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Contents

--------~~~~~~~~~--------------------------------------------t_-------.r".cfiaf<cc"C,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,cc , .. ..
To ProjC!J30r Donold L. Katz , University oj Michigan , jor his innumerable contributions to natural gas engineering; and my family Jor their constant encouragement and support.

, .... , .............................

VII

1. Natural Gas- Origin and Development ....................... 1


J!llJ"Cyl!!9tian. What Is Natural Gas? Origin of Natural Gas. Other Sources of

Caseous Fuel. ~ral Cas Production and Processing System. Questions and Problems. References.

Contributions in Petroleum Ceology and Engineering

Gas Properties 2. Phase Behavior Fundamentals . ..... . ..... . ................. 18


, . / ' Introduction. Qualitative Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior. Quantitative Phase Behavior and Vapor. Liquid Equilibrium. Applications. Prediction of the Phase Envelope. QuestiOns and Problems. References.

Volume 4
Gas~~lu!:ti" on-Engineering
~

3 . .Properties of Natural Gases ............................... 39


."./' Introduction. Equations of State. Critical Pressure and Temperature Deter mination. The Cas Compressibility Factor. Some ZFactor Related Proper. ties. Compressibility of Cases. Viscosity of Gases. Specific Heat for Hydrocar. bon Gases. Questions and Problems. References.

Copyri @.t. , ' . Company, Houston, 1l 1i1~. Printed in the United States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kumar, S. (Sanjay), 1960Cas production engineering. (Contributions in petroleum geology & engineering; v. 4) Includes index. 1. Cas drilling (Petroleum engineering) 2. Gas engineering. I. Title. II. Series. TN880.2.KS6 1987 622'.3385 87-7452
ISBN 0.87201-577_7
ISBN 0-87201-066-X (serie!;) Iv

f~.,10' ::\01 * '" 9 01

~~~g

Gas Processing 4. Gas and Liquid Separation ............. . ... . ...... . ..... .. . 18

Introduction. Separation Equipment. Types of Separators. Separation Princi pies. Factors Affecting Separation. Separator Design. Stage Separation. Low. Temperature Separation. Cas Cleaning. Flash Calculations. Questions and Problems. References.

~ Gas-Water Systems and Dehydration Processing

............ 169

Introduction. Water Content of Natural Gjlses. Gas fudrates. Hydrate Inhi bition b~ Additive In~on. Absorption Dehydration. Adsorption Oenyara. tion. De ydration by Expansfon Refrigeration. QuestiOns and Problems. Ref erences.

6. Desulfurization Processes ........... , , , ' , ..... . ............ 255


Introduction. Removal Processes. Solid Bed Sweetening Processes. Physical Absorption Processes. Chemical Absorption- The AlkanolAmine Processes. Chemical Absorption-The Carbonate Processes. Questions and Problems. References .

Preface
With this book I have sought to provide a rigorous and comprehensive text that reHects a broad spectrum or natural gas engineering experience. My motivation came primarily from some gas engineering courses I taught in the United States and overseas that made me realize the limitations of the existing material and the frustration or having to use several different publications, some of which would contradict others. Notwithstanding the enormity or the task, I decided to write a book to eliminate this conrusion and provide a wider and more detailed coverage of this topic. Much of the material presented here was drawn from these lectures . This book is designed to be a moderately advanced textbook ror students and a handy reference for practicing engineers. It was written with the assumption that some readers with little or no background in gas engineering will use it as their first book. To keep things interesting for the expert. I have sought to include the most current developments reported in the latest published works to the extent possible without dragging this book into an interminably long series of books on these topics. Pertinent references are included at the end of each chapter for those wanting more details. Almost every chapter includes worked examples to enhance understanding and some practice questions and problems that will aid in testing this understanding. (Answers to the questions and problems are available in a separate instructor's guide.) Chapter 1, an introduction to the scope of natural gas engineering, can be skipped by most seasoned readers. Chapters 2 and 3 describe the properties of natural gas that are crucial in designing and operating natural gas systems. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 deal with gas processing-Chapter 4 discusses the separation or gas from oil and water from a typical reservoir; Chapter 5 provides insight into gas-water systems and dehydration processing techniques for natural gas; and Chapter 6 examines some or the important and widely used desulrurization processes for natural gas, Chapters 7-11 present important topics in gas production and HowChapter 7 describes relationships for the steady state flow or gas through horizontal, inclined, and vertical pipes; Chapter 8 outlines the methods of handling multiphase flow encountered in gas production; Chapter 9 provides information on gas compression; Chapter 10 discusses gas flow measurement; and finally, Chapter 11 describes gas gathering and transmission systems, and deal.s with the design and modeling of the complete production
"

Gas Production and Flow


7. Steady-State Flow or Gas Through Pipes .................... 275
Introduction. Gas Flow Fundamentals. Vertical and Inclined Single-Phase Flow of Gas. Gas Flow Over Hilly Terrain. Gas Flow Through Restrictions. Temperature Profile in Flowing Gas Systems. Questions and Problems. References.

8. ~tiltiphase Gas--Liquid Flow .............................. 365


.....- Introduction. Approximate Method for Two-Phase Systems. Multiphase Flow. ~ Loading in Gas \Vells. Questions and Problems. References.

9. Gas Compression ..................... , ... , .............. 394


Introduction. Types of Compressors. Compressor Selection. Compression Processes. Compressor Design Fundamentals. Designing Reciprocating COIllpressors. Designing Centrifugal Compressors. Designing Rotary Compressors. Questions and Problems. References.

10. Gas Flow Measurement .............................. . ... 451

--/ Introduction. Measurement Fundamentals. Methods of Measurement. Orlfice Meters. Other Types of Measurement. Questions and Problems. Refer-

ences.

11. Gas Gathering and Transport ................ . ............. 529


Introduction. Gathering Systems. Steady-State Flow in Simple Pipeline Systems. Steady-State Flow in Pipeline Networks. Unsteady-State flow in Pipelines. Some Approximate Solutions for Transient Flow. Pipeline Economics. Questions and Problems. References.

Appendix A. General Data and Unit Conversion Factors .. , , ....... 585 Appendix B. Computer Programs (FORTRAN Subroutines) ... , ... , 623 Index ....................... , ... , ... . .. , . . , ... , .. .. ........ 651

and transport system. Appendix A will be helpful in handling the several frequent1y confusing systems of units that, unfortunately, are our legacy in engineering. Appendix B presents some general FORTRAN subroutines that will help readers write computers programs to implement many of the techniques presented in this book. It has been my good fortune to have had close associations with many v 10 ment of this work. I am thankful to Drs. Kern H Guppy and George v. Chilingar for their enthusiastic interest, comments, and suggestions for this book. The figures and drawing.. provided by several companies and institutions are gratefully acknowledged. Many sections of the book could only be included because of the interest and curiosity of my students. They never failed to ask pertinent questions and draw the discussion to related relevant issues. Finally, the moral support from my family has been of great value in the moments of frustration during this work, I thank my father. Dr. Kundan L. Coyal, for his many discussions and suggestions for this book and his insistence that I keep at it. I submit this work to the engineering community with the hope that it shall inspire many minds, both the young and the elCperienced, to greater understanding and creativity in this endless search for knowledge.

and

Introduction The earliest records of natural gas go back to A.D. 221-263 when it was first used as a fuel in China during the Shu Han dynasty. The gas, obtained from shallow wells, was distributed through an interesting piping system: hollow bamboos. Later evidence is not found until the early 17th century. when natural gas was used on a small scale for heating and lighting in northern Italy. In the United States, natural gas was first discovered in Fredonia, New York, in 1821. It is this latter discovery that has led, for the most part, to the developments we see today. In the years following this discovery, natural gas was used merely as a fuel locally: it was difficult to store and transport and had Iitt1e or no commercial value. Even in the 19205 and '30s, natural gas was only produced as an unwanted byproduct of crude oil production. Only a small amount of gas was pipelined to industrial areas for commercial use, most of it being vented to the air or flared. From these humble beginning.., the natural gas industry has burgeoned. especially in the years following World War II. Natural gas now accounts for almost onefifth of the world's primary energy consumption, surpassing coal and second only to oil (see Tables 1-1 and 1-2). Several factors are responsible for these developments: New processes permit the manufacture of myriad petrochemicals and fertilizers from natural gas; gas is a clean, efficient, easily combustible, low-sulfur fuel and has consequently replaced coal as a domestic, industrial, and power generation fuel in many parts of the world; difficulties in storing and transporting gas have been overcome by the development of long-distance, large-diameter steel pipelines and powerful compression equipment; liquefied natural gas (LNG), produced by liquefying natural gas by a refrigeration cycle to less
(text continued on poge 4)
1

San;ay Kumar, Ph.D.


Los Angeles, California

---

Table 11 World Energy Consumption and Fuel Shares-History, 1960, 1973 and 1979" (Quadrillion Btu)
1160
Fuel Shares (Pen:enl)

1973
Fuel Shares (Percent)

1979

;Uc"c"Cod~s,C.C,a~CCCC-O---C44C.~2--C23OC-C4:5-~28;-CCC4--C~7:5C.IC--CI~8-C4:7-~30;--C5C
Canada Japan

Region or Country

Fuel Shllr.s Tolli Tot.' Totl' (Percent) Energy Energy Energy Consumed Coal eNt Gas Other Conaumed Coal 011 Gas Other Consumed Coal 011 Gas Oth.r

Western Europe' Finland/Norway/Sweden Unit....:! Kingdom/Ireland IknclUlIDcnmark!T West GermallY france


Australia/Switzerland Spain/Portugal Italy GreecefThrkcy Australia/New Zealand ThtalOEeD' Thta.l NonOECD' OPEC Other Thtal Free \\urld'

J,g 3.9 26.9 1.8 8.0 2.7 6.2

14 48

49 36

10 I

27 15

8.1 15.3

H 14

46 79

20 2

26 5

3.7
0.9 l.0 2.2 0.4 1.4 BO.4 10.5 1.7 8.8 90.9

55 13 70 53 73 51
24 41 14 41 54 35 31 3 37 35

35 49 29 47 25 35
34 41 54 55 4J 42 57 75 53 43

2 0 0 0 0 3

8 38 I 0 2 11

54.0 3.9 10.4 7.3 11.5 8.2


2.0 3.0 6.2 1.4 2.9 155.4 25.0 5.0 20.0 180.3

HI 5 35 II 30 15
8 ]4 15 21 35 18 21 I 25 18

63 5H 51 67 58 70
58 70 78 76 50 56 60 66 59 56

10 0 11 22 10 7
7 2 10 0 6 19 II 30 7 18

8 37 3 0 2 8
27 \4 7 3 9 7 8 3 9 8

79.3 10.0 16.1 571 4.9 10.3 6.8 12.4 8.8

6 36 0 18 II 21 0" 0 3 16 7 6 6 21 4 6 15 7

..,
3.8
2.0 3.8 166.2 35.7 7.0

17

287
201.9

19 48 26 7 8 41 21 30 II 74 6 9 19 56 14 1I 449245 33 44 18 5 12 57 28 3 25 53 17 5 16 61 10 13 6 41 12 41 16 68 3 13 66917 8 35 00 0 S 39 42 11 8 18 52 20 10 1962910 74 22 3 2J 59 6 12 18 54 18 10

, From 0.0.:. 1981 Annu.1 Report 10 Congrrso, Volu1M' 3. " Indud.. ~o Rico, Virgin Islands, .nd purclll_ fm- tbe Stra,egic Pdroleum I Numben mly not .dd to l"'lb dlW to f'OOlIIding t Oetw:IIU eountoa.ne Belgium, the Ndtw-rl.nd>.. and Ltuembourll. R~rlnloo with (Wrm~n In:om IIPI. 19fI..I

\tee..-,.

Table 1 2 World Energy Consumption and Fuel Shares: Base Scenario Midprlce Projections 1985, 1990, and 1995* (Quadrillion Btu)

,,
Fuel Shares (Percent)

United Ststes" Canada Japan Western Europe' Finland/Norway/Sweden United Kingdomllrelsnd Benelux/Denmark" west Germany France Australia/Switzerland Spain/Portugal Italy Creeee/1tJrkey AustraliafNew Zealand ThIIIOECD' Thtal Non-OEeD' OPEC
Other

~~~~~~~~~~~CCCC~~
82.3 10.1 19.4 54.6 4.8 9.1 6.5 11.7 8.7 2.2 3.5 6.4 1.8 3.9 170.3 45.6 10.3 35.3 2 15.9 23 8 18 22 4 36 20 32 13 9 14 20 28 33 22 20 0 25 21 42 36 55 46 44 38 46 41 52 41 54 50 55 44 45 59 72 55 47 24 20 15 15 2 18 29 19 9 14 3 20 0 15 19 II 27 6 18 II 36 12 17 50 8 5 8 26 36 29 10 17 8 14 iO 14 14 86.5 \I 2 22.6 58.8 5.2 9.5 7.0 12.6 9.5 2.3 3.8 7.0 1.9 4.3 183.3 55.0 14.0 41.0 238.3

Region or Country

Fuel Share. Total (Percent) Totsl Energy Energy Energy Consumed Cosl 011 Gas Other Consumed Coal 011 Gas Other Consumed Coal Oil Gas Other

..

1990
Fuel Shares (Percent)

1995

27 5 22

2J
4 37 28 34 1I 9 10 2J 21 33 24 19 0 2S 23

Thlal Free World'

38 32 50 42 40 37 43 37 48 3'.1 53 44 53 39 40 57 74 52 44

22 22 IS IS 2 18 23 17 10 17 5 21 0 19 19 II 25 6 17

~~CCCC~CCCC~~==
13 41 13 20 54 8 6 12 31 35 32 12 26 \) 17 13 17 16 93.9 12.4 26.0 63.3 5.7 9.8 7.6 13.4 10.4 2.4 4.1 7.8 2.1 4.6 200.2 66.0 19.0 47.0 266.2 31 3 24 24 5 39 32 36 9 8 10 24 19 32 27 19 0 26 25 35 29 46 39 37 37 41 32 44 37 49 41 52 37 37 58 76 51 42 21 23 14 15 2 16 22 19 13 17 5 22 0 22 18 11 23 7 16 13 45 16 22 56 8 5 13 34 38 36 13 29 9 18 12 1 16 17

, From 0.0.[:. 1981 Annual RqIOrt to Congrea. Volume 3.


I'rojrctlon rangela", baJed on UlUmed prioce patm for imported oil.tated In 1979 constant dollars. The low prl Ke".rlo .... u"',,;. tkh~e ...ed world 011 price of $32 per btlrnel, the mldrlnp {used abo~)",1 ~r boor..,l, Ind the high rlnge $49(Wr bar..,l .. IncludN Puerto Rico. Virgin Islands .nd pun;ha.... for tbe Strategic I'I:troleum Reset"C 1 Numben may not.dd to tOilb due to rooDding. 11 1IeneIu.. evuntriet are Iklglum, the Nd~lands, and LunmOOurg. R~nnt..J w,th ptrmioslon from API. 191\04 ..

eo" Production Engineering

Natural eas-Origin and DeVf!lopmeJlt

(text continued from page 1)


than J!600 of its original volume, can now be transported acrQS5 the oceans by insulated tankers. Cas is now a highly desirable hydrocarbon resource. It is no longer cheap; the price has gone up from a mere $O.07!Mscf (1.000 standard cubic feet) in 1950 to $2.79IMscf currenUy (1987). The price of gas peaked in 1984, when gas was being sold at $4.80iMsci. and as much as $9.00'\iscf in some areas. Production costs for natur..J g~ have also been rlSing over the years. Average costs in the USA have gone up from $O.86/M.scf in 1976 to about $3.90IMscf in 1982. But natural gas is still competitive with other fuels. as shown in Table 1-3.
Table 1-3 Cost Comparison of Vlrious Commercial Fuels

:
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~~

~~~ ~~. ";cici ~~~~~


~!2

O~M

O " ' ....... cg

<>iOcgoo <>IO!:,=!~,=!

-- --

r-

8~~~!:i e;
"'''''''

01"'_'" ~il~

~~

~~

g~

~<OO'!o~

",,:r-:~-:o-

Fuel
Ca.wl.il'k' Ileating oil

Price
$1.20, gallon $I iOlgallon

Price, s/MM Btu

~aH~ U~~~

9.00 1.95 22.00

Low-sulfur fuel oil


Electricity
C~I

"atural gllS
", indicates the unit "Thenn"' used
aft~n

S30.0ibbl 7.5 cenu:kWh I3S,Oiton 51.9 centsITh'


far gas. 1 Th _ 10' Rtu

4.'"
'OO

5.79

Table 1-4 shows the production for the twenty leading natural gas producers in the world. The foremost gas producers today are the USA and USSR, with a gas production of 52 Bscf/d (billion standard cubic feet per day) and 45 Bscfld, respectively. What Is Natura1 Cas? NaturaJ gas is simply a naturally occurring mixture of combustible hydrocarbon (HC) gases and impurities. Typical natural gas components are shown in Table 1-5. The non-hydrocarbon components of natural gas contain two types of materials: dilllerlts, such as N 2 , CO 2 , and water vapor, and COntaminants, such as H.aS and other sulfur compounds. Diluents are noncombustible gases that reduce the heating value of the gas. They are not "very harmful, and may actually be used sometimes as "fillers" to reduce the heat content. of the supply gas. The disadvantages include greater horsepower ~nd plpelining requirements for the same energy content of the gas, greater Internal corrosion, and freezing. Contaminants are very detrimental to production and transport equipment (some are hazardous pollutants),
<0 '" '" cg CIO CIO .... 0

~~.;;;~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~

I/) ...

CIO 0- 0- 0- ..,

GtU Product/on Engineering

Natural Go,t- Orlgln and Development Table 15 Typical Constituents of Natural G (Modified after McCain, 1974)
Category
Paraffinic lie's
Component
Amount, 'MI

Methane (CIi,)
Ethane (C1He) Propane (CJ{.) Butane (C, H ,o) Pentane (4ti,u Hexa ne (CJ{,,) Heptane &- higher (G, .. )

7098'\ 1 - 1OC%. trace . 5~ trace 2'"


trace -1% trace0.5'70 11011(' trace
".~ traces ".~

Cyclic He's

Cyclopropane (C,I~) Crclohexane (CJi u )


Benzene (Celie). others

Aromatic HC's

Non.h)drocarbon

<>I "'t-<O<')

~~~i'i:;

Nitrogen (Nt) Carbon dioxide (COl) H}'drogen sulfide ( H ~) Helium (lie) Other sulfur and nitrogen compounds Wilter (H,O)

trace 15% trace 1% trace occasionalhtrace _ 5'1'" trace occasionallr trace5"',

and the primary reason for gas conditioning and processing is to remove them as soon as possible from the gas stream. Hundreds of processes and processing plants have been developed to deal with this problem. Some of the major contaminants in natural gas are (Curry, 1981): 1. Acid gases, chiefly HzS, and to some extent, CO 2 , 2. Water vapor in excess of about 5- 7 Ibm /M.Mscf. 3. All entrained free water, or water in condensed form. 4. Any liquids in the gas, such as well inhibitors, lube oil, scrubber oil, methanol, and heavier-end hydrocarbons. 5. AJI solid matter, sometimes called "pipeline trash," that may be present. This includes silica (sand), pipe scale, and dirt . Like all gases, natural gas is a homogeneous fluid of low density and viscosity. It is odorless; odor-generating additives are added to it during processing to enable detection of gas leaks. Natural gas is one of the more stable flammable gases (Curry, 1981). It is flammable within the limits of a 515% mixture with air, and its ignition temperature ranges from 1,100 to 1,300"F (compare this with HzS, which is flammable within 4-46% in air at a much lower ignition temperature). Typically, natural gas has an energy content of 1,000 Btu/seC, which is an important parameter because gas these days is very often priced in terms of its energy content, rather than mass or volume.

00000

~~~~~

-- -.....

"":;~C'>

CQ"

Production Enginemng

Natural Ga.r-Origin and

Dev~lopment

Origin of Natural Cas


Many theories have been proposed for the origin of petroleum flu.ids. None is perfect, and it is almost impossible to fully explain the origins of any gi'.:en reservoir. The two most widely accepted theories are inorganic and organic. According to the inorganic theory, hydrogen and carbon reacted together under the immense pressure and temperature rar below the earth's surface and formed oil and gas. These hydrocarbons then migrated through porous rocks to collect in various subsurface traps. The more widely accepted organic thoory states that the hydrocarbons were generated from organic matter (land and sea plants and animals) under the influence of pressure and temperature over geologic time. Layers of mud and silt settled on these dead organisms by various prooesses-rivers emptying huge amounts of mud and silt into the oceans, wind-blown dust and sediment, etc. These layers accumulated, continually compacted by the weight of succeeding layers to fonn sedimentary rock. Hydrocarbon deposits are entrapped in these sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shale, limestones), and may migrate from their place of formation (source-rock) through suitable porous and permeable strata to suitable geologic traps where they accumulate. The type of organic matter and the temperature have an important bearing on the formation of oil or gas. Some scientists believe that terrestrial (land) plants and animals predominantly produced natural gas and some waxy crudes, whereas the aquatic (sea) organisms produced normal crude oil. Because rivers playa major role in transporting terrestrial matter to the sea, river deltas are favorable places for gas to exist. Typically, the deepest sediments, deposited in the continental rift and rich in terrestrial organic matter, are overlain by marine sediments rich in aquatic matter. Thus, a vertical sequence has been envisaged, with the gas-generating material at the bottom and the oil-generating material at the top. It is believed that hydrocarbons generally move upward from their place of formation to their accumwation sites, displacing the sea water that originally filled the pore spaces of the sedimentary rock. This upward movement is inhibited when the oil and gas reach an impervious rock that traps or seals the reservoir. There are man)' types, shapes, and sizes of geologic structure'> that form the reservoirs for the accumwation of oil and gas, such as anticlines and domes, fault traps, unconformities, dome and plug traps, len.se traps. and combination traps. Some of these are shown in Figures 1-1 through 14. It has been found that methane can remain stable at depths of 40,000 ft and beyond (Barker and Kemp, 1980). The amount of methane surviving is a function of the reservoir lithology-cooler, clean sandstones are more favorable than carbonates. Thus, it can be safely assumed that considerable re-

Figure ,.1. Common types of geologic features and structural traps. (From Wheeler and Whited, 1985.)

Figure 12. Structural traps: (a) anticline, formed by upfolding; (b) normal fault. (From McElroy, 1987.)

serves of natural gas may be found at depths of 15,000-30,000 ft that have currently not been explored.

Occurrence of Natural Cas in Conventional Reservoirs Cas is found in sedimentary subsurface strata composed of sandstone, limestone, or dolomite. An oil reservoir always has some amount of natural gas associated with it (either free gas, or gas in solution in the oil), and some reservoirs may be completely gas reservoirs. Each well in the reservoir may produce gas with a different composition, and the composition of the gasstream from each individual well may change as the reservoir is depleted. Thus, production equipment may need to be changed from time to time to compensate for the altered composition of the gas.

"

10

Gal Production Engineering

Nawral Gas-Origin (lnd Development

II

2. Dissolved or associated. Cas in solution with crude oil is tenned dissolved gas, whereas the gas found in contact with the crude oil as gas cap gas is termed associated gas. Typically, associated gas is poorer in elL. but richer in heavier components. 3. Gas condensates. Gas condensates have high amounts of hydrocarbon liquids and may occur as gas in the re5enoir. The most desirable gas is the non-associated type. because it can be produced at high pressure. Associated or dissolved gas is separated from the crude oil at lower o;eparator pressure; and. therefore. entails more compression expenses. Such gas is often flared or vented. Gas condensates represent a greater amount of gas associated with the liquid than the associated or dissolved gas types. but ~mil&r..e.paration facilities and compression
Figure '-3. Common types of stratigraphic traps. (From Brown and Miller, 1985.)

=. naturallY'QCCU~ing resour~pf-----.,,\e ot en classified into two cate..-- - gas "The gories: '301~ r
FrlJi~:l

1. Proved res . . I Is figure 1(lthe lantities found by the drill. The estimates e~p' ft updated by ~r\'oir characteristics (productio transient analysis, ~rvoir modeling, other data) and, therefore, can be determined quite accurately (see Table 16). 2. Potrntiai reserves: These are the additional resources of gas believed to exist in the earth, as inferred from the prevailing geologic evidence, but not actually found by the drill yet. This figure, therefore. cannot be known verr precisely. It is, at best, a "guesstimate" that may vary widely from one investigator to another.

'"

For the estimation of mineral reserves and resources, McKelvey (1972) provides an e:tcellent guide, shown in Figure 1-5. In this figure, the probable

"'001
~

I P,oIHbIt r Po."bIt
~

me....ed

indlc.Md

""t<ttd

Figure 14. Stratigraphic traps in various geologiC features: (a) "permeability pinchout"; (b) sand pinchout; (e) angular nonconformity. (From McElroy, 1987),

In addition to its composition and Btu content, natural gas is frequently characterized in terms of its nature of occurrence underground, as follows: 1. Non-associated. Found in reservoirs with no or minimal amounts of crude oil, non-associated gas is typically richer in CH~. poorer in heavier components.
' ......'''n..

F.... ,b,hly 01
~...,

R""",c"

lSut.m.grn..

--"

0... of un."'ly

Figure 1-5. Classification of mineral reserves and resources. (Aller McKelvey. 1972, courtesy of American Scientist.)

12

Go, Produ('tlon Engineering


Table 1-6 estimated Proved World Reserves of Natural Glill o (Billions of cubic feet)

Natural CQ.f- Origin and Development

13

reserves indicate the amount of gas expected to be found in close proximity to, or associated with, known producing fields in known areas with similar

'N,rq

,.'"

.un
u
,~

geological conditions. Possible reserves are similar to probable reserves, but in more distant regions where the uncertainty is greater. Undiscovered, spec ulative, or potentioi reserves are those that are expected to be found in areas that have not been, or amy partially, explored and tested. According to Crow (1980). the 1978 estimated US reserves (conventional reservoirs/conventional methods) are approximately 1,019 Tscf (trillion standard cubic feet). Thtal world reserves are 7,500 Tscf undiscovered, 2,200 Tscf proved. Current world production is 70 Tscfiyear. Key areas where substantial potential exists for increasing production in the next decade are the OPEC group countries and the USSR. OUlcr Sources of Caseous Fuel Besides conventional sancbtone and limestone reservoirs, sources of natural gas include: tight sands, tight shales, geopressured aquifers, and coal. Tight Sands Large amounts of gas are locked within very tight formations, with porosities in the range of 5-15 % , irreducible water saturation of 50-70%, and ultralow permeabilities in the range of 0.001 to 1 md (millidarcy). Many geologic formations, especially in the Rocky Mountain area of the USA, contain such gas, which is not possible to produce using conventional fracturing and completion methods . There is a need to develop special artificial fracturing techniques to produce gas economically from tight sands. Three major techniques have been proposed: nuclear explosives, chemical explosives, and massive hydrauHc fracturing (MHF). Nuclear blasts are dangerous and probablY not feasible at this time. Chemical explosives are also quite dangerous, and effective only in areas where natural fractures: exist (which is not the case for most tight sands). MHF has been quite successful, and is presently the subject of much research. An MHF treatment typically requires the injection of a fracturing fluid (water) at high pressures for many hours to induce a fracture, followed by a fluid containing the propping agents (glass beads or sand). When pumping stops, the fluids low back into the well bore, leaving the proppant behind to hold the fracture open. Tight Shales

y . 101
~,103

..... :an
.~

1.300,000

,,m
~

.,.,
1,515
.~

-.
n

'7.otT
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ISH

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. 01'
7 .. ,

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212 ....

110.000
,~

,,~

~ ~
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.~

.,~

137._

M._

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,,-,- ., .. -- ..,,- ,
1.ITO

,-

1.32_ :101 3.101 21M ' '07000 ',115

..

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,~

.n. ,
370.000

u_

UfI.OOO 1301.

,,".
on
1.10'

H~.=

.-

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Shales are generally rich in organic matter, finely laminated, with a permeability of the order of 1 md. Shales. predominantly composed of quartz,

14

Gal Production Engineering

Nall/ral Gas-Origin and Development

15

with some kaolinite. pyrite. feldspar. and other minerals, constitute about 5% of all sedimentary rocks in the USA. The De\-onian ..hales in eastern Kentuch and western West Virginia are well known gas producers. In these shales. p~oduction is controlled by natural fractures. The production profile exhibits a long. slow decline. The gas has a high Btu "alue, as high as 1.250 Btu sci \1HF techniques are useful for tight shales also. These tight shales are an attracth"c source of gas and may contribute very significantly to gas production in the coming years.
Ccopressured Aquifers

u,
t0f01lOII1I'IG

_UIOIE TII""SPOIIT tONSUIO(RS ToViME_ I lRlitlt

, ... _1

!
SU\.I'\IR.

~IOII[fAcr(l"

fEIIliU$UI
M~"

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a~"

"_..... , "'.... ".,1

'''-

High-pressure brine in geopressured aquifers, which can form due to rapid subsidence, may contain up to 40 sef of natural gas per barrel of \...ater. In the USA, sueh geopressured aquifers are located predominantly in a band that extends onshore and offshore from Texas to Florida along the Culf of Mexico. An estimated 2,700 Tscf of gas reserves (unproven at this time) are associated with this region, Howe\-'er, no commercial means of recovering this gas ha\'e been de\'cloped to date,
Co.1

fLtaO

c;

~-,

..

...

"'''"'c" ~;"CIt.~ _'"' UQUlOS TO


RECQYEfll

...

ST~_I)GAS

TO

ptT~OOW:"'"

tOlOOlllONftG If..........'"91

PfIOtUS IfOCUSTItY

1
~

a.L-WAlEfI-OU S(P,",f1/t.llllOl

,IU.T14[RI'lSUT[III

_ ......

wAut ...... l

"....... , ,

C.. OMES SUR raCE

Methane gas occluded in coal in minable coal beds with depths less than 3,000 ft has been estimated to be 260 Tscf in the US. This significant resource base, however, may only produce less than 40 Tscf due to practical constraints. Another source of gas generation is coal gasification. The gas derived from coal usually has a lower heating value than natural gas. The commercial viability of coal gasification is not favorable yet.

VEIl TICAL IIHCUI<[O

rUM TI'IROUGI1 PlPU

\'.'5 REU:""

Figure 1-6. A typical gas production and processing system.

Natural Cas Pnxluction and Processing System Figure 1-6 outlines a typical gas production and processing system. From a design viewpoint, the total system consists of the following calculation modules: 1. The ~r\'oir module that deals with the flow of gas (and oil) through subsurface strata. 2. Flow module for the flow of fluids from the ~rvoir to the wellhead at the surface. 3. Gas gathering system module. This module calculates the flow of gas through the pipeline network at the surface that is used to collect gas from several wells for separation and processing. 4. Separation module for calculating the amounts of gas, oil and water generated by the wellstream. and their compositions. 5. Metering devices for measuring the amount of gas and oil from the separators. 6. Gas conditioning module for the removal of contaminants from the

g"',
7. Natural gas liquids recovery module. 8. Gas compression/liquefaction for economic transport by tankers, railroad, and road transport. 9. Flow module for the pipeline transport of gas to consumption sites.

16

GO! Prcxlul'tjqn Engilleerlng

Natural Cas-Origin and Development

17

This book has been desib'lled to provide information on the design. operation, and engineering calculations for all of these modules. except the reser. voir module. Chapters 2 and 3 pro"ide the basic gas properties that are an essential input in all computations. Chapters 4 through 6 describe separation and processing for natural gas. Flow calculations are covered in Chapters i and 8. Chapters 9 and 10 provide information on related topics. namely, gas compression and gas metering, respectively. FinsHv. Chapter 11 describes i!:as gathering and transmission systems and the ~mputational techniques for handling the complete production system.

Brown, T. E. and Miller. S., 1985. Layman's Guide to Oil & Gas Investments & Royalty Income, 2nd Edition. Culf Publishing Company, Houston. Texas. Curr\', R. N., 1981. Fundamentals oj Natural Cas Conditioning. PennWeli Pub!. Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma. 118 pp. Crow. C. C .. 1980. "Future Potential Cas Supply in the United StatesCurrent Estimates and Methods of the Potential Cas Committee," presented at the Am. lnst. of Chern. Engrs. Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. June
~lcCain, W. D., jr., 1974. The Properties oj Petroleum Fluids. PennWell

9.

'M

Questions and Problems

1. (a) List some factors that may enhance the appeal of natural gas as a domestic and industrial fuel. (b) What are some of the factors that may reduce the appeal of natural gas as a domestic and industrial fuel? 2. Why is natural gas termed a stable" flammable gas? 3. What impurities can one expect to find in natural gas produced from a gas field? 4. Why are gas flares a common sight in many petroleum producing ar. eas? Can such flares be hazardous to the environment? If yes, then when and why? 5. As a petroleum engineer you are taken to tour a gas-producing field. Can you tell what type of gas (associated, dissolved, etc.) is being produced? What is the minimum information required to draw such a conclusion? 6. How are gas reserves estimated? 7 Besides conventional reservoirs, what types of gas reserves hold promise for the Cuture? Why?

Publ. Co .. Tulsa. Oklahoma, pp. 3-42. McElroy. O. P., 1987. Fundamentals oj Petroleum Maps. Culf Publishing Company, Houston , Texas. McKelvey, V. E., 1972. "M ineral Resource Estimates and Public Policy," American Scientist. 60, Jan.-Feb., 32-40. Wheeler, R. R. and Whited, M., 1985. Oil-From Prospect to Pipeline, 5th Edition. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston , Texas.

References American Petroleum Institute, 1984. Basic Petroleum Data Book: Petroleum Industry Statistics. Vol. IV, No.2 (May). API, Washington, D.C. Barker. C. and Kemp, M. K., 1980. "Generation of Natural Cas and its Sur vival in the Deep Subsurface," presented at the Conf. on Natural Gas Res. (}e\'. in MidCont. Basins: Prodn. & Expl. Techniques, Univ. of Tulsa, Tulsa. Oklahoma, March 11-12.

PhQM! Behavior Fundamentals

19

where N ,. number of degrees of freedom of the system C _ number of distinct chemical components (or compounds) in the system P _ number of phases in the system

Phase Behavior Fundamentals

The number of degrees of freedom of a system is the number of variables that must be defined to fix the physical state of the system. Usually, pressure, temperature. and composition serve as the variables. The phase rule can easily be verified. Consider a mixture consisting of C components distributed in P phases. Then. at equilibrium, the chemical p0tentials (see pages xx-xx for thermodynamic criteria for equilibrium) for each component are equal in each phase:
Pn - J.li2" .,. - J.I"p, for i = 1,2, .... C

Introduction The properties exhibited by any substance depend upon its phase, namely, whether it is in the solid, liquid, or gaseous phase. Substances can be cla~ified into two types-pure or single component, and mwticomponent. Phase behavior relationships can be determined from laboratory pVT (pressure, volume. temperature) studies, or using theoretical/empirical methods such as the equations of state. These relationships are frequently shown graphically as "phase diagrams" to enhance qualitative understanding. For design purposes, howc\:er, precise quantitative phase behavior data are crucial. In this chapter, some fundamental concepts in phase equilibrium are introduced.

Thus, we have (P - 1) equations for every component, or a total of C(P - 1) equation.~. The unknowns are the mole fractions of each component in each phase, which represent (C - I)P unknowns, since knowing the mole fractions of (C - 1) components in any phase P fixes the mole fraction of the last component (the sum of the mole fractions equals unity). Also, the pressure p and temperature T are unknown. Thus, the total number of unknowns are (C - l)P + 2. So, the number of degrees of freedom are:
N "" number of unknowns - number of equations - (C - l)P + 2 - C(p - 1) or, N - CP - P + 2 - CP + C ,. C - P + 2

Qualitative Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior A phase diagram for a single component system has three axes: p. Y, and T. Usually, p. T diagrams only are used for a single component system. For multicomponent systems, the mixture composition becomes an additional variable. Generally, three types of phase diagrams are used for mixtures: (a) pressure versus temperature (p,T) diagrams, holding the composition fixed; (b) composition-composition diagrams, keeping pressure and temperature fixed; and (c) pressure-composition diagrams. keeping temperature fixed. The Phase Rule Cibbs' phase rule for the degrees of freedom of a system is written as:

Single-Component Systems Figure 2-1 shows a typical p,T phase diagram for a single-component system. The equilibrium lines, AB, BC. and BO indicate the combinations of pressure and temperature at which the adjacent phases shown on the dia-

I .. __ -U

: I

Critical pall'll

ta

Camru~

liqu d , Solid b ____ Liquid

i _' ___h!vapar

: Suptrll,alld

Vapar
B

Tripi, pOll'll
A

Figure 2-1. Pressure--temperature diagram lor a single component

N-C-P+2
18

Tlmp,ralure -

system.

20

GO! Production Engineering

Ph4&e &haclQr Fundamentals

21

gram exist in equilibrium. Line AD represents the equilibrium between solid and vapor. A solid above this line will sublime direct1y to the vapor phase, without ever going through the liquid phase, on n..oduction of pressure to below line AB. An example of this is "dry ice:' Line DO indicates the solid liquid equilibrium. Line BC is the equilibrium between liquid and vapor phases. At the triple point. B, all three phases exist in equilibrium. Applying the phase rule. it can be seen that for a single-component system with three phases, the degrees of freedom, N - I - 3 + 2 - O. Hence, the triple point is a unique point that defines the whole sy,rtem. The equilibrium lines, howe\'er, reprt:M:nt only two phases in equilibrium and the degrees of freedom N - 1. Therefore, specifyin)i!; either the pressure or the temperature fixes the other variables for the system. In the single phase regions, N - 2, and both pressure and temperature must be known to determine the location (or state) of the system in the phase diagram. The liquid-\'apor equilibrium line (BC) begins at the triple point. B, and ends at the critical point, C. At the critical point, liquid and gaseous phases become indistinguishable and their intensive properties (that is, properties independent of the amount of fluid: for example: density, viscosity) become identical. The pressure and temperature corresponding to the critical point are termed critical pressure, Pc. and critical temperature, T e , respectively, and are a uniquely defined numerical \'alue for every pure substance. More formal definitions are as follows: 1. Critical temperature: The temperature above which a substance cannot be liquefied by the application of pressure alone. 2. Critical pressure: The pressure at which gas exists in equilibrium with liquid phase at the critical temperature. Also defined as the saturation pressure corresponding to the critical temperature.

To better understand vapor-liquid phase behavior, consider the region near the critical point in greater detail. IT one proceeds from d by a compression process at constant temperature to f, liquid will at some point begin to disappear into a seemingly gaseous phase. Above the critical point at f, the system is in a "fourth" phase that exhibits properties different from gas. The properties of this fluid are in between those of gas and liquid. though not corre1atable to either. For example, it is denser than regular gas, and is more compressible than a regular liquid. By going further from f to a point g beyond the critical temperature at constant pressure, from g to h at constant temperature, and finally, back to e, a phase transition from the liquid state at d to a vapor state at e can be achieved without any abrupt change of phase. This shows that liquid and vapor phases are in reality quite similar: They represent separate forms of the same condition of matter, and it is possible to pass from one state to the other without an abrupt change of phase. Thus, the terms liquid and vapor have a definite meaning only in the two phase region. For conditions far removed from the two-phase region, particularly at pressure and temperature conditions above the critical point, it is impossible to define the state of the system, and is best referred to as being in the fluid state. Multicomponent Systems
p, T Diagrams JOT a Fixed Compollition

Figures 2-2a and 2-2b show typical p,T phase diagrams for a reservoir fluid. The system has three regions: (a) single phase oil, in the region above

Consider a constant pressure (isobaric) process represented by the line alx:deh of Figure 2-1. From a to b the system is completely solid, and the energy requirements for achieving the increase in temperature are simply proportional to the specific heat of the solid phase. From b to c, pressure and temperature remain constant, but an energy equal to the latent heat of fusion is required to convert the solid phase to liquid. The energy supplied is converted into internal energy. The temperature Increase from c to d requires energy proportional to the specific heat of the liquid phase. At d the liquid is a saturated liquid-any further addition of energy will cause vaporization at constant pressure and temperature. Energy equal to the latent heat of vaporization is required to accomplish the change of phase from d to e. At e, the vapor is termed saturated. At higher temperatures, for example at h, it is called superheated. The energy spent for going from saturated vapor state at e to a superheated state at h requires an amount of energy proportional to the specific heat of the vapor.

S!o;I.......

'"

,
to

,
40 60 110

Figure 2-2 . Pressure.temperature diagram lor a multicomponent reservoir fluid.

Figure 2-2b, Phase diagram showing two retrograde regions.

22

Ga.r Production nginunng

Ph4se Behavior Frmdamentou

23

the bubble point (SP) curve; (b) single phase gas, in the region towards the right of the dew point (OP) curve, and (c) the two phase region, which is the portion bounded by the SP and OP curves. The BP and OP cur\-'es intersect and terminate at the critical point, C. Point A represents the maximum pressure at which liquid and vapor may exist in equilibrium. This pressure is known as the cricondenbar. Similarly, the cricondentherm is defined as the maximum temperature at which liquid and vapor can exist in equilibrium. This is indicated as point B in Figure 2-Za. Along \\<;th the critical point. these serve as valuable tools for reconThe region retrograde region . exhibits quite an interesting behavior. Usually, on lowering the pressure, a liquid phase vaporizes to gas. But in this region, on lowering the pressure, the gas at a hegins to generate liquid at b (see Figure 2-2a). On further reduction in pressure, more and more liquid is condensed (refer to the quality lines). until point c is reached. Outside the retrograde region fTOm c to d,liquid begins to vaporize until the 100% gas quality line (or the dew-point curve) is reached at d. It is evident that the retrograde region results from the shape of the phase envelope and the quality lines. The inflection points of the quality lines govern the retrograde area, which is bounded by the critical point, C. the cricondenbar at A. and the cricondentherm at B. For naturally occurring hydrocarbon mixtures, the critical point has always been found to occur to the left of the cricondenbar (Campbell, 1984). If the critical point is to the right of the cricondenbar, two retrograde regions will occur as shown in Figure 2-2b.

-,~

.0000
.~

-"
'.

ou

Figure 2-3. Pressuretemperature diagram for the ethaneln-heptane system. (Alter

Stalkup. 1978, 1983;

courtesy of SPE of
AIME.)

envelope are composition dependent. The dashed line drawn tangent to all the phase envelopes at their critical points is called the critical locus. The critical point for a mixture is thus a function of its composition. Mixtures with more than two components have more than one critical locus, and the problem becom~ quite complex. Simple mixing rules have been devised (to be discussed later) to represent this shift in terms of -'pseudocritical" properties for correlation purposes. The only reliable method at this point is laboratory measurement, since none of the correlations are very exact.

p, T Dtagmnu for \'tlrialJle Composition


The case discussed earlier concerned studring the phase diagram at a given fluid composition. When fluid is produced from a reservoir, pressure decreases over time. If we started off with an oil reservoir for example, a two-phase region will eventually be encountered at pressures below the bub-ble-point curve. The heavier components in the reservoir f1wd will begin to vaporize, leading to altered reservoir fluid compositions. Whenever the reservoir fluid is in the two-phase region, compositions also change due to the selective removal of components in the mobile phase. Therefore, the phase equilibrium relationships change with time for a typical ~rvoir system, and the shifts in the phase envelopes as a function of composition must be studied carefully. Figure 2-3 shows a p,T diagram for a binary mixture of ethane (C 2 l4) and normal-heptane (n-C,H 16)_ It can be seen that with a shift in the mixture cOmposition from 100% ethane to 100 % n-heptane, the phase envelope shifts towards the right. This shows that the shape and location of the phase

Compoation-Composition Diagrams (Fiud p. T)


According to the Gibbs phase rule, N - C - P + 2 degrees of freedom must be specified for completely defining the phase behavior of a mixture with C components distributed in P phases. Such a rigorous description, however, is neither practically feasible nor usually necessary. Ternary diagrams are used as an approximate method for representing the phase behavior of multicomponent mixtures. These diagrams represent the phase behavior of a ternary (three-component) mixture exactly; mixtures with more components are approximated by three pseudocomponents. For hydrocar-

Ga6 Production Engineering

Phose Behavior Fundammtou

25

Figure 24. A typical ternary phase diagram for a reservoIr fluid.

Figure 2-5. Pressurs-<:omposition diagram lor a reservoir fluid.

Plllil poinl

: 0:
JOO%

, ,
o
100

C,

ConCenlrOl1Ol\ of CI' " J f . -

bon systems, the three pseudocomponents generally used are methane (C,), ethane through hexane (C 2- 4), and C;., which represents all hydrocarbon fractions with molecular weight greater than hexane. Figure 2-4 shows a typical ternary phase diagram for a reservoir fluid. Each corner of the triangle represents 100% of the component indicated, whereas the side opposite to this corner represents 0 % of that component. The distance in between a corner and the opposite side is divided into equal parts to rep~nt fractions between 100% and 0% of the component. Thus, the point A in Figure 2-4 represents a mixture containing 67% Cit 18.5% Ct-Cts. and 15% C7 +. lying in the two-phase region. Such a mixture, under equilibrium conditions, would result in a gas phase of composition y in equilibrium with a liquid phase of composition x. The dashed line connecting these equilibrium gas and liquid compositions, occurring on the dew-point and bubble-point curves, respectively, is called a tie-line. Clearly, there can be an infinite number of such tie-lines. The tie-lines disappear at the critical point, also called the plait point, where the liquid and gas phases become identical. Outside the phase envelope, single-phase gas occurs above the dew-point curve, whereas single-phase liquid occurs below the bubble-point curve. The size of the two-phase region depends upon the pressure and temperature. With increasing pressure, the two-phase region collapses to smaller sizes, whereas with increasing temperature it expands in size. Lever's rule can be applied to determine the relative amounts of gas and l~qu~d in ~uilibrium. For example, the mixture at A would split into a gasl~qUld ratio equal to the ratio of the distance of A, along the applicable tiehne, from the bubble-point and dew-point curves, that is, Ax/Ay.
Pml8Urt-Compoeition Diagrarm (Fixed T)

adding the desired injection fluid to the oil in a high-pressure visual cell. The appropriate (bubble-point or dew-point) saturation pressures are measured as a function of the injection fluid mole fraction in the total mixture that ~ults from the mixing of the injection fluid with the reservoir oil. Such diagrams are easier to obtain than the ternary diagrams, which require obtaining equilibrium samples and compositions, but their applicability is limited since they do not offer information of a general nature. Figure 2-5 sbows a pressure-composition diagram for a reservoir oil as a function of the mole % methane in the mixture.

Quantitative Phase Behavior and Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium In most petroleum production operations, it is important to know the phases present in order to design the system. In processing and other postproduction operations, it is desirable to control these phases by controlling the operating conditions, or condensing or vaporizing selected components. The single-phase regions are relatively easier to define. The two-phase region is more difficult, since we need to know additional parameters such as the vapor-liquid ratio, and the compositions of both the phases, as a function of pressure and temperature. Thermodynamic Criteria for Equilibrium Phase equilibrium is reached when there is no net transfer of material from one phase to another. Such transfers involve a decrease in the total free energy of the s)'Stem. Thus, when equilibrium is attained, the total free energy, G, also called Gibbs free energy, will be at its minimum value. This can be mathematically expressed, at a given p and T as:

. Pressure-com~ition diagrams also serve as a useful method for displaymg phase behaVior data. These diagrams are obtained for reservoir oi1.s by

26
de -0
(2-1)

Phase Behavior Fundamentah

27

The change in free energy, dC, for any substance is given by dC - v dp. For an ideal gas (pv - RT: see Chapter 3 for further detail), this becomes:

Note that "no net transFer" does not imply that the system is static. There is still a continuous exchange or transfer of material between the phases. But the rate of transfer of each component from one phase to another is just balanced by the same transfer /XCurring in the opposite direction from the latter to the former phase. Thus. there is no IIet transfer of any molecular species from one phase to another, and no net change in composition occurs in any of the phases. An equivalent idea is expressed using the condition that dE "" O. where E is the total energy content of the system. Note that the derh'ative in Equation 2-1 is "'ith respect to all possible variations. except those of p and T Gibbs defined chemical potential, p., to express these ideas. The chemical potential of any component i in a phase is the rate at which the total free eneTgy of that phase changes as one changes the amount of the component i, keeping p, T, and amounts of all other components of the phase constant:
(2-2)

de - RT d In p

(2-5)

To preserve this simple mathematical form of this equation for other cases where the system is not an ideal gas, Lewis defined a special function called fugacity, f, as follows:

de" RT d In f
Integrating Equation 2-6. we can obtain: C -

(2-6)

co -

RT In(fW) -

r,.

vdp

(2-7)

where n j represents the moles of any component i. V is the system volume. and S is the system entropy. Chemical potentials are intensh'e properties and depend upon the composition of the mixture. but not on the total mass. For a s'ingie--com{X)nent ideal gas, the chemical potential is given by:
It - Po

+ RT In (pIp)

(2-3)

Fugacity can, therefore, be defined as a quantity whose numeric value is equal to the pressure when the substance is in the state of an ideal gas. It can be easily seen on comparing Equations 2-5 and 2-6 that fugacity has the units of pressure, and is proportional to pressure for an ideal gas. From a purely theoretical standpoint. any substance in any phase-solid. liquid. or gas-can be brought into an ideal gas state by sufficient pressure reduction at constant temperature. It can be seen also in the equations of state, which reduce to the ideal gas form, pv ,. RT, at the limit when p = 0 or v ,. 00. Fugacity thus serves a very valuable purpose in equilibria studies. Fugacity for a component i in a mixture can now be defined in terms of the chemical potential as follows:
/Ll - Pot ~ Po"

where R is the gas constant. and the superscript refers to any arbitrary standard state. For a perfect gas mixture, the chemical potential for any component i, is given by:
Po, - 1'1" + RT In (p,/pt)

+ RT In (fj/ft) + RT In (j/O) - RT In

Yj

(2-8)

(2-4)

Using these relationships, it can be seen that the condition for equilibrium can. alternatively, be stated in terms of fugacity. A system is in equilibrium when the fugacities of a given component are equal in all the phases. The Equilibrium Ratio The vapor-liquid distribution coefficient, commonly known as the vaporliquid equilibrium ratio or the equilibrium vaporization ratio, Kit for a component i, is simply the ratio of its mole fractions in the vapor (Yi) and liquid (x;) phases at equilibrium conditions:
(2-9)

where Yj is the mole fraction of component i in the mixture. It is not possible to ascribe absolute numeric values to quantities such as free energy and chemical potential. The ratio between two isothermal states as previously defined suffices for application purposes. Equation 2-2 can be manipulated to yield the result that the necessary condition for equilibrium is that the chemical potentials of a given component are equal in all the phases. Thus, the chemical potential can be considered as a kind of driving force for mass transfer between phases.

28

Ca, Production Engineering

Pruue Behavior Fundamentau

29

Equilibrium ratio values can therefore be determined by laboratory equilibrium flash experiments by analyzing the mole fractions of the different components in the vapor and liquid phases.
The PartitJ
PrnlUlT

for a pure component, and In


'+'1""

In f, /px;

Approach

- -In Z +
K-values can be expressed in terms of partial pressures of the components. The assumption, of course, is that the gas obeys ideal gas laws and behaves as an ideal mixture. Therefore, such a concept is only applicable at low pressures, up to about 400 psi. At equilibrium, the partial pressure of component i in the \"apor phase (- PYJ) must be equal to the vapor pressure exerted by its presence in the liquid phase (- P.'IX,). Thus, at equilibrium:

I ~ [(1 v) - (1 RT)(ap ,an.)]dv

(2-13)

for a component i in a mixture. where n, is the moles of component i in the total mixture. K can be expressed in terms of fugacity coefficients as follows:

K = ",1'/"'\'

(2-14)

So, K, - p,;/p

(2-10)

where and are the fugacity coefficients of component i in the liquid and vapor phases, respectively, coexisting under equilibrium conditions. This can be verified, by expanding the right-hand side term of Equation 2-14:

"'r

;rr

where pvl is the vapor pres.~ure of component i at the equilibrium pressure and temperature conditions. T,h,is ~pproach is very useful as a practical methoo for determining the eqUlhbrium constants, but has limited applicability.
T~

- (YiP)/(x,p) since - }'i/x, - KI

rr .. f[ at equilibrium

Fugacity !.pprotu:h

Flasb Calculations Non-ideal behavior can be accounted for by using the fugacity coefficients. The fugacity (or activity) coefficient, "'" for a component i is defined as the ratio of its fugacity, f" to its partial pressure. p,: with Iim.."', "" 1 These calculations involve solving simple material balance equations for multiphase systems in order to establish the phase compositions as well as amounts upon equilibrium separation. In oil and gas systems, we generally have a two-phase oil-gas phase breakup. Water is assumed immiscible in the liquid oil (oleic) phase, and miscible only in the gaseous phase where its presence can be quantified by Dalton's law of partial pressures. Consider F moles of a hydrocarbon mixture of composition {Zj} enters a separation unit. At the operating conditions of the separator, it splits into L moles of liquid of composition {XI}, and V moles of vapor of composition {YI}' Then, by the law of conservation of mass:

p-u

(2- 11 )

F?r a gas phase, the partial pressure, Pi = YiP. To enable definition of a liq~,d fugacity coefficient, an equivalent hypothetical partial pressure concept IS used, and liquid phase partial pressures are expressed as I~ _ x,p. Fugacity coefficients are commonly written as: In

v -In f/p -

I:

[(v/RT) - (lIp)]dp

F-L+V
and
(2-12)

- Z - 1 -In Z - (lIRT)

L [p - (RT/v)]dv

Fz; - LXI + VYI for each component i

--~~>r. no

j"

. . . .__________________________________. . . .___

30

Cal Production Engineering

Phase Behavwr Fundamentals

31

Changin~ to a unit mole basis, F - I, for simplicity:

L+Vand

howe\'er. are different. It is eas)' to envision that for a stream F for which V is very small, any error in the calculation of V will be far more detrimental
(2.15a)

z, - Lx, + Vr, - Vx,(L, V + K)


Thus. we get
VX, .. z,J(LIV + K) and

(2 15b)

to accuracy as compared to an error in the calcuJation of L. For such a system. it will therefore be necessary to solve for V using Equation 2-16 using very rigorous com'ergence criteria (that is, use a very low error tolerance), and then obtain L by difference. Similarly. for predominantly gas systems. Equation 2-17 would provide better accuracy.

Applications Reservoir Behavior Figure 2-6 shows a p. T phase diagram for a naturally occurring hydrocarbon fluid of a known composition. Consider four different reservoirs, with this same fluid, but with different initial conditions denoted by 1;, 21t 3;, and 4;. The vertical lines represent the pressure decline in the reservoir at constant temperature. The curved lines represent the pressure and temperature chang~ imposed upon the reservoir fluid as it flows upward through the well bore. and both pressure and temperature decline to the wellhead producing conditions. The subscripts sand r denote surface and reservoir conditions, re;pectively. Reservoir 1, occurring above the bubble-point curve, is called an undersaturated oil reservoir. It is also called a black oil reservoir, depletion drive, ~Ived gas drive, solution gas dri . . e, or internal gas drive reservoir. Cas is
Condensole

The following additional relationships must also be satisfied:

" " 1: x,- 1:J


,-) I

and

10

Thus, the amount of vapor, V. can be calculated as follows:

V-

" " V 1: y, - 1: [~I(Ll KV + I)J


,-I I-I

R."rvol.,

(216)

U liquid, L, is desired. it can be calculated as follows:

L- L

" " 1:J x, - 1: [~I(KVIL + I)J


1I_I

Equations 216 and 2-17 require a trial and error type of solution scheme. Both these equ~tions are equivalent, and one has the choice of using either one; knowing either L or V is sufficient, since L + V-I (Equation 2-15a).

Temp"Olure -

From the standpoint of obtaining an accurate solution. these equations,

Figure 2-6. A typical pressure-temperature phase diagram for a reservoir fluid.

32

Ga, Production Engineering PhDse Behodor FllIIdamerltals


33

produced at thesur[ace conditions (1, is in the two-phase region), but no gas is formed in the reservoir untiJ the pressure reaches the bubbJe--point pressure. Typically. higher API gravity oils release greater amounts of gas since they contain larger amounts of lighter components. Below the bubble point. the COmposition of the reservoir flUid starts changing. The free gas liberated eventually begins to (Jow toward the well bore in increasing quantities up. goe:; with reduction in pressure. The producing gas-oil ratio (COR) therefore

. COR< 2 ,()()() scf /51 b are I,'kel)' to have T t > T R, Imp Iying a dissolved gas drive resenoir.
bon Production and Separation

in-.~itu

ReserVOir 2, occurring in the two-phase region, is an oil reservoir with an initiaJ gas cap. With declining pressure, COR increases, and the reservoir flUid Composition changes. Reservoir 3. OCCurring in the retrograde region, is a gas condensate reservoir. On pressure reduction. liquid begins to condense at and beyond the dew-point Curve, Since it clings to the pore spaces in the resenoir, a Critical saturation has to be bUilt up before it can flo\.\.- toward the weJlbore, Thus, the producing COR (at the surface) increases, The intermediates that condense out of the gas are verr valuable and their loss is a serious affair. How_ ever, as pressure is reduced further, the liquid begins to revaporize into the gaseous phase, This revaporization aids liquid recovery and, assuming that the '''''"voi, flUid oomposition oonstant, may lead to a decline in the producing GOR at the su,face, The """"'oi, fluid oomposition, howeve" changes as retrograde condensation OCCUrs: the p- T phase envelope shifts to the right, increasing retrograde liqUid condensation into gas, This retrograde 'ross" is greater for a greater shift of the p_ T phase envelope to the right, lower reservoir temperature, and higher abandonment pressure. ReserVOir 4, OCCurring in the single-phase gas region, is a true gas reservoir. It is generally known as a wet gas reservoir if 4 is inside the moo-phase J region, Or as a dry gas reservoir if 4. is in the single-phase gas region. In this reservoir type, the reservoir (point 4,) is aJwars in the single-phase gas region, of the pressure. So, the reservoir fluid maintains a constant composition since there is no change of phase in the reservoir. The prodUCing COR for a reservoir is an exOOlent indication of the reservoir tYPe. Cenerally, a reservoir is claSSified as a gas reservoir if the GOR> 100,000 scflSib, "an oil """"'oi, if the GOR < 5,000, and as a gas condensate reservoir if the GOR is between 5,000 to 100,000 scf/stb. The relationship between the critical temperature, T , and the reservoir t temperature, T R, determines whether retrograde condensation OCCUrs or not. For retrograde condensation to OCCur, the reservoir temperature must be in between the Critical temperature and the cricondentherm. ReserVoir systems in Single phase with a surface COR::> 10,000 scf/stb are likely to have a high C, fraction, and consequentJy, a low T Expect retrograde cont densation for such reservoirs, Reservoir systems in single phase that exhibit a

g",e~ften

to the gas, andhto optimization of h d arbons For tees 'I'b . parameters m );e::t ph"'; behavio, and gas-oil the of the p>;. ce the phase relationsh,ps ace a unc uipment that is op"mum fluid, we can nevee ,eall, it for the "avmge" all conditions. The onlf'h f.lI~:r to cha~e the installation at some POlOt ed the life 0 t e Ie , d so expect it over become econom icalJy attractive to 0 . where may

~:m

Hydrocar f 'I'res depends upon the nd surface .aCI hase gas and oi I Wit a I, 'h d' of the producing weII a , The ""gn 'rod ced' gas 0.1,0< tM-P h d a bons ature of the fluid bemg p uf 't Since the inte,mediate y coc , I n. COR and the presence 0 \\-a cr. ts it is highl) desirable not to ose the most valuable - uid as possible fcom the p,oduced

d~gn~e::~ ;;rat;~nal
d~~~",(

''Ompon~J'

d~:OO

(m :io~u07

oompositio~

~e:s~'~~,~:

u~d", oond,"~n

Processing and Transport

regardJ~

, nds from the gas so that the g:" It may. be n""""",)' to remo,'e heaVIer e pressure- temperature changesI10 " ted does not condense liquids upon ahnhCd'PI"ang s)'stems. 10 enable suc~ c~dslcu ad ng an an be k LlqUl aecune fo, ; ; ; in the lines, in the piping :,',:,,,,,, of the instability caused by and are genmll, undes"a e f p,""ure and tempeca'ure, 'cs changes occurring as a befunc"on t~ ne'" the phase envelope boun a~, eq uipment must never opera ature or composition can cause IS. ressure temper where small changes 10 p i~ vapor-liquid, ratio, proportionately large changes

as

cum~ate

:~ensrr:~~:::'t::="po;nt

s)~te~s,

~~~;~~~a~;:;"ure

ph~.:: P''''';''

. , . ReserVOir Engmccnng and Enhanced Oil Recovery . h as reservOir reserve estimates, . Reservoir engineering calculahons, su~ rs require reliable phase behavpredictions, and simulations uSin~,ooalmih~~ i~ miscible enhanced 7~"'y ior data. Nowhere is it more ,cn IC urate hase equilibrium re atJontechniques, where highly deta'~dede :::g::f conltions, The perfbe0rm~n~l~f ' be known over a WI , 'ected fluid to mLSCI . horls depends upon the ability of the InJ . fluid The injection ships must these met , 'bTty with the ..,.,vo" , , 'b ' m or be able to generate mLSC1, I I , ts dictated solely by phase eqUlh nu . fluid must be tailored to reqUiremen

3'

Gas Producti()n Enginnring

Phose Behavior FrmdafflCfllais

35

Prediction of the Phase Envelope

Tt: - molar a,erage boiling point o( mixture, O R ~ - mole (raction of 100"'-boiling component The calculation prooedure is quite tedious. The mixture composition. pure component critical temperatures, and normal boiling points are require(l. Values for T b can be calculated using a mixing rule, or obtained from laboratory measurements. One proceeds by taking two successive components. calculating their T, and T p values, then adding one component at a time and calculating the Tt and T p values for this new mixture until all the components ha,e been included. Grieves and Thodos (1963) report maximum errors of less than 5% in cricondentherm, but significantly larger errors up to 13 % for cricondenbar temperatures. Such a correlation is dificult to use, and the results are not very reliable.

