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In 1989, the Luropean 1elecommunication Standards Institute ,L1SI, took
o·er responsibility íor GSM. Phase I oí the GSM speciíications were
published in 1990, commercial ser·ice was started in mid-1991, and by 1993
there were 36 GSM networks in 22 countries. In addition to Luropean
countries, South Aírica, Australia, and many Middle and lar Last countries
ha·e chosen GSM. At the beginning oí 1994, there were 1.3 million
subscribers worldwide. 1he acronym GSM now aptly stands íor Global
System íor Mobile telecommunications.
GSM was intended to be compatible with ISDN in terms oí ser·ices oííered
and control signalling used. Howe·er, the standard ISDN bit rate oí 64
Kbps could not be practically achie·ed due to the limitations oí the radio
link. 1he digital nature oí GSM allows data, both synchronous and
asynchronous, to be transported as a bearer ser·ice to or írom an ISDN
terminal. 1he data rates supported by GSM are 300, 600, 1200, 2400, and
9600 bps.
128 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
1he most basic teleser·ice supported by GSM is telephony. A unique
íeature oí GSM compared to older analog systems is the Short Message
Ser·ice ,SMS,.
Supplementary ser·ices are pro·ided on top oí teleser·ices or bearer
ser·ices, and include íeatures such as international roaming, caller
identiíication, call íorwarding, call waiting, multi-party con·ersations and
barring oí outgoing ,international, calls, among others.
1he íollowing diagram illustrates the structure oí the GSM protocol íamily:
MOBILE STATION
(MS)
CM
MM
RR
LAPDm
LAYER 1
Um Abis A
LAYER 1 LAYER 1
LAPDm LAPD LAPDm
RR BTSM
LAPD
LAYER 1
BTSM
RR
BSSMAP
DTAP
SCCP
MTP MTP
SCCP
BSSMAP
DTAP
CM
MM
MOBILE SWITCHING
CENTER
(MSC)
BASE STATION
(BTS)
BASE STATION
CONTROLLER
(BSC)
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Code Di·ision Multiple Access ,CDMA, is a digital air interíace standard,
claiming eight to íiíteen times the capacity oí traditional analog cellular
systems. It employs a commercial adaptation oí a military spread-spectrum
technology. Based on spread spectrum theory, it gi·es essentially the same
ser·ices and qualities as wireline ser·ice. 1he primary diííerence is that
access to the local exchange carrier ,LLC, is pro·ided ·ia a wireless phone.
1hough CDMA`s application in cellular telephony is relati·ely new, it is not
a new technology. CDMA has been used in many military applications, such
as:
• Anti-jamming ,because oí the spread signal, it is diííicult to jam or
interíere with a CDMA signal,.
• Ranging ,measuring the distance oí the transmission to know when it
will be recei·ed,.
• Secure communications ,the spread spectrum signal is ·ery hard to
detect,.
CDMA is a spread spectrum technology, which means that it spreads the
iníormation contained in a particular signal oí interest o·er a much greater
bandwidth than the original signal. \ith CDMA, unique digital codes, rather
than separate Rl írequencies or channels, are used to diííerentiate
subscribers. 1he codes are shared by both the mobile station ,cellular
phone, and the base station, and are called pseudo-random code sequences.
Since each user is separated by a unique code, all users can share the same
írequency band ,range oí radio spectrum,. 1his gi·es many unique
ad·antages to the CDMA technique o·er other Rl techniques in cellular
communication.
CDMA is a digital multiple access technique and this cellular aspect oí the
protocol is speciíied by the 1elecommunications Industry Association ,1IA,
as IS-95.
In CDMA, the BSSAP is di·ided into the D1AP and BSMAP ,which
corresponds to BSSMAP in GSM,. 1he structure oí CDMA is shown in the
íollowing illustration:
130 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
BS Side MSC
A Interface
LLC
RLC
DTAP
BSSMAP
MTP
LLC
RLC
DTAP
BSSMAP
SCCP
MTP
Physical Layer
SCCP
BSSAP BSSAP
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1he íollowing cellular protocols are described in this chapter:
• BSSAP - BSS Application Part.
• BSSMAP - BSS Management Application Part.
