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Special Senses

Special Senses

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Published by: breilano on Sep 11, 2012
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Special Senses  Smell (olfaction)  Taste (gustation)  Vision  Balance  Hearing General Senses: Somatic and Visceral  Somatic

 Tactile: touch, pressure, vibration  Thermal (warm, cold)  Pain  Proprioception (joint, muscle position sense; movements of limbs, head)  Visceral: internal organ conditions Definition of Sensation  Conscious or subconscious awareness of change in external or internal environment  Requires 1. Stimulus 2. Sensory receptor 3. Neural pathway 4. Brain region for integration Characteristics  Perception: conscious awareness  Occurs in cerebral cortex  Adaptation: decreased receptor response during prolonged stimulation  Decreased perception  Adaptation speed varies with receptor  Rapid adaptation: pressure, touch, smell  Slow adaptation: pain, body position, chemical levels in blood Sensory Receptors: Structural Types  Free nerve endings  Pain, thermal, tickle, itch, some touch receptors  Encapsulated nerve endings  Touch pressure, and vibration  Separate, specialized cells  Hair cells in inner ear  Photoreceptors in retina of eye Sensory Receptors: Functional Types  Mechanoreceptors  Cell deformation: stretching or bending  Touch, pressure, vibration  Thermoreceptors: temperature  Nociceptors: pain  Photoreceptors: light

Chemoreceptors: taste, smell Osmoreceptors  Osmotic pressure of body fluid Somatic Senses  Somatic receptors in skin, mucous membranes, muscles, tendons, and joints  Distributed unevenly: dense concentration of receptors in very sensitive areas  Fingertips, lips, tip of tongue  Include tactile, thermal, pain, proprioceptive Tactile Sensations  Touch, pressure, vibration  Encapsulated mechanoreceptors  Itch and tickle  Free nerve endings Touch  Rapidly adapting receptors for touch  Meissner corpuscles  Hair root plexuses: detect hair movement  Slowly adapting receptors for touch  Type I mechanoreceptors: Merkel discs or tactile discs  Surface receptors: in epidermis  Type I mechanoreceptors: Ruffini corpuscles  Deep in dermis and tendons Pressure and Vibration  Pressure  Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscles: layers like onion  Rapid adapting  Widely distributed: in dermis, subcutaneous, around joints, tendons, muscles, periosteum  Vibration  Response to rapidly repetitive stimuli  Receptors: Meissner and pacinian Itch and Tickle  Itch: chemical stimulation of free nerve endings  Bradykinin from inflammation response  Tickle: from free nerve endings and pacinian corpuscles  Tickle requires stimulus from outside of self

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sweet.000 odors from combination of primary receptor input  Rapid adaptation by 50% in 1 second Olfactory Pathway  First-order neurons  Olfactory receptors are neurons in nasal mucosa  Axons form olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I)  Extend through cribriform plate into cranium to olfactory bulb  Second-order neurons  Neuron cell bodies in olfactory bulb  Olfactory tract: axons extend from olfactory bulb to cerebral cortex (temporal lobe)  Limbic system: emotional response to odors Taste: Gustation  Five primary tastes: salt. throbbing  More diffuse (not localized)  Referred pain is visceral pain displaced to surface Proprioception (Kinesthesia)  Awareness of  Body position. and umami  Perception of what is called “taste” includes olfactory input  Receptors in 10. Effects of attempts to tickle oneself are blocked by signals to/from cerebellum Thermal Sensations  Two kinds of thermoreceptors  Cold receptors: 10˚–40˚ C (50–105˚ F)  Located in epidermis  Warm receptors: 32˚–48˚ C (90– 118˚ F)  Located in dermis  Both adapt rapidly but continue slow signals during prolonged stimulus  Outside these ranges: nociceptors detect pain Pain Sensations  Nociceptors  Free nerve endings in every tissue except brain  Can respond to any excessive stimulus  Minimal adaptation  Types of pain  Fast pain: acute.000 taste buds  Located on tongue. sharp pain  Well localized  Slow pain: chronic. epiglottis  In structures called papillae  Vallate (posterior)  Fungiform (all over)  Filiform: touch receptors only  . Rare! Stimulation of Receptors  Genetic evidence: 100’s of primary odors exist  Binding of chemical odorants stimulates receptor  Recognition of 10. pharynx. protect  Basal cells: stem cells that produce new neurons (receptors) throughout life. weight of objects  Sites of receptors  Muscles (muscle spindles)  Tendons (tendon organs)  Joint kinesthetic receptors (synovial joints)  Inner ear (hair cells): head position  Tracts to  Somatosensory area of cerebral cortex and  Cerebellum  Slight adaptation Special Senses  Smell (olfaction)  Taste (gustation)  Vision  Balance  Hearing Smell: Olfaction Site of olfactory receptors  In mucosa of superior region of nose  Three types of olfactory cells  Olfactory receptors  Consist of olfactory hairs with chemoreceptors  These are first order neurons of olfactory pathway  Supporting cells  Epithelial cells: support. burning. bitter. sour. aching. movements.