To accurately predict the phase envelope for a muiticomponent hydrocarbon system such as oil or gas is almost impossible. Experimental means must be used, since imprecise results can be quite dangerous to use in the innumerable planning. desi~, and operational problems. However, it becomes \'ery necessary to use correlations and predictive methods in many instances where such studies cannot be readily performed. A'i a bare minimum. an accurate compositional analysis of the reservoir fluid is essential. Estimates of the critical point. the cricondentherm. and cricondenbar can then be used in conjunction with ,,'apor-liquid equilibrium

calculations for bubble-point and dew-point curves to generate reasonable phase equilibrium curves. Sometimes, only a portion of the phase curves rna)" be required. Cricondcntherm and CriCQndenbar Grieves and Thodos ( 1963) presented the following equations for the prediction of cricondentherm temperatures:
(2-18)

Critical Point Many different studies have focused on the problem of characterizing hydrocarbons for predictions of their physical properties. Watson and Nelson (1933) and Watson et al. (1935) characterized the chemical makeup of petroleum mixtures using the boiling point and specific gravity. They defined the Watson characterization factor, K. as follows:
(2-22)

and Tt/T; ""'


(T~Tb

- l)(e6 31<.,

~38)

- OAI8x, + 1.256
(2-19)

for 0.55 < XI < 0.925

For estimating cricondcnbar temperatures, Grieves and Thodos (1963) suggest the following equations:
T piT: - (TbiT b
-

l )(e4 .l.ht

362)

+ 1.008 for 0 < x,< 0.7

(2-20)

and
Tp/T;" (T~Tb - 1 )(e633'r51~) - O.l65~

+ 1.116
(2-21)

for 0.7 < Xi<O.925 where

If 51 units are used, with Th in K (Kelvin), the right-hand side of Equation 2-6 should be multiplied by 1.21644 ( - 1.81.3). K defines the relative paraffinicity of a hydrocarbon fraction. A typical range would be from 10.0 (highly aromatic) to 13.0 (highly paraffinic). Several useful relationships have been found using the Watson characterization factor ((or example. Watsonet al.. 1935: Smith and Watson, 1937: Simon and Yarborough, 1963: Riazi and Daubert. 1980: Whitson. 1983). Thus, physical property correlations based upon the boiling point and specific gravity ha'e been used for a long time. and have proven to be very reliable. DiHerent correlation parameters have been proposed. Most of these can be expressed using the (ollowing generalized equation:
8-

T t - cricondentherm temperature of the mixture, OR Tp - cricondenbar temperature of the mixture, O R = pseudocritieai, pseudocricondenbar, or pseudocricondentherm temperature, whichever applicable. of the mixture, O R T b = nonnal (atmospheric) boiling point o( the mixture, O R

aT!: y
8 - the property T b - normal or cubic-average boiling point, O R ..,. - specific gravity at 14.7 psia and GOOF

(2-23)

T:

where

36

Cal Production Engineering

Phase Behavw,. Fundamentals

37

For critical pressures and temperatures, the constants a, b, and c, deter. mined by Riazi and Daubert (1980) and Whitson (1983), are as follows: 8

If I:r_l Z;/K t < l.O, the system is in the single phase all-vapor region. If both I:r.l KjZj and I:r.l Zt/K j > 1.0, the system is in the two-phase region.

T,. R Pl. psia p,. psia

-a24 278i 3.12281 x 10' 2.41490 X IOu

b
0.58848 - 2.3125 - 3.86618

-c0.3596 2.3201 42448

for Tb < 850 0 R for Tb > 8500 R

Both r;r_1 KjZt and I:r.1 z;. K,-t.l.O. An efficient procedure to predict a bubble point is to find the pressure (or. alternathely, the temperature) at which r;r_1 K,Zt '"' 1.0 at a given temperature (or pre.sure). A ~rit:!. of !luch points ,",Quid then (;Oll5titute the bubblepoint curve. A similar procedure can be used to reconstruct the dew-point curve.

The maximum de\'iations were found to be 10.6 %, 9.3%, and 13.2 ""' , respectively. for these three cases (Whitson, 1983), Bubble-Point and Dew-Point Curves
The bubble point may be defined as the p,v,T condition at which an all liquid s}'stem releases the first (infinitesimally small) drop of gas. Signaling the entry into the two-phase region. Thus, at the bubble point. the total mixture composition, {zd, is just equal to the liquid composition. {XI}. Since the sum of the mole fractions equals unity, it is clear that for the gas phase released at the bubble point, r:r_l YI is equal to l.0, and in all regions where gas is not present, this sum will be less than 1.0. Thus, at the bubble point:

Q uestions aDd Problems

1.. 1

" " " ~),- ~ K,x( - E KIZt '"' 1.0


,I

,.,

(2-24)

At the dew point, the appearance of a liquid phase just begins for an allvapor spitem. The system composition. {Zt}, is equal to the ....apor composition. {y,}. Also, for the just released liquid phase. the sum of the component mole fractions equals unity. Therefore:

l. Given the pressure and temperature, is it possible to specify the number of phaSd for: (a) water, and (b) a mixture of alcohol and water? 2. Name the type of phase diagram required for the following cases: (a) a single-component fluid being used for heat transfer in a nuclear reactor. (b) a hvo-component gas being compressed for storage as liquid. (c) a multi-component gas to be transported in a pipeline. (d) design of an oil-gas separator. 3. What is the state of a substance at: (a) its critical point, and (b) above its critical point? 4. Define fugacity. Show that the fugacity of a substance must be equal in all phases in which it may exist at equilibrium. 5. Construct a p,T phase diagram for the following mixture:
Component mole %
65 20 15

'"

~
I

" x, - ~ "
J
I_I

y,IK, -

" ~ ~I K, I_I

1.0

(2-25)

Th , OF
- 258.7 -127.5 96.9

Equations 2-24 and 2-25 can thus be used to predict the bubble-point and dew-point curves, provided K-values are known for all the components as a function of pressure and temperature. A typical procedure would involve calculating the quantities Er.1 K1Zj and Ep.1 z,/K, at different pressures and temperatures. The state of the system can be determined b)' applying the following rules that are true for vapor-liquid systems: If Er. I K,Z; < 1.0. the system is single-phase all-liquid.

C, C, Co.

Assume the C 3 .. fraction to be identical to n-C5 The requ ired hydrocarbon equilibrium ratios (K.values) can be taken from Figures 4-25 through 4-51 in Chapter 4. 6. From the phase diagram constructed in problem 5, determine the cricondenbar and cricondentherm temperatures. Compare these with the ones obtained using Grieves and Thodos' relationships.

38

GO! Production Engineering

References Campbell, J. M., 1984. Gas Conditioning and Processing, Vol. 1. Campbell Petroleum Series, Normar.. Oklahoma, 326pp. Crieves. R. B. and Thodos, C., 1963. "The Cricondentherm and Cricondenbar Temperatures of Multicomponent Hydrocarbon Mixtures," Soc. Pet. Eng. /., 3(4, Dec.}, 287-292. Riazi. M. R. and Daubert, T. E., 1980. "Simplify Property Predictions," Hydr. Proc., 59(3, March), 115-116. Simon, R. and Yarborough. L., 1963. "A Critical Pressure Correlation for Cas-Solvent-Reservoir Oil Sy~tems," J. Pet. Tech .. 15(5, May). 556-560. Sm~th, R. L. and Watson. K. ~1., 1937. "Boiling Points and Critical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures," Ind. and Eng. Chem., 29(12, Dec.). 1408-1414. Stalkup. F. I., 1978. "Carbon Dioxide Miscible F100ding: Past, Present, and Outlook for the Future," J. Pet. Tech., 30(8, Aug.), 1102-1112. Stal.kup, F.. 1.,1983. Miscible Displacement. Volume 8, SPE Monograph SeTIes, SocIety of Petroleum Engineers, Richardo:;on, Texas, 204pp. Watson, K. M. and Nelson, E. F.. 1933. "lmpro\'ed Methods for Approximating Critical and Thermal Properties of Petroleum Fractions." Ind. and Eng. Chern., 25(8. Aug.), 880-887. Watson, K. M., Nelson. E. F., and Murphy, C. B.. 1935. "Characterization of Petroleum Fractions," Ind. and Eng. ClJem., 27(12, Dec.), 1460-1464. Whitson, C. H., 1983. "Characterizing Hydrocarbon Plus Fractions," Soc. Pet. Eng. /., 23(4, Aug.}. 683-694.

Properties of Natural Gases

Introduction In designing gas production, processing, transport, and handling systems a complete knowledge of gas properties is crucial. For this reason, much research has been done in the measurement and prediction of hydrocarbon fluid properties. The area of property prediction continues to attract significant attention from researchers who seek to optimize design and control of gas and oU systems. The current trend is to develop mathematical equations for implementation on computers, rather than the traditional engineering charts and tables, because with computers it is far more efficient to solve equations than to interpolate in a huge domain of possible parameter values, whereas the opposite is probably true for humans.

Equations of State AJI fluids follow physical laws that define their state under gi"en physical conditions. These laws are mathematically represented as equations. which are consequently known as equations of state (EOS). These equations essentially correlate p. V, and T for any fluid and can be expressed, on a unit mole basis, as: (p,v,T) - 0 For practical purposes, this form is rearranged to yield a desired parameter, v ~ (p,T). Many different empirical EOS's have been developed over the years, and I will only mention the most basic and widely used among these.

39

Gas Production Engineering

Properties oj Na/ural Gases

41

Ideal Cases

a gas ~:!h7c~ tthee':;::w::!::~ gas ~~avior. An ideal gas is defined as tion between th I I P) negllgtble volume; there is no interac_ betw th . e dOlO ~u. es. that is, no attractive or repulsl\;e forces exist een em. an collISIOns between the molecules I . plying no energy loss on collision At I are pure }" elastiC, imexhibit an almost ideal behavior The 'd o~ pr~u~ (.:S 400 psi) most gases can be stated as follow:;; . I ea gas aw at applies to such gases pV - nRT
(3-1)

too;'~e cont~Pt ~f an ideal gas is a hypothetical idea, but it serves as a useful

The deviation from ideal behavior is greater for heavier gases because of the larger size of their molecules. Most gases compress more than an ideal gas at low pressures, whereas the opposite is true at high pressures. From an appli~ cation standpoint, all equations of state for real gases must be regarded as essentially empirical in nature, since they attempt to correlate this non-ideal behavior using empirical parameters. The Corn preiMbi/ity Fador Approach To correct for non-ideality, the simplest equation of state uses a correction factor known as the gas co'l1pressibility factor. Z: pV
=

where p and T are the absolute d number of moles and V ;~ 'he P""'I ure an ~emperature of the gas, n is the . "" vo ume OCCUpied by the R h of proportionality in Equation 3-1 is called h . gas., t e constant value of R can be easily dete . 'ed f ~ e universal gas constant. The mole) of an . . rmm rom t e fact that 1 Ibmole (pound> gas OCCUpies 378.6 ft1 at 14.73 psia and 60F (5200R).
R - pV'nT - (14.73 x 378.6)/(1 x 520) "" 10.732 (psia ft1)/(lbmole OR)

nZRT

(3-2)

Thus, if p is in psia T is in OR and V' . ft1 t h R is 10.732 psia-ft1:lbmole-0R' I 51 IS.IO "h en t.h~ appropriate value of V' . . n umts,w erepISm kPa T" K d IS 10 m-', the value of R to use is 8.314 kPa-mJ'"kgmole-K.' IS In ,an Behavior of Real Cases In general, gases do not exhib't 'd al beh . tion from ideal behavior can bel I e -, __~Vlor. The reasons for the deviasumma.1L.C'.! as follows; 1. Molecules for even a spa~ S\'Stem . such as gas, occupy a jnite volume. . 2. Intermolecular forces are exerted bern'een the these forces are: molecules. Some of
ic !i'ec:rostTa'h forces. also called Coulomb forces, betv.een ions and po es. ese are long-range forees. [~d~ced fO.rees between a dipole and an induced dipole, for examp e In a mlXture of a polar and a non-polar gas Attraction/repulsion fo h' h . short distances ani T~ w IC a~ generally exerted over very I y. ese forees eXISt even for a perfectly non~ po ar gas such as argon.

The Z-factor can therefore be considered as being the ratio of the volume occupied by a real gas to the volume occupied by it under the same pres<>ure and temperature conditions if it were ideal. This is the most widely used real gas equation of state. The major limitation is that the gas deviation factor, Z, is not a constant. Numerous attempts have been made to define the functional dependence of Z on various other parameters that define the state of the system, and se\'eral correlations are available for the Z-factor as a result of these studie;. More complex equations of state that do not represent the deviation through the Zfactor, but through other correlation constants, are often used to derive quite precise Z~factor values that can be used in Equation 3-2.

\an der \\aals Equation


This equation is probably the most basic EOS and, though seldom used today, it serves as a conceptual basis for understanding and developing other equations. It corrects for the volume occupied by the molecule; in a gas, by using v - B as the true gas volume. instead of v; and loss in pressure exerted 2 by the gas due to attractive forces and inelastic collisions, by using p + Alv as the true pressure. (p + A/")(v - 8) - RT
(3-3)

where A and B are empirical constants. This equation serve; as a good approximation only for low pressures. It can also be written as:
.. _ (RT

3. Molecular collisions are never perfectly elastic.

+ Bp)v'/p + (A/p)v - AB/p - 0

(3-4)

'2

Go, Production Enginring

Propntie6 oj Natural Cases

43

or, in terms of the Zfactor as:


Z3 _ Z2(1

Waals equation, which makes it applicable in developing gencral correlations in terms of reduced variables.
(~5)

+ SpiRT) + Z Apl(RT)2 - ABp'l/(RT)3 - 0

p .. RTd + (B"RT - ~ - Co/r.)d Z + (bRT - a)d J + aad6 At the critical point, the three roots of the cubic equation in v (Equation 3-4) are identical. Thus. if \'~ represents the critical volume, then at the critical point:
(3-6)

+ (00'11')[(1 + ,d') exp( - ,d')]

(3-10)

where a. b, c. a, -y, ~. Bo. and Co are constants for a gi\"cn ~as_ d is the molar density (lbmole/ft3), and p, T are the absolute pressure and temperature. respectively.
Redlich-Kwong Equation

Comparing Equations 3-4 and 36. it can easily be shown that:


(3-7) Redlich and K\\'ong (1949) proposed the following equation: An alternative procedure for obtaining the values for A, B. and R is to use the fact that the critical isotherm, that is, the curve relating pressure and volume al the critical temperature. must show an inflexion point:
(3-8)

RT A P .. v - B - '}"Q.~(" + B)

(3-11)

These conditions are known as the Van der Waals conditions for the critical point. The first and second partial diHerentials of Equation 3-4 with ~pect to v would yield the results shown in Equation 3-7 upon substitution of parameter \'aJues relevant to the critical point and use of Equation 3-8. Van der Waals equation may be written in the reduced form by substituting the values for A. Band R from Equation 3-7 into Equation 3-3:

where A and B are constants. Other details \\ill be discussed later. The Redlich-Kwong (RK) equation, along with modifications by Zudke\'itch and Joffe (1970) and Joffe et al. (1970) (ZJRK). and by Soavc (1972) (SRK), is widely used.
PeJlg-Robin!lOn Equation

Another \..idely used equation is the Peng and Robinson (1976) (PR) equation:

RT A p- - - \" - B v(v + B) + B(,

B)

(3-12)

thill, [po + 3/,,][3v, - lJ - ST,


Benedict- "ebb-Rubin Equation

(3-9)

where A and B are functions of temperature. Note that the RK and PH equations cannot be written explicitly in the reduced form. A General Form for Cubic Equations of State

This equation was developed by Benedict et al. (1940) for describing the behavior of pure, light hydrocarbons. It has found a lot of application in computing thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria for gases due to two reasons: it gi\'es sufficient accuracy for natural gases, since natural gases are a mixture of light hydrocarbons for which this equation was originally developed; and it can be written explicitly in the reduced form, like Van der

Martin (1979) showed that all cubic equations of state can be represented in the following general form:

RT arT) ofT) p - -;- - (v + ~)(v + -y) + ... (v + ~)(v + -y)

(3-13)

.
where

Go.! Production Engineering

Propertiet of Natural GaUl

45

where cr and {) are functions of temperature, and R and l' are constants. Coats (1985) presents the following equivalent form of Martin's equation,
with {) .. 0:

Zl + [(rn, + ffi2 - 1)8 - IJ Z2 + [A + - (m, + m,)(B + I)B) Z - (AB + ffilffiZBZ(B + I)) .. 0


A ..

ffi,ffi Z B2

(3- 14) (3- 15a) (3-15b) (3-15c) (3-1Sd) (3- 15e)

r:r. r:r _ x,xkAi~


I I

where p.,. is the vapor pressure of the f1LLid at a temperature of o. 7Te and Pc is its critical pressure. As expected, w is equal to zero for noble gase;: like argon, and is close to zero for gases like methane. In the$e equations, putting m, .. 0 and ffi2 .. 1, yields the RK or SRK equations. For the PR equation, m, = 1 + ~!i, and m2 .. 1 - 2<15. Equilibrium is achieved when the fugacities for any component i are equal in both the liquid and vapor phases. Fugacities can be calculated using the following relationship for the fugacity coefficient, derived using Equation 2-13 (Coats. 1985):

B ,.

q -l
(I -

xiB)
ojk)(AJAS)~

In

~,

A Jk

- In (fiP") - B,(Z - 1)IB - In(Z - B) + [AI(m, - m,)BJ[(2IA)

..

A) - 0., PrJi1~
B, .. Obi Prj' T fJ

. ,. , A"x, E

Bi B]ln [(Z + mzB)/(Z + m,S))

(3-17)

The Ojk are the binary interaction coefficients, symmetric in j and k with Ojj - O. Theoretically, O. and 0b are universal constants, Q<~ and [}g, determined by making the EOS satisfy Van def Waals' criteria at the critical point (Equation 3-8). The values of m and flg for some commonly used EOS's are as

A Typical Solution Method for Cubic Equations of State The input data include the overall composition of the mixture, {Zj}. and the critical pressure (Pci), temperature (Tti), acentric factor (w,), and critical compressibility factor (1.,,;) for each component i. The objective is to determine for F moles of the feed of composition {z.:}: the moles of liquid (L) and the moles of vapor (V) generated, and the composition of these liquid ({xil) and vapor ({y,}) phases that exist in equilibrium at any given pressure (p) and temperature (T). Referring to Equations 2-15 through 2-17, it is clear that if the equilibrium vaporization ratio, K.. for each component i is known. we can achieve the objectives. Thus, the problem can alternatively be conceptualized as being that of obtaining very precise values for K, using an equation of state. The calculation procedure is iterative. A value is assumed for the distribution coefficient (K.) and the equation of state is then solved with this initial guess, Kr. The EOS solution yields a new value, K + " which is then used as r the new guesstimate. This procedure is repeated till convergence is reached, within a specified tolerance. between the estimate, Kr, and the solution, Kr I. A good initial guess for the distribution coefficient is very advantageous in obtaining faster convergence. A reasonable guess can be obtained from the following equation. which has been used extensively (Wilson, 1969; Peng and Robinson , 1976):
K; - (lip.,) exp [5.3727(1 + wJ(1 - liT.,)) (3-18)

follows: RK and SRK,


PR,

n: - 0.4274802. !li: - 0.08664035

n: - 0.457235529, !li: - 0.077796074


og

In practice, however, O. and Ob are treated as component. and temperaturedependent quantities, O.i(T) and Obo(T):
RK: 0.1 .. miT ,.p"\ and Ob! ..

SRK: Oaj" 0<,.11 + (0.48 + 1.574w, - 0.176w~)(1 - TJ'-!i)]2, and Ob'" O!: PH: 0 .... ~1 + (0.37464 + 1.54226w; - O.26992w1)(1 - TJ'!i)]2, and 0" - !li: The acentric factor (w), first proposed by Pitzer (1955), is a measure of a flLLid's deviation from the law of corresponding states (see the section on compressibility factors). It is defined as:
(3- 16)

This equation was obtained by assuming that the fluid obeys Raoults' law and that the logarithm of the reduced vapor pressure of each component i is

Ga.s Production Ilgillering

Properties oj Natural Gases

47

a linear function of the reciprocal reduced temperature (Peng and Robinson. 1976). Using the K-values from Equation 3-18. flash calculations are carried out for the mixture (see Chapter 2) to calculate L. V, {Xi}. and hi}' Equations 3--15{a-e) are';olved next. Equation 3-14, a cubic equation in Z. can now be sol\'ed to determine its roots. Since it is a cubic equation, it can have either all real roots. or one real root and two imaginary ones. The gas Z-factor is taken as the largest real roo!, when the equa.tion is wived with coefficients corresponding to gas. Equation 3-14 is solved again with coefficients A. B corresponding to the liquid phase. The smallest real root is taken as the liq-

Table 3' Physical Constants lor Typical Natural Gas Constituents


Critical Pressure (psia) Critical Temp. (-R) Cnt. Comp. Factor (2.) Acentric Factor (w) Eykman Mol Refraction" (EMR)

Compound

Molecular Weight

eH,
C:II;.
C.J l~

n_C,H,g i-C,H ,(
II-C~'1 i~1!

16.()43 30,070 44_097 38124 58,124 72.151 72.151 86.178 100.205 114.232 12.8_259 142.2.86 28_013 44,010 34.076 31.999 2_016 18.015

667.8 707.8 616.3

550.7 .529, I
488.6 490.4 436.9 396.S 300.6 332.0 3040 493.0 1070.9 1306.0 737.1 188.2 3203.6

343_1 549,S 665.7 765.4 734 7 S45.4 828.8 913,..\ 972.5 1023,9 lOiO,-l 111l,8 227.3 547,6 672.4 278.6 59.9 1165_1

0.289 0_28." 0.281 0.274 0.283


0,262

0.0115 0.0908 0.1454 0.1928 0_1756 0,2510 0.2.273 0_2957 0._ 0.3978 0.4437 0.4902 0.0355 0.2250 0.0049 0.0196 - 0.2234' 0.3210

uid Z-factor. These Z values are required in Equation 3-17.


Equation 3-17 is sol ....ed to determine fugacities in the \'apor and liquid phases. If the.<\e are equal in both phases for all the components (on an individual basis), com'ergence has been reached. Otherwise, the new Ki values are determined usin~ the ratio of the fugacity coefficients (see Equation 2-14), Sewral modifications have been proposed by different investigators to improve the rate of convergence, or to impro\'e the accuracy of prediction in general or for various special cases. The ~VNR (minimum variable Newton-Raphson) method presented by Fussell and Yanosik (1978) and Fussell (1979) prO\ides imprO\'ed comergence and is more reliable than the method of successive substitution previously discussed. Since this is an area of acti\'e research, the reader can refer to published work in this area for specific methodologies and developments.

nCJ-I" II-C,H,o n-CJi" n-C,lh,. n-CwHu

N,
CO,

II;> 0,
II,
H~O

0,273 0,264 0.263 0.259 0,251 0.247 0.291 0,274 0.266 0.292 0.3(\4 0.230

13,984 23.913 34.316 44.2-13 44.741 55.267 55.302 65_5iS 7S.Si5 86.193 96.529

106.859
9.407 15,7SO 19.828 8.49.5

,"'"
,

From Edmister and Lee (19&1J_ I'rom McLeod and Campbell (1969) , "" _ 0.0 w.ed in moot condatkm>

Critical Pressure and Temperature Determination For pure components, physical property data are readily available. Table 3-1 shows critical temperatures (T...;), pressures (Pc.:). and other useful properties of typical components in hydrocarbon fluids. For mixtures, Kay's mixing rule can be used to find the effective critical properties:

the critical pressure and temperature from the gas gra\ity. Corrections may be made for the presence of non-hydrocarbon oomponents: Thomas et .al. (1970) took data from Figure 3-1 and other sources to obtam the followmg relationship: Ppc _ 709.604 - 58.718 "f, T pc" 170.491 + 307.344 "fit (3-20a)

(3- 19)
where Pp..., T po: are the pseudocritical pressure and temperature, respectively, for the mixture, and r! is the mole fraction of component i in the mixture. These properties are termed "pseudo" because they are used as a correlation basis rather than as a very precise representation of mixture critical properties. Equation 2-23 in Chapter 2 can be used to predict the critical properties of a hydrocarbon fluid from its normal boiling point and gravity. IT the composition oflhe gas, {y;}. is not known , Figure 3-1 may be used to determine

(3-20b)

where "fl is the gas gravity with respect to air. Thomas et al. recommend the use of this equation in allowable limits of up to 3% H~, 5% Ni , or a total impurity (no n-hydrocarbon) content of 7%, beyond which errors in critical pressure exceed 6%. It should be noted that the gas gravity method of obtaining pseudocritical pressures and temperatures is not very acc:urate. 1 ~he analysis of the gas is available, it must be used in accordance With EquatIOn 3-19.

..

Ga., Producl/on Engineering

PropN'tie3 of Natural Gases

.9

Find the gas gravity. Also, find the critical pressure and critical temperature for this gas using (I) Kay's mixing rule, (2) Brown et al.'s method, and (3) Thomas et al.'s equations.

Solution
~omp.

...iL
0.9300 0.0329 0.0136 0.0037 0.0023 0.0010 0.0012 0.0008 0.0005 0.0140

M,
16.043

k
667.8 707.8 616.3 550.7 529.1 488.6 490.4 436.9 332.0 493.0

To 343.1 549.8 665.7 765.4

c, c,
C,
n-C 4 i-C 4

3O.0iO
44.097 58.124 58.124 72.151 72.151 86.178 128.259 28.013

734.i
845.4 828.8 913.4 1070.4 227.3

i-e.,
Co
C,.

n-e,
N,

" 5
~

M .. E y,M 1 ,. 17.54 The gas gravity 'Y& - 17.54/28.97,.. 0.6055 1. Ppc" I: YIPd - 664.47 psia

,
u
0
~

Tpt - I: YiTe; _ 356.93 OR


2. From Figure 3-1,

g
"
v"'~ GUVlfY

..
" "

PI'" - 670 psia Tpt - 360 OR


Applying the correction factor for 1.4 % N2,
!'po 670 - 5 665

!"ia

"'I~' \

T,,' 360 - 5.355 OR


3. Using Equation 3-20a:
!'po - 709.604 - (58.718)(0.6055) 674.05 ps;a

Figure 3-1. PseudocriticaJ properties of miscellaneous natural gases and condensate flUids. (After Brown at aL, 1948; courtesy of GPSA.)

Example 3-1. The analysis of a sweet gas, in mole%, is known to be as follows: N2 .. lAO, CRt .. 93.0, CtHe" 3.29, <4Ha .. 1.36. Il-C.H IO .. 0.37, iC.H 10 " 0.23, n-~HI2" 0.10, i-~I!" 0.12. Cefi14 .. 0.08, and ~HI6+ .. 0.05. Assume the ~ + fraction to exhibit the same properties as n-Cg.

Using Equation 3-20b:


T,,' 170.491 + (307.344)(0.6055) 356.59 OR

50

GO,f Production Engineering

Propertie! of Natural

Gas~

51

The Gas Compressibility Factor Several different correlations are available for this important parameter. The basic correlations use the corresponding states concept. According to Van dec Waals' law of corresponding states, the physical characteristics of a substance are a function of its relative proximity to the critical point. This means that the deviation from ideal beha\ior of gases is the same if they are located at the same state relative to their critical state. Thus the relevant temperature and pressure values that express the departure of a real gas from ideal behal-ioc are the reduced pressure, p" and the reduced temperature, T.;

Z - (p"T,) where p, ... piPe

(3-21)

T, -

TIT~

For gas mixtures such as natural gases, the reduced parameters are denoted as pseudoreduced temperature Tp. ( = TIT pc), and pseudoreduced pressure,
Ppr ( -

~ IO:!
f ni:':
u

p/ppc).

The correslX'nding states concept is more applicable to substances with similar molecular structure, such as neighboring hydrocarbon comlX'nents of a similar paraffinic type. than to widely dissimilar substances. For more complex mixtures. it is more appropriate to consider the compressibility factor as a function of an additional parameter, t:

" "

Z - (p"T" ()

(3-22)

This additional parameter, t, is any term that can characterize the mixture behavior, particularly the discrepancy resulting from the assumption in Equation 3-21. Among several alternatives, the two most widely used are the critical compressibility factor, z." and the acentric factor, w. Z-factor correlations using z., as a basis have been used for a long time; different charts are made for different values of z., for manual calculations. The acentric factor. w, has become very popular because it gives good accuracy. Most equations of state and other computer-generated solutions use the acentric factor. In addition, the Eykman molecular refraction (EMR) approach by McLeod and Campbell (1969) is of interest and is described here. Standing-Katz Compressibility Chart Figure 3-2 shows the Standing and Katz (1942) correlation for Z as a function of Ppr and T pr for sweet (non-H~ or COt containing) natural gases. The

P~fUOO ~EOu(EO

...

Figure 3-2. Compressibility lactor lor natural gases as a function of reduced pressure and temperature. (After Standing and Katz, 1942; courtesy of SPE 01
AIME.)

applicability of Equation 3-21 is assumed, and Kay's mixing rules are used for gas mixture properties. This chart is generally reliable for sweet natural gases with minor amounts of non-hydrocarbons such as N2 Wichert and Aziz (1972) proposed a correction factor, E, to extend the applicability of the Standing-Katz Z-factor chart to sour gases:

52

COl Production Engineering

Properties oj Natural Case:!

53

These modified values for the critical pressure (~) and temperature (Tp.,.) are used to calculate the values of reduced pressure and temperature that will give a valid Z-factor for a sour gas from the Standing-Katz correlation.

Example 32. For the gas composition given in Example 3-1, find the compressibility factor at 2,000 psia and 200F using the Standing-Katz Z-factor chart.

Soilltion

From Example 3-1,


Ppc: = 664.47 psia

~ u

Tpc - 356.93 OR
So,
ppr - 2,OOO/664.4i - 3.010 T,. - (200 + 459.67)1356.93 - 1.848

Using Figure 3-2, the compressibility factor Z

0.905.

Example 33. Find the compressibility factor at 2.500 psia and 650 0 R for a sour gas with the following composition in mole%: CH 4 = 89.10, C 2H6 = 2.65, C3HS - 1.90. nC,H IO - 0.30, jC4H ID = 0.20, N2 = 0.65. CO 2 ,,, 1.00, H 2S - 4.20. Solution
PER CENT H,S

Figure 33. Pseudocriticai correction factor, t, for sour gases. (Atter Wichert and AzIZ, 1972; courtesy of Hydrocarbon Processing.)

Camp.

..1L
0.8910 0.0265 0.0190 0.0030 0.0000 0.0065 0.0100 0.0400

..&.
667.8 707.8 616.3 550.7 529.1 493.0 1070.9 1306.0

TN

(323) where A is the sum of the mole fractions of H:zS and COt, and B is the mole fraction of H 2S, in the gas. Figure 3-3 is a graphical representation by Wichert and Aziz (1972) of Equation 3-23. This method uses the correction factor, f, to correct the pseudocritical temperature (Tp") and pressure (Ppe) determined by Kay's rule, as follows:

C, C, C,
n-C~

i-C 4

N, CO,
H,S

343.1 549.8 665.7 765.4 734.7 227.3 547.6


672.4

T;''' TI'l' -

A - 0.0400 + 0.0100 - 0.0500, and B - 0.0400

(3-24)

, - 120[(0.052)'9 - (0.052)' '] + 15[(0.042)" - (0.042)"] - 10.402

Gas Production Engineering

Propertia oj Natu ral

Gtl.fU

55

Ppr - !: hPc:i - 696.96 psia

Table 3-2 Correl.tlon Equations tor the Standing-Katz Z-tactor Chart

Appl}ing the Wichert and Aziz correction,


TPc - 371.77 - lOAD - 361.37 oR

Reduced Pressure p, Ringe Between


0.2 and 1.2

Reduced Tempertlture. T, Ringe Between


~(

Equations
1.6643T, 2.2114) - 0.3647T, + 1.4385 0.5222T, - 0.8511) - 0.0364T, + 1.0490 0.9969 p,1 O.I39JT, - 0.2988) + ~I O.0295T, - 0.0825) + O.OOO9T,' 0.9967 p,( -1.35iOT. + 1.4942) + 4.63IST, - 4.7009 ~I O.lilIT, - 0.3232) + O.5869T, + 0.1229 ~( O.0984T, - 0.2(53) + 0.062IT, + 0.B580 ~I 0.0211T, - 0.(527) + 0.0127T, + 0.9549 p,(-0.3278T, + 0.4752) + 1.8223T, - 1.9036 p,(-0.252JT, + 0.3871) + J.6087T, - 1.6635 p,( - O.0284T, + 0.0625) + 0.4714T, - OJXHl' p,1 O.OOHT, + 0.0039) + 0.0607T, + 0.7927 p,( 0.711 + 3.66T,)-!*"' - 1.637-'(0.319 T, + 0.522) + 2.071
p,(

Equation Number

J>;o - (696.96)(361.37)/[371.77 + (0.042)(10.402)(1 - 0.042)]


- 676.69 psia
1',. - 2,500'6i6.69 3.694

Tp,

..

6501361.37 - 1.799

Using Figure 3-2. the compressibility factor, Z - 0.90. Curve-Fits fo r the Standing- Katz Correlation Gopal (1977) found straight line fits for the Standing-Katz chart of the form: Z - p,(AT, + B) + CT, + D (3-25)

'OS and 12 1.2 + and 14 1.4+ and 2.0 2.0 + and 3.0 and 1.2 1.2 + and 2.8 12 + and 1.4 14+ and 2.0 2.0+ and 3.0 2.8 + and 5.4 lOS and 1.2 1.2+ and 1.4 1.4 + and 2.0 2.0 + and 3.0 5.4 + and 15.0 1.05 and 3.0

o.ooorr,' . .

,
I 3'

'05

,. "
6
7

8
Ill'
11

'"

12
13

Mt.". CopaJ (l9i7). Coomsy of Oil and eo.. }tnmur/ 1"hc.e !emu rna' be 'gnom! b For a "ef) slight 100 In IOCC\1rat'Y. E'I'. 3 and 4 and 9 and 10 <'tin. ~;'f:'l~. be replacoed b). th"

where A, B, C, and D are correlation constants (see Table 3-2). Th irteen equations of this type were found to suitably represent the Standing- Katz chart, with average errors on the order of 0.6%, and maximum errors up to 2.5%. (Gopal (1977) does not report any statistical parameters for the error: it is the author's deduction from the reported results only.) Wichert and Aziz's (1972) correction factor for sour gases is applicable. Since it attempts to curve-fit the Standing-Katz chart and uses the same mixing rules, its applicability is also subject to the same limitations as the Standing- Katz chart. The major advantage of this method lies in the fact that it is not trial and error type.
Example 3-4. For the gas composition given in Example 3-1, find the comprasibility factor at 2,000 psia and 2OQF using Gopal's method. So/lltion

folla..ing ''''0 equahoru' Z _ p,10.0657f, - O.\iSII .. 00009 T: .. 09968 Z _ p,C-O.23&( T.... 0.3695)'" lASH T, - l4SBO Prrif:'f1Ibiy we this equation for p, up to 26 onl). fur p, _ 2.6 + Eq. 9 ",ill g;"f:' slightl~ brttr, rt:Sults At.... pn:f.".abl~. we Eq. I for 1.08 :i T, ::; 1.19 and p., ~ 14

Tpr

1.848

From Table 3-2, the applicable equation is: Z


=

PP,( - O.0284Tpr + 0.0625) + OA714T P' - 0.0011 (3.010)[(-0.0284)(1.848) + 0.0625] + (0.4714)(1.848) - 0.0011 - 0.900

Compressibility Factors from Equations of State Several authors have reported results using d iffe rent equations of state. An interesting comparison of the various techniques used is provided by Takacs (1976). Yarborough and Hall (1974) used the Starling-Carnahan equation of state to arrive at the following equation:

From Example 3-2,

p,. - 3.010

z-

0.06 1 25(p,.Jp,T~) ""p{ - 1.2(1 - 1 T~)']

(3-26)

.6

Gu Production Engineering

Properties oj Natural G6&es

57

where the reduced density, p" is calculated by trial and error from the fol lowing equation:
p, + P.
!

(1

p,)3

P. - p, - (14 76 T '

p. > 1.0, very large errors have been reported (Dra~chuk ~d Abou-Kassem , 1975). Thus, these correlations should be used WIth caution. The ~ccu rac), of the Copal (1977) method in t his region is not apparent f~om hlS ~

'po

- 9 76 'T! + 4 58/'T"3 )p' I pr ' P"

::7n~:\~!~~e a~;:b~~~~:.n

have been reported

by him),

but

It

+ (90. 7/T po -

242 . 2.' ~

+ 42.4'Gr) p ~tI8 . 2II2 Tp<'


(3-27)

The Eykman Molecular Refraction (EMR ) Method This method, deyeloped by McLeod and Campbell (1969), uses a rorrelat ' n between the EMR of a gas or liquid and its properties such as molecular W gbt density and critical properties. A different mixture com b t ma Ion wei , , r 'btl rule is used, and the method also requi~ the use of a dir erent compres.o;l ity chart. T he Eykman molecular refraction . E~t R. is defined as foHows:

Dranchuk et al. (1974) presented an eight-factor trial and error type of equation for Z-factor using the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state.

(3-28) where the reduced density was defined as:

EMR - [(n' - 1)I(n + O.4)](Mlp )


w here

(3-31 )

Pr ., z.:p,/(ZT.), and

Zc was assumed

to be 0.270

(3-29)

and the correlation constants AI through Aa are: 0.31506237, - 1.04670900, - 0 .57832729, 0.53530771 , -0.61232032, -0.10488813, 0.681570001 , and 0 .68446549, re.pectively. Dranchuk and Abou-Kassem (1975) developed the following equation from the Starling equation of state:

n "" refractive index of the gas or liquid using Sodium-D Yf'llow light M - molecular weight p - density in gm fcc

The Eykman molecular refraction index, EMRI , defined. as

(3-32)

EMRI - EMRIM - [in' - 1)I(n + O.4 )llp

is also used for correlation purposes. McLeod and Campbell (1969) found

the following empirical relationship between EMR and M for normal paraffin hydrocarbons:

+ (A, + A,IT, + A,1T;)p1 - A,(A,/T , + A,1 T1)p1


(3-30)
w here the reduced density is given by Equation 3-30 as before. By fitting Equation 3-29 from the Starling equation of state to the Standing-Katz correlation using more than 1,500 data points, Dranchuk and Abou-Kassem (1975) found the values of the eleven coefficients Al through All to be, 0.3265 , - l.0700, - 0.5339, 0.01569, - 0.05165 , 0.5475, - 0.7361 , 0.1844, 0 .1056, 0.6134, and 0.7210, respectively. The Wichert and Aziz correction for sour gases (Equations 3-23 and 3-24) is applicable to aU these methods using equations of state. It is clear that all the EOS methods involve a trial and error type of solution scheme. The accuracy of these methods is within 0.5 % , but for the region where T. _ 1.0,

EMR '"" 2.4079 + 0 .7293 M + 0.00003268 M2

(3-33)

Alternatively, M can be expressed in terms of EMR for normal paraffin hyd rocarbons as follows: M ,. - 3.2971 + 1.3714 EMR - 0 .00008156 EMR2 (3-34)

U the molecular weight, M, is not known , the EMR may be determined from the density p using the EMR versus pi plot shown in Figure 3-4. McLeod and Ca:npbell found that EMR correlates very well with the critical properties of hydrocarbons and also the non-hydrocarbon~ generally associated with natural gas. Figures 3-5 and 3-6 show the correlations determined by them. The curve fit equations indicated in Figures 3-5 and 3-6 may be used, instead of the figures , ror p rogramming purposes. In the EMR

58

Cas Production Engineering


.t'1~

Propertie& of Natural Gases

59

~ ~ ~

;: g ,;::,

,
0

IJ UPUllm.UI. IlU1'UU.O

.rl~ a

2 ' 51 S! i st:::2

I
. w
M

I
'JI ,II

III - .,. ":1' CD"

.~

,/ . ..c,....c u

(PCU:

~)

>0

.0 ;::::: :;:::: /;:;


O.ll
0 ,

%: ~ ~~ ~ ~

'j I V 1/;;1 1/ Ij 'l, 1/ VI; VI V ~ .~ / ~ 1/ 'i ~ /j % V/

(II - ""1 , , _ 0.0J

'.M ' .H
1.10
~

-:;::. /~
~# ,. /'
~

/'"" l" .~.

V,;_

" 1.00 ==" 0.'"

....."
"

..
I

",J>''',

"

I
,.

.. "

Al'I O$jIlC USSj


1
o.~. O.~I

'.>0

F ... ~'.. f

~""
Pil '

o.ou<
I
IJII -

.. "

'.M

0.'0

V r- " - / m, ./

Figure 34. Eykman molecular refraction (EMR) versus p2, (After McLeod and Campbell, 1969; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

..

'.

./

I
(>0 .....

IIJonJon

',' I

I - IT,", O.'UI. 0.00'111

EVKMAN MOL!CULAR REFRACTION

..I ..I
,

Figure 3-6. EMR versus TJ pc correlation. (After Mcleod and Campbell, 1969; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

>0

....V V
~"

W
~

c_

eo" ,
~"
~

~
./

V
>.

O.I't' I
~.

,,,, 1.0 _

.. ,.1. u

i-

versus T./p~.\ plot (Figure 3-5), both the hydrocarbons as well as non-hydrocarbons lie on the same correlation. In the EMR versus T.,Ipc plot (Figure 3-6), two different correlations were found for two categories of components: N2, CD it H2S, and H2 lie on curve I: and all normal hydrocarbon components lie on the upper curve 2. The two curves intersect at a value corresponding to C I . So, for gases containing any non-hydrocarbon components, it is necessary to divide the mixture into two groups: C h N1, CO 2, H2S, and H2; and hydrocarbon components ahove methane. that is n-C z+. An n-component gas mixture is thus treated as a pseudobinary mixture in this method. The calculation procedure is as follows (Campbell . 1984):
1. For each of the two groups of components, find the EMR j as follows:
(335)

..

rI-~

m,

" V
IY

19",,"_

~r

Ll_

1f",(Pc)O.~. '.IK. 0 . _ 1111 0.00107' (rMA)1

'.
EYI(.MAH NJL[CULAlI REfRACTION (EAA)

Figure 3-5. EMR versus TJp~ 5 correlation. (After McLeod and Campbell, 1969; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

where Xi! is the normalized mole fracti on of component i in the group j it belongs to, and EMRI is its EMR value determined from Table 3-1. For fractions such as C, ~, the EMR value can be directly determined using Equation 3-33 if the molecular weight is known, or using Figure 3-4 if the density is known . The normalized mole fractions , Xi!' are calculated as:

60

GaJ Production Engineering


XjJ - X!IX!

Propertit!$ oj Natural Ca.Jt!$

61

EZDmplt> 35. For the gas composition given in Example 3-3, find the compressibility factor at 2,500 psla and 650 0 R using the EMR method.

where X, is the sum of the mole fractions of all the components in group j.
2. Using Figure 3-6 (or the equations indicated in Figure 3-6), find the value (or (ATc!P,,)1 and (AT c!Pe)2 for the two groups. The total mixture (AT..tPe)mill is calculated as:

Solution

Comp.

"
0.0005 0.0100 0.0420 0.8910 0.9495 0.0265 0.0190 0.0030 0.0020 0.0505

(ATJP,)m" - X,(ATJp,,, + X,(ATJ p,,,


3. Determine BTdp~5 from Figure 3-5 (or the equation indicated on Figure 3-5) for the total mixture using the EMRmiJ for the total mixture calculated as follows:

N, CO,
H,S

C,

~ 0.00685 0.01053 0.04423 0.93839

EMR

9.407 15.750 19.828 13.984

X, C, C,
n-C 4 i-C 4
X, -

4. Using the mixture ATe/P, and BTel p~5 values. solve for the critical pressure, Pc, and critical temperature, Te. In English units, A and B

0.52475 0.37624 0.05941 0.03960

23.913 34.316 44 .243


44.741

are 1.0, whereas in the metric or 51 system of units, A .. 0.0124 and B - 0.1495. 5. Calculate the reduced pressure and temperature. Finally, the compressibility factor. Z, is found from Figure 3-7.

EMR I - 1: xJjEMR, - 14.2297

From Figure 3-6.

(AT Jp,,, - 0.50


(ATJp,,, - 0.94

So,

o. o. o.

(ATJp,) - (0.9495)(0.50) + (0.0505)(0.94) - 0.. 522

EMRm" - (0.9495)(14.2297) + (0.0505)(29.8596) - 15.019


From Figure 3-5,

o.
1.0

(BTJp1') - 14.90
1.0
3.0 4.0 S.O
REDUCED PRESSURE, POI

'.0

In English units being used. here, A-landB - 1

Figure 3-7, Compressibility lactor chart lor the EMA-method. (After Mcleod

and Campbell, 1969; courtesy 01 Campbell Petroleum Series.)

62
Thus.

Cal Production Engilluring

Properties oj Natural Gases

63

(T'-""Pc)mix - 0.522

So,
p~~ - 14.90/0.522,. 28.54 implying that

p< - 814.76 psia

T - (0.522)(8 14.76) - 425.30 o R

Using the ,aJu~ of critical pressure and temperature as pre\iously determined.


Ppt =

2.500/814.i6
650':425.30
=

3.068

T p.

1.528
Figure 3-8. Generalized compressibility factors ZO as a function 01 reduced pressures and temperatures. (After Salter and Campbell, 1963; courtesy of SPE of AIME.)

Using Figure 3-7. the compressibility factor Z _ 0.835. The Stewart. Burkhardt, and Yoo (SBV) Method Stewart, Burkhardt, and Voo (1959) presented a mixing rule (or pseudo- I critical pressure and temperature:

'"

-"--',

.,

'-

T"" - Kil], and Pp<: - Tpo/J


where

(3-36)

..

--- ---,

......

J-

(1/3)Er., y,(T.,Ip~)1 + (213){Er.1 YI(T.,JPc)p~)2


'

K - Er.1 Yl(T..J~5)1

. .

--

----

The pseudocritical pressure and temperature from this equation are then used in Pitzer's (1955) charts, extended by Satter and Campbell (1963), to determine 7Y and Zl (Figures 3-8 and 3-9). Z is calculated as follows: (3-37) This is one of the best available methros for hydrocarbon mixtures and has proven to be \'ery accurate.

_._........

Figure 3 9 Generalized compressibility factors Z' as a function of reduced pressures and temperatures. (Alter Satter and Campbell, 1963; courtesy 01 SPE of AIME.)

Gas Production Engineering


PER CENT

Properties oj Natural Gasel

.5

'" !==t==i==t==!=t==!=t==+=Ci"':'::jON{IOXlDE

20 ~
S
>

'" '0
2'

'0

where 1:f.1 refers to a summation over all components i except CO 2 . The value of T determined from Figures 3-1 Oa and b is then used to correct the ppc and Til<' calculated from Equation 3-36 as follows: T;"-Tp<- riA

,
!:

"

101-+-:
o

" ,
ACENTRIC FACTOR,"

'0

0.'

Figure 310. Multlpole factor. r. versus acentric factor, w. for CO 2 concentrations up to 50%. (After Buxton and Campbell, 1967; courtesy of SPE of
AIME.)

(3-39) where T;" and p;", are the corrected values for pseudocritical temperature and pressure. rcspecth'ely. and A ,. l.0 for English units, A = 1.8 if metric units are used. The;e corrected \'alues are used. as in the SBV method, to determine the pseudoreduced pressure and temperature. and 'l!l and Zl from Figures 3-8 and 3-9. Finally. Z is determined using Equation 3-37.
Example 3-6. The analysis of a sour gas, in mole%. is known to be as follows: CH 4 = 56.1. CzHe - 20.6, CJHs - 5.3, CO 2 = 15.0, and H 2S - 3.0. Find the compres.~ibility factor for this gas at 3,000 psia and 3OO"F. Use the Buxton-Campbell method because the CO 2 content is high.

o
Figure 3-10b. Multipole factor, T, versus acentric lactor. w. for CO 2 concentrations greater than 50%. (Alter Buxton and Campbell, 1967; courtesy 01 SPE of AIME,)

'0

t- -


!:

t; 20

10

....-:: V . / /' V ,/ V ./
~
0'

.-- .. '0

>

.--

'0

Solution
Com~.

..l!...
0.561 0.206 0.053

To 343.1 549.8

B:i.
667.8 ;07.8 616.3 10iO.9 1306.0

T~p,

(T~E')"

Tjp~5

-""0.0115 0.0908 0.1454 0.2250 0.0949

ACENTRIC FACTOR, ..

0,

C, C, C, CO,
H,5

665.;
547.6 672.4

O.ISO
0.030

0.51361 0.77673 1.08012 0.51108 0.S14i5

0.71667 0.88132 1.03929 0.71490 O.ili46

13.2727 20.6645 26.8145 16.7284 18.0025

The BuxtonCampbell Approach for COz-Rich Gases


E ),,(To!p,,) - 0.59749 Sour gas correction methods described earlier have been developed for sour gases containing H 2S and CO 2 , For gases that have a high CO 2 content but a low H~ content, these methods have not been found to be satisfactory. To extend the applicability of the SBV method to sour gases rich in CO 2, Buxton and CampbeU (1967) pro'v;de a correction factor known as the multipole oorrection factor, 1', as shown in Figures 3-10a and b. It corrects for the deviation in the critical pressure and temperature due to the pre;ence of CO 2, The effective acentric factor, "'~, for use in Figures 3-10a and b is as follows: E )'i(Tclfpci)O ..5 * 0.76744 1: y,(To/pd") - 16.1914
1: )'1(0)1 -

0.06946, and E

YI"'I

for all components except CO 2

,,,

0.03571

So,

K - 16.1914

w, - (1i(1 - YcoJI 1:1., )''''',

(3-38)

J-

(''')(0.59749) + (~,)((0.76744)'1 - 0.59181

66

Cm Protirlction Enginl"ering

Properties oj Notural Cases

67

T,

K21J - (l6.1914)2fO.591BI _ 442.98R

Supercompressibility Factor In several applications such as gas flm\ measurement, the factor l/ZO-~ appears very frequently. It is called the supcrcompressibility factor, F'p~.

PI'< *" T.
l'sin~

J-

442.9810.59181 - i48.52 psia

Equation 3-38,

FJ" - 1 'Zll_~. or F"p.. - I Z


Cas Formation Volume Factor

(3-4 1)

w, - [11(1 - 0.150)110.03571) - 0,0420

From Figure 3-lOb.


T -

4.3

So,
T';':
Pl~'

442.91\ - 4.3 I

438.68' R
p~ia

In reservoir engineering applications, one must often relate reservoir vol. urnes to surface volume:!.. The formation volume factor. BOl_ defined as the ratio of the volume Ottupied by a given mass of gas at resenoir pressuretemperature conditions to the volume occupied at standard (surface) conditions, is generally used. If V denotes the volume at reservoir pressure p and temperature T. and V"" denotes the volume at standard pressure p" and temperature T.." then:
B~ ..

"" 748.52(438.68 .......12.98) ,.. 74l.25

V'V.., - (nZRT"p)/(nZ",BT ..,/p...)


(3-42)

Thus,
Ppr"

- (p.ZT)I(pz.,T.)

30001741.25 - 1.047. and T p,


=

759.671438.68

1.732
0.250

From Figure 38, ZO

0.880, and from Figure 39. Zl

In oil-field practice, generally the standard conditions are taken to be 14. i3 psia ( - p",) and 60F ( .. T ..,). At these conditions, can be assumed to be unity. B~ therefore becomes:

z...

Therefore. Z .. 0.880 + (0.250)(0.06946) .. 0.897

Bg - 0.0283 ZT P ftl/scf

(3-43)

Some Z-Factor Related Properties density, supercompressibility. gas formation volume factor, and expansion factor. Gas Density Using the gas law. the density of a gas, Pt;, can be calculated as: Pt; .. Mv .. pMIZRT
(3-40)

The expansion factor, E. is simply the reciprocal of the formation volume factor, Bg . Thus. E is given by:
ga_~

Cas properties that can be derived from the Z-factor are

E - (pz., T .)1 (p,.J:T)


- 35,30 p ZT ",flft'

(3-44)

Example 3-7. For the sweet gas given in Example 3-1. find: density in lbmlftl, and formation volume factor, at 2,000 psia and 200F.
Solution

where \1 is the molecular weight of the gas. If p is in psia. T is in OR, and R is in (psia ftl)/(Ibmole OR), then PI is in lbm/ftl.

From Example 3-1. the moleculaI weight M - 17.54

68

Gas Produclkm Engl'leering

Proper-tier oj Natural Case:!

.9

At 2,000 psia and 2OOF, from Example 3-2, the compressibility factor Z - 0.905

The pseudoreduced compressibility, Cp.. is thus given by: <;. - c,p,. -

From Equation 3-40,

2- _.!. [az]
p,.

(3-48)

z ap,. T'"

P, _ (2.000)(17.54)/[(0.905)(10.732)(459.67 + 200)] - 5.475Ibmft'


From Equation 3-43.

Differentiating Equation 3-29 with respect to pseudoreduced pressure, we get:

B, - (00283)(0.905)(459.67 + 200)/2.000 - 0.008448It'/sc

ap, az] _ - (0.27fT,,) [ I .Z - (p"iZ 1 oPpr oPr.


The derivative. iJZlopp., in Equation 348 can be expressed as follows:

Compressibility of Gases Compressibility of any substance is a measure of the change in its volume upon changes in pressure. It can also be considered as a measure of the change in density with pressure. Gases exhibit high compressibility, which makes the storage of gas under pressure a common occurrence. The isothermal compressibility, c, of any substance is defined as: c - (I V) (aVlaplT

az _ az ap,

oPp.

aPr

oPp.
(p,,,IZ') az] aPr'

~ (az) (0.27fT,,) [liZ aPr

(3-45)

~ 0.27 az _ !0.27 p"az)


ZT p.op, Z2'f p,op,

az
apr'

Using the ideal gas law, (OV loph '" - nRT/If. and the compressibility (cJ for an ideal gas can be expressed as:

Rearranging this equation results in:


I + O.27r,.aZ] az _ 0.27 az ZZ"fp.oPT opl'" ZTp.oPr

c, _ -

(plnRT)( - nRTip2) - 1 P

(3-46)

Thus. the compressibility of an ideal gas is simply equal to the inverse of the pressure. With increasing pressure, the compressibility decreases. For a real gas: V _ nZRTlp ,nd (aVfaplT - nRT[(lIp)(aZlap) - Zfp'] and the compressibility. c, CR'

Thus

OZ _ 0.27 (aZ!ap,) ) 'ap,. ZT," \ 1 + (p,IZ)(aZlap,)

Substituting for the derivative. oZlop"" in Equation 3-48, the reduced compressibility can be written as follows:

is given by:

1
- (plnZRT)nRT[(lIp)(aZlop) - ZIP']

0.27!

(aZfap,)

0",' P" - Z'T"


(347)

I + (p,fZ)(aZlap,)

(3-49)

- lip - (1IZ)(aZfap)
Or, in terms of reduced variables:

Using the Z-factor equation derived from the BWR equation of state by Dranchuk ct al. (Equation 3-28), MaHar et al. (1975) evaluated the derivative iJZlop, as follows:

cg

,.

I I [az] PpcPPT - ZPpt- iJpl'" T pi"

iJZliJpT - (AI + A2/Tp' + ~/'f3p<) + 2(~ + AsIT pr)p, + 5~p:1TI"" + (2A,p,rr,,)(1 + A,p1 - AM) .,p( - A,p~ (3-50)

70
10.0

Gas Production Engineering


Figure 311. CrT, as a function of reduced temperature and pressure in the range 1.05 ~
T,~I.4,

Properties oj Natural Gases

71

Figure 312. cfT, as a function of


reduced lemperature and pressure in the range 1.4"

p," 15.0. (After Mattar al ai., 1975; courtesy of the


Journal of Cana10
dian Petroleum Technology.)

and

O.2~

T,,3.0, and 0.2~ Pr~ 15.0. (After Mallar et at, 1975;


courtesy of the Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology.)

0 .01 Ll..ll.LU.u 0.2

'0
P.

10.0

P.

For hand calculations, Mattar et al. (1975) also presented this correlation in a graphical form as shown in Figures 3-11 and :J..12.

From Example 3-2, at 2,000 psia and 20(P F.

Ppt - 3.010
T p,
-

1.848

Example 38. Find the compressibility for the sweet gas given in Example 3-1 at 2,000 psia and 200F. Solution

From Figure 312,

cp,T pr
Thus, From Example 3-1,
pP., - 664.47 psia

0.620

c,. - 0.620/1.848 - 0.3355


~ _ Cp.lpp( _

0.33551664.47 '" 0.000505 psi-I

72

Gos Production Engineering

Proper-lies oj Natural Ga.fel

73

Viscosity of Gases

The viscosity of a fluid, a measure of its resistance to flow, is defined as the ratio of the shear force per unit area to the local velocity gradient: - (FIA)/(dv/dL) The viscosity. p., as defined is called dynamic viscosity. In addition, the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of a fluid to its density, known as kinematic viscosity (p), is also used in many flow problems:
" ,., /lJp

Viscosity is usually measured in centipoise:s (cpl, with 1 cp equal to 0.01 go' (em sec). or 6.72 x 10 4lbm/(ft sec). The most accurate method of determining viscosity is obviously to measure it for a given fluid under the desired conditions. This, however, is not generally possible, Some common methods for predicting gas viscosity are described briefly here.

Figure 3-13. Viscosity of paraffinic hydrocarbon' gases at1.0 atmosphere. (After Carr at aI., 1954; courtesy of SPE of A1ME.)

Carr et aI. Correlation for Natural Gascs


The Carr et al. (1954) correlation requires only the gas gravity (or the molecular weight) for determining viscosity. It is the most widely used method for determining the viscosity of natural gases. The correlations were presented in graphical form, as shown in Figures 3-13. 3-14, and 3-15. Figure 3-13 is used first to calculate the viscosity at one atmosphere pressure and any given temperature. Corrections for non-hydrocarbon components N 2 , CO 2 and HgS are provided. The effect of these components is to increase the viscosity. Then, Figure 3-14 or 3-15 can be used to correct for pressure. Figures 3-14 and 3-15 use the corresponding states principle to present " - f(p"T,).
Examplt: 39. Find the viscosity for the gas given in Example 3-1 at 2,000 psia and 200F.

! ,

Solution
From Example 3-1, M - 17.54, and the gravity 1"1 - 0.6055
Figure 3-1 4. Viscosity ratio versus pseudoreduced temperature. (After Carr et aI., 1954; courtesy of SPE of A1ME.)

Gas Production Engineering

Properties of Nalurol G08e$

75

From Figure 314, the pressure correction,

So, the gas viscosity at 2,000 psia and 200F,

" _ (1.25)(0.01293) - 0.0162

cp

1
~ ;

Viscosity from Single-Component Data

.
~ ,

If the analysis of a gas is known, it is possible to calcu1ate the viscosity of the gas mixture from the comIX'nent viscosities. First, the viscosity is determined at one atmosphere (or any "low" pressure) and the given temperature using the Herning and Zipperer (1936) mixing rule:

(3-51)

where

#lIp =

Yl" mole fraction of component i in the gas mixture pure component viscosity at 1 atmosphere pressure and the .. temperature of interest

Figure 3-15. Viscosity ratio versus pseudoreduced pressure. (After Carr al ai., 1954; courtesy of SPE of A1ME.)

From Example 3.2, at 2,000 psia and 2OQF,


p" -

3.010
1.848

T p,

From Figure 3-13,


J4111 -

The viscosity can be corrected to the desired pressure by using Carr et al.s reduced pressure and temperature correlations of Figures :J..14 and 3-15, or any of the several other such correlations available. Lohrenz et al. (1964) found the chart by Baron et a1. (1959) useful since it provides a good range of reduced pressure and temperature. The differences among these charts are, however very minor (Lohrenz et al., 1964). Figure 3-16 shows the pure component viscosities as a function of temperature for some common natural gas constituenl~. Single component viscosities at 1 atmosphere pressure, 14]110 may also be calculated using the following relationship developed by Stiel and Thodos (1961):
14]1t! - 34 X 1O -5T ,Il{U./t!t for Tri

0.0128 cp
14]et - 17.78

< 1.5 > 1.5

(3-52.) (3-52b)
(3-53)

The gas has 1.4 % N:/:, for which the correction factor (to be added) from Figure 3-13 is 0.00013 cpo Therefore, the corrected viscosity at 1 atmosphere,
14], -

1O -~(4.58Tri - 1.67)5!8/ tit for Tri

0.0128 + 0.00013 - 0.01293 cp

where

76

Gal Production Engineering

PropeTliQ of Natural Gases

77

Tn - reduced temperature for component i T c:t - critical temperature in K Pa - critical pressure in atmospheres M, - molecular weight Note that units of K for temperature and atmospheres for pressure must be used in Equation 3-53. Equations 3-52a and b are valid for pressures in the range of 0.2 to 5 atmospheres. The average error was reported by Stiei and Thodos (1961) to be 1.83% and 1.62%, respective1y, for Equations 3-52a

Exampk 310. Find the viscosity for a gas with composition, in mole%, of o C 1 ... 90.5, C 2 - 7.2, and C 3 - 2.3, at 3,000 psia and 540 R. Solution

Come

M,
16.043 30.070 44.097

JlL
667.8 707.8 616.3

Tn
343.1 549.8 665.7

-' 'M1'
4.0054
5.4836

BIL
0.0110 0.0092 0.0082

and b.
Lohrenz et a!. (1964) report that this method gives an average error of 4.03% for the gas mixtures tested by them.

C, C, C,

0.90S 0.072 0.023

6.6353

The J.lli\ values are from Figure 316.


M =

r:

YIM! - 17.697

Ppc = 1: YiPe! - 669.50

psia

T pc
So,

r:

YiTe; - 365.31 "R

p,. - 3,000/669.50 - 4.481


T" - 540/365.31 - 1.478 E YiM?:S,. 4.1723

1: I'lpYiMf"5 - 0.04476 cp
Therefore,
1'1,"

0.04476/4.1723 - 0.01073

From Figure 3-15. the pressure correction,

,,.

I~

200 TEMPERATURE, OF

.,
Thus,
.. - (1.95)(0.01073) - 0.0209 cp

Figure 3-16. Viscosity of some natural gas constituents allow pressure. (Aller Carr el at, 1954; courtesy of SPE 01 AIME.)

78

C(U Production Engineering

Proper/in oj Natural Casel

19

Lee et aI. Correlation For Natural Gases

x ~ 3.5 + 9861540 + (0.01)(17.697) Y = 2.4 - (0.2)(5.50290) - 1.29942

5.50290

Lee ct a1. (1966) provide an analytic expression for viscosity that can be
used for programming purposes:
p.~ -

Using Equation 3-54, the gas viscosity at 3,000 psia and 540"R is: (3-54) '" _ (0.011278)exp[(5.50290)(0.188l4''''''')J - 0.0211 cp

K exp(Xpk)

where K _ 10. 4 (9.4 + O.02M)TU 209 + 19M + T

Specific Heat For Hydrocarbon Gases One of the basic thermodynamic quantities is specific heat, defined as the amount of heat required to faise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance through unity. It is an intensi\'e property of a substance. It can be measured at constant pressure (cp), or at constant volume (c...), resulting in two distinct specific heat values. In terms of basic thermodynamic quantities, molal enthalpy (h) and molal internal energy (u), the specific heats. cp and c;. can be written as:

xy -

3.5 + 986/T + O.OIM

2.4 - 0.2X

and p.~ is in cpo p~ is in gicm1, T is in oR. Equation 354 reproduced experimental data with a maximum error of 8.99% (Lee et aI., 1966). The problem with this method is that it does not correct for impurities such as N 2 CO 2, and H 2S.

Example 311. Find the viscosity for the gas given in Example 310 at 3,000 psia and 54QoR using the Lee et a1. method.
and
Solutio" From Example 3-10, M - 17.697. Ppr:Z 4.481

(3-55)

(3-56)

where h is the molal enthalpy (Btullbmole), u is the molal internal energy


(BtuJlbmoie). c p is the molal specific heat at constant pressure (BtutlbrnoleOR), and c; is the molal specific heat at constant volume (Btullbmole.R). Using Maxwell's relationships, it can be shown that:

T pr

1.478

c P

C, _ -

From Figure 3-2, the compressibility factor,

T (aplaT)~ (op/ovh

(3-57)

Z - 0.78
From Equation 3-40, the gas density,

For an ideal gas, where pv - RT, Cp and c; are a function of temperature only. Furthermore, the right side of Equation 3-57 becomes equal to the gas constant R. Therefore, for an ideal gas:

P, - (3,000)(17.697)1(0.78)(10.732)(540) - 11.745Ibmlft' - (11.745)(1.601846)10-' _ 0.18814 glcm' r\ow.