• D1AP ,GSM, - Direct 1ransíer Application sub-Part.
• B1SM - Base Station Controller to Base 1ranscei·er Station.
• BSMAP - Base Station Management Application Part.
• D1AP ,CDMA, - Direct 1ransíer Application sub-Part.
• RR - Radio Resource.
• MM - Mobility Management.
• CC - Call Control.
• SMS - Short Message Ser·ice.
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Transport
Network
Data Link
GPRS
GMS/CDMA
Application
INAP
Session
Presentation
VLR
IS41/MAP
HLR
AUC
EIR
DTAP
B-ISUP
ISUP
DUP
SS
MM
RR
CM/CC
SMS
SNDCP
BSSMAP
SMS
GMM
Physical
TCAP TUP
BTSM BSSAP
SCCP
NM
V5
GTP
BSSGP
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
NS-Network
LAPv5
From LAPD
From UDP
To IP
To X.25
From
Frame Relay
V5 Link Control
V5 PSTN
V5 Control
V5 Protection
LLC
132 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
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GSM 08.06 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he M1P and the SCCP are used to support signalling messages between
the Mobile Ser·ices Switching Center ,MSC, and the Base Station System
,BSS,. One user íunction oí the SCCP, called BSS Application Part ,BSSAP,
is deíined. In the case oí point-to-point calls the BSSAP uses one signalling
connection per acti·e mobile station ha·ing one or more acti·e transactions
íor the transíer oí layer 3 messages. In the case oí a ·oice group or a
broadcast call, there is always one connection per cell in·ol·ed in the call
and one additional connection per BSS íor the transmission oí layer 3
messages. 1here is an additional connection íor the speaker in a broadcast
call, or the íirst speaker in a ·oice group call, up to the point at which the
network decides to transíer them to a common channel. Additional
connections may also be required íor any mobile stations in the ·oice group
or broadcast call, which the network decides to place on a dedicated
connection. 1he BSSAP user íunction is íurther subdi·ided into two
separate íunctions:
• 1he Direct 1ransíer Application sub-Part ,D1AP, is used to transíer
messages between the MSC and the MS ,Mobile Station,. 1he layer-3
iníormation in these messages is not interpreted by the BSS. 1he
descriptions oí the layer 3 protocols íor the MS-MSC iníormation
exchange are contained in the 04 series oí GSM 1echnical Speciíications.
• 1he BSS Management Application sub-Part ,BSSMAP, supports other
procedures between the MSC and the BSS, related to the MS ,resource
management, hando·er control,, or to a cell within the BSS, or to the
whole BSS. 1he description oí the layer 3 protocol íor the BSSMAP
iníormation exchange is contained in GSM 08.08.
Both connectionless and connection-oriented procedures are used to
support the BSSMAP. GSM 08.08 explains whether connection oriented or
connectionless ser·ices should be used íor each layer 3 procedure.
Connection oriented procedures are used to support the D1AP. A
distribution íunction located in BSSAP, which is reílected in the protocol
speciíication by the layer 3 header, períorms the discrimination between the
data related to those two subparts.
8SSAP ¾ 133
1he íormat oí the BSSAP header is shown in the íollowing illustration:
1 byte 1 byte
Discrimination DLCI Length
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Discriminates between the 2 sub-protocols: BSSMAP and D1AP.
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Only used íor D1AP. Used in MSC to BSS messages to indicate the type oí
origination data link connection o·er the radio interíace.
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Subsequent layer 3 message parameter length.
134 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
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1he BSS Management Application Part ,BSSMAP, supports all oí the
procedures between the MSC and the BSS that require interpretation and
processing oí iníormation related to single call and resource management.
Some oí the BSSMAP procedures result in, or are triggered by, Radio
Resource ,RR, management messages deíined in GSM 04.08.
1he íormat oí the header is shown in the íollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Message type 1
Information elements 2-n
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Mandatory, one-octet íield deíining the message type. 1he message type
code uniquely deíines the íunction and íormat oí each BSSMAP message.
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Lach IL has an identiíier which is coded as a single octet. 1he length oí an
IL may be íixed or ·ariable and may or may not include a length indicator.
