Basic sentence pattern

Objective: In this lesson, you will learn the elements of a sentence. There are 5 basic sentence patterns in English including Subject + Verb, Subject + Verb + Object, Subject + Verb + Complement, Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object and Subject + Verb + Object + Complement. Subject + verb. The simplest of sentence patterns is composed of a subject and verb without a direct object or subject complement. It uses an intransitive verb, that is, a verb requiring no direct object: Control rods remain inside the fuel assembly of the reactor.

The development of wind power practically ceased until the early 1970s.

All amplitude-modulation (AM) receivers work in the same way.

The cross-member exposed to abnormal stress eventually broke.

Only two types of charge exist in nature.

Subject + linking verb + subject complement. Another simple pattern uses the linking verb, any form of the to be verb without an action verb:

The chain reaction is the basis of nuclear power.

The debate over nuclear power has often been bitter.

Folding and faulting of the earth's surface are important geologic processes.


Wind speed seems to be highest during the middle of the day.

The silicon solar cell can be difficult and expensive to manufacture.

Subject + verb + direct object. Another common sentence pattern uses the direct object:

Silicon conducts electricity in an unusual way.

The anti-reflective coating on the silicon cell reduces reflection from 32 to 22 percent.

Prestressing of the concrete increases the load-carrying capacity of the members.

Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object. The sentence pattern with the indirect object and direct object is similar to the preceding pattern:

We are sending you the balance of the payment in this letter.

I am writing her about a number of problems that I have had with my Exec comp word processor.

The supervisor mailed the applicant a description of the job.

I am writing you about a number of problems...

Austin, Texas, has recently built its citizens a system of bike lanes.


Subject + verb + direct object + object complement. The sentence pattern using the [direct object] and object complement is not common but worth knowing):

The walls are usually painted black.

The plant shutdown left the entire area an economic disaster.

The committee declared the new design a breakthrough in energy efficiency.

The low cost of the new computer made competition much too difficult for some of the other companies.

EXERCISE 1 – Basic sentence pattern
Identify the basic patterns around which most English sentences are built. 1. Cats are everywhere. 2. Mia sleeps. 3. Zulfadhli seems angry. 4. Mr. Jamal is the lecturer. 5. He loves his job. 6. Ahmad will arrive next week. 7. She is funny. 8. No one was there. 9. He is eating an apple. 10. The young men are doctor.


Parts of Speech Nouns
Objectives: To find out the function in the sentence as a noun





Car What can we see in the picture?


There are some people, animals, places and things in the picture. Each person, animal, place and thing has name. Do you know the names? The pictures show a rabbit, cat, girl, boy, car and waterfall. What do we call these words? We call them nouns We call nouns naming-words. They are the names of people, animals, places and things.


EXERCISE 2 – Nouns
Fill in the blanks with nouns. e.g. Last Monday I wrote a …… to my family. Last Monday I wrote a letter to my family. 1. Sister has bought some ………. from the market. 2. He went to Canada by ……… 3. The ……….. is sleeping in the cradle. 4. The ……….. has caught a thief. 5. The bird flew high in the ……….. 6. They swam and fished in the …………. 7. She is busy teaching in the ………… 8. Mother is hanging out the ………… to dry. 9. The meat of a ………. is called beef. 10. We write with our ………..


EXERCISE 3 – Nouns
Pick out the nouns in these sentences and write them in the brackets. e.g. Her little sister is a teacher. Her little sister is a teacher. ( )

(Sister, teacher)

1. My grandfather has a horse. 2. Our gardener has a beautiful daughter. 3. Dogs like to eat meat. 4. His brother is always busy. 5. The dog barked at the naughty boy. 6. The hunter has killed a bear. 7. The actress talked to the girl. 8. My niece is a hardworking girl. 9. Have you a servant? 10. The fairy spoke to the princess.

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )


Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Trees Look at the pictures.


Can you name the nouns which can be counted? We can count trees and flowers. They are called countable nouns. Which are the nouns that cannot be counted? We can‟t count grass and water. They are called uncountable nouns. a book an apple a few cars any boxes many birds plenty of food several ducks a lot of flowers

some pencils

a large number of books

much water a little ice
a great deal of sugar

a great amount of flour

Name the words which go with countable nouns. The words are a, an, a few, many, several, some, any, plenty of, a lot of and a large number of. Which are the words that go with uncountable nouns? A little, much, some, any, plenty of, a lot of, a large amount of, and a great deal of go with uncountable nouns. Do you know the words which don‟t go with uncountable nouns? They are a, an, a few and many. A little and much don‟t go with countable nouns.


Exercise 4 – Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Choose the correct word. Then write out each sentence. e.g. There are (much, many) trees near my house. There are many trees near my house. 1. There isn‟t (many, much) water left in the bottle. 2. Hani poured (a few, a little) tea into the cup. 3. Don‟t put too (many, much) sugar in the coffee. 4. Amir stayed at his uncle‟s house for (a few, a little) days. 5. Lily bought (a few, a little) eggs from the market. 6. You have to put (a little, a few) more salt in the mushroom soups. 7. Kistna saw (many, much) crabs on the rocks. 8. I have (a few, a little) sweet in my pocket. 9. (Much, Many) people came to our house. 10. We haven‟t brought (many, much) money with us.


Proper Nouns

Dalphine These pictures show a cat and a girl. There are special names given to them. What are these names? They are „Dalphine‟ and „Zainun Hanani‟.

Zainun Hanani

Notice that all these words begin with a capital letter. Such words are called Proper Nouns

A is Proper Noun the special name given to a person, place, thing or an animal.