K - 10 -'[9.4 + (0.02)(17.697)](540")1 [209 + (19)(17.697) + 540J - 0.011278

c,-c,-R

(3-58)

Note that the units for <;. and c.. are Btu/(lbmole OR) in Equation 3-58. So R must be expressed in the same units: R _ 10.732 (lbt ft")f(in. 2 Ibmole OR) x 144 in. 2/ft! x (11778.2) Btu/(lbf ft) _ 1.986 Btu/(lbmole OR)

80

Cas Product/on Engineering

Propertia oj Natural Gases

81

and for a temperature range of 0 to 6OOF: A _ 3.7771, B - - 0.0011050, C - 7.5281, D - 0.65621, E - 0.014609, F - 0.0 Thomas et al. (1970) report average errors of 1.01 % and 1.37 % for the temperature range 0_200 F and 0_600F, respectively, with Equation 3-59. The effective mixture specific heat at low pressure, ~, can be determined more precisely using Kay's rulE":

.ol--t--+-

(360)

where the cp; for some common constituents of natural gas can be obtained from Table 3-3, or the data by Thuloukian et al. (1970) shown in Figure 318.

0.06 006 010

02

0,4

0.6 0,8

..,

V V
/'

---

V
"

Figure 317. Generalized plot for the heat capacity difference, c p - c.... versus Ppr and Tpo' for real gases. (After Edmister, 1948; reprinted from Chemical Eng;neers' Handbook, 1973; courtesy of McGraw-Hili Book Co.)

..
"
" , ,. , :
i

.. ..
/'

..
"

For a real gas, c., and c.. are functions of both pressure as well as tempera. ture. A real gas equation of state can be used to determine the right side of Equation 3-57, and thus the difference between c., and c... Knowing either one of Cp or c.. the other can then be detennined. Figure 3-17 shows a gener-

,.,

V1
,

alized plot for the heat capacity difference, c., - c., versus p, and T,.
Cp

Determination

, ,

.. ..

The low-pressure isobaric heat capacity, cp, can be determined primarily by two methods: using the gas gravity, if the gas comp05ition is not known; and using a weighted molal average (Kay's rule), if the gas composition is known. Hankinson et al. (1969) give the following relationship for calculating ~ in Btu/ (lbmole oF), from the gas gravity, 1'g, at any temperature T (oF):
~ - A + BT + C'Y, + D'rl + E(T'YJ +

..'Vr)17

Ff2

(359)

where for a temperature range of 0 to 200F: A - 4.6435. B - - 0.0079997, C - 5.8425, D _ 1.1533, E _ 0.020603, F - 9.849(10 ')

.. .. :~~ , F' .. _ _ _ _ .- ~ .. .- ,- ,- ,,,"""..._ ..


~

A'~

r/

V
J.-

.. ..

Figure 3-1B. Heat capacity of gases at 1 atmosphere, C:' as a function of temperature. (After Touloukian et at, 1970; courtesy of lFl/Plenum.)

Table 3-3 Molal Heat c.pacrty (Ideal-Gas State) , Btuf(lb mOl-oR)


Chemical formula

0.,
wt 16.043 26.008 28.054 30.070 42.081 44.097 56.108 56.IOS 56.108 58. 124 58. 124 72.151 72.151 78.114 86.178 100.205 17.031

~ ~

Ga.
Methane Ethyne (AMylene) Ethene (Eth)lene) Ethane Propene (Propylene)
I'ropo~

OF

WF
8.42 10,22 10.02 12.17 14.69 16.88 19.59 18.04 2023 22.15 22.38 27.17 27.61 18.41 32.78

60*F
IU6 10.33 10,16 12.32 14,90 17,13

100F
IUl.5 10.71 10.72 12.U5 15.7.5 18.17 21 18 1!).5-t 21.61
23.!)S

1SO-F
8.9,5

200*F
II ,SS 12,09 14.63 17.85 20,89 24,26 22.53 24.37 27.59 '1:7,SS 33,87 33.99 24.16 40,45 46.94

250*F
9.64 11.90 12.76 15.49
18.88 22.25 25.73 24.Q1 25.73 29.39

300F
10.01 12.22 13,41 16.34 19.89

CII,
C, II. C,I I,
C~H~

823
9.68 9.33 11.44 13.63 15,65
17.96 16.54 111.84 20.40 20.80
24.94 25.64

II I;;
11 41 13.78 16.80 19.52 22.74. 21.04

"I<

"

."

C;H.
C~I!

23.56
'1:7,16 25.47 27.07 3 1 II 30.90 38.14 38.13 28.15 45.36 52.61

I-Butene (Butylene) rlf-2-Bulene fro"s.2-Bulene iw-Butane A-Butane L,o-Pentane A-Pentane Benzene nlieul'ie "-Heptane Ammonia Air .. Water Ol')'gen Nitrogen lI ydrogen Il ydrogen sulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon diol'ide

C,II, C,II. C,H. C,lI lo


C,HI~

H).91 111.34 20.'j(] 22.51 2272 27.61 28.02 18.78 33.30 38.61 8.52

"'.
"
~.

'"

2300
25,77

2.4.08
29.12 29.71 20.46 35.37 ,1.01 1i.52 6.00

25,81 31,60 31,116 2245 37,93 44.00 8.52 6.97 8.07

..........

C~HII

C,1I 1t

29.23 36.03 36.08


26.34 12.94 49JII

c.H. c.H"
Nlll

16.41 30,)7

G,1I 11

34.96
8.52

38.00
8.52

8.53
6.99 8,12 712

8.53
7,01 8,17 7,17 6.98 6,97 fj,46 7.01 9.81

28.964

H,o
0, N,
II,

11,5
CO CO,

18.015 31.999 28.013 2.016 34.076 28.010 44.010

6."' 7.98
6.97

6.95 8.00
6.99

6.95
8.01

7.00
6.95

'O:J

6.95
6.78

8.00 695 8.38

6.95 6.86 8.09 6.96


8.70

6.H7 8.11 6.96 8.76

703 6.96 6.01


8.111

UTi 6" 6.94


8.27

6.97
6.95

6.96 '00

6.97
9.29

8.36 699 956

8.53 7.03 8.23 723 7.00 6.98 855 703


10.05

Comley of Ca~ P,OCleI5OI"S Supp1i<:,.. As.,d.tlon Da~a !IOO1'Ce: Selfded ...1..... or p.operti... of hydrocarboru. "I'! Iler.earch "roJee! 44. F.'''''pt'n'lI' "AI.:' Kec.IMn ~"d K~, Thrr",odyno",J~ Propt"ftlr" of Ilk Wiley, 3rt! Prlntlnl( 194; MAmmon!.'- "d" R. Crab]. 'lhe-rmod)nomlc P"'p.rtle. of AmlllurI;. at "'!d' 11,mperlh""" and !'.... un ... IH. l'ro.-ns1"II.. April lOS;}
M Hrd...., Sulfide.
M

J, R \\est.

C~m.

nll:. I'rotl.reQ. 44,287. 19-1.'1

.
-/;;'''OJ

~ o""c;~ ~ It> :::.._. Q.. n ~ ~


.... .... 0
:I

o - "N.-'"
0.

(O!:

1i-:l

i 3
g.

iJQ~c~g-

~~i -:l

~I~

w-"<0 <0
o~
0-

."

~~Sg
_.3 -.

n
_

<r.I :l

if.J' _. - "8
(]>

.
-

3w~!i" 3'~.c e..(O~cg-' til &; 3 g ::I. c:lr;;c.~

~o-

,-._.
g!ll~

->w
9..m9.
Qii03

10>

-~ if Ii. '< ~
(i' jI!1 -;::
(\>

.l'l.C,' C, -C;. elll fig moIeW K I

ob

0
0

0. III

:::r'c",g'=;
::rf5..~ft:r r;;' 0'" (!)

"o.~ n3~

?r

5'