DTAP (GSM) ¾ 135
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GSM 04.08, 08.06, 08.08 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he Direct 1ransíer Application Part ,D1AP, is used to transíer call control
and mobility management messages between the MSC and the MS. 1he
D1AP iníormation in these messages is not interpreted by the BSS.
Messages recei·ed írom the MS are identiíied as D1AP by the Protocol
Discriminator Iníormation Llement. 1he majority oí radio interíace
messages are transíerred across the BSS MSC interíace by D1AP, except íor
messages belonging to the Radio Resource ,RR, management protocol.
1he D1AP íunction is in charge oí transíerring layer 3 messages írom the
MS ,or írom the MSC, to the MSC ,or to the MS, without any analysis oí
the message contents. 1he interworking between the layer 2 protocol on the
radio side and signalling system ¯ at the landside is based on the use oí
indi·idual SCCP connections íor each MS and on the distribution íunction.
1he íormat oí the D1AP header is shown in the íollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Transaction / skip 1
0 N(SD) Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
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Identiíies the layer 3 protocol to which the standard layer 3 message
belongs. Values may be as íollows:
0000 Group call control
0001 Broadcast call control
0010 PDSS1
0011 Call control, call related SS messages
0100 PDSS2
0101 Mobility Management Messages
0110 Radio resources management messages
1001 SMS messages
1011 Non-call related SS messages
1110 Lxtension oí the PD to one octet length
1111 1ests procedures described in 1S GSM 11.10
13ó ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
Transaction identifier / skip indicator
Lither a transaction identiíier, or a skip indictor depending on the le·el 3
protocol. 1he transaction identiíier contains the transaction ·alue and ílag
which identiíies who allocated the 1I.
N(SD)
lor MM and CM, N,SD, is set to the ·alue oí the send state ·ariable. In
other le·el 3 messages, bit ¯ is set to 0 by the sending side. Messages
recei·ed with bit ¯ set to 1 are ignored.
Messa¿e type
Uniquely deíines the íunction and íormat oí each GSM L3 message. 1he
message type is mandatory íor all messages. 1he meaning oí the message
type is thereíore dependent on the protocol ,the same ·alue may ha·e
diííerent meanings in diííerent protocols, and direction ,the same ·alue may
ha·e diííerent meanings in the same protocol, when sent írom the Mobile
Station to the network and when sent írom the network to the Mobile
Station,.
Information e|ements
1he message type may be íollowed by ·arious iníormation elements
depending on the protocol.
8TSM ¾ 137
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GSM 08.58 http:,,www.etsi.org
B1SM is the Base Station Controller to Base 1ranscei·er Station ,BSC -
B1S, interíace protocol ,the A-bis interíace,. B1SM allows sending
messages between the Base Station Controller and the Base 1ranscei·er
Station. Protocol messages consist oí a series oí iníormation elements. lor
each message there are mandatory iníormation elements and optional
iníormation elements. B1SM messages are transmitted on the A-bis
interíace using the I íormat oí LAPD, except íor the Measurement Result
message which is sent in UI íormat.
1he structure oí B1SM messages is shown in the íollowing diagram:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Message discriminator 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
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0HVVDJHGLVFULPLQDWRU
1-octet íield used in all messages to discriminate between 1ransparent and
Non-1ransparent messages and also between Radio Link Layer
Management, Dedicated Channel Management, Common Channel
Management and 1RX Management messages. 1he íormat oí the message
discriminator is as íollows:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 T 1
0HVVDJHGLVFULPLQDWRUVWUXFWXUH
1he 1-bit is set to 1 to indicate that the message is to be,was considered
transparent by B1S. All other messages ha·e the 1-bit set to 0. 1he G-bits
are used to group the messages as íollows:
G7-G1 m.ooug. grouj
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reser·ed
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Radio Link Layer Management messages
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Dedicated Channel Management messages
138 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Common Channel Management messages
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1RX Management messages
All other ·alues are reser·ed íor íuture use.