Collective Nouns

a party of friends

a team of footballers

Sometimes we group certain nouns together and speak of them as a whole. We use special words for such nouns like the picture shows a collection of people. Can you pick out the group names for them? The group names „party‟ and „team‟. They are called Collective Nouns. The name used for a number of people, animals or things which are collected together and taken as a whole is called a Collective Noun.

Here is a list of Collective Nouns. Learn them carefully.

     a troupe of dancers a bench of magistrates a mob of gangsters a crew of sailors a crowd of spectators     

a flock of sheep a gaggle of geese a brood of chickens a nest of mice a litter of pups

     a cluster of stars a library of books a suite of furniture a crate of fruit a packet of cigarettes


Exercise 5 – Collective Nouns
Fill in the blanks with a suitable word. e.g. A plague of ……………….. A plague of locusts 1. A host of …………. 2. A chest of ………… 3. A hedge of ………… 4. A gang of ………... 5. A tuft of ………… 6. A stud of ………… 7. A fleet of ………. 8. A clutch of ……….. 9. A troop of ………. 10. A choir of ……….


Father Boy Fox Monk Mother Girl Vixen Nun

Read the nouns on the left. Of what sex are they? They are males. They are of the Masculine Gender. Are the nouns on the right males or females? They are females. They are of the Female Gender.


Here is a list of words for you to learn:

Masculine Author Bachelor Billy-goat Bridegroom Buck Bullock Czar He-goat Headmaster Heir Hero Horse Host Husband Jack-ass King Lad Landlord Lion Proprietor Ram Shepherd Sir Son Widower Wizard

Feminine Authoress Spinster Nanny-goat Bride Doe Heifer Czarina She-goat Headmistress Heiress Heroine Mare Hostess Wife Jenny-ass Queen Lass Landlady Lioness Proprietress Ewe Shepherdess Madam Daughter Widow Witch Dog

Masculine Bitch Bee


Drone Duke Emperor Fiancé Gentlemen God Lord Male Manager Mayor Milkman Millionaire Monk Nephew Peacock Peregrine Poet Prince Stag Stallion Sultan Tom-cat Uncle Fox Wolf

Duchess Empress Fiancée Lady goddess Ladies Female Manageress Mayoress Milkmaid Millionaires nun Niece Peahen Falcon Poetess Princess Hind Mare Sultana Tabby-cat Aunt Vixen She-wolf


Possession (Nouns and Pronouns)

The cat‟s ice-cream The words cat’s and bear’s show possession. They are called Possessive Nouns. They are formed from the nouns „cat‟ and „bear‟. The nouns „cat‟ and „bear‟ is singular. An apostrophe s („s) is added to it to show possession.

the bear‟s sun glasses

The front of the car. The noun „car‟ is not a living thing. What is used with it to show possession? The words ‘of the’ are used. Nouns that show possession are called Possessive Nouns. We form Possessive Nouns (1) by adding an apostrophe s („s) to singular nouns and plural nouns not ending in s, (2) by adding an apostrophe („) to plural nouns ending in s and (3) by using ‘of the’ with names of non-living things.


This is my violin. It‟s mine.

That is your heart. It‟s yours.

Read the sentences in the pictures. The word „mine‟ is used in place of „my violin‟. „Yours‟ replaces „your heart‟. Both the words „mine‟ and „yours‟ are pronouns.

Exercise 6 – Possessive Nouns (The Apostrophe)
Rewrite these expressions using the apostrophe. e.g. The room of the servant The servant‟s room 1. The ball of the boy 2. The dolls of the girl 3. The basket of the woman 4. The book of the teacher 5. The bags of the pupils 6. The cat of Mr. Hamzah 7. The pipe of Uncle Zarif 8. The dresses of the woman 9. The trunk of the elephant 10. The eyes of the owl


Exercise 7 – Possessive Pronouns
Rewrite each sentences using a Possessive Pronoun to replace the words in bold. e.g. This is my headphone. This is mine. 1. That is her homework. 2. I have lost my shoes. 3. These are his cats. 4. Are those your basket? 5. That is his handkerchief. 6. Can you lend me your car? 7. That isn‟t my toys. 8. We have brought our books. 9. She has put on her hat. 10. They have eaten their lunch.


Objectives: To find out the group of verb that have been divided and their To figure out the Pronouns have antecedents, a reference to a word they take the place of.

Did you meet Haifa yesterday? Zachary

No, I did not meet him. He did not turn up. Iran

Zachary and Iran are talking. Pick out all the pronouns in the sentences. The pronouns are „you‟, „I‟, „him‟ and „he‟. They are used in place of nouns in the sentences. The sentences are called Personal Pronouns. Pronouns like „I‟, „you‟ and „he‟ are used as a subjects. Pronouns like „me‟, „his‟ and „her‟ are used as objects.

He has hurt himself.

The pronoun „he‟ is the subject of the sentence. „Himself‟ in the sentence is also a pronoun. It is the object of the sentence. Both „he‟ and „himself‟ refer to the same person. Thus action done by the doer goes back to himself. Pronouns „himself‟ are called Reflexive Pronouns. They always end in ‘self’.


Exercise 8 – Personal Pronouns
Fill the blanks with suitable Personal Pronouns. Then write out the sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The teacher punished …………… because he was lazy. Shall we go? I think …………… ought to. I like Michael. …………… is my best friend. Aswan is here now. Give this book to …………… Did you see him? No………….… didn‟t. They could not because …………. were busy. Is she your sister? Yes ……….. is. The bag was here a minute ago. …………… is not here now. They are playing football. Don‟t disturb ……………

10. I can‟t do these sums. Will you help ………….. ?


Exercise 9 – Reflexive Pronouns
Write out each sentences putting in a suitable Reflexive Pronoun. 1. I will cook …………… something to eat. 2. Our cat has hurt ………….... 3. We helped ………… to the food on the table. 4. She washed …………… before breakfast. 5. My sister bought …………….. an ice-cream. 6. Nabila made …………. a new dress. 7. We warmed ………….. by the fire. 8. My father shaves …………… every morning. 9. „Did you behave …………. at Kamil‟s house, Armand? 10. They found ………….. lost in the jungle.


