History of Anatomy & Physiology A. The written history of anatomy begins with Claudius ______________ (A.D. 130-200).

He was a physician to gladiators and later to emperors. He sought to further understand the human body and urged inquiry into ___________________, and learning from ___________________. 1. He wrote texts on numerous subjects, but wrote 16 on medicine that formed the basis for most medical knowledge for the next __________ years. 2. His work grew in importance throughout the years, and influenced medicine throughout Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. to a. The popularity of his medical texts peaked during the Renaissance leading _________________. i. They interpreted their findings to fit in with his ‘___________’ text and _______________ in the human body.

not what they

3. Galen was in a unique position in his early life working with gladiators, because he saw the ______________ of bodies and parts of bodies, but usually for a very ___________ time. 4. Most societies considered the observation or ____________ of cadavers _________, or had _________________ it after live dissections or stolen corpses. a. All of Galen’s observations came from only a _______ occasions including only two times observing ______________ bones, the _______________________ of monkeys, and the _______________________ of pigs. the next b. These observations formed the basis for knowledge of the human body for thousand years. c. There were numerous ___________ that remained uncorrected due to lack of _______________________ and ____________________. B. After Galen, cadaver dissections remained very __________; occasionally criminals that had been executed were used for dissections. 1. This use of executed criminals for dissections persisted until ________________. 2. During the ______________, it was common to chop and boil bodies, and send the __________ back to Europe. a. This led to the more common ______________ of human bones and some efforts to correct the _______________ of Galen. 3. The Black Death that swept through Europe in 1348 required the partial ____________ of corpses to determine the cause of ___________.

a. These events led to the eventual allowance of increased numbers of ______________, but they were still _________ and performed _____________ over a few days due to lack of ____________________. C. Andreas _______________ is considered the father of modern ________________. 1. He was one of the first learned men to also perform ________________ himself, and introduced detailed anatomical _________________ into his text. 2. His works overthrew the ____________ system and reintroduced anatomy to the ___________________ of the human body and provided a means for everyone to learn even without a __________________. 3. His work came at a time when the printing of _____________ became widespread, and his text became widely disseminated as a result. D. After Vesalius, William ______________ studied the function of the heart and determined it was the organ that propelled blood throughout the body. 1. The work of ________________ is considered the founding of modern _______________ and began the ___________________ measurement of physiological variables. a. Many had believed that each person’s body was ________________ and that _____________________ could not be made from one person to another. E. After the creation of the microscope by Leuwenhook, Marcello ______________ used the microscope to examine the human body, and is considered the father of ___________________________. 1. He confirmed the findings of ______________ by discovering the capillaries connecting the arteries and the veins. This proved the ________________of the blood. 2. He also observed the _____________ and ______________ of the lungs. a. Many scholars were ________________ to his findings because they thought the ______________________ distorted the vision and gave a ________ image of the body (including Malpighi’s own professors). F. Numerous others made contributions to our knowledge of the body that has only intensified with the use of greater tools for experimentation and observation. G. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology the 1. Anatomy (Ana: ______; temnien: __________) is the ___________ or ___________ of __________________ of organized bodies. a. There are various subfields of anatomy including: _________logy: cell; study of _________logy: tissue; study of

_____________ anatomy: is the study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye _____________ anatomy: study of forms and markings of the body 2. _________________ (Physis: ___________; logia: _______________) is the study of the __________________ of living organisms. Subfields of physiology include: Neurology Mycology Nephrology Cardiology Pulmonology Endocrinology Osteology Urology

Why do you study anatomy and physiology? 3. _____________ is a method used to answer questions that relies on ________________ and ___________________. a. Knowledge is ___________________ and _______________ based on scientific findings. b. A ______________ is information that can be ___________________ verified by a ______________ person. c. A __________ of nature is a ________________ about the predictable ways in which matter and ____________________. d. A _____________ is an explanatory statement or set of statements derived from _________, _____________, and ________________________. that a theory is i. Often people confuse a theory and a __________________, and think a guess or a conjecture.

e. The purpose of a theory is to ______________ what we already know, and to ________________ directions for further study to help ___________ future findings. The organization of living things: 1. The ____________ is a single, complete individual that is composed of organ systems. 2. An ___________________ is a group of organs with a collective function. a. The human body has integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, urinary, digestive, and reproductive systems.

3. An ___________ is a structure composed of two or more tissues that have a specific function. 4. A ____________ is a mass of similar cells and cell products that form a discrete region of an organ. There are four tissue types: _______________, ________________, __________, and __________________ tissue. 5. ____________ are the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life, and contain organelles. 6. ______________________ (elle: little) are microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its functions. 7. ________________ compose the organelles and other cellular components containing at least two atoms. 8. ________________ are the smallest particles with unique chemical identities. What are the characteristics of life?

Metabolism: Sum of all physical and chemical events that _________, ____________ and _____________ energy What is life?

What is required for life? ___________: Metabolism, transport, internal environment ___________: Nutrients for maintenance and building of life ___________: Required to release most energy from food ___________: Controls rate of metabolic reactions ____________: Atmospheric pressure required for breathing, hydrostatic pressure circulates blood What is death?

Central Themes of Anatomy and Physiology:

1. _____________________ ____________ determined by ___________ DNA determines _______________ of cell, tissue, organism 2. ____________________ ‘constancy of the internal milieu’ Depends on ______________ feedback All body systems are interrelated All body systems must be maintained within narrow limits Homeostasis is the condition of maintaining a constant ____________________ With the exception of the reproductive organs, all cells, tissues, and organs strive towards maintaining homeostasis History and Introduction Review Questions 1. What were the important contributions to Anatomy that Galen made? How were Galen’s writings misused? 2. What were some of the innovations in Anatomy that Vesalius was responsible for? Why was his text widely used? 3. How did William Harvey contribute to the study of human physiology? How did this differ from previous physiological studies? 4. What were Marcello Malpighi’s innovations in anatomy? 5. What is the definition of anatomy? 6. What is the definition of physiology? 7. What are a few subfields of anatomy and physiology? (Ex. What is endocrinology?) 8. What is science? Why do we need to stay current with scientific research? 9. Why do you study anatomy & physiology? 10. What is the organization of living things from atom to organism? 11. What are the systems of the body? 12. What are the 4 tissue types? 13. Be able to name at least 5 characteristics of life. 14. What are life and death? 15. What is required for life and why are they required? 16. What are the central themes of anatomy and physiology?

17. What is the role of DNA in determining function? 18. What is homeostasis and why is it important? 19. Give an example of negative feedback. 20. What is a fact? 21. What is a law of nature? 22. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?

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