0HVVDJHW\SH
Uniquely identiíies the íunction oí the message being sent. It is a single octet
and coded as íollows:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
EM Message type 1
0HVVDJHGLVFULPLQDWRUVWUXFWXUH
Bit 8 is the extension bit and is reser·ed íor íuture use. 1he íollowing
message types are used ,all other ·alues are reser·ed,:
0000 xxxx Radio Link Layer Management messages:
0001 DA1A RLQuest
0010 DA1A INDication
0011 LRROR INDication
0100 LS1ablish RLQuest
0101 LS1ablish CONlirm
0110 LS1ablish INDication
0111 RLLease RLQuest
1000 RLLease CONlirm
1001 RLLease INDication
1010 UNI1 DA1A RLQuest
1011 UNI1 DA1A INDication
0001 xxxx Common Channel Management,1RX Management
messages:
0001 BCCH INlOrmation
0010 CCCH LOAD INDication
0011 CHANnel ReQuireD
0100 DLLL1L INDication
0101 PAGING CoMmanD
0110 IMMLDIA1L ASSIGN COMMAND
0111 SMS BroadCast RLQuest
1001 Rl RLSource INDication
1010 SACCH lILLing
1011 OVLRLOAD
1100 LRROR RLPOR1
8TSM ¾ 139
1101 SMS BroadCast CoMmanD
1110 CBCH LOAD INDication
1111 NO1iíication CoMmanD
001 xxxxx Dedicated Channel Management messages:
00001 CHANnel AC1IVation
00010 CHANnel AC1IVation ACKnowledge
00011 CHANnel AC1IVation Negati·e ACK
00100 CONNection lAILure
00101 DLAC1IVA1L SACCH
00110 LNCRyption CoMmanD
00111 HANDO·er DL1ection
01000 MLASurement RLSult
01001 MODL MODIl\ RLQuest
01010 MODL MODIl\ ACKnowledge
01011 MODL MODIl\ Negati·e ACKnowledge
01100 PH\sical CON1LX1 RLQuest
01101 PH\sical CON1LX1 CONlirm
01110 Rl CHANnel RLLease
01111 MS PO\LR CON1ROL
10000 BS PO\LR CON1ROL
10001 PRLPROCess CONlIGure
10010 PRLPROCessed MLASurement RLSult
10011 Rl CHANnel RLLease ACKnowledge
10100 SACCH INlO MODIl\
10101 1ALKLR DL1ection
10110 LIS1LNLR DL1ection
140 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
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1IA,LIA,IS-634-A, re·ision A
1he Base Station Management Application Part ,BSMAP, supports all
Radio Resource Management and lacility Management procedures between
the MSC and the BS, or to a cell,s, within the BS. BSMAP messages are not
passed to the MS, but are used only to períorm íunctions at the MSC or the
BS. A BSMAP message ,complete layer 3 iníormation, is also used together
with a D1AP message to establish a connection íor an MS between the BS
and the MSC, in response to the íirst layer 3 interíace message sent by the
MS to the BS íor each MS system request.
1he íormat oí the header is shown in the íollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Message type 1
Parameter 2-n
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0HVVDJHW\SH
Mandatory, one-octet íield which uniquely deíines the íunction and íormat
oí each BSMAP message.
3DUDPHWHU
Lach parameter has a name which is coded as a single octet. 1he length oí a
parameter may be íixed or ·ariable and a length indicator íor each parameter
may be included.
DTAP (CDMA) ¾ 141
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1IA,LIA,IS-634-A, re·ision A
1he Direct 1ransíer Application Part ,D1AP, messages are used to transíer
call processing and mobility management messages to and írom the MS.
1he BS does not use D1AP messages, but must map messages going to and
coming írom the MSC into the appropriate air interíace signaling protocol.
1ransaction IDs are used to associate the D1AP messages with a particular
MS and the current call.
1he íormat oí the header is shown in the íollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Transaction identifier Protocol discriminator 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
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3URWRFROGLVFULPLQDWRU
1he protocol discriminator speciíies the message being transíerred ,CC,
MM, RR,.
7UDQVDFWLRQLGHQWLILHU
Distinguishes multiple parallel acti·ities ,transactions, within one mobile
station. 1he íormat oí the transaction identiíier is as íollows:
8 7 6 5
TI flag TI value
7UDQVDFWLRQLGHQWLILHU
7,IODJ
Identiíies who allocated the 1I ·alue íor this transaction. 1he purpose oí
the 1I ílag is to resol·e simultaneous attempts to allocate the same 1I ·alue.