Relative Pronouns
I know the girl


lives in the huge house beside the jungle.

In this sentence what word does „who‟ refer to? It refers to the noun „girl‟ which is just before it. „Who‟ is called a Relative Pronoun? Where is it placed at the beginning of the word „who lives in the huge house beside the jungle‟. This clause tells us about the girl. It is an adjective clause.

„Who‟, „whom‟ and „whose‟ are used for people; „which‟ and „that‟ for animals and things. „Whom‟ is only used as the object of a sentence. „Whose‟ is used as a possessive.

Exercise 10 – Who, Which, That, Whom, Whose
Choose the correct word. Then write out each sentence. 1. We meet the woman (who, whose) son is an engineer. 2. The man (that, whose) axe you borrowed is here. 3. Nora, (who, which) is my best friend, has bought a new car. 4. The girl (that, whom) we met there has two rabbits. 5. Kingfishers, (which, who) live near water, are beautiful birds. 6. Muthusammy, (who, which) is a farmer, rears many chickens. 7. The boy (whom, which) I talked yesterday lives here. 8. This is the hardest sum (who, that) I have ever done. 9. The doll (who, which) you gave me is good. 10. The book (who, that) has many pictures was given to me by my grandmother.


Forms of the Verb
Objectives: To find out the group of verb that have been divided and their usage. I play guitar every day. I am playing guitar now. I played guitar yesterday. I have already played guitar.

Do you see any difference between the verbs in the four sentences? All the verbs in the sentences are different in form. The verb „play‟ is used in the Simple Present tense. „Played‟ is used in the Simple Past tense. Which of the verbs end in –ing? It is „playing‟. This word cannot stand by itself. It is used with the „helping word’ or Special Finite „am‟. „Playing‟ is called the Present Participle of „play‟. Like the Present Participle, the word „played‟ needs a „helping word‟ too. It is used with „have‟. It is the Past Participle of „play‟. A verb is used in these four forms: (1) the Simple Present tense, (2) the Simple Past tense, (3) the present Participle and (4) the Past Participle. The participle of the verb is always used with a „helping word‟ or Special Finite such as „is‟, „are‟, „has‟ and „have‟.


Below is a table of verbs. Read them carefully.

Present Tense

Present Participle

Past Tense

Past participle

Abide Act Admit Agree Aim Appear Arise Awake Bake Beat Become Begin Bind Bite Blow Break Bring Burn Carry Catch Choose Close Come Compete Cut Creep Dance Deal Dig Do

Abiding Acting Admitting Agreeing Aiming Appearing Arising Awaking Baking Beating Becoming Beginning Binding Biting Blowing Breaking Bringing Burning Carrying Catching Choosing Closing Coming Competing Cutting Creeping Dancing Dealing Digging Doing

Abided Acted Admitted Agreed Aimed Appeared Arose Awoke Baked Beat Became Began Bound Bit Blew Broke Brought Burnt Carried Caught Chose Closed Came Competed Cut Crept Danced Dealt Dug Did

Abided Acted Admitted Agreed Aimed Appeared Arisen Awoken Baked Beaten Become Begun Bound Bitten Blown Broken Brought Burnt Carried Caught Chosen Closed Come Competed Cut Crept Danced Dealt Dug Done


Drag Draw Dream Drive Enjoy Explain Fall Fail Feed Feel Fight Flee Fly Forbid Forgive Forsake Get Go Grind Grow Hang ( a thing ) Hang ( a person ) Have Hide Hold Hurry Imitate Instruct Judge Keep Kneel Know Laugh Lay

Dragging Drawing Dreaming Driving Enjoying Explaining Falling Failing Feeding Feeling Fighting Fleeing Flying Forbidding Forgiving Forsaking Getting Going Grinding Growing Hanging Hanging Having Hiding Holding Hurrying Imitating Instructing Judging Keeping Kneeling Knowing Laughing Laying

Dragged Drew Dreamt Drove Enjoyed Explained Fell Failed Fed Felt Fought Fled Flew Forbade Forgave Forsook Got Went Ground Grew Hung Hanged Had Hid Held Hurried Imitated Instructed Judged Kept Knelt Knew Laughed Laid

Dragged Drawn Dreamt Driven Enjoyed Explained Fallen Failed Fed Felt Fought Fled Flown Forbidden Forgiven Forsaken Got Gone Ground Grown Hung Hanged Had Hidden Held Hurried Imitated Instructed Judged Kept Knelt Known Laughed Laid


Leap Leave Lend Lie Lift Make Marry Mislay Mistake Occur Open Owe Own Pay Peel Point Pray Promise Prove Quit Reject Relive Reply Ride Ring Rise Run Sag Say See Seek Sell Send Sew

Leaping Leaving Lending Lying Lifting Making Marrying Mislaying Mistaking Occurring Opening Owing Owning Paying Peeling Pointing Praying Promising Proving Quitting Rejecting Relieving Replying Riding Ringing Rising Running Sagging Saying Seeing Seeking Selling Sending Sewing

