pas. so the verb and nouns must also be changed to the singular.. but que in ne. Vous form Tu form Polite and Plural Same as verb form Familiar Restez! Stay! Same as verb form.. tu and nous forms for commands. We did nothing..

de la tyrannie. Amour sacré de la Patrie. Le jour de gloire est arrivé.. then nothing changes. It's a brown cat. l'étendard sanglant est levé. Sous nos drapeaux. soutiens nos bras vengeurs.) Partitive: Je prends du pain et du beurre..nulle part. Conduis... ne. que Ne comes before the auxiliary verb. vos compagnes. and ne. liberté chérie. Holiday Phrases Merry Christmas Happy New Year Happy Thanksgiving Happy Easter Happy Halloween Happy Birthday Joyeux Noël Bonne Année Joyeuses Pâques Bonne Halloween Bon Anniversaire zhoy-uh no-ell bun ah-nay zhoy-uhss pawk bun ah-loh-ween bun sahnt-val-awn-tahn bohn ahn-nee-vair-sair Bonne Action de grâces bun ak-see-ohn de grahss Happy Valentine's Day Bonne Saint-Valentin The French National Anthem: La Marseillaise by Claude-Joseph Rouget de L'isle Allons enfants de la ne... Liberté.. Marchons.. I have a dog. Entendez-vous dans les campagnes Mugir ces farouches soldats.. L'étendard sanglant est levé. the partitives and indefinite articles become de before the noun (unless the verb is être. ne. que la victoire Accoure à tes mâles accents.2. Combats avec tes défenseurs. Il n'a fait aucune faute.personne. Il n'a écouté personne. It's not a brown cat. Que tes ennemis expirants Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire! Aux armes citoyens! Formez vos bataillons. marchons! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos Negative: Je n'ai pas de chien. . I'm having some bread and butter. Marchons.aucun. Ne. marchons! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos sillons.. Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras égorger vos fils. Verb is être: C'est une chatte brune. * Use of ne . Negative: Ce n'est pas une chatte brune. I don't have a dog. Aux armes citoyens! Formez vos bataillons.. but the other part is after the past participle. He made not a single mistake. Contre nous. 40. He listened to no one. Negative: Je ne prends pas de pain ou de beurre. Indefinite: J'ai un chien. I am not having any bread or butter. pas de: In negative sentences.

de foi trempée. what myriads bid you rise: Your children. see their tears and hear their cries! Shall hateful tyrants mischief breeding with hireling hosts. wives and grandsires hoary. O Canada. great and glorious. Soon thy sons shall be victorious When the banner high is raised. ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death. Fight with Freedom on their side. while peace and liberty lie bleeding? To arms. Shall behold thy triumph. We stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada. to arms. Th'avenging arm uphold and guide Thy defenders. To arms. we stand on guard for thee. we stand on guard for thee. Behold their tears and hear their cries. . Car ton bras sait porter l'épée. O sacred love of france. Protégera nos foyers et nos droits. Il sait porter la croix. death defying. Ton histoire est une épopée Des plus brillants exploits. amazed. And thy dying enemies. Translation by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1st verse) and Mary Elizabeth Shaw (2nd verse) (This is not a literal translation. O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command.) The Canadian National Anthem: O Canada O Canada. Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux. awake to glory. hark.Ye sons of France. ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death. a ruffian band Affright and desolate the land. terre de nos aïeux. O Canada. The True North strong and free! From far and wide. Hark. Et ta valeur. undying. to arms. With glowing hearts we see thee rise.