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1I ·alues are assigned by the side oí the interíace initiating a transaction. At
the beginning oí a transaction, a íree 1I ·alue is chosen and assigned to this
transaction. It then remains íixed íor the liíetime oí the transaction. Aíter a
142 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
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GSM 04.08 http:,,www.etsi.org
Radio Resource ,RR, management procedures include the íunctions related
to the management oí the common transmission resources, e.g., the physical
channels and the data link connections on control channels. 1he general
purpose oí Radio Resource procedures is to establish, maintain and release
RR connections that allow a point-to-point dialogue between the network
and a Mobile Station. 1his includes the cell selection,reselection and the
hando·er procedures. Moreo·er, Radio Resource management procedures
include the reception oí the uni-directional BCCH and CCCH when no RR
connection is established. 1his permits automatic cell selection,reselection.
1he íormat oí the RR header is shown in the íollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Skip indicator 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
55KHDGHUVWUXFWXUH
3URWRFROGLVFULPLQDWRU
0110 identiíies the RR Management protocol.
6NLSLQGLFDWRU
1he ·alue oí this íield is 0000.
0HVVDJHW\SH
Uniquely deíines the íunction and íormat oí each RR message. 1he message
type is mandatory íor all messages. RR message types may be:
00111 xxx Channel establishment messages:
011 ADDI1IONAL ASSIGNMLN1
111 IMMLDIA1L ASSIGNMLN1
001 IMMLDIA1L ASSIGNMLN1 LX1LNDLD
010 IMMLDIA1L ASSIGNMLN1 RLJLC1
00110 xxx Ciphering messages:
101 CIPHLRING MODL COMMAND
010 CIPHLRING MODL COMPLL1L
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00101 xxx Hando·er messages:
110 ASSIGNMLN1 COMMAND
001 ASSIGNMLN1 COMPLL1L
111 ASSIGNMLN1 lAILURL
011 HANDOVLR COMMAND
100 HANDOVLR COMPLL1L
000 HANDOVLR lAILURL
101 PH\SICAL INlORMA1ION
00001 xxx Channel release messages:
101 CHANNLL RLLLASL
010 PAR1IAL RLLLASL
111 PAR1IAL RLLLASL COMPLL1L
00100 xxx Paging messages:
001 PAGING RLQULS1 1\PL 1
010 PAGING RLQULS1 1\PL 2
100 PAGING RLQULS1 1\PL 3
111 PAGING RLSPONSL
00011 xxx System iníormation messages:
000 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 8
001 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 1
010 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 2
011 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 3
100 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 4
101 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 5
110 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 6
111 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL ¯
00000 xxx System iníormation messages:
010 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 2bis
011 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 2ter
101 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 5bis
110 S\S1LM INlORMA1ION 1\PL 5ter
00010 xxx Miscellaneous messages:
000 CHANNLL MODL MODIl\
010 RR S1A1US
111 CHANNLL MODL MODIl\ ACKNO\LLDGL
100 lRLQULNC\ RLDLlINI1ION
101 MLASURLMLN1 RLPOR1
110 CLASSMARK CHANGL
011 CLASSMARK LNQUIR\
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GSM 04.08 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he main íunction oí the Mobility Management ,MM, sub-layer is to
support the mobility oí user terminals, such as iníorming the network oí its
present location and pro·iding user identity coníidentiality. A íurther
íunction oí the MM sub-layer is to pro·ide connection management ser·ices
to the diííerent entities oí the upper Connection Management ,CM, sub-
layer.
1he íormat oí the header is shown in the íollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Skip indicator 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
00KHDGHUVWUXFWXUH
3URWRFROGLVFULPLQDWRU
0101 identiíies the MM protocol.
6NLSLQGLFDWRU
1he ·alue oí this íield is 0000.