Leapt Left Lent Lay Lifted Made Married Mislaid Mistook Occurred Opened Owed Owned Paid Peeled Pointed Prayed Promised Proved Quit Rejected Relieved Replied Rode Rang Rose Ran Sagged Said Saw Sought Sold Sent Sewed

Leapt Left Lent Lain Lifted Made Married Mislaid Mistaken Occurred Opened Owed Owned Paid Peeled Pointed Prayed Promised Proved Quit Rejected Relieved Replied Ridden Rung Risen Run Sagged Said Seen Sought Sold Sent Sewn


Shake Shine Shrink Sleep Sing Sink Smell Sow Speak Spell Spend Spring Stand Stink Strive Take Teach Tear Tell Thank Think Throw Tie Understand Use Wake Wait Watch Wave Wear Weep Weigh Withdraw Withhold

Shaking Shining Shrinking Sleeping Singing Sinking Smelling Sowing Speaking Spelling Spending Springing Standing Stinking Striving Taking Teaching Tearing Telling Thanking Thinking Throwing Tying Understanding Using Waking Waiting Watching Waving Wearing Weeping Weighing Withdrawing Withholding

Shook Shone Shrank Slept Sang Sank Smelt Sowed Spoke Spelt Spent Sprang Stood Stank Strove Took Taught Tore Told Thanked Thought Threw Tied Understood Used Woke Waited Watched Waved Wore Wept Weighed Withdrew Withheld

Shaken Shone Shrunk Slept Sung Sunk Smelt Sown Spoken Spelt Spent Sprung Stood Stunk Striven Taken Taught Torn Told Thanked Thought Thrown Tied Understood Used Woken Waited Watched Waved Worn Wept Weighed Withdrawn Withheld


Wipe Win Wish Work Worry Write

Wiping Winning Wishing Working Worrying Writing

Wiped Won Wished Worked Worried Wrote

Wiped Won Wished Worked Worried Written

Exercise 11 – Forms of the Verb
Complete the table below. The first one has been done for you. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Every day He runs I choose They make She drives They hit We begin He hears I beat We leave You cry Now He is running Yesterday He ran Already He has run


Present Continuous Tense

What are the boys doing now? Ismail

Can you answer Ismail‟s question? The boys are running now. What does the verb ‘are running’ show? It shows a verb an action that is going on now. This verb is used in the Present Continuous tense.

Exercise 12 – Present Continuous Tense
Use the Present Continuous tense of the verbs in brackets. 1. It ……….. (rain) very heavily now. Let‟s run for shelter. 2. That‟s Alice. He ………. (swim) in the pool. 3. Your father ………….. (sleep) now. You mustn‟t make a noise. 4. Look at the squirrel. It ……….. (climb) up the tree. 5. Listen! The dogs ………... (bark) now. 6. We ………. (wait) for Fatima. 7. She ……… (cry) again. Can‟t you stop her? 8. Don‟t turn now. He ……… (look) at you. 9. Can you see what I ………. (hold) in my hand? 10. They have gone to bed. They ……….. (sleep) soundly now.


Simple Present Tense
Do birds fly? Yes, birds fly.

Nicole What are Nicole and Dianna talking about? They are talking of a fact about birds.


What tense is used for such sentences? The Simple Present tense is used.

She goes to the
market every day.

The verb in the above sentence is „goes‟. It is used in the Simple Present tense. What action does it show? It shows an action is done every day. Actions which we do every day, always, often or sometimes called habits.


Exercise 13 – Simple Present tense
Fill in blanks with the Simple Present tense of the verbs in bracket. 1. He ……… (not live) here. He …….. (live) in that little hut in front of my house. 2. This diamond is real. It ………… (shine) and …………. (glitter). 3. She usually ………... (keep) quiet and ………. (do) her work. 4. Every day I ………… (leave) the house at seven and ……….. (return) at five ion evening from my school. 5. She ……….. (think) that she ………. (be) clever. 6. How do you ………... (like) you‟re new dress? I ………. (not like) it at all. 7. You mustn‟t ……….. (eat) and ………. (talk) at the same moment. 8. My little brother ……….. (have) a fever. He ……… (be) often ill. 9. I know Fahim. He ………. (be) friendly and he ………. (speak) well. 10. Please …………. (help) me to find my necklace. It ………. (have) a diamond.


Present Perfect Tense
I have already finished my homework. Nyssa I have not finished my work yet. Farina

Nyssa and Farina tell us what they have already done. Do they tell us the exact time of their actions? No, they don‟t. They only use words like „already‟ and „yet‟ to show the time. Nyssa and Farina use the verb „have finished‟ in their sentence. This verb is used in the Present Perfect tense.

Exercise 14 – Present Perfect tense
Fill in the blanks with the Present Perfect tense of the verbs in brackets. 1. We ……….. (not go) there since September. 2. Aida ………… (work) here since last year. 3. They ………. (take) it for a month. 4. She ………... (wait) for half an hour. 5. We ………… (live) in Kuantan since 1991. 6. This beggar ………… (not eat) for three days. 7. Rudy ………. (stay) with his aunt since last month. 8. It …………. (not rain) for five days. 9. Fahri ………. (be) here since six o‟clock. 10. You ……… (not do) your work for a week.


Simple Past Tense
I drew this beautiful picture two weeks ago. I bought this book yesterday.

The sentence above is talking about their past actions. Are we told when the actions took place? Yes, the actions took place „two weeks ago‟ and „yesterday‟. What tense is used in these sentences? The Simple Past tense is used.