green or red light  Color vision results from combined input  Cones mostly in central fovea in center of macula lutea  Point of highest visual acuity (sharpness)  Visual pathway . inferior oblique  Lacrimal apparatus: produces tears  Lacrimal glands  lacrimal ducts  surface of upper eyelid  surface of eye   Lacrimal canals  lacrimal sac  nasolacrimal duct  nasal cavity Layers of Eyeball  First layer: Fibrous tunic  Anteriorly: cornea (clear. eyelashes: protection  Eyelids: protection and lubrication (blinking)  Extrinsic muscles: move eyeball  Superior rectus. green)  Smooth muscle that dilates or constricts pupil  Pupil: hole for passage of light  Third layer: Retina—composed of two layers  Neural layer: outgrowth of brain  Photoreceptor layer: rods and cones  Bipolar cell layer  Ganglion cell layer: axons of neurons here form optic nerve (CN II) that exits eye at optic disc (“blind spot” since no rods/cones here)  Pigmented layer: helps absorb stray light  Between choroid and neural layer Photoreceptors: Rods and Cones  Rods: black-and-white vision. colorless)  Posteriorly: sclera (“white of eye”)  Second layer: Vascular tunic consists of  Choroid: lines most of internal surface of eye  Contains blood vessels that nourish the eye  Ciliary body consists of  Ciliary processes: secrete aqueous humor  Ciliary muscles: changes lens shape for focusing  Iris: pigmented part of eye (blue. brown. lateral rectus. 6 million cones  Three types: sensitive to blue. epiglottis  To medulla oblongata   Thalamus  primary gustatory area of cerebral cortex   Limbic system or hypothalamus Vision: Eyes  Accessory structures  Eyebrows. 120 million  Cones: color sensitive.Structure of Taste Bud  Contains 3 types of epithelial cells  Supporting cells that surround  Gustatory receptor cells  Gustatory hair projects from receptor through taste pore  Basal cells  Stem cells that produce supporting cells that develop into receptor cells (10-day life span) Stimulation of Taste Receptors  Sequence of events  Tastant dissolves in saliva   Enters taste pore  contacts gustatory hair   Electrical signal produced   Causes gustatory cell to release neurotransmitter  That activates dendrites of firstorder neurons  Adaptation occurs within minutes  Different tastes arise from activation of different groups of taste neurons Gustatory Pathway  Cranial nerves transmit impulses  Facial (CN VII) from anterior of tongue  Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) from posterior  Vagus (CN X) from pharynx. inferior rectus. medial rectus. superior oblique.