:e ... . "0

jijii~

o:ll~~

<p
::tI
~

'< .0

:;;g~..r
:l_"'o.~

Z_ 3 ._a o -

:I:W , _. (11 (/I

=0 !!' .. ~

:~"'.'Rk! -' 2,,,~ 0:~~


~~~ ,,::'\:~ ~ ~:"
0 ,-,,,,,\:

!t'0N~ ~~ o

po.

.I

go
0

.c:l .....
co. ....
:l

111 III

-. :I ~ o 1Il"C _

a~i=f3
~
0

e.. c
1;;'

--:

-<~a.CTIIl ,.... ;I> '< ....

2;-58;E. ~ ~
;:I

0'<..:::

... -no' c
~ n
.... III

~=.lf_.~
gO' I !:;'..r ..n. ... 0' c _.

e:t;.",~
n::T,< c 2 0-

n ~ - ...... n III It'ro


10>

11

III

- ... "'"o. ""


::I&;"()::Ic:

< c

it
...

-0

() ::i" ::: _0._ ~ :~~ ,,~~~~~ ~ -, ~ ><~" ~~~~~;:; ~ 3."

~iiia.

~~,,=.~
0

,! ~.-3
0

... ~ 8
!,CD~

"

-~
c
0 0

~
1

, ()" 0_

is..

;::: ::J

p ". -.., l\. 0


C:IIlCo.
.... til

E.[-l~ ::r 3 S -:l g :;-

c- 3 6Q' 5'

_.

...

Vi' :::.. ::; ~

.
.

~~;, 03~ . "'.8 0


.". ~ 0 [
."

r~ .:-l ~ ~ ~~~ ti
(i'

<is -0 r;'

. .0
g,

_~~".,

3~o

"

(i'-

.~

",.
",3 ,0

-<;

,,~' ~ "'~ ~ ~0 :::" =-~ J; \~ )...". '-" '0"~'> ~",,'--...... '9~ I~~ o '" ,-so ~ ~~'.' J." .<?
9

.'"

~~

;;

{
~

5
1:' i

,Jl-".Jf ... S

""

..
u

...

'I>.J

....
~

-<;.;l~

"

" ::I 0' ~ T -. .......


0

o ~

5
-

, *" : -. ~I
,
O~

I I

,,"~~" ,\'\,,'''1\ ~~ ,,:\ \ 1// /I ~,;

I 1

"
~
1:

ll

~!!t ," 0."

Go.! Production Engineering

Properties oj Nglurai Go.IQ

85

cumbersome method and is subject to limitations of non-hydrocarbon gas content of less than 7 %, a reduced temperature greater than 1.1, and a reduced pressure between 0.4 and 15.
Example 3-12. Find ~ for the gas given in Example 3-10 at 540 R using (1) gas gravity method of Hankinson et al.. and (2) the gas analysIS. Use the value for cp from the gas analysis method to find '1> and c at 3,(X)() psia and 540 0 R fOT this gas. '
0

From Figure 3-19, at Pvr - 4.481, and T pr tion,

1.478, the specific heat correc-

(c,

-~)

- 6.5

(80.33~F)

Therefore,

c, - 9.046 + 6.5 - 15.546 BtuI(lbmole OR)


from Figure 3-17,

Solution From Example 3-10, M - 17.69i


PI" ., 4.481

(c, - "') - 7.0


Therefore, c" .. 15.546 - 7.0 - 9.546 Btu{(lbmole OR).

T p,

""

1.478
,

The gas gravity,


'YK =

17.697128.97 '" 0.6109

From Equation 3-59,


~

- 4.6435 + ( - 0.(079997)(80.33) + (5.8425)(0.6109) + (l.l533)(0.6109') + (0.020603)(80.33)(0.6109) + (9.849)10"(80.33') - 9.075 Btul(lbmole OR)

2.

0;:.
Comp.

0;:.
oF) Btu/(lbmole oF)
8.503

JL
0.905 0.072 0.023

~
16.043 30.070 44.097

Btu/~lbm

C,
C, C,

0.530 0.425 0.425

12.780 18.741

!he CPI values in Btu/(lbm oF), obtained from Figure 3-18, are converted IOto Btu/(lbmole oF) by multiplying by the molecular weight, Mh in IbmJ lbmole. Thus,

cp -

I: y~ .. 9.046 BtuJ(lbmoJe oF) .. 9.046 Btu/Qbmole OR)

1b find cp and c.,:

1. A gas pipeline consists of a lO-mile long 12-in. ID pipe section in series with a 20-mile long section of 8-in. ID. How many Mscf of gas must be removed to blowdown this gas pipeline from an average pressure of 1,500 psia to an average pressure of 300 psia? Assume that at the prevailing temperature of 85F the gas has a compressibility factor of 0.95 at 1,500 psia, and 0.85 at 300 psia. 2. We have a sweet gas of known composition: N2 - 1%, C l - 89%, C 2 .. 5 %, and C 3 + - 5 %. Assume the C 3 fraction to be equivalent to n-C~. Find: (i) the gas gravity, and (ii) the pseudo-critical pressure and temperature for the gas. 3. For the gas in Problem 2, find the gas compressibility factor at 1,200 psia and 95F using all the applicable methods given in Chapter 3. 4. A sour gas is known to have the following composition: N2 - 8.5%, H 2S .. 5.4%, CO 2 ,,, 0.5%, C l .. 77.6%, G.! .. 5.8%, C 3 .. 2.0%, nC 4 .. 0.1 %, and j,C4 - 0.1 %. This gas is being sold at a contract pressure of 1,000 psia at 120F. What is the error introduced in the calculation of the sales volume by assuming Z .. 0.85? Use the best estimates of Z-factor from the available corre1ations. 5. For the gas given in Problem 2, find the viscosity and compressibility at 200 psia and BOF. 6. For the gas given in Problem 4, find the viscosity and compressibility at 800 psia and 65F.

QuesOOm .... Pmblems '"

Gas Production Engineering

Properties oj Natural Ca.rer

87

References Baron, }. D., Roof. J. C., and Wells. F. W . 1959. "Viscosity of Nitrogen. Methane. Ethane, and Propane at Elevated Temperature and Pressure," /. Chern. Eng. Data, 4(3, July), 283-288. Benedict. M . Webb, C. B., and Rubin, L. C .. 1940. "An Empirical Equation for Thermod}'namic Properties of Light Hydrocarbons and Their Mixtures," }. Chem. Phys., 8(4, Apr.), 334-345. Bro~Ol. C. C , Katz. D. L., Oberfell, C. B., and Alden. R. C .. 1948. NaWral Gawline and \'olatile Hydrocarbons. NCAA. Tulsa. OK. Buxton. T S. and Campbell. J M., 1967. "Compressibility Factors for Lean Natural Cas-Carbon Dioxide Mixtures at High Pressure," So('. Pet. Eng.

1.,7(1, M".), 80-8.


Campbell, J. M .. 1984. Cas Conditioning and Processing. \'QI. 1. Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, Oklahoma, 326pp. Carr, N. L., Kobayashi, R, and Burrows, D. B., 1954. "Viscosity of Ilydrocarbon Cases Under Pressure," Trans., AIME, 201. 264-272. Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 1973. R. H. Perry and C. H. Chilton (eds.), McCraw-Hili Book Co., New York, 5th edition. Coats, K, H., 1985. "Simulation of Cas Condensate Reservoir Performance," }. Pet. Tech., 37(10, OcL), 1870-1886. Dranchuk, P. M. and Abou-Kas.sem. J. H .. 1975. "Calculation of Z-Factors for Natural Cases Using Equations of State," J. Cdn. Pet. Tech . 14(3. July-Sept.), 34-36. Dranchuk, P. M., Purvis, R. A., and Robinson, D. B., 1974. "Computer Calculation of Natural Cas Compressibility Factors Using the Standing and Katz Correlation," Inst. oj Petr. Tech. Series, No. [P 74-008. Edmister, \V. C., 1948. Petrol. Rejiner (Nov.), p. 613. Cited reference on page 3-238 in: Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 5th ed., 1973, edited by R. H. Perry and C. H. Chilton, McCraw-Hili Book Co., New York. Edmister, W C., 1950. Petrol. Engr. (Dec,), p. C-16. Cited reference on page 3-237 in: Cllemical Engineers' lIandbook. 5th ed., 1973, edited by R H. Perry and C. H. Chilton, McCraw-Hili Book Co., New York. Edmister, W C. and Lee, B. I., 1984. Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics, Vol. 1. (2nd ed.) Gulf Pub!. Co., Houston, Texas, 233pp. Fussell, D. D. and Yanosik, J. L., 1978. "An Iterative Sequence for Phase Equilibria Calculations Incorporating the Redlich-Kwong Equation of State," Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 18(3, June), 173-182. Fussell, L. T., 1979. "A Tcchnique for Calculating Multiphase Equilibria," Soc. Pet. Eng. J .. 19(4, Aug.), 203-210. Cas Processors Suppliers Association, 1981. Engineering Data Book, 9th edt (5th revision), CPSA, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Copal. V. N., 1977. "Cas Z-Factor Equations Developed for Computer," O. and Cas J., 75(32, Aug. 8). 58-611. Hankinson, R. w., Thomas, L. K., and PhiUips, K. A., 1969. "Predict Nat ural Cas Properties," Hydr. Proc., 48(4, Apr.), 106-1OB. Herning, F. and Zipperer, L., 1936. "Calculation of the Viscosity of Technical Cas Mixtures from the Viscosity of Individual Gases," Gas U. WasserJach 79(49), 69. .. . Joffe, 1., Schroeder, C. M., and Zudkev.itch, D., 19!0. "Vapor.hqUld Eq~l libria with the Redlich-Kwong Equation of State, AIChE J., 16(3. May). 496-498. Lee, A. L., Conzalez, M. H., and Eakin, B. E., 1966. "The Viscosity of Natural Cases,"]' Pet. Tech., 18(8, Aug.), 997-1000. Lohrenz, J., Bray, B. C., and Clark, C. R., 1964. "Calculating Viscosities of Reservoir Fluids from Their Compositions," J. Pet. Tech., 16(10, Oct.), 1171-1176. Martin, J. J., 1979. "Cubic Equations of State-Which?" Ind. and Eng. Chen!. Fund., 18(2, May), 81-97. Mattar, L., Brar, C. S, and Aziz, K., 1975. -'Compressibility of Natural Cases," ]. Cdn. Pet. Tecll., 14(4, Oct.-Dec.), 77-80. McLeod, Wand Campbell, J. M., 1969. "Prediction of the Critical Temperature and Pressure, and Density of Natural Cas," Proc, 48th Ann. Com). NGPA (Nov.), Nat. Cas Process. Assn., Thlsa, Oklahoma. Peng, D. Y. and Robirson, D. 8., 1976. "A New 1\..o-Constanl Equation of .. State," Ind. and Eng. Chem. Fund. 15(1, Feb.), 59-64. Peng, D.- Y. and Robinson, O. B., 1976. "Two- and Three-Phase Equilibria Calculations for Systems Containing Water," Cdll. J. Chern. Eng., 54 (6, Dec.), 595-599. Pitzer, K. S., Lippman, D. Z., Curl, R. F., Jr.. Huggins, C. M., and Peterson, D. E., 1955. "The Volumetric and ThermodynamiC Properties of Fluids. II-Compressibility Factor, Vapor Pressure, and Entropy of Vaporization," J. Am. Cllem. Soc., 77(13, July 5).3433-3440. Redlich, O. and Kwong, J. N. S., 1949. "On the Thermodynamics of Solutions. V-An Equation of State. Fugacities of Caseous Solutions," Clu:m. Reviews 44, 233-244. Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M., and Sherwood, T K., 1977. The Properties oj Gases and Liquids. (3rd eeL), McCraw-Hill Book Co., Inc" New York, 688pp. Satter, A. and Campbell, J. M., 1963. "Non-Ideal Behavior of Cases and Their Mixtures," Soc. Pet. Eng.]., 3(4, Dec.}, 333-347. Soa\'e, C., 1972. "Equilibrium Constants from a Modified Redlich-Kwon~ Equation of Slate," Chem. Eng. Sci. 27(6, June). 1197-1203. Standing, M. B. and Katz, D. L., 1942. "Densit}' of Natural Cases," Tram. AlAtE, 146, 140-149.

os

Ga, Production Engineering

Ste\\-:~,

w. E., Burkhardt, S. F., and VOO, D., 1959 "Pred' . cntlcaJ Parameters for Mixtures" P . lchon of PseudoKansas City, MO. ' aper presented at the AIChE Meet. ,

Th~mas,

Nonpolar Cases at NorTakacs. C., 1976 "Co . M d r tions," O. and /.~i:(57.~.a~). ~_~~puter Z-Factor Calcula;:;;__ ~!5~COUstiC Velocities for Natural Cas," J. Pet.' Tech.',
L. K.,

Sti~;ULp~:~~,h~~hii'.,1~1: ~j,V~~r5~f
Gas

~ankinson. R. W., and Phillips. K. A. 1970 .. Det

22(7~r~~~;~

Gas and Liquid Separation

To~ou~a.n, Y. S.. Kirby. R. K., Taylor, R. E., and Lee T Y SpecifIC Heat-Nonmetallic liquids and Case;:" T~ 'h' ~., 1970. ~tll!3 oj Matter, IFIIPlenum , Nev.. York City 6' OP YSlCal PrapWichert E and Aziz K 1972 .. .' . Proc.,. . May), . " . CaIcuJahon of Z's for Sour Cases" H Yd r. 51(5, 119-122. Wilson, C. M., 1969. "A Modified Redlich-Kwon E . plication to General Physical Data Calculatio~s "q~atlOn of State, ApIntroduction Only rarely does a reservoir yield almost pure natural gas. Typically, a produced hydrocarbon stream is a complex mixture of several hydrocarbons. intimately mixed with water, in the liquid and gaseous states. Often, solids and other contaminants are also present. The produced stream may be unstable, with components undergoing rapid phase transitions as the stream is produced from a several hundred feet deep reservoir with a high temperature and pressure to surface conditions. It is important to remove any solids and contaminants, and to separate the produced stream into water, oil, and gas, which are handled and transported separately. Cas and liquid separation operations involve the separation and stabilization of these phases into saleable producU. Generally, intermediate hydrocarbons in the liquid state fetch a higher price; therefore, it is desirable to maximize liquid recovery. Field processing of natural gas includes:

Ya::~:;~ ~~ ~;~:l~~h National ~eet., Clevel~nd,ab~i~0~1!~~!;eZ+Factors'" 0 d G ' J' R., 1974. How to Solve Equation of State for Z dk . h' . an as., 72(7, Feb. 18),86-88. uu e;~c , ~'. a~d }~ffe, }., 1970. "Correlation and Prediction of Va r+ 16q(1 J EqUlhbna WIth the RedJich-Kwong Equation of State" A/ChI:; , an.), 112-119. ' .,

1. Gas and liquid separation operations to remove the free liquidscrude oil, hydrocarbon condensate, and water, and the entrained solids. 2. Recovery of condensable hydrocarbon vapors. Stage separation, or low temperature separation techniques are used. 3. Further cleaning of the gas and oil streams after separation. 4. Gas dehydration processing to remove from the gas condensable water vapor that may lead to the formation of hydrates under certain conditions (see Chapter 5). 5. Removal of contaminants or otherwise undesirable components, such as hydrogen sulfide and other corrosive sulfur compounds, and carbon dioxide (discussed in Chapter 6).
This chapter describes gas liquid separation and gas cleaning techniques. 89

90

Gas Production Engineering

CO$ and Liquid Separation

9'

Separation Equipment

Separators operate basically up:m the principle of pressure reduction to achieve separation of gas and liquid from an inlet stream. Further refine~ent ?,f the gas ,and liquid streams is induced by allowing the liquid to stand for a penod of time, so that any dissolved gas in the liquid can escape by the formation of smaU gas bubbles that rise to the liquid surface: a~d remo\;ng the entrained liquid mist from the gas by gravity settling, impmgt:mt:nt , ltntrifugaJ action. and other means. Turbulent flow allows gas bubbles to escape more rapidly than laminar flow, and many separators therefore have sections where turbulence is induced for this purpose. On the o~her hand, fOr the removal of liquid droplets from the gas by gravity setthng, turbulence is quite detrimental to removal efficiency. Thus, the design of a separator comprise<; different modules assembled to achieve different functi?ns in a single vessel. Equilibrium is attained in the piping and equipment JUst upstream of the separator, the separator il<;elf serving only as a "wide" spot in the line to refine the vapor and liquid streams resulting from this basic separation. To efficiently perform its separation functions, a well designed separator must (Campbell, 1984; Beggs. 1984):
1. Control and dissipate the energy of the wellstream as it enters the separator. and provide low enough gas and liquid velocities for proper gravity segregation and vapor-liquid equilibrium. For this purpose, a tangential inlet to impart centrifugal motion to the entering fluids is generally used. 2. Remove the bulk of the liquid from the gas in the primary separation section. It is desirable to quickly achieve good separation at this stage. 3. Have a large settling section. of sufficient \'olume to refine the primary separation by removing any entrained liquid from the gas, and handle any slugs of liquid (usually known as "liquid surges" ). 4. Minimize turbulence in the gas section of the separator to ensure proper settling. S. Have a mist extractor (or eliminator) near the gas outlet to capture and coalesce the smaller liquid particles that could not be removed by gravity settling. 6. Control the accumulation of froths and foams in the vessel. 7. Prevent re-entrainment of the separated gas and liquid. 8. Have proper control device; for controlling the back-pressure and the liquid level in the separator. 9. P~vi~e reliable equipment for ensuring safe and efficient operations. ThIS Includes pressure gauges, thermometers, devices for indicating

the liquid level, safety relief valves to prevent blowup in case the gas or liquid outlets arc plugged, and gas and liquid discharge ("dump'') "alves.

__________________

T~nx-~~o~f= SC~p=a~'~at~o~~~___________________

Separators can be categori7.eci into thf('(> hasic ty-pe;: certicoJ, hnriuUltal (single-tube or double-tube). and spherical. Selection of a particular type depends upon the application, and the economics. Ad"antages and disadvantages for these separator types are cited from Campbell (1955). Vertica1 Separators The wellstream enters the vertical separator (Figure 4-1) tangentially through an inlet diverter that causes an efficient primary separation by three simultaneous actions on the stream: gravity settling, centrifugatioll, and impingement of the inlet fluids against the separator shell in a thin film. The gas from the primary separation section flows upwards. while the liquid falls downward into the liquid accumulation section. A conical baffle is provided as a separation between the liquid accumulation section and the primary separation section to ensure an undisturbed liquid surface for proper liquid le\'el control and release of any dissolved gas. The smaller liquid droplets that are carried along by the upwards rising gas stream are removed in the centrifugal baffles near the top. Finallh a mist extractor at the gas outlet removes any entrained liquid droplets from the gas in the micron size range. The liquid particles coalesce and accumulate, until they become sufficiently heavy to fall into the liquid accumulation section.
Adl."antage3

A vertical separator can handle relativel), large liquid slugs without carryover into the gas outlet. It thus provides better surge control, and is often used on low to intermediate gas-oil ratio (COR) wells and wherever else large liquid slugs are expected. Vertical vessels can handle more sand. A false cone bottom can be easily fitted to handle sand production. Liquid level control is not as critical in a vertical separator. The tendency of the liquid to revaporize is also minimized, because less surface area is available to the liquid for evaporation. It occupies less floor space, a particularly important advantage for operations on an offshore platform where floor area is at a premium.

92

Gas Production Engineering

Ca. and Liquid Separation

93

HORlZONTAL LOW PRESSURE SEPARATORS

._._--_ ,-- ...... ,---... ....... -----_.- .... ....._._--.------,------.,----,,--'--._.......1 .. ' ... - 1 "-"" ... _ ... _ _ " -

-_.._----,-------,--,-----ST""'GAIIO ACCUSOIIIf.1

--

""

, 0., _ _ .. 10' _ _ ....... _

............ ~,

.......

0I"ll0N""'- "CCUI04IIU

Figure 41. A conventional vertical separator. (Courtesy of HTI-Superior, a Berry Industries Company.)

----~

,-_._-- -'--..-,---'--,---- . '-..---_ ,-- .. _---_ . ,---_ ._---_-..._,,_O<......... __ .. ,___.....


STAN DUD ACCUSOIIIES
~,

,
,

' .....1 .. ' ... - -

....

'0. ... _

Of'flONAI. ACC(.A(NUQ

Figure 4-2. A horizontal single-tube separator. (Courtesy of HTI-Superior, a Berry Industries Company.)

- __ -- ---~ ..... .

DiMulvantagn

Vertical \'~ are more expensi\'e to fabricate, and also more expensive to transport to location. A vertical separator for the same capacity is usually larger than a horizontal separator. since the upwards flowing gas in the ver. tical separator opposes the falling droplets of liquid.

Horizontal Separators These separators may be of a single-tube (Figure 42) or a double-tube (Figure 4-3) dt5ign. In the single-tube horizontal separator, the wellstream upon entering through the inlet, strikes an angle baf1e and then the separator shell, resulting in an efficient primary separation similar to the vertical

separator. The liquid drains into the liquid accumulation ~ion, via horizontaJ baf1es as shown in Figure 4-2. These baffles act as Sites for further release of any dissolved gas. Cas flows horizontally in a horizontaJ separator. It strikes baffles placed at an angle of 45 , thereby releasing entrained liquid by impingement. A mist extractor is usually provided near the gas out1et. In the double-tube type. the upper tube acts as the separator section, while the lower tube merely functions as a liquid accumulation section, Thus the double-tube separator is similar to a single-tube separator, but with ~ greater liquid capacity. The liquid generated in .the primary separation section near the inlet is immediately drained out mto the lower tube. The wet gas flows through the baffles in the upper separator tube at hig~er velocities. AdditionaJ liquid generated is drained into the lower section through the liquid drains provided aJong the length of the separator.

94

Cas Production Engineering


INL[f

Gas alld Liquid Scporatum

95

OIVERT(R

" .....
'M
I NlU

""""

Liquid level control is critical for horizontal separators, and the surge space is rather limited. They are much harder to clean. and are therefore not advisable to use where the well produces a lot of sand. They occupy a lot of space. The space requirements. however. can be minimized by stacking several of these on top of each other for stage separation operations.
Spherical Separators

Figure 4-3. A horizontal double-tube separator.

G"~k p ...",

2~G~"~W~';'"~===I(~~~V.'''
F'fe ....,. 0'011'0
O.. -"",.IiJlngPlpe
FluidtuU"..,I~IOf

The spherical separator is designed to make optimum use of all the known means of gas and liquid separation such as gravity, low velocity. centrifugal force, and surface contact (Craft et a!.. 1962). An inlet flow diverter spreads the entering wellstream tangentially against the separator wall. The liquid is split into two streams that come together after going halfway around the circular vessel wall and then fall into the liquid accumulation section. Liquid droplets from the gas are removed mostly by the velocity reduction imposed upon the gas inside the vessel. A mist extractor is used for the final removal of smaller liquid droplets in the gas (see Figure 4-4).
Adlxmtagf!ll

Spherical separators are very inexpensive, cheaper than either the vertical or the horizontal separators. They are \'ery compact, and offer better cleanout and bottom drain features than even the vertical type. Spherical separators are applicable to well streams with low to intermediate GOR's.
Disadmlltagn

Figure 4-4. A spherical low-pressure separator. (After Sivalls, 1977; courtesy of C. A. Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma.)
Adcolltaga

Liquid Ic,,'el control is critical to the spherical separator performance. They have very limited surge capacity and liquid settling section. Because of the limited internal space, it is difficult to use a spherical separator for threepha'iC (gas-oil-water) separation.

.H?rizo?tal separators have a much greater gas-liquid interface area, perImttmg .hlgher gas velocities. They can, therefore, handle large gas volumes eco~omlcally and efficiently. They are cheaper to fabricate and ship than vertical separators. They are also easier and cheaper to install and service. ~orizo~tal separators minimize turbulence and foaming. For a given capacIty, ?onzontal separators are smaller and cheaper than vertical separators. ~oTl.zontal separators are almost always used for high GOR wells, for foammg well streams, and for Uquid-Iiquid separation (SeW, 1984).

Separation Principles The several different techniques applied for separation processing can be broadly classified into two categories: mechanical separation and chemical separation techniques based upon thermodynamic vapor-liquid equilibrium principles. Mechanical separation includes several techniques that will be discussed later in the section on gas cleaning. In separators, the mechanical

96

GeM Production Engineeri'lg

CO.! and Liquid Separation

97

separation methods that are applied are of three types: centrifugal action, gra\"ity settling, and impingement.
Centrifuge Separation

where Cd - drag (or friction) coefFicient P.. - gas density v - droplet velocity 2. The force F., due to angular acceleration, given by:

Consider a centrifuge of radius R2 , height h, and inner shaft radius Rj, as shown in Figure 4-5. Feed enters at a volumetric rate q. As the centrifuge rotates at an angular speed w, the heavier liquid droplets are thrown outward to the centrifujOte walls as shown in Figure 4-5. The residence time t for the fluid in the centrifuge is given by:
t ... centrifuge volume/volumetric flow rate of

where PI ,. liquid density At equilibrium conditions, the sum of forces on the droplet must be equal to zero. Therefore, the two forces Fd and F., acting in opposite directions must be equal in magnitude. So:

nuid
(4-1)

- .(H! - Hf)h!q
GAS

v2 _ 4~P1W2R

F,

liquid film

FEED

al rOI. q

.,

.2~

1 J
h

3Cd P..

Therefore,

Figure 45. Forces acting on a particle in a gas stream in a centrifuge .

(4-2)
Separating the variables,

and integrating, we get:

2(Hj' - HI') - 2(d,p,)" wtl(3CdP~"


Solving for t:

In the analysis that follows, it is assumed for simplicity that the liquid droplets are spherical, with a uniform diameter d p The area A projected by a droplet is therefore equal to (T/4)~. As shown in Figure 4-5, there are two forces acting on any droplet at a radius R: Substituting for t from Equation 4-1 into 4-3: 1. The drag force, Fd , due to friction, given by:

(4-3)

.(HI - H!)h _ (HI' - HI ')(3C""J" q (dpPl)o:sW

98

Gas Production Engineerillg

CO! and Liquid Separation

99

Solving for the droplet diameter ~:

Solving for the droplet velocity, v:


(4-5)

d\;' _ (R!' - R!')(3C dPJ"q


.h(R! - Rl)pP

'w

dp

'" 3(R~ s - RP)2CdPfl2 72h2(R~ _ Rj)2PIW2

(4-4)

Equation 4-5 for the droplet velocity is often written as:


(4-6)

Equation 4-4 gives the size of the smallest droplet that can be removed b\ the centrifuge. Thus, to decrease the droplet size d p that can be removed, w~ have three options: decrease q, which is not quite feasible; increase the height. h. of the centrifuge; or increase the rotational speed, w, of the centrifuge. To achieve good separation in a centrifuge, it is therefore essential to have as large a centrifuge column as possible, and to operate the centrifuge at as high a speed as possible. In practice. centrifuge separation involves using several relatively small, standard-size cyclones in parallel. Centrifuges (or cyclones) perform best when the gas flows at a constant rate and pressure for which the equipment has been designed. At lower rates, separation is poorer, whereas higher rates lead to an excessive pressure drop through the centrifuge or cyclone. Properly operated, centrifuge separation can usually handle liquid droplets down to a size of about 2 microns.

This is known as the Souders-Brown equation. The constant K relates to the liquid droplet diameter and the drag coefficient, and is called the separation coefficient.

FEED 01 role

;>
I.

f'"
L

~ I

Figure 46. Forces acting on a particle in a gas stream in a gravity settling chamber.

The residence time for the droplet in a separation chamber of circular cross-section, with length L and diameter h, as shown in Figure 4-6. is given by, t - (.h'L)l4q
(4-7)

Cravity Settling Consider a liquid droplet of diameter d" suspended in a gas stream flowing at a rate q. The forces on the droplet are: 1. Force Fit due to
gravit)~

The velocity v at which the droplet falls in the vertical direction is given by:
v - dh/dt

given by: Upon integration. v _ hit assuming a constant \'

where g - acceleration due to gravity, and 2. Force Fd due to friction, given by:

Substituting for t from Equation 4-7 and rearranging, we get:


q _ (.hLl4) v

Substituting for v from Equation 4-5 into Equation 4-7b: At equilibrium, Fd - F,. Therefore:
(4-8)

100

Ca, ProdlJCtion Engfnurlng

Gas and Liquid Separation

101

Thus, to allow smaller droplets to settJe, we must maximize the height hand length L. Gravity settling can effectively remove liquid droplets of size greater than about 80 microns. For removing smaller particles, the required chamber size becomes too large for any practical application. Impingement
In the impingement process, gas with entrained liquid particles strikes a surface such as a baffle plate, or wire mesh. The gas flows around this flow obstruction. but the momentum of the liquid droplet tends to mOve it straight ahead and impinge and collect on the surface. In practice, the flow direction is altered several times to achieve better gas-liquid separation. The design parameters for an effective impingement surface are the distance across the flow path necessary to stop the liquid droplet, since this determines the size of the impingement surface needed to remove droplets up to a given size: and the pressure drop resulting from the flow of gas through the impingement medium. The impingement surface size can be determined using laws governing the low of particles suspended in a fluid, such as the terms derived in Equations 4-2 and 4-5 for the particle velocity in a centrifuge and a gravity settling chamber, respectively. The pressure drop caused by the impingement media is also of concern, because a greater pressure drop is synonymous, in engineering terms, to higher compression costs for the gas. Impingement techniques can handle liquid particles of size greater than about 5 microns.

actual flowing volume, and the allowable velocity through the separator. With increasing temperature, the separator capacity usually decreases, due to the effect of temperature on the flowing volume and gas and liquid densities. In actual oil-field practice, economics is the foremost concern. The idea is to maximize the income from a given wellstream. The type of separator chosen, the operating conditions, and the product mix (gas versus oil), all are subject to an economic analysis. In addition, the product sales specifications must be considered. For example. it is usually desirable to produce more liquid because it sells at a higher price in most cases; however, doing so may strip the gas of its intermediate components to an extent that it may not meet pipeline specifications for the energy (or Btu) content per unit volume. Controlling the Operating Conditions The two parameters that can be controlled are the pressure and temperature. For pressure, back-pressure valves are used. Limitations in separator operating pressure are imposed. by its obvious relationship to the wellhead pressure and the transmission line pressure. The wellhead pressure, in turn, relates to the flowing characteristics of the well, while the transmission line pressure requirements are usually fixed by its design. One of the goals, ~ sides vapor liquid separation considerations, is to minimize gas compression expenses. Temperature control is usually available to a certain extent. The wellstream flowing temperature is generally higher than the usual separator operating temperatures, and the wellstream therefore, has to be cooled to the desired temperature. The most widely used cooling method is the simultaneous pressure and temperature reduction by expansion of the wellstream through a choke (Joule-Thomson effect), although other cooling methods such as heat exchangers, cooling towers, and refrigeration, are also used. In the final analysis, it is really the economics that determines whether the wellstream should be cooled, the extent to which it should be cooled, and the cooling method applicable. Separator Design The design aspects encountered by a petroleum engineer only involve choosing the correct separator size for a given field installation. Separator sizing is essentially quoted in terms of the gas capacity, and the liquid capacity of the separator. Other parameters, such as pressure drop through the separator, are specified for a given design by the manufacturer and are beyond the scope of the present discussion.

Factors Affecting Separation

As is true for all vapor-liquid equilibrium processes, gas-liquid separation is affected by the separator operating pressure, temperature, and the composition of the fluid feed to the separator. From the general phase diagrams for naturally occurring hydrocarbon mixtures, such as those in Chapter 2, it is clear that as the pressure increases, or the temperature decreases, there will be greater liquid recovery, up to a point referred to as the optimum. Vapor-liquid equilibrium flash calculations will yield the optimum pressure and temperature quite easily. From a practical standpoint, however, it may not be possible to Operate at this optimum point because of the costs involved. operational problems, or enhanced storage system vapor losses. Generally, with increasing pressure, the gas capacity of the separator increases. The reasons are the effect pressure has on gas and liquid densities,

102

Cal Production Engineering

Ga., and Liquid Separation

103

Separator Design Using Basic Separation Principles

where A - cross-sectional area of the separator, f~ D _ internal diameter of the \'~ , ft Note that the gas velocity v. is based upon total separator area , and it is therefore more appropriate to refer to it as the superficial gas velocity. The gas capacity at standard conditions (14.7 psia and 60F) , qg,." gener~lly reported in units of MMscfd (million standard cubic feet per day), is thus given by: 2.40D'Kp(PI- pJ'.' Z(T + 460)p~S (4-10)

Cal Capacity
The Souders-Brown relationship (Equation 4-6) has been traditionally used for calculating the gas capacity of gas-liquid separators:

where vll

'"

allowable gas velocity at the operating conditions, fllsee


<lgsc ""

PI - liquid density at the operating conditions. Ibm/ft' PI - gas density at the operating conditions. Ibm/ftl

K - separation coefficient
The separation coefficient, K, is an empirical constant given as follows (Craft et a1., 1962; Sivalls, 1977):
Most commonly used K value

where <u:s<- - gas capacity at standard conditions, MMscfd p ,. operating pressure, psia T ... operating temperature. O F Z _ gas compressibility factor al the operating conditions Equation 4-9 or 4-10 can be used to calculate the separator diameter required to handle a given gas rate, or to calculate the gas rate that a separator of a given size can handle. The area of the mist extractor required, Am. can be obtained as follows:
(4-11)

Separator type
Vertical Horizontal

Range of K

0.06 to 0.35 0.40 to 0.50

0.117 without mist extractor 0.167 with a mist extractor 0.382 with a mist extractor

Spherical

0.35 with a mist extTaetoT

Besides calculating the diameter of the separator required for a given gas capacity, the Souders-Brown relationship can also be used for other designs

where v", is the gas velocity through the mist extractor, determined using Equation 4-6 with K _ 0.35 for mist extractor (wire mesh type). Liquid Capacity The liquid capacity of a separator depends upon the volume of the separator available to the liquid, and the retention time of the liquid within the separator (Sivalls, 1977):
W - 1440V LIt

such as bubble cap or trayed towers for dehydration and desulfurization units, and for sizing mist eliminators. The K values given by Sivalls (1977) for these are as follows:
Wire mesh mist eliminators Bubble cap trayed columns Valve tray columns K - 0.35 K "" 0.16 for 24 in. spacing. K ,. 0.18 for 24 in. spacing.

(4-12)

Using Equation 4-6, the gas capacity at operating conditions, CIg, in ftl/sec is given by:

q, - Av, - (./4)(D')K ((PI - pJ/P.I"

(4-9)

where W - liquid capacity, bbl/day V L - liquid settling volume. bbl t _ retention time, min (1440 is the conversion factor to convert bbllday into bbl/min) The liquid settling volume, V L , can be calculated as follows:

The gas capacity of spherical separators ill based upon the capacity of the mist extractor.

VL

0.1399D2h for vertical separators

""
VL
-

Cal Production Engineering

Cas arid Liquid Separation

105

O.1399i)2(U2) for horizontal si.ngle-tube separators

VI - O.1399IYL for horizontal double-tube separators VI. - O.04660l(D/2)O,S for spherical separatorswhere h - height of liquid column above the bottom of the liquid out1et in the vertical separator, ft L - separator length (height), ft

For good separation, a sufficient retention time, t. must be provided. From field experience. the following liquid retention times ha ....e been suggested by Sival1s (1977): Oil-gas separation High pressure oil-water-gas separation Low pressure oil-water-gas separation
1 min.

6 ft and standard horizontal separators of diameter less than 26 in. are available and have been used successfully. High-pressure separators are generally used for high-pressure, high gasliquid ratio (gas and gas condensate) wells. In this case, the gas capacity of the separator is usually the limiting factor. Low-pressure separators, used generally for low gas-liquid ratio at low pressures, are subject to the opposite constraint-they require a high liquid capacity. The separator chosen must satisfy both the gas as well as liquid capacities. Also, the liquid discharge (or dump) valve should be designed for the pressure drop available and the liquid flow rate (Sivalls. 1977). Note that as the gas-liquid ratio (C LR) increases, the retention time t decreases. The volume of the separator occupied by gas, V c, is given by:
Vc - V - VI.. - V - Wt

2 to 5 min. 5 to 10 min. at > lOOF


10 to 15 15 to 20 20 to 25 25 to 30 min. min. min. min. at at at at goOF BOoF 70F 60F

because VI.. - Wt by Equation 4-12. where V - total separator volume

vc

is also given by:

Vc =

cut -

W,CLRt

Some of the basic factors that must be considered in designing separators are (Lockhart et aI., 1986):

Therefore: W,CLRt,. V - Wt On rearranging:

1. The length to diameter ratio, LID, for a horizontal or vertical separator shou1d be kept between 3 and 8, due to considerations of fabrication costs, foundation costs, etc. 2. For a vertical separator, the vapor-liquid interface (at which the feed enters) shou1d be at least 2 ft from the bottom and 4 ft from the top of the vessel. This implies a minimum vertical separator height Qength) 016 ft. 3. For a horizontal separator, the feed enters just above the vapor-liquid interface that may be off-centered to adjust for a greater gas (or liquid) capacity as needed. The vapor-liquid interface, however, must be kept at least 10 in. from the bottom and 16 in. from the top of the vessel. This implies a minimum horizontal separator diameter of 26 in.
In practice, novel design techniques violate these rules of thumb by providing additional features. Therefore, standard vertical separators less than
Spherical separators are generally operated at half-full of liquid conditions; the relationship mentioned assumes this cue. Also, the \'olume is increased by a factor of (0,2)0$ because spherical separators have greatet rurge capacity due to their Ulape.

~ cW~(=Go-'LR~+~I)

Thus, for a fixed separator volume V and liquid capacity W, as CLR increases, retention time t decreases.
E:ram,lJe 4-1. A separator, to be operated at 1,000 psi a, is required to handle a wellstream with gas flow rate 7 MMscfd at a GLR - 40 bbllMMscf. Determine the separator size required, for: (1) a vertical separator, (2) a horizontal single-tube separator, and (3) spherical separator. Assume a liquid (oil + water) density of 52 Ibm/ft3, ideal gas with gravity ., 0.80, an operating temperature equal to 110 F', a retention time t - 3 min., and 112 full of liquid conditions.

106

Ca, Production Engineering

Cas and Liquid Separation

107

Solution

D - [0.466065/0.35?' - 1.15 ft The liquid capacity. VL


-

Cas density, P, - pM/ZRT - (lOOO)(2B.97)(0.8)/(I)(JO.73)(570) _ 3.789

IbmlCtl
From Equation 4- 10:

O.0466IY(D/2)O!l - 0.583
3_.5 ..

Therefore, D .. [(2'>~)(0.583)10.0466]1 pacity requirements.


~

2.27 ft based upon liquid ca-

D' _ q,.Z(T + 460)p1'


2.40Kp(p,

PJ"

(7)(1)(570)(3.789''') K(2.40)(IOOO)(52 - 3.789)"

So, a spherical separator of diameter 2.27 t ( .. 27 in.) is required.

Sepa rator Design Using Actual Separator Performance Charts The Souders-Brown relationship provides only an approximate approach. A better design can usually be made using actual manufacturers' field test data that account for the dependence of gas capacity on the separator height (for vertical) or length (for horizontal). Field experience shows this dependence that is not accounted for by the Souders-Brown equation. Figures 4-7 through 4-14 show the gas capacity charts for various separator types as a function of their si~ and operating pressures. For horizontal separators. a

- 0.466065 K
For a retention time t of 3 min., the liquid settling volume required for each

separator type is (Equation 4-12):

v, -

WtlI440 - (40)(7)(3)/1440 ~ 0.583 bbl

1. For a vertical separator with mist extractor, K - 0.167. Therefore, the diameter of the vertical separator required is:

D - [0.466065/0. 167? ,
The liquid capacity,
VL.t<

~ 1.67 ft (~

20 in.)

O.1399IJ2h '"' 0.583

Therefore. h - 0.583/[(0.1399)(1.67 2)] = 1.49 ft. Thus, the minimum separator length of 6 Ct should be used. The LID ratio .. 6/1.67 .. 3.6 So, a vertical separator of size 20 in. x 6 ft is required.

2. For a horizontal separator with mist extractor, K .. 0.382. Therefore. the diameter of the horiwntal separator required is:

0 .. [0.466065/0.382]03 .. 1.10 ft ( .. 13.20 in.). Thus, the minimum separator diameter of 26 in. ( ,., 2.17 (t) should be used.
The liquid capacity, VL .. 0.1399!)2(Ll2) .. 0.583 The,efore, L - (2)(0.583)/[(0.1399)(2.17~1 _ 1.77 ft. The LID ,,_ tio .. 1.77/2.17 - 0.816, which does not satisfy design criteria. For a minimum LID ratio .. 3, separator length required .. 3 X 2.17 .. 6.5
ft.

So, a horizontal separator of size 26 in. x 6.5 ft is required. 3. For a spherical separator with mist extractor, K .. 0.35. Therefore. the diameter of the spherical separator to handle the required gas capacity is:
Figure 4-7 . Gas capacity of vertical low-pressure separators. (After Sivalls, 19n; courtesy of C. R. Sivalls and the University 01 Oklahoma.)

lOS

G/U Production Engineering

Ga, and Liquid Separation

109

..

, ",
"

..,

,
~

,
,

, ",

~: .,
.,~~

-~.,~

1-~'

"

I
J

.,."

_ -............. .... ....


Figure 4-8. Gas capacity of vertical high-pressure separators. (After Sivans,
19n; courtesy of C. A. Sivalls and the University 01 Oklahoma.)

"
,
,.

V
1C1O ,.,.., _Il00100 lOCI ,/100
....

, ,
WI
$00 .. _ _ " ... _

Figure 49. Gas capacity 01 vertical high:pre~sure separators. (After Sivalls, 19n; courtesy 01 C. R. Sivalls and the UncverSlty 01 Oklahoma.)

"

correction has to be made for the extent of liquid (one-quarter fuji, onethird full, or one-halI full) in the liquid section as shown in Figure; 4-10 to
4-12.

Solution

The actual liquid settling volume, VL for standard separators can be determined from their specifications given in Tables 4-1-4-11. Figures 4-15 and 4-16 are the sizing charts for the liquid capacity of horizontal singletube separators, based upon a liquid retention time of I min. Corrections for retention times other than 1 min . are linear. and are shown in these charts. Such charts are useful because they take into account the worlcing pressure.

1. From Figure 48, a JOin. x 5-ft vertical separator is required. From Table 4.4, VI... _ 1.76 bbl, which is greater than the required VI... of 0.583 bbl. Hence, use a 30 in. x 5 t high. pressure vertical separator. 2. From Figure 4. 11, a 12 in. x 10 ft horizontal separator is required, assuming l J4 full liqUid conditions. Liquid capacity from Figure 415 is (380)(0.33) = 125.4 bblJday, wh~reas (7)(40) .. 280 bblJday liquid capacity is required. Choosing a size of 24 in. x 5 t from Figure 4-15, the liquid capacity is (720)(0.33) .. 237.6 bbl/day, which is still insufficient.
(Iext continued all page 114)

Example 42. Repeat Example 4-1, using actual manufacturers' field test data, and assuming II.. full of liquid conditions.

110

Gas Production Engineering

Ga.s alld Liquid Separation

11l

,,

-- I:;. -- VlA:"" .. , .. m , :;::"iI , .' . .


:"'-""1
II ....

...

lil ... "1 ...


, , ,

..

Figure 4-10 . Gas capacity of horizontal low-press ure separators (After Sivalls, 1977; cour tesy of C. R. Sivalls
and the University of

Fig u re 4-12. Gas capacity of horizon-

tal high-pressure separators. (After Sivalls, 1977; courtesy of C. R. Sivatts and the University of
Oklahoma.)

"

ott'. ~t

" C",1iI .

' IjAiI

Oklahoma.)

,"
'"

i ,I
J

.~

... ~

'j ,-

;::; :,i"!
,~: ;,

ill
~.
;.;
"

;;;;r::::
I

" ,

":: .... ' / I

I
XI U 1IO

" "

40 10 .. "'....,'00'''',.

---,.""-

/;

t'o

.
, ,

! J

"

II ,

Figure 4-13. Gas


capacity of spherical

.
,

Figure 4-11 . Gas capaCity of horizontal high-pressure

Ill:

low-pressure separators. (After Sivalls, 1977; courtesy of C. R. Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma.)

separators. (After
Sivalls, 1977; courtesy of C. R. SivaJls and the University of Oklahoma.)

i~
~
;~

>7
%

~
IfAII

~'-


"

, ,
" ,

p --~~
,,~

.
,

.,
i

:.: ~P' ~

I J

/'

'1---, , "
,

I J

, ,

---.... _-

/,

..

"

---.-

10 . . . . . . . . ,go

'"

'IO 100

:roo

112

Cos Productwl'I Engineering

Ga! and Liquid Separation

113

Figure 414. Gas


capacity of spherical high-pressure separators. (After Sivalis,

--'

Figure 4-16. liquid capacity of horizontal single-tube

19n; courtesy of C. R. Sivails and the University of Oklahoma.)

;j;
,~

high-pressure separators. (After

.'

1-.I"
1

, " i 'j I , , ,

i:
</ ,
j
I

.~ .~

!
I

Sivalis, 1977; courtesy of C. A. Sivans and the University of Oklahoma.)

~f~ !

,
,

'j

,,~

,L-f;-H.-;!;;--'!;--.k-~----,h-b-h-!W *"'
, I. 100 . . _ .... _ _ ' .... 'OIII

"""--J .... T,'-

"""

11 ....

,'0

;,

Figure 4-15. liquid capacity of hor-

izontal single-tube high-pressure separators (After


Sival1s, 1977; courtesy of C. A. Sivalts and Ihe University of Oklahoma.)
u

--. " ,,' >. .


,_wi"
"

--,._-Table 4-1 Specifications 01 Standard Vertical Low-pressure Separators"

roo>.

~,

.> .....
>,
'

......
',If.!.

.,.

.......

~I.l

:::1 ::q -

Working Pressure,

I-I

p.'

Inlet and GIS Outlet Conn . 2" Thd 2" Thd 3" Thd 4" Thd 4" Thd 4" Thd

011 Outlet

Standard Valves 011 or 011 and WIIter GIS 2" ,>

Conn.
2" Thd 2" Thd
3" Thd 2" Thd 3" Thd
4' Thd 4" Thd

Shipping Weight, I.

24'

x 5' 24" X i1l2' 30" x 10' 36" x S'


36" X 7112' 36" x 10'

'25 '25 '25 '25 '25

,>

'" '" '"

IlSO

2" 2"

2000 2000
2350

"'"

12'
'25 '25 '25 '25

48" x 10' 4S" xiS' 60" x 10'

6" F1g 6" F1g 6" F1g


6" F1g 6" F1g

'" '"

60" )( IS' 60" x 20'


After S" .11 urn.

'25

4" Thd 4" Thd 4" Thd 4" Thd

'" ," ,"


2"

3"

'" '" ," ,"


2" 3" 3"

2700 3400 ,,00 '200 6400 7600

114

Qu Production Engineering

Gas ond Liquid Seporation


Table 4 3 specifications of Standard Vertical High Pressure Separators '
Working Pressure, psi" Inlet and Gas Outlet Connection Standard Liquid Vel ve
I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I'

115

Table 4"2 Sen llng Volumes of Standard Vertical Low"pressure Separators " (125 psi WP)
Size, Dia x Ht
Z4"~5'

Sen Ung Volume, bbl Oil-Ges Septlrlltors OU-Gas-Water Septlralors "'

Siza, Dis x HI 16- x 5 16- x 7111' 16- x 10'

Shipping Weight, I.

0.65
l.01

24-x7 1f1 30" x 10'


36" "
;j'

110
1.82 3.75

1000

2.116

2- Thd 2' Thd ~. Thd

un
2.4) 304 5.6i

36" X ,112'

36" x 10' 48" x 10' 48- x 15' 60- x 10' 60- xiS'

5.48

".

'63

7.&6 9.23
12.65 15.51

00" x 20

Mt~,

10.06 14.44 16.OB 12,93 18.64

20- x 5' 2O-x7 112' 20- x 10' 24"x5' 24- x 71/z' 24- x 10' 3O"xS'
30')(
711~'

1000

1000

3 F1, 3- FIg 3- FIg 3- FIg


3- FIg 3- FIg

1000

4' FIg 4 - JollZ


4" FIg

1.100 1.200 1,500 1.1lOO 1.000 ',200 2,500 2.850 3.300 3,200 3.650
4,200

Si<ilh. 1977 ,- Thtal ... ttling 'vlume b usually split ~"cn bet" ... n oil and

".tt.

(text continued from page 1(9)

ChOOSing the next available size of 20 in. x 10 ft from Figure 4-15, the liquid capacity is (980)(0,33) - 323.4 bbllday, which is sufficient. The same result could alternatively be obtained from Table 4-8, where the smallest horizontal separator size with a VI. greater than 0.583 is 20 in. x 10 ft for a 1/4 full of liquid condition. Hence, use a 20 in. x 10 ft high-pressure horizontal separator. 3, From Figure 4-14, a 30 in, diameter spherical separator is required. Liquid settling volume, VL from Table 4-11 is only 0.30 bbl, whereas 0.583 bbl is required. From Table 4-11, the smallest spherical separator with a VI. greater than 0.583 is of diameter 42 in. Hence, use a 42 in. diameter high-pressure spherical separator.

30' x 10' 36' x i112' 36' x 10 36" x 15' 42- x 7112' 42- x 10' 42" x IS' 4S- X i112' 4S" x 10' 48" xiS' 54' X 71/2' 54" x 10' 54-x 15' 00- x 7112' 00- x 10' 50" xiS' 00" x 20'

1000

4" FIg

4" FIg 4" FIg


1000
66" 6' 6" 6" 6" FIg
FlI;(

1000

FIg FIg FIg FIg

1000

1000

6" FIg 6- FIg 6" FIg 6" FIg 6" FlI;( 6' FIg 6' ~1g

" " " " " "


2' 2' 2'

After SI,.lb. 19TI. ., O~r st_nda,d "orl::ing pn'\.>U .... i"IU_ble a", 230. 500. 600. lroo. 1440. 1.500. and 2000 psi

" " "

2'

5.400 6.400 8.700 i,700 9.100 12.000 10,400 12.400 16,400 12.300 14,900 20.400 li.5OO 00,500 26,500 32,500

enable accurate metering of the proouced hydrocarbons, constitutes the last separation stage. Therefore, as shown in Figure 4- 17, a two-stage se~a ration includes one separator and one stock tank, a three stage separation means two separators and one stocktank, and so on. Stage Separation \Vhen two or more equilibrium separation stages are used in series, the process is termed stage separation." The storage tank, also called stock tank because it is generally kept at standard conditions (14.7 psia and 6(PF) to
This III not always true. The prftSUre csn be controlled, but the storage tank temperaturf' is subject largel)' to the preo.ailing atmospheric temperaturf'. and It is too expe~,'e to hn-t or 0001 the contents of the tank to OO"F. Modern digital metering devices can easll)' correct for tempera ture or pres!iure.

116

Gas Production Engineering

Cos ond Liquid Sep6rotio n

117

. .. -

.~

1'0("

...- ...." ,... , ........

TWO

STAGE

S'P"RATION

'='

differential liberation is approximated quite closely by using a few separation stages (two, three, or four). The latter process, where the pressure is reduced in very large steps. is termed "flash liberation." Flash vaporization also differs from differential vaporization in another respect: in differential vaporization, the \'apor is removed as it is formed , but in flash vaporization, the liquid and vapor are kept in intimate contact until equilibrium is achieved . For this reason, flash vaporization is also termed "equilibrium vaporization" or '-nash equilibrium vaporization," whereas differential vaporization is called "diHerentialliberation."
Table 44 Settling Volumes of Standard Vertical High-pressure Separators' (230 to 2,000 psi wP)
Size, Die x HI 16"x5' IS" x 7 1 /2' IS" x 10 ' 20" x S' 20' x 7 1 /!' 20' x 10' 24 'x5' 24' X 71/8' 24 ' x 10 ' 30' x 5' 30" x 71/2' 30" x 10 ' 36" x 71/1' 36" x 10' 36' xiS' 42" x il!l' 42" x 10 ' 42 ' xiS' 48" x 71/2' 48'x 10' 48" x 15 ' 54' x illt' 54' x 10 ' 54" x IS ' 50' )( 711t' 50" x 10' 60" x 15' 60" x 20'
, "

We"

.......

-00.,

..",... -

THREE STAGE SEPARATION

Senling Volume, bbl t Oil-Gel-Water Separalors tl Oil-Ges Separators 0.27 004\ 0.51 O.H 0.65 0.82 0.66 0.97 1.21 1.13
1.64

,.

....
~

Uoac _ .....

."

fOUR- STAGE SU'ARATIOH

0.44 0.72 0 .... 0.71 1.15 1.48 1.05


1.68

-,,-- ._.
'"

l.. -

~
ALTERNATIVE ARRAM""!NT

~.-

n_.,

"on

."

_r_""

FOR THRfE-STAGE

S' ..... IU.TlOM

2.02 2.47 3.02 4.13 3.53 4.29


5.80

2,15 l.7S 2.78 3.54 4.13

52'
i.45
5.SO

=
~gn~

4.81
5.80

Figure 4-17. Schematic diagrams for stage separation.

Readers who have a background in phase behavior will immediately recthat liquid recovery is enhanced on using a greater number of equihbnum stages for separation. This same principle is employed in designing columns 'With mu1tiple equilibrium trays for separation purposes (Chapter 5). The ideal separation process is one in which the pressure is reduced infinitesimally at each stage. requiring an infinite number of stages. Such a process, termed "differentiailiberation," would maximize the IJquid recovery and yield a more stable stock tank liquid. In practice, this is not feasibl e and

7,79 633 ;.60 10.12 8.08 9.63 12,73 15.31

i.32 10.36 7.79 9.i8 13.76 10,12 12.65 17.70 12.73 15.83 22.03 27.20

Arm Si IIs, 1m St.nd..d ... orking p""""'_ ".il.bI" .., 230. 1iOO. IIXlO. 1200. 1440. 15OO nd 2000 psi. 8 ....,.;1 on lIXlO psi WP Rp'T~tO" Tot.l ~tlinl ""lume b u.u.Uy ,plit ,....,0 "","wCCT! oil and .... t~r,

118

Gas Prodl.K'tion Engineering

Cru and Liquid Separation


Table 4-6

119

Settling Volumes of Standard Horizontal Low-pressure Separators(125 psi WP)


SetHing Volume, bbI

Size,

~
~

: >

"
~~
=~ o c

e.

........................

. . . . . . . . ..,M"':... ...

Ole )( Length

lh Fun
1.55

,,, Futl

'/4 Full

24' x 5'

24' x 71lt' 24' x 10 '


31)")(5'

'.22 '.89
2.48

0.89 12S I.Si


1.43

1!
~

30" X 11/1'

3{)'x 10 '

is

........................... ..,MM!,.

. .. . . . .. .. . .

36' x 10' 36" x iS' 48" x 10'


48" x IS" 60" x 10'

354 4.59 6.71 9.76


12.24 17.72 19.50 28.06 36.63

'Q.I

2.66 3.88 5.66


7.07 10.26

1l2-l
16.23

0.59 0.86 I 12 0 .. 1.36 1.77 2.59 3.79 4.71 6.85 7.47


10.82 14.16

6O'x IS' 60' x 20'


After S;,-.Us, \977

21.21

1:I.!!O

-e8

c.

., _ c

_ 0

c_c
c;;

Two-stage separation is desirable for wellstreams with low gas-oil ratios such as low-API gravity oils, and low flowing pressures. Three-stage separation is most applicable to wellstreams with intermediate to high gas-oil ratios (intermediate-API gravity oils), and intermediate flowing pI"e$ures. Four-stage separation is used for high gas-oil ratio (high-API gravity) wellstreams, and high flowing pI"e$ures. Four-stage separation is also used where high-pressure gas is needed. From an et.'Onomic standpoint, a threestage separation is usually optimum for most oil-field operations. Sivalls (1977) reports that the actual increase in liquid recovery for three-stage separation over two-stage will vary from 2 to 12 %, depending upon the wellstream composition, and the operating pressures and temperatures. However, additional recover ies as high as 20 to 25 % have been reported for some cases. For the complex mixture of hydrocarbons produced from an oil well , precise stage separation calculations are very difficult and require the use of a computer. For practical purposes. it is quite satisfactory to use other shortcut methods and correlations that yield acceptable results. The simplest of these methods assumes an equal pressure ratio between the stages for optimum performance (Campbell, 1984):
r _ (PllpJl
D

ill Ii i:Hl:!Hl Ii ill ::Hl Ii i!Hi

--------_ ._ ---

(4-13)

where

r _ pressure ratio n _ number of stages ( text contilllJed Oil 1)age 123)

120

Gas Production Engineering


Table 4-7 Specifications of Standard Horizontal High-pressure Separators'
Worttlng

GaJ and Liquid SqxJr(Jtion

121

Table 4-8
Settling Volumes of Standard Horizontal High-pressure Separators' (230 to 2,000 psi WP**)
Size Ois :lt Len Settling Volume, bbl t

SIu, OI.:It Ht
12:l!~' :It

Preu.ure,

....
,
1000

Inlet and

GIl. Outlet Connection


2- Thd 2' Thd Z" Thd 2" 2 2" 3Thd Thd Thd F1g

Standard Liquid Val ve

Shlppll"lg

Weight, I.

lh Full

113 Full
0.22 0.32 0.42

11. Full
0. 15 0.21 0.28 0.24 0.34
0.44

1)

12114 ":It 71/1

12lI,- )( 10'

16" x 5 16 " x 7 llt"


16"
20:It

1000

10

I' I' I' I. I' I'

1.100
1.200 1.300 1.400

12lf," x 5'

12.- :It 7 1231, - x 10'


16" :It 5 16-:It 7 l l!' 16" x 10 2O" x 5' 20" x 7 112' 20" x 10' 24 x 5 24")( 71!2' 24" x 10' 24" xiS' 30" x 5 3O"x71!2' 30" x 10' 30" x 15' 36" x 7)!2' 36" x 10' 36" x i S' 36" x 20' 42" x 71It' 42" x 10' 42" x IS' 42"x20' 4S" x 71/t' 48" x 10 ' 48" x IS 48")( 20'
54" X 7112'

L,Iz'

1.i50
2,100 1.800

0.38 055 0,72 0.61 088

0.3.5
0.50 0.66 0.55 0.79

2O"xS'

1000

x 7112' 20" x 10 24" x 5" 24' x j llt'


24"xl0 24"x 15 30" x 5' 30" x ill~' 30" x 10 ' 30" x 15 36" x 71/2' 36" x 10' 36" xiS' 36" x 2(} ' 42' x illt' 42"x 10' 42" xiS' 42" x 20 '
48"x71I2'

3" F1g

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

48' x 10' 4S" xiS' 48" x 20' 54' x 71.12' 54"x 10' 54" x 15 54" " 2(}' 50" x 71/2' 00' x 10' 60" x IS' 50" x 20'

1000

1000

3" F1g ... F1g 4' F1g 4" Fig 4" Fig .. " F1g .. " F1g .. " Fig .. " F1g 6" F1g 6" F1g 6" Fig 6" F1g 6" F1g 6" Fig 6" Fig 6" Fig 8" Fig S" Fig S" Fig S" Fig S' FIg S" FIg S' F1g S' f1g S' J.1g

,. ,. ,.
2' 2' 2' 2'

I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I'

0.98

"'

2.300
2.900 2,200 3.000 3.8110 5,400 3.200

,..
145

I.'" 1811

IOJ
0.83

lIB
1.52 2.21 1.39 1.96 2.52 3.65 2.8i 3.68 5.30 6.92 3." 5.119 7.30 9.51 5.32 6.n 9.67 12.57 6.87 8.7 1 12,40 16.08 860 10.86 15.38 19.90
230. 500.600. 1000.
I~.

'.63
3.S1 2.43 3.40 4.3i 6.30 4.99 6.38 9. Ii 11.96 6.93 8.83 12.62 16.4 1 9.28 II 77 16.74 21 il ]2.02 15.17 12.49 27.S1 15.05 18.93 26.68 34.44
a~

4.3110
5.500

,. ,. ,. ,. ,.
2'

,. ,. ,.

S' .1g
S" FIg S" F1g

,. ,. ,.
2' 2'

7,800 6,100 7.500 10,200 12.000 8.200 9.900 13.400 16.900 10.900 12.700 17.500 22,100 13,400 16.000 21.200 26.400 16.700 19.900 26,400 32,900

0.38 0.54 O.iO 0.55 0.i8 0.01 1.47 0.91 1.29 1.67 2.42 1.90 2.45 3.54

4.63
2.6 1 3.35 4.83 6.32 3.51 4.49 6.43

'.38
4.49 5.73 S.2O 10.68 5.66 7.17 10.21 13.24

54 " x 10' 54'x 15' 54"x20' 60" x 7112' 60' x 10' 00' x 15' 00"x2O'

, AIter S"IIIs. 1977. Other st.ndard ""<>ficin!! praru<a .,.iI.hIt- Ire m. 500. 600. 1200. 1440. 1500 . nd 2000 psi

After Sh.IIs, 1977. StAn<brd worl<inll; pn:ssUmI .".iI.bk , Ba....J on 1000 p5i WI' ~r.tor

14-40. 15OO.nd 2000 pIoi

12l!

Gal and Liquid Separation Table 49 Specifications of Standard Spherical Separators


Wor1ling

123

(text continued from page 119)


Shipping

Inlet and

Standard

P,esaure,
Diamtlt.r

". ".

p.'

Gas Outlet Connection


4" Thd 4' Thd 4" Thd

liquid
Valve

"'. ,..
24-

". ".
30
42'

54-

'"
!!SO
IIX)!)'

,.
2" 2

Weight, I. 1000 1300

PI - pressure at the first (or high.stage) separator p. _ pressure at the stock tank Thus, P2 .. p,r"-l, P3 - P1 r"-2, and in general, the pressure p, for separator stage i is given by:
Pi '" p,r"-i-tl
(4-14)

3 ,.

, >1,

3" F1g

1700 1100
14lX.

6' 2' Flg 2" f1g


3' F1g

"'1/:

2'
]

3400
]300

].

". 00

". F1g
4 - F1g
6' F1g

,. ,. ,.
].
2O(X).

1400 ]BOO

2800
3700

,100
Kilt! 3000 p<i.

Aher Sin]"_ 1!)7i ,- Othl:r ,tand.rd "",k"'l!: prrsm ..... \ail.hl~ K.... SOO.IlOO. 1200. 1440.

Note that Equations 413 and 414 bear no relationship with the magnitude of separation (Le, the Iiquid,vapor ratio). Whinery and Campbell (1958) studied three-stage separation for ~"eral different t)'pes of wellstreams. Figure 418 from their work shows the rela tionship between the pressure at the second stage and stock tank liquid recover)'. From an empirical analysis of these results, Whinery and Campbell (1958) derived simple relationships to calculate the optimum pressure in the second stage for a threestage separation. They found that two cases can be specified: 1. For streams with specific gravity> 1.0 (air .. l.0):
p, _ ApI""" + (A - 0.057)10.0233 (4-15)

Table 410 Settling Volumes of Standard Spherical Low-pressure Separators' (125 psi WP)
Size,
Settling Volume,

. ~ ,

00

001
O.ii 1.02

J7,

<C',

100

Table 411 Settling Volumes of Standard Spherical High-pressure Separators' (230 to 3,000 psi WP)"
Size,

.
,

,.

I1i ') ~.,

~,"

- ~~
"-

.. "'

"--...

Settling Volume,

'--ow

00

P
0.15 0.30 054

~,' ,~"

,UGE

~USl""l."'"

0.'"

133
221)
Arkr SinU. 1977. ,- Standard ",o.-kinJj: I',,*UmI .v.H.bl~ Ire 230 .500.000.1000, 1200, lHO. 1.500. 2000. and 3000 psl Sued on 1000 pM WI' ..."..rator

DIU"'"

SECOND Sl.G[ '''USUIII[, 'SI.

..

~_

...

Figure 4.18. Relationship between secondstage pressure (psia) and stocktank recovery (gaI/MMscf). (After Whinery and Campbell, 1958; courtesy of SPE of A1ME.)

Co! Production Engineering

Gos and Liquid Separation

125

2. For streams with specific gravity < 1.0 (air .. 1.0):

Solution

p, - ApI '" + (A + 0.028)10.012


where PI, P2 ... pre!mJl"eS in the first and second stages, respectively (the third stage is assumed to be the stock tank at standard conditions of 14 ; psia and 6(}0 F) A - a function of the stock tank pres..~ure and the system composition Whiner)' and Campbell found that composition could be expressed in terms of the specific gravity of the feed and the mole% of C I + C2 + Ca components in it, asshown in Figure 4-19. Example 4-3 illustrates the calculation procedure.
Example 43. For a wellstream haVing a composition shown as follows, find the optimum second-stage pressure for a three-stage separation, if PI ,., 800 psia. Use the \Vhinery-CampbeU method, and compare the result with the equal pressure ratio assumption.

Comp o

Mol. fr. ,
0.35 0.25 0.15 0.10 0.08 0.04 0.03

)'1

Mol. wt., M,
16.043 30.070 44.09; 58.124

C,
C~

C, C,
C~

;2.151
86.178 128.259

c,.
r:

C,

(C,)
YiM , ... 38.626

Therefore. the specific gravity with respect to air Mole% C I + C 2 + C 3 From Figure 4.19, A
:z

38.626128.9; - 1. 33

0.35 + 0.25 + 0.15 - 0.;5

0.43

~
z 2 z ~

Tn
I //
I

Using Equation 4-15 for wellstream gravity> 1.


MOL" C I + Cz + C)

s
:1:1

? 7

019

p, _ (0.43)(800""") + (0 .43 - 0.057)/0.0233 - 58.18 p'ia. The EqtMd Pr~re Ratio Cmw. Using Equation 413. the pressure ratio with n - 3 - 1 = 2 is r - (800;)4.7)12 = 7.3;7 From Equation 414 , P2 ,. (14 .7)(7.3772 " 2. I) - 108.44 psia.

.
,

I
I

" ' z " z 8 '

I", r. J~ rr.l I 1/ I 'Til I I'~ "


I

../ It ,4 I ~~ ItJ. l " III / ,/


,.

This example illustrates that the equal pressure ratio assumption is far from precise. Even the Whinery-Campbell method is only an approximation. Wherever possible, flash calculations using equations of state must be carried out for determining the amounts of vapor and liquid that will be reco\'ered, and the composition of these vapor and liquid streams from the separators. Figure 419, Relationship between A and pseudo-specific gravity 01 leed (T .. 80F) . (Aller Whinery and Campbell, 1958; courtesy of SPE of AIME .)

Low Temperature Separation Low-temperature separation (LTX) units are based upon the principle that lowering the operating temperature of a separator increases the liquid recovery. Besides recovering more liquid from the gas than a normal. tem-

.,

,.,

,.

PSU[OD -S PECIFiC GRAVITT or rEED, DIMENSIONLESS

126

Ga! Prodllctian Engilleeririg

Gas and Liquid Separation

127

perature .separator, LTX units have another advantage: they are able to dehydrate the gas. frequently to pipeline specifications. A low.temperature separation unit comiists of a high-pressure separator. one or mOre Pressure-reducing chokes. and heat e:tchange equipment. When the high-pressure wellstream is expanded by pressure reduction through a choke. the temperature is also reduced. This irre\'ersible adiabatic (no e..~change of heat with surroundings) simuJtaneous pressure and temperature reduction process is called the Joule-Thomson Or throttling effect. The heat content of the g:as remains the ~ame across the choke. hut it.;; temperature and pressure are reduced, The choke is mounted directly at the inlet of the high-pressure separator, so that any hydrates formed downstream of the choke fall into the bottom settling section of the LTX unit. where they are heated and melted by the heating coils provided. The wellstream enters the separator at a low temper_ ature and pressure. and a better separation results. A rorrelation by the Cas Proces.soI'\ Suppliers Association (CPSA) to determine the temperature drop through the choke for a briven pressure drop is shown in Figure 4-20. E:tampie 4-4 illustrates the procedure for using this correlation. that its pressure i~ reduced by 2,000 psi. What is the temperature drop if the initial pressure is: (1) 4.000 psia, and (2) 2.500 psia~ (3) What is the final temperature if the gas is initially at 4.000 psia and 150F and the pressure is reduced to 200 psia.
Examl)/e 4-4. AD. 7 gravity gas, at 150F is expanded through a choke. so

~
~

.!
! ,

J ,


, ,
l

, ,

"

"

. ..
,

..

..

,,,,,
. . fIP

"

Salution
1. From Figure 4-20, for an initial pressure _ 4,000 psia and a pressure drop - 2.000 psia, the temperature drop _ 380F. 2. From Figure 4-20, for an initial pressure _ 2,500 psia and a pressure drop - 2,000 psia, the tempel'ature drop _ 86.SoF. 3. From Figure 4-20, for an initial pressure _ 4,000 psia and a pressure drop - 4,000 - 200 - 3,800 psia, the temperature drop" 1320F. Therefore, the final temperature _ 150 - 132 _ 180F. Example 4-4 iJlustrates that the cooling process is more effective for gases at high pressures, where a large pressure drop can be provided to the gas in an LTX unit. As a rule of thumb, at least a 2,500- to 3.000-psi pressure drop must be available before an LTX unit can be considered for use. Otherwise, it may not be economical.
A choke is essentially an orifice plate, with a specified hole slu, fo r controlling the rate of flow or reducing the pressu~ of the flowstream.

I t

".

,#.

,
.

,
i
~'
1

,'#. , ,
v

I 6 -5 v , " v
~

!
~
~

'i " i' il~


0 '

j!

If
~

hi -.
'...

~i~

..

o .. e~

'!

'I t,
" I.
~
" 0

'I

"

~l

!(;; oeRli!~51

."
! !

S . JB
!I

~~-!

.. --1 .
!

128

Ga" Productwn Engineering

Ga.! and Liquid Separation

129

The lowest temperature at which an LTX unit can be used is governed by the properties of the material used in its construction. Generally, carbon steel is used, for which embrittlement occurs below a temperature of - 20' F. For this reason. LTX units in an oil field are usually operated only in the temperature Tange of 0 to 20F.

where

P,.

v - terminal velocity of the falling particle, ftJsee a - acceleration on the particle. ft/.sec! d.p - particle diameter, ft Pp - density of the particle, Ibm/ft1 I'g - density, Ibmiftl. and viscosity, Ibmift-sec. respectively, of

the fluid through which the particle is falling

Gas Cleaning Cas cleaning is important for pipeline transmission systems in order to reduce operational problems. and to maximize their operating efficiency. It is even more important in other instances, such as for gas .~torage, and for sales to consumers. Cas cleaning is also neces'iary to prevent solution/catalyst contamination in downstream processes on the gas, such as dehydration and sweetening. Some of the cleanup occurs initially at the wellhead by such means as drips, filters. and syphons. Another phase of cleanup is carried out in the gas.liquid separators. Further cleaning is generally required before the gas arrives at a processing plant, and before any processing is begun. A clean gas transmission averages about 2 Ibm/ MMscf particulate matter in the gas. Cas cleaning involves the removal of two types of materials: (1) gross sol ids and liquids, called "pipeline trash," and (2) minute solids (particulate matter) and liquids (aerosols). Pipeline trash is also referred to as sludge, and is essentially anything in the flowing stream that is not gas. Pipeline trash consists generally of liquids such as heavierend liquid hydrocarbons, water, chemicals (amines, glycols, methanol) carried o\'er from processing operations, and solids such as drilling mud, pipeline scale, other dirt picked up by the gas during production and transport operations, and gas hydrates. Pipeline trash collects in the sags and low spots in the pipeline, and its removal is absolutely necessary, Particulate matter and aerosols are much more difficult to remove because of their ultrasmall particle size, They are carried over by the gas as suspended solids/liquids.

The drag coefficient, Cd. and the exponent n in Equation 4-17 are as follows (Lapple, 1984), Flow reiQme Laminar Intermediate Turbulent
Nile

Law Stokes Intermediate Newton

Cd
24.0 18.5
0.44

<0.3
0.3-10' 10'- 2(1{}')

1.0 0.6 0

where the Reynolds number, N R~, for the case of particles suspended in a gas is defined as being equal to d"vpjI;lpK' The equations derived earlier for cen trifugal separation (Equation 42) and for gravity settling (Equation 45) can be verified as being applicable to the turbulent flow regime. The Reynolds number is controlled largely by the particle size, ~, since other factors vary within a relatively small range for a given application. Thus, Newton's law would be applicable to larger particles that would ~ a higher Reynolds number. This can be understood in physical terms .. by visualizing that larger particles fall so rapidly that they create considerable turbulence. For intermediate size particles, some turbulence is gener ated, and the intermediate law is used. Smaller particles settle much more slowly, a laminar flow regime is maintained, and Stokes law is used to calcu late the settling rate. A!; we proceed to smaller particle sizes, smaller than about 3 microns, Stokes law is no longer valid. The particles are now so small that they slip between the gas molecules at a rate greater than that predicted by Stokes law. The Cunningham correction, K." is used to correct the settling velocity, vStok"", from Stokes law:
(4-18)

General Equation for Particles Suspended in a Gas The well known general exp~ion for the terminal velocity, v, of a part! cle railing through a fluid under the influence of a force that exerts an acceleration a on the particle, is written as:
\. -

This is called the Stokes-Cunningham equation. The correction K., is deter mined as follows:
(4-19)

4ad n+ l (p [
P

3CdI';p~

-PJ]
n

H2-"1

(4-17)

130

Gas Production

"~nglnt!e,;rlg

Gas and Liquid Separation

131

where M - molecular weight of the gas R - gas constant, 1,546 ft-Ibfl lbmole- R ( .. 10.732 psia-ft'/lbmole- ' R) T .. temperature in oR K.:! .. dimensionless proportionality factor g. .. conversion factor ( .. 32. 17 Ibm-ftdbf-sec2) For particles smaller than 3 microns, a random motion , known as Brownian mO\t:m~nt , abo bt!g1ru to occur. Its effect is superimpc.l.\ed upon the particle settling velocity. and for particles under 0. 1 micron, Brownian mo,,'ement becomes the dominant phenomenon. Since gas cleaning is never really pursued to such levels. Brownian motion will not be discussed here.

-. -.
METHODS

_PARTICLE DIAMETER, MICRONS

FOR
PARTICLESIZE ANALYSIS

~. -

ro-

.b.~~L.'~i~ ""L. "'--"""4 E.ECTIOMLIC.IIOSCO"~


"'ClIOlcor,_

"

.,

I - ~~ ~ ,,~,.,.,.~ - -

=t-". . . .- - 1--..-'"' . .
~ - It.. -1-...
.".-,~ UIOIIHIO

4~M~---:.~n>M~
'1i~"u!ITY

o"".j TO l'U

.~

IU .. MU

u"c~o

."._l..
nTnlN~

.. rUJ.(.t..,,(U,

(fI:

Cas Cleaning Methods


There are several different techniques for separating liquid and solid particles from gas, such as gravity settling, centrifugal action, impingement. filtration. scrubbing, and electrostatic precipitation. Figure 4-21 shows the range of applicability of these methods in terms of the size of the particles that can be removed. Note: I micron,. 10- 4 cm. Maintenance requirements are generally proportional to the removal ca pability. Thus, methods with greater particle removal capability usually require more elaborate maintenance schedules. In cleaning methods that use a physical separation device (cleaning element. demister, filter. etc.), once the cleaning element has accumulated to its capacity, there are three possible results, all of which are detrimental to the cleaning process (Curry, 1981):

f.-....cu, C""NYU

CC"HII.C"o,10

"'C,"'CA. _

......
TYPES

u.r~I.nNOC'

.. .... 'UI.UTgRS

OF

GAS'CLEANIN G EQUIPMENT

-.... . .. _--_. ----- -- -~

--.,OUIO nOYM

--- ---~.HCTOItI

{N ....U.

CEMU ....... ----. _

"~v"l~S

I
I

. _-- -

'OC~fD

- .... - --f----

~_N
. ,~

l"CI[M;O
, ...'t~1

-t."-,,,,lns
".1l~

I----<

......
,
r _

_ O (. . . .

_~

..... ' ' 'C' '.11O" _

. . . . . . TOIl1

~"C"""CI.~--I

r--<

I I '.'C'it ',"CjU'OU'

.. ---.I

~r

1. The incoming particles bypass the cleaning element and enter the out flowing clean gas stream. This is the most common problem. 2. The pressure differential becomes too high, leading to rupture or dislodgement of the cleaning element. 3. The cleaning element may become so impregnated that it interrupts the flow completely.
Proper maintenance is therefore essential for these devices. Some common gas cleaning methods, besides the gravity settling and cen trifugal methods discussed earlier, are described below.

Agure 4-21. Gas cleaning methods and their range of application. (Data from C. E. Lapple, 1984.)

There are several types of impingement separaton as shown in Figure 4-22. The mist extraction section in an oil and gas separator uses impinge-

ment methods of two basic types: wire mesh pad and vane-type mist extrac tors. A wire-mesh separator consists of a 4- 6 in. thick pad of fine wire (diameter of 0.003-0.011 in.) knitted into a mesh fabric with a high void volume (97-99%). The pad is mounted in a horizontal position, with the vapor flowing upwards. Liquid droplets impinge on the wire and collect and c0alesce with other droplets, until their size becomes large enough to drop downwards through the void spaces. The droplets then cling to the bottom of the wire-mesh by surface tension forces. Here they coalesce again to a bigger size, until they become sufficiently large to overcome surface tension

132

Gal Production Engineering

GO! and Liquid Separation

133

FlO ..

=>

Non..

0..

Ira,q'l

'~

'"

'"

,<I

'"

and the force resulting from the upward flow of the gas. A flow velocity of 5-10 ftfsee provides maximum operation efficiency (Curry, 1981 ). A higher rate would flood the pad and lead to re.entrainment of the liquid, whereas a lower rate may permit the liquid to circumvent the pad and avoid impingement. A mist extractor should not be used where the gas has a high concentration of solids, since this may block the flow of gas and result in high pressure drops across the pad. For liquid droplets, wire-mesh pads are efficient, can remove droplets down to 4 microns in size, and have a high handling capacil}'The vane-type design uses an intricate array of metal plates, called vanes, with liquid collection pockets. The vane-type mist extractor is mounted such that the gas stream flows horizontally through the vanes. During this flow, a change in direction is induced several times, resulting in a centrifugal action that aids the primary impingement separation mechanism in removing the finer liquid droplets entrained in the gas. The liquid droplets are forced into the liquid collection pockets, out of the gas flow path. and drain out by gravity. The pressure drop across a vane-type mist extractor is very small. it can handle solids in the flowing gas stream. and can remove droplets down to about 40 microns in size. Another development of interest is the fiber mist eliminator. This uses a packed bed of fibers between two concentric screens. Liquid mist collects on the fiber surface as a film , which is moved horizontally by the gas, and downwards by gravity, into the liquid collection area. Fiber mist collectors offer extremely high collection efficiencies up to 99.98%, and can handle mists smaller than 3 microns (Brink, 1963).
Filters

Botlln

'"

",

'>I

These have been traditionally used to remove solid particles by using a filtration medium that allows only the gas to pass through. Bag filters, using woven fabric or compressed felt fabric as the filtration medium, are widely used. But these materials break down in the presence of liquids. Synthetic materials such as glass fiber overcome this disadvantage. Even with these synthetic materials, liquid separation with filters is always a problem. Liquid particles find their way through the filter pad and coalesce on the downstream side of the pad in the form of a liquid film. The gas passing through this film leads to the formation of bubbles, which disintegrate and are reentrained in the gas.

'"

1/'

Flgu,! 4-22. TypeS,OI impingement separators. (After Perry and Green (eds.), ChemICal Engm86fs Handbook, 1984; courtesy of Mc-Graw Hill Book Co.)

A scrubber is defined as any equipment that uses a liquid to aid the removal of particles from a gas. It is similar to a separator, except that a scrubber is designed to separate only small volumes of gas and liquid, and it may

134

Ca, Production Engineering

Gas and Liquid Separation

135

use some fluid such as oil to more effectively remove particles from the gas. Unlike separators, surge capacity is neither necessary nor provided. A scrubber, although similar to a separator, must never be used for gas-liquid separation in the field, where even a reJatively dry gas well may produce some liquid surge and lead to severe separation problems. They may, however, be used as secondary separation devices. The three types of scrubbers used in gas cleaning operations are: dry scrubbers, oil-bath scrubbers. and cartridge-type scrubbers. Dry scrubbers are similar to centrifuges. using centrifugal force to effect the separation of solids and liquids from gas. Oil-hath scrubbers are extensively used. They

... n {.} and V moles of vapor with a composition {YIl For simplic-~~~ in the present discussion that flash calculatiOns are carn . ~ ity, it is assumed out on the basis of a unit mole of feed (F - 1). Thus, F_I_L+V

and
Fz; - z; - LxI

+ VYI

Also" ). and x, are related by the equilibrium ratio, K,:

cause solid particulate matter to impinge on a surface constantly flushed with oil, and cling to it. The circulating oil washes the dirt down into a settling chamber, where the dirt settles down by gravity. Clean oil l~ recirculated. It is important in an oil-bath scrubber to ensure that the oil is clean. and that the proper le...el of oil is maintained. A less-than-clean oil or too low an oil level will reduce cleaning efficiency. whereas a high oil level will cause carryover of the oil into the gas. Dry and oil-bath type of scrubbers can be effective down to almost a 4-micron particle size. The most efCecth'e scrubbers are the cartridge-type scrubbers (Curry, 1981). They use cleaning cartridges stacked in parallel, in difCerent configurations, that can remove solid particulate matter down to a size of 0.3 micron. For liquid removal, mist extractors are also provided sometimes. Cartridge scrubbers, however, require constant maintenance and cartridge replacement, and are more expensive than oil-bath and dry scrubbers.
Ehctric Prropitoton

Determination of Equilibrium Ratios


To enable flash calculations, the equilibrium ratio. K, is required. Experimental values for the particular system are the most reliable source for Kvalues. The next best thing is to use equations of state for consistent predictions. For manual calculations. K-value charts are also useful, though they may not be very accurate. . . The calculation of K-values from equations of state has been discussed to Chapter 3. These methods are used for implementation on. a comput,er, .and provide internally consistent values for all thermodynamiC properties In a convenient form. The chart method for estimating K-value:s is subject to an important constraint: K-values have been found to exhibit some dependence on the mixture from which they are measured, and therefore there is no single K-value chart that is superior for all possible mixtures that may be encountered. A sharp distinction exists in K-values for the same components in a nat~ral gas liquid versus a crude oil. ThEre differences among K-values for dIfferent mixtures have been characterized by the concept of conoergence pressure, which represents the composition of the vapor and liquid phases in equilibrium. Convergence pressure, at a given system temperature, is defined as the pressure at which the K-values of a fixed-composition system conver~e toward a common value of unity. Thus, convergence pressure for a system IS the pressure (at the given system temperature) at or beyond which va~~ liquid separation is no longer possible. This is similar ~o the concept of cr~~ cal pressure, and quite often the convergence pressure IS taken to be the cntlcal pressure of the system at the given temperature. Figures 4-24 through 4-50 show the K-value charts for H 2S. Nz, and hydrocarbons C, through C,o for convergence pressures of 1,000 psia and 3,000 psia. It can be seen in these figures that at relatively low pressures, K-values are almost independent of convergence pressure: at higher pressures approaching the convergence pressure, K-value:s are very sensitive to convergence pressure.

These units induce an electrical charge that attracts particulate matter. A strong electrostatic field is provided that ionizes the gas to some extent. The particles suspended in this partially ionized gas become charged and migrate under the action of the applied electric field. The gas is retained for a long enough time for the particles to migrate to a collection surface. Currently, the application of electric precipitators to large volumes of high-presc;ure gas is quite limited. in the future, though, these pollution-free devices may prove to be more useful.

Flash Calcu1ations Two-phase flash calculation techniques were described in Chapter 2. This section describes some methods that can be used to accelerate convergence to the correct resu1t. The nomenclature used here is the same as in Chapter 2. F moles of feed with a composition {z;} split into L moles of liqu.id with a

13.

Gal Production Engineering

Gal and Liquid Separation

137

For CO 2 the K-value can be calculated from methane and ethane K-values as follows (CPSA, 1981):

1Ct.<>, -

(K c,

Kc,)"

The convergence pressure Pk. required for selecting the appropriate K-value

chart, has been found to be a function of two parameters-temperature and the liquid phase composition. Temperature of the system is generally
known, but the composition of the exit liquid stream from the vapor-liquid separation is not known in advance (v.'e are trying to determine both the vapor as well as liquid stream compositions using K-value data). Therefore, the procedure for determining the convergence pressure is iterative. as described in the following (CPSA, 1981): 1. Assume a liquid-phase composition. The total feed composition may be used as a first guess if no better estimates can be made. 2. Identify the lightest hydrocarbon component which is present at least 0.1 mole% in the liquid phase. 3. Calculate the weighted average critical pressure and temperature for the remaining heavier components in the liquid to form a pseudo-binary system. A shortcut approach good for most hydrocarbon systems is to compute the weighted average critical temperature only. 4. Trace the critical locus of the binary on Figure 4-23. When the averaged pseudo-heavy component of the binary is between two real hydrocarbons, an interpolation of the two critical loci must be made.

.,12.00CI

..... .-

(tm continued on page 164)

r:Q

~
~

,'

Engineering Data Book, 1981, courtesy of GPSA.)

'""-"-- '" Figure 4-23. Convergence pressure PIc of binary hydrocarbon mixtures. (From

- .-

,~

-- -- -Q

~ .... 1"

.
~'< ..

I I I '1 I
~

ll'

"

PRESSURE. PSIA -

Figure 4-24. Equilibrium ratio, K, for methane for a convergence pressure of 1,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

138

Go., Production Engineering

GO! and Liquid Separation

13.

PRESSURE, PSI... -

PRESSURE, PSI"'-

Figure 4-25. Equilibrium ratio, K, for ethylene lor a convergence pressure 01 1,000 psla (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy 01 GPSA.)

Figure 4-26. Equilibrium ratio, K. for ethane for a convergence pressure of 1,000 psla. (From Engineering Dat8 Book, 198'; courtesy of GPSA.)

140

Gas Production Engineering

Ga" and Liqldd Separation

141

1-

PRESSURE, PSI" -

PRESSURE, PSI"Figure 4-28. Equilibrium ratio, K, for propylene for a convergence pressure 01 1,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

Figure 427. Equilibrium ratio, K, lor propane lor a convergence pressure of 1,000 pSla. (From Engineering Dat8 Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

142

Gas Production Engineering

Gas and Liquid Separatioll

143

,.5;

-.

"1'"
,

~~
,

~.

~'"

,,'
,

'"'"
l~0::
.. I'

II

K -'

I.

,p..,

f-C

N.

IS;
,

" "-

It"
1IIc

r',

..

"
,

. "
, ,

. .
PRESSURE, PSIA-

;:

. ... ,, ..

,:
,@

PRESSURE, PSIA -

.,

Figure 4-29. Equilibrium ratio, K, for iso-butane for a convergence pressure of 1,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1961 ; courtesy of GPSA.)

Figure 4-30. Equilibrium ratio, K, for n-butane for a convergence pressure of 1,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy 01 GPSA.)

144

Gas Production Engineering

Gos and Liquid Separation

145

, ,

,
,

,-PSl~ - :

,-

~W

,
I - .

,
.

Ij I'

1,

l
, ,

~~

'~.'

~ -, 'l":---- ~ ::--;'l'>
,

I;

., llif" ;

_I

;:::
,

,
I

f'.,
,
,

"I " , ,
I" . It---:

lb N.
I"

t/

,
,

"t

+r"

l!.~i+

III,', '

hi
PRESSURE, PSI A -

--

," 'i l
..
.

,,'

.. -..
i~

_I~~:.

PRESSURE, PS tA -

Figure 4, 31, Equilibri~m ratio, K, for Ipentane for a convergence pressure of 1,000 pSla, (From Engm98ring Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy of GPSA.)

Figure 4-32. Equilibrium ratio, K, for n-pentane for a convergence pressure of 1,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy of GPSA.)

146

Gas Production Engineerillg

Gas and Liquid Separation

147

'[

..

PRESSURE, PSIA -

PRESSURE, PSIA-

Figure 4-33. Equilibrium ralio, K, for hexane for a convergence pressure of 1,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

Figure 4-34. Equilibrium ratio, K, for octane for a convergence pressure 01 1,000 psia. (From Engineering Dara Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

148

Gas Productioll Engineerillg

Gas and Liquid Separatioll

149

- 0<, 1 , , ( . "....... ,

, ... ,~..(., Ole ........... '

"-S._.... ""'_"--

.... -_"-_c-""'.

..._ - " A_' ............. '-

-.- ,,,, ,,,,,,, -~.-

..

... -'-

PRESSURE, PSIA -

PRESSURE. PSIA

Figure 4-35. Equilibrium ratio, K, for decane for a convergence pressure of 1,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

Figure 436. Equilibrium ralio, K, for hydrogen sulfide for a convergence pressure of 1,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

150

Ga, Production Engineering

Gos and Liquid Separation

151

PRESSURE. PSI" ----

Figure 4-37. Equilibrium ratio, K, for nitrogen for a convergence pressure 01 1,000 pS18. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

Figure 4-38. Equilibrium ratio, K, for methane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

152

CQ~ Production Engirlf'ering

Cal and Liquid Seporation


PSI' _

153

tmt

_ I
..

:3! . ' "

K '11

I~ ,

" ,,,..

II

II
PRESSURE, PSIA _
PRESSURE, PSI"'-

Figure 439. Equilibrium ratio, K. for ethane for a convergence preSSure of 3,000 pSla. (From Engineering Data BOOk, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

Figure 440. Equilibrium ratio, K. lor propane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psis. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

'5<

Gas Production Eng/neering

Gal alld Liquid Separation

155

PRESSURE. PSIAFigure 4-41 . Equilibrium ratio, K, for iso-butane 'or a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia, (From Engmeering Data Book, 1981; courtesy 01 GPSA.)

PRESSURE, PSIA-

Figure 4-42. Equilibrium ratio, K, for n-butane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981, courtesy of GPSA.)

156

Gas Production Engineering

Gas and Liquid Separation

157

PRESSURE. PSI ... -

PRESSURE, PSI"Figure 4-44. Equilibrium ratio, K, for n-pentane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

Figure 4,-43. Equilibrium ratio, K, for i-pentane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 pSla. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

158

Gos Production Enf(inf'f'ring

Call and L/qutd Separation

159

PRESSURE, PSIA -

PRESSURE, PSI"

Figure 4....5. Equilibrium ratio, K, for hexane lor a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia (From Engineenng Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

Figure 446. Equilibrium ratio, K, for heptane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

160

Cal and Liquid Separalion

161

PRESSURE. PSI"
Figure 4-47. Equilibrium ratio, K, for octane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engin99ring Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

PRESSURE, PSI ...

Figure 4-48 . Equilibrium ratio, K, for nenane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

162

Gas P,aduction Engineering

Cas and Liquid Separation

163

PRESSURE, PSI .... -

PRESSURE, PSI ....

Figur e 4-49. Equilibrium ratio, K, for decane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courlesy 01 GPSA.)

Figure 4-50. Equilibrium ratio, K, for hydrogen sulfide for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

164

Cas Production Engineering

Gas and Liquid Separation

165

(text continued from poge 136)

5. Read the convergence pressure P1 at the temperature corresponding to that of the desired flash conditions. 6. Using Pl from Step 5, together with the system temperature and pressure, obtain K-vaJues for the components from the appropriate convergence-pressure K-value charts. Interpolate for convergence pressure between the charts. if necessary. 7. Make a nash calculation with the feed composition and the K.values from Step 6. 8. Repeat Steps 2 to 7 until the assumed and calculated PI< check within an acceptable tolerance.

This method is similar to the simple trial and error scheme just outlined. The only difference is in assuming a new value at the end of an unconverged lrial (Lockhart et aI., 1986),

(V/L)" - (V/L), + [(V/L), - (V'L) .J


Thus, the new assumed value of VIL is made as far beyond (VIL)e as (VIL)e is beyond (V IL)d' This scheme gives a much better convergence rate.

LockhartMcHmry Method
Lockhart and McHenry (1958) proposed a method that reduces the number of trials required for flash-equilibrium calculations for multicomponent mixtures significantly. In this method, a multicomponent mixture is treated as a pseudo-binary mixture with a "'light' component, and a "heavy" component. Components with a K value greater than 1.0 are grouped into the light component, and those with a K value less than 1.0 are grouped into the heavy component. Consider I mole of a multicomponent feed with a mole-fraction Zj of the light components, and zt, of the heavy components. The total number of components in the mixture is n. with n1 number of light components and nh heavy components. In this technique, a parameter v is defined as follows:
V - z,/(1 - Kh) - z,,/(K,.- I)

F1ash Calculation Methods

Simple Trial and Error ScMme


This is the simplest method. A value of the vapor-liquid ratio is assumed. Using this (V/L)al in Equation 2-16 (or 2-17) along with the appropriate component K values, a new V (or L) is obtained. The value of L (or V) is obtained by difference (L - 1 - V). [f this calculated (V/L)c is equal to the assumed (V/L).t within a specified tolerance. the assumption was correct. Otherwise. a new value (V/L)a2 for the liquid-vapor ratio is assumed as follows:

(V'L)" - (VIL),
This procedure is repeated till convergence is reached. After one or two iterations, it becomes quite obvious whether the system is predominantly gaseo~ (V < 0.5), or liquid (V > 0.5). For a predominantly gaseous system, Equatton 2.-16 is used to calculate V, and L is obtained by difference whereas if the system is predominantly liquid, Equation 2-17 is used and is obtained by difference. The use of either Equation 2-16 or 2-17 is entirely analogous; the only difference is in the accuracy of the results. .Lockhart (1983) has made an important observation regarding the use of tlus method: the value of the calculated L, as compared with the assumed L. gives the direction of the correct L. Thus, if at an assumed value of Ltv of 0.5 the calculated (Ltv)c < 0.5, then the correct UV will be less than (LI V)c' H the calculated (LlV)~ > 0.5, then the correct LlV will be greater than (L/V)c' Of course, if the calculated (UV)" '"' 0.5 exactly for an assumed L/V of 0.5. then convergence has been reached. where Kh and Ktdenote the K4 values for the heavy and light components. respectively, in the binary mixture. The K parameter is defined as follows:

V
K -

Ez,
E(z,/K,)

for (V) ...umed

K* _

EZi _ I for (V) ...uml- 0.5 E[z,/(K, + I)l

K - (UV) [EZ, - 1] 10'


ELx(

(V)~",,", - 0.5 to 1

166
KO -

Ga! Production Engineering

Ga. and Liquid Separalion

167

L,V
(E7;!!:VyJ - 1

for (V)-.-d - 0 to 0.5

The summation E in these relation.'ihips represents the subtotals O\'cr all pure components i for the light component and the heavy component, as the case may be. Thus, in calculating Ktfor the light component, the summation E is done for i - I to "I' Similarly. for a Kh calculation, the summation E is carried out for i - I to nh' For different values of V...1OmJ, V is calculated. At convergence, V' - V-.-:!. Alternatively. a graphical method can be used.. where tv.o lines are plotted on a Cartesian graph: (1) V' versus V .......... and (2) V' _ V--.I' The intersection of these two lines gives the correct answer. A Note on Flash Calculations for Stage Separation For an isothermal flash calculation, the separator temperature is known, and is kept at a constant value by suitable heat exchange devices in the separator. The trial and error flash calculation procedure involves determining the separator pressure. If there is no heat exchanger, or the temperature is not known, an adiabatic flash calculation is made, involving a double trial and error: one for separator pressure, and another for the temperature. Usually, a separator pressure is chosen, and trial and error done for a corresponding separator temperature that makes the feed enthalpy equal to the product enthalp)'. A reasonable separator temperature is assumed, and flash calculations are made exactly as for an isothermal case.

(c) low COR well producing oil, water, and gas? (d) heavy, waxy crude (GOR can be assumed to be low for heavy oils)? (e) gas condensates with a hydrate problem? (f) nearly dry gas at high pressure?

4. A 20 ft x 10 ft 1,000 psi

(working pressure) horizontal separator used on a well with a gas flow rate of 9 MMscflday and a line pressure of 500 psig? If a gas back-pressure valve were put on the separator, what pressure should it be set at to handle the gas flow rate? 5. Design a vertical separator, with a mist extractor, that can handle 6.66 MM.scflday of a 0.80 gravity gas. The oil gravity is 45 API, operating pressure is 400 psia, and the operating temperature is 60F. Use ba~ic separation relationships for this design, and compare the results WIth SivaJls' charts. 6. A gas field delivers 13.4 MMscflday of a 0.68 gravity gas and 300 bblJ day oil with a 50% water cut. For an operating pressure of 1.000 psig and temperature of 8OF_