Exercise 15 – Simple Past Tense
Write out the sentences putting the Simple Past tense of the verbs in brackets. 1. A long time ago, men ………….. (live) in caves. 2. Aswan …………. (not play) football last Wednesday. 3. My brother …………... (not cut) down the tree yesterday. 4. She …………. (find) her handbag under the table yesterday. 5. I ………… (write) to Qhumaira last week. 6. Hani ………….. (break) the glass ten minutes ago. 7. We …………. (shut) all the windows just now. 8. They …………… (not do) their homework yesterday. 9. He ………… (wait) until 7 o‟clock two days ago. 10. Lilly ………… (not come) to my house last evening.


Past Continuous Tense
While they were playing a football yesterday, they saw a swarm of

The sentence above shows two past actions. Did these two actions happen at the same time? No, they didn‟t. One action was going on first when another action happened. Which verb shows the first action? It is ‘were playing’. This verb is used in the Past Continuous tense.

I was reading a ghost story book all yesterday afternoon.

The verb in the sentence above also used in the Past Continuous tense. What actions do these verbs show? They show actions that were going on in the past. The actual period or point of time like „all yesterday afternoon‟ is given.


Exercise 16 – Past Continuous Tense
Fill in the blanks with the Past Continuous tense of the verbs in brackets. 1. While he ……….. (run) down the stairs, he fell. 2. Kistna heard a loud scream when she ………. (leave) the room. 3. As Ronald ………….. (rush) for the taxi, someone called him. 4. While I …………… (have) my bath, Ameba knocked at my door. 5. While we …………. (wait) to him, the bus came. 6. When his sister came in, he …………… (sleep). 7. The light went out while they ………….. (eat) their dinner. 8. As they …………. (dress) up, the telephone rang. 9. When we entered the room, they ………….. (write). 10. While we …………. (walk) along the road, we met Hanne.


Past Perfect Tense
7.00 am:-eat some bread -drink a glass of milk The time table show the two things which Amir did this morning. Can you tell what he did? First he ate some bread. Then he drank a glass of milk. Can you describe the two actions in one sentence? This is the sentence: When Amir hat eaten some bread, he drank a glass of milk. We use ‘when’ in this sentence. The verb „had eaten‟ shows the first action. It is used in the Past Perfect tense. The second action is in the Simple Past tense. The Past Perfect tense is also used in the Indirect or Reported Speech.


Exercise 17 – Past Perfect Tense
Put the following sentences into Indirect Speech beginning with the expressions given. Use the Past Perfect tense. e.g. “I have eaten my dinner”. He said that ……………….. He said that he had eaten his dinner.

1. “Khairul have not locked the door.” He said that …………… 2. “I have seen the film.” She said that …………… 3. “We went there by bus.” They said that ………….. 4. “I have read the poem.” He said that …………… 5. “We have cleaned the car.” They said that …………… 6. “I have picked some flower.” She said that …………. 7. “I have rung the bell.” He said that …………… 8. “Hasbi cut the tree.” He said that ………….. 9. “I saw Sierra in the school library.” She said that …………… 10. “My sister has gone out.” She said that ………….


Simple Future & ‘Going To’ Form
I shall come again tomorrow. We shall meet you there tonight. He will finish the work in half an hour. They will sing in the concert next week.

All the sentences above tell us about future actions. In these sentences the time expressions „tomorrow‟, „tonight‟, „in half an hour‟ and „next week‟ refer to the future. Can you name the verbs used? They are „shall come‟, „shall meet‟, „will finish‟ and „will sing‟. These verbs are used in the Simple Future tense. Notice that „shall‟ is used with „I‟ and „we‟, and „will‟ is used with other nouns and pronouns. We do not only use „will‟ and „shall‟ for future action. There are other ways of showing future actions too. The „going to‟ form may be used for future action, especially when a plan has been made. The „going to‟ form is also used to show that something is certain to happen.


Exercise 18 – Simple Future Tense
Fill in the blanks with „shall‟ or „will‟. Then write out each sentence. 1. When ……… you be in Switzerland again? 2. There ………… be a holiday next Monday. 3. …………. we all play tennis this evening? 4. I think it …………. rain in the morning. 5. We ………….. tell him the bad news tomorrow morning. 6. The shops ………… open at eight o‟clock. 7. The baby ………… be three months old next week. 8. Mariah ………. be in Primary Five next year. 9. He …………. be seventy years old next July. 10. They ………… wait at the cinema for us.


Objectives: To figure out what is an adjective provides a detail about a noun.

A box A cat A knife A girl

A square box A Siamese cat A sharp knife A tall girl

What is the difference between the words in A and those in B? In B we know more about the nouns „box‟, „cat‟, „knife‟ and „girl‟. The word square, Siamese, sharp and tall tell us something about these nouns. Such words are called Adjectives.

Exercise 19 – Adjectives
Put suitable Adjectives in the blanks. 1. Izzard is …………… because he has won a prize. 2. My mother need a …………….. knife to cut the meats. 3. He was bitten by a ………….. snake. 4. Grass is ………….. 5. He burnt his fingers on the …………… stove. 6. Nurul has …………… hair and …………… eyes. 7. I felt very ………….. so I switched off the fan. 8. They helped the ……………. man to cross the road. 9. Most clocks have ………….. faces. 10. We can‟t do these sums. They are too …………….


Comparison of Adjectives
I am as fat as you. I am fatter than you. I am the fattest of





The boys are making comparisons among themselves. Khairul and Shazwan are equally fat. What words does Khairul use to compare himself with Shazwan? He use „as fat as‟. „Fat‟ is called the Positive degree. Who else is comparing himself with Shazwan? Muaz is. What does Muaz add to „fat‟ in his sentence? He adds ‘-er’. „Fatter‟ is the Comparative degree of „fat‟. Fiqri is comparing himself with the other three boys. He uses the Superlative degree „fattest‟ in his sentence. He has added ‘-est’ to „fat‟. as valuable as as talkative as as luxurious as as friendly as as helpful as more valuable than ………………….. ………………….. more friendly than more helpful than most valuable most talkative most luxurious ………………. ……………….