Convergence of eyeballs: for binocular vision Step 1: Refraction of Light  Definition: bending of light rays as they pass from medium of one density to another of different density  75% occurs at cornea. Constriction (narrowing) of pupil to control amount of light entering the eye 4. colorless fluid secreted from capillaries in ciliary body  Completely replaced every 90 min  Establishes intraocular pressure. Accommodation: change of lens shape to focus for near (or far) vision 3. Formation of Image on Retina: Four Steps 1. nourishes lens and cornea  Drains into blood in scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm)  Vitreous chamber: filled with gellike vitreous body (not replaced)  Holds retina back against choroid Physiology of Vision: Three Steps A. Refraction (bending) of light rays to focus them on retina 2. ciliary muscle contracts  fat lens (rounder = more convex)  Visual disorders  Myopia (nearsightedness): can see near but not far objects  Eyeball is too long so lens cannot accommodate enough to focus images of distant objects onto retina  Visual disorders  Hyperopia (farsightedness): can see far but not near  Eyeball is too short so lens cannot accommodate enough to focus images of near objects onto retina  Astigmatism: irregular curvature of cornea or lens  Presbyopia: aging change  loss of elasticity of lens  farsightedness  reading glasses  These disorders can be corrected with lenses or LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) Steps 3 and 4: Constriction and Convergence ■ Constriction of pupil  Autonomic (parasympathetic) reflex to prevent excessive light rays from entering eye  By contraction of circular muscles of iris ■ Convergence  Eyes rotate inward for binocular vision  By contraction of extrinsic eye muscles B. Stimulation of Photoreceptors  Photoreceptors: light  neural signal  In rods light is absorbed by a photopigment (rhodopsin) which splits into opsin + retinal and leads  receptor potential  Vitamin A deficiency decreases rhodopsin production and leads to night blindness. Photoreceptor cells (rods or cones)   Bipolar layer   Ganglion cells.  In cones light is absorbed by 3 opsins  receptor potential for color vision . ciliary muscle relaxes  flat lens  For closeup vision. lens also helps focus light on retina  Image is inverted but brain adjusts and interprets distance and size Step 2: Accommodation  Lens adjusts shape for distance to allow image to focus on retina  For distant objects. Stimulation of photoreceptors (rods and cones) C. Visual pathway: nerve impulses pass to cerebral cortex A. Formation of image on retina B. their axons form optic nerve Interior of Eyeball  Two cavities separated by the lens  Anterior cavity filled with aqueous humor  Clear. maintains eye shape.

and tympanic membrane (ear drum)  Canal contains hairs and ceruminous glands  Middle ear: auditory tube (eustachian tube) and ossicles (bones)  Ossicles (malleus.  Vestibule and semicircular canals: organs of balance Inner Ear Structure: Three Regions  Vestibule includes  Two sacs: utricle and saccule  Semicircular canals: at right angles  Contain membranous semicircular ducts  Each ends in a swelling known as ampulla  Cochlea: 3 levels  Cochlear duct: membranous. incus. external auditory canal. stapes: attached to oval window)  Inner ear: bony labyrinth + membranous labyrinth filled with endolymph  Cochlea: sense organ of hearing . Visual Pathway  Rods or cones  bipolar cells  ganglion cells (their axons form optic nerve = CN II)  About 50% of these axons cross over to opposite side of brain in optic chiasm  Axons continue on into optic tract    Terminate/synapse in thalamus    Occipital lobes of cerebral cortex  Right brain sees left side of object  Left brain sees right side of object Hearing and Equilibrium: Ear Structure  Outer ear: auricle. In colorblindness. C. has endolymph  Contains spiral organ (sensory organ for hearing)  Above: scala vestibuli: ends at oval window  Below: scala tympani: ends at round window Spiral Organ  Sits on basilar membrane  Floor of cochlear duct  Contains supporting cells + hair cells  Hair cells  Covered with jellylike tectorial membrane  Are receptors for auditory sensations  Synapse with sensory neurons in cochlear branch of vestibulocochlear nerve cranial nerve VIII) Physiology of Hearing  Sound waves in air  auditory canal  Tympanic membrane  ossicle movement  stapes strikes oval window  Pressure waves in perilymph  Conveyed from scala vestibuli  scala tympani  Pressure waves in endolymph cause  Hair cells bend against tectorial membrane  Neurotransmitter released to sensory neurons  Pitch (wavelength): location in cochlea  Volume (loudness): intensity of waves Auditory Pathway  Cochlear neurons (in cranial nerve VIII) end in medulla  On same side: R ear  R side medulla   Midbrain  thalamus   Auditory cortex in temporal lobe  Each side of brain receives input from both ears Physiology of Equilibrium  Static equilibrium: senses position relative to gravity  As when head is tilted or a car is speeding up or slowing down  Dynamic equilibrium: senses position in response to head movement  As in spinning movements Static Equilibrium  Sensed in maculae of utricle and saccule  Mechanism  Gravity pulls on otoliths in otolithic membrane  Bends hair cells in otolithic membrane  Triggers nerve impulses in vestibular branch of vestibulochochlear nerve Dynamic Equilibrium  Semicircular canals (3)  At right angles to each other  Cristae in each ampulla contain  Hair cells embedded in jellylike cupula . red or green cones are missing.

 Supporting cells Mechanism  When head turns. head. neck   Spinal cord tracts for adjusting muscle tone and postural muscles  . hair cells move  Endolymph lags and bends hair cells   Nerve impulses in vestibular branch Equilibrium Pathways  Axons from vestibular branch   medulla or cerebellum  Medulla  motor control: eye.

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