is operated at 112 full-of-Iiquid conditions. Can it be

w.P.

(a) Determine the ID of the spherical separator required to accommodate the liquid and gas, assuming a retention time of 5 min. (b) How much more gas can be flowed through the separator without worrying about the gas capacity? 7. A 1.25 gravity gas condensate stream at 1,200 psia and 110F is to be separated into oil and gas using a three-stage separation. (a) Assuming that the mole % C) + C 2 + C 3 in the gas is 80%, what is the optimum second-stage pressure? (b) Choose and design the appropriate separators for each of these three stages.

-."..

Questions and Problems

1. Describe the three major components of oiJ-water-ga.~ separators. 2. What happens to separation quality and the separator when-

8. Describe the applicability of the various gas cleaning methods in natural gas production and processing.

(a) the gas flow rate exceeds the allowable rate through the separator? (b) the liquid flow rate exceeds the allowable rate through the separator? (c) mist extractor becomes plugged? (d) the wellstream produces slugs of liquid (oil and water) into the separator? References

Beggs, H. D., 1984. Gas Production OperatiQ1ls. Oil & Gas Consultants International, Inc .. Tulsa, Oklahoma, 287pp. Brink. J. A., Jr., 1963. "Air Pollution Control with Fibre Mist Eliminators," Cdn. J. Chem. Eng., 41(3, June). 134-138. Campbell. J. M., 1955. "Know Your Separators," O. & Gas J., 53(45, Mar. 14),107-111.

3. What type of separator(s) should be used for(a) offshore production platform? (b) high COR well, with liquid surges?

168

Ga! Production Engineering

Campbell, J. M., 1984. Gas Conditioning a11d Processing, Vol. 2. Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, Oklahoma, 398pp. Craft, B. C., Holden, W. R., and Craves, E. D., Jr., 1962. Well Design: Drilling and Production. Prentice-Hall tnc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jer"'Y, 571 pp. Curry, R. N., 1981. Fundamentals oj Natural Gas Conditioning. PennWell Pub!. Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 118pp. Cas Processors Suppliers Association, 1981. Engineering Data Book, 9th ed. (5th revision), GPSA, Thlsa, Oklahoma. Ikoku, C. U., 1984. Natural Gas Production Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 517pp. Lapple, C. E., 1984. Cited reference in: Chemical Engineers' Handbook , by R. H. Perry and D. W. Creen (cds.), 6th ed. McGraw-Hili Book Co., Inc., New York, pp. 5-63. Lockhart, F. J., 1983. Personal communication. Lockhart, F. 1., Chil ingarian, G. V., and Kumar,S., 1986. "Separation of Oil and Cas," in: Surjace Operations in Petroleum Production, Vol. 1, by G V. Chilingarian. 1. O. Robertson, and S. Kumar, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam. Lockhart, F. J. and McHenry, R. J., 1958. "Figure Flash Equilibrium Easier, Quicker This Way," Petro Refiner, 37(3), 209-212. Petroleum Extension Service, 1972. Field Handling oj Natural Gas. 3rd ed., Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, 143pp. Sivails, C. R, 1977. "Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Separation," Proc. Cas Conditioning ConL, Univ. of Oklahoma, 3lpp. Whinery, K. F. and Campbell, J. M., 1958. "A Method for Determining Optimum SecondStage Pressure in Three-Stage Separation:' /. Pet. Tech. , 10(4, Ap'. ), 53-54.

Gas-Water Systems and Dehydration Processing

Introduction Water vapor is the most common undesirable impurity found in natural gas. By virtue of its source. natural gas is almost always associated wit~ water, usually in the range of 400-500 Ib water vapor/MMscf gas. The pmoary reason for the removal of water from gas is the problem of gas hydrate formation. Liquid water with natural gas may form solid, ice-like hydrates that plug flowlines and lead to severe operational probl:ms. Oth~r reaso~ for removing water are: (I) liquid water promotes corrOSiOn, .pa~hc~larly In the presence of H2S and CO 2; (2) slugging flow may result If liqUid water condenses in the flowlines; and (3) water vapor reduces the heating value of the gas. For these reasons, pipeline specifications for natural gas restrict the water content to a vaiue not greater than 6-8 Ibm/MMscf. Because most gas sweetening processes involve the use of an aqueous sol.ution, dehydration is often done after desulfurization. Nevertheless, part~al dehydration. or hydrate inhibition. are commonly necessary at the wellstte itself.

Water Content of Natural Gases In order to design and operate dehydration procecoses, a reliable estimate of the water content of natural gas is essential. The water content of a gas depends upon: 1. Pressure- water content decreases with increasing pressure. 2. Temperature-water content increases with increasing temperature.

169

170

Ga., Product/on Engineering


y", - p-Jp

Gas-Water Systems Gild Dehydratiofl Processiflg

171

3. Salt content of the free water in equilibrium with the natural gal> in the reservoir-water content decreases with increasing ~alt content of the associated reservoir water. 4. Cas composition - higher gravity gases usually have less water. The terms dete point and deu.:-point depression are wideh- used in deh\"dratian terminology. Dew point indirectly indicates the water content oc" a natural gas, and is defined as the temperature at which the gas is saturated with water vapor at a gin'n p~ure. The difference between the dew-point temperature of a gas-stream-betore-and--after-dehydration i.Halled: the dewpoint depression Consider a gas saturated with water at 500 psia and lDO'-F. It~ dew point is 100 F. and its water content i.~ approximately 100 Ibm MMscf gas. The gas is to be transported in a pipeline at 60' F. Under ~ipeline conditions of 500 psia and 60F, the water vapor content of the gas IS only about 30 Ibm/MMscf. Thus, 70 Ib water per MMscf of gas exist as free water in the pipeline. If the dew point of the inlet gas to the pipeline i~ reduced to 60 F, no free water will exist in the pipeline at the pipeline flo\-\ condjti~ns. In other words, the dehrdration facility should give a dew point depressIon of 100 - 60 = 40F. In practice, although a dew point depression of 40 F is just suffiCient, a 50F dew point deprasion may be desirable for operational safety. T~le methods a\-aHable for calculating the water content of natural gases faUlIlto three categories: (1 ) partial pressure approach, valid up to about 60 psia (gases exhibit almost ideal behavior up to 60 psia in most cases): (2) empirical plots; and (3) equations of state. Partial Pressure Approach Assuming ideal gas and ideal mixture beha\-ior. the partial pressure of water in the gas is gi\'-en by p.. - Ph. and also by po.. _ p,X". Thus.

(5-2)

This simple approach has limited applicability at the pressure and temperature of interest in most natural gas production, processing and transport systems. Empirical Plots For engineering calcuJations. empirical plots are widely used. ~umerous Investigations- ha\"e' resulted in several plots. such as- by McCarthy et al. (1950), McKetta and Wehe (1958). the Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA), Campbell (l984a), Robinson et al. (1978), and others. Since. the real danger in design is to underestimate the water content. all correlations assume the gas to be completely saturated with water, and most correlations are designed to slightly overestimate the water content. Nitrogen hold~ about 6-9% less water than methane (CampbelL 1984a). Therefore. nitrogen is frequently included as a hydrocarbon, providing a small safety factor.
McKetta and Wehe COfTf'intiofi for Sweet Case,

The McKetta and Wehe correlation (1958), shown in Figure 5-1, includes correction factors for gas gravity and formation water salinity. It gives acceptable results for sweet gases.
Robifl1lOn et aI. COfTf'lotwn for Sour Case.

Ph - p..x"
where p - absolute pressure of the gas

(5-1 )

y..- - mole fraction of water in the vapor (gas) phase p, - vapor pressure of water at the system temperature
K" -

The Robinson et aI. (1978) correlation for sour gases. shown in Figures 5-2 and 5-3, is based upon the SRK (Soave-Redlich-Kwong) equation of state. The hydrocarbon portion of the gas is assumed to be pure methane. Robinson et at. found that CO 2 carries orny about 75 % as much water as H.,s under the same conditions. To reduce the number of \ariables and th~reby simplify the graphical representation of the correlation, Robinson et aI. assumed that this condition was true throughout. Therefore, to use this correlation, one has to multiply the % CO 2 in the gas by 0.75, and add it to the % H 2S in the gas to get the effective HzS content.
Campbell's Correintion for Sweet afld Sour Cases

mole fraction of water in the aqueous (liquid water) phase associated with the gas phase under equilibrium conditions

Since water is almost immiscible in the liquid phase with oil K is usuallv assumed to be equal to unity. Thus, the water mole fraction i~ the gas, can be calculated as:

y:,

Campbell (1984a) presented a composite chart, shown in Figure 5-4, for sweet gases based upon earlier charts and other available data. This chart gives values very similar to the McKetta and Wehe correlation, but dot!S not include corrections for gas gravity and water salinity.
(tm continued Qn page 174)

172

Gaa Production Engineering

CIlS- Water

Systems Qnd Dehydration ProceDing

173

_,....,of_ ...

__ H .... H

, ,
I
l

aa; ~..
i i

_. ,.., 'll"~" -

.
...

1 ,

I ,
-..
Wilt" e...''''' .1

..
s
s

" i

e ,

... ....,......

,.,. ...... ...,oIlI- ,.., ......,

_._----... _---_ ....... ------'...Figure 51. The McKetta-Wehe correlation for waler content of natural gases, with corrections tor waler salinity and gas gravity, (After McKatta and Wehe, 1958; reprinted from Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

o o
I.

o o

100"1. IKo '0".4 CM.. lO1. M~~04 3D"/. ~,s. lD"Xo CM..
It"/. M~.

0 4O"fo-.s.."'-010

Figure 5-2. Robinson at at correlation tor. water content of sour gases In ~he 300-2,001) psia pressure range. (After Robinson at aI., 1978; courtesy of 0;1 & Gas Journal.)

174

Goa Production Engineering

Gas-\\ater S!lstem.. and Deh!ldratlon Processillg

175

(ted cont/nlled from page 171)

To correct for large acid gas (H2.S and CO 2 ) contents, Campbell (l984a) proposes a weighted 8\'erage water content, \V, for the gas as follows:
(5-3)

where

\\'HC - water content of the hydrocarbon portion of the

gas from Figure 5-4

Figure 5-3. Continued.

W a~ - water content of CO,1 from Figure 5-5


WH~"

- water content of

YHC. YC02' YII~ - mole fractions of hydrocarbon, CO!. and 1-1 25,

HzS from

Figure 5-6

respecth-ely

Wottr content" natural gos mixturel

Exam"le 51. Find the water content of a 0.75 gravity gas at 1,500 psia and 120F.
Solution
From the McKctta and Wehe (:orreiation (Figure 5-1), W = 781b H 201 MMscl gas. Correcting for the gas gravity, the water content, W - (0.99)(78) 77.2 Ib H 20/MMscf gas. Using Campbell's correlation (Figure 5-4), W - 77 Ib H 2 0fMMscf gas. Thus, the two methods gi\'e very close resu1ts for most practical purposes.

'.... ""'" ~ tr, MIll]

o l00"t.o-

O ~1,I.6I'1tx.

G 11% M.s, ~ 010 G 201.1I,S.1IO"J,0I0 o ." M.s, 7rf. ClIo


I.

T..,.,...",.. -f.

Figure 53. Robinson at al. correlation for water content of sour gases in the 3,000-6,000 pSla pressure range, and at 10,000 psia. (After Robinson at aI., 1978; courtesy of Off & Gas Joumal.)

176

Co.t Production Engineering

Gas-\\uter Systems and Dehydration Proces.Ting

177

Solutim) 1.
\'H{:'"

0.80 + 0.05 + 0.015 + 0.005 + 0.02

0.89

YHzS - 0.085

FrQm Figure ~4, \\. He:


From Figure 5-5, W C02

,.

59 Ib H20 MMscf He ~.as


67 Ib H20~1Mscf CO 2

From Figure 5-6, W llti Using Equation 5-3.


IV ~ (0.89)(59)
:z

150 Ib H20fMMscf H:S

+ (0.025)(67) + (0.085)(150)

66.9 Ib HzO/MMscf gas

"00

1 1000
!

"

Figure 54. Campbell's correlation lor waler content of sweet gases. (After
Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)
E%ampl~ 5-2. Find the water content of a gas at 1,000 psia and lOOF using (1) Campbelrs methcxl and (2) Robinson et a1. method. The gas composition is as follows: CH 4 - 80.0%, C 2H 6 - 5.0%, C3HS - 1.5%, fIC~HIO - 0.5%, CO 2 - 2.5%, Nt - 2.0%, and H2S - 8.5%.

; "'" .l ! ; " - " 30

'00
200 300 400 )00 1000
~ooo

Figure 5-5. Waler

3000

.........., pd.

content of C02 In saturated natural gas mixtures. (After Campbell, 1984a; courtesy 01 Campbell PetrOleum Series.)

178

G~

Productiorl Enginring
'0000

Co!-\\ater Systems and Dehydration Proceaing

179

liquid equilibrium principles discussed in Chapter 2, Equation 5-2 can be , ...TiUen for a non-ideal system as:

y. _ I,ll _ (1.11.)(1. I)

(5-\)

lill ..
~ '000

where f, _ fugacity of water at il~ \apor pressure and system temperature f" _ fugacity of water at the system pressure and temperature f _ fugacity of the total ~as mixture at the system pteS!iure and temperatun' In practice, the fugacity f used is for the gas stream u;ithoul water vapor in it. Thus, Equation 5-4 is modified in different ways to account for the discrepancy. In general. the fugacity coefficients for water at its vapor pressure (t',) and at the system pressure and temperature (Y ..-), and for the gas at the system conditions (y) are calculated using any equation of state (see Chapter 3 for further details). The mole fraction of water in the gas (in the vapor phase), y", at equilibrium conditions can then be calculated as:

i
"

sao

, " 8 ,

(5-5)
100

::

where

"

>0,

lOOO

p, "" vapor pressure of water at the system temperature p ,., system pressure a, b, c '"" empirically determined constants

Figure 5-6. Water content 01 H~ in saturated natural gas mixtures. Note: Solid
curved Imes ar.e lor pure H2 S only. (After Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

2. Effectiye H~S content .. (0.75)(2.5) + 8.5 - 10.375%


In Figure ,5.2, the line<> for 0% H 2S and 20% H 2S at 1000 psia are very close together; no line for 10% HiS is shown. By interpolation.

One such method has been de\-eloped by Sharma and Campbell (1984) for predicting the water content of sweet as well as sour gases based upon the EMR mixture combination rules. It has proved to be accurate and reliable (Campbell, 1984a). In this method, first the EMR critical pressure, critical temperature. and Z factor are determined using the Mcleod and Campbell method discussed in Chapter 3. Thereafter, the pnx:edure is as follows: 1. Find the value of the parameter k from Figure 5-7. Alternatively, k can be calculated using the following equation:

IV - 0.175 bbl'MMrl - (0.175 bbl!MMrl)(62.4 Ibflt')(5.6146 1t'lbbl) = 61.3 Ib H2 01 MMscf gas

k - (fJI.)(plp.)"""

(5-6)

Equations of State
Equati~n of state met~ods are rigorous, but difficult and expensive to im. rlement smce they reqUire the use of a computer. Referring to the vapor.

where the exponent 0.0049 is a semi-empirical constant. The fugaci ties, f, and f"., for water can be found from Figure 5-8 (as described in "ep 2). Cenerally, fugacities are reported in terms of the fugacity coefficient, Y. Thus, Equation 5-6 can alternatively be written as:

1'"

Go. Produclion Engineering

Gas-'1.'iller System! and Dehydration ProcQ8ing


'I..............

181

(s- 7)
2. Find the water fugacity coefficient, if",. from the generalized fugacity coefficient chart shown in Figure 5-8. Note that since i'", represents the pure component fugacity for water, the criticaJ pre'iSure and temperature for water only are applicable. 3. Using Figure 5-8 and the critical pressure and temperature for the gas determined from the E~1R method, find the fugacity coefficient "t for the gas mhture (without water as a comiXlnent) at :oy:.tem p~ure p and temperature T.

10

0., . . . _
0.0)

0.00'''.
.,.
0.001

0.01

.'

Figure 5-8. Generalized fugacity coefficient chart. (Alter Edmister and Lee, 1984, from data by A. F. Curl, Jr., and K. S. Pitzer, 1958, Ind. and Engr. Chem.,

O.ooos

Feb. 2.)

4. Calculate the mole fraction of water in the gas (in the vapor phase), Yw, as follows:
0.0001 200

...

lOOO

''''

Figure 5-7. Constant k as a lunction of pressure and temperature. (After Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

"0

(5-8)

where the gas compressibility factor, Z, must be that determined from the EMR method, since the EMR critical pressure and temperature were used for calculating the critical properties of the gas.

182

Ga& Production

n~ineerlng

Gas-Water Systems and Dl'hydration Processing

183

Example 5-3. Repeat Example 5-2 using the Sharma and Campbell method.

From Figure 5-8, 't ... - (f.'p)", - 0.535 on extrapolation of the T, lines to T," 0.5. For the gas (without water), "t - 0.S15 from Figure 5-S for a Pp. - 1.195 andT p,-1.249 Using Equation 5-8. the mole fraction of water is equal to:

Solution

Comp.

y,
0.800 0.025 0.085 0.020 0.930 0.050 0.015

y,.
0.8602 0.0269 0.0914 0.0215

EMR 13.984 15.750 19.828

C, CO,
H,S
N~

y. ~ (0.OOl95)[0.53510.815f"" 1.371 x 10 '


Now. the density of ".'ater vapor at standard conditions
... 0.050197 Ibm/seC - 5O.197Ibm,l~iMscf
~ (14. 7)(18.015)/{ (1)( 10.73)(491.67) 1

9.40i
23.913 34.316
44.243

\'1 -

C, C,
n-C 4

0.005
0.070

0.7143 0.2143 0.0714

Y, -

Thus, the water content of the gas


EO

EMR~

"" E Y2IEMRj .. 27.59

(1.371 x 10 3 MMscf wateriM~lscf gas) . (50.197 lb watcriM~tscf \\'ater) _ 68.S2 Ib H20, ~IMscf gas

From Figure 3-6, (T.,IPch .. 0.51, and (T .ip{"h" 0.88. Gas Hydrates

So, (T"p,)

~ (0.93)(0.51)

+ (0.07)(0.88) - 0.5359

And (EMR) - (0.93)(14.47)

+ (0.07)(27.59) 15.388

From Figure 3-5, Therefore.


~s

(Tr1p~

5) .. 15.5

.. lS.SfO.5359 .. 28.923, implying that

Ppc" 836.56 psia. and Tpc" (0.5359)(836.56) .. 448.31R

Thus. Ppr" I,OOOf836.56 .. 1.195, and Tpr" 560/448.31 .. 1.249

From Figure 3-7, the compressibility factor, Z .. 0.837


From Figure 5-7, k .. 0.00195 From Table 3-1, (P,,) ..-atn''' 3,203.6 psia, and (T,,) ...,..... 1,165.1 R.
So, (P,)...," 1,00013,203.6 .. 0.3J2, and (T,) ...tft" 56011,165.1,. 0.481

Natural ga~ hydrates are solid crystalline compounds, resembling ice or wet snow in appearance, but much less dense than ice. They are included in a general class of compounds known as clatllratl'.$, which have a structure wherein guest molecules are entrapped in a cage-like framework of the host molecules without forming a chemical bond. ~atural gas hydrates are formed when natural gas components. notably methane. ethane. propane, isobutane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide. and nitrogen, enter the water lattice (which is looser than the ice lattice) and occupy the \acant lattice positions, causing the water to solidify at temperatures considerably higher than the rreezin~ point of water. Enough gaseous molecu1es must enter the lattice and occupy the voids to stabilize the lattice crystal. Hydrate formation is governed by the size of the host molecule, and its solubility in water. Size is an important parameter-the molecule should be small enough to properly orient itself within the water structure to best use the available space, and large enough to get entrapped. Smaller molecules. such as those of methane, can a\'oid entrapment because of their smaller size and rapid, random moyement. Solubility affects the rate of formation because it governs the availability of the guest molecule to the water.

184

Cos Production Engineering

Gas-Water Systerns and Dehydration Processing

185

Hydrate Formulas

:G

HYO:.l.n LIQlIlD HYOIIQC4RSQ

Two types of crystalline structures have been pro~ for gas hydrates. Smaller molecules, such as methane, ethane, and hydrogen suJfide, form a body-centered cubic lattice. called Structure I. Structure II is a diamond lattice, formed by larger molecules, such as propane and isobutane. Cas mixtures (orm both Structure I and II type hydrates. The number of water molecules associated with each molecule of the gaseous component included in the hydrate is known as the hydrate nllmber. Since different number of guest molecules can enter the water lattice and stabilize it into a hydrate. no specific hydrate number can be given for tt particular hydrate. The limiting hydrate number. a theoretical quantity determined using the size of the gas molecules and the size of the voids in the water lattice. serves as a useful parameter, although hydrate structures are stable at less than 100% occupancy of the voids. For molecules in Structure I. the limiting hydrate number is 5.75 for the smallest gases (CII I ). and 7.667 for medium sized gases (CZH6). For the largest molecuJes associated with Structure II, the limiting hydrate number is 17 (CPSA, 1981). Calloway et al. (1970) report experimental values for methane in the range of 5.8 to B.3, and for ethane from 7.9 to 8.5. Thus, hydrate molecules can typically be represented as:
Methane: Ethane: Propane: lsobutane: CH 4 BH2 0 C,H,. BH,O C,H,. 17H,O i-C.H 10. 17H2O Nitrogen: Carbon dioxide: Hydrogen sulfide: N2 . BH.O

,
I KYOR0CI0R90H V~POR PftESSORE CURVE---...........

I I

""... TER

I
llQlIlD NTtl-ROCloIIe WUER __ -

Figure 5-9. Phase equi-

librium diagram for a gas-water-hydrate system.


I

I
:

~ "
HYQRUE

- -r HYDIU.T(

IF _ _ -

HYDROC ... RBDH V"'POR

I IHI'~~S I. I w... t R

'"

, ,
I
I I

HYQfl~T[

CliRVE

, I , ,
,
I

HYDIIOtJ,lIeOH V... POR

+
FREEZING POINl ClIIIV(

L.- W~lEII

HlDIIOCAR80N
VAPOR

'"

"
lZ"F

CO,.6H,O
H 2S. BHzO

Normalbutane does form a hydrate. but it is very unstable. Paraffins higher than butane do not form hydrates. Hydrate Phase Behavior Figure 5-9 shows the phase equilibrium diagram for a gas-water-h),drate system. Line ABCD represents the hydrate curve, HFCI is the vapor pressure curve for the hydrocarbon gas, and EBFC is the curve representing the solid-liquid equilibrium for water (or, the water freezing point curve). The hydrocarbon gas is assumed Single-component to simplify the phase equilib. rium representation. These lines delineate different regions in the phase equilibrium as follows: 1. Hydrates exl~t in the pressure-temperature region above the hydrate cune ABeD. Below the hydrate curve, and to its right. no hydrates can form.

2. Above the vapor pressure cun'e HFCI. the hydrocarbon exists in the liquid state. 3. Towards the left of the line EBFC, water exists in the solid form as ice. On the right of EBFC. water will be in the liquid state. In practice. the region towards the left of the line EBFC wiJI hard1y ever be encountered. except perhaps in extremely cold areas.

Note that in Figure 5-9. the hydrate cur ....e becomes ....ertical at the point where it intersects the hydrocarbon ,apor pressure curve. This intersection, C, therefore represents the maximum hydrate forming temperature. Conditions Promoting Hydrate formation For a gas to be a hydrate former, it must satisfy two criteria: (I) it should be of the covalent bond type, with molecules smaller than 8 A0 units; and (2) the gas, when in the liquid state, must be immiscible with watcr. The gas hrdrate that is formed will be stable if the hydrate is water resistant and no Van der Waals' forces arise between the hydrate molecules. If these conditions are met stable hvdrate formation is possible under certain conditions governed by 'the hydr~te phase equilibrium behavior. In natural gas systems, the gases mentioned earlier as being hydrate formers, satisfy these cri-

186

Gal Production Engineering

Gas-Water Systemf and Dehydratioll Processing

187

teria. The primary conditions necessary for a natural gas to form stable hydrates can be summarized as follows:
1. Natural gas at or below the dew point with liquid water present. ro..'o hydrate formation is possible if "Cree" water is not present. 2. Low temperatures. at or belO\\ the hydrate formation temperature for a gh'en pressure and gas com}X)Sition. 3. Hi~h operating pressures, that may raise the hydrate formation temperature to the operatin~ temperature.
Secondar~

JOOO

20 10

2000

factors that aid and accelerate hydrate formation are (CPSA.


-:;;

1000

7.0

1981), I High ,e\ocities, or agitation. or pressure pulsations. 2. Presence of a small "seed" crystal of hydrate. 3. Presence of H 2S and CO 2 aids hydrate formation because both these acid gases are more soluble in water than the hydrocarbons.

7110
~OO

5._ 3.0 2.0 1.0

;300

Prediction of Hydrate Formation Figure 510 shows the hydrate forming conditions for natural gas compoReferring to Figure 5-9 it ean be seen that the general procedure for hydrate prediction would invoke prediction of the hydrocarbon vapor pressure curve (line HFCI). and only the portion BC of the hydrate curve (operating conditions in the region AB are never encountered, and the part CD of the hydrate curve is a vertical straight line). The hydrocarbon vapor pressure curve can be predicted using any of the several available correlation~. or equation of state methods disclliSed in Chapters 2 and 3. Correlations for predicting the hydrate curve are disclliSed here,
nenl~.

o. ,
0.5

"
30 20

0.3 0.2
O. !

ID!,-__~__""'__""'__""'__:::-__~"
~ ~ ~ ~
0

ro
F

00

90

Tf"iPtnture,

Figure 5-10, Hydrate forming conditions lor natural gas components. (After Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

Approximate\ferhod for SWl'f'1 Gases

As a first approximation. the data presented in the Cas Proce;,SOf<> Suppliers Association (cPSA) charts shown in Figures 5-11 through 5-16 can be used. These charts do not account for the presence of H 2S and CO 2, Hydrate formation can be divided into two categories (Ikoku, 1984): (1) hydrate formation due to a decrease in temperature (or increase in pressure) with no sudden expansion (or compression), such as in flow strings and surface lines: and (2) hydrate formation due to sudden expansion, Stich as in flow-provers, orifices, chokes, and back-pressure regulators (sometimes bot. tom-hole chokes, BHe. are used to avoid sudden expansion, and consequently, avoid hydrate formation). For hydrate formation of type I, Figure 5-11 can be used for predicting the approximate pressure-temperature con-

ditions for hvdratc formation. Figures 5-12 to 5-16 are used for estimating hydrate fon~ation conditions for situations of type 2. In particwar, Figures 5-12 to 5-16 are used for determininK the permissible expansion. ,vithout hydrate formation, of a gas with a given gravity.
Example 5-4. A 0.685 gravity gas i.~ at 500 psia and l(x)F. To what value can the temperature be reduced without hydrate formation?

Solution From Figure 5-11, hydrates will form at or below a temperature of 54E

188

Ga$ Product/on Engineering


CQ~Uat('r

Systems alld Dehydration Processing

Erampk 55. How far can the pressure be lowered without expecting hydrate formation for a 0.685 gravity gas if it is initially at (a) 1,500 psia and 100' F, and (b) 1,000 psia and 100F.
Solution
(a) From Figure 5-12 for a 0.6 gravity gas. the intersection of the 1.500 psia initial pressure line with the 100F irtitial temperature CUT\-', gives a final pressure of 490 psia. Similarly. from Figure 5-13 for a 0.7 gru\'ity gas, the final pressure is equal to 800 f6ia. By interpolation, the 0.685 gravity gas can be expanded without hydrate forma. tion to a pressure - 490 + (800 - 490)(0.685 - 0.6)/(0.7 - 0.6) 753.5 psia.

'" '~me.
,

INITIAL TfM1fUTUU. OF

4000

1//1/ '/ /
~V:b'/
~/.f

1/

, ~

2000

Q. r!l
~ 1000

f1

(b) Refer to Figures 5-12 and 5-13.


The lOO"F initial temperature curve does not intersect the 1,000 psia initial pressure line for a 0.6 gravity as well as a 0.7 gravity gas.
6000
4 000

,
]

/
/

ff

,
/ /

""'f---/r-:-'+--+++++1+tt---t-t- ~
co
JOO

f ...,r pr ........... P""

t
<

150
4

1--....
r.~

Figure 5-12. Approximate permissible expansion of a O.6-gravity natural gas without hydrate formation. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981, courtesy of GPSA.)

~ < zoe 1-,(

.,
4

",l7// t?'
////

rP' 0/'

Hence, the gas at these conditions can be expanded to any pressure without hydrate formation.
Katz et aL ,\(ethod

00"
40
Y>

ee

00
Te"'P"',ahJ,.,
f
]I)

00

~-=-,.,

The Katz et a1. (1959) method is based upon the principle that the gases entrapped in a natural gas hydrate resemble solid solutions, because on release during the decomposition of the hydrates, they increase in density. It uses vapor-solid equilibrium ratios, K,~, first proposed by Carson and Katz (1942), K .. - yfx.

Figure 5-11. Pressure-temperature curves for approximate prediction of hydrate formation for natural gases. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy of GPSA.)

(5-9)

where y - mole fraction of hydrocarbon in the gas on a water-free bas~ X. - mole fraction of hydrocarbon in the solid on a water-free basiS

'90

CD' PrOOtlcljoll Engineering

Gas-Water Systems cmel Dehydration Proces$ing

'9'

~ NlTLAl
I

Efro'o'UAtUtf

f II.

~
,
./

'/

j ; ,/,
/
~///

'/

,,

~
! i
i

~
,
1

--II

';'l'/

V/ / v,/
Z/

,//,V

/1/

:;0:

1
,

, ,

;;i
,
,

! i

?7

1
,_."

V"

r.'

,,/

..... j

i~ -

""-

.:.

.-.........,-

00

1!oOO 2ODO

3OilO

Figure 5-13. Approximate permissible expansion of a O.7-gravily natural gas without hydrate formal1on. (From Engmeenng Data Book 1981 courtesy 01 GPSA)

Figure 5-14. ApprOXimate permiSSible expansion of a O.8-gravity natural gas WIthout hydrate formation. (From Engineenng Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

From this deinition of K,,, it is clear that K" is equal to (XI for gases that are non-hydrate formers. Thus. for hydrocarbons heavier than butane, K" is CD. The original method assumes that nitrogen is a non-hydrate former. and that n-butane, if present in mole fractions less than 5%, has the same K, value as ethane. Theoretically. this is incorrect, but from an applications standpoint, e\-'cn using a K,~ equal to 00 for both nitrogen and n-butane gives acceptable results (Campbell, 1984a). K" values for components in a gas can be found from Figures 5-17 through 522. Hydrates will form when the foUowing equation is satisfied:
Er~ I

This method accounts for H2S and CO 2 and has proved to be very reliable up to about 1,000 psia. A gas with an H ~S content greater tha!l 20% can be considered to behave like pure HzS regarding hydrate forming characteristics. To account for gases that contain large amounts of nitrogen, Heinze (1971) gave the following relationship, valid up to a pressure of about 5,800 psia:

" E (y,K~)
T
h" - 0.445

,' ,~I:cc= -

(5-11)

(y K, ...:) - 1.0

(5-10)

Thus, caJculation of the hydrate forming condition is similar to the dew point calculation for multi-component gaseous mixtures.

where Th - hydrate formation temperature. K

'92

GQ" Product/ou En~illf~mng

CQ"- Water- System" Qnd Dehydration Processing

193

-INITIAl TEMf'flAMf

"

H!\-1
-\iii ,

-~

a
,
/

:::--:
I---

!::

,,

~
/

Y.%
Ii:' /
/

,
/

~ I
!

~.,

-l-'
,

IJ

' , , , ,,

,,'

Hf

1>;'- V

t
,
,

to',.,

V
/

~
f.:"

, ,

.,

.,,
."

,,

"" ,., "'" "'" .........

Figure 515. Approximate permissible expansion of a O.9-gravily nalural gas without hydrate formation. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

1500

8(X)

101

IlCX)

2000 JIXD

,
11'1.,/
~

l~
'.001_.-

Figur e 5-16. Approximate permissible expansion of a 1.().gravity natural gas without hydrate formation. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

Examplr 5-6. The gas given in Example 5-2 is at 500 psia. At what temperature will hydrates form? Solution

At 60F
Coml2'

At 55F

Thus, the hydrate forming temperature corresponding to a 500 psia pressure is between 55F and 60F. Further guesstimates may be made to converge to the temperature value that makes r: Yi/Kvo;I - 1.0. From a simple interpolation, the hydrate forming temperature can be calculated as:
T, - 60 - (60 - 55)(1 - 0.8801)/(1.1159 - 0.8801) - 57.5F
Trekell-Campl)eU Method JOt" /'ligh-Prntnlre Gas

-.iL
0.800 0.050 0.DJ5 0.005 0.025 0.065 0.020

K'~i

y;lK':>I

C, C, C,
n-C~

~
1.61 0.79 0.106
~

lI/K,,,,
0.4969 0.0633 0.1415 0.0 0.0094 0.4048 0.0

1.69 1.23 0.24


~ ~

CO,
H,S

N,

0.28
~

0.4734 0.0407 0.0625 0.0 0.0 0.3038 0.0 0.8801

2.65 0.21
~

Trekell and Campbell (1966) provide corrections to the Katz et a1. method to extend its applicability to higher pressures and account for the negative effect of the presence of non-hydrate forming molecules that are too large to fit into the voids in the water lattice. The Trekell-Campbell method uses
(text continued on page 197)

l.J 159

19<

COl Proouction Enginunng

Gas- WatN Systems

GIld

Dehydration Processing

195

Figure 517. Vapor-solid equilibrium constants for methane_ (After Carson and Katz, 1942; reprinted from Engineering Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy of GPSA.)

,-_....
Figure 5-18. Vapor-solid equilibrium constants for ethane. (After Carson and Katz, 1942; reprinted from Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.) Figure 5-19. Vapor-SOlid equilibrium constants lor propane. (After Carson and Katz, 1942; reprinted from Engineering Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy of GPSA.)

...
08

Cas- Water Systemr and Deh!ldration Procuring

'97

"

" o
OJ

t#+

,00/r , c
",}
,O~ 'I> ,0
,0-

./

02

l".l

K
0'

f
iI

oce
008 00-

,01

"

.,

'"

10 80 Tempera"". , O f

80

'3 0

~1:co -L '

,.,.

,.,.
I

./ol,lbetu.

Figure 5-22. Vapor-solid equilibrium constants for H2S. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

A"~.. : . .
TEMPERATURE of

(!ext continlled from page 193)

"

"

"

"

Figure 5-20. vapor-solid equilibrium constants for iso-butane. (From EngineerIng Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)
J0

.0

8P7,091\

,. ' ,0

, , , , , , , , ,, , , , ,, , , ,, , , , , ,

, , , , , , , , ,, ' , , , ' ,, ,, , ' ,


~

" ,

methane as the reference gas. The additive effect of other hydrate forming gases, Cz, ell n-C., iC~, and H~, at different pressures is determined from Figures 5-23 to 528. CO i is ignored. Non-hydrate formers are grouped together into the pentanes plus (C 3 +) group, and their hydrate depression effect is determined from Figures 5-29 and 5-30 as a function of the mole% pentanes plus, and the mole % pentanes plus on the basis of the gas fractions from 4 to C~. This latter parameter can be written as:

I I

, , ,

YC3t (100 %) l-Yc\- Yc 3+

o
oJ

, ,

,00

;::::

::::- v. ; / o

, "

"

I~

60

Figure 52 1. vapor-solid equilibrium constants for CO;2- (From Engineering Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy of GPSA.)

where YCI' Y 3+ - mole fractions of methane and pentanes plus, re;pecC tively. in the gas. Figures 5-23 to 5-28 indicate the hydrate forming temperature for methane at various pressures. To find the hydrate forming temperature at any pressure, the appropriate chart is used to read off the temperature displacement for the gas components as a function of their mole% in the gas. These temperature displacements are added to the methane-hydrate-forming temperature. U any pentanes plus are present, their effect (negative) is also added. The sum then gives the hydrate forming temperature at the pressure of interest. These calculations may be repeated for several pressures to obtain the hydrate curve for the gas.
(tnt continued
OIl

page 204)

19.

Ga, Production Engineering

Gas- Walt'T S!lstNru and Dehydration Proces.nng

199

,
KYDltATE i'UOICrtOti CKAl.T VOl 6.9 I'!P. {lOOO pd_]

:K)

II

12

l)

K'(DRAT'! fttOICTION CIV.IlT rOf. D.8 1'1" (2000

p.tO!

Figure 5-23. Trekell-Campbell temperature displacement chart for hydrate formers al 1,000 pSia. (After Trakell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted Irom Campbell, 1964a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

Figure 5. 24 . Trekell-Campbelltemperature displacement chari for hydrate formers at 2,000 psia. (After Trekell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

200

Co, Production Engineering

Cos Water Synenu and Dehydratwn Processing


TEI'IP!lATt/U. OlSPlACEK[IIT. AT. DC

201

TDtPlIATlJU DISPlACIllENt OT.

'0
HYDRATE I'UDlCTlOJ( CHAJ.T rOIl 20.1 M" [lOOO poh]

KYDlAT! PUOICTIOll CKAJlT

,01.

27.61'1P. (4000 pol_1

Figure 5~2S. Trekell-Campbetltemperature displacement chart for hydrate formers at 3,000 psia. (After Trekell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

Figure 5-26. Trekell-Campbelltemperature displacement chart for hydrate formers at 4,000 psia. (After Trekell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

202

Go" Productum Engineering


o
TDtNU.nru DlSP1.o\C!HZIIT.o. T

Cos- WaIn SyJteml and Dehydration ProceMing

"c

203

2,

o.

,
tn'lIRAn PI.l:DU:tION C1tAI.T rot. 34.5,.. ()OOO pd_)

o.

Figure 5-27. Tr~kell-Campbell temperature displacement chari for hydrate formars 815,000 pS18. (After Trekell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

tn'DIA.T! lUOICTIOII C1t.UT

roa

41.4",_ [6000

p"al

Figure 5-28 . Trekell-Campbelltemperalure displacement ?hart for hydrate formers al 6,000 psia. (After Treke!! and Campbell. 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petro/eum Series.)

204

Cas Production Engineering

Co.t-Waler Sysleml and Dehydratian Processing

205

(tert continued from page 197)

The Trekell-Campbell method is applicable to gases in the pressure range of 1.000-6,000 psia.

,,

TDtPEItATIJU OISPUCDWIT (-6T), DC

Exampk 5-7. For the gas with composition given below, nnd the hydrate formation temperature corresponding to a pressure of 6,000 psia.
Soilltion

)',~.(1 00.J I-)"L-)'C~'

Comp.

-1L
0.810 0.050 0.025 0.Ql5 0.010 0.015 0.025 0.050 1.000

.c:1T. of
75.60 0.75
4.1

C, C, C, n_C.
iC~

.,

C" CO,
H,S

0.25 1.9 -1.17 0.0 0.0 81.43

'l--~

, ,,

In this table, the aT values for CI. C 2, C 3, n-C. and i-C~ are obtained from Figure 5-28. Note that H~ has a negligible effect on the hydrate fo rmation temperature at high pressures and is therefore not reported in Figure 5-28. The value of ()'e,.)(IOO%) / (1 - Ye, - Ye,,) - (0.015)(100) /(1 _ 0.810 - 0.015) - 8.57 In Figure 5-30, interpolation is made between the 8.0 and 9.5 lines to get aT - - 1.17 corresponding to C 5 .. - 1.5%. Thus, the hydrate forming temperature corresponding to a 6,000 psia pressure is 81.43, or B1.4F.
M cUod-CompbeU Method for \'ny High Pre&YUre Su:ut Ca.

Figure 5-29. Trekell-Campbell temperature displacement chart for non-hyd.rate fOfmers (pentanes plus) at 1,000 psia. (After Trekell and Campbel!, 1966, reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Serles.)

Table 5-1
~ Values for the Mcleod-Campbell Method for Predicting Hydrate

For gases alxwe 6,000 psia, the Trekell-CampbeJl approach is not quite valid. For the 6,000-10,000 psia pressure range, McLeod and Campbell (1961) propose the following relationship:

Formation '
Pressure

K. VIIlues

(5-12)
where Th - hydrate forming temperature, DR The KJ values are as shown in Table 5-1. The mole fractions of the components, Yr. are normaJized to the C 1 to C~ content. All other components in the gas are ignored. The method, therefore, has limited applicability.

MP,
41.4

Psi.

C,

C,
20806
20 848

0, 28 28 28 29 29 38' 700 784 182 200

'-e,
'" 696

n-C.
17 340
17 358

0000
7000

".3
55.2

"933
"096
19246 19367 19489

30 913 31 109 30 935

0000
9000 !O 000

20 932

62_1
00.0

. After McJ...oood .nd C.mpbell,

"094 21 105

'" 935

17 491
17868 17868

""

206

Gas Production Engineering

Gas-\\ater Synem.y and Dehydration Procnnng


I'DIP'U.\'IIIJ.! DUP'UoCEHEH'I

207

Example 58. Repeat Example 5+7, using the McLeod-Campbell method.

0.)

(~),OC

Solutio"
YC5{lOClSj

Compo

" "

C,
C,

---'0.810 0.050 0.025 0.015 0.010 0.015 0.025 0.050

v -, 0.8901 0.0549 0.0275 0.0165 0.0110

K,
18,933

1 - YCl - YC5.

C,
n-C 4 i-C 4

20,806 28,382
17.340 30,696 0.0 0.0 0.0
~
1.0

'.0
'.0

C,.
CO, H,S

i I.' S
E

'.0

Using Equation 5-12. T, ~ (3.89)(19,398.78"') _ 541.80 oR _ 81.8 oF. Note that this compares well with the value of 81.4F determined using the TrekelJ-CarnpbeU method in Example 5-7. EqlUlhlnl of State Methods

1.0 1.0

0.'

0.1

o
o
o.~

t.O

I.S

1.0

Several complex computer solution methods have been developed for predicting hydrate (orming conditions. Most equation of state methods are based upon the Van der Waals and Platteeuw (1959) statistical thermody_ namic equation for the chemical potential of water in the h}'drate lattice. The different methods essentially use different intermolecular potential functions. Van der Waals and Platteeuw (1959) used the Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential. Nagata and Kobayashi (1966) used the Kihara potential that they showed to be better than the Lennard-Jones model. Parrish and Prausnitz (1972) expanded the concept of fitting hydrate parameters to develop a generalized method for predicting hydrate dissociation pressures for gas mixtures, using the Van der Waals and Platteeuw (1959) equation and the Kihara spherical core model. Ng and Robinson (1976) have added. another adjustable parameter to the Parrish and Prausnitz (1972) algorithm to improve prediction of the dissociation pressures for multicomponent gases. Holder and Hand (1982) presented a modified form of the Parrish and Prausnitz (1972) model.

TDG'lUtvU aluactlOll h~r)

.,

Figure 5-30. Trekell-Campbell temperature displacement chart !or non-hydrate formers (pentanes plus) in the pressure range of 2,000-10,000 pSla. (After Trekell and Campbell. 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

The complexity of these models precludes further discussion here. These methods too can at best give only approximate an.ruers and should be used with caution. Preventing Hydrate Formation The permanent solution for hydrate problems is dehydration of the gas to a sufficiently low dew point. Commonly used dehydration methods include

208

Gt Prodlll:t/on Engineering

Cas-Water Systems Qnd Dellytiration Processing

209

absorption dehydration using a liquid dessicant. adsorption dehydration using a solid dessicant, and ~imultaneous dehydration and gas-liquid separation by expansion dehydration. At the wellsite. two techniques are applicable: (1) heating the gas stream so that it becomes undersaturated, and maintaining flowlines and equipment at temperatures above the hydrate point; and (2) in cases where liquid water is present and the flowlines and equipment cannot be maintained above hydrate temperatures. inhibiting hydrate formation by injecting ad. dith'es that depress both hydrate and freezing temperatures. This latter technique is discussed in the following section. Note that in practice. hydrates are a problem only when allowed to accumulate and grow to a size that restricts or stops the flow. Otherwise, they are of no consequence.

Hydrate Inhibition by Additive Injection Additive injection is generally required for gas streams from producing as well as storage wells in order to prevent corrosion and hydrate formation in the gas gathering and transmission systems. In some cases, gas being injected into a reservoir for st(lrage purposes also requires the addition of certain additives to protect the casing, tubing, and sand face (Curry, 1981). Types of Additives The mast common additives are methanol, ethylene glycol (EC), and diethylene glycol (DEC). Methanol is used the most, because it disperses well in the gas stream, is readily available in bulk, is the least expensive, and, consequently, does not require recovery. Methanol, however, can cause contamination problems in plants. Whereas most additives are recovered and recycled, methanol recovery is often uneconomical. Methanol injection is very useful in cases where low gas volumes prohibit dehydration processing. It is preferable in cases where hydrate problems are relati . . ely mild, infrequent, or periodic, inhibitor injection is only a temporary phase In the field deVelopment program, or inhibition is done in conjunction with a primary dehydration system. EC and DEC are used primarily at low-temperature processing plants for extracting natural gas liquids. The water phase of the process liquid contains the EG or DEC, which can be recovered and regenerated. Injection Techniques In the early years, gravity-type injection systems were being used. A gravity injection system consists of a capacity tank, a sight glass, and a valve

manifold to maintain equal pressure across the chemical and to regulate its entry into the flowing gas stream. This resulted in a generally sporadic injection and poor inhibitor dispersion, leading to freeze..offs (hydrates formation) during the operations. To counter these problems, newer systems that feed the additive at a uniform rate into the gas stream. such as the pneumatically powered chemical injection pumps, have been designed. Continuous injection is also desirable from the standpoint of field personnel who can then operate on a regular basis. Further. precise chemical requirements can be predicted and bulk purchases made at possibly lower costs. The injection pump is usually of the positive-displacement type, so that it pumps a constant amount of chemical into the gas stream, regardless of the pressure of the gas against which it must inject the chemical. Since positive displacement pumps do not sense any buildup of discharge pressure, a rupture disc is put at the discharge end of the pump. Any brass or copper components in the pump should be avoided, since these metals are subject to severe physical breakdown in the presence of sour gases. The pump injects chemical downward into the running end of a vertically installed tee of a size about one inch. The tee functions as a sort of mixing valve. Metering devices are installed to permit chemical injection at a proportional-ta-flow rate, eliminating frequent manual adjustment. As a precautionary measure in field operations, all valves and accumulator systems where free water may accumulate are precharged with methanol to prevent hydrate formation. Prediction of Inhibitor Requirements The weight percent inhibitor concentration in the aqueous phase, w, reo quired to lower the gas hydrate freezing point by dOF. is given by Hammerschmidt's equation:
w _ ",( ~;::M!-,-)(l:;coo:;t-) K+dM
(5-13)

where M - molecular weight of the inhibitor K - a constant, 2,335 for methanol, 4.000 for the glycols. Equation 5-13 can be rearranged to calculate the lowering of the gas hydrate freezing point for a given weight percent inhibitor in the aqueous phase:

d _ =;;:,-;-v.::K-,;" 100M - wM

(5-14)

210

Go" Produclion Enginet'ring

GaJ-U'tI:ter SyJtem.t and Dehydration Processing

211

Typically, Equation 5-13 would predict injection requirements of 2-3 gallons of methanol per MMscf of gas. In practice, only about 1 to 1.25 gallons per M\1scf may be required in most cases. Thus, Equation 5-13 is designed to overpredict chemical requirements so as to yield "safe" numbers. Consequently, the process of inhibition is really quite economical if the minimum re<luired amount of chemical is injected.. This is usually determined in field operations by reducing chemical amounts to a point where hydrate fo rmation (freeze-off) begins to occur, and then keeping chemical injection just s1illhtly above this rate. \.inst predictive techniques arE' no bt-tter than a rule of thumb; it is advisable to correctly evaluate chemical requirements by field-testing.

Table 5-2A Physical and Chemical Properties of Glycols"


Ethylen. Glycol Molecular weight Specific grll,it}' lit 68~F Spceific weight. Ib.:gal Boiling point at 760 mm IIg, F Fn=.ing point. Of Surface tension at 77" F. dvnes/cm Hea't of ,.porizalion at JOO mm Hg, Btwlb After Siulb. 19i8_ Diethylene Glycol Trlethylene Glycol

62,07 I 1155 9_292 387.i 91 47.0

106.12 1.1184 9.316 474,4 IR 0 44,8

150.17 1.12.55 9.375

"'24' "
45_2 174

3&1

23'

Absorption Dehydration Absorption dehydration involves the use of a liquid dessicant to remove water vapor from the ga.~. Although many liquids possess the ability to ab.o:;orb water from gas, the liquid that is most desirable to use for commercial dehydration purposes should possess the following properties:

Table 5-28 Variation of TEG Properties with Temperature"


Sp Helt, Btullb -F
0,48:s 6.'" 0.52 0S35 0" 0.57 0585 0.00 0.635 0.65

Temp.,

1. High absorption efficit::nc),. 2. Easy and economic regeneration. 3. Non-corrosive and non-toxic. 4. No operational problems when used in high concentrations. 5. No interaction with the hydrocarbon portion of the gas, and no contamination by acid gases.
The glycols, particularly ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DE C), triethylene glycol (TEC), and tetraethylene glycol (T.EG), come the closest to satisfying the<>e criteria to varying degrees. Glycols are preferred because they offer a superior dew-point depression. with process reliability and lower initial capital and operating costs. For a lO-MM.scfd plant, soud dessicant will cost about 53% more than a TEG plant, and for a 5O-MMscf/d plant, it will cost 33% more than TEC (Guenther, 1979). Wherever it can meet dehydration specifications, economics usuall)' favors glycol dehydration over other processes (GPSA, 1981). The equipment is simpler to operate, maintain, and automate, and plant operation is continuous. Furthermore, glycols can be used in the presence of materials that may foul-up a solid desiccant, and can be regenerated . Glycols can be used for sour gases, but acid gas absorption necessitates certain precautions (Table 5-2A). Of all the glycols, almost all the plants use TEG because of lower vapor losses and better dew-point depression (Table 5-28). TEG has been success-

O F
50 75 100 125 150 175

Sp Gr
I 134

Viscosity
88 56

Thenul Conductivity, Btu/(hr Itl - Flit)


0_14 0.138 0.132 0.130 0.125 0.121 0.118 0.113

1123
I III I 101 1.091

23
15.5
6.1 6.1

200 225 250 300

LOBO L068
1,0157

<.0
3.1

103<
1.022

L' L5

, Aft.... Siv.lls. 1976,

full y used for dehydrating sweet as well as sour natural gases to effect a dew-point depression of 40 to 140F. for operating conditions ranging from 25-2,500 psig and 40_160F (Ikoku. 1984).

Process Flow Scheme


Figu re 5-31 shows a typical flow sheet ror a glycol dehydration plant de. scribed in detail by Si\'alls (1976). The wet gas is first sent to a scrubber to remove any liquid water and hydrocarbons. sand. drilling mud, and other solid matter. These impurities must be thoroughly removed, because they

214

GO! Production Engineering

Cas-Water SyslemJ and Dehydratian Processillg

215

1. Methanol, absorbed by the glycol along with water from the gas stream, increases the heat requirements in the regeneration system. 2. High methanol injection rate;, and carryover of slugs of liquid methanol can cause flooding in the absorber and regeneration system. 3. Aqueous methanol is corrosive to carbon steel, leading to corrosion in the reboiler and still. 4. A methanol recovery unit is required at the water \'apor outlet, because methanol cannot be vcnted directly to the atmosphere due to en vironmentaJ hazards.

Glycol Plant Ocsign (After SivaJIs, 1976) The primary variables required for the design include gas now rate
(M~tscfd); gas gra\;ty; operating pressure (psia); maximum working pres-

sure in the contactor (psia): gas inlet temperature rF): and outlet water content required in the gas (Ibm, MMscf). In addition, two criteria must be selected for the design:

Any dirt or impurities can contaminate the glycol solution severely. Overheating the glycol can lead to solution decomposition, with both low as well as high boiling products. The reaction products form a sludge that collects on the heating surfaces. reducing process eHiciency and in some cases, causing complete flow stoppage. This can be avoided by installing a filter at the downstream end of the glycol pump. Glycol becomes quite corrosive with prolonged exposure to oxygen (GPSA. 1981). For this reason, a dry gas blanket is sometimes provided on the glycol surge tank. Presence of oxygen in the gas stream, however, mav require special precautions. Corrosion may also be a problem in the presen~ of acid gases. A low pH accelerates decomposition of glycol. Generally, pH is controlled in the range 6.0-7.5, measured at a 5050 dilution with dis. tilled water, to avoid glycol decomposition (GPSA, 1981 ). Carryover of liquid hydrocarbons can result in solution foaming. Foam inhibitors are normally used to avoid such a situation. Removal of all liquids from the gas is necessary before sending it to the contactor. because these liquids may, over long periods of time, leave crystalline deposits in the con. tactor. To prel-'ent condensing of any hydrocarbons in the contactor, the inlet dry glycol must be maintained at a temperature slightly greater than that of the gas stream (Sivalls, 1976). Liquid hydrocarbons carried over into the stripping still cause severe damage. They may lead to vapor flooding in the reboiler and still due to the increased vapor load. Consequently, glycol will be carried out of the stiJI along with the gas and water vapor. Heavier-end hydrocarbons will cause coking in the still and reboiler. and may also hinder glycol reconcentration. H~ghly concentrated glycol is very viscous at low temperatures, helow approximately SOF. A heater may be required, especially in cold climatic conditions where the nowlines may solidify completely. Finally, to ensure good gas-glycol contact, all absorber trays must be completely filled with glycol at all times. Sudden liquid surges should be avoided to minimize solution carry-over losses.

1. Glycol to water circulation rate. Requirements are generally in the range of 2-5 gal TEC per lb water removed (CPSA. 1981 ); most field installations use 2.5 to 4 gal TEC'lb H 20 removed (Ikoku, 1984). 2. Concentration of the lean TEC from the regeneration system. This ranges from 99.0% to 99.9%: most designs use a 99.5% lean glycol concentration.
The glycol to water circulation rate depends upon the lean glycol concentration, and the number (and efficiency) of trays in the absorber. Lean TEG concentration is determined by what the regenerator can deliver (which is primarily a function of the amount of stripping gas supplied to the regenerator), and the permissible lower limit of glycol viscosity the plant and equipment can handle. Frequently, dehydration requirements are expressed in terms of dew-point depression. This can be calculated easily as the difference between the inlet and outlet gas dew-point temperatures. Sometimes. the inlet gas temperature is known, and the outlet gas water content is specified. In either case, the inlet and outlet gases are assumed to be saturated, and their water content, or dew-point temperature, is determined using any of the available correlations. The amount of water to be removed. \V, in Ibmthr, can be calculated as follows: IV, - (q/24)(W, - IV,)
(5- 15)

where W I. W _ water contents, Ib waterlMMscf gas. for the inlet and outlet gas respectively. A conversion factor of 24 is used in Equation 5-15 to convert the gas rate q from MMscfd to MMscf/hr.
I"let Scrubber

The inlet scrubber is generally chosen based upon the operating pressure and gas capacity. The data shown in Tables 5-3 and 5-4, and Figure 5-32, may be used for this purpose. Cenerally, a two-phase scrubber with a 7.5 ft shell height is used.

212

Gas Productwn Engineering

--~

Co,," Water SysUms aod Dehydratian

Pr~og

213

L.
_ 0

'

.. ..,

--

Figure 5-31. Flow diagram for a glycol dehydration plant. (Afler Sivalls, 1976; courtesy of C. R. Sivalis and the University of Oklahoma.)

may lead to (oaming. flooding, poor efficiency, higher glycol losses, and maintenance problems in the glycol-gas contactor (also called absorber). A mist eliminator is also provided at the scrubber outlet to ensure good gas cleaning. The clean gas is then sent upward through the absorber, countercurrent to the flow of glycol. The absorber consists of several trays that act as equilibrium separation stages where water vapor from the gas is absorbed by the glycol. Glycol usually absorbs about 1 sci gas/gal at 1,000 psig absorber pressure (CPSA, 1981). Absorption is more in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. Dry gas from the top of the absorber is sent through a mist eliminator (to remove any entrained glycol droplets) to a gas-glycol heat exchanger (shown as glycol cooler in Figure 5-31) where the gas cools the hot regenerated gly_ col before it enters the contactor. After this heat exchange, the dry gas leaves the dehydration unit. The cooled glycol enters the absorber from the top. The wet glycol from the bottom of the glycol-gas contactor is first sent to a high-pressure filter to remove any solids that may have been acquired by it from the gas stream. The energy of this high-pressure glycol is then used to drive the glycol pump, which pumps the dry regenerated glycol to the contactor. This results in a considerable energy savings for the process. From the pump. the wet glycol flows to a low-pressure flash separator where any dis. soh'ed or entrained gas is removed. A three-phase flash separator rna}' be required if the wet glycol also contains an appreciable amount of liquid hydrocarbons absorbed from the gas stream in the contactor. The separated

gas is used either as fuel gas for the reboiler, or is vented to the atmosphere. Clycol from the bottom of the flash separator is sent to heat exchanger coils in the glycol surge tank to preheat it by heat exchange with the hot, dry regenerated glycol from the glycol regenerator. The preheated wet glycol is then sent to the stripping still, which is a tower packed with ceramic saddle.type (or other types) packing, mounted on top of a reboiler. The glycol flows downwards through the packing (that acts as equilibrium separation stages for glycol-water separation) into the reboiler Water vapor liberated from the glycol in the reboiler passes upwards through the packing, providing heat and picking up some water from the wet glycol flowing downwards. The water vapor leaves the unit from the top of the still column through an atmospheric reflux condenser that provides a partial reflux for the column (Sivalls. 1976). In the reboiler, glycol is heated to approximately 350-400F to reconcentrate it to 99.5% or more. In order to obtain glycol of such a high concentration, it is usually necessary to add some stripping gas to the reboiler (Sivalls, 1976). Using a valve and a pressure regulator, a small amount of gas from the fuel gas system is injected into the bottom of the reboiler through a spreader system. This gas aids the removal of water from the glycol by three mechanisms (Sivalls. 1976): (1) it "rolls" the glycol in the reboiler to allow any pockets of water vapor, entrained in the glycol due to the high viscosity of the glycol, to escape; (2) it lowers the partial pressure of the water vapor in the reboiler and still column, thereby allowing more water to vaporize from the glycol: and (3) it provides a sweeping action (a combination of absorption of water, and creation of a pressure drop for the water vapor to flow) to drive the water vapor out of the reboiler and stripping still system. The reconcentrated glycol is sent to the shell side of the heat exchanger, which also serves as a surge tank. Here the regenerated glycol is cooled by heat exchange with the wet glycol stream, and is accumulated for feed to the glycol pump through a strainer. From the pump, it passes through the shell side of the glycol-gas heat exchanger (glycol cooler), into the top of the absorber. Total glycol losses. excluding spillage, range from 0.05 gallMMscf for high-pressure low-temperature gases. to as much as 0.30 gallMMscf for lowpressure high-temperature gas streams (CPSA, 1981). These losses comprise mechanical carryover from the contactor, and vaporization losses from the contactor and regenerator.
Glycol Plant Operational Problems

Methanol, injected at the wellhead for bydrate inhibition. can lead to several operational problems in glycol dehydration plants:

218

COl Produt:tlon Engineering

Gal-Water Systeml and Dehydration Procasing

219

"

...
p
./
/'

"7

I
J

V /' .....- I---

:;:;;

/'

.....- I--- :--

--

.~
~~

V ~

.r~

~~

:2
/'

...

.~

. ~
~

.- ~
~~

"~
~~

'p

,.-00

~ ,

'V, V

I--1 :-.....-

:;; -- .V --v -f010

-- e- -

. r~

. ...1

~.!

.J
~,

,1- DO

,.-00
,:r o~

'V VV 'V V

VV
~

,~

,~

Figure 532, Gas capacity of vertical inlet-gas scrubbers, based upon a 0.7.
gravity gas al1000F (After Sivalls, 1976; courtesy of C. A. Sivalls and the Univer-

sity of Oklahoma)

Figure 5-33. Gas capacity of Irayed glycol-gas conlaclors, based upon a .0.7gravity gas at 100 F. (Atter Sivatls. 1976; courtesy of C. A. Sivalls and the Umversity of Oklahoma.)

ClycolGa, COl1 tactor


Contactor diameter can be selected using Figure 5-33 for a trayed-type. or Figure 5-34 for a packed-type design. Gas capacities determined using Figure 5-33 or Figure 5-34 must be corrected for operating temperature and ~as specific gravity as follows:

..,

0- 00 ,,-00
~

q - q,(C,)(CJ
where q - gas capacity at operating conditions, MMscfd qb - gas capacit)' at the base conditions of 100F for a 0.7 gravity gas, MMscfd C" C, - correction factors for operating temperature and gas grav-

Ity, respectively, as shown in Tables 55 and 56 for both the contactor types
Additional specifications for contacton; are given in Tables 57 through 5-10. The approximate actual number of trays required in the contactor (for a tray-typecontactor), or the depth of packing (for the packed-t}1Jecontactor)

V ..... V_ ~r;:V

.....-

--

,
0".................. ...,

..

1.-0 0

, -00
11,.-()!I 10'0.- ()!I

'=

,~

Figure 5-34. Gas capacity 01 packed glycol-gas contactors, based upon a 0.7gravity gas at 100F. (After Sivalls, 1976; courtesy of C. A. Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma.)

220

Cal Productioll Engineering

Gas-Water System! and Dehydration Processing


for Gas Capacity of Trayed and Packed

221

Table 5-5
Temper.ture Correction Factor,

Ct,

,
"

Glycol-Gas Contactor.
Opeqtlng temperature

e,
Tnlyed 1.07 Pock. . 0.93 0."

O F
40 50 00 70 110 90

106 105 1M
1.02
1.01

".,.; 0.9,
0.99

{, , ,

" I !

"f'..

---~-

Figure 5-35. ApprOXimate number of trays, or depth of packing, required for glycol-gas contactors. (After Sivalls. 1976; courtesy 01 C. A. Sivalls and the University 01 Oklahoma.)

I'--. '.,

100
110

100
0.'" 0.98

100
1.01 1.02

120
After Si\'alb. IQ76

I ,

Table 5-6 Gas Specific Gravity Correction Factor, g tor Gas Capacity of Trayed and Packed Glycol-Gas Contactors

I,

'"
~

......

""- "-

i'- t-i't--

t::::

,
,

..
u',

w,

Gas specific

C,
Trayed 1.14

gravity

Packed
113

,o

I I I

"'-10 ..............' _ " ..... 1((;1" H,O

0.55
0.00 065 0.70 0.75 0110 0.85 0110
After <ii llt, 1976

lOB
104 100
0.97 0.93 0.00 0.88

lOB
I().!

100
0.97

0." 0.91
0.88

"r---,---,----,---,----,
BOTTOM OF COLUMN

required, can be determined using Figure 5-35. This figure assumes that the depth of packing in feet for a packed-type column is equal to the actual number of trays for a tray-type column. This is only true when I-in. metal pall rings are used as the packing material in the packed-type contactor. Corrections for other packing types can be made fairly easily (see, for exam. pIe, C hemical Engineers' Handbook , 1984), A minimum height of packing equal to 4 ft should be used. A more accurate procedure for calculating the number of trays (or the depth of packing) required is to use the McCabe-Thiele diagrams, widely used in designing equilibrium separation process equipment. The procedure for constructing this diagram , shown in Figure 5-36, is as foll ows:
(tert co Fltinlied on page 226)

Figure 5-36. McCabeThiele diagram lor Example 5-9.

3
~
u

."

~oz
ffi
;

"

"
10

. ..

- - "II. TEG CONCENTRAT ION

"

..

"

222

G(U

Production Engineering

GUJ- Wotn

Systems and Dehydration Procesring

223

Table 5-7 Specifications for Tray-Type Glycol-Gas Contactor.Nominal

Table 5-7 Conllnued

Nomina'
Nominal

WP
~

Go.
Size CliPKity,
MMsc'd '

Nominal

Ga.
S ize

Gal Inlet and Outlet

Glycol Inlet

Glycol

Shipping
Weight. Ib

WP
P~'

DO
12 ....

s",

and Outlet

""

IS
2.4 'J :1.

,.
2'

IS'

s", ,"
I' Jl. 2'

Cooler

s",

00
12.1., . 16" lB'

Cliptlcity, MMscfd"

G Inlet and Outlet

Glycol Inlet end Outlet

Glycol
CooIN

1000

_. ,-

SIz.e

'"
W
500

" "'.

4.0 61
147

30'

36'

9'

". ,.00'

19.7
26.3 32 . 40,6

,.
6' 6'

,. ,.

3' 3' 3'

, ,.
2' 2'

". " ..

Z' x 4' 2 - x 4'

"'" 900
1.100

4.3
5.S 7.3 11,3 18.4

,. ,.
,. "

Size

Size
2)(4' 2' x 4'

Shipping Weight, Ib

3' x 5' 3' x 5' 3' x 5'


'" x 6'

'.000 2,mO
3,2(X)

IAOO

"'.
24' 31)'

3' 3' 3' 3'

". ,."

,"

1.:100
I./lOO
2.100 , 000

,.. ,
,. ,.

3' x S' 3')(-'>' 3' x 5' 3' x S"


4'x6'
.j'

36'

". x 6'
4' )( 6'

11;2"

4.400

". lB'
20'

12 1', "

'" .,.
30' 36'

2.0 32 '.3 5.3 '.3 13,1


]9.2 2i.4

6' 2' 2'


l' 3'

2'
112"
,1,'. "

3'

,. ,.
3'

,>, ' ,. ,.
'
] i/2'

11.:2"

'" ". 00'


600

35'
44.05 05,':;.2

". IS'
20'
24'
31)'

]2114"

55 .5 143

" " "

,.
,. ,.
6' 3' 3' 3' 3'

,.

B' 6' 6'

2' ,. 2'
1'2"

,. ,
'

","

','

I'
Pli!"

36'

....
48' 00'
" After
S,,'.JI~.

".

'12
29.' 39.'
49.3 6U

O
6'

,. ,.

1112 2'

6' )( S' 6')( S' 6" x S" 2" x 4' 2" x 4" 3" x 05" 3" x S" 3" x S" 3" x 05" "" x 6" 4' x 6" 6")(S6" x S" 6" x S" 2")( 4" 2" x 43" x 05" 3" x S" 3" x S 3" x 05" 4"x64"x66 x S" 6 x S" 6" x S"

6.300 7,700
9,000

". ".

27.5
37.1 49.6 62.0
j7,S

11 2'

4.200 5.500 8.500


11.800 16,200

54' 00'

6' 6' 6'

II l' 2'

1.000 1.200 1.500 1,700 2.900 3.900 6.000 7.700 10.000 12.000 105,300 1.100 1.300 1.600 1.800 3,000 4,000
0,300 8,400 11 ,300 13,"00 16,500

'200

". lB'
20'

123i~"

,.' ". ".


30' 36'

3.0 4.i 60 i,8 12,0

,.
,.

1/2 "

20'
29.8
41A

2' 3' 3' 3' 3'

,. ,. ,.
,.

3,'4 " 3';4 "

....

,..
". lB'

00' 121,.-

'" 68' SSO


3.1 4.9 6.5 8.3 13.3 22.3 32.S 44.3 58.3 74.0
91.1
j(I'

" O

,.
2'
3' 3' 3' 3'

6' 6'

,. ,.

1112" lilt"

x 6' 6' x S' 6' x S" 6" x S" 2" x 4" 2" x 4' 3" x 5" 3" x 5" 3" x 05" 3" x 05" 4" x 6" 4" x 6" 6xS6"xS6" x S2")( 4 2" x 4 3- x S3" x 05" 3"x5" 3)(05" 4-)(6" 4" x 6" 6'xS" 6' x S" 6" x S"

20,200
26,300
'.500

1,900 2,300 3,000 '.900 6,400 10,000 13,JOO IS,400 23,500 29,000 ',000 2,200 2,000 3,500 5,000 7,500 11.700 14.400 "'.000 25,000 32.000

I,Z-

...
20'
31)'

.,. ". ,..


36'

,. ,.
6'
6' 6'

, ,
'

',' ."

,. ,.
"

"

Ji12"

1112

00'

". Gat e&P"rit)' Ins! on IOO'F. 07 Ip

.nd contactor worklnll P""'u...,.

1976

.. C., Cl[lIIcily bibed un lOOF. 0,7.p IT, and v....elworking prtSSll...,

224

Gas Production Engilleerillg

Cas- Wafer Systems and Dehydration Processing


Table 5-9 Continued
Nominal

225

Table 58
Specifications for Tray-Type Glycol-Gas Contaetors'
Add to Height

51,.

Stlndard Shell
Height"

Standerd

G..
Size

00
12 4 10" lB' 24 30'

Glycol Cooler Height'


9 9
9'

For Add. Tray, el .

c.pecfty,
MM.cfd"

Gal. Inlet and Outlet

Glycol Inlet and Outlet

13 13 13

'"

13

13
13
13 13' 1.'3'

00"

,.."

"" ,,"
42'
For
.!~ndltd

13
13'
{mlf!ray ro,awctor.

9' ,.
9'

9 9 9 9' 9

, , ,.
2'

00
10

Size

Size

Glycol Cooler Size


3' 3' 2' 2' 2' 2' x S' x S' x 4' x 4' x 4' x 4'

Shipping Weight,

,.

2"

13

15 22
2.' 36 5.0 8.2 11.8 16.8 20.9 26.6 32.6

I.
25 36 53
73

16

1000

,." "'" ]C).l<


12Ji.'

00 81
23

,.
2 2 2'
2'

,..
,,"
,,"

00

,..
20"

liZ
137

1200

}(}1,'

Ahcr S;\.II . 19711.

Table 59 Specifications for Packed Column Glycol-Gas Contactors'


Nominal Nominal
WP
1440

,," ,," 20" ,."


Shipping Weight,
51lO

,..

1231,'

3.3 ,0 5.2 66 8.2 11.8 2.5 3.6


41

3' 3" 2" 2"

>,'
l'

liOO

2iOO

900
1000 1100 1300

," ,"
3" 3" 3"
2" 2" 2" 2" 3" 3" 3" 2"

1/2'

,,"
>,"
1"
112 " li2 "
11~"

I'Z'

3' x S' 3' x 5' 3' x 5'


2' 2' 2' 2" 3' 3' 3' 2'
2'

1800
2300 3500 1200 1300
1500

5A 6.9 85
12.3 2.6 3.7 45

.,"
>,'
:li."
112 "

li2"

l().ll

x 4' x 4' x 4' x 4' x 5" x 5' x 5' x 4'

1700 2200 2800 4000 1300


141lO 1600

G..
Size 00 IOJ.. 12~4 ' W Capllclty,
MMscfd'

pslg 250

Gas Inlet and Outlet Size


2' 2'

Glycol Inlet and Outlet Size


112' 12'

12"'"

Glycol Cooler Size


2' x 4' 2' x 4'
2' 2'

,.

,..
,,"
,,"

5.9
7.5

11

20"

10
25 3A
4 . ,';.:5
1.5

500

"" "" "" ,..


00"

"

2'

1i2'
1; .. '

x x

4' 4'

3"

3-

11.'

3" x :5' 3" x 5'


3' x 5'

3'
22" 2' 2' 3' 3' 3" 2' 2'
2' 2'

1liz'
I,~"

I (}l, .. 12"'.. '

22
2.6

,," ,." ,,"


600

I."

3A
44

1,2' liz'
li.' li.'

5.5
i.S 1.7

I"
1/2'
1/2'

x x x x 3- x 3" x 3" x
2' 2' 2" 2'

'"
4' 4'
~'

1lOO 650 1lOO 900 11 00 11lOO 1lOO 700

24"

9.3 12.7

2" 3" 3"

,"
3"

2'

liz"
1,'2' 112"

x 4"

2' x 4" 2' x 4"

,,"
I"

>,"

3' x 5' 3' x 5" 3' x 5"

1000 251lO

3100 4500

Mm S;"a1Is. 1976 " Cas t'apK1t} ~ on IOO"F, 0-', <P IU and r:ontactor "'orLng p ........ rr.

Table 5-10 Specifications for Packed Column Glycol-Gas Contactors'


Standard Shell Height
0'

900

75"

1().1i. 12:1/1' l4" l6' IS'

2A
3.8 4.8

"

.5.55' 2" x 4" 2' x 4'

1000 151lO 251lO


650

Size,

00
IQJ,I. ' 123f, ' l4" l6"

Standard Glycol Cooler Helghl


7' 7'

Standard Contacting Element"


I' x 4 ' " x 4' I ' x 4'
I ' x 4'

Glycol Charge, g" 6


7

9'
9' 9'

lit' li2'

3'

li.'

3' x .5"

2' x '" 2' x '"

lloo

750 1lOO 950

7'
7' -, "
7' 7'
rings of:AU

00"

,,"

8 10
12 14

Mtff Siulb, 1976 CIlJ capr.ci1r htowd on IOO'F, O.7sp gr. and ,'.....A ""orkinl pn:515llrr

""

,.

9' 0'

I' x 4 ' I' x 4'

" x 4'
lis~

Afu.r Si"a1Is. 1976 St.nd.rd oontact;nl

nrmn.t IJ carboa steel nwtal ptll1

"

in 1lt.bl,,_

22.

Gas Production Engineering

Gas- Water Systems and Dehydralian Processing

227

(text corltinued from page 220)

/'/
~

1. Determine the concentration of the rich TEe leaving the bottom of the contactor:
(5-16)

"

where C Roch , C, ...... "" concentrations of rich and It!an TEG, respecti\'ely. expressed as a fraction PLntn - density of lean TEC solution in Ibm/gal L... - glycol to water circulation rate in gal TEGllb water 2. On the McCabe-Thiele diagram, the top of the column is indicated by the water content of the outlet gas from the contactor, and the concentration of lean TEG. Similarly, the bottom of the column is repre. sented by the water content of the inlet gas to the oontactor, and the rich TEG concentration. Draw the operating line as the strai!(ht line connecting the top and bottom of the contactor column. 3. The equilibrium line is drawn using data shown in Figure 5-37, and any of correlations for the water content of gas as a function of pressure and temperature. This line represents the water content of the gas that would exist in equilibrium with the various TEe concentrations. 4. Starting from the point representing the bottom of the column, the theoretical number of trayx required are stepped off by triangulation, as shown in Figure 5-36, till the top of the column is reached. S. Use the tray efficiency factor (or packing factors) to calculate the actual number of trays (or depth of packing) required: Actual number of trays - Theoretical number of trays/tray efficiency Cenerall)'. a tray efficiency equal to 25% for bubble-cap trays, and 33.3% for valve trays is used, and the figure for the actual number of trays is rounded off to the next higher integer value. For the packed-type contactor, a minimum of 4 ft height of packing must be used.
Reboiler

,
I

~ ~ ~
~

L
/

~ ...
~
.,~

...~

,o~

......

",\

:/' :/' %/' V./' ./' /./' /' / /./ V/'" V


/.

Figure 5-37. Dew points of aqueous TEG solutions versus temperature. (After Sivalls, 1976; courtesy of C. R. Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma.)

/'
./

/'

-yP
~

I !

~.

~ ~ ~

~
,~

V
./

/'
/'
/'

V
/'

./

./'

./'
/'
/'

~,~

"

-"
_M

,/

<" V-/ ' I/' ..-;P /' <" /' ~

/'

-~

-~ -~

<" ....;:/

/'

/'

/'

_c
-~ -~

<" >I!..dY

V-

,~

n.

,~

, "

. . he heat required in the reboiler (also c~l.led An approximate calculatIOn of t be d iog the following empmcal reboiler heat load). Q in Btu/hr, can rna e us relationship: Q - 2,OOOL
(5-18)

The glycol circulation rate in gallons per hour, L, in the plant is given by:
L - L. W,(ql24)
(5-17)

hi h- ressure dehydration designs. Equation 5-18 gives good results fbor.r~ atglo:d may be made from the folA more precise estimate of the re I er e lowing procedure:
(5-19)

228

Gas Product/on Engineering

Ga.t- Water Systems aFid Dehydration Processing

229

where

QI" sensible heat required for glycol , Btulhr Q ..... heat of vaporization required for water, Btu.' hr Q... heat required to vaporize the reflux water in the still, Btu/hr Qh .. heat loss from the reboiler and stripping still, Btu .'hr

Stril"nng Still

These heat requirements are estimated from the (ollowing relationships:

OJ -

Lpc(T, - T, )

(5-20)

Q. - 970.3(q2.J)(\V - IV")

(5-21) (5-22)
(5-23)

Qr .. Qh ..
where

0.25

Q.. , assuming a

25% reflux

5,000 to 20,000. depending upon boiler size

The diameter (or cross-sectional area) of the packed stripping still for use with the glycol reooncentrator can be estimated from Figure 5-38 as a function of the glycol to water circulation rate (gal TEGllb water) and the glycol circulation rate (gal/hr). The size of a strippingstiU is governed by the vapor and liquid loading conditions at its bottom. The vapor load comprises water vapor and stripping gas flowing upwards through the still, whereas the liquid load consists of rich glycol and the reflux flowing downwards. Figure 5-38 includes stripping gas requirements, generally in the range of 2 to 10 ft'/gal TEC circulated. [f a tray-type design is used, one theoretical tra)' is usually sufficient for most cases (Siva11s, 1976). For a packed-type design, a minimum of 4 ft packing height is provided, consisting general I)' of l.S-in. ceramic saddletype packing. This height should be increased with increasing glycol recon-

p .. glycol density at the average reboiler temperature. Ibmfgal

c .. specific heat of the glycol at the average reboiler temperature, Btu/Ibm-oF T J .. temperature of the glycol entering the reboiler, O F T 2 .. temperature of the glycol leaving the reboiler, OF 970.3 .. heat of vaporization of water (Btu/lbm) at 212F and 14.7 psia

-~

, ... ,~

I_""QOC:'''''''~'''''

....,. ............

.-r_ r
r

,-,, " ,.,1 ; ......<>


0'

llill

If the size of the reboiler and stripping still is known. the heat loss, Qt.. can be more accurately estimated using Equation 5-24:

Q, - O.24A,(T, - T J
where

~
....l'
~.?

(5-24)

A.. - total exposed surface area of the reboiler and still ft i


T. - average temperature (of the fluid) in the reboiler.' of T. - ambient air temperature (the temperature of the surroundings), of 0.24 - an approximate heat transfer coefficient for the reboiler and stripping still, Btu/( hr ft 2 oF)

'-1-

, " , , , ,
,

~
,

The surface area of the firebox, A (ft2), can be determined as follows:

A - Q17,00Q

(5-25)

where 7,000 Btu/hr-ft2 - estimated design heat flux for direct-fired reboilers This calculation of A enables determination of the o\"erall size of the reboiler.

G.............., .........

- 'ol/'"

I US

Figure 5-38. Stripping still size for glyCOl dehydrators. (After Sivalls, 1976; courtesy of C. R. Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma.)

230

eo, Production Engineering

Gas- Water Systems and Deh ydration PrOCessing


T.ble 5-12 Specifications for St.ndard High-Pressure Glycol Pumps'
Circulation Rala-Gallona/Hour Pump SpeecI- StrokHIMlnule Count one stloke for each discharge of pump"

231

centrator size, to a maximum of about 8 ft for a 1 MM Btuthr unit (Sivalls, 1976). Additional specifications for glycol reconcentrators can be obtained

using Table 5-11.


Clycol Circulating Pump
Model

The size of the circu1ating pump required can be determined using the glycol circulation rate, L, and the maximum contactor operating pressure.
Table 5-11 Specifications for Glycol Reconcentratora
R.boller Glycol Cripaclty, capacity,
Btu/ hr

Number

14 IS 20 26 2B 30 3436 38 '0 1715 PV 8 10 11 IS IS 20 22 343B 38 '0 .rol S PY 28 28 30 27 31.5 36 40,5 45 49.5 54 48,5 63 67.5 72 76,5 SI &5.S 90 9015 PY 66 79 92 lOS 118 131 144 157 171 184 197 210 21015 PY 166 200 233 266 300 333 366 .00 433 466 45015 PV

10 12

14

" "

,. "

20

"

" ... ""


24

,.

2.

3. 32

3436

3840

" "

Reboller

Heet Exchanger

gph"

Size, Surge rank Ole . x Len. Size, 01 . x Len.


IS')(3',6"

Stripping Stili Size, Ole. x HI.


6'i/8")( 4'.6"

R.tle. Condenser
Size, 01. x HI. 2'. 2', 6'1'8")( 2', 6SI~')( 2'.
6'{$")(
~~.)(

Afw Si"alls, 1976. - 11 is not rooommtndnl II.> abov.: tahlt

~lItmpt

10 run pump/> al

'I~

1_ or greater than Ihose indlCat"':! in It..,

7.5,000 7.5,000 125,000 125,000


175,000 175,000 250,000 350,000 400,000 500,000 150,000 850,000 1,000,000

20

IS" x 3', 6"


18")(3',6"

35
40 70 00 100 I'" 210 250 3" <56 456 456

18")(3',6"
IS" x 5' 18")(5'
24")(5'

6'Vs" x 4',6"
&~.l6

IS" x 5'
IS" x S' 2.4' x 5' 24")(5' 24")(7' 24')( 10' 30" )( 10' 36' )( 10' 36" )( 10' 36" x 10' 36" x 10'

X 4',

6"

24")(S' 24" x 7' 24")( 10' 30" x 10' 36" x 10' 36" x IS' 42" x IS' 48" x 16'

6'1/~' x 4', 6" 8'11s"x4',6' 8'11s" x 4',6' S'I/~" x S', 0" 1O.1,~" x 5',0" l ()li~" x 6'.0" 1211~" X 7', O' 14")( 8'. 0" 1""x8',O" 16"x8',0'

O O' O' O

Gas Consumption O perating pTeSliure, psig 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 Cu ftJgal at 14.4 and 6O"F 1.7 2,3 2.8 3.4 3,7 4,5 S.O 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.9 8.3 High-pressure Filter Low-pressure Filter Size Pump Conn, Stflliner Size Size Elements Elements l/4 "
Iii"
lit"
3,', "

8'11~")( 2',0" 8:118')( 2'.0" ~8")(2',O"

x 2',6" 1()li~")( 2 ,6" 1211,")( 2'.6" 14')(3',0" 1"" x 3', 0" 16'x3',0"
1{).1,~

Pump Model 315PV 17JSPV and 815SC 40 ISPV and 2015SC 90ISPV and SOISSC 210ISPV and 1001SSC 4501SPV and 200 ISSC

lit'

I"

12lw.")(

!J3i~"

1;2 "

.,"
I" I" 11'2"

1i~ "

I"

1 -2Ji~")( 9JI~'

1'2'
1;2
1.'4 "

I" (L12"

Flash SepiflItor Haat Exch.lnge CoIl Size, Die )I Ht. Size Coli Area, sq ft 12")( 12')1 16" )( 16" )( IS" )( IS" x 16" )( 20" x 20" )( 24" x 30" x 30" )( 30")1 4S" 4S" 4S" 48" 4S" 48" 4S" 4S" 4S' 4!1' 4S" 4S" 4S"
LIt"

Glycol Pump Model 17 15PV 4015PV 4015PV 901srV 9015PV 21015PV 21015PV 2101SPV 45015PV 450lsrV 45015PY 45015PV 45015PV

Higlt-Pressure Glycol Shipping Glycol Filter Charge, WI, Size gal I"

'"

12li.")( 931~' I" 2.211," )( !J3i~' I" Il!2 " 421,," )( 9Jr4" 8-2.J.'~' x 9li4-

1" 11'2"

1-3" x IS" 1-3")( IS 1-3" x 18" 1-3" x 36" 4-3" x 18" 4-3" X 36"

l/2"
liS"

lit" lll"

.,"
III"

12.9 12.9 23.3 233 31.1 311 44.6

I" I" I" I" I"


lilt"

I!J.
Jilt'

.,"
I" I" I" I"

:l/~

"

".8 84.8
82.1 102.6 102.6 102.6

75 75 105 lOS 100 100 2tiO 375

2,100 2,100 2,200 2,250 3,200 3,200 3,700

Generally, as mentioned earlier, the glycol-powered pump that transmits energy from the rich glycol to the lean glycol, is used for glycol circulation. Table 5-12 by Sh-'alls (1976) shows sizing data for this type of pump. Table 5-12 also gives data on the amount of gas released by the pump as a fu nction of the glycol circulation rate and the contactor operating pressure. For other (motor-driven) pump types, such as centrifugal pumps or positive displacement pumps, data supplied by the pump manufacturer may be used .
Glycol Hash Se,)(lrator

2" 2"

m
880 990
1175

'" '"
'"

<,000 <,500 8,500 7,000 7,500


10,000

"25

Afler Sh.lI.s. 1976 CI~ C'&pac!h Instd on drwJating 2..1 pi TECllb HtO and l.c:onlrolled b)' the' m:.oilC'rC'&pKlty or pump C'&pKll) ... h~ b .ma.I1n.

The glycol flash separator, used downstream of the pump, should be designed for a liquid retention time of at least 5 min . T he size can be calculated as follows:
V
'OK

LtJ60

(5"26)

232

Ga .. Production Engineering

Gas- Water S!ls/ems and Deh!ldration Procesnng

233

where V - settling volume required in the separator, gal t - liquid retention time, min
E%tJmpl~ 5-9. Size a glycol dehydration plant using Sh'alls' method to meet the following requirements:

and gas gravity are both equal to 1.0. Therefore, the contactor can handle a gas rate up to 9:l MMscfd and is suitable for use.
Number of Tra!lS Rt:quin>d i,1 tht: ContactOf'"

Gas flow rate - 20,0 MMscfd Gas specific gravity - 0.7 Operating Iinf> p~lJT(> - 1,000 psig Maximum oontactor working pressure - 1.400 psig Cas inlet temperature ., 100F Outlet gas water content - 6.0 Ib H2 0 /MMscf gas

Use a tray-type contactor with bubble-cap trays, and assume the followin~ additional criteria:

From Figure 5-35, the actual number of trays required for a 3.5 gal TEGI lb H 2 0 glycol to water circulation rate and 72 F dew-point depression = 4.5. Thus, approximately 5 trays are required. For a more precise determination, construct the McCabe-Thiele diagram. From Table 5-2, specific gravity of lean glycol at 100F"" l.111, implying a glycol density - (1.111)(8.34) - 9.266 Ibm/gal Using Equation 5-16. CRI ~h '" (0.995)(9.266) / (9.266 + 113.5) 0.965'" 96.5%. Thus. the operating line points are: lOp of column: 61b HzO/MMscf and 99.5<'10 TEG Bottom of column: 61 lb 1l20lMMscf and 96.5% TEe Data points for constructing the equilibrium line are as follows: Eqlbm. dew-point temp. at 100 F (Figure 5-37),
% TEG

Clycol to water circulation rate., 3.5 gal TECflb H20


Lean glycol concentration - 99.5% TEe Solutio" From the McKetta and Wehe correlation (Figure 5-1):
Water content of inJet gas at 1,000 psig and 100 F .. 61 Ib H 20 /MMsd gas Dew point of exit gas with 61b H 2 0 / MMscf water content _ 28 F

Water content of gas at dew-point temp. and 1,000 psig (Figure 5-1),

O F
-10
12 30

Ib H,OMMrl
1.1 3.2

]hus, the required dew point depression

100 - 28 _ 72F
_

Using Equation 5-15, amount of water to be removed, W t

(20 1

24)(61 - 6) - 45.83 Ibm/h,


Jllid Scrub"" Size

99.6 99.0 98.0 97.0 96.0 95.0

6.3
9.0 11.7 13.3

40 47
51

From Table 5-3, a 36-in. 0.0. vertical scrubber is required for a 1,400psig working pressure. The same result is obtained using Figure 5-32 (with suitable extrapolation). So, use a 36-in. x 7.5-ft vertical two-phase scrubber, with a 1,440 psig working pressure.
Ccmku;lor Size

From Figure 5-33, select a 36 in. 0.0. contactor with a qb _ 27 MMscfd . From Tables 5-5 and 5-6, the correction factors for operating temperature

The McCabe-Thiele diagram constructed lIsing this information, as shown in Figure 5-36, gives the number of theoretical trays required - 1.563. Therefore, the actual number of trays required - 1.563/0.25 - 6.25, or 7 trays. This result is not in reasonable agreement with the approximate number of trays determined using Figure 5-35. It appears that Sivalls (1976) intended this figure for a valve-type contactor column. This is apparent if a tray efficiency of 0.333 is used to calculate the number of trays required from the McCabe-Thiele diagram. This gives a tray requirement of 1.5631 0.333 - 4.7, or 5 trays.

23.

Ga' Production Engineering

Cas- Water Syst.effl8 and Dehydration Proceuing


~mmary

235

On the,other hand, this discrepancy could simply be a reflection on the poor quahty of ~e ~rrel~tion shown in Figure 5-35, resulting undoubted.lv from the apprOXimations m\'oln~d in reducing a multivariable problem to ~ few select parameters.
Reboil" Ileal Load

of Requirements

Equations 5-20 through 5-23:

_.:rom Equation 5-17. glycol circulation rate. L .. (3.5}(61 )(20 '24 ) .. 1 u.92 gal hr. h om Equation 5-18. the reboiler heat load. Q .. (2 ,000 ) (lTI .92) .. 3.56 x 1()5 Btulhr approximate. For detailed calculations, assume PC(T2 - T 1) .. 1200. Then , using

Inlet gas scrubber: 36-in. 0.0. x 7.5-ft height, two-phase, 1,440-psig working pressure. Glycol-gas contactor: 36-in. 0.0., with 7 bubble-cap trays, 1,440-psig working pressure. Glycol pump: Model number 21015 PV, with 28 strokes/min pumping

,peed.
Glycol flash sep.: 2O-in. 0.0., two-phase lash separator. Reboiler: 289,OOO-Btu i hr heat load requirements. Stripping still: 8.2-in . l.o. Or, in terms of standard size units:

Q, - (177.92)(1,200) - 21.35 x lO' Btu/h,


Q. - (970.3)(20/24)(61 - 6) - 4.45 x 10' Btu/h,

Q, - (0.25)(4.45)10' - 1.11 x 10' Btu/h,

Qh ..

20,000 ,. 2.0 x

l()"

Btuihr

Scrubber: 36-in. 0.0. x 7.Sft height, l,440-psig W.P. Contactor: 36-in. 0.0. x 19-ft height, 1,440-psig W.P., with 7 trays. Reconcentrator: 24-in. x lO-ft., 350,000 Btu/hr reboiler, with 1O.7Sin. x 5-ft stripping still, 1O.75-in. x 2.S-ft reflux condenser. Flash sep.: 20 in. x 4 ft Pump: Model number 21015 PV, 28 spm.

Thus, Q .. (21.35 + 4.45 + 1.11 + 2.0)10 1 = 2.89 x lOS Btulhr

Stripping Still

Adsorption Dehydration Adsorption (or solid bed) dehydration is the process where a solid desiccant is used for the removal of water vapor from a gas stream. The solid desiccants commonly used for gas dehydration are those that can be regenerated and, consequently, used over several adsorption-desorption cycles. Some solid desiccants can dehydrate gas down to 1 ppm or less; these desiccants are wide1y used on feed streams for cryogertic processing (CPSA, 1981). The mechanisms of adsorption on a surface are of tv.'o types: physical, and chemical. The latter process, involving a chemical reaction, is termed "chemisorption." Chemical adsorbents find very limited application in gas processing. Adsorbents that allow physical adsorption hold the adsorbate on their surface by surface forces. For physical adsorbents used in gas dehydration, the following properties are desirable (Campbell, 1984b):
1. Large surface area for high capacity. Commercial adsorbents have a surface area of 500-800 m2/gm ( - 2.4 x loe to 3.9 x loa ft 2/lbm) . 2. Good "activity" for the components to be removed, and good activity retention with timeluse. Commercial adsorbents can remove practi-

. Using F~gure 5-38, the minimum internal diameter required for the stiJi - 8.2 10., based upon a 177.92 galihr glycol circulation rate, and 3.5 gal TEeIb H 20 glycol to water circulation rate. Glycol Pum"
Fro~ Table 5-12, pump model number 210IS PV, with 28 strokes/min pumping speed, is required for a glycol circulation rate of 177.92 gal/hr.
Glycol Flash SeIX1mtor

Usi~g Equ.ation 5-26, the settling volume of the flash separator required assummg a Itquid retention time of 5 min, i~; ,

v-

(177.92)(5)160 - 14.8 gal - 0.35 bbl

From Table 5-4, a 20 in. 0.0., two-phase separator is required.

236

em Production

Engineering

Gas-Water System8 and Dehydration Processing

237

3. 4. 5.
6. 7

cally all the water from a natural gas to values as low as 1 ppm (parts per million). High mass transfer rate, i.e., a high rate of removal. Easy, economic regeneration. Small resistance to gas flow. so that the pressure drop through the dehydration system is smalJ. High mechanical strength to resist crushing and dust formation. The adsorbent also must retain enough strength when "wet:' Cheap. non-corrosive, non-toxic, chemically inert, high bulk density. and small volume changes upon adsorption and desorption of water.

boos, but release them relatively more easily during regeneration. Since they are acidic, they can handle sour gases, but not alkaline materials such as caustic or ammonia. Although there is no reaction with HzS, sulfur can deposit and block their surface. Therefore, gels are useful if the H 2S content is less than 5-6 % .

Molecular Siet.-ell
These are a cr~-qallint' form of alkali metal (calcium or sodium) aluminosilicates, very similar to natural clays. They are highly porous, with a very narrow range of pore sizes, and very high surface area. Manufactured by ion-exchange, molecular simes are the most expensive adsorbents. They possess highly localized polar charges on their surface that act as extremely effective adsorption sites for polar compounds such as water and hydrogen sulfide (see also Chapter 6). Molecular sieves are alkaline and subject to attack by acids. Special acid-resistant sieves are available for very sour gaS$. Since the pore size range is narrow. molecular sieves exhibit selectivity towards adsorbates on the basis of their molecular size, and tend not to adsorb bigger molecules such as the heavy hydrocarbons. Nevertheless, sieves are subject to contamination by carryover of liquids such as oil and glycol. The regeneration temperature is very high. They can produce a water content as low as 1 ppm. Molecular sieves offer a means of simultaneous dehydration and desulfurization and are therefore the best choice for sour gaS$.

Types of Adsorbents
Some materials that satisfy these criteria, in the order of increasing cost. are: bauxite ore, consisting primarily of alumina (Alz03_xHZO); alumina: silica gels and silica-alumina gels: and molecular sieves. Activated carbon, a Widely used adsorbent, posses.'>eS no capacity for water adsorption and is therefore not used for dehydration purposes, though it may be used for the removal of certain impurities. Bauxite also is not used much because it contains iron and is thus unsuitable for sour gases.

Alumina
A hydrated form of aluminium oxide (A1 20 J ). alumina is the least expensive adsorbent. It is activated by driving off some of the water associated with it in its hydrated form (A1 z0 J .3H 20 ) by heating. It produces an excellent dew point depression to dew point values as low as - lOOF. but requires much more heat for regeneration. Also, it is alkaline and cannot be used in the presence of acid gases, or acidic chemicals used sometimes for well treating. The tendency to adsorb heavy hydrocarbons is high, and it is difficuJt to remove these during regeneration. It has good resistance to liquids, but little resistance to disintegration due to mechanical agitation b,the lowing gas. .

Process Flow Scheme


The general flow scheme for solid-bed gas treating processes is shown in Figure 5-39. The adsorption process is cyclic. For continuous operation, two beds are used in parallel. Most adsorbents tend to adsorb heavy hydrocarbons, glycols, and methanol, resulting in contamination and a reduction in desiccant capacity. These components are difficult to remove during regeneration. Therefore, for efficient desiccant performanc.'e and for a longer desiccant life, the inlet gas stream is thoroughly cleaned to remove all liquids and solids. The clean gas flows downward during dehydration through one adsorber containing a desiccant bed, while the other adsorber is being regenerated by a stream of gas from the regeneration gas heater. Gas flow is downward for dehydration so as to lessen bed disturbance due to high gas velocity, and therefore, permit higher gas rates. Regeneration gas, on the other hand, is sent upward through the adsorber to ensure thorough regeneration of the bottom of the bed, which is the last area contacted by the gas that is dehydrated. Most contamination occurs at the top of the tower, and by sending the regeneration gas upwards, these contaminants can be removed without

Gels: Silica Gel and Silica-Alumina Gel


Gels are granular, amorphous solids manufactured by chemical reaction. Gels manufactured from sulfuric acid and sodium silicate reaction are called silica gels, and consist almost solely of silicon dioxide (Si O z). Alumina gels consist primarily of some hydrated form of Al 20 J . Silica-alumina gels are a combination of silica gel and alumina gel. Gels can dehydrate gas to as low as 10 ppm (GPSA, 1981), and have the greatest ease of regeneration of all desiccants. They adsorb heavy h)"drocar-

238

CaJ Production Engineering

Gel.J- \\-'Olcf Syste/11.t and Dehydration Processing

239

~::Spected in the inlet gas stream, special design modifications are required.
The Regeneration Cycle

. some cases, insufficient gas dehydration (GPSA, 1981). U oxygen is c\'en

"Gn

A typical temperature-time plot for a dry desiccant plant is shown in Figure 5-40. It shows the relationship betw(''en regeneration gas te~perature at the inlet and outlet. and the ambient ji!;as temperature for a tYPlcal8-hr ye.. generation cycle.

"
rowER 2 (O<Y"'II)

INlit

UN!! 0 ..

IUI[N[IIIiI.l ION

...
~

!.

REGENERATION GAS COOLER

OUTLET G"-S

FILTER

To

......

:; >-

,,
"

'.

'.
to""

0"""

.'

....,......"et'

'<

L1QY",

"
SU.ItT 0'

".. to''''
~.

,_...,...

e,cr. )

<

,'. "
,
[NO O'

TWO-TOWER ADSORPTION PLANT

eyell

etel[

Figure 5-39. Flow diagram for a two-lower solid-bed dehydration plant. (After Campbell, 1984b; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

Trill

,
IIIOIHI

.f

flushing them through the entire bed. Sometimes, only the inlet (top) part of the tower is recharged with desiccant, in order to minimize desiccant replacement expense. Desiccant bed may also be rearranged, or the gas flow direction reversed, to obtain additional desiccant life. The regeneration cycle consists of t"':o parts: heating and cooling. First , regeneration gas heated to a temperature of 400_000F, greater than the fi. nal bed regeneration temperature by about SO--lOOF, is sent to the desiccant bed. Subsequently, the hot regenerated bed is cooled by letting the regeneration gas bypass, or by completely shutting off, the regeneration gas heater, This cooling gas is usually sent downward through the bed, so that only the top of the bed may adsorb any water from this gas, The hot regeneration gas and cooling gas, after flowing through the bed, are sent to the regeneration gas cooler to remove any adsorbed water, Thus, the bed acts as a sort of regenerative heat exchanger. Oxygen. even in trace amounts, can react with hydrocarbons during the regeneration cycle, forming water and CO 2 which are adsorbed and lead to,