Can you complete the comparison of the adjectives by following the same pattern ? You can see that the comparison of these adjectives is different from the one you have just learnt. The Comparative and Superlative of these adjectives are formed by adding ‘more’ and ‘most’. Adjectives which are formed in this way usually have three or more syllables, or they end in ‘-ful’. as good as as many as as far as better than more than farther than the best the most the farthest


What is the difference between this type of comparison and those you have learnt? That comparison of these adjectives is not regular. Such a comparison is called an irregular comparison. Comparison of Adjectives

Acceptable Attractive Bad Beautiful Big Careful Choosy Clever Comfortable Cold Courageous Dangerous Dark Disastrous Distant Easy Energetic Enjoyable Famous Far ( distance/time ) Far ( distance ) Favorable Forgetful Fortunate Friendly Gentle Glorious Good

More acceptable More attractive Worse More beautiful Bigger More careful More choosy More clever More comfortable Colder More courageous More dangerous Darker More disastrous More distant Easier More energetic More enjoyable More famous Further Farther More favorable More forgetful More fortunate More friendly Gentler More glorious Better

Most acceptable Most attractive Worst Most beautiful Biggest Most careful Most choosy Most clever Most comfortable Coldest Most courageous Most dangerous Darkest Most disastrous Most distant Easiest Most energetic Most enjoyable Most famous Furthest Farthest Most favorable Most forgetful Most fortunate Most friendly Gentlest Most glorious Best


Harmful Healthy Helpful Hot Interesting Kind Large Little Long Lovable Luxurious Many/much Marvelous Mischievous Natural Noisy Obedient Old ( people, things ) Old ( people ) Patient Pleasant Pretty Proud Reasonable Rich Sensible Shady Small Strong Studious Successful Talkative Tall Thoughtful

More harmful More healthy More helpful Hotter More interesting Kinder Larger Less Longer More lovable More luxurious More More marvelous More mischievous More natural More noisy More obedient Older Elder More patient More pleasant Prettier Prouder More reasonable Richer More sensible Shadier Smaller Stronger More studious More successful More talkative Taller More thoughtful

Most harmful Most healthy Most helpful Hottest Most interesting Kindest Largest Least Longest Most lovable Most luxurious Most Most marvelous Most mischievous Most natural Most noisy Most obedient Oldest Eldest Most patient Most pleasant Prettiest Proudest Most reasonable Richest Most sensible Shadiest Smallest Strongest Most studious Most successful Most talkative Tallest Most thoughtful


United Useful Valuable Wise Young

More united More useful More valuable Wiser Younger

Most united Most useful Most valuable Wisest Youngest

Exercise 20 – Comparison of Adjectives
Use each word to make three different phrases. Make any necessary changes to the word. 1. Harmful 2. Quick 3. Ripe 4. Smooth 5. Sweet 6. Narrow 7. Deep 8. Lovable 9. Bad 10. Cheerfully


Objectives: To find out what is an adverb provides more information about a verb, adjective, or another adverb; that is, it "qualifies" the verb, adjective, or adverb.  Adverbs add more to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs of manner answer the question ‘HOW?’ We usually put an Adverb of Manner just after the verb.  An Adverb of Time answers the question ‘WHEN?’ It is either placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.  An Adverb of Frequency or Mid-position Adverb answers the question ‘HOW OFTEN?’ It is usually placed before the verb.  An Adverb of Place answer the question ‘WHERE?’ It is placed after the verb.  An Adverb of Degree answers the question ‘TO WHAT DEGREE?’ It is usually placed before the adjective and the adverb, except „enough‟ which is placed after them.


Exercise 21 – Adverbs
Put the adverb correctly in each sentence.

e.g. (often) They swim in that swimming pool. They often swim in that swimming pool.

1. (still) The baby is crying. 2. (never) We have met Ariff before. 3. (enough) Delilah was not tall, so she could not reach the shelf. 4. (seldom) I write to him. 5. (usually ) The boys wait for their school bus there. 6. (already) The workmen have left. 7. (ever) Have you been to Korea? 8. (always) I keep my dictionary on this shelf. 9. (sometimes) Our teacher tells us a story. 10. (often) We play netball with them.


Comparison of Adverbs
Can you remember how adjectives are compared? The comparison of adverbs is quite similar to the comparison of adjectives. Like adjectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison – the Positive, the Comparative and the Superlative. Look at the comparison of the adverbs below. Brightly Noisily Easily More brightly More noisily More easily Most brightly Most noisily Most easily

What similarity can you see between the three adverbs „brightly‟, „noisily‟ and „easily‟? They all end in ‘-ly’. ‘More’ and ‘most’ are added to these adverbs to form the Comparative and the Superlative. Look at this comparison: as fast as as badly as faster than worse than the fastest the worst

How many syllables are there in the adverbs „fast‟ and „badly‟? They are one-syllable adverbs. How the Comparative and the Superlative of these adverbs formed? They are formed by adding „-er‟ and „-est‟. Like some adjectives, some adverbs also form the Comparative and the Superlative irregularly. Look at the irregular comparisons below and study how they are formed. Little Much Badly Less than More than Worse than The least The most The worst


Here are some examples of the comparison of adverbs.

