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Buyer Behaviour In Advertising Industry

Executive Summary In the advertising industry, the agency-client relationship recognises the association between an advertising agency and their client. The nature of this service is a high risk and high involvement purchase which makes the information search a crucial element of the buying process. Understanding the drivers of this buying behaviour will enable the agency to become more responsive to their clients needs and tailor their services to positively influence the relationship. The foundations for a successful agency-client relationship rely on understanding: 1. What are the key drivers of successful client retention? 2. Are these in line with the key success factors for new client attraction? In response to answering these questions, our report aims to investigate segmentation and buyer behavior within the advertising industry. The selection and retention criteria of advertising agencies can be described by three distinct elements: 1. Relationship Management: the chemistry between the client and agency and quality of account management. 2. Service Delivery: Technical and creative experience and the quality of the output. 3. Cost Management: Ability to manage client budget and justify spend through added value.

Automobile Industry
Automobile Industry, industry that produces automobiles and other gasoline-powered vehicles, such as buses, trucks, and motorcycles. The automobile industry is one of the most important industries in the world, affecting not only the economy but also the cultures of the world. It provides jobs for millions of people, generates billions of dollars in worldwide revenues, and provides the basis for a multitude of related service and support industries. Automobiles revolutionized transportation in the 20th century, changing forever the way people live, travel, and do business.

1.Tata motors
Tata Motors Limited is India's largest automobile company, with consolidated revenues of Rs. 92,519 crores (USD 20 billion) in 2009-10. It is the leader in commercial vehicles in each segment, and among the top three in passenger vehicles with winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle segments. The company is the world's fourth largest truck manufacturer, and the world's second largest bus manufacturer. The company's 24,000 employees are guided by the vision to be "best in the manner in which we operate, best in the products we deliver, and best in our value system and ethics." Established in 1945, Tata Motors' presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India. Over 5.9 million Tata vehicles ply on Indian roads, since the first rolled out in 1954. The company's manufacturing base in India is spread across Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Pune (Maharashtra), Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) and Dharwad (Karnataka). Following a strategic alliance with Fiat in 2005, it has set up an industrial joint venture with Fiat Group Automobiles at Ranjangaon (Maharashtra) to produce both Fiat and Tata cars and Fiat powertrains. The company is establishing a new plant at Sanand (Gujarat). The company's dealership, sales, services and spare parts network comprises over 3500 touch points; Tata Motors also distributes and markets Fiat branded cars in India.

Marketing stretegy
1. Product, Branding, and Advertising
Every business started from 0, from no one knows it until everyone know it. Advertising is one of the most common ways to make car buyer or car enthusiast aware of the new car with special promotion price. Another more important way of advertising is to create an image or brand image. Take BMW Z3 for example, it was introduced in 1996 and shortly the car has been used in the famous James Bond movie. This is similar to Nissan 350 Fairlady Z in the recent 2007 Fast and the Furious 3 – Tokyo Drift. Over the years Tata Motors have been successful in creating their brand image especially they use some famous stars as their spokesman.

Other important marketing strategies are such as the packaging, innovations, and quality control. Tata Motors provide many innovative features to attract car lover. One of these innovations is the Dicor that has ―Reverse Guide System‖. A weather-proof camera is fixed to the rear car to help the driver while reversing the car.

2. Pricing Strategy
There are various factors to determine a price of a car. These factors are such as market condition (it can‘t be too low or too high with the prices of same vehicle from competitors, it has to be at par), cost incurred to build a car, profit by company, dealer profit. Giving discount every month and special promotion for certain type of vehicle also one of the strong strategy use by Tata Motors. Discount can be made from Company‘s profit or from dealer‘s profit at certain range.

3. Place
Place of dealership does play an important role. The channel of distribution, physical location, and dealership method of distribution and sales is generally adopted. The distribution of vehicle must be in a very systematic way, from the plant to dealership and to end user. This is not only in India itself but also to the world-wide dealership.

4. Maintenance and Support
After sales service is also another important marketing strategy for most of the car buyer to choose for the right car. End user will not want to spend a lot of time to travel to a far place just to service the car such as change engine oil, oil filter and some simple checking. Parts and accessories must also easy to access when it is needed to keep the customer satisfy from buying Tata cars until maintaining the car or even until they sell the car and change to a newer Tata model.

