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Tactile: touch, pressure, vibration Thermal (warm, cold) Pain Proprioception (joint, muscle position sense; movements of limbs, head) Visceral: internal organ conditions Definition of Sensation Conscious or subconscious awareness of change in external or internal environment Requires 1. Stimulus 2. Sensory receptor 3. Neural pathway 4. Brain region for integration Characteristics Perception: conscious awareness Occurs in cerebral cortex Adaptation: decreased receptor response during prolonged stimulation Decreased perception Adaptation speed varies with receptor Rapid adaptation: pressure, touch, smell Slow adaptation: pain, body position, chemical levels in blood Sensory Receptors: Structural Types Free nerve endings Pain, thermal, tickle, itch, some touch receptors Encapsulated nerve endings Touch pressure, and vibration Separate, specialized cells Hair cells in inner ear Photoreceptors in retina of eye Sensory Receptors: Functional Types Mechanoreceptors Cell deformation: stretching or bending Touch, pressure, vibration Thermoreceptors: temperature Nociceptors: pain Photoreceptors: light
Chemoreceptors: taste, smell Osmoreceptors Osmotic pressure of body fluid Somatic Senses Somatic receptors in skin, mucous membranes, muscles, tendons, and joints Distributed unevenly: dense concentration of receptors in very sensitive areas Fingertips, lips, tip of tongue Include tactile, thermal, pain, proprioceptive Tactile Sensations Touch, pressure, vibration Encapsulated mechanoreceptors Itch and tickle Free nerve endings Touch Rapidly adapting receptors for touch Meissner corpuscles Hair root plexuses: detect hair movement Slowly adapting receptors for touch Type I mechanoreceptors: Merkel discs or tactile discs Surface receptors: in epidermis Type I mechanoreceptors: Ruffini corpuscles Deep in dermis and tendons Pressure and Vibration Pressure Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscles: layers like onion Rapid adapting Widely distributed: in dermis, subcutaneous, around joints, tendons, muscles, periosteum Vibration Response to rapidly repetitive stimuli Receptors: Meissner and pacinian Itch and Tickle Itch: chemical stimulation of free nerve endings Bradykinin from inflammation response Tickle: from free nerve endings and pacinian corpuscles Tickle requires stimulus from outside of self
sweet.000 odors from combination of primary receptor input Rapid adaptation by 50% in 1 second Olfactory Pathway First-order neurons Olfactory receptors are neurons in nasal mucosa Axons form olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I) Extend through cribriform plate into cranium to olfactory bulb Second-order neurons Neuron cell bodies in olfactory bulb Olfactory tract: axons extend from olfactory bulb to cerebral cortex (temporal lobe) Limbic system: emotional response to odors Taste: Gustation Five primary tastes: salt. throbbing More diffuse (not localized) Referred pain is visceral pain displaced to surface Proprioception (Kinesthesia) Awareness of Body position. and umami Perception of what is called “taste” includes olfactory input Receptors in 10. Effects of attempts to tickle oneself are blocked by signals to/from cerebellum Thermal Sensations Two kinds of thermoreceptors Cold receptors: 10˚–40˚ C (50–105˚ F) Located in epidermis Warm receptors: 32˚–48˚ C (90– 118˚ F) Located in dermis Both adapt rapidly but continue slow signals during prolonged stimulus Outside these ranges: nociceptors detect pain Pain Sensations Nociceptors Free nerve endings in every tissue except brain Can respond to any excessive stimulus Minimal adaptation Types of pain Fast pain: acute.000 taste buds Located on tongue. sharp pain Well localized Slow pain: chronic. epiglottis In structures called papillae Vallate (posterior) Fungiform (all over) Filiform: touch receptors only . Rare! Stimulation of Receptors Genetic evidence: 100’s of primary odors exist Binding of chemical odorants stimulates receptor Recognition of 10. pharynx. protect Basal cells: stem cells that produce new neurons (receptors) throughout life. weight of objects Sites of receptors Muscles (muscle spindles) Tendons (tendon organs) Joint kinesthetic receptors (synovial joints) Inner ear (hair cells): head position Tracts to Somatosensory area of cerebral cortex and Cerebellum Slight adaptation Special Senses Smell (olfaction) Taste (gustation) Vision Balance Hearing Smell: Olfaction Site of olfactory receptors In mucosa of superior region of nose Three types of olfactory cells Olfactory receptors Consist of olfactory hairs with chemoreceptors These are first order neurons of olfactory pathway Supporting cells Epithelial cells: support. burning. bitter. sour. aching. movements.