As angrily as As brightly as As carefully as As clearly as As happily as As kindly as As loudly as As quietly as As slowly as As fast as As hard as As late as As long as As near as As soon as As badly as As early as As far as As little as As much as As well as

More angrily than More brightly than More carefully than More clearly than More happily than More kindly than More loudly than More quietly than More slowly than Faster than Harder than Later than Longer than Nearer than Sooner than Worse than Earlier than Farther than Less than More than Better than

The most angrily The most brightly The most carefully The most clearly The most happily The most kindly The most loudly The most quietly The most slowly The fastest The hardest The latest The longest The nearest The soonest The worst The earliest The farthest The least The most The best


Exercise 22 – Comparison of Adverbs
Give the comparative and the superlative of these adverbs 1. Well 2. Cleverly 3. Freely 4. Sweetly 5. Patiently 6. Terribly 7. Little 8. Hard 9. Bravely 10. Lazily


Sentence Structure
Objective: Remember that every clause is, in a sense, a miniature sentence. Simple sentences contain only a single clause, while a compound sentence, a complex sentence, or a compound-complex sentence contains at least two clauses.

Simple Sentences
A simple sentence has the most basic elements that make it a sentence: a subject, a verb, and a completed thought. Examples of simple sentences include the following: 1. Haikal waited for the taxi. "Haikal" = subject, "waited" = verb 2. The taxi was late. "The taxi" = subject, "was" = verb 3. Daleela and Natalia took the taxi. "Daleela and Natalia" = compound subject, "took" = verb 4. I looked for Daleela and Natalia at the taxi station. "I" = subject, "looked" = verb 5. Daleela and Natalia arrived at the taxi station before noon and left on the taxi before I arrived. " Daleela and Natalia " = compound subject, "arrived" and "left" = compound verb Tip: If you use many simple sentences in an essay, you should consider revising some of the sentences into compound or complex sentences (explained below). The use of compound subjects, compound verbs, prepositional phrases (such as "at the taxi station"), and other elements help lengthen simple sentences, but simple sentences often are short. The use of too many simple sentences can make writing "choppy" and can prevent the writing from flowing smoothly.


A simple sentence can also be referred to as an independent clause. It is referred to as "independent" because, while it might be part of a compound or complex sentence, it can also stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Compound Sentences
A compound sentence refers to a sentence made up of two independent clauses (or complete sentences) connected to one another with a coordinating conjunction. Coordinating conjunctions are easy to remember if you think of the words "FAN BOYS":
      

For And Nor But Or Yet So

Examples of compound sentences include the following: 1. Angelina waited for the bus, but the bus was late. 2. I looked for Britney and Kelly at the bus station, but they arrived at the station before noon and left on the bus before I arrived. 3. Britney and Kelly arrived at the bus station before noon, and they left on the bus before I arrived. 4. Britney and Kelly left on the bus before I arrived, so I did not see them at the bus station. Tip: If you rely heavily on compound sentences in an essay, you should consider revising some of them into complex sentences (explained below). Coordinating conjunctions are useful for connecting sentences, but compound sentences often are overused. While coordinating conjunctions can indicate some type of relationship between the two independent clauses in the sentence, they sometimes do not indicate much of a relationship. The word "and," for example, only adds one independent clause to


another, without indicating how the two parts of a sentence are logically related. Too many compound sentences that use "and" can weaken writing. Clearer and more specific relationships can be established through the use of complex sentences.

Complex Sentences
A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses connected to it. A dependent clause is similar to an independent clause, or complete sentence, but it lacks one of the elements that would make it a complete sentence. Examples of dependent clauses include the following:
  

because Lionel and John arrived at the bus station before noon while he waited at the train station after they left on the bus

Dependent clauses such as those above cannot stand alone as a sentence, but they can be added to an independent clause to form a complex sentence. Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Below are some of the most common subordinating conjunctions:
           

after although as because before even though if since though unless until when


   

whenever whereas wherever while

A complex sentence joins an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses. The dependent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the independent clause, as in the following: Tip: When the dependent clause comes first, a comma should be used to separate the two clauses. 1. Because Lionel and John arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station. 2. While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late. 3. After they left on the bus, Lionel and John realized that Joe was waiting at the train station. Conversely, the independent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the dependent clause, as in the following: Tip: When the independent clause comes first, a comma should not be used to separate the two clauses. 1. I did not see them at the station because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon. 2. Joe realized that the train was late while he waited at the train station. 3. Mary and Samantha realized that Joe was waiting at the train station after they left on the bus. Complex sentences are often more effective than compound sentences because a complex sentence indicates clearer and more specific relationships between the main parts of the sentence. The word "before," for instance, tells readers that one thing occurs before another. A word such as "although" conveys a more complex relationship than a word such as "and" conveys.


The term periodic sentence is used to refer to a complex sentence beginning with a dependent clause and ending with an independent clause, as in "While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late."

Periodic sentences can be especially effective because the completed thought occurs at the end of it, so the first part of the sentence can build up to the meaning that comes at the end.