Hero Honda
Hero Honda Motors Ltd. is the world's largest manufacturer of two – wheelers, based in India. The company is a joint venture between India's Hero Group and Honda Motor Company, Japan that began in 1984. In 2001, the company achieved the coveted position of being the largest two-wheeler manufacturing company in India and the ‗World No.1‘ two-wheeler company in terms of unit volume sales in a calendar year by a single company. Hero Honda has retained that coveted

position till date. Today, every second motorcycle sold in the country is a Hero Honda bike. Every 30 seconds, someone in India buys Hero Honda's top-selling motorcycle – Splendor.

Strategy Hero Honda‘s key strategy has been driven by innovation in every sphere of activity – building a robust product portfolio across categories, exploring new markets, aggressively expanding the network and continuing to invest in brand building activities. Brand The company has been continuously investing in brand building utilizing not only the new product launch and new campaign launch opportunities but also through innovative marketing initiatives revolving around cricket, entertainment and ground- level activation. Hero Honda has been actively promoting various sports such as hockey, cricket and golf. Hero Honda was the title sponsor of the Hero Honda FIH Hockey World Cup that was played in Delhi during Feb-March 2010. Hero Honda also partners the Commonwealth Games Delhi 2010.

Maruti Suzuki India
This is a publicly listed automaker in India. It is the largest automobile manufacturer in South Asia. Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan holds a majority stake in the company. It was the first company in India to mass-produce and sell more than a million cars. It is largely credited for having brought in an automobile revolution to India. It is the market leader in India and on 17 September 2007, Maruti Udyog Limited was renamed Maruti Suzuki India Limited. The company's headquarters are located in Delhi. Maruti Suzuki India Limited (MSIL, formerly named Maruti Udyog Limited) is a subsidiary of Suzuki Motor Corporation, Japan. MSIL has been the leader of the Indian car market for over two and a half decades. The company's two manufacturing facilities are located at Gurgaon and Manesar, south of New Delhi. The Manesar and Gurgaon facilities have a combined capability to produce over a million (1,000,000) passenger car units annually. Recently, the company has announced a further investment of Rs1,700 crore (Rs 17 billion) for enhancing the production capacity by 250,000 units annually. The company has a portfolio of 13 brands and over 150 variants across Maruti 800, Omni,

international brands Alto, A-star, WagonR, Swift, Ritz and Estilo, off-roader Gypsy, SUV Grand Vitara, sedans SX4 and Swift DZire and the newest entrant Eeco. At the end of March 2010, Maruti had a market share of 53.3 per cent of the Indian passenger car market (including C segment). The company sold a record 10,18,365 vehicles in 2009-10 including 1,47,575 units of exports.

FMCG INDUSTRY
Indian Fmcg Industry
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT India's fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector is the fourth largest sector in the economy. Its principal constituents are foods, personal care, fabric care and household products. The total FMCG market is in excess of US$ 17.36 billion and is set to treble from US$ 11.6 billion in 2003 to US$ 33.4 billion in 2015. The industry is characterized by a large unorganized sector, low penetration levels, wellestablished distribution network, low operating cost and lower per capita consumption. Most products are manufactured by simple manufacturing processes that require fairly low capital investments. This has made the proliferation of localized brands and products being offered in loose form possible in small towns and rural India where brand awareness is low. Brand building and product differentiation hence play a pivotal role in the success of a product in the FMCG sector. Consumer insighting and innovation assume great importance. Where innovation is low, smaller players are able to offer similar products at reasonable prices, making cost management another key to successful performance in the sector. While the penetration of some product categories is high, there are several product segments in which the consumer spends as a proportion of disposable income appears very low when compared to other emerging Asian economies. Improvement in incomes is likely to steadily drive increased consumption in packaged foods, personal care and household products.

HUL
HUL is a subsidiary of Unilever, one of the world‘s leading suppliers of fast moving consumer goods with strong local roots in more than 100 countries across the globe with annual sales of about €40 billion in 2009 Unilever has about 52% shareholding in HUL. Hindustan Unilever was recently rated among the top four companies globally in the list of ―Global Top Companies for Leaders‖ by a study sponsored by Hewitt Associates, in partnership with Fortune magazine and the RBL Group. The company was ranked number one in the AsiaPacific region and in India. The mission that inspires HUL's more than 15,000 employees, including over 1,400 managers, is to help people feel good, look good and get more out of life with brands and services that are good for them and good for others. It is a mission HUL shares with its parent company, Unilever, which holds about 52 % of the equity.