green or red light Color vision results from combined input Cones mostly in central fovea in center of macula lutea Point of highest visual acuity (sharpness) Visual pathway . inferior oblique Lacrimal apparatus: produces tears Lacrimal glands lacrimal ducts surface of upper eyelid surface of eye Lacrimal canals lacrimal sac nasolacrimal duct nasal cavity Layers of Eyeball First layer: Fibrous tunic Anteriorly: cornea (clear. eyelashes: protection Eyelids: protection and lubrication (blinking) Extrinsic muscles: move eyeball Superior rectus. green) Smooth muscle that dilates or constricts pupil Pupil: hole for passage of light Third layer: Retina—composed of two layers Neural layer: outgrowth of brain Photoreceptor layer: rods and cones Bipolar cell layer Ganglion cell layer: axons of neurons here form optic nerve (CN II) that exits eye at optic disc (“blind spot” since no rods/cones here) Pigmented layer: helps absorb stray light Between choroid and neural layer Photoreceptors: Rods and Cones Rods: black-and-white vision. colorless) Posteriorly: sclera (“white of eye”) Second layer: Vascular tunic consists of Choroid: lines most of internal surface of eye Contains blood vessels that nourish the eye Ciliary body consists of Ciliary processes: secrete aqueous humor Ciliary muscles: changes lens shape for focusing Iris: pigmented part of eye (blue. brown. lateral rectus. 6 million cones Three types: sensitive to blue. epiglottis To medulla oblongata Thalamus primary gustatory area of cerebral cortex Limbic system or hypothalamus Vision: Eyes Accessory structures Eyebrows. 120 million Cones: color sensitive.Structure of Taste Bud Contains 3 types of epithelial cells Supporting cells that surround Gustatory receptor cells Gustatory hair projects from receptor through taste pore Basal cells Stem cells that produce supporting cells that develop into receptor cells (10-day life span) Stimulation of Taste Receptors Sequence of events Tastant dissolves in saliva Enters taste pore contacts gustatory hair Electrical signal produced Causes gustatory cell to release neurotransmitter That activates dendrites of firstorder neurons Adaptation occurs within minutes Different tastes arise from activation of different groups of taste neurons Gustatory Pathway Cranial nerves transmit impulses Facial (CN VII) from anterior of tongue Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) from posterior Vagus (CN X) from pharynx. inferior rectus. medial rectus. superior oblique.
Convergence of eyeballs: for binocular vision Step 1: Refraction of Light Definition: bending of light rays as they pass from medium of one density to another of different density 75% occurs at cornea. Constriction (narrowing) of pupil to control amount of light entering the eye 4. colorless fluid secreted from capillaries in ciliary body Completely replaced every 90 min Establishes intraocular pressure. Accommodation: change of lens shape to focus for near (or far) vision 3. Formation of Image on Retina: Four Steps 1. nourishes lens and cornea Drains into blood in scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm) Vitreous chamber: filled with gellike vitreous body (not replaced) Holds retina back against choroid Physiology of Vision: Three Steps A. Refraction (bending) of light rays to focus them on retina 2. ciliary muscle contracts fat lens (rounder = more convex) Visual disorders Myopia (nearsightedness): can see near but not far objects Eyeball is too long so lens cannot accommodate enough to focus images of distant objects onto retina Visual disorders Hyperopia (farsightedness): can see far but not near Eyeball is too short so lens cannot accommodate enough to focus images of near objects onto retina Astigmatism: irregular curvature of cornea or lens Presbyopia: aging change loss of elasticity of lens farsightedness reading glasses These disorders can be corrected with lenses or LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) Steps 3 and 4: Constriction and Convergence ■ Constriction of pupil Autonomic (parasympathetic) reflex to prevent excessive light rays from entering eye By contraction of circular muscles of iris ■ Convergence Eyes rotate inward for binocular vision By contraction of extrinsic eye muscles B. Stimulation of Photoreceptors Photoreceptors: light neural signal In rods light is absorbed by a photopigment (rhodopsin) which splits into opsin + retinal and leads receptor potential Vitamin A deficiency decreases rhodopsin production and leads to night blindness. Photoreceptor cells (rods or cones) Bipolar layer Ganglion cells. In cones light is absorbed by 3 opsins receptor potential for color vision . ciliary muscle relaxes flat lens For closeup vision. lens also helps focus light on retina Image is inverted but brain adjusts and interprets distance and size Step 2: Accommodation Lens adjusts shape for distance to allow image to focus on retina For distant objects. Stimulation of photoreceptors (rods and cones) C. Visual pathway: nerve impulses pass to cerebral cortex A. Formation of image on retina B. their axons form optic nerve Interior of Eyeball Two cavities separated by the lens Anterior cavity filled with aqueous humor Clear. maintains eye shape.