Exercise 23 – Comparison of Adverbs
Identify a simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, or a compoundcomplex sentence. 1. Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia, but Seoul is the capital of Korea. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence 2. Democracy is a noble goal; it is important, however, to protect the minority from the tyranny of the majority. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence 3. I do not own a Sony Ericsson headphone. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence 4. Call your lovely grandparents as soon as you arrive in Kota Bharu. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence


5. I ate the chicken rice and left the restaurant. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence 6. Unless my cousin postpones her visit from Hungary, I will not have time to study for my test. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence 7. Hannah wanted to be here, but she cannot come because her gorgeous car is in the shop. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence 8. The softball game was cancelled because it was raining. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence 9. The football game was cancelled because of the rain. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence 10. When the train arrives and if Ms. Langlois is on it, she will be served with a subpoena. a) Simple Sentence b) Compound Sentence c) Complex Sentence d) Compound-Complex Sentence


Answer: Exercise 1: 1. Subject-Verb-Adverb 2. Subject-Verb 3. Subject-Verb-Adjective 4. Subject-Verb-Noun 5. Subject-Verb-Object 6. Subject-Verb 7. Subject-Verb-Adjective 8. Subject-Verb-Adverb 9. Subject-Verb-Object 10. Subject-Verb-Noun Exercise 2: 1. Fruit 2. Airplane 3. Baby 4. Sky 5. Policeman 6. River 7. Classroom 8. Clothes 9. Cow 10. pencils Exercise 3: 1. (grandfather, horse) 2. (gardener, daughter) 3. (dogs, meat) 4. (brother) 5. (dog, boy) 6. (hunter, bear) 7. (actress, girl) 8. (niece, girl) 9. (servant) 10. (fairy, princess) Exercise 4: 1. Much 2. A little 3. Much 4. A few 5. A few 6. A little 7. Many 8. A few 9. Many 10. Much

Exercise 5: 1. Angels 2. Drawers 3. Bushes 4. Labourers 5. Grass 6. Horses 7. Motorcars 8. Eggs 9. Monkeys 10. Singers Exercise 6: 1. The boy‟s ball 2. The girl‟s doll 3. The woman‟s basket 4. The teacher‟s book 5. The pupil‟s bags 6. The Mr. Hamzah‟s cat 7. The uncle Zarif‟s pipe 8. The woman dresses 9. The elephant trunk 10. The owl‟s eye Exercise 7: 1. Hers 2. Mine 3. His 4. Yours 5. His 6. Yours 7. Mine 8. Ours 9. Hers 10. Theirs Exercise 8: 1. Him 2. We 3. He 4. Him 5. I 6. They 7. She 8. It 9. Them 10. Me


Exercise 9: 1. Myself 2. Itself 3. Ourselves 4. Herself 5. Herself 6. Herself 7. Ourselves 8. Himself 9. Yourself 10. Themselves Exercise 11: No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Every day He runs I choose They make She drives They hit We begin He hears I beat We leave You cry Now He is running I am choosing They are making She is driving They are hitting We are beginning He is hearing I am beating We are leaving You are crying

Exercise 10: 1. Whose 2. That 3. Who 4. Whom 5. Which 6. Who 7. Whom 8. That 9. Which 10. That

Yesterday He ran I chose They made She drove They hit We began He heard I beat We left You cried Exercise 14: 1. Have not gone 2. Have worked 3. Have taken 4. Has waited 5. Have lived 6. Has not eaten 7. Has stayed 8. Has not rained 9. Has been 10. Have not done Exercise 15: 1. Lived 2. Not played 3. Not cut 4. Found 5. Wrote 6. Broke 7. Shut 8. Not done 9. Waited 10. Not came

Already He has run I have chosen They have made She has driven They have it We have begun He has heard I have beaten We have left You have cried

Exercise 12: 1. Is raining 2. Is swimming 3. Is sleeping 4. Is climbing 5. Are barking 6. Are waiting 7. Is crying 8. Is looking 9. Am holding 10. Are sleeping Exercise 13: 1. Does not live, lives 2. Shine, glitters 3. Keeps, does 4. Leave, return 5. Thinks, is 6. Like, do not like 7. Eat, talk 8. Has, is 9. Is speaks 10. Help, has


Exercise 16: 1. Was running 2. Was leaving 3. Was rushing 4. Was having 5. Were waiting 6. Was sleeping 7. Were eating 8. Were dressing 9. Were writing 10. Were walking Exercise 17: 1. He said that he had not locked the door. 2. She said that she had seen the film. 3. They said that they had gone there by bus. 4. He said that he had read the poem. 5. They said that they had cleaned the car. 6. She said that she had picked some flowers. 7. He said that he had rung the bell. 8. He said that he had cut the tree. 9. She said that she had seen Sierra in the library. 10. She said that her sister had gone out. Exercise 18: 1. Will 2. Will 3. Shall 4. Will 5. Shall 6. Will 7. Will 8. Will 9. Will 10. Will Exercise 19: 1. Champion 2. Sharp 3. Poisonous

4. Green 5. Hot 6. Black, beautiful 7. Cold 8. Old 9. Smiling 10. Difficult Exercise 20: Positive Harmful Quick Ripe Smooth Sweet Narrow Deep Lovable Bad Cheerful Comparative More harmful Quicker Riper Smoother Sweeter Narrower Deeper More lovable Worse More cheerful Superlative Most harmful Quickest Ripest Smoothest Sweetest Narrowest Deepest Most lovable Worst Most cheerful

Exercise 21: 1. The baby is still crying. 2. We have never met Ariff before. 3. Delilah was not tall enough, so she could not reach the shelf. 4. I seldom write to him. 5. The boys usually wait for their school bus there. 6. The workmen have already left. 7. Have you ever been to Korea? 8. I always keep my dictionary on this shelf. 9. Our teacher sometimes tells us a story. 10. We often play netball with them.


Exercise 22: Positive Well Cleverly Freely Sweetly Patiently Terribly Little Hard Bravely Lazily Exercise 23: 1. B 2. C 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. C 7. B 8. C 9. C 10. D Comparative Better More cleverly More freely More sweetly More patiently More terribly Less Harder More bravely More lazily Superlative Best Most cleverly Most freely Most sweetly Most patiently Most terribly Least Hardest Most bravely Most lazily