P&G
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is an American company based in Cincinnati, Ohio that manufactures a wide range of consumer goods. In India Proctor & Gamble has two subsidiaries: P&G Hygiene and Health Care Ltd. and P&G Home Products Ltd. P&G Hygiene and Health Care Limited is one of India's fastest growing Fast Moving Consumer Goods Companies with a turnover of more than Rs. 500 crores. It has in its portfolio famous brands like Vicks & Whisper. P&G Home Products Limited deals in Fabric Care segment and Hair Care segment. It has in its kitty global brands such as Ariel and Tide in the Fabric Care segment, and Head & Shoulders, Pantene, and Rejoice in the Hair Care segment.

marketing stretegy
Procter & Gamble used market research to determine whether there was a need for a whitening product for in-home use, what type of product would be appropriate, and whether that product would fit with Procter & Gamble's overall marketing strategy. Initial research confirmed that there was, indeed, an unmet need in the market. Research also revealed that consumers would accept a product that required up to 30 minutes of use, and that women were considerably more interested in the product than men. I

so indicated that the product would do better under the Crest brand. This is a significant shift, in that Crest denotes hygiene and tooth care while Cover Girl would indicate cosmetics and would definitely limit the number of male consumers who would purchase--and possibly use, if purchased by someone else--the whitening product. Market research thus helped the company

determine its market strategy by shaping the brand name and the product identification (dental hygiene rather than mere cosmetics) that the product would carry. Knowing that women would be the primary target market for the product also shaped the tactics that Procter & Gamble used in its promotional strategy. Celebrity endorsements can be effective, but using the right celebrity is critical to that effectiveness. By using Rosie O'Donnell to endorse the product, and by placing the product on her show, Procter & Gamble was able to reach the target demographic that research showed would be critical to the product's success. Subsequent research has shown that consumers have approached their dentists regarding other cosmetic dental procedures; this helps maintain the relationship between Procter & Gamble and dentists. Perhaps the strongest support for the research

DABUR
Dabur's mission of popularising a natural lifestyle transcends national boundaries. Today, there is growing global awareness on alternative medicine, nature-based and holistic lifestyles and an interest in herbal products. Dabur has been in the forefront of popularising this alternative way of life, marketing its products in more than 60 countries all over the world. Over the years, Dabur's overseas business has successfully transformed from being a small operation into a multi-location business spreading through the Middle East, North Africa, West Africa and South Asia.

Partnerships & Production
 

Strategic partnerships with leading multinational food and health care companies to introduce innovations in products and services. Six modern manufacturing facilities spread across South Asia, Middle East and Africa to optimise production by utilising local resources and the most modern technology available

Strategic Intent
We intend to significantly accelerate profitable growth. To do this, we will:
 

 

Focus on growing our core brands across categories, reaching out to new geographies, within and outside India, and improve operational efficiencies by leveraging technology Be the preferred company to meet the health and personal grooming needs of our target consumers with safe, efficacious, natural solutions by synthesizing our deep knowledge of ayurveda and herbs with modern science Provide our consumers with innovative products within easy reach Build a platform to enable Dabur to become a global ayurvedic leader

  

Be a professionally managed employer of choice, attracting, developing and retaining quality personnel Be responsible citizens with a commitment to environmental protection Provide superior returns, relative to our peer group, to our shareholders

TELECOM INDUSTRY
Telecom Industry In India Telecommunication Industry The global system of telecommunication touches nearly all of us through complex networks such as telephones, mobile phones and internet-linked PCs. It plays an important role not just in our individual lives but is also a significant contributor to the world economy. In fact, the worldwide revenue for the telecommunication industry was estimated to be $3.85 trillion in 2008 where the service revenue alone constituted $1.7 trillion and is expected to touch $2.7 trillion by 2013. An expected 11 percent compound annual growth rate at the end of year 2010 for the world telecomm market further demonstrates the importance and potential of this industry. This project is an attempt to understand the telecomm industry through the means of some key players. The inherent dynamism of this industry and its growing importance have propelled us to take up this topic and we hope to be able to faithfully cover is various facets. We hereby represent a glimpse of the market, players, metrics and strategies that could be explored by us during the course of this project. Background: Not long ago, this industry was comprised of an elite club of national and regional operators. However with deregulation taking over during the past decade, competition and correspondingly innovation have become the key words. The growth has been in favour of mobile services over the fixed line and internet over voice based communication and though telephone calls continue to be the industry's biggest revenue generator, high-speed internet access is making its presence felt in a big way.