Figure 5-40. A typical temperature-lime plot for regeneration gas and dessicant bed for a solid-bed dehydrator. Refer to the regeneration-ji!;as outlet temperature curve (curve 2) in Figure 5-40. There are four discrete intervals-A, B. C. and D-in the regeneration C}'cle, with average temperatures of T A, T B. T c. and T D, respectively, as shown in Figure 5-40. Initially, the hot regeneration gas heats up the tower and desiccant (from Tl to T2 in Figure 5-40). At about 240F (T 2), water begins to vaporize. The bed heats up at a slower rate (the curve Flattens). because a considerable portion of the heat input is used in vaporizing water from the desiccant, until point T3 is reached where all the water in the desiccant has been desorbed. The average temperature of water desorption, T B. is often assumed in design to be about 250F (see Figure 5-40). Heating is continued (from T3 to T~ in Figure 5-40) to drive off any heavier hydroca~. bons and contaminants. For a cycle time of 4 hours or greater, the bed 15 COnsidered to be properly regenerated when the outlet gas temperature has reached 350_375F (point T.). The regeneration gas now has a high water

240

Gas Production Engineering

Ca.!'-'\-'Oter Systems and Dehydration Proce&ring

241

(plus hydrcxarbon and contaminant) content. This ends the heating cycle. and bed cooling is begun. The cooling cycle is Wiuall}' terminated at about 125 ~ F (point T 5) . because any further cooling may cause water to condense from the wet gas stream and adsorb on the bed. Although Figure 5-40 is for an S-hr cycle. the relative heating and coolin$! times shown are t~llical for any cycle above 4 hoo .... (Campbell, 1984b). Analysis of the Adsorption Process (After Campbell. 1984b) Figure 5-41a illustrates the movement of an adsorption zone front as a function of time. In a dry desiccant bed, the adsorbable components are ad. sorbed at different rates. A short while after the process has begun, a series of adsorptIOn zones appear. as shown in Figure 5-41b. The distance bet\\'een sllC<.USivc adsorption zone fronts is indicative of the length of the bed involved in the adc;orption of a given component. Behind the zone, all of the entering component has been removed from the gas: ahead of the zone. the concentration of that component is zero (unless some residual adsorbed concentration exists from a previous cycle). Note the adsorption sequence: C L and C 2 are adsorbed almost instantaneously, followed by the heavier hydrocarbons. and finally by water that constitutes the last zone. Almost all the hydrocarbons are removed after 30-40 min and dehydration begins. Water displaces the hydrocarbons on the adsorbent surface if enough time is allowed. Thus. cycle length is critical. Very short cycle lengths are becoming increasingly popular. since they can simultaneously control water and hydrocarbon dew points at minimum cost. Figure 5-41c shows the character of the breakthrough CUf\o'e. The ordinate ClCo is the ratio. at any time. of the mole fraction of a given component in the exit gas to its mole fraction in the entering gas. Thus. C le o is equal to 0 until the zone front reaches the bed outJet (breakthrough) at time tb SubsequentJy, C lc., increases until time teo after which no further primary adsorption can occur. In practice. C/c., becomes greater than 1.0 for a short period of time when one component is replaced by another. The shape of this C/c., versus t curve is related to the efficiency of separation. Curve 1. a \'crtical straight line, represents an ideal case where the movement of the adsorption zone front is essentially "piston-like," whereas curves 2 and 3 are for a real case where the adsorption zone front spreads through a finite bed length. Note that the greater the spread, the more difficult it will be to delineate dry gas from partially wet gas when water breakthrough occurs. Desiccant pellet size has a pronounced effect on the spread (or length) of the adsorption zone. As shown in Figure 5-4ld, smaller the desiccant size. better and sharper is the separation obtained. Hence. the smallest size desiccant possible should be used. subject of course, to constraints of higher pres-

1~r1' tU:\--f~~~Of"il
a!([
<l '"

Figure 5-41. A schematic

representation 01 the adsorption process. (After Campbell, 1984b.)

BED LENGTH

h,

(.(

l~r(l?\
<l '"

c,' ' \ c,
BED LENGTH

\1
'

'"

j,2")'
L L4-20 MESH 2 8- LO MESH
3~-6MESH

( 'b)2 TIME

(,'

;,'OIPl
OO~
1IME(,(

3-8 MESH

sure drops that may result from doing so. Usually a 14-mesh (Tyler screen) size is used.
Design Variables for the Adsorption Process

The three basic components of an adsorption plant are: 1. Adsorber towers. 2. Regeneration and cooling equipment-depends mainly on the adsorber towers. 3. Piping and equipment-primarily a function of the allowable pressure drop and the flow scheme desired. In designing these components, the process variables that must be considered are (Campbell, 1984b): 1. Cycle time/length. 2. Allowable gas flow rate. 3. Desiccant capacity-design capacity as well as the effective or useful capacity.

Cas Production Engineering

GaJWater Systems and Dehydration Processing

243

4 Required outlet water dew point.


5. Total amount of water to be remO\"ed.

is proportional to desiccant bulk denSity, and the available area for adsorp.-

tion. Adsorber Bed Design (After Campbell, 1984b) Adsorber tower desiWi is gO\'erned by the desiccant capacity. zone length, water loading (rate of removal of water from the gas). breakthrough time. and allowable gas f10\\- rate and pressure drop. Relationships for these are discu~ in tht' <,t'1"}uence they are calculated. An often-used term in the context of adsorber tower design is the "elocit)" of the gas based upon bed diameter, known as the superficial gas \elocity. \ 'g . It is determined by converting the gas rate at standard conditions, q, to operating conditions:

6. Regenm'lon requ;,-ements. 7 Allowable pressure drop.


:-':ot all of these \'ariables are independent: some are fixed for any calcula. tion, and others are \'aried to )ield an optimum design. Cycle time and des. sicant capacity are the most important variables in designin~ an adsorption plant.

Cycle Tillie
Varies from less than 1 hr for a rapid cycle unit to greater than 8 hrs. The cycle time is, of cour<;e, limited by desiccant capacity so as not to exceed outlet !?:as spedfications. and desiccant bed geometry. Also, the cycle time must be long enough to permit regeneration and cooling of the tower~ not currently dehydrating.

(5-27)
where
Vg -

All desiccants dc~ade in service. their useful life being in the range of I 4 year<>. Degradation is termed normal if there is a loss of surface area only. During its useful life, a desiccant exhibits rapid normal degradation in the initial stages, which then becomes more gradual. A more dramatic reduction in desiccant capacity occurs when the small capillary or lattice openinwo that contain most of the effective surface area for adsorption are blocked. This latter process, termed abnormal degradation, is caused by materials such as heavy oils. amines, gl}'cols. and corrosion inhibitors, that cannot be remO\'ed by regeneration and effect great reductions in capacity in a vcr)" s.hort time. No liquid water should be allowed in the inlet gas, since this generally salty water in the inlet gas will evaporate and fill the bed with salt. Some properties of common desiccants are (Campbell. 1984b): Bulk density Ibm/ft' Surface area m2/gm Design capacity Ib H,O/ IOO Ib des.

superficial gas velocity. ft/hr q - gas flow rate at standard conditions. Mt>.1scfd Z - gas compressibility factor at the operating temperature T (OR) and pressure p (psia) D - diameter of the adsorber bed. ft

Allowable Call HQW RlIte

This is generally expressed in terms of the mass flow \'elocity of the gas, the product of its ve10city "'. and density:

(5-28)
where w _ mass f10\. . ,elocity. Ibml(hr ft2) Mit - molecular weight of the gas

Material Alumina Alumina gel Silica gel Molecular sieves

For downward flow of gas, the maximum allowable gas mass flow velocity, w, is given by:

SO-55 52-55 45 43-45

210 350 7SO-83O 650-800

4-7 7-9 7-9 9-12

The design capacity must be such that an economic desiccant life is obtained. Assuming a monolayer adsorption, the potential desiccant capacity

where P, - gas density at operating conditions, Ibm/ttl Pd - bulk desiccant density, Ibm/ftl d.p - average desiccant particle diameter, ft g - aC(:eleration due to gravity ( - 32.2), ftlseci C - empirical constant in the range of 0.025-0.033

244

Co.. Productihn Engi'leerilig

GasWater Systems and Deh!Jdratwn Processing

245

The factor 3,600 converts the mass low rate from Ibm/(sec ft2) to lbmi(hr (1;2). Substituting g - 32.2 ft/sec2, w becomes:
w - 20.428.22 [Cp",,.!,,]'''
(529)

"
SILICA GEL

nat" Loading
Also known as the rate of removal of water required per unit bed area. water loadinll can be calculated as follows:

>0

" -- -;::.-. V /'


,
1--- ~/

--.
~-

- - - f-

~LE~~-i~vt:S
- r~~ f--"";

- (q\\',24) /(.D'4) - O.0531q\\' D'

-70

where q.. - water loading, lb Hp/(hr ftl) W, - water content of the inlet gas, Ib H 20fMMscf gas
ZoUt'

"
L

..
"

RtLATtvt WATER SATURATlON (l.S.) . t


TEMPERATURE DC

'"

>00

[.I'ngth

The zone length depends upon gas composition, flow rate, relative water saturation, and desiccant loading capability. For silica gel, the zone length. h~. can be estimated as follows (Simpson and Cummin~, 1964):
(531)

0'" " 3D " I' f.... o. ,


" ~ , '0. ,

"
J'-.,

~ .0 . ,

J'-.,'
.......

where h, - zone length, ft


S, - relative saturation of water in the inlet gas. %
For alumina and molecular sieves, the zone length determined using Equation &.31 is multiplied by 0.8 and 0.6, respectively.

~ ~O .

o.

, "

"

'"0

1\0 120 110 TDlPE .... TUR 0,.

'" ~

'"

The dynamic desiccant capacity. x" is shown in Figure 5-42a as a function of the relative saturation of water. The temperature correction factor is shown in Figure 5-42b. This temperature correction is required for gels and alumina, but not for molecular sieves. The use/td desiccant capacity, x, generally less than the dynamic capacity. K,;, is given by the following empirical equation:

Figure 5-42. The eHect of (a) relative water saturation and (b) temperature on the dynamic capacity of dessicants. (After Campbell, 1984b; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)

From extensive tests, C has been found to vary only in the range 0.40-0.52 for a wide range of applications, and an average C - 0.45 is generally used for design purposes. Breakthrough l 'ime

xwhere

x. -

C'x,(h,lh,)

(532)

x - useful capacity of the desiccant, Ib H 20/tOO lb desiccant X. - dynamic capacity of the desiccant, lb H2 0/lOO lb desiccant C - an empirical corntant, a function of zone length

The breakthrough time for the water zone formed, I:t, in hours, can be estimated as follows:
(533)

246

Ga, Production Engineering

Ga.t-Water Systems and Dellydratioll Processing

247

where the factor 0.01 takes into account the units for x (Ib H2.0'' 100 Ib d es..'il . can. t)

From Figures 5-42a and 5-42b, cant. From Equation 5-32;

x. -

(O.9){16) .. 14.4 lb H 2 0 /100 lb deo;ic-

Minimum

B~d

LhJgth

,_ 14.4 - (0.45)( 14.4)(7.094)115 - 11.34 Ib H,OI IOO Ib d",kcant From Equation 5-34, (h,).," - (127.32)(406.67)1[(11.34)(45)(9)) ~ 11.3 ft Thus, a 15 ft bed length allows a safety factor. From Equation 5-33. the breakthrough time is: ... _ (0.01)(11.34)(45)(15117.198 - 10.63 h,

The ~mount of water that can be removed per cycle by the desiccant. \\' (Ibm). IS gi .. en by

On rearranging this e(luation, the minimum length of desiccant bed reo quired can be written as:
(h,).oo - (127.321V,)I('PdD')
(5.341

Since the breakthrough time of 10.63 hr is greater than the cycle time of 8 hr, the water zone will not reach the outlet, and dry gas will be produced. The design. therefore, has a .~afety factor to account for future desiccant degradation . Regeneration and Cooling Calculations (After Campbell. 1984b) Regeneration calculations are done for eo;tablishing the regeneration gas rate, heating and cooling time intervals, heater load, and condenser load. These calculations are simply heat balances for various parts of the regeneration cycle. For each interval, the heat supplied by the gas, E i must be equal to the heat absorbed, Qj;
(5-35)

Note that (ht)m", is the distance from the inlet to the front of the water 7.one. So, if ht is less than the total length of the bed. it means that not all of the bcd, is being used. From an operations perspective, it is desirable to continue ~nhl the water front reaches the end of the bed, since it prolonl'S desiccant

hfe.
E~am"'f' 5JO. Design an adsorber for dehydrating 20 MMscfd of a O.i graVIty ~as at 1.000 psia and 100F. Assume a two-tower plant using an B-hr cycle WIth a 15 ft long silica gel bed.

Solution
From :igure 51, water content of inlet gas - 61 Ib H1 0. MMsd gas. Assummg all of the inlet water is removed. the rate of removal of wa. ter .. (20)(6 1) .. 1,220 Ibm/da\". Therefore, amount water to be removed per cycle, W .... (1.220)(8.' 24) - 406.67 Ibm/cycle. The gas compressibility factor, Z .... 0.88. ~ume a gas velocity of 1,800 ft/ hr. Then, from Equation 5-27: D - (1,499.73)(20)(0.88)(560)1[(1,000)(1,800)) _ 8.2118 ft', implying D .. 2.87 ft. Choose a bed diameter of 3 ft for safety. Then, V.c .. (1,800)(8.2118/9) - 1,642.36 ftlhr From Equation 5-30, water loading q" - (0.053 1)(20)(61)19 _ 7.198 Ibmihr-ft2 From Equation 5-31, zone length is given by; h, - (297.7)(7. 198)',.1[(1,642.36)''''''(100)' ....) _ 7.094 It

where i represents the interval. In addition. the total cycle time constraint must also be satisfied:
t.,-t.",+t8+ t C:+ t O

(5-36)

where

t.. - total cycle time, hr tA , ta, te. to - time spans (hr) for intervals A, B, C, and 0, respectively
QI
and E J terms are derived as follows;

For these intervals, the

Heatingjrom T/ to 1'2 (ltlteroai A ill Figl"..: 5-40)

The total heat load is the sum of the heat absorbed by desiccant, hydrocarbon, vessel shell, inert balls, hydrocarbon desorption, and water. Thus. the total heat load, QA. is givcn by;

248

GIlS Production Engineering


ffidCd(T2 -

Goa- Water S!lstem." and Deh!ldration Processing


-

249

Q. . -

Til + mHL~dT2 - T I) + m,<;(Tt


-

+ mlbclb(T2

T I) +

T I)
(S-37)

ffiHCHHC

m .. c..(T2 -

Til

As before, the term for heat absorbed by the vessel shell is multiplied by 0.7 if the ..-,essel is insulated. Energy a..-ailable from the regeneration gas, Ec, is given by:

where m - mass, Ibm c - specific heat capacity, Btu/(lbm oF), for desiccant (d), hydrocarbon (HC), vessel shell (5), inert balls (ib). and water (w)

(5-42)
Cooling from T4 to Ts (lntert:al D in Fig""' 5-401

The second Jast term in Equation 5-37 represents hydrocarbon desorption with H lle being its heat of desorption. usually taken to be 200 Btu'ibm . Theterm for heat absorbed by the vessel shell is usually multiplied by 0.7 if the vessel is insuJated. Energy a ....ailable from the regeneration gas, EA. is given by:
(S-38 )

The total coolin~ load is the sum of the cooling requirements for desiccant, vessel shell, and inert balls. only. Thus. the total cooling load. Qo. is given by:
(S-43)

where m'K - mass flow rate of the regeneration gas, Ibm/hr erg - specific heat of the regeneration gas, Btu/(lhm 1-1
I/eatj"gjro'" T2 to T3 Untf'rOOl B jll Figure 5-40)

As before, the term for the vessel shell is multiplied by 0.7 if the vessel is insulated. Assuming that the cooling gas rate is the same as the regeneration gas rate, cooling available, E[), is given by:
(S-44)

The total heat load is the sum of the heat absorbed bv desiccant water water desorption, \.:essel shell. and inert balls. Thus. the total heat l~ad, Qs: is given by:
Q8 - m<!Cd(T 3 - T i ) + m"c..(TJ - T 2) + m... H" + m,c.(T 3 - T i ) + m;bc,b(TJ - T~)

(S-39)

where the heat of desorption of water, H", is usually taken to be 1,400 Btu Ibm for alumina and gels, and 1,800 Btullbm for molecular sieves. As be. fore, the term for heat absorbed by the vessel shell is multiplied by 0.7 if the vessel is insulated. Energy available from the regeneration gas, Ea. is given by:
(S-40) I-Ieatingfrom 1'3 to T4 (lntert:al C ill Figure 540)

In Equation 5--44, the unknown parameters are the regeneration gas rate, m<i' and the lengths of time intervals, tA, ta. te, and to. a total of 5 unknowns. The number of equations are also 5: four for the heat balances, and Equation 5--36, which imposes the total cycle time constraint. For a given cycle time 4, a solution is thus possible. Nonnally, however, the maximum heat load occurs in the interval B, and the minimum regeneration gas rate m" is chosen on this basis. The minimum regeneration gas flow rate and water adsorption capacity must be enough to handle the water desorbed from the bed in time tB' Therefore:
(S-4S)

where

total water removed per cycle from the gas being dehydrated, Ibm \V TB, W TI - water contents of the regeneration gas at temperatures T Band T I, respectively, Ibm waterfMMscf gas M.. _ molecular weight of the regeneration gas (usually the same as the gas being dehydrated)
_

Wt

In this final cleanup step, the total heat load is the sum of the heat abo sorbed by desiccant, vessel shell. and inert ball~, only. Thus, the total heat load, Qc . is given by:
(S-4I )

Generally, the regeneration gas rate is about 10% of the main gas flow rate. The entering gas must be heated from a temperature Tl to T H, which is chosen in the range 400-6(X)F. Temperature T4 must be kept as low as possible, and is generally in the range 350_500F, less than TH by 5O~100F

250

Gas Production Engilleering

Ca,,-Water Sy"temt and Dehydration Processing

251

(usually 1001'). Tf; and T3 are generally equal to 230F and 260 G F. Values for specific heats needed in regeneration calculations are as follows: Component

Specific Heat, Btui(lbm F~


0.06

Alumina
Silica gel Molecular sieves Liquid water
V~I )h~1l

0.22 0.05 1.0 0.12

allowed to form at this second stage (choke), and are collected in a low ::perature separator (LTX). In the LTX unit, the gas entrapped in ~e hyd tes is recovered using heating coils to heat the hydrates. These COils are o;~ used as precoolers for the gas stream: the gas passes throu~ the i~id.e f the cOils, providing enough heat to melt the hydrates. That IS why It IS :.oportant to ensure that no hydrates are expected to form a.t this precooli?g stage for the gas. Also, mist eliminators must never be used In the LTX umt. since they may be plugged by hydrates. When hydrate inhibitors are used, the process is similar. except that the heating/cooling coils are no longer necessary. and are replaced by a gas expansion valve.

The heater load consists of heating requirements for the regeneration ,2;a ... Thus, the heater load, QII in Btu/hr can be written as:

Questions and Problems

A condenser is used to cool the regeneration gas after it comes out throu,I{h the adsorber bed. This cooling is done in order to separate the condensable components picked up by the regeneration gas from the desiccant bed. Cool. ing loads should be calculated for all the three inten'als, and the conclcnS('r

then designed to handle the maximum cooling load expected. Generally, condenser loads are the highest for interva1 B. Condenser loads can be calculated sim ilar to heating loads, taking into account the components in th( regeneration gas and their specific and latent heats.

Dehydration by E.xpansion Refrigeration Dehydration can be achieved by expansion refrigeration when su rHcient pressure drop is available. In this technique, the gas stream is cooled by adiabatic expansion through a choke. as discussed in Chapter 4 (in the section on "Low-Temperature Separation"), to temperatures as lov. as OaF. Thi.' drop in temperature leads to condensation of the water vapor and condem able hydrocarbons associated with the gas. Two types of c:tpansion refrigeration techniques are used: one with a hydrate inhibitor to prevent hydrate formation that may result upon expansion of the gas, and another without an inhibitor. E:tpansion refrigeration without an inhibitor is used only when the pre.sure drop allows the desired water dew point to be obtained without the formation of hydrates (CPSA, 1981). An inhibitor must be used if hydrate formation is expected in the precooler used upstream of the choke. Hydrate.

1. What are gas hydrates? List the factors that promote hydrate formation. 2. List three methods for preventing hydrate formation at wellsites. 3. Name three different types of solid dcsiccant~ used for natural gas dehydration. 4. A sour gas at 1000 psia has the following analysis: N1 = 8.5%. H2S - 5.4%, CO 2 - 0.5%. C 1 - 77.6%. C 2 ,.. 5.8%, C 3 = 1.9 %, 11C~ .. 0.1%, i-C... 0.1%. and i-C$ '"" 0.1%. What is the water content of this gas at 120F? Use all the methods applicable and compare the results. 5. For the sour gas given in Problem 4, determine the hydrate formation temperature. Use all the methods applicable and compare the results. 6. A TEG dehydration plant is to be designed to dry the follov.-ing gas: N2 - 1.7%, CO 2 ,,,, 0.3%, C 1 - 65.5%. C~ .. 16.6 %, C 3 = 8.8%, nCo( - 3.0%, i-C. - 1.6 '7~, and f-C s " 0.9%. 1I-C 5 " 0.9 %. eft" 0.5 %, and C,. - 0.2%. The c,. fraction has a molecular weight of 140 and specific heat or 70 Btu/Ibm-OF at 300F. Other relevant data arc as follows:

Gas flow rate - 20 MMscfd Inlet gas pressure .. 1000 psia Inlet temperature _ l(X)OF Required outlet water dew point .. lOoF GI)'col circulation rate .. 7 gai/ib water removed from gas Glycol reboiler temperature .. 400F Specific gravity of glycol .. 1. 11 Specific heat of glycol .. 0.654 Btu/lbm-oF

252

Cos Production Engineerlllg

Cal\.Vater Systeml and Dehydratwn Processing

253

For this plant, calcuJate the following: (a) Clycol circulation rate in galimin. (b) Glycol-glycol heat exchanger load in BtuJhr if a 2,5F approach is desired. Assume that the glycol enters the absorber at 125F. 7 A glycol (TEe) dehydrator plant is to be designed for handJing 13.5 \1Mscfd of the SOUT gas of Problem 4. The glycol circulation tate L~ -4 gal TEG'lb water, lean glycol concentration is 99"'~. glycol spec-ifk gravity is 1.10. inJet gas temperature is 120 c F, and the absorption tower uses bubble-cap trays. For an exit water content of 10 IbIMM<,cf gas, determine the following: Contactor diameter. Maximum gas rate that can flow in the system. The actual number of trays needed in the oontactor. Sensible heat required for the glycol, Btu/hr. Heat of vaporization required for the water, Btu/hr. (f) Heat required to va}Xlrize reflux water in the still, Btu/hr. (g) Reboiler heat load, Btu/hr, assuming heat loss '"' 5000 Btu/hr. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

8. It is desired to use glycol inhibition to prevent hydrate formation for


the case given in Problem 7. Calculate the amount of TEG required in lb/day. 9. ~ework Problem 6 using a two-tower desiccant plant, employing !oilIca-gel on an B-hour cycle. The regeneration gas leaH~ the heater at 55O"F. and the towers are regenerated to a final temperature of 450' F Assume internal insulation. Determine the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Internal diameter of the towers required. Amount of silica-gel required in Ibslcycle. Regeneration gas rate, MMscfd. Regeneration heater heat load, Btu/hr. Cooling load, Btu/hr. References Curry, R. N., 1981. Flmdaml!1ltais oj Natural Cas Conditioning. PcnnWell Publ. Co., ThIsa, Oklahoma, 118pp. Campbell, J. M., 1984a. Cas Conditioning and Processing, Vol. 1. Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman. Oklahoma, 326pp.

Campbell. J. M., 1984b. Cas Conditioning and Processing, Vol. 2. Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, Oklahoma, 398pp. Carson, D. B. and Katz, D. L., 1942. "Natural Cas Hydrates," 1)-a1lS.. AIME. 146. 150-158. Chemical Engineers'Uandbook. 1984. R. H. Perry and D. W. Green (eds.), ~1cCraw.Hill Book Co . r\'e\\ York. 6th ed . pp. 13-27 to 13-35. Edmister, W. C. and Lee. B. I.. 1984. Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics. Vol. I (2nd ed.). Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. 233pp. Galloway. T. J.. Ruska. \V. Chappelear. P. S.. and Kobayashi, R., 1970. "Experimental Measurement of Hydrate Numbers for Methane and Ethane and Comparison with Theoretical Values: Ind. & Eng. Chern. Fund., 9(2. May), 237 - 243. Gas Processors Suppliers Association, 1981. Engineering Data Book, 9th ed. (5th revision), GPSA, Tulsa. Oklahoma. Guenther, J. D., 1979. "Natural Gas Dehydration,' Paper presented at Seminar on Process Equipment and Systems on Treatment Platforms, Taastrup. Denmark, April 26. Heinze, E, 1971. "Hydratbildung," Lehrbogen 3.13 von der Bergakademie Freiberg. Holder, G. D. and Hand. J. H., 1982. "Multiple-Phase Equilibria in Hy drates from Methane, Ethane. Propane and Water Mixtures," AIChE J., 28(3, May), 440-447. lkoku, C. U., 1984. Natural Cas Prodllction Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 517pp. Katz, D. L., Cornell, D., Kobayashi. R .. Poettmann, E H., Vary, J. A., Elenbaas, J. R., and Weinaug. C. F., 1959. Handbook oj Natural Cas Engineering. McGrawHiII Book Co., Inc .. New York, 802pp. McCarthy, E. L.. Boyd, W. L., and Reid, L. S.. 1950. "The Water Va}Xlr Content of Essentially Nitrogen-Free Natural Cas Saturated at Various Conditions of Temperature and Pressure," Trans. AIME, 189, 241- 243. McKetta, J. J. and Wehe. A. H . 1958. "Use This Chart for Water Content of Natural Gases," Petr. Refiner, 37(8, Aug.), 153-154. McLeod, H. 0., Jr. and Campbell, J. M .. 1961. "Natural Cas Hydrates at Pressures to 10,000 Psia," J. Pet. Tech .. 13(6, June), 590-594. Nagata, I. and Kobayashi, R, 1966. "Prediction of Dissociation Pressures of Mixed Cas Hydrates From Data for Hydrates of Pure Cases with Water," Ind. & Eng. Chern. Fllnd., 5(4, Nov.), 466-469. Ng, H. J. and Robinson, D. B., 1976. "The Measurement and Prediction of Hydrate Formation in Liquid Hydrocarbon-Water Systems,' Ind. & Eng. Chern. Fund., 15(4, Nov.), 293-298.

254

GO$ Product/on Engineering

Parrish, W, R. and Prausnitz, J. M., 1972. "Dissociation Pressures of Cas Hydrates Formed by Cas Mixtures," Ind. & Eng. Chem. Proc D' & Dell., 11(1), 26-35. ess $Ign Petrol.eum Extension Senice, 1972. Field Handling oj Natural Gas. 3rd ed ., Urn\". of Thus Press. Austin. Texas. 143pp. Robinson. O. B. and 1'\g, H. J . 1975. "Improve H\"drate Predictions" Hydraco Proc., 54(12. Dec.). 95-9:;' . . R~~inson, J. N . Wichert. E .. :\foore. R. G .. and Heidemann. R. A.. 19ih Charts . Content of . Sharma, and Cam~~Il.' J. M .. 1984. Unpublished. Cited reference on p. 143 10: Gas CondltlOlIIng and PrOCessing. Vol. 1, by J. M. Campbell. . Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, Oklahoma, 326pp. Slm~n, E. A. and Cummings. W P., 1964. "A Practical Way to Predict . SIlica Gel Performance," Chem. Engr. Prog .. 60 (4, Apr.), 57 60. Slva.U.s. ~. R., 1976. "Glycol Dehydrator Design Manual." Proc. Gas CUll dltlomng Conf.. Univ. of Oklahoma, 39pp. Trekell. R. E. and Campbell, 1. M., 1966. "Prediction of the Behavior of Hydrocarbon Clathrate Solutions." Proc. 151st Meet. of Am. Chern. Soc .. Petr. Chern. Oiv., Pittsburg, Penn .. March 23-26, p. 61. Van der Waals. J. H. and Platteeuw, J. C., 1959. "Clathrate Solutions" Advances in ~?~mical Physics, Vol. 2, edited by I. Prigogine. Inte~ience Pub!., a diVISion of John Wiley & Sons, New York, I-57.

6 Desulfurization Processes

Introduction With i.ncreasing demands for natural gas, natural gases containing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) are also being tapped for utilization after purification. Natural gases containing H 2S are classified as "sour." and those that are H 2S-free are called "sweet" in processing practice. Produced gases from reservoirs usually contain HzS in concentrations ranging from barely detectable quantities to more than 0.30% (3,000 ppm). Other sulfur derivatives, besides H 2S, are usually completely insignificant or present only in trace proportions. Most contracts for the sale of natural gas require less than 4 ppm (parts per million) in the gas. Thus, a sulfur removal process must be very precise since the initial product contains only a small fractional quantity of suUur that must be reduced several hundred times. A characteristic feature of all H 2S -bearing natural gases is the presence of carbon dioxide (C0 2), the concentrations of which are generally in the range of 1 to 4 %. In gases devoid of HzS. however, such concentrations are rare. HzS and CO 2 are commonly referred to as "acid gases" because they form acids or acidic solutions in the presence of water. Reasons for Removal of HzS and CO 2 Besides emitting a foul odor at low concentrations, H 2S is deadly poisonous and at concentrations above 600 ppm it ca n be fatal in just three to five minutes. Its toxicity is comparable to cyanide. Thus, it cannot be tolerated in gas that would be used as domestic fuel. Further, H 2S is corrosive to all metals normally associated with gas transporting, processing, and handling systems (although it is less corrosive to stainless steel), and may lead to premature failure of most such systems. On combustion, it forms sulfur dioxide,

255

256

Gal I'rodllCtiori Engineering

DesulJumation Proca&et/

257

which is also highly toxic and corrosive. HzS and other sulfur compounds can also cause catalyst poisoning in refinery prOCt'!SSeS. CO 2 has no heating value and its removal may be required in some instances merely to increase the energy content of the gas per unit volume. CO. removal may also be required because it forms a complex. C02CO~. which is quite corrosive in the pre;ence of water. For gas being sent to cryogenic plants, removal of CO z may be necessary to pre\'ent solidification of the CO~. Both the acid gases, H2S and CO!. promote hydrate (ormation , and thfO p~n('f' nf (:0; may not be desired for this reason also. However. if none of these situations are encountered, there is no need to remove CO

So many sweetening processes are in use today that it would be ~possib~e to describe them all in detail here. Some widely used processes wIll be bnefly mentioned. and some important ones among these will be presented in a little more detail. Criteria for Process Selection There are man)' variables in gas treating. which makes the precise definition of the area of application of a gi,en process very difficult Among c:ev eral factors, the following are the most significant that need be considered:

Removal Processes

The processes that have been developed to accomplish gas puriCication vary from a simple once-through ,,,ash operation to complex multiple step recycle systems. In many cases, the process complexities arise from the need for recovery, in one form or another, of the impurity (H~S) being removed or recovery of the materials (process chemicals) employed to remo ....e it. Like dehydration processes, desulfurization processes are primarily of two types: adsorption on a solid (dry process), and absorption into a liquid (wet process). There are a few processes that use other methods, such as the cellulose acetate membranes that rely upon the different diffusion rates for hy. drocarbon and H2S, and liquid fractionation techniques that exploit the rei. ative volatility difference. Application of these latter types of processes has been quite limited. Both the adsorption and absorption processes may be of the physical (no chemical reactions involved) or chemical type. These processes may also be classified into the following categories:
1. Non-regenerative, such as Chemsweet process (~Ianning, 1979), NCA process (Sun, 1980), and the Siurri~,....eet process (Oil & Cas J.. 1981). The materials used in treating the gas are not reco,ered in these pro.

1. The types and concentrations of impurities in the gas, and the degree of removal desired. 2. Selectivity of acid gas removal required, if any. 3. Temperature and pressure at which the sour gas is available, and at which the sweet gas is to be delivered. 4. Volume of the gas to be processed, and its hydrocarbon composition. 5. CO2 to H 2S ratio in the gas. 6. Economics of the process. 7. The desirability of sulfur recovery due to environmental problems, or economics.
Besides CO 2 and HzS, some gases may contain other sulfur derivatives such as mercaptans and carbonyl sulfide. The presence of such impurities may eliminate some of the sweetening processes. The concentrations of acid components are important to consider. Some processes effectively remove large amounts of acid gas, but not to low enough le"eis. Others remove to ultra-low values, but cannot handle large amounts of acid components in the incoming stream economically. Selectivity of a process implies the degree of removal of one acid gas component relative to another. Some processes remove both H 2S and CO 2 , while others are designed to selectively remove only HzS. Generally, it is important to consider the selectivity of a process for H 2S versus CO 2 to ensure desired extent of removal of these components. For this reason. CO 2 to H 2S ratio in the gas is also an important parameter. Operating conditions affect the performance of several sweetening processes. Also, different processes discharge the sweetened gas stream at different pressure and temperature levels relative to the conditions of the incoming stream. Thus, the inlet and outlet conditions desired are significant Variables to consider. It may be economic in some cases to alter inflow conditions to suit the process, and outflow conditions to meet pipeline requirements. Some processes are economic for large gas volumes, while others lose their economic advantage when large volumes of gas are to be treated. Cas com-

cesses.
2. Regenerative processes with recovery as HzS. These include the physical absorption processes (water wash, Selexol, F1uor solvent, etc.). the amine processes (MEA, DEA, DCA, etc.), hot carbonate processes (Benfield, Catacarb), Alkazid processes, molecular sieves, etc. 3. Regenerative processes with recovery as elemental sulfur. The HolmesStretford process, and the Ciammarco-Vetroooke process fall in this category. With growing environmental concerns regarding sulfur emission, these processes have acquired a prominent role in desulfur. ization operations.

260

Gas Production Engineering

INLET SOU" IJU

DemljurlUltioll PrOCes8n

261

~
p

na"E

l~

4tOO"I~

~:'" ,m"""~
11,1,1(11

'"

<=

ttEATIN,!,

ir
4_WilT
VALVE

1'"

C'"

'?

OUTLET $WEET CAS

f<

corrosion and fouling problems are generally minimal. These processes offer fair to good selectivity. The solvent used is generally recovered by flashing the acid component-rich solvent (called rich solvent) in flash tanks at successively lower pressures. Thus, little or no heat is required for regeneration or other purposes. But a sulfur recovery unit is required since these pr~ do not alter the acid components chemically in an)' manner. Some processes in this category offer simultaneous dehydration. Most solvents currently in use have a relatively high solubility for heavier hydrocarbons. particularly unsaturated and aromatic components. These components are very detrimental to the performance of most sulfur reco...ery processes and may yield an unsuitable, contaminated sulfur as the product. So, for sour gases containing heavy hydrocarbons (heptanes plus) or unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. particular care must be taken during the regeneration step to prevent their entry into the acid gas stream that is to be sent to a sulfur recovery unit. Water Wash (Aquasorption) Process

.?

Figure 61. Flowsheet for a molecular sieve desulfurization process. (After Fails and Harris, 1960; courtesy 01 Oil & Gas Journsl.)

Besides regeneration losses. gas is also lost by the adsorption of hydrocarbon components by the sieve. Unsaturated hydrocarbon components such as olerin~ and aromatics tend to be strongly adsorbed (Conviser, 1965). Molecwar Sle\-~ are also prone to poisoning by several chemicals such as glycols and reqUire ~horough ~as cleaning methods prior to the adsorption step. The process reqUires a cyclic operation, since it is batch-type, with a cycle time 0." the order of 2 hours. Initial capital investments are high, and regenerahon reqUires a lot of heat. For gas streams containing CO 2 carbonyl sulfide may form as shown in the following reversible reaction:

H,s + CO, - COS + H,O


~101ecular, sieves tend to catalyze this reaction. The problem has been studIed extensively, and new molecular sieves have been developed to retard the COS formation.

This process is effective for high pressure gas, with high acid gas content and high H 2S to CO 2 ratio. According to Maddox (1982), a water wash operation followed by an amine process is 12 to 15% lower in capital investment, and ahout 50 % lower in operating expenses as compared to a Single amine unit for an equivalent sweetening job. For gases \\:i.th a high HzS to CO 2 ratio, the saving5 can be as much as 40 % in investment, and 60 to 70 % in operating costs. In the water wash sweetening process, sour gas is sent upward through a contactor, countercurrent to the water (see Figure 6-2). The partially sweetened gas from the top of the to\... er is sent to further treatment units (typically, an amine unit). The rich water solution from the bottom of the tower is sent to an intermediate pressure flash tank for recovery of dissolved hydrocarbons. A power recover)' turbine is provided for repressurizing the water before sending it to a low pressure flash tank where all of the acid gas is removed, and the lean water obtained is recycled. Froning et al. (1964) presented calculation procedure:; for estimating the performance of a water wash and provide data required for such calculations. Their results show that HzS is about three times more soluble in water than CO 2 , thereby showing that the selectivity of the process is quite good. Selexol Process This process uses dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol (DMPEG) as a solvent. Solubilities in Selexol solvent of HzS and CO 2 and other acid gas com-

Physical Absorption Processes These processes rely ~pon physical absorption of acid components as the gas sweetening mechamsm. Because only physical absorption is involved.

258

Cos Production Engineering

Demlfunzation Processes

259

position should also be considered. since some processes are adversely affected by the presence of heavier fractions. while others may strip the gas of some of its hydrocarbon constituents. The desirability of reco\"eringsulfur as e1ementaJ sulfur reduces the choice considerably. Processes with sulfur recovery have become very important in America. and will become so worldwide in the near future due to environmental problems caused by sulfur emissions. Sulfur is a useful by.product. ~enerally in good demand by the fertilizer and chemicals industry. Thert... fort'. in <;t>veral in-.tanCf'S. rulfur recovery may be aUracth'e from an economic standpoint also.

latter process gives an improved performance, generating a higher removal efficiency as well as better regeneration. This process offers advantages of simplicity, and absolute selectivity, which implies less gas shrinkage because COz is retained in the gas. It is relatively inexpensive. There are several disadvantages, such as difficult and expensive regeneration, excessi\"e pressure losses through the bed, inability to remove large amounts of sulfur, and suUur disposal problems, since it does not produce sulfur in a saleable form. Details about this process are avail able from various SOllrC't'S such as Taylor (1956). Kohl and Riesenfeld (1985). and Duckworth and Geddes (1965). Molecular Sieves

Solid Bed Sweetening Processes These processes are based upon physical or chemical adsorption of acid gases on a solid surface. Although not as widely used as the liquid absorp. tion processes, they offer advantage'; such as simplicity, high selcctivity (onl~ H~S is generally removed), and a process efficiency almost independent of pressure. These processes are best applied to gases with moderate concentrations of H 2S, and where CO 2 is to be retained in the gas. The Iron Sponge Process Sour gas is passed through a bed of wood chips that ha\'e been impregnated with a special hydrated form of ferric oxide that has a high affinity for HzS. The chemical reaction is as follows: Synthetically manufactured forms of crystalline sodium-calcium alumino silicates, molecular sieves are porous in structure and have a very large surface area. The pores. formed by the removal of water of crystallization, are uniform throughout the material. Severa! grades of molecular sieves are available, with each grade corresponding to a very narrow range of pore sizes. Molecular sieves remove components through a combination of a "sieving" and physical adsorption process. Because of their narrow pore sizes, they discriminate among the adsorbates on the basis of their molecular sizes. The sieves possess highly localized polar charges on their surface that act as adsorption sites for polar materials. Therefore, polar or polarizable compounds, e\'Cn in low concentrations, are adsorbed on the sieve surface. They are highJy selective in the removal of H~ and other sulfur compounds from natural gas, and orrer a continuously high absorption efficiency. They remove water also (a polar compound) and thus offer a means of simultaneous dehydration and desulfurization. High water content gases, however, may require upstream dehydration (Rushton and Hays, 1961). Fails and Harris (1960) conducted several pilot studies on sieves and other adsorbents. They found that the adsorptive capacity of molecular sieves for H 2S decreases with increasing temperature, and increases with increasing H2S/C0 2 ratio. Increasing contact time is favorable to H 2S removal up to a point, beyond which there is no effect. An optimum pressure of about 450 psia was identified by Fails and Harris, though the effect of pressure was found to be quite small. The process flow scheme, shown in Figure 6-1, is similar to the iron sponge process. The bed is regenerated by passing a portion of the sweetened gas, preheated to about 400-600F or more, for about 1.5 hours to heat the bed. As the temperature of the bed increases, it releases the adsorbed H 2S into the regeneration gas stream. The sour effluent regeneration gas is flared off. According to Rushton and Hays (1961), about 1-2% of the gas treated is lost in this regeneration process.

The temperature must be kept at less than 120F. According to Kohl and Riesenfeld (1985), temperatures above 120F and neutral or acid condition_\ lead to the loss of the water of crystallization of the ferric oxide. The bed then becomes very diHicult to regenerate. Iron o~de is regenerated by passing oxygen/air over the bed:

The process operates in a batch-type reaction-regeneration cycle. Regeneration of the bed, however, is quite difficult and incurs excessive maintenance and operating costs. Also, sulfur eventually covers most of the surface of the ferric o~de particles and further regeneration becomes impossible. A continuous regeneration process has also been developed, where small amounts of oxygen or air are added along with the sour gas at the inlet. This

262

Gas Production Engineering

De!tIljurizotlon Processes

263

ponents are directly proportiona1 to the partial pressures of these components. The solubility of H 2S is about 10 times greater than CO 2 and hydrocarbon solubility is quite small. Heavier hydrocarbons. however, have greater solubility. and intermediate flashe> are generally required for hydrocarbon remO\:al,

.'

~
-~:; -->: --:~;.

tlAO IRf'IQ.

Different Selexolbased processes have been designed and used success. fuJly. H~'er and Hanis (1970) describe three plants installed for a wide range of H:zS to CO 2 ratios: one plant for a high HzS to CO 2 ratio. another for a 10\\ H~ to CO~ ratio. and the third for a ga~ containing large amounts of both H2S and CO 2 _ Figure 6-3 shows a flow scheme for a low HzS to CO 2 ratio gas. Sour gas, pretreated to remove an)' solids and free liquids, is dehydrated, cooled to 40"F. and sent to the absorber for a countercurrent contact with Selexol sol. vent. Rich selexol from the bottom of the absorber is sent, via a surge tank to remove entrained gas that is recycled back into the absorber. and a power recovery turbine for pTeSI>urizing the solvent, to a high pressure flash. Most of the absorbed methane and some of the CO 2 is released in this flash. and iii recycled to the absorber. In the second flash stage, most of the vapor reJeased is CO 2 and it iii \"ented after power recovery. Finally, the Selexol is sent to the low pressure flash, which is operated at 16 psia, Here, HilS and the remaining CO 2 are flashed off as the vapor stream, which is vented to the atmosphere.

-n

..i I

..1

,lI ~

h
.-l
L

i~
L .JII""
"--'~j

( '''-~" ) '"'~ '. '<C.

Figure 6-3. Selexol'" based plant for a low H2S to CO 2 ratio gas. (After Raney, 1976: reprinted from Hydrocarbon Processing.)

Chemical Absorption- The Alkanol-Amine Processes The alkanol-amine processes are the most prominent and widely used processes for HtS and CO 2 remo\>al, They offer good reactivity at low cost and good flexibility in design and operation. Some of the commonly used alkanol-amines for absorption desulrurization are: monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA). triethanolamine (TEA), fJ/3' hydroxiethanolamine, usually called diglycolamine (DCA), di-isopropanolamine (DIPA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), Table 6-1 shows some or the
Table 6-1 Some Characteristics 01 Ethanolamines
Yap. Presa ., 100-F, mm Hg
Ret C.paclty
100

Amine Type
MEA DEA TEA DCA DIPA MDEA

Chem. Formula
HOC~ H..NH J ( H O~ H .ltN n

Mol. Wt.

( H OCJH.)~

II(OCtll.l,.\lll t
( HOC~I.),.\l 11

Figure 6-2. A typical water wash process. (After Froning at aI., 1964: reprinted from Hydrocarbon Processing.)

(HOC 2 H.hNCH,

61.08 iOS.14 148.19 lOS. 14 133.19 119.17

LOS 0_058 0_0063


0.160 0.010 0.0061

58 ,I 58 46
51

MItt Maddo.:. 1982.

Cal Production Engineering

Dewljurlzotion PrOCf!:SM!Jl

265

important properties for these six alkanol-amines. Among these, MEA and DEA processes are the most widely used. MEA has the highest reactivity, and therefore the highest acid gas removal capacity, and the lowest molecular weight among the amines. Therefore, it offers the highest removal capacity on a unit weight or unit volume basis, which implies lower solution circulation rates in a sweetening plant. MEA is chemically stable (minimal solution degradation). The reaction rate of HtS with MEA is greater than that of CO 2 . The process, however, is con ~idered to be almost non-selective in its removal capacity for HzS and CO~. because even the slower reacting CO 2 is rapidly and almost completely re moved. MEA is able to remove acid gases to pipeline specifications, and even beyond. MEA, however, suffers from relatively high solution losses primarily due to two reasons: it has a relatively high vapor pressure that causes greater vaporization losses. and it reacts irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide. High vaporization losses put a limitation on the operating temperatures, which must be kept low. whereas the reactions leading to buildup of solids necessitate efficient filtration schemes. DEA is quite similar to MEA. except it is not as reactive, so H 2S removal to pipeline specifications may cause problems in some cases: its reactions with carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide are slower and lead to different products, so filtration problems are less: and its vapor pressure is lower. therefore vaporization losses are less. Thus. DEA can be advantageous to use in some cases. TEA has been almost totally replaced by MEA and DEA, primarilv because it has lesser reactivity and problems are encountered in sweetenin'g the gas to pipeline specifications. DCA has found application in recent vears. It has the same reactivity as DEA, and a reasonably low \'apor pressu~. DlPA is also able to treat gas to pipeline specifications, and is used in the Sulfinol process by Sheil, and the AOlP process. MDEA has received renewed attention because it has a fairly good ~Iectivity for H 2S, so CO 2 can be retained in the gas: and it offers some energy saving in the regeneration step. MDEA, however, may not be commercially competitive with other amine processes

by weight MEA, 45 to 85% by weight TEC (triethylene glycol), and 5 to 25% by weight of water is used. This process removes both CO 2 and H 2S be<;ides dehydrating the gas. At high temperatures, the mixture becomes very volatile and difficult to handle. Also, the g1}"COI-amine combination does not dehydrate as well as an independent glycol unit. The reactions for the ethanolamines, MEA. DEA. and TEA are as follows (Batt et aI., 1980, Rahman, 1982),

1. Formation of a bisulfide of the ethanolamine on reaction ....ith H 2S.


RNH2 + H~ ~ RNH.S + heat 2. For MEA and DEA, with CO 2, the carbamate salt of the ethanolamine is formed. TEA does not have this reaction with CO~.

2RNH2 + CO 2 ~ RNHCOi + RNH:i + heat


3. In aqueous solution, with CO 2, the carbonate salt of the ethanolamine is formed. This is a slower reaction.

General Process Flow Scheme MEA is usually preferred over DEA because it enables a smaller circulation rate of the solution, although it has a higher vapor pressure with increased chances of greater chemical losses. The plant is very much like an absorption dehydration system. The main differences are (Curry, 1981): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The contactor contains man)' more tray sectiOns, up to 20 or more. A side-stream reclaimer is provided in an MEA system. More elaborate filtration and heat exchange equipment is required. Operating temperatures are diferent. The reflux requirements are greater.

(Maddox. 1982).
Solution Concentrations and Reactions For MEA, an appro:timately 15% concentration (by weight) solution is generally used. DEA is used in 20-30% or more concentration. DlPA and MDEA are typically used in 30-50% concentration in aqueous solution, while DCA is used in the 40-70 % by weight concentration range. Some plants use a mixture of a glycol and an amine for simultaneous dehydration and desulfurization. Generally. a solution containing 10 to 30'?',

The problems encountered arc also quite similar, though in a more severe form. Some such problems are corrosion, foaming, solution losses. and poor solution filtering. There are other problems relating to the high vapor pressure of MEA. Solution loading, that is, the amount or level of liquid MEA in the contactor, is critical. The exothermic reactions in the contactor coupled with the low boiling point of MEA make solution loading a difficult problem. The presence of sulfur intensifies the corrosion problems by introducing stress corrosion.

266

GO! Productwn Engineering

DelU1JuriUltion Processes

267

................. .........

u_.

~.

.........
,.

..... -

_"00' .........

:1.:;1','1" ......

~-'Il'i-"'-"f '

...... .. . ...... -~

.
-

"" " ... "

.. --,.1+-+--,
,,~

......-

__-....... - ... .......


. .............

.,......... . ".
,

absorb approximately 3.5 to 4.5 seC acid gas per gallon of solution. This can be used to determine the MEA circu1ation rate in a preliminary design . Besides its performance, the location of the filtering system is critical to plant operation (Curry, 1981). An efficient filtration will generally reduce foaming, corrosion , and fouling of mechanical equipment. Remember that most filtration problems resu1t not from the failure of the filtration system, but from inefficient gas cleaning. Full-flow filtration is most desirable, although some plants use side-stream filtration where only a part of the stream is filtered. Iron suUide (FeS) is the most common solid in MEA systems that requires filtration. Diatomaceous earth (DE) filters are commonly used to enable removal of particulate matter up to almost I micron. Another commonly used filter is the disposable element type, but it is quite expensive and used only where severe problems warrant its usage. Usually a secondary filtration system is installed in paraliel to enable crossover and allow time for cleaning Of removing a used filter.

.... ",.. ..."" ....


Figure 64. A comparison of a MEA and DGA system lor treating 100 MMscfd of natural gas. (After Olngman and Moore, 1968; reprinted from Hydrocarbon Processing.)

Chemical Absorption-The Carbonate Processes

The Hot Carbonate Processes


The basic hot carbonate process uses an aqueous solution of pota~ium carbonate. A highly concentrated solution is used to improve process performance. Temperature is kept high to keep the potassium carbonate and the reaction products. KHCO J and KHS, in solution. Both the absorber and regenerator are operated at high temperatures of about 230---240F, which results in considerable savin~ in heat exchange and heating equipment. The process requires relatively high partial pressures of CO 2 , and cannot be used for gas streams that contain only HzS. It is also difficult to treat gas to pipeline specifications with this process. Among carbonate processes, those containing an activator to increase the activity of the hot pota~ium carbonate solution are more popular. Some of these are:
1. Benfield- several activators, usually DEA.
2. Catacarb-amine borates used as activators.

A typical process flow scheme is shown in Figure 6-4. There are several variations, such as the location of the Hltering system , using a packed column instead of bubble-cap or valve-type trays in the contactor and the stripper, etc. A side-stream reclaimer mayor may not be used. The design of heat exchange and reflux systems var)'. Sour gas is sent upward through the contactor tower, countercurrent to the flow of MEA . The rich solution from the bottom of the contactor is sent to a flash tank where absorbed hydrocarbon gas in solution is vented. A retention time of about 2 minutes is usually sufficient. The flash tank also serves as a sediment accumulator and provisions must be made for sediment removal. After passing through a heat exchange with lean solution (which preheats this rich solution), the rich solution enters the top of the stripper where it is stripped by steam that is generated by the reboiler. Outcomin~ steam from the top of the stripper is sent to a condensing unit to recover MEA liquid in a reflux accumulator. The acid gases re1eased at this stage are flared off. The liquid accumulated in the relux is sent to the regenerative system. Lean MEA accumu1ated at the bottom of the stripper is continuously recircu1ated through the reboiler. In the contactor (also called absorber), almost 90% of the acid gases are removed within the first three trays at the bottom. The reactions being exothermic, this resu1ts in high temperatures in the contactor in this region. Usually a 20 % (by \\-eight) MEA solution is used in the contactOf, which can

3. Ciammarco-Vetrocoke-for CO2 removal, arsenic trioxide most commonly used; sclenous acid and tellurous acid are also used. For H 2S
removal, alkaline arsenites and arsenates (usually KH 2As0 3 and

KH 2AsO t ) used.
The Ciammarco-Vetrocoke (C-V) process is an important development. There are several C-V processes for different applications. There is one process for the removal of C02t another for a highly selective H 2S removal and

268

Gas Production Engineering

Deroljurizotion Processe$

269

subsequent sulfur recovery, and still another for the removal of both HzS and CO 2 _ The G-V CO 2 process offers substantial savings in steam consumption for solution regeneration. The arsenic trioxide inhibits corrosion, and the solution is therefore usually non-corrosive in nature. As for most conventional carbonate processes, impurities such as carbon disulfide, mercaptans, carlxmyl sulfide, etc., have no detrimental effects on the solution. Jenett (1962) presented data on the performance of a G- V plant and concluded that it functioned satisfactorily with minimal problems. The G-V process for HzS removal produces elemental sulfur of high purity as the by-product. It is a flexible process, and by suitably selecting the pH of the solution, the arsenite and arsenate content, and the operating conditions, the process can be made to be highly selective for H~ or remO\e both H~ and CO 2, There are no problems of corrosion, solution degradation, solution foaming, or carryover. The economics of the process are also quite good (Riesenfeld and Mullowney, 1959). and it can reduce H 2S content to less than 1 ppm. The process, however, is not able to handle gas streams with H 2S concentrations greater than 1.5% (jenett, 1962). Another carbonate process in acth'e use is the Alkazid process. There are three different alkazid solutions, and consequently. three different processe<i in this category. Alkazid DIK uses the potassium salt of diethyl glycine or dimethyl glycine. It is used for the selective removal of H 2S from gases that contain both H 2S and CO~. Alkazid M uses sodium alanine and is effectivc in removing both H~ and CO 2 , Alkazid S uses a sodium phenolate mixture and is applicable to gases containing impurities such as carbon disulfide, mercaptans, HCN, etc. The Holmcs-Stretford Process This process converts H2S to elemental sulfur of almost 99.9% purity. The process is se1ective for H~. and can reduce the H 2S content to as low as I ppm. CO 2 content remains almost unaltered by this process. Operating costs are lower and the process has better lexibility in application, that is, it can be designed for larger pressure and temperature ranges. The Holmes-Stretford process, a modification of the Stretford process developed by the North Western Cas Board in England, was developed by Peabody-Holmes. Details on the mechanism of the process, and its performance are reported in several publications (Nicklin et ai., 1973; Moyes and Wilkinson, 1974: Ouwerkerk, 1978; Vasan, 1978). The process uses an aqueous solution containing sodium carbonate and bicarbonate in the ratio of approximately 1 :3. resulting in a pH of about 8.5 to 9.5, and the sodium salts of 2,6 and 2,7 isomers of anthraquinone disulfonic acid (ADA). The postulated reaction mechanism invol ..cs five steps: (1) absorption of H2S in

alkali; (2) reduction of ADA by addition of h)'drosulfide to ~ carbo~yl up: (3) liberation of elemental suUur from reduced ADA by IOteraction ~th oxygen dissoh'ed in the solution: (4) reoxid.ation of t~~ red~ced ADA by air; and (5) reoxygenation of the alkaline solution, provldmg dlSSOh'ed O)(yp~_m

Sevcra) possible additives have been tested to Increase the solutIOn capacity for hydrogen sulfide and the rate of conversion of .hyd~osulfide .to elemental sulfur. Alkali vanadates proved to be outstandmg In reducmg hydrosulfide to sulfur. with a ~imullaneous ,alence change of vanadium from five to four. In the presence of ADA. the vanadate solution can be regenerated to a five valence state. The reduced ADA is easily oxidized by air. The circulated solution (also called Stretford solution) consists of chemicals in a dilute water solution as follows:
1. Sodium salt of 2,7 ADA. The 2,7 isomer is preferred over 2,6 because

..

of the greater solubility of the former. 2. Sodium meta vanadate. This provides the active vanadium. 3. Sodium potassium tartrate (Rochelle salts). ThL-; is used to prevent the formation of a complex vanadium-oxygen precipitate that removes vanadium from solution. 4. A sequestering agent to prevent precipitation of metallic ions from Stretford sol ution, such as Chel 242 PN. 5. Sodium carbonate. Used as required to maintain total alkalinity. 6. Sodium bicarbonate added to reduce the absorption of CO 2 The overall reaction of the Holmes-Stretford process is the atmospheric oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur:

The reaction , however, occurs in the following steps:

(6-1) (6-2)

(6-4)
The absorption rate of H~ in solution (Equation 6-1) is favored by high pH, whereas the conversion to elemental sulfur (Equation 6-2) is adversely affected by pH values abo"e 9.5. Therefore, the process is best operated \\.ithin a pH range of 8.5 to 9.5.

270

Cas Production Engineering

DestllJurizatiml Processes

271

The comersion of HzS to sulfur is quite rapid and is essentially a function of the vanadate concentration in the solution. According to Thompson and Nicklin (1964) the reaction is second order. In practice, an excess of vanadate is used in order to avoid overloading of the solution with sulfide and subsequent formation of thiosulfate during solution regeneration. The reduced vanadate is oxidized by ADA (Equation 6-3). Oxidation of ADA by contact with air is a fairly rapid reaction. The rate of oxidation can. however, be accelerated by the presence of small amounts of iron salts kept in solution by a chelating agent (i\icklin and Hughes. 19i8). In general. a concentration of SO-I00 ppm of iron combined with about 2,700 ppm of ethylenediamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) is satisfactory. The chemicals could conceivably be used indefinitely with only minimal replenishments for losses that occur in the absorber or within the sulfur n.. .. cover}' unit. This, however. cannot be done indefinitely because side reactions produce undesirable dissolved solids. These solids are permitted to build up to extremely high concentrations until eventually some solution must be discarded. Primarily, sodium sulfate and sodium thiosulfate arE' formed in reactions such as:

..... .........

-,.....

-"/._--., .. ,- " /...-

~I'"

UI " .."" ..

"-10 ... /

Thiosulfate formation may be due to the fact that NaHS has not reacted with the vanadate (because of insufficient time in the absorber) and there fore is carried to the oxidizer to react with oxygen there. If there is air in the feed gas, some of the undesired material can be formed in the contactor itself. High temperature and pH also favor thiosulfate formation. The di~ solved solids such as thiosulfate are allowed to build up in the solution to concentrations upwards of 250,0CI0 ppm. It may take a year or longer after plant startup to reach this level. At these high concentrations, disposal b~ purging in"olvC$ very little of the active chemical, and hence chemical usage is kept low. The effluent stream from the Stretford process, containing sodium thiosulfate and in some cases sodium thiocyanate, must be treated prior to discharge. Holmes developed four alternative methods to handle effluents from this process: evaporation or spray drying, biological degradation, oxidative combustion, and reductive incineration. Of these, the reductive incineration process is the most common since it results in a zero effluent discharge, with all the products from the step being recyclable. The reductive incineration process cracks the bleed liquor containing sodium thiosulfate into a gas stream containing H2.S and CO 2 and a liquid stream containing reduced vanadium salts, all of which are recycled.

Figure 6-5. Flowsheet for HolmesStratford process. (After Vasan, 1978; courtesy of Oil & Gas Journal.)

Figure 6-5 shows the process flow scheme. In the gas absorption section, gas is first subjected to the inlet scrubber unit to remove any liquids and contaminants that may be detrimental to the process. A venturi-type absorber is used, instead of the conventional packed bed type, to reduce the size of the absorption unit and achie\'e a better degree of absorption since it provides a larger surface area for mass transfer. The outlet scrubber prevents carryover of any entrained Stretford solution in the gas into the sales gas stream. The reduced solution from the bottom of the absorber is first piped through a flash drum in the oxidation section. F1ash vapors may be used as incinerator fuel , or returned to compressor station and mixed with sweetened gas. Liquid from the flash drum is sent to the oxidation tank where air from the blowers contacl~ the liquid at the vessel bottom, and sulfur froth is isolated at the surface. The oxidized Stretford solution goes to the circulation pump and to the surge tank for recirculation to the absorber. The sulfur processing section includes a slurry tank and an autoclave for melting sulfur. Molten sulfur from the bottom of the autoclave is cooled, flaked. and finally bagged for storage and shipment. The clear Stretford solvent is scnt to the effluent treatment section.

272

Gas Production Engineering

DerolfuriUltion Processes

273

The process is fairly easy to operate. Alkalinity. concentrations, and amounts of the active chemicals change slowly with time and replenishments need only be done quite infrequently. Corrosion problems are encoun. tered, just as in any sweetening proce;s. Kresse et al. (1981) provide an interesting discussion on some problems encountered, and their rectification. in two plants using this process.

Froning, H. R., Jacob); R. H., and Richards. W. L., 1964. "New K-Oata Show Value of Water Wash," lIydr. Proc. & Petro Ref, 43 (4, Apr.), 125-

Questioru and Problems '

...

I \Vhy must H 2S be removed from natural gas? Give at least three reasons. 2. Why is it necessary to remove CO 2 ? In what cases is CO 2 removal not necessary? 3. What types of desulfurization processes are available for natural gas? What factors are important in selecting the applicable process? 4. Compare the iron-sponge and molecular sieve desulfurization processes. 5. In what cases arc the physical absorption processes useful? 6. Why are chemical absorption pr~ the most widely used desulfuriza tion processes? 7. Compare the alkanol-amine and carbonate processes. 8. Which of the processes described in this chapter hold the most promising future? Why?

References Batt, W. T., Vaz, R. N., Rahman, M., Mains, C. H., and Maddox, R. N., 1980. Cas Conditioning ConJerence, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma. Conviser, S. A., 1965. "Molecular Sieves Used to Remove Mercaptans From Natural Cas," O. & Cas J., 63 (49, Dec. 6), 130-133. Curry. R. N., 1981. Fundamentals oj Natural Gas Conditioning. PennWell Publishing Company, Thlsa, Oldahoma, 118 pp. Dingman, J. C. and Moore, T. E. 1968. "Compare DCA and MEA Sweetening Methods," Hydr. Proc., 47 (7, July) , 138-140. Duckworth, G. L. and Geddes, J. H., 1965. "Natural Gas Desulfurized by the IronSponge Process," O. & Cas]., 63 (37, Sept. 13),94-96. Fails, J. C. and Harris. W. D., 1960. "PracticaJ Way to Sweeten NaturaJ Gas," O. & Cas 1.,58 (28, July 11), 8&-90.

Heg....er, A. M. and Harris, R. A., 1970. "Selexol Solves High HzS/C0 2 problem," Hydr. Pmc., 49 (4, Apr.), 103--104. Jenett, E., 1962. "Six Case Studies Throw Light on t~e Giammarco-Vetrocoke Process," O. & Cas I .. 60 (l8. Apr. 30), 72--71. Kohl, A. L. and Riesenfeld, F. C .. 1985. Gas Purijication'4th ed., Culf Publi.o.hing Co .. Houston, Texas. RtO pp. Kresse, T. J., Lindsey, E. E .. and Wadleigh, T., 1981. "Stretford Plants proving Reliable," 0. & Gas J., i9 (2. Jan . 12),80-87. Maddox, R. N., 1982. Gas Couditioning and Processing - Vol. 4: Cas alld Liquid Sweelellillg/ 3rd ed., edited by J. M. Campbell, Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, Oklahoma, 370 pp. Manning, \V. P., 1979. Chemsweet. A New Process for Sweetening LowValue Sour Cas," 0. & Cas /., 77 (42, Oct. 15), 122-124. Moyes, A. J. and Wilkinson, J. S .. 1974. "Development of the Holmes-Stretford Process," Tile C1Jemicaf Eugineer (Brit.), No. 282 (Feb. ), 84-90. Nicklin, T. and Hughes, D . 1978. "Removing HzS From Cases and Liquids," Chern. Abst., 88, 9427601. Nicklin, T., Riesenfeld, F. C .. and VaelJ, R. P., 1973. "The Application of the Stretford Process to the Purification of Natural Cas," Paper presented at the 12th World Gas Conference, Nice, France, June 1973. O. & Cas I., 1981. "New Cas-Sweetening Process Offers Economical Alternative," 79 (35, Aug. 31), 60-62. Ouwerkerk, C., 1978. "Design for Selective H 2S Absorption," Hydr. Proc., 57 (4, Ap'.), 89-94. Rahman, M ., 1982. Ph.D. Thesis. Oklahoma State Univ. (May, 1982), Oldahoma. Raney, D. R., 1976. "Remove Carbon Dioxide With Selexol," Hydr. Proc., 55 (4, Ap'. ), 73-75. Riesenfeld, F. C. and Mullowney, J. F.. 1959. Proc. 38th Ann. NCPA Meet., April 22-24. Rushton , D. W. and Hays, W., 1961. "Selective Adsorption to Remove H,S;' O. & Gas /. , 59 (38, Sept. 18), 102-103. Sun, Y-C., 1980. "Packed Beds for Best SulFur Removal," Hydr. Proc., 59 (10, Oct.) , 99-102. Taylor, D. K., 1956. "How to Desulfurize Natural Gas," O. & Cas}., multiple issues of Vol. 54: Nov. 5, p.I2S: Nov. 19, p.2oo; Dec. 3, p.139; Dec. la, p.147.

274

Gas Production Erlgineering

Thompson. R, J. S. and NickJin, T,: 1~. "Le Procede Stretford," paper presented at the Congress of Association Technique de I'Industrie du Cazen, France. Vasa~ , S.. 19i5. "Holmes-Stretford p~ Offers Economic H~S R v I" Oil t/. .~ Cas J., i6 (1. Jan . 2), 78-80. - erne a .

Steady-State Flow of Gas Through Pipes


Introduction
Pipes provide an economic means of producing (through tubing or casing) and transporting (via flowlines or pipelines) fluids in large volumes over great distances. They are convenient to fabricate and install, and provide an almost indefinite life span. Because flow is continuous, minimal storage facilities are required. at either end (field supply end, and the consumer end). Operating costs are very low, and flow is guaranteed under all conditions of weather, with good control (an installed pipeline can usually handle a wide range of flow rates). There are no spillage or other handling I~, unless the line develops a leak, which can be easily located and fixed for surface lines. The flow of gases through piping systems involves flow in horizontal, inclined, and vertical orientations, and through constrictions such as chokes for flow control. This chapter introduces some basic concepts for these flow type<.

Gas Flow Fundamentals fluid flow equations are derived from a basic energy balance which, for a steady-state system (no time-dependence of flow parameters), can be expressed as:
AI}

Change in internal energy + Change in kinetic energy + Change in potential energy + Work done on the fluid + Heat energy added to the fluid - Shaft work done by fluid on the surroundings

-0
275

276

Gas Production Engineering

Steady State Flow of Gas Through Pipn

277

Thus, on a unit mass basis, the energy balance for a fluid under steady-state flow conditions can be written as: dv' g dU + - + - dz + d(pY) + dQ - dw, - 0 2g, g,
(7- 1)

On this further substitution, Equation 7-1 becomes: Ydp + dv' + (glg,)dz + clio - dw, - 0 2g, Neglecting the shaft work sity, p:

(7-2)

w,, and multiplying throughout by the fluid den(7-3)

where U - internal energy. ft.lbfilbm \: - luid velocity. ftlsee z - elevation above a given datum plane, ft p - prarure, Ibflft2 V - volume of a unit mass of the fluid, ftJ/lbm Q - heat added to the fluid, ft-Ibf/lbm W, - shaft work done by the fluid on the surroundings, ft.lbfllbm g - gravitational acceleration, ftlsec'l g., - conversion factor relating mass and weight. This basic relationship can be manipulated in several different ways. Com. monly, it is converted into a mechanical energy balance using the well known thermodynamic relations for enthalpy (h): dU + d(pY) - dh - T<h + Ydp where h - specific fluid enthalpy, ft.lbfllbm T - temperature, oR s - specific fluid entropy, ft-Ibfllbm Equation 7-1 now becomes: dv' T<h + Ydp + - + (glg,)dz + dQ - dw, - 0 2g, For an ideal process, ds... - dQ/T. Since no process is ideal (or reversible). ds ~ - dQ/T, or:

dp + pd,' + (glg,)pdz + pcll.-O 2g,

All the terms in Equation 7-3 have units of pressure. Equation 7-3 can also be written as:
6p + p11v' + (glg,)ptu + p61. - 0 2g,

.6p

+ pil.v2 + (gI~)p.6z + .6Pf ... 0


2g,

(7-4)

where .6p, represents the pressure drop due to friction , and is dependent upon the prevailing flow conditions. Types of Single-Phase Flow Regimes and Reynolds Number Four types of single-phase flow are possible: laminar, critical, transit.ion, and turbulent (see Figure 7-1). Reynolds applied dimension~1 anal}~IS. to flow phenomena, and concluded that the flow regime that will prevaillS a function of the following dimensionless group known as the Reynolds number, NRe:

Nae - inertia forces/viscous forces - dvplp.

(7-5)

T<h - - dQ + clio
where I", is the lost work due to irreversibilities such as friction.

where d _ (inside) diameter of the conduit through which the fluid is flowing v _ velocity of the fluid p - density of the fluid Il - viscosity of the fluid For cross-sections other than circular, an equivalent diameter, four times the hydraulic radius, Rh is used instead of d:

F .. mgll<. In metric (Of 51) units, IN .. (1 kg)(9.8 mlsec")Ig.., implying that g.. .. 9.8 kgm: (t-; secI) .. 1 NN. In British units, 1 Ibf .. (I Ibm)(32.17 h /secf)I g.., Implying that g.. .. 32.17 Ibm fti/lbf sec-t).

<1", defined as

278

Go.J Production Engineering

Steady State Flow oj Ca.s Through Pipes

279

d" ,..

4R" .. 4[area of flow/wetted perimeter]

(7-6)

For example, for a flow conduit with a square cross-section (a x a):


Cross-sectional area of flow = a 2 Wetted perimeter - 4a Thus,

,;

d"

4(a 2 /4a) - a

-'0

For flow through a casing-tubing annulus, with casing inside diameter equal to da and tubing outside diameter equal to <ito:
Cross-sectional area of flow =- ('lI"/4)(~ ~ Wetted perimeter
=

rltz,,)

r(d.,;

+ clIO)

.i
'" ~
o
Z

Th verify the applicability of this approach, consider the case of a pipe with a circular cross section of diameter d:

Cross-sectional area of flow'"' rd 2/4


Wetted perimeter = .,.d

The units for parameters in the Reynolds number should be consistent, so that a dimensionless number is obtained. One such consistent set would have d in ft, v in ft /see, p in Ibm/ftl, and p. in lbmf(ft sec). The dynamic fluid viscosity /l. frequently given in centipoises (cp), can be converted into lhm/(ft sec) using the conversion factor of 1 cp - 6.7197 x 1O-~ Ihm/(ft sec). Thus: N.. _ d(ft)v(ItJ=)p(lhmlft') _ I 488 d(ft)v(ftlsec)pQhmlft') .(cp) x 6.7197 x 10-" .(cp) (7-7)

For gases, the flow rate is commonly expressed in Mscfd (thousands of standard cubic feet per day). This volumetric rate, q.., (Mscfd), at standard conditions of pressure (p"", psia) and temperature (T"", O . can be converted R) into mass flow rate, m in Ibm/sec, as follows:

Gas Production Engineering

Steady State Flow oj Gas Through Pipes


X

281

m _ Avp where

(I,OOOq,.)Mp. _ (3.1243 (24)(3,600)z.,RT.

IO-')(q.h,p. T.

As shown in the Moody friction factor chart (Figure 7-1), flow regime is related to Reynolds number as follows:
~ow

A - cross-sectional area of flow, ft2 M - molecu1ar weight of the gas R - gas constant (- 10.732 psia-ft3/lbmole-R) Poe - pra-;ure at standard conditions, psia TE - temperature at standard conditions, OR gas compressibility at standard conditions ( _ 1) 1', - gas gravity (air - 1)

type

NRh smooth pipes

z.. -

Laminar (or viscous) Critical Transition (or intermediate) Turbulent Pipe Roughness

<2,000
2,000-3,000 3,000-4,000 (m 10,000) >4.000 (0' 10,000)

Thus, for a circular pipe of diameter d (ft), vp is given by:


vp - (4)(3.1243 x 1O")q.>,p..,l(T.~d')

- (3.9780 x 1O")q.>,p..,l(f.d')
Substituting for vp in Equation 7-9 for NR~:

R~

_ d(3.978O x lO")q.>,P. _ 59. 1991q.>,P. T.,d2(J.t x 6.7197 x 10- 4) T.,dJt

Generally, d is used in inches for most gas flow equations. For d in inches, N Re becomes:

No. _ 7l0.39(p.(p';a)IT.(OR)]q.(Mscfdh. d(;n.) -<Cp)

Friction to flow through a pipe is affected by pipe-wall roughness. However, pipe roughness is not easily or directly measurable. and absolute pipe roughness t is, therefore, defined as the mean height of protusions in uniformly sized, tightly packed sand grains that give the same pressure gradient as the given pipe. This roughness may change with pipe use and exposure to fluids. Initially, the pipe contains mill scale that may be removed by fluids flowing inside the pipe. The fluids may also increase roughness by erosion or corrosion, or by precipitating materials that stick to the pipe wall. Thus, estimating pipe roughness is quite difficult. Usually, absolute roughness is determined by comparing the observed friction factor to that given in Moody's chart (Figure 71). If no roughness data are available. a value of l ,., 0.0006 in. can be used. Some typical values for roughness are shown below (Chemical Engineers' Halldbook, 1984): Type of pipe Drawn tubing (brass, lead, glass) Aluminum pipe Plastic--lined or sand blasted Commercial steel or wrought iron Asphalted cast iron Galvanized iron Cast iron Cement-lined Riveted steel
i,

(78)
in.

The factor 710.39p.,JT.., for some common standard conditions is as follows:

0.00006
0.0002 0.0002-0.0003 0.0018 0.0048 0.006 0.0102 0.012-0.12 0.036-0.36

p.., psia
14.4

T." oR

71O.39 2..,1T.
19.672 20.014 20.123 20.526

14.65 14.73 15.025

520 520 520 520

(60F) (60F) (60F) (60F)

Thus, for most practical applications, the Reynolds number for a gas is given by:

Commonly used well tubing and line pipe: New pipe 12-months old 24months old O.OOO5-Q.OOO7

(79)
where q., is in Mscfd, po is in cp, and d is in inches.

O.(XHSO
0.00175

286

Gas Production Engilleering

Steady Slate Flow oj Cas Through Pip/!$

287

Frictional losses for a length dL of pipe are given by (Equation 7-11):

pd!. - (fpv'/2g.d) dL
Substituting for frictional losses:

cally expedient. because an analytic description of the variation of temperature along the pipeline length is rather difficult and introduces some complexity. See last section in this chapter for expressions for temperature profiles in flowing gas systems. The gas compressibility factor, Z, is made independent of temperature and pressure by using an average compressibility factor, Z... for simplicity. Integrating over the pipe length from 0 to L and p~ure PI (at L - 0, at the upstream) to PI! (at L "" L, at the downstream end), Equation i-2S becomes:

Substituting for g.ll densit) p:


p -

pM/(ZRT)
0'.
(7-28)
Any consistent set of units can be used in Equation 7-28. In common units, with q,., in Mscfd, p in psia, T in OR, d in in., Lin ft, and with R "" 10.732 psia ft1f1b mole- OR and g., - 32.17 Ibm ftllbf-sec2, Equation 7-28 becomes:

and gas velocity v:


, _ q.

(ZTP.)(~) 2
pTJC rd

we obtain:

_ d _ (_f)( pM )(IfX&Z'T'p!,J d 2g.d ~"'d'

ZRT

L
(7-251

[10'1(3. 000 x

24) ]'q!, _ (( 10. 732 x

144)(32.17)(1112)'

0'.

46.9644

)(It)((pi -..PI)d') Pi, ")'gZ TfL


(7-29)

- I Z dp - 8fMTp!,q!, I dL ~ R.-'d'g.lt

Thus,

Note that T is constant (or, independent of length) since isothermal flow i~ assumed. Otherwise. an average temperature, T.~, is commonly used in. stead of T in the previolls relationship. The two types of averages used are the arithmetic average,
(7-26)

where

q,., p.., T., PI

_ _ -

PI! d 'Y~ -

and the log-mean temperature,


(7-27)

T _

Zo.. f L -

gas flow rate measured at standard conditions, Mscd pressure at standard conditions, psia temperature at standard conditions, OR upstream pressure. psia downstream pressure, psia diameter of the pipe, ft gas gravity (air - 1 basis) flowing temperature. OR average gas compressibility factor Mocxly friction factor length of the pipe, ft

In practice, both these averages are quite close since temperatures T J and T2 are used as absolute temperatures. Using an average temperature is practi-

Equation 7-29, attributed to Weymouth, is the general equation for steadystate isothermal flow of gas through a hOrizontaJ pipe. Implications of the

282

Ga.! Production Engineering

Steady Siale Flow of COl Throllgh Pipes

283

From dimensional analysis, it has been deduced that relative roughness, the ratio of the absolute roughness and inside pipe diameter, tid, rather than absolute roughness, affects flow through pipes. Friction Factor For convenience, friction factor f' , defined as the ratio of the shear stress at the fluid-solid interface and the kinetic energy of the fluid per unit volume. is used in computing the magnitude of the pressure drop due to (ric tion. For steady-state flow in a uniform circular conduit such as a pipe. this results in the well known Fanning equation: "PI - 2f' Lpv'I(g.d) (710)

Thus, the friction factor is independent of pipe roughness in the laminar flow regime. rartiolly-Turbuknt and Full!l.Turbulent SingkPhme Flow For partially-turbulent flow, friction factor is a function of both Reynolds number and pipe roughnao>. For fully turbulent flow, however, the friction factor is only very slightly dependent upon Reynolds number (see Figure 7-1) . Generally, intermediate or partially turbulent flow is included in turbulent flow for purposes of developing correlations. Several correlations have been reJXIrted for the dependence of friction factors on Reynolds number and pipe wall roughnao>; only some of the most accurate ones are presented here. For smooth pipes, the follOWing relationships are applicable: f'"" 0.5676
NR~-o.3Irn

where d is the inside pipe diameter. Any consistent set of units can be used in the previous equations. In customary units, ~Pt is in psi, L is in ft, p is in lbmfftl, v is in ft/see. d is in ft, and ~ is therefore equal to 32.171bm-ftllbf-sec2. Friction factor f' is called the Fanning friction factor. Usually, the Mood~ (also called Blasius, or Darcy-Weisbach) friction factor, equal to 4f' , is used. In terms of the Moody friction factor, f. the Fanning equation becomes: "PI - fLpv'/(2g.d)
(711

for intermediate flow

(7-14)
(7-15)

f - 16 log (N~~/0.7063) for partially turbulent flow


f-O.~

_ 2 log (NR,f'~/0.628) for fully turbulent flow (prandU's formula)

(7.16)
(717)

f .. 0.3164 NRe- o 2.'5 for NRe up to 1()5 (Blasius formula) f - 0.0056 + 0.5N Rf-03! for 3,000 < NRt < 3 x 1()6 (Drew. Koo, and McAdams)

The friction factor includes, besides roughnao>, the flow characteristics of the flow regime. It is therefore a function of Reynolds number and relatin' roughnao>:

(7-18)

f - f(N , ./d)
Laminar Singk-PhaM Flow

For rough pipes, Colebrook's equation is the basis for most modern friction factor charts:
f~" -

- 210g [.1(3.7d) + O.628/(N R,J")]

(719)

The pressure drop for laminar flow is given by the analytic HagenPoiseuille relationship as follows:

For very rough pipes, Colebrook's equation (Equation 7-19) reduces to: f-U __ 2 log (f/3.7d)
(720)

"PI - 32,<vLl(g.d')
Equating Equations 7-11 and 7-12: fLpv'I(2g.d) - 32,<vLl(g.d')

(712)

0'.
r64 pJdvp - 64/N IW
(713)

whereas for smooth pipes, Colebrook's equation reduces to Prandtl's equation (Equation 7-16), Swamee and Jain (1976) have presented an explicit correlation for friction factors as follows:
(721)

Gas Prodllclion Engineering


Steady State Flou: oj Gas Through Pipes

285

Equation 7-21 is applicable for 10- 8 < f/d < 10 2, and 5,000 < Nile < lOS, with errors within 1 % when compared with Colebrook's equation. In practice, solutions to the equations presented for friction factors are cumbersome, so a composile friction factor chart is used. as shown in Figure 7-1. Allowable Working Pressures for Pipes It is desirable to operate a pipe at a high pressure in order to achieve higher throughputs. This is, however, limited by the maximum stress the pipe can handle. The maximum allowable internal working pressure can be determined using the following ANSI (1976) specification:

In most cases, C is taken to be 100 (Beggs, 1984). Su~ituting for C and the gas density (p .. pM/ZRT), Equation 7-23 can be wnUen as:

Ve ""

100 lOO(ZRT)" (p~1 ZRT)0's "" (28.97P"rJ05

where 'Y is the gas gravity (air - I basis). The g!s flow rate at standard conditions for erosion to occur, (q")..,, can be obtained as foUows:

2(, - elSE
Pmu - c\, - 2(, - e)Y

(7-22)

I(lO(pR)o, .. ((28.97'YgZT)05 p.., . 4 .

)(TE)d')

where Pm,.. - maximum allowable internal pressure, psig t .. pipe thicknes:>, in. c .. sum of mechanical allowances (thread and groove depth), corrosion, erOSion, etc., in. S .. allowable stress (minimum yield strength) for the pipe material. psi E .. longitudinal weld joint factor (i.e., the anomaly due to weld seam), equal to l.0 for seamles:> pipes, 0.8 for fusion-welded and spiral-welded, and 0.6 for butt-welded pipes do .. outside diameter of the pipe, in. Y .. temperature derating factor, equal to 0.4 up to 900F, 0.5 for 950F, and 0.7 for l,OOOF and greater Allowable Flow Velocity in Pipes High flow velocities in pipes can cause pipe erosion problems, especially for ga5e'l that may have a flow velocity exceeding 70 fUsee. The velocity at which erosion begins to OCCUr is dependent upon the presence of solid particles, their shape, etc., and is, therefore, difficu1t to determine precisely. The following equation can be used as a simple approach to this problem (Beggs. 1984),
(7-23)

where (qe).," ga~ flow rate for onset of erosion, scf/see d '"' diameter of the pipe, ft p ,. flowing pressure, psia T "" flOWing temperature, OR R - gas constant ( - 10.732 psia-ftlllbmole..R) Z .. gas compressibility factor at pressure p and temperature T Substituting for p., .. 14.73 psia, T., .. 520 OR. and converting to field units of d in inches and (Q.:)., in Mscfd. we get:

(qJ

1,012.435 d' [Y~Tr'

(7-24)

where (q.).., is in Mscfd, d is in inches, p is in psia, and T is in OR.

Horizontal Flow Many pipeline equations have been developed from the basic mechanical energy balance (Equation 7-3): dp + (pI2g.)dv' + (g/g.)pdz + pdt. _ 0 Assuming horizontal, steady-state, adiabatic, isothermal flow of gas, with negligible kinetic-energy change, Equation 7-3 becomes: dp + pdl ... .. 0

where v~ .. erosional velOCity, fUsee p .. fluid density, Ibm/ftl C .. a constant ranging between 75 and ISO

2B8

Gas Production Engineering

Steady Stole Flow oj Cos Through Pipe!

289

various assumptions made in the development of Equation 7-29 are as follows:


l. No mechnnical work: It is assumed that no work is done on the gas between the points at which the pI'eMures are measured. This condition can be satisfied easUy by putting pressure measurement stations such that no mechanical energy is added (by compressors or pumps) between these two points. 2.

,- oll...-_____ L_C_ _ _ _-<~_l'-'


Figure 7-2. Schematic of a gas pipeline for determining the average pressure.

A~,==========~======~B

"'r.--- L, ---'~I"'-'U I-')i

3.

4.

5.

6.

Reasons for : pressurelflow rate pulsations or surges, liquids in the pipeline. variations in operating conditions, variations in withdrawal or supply rates, etc. Isothermal flow: This assumption is usually met because buried pipelines are used which are not affected much by atmospheric temperature variations. Heat of compression is also dissipated rapidly, usually within a few miles downstream of the compressor station. For small temperature changes, the average temperature given by Equation 7-26 or 7-27 is generally satisfactory. Negligible kinetic energy change: This assumption is justified because kinetic energy changes are negligible, compared to changes in pressure, for very long pipelines, such as commercial transmission lines. Constant (average) gas compressibility factor: This is a reasonable approximation, especially if Z.v i~ computed at the average pressure given by Equation 7-32. Horizontal pipeline: In practice, flow is never truly horizontal. Equations developed to account for elevation changes will be discussed in the section on inclined flow.

,Figure 7-3. A plot of pressure versus distance in a pipeline carrying gas. (After Szilas, 1975.)

and,
"" _ 0.0775543

(T<)('YgZ(piTfL(l - x) )" - P!)d' p.., ..

(7-3 1)

Equating these Equations 7-30 and 7-31 (with the assumption that the difference in Z.v for the two pipe sections is negligible):
~-p~=pi-p~ x (1 - x)

Average Pressure in a Gas Pipeline For an incompressible fluid, the average pressure is simply the arithmetic average of the inlet (PI) and outlet (P:2) pressures:
p.~

Solving for p.:


p,

- (PI + Pt)/2

[1'1 -

x(pl - P!)f'

For a gas, a compressible fluid, this is not true. Consider a pipeline AB shown in Figure 7-2. Using Equation 7-29 for gas flow, one can derive a simple formula to determine the pressure at any point C along the pipeline at a fractional distance x from the inlet end. For a flow rate fk in the pipe. the following two relationships are true (from Equation 7-29):
"" _ 0.0775543

This suggests a pressure profile as shown in Figure 7-3. The mean pressure is given by:

(T_)(Pj - If.)d')" p"" "ygZ.,TfLx

(7-30)

-~(p,+~) 3 PI + P2

290

C(u ProdllctiQII Engineering

Stead!J State Flow oj Gas Through Pipe!

291

Rearranging and multiplying both numerator and denominator by (PI - p,),

Panhandle (Panhandle .4.) Equati<m


This equation assumes that f is a function of Reynolds number only as

P.. _

~ (PI + PIP, + PlI/PI 3 PI + P2

llpl - p;J
(7-32

p,1

follows:
f _
O.0768INR~-I461

-~ (H)
where P., - average pressure, psia PI - upstream pressure, psia P2 - downstream pressure, psia

(7-35)

Substituting 10' Il<om Equation 7-35 into Equ.tion 7-29,

------------------",-~~~~~-----------

5.6353821 (T_)(PI - pi "2Oq,." "'''''' d"


Po ZT..

q. - (0.0768)"

----;;;<l

-,:.,

Therefore, Z., must be computed using Equation 7-32 for average pressurt'.

0'.
q.c:

Non-Iterative Equations for Horizontal Gas Flow


Several equations for gas flow have been derived from Equation 7-29 as. suming a friction factor relationship to avoid a trial and error computation. These equations differ only in the friction factor relationship assumed. As we have seen earlier, friction factors vary over a wide range with Reynold.... number and pipe roughness. Thus, none of these equations is universally ap. plicable. In gas field operations, engineers use the equation that best suits their conditions, or use their own modified versions.

''''''' ~

25.309468

(T_)(Pi -P!)"(.!.j'' ' ' de."",


p~

Z T L .'...

-y

(}0730.5

I'g

Thus:

q., "" 32.6491 p.,

Z T p$''''''(lj'''''"' d""" (T_)""'''(PI- .,. ., 'Y


!'~

0,07881

(7-36)

The Panhandle A equation is most applicable to large diameter pipelines, at high flow rates.

Modifu:d Panhandle
Weymouth proposed the foUowing relationship for friction factor as a function of pipe diameter d in inches:

(Panhandl~

B) EqUlltion

f - O.0321d 1tJ
Substituting for f from Equation 73,3 into Equation 729:
q. _ 31.5027

One of the most widely used equations for long transmission lines, the Panhandle B equation assumes that r is a function of Reynolds number as follows:

(7-33) f - O.00359/N~039U

(7-37)

(T_)(W - P!)d"~"
Pte
"Y,Z."T.,l.'

The pipeline flow equation is thus given as follows:

(7-34)
q.,

_109.364 (T_)I,,",(PI- P!)""'(lj"" d"'" p., Z."T.~L 'Y !'i.


00.,

(7-38)

This is known as the Weymouth equation for horizontal flow. It is used most often for designing gas transmission systems because it generally maximizes pipe diameter requirements for a given flow rate and pressure drop.

The Panhandle B equation is most applicable to large diameter pipelines, at high values of Reynolds number.

292

Gas Production Engineering

Sleady Slale Flow oj Gal Through

pj~

293

A More Precise Equation for Horizontal Gas Flow: The Clinedinst Equation The Clinedinst equation rigorously accounts for the deviation of natural gas from ideal behavior (an average gas compressibility factor, Z." is not used in this method), and the dependence of friction factor, f, on Reynolds number and pipe roughness, leading to a trial and error solution scheme. The integral I (PiZ) dp must be evaluated. In order to generalize this evalua. tion, it is converted into the following:

! I~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~I~~ ~~~~ 1l

~I~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~S ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ Inm

l(p/Z) dp - l[(p,.p,/Z) p"dp,) - p:" j(p,/Z) dp,


where ~ - pseudocriticaJ pressure of the flowing gas mixture. psia P. - reduced pressure (p, _ pip",,) Values for the integral function j(p,lZ) dp, are given in Table 7-1. For this case, Equation 7-25 becomes:

' " g
~ ~

il

" 1",. [1 0 (p,/Z)dp, -

1. (p,lZ)dp,1- BfMTp!q!.L . ~r'd'~ T1.


0

Rearranging this equation, and using common units, with CJ:oc in Mscfd, p in psia, T in Q d in in., Lin ft, and substituting for R ( '"" 10.732 psia-ft1l1b R, mole- oR) and g., (= 32.17Ibm-ft/lbf_sec2):

.." ' . . . . , , .:. :c " .. E "I N


0 _

e 0.

"

!l~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~j~ ~l~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~I~~~~~ ,~~~ ii~~ ~~!~ ~~~~i

um mu um nm

1;

~ ~

J! ~ .!
0

"I~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~; ~~~~~ I


:lm~~

:i~~~~ ~~~~ i~~ ~~~~ ~!~I


~g~1

~g~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ii

~i~~~~~~~~~ ~~~I i~I~~ ~~~~i ~I~g~~~ ~~~ ~~~; ~~~ ~~~~i

' I~~~~~ ~~~ ~~; !~~~~ ~~~~I


:I~i~~~ ~~~ ~~ !~~~ ~!~I;

um mu nm um

i!

This is known as the Clinedinst equation for horizontal flow. Pipeline Efficiency The pipeline equations developed here assume 100 % efficient conditions. In practice, even for single-phase gas flow, some water or condensate may be present, which collects in low spots in the line Over long periods of time. Some solids, such as pipe-scale and drilling muds, may also be present. To account for the reduction in pipeline capacity that will result from the presence of these materials, an efficiency factor E is generally used as a multiplying factor for the flow rate predicted by the flow equations. Only very rarely does a pipeline exhibit an E equal to 1.0; a pipeline with E greater than 0.9 is usually considered "clean." Typically, the follOwing efficiency factors may be encountered (l koku, 1984):
(text continued on page 303)

" 2
, ;;;
>

,Inm nm m um mn
"I~~~~~ ~i~~ ~~~ ~~~~! ~~~~~
'I~i~~~ :I~~~~~ :I~~~~~ ~I~~~~i
~

, ,.
~

:g.

jl( 1
-