and tympanic membrane (ear drum) Canal contains hairs and ceruminous glands Middle ear: auditory tube (eustachian tube) and ossicles (bones) Ossicles (malleus. Vestibule and semicircular canals: organs of balance Inner Ear Structure: Three Regions Vestibule includes Two sacs: utricle and saccule Semicircular canals: at right angles Contain membranous semicircular ducts Each ends in a swelling known as ampulla Cochlea: 3 levels Cochlear duct: membranous. incus. external auditory canal. stapes: attached to oval window) Inner ear: bony labyrinth + membranous labyrinth filled with endolymph Cochlea: sense organ of hearing . Visual Pathway Rods or cones bipolar cells ganglion cells (their axons form optic nerve = CN II) About 50% of these axons cross over to opposite side of brain in optic chiasm Axons continue on into optic tract Terminate/synapse in thalamus Occipital lobes of cerebral cortex Right brain sees left side of object Left brain sees right side of object Hearing and Equilibrium: Ear Structure Outer ear: auricle. In colorblindness. C. has endolymph Contains spiral organ (sensory organ for hearing) Above: scala vestibuli: ends at oval window Below: scala tympani: ends at round window Spiral Organ Sits on basilar membrane Floor of cochlear duct Contains supporting cells + hair cells Hair cells Covered with jellylike tectorial membrane Are receptors for auditory sensations Synapse with sensory neurons in cochlear branch of vestibulocochlear nerve cranial nerve VIII) Physiology of Hearing Sound waves in air auditory canal Tympanic membrane ossicle movement stapes strikes oval window Pressure waves in perilymph Conveyed from scala vestibuli scala tympani Pressure waves in endolymph cause Hair cells bend against tectorial membrane Neurotransmitter released to sensory neurons Pitch (wavelength): location in cochlea Volume (loudness): intensity of waves Auditory Pathway Cochlear neurons (in cranial nerve VIII) end in medulla On same side: R ear R side medulla Midbrain thalamus Auditory cortex in temporal lobe Each side of brain receives input from both ears Physiology of Equilibrium Static equilibrium: senses position relative to gravity As when head is tilted or a car is speeding up or slowing down Dynamic equilibrium: senses position in response to head movement As in spinning movements Static Equilibrium Sensed in maculae of utricle and saccule Mechanism Gravity pulls on otoliths in otolithic membrane Bends hair cells in otolithic membrane Triggers nerve impulses in vestibular branch of vestibulochochlear nerve Dynamic Equilibrium Semicircular canals (3) At right angles to each other Cristae in each ampulla contain Hair cells embedded in jellylike cupula . red or green cones are missing.
Supporting cells Mechanism When head turns. head. neck Spinal cord tracts for adjusting muscle tone and postural muscles . hair cells move Endolymph lags and bends hair cells Nerve impulses in vestibular branch Equilibrium Pathways Axons from vestibular branch medulla or cerebellum Medulla motor control: eye.
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