Vodafone
We will be the communications leader in an increasingly connected world Vodafone Group Plc is the world's leading mobile telecommunications company, with a significant presence in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific and the United States through the Company's subsidiary undertakings, joint ventures, associated undertakings and investments. The Group's mobile subsidiaries operate under the brand name 'Vodafone'. In the United States the Group's associated undertaking operates as Verizon Wireless. During the last few years, Vodafone Group has entered into arrangements with network operators in countries where the Group does not hold an equity stake. Under the terms of these Partner Market Agreements, the Group and its partner operators co-operate in the development and marketing of global products and services, with varying levels of brand association. At 30 June 2010, based on the registered customers of mobile telecommunications ventures in which it had ownership interests at that date, the Group had 347 million customers, excluding paging customers, calculated on a proportionate basis in accordance with the Company's percentage interest in these ventures. Integrated communications for your business Integrated communications brings together fixed and mobile communications, both voice and data, in one simple solution. You have the convenience of one system, where everyone is contactable, and colleagues everywhere can share applications and information. You can reduce costs and simplify admin too. Our services range from fully managed solutions where we host and maintain the entire service for you, through to straightforward connectivity solutions that help to simplify your communications, control your costs and let you focus on running your business. Our dedicated support and customer service teams are on hand to manage all aspects of your service. Take a look at our range of integrated solutions to see which one is right for your business.

Reliance
Reliance Communications Limited founded by the late Shri Dhirubhai H Ambani (1932-2002) is the flagship company of the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. The Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group currently has a net worth in excess of Rs. 63,000 crore (US$ 14 billion), cash flows of Rs. 12,000 crore (US$ 3 billion), net profit of Rs. 8,000 crore (US$ 2 billion) and zero net debt.

Reliance Communications has established a pan-India, next generation, integrated (wireless GSM ^ CDMA Both ) and wireline), convergent (voice, data and video) digital network that is capable of supporting bestof-class services spanning the entire communications value chain, covering over 20,000 towns and 450,000 villages. Reliance Communications owns and operates the world's largest next generation IP enabled connectivity infrastructure, comprising over 175,000 kilometers of fiber optic cable systems in India, USA, Europe, Middle East and the Asia Pacific region.

Videocon
The Videocon Group finally managed to launch its GSM-based mobile services opting for Tamil Nadu circle as the launch pad with service launch in key cities of Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Mumbai to be rolled out in next fortnight. ―The launch of Videocon Mobile Services is a decisive step forward in Videocon‘s vision of enabling convergence right from within Homes to Outside, from a television‘s large screen to a handset‘s small screen. Combing innovative technology with effective pricing we aim to democratize technology and make next generation mobile services accessible to all across the country,‖ said Venugopal Dhoot, Chairman, Videocon Group. The company plans to launch the services in 100 cities within 100 days with investments of Rs 14,000 crore spread over three years earmarked for the mobile services.

Videocon said that it has priced its mobile services in such a way that it will effectively result in sub 1 paise tariff for the end-consumer. However not much is known about the exact tariff details. Additionally while it was known that the company had entered into a MoU with Huawei for network rollout, it now emerges that Nokia Siemens Networks is also involved in the network rollout. Other technology partners include Cisco, IBM, Amdocs, Gemalto, Comverse, Comviva, Avaya, Acision, Wipro, Oracle and Unisys. The company plans to set up 8 customer service centres across India allowing subscribers to interact with company representatives in 15 Indian languages. On the retail front, the company has tied up with Planet M stores, NEXT stores and DigiWorld stores in addition to leveraging from Videocon Electronics stores. For advertising, the campaign is banking on ‗Pakdo Life Ka Har Signal‘ message with the company‘s reasoning that it underlines Videocon‘s commitment to deliver an efficient service through a strong network while also bringing alive the emotional connect as we celebrate life‘s many ‗signals‘.

PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY
Johnson & johnsons
History
Johnson & Johnson was founded more than 120 years ago on a revolutionary idea: Doctors and nurses should use sterile sutures, dressings and bandages to treat peoples‘ wounds. Since then, we‘ve brought the world new ideas and products that have transformed human health and wellbeing. Every invention, every product, every breakthrough has been powered by generations of employees who are inspired to make a difference

Managed for the Long Term
We focus on the fundamentals of our business, and manage with future generations in mind.

While we keep our eye on social and scientific trends, we make sure our companies balance the short-term and the long-term in their strategic planning. We invest in promising new businesses while maintaining leadership positions in high growth businesses. We are focused on sustainability, and constantly review key economic, environmental, and employee health and safety indicators to ensure we are on the right path. This past year we established an internal innovation fund to keep us at the leading edge of transforming health and well-being.

Company Publications Investors
People and Values People and values are Johnson & Johnson‘s greatest assets. We know that every invention, every product, and every breakthrough we‘ve brought to human health and well-being has been powered by people. Our people strive to make a difference. We believe the shared values embodied in Our Credo help us attract and keep the most talented values-driven people in the world.