~~~~ ~ii~ ~~~~ ~i~

~i~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~

~!~~~ ~I~~~ ~!~~ ~~~~

~~Ii !~II~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~

I d d d o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ a~~~~ ~~~g~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ - - _ _ _

29-4

Gas Production Engineering

Steady State Flow oj Gas Through

Pi~

295

III

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;g~:2~~

Gas Production Engineering

Steady State Flow oj Gas Through Pipes

297

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Ga, Productwn Engineering


Steody State Flow of Gal Through Pipel

299

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300

Cal Production Engineering

Steady State Flow of Gas Through Pipes

301

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!St:R:!!:
-~-~-

;;-

88888

.1~:::~;:

~~g~:

"'-~-n

..

.~;

- ..... 8 ..

..

... "'s ......

...... .,. .. ----~i;!~:,!

~ :38:

!::~~~~

=s:

3 ~:2 ~pl;
~~!:!!:!!!

.~

!!!!!!!:!!:!

...

-8"'1-

~~

!:!!:!!:!!:!!:!

~ird~;e

!!!:!!:!!:!!:

i:~

liPol8

85::e2~

::':::'::.0:::.0::':

Gas Production Engineering (text ccmtililled from 1Hlge 293)

Steod!l State Flotl-, of Gas Through Pipes

Type of gas in the flowline Dry gas Casing-head gas Gas and condensate

Liquid content gallMMscf


0.1 7.2 600

(Taction)
0.92 0.77

0.60

For high liquid conten~, ~uch as the pre\;ous case shown above for gas with condensate, h\:o-phase flow conditions exist. Pipeline efficiency can no longer represent the complex flow behavior, and different equations that account for two-phase flow must be used (see Chapter 8). Transmission Factor Equation 729 can be written as:
q. - 5.6353821 -

T.)(M (Poe - pI)d')"(l)'.' f


)'gZ.,T.,L -

The factor (lIf)05 is known as the transmission factor. Several correlations have been developed for the transmission factor (derived from the friction factor) , but it remains one of the most difficult parameters to evaluate accu rately. Transmission factor, frequently used in pipeline literature, is just an other way to represent friction factor and further discussion is, therefore, unnecessary.
Example 71. What is the maximum pressure at which a lOjn. nominal
size pipe (0.0. _ 10.75, Lo. - 10.02 in.) can be operated? Calculate the maximum throughput for a 40-mile pipeline of this type. using (a) Wey.

mouth equation, and (b) Clinedinst equation. Assume tId - 0.002, c.., 0.05. E _ 1.0 (seamless pipe), Y - 0.40, S - 35,000 psi, T... - 100F, '" - 0.01 cp, 1, - 0.70. Assume 0.0 psia minimum pressure.
Solution
Pipe thickness. t _ 10.75 - 10.02 .. 0.73 in.

Using Equation 7.22,


0..
0 _

2(0.73 - 0.05)(35,000)(1.0) _ 4,663.92 ps;a 10.75 - 2(0.73 - 0.05)(0.4)

3()4

Gas Production Engineering

Steady State f'low of Gos Through Pipes

305

To provide additional safety, the maximum pressure specification is chosen as 4,000 psia.

From Figure 7-1, f .. 0.024. From Table 7-1:

Thus. to calculate the maximum throughput, the upstream pressure, PI .. 4,000 psia, and the downstream pressure, P2 .. 0.0 psia
Assume T .... 520 oR, p.., - 14.73 psia

jo

"OO

(P;Z)dp, - 22.

88

o j '05 (p,lZ)dp, =

23.

23

From figure 3-1. Ppc ~ 663 psia. Tpc

387R

By interpolation:
j'OJ:!(p,/Z)dp, _ 22.88

Using Equation 732, p - (2/3)[(4,000' - 0)/(4.000' - D)] _ 2.666.6, psia. P" - 2.666.67/663 - 4.022, T" - (100 From Figure 32, Z., ,. 0.74

+ (23.23 - 22.88)(6.033 - 6.0)/(6.05 - 6.0)

+ 460)/387 - 1.447

o
Thus,

-= 23.11

(a) Weymouth equation (Equation 7-34):


_ (3 1.5027)(520/14.73) [
q",

q",

_ (6,515.2606)(23.11)" _ 202174.39 M",fd ~ 202.17 MM",fd (0.024)" '

(4,000' - 0)(10.02)1" (0.7)(0.74)(560)(40 x 5,280) J

f'

- 265,206.15 Mrid - 265.21 MMscfd

(b) Clinedinst equation (Equation 7-39):


PrJ" 4,000/663 - 6.033, Pr2 - 0.0, Tpr - 1.447
q", _

A second trial is not required because the friction (actor plot in Figure 7-1 shows an almost constant ( in the turbulent region applicable here. This example shows the differences in results that may sometimes occur from using different flow relationships. Most of the difference results from the friction factor values used in the two equations. From Equation 7-33. we can calculate that the Weymouth equation used an f = 0.01484, whereas an f = 0.024 was used in the Clinedinst equation.

(7.969634)(663)(520/14.73) [

(10.02)' (0.7)(560)(40 x 5,280)1 J

fS

Vertical and lnclined Single-Phase Flow of Gas Neglecting changes in kinetic energy, and assuming that no mechanical (or shaft) work is done on or by the gas, the mechanical energy balance expressed by Equation 7-3 becomes: dp + Pg dz + fpv dL _ 0
1

[ j : OJ:! (p,JZ)dp, - j: (P,lZ)dp,

J'

_ 6,515.2606 [j"OJ:! ( IZ)d f05 0 p.

Prjf'

g,

2g,d

(7-40)

First trial: Assume Ck .. 265 MMscfd


U~ng

Equation 79, N.. - (20)(265,000)(0.7)/[(0.01)(10.02)] _ 3.7 x 10'

Consider the flow scheme shown in Figure 7-4. 8 is the angle of drift from the vertical, L is the total length of the pipe, and z is the vertical elevation difference between the inlet (point 1) and outlet (point 2). Land z are related as foUows:

306

Cas Prodrlction Engineering

Steady Stale Flow of GO!! Through Pipes

307

GROUND SURFACE

I,' 1 + (6.7393
Figure 7-4. Gas flow In an
inclined sectlon_

(ZT/p) dp
X

- 0.01875,",

lO-'fLq!,Z'T')/(zp'd')

(7-42)

1
L - zlcos 6, implying that dL "" mlcos 8
Substituting for cos 0 - z/L.

where the units are: p _ psia: q,. .. ~hcfd; d .. in.; T = oR; and L. z - Ct. Equation 7-42 is the general equation for vertic,al flow calculatio~. The left integral cannot be evaluated easily because Z IS a compl~ fun~on of p nd T and the temperature variation with depth z is not easJiy defmed. The :ario~ simplifying assumptions made in the evaluation of this integral form the basis for the different methods that give results of var}ing degrees of ac curacy. . . Some methods for vertical flow assume an average temperature, m which case Equation 742 becomes:

I, 1 + (6.7393 x 10 'fLC&Z'T')I(zp'd')

(ZIp) dp

_ O.01875')'gz

TO'

(7-43)

dL - (Liz) dz
Using this relationship between Land z, Equation 7-40 can be written as:

In the left integral of Equations 7-42 and 7.43, the value of the constant is 6.7393 x 10 - 4 Some authors use a standard pressure, Poco equal to 14.65 psia, in which case this constant becomes equal to 6.6663 X 10- 4 . Still others use Pte - 14.65 psia and diameter din ft. In this latter case, the constant becomes equal to 2.679 x 10 ,11. Static Bottom-Hole Pressure (SBHP) For production and reservoir engineering calculations. the shutin (or static) bottom. hole pressure, p.... , is frequently required. In many cases, it may be difficult or expensive to obtain p..... by gauge measurements. Tech. niques have, therefore, been developed to calculate SBHP from wellhead pressure measurements. For a shut-in well, the flow rate (q or CJ.tc) is equal to zero, and Equation 7-42 simplifies to:

..

Substituting for gas density and velocity (as described earlier for horizontal flow):

_ dp _ [28.97"",][.ll + )(!:)(I&&z'1Y..)L ZRT g. 2g.d z P'ltr'd' j

(_r

0',
(ZTlp) dp I'I (gig.) + (0.81057fLq!,Z'1Y..)/(zP'ltg.d') - -28.97 I'I"'lz R(7-4 1)

Almost always, 'Y, is assumed constant in evaluating the right integral in Equation 7-41. Substituting for p.., ( - 14.73 psia), Till' ( _ S200R), and ~ (- 32.17 Ibm ftflbf.sec2), and converting to conventional units, Equation 7-41 can be written as:

I.... (ZT/p) dp - 0.01875,", ....

(7-44)

Equation 7-44 describes the relationship between the pressure measured at the surface (or wellhead), P... h, and the pressure P.... at a depth z. Note that the pipe length L has no effect on the static pressures.

308

Ga.r Pmdll,tioll Ellgineerillg

Steady Stote Flow oj Cas Through Pipe!

309
(7-49)

At.wag~ T~mlJemtun and Z-Factor Method

~is ~ the simplest method. An average temperature and Z.factor is used to simplify the left-hand side integral in Equation 7-44:
ZT"

..., (ZlPp.)dPp. _ 0.0187s-,,.


I'ptI

1 + BZ!/~
(6.6663
X

T."
zd~
1O-4)~11.

where B -

(7-50)

jp.. (dp/p) -

"'.

0.0187s-,,z

Vpon integration.
In p _ 0.01875>",

p..h

Z.,T1y

In Equation 7-50, ~ is the pseudocritical pressure of the gas (gas mixture), and q., is the rate at 14.65 psia and 520 0 R (instead of 14.73 psia and 520F). As stated earlier, a conversion constant of 6.6663 x 1O -~ in Equation 7-50 implies a Pot of 14.65 psia, whereas a conversion constant of 6.7393 x 10- (as in Equations 7-42 and 743) implies a ~ of 14.73 psia. For the case of SBHP, the flow rate 'be is zero (or, B = 0), and Equation 7-49 becomes: "'"" (ZI
)d _ 0.01875>,. T

0'.
p" ... pwh exp [_0_.O,I-,87"5-,>,,,'J
Z~,TI'

\
(7-45)

......

PI"

PI"

..

(7-5 1)

Generally, this is written as:

p,r.-...

P .. h &-2

(7-46)
(7-47)

where s - (0.037s-,,,)/( Z,, T ..)

k . . -ere e n~ nown, It can be estimated from the fact that the temperature gradient IS usually of the order of 0.015 F/ft For a static column of ~~ . ~M an m Ie a .. erage temperature is satisfactory to use. For caJculating Z the average press ". "al llfelSrequired (. ddition to average temperature). Thus a Ina 'ben "ndd er~r type of,solution is necessary. A good initial estimate of 1>.. can rna e using Equation 7-48: 'S
. 15

BHT'

the average temperature, the bottom-hole (B~;')determinesurface temperature should be known In c -temperature and the wh th

Sukkar and Cornell (1955) evaluated the left integral in Equation 7-49 by numerical integration. They reported re.u1ts in tabular form for reduced pressure Pp. in the range of 1.0 to 12, reduced temperature T p, of 1.5, 1.6, and 1.7, and B in the range of 0 (for static) to 20 (flowing). Messer et al. (1974) presented an extension of the Sukkar-Cornell method, showing its applicability to deep, sour gas wells, and presented the values of the integral in Equation 7-49 for T p, up to 3, PI" up to 30, and B up to 70. These values are shown in Tables 7-2(a-m). The case B co 0, shown in Table 7-2a is applicable to SBHP determination . For computer programming pur~, Messer et al. (1974) have also proposed the following equation to Fit the tabu1ar data:
... (Zl17.)dPp. \ 0.21 + BZ2..2 -E+ Fpp. +Clnppr I~ (7-52)

(7-48)

where E, F, and C are regression constants, determined by Messer et al . (1974) as follows: For O:s B:s 25 , 10:s pp< s 30, 1.1 s Tp.:S 3,
E - (0. 18011 - 0.002628) - (0.28026 - 0.005528) F - (0.02246 - 0.000438) + (0.21463 - 0.002748)

Tl, Tl. -

(1.21216 - 0.015178) T"

Sukkar'CornelJ Method
. This method also uses an average temperature, but accounts for the varia. t~on of Z W1~ pressure. SukJcar and Cornell (1955) converted the basic equation (Equatton 7-43) into the pseudoreduced form :

(0. 12792 - 0.002268 ) T ~


(text continued on page 336)

Table 7-2 (a, Extended Sukkar-Cornellintegral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation Reduced Temperature for 8 '" 0.00
1.1 020 0'" 100
150

1.2 00010
0.8582 1.4440 1.7373 L9116

1.3 0.00l0
0.S719 1.4836 1.11078 2.0157 2.1631 2.2778 2.3746 2,4603 2.5390 2.6128 2.6833 2.7512 28171 28814 2,5442 3.0058

1.4
0.00l0
08824 1,5129 18565

1.5

1.' 00010
0.8966 LS514 1.9192 21709

1.7 00010
0.9017 1.5654 1.9422 2.2U23 2,3996 2,5583

1.8 00010
0.9079 1,5781 L9f109 2.2273 2,4.'107 2,59J7 2.7325 2,11515 2.9569 3.0523 3.1400 3.2215 3.2980 3.37OJ 34393 3.5052 35665 3.6297 3,68R9 3.7465 3.8026 38573 3.9108 3%34 40150
4H~~7 ~

1.' 0.00l0
0.9082 1.5823 1.9693 2.2397

2.0 0.00l0
0.9108 1.58119 1.9798 2 25](, 24641 2,6354 2.1798 2.9050 3,0158 3, 1I511 3.2014 3.2924

2.2 0.00l0
0.9147 1.5966 1.9951 2,2744 2.4900 2.6654 2.8138 2.9426 3.0571 3,1605 3.2557 3.3428 3.4245 3.6012 3.5738

2.4

2.'

2.8 0.0000

3.0 0.00l0
0,9218 1.6184 2.0274 2.31o.t 2.5452 2.1134

0.00l0
0./i387 1.3774 l,fIOJ8 L7149 1.7995
IS7~

o 0010
0.8I!97 1.5334 1.8911 2 J3)1 2,3138 24570 2.5162 2.6793 2.7715 2 8558 2,9341 HXl79 3.0781 3,1452 3.2100 3.2727 3,3338 3.3934 3.4516

U.OOOO
11.9177 1.6059 :!.0063 2.2893 2.5081 2,6863 2.8382

o 0010

600 6'" 7.00 7'" 800 8.'" 900

,.'"

200 2.'" 300 J.'" 400 4'" '.00

2.cX>42
2.2507 US13 2,4898 2.5945 2.6698 2.7484 2.8222 2.8926 2.9603 3.0258 3,0893 3.1612 3.2118 3.2713 3.3296 3.3870 3,4-436 3,4993 3.5543

2.0298
2.1255 2.2101 2.2882 2,3622 2,4330 2.5013 2.5677 2.6329 2.6971 2.7602

23607
2.5125 2.6190 2.7480 2,8449 2,9330 3 0146 HI911 3,1635 3,2324

2_
2,6148 2.7561 2.8784 2,9867 3.0645 3.1742 3.2575 3,3355 3.4092 3.4792 3,5460 3.6101 3.6718 3.7315 3.7894 3.8456 3.9OOl 3.9540 4,01165 4.0579 4 IOR4
~.I ~HO

1947.1 2.0178

2.6909
2,8052

2 0689
2.1547 2.2214 2.2872 23522 2.4165 2,4S02 2.5432

2.9065
2.9982 3.0828 3.1616 3.2360 3.3065 3.3740 3.4367 3.5012 3.5617 3,6204 3.6776 3.7336 3.7883 3.8420 3.H9JR 3.9467 3.9977 41l-lHO

2.9699
3.0871 3.193() 3.2899 3.3795 3.4629 3.54 11 3.6148 3.6847 3.7512 3.8148 3,8760 3.9350 3.9921 4,0473 4.1010 4,1532 4,2041 4 2.~"7 J to::' I

3,3720
34470 351SO B6S7 Jt\S04 3.1126 3.7727 38:m!1 38872 3.9421 3.9958 41)H2 40994 4 14'l~ -l I'IH'I

3."""
3,3623 3,4239 JAII38

28223
2.8336 2.9441 3.0039 3,0630 3.1215 31794

2f1OS7
2,t)676 2,7289 2.7896 2,8499

3 ......
3.1260 3.1847 3.2427 3.2999 3.3565 34126 3.4681 3.5231
3.~777

3.6486
3,7144 ),7775 3.6382 3.8969 3,9538

10.00
1050

95"

3.5m
3,5993 36552 3.7100 3.76-10 3.8171

3 ..5OR7
),5647 36198 3.6741 3,7277 3.7806 3 !02R
.1.S(,-U

1100
11.50 12.00

2_ 2.9690
3,02f!O 3.0867 ] 14~2
2~ml

32J69 J.29W
3.3506

40090
40627 411511 4 21 ~Il -l. 'M'

3._
3.6523 -'-71 ~4 :"I 7.~)\(1

12.50 1300
1:"1
~n

38694
~.9211

34068
3 Jh27

, (,11'1

, 9721

II'

"'"

0,9194 0.9206 1,5111 1.6148 2.0151 2.0211 2,)013 2.3100 25234 2.5J47 2.7050 2,7189 28589 2.8152 2,9928 3.0114 3.1119 3.1322 3.2195 3.2413 3.3178 3.3408 34085 3.4325 3.4931 3.5176 3.5722 3.5973 3,6467 3,6723 3.7173 3.7432 3.7844 3.8108 38484 ),8750 3 91199 3.9367 3.9690 3.9961 4,0262 2.05&3 4 U814 4,1086 4 1351 4.1622 -I 1872 4.2143 4.2380 4.2650 4 21l7.~ 4.3144 -l 1 t~7 -l 1"2.~

28896
3,0274 3.1496 3.2597

33600
3.4H4 3.nSI 3,6181

J 6934
37646 3./i323 3.8969 3,9588 4.0182 4.0755 4,1309 4 ISJ5 42:\66

om
4.1165
4 11lJIl

/4 00
100 15.00 15.SO 16.00 16.50 17,00 17,50 18.00 18SO 19.00 19.50

3,2612 3.3 189 3.]763 3,4335 3,4906 3.5474 3.6041

3.6606
3.7170 3.7732 3.8293 3.8853 3.9411

3.5 1Rl 3.5735 3.6285 3.6832 3.7376 3.79 19 3.8459 3.8996 3.9532

3,6857 3.7391 3,7922

3.8200
3.87 16 3.9228 3.9736 4.0240 4.0740 4.1237 4 1731 4,2221 4.2709 4.3195 4,3678 4.4158 4 4636 45112 4.5586 4.6058 4.6528 4.6996 4.7463 4.7928 4.8391

3.9354 3.9859 4.0359

3.8450
3,8974 4.9497 40016 4.0533 4 1048 4.1560 4.207\ 4.2579

4 .... 41346
4.1833 42316 4.2795 0271 4.3744 44214 4.4681 4.5145 4,5606 4,6065 4.6522 4,6976 47428 4.7879 4.8327 4.8773 4,9217 49660 5.0101 5.0541 5.0979 5,1415 5.1850 5,2284 5,2716 5.3147 5.3577 5.4005

4.0066
4.0599 4.1129 4.1658 4.2186 4.2712 4.3237 4,3760 4.4282 4.4803 4.5323 4.5M2

2000

43086
4.3590 4_ 4.4595 4.5095 4.5594 4.6091 46587

4.0224 40722 4.12 15 4I7Il2 4.2185 4,2663 4,3138 4J")8 4.4075 4.4538 4.6998 4.5455 4.5909

4.0977 4.14SO 4.1950 4.2428

4 2900
4,3368 4.3830 4.4289 4.4743 4.5193

"'l8O 4.3546
4 4007
44462 4 4913 4.5359 Ogol 4.6239 4.6574 4.7104 4 7531 4,7955 4,8376 48794 4.9209 4.9621 5.0031 5.0438 5,0843 5 1245 51646 5.204-4 5.2440 5.2634 5.3227 5.3617

4. 1547 4,2 131 4.2609

4._
4.6053 4.6522 4.6959 4.7392 4.7822 4.8250 4.8675 4.9098 4.95111 4.9935 5.0351 5.0764 5.1176 5.1585 5.1993 5.2398

4.2067 4.2546 4.3018 4.3483 4.3942 4.4395 4.4843 4.5285 4.5722 4.6154 4.6582

42472 4.2941 4.3414 43874 44327 4.4773 4,5213 4.5648 4 6017

4.6501
4.6921 4.7335 4.7746 4,8152 4.8554 48953 4.9348 4.9739 5.0128 5.0513 50895 5 1275 5.1651 5.2025 5.2397 5.2766 5.3132 5.3497 5.3859 5,4219 5,4577 5.4933 5.5287

4 .3122 4.3589 4.4047 4.4-497 4 4939 4,5374 4,5802 4.6223 4 6638 4.7048 4.7451

4.3494 4.3957 4.4-4 10 4.4855 4.529 1

4,3829 4.4289 44741 45183 4.5617

4.4095 4 .4555 4,5005

45446
4.5878 4 6J02 4.6119 4.1129 4.7532 4.7928 4.8319 4.8704

4.5720
4.6141 4.6555 4.6963 4.7365 5.7761 4.11151 4.8536 4.8916 4,9291 4,9662 5.0027 5.0391 5.0750 5.1104 5.1455 5,1803 5,2147 4.2488 5.2826 5.3162 5.3494 5.3823 4.41SO 5.4475 5.4796 5.5116 5.5433

4 6042
46461 4,5872 4.7276 4.7675 48067 4.8454

47006
4.7425 4.7841 4,8253 4,8662 4.9068 4.9470 4.9869 5.0265 5.0659 5.1050 5.1438 5.1824 5.2208 5.2589 5.2968 5.3345

08.50
4.824-4 4 8633 4.9017 4,9397 4,9774 5.0146 5.0514 5.0879 5,1241 5,1599 5,1955 5.2307 5.2656 5.3003 5.3347 5.4027 5.4363 '.4697 5.5029 5.5369

4. 43 \6 4.4775 46224 45663 4.6094 4,6518 46933 0341 4.7743 UI38 4.8527 48911

48835
4 9211 4 9582

4908J

"'"
2100 21.50 22.00 22.50 23.00 23.50

3.9969
4.0525 4.1080 4.1634 4.2187 4,2739 4.3291 4.384\ 44391

4 6360 46808
4,7254

4 9969
5.0311 5.0670 5. 1024 5 1374 5 1720 52083 5.2403 5.2739 5.3073 5.3403 5.3780 5.4054 5,4376 5.4695

47f1n
48138 4.8577 4.9014 49449 49882 5W12 5.0741 5.1169 5.1594 5.2019 5.2441 5,2862 5,32K2 5.3700 5.4117 5.4532
r

,49827
5.0192 5.0552 5.1260 5.1808 5.1953 '.2294 5.2631

4.9457

49288 4 "'I

'.0029
5,0392

5,0751
5.1105 5 1455 5.1802 5.2144 5.2483 52819 5.3151 5.3480

2400
24.50

47081
4.7575 4.8067 4.8558 4.9()48 4.9536 5.0024 5.0511

"00

44940
4,5488

4.6360 4.6877
4.7392 4.7907 4.8421 4.8934 4.9447 4.9958

48853
4.9314 4.9772 5.0230

"'"
2600
26.50 27.00 27.50

'.2965
5.3296 5.3624 5,3950 5,4272 5,4591 5.4903 5.5223 5.5935 5.5844

46036
4.6583 4.7 129 4.7675 4 822{) 48764 4.9308 4.9851 5,0394

21100 211'" 29.00 29'" 30.00

'.0469
'.0979
5.1488 5.1997

,5,1482 5.1966 5.2450 5,2932

'.0686
5.1142 5. 1595 , 2048 5.2500 5.2950 5.3400

,."'"