0HVVDJHW\SH
Uniquely deíines the íunction and íormat oí each MM message. 1he
message type is mandatory íor all messages. Bit 8 is reser·ed íor possible
íuture use as an extension bit. Bit ¯ is reser·ed íor the send sequence
number in messages sent írom the mobile station. MM message types may
be:
0x00 xxxx Registration messages:
0001 IMSI DL1ACH INDICA1ION
0010 LOCA1ION UPDA1ING ACCLP1
0100 LOCA1ION UPDA1ING RLJLC1
1000 LOCA1ION UPDA1ING RLQULS1
0x01 xxxx Security messages:
0001 AU1HLN1ICA1ION RLJLC1
0010 AU1HLN1ICA1ION RLQULS1
00¾
0100 AU1HLN1ICA1ION RLSPONSL
1000 IDLN1I1\ RLQULS1
1001 IDLN1I1\ RLSPONSL
1010 1MSI RLALLOCA1ION COMMAND
1011 1MSI RLALLOCA1ION COMPLL1L
0x10 xxxx Connection management messages:
0001 CM SLRVICL ACCLP1
0010 CM SLRVICL RLJLC1
0011 CM SLRVICL ABOR1
0100 CM SLRVICL RLQULS1
1000 CM RLLS1ABLISHMLN1 RLQULS1
1001 ABOR1
0x11 xxxx Miscellaneous messages:
0001 MM S1A1US
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Various iníormation elements.
148 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
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GSM 04.08 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he Call Control ,CC, protocol is one oí the protocols oí the Connection
Management ,CM, sublayer. L·ery mobile station must support the Call
Control protocol. Ií a mobile station does not support any bearer capability
at all, then it must respond to a SL1UP message with a RLLLASL
COMPLL1L message. In the Call Control protocol, more than one CC
entity is deíined. Lach CC entity is independent írom another and
communicates with the corresponding peer entity using its own MM
connection. Diííerent CC entities use diííerent transaction identiíiers.
Certain sequences oí actions oí the two peer entities compose elementary
procedures. 1hese elementary procedures may be grouped into the
íollowing classes:
• Call establishment procedures.
• Call clearing procedures.
• Call iníormation phase procedures.
• Miscellaneous procedures.
1he terms PRELOHRULJLQDWLQJ or PRELOHRULJLQDWHG ,MO, are used to describe a call
initiated by the mobile station. 1he terms PRELOHWHUPLQDWLQJ or PRELOHWHUPLQDWHG
,M1, are used to describe a call initiated by the network.
1he íormat oí the CC header is shown in the íollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Transaction identifier 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
&&KHDGHUVWUXFWXUH
3URWRFROGLVFULPLQDWRU
0011 identiíies the CC protocol.
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1he transaction identiíier distinguishes multiple parallel acti·ities
,transactions, within one mobile station. 1he íormat oí the transaction
identiíier is as íollows:
&&¾
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
TI flag TI value - - - -
7UDQVDFWLRQLGHQWLILHU
7,IODJ
Identiíies who allocated the 1I ·alue íor this transaction. 1he purpose oí
the 1I ílag is to resol·e simultaneous attempts to allocate the same 1I ·alue.
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1I ·alues are assigned by the side oí the interíace initiating a transaction. At
the beginning oí a transaction, a íree 1I ·alue is chosen and assigned to this
transaction. It then remains íixed íor the liíetime oí the transaction. Aíter a
transaction ends, the associated 1I ·alue is íree and may be reassigned to a
later transaction. 1wo identical transaction identiíier ·alues may be used
when each ·alue pertains to a transaction originated at opposite ends oí the
interíace.
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CC message types may be as íollows. Bit 8 is reser·ed íor possible íuture use
as an extension bit. Bit ¯ is reser·ed íor the send sequence number in
messages sent írom the mobile station.