Pfizer
Pfizer in India
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Pfizer Limited (India) has a turnover of US$ 159.52 million (November 2009) One of the highest spenders in pharmaceutical R&D globally, Pfizer has made clinical research investments of US$ 6.05 million (November 2009) in India The company was awarded the FICCI SEDF (Socio Economic Development Foundation) Certificate of Commendation for its social responsibility efforts Pfizer has won several awards including that for the multinational pharmaceutical company of the year and the most respected MNC Marketing strategies of pfizer

Marketing powerhouse, Pfizer, began back in 1849 as a chemicals company. Today, it is a $45 billion global enterprise and is one of the top pharmaceutical companies in the

world. Pfizer's core products include: Aricept (Alzheimer's disease), Celebrex (pain), Diflucan (infection), Lipitor (high cholesterol), Neurontin (pain and epilepsy), Norvasc (high blood pressure), Viagra (erectile dysfuntion), Xalatan (glaucoma), Zithromax (infection), Zoloft (depression), and Zyrtec (allergy). The ultimate goal of Pfizer's marketing strategy is to increase drug sales, which, for prescription pharmaceuticals, can only be accomplished by increased prescription writing. Pfizer targets every possible outlet to achieve this, including direct-to-consumer advertising (in the United States only, DTC is prohibited in European countries), direct to physician targeting (also called physician detailing), and direct to managed care organizations (to get its drugs listed on formularies for reimbursement). The goal in direct-to-consumer advertising is to prompt a patient to visit a doctor and specifically ask

Company: Pfizer 2007 Ad Spending: $1.253 billion 2006 Ad Spending: $1.006 billion Breakdown
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Magazines: $225.2 million Newspaper: $33.3 million Outdoor: $1.2 million T: $456.6 million Radio: $11.3 million Internet: $24.2 million

Where Pfizer is spending money: While many other drugmakers cut back on ad budgets, Pfizer increased it's spending by almost 25 percent in 2007. No surprises here--the company shelled out $187.3M on advertising for Lipitor, the world's best-selling drug. The budget for Caduet promotion soared 105 percent from 2006, with $89 million spent promoting the Norvasc/Lipitor combo in 2007. Lyrica also saw it's budget skyrocket 123 percent. In 2007, Pfizer won a new fibromyalgia indication for Lyrica--originally a nerve pain drug--and spent almost $74 million on promotion. The anti-incontinence drug Detrol LA and, of course, Viagra, rounded out Pfizer's top five campaigns. Despite the significantly increased ad budget, Pfizer's sales totaled $48.4 billion in 2007--up just .1 percent from $48.3 billion in 2006. Where the company isn't spending money: Viagra's budget dropped 35 percent in 2007, and Pfizer completely abandoned the exhaled insulin drug Exubra after it returned drug rights to Nektar in November. The company also spent almost 48 percent less on image advertising than it did in 2006. galaxosmith

Sales and marketing
Sales We're proud of our products, and believe in selling them with truth and integrity. Our pharmaceutical sales representatives present the benefits and appropriate use of medicines to physicians, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals. To enable our reps to present these medicines properly, we provide in-depth science training; then we give our reps entrepreneurial responsibilities to help them succeed. We're dedicated to their continual learning and development—which may be one reason why they're consistently ranked in the top five worldwide by a leading survey of physicians. Marketing Our pharmaceutical business function focuses on several major therapeutic areas, including disorders of the central nervous system, respiratory and metabolic systems, and infectious diseases. We're also a leader in medicines that treat depression, diabetes, asthma, migraine, HIV, and cancer. New product planning As well as helping to identify potential new disease areas, offering commercial input into R&D processes, and assessing opportunities for in-licensing prospects, the team also develops product and marketing strategies. Managed markets division This diverse team is responsible for developing and communicating strategies for all industry customers that might influence the flow of prescription medicines from the manufacturer to the patient. These customers include large purchasers or large reimbursers for prescription medicines, such as wholesalers, hospitals, pharmacies, national and regional HMOs, pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs), insurers and employers, plus state and federal governments. MACS (Marketing Analysis and Commercial Support) MACS delivers information tools, strategic analysis, and operational support for a wide range of commercial activities, along with training services for marketing and sales. Product marketing business units There are several marketing business units that support our products and therapeutic areas, through the provision of communications, disease education, market research, sales and product launch support, and commercial strategy.

Support functions Providing an essential range of services behind the scenes, these teams deliver leading edge tools, strategic analysis, and operational support: GSK response center Ethics and compliance Finance Information Technology (IT) Legal Human resources

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