0x00 0000 Lscape to nationally speciíic message types
0x00 xxxx Call establishment messages:
0001 ALLR1ING
1000 CALL CONlIRMLD
0010 CALL PROCLLDING
0111 CONNLC1
1111 CONNLC1 ACKNO\LLDGL
1110 LMLRGLNC\ SL1UP
0011 PROGRLSS
0101 SL1UP
0x01 xxxx Call iníormation phase messages:
0111 MODIl\
1111 MODIl\ COMPLL1L
0011 MODIl\ RLJLC1
0000 USLR INlORMA1ION
1000 HOLD
1001 HOLD ACKNO\LLDGL
1010 HOLD RLJLC1
150 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
1100 RL1RILVL
1101 RL1RILVL ACKNO\LLDGL
1110 RL1RILVL RLJLC1
0x10 xxxx Call clearing messages:
0101 DISCONNLC1
1101 RLLLASL
1010 RLLLASL COMPLL1L
0x11 xxxx Miscellaneous messages:
1001 CONGLS1ION CON1ROL
1110 NO1Il\
1101 S1A1US
0100 S1A1US LNQUIR\
0101 S1AR1 D1Ml
0001 S1OP D1Ml
0010 S1OP D1Ml ACKNO\LLDGL
0110 S1AR1 D1Ml ACKNO\LLDGL
0111 S1AR1 D1Ml RLJLC1
1010 lACILI1\
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Various iníormation elements.
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GSM 04.11 http:,,www.etsi.org
1he Short Message Ser·ice ,SMS, is used to transíer text messages o·er
mobile networks between a GSM PLMN Mobile Station and a Short
Message Lntity ·ia a Ser·ice Center. 1he terms MO ,Mobile Originating,
and M1 ,Mobile 1erminating, are used to indicate the direction in which the
short message is sent.
SMS messages can be control or relay messages. 1he íormat oí the control
protocol message header is shown in the íollowing illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
Protocol discriminator Transaction identifier 1
Message type 2
Information elements 3-n
606FRQWUROSURWRFROKHDGHUVWUXFWXUH
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1001 identiíies the SMS protocol.
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1he transaction identiíier ,1I, distinguishes multiple parallel acti·ities
,transactions, within one mobile station. 1he íormat oí the transaction
identiíier is as íollows:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
TI flag TI value - - - -
7UDQVDFWLRQLGHQWLILHU
7,IODJ
Identiíies who allocated the 1I ·alue íor this transaction. 1he purpose oí
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7,YDOXH
1I ·alues are assigned by the side oí the interíace initiating a transaction. At
the beginning oí a transaction, a íree 1I ·alue is chosen and assigned to this
transaction. It then remains íixed íor the liíetime oí the transaction. Aíter a
152 ½ Ce||u|ar Protoco|s
transaction ends, the associated 1I ·alue is íree and may be reassigned to a
later transaction. 1wo identical transaction identiíier ·alues may be used
when each ·alue pertains to a transaction originated at opposite ends oí the
interíace.
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1he message type, together with the protocol discriminator, identiíies the
íunction oí the message being sent. Messages may be oí the íollowing:
0000 0001 CP-DA1A
0000 0100 CP-ACK
0001 0000 CP-LRROR
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Lach IL has an identiíier which is coded as a single octet. 1he length oí an
IL may be íixed or ·ariable and may or may not include a length indicator.
1he íormat oí the relay protocol message header is shown in the íollowing
illustration:
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet
0 0 0 0 0 MTI 1
Message reference 2
Information elements 3-n
606UHOD\SURWRFROKHDGHUVWUXFWXUH
07,
Message type indicator. Values are as íollows:
11: 1uIu. ¡J 2 1) 11r..:1on 11-m.ooug.
0 0 0 ms -· n RP-DA1A
0 0 0 n -· ms Reser·ed
0 0 1 ms -· n Reser·ed
0 0 1 n -· ms RP-DA1A
0 1 0 ms -· n RP-ACK
0 1 0 n -· ms Reser·ed
0 1 1 ms -· n Reser·ed
0 1 1 n -· ms RP-ACK
1 0 0 ms -· n RP-LRROR
1 0 0 n -· ms Reser·ed
1 0 1 ms -· n Reser·ed
1 0 1 n -· ms RP-LRROR
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11: 1uIu. ¡J 2 1) 11r..:1on 11-m.ooug.
1 1 0 ms -· n RP-SMMA
1 1 0 n -· ms Reser·ed
1 1 1 ms -· n Reser·ed
1 1 1 n -· ms Reser·ed
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Used to link an RP-ACK message or RP-LRROR message to the associated
RP-Data or RP-SMMA message transíer attempt.
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Lach IL has an identiíier which is coded as a single octet. 1he length oí an
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