'2JlO2 5.3204
5.3605

'.4001
5.4401 5.4797

,- ,5.3720
5.4393 5.4779 5.5163 5.4465 5.4834 5.5202

'.J688

5.4129 5.4460 5.4767

'.l<l82
5.5394 5.5'704 5,6011

5.S012
5.5326 5.5638

Table 7-2 (b) Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation

P,
1.1 0.20 OSO 1.00 I.SO 2.00 2SO 300 3.SO 400 4.SO '00 '.SO .00 6.SO 700 'SO 8.00 'SO '.00 '.SO 1000
10..50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 1300
\3 .'\11

~ ~

1.2 0.0000
0.0220

1.3 0.0000

1.4 0.0000

00000
0.0226 01036 0.2121

0.0983
0.2052 0.3125

0.3002
0,3741 0.4419 0 ..5014 0,5715 634<;

0._
0.4854 0.5594 0.6291 0.6957 0.7601 0.8225

06966
0.7579 08185 08184 09378 09967 1.0551 I 1131

0.8836
0.9431 1.0030 1.0614 1.1191 1.1761 1.2325

0.0216 00214 0.0954 0.0934 0.1995 0.1954 0.3102 0"" 0.4126 0.4133 0.5032 0.5105 0.5847 05983 0.6594 0,6785 0.7294 0.7530 0.7960 0.8229 0,8601 0.8895 09222 0.9536 0,9829 1.0156 1.0423 1.0758

Reduced Temperalure for 8 "" 5.0 1.' 1.7 1.' 1.' 2.0 00000 00000 0.0000 00000 0""" 00000 0.0212 00210 0.0209 0.0201 00201 00205 0.0921 00909 0.0901 0.01194 0.0890 00886 0.1924 0.1901 0.1882 01868 0.1859 0.1850 0,3034
1.5
04124 0.5131

2.2 0"""
0.02U5 0.0881 o 19]8 0.2926

2.4 00000

2 . 00000

2.' 0.0000
00204 0.0871 o 1816 0.2896 04012 0.5108 0.6157 0.1149

3.0 00000
00204

06065
06915

0.3001 04107 0.5144 06101 0,6982

0.2983

0_
05143 0,6123 0.7029 0.7868 0.8653 09393

07702
0.8440 0.9138 09803 1,0442 I 1058 1 1656 1.2231 12805 1.3361

0,n97
08560 0.9280

0_
10620 1 1249 I 1857 1.2447 13020 1.3579 14125 14661 15187 1.5705 1.6214 1.6717 17213 I. 77114

1.009S
10764 I 1406 l.2024 1.2621 13201 1.3764 1,4313 1.4851 1.5377 1.5894 1.6401 1,6901 1.7393 I 7879

I lOOS
I 1578 1.2142 1.2698 13248 1,3791 14328 1.4860 1.5387 1.5910 1,6429 1.694.\
71 ~f.

1.1346
1.J921 1.24!!6 1.3041 1.3687 1.4126 1.4658 1.5182 1.5701 1.6214 1,6721

1l7Jl6
12275 2,2841 13403 13961 14515 1.S067 1.5616 1616-' I f>7!111

1.2883
1.3435 13983 1,4526

13907
14443 1.4970 1.5490

1.S065
LS601 1,6133 1,6662 1,1 11111.

1.6002 16S09
1.1010
I.1SO~

1.722"
I. T:'~.'

' /<lS

RIlIll

unsx

02954 02943 0.4066 0,4056 0.51311 051}4 0.6147 0,6152 0._ 0.7081 0.7104 0.1927 0,1964 07994 0.8734 0.8785 0.8827 0,9493 0.95511 0.961 I 1,0213 10289 10354 10896 1,0984 I 1060 I 1552 I 1649 I 1734 12182 1,2286 1.2379 1.2188 1,2900 12999 Ll374 1,3492 1.3596 IJ9..I3 14066 14173 14497 14623 1,4733 1..5031 15165 15278 1.5694 1.5808 16081 1,6211 16326 1.6587 1.6718 1.6833 17085 1.7215 1.1330 1,7575 I".. 17817 111h7 I ,RIM I S295 I :i),\2 1(1) ~{' I 7(, ~

0.2965 0,4(}16 OSI40 0.61.18

0_

15"'"

0,5125 06154 0.7121 0.S027 0.8879 09682 1.{1441 I 1162 1 1848 1.2504 1.3161 1.3773 14357 14922 1.5472 16006 1.6526 17034 1.7530 I,SOI5 UI4!N I IN.'",, J

00206 00201 0.0877 0.0814 0.1829 o 1822 0.2914 0,4030 04020 0,5118 0.5112 0.6155 06155 0,7133 0.714(} 0,8051 0_ 0.8916 0.8941 09732 0.9765 1,0504 1.0544 I 1236 1 1284 1 1932 I 1987 1.2597 1.2657 1,3234 1.3299 1.3845 I 3914 14434 1,4S06 1,5003 1.5077 15555 1.5630 1.6090 1.5167 16611 1.6687 1.7118 17195 1.1613 1,1689 18097 1,8m I.S.~69 U!M4

0_
0.181\

"901

02889 0_
05103 06156 0.7154 0.8094 011980 0,9315

0_ 0_
0.9795 I05SO 1 1324 12031 1.2704 1.3349 13967 14561 1.5135

"<04
I 1351 1.2060 1.2137 1.3383 1,4003 14599 1.5174 1.5729 1,6267 16789

I.""
1.6226 1.6741 1,7254 l,n49 18231 1,8701
J 'I J(iJ

1.7296 11790
1,8271 I 8742
J 92()J

'~I

t>

J '/J(I5

14.00 /4 .50
1 5.00

15.SO 16,00

16.50
17.00 17.50 18,00 18.SO 19.00 19.50 20.00

2O.SO
21.00

21.50
22.00 22.50 23,00 23.SO 2-1.00 2-1.50 25.00 25,SO 26.00

.~Z"""' / .5753 1.6261 I 6767 1.7271 l.m5 1,R2n 1 8778 1.9278 1.9711 2.0216 2.0773 2.1269 2.1765 2.2260 2.2754 2,3248 2,3141 2.4233 2.4723 2.5216 2.5706 26196

/ ,5368

1. 5860 1,635 1 1.6839 1.1326 1.7811 1,8294 1.8117 1.9257 1.9737 2.0215 2.0592 2.1167 2.1642 2.2116 2.2588

2.3060
2.3531 24001 2 .4470 2.4938 2.5406 2.5873 2.6339 2.6805 2.7269 2.7734 2.8197

I ~O3 1.5!!!!3 1.6360 J .6835 11308 1,7778 1,8247 1.8114 1.9179 1,9643 2.0105 2,0566 2.1026 2.1484 2.1941 2,2396 2.2851 2,3304 2,3757 24208 2,4659

1.5-176 1.59-12 1.6.\05

'--~511

16S65
1.7323

I.ms
18230 18680 1.9127 1.9573 2.0017 2.0458 2.008 2.1336 2.1773 2.22U7 2,264\ 2,J073 2.35113 2.3932 2.4.160 2.4781 2,5212 2,5637 '.6060 2.641'12 2.690.\ 2.1324 2.77-13 2.8162 2.8579 2.11996 2.9412

2.5 lOS
2.5557 2.6005
2.~52

, 661!5
2,717-1 2,7M3 2,8151 2.Hfl-'R
2,912~

26,50
27.00 27.50

2800 28.50
29,00 29.50

30.00

2,1}612 3.0098 30SfW 3,1069

,2.9123 2.9585 3.00--\6

3.0507

2,6898 2.7343 2.77811 2.8232 2.8675 29118 2.9560 3.0001

1.6035 1.6490 1,6941 1.7389 1.7834 1.8275 1.8714 1.9151 1.9585 2JXl16 2.0446 2.0873 2.1298 2,1722 2.2143 2.2563 2.2981 2 ..U97 2.3812 2.4226 2.4637 2 ~\.I8 2.5457 2.5865 2.6272 2.6677 2.1UM2 2.7485 2.7887 2.8288 2,8689 2.90AA

l.5652 1.6 104 1.6553

16999 1,744(1 1.7878 1.8314 1.8746 1.9175

1.5716 1,6 163 1.6605 1.7043 1.7411

17906 1.8333

1.5794 1,6237 1.6575 1.7108 1.7537 1.7961 1.8382

1.5SS1 1,6290 1.6723 1.7151 1.7575 1.7993

I .S899 16335 1.6764 1.7188 1,7(1.}7

1.5988 1.64 17 1 684Il

1.1256
1.7666

18407
1.8818 1.9224 1,9626 2.0025 2,0<120 2{1812 21201 2.1587 2.1970 2.2350 2.2728 2.31OJ 2,3476 2.3847 2.421S 2.4581 2,49-Ul 2,5.3Ot! 2.5668 2,6027 2.63114 2673'1 2,7(J\I.:! 2,7".w 2.7794 2U14]

1.8756
1.9175 1.9592 2,0005 2,0416 2.0824 21229 2,1632 2.2033 2,2432 2.2828 2.3222 2.3615 2.4005 2.4394 2,4761 2,5166 2,5550 2.59.12 2.6312 2.6691 2,7069 2,7446 2.7821 2.819-1 2.8567

19602
2.CXl26 2.(1-141 2.0Il61 2.12S4 2.1699 2.2112 2.2523 2.29.'2

2Jl40
2.3745 2.4149 2.4952 2,4953 2.5353
2.57~1

18799 1.9212 1.%22 2.0029 2.0433 2.08.33 2.1232 2.1627 2.2020 22411 2.2199 2,311(5 2.),\69 2.3\151 24'31 2mJ\l
2,5(JgS 2.5459
2.~!132

2.614/1 2.6S4l 2.69-'11 2.7331 2.772] 2RI14

H2O) 2(7) 26941

18020 1.8429 1,8833 19232 1.9628 2.0020 2("", 20m 2.1173 2.1551 2.1926 2.2298 2.2667 2,)033 2.3397 2.3758 2.4117 2.4473 241'127 2,5179 2 5529 2.5877 2.6223

1807Il I_ 1.8862 1.9251 1.9634 2,0013 2,0388 2.0759 2.1126 2.1489 2.1848 2,2204 2,25S7 2.2906 2.3253 2.3597 2.3937

V1275
2A611 2."9.\4 2.5275 2.5603 2.5921)
2.o2~]

H567
2.fI\I()<}
2,72~0

V\''i(1-I
2,81192

2.7.'\(17 2.7673 z.s036 2.S399

2,75119 2.7926

26575 2.6R95 2.7212


2.7~211

1,6016 1.6443 1.6862 1.7274 1.7619 1.8078 1,8472 1.8859 \.9242 1.9619 1.9992 2.0359 2.0723 2.1082 2.1438 2.1789 2.2131 2.2461 2.2822 2.3160 2.3494 2.3826 2.-1155 2.441'11 2.480.\ 2.5124 2.5443 2.5758 2.0072 2.6333 2.6692

16043 I .... 1.6885 1.7296 17tf}9

1.6062 1,6486 1.6902

1.7311
1.1113 1,8109 1.8499 1.8883 1.9261 1.9634

1.18487
1.8872 1.9252 1.9626

1.6074 1.60'91 1.6912 1.7320 1,1122 I.S116

18505

1.8888
1.9265 1,9631

19996
2.0360 2.0721 2,1011 2.1429 2.1777 2.2121 2,2462 2,2799 2,3133 2.3463 2.3791 2,4115 2.4431 2.4756 2.5073 2.5386 2.5698 2,60117 26-'1" 2.66UI 2,6970 2.7221

20007
2,0365

20004

2.0366
2.0723

2,on4
21079 2.1429 2.1775 2.2118 2.2457 2.2792 2.3124 2.3453 2.3779 2.4102 2.4422 2.4739 2.S053 2.5365 2.5675 2,5982 2.6286 2.6589 2.7187

2.1on
2.1425 2.1770 2.2111 2.24-19 2.2783 2.3133 2.3440 2.3165 240M 2,4.j().1 2.4719 2.5032 2.5342

2.5650
2.5955 2,62511 2,6558 2,6857 2,7153

'.6999
2.7304

,-

Table 7-2 (c) Extended Sukkar-Comell Integral tor Bottonl-hole Pressure Calculat ion
P,
1.1 020 OSO 1.00 I. SO 200 2SO 3.00 00000 1.2 0.0000

Reduced Temperature for 8 '" 10.0 1.3


0.0000 1.4 00000 1.5 0.0000 1.' 00000 1.7 00000 1 . 00000 1.9 00000 2.0 0.0000 22 0.0000 2.' 00000 2.' 0.0000 2 . 0.0000 3.0 00000

3.SO
400 4 SO '.00 ,SO 600 6SO 1.00

1.SO

.'"
'00 ,SO

800

0.0115 0,0561 0, 1292 0.2028 0.2684 0.3300 0.3897 0.4485 0.5065 0.5638 0.6204 0.6765 0.7321 0.7873 0.8421 0,8965 0.9506

l oon
I 0575 I 1104
11 630

10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.91


11 UO
~

1,2 153 1,2674 1.3 192 1 37118 1 4 ;>~~


~7

0.0 112 0.0525 0.1 187 0.1968 0,2723 0.3422 OA08O OA708 0.5315 0.5904 0.6480 0.7045 0.7602 0.815] 0.8697 0.9236 0.9769 1.0296 1.0819 1 13311 I 1852 1.2J63 1.2871 1.3376
I3R71

0.0110 0.0507 0.1132 0.1891 0.2677 0.3427 OA130 OA793 0.542] 0.6029 0.6617 0.7190 0.7752 0,8304
08846

0.9381
0_

10131 1,0947 I 1458


11964

1. 2466
1 2964

1. 3458 1 W~q

14 377
~I

ill

73

"'Ie

0.DI08 0.0494 01098 0, 1837 0.2624 0.3399 0.4135 0.4832 0.5492 0.6122 0.6729 0.7]16 0.71!O8 0.6447 0.8994 0.9531 1.0059 1.0580 I 1094 I 1601 1 2102 1,2598 1.3089 1.3574 ] 4n~o 1 4 ~Jl
I '1)11

0.0107 0.0486 0.1074 0.1797 0.2578 0.3364 0.4123 0.41:146 0.5533 0.6 189 0.6818 0.7424 0./1010 0.8580 0.9134 0.9676
1.Q201

1.0729 1.1242 1 1747 1.2245 1.2736 1.3222 I 3"702 I 4171'1


] 11,1'

0.0107 0.0479 0.1056 0.1767 0.250 0.3332 0.4102 0,4841 0.5545 0.6217 0.6!!6 1 0.7481 0.8079 0,8659 0.9221 0,9770 1.0305 1.0829 I 1342 1 1847
1."'-'

1,2834 1.3317 1.3"794 I 4 ~'..o

,.

,.

0.0106 0.0474 0.1041 0.1743 0.2513 0.3302 0,4080 0.4830 0.5547 0.623] 0.6891 0.7522 0,8JJ1 0.8720 0.9290 0.9845 1.0385 1,0912 I 1428 I 1935 1.24]2 1,2920 1,3402 1.)876 1 4l4~
14 ~n

0.0105 O.OHO 0.1031 0.1725 0.2490 0.3278 0,4061 0,4820 0.5549 0.6248 0.6919 0.756] 0.8182 0.8781 0.9360 0.992 1 1.0467
1.0999

I 15 18 1.2027 1.2525 1.3013 1,3494 1.3967 l .wn


4);<1:

0.0105 0.0468 0.1024 0.1713 0.2475 0.3263 0.4047 0.4812 0.5549 0.6256 0.6934 0.7586 0.8214 0.8819 0.9404 0.9911 1,0522 I 1057 I 1579
1.2090

1.2689 1.3078 1,3559 1.4032 ]44<)7

0.0105 0.0465 0.1018 0.1703 0.2461 0.3248 0.4035 0.4803 0.5546 0.6260 0.6946 0.7605 0.8240 0.8852 0.9443 1,0015 1,0569 1 1108 I 1633 1.2 145 12645 1.3135 1,3(>16 1.400
1.4~5 ~

0.0\04
O.OW

0.0104
0.0160

0.0104 0.0458
00997

~I'II

L ~ ;!'o-I

~.1--l{,

".
1.9121 1.9580 2.0032 2.0478 2.0918 2,1353 2. J783 2.2209 2.2630
2._

")~

~(lnl'l ~H'

0.1009 0.\687 0,2440 0.3225 0.4014 0.4787 0.5538 0.6262 0.6959 0.1629 0.8273 0.8895 0,9494 1.00')2 1.065] I 1197 1 1726 12242 12746 1.3238 1.3719 1.4190 1 ~MJ I.SIOt'
I
~~.-

0.1003 0.1676 0.2426 0.3210 0.]999 0.4776 0,5532 0.6263 0.6967 0.7M5 0.8297
0.8925

01667 0.2413 0,3195 0.3985 OA764 0.5523 0.6258 0.6967 0.7650 0.8307
0.8940

0.953 1 1.0115 1.0681 1 1228 I 1760 1.2278 1.2783 1.3275 1,3756 1.4227
I 4NtR

0.9550 I,OJJ8
1.0106 11256 11 790 1.2309

0.0103 0.0456 0.0994 0.1660 0.2403 0.3184 0.3974 0.4755 0.5517 0.6256 0.6968 0.7654 0.8314 0.8950 0.9562

0.0103 0.0455
0.0990

I.om
1.0123

0.1653 0.2394 0.3174 0,3964 0.4746 0.S511 0.6252 0.6967 0.7655 0.8311 0.8955 0.9566 '-0160 1.0732
11286 11822 I.DO 1 28SO

I 1275 I 1810 1.2331


12836

1.2814
1.3901

1 3788 1 4258 I 4719


U /t>9
I ~r.r I

1.3329 1.3810 1.4280 ] .4140


I ~/w 1 ......111

1 ~ Ult 1. ~51'1J

1.3343 1.3824 1.4294 I 4753 1.5202


, .IM:? '

14.00
14.SO

'.7250
1.7191

1.7711 1.8212
1.8750

15.00
15.50

1.8330 1.8867
1.9402

16.00 16.50 J7.oo


17.SO

1.9266 1.9780

18.00 18,50 19.00 19.50


2000 2O.SO

1.9936 2.0469 2, 1000 2, 1530 2.2059 2.2587 2.3113


2.3639

2.om
2.0802

2.13 11 2.18 17 2.2323


2.2826

1.7965 1.8470 1.897] 1.9472 1.9970 2.0465 2.0958 2.1449 2. 1937 2.2424
2.2909

l/i216 1.8706 1.9192 1.9675 2.0154 2.063 1 2. 1104 2. 1575 2.2043


22509

\.8480 1.8960 1.9436


I. _

2.0371 2.0842 2. 1303 2.1762 2.22 17 2.2670


2.3120

1.8667 1.9142 1.9612 2.0071 2.0538


2.0996

18830

1.9298 1.9760 2.0217


2.0669

2.4164
2 ....

21.00 21.50 22.00 22.50


2300

23.50
" 00

24.50
"00

".SO 26.00 26.50 27.00 27.50 28.00 28.SO 29.00


295{) JlJOO

2.mO 2.5733 2.6254 2.6774 2.7294 2.78\3 2.8)32 2.8849 2.9367 2.9883 3.0399 3.0915 3. 1429 3. 1944 3.2458 ].2971 3.3484 3.3997

2.3329 2.3830 2.4329 2. 4828 2.5325 2.5822 2.6317 2.6811 2.7304 2.7796 2.8'...88 2.8778 2.9268 2.9757 3.0245 3.07]3 3. 1220 3.1706 3.2191 3.2676 3.3 160 3.3644

2.3393 2.3875 2.4355 2.4834 2.53 11 25788 2.6263 2.6736


21209

2.2973 2.3434 2.3893 2.4350 2.4306 2.5259 2.571 1 2.6 1 61 2.6610 2.7057
27S03

2.3567 2.40 12 2.4455 2.4895 2.5333 2.5770 2.6204 2.6637


2.1068

2. 1450 2. 1900 2.2347 2.2791 2.3233 2.3671 2.4107 2.4541 2.4972


25400

2. 1117 2. 1561
22000

1.9001 1.9463 1.9920 2.0372 2.0818 2. 1260 2.1697 2.2131


22560 2.2%5

1.9227 1.9681 2.0128 2.0570 2. 1005 2. 1434 2. 1858 2.2276


2.2690

2.2437
22869

2.3299 2.3725 2. 41 48
2A568

2.3407
2.3825 2A24 1

2.3459
2.3868

2.7680 2.8 151 2.8620 2.9088 2.9556 3.0022 3.0488 3.0953 3.1 417 3. 1880 3.2343
3._

3.3265

2.7047 2.8390 2.8832 2.9272 2.97 11 3.01 49 3.0586 3.1022 3.1457 3. 1891 ].2324 3.2756

2.7497 2.7924 2.8351 2.8775 2.9198 2.9620 3.0040 3.0459 3.0877 3.1294 3.1710 3.2124 3.2537

25827 2.6252 2.6674 2.7095 2.7514 2.7931 2.8346 2.8760 2.9172 2.9583 2.9993 3.0400 3.0807 3.1212 3.16]6 3.2019 3.2421

2.4986 2.5401 2.58 14 2.6224 2.6632 2.7038 2.744 1 2.7843 2.8243 2.8640 2.9037 2.94]1 2.9824 l02 1S
30604

3.l1992 3.1379 3.1764 3.2 148

2.4653 2.5062 2.5468 2.5872 2.6273 2.6672 2.7068 2.7462 2.7854 2.8244 2.8532 2.9018 2.9402 2.9785 3.0165 3.0544 3'()<)22 3.1297 3.1672 3.2045

2.4273 2.4675 2.5074 2.5470 2.5862 2.6252 2.6639 2.7023 2.7405 2.7784 2.8 161 2.8536 2.8908 2.9279 2.9648 3.0014 3.0379 3.0142 3. 1103 3. 1463 3. 1821

2.3100 2.3505 2.3906 2.4303


2._ 2 S086

2.5472 2.5855 2.6235 2.66 12 2.6986 2.7357 2.7126 2.8092 2.8456 2.88 18 2.9 177 2.9534 2.981:19 3.0242 3.0593
3.(1942

1.94]0 1.9858 2.0298 2.0730 2. 11 55 2. 1574 2. 1987 2.2394 2.2795 2.3191 2.3582 2.3969 2.4350 2.4728 2.5 101 2.5471 2.5837 2.6 199 2.6558 2.6913 2.7266 2.7615 2.7961 2.8305 2.8646 2.8985 2.9320 2.9654
2.99KS

1.9485 1.9927 2.1)364 2.0792 2. 1212 2. 1626 2.2032 2.2433 2.2828 2.3217

3,0314 3.0641
3.0966

3.1289 3. 1635

].1288

1.%12 \.965\ 2.0053 '20091 2.0432 2.0485 2.0523 2.0857 2.0910 2:0946 2. 1275 2.\326 2. 1362 2. 1686 2. 1736 2. 1TI0 2.7090 2.2138 2.2172 2.2488 2.2535 2.2567 2.2925 2.2956 22880 2.3266 2.3309 2.]]39 2.3600 2.3646 2.3688 2.37J7 2.3979 2.4022 2.4062 2.4089 2.4392 2.4431 2.4456 2A353 2.4723 2.4158 2.4795 2.4819 2,5 11 9 2.S 155 2.5171 25088 2.5449 2.5477 2.5510 2.553 1 2.5806 2.5830 2.5861 2.588 1 2.6159 2.6 179 2.6209 2.6226 2.6508 2.6524 2.6552 2.6568 2.6854 2.5866 2.6892 26906 2.7 197 2.7200' 2.7229 2.724 1 2.7536 2.7540 2.7562 2.7573 2.7R72 2.7872 2.7892 2.7901 2.8206 2.8200 2.8192 2.8226 2.8536 2.8526 2.8543 2.8548 2._ 2.8850 2 . _ 2.6867 2.9189 2.9 170 2.9 182 2.9 184 2.95 12 2.9488 2.9498 2.9497 2.9f132 2.980] 2.98 11 2.9809 3.0149 3.0 11 6 3.0 122 3.0117 3.0465 3.0426 3.Ono 3.0424 3.077f1 3.0735 3.0736 3.0728 3. 1089 3. 1040 3.1040 3.1029

1.9556

1 99911

Table 7-2 (d) Extended Sukkar-Comell Integral lor Bonom-hole Pressure C8lcu a.tlon
P, Reduced Temperature for B 15.0 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
0=

~
~

1.1
0,20

1.2
0.0000 0,0075 0,0359 00838 0.1453 0.2093 0.27]0 0,3302 0.3874 0.4430 0. 4975 0.5508 0.6034 0.6553
0.7068

1.3
00000 0.0074 0,0345 0.0793 0.1371 0.2008 0,2648 0.3267 0.3862 0.4435 0.4992 0.5535 0.6066 0.6590 0.7105 0.76 13 0.81 14 0,8611
0.9 ]02

1.4
OOIlOO 0.0073 0.0336 0.0765 o 1319 0.1943 0,2587 0.3222 0.3837 0.4431 0.5004 0.5561 0.6103 0.6634 0.1155 0.7666 08170 0.8666 0.9151 0,\1641 1.0121 l.0595 1 1065 I 1530 \ 1992 1.2449
I2'Xn

1.5 00000 0.lM:J72 0,0330 00146 0,12/12 0.1/192 0.25)3 OJI76


0.~805

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8
0.0000 00069 0.03!)9 0.""'" 1l.lln7 o 1124 0.2331 0."'" 0.36JJIJ 0.4252 0.4888 0.55 12 0.6121 0.67]5 0.7291 0.7852 0.8397 0.8927 0.9442

3.0

OSO
1.00

v.oon

0."""

0'.11.)
OU011
0.O.l2~

00000
O.U01I

o.txXXl
0.0071 0.3119
0.0113

O.OOOU
0.0070

orxXJQ
O.lwno
0.0316

'SO
2.00 2,50 3.0n 3.50

'''' 'SO
'.00

'SO
600 6.50 7.00 7.SO 8.00 8.SO '00

1000

'50

0.03RS 0.0939 0.1571 0,2162 0,2725 0.3275 0.3818 0. 4355 0.4S87 0.5413 0.5936 0.6454 0._ 0.14R2 0.1991 0,8497 0.9000 0.9500 0,9998

0.7517 0.8082 0,8582 0,1XI78 0.9570


1.0059

]0,50
]] 00

I.om
I.(l985 I 1475 1 1963
1.2449
l~q:u

1.0544
1.1026 I 1506

]150
12,00 12.50

1 1983
1.2458

nuo

0.9588 10011 1.0549 1 1024 I 1496 11964 1.2430


1.2~91

0.4415 0.5006 0.5579 0.6135 0.6676 0.7205 0.7722 0.8230 0.8729 0.9220 0._ 1018 1 1,0653
I 11\9

0.0732 o I2.H 0.11157 0.2493 0.31.18 0.3174 0.4393 0.4994 0.5577 0.6143 0.6694 0.7230 0.1754 0.8266 0.8768 0.926] 0.9146 1.0223
I .....

0.0322 0.0721 0.1236 U 11127 0.24511


0.3102

0.0317 O.121l
0.1790

omos
0.2413 0.3055 0.3699 0.4335 0.4956 0.5561 0.6 149 0.6720 0.7216 0.7817 0.8344 0.8858 0.9360 0 .9852 1.0334
II1JJ(16

0.1220 0.1!104
U.2431

0.0703 0.1202 0.1777 0.2397


0.3O~8

!.:!931
I ~ lt l ~

.,.

1 1580 J.2037 1.2490 I:!'JW .UR-1

I 1159 1 1618 \.2072 1.2522


12%7
, '-IU

0.3743 0.4369 0.4918 0.5570 0.6144 0.6703 0.1246 0.n76 0.8293 0.8799 0.9295 0.9782 1.0260 1.073 1 I 1J95 1 1653 1.2105 1.2551
L299~

0.JU74 0.3717 0.4349 0.4966 0.5566 0.6149 0.6715 0.7256 0.7802 0.11324 0.8835 0.9334 0.9824 1.0J()4 \.0776
I 1239 I 1696

0.)683 0.4320 0.4945 0.5554 0.6147 0.6724 0.7284 0.7829 0.8360 0.8878 0.9382 0.9876 1.0359 1.003
1.1298

(J.)UI2 0.3657 0.4298 0.4928 0.5543 0.6143 0.6726 0.7293


0.7M4

"(1.0313 01111') Om8


0.2)74

II " ' " O'_)7U

0.11391 0.8914 0.9423 0.9920 1.0407


1.0883

O.()OO.l 0.(.)70 Il.OJII 0.0692 0.1 ]/10 1l.174'; 0.2357 0.2<)94 0.3679 0.4281 0.4914 0.5534 0.6138 0.6721 0.7299 0.7854 0.8395 0.8920
0.9432

(IIWJQ

0()(K)9
U.U~1O

0_
0.0308 0.1J682 0.1161 0.1716 0.2320 0.2952 0.3596 0.4240 0.4877 0.5503 0.6113 0.6708 0.7286 0.7848 0.8394 08925

00000

0""",

0.1172 Om3 U.2342 0.29711 0.3622 0.4265 0.4900 0.5522 06129 0.672 1
0.7296

0.9932 1.0420 1.01:197


1.1364

1.1271
1.1128

I 1349
I 1807

1 2 147 1.2592
I "lCl.' 1

1.2118 1.2622
I lI)OCl

1 1755 1.2205
1.2048
.l!1lW
~ I .t

1.2256 1.2698
.l nl

1 1822 1.2270

11711
1..114.1

IQO

".'

0.7855 0.8398 08926 0.9440 0.994 1 1.0430 I 090Jl I 1375 I 1832 1.2281 1.2720 I .1/~2
1
1~7~

0._
1.0434
l.OOIJ

0_
I.om
1.0914 1.1311 1 11839 \.2281 1.2725 1.3156
l.l.UX

0.9441

11380
I 1837

12285 12724 I.JHS


.~7.~

1400

14 .SO
15.00

15,SO 16. 00
16.50

11.00 I1.SO
18.00

18.SO ]9.00
19.5O "'.00

1,3899 /.4380 1.4860 1.5338 1.58 15 1.6291 \.6766 1.7241 1.1714 1.8 ]87 1.8659 1.9130
1.9600

1.3870 J .4337 1.4803

1.5266 1.5728
1.6 189 1.6649

1.3812 1.4268 1.4722 1. 5174 1.5625 ] .6073 1.6520


1.6966

1.7107
1.7564

1.8020 1.8475 1.8929


1.9382 1.9834

2O.SO

21.00

2 ],SO 22.00

"SO
23.00 23.SO
24.00

24.SO 25.00 25.50 26.00


26.50

21.00 21.50 28.00 28.SO 2900

"SO
"'.00

2.0070 2,0539 2. 1007 2.1475 2.1943 2.2410 2.2876 2.3342 23807 2.4272 2.4736 2.5200 2."'" 2.6121 2.6590 2. 7053 2.75 15 2.7977 2.8438

\.1410 \.1853 1.8294 ] ,8134 1.9173 1.9611


2,0048

1.3802 1.4247 1.4689 1.5129 1.5S66 1.6001 1.6434 1.6865 1.7293 \.1720 1,8146
1.8.\69 1.8991

I._

1.3825 1.4263 1.46911 1.5130 1.5559 15985

1,\1412
19831

2.0285 2.0736 2.1185


2, 1634

22082 2.2529
2.2976

2.3422 2.3861 2.43 12 1.4756 2.5200 2.5643 2.6086


2.6520

2.8899

2.6969 2.74 10 2.785 1 2.829 1

2,0484 2.0918 2.1352 2.17&5 2.2217 2.2648 2.3019 2.J501l 2.3937 2.4366 2.4793 2.5220 2.5646 2.6072 2, 6497 2.692 1 2.7345 2.7769

2.0248 2.0665
21080

2,1494 21906 2.2318 2.2728 2.3138 2.3546 2.3953


2.4360

2.4766 2.5 170 2.5574


2.5'F77

2._
2.6051 2.6444 2.6830

1.6830 1.7249 1,7666 1.8081 1.8493 1.8904 1.9314 1.9721 2.0 127 2.0531 2.0934 2 1335 2 1135 2.2134 2.2531 2.2917 2.3322 2.3716 2.4109 2.4501 2.4891 2.5281

1.3845 14278 1.4708 1.5\35 1,5558 1.5979 1.6397 1.6812 ].1225 1.7635 1.80n 1.8449
1.8RS3

1.3862 1.4290

1.47 14
LS134

2.6380 2.6781 2.7182

1.9255 1.9655 2.0054 2.04SO 2.0845 21239 2.1631 2.2021 2.24]0 2.2798 2.3184 2.3569 2.3953 2.4336 2.4718 2.5098 2.5478 2.5856 2.6234 2.66 10

LS55 1 1.5964 1.6374 1.6181 I.7II!6 1.75117 1 7986 \.8382 1.8176 1.9168 1.9557
1.9944

2.0330 2.0713 2 1095 2. 1415 21853 2.2229


2.2~

2.2978
2.3550

2.3120 2.4089 2.4457 2.4824 2.5189 2.5553 2.59 16 2.6278

1.3694 1.4319 1.4739 1.5155 1.5567 1.5976 1.6381 1,67113 \.71111 1.7577 \.7970 1.8360 1.8741 1 9132 I 95 15 1.9895 2.0273 2.0649 21024 2. 1346 2.1766 2.2135 2.2502 2.2867 2.3230 2.3592 2.3953 2.4312 2.4670 2.5026 2.5382 2.5736 2.6088

1.391 8 1.4339 1.4756 1.5168 1.5575 1.5978 1.6378 1.6773 1.7166 1.7554
1.7940

1.8322 1.8702 1.9079 1.9453 1.9824 2.0193 2.0560 2.0924 2 ]286


21~

1.3938 1.4356 1.4769 l.S 117 1.5580 1.5979 1.6373 1.6764 1.7150 1.7533 1.7912 1.8288 1.866 1
1.903 1

1.3977 1.4390 1.4797 l.S 198


LS594

1.5984 \.6370 1.6750 17127 1.7499 1.7866 1.82.10 1.851X1 18947


I. 9300

1.3984 1.4395 1.4798 1.51% 1.5587 1.5973 1,6354 1.6730 1.7100 1.7466 1.711211
1.8186 1.8540

1.399\

\ .4400 141102 1.5197 U5f11 1.5911 1.6350 1.6123 1.7091 1.7455 1.711]4 1.8169 1115 19

1.39'11 I 4401
1. 4802

1.3m I 4400
1.4800

LS I97 1.5585 1.5968 1.6346


1.6718

1.5194
L5582

1.9397 1.9761 2.0122 2.0481


2.007

2.2005 2.2.361 2.2715


2.3067

2.3418 2.3767 2.4115 2. 4460 2. 4805 2.5148 2.5489 2.5829

2. I 191 2. ]542 2.1891 2.2238 2.2583 2.2927 2.3268


2.3607

2.3944 2.4280 2.4614 2.4947 2.5278 2.5607

1.9650 1.9997 2.0341 VJMI 21019 2.1355 2.1687 2.2017 2.2345 2.2671 2.2994 2.3315 2.3634 2.3951 2.4266 2.4579
2.4890

1.8R89 1.9236 1.9H8 1.99\7 2.0253 2.0586 2.0916 2.1242 2 ]561


2.1~

2.5200

2.2207 2.2523 2.21B7 2.3 149 2.3458 2.3765 2.4070 2.4373 2,4674 2.4974

1 9549 191:184 2.0217 2.OS46 2.1:172 2.1196 2. 15 16 2.1834 2.2149 2.2461 2.2171 2.30711 2.3384 2.3687 2.39g7 2.4286 2.45g3 2.4878

,_ 1 \ .85(111 1.8853

1.7085 17441 1.71105 ].8158

1.5964 1.6)4\ 1.67 12 \.7018 1.7439 1.1196 1.8148 1.8496


1.9 180 1.9517

19m

1.9195 1.9532 1.9867 20148 2.0525 20850 2] 17] 2.1490 2.1806 2.2119 2.2430 2.2738 2.3044 2.3347
2.3648

1.9850

2.0179 2.0506
2.0829

2.1149 2.1466 2.1780 2.2092 2.2401 2.2707 2.3011 2.3313 2.3612


2.3909

2.3947 1.4244 2.4538 2.4831

2.4205
2.4.t97

2.4788

Table 72 (e) Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integra' for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation

~ ~

P,
1 .1 1.2 00000 00056 1.3 00000 1.4 00000 1.5 0.0000

Reduced Temperature for 8 = 20.0


1.6 0.0000 1.7 0.0000

1.B
0.0000

1.9 00000

2.0 0.0000

2.2 00000

2.4 00000

2.6 00000

2.B
00000

3.0 00000

0,20
0.'" 1.00 200 2'" 300 4.00 4.'" 5.00 5.'" 6.00 6.'" 700 7.'" 800 8.'" '00

00000

I.'"

0.0058 0.0294 0.0740 0, 1295 0, 1832 0,23SO


02860

3.'"

0.]365 0.3865 0.4360 0.4852 0.5341 0.5827 0,6]10 0,679 1


0.7269

0.0272 0.0649 0.1156 0.1712 0.2264 0.2801 0.3]26 0.3841 0.4346 0.4843 0.5335 0.5821
0.6304

10.00 10,SO I LOCI 11 ,50 12,00 12.SO

,.'"

0.n45 0,8219
0.8690

O .ms
0.8 196 0.8661 0.9123 0.9582
1.0089

0.6782 0.7257

0.0055 0,0262 0,0610 0.1071 0.1614 0.2172 0.2725 0.3264 0.]790 0,4305 0.4809 0.5305 0,5794 O,62n 0.6755 0,7221 0.7695 0.8 159 0.8620
0.9077

noo
r
~l

0.9159 0.9626 1.0091 1.0554 I 1016 1 1476


1 Iq15

1.0494 1.0946 11397


llR4h

0.95JO 0.9981 1.0429 1.0874


11317

17~~

0,0055 0,0255 0,0587 0.1030 0.1547 0,2099 0.2657 0,]208 0.3747 0,4273 0,4787 0.5291 0.5786 0.6274 0,6754 0.7228 0.7696 0.8 160 0.8618 0.9073 0.9523 0,9969 \.0412 1,0851 1 12Rl1 11721
I '." I

0,0054 O.()2.IO 0,0572


0.0998

0.1498 O.2O-W 0.2597 0.3154 0,3703 0.4240 0,4765 0,5279 0,5783 0,6276 0,6761 0,7238 o.nos 0.8m 0.863\
0.9083

0.0054 0,0246 0,0561 0.0976 0.1465 0.1999 0.2553 0.3111


0.J664

0.9531 0.9975 1.0414 1.0849 1 12112 I I7IH


1 )116

0.4208 0,4740 0,5261 0,5n1 0,6270 0.6760 0,7241 0,n14 0,8179 0.8638 0.9091 0.9538 0.9980 1.0418 1.0851 I 12110 17Ut>
~ I:

0.0053 0,0243 0.0561 0.0958 0.1438 0,1964 0.2514 0.307] 0,3629 0,4177 0,4714 0,5241 0,5756 0.6261 0,6755 0,7240 0.n16 0.8184
0.8644 0.9098

0.0053 0.0241 0,0545 0,0945 0,1417 0.]937 0.2484 0,3041 0,]599

O,USI
0,4594 0,5226 0.5747 0.6257 0.6756 0.7245 O.n25 0.8 195 0.8658 0.9113 0.9561 1.!XXl2 104]8
1.0S68

0,005] 0,0240 0,0541 0,0937 0,1404 0,1920 0,2463 0,3020 0,3578 0,4132 0.4678 0.5213 0.5738 0.6252 0.6754 0.7247 0.n29 0.s:!02
0.B666

0.0053 0.0239 0.0537 0.0930 0.1393


0.1~

0.2445
03000

0.9545 0.9987 l.om 1.085S 1 12112


I '7H-I
I

1 1294
11714
I ~I1H

0.9123 0.9571 1.1))14 1,0450 l.OH79 I 13U4


I 72.'

0.3559 0,4114 0,4662 0,5201 0,5729 0.6246 0.6752 0.7247 0,n32 0,8207 0,8673 0.9131 0.9580 1.0023 1.0459 1,06!!1I II.H2 17.111
12q:>

0,0052 0,0237 0,0532 0,0918 0,1376 01SN2 0,24]9 0,2972 0,3531 0.4088 0.4639 0.5182 0.5714 06236 0.6746 0.7251 On40 0,8218 0,86lS7 0,9147 0,9599 l.oon 1,0479 I.()IX)!! IIDI

0,0052
')()2)6

t),0528

')09 11 11.1364 0,11i67 (j,2401 U.2952 O.35!O 0.4068 0.4622 1).5]67 0.5703 ()6228 11,6741 11,7244 IIn35 11,8216
11,8687

0.0052 0.0235 0,0525 0.0905 0,1354 0,1853 0,2384 0.29]4 0.3492 0.4050 0.4604 0.5151
0.5689

0.0052 0.0234 0.0522


0.0900

0.6216 0.6732 0,7237 O,n3(l 0,8212


08684

\J,9148 0.9601 1.0045 1.0481 1 ''''~ LlH r 174~

0.9146 0.9599 1.0043 1,0479


10908

"
1,~9

'n

'I.'

Inn

I Il!!!
i 1"4:' I : \-1'1

0, 1346 0,1842 0,2371 0,2919 0.]476 0.4034 0.4589 0.5137 0.5676 0,6205 0,6722 0,7227 0.m2 0.8205 0.8678 0,9141 0.9595 L{)039 1.0475 1,0903 1 1,123 1 ,.,ltI
J
~IJI

0,0052 0,0233 0,0520 0,0895 0,1339 ]8.12 0.2359 Q,2906 0.).162 0.4021 0.45n 0,5125 0,5665 0,6194 0,67 12 0.72 1 9 0.n14 0.8198 0,8672 0,9135 0.9589 1.0034 l.ono

10698
J iJI8

I 17.11
:1.1(1

"
\.2559 \.2957 1.3349 1.3736 L411 8 1.4496
\.4869

"

/4.00 14.50

15.00 15.50 16.00 16,SO 17 ,00 17.50 1800 18.SO 19.00 19,5O
2000

1.3304 1.3759 1,4212

,4665 LSJl6
1.5567 1.6017 1.6467 1.6916 1.7364 1.1811 1.8258 1.8705 1.91 50 1.9596 2,OOU 2.0485 2.om 2.1372 2.1815 2.2258 2.2700 2.3 142 2.]584 2.4025 2.4466 2.4907 2.5347 2.5787 2.6227
2.6666

1.2739 J.3183 1,3625 1.4067 1.4507 1.4945 1.5383


<5820

1.283] IJ(l68

1.6256 1.669 1 1.7125 1.1558


1.mo

20,SO 21.00 21.SO 22.00 22,50


23.00

1.8421 1.8852 1.9282 1.97 11 2.0140


2.0568

2J.SO 24.00 24.SO

,,'"
26.00 27.00 27.SO
2800 28.'" 2900

".00

26.'"

2.0995 2.1422 2.1849 2.2274 2.2700 2.3124 2.3549 2.3973 2.4396 2.4819 2.5742
2.5664

29.SO lO.OO

2.6085
2.6507

2.7106

1.3501 1.3933 \.4363 1.4792 1.5219 1.5645 1 6069 1.6493 \.6915 1.7336 1,7757 1.8176 1.8594 1.9012 1,9429 \.9844 2,0259 2,0674 2.1087 2.1500 2, 1912 2,2324 2.2135 2.3145 2.3555 2.3964 2.4373 2.4781 2.5 189 2.5596 2.6003

1.2579 1.3005 1.3428


1.3~9

\.2558

1.4267
14684 <50"

1.2977 1.3394 1.3808 1.4220


1.4629

1.5512 1,5924 1.6]34 \.6742 1.1149 1,7555 1.7959 1.8362 1,8763 1.9164 1.9563 1,9982 2,0359 2,0756 2 1151 2 1s.lit 2.1939
2.~2

1.5036 1.5441 1.5844 1.6245 1.6644 1.7042 1.7438 US32 1.8225 1,8616 1.9006 1.9395 1,9782 2,0168 2.0553 2.0937 21319 2.1701
2.2002

1.2541 1.2962 1.3375 1.3784 1.4191 1.4595 1.4997 1.5397 1.5194 \.6190 1.6583 1.6975
1.7364

2.2724 2.3115 2.3S05 2.3895 2.4284 2.4672


2.5060

2.2461 2.2840 2.3218 2.3595 2.3971 2.4146 2.4720


2._

2,5447

1.7752 1.8139 1.8523 1.8906 1.9288 1.9668 2.00n 2.(,.t25 2,0801 2,1!76 2.1550 2.1923 2.2295 2.2665 2.3035 2.3404 2.3772 2.4119 2.4504 2.4870

1.2537 1.2948 1,3355 1.3759 1.41SO 1.4558 1,4953 1.53045 1.5735 1.6 123 1,6508 1.6891 1.7271 1.7650 UI027 1.11401 1.8774 1.9146 1.9516 19684
2()2.1O

2.0615 20919 2,1341 2.1702 2.2062 2.2420 2,2778 2.3 134 2.3409 2,3843 2,4195 2.4547

1.2542 1.2547 1. 2949 1.2952 1.3353 J.J352 1.3754 1.3749 1.4151 1.4142 1.4544 1.453\ \ ,4935 \.4916 1,5323 1,5298 1.5108 1.5678 10090 1,6054 1.6470 I,().n? It)g.17 1,6797 1.7222 1.7165 L7595 L7530 1,7965 1.789] 1,8334 1,8254 I.S7OU 1.8612 1.9065 1.8968 1.9428 1.9322 1.9789 1,9674 2.0149 2,0025 2.0507 2.0373 20863 2,0719 21218 21064 2.1671 2.1408 2.1923 2.1749 2.2274 2.2089 2.2823 2,2428 2.2971 2.2765 2.31!8 2.3100 2.J66' 2.3435 24008 2.3768 2.4352 2.4100

2.2549 1.2952 1.3349 1.3743 1.4132 1.4517 1.4898 1.5275 1.5649 1,6020 1,63M \.6752 1.7114 1.7473 1.7829 1.8183 1.8534 1.8882 1,9229 1,9573 1.9916 2.0256 2,0594 2.0980 2.1265 2,1598 2.1929 2.2258 2.2586 2.2912 2,32 17 2.3560
2.3882

,,56-1
1.2949

\ .2549

U541
\.2':135 1.)322
1.:\7~

11S3<,

1.3339 U723 ].4101 1.4475


1.4~

I 5238 1.5603 1.5%4 16121 1.6675 1.1025 1.7372 1,7716 18056 1.8394 1.8730 1.9062 I. 9392 1.9719 2()().l4 2.0367 2.(1687 2.1OUS 2.1321 2.1636 2,1968 2.2258 2.2566 2.2873 2.3\78 2,]481

1.52Q8 1. 5588 1.592'


l.tl275

1.6623 1.6967 1.7308 1,7645 1.7979 1.8310 1.8638 1.8963 1.9286 1,9605 1.9922 2,02]7 2.0549 2.0858 2.1166 2.147 1 21774 2.2075 2.2375 2,2677 2,2967 2.326 1

1.2463 1.3331 1.37 13 1.4090 1.4462 1.4829 \,5191 1.5549 1, 5902 1.5252 \.6597 1.6938 1.7276 1.761! 1.7942 I.R270 1.8595 1.8916 1,9235 1.9551 1.9K65 2.0176 2.0484 2.0790 2.1094 2.1395 2. 1695 2.1992 2.22117 2.2540 2.2871 2.3 161

\.2921\

14080

14451 1.4KI7 UI7S 1.5584 UK\? 1 6235


I.M79

\3315 1.3695 1.4071 \44-11


\,4S06

1.6919 1.7256 1,7589 L7918 I.R24S 1.8568 1.AA89 1.9206 1.9521 1.9H32 20 142 2,0449 2.0753 2.1055 2.1355 2,16S2 2,I94H 2,2241 2.2662 2.2822 2.3109

1.5166 1.5522 1.5973 I 6220 1.6563 1.6902 1.7238 1,7570 1,7898 1.!:!22l I.R545 1._ 1.91110 2.919] 1,91;04 2.0112 2.0417 2,072(} 2.1020 2.\318 2.1614 2.1908 2.2220 2.2480 2.m7
2.3063

Table 7-2 (f) Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integ,.1 for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation

~ ~

P,
1.1 1.2 O.<ml 1.3 O<ml 00044 1.4 O<ml 1.5 O<ml

Reduced Temperature for B = 25.0


1.' 00000 1.7 00000 1 . 00000 1.9 O<JOOO 2.0 O.lnlO 2.2 00000 2.' 2.' O<JOOO 2 . O<JOOO 3.0 00000

ow
OSO 100 ISO 200 2.SO '.00 'SO '.00 '.SO 5.00 5.SO 6.00 6.SO 7.00 7SO 800 '.SO '.00 'SO

O<ml

O.OO-H
0,02]7

0,0611 01106 0.1598 0.2079 0.2554 0.3025 0.3492 0.3957 0.44111 0.4878 0.53]5 0.5790 0,6241
0 .....

0,0045 0,0219 0,0529 0,0961 0.1 453 0,1952 0,2444 0.2930 0.340!! 0.3879 04345
0_

10.00 10,SO ILOO \I.SO 12.00 12.SO

0.7143 0.7591 0.8036 0.8480 0.8922 0.9362 0.9801


1.0239

0.526] 0.57H1 0,6169 0,66 18 0.7063 0,7506


0._ 08384

0.8520 0.9254
09686

om
\' \11

1.0676 11111
\ \',.j,,,

1 0117 1.0545 I 0973


,'1)\

0,0211 0.0496 0.0!!1!8 0.1352 0,1846 0.2346 0.2840 0,3]25 0,3803 0.4274 0,4739 0,5198 0,5653 0,6104 O,65SO 0,6993 0.7433 0,7870 0.8303 0.8735 0.9163 0.9590 1.0014 1.0437 1 n~~7

oOW5
0,0477
0 .....

0.0044

0,1287 0,1769 0,2267 0,2766 0.]260 0.3745 04223 04694 0.5158 0.5616
06069

0,6516
0.6960

0,0043 0,0201 0._ 0,0818 0,124\ 0,1711 0,2202 0,2702 0.]200 0.369] 041711 0.4656 0.5126 0.55119 06045 0,6-495

0,0043 0,0]98
O,04~4

0.0198 0.1211 0.1670 0.2 156 0,2654 0.]154


0.3650

",

0.7399 07834 0.8266 0,8695 0.9120 0.9542 0.9961 10HI! I 079:'


1 1.\

o""'" 0,7380
0,7814 0.8245 0.8671
0._

0.9514 0.9930 1 1n43 1 117~~


1\1>\

0,4139 0.4622 0,5097 0,5564 0,6024 06477 0,6924 0.7365 0.7800 0.8231 0.8657 0.9078 0.9-496 0.9910 LO.m
1.072<1
!l:..l

o,oon 0,0]96 00446 0,07113 0.1186 o 1637 0,2117 0,2613 0.3112 0.3610 0,4103 0.4589
0.5068

0.5539 0,6003 0.6459 0.6908 0,7351 0,77Sf! 0.8219 0.8645 0,9056 0,9483 0.9896 UnO-l lU7m 1111

0.<.1042 0.0\94 0,0441 0.0771 0.11K{! 0.1612 0.2087 0.2579 0.3078 0.3578 0,4073 0,4563 Q.5(M5 0,5520 0,5987 0.6447 0,6899 0.7344 0.7783 0.8215 0.8641 0.9063 0.9679 0.9891
].0298

OJX)42 0,0]93 0,0.08 0.0164 0,1156 o 1596 0,2067 0,2557 0,3055 0.3555 0,4052 0,4543 0.5028 0.5506 05975 0,6437 0.6892 0.7]38 om8 0.82 12 n.8639 0.9061 0,9477
0.9889

0.(1042 0,0]92 0,0.05 0,0758 0,1146 (J,1581


O,~9

0,2537 0.30]6 0.3536 04031 04525 0.5012 0.5492 115966 0,6428 0.6884 (),733] (I,77N
08208

0,0042 0,0191 (I,ono 0.0749 o 1131 0,1561 0,2024 O,251J8


(),3004
Ol~O3

0.8636 0,9058 0,9475

0._
1 U292 I 1)(,91 I 11189

I 07111
I llul

10295 101'>'1)\ I If;

0._ 04498 049R8 0.547\ 05946 06415 0.6874 0.7325 07769 08205 0.8635 0.9058 0.9-475 0.900 I ()2-l()
I (1M')
I til

O,IJOO) O.IK)42 O.IJlS9 0,0'21 0.0742 0.1171 (J 1547 0.20m 0.24K8 0.291\2 0.3481 0,3<J80 0,4477 0.4969 0.5454 1)5932 11,6401 1),68112 0.7315 11,7760 I),B198 1J.8628 1J.9052 0.9468 11.9879 1,()283
1,(I(~1

O,O(i4;: 0.0189 0,0424 0,0737 0,1111 o 1534 0,1991 0,2470 0,2962 0.3461 0,3961 0,4450 0,4951 0,5437 0:'917 O,6J88 0.6850 0.7.'\04 0.7750 0.8 189 0.8619 0.9043 0,9459
0_

0,0042 0.0198 0,0422 0,0733 0.1104 0.1524 0. 1978 0.2455 0.2946 0.3444 0.39-43 0.4441 0.4935 0.5422 0.5902 0,6374 0,6837 0.7292 0,7739 0.8178
0.8609

0.0042 0.0187 O.OUO 0.0729 0.1098 0.1515 0.1967 0.2442 0,2932 0,3429 0.3929 04428 0.4922
0.5409 0.5690

0.6362 0.6826 0.7282 0,7830 0,8169


08600

] .0273 I (1(,70
I Tit.:

0.9033 0.9449 0.9854 ] .0262 I06W


I

0.9024
0._

IfI)-

'0,(1

0,9850 1.0253 1.0650 I III_HI

1.1979 1.2412 14.5() 1500 1.2844 15.SO 1,3275 16,00 1.3705 16.50 1.4135 17,00 1.4564 17.50 1.4992 18,00 1.5420 18.SO 1.5847 19 .00 1,6274 19.5O 16700 20.00 1.7126 ".SO 1.7551 21.00 \.7975 21,SO 1.8400 22.00 1,8824 22.SO 1.9247 2300 1.9670 23.SO 2.00B 24.00 2.0516 24.50 2.0938 25.00 2. 1360 25.SO 2.176 1 26,00 2.2202 26.50 2.2623 27.00 2 . _ 27,SO 2.3'61 2800 2.3885 28,SO 2.4305 ,.00 2.4724 ,.SO 2.5144 30.00 2,5563 J4.oo

I HIl3 J.2146 1.2668


1.3089

I 1693
1.2109

1,3509 1.]928 1.4346 1.4763 L5180 1,5595 16010 1.6424 \.6837 I.72SO 1.7662 1 8073

,......
1.8895 1.9J04 1.9714 20122 2.0531 2.0938 2, 1346 2.1753 2.2\59
2.2566

1,2523 1.2936 1.3347 1.3757 1.4166 1.4574 \.4981 1.5387 1.5792 1 6196 1.6597 1.7001 \ ,7403 1.7803 1.8203 1.8603 1,9001 1.9399 1.9797 2.0 193 2.0590 2.0985 21380 2.1775 2.2169
2.2562

1 1614 L2021 1,2427 1.2X30 1,3232 1,)632 1.4031 1.4428 I 4823 1.5217 1,5610 , 6002 1.6392 \.6781 1.7169 1.7556 1,7942 1 8327 1.8711

,-

2.297 1 2.3377 2.3782 2.4186 2.459\ 2.4995

2.2955 2.3348 2.3740 2.4132 2.4523

I Ins I 1934 , '968 1.2368 1,2331 ' 2766 1.2725 L31 16 1.3161 1,3555 L3505 I.3H92 1.3947 14336 1 4218 14M1 14724 1.5042 L5111 1,5422 1.5496 1.5879 1,5800 1.6176 ] 6261 1. 6551 16641 1.7020 1.6924 \.7296 1.7398 1.7667 \.m5 U\036 I 81SO 1,1!404 \.8524 I lf171 1.R898 1.9270 1.9 136 \.9477 1.9SO] 1.9858 1.%41 1.9S64 2.0239 2,0011 2,()618 2.0380 2.0226 2.0998 2,0749 2.0588 2.1376 2.1116 20948 2.1754 2.1403 21307 2,1848 2.1666 2.213\ 2,2507 2.2213 2,2024 2.288] 2.2578 2.2..180 2.2736 2.3258 2.2lJ41 2.3632 2,3]()4 2,3091 2._ 2.3666 2._ 1 1566

11509 \.1904 L2296


1.2685

1.1496 1.1889 1.2278 1.2663


1.-

I 1489 I 1879 1.2265 \.2647


1. 3026

1 1481 11868 1.2252 1,2631

1,3071 1.3455 1.3836 1.4215 \.4591 14')65 1.53311 1.57U11 1,6076 1.6443
1.6808

1.3426 1.3803 1.4178 1.45SO 1.4920 1. 5287 1.5653 1.6016 1.6377 1.6736
1.7U94 1.7450

1.3402 1.3775 1.4\45 14512 14876 1.52311 1.5597 \5954

1.6308

I._
1.7011 1,1359 \.770S
\ ,8049

1.7171 1.7532 1.7892 1.8251 ,8608 1.8964 1.9318 1.9671 2.l1023 20373 2.0723 2.107 1 2. 1418 2.1764 2.2110 2,2454 2.2797 21119

1.7804 \.8156 18507


],AA56

1.92{)4 1.9550 1,9895 2.0239 2.058] 2.0923 2. \263 2.160 1 2.19]9 2.2276 2.2611 2.2946

1.8392 \.8733 I 'J072 1.9409 1.9745 2.0079 2,0412 20744 2.\074 2.1403 2.1730 2.2056 2,2331 2.2705

I 1472 1.\459 \.1840 1.1855 1,2234 1.22 \7 \.2588 1,2008 1.2978 1.2954 1.3007 \.33 16 1.3343 1.3379 \ ,3674 \.3705 1.3748 1.4028 1.4062 \4114 1..4377 14476 1.4617 1.4728 \.4767 1.4835 U065 I ~1 14 \ ,5192 \54l)4 1.5458 1.5546 \.5739 1.5799 1.5997 1.6246 16137 1,6071 1.6400 \.6472 1.6592 , 6IIQ.I \.6726 1.6936 1.7049 1,7 134 \.7278 1,7460 1.7370 1.7617 17(~7 1.7785 1.7955 1,8107 I.IIIKl2 I 8290 1.11115 1.8427 11\623 I.M25 1,8744 1.8955 \.11933 1.9060 1.9285 1.9238 1.9373 1. 9613 \ ,9'i-l2 19939 1.9843 \.9994 2,0264 V1l42 2.0S!!7 2.0301 20909 20607 2.0440 2.0735 2,1229 2.0911 2.10211 2.1548 21213 2.1H65 2. 1913 2,1320 2.1812 2.111 J(J 2.2181 2.2496 2,2110 2. 11191'1

,-

I 14)5 1 1415 1.1441 I 1615 \.\004 \.1827 1.218lJ 1.2177 1,2202 1.2558 1.2546 \,2572 1.2922 ,2909 1.29)7 1.3281 1.3268 \.3298 \.3637 1,3623 L3653 1.3987 1.3973 \.4005 14.\34 \.43\8 1.4353 1.4677 14(197 1,5015 \.4998 \.5036 1.5351 1.5332 1.S373 1,5706 1.5692 1S663 ].6011 1.5990 1.6035 1.63]6 1.6614 1.5362 1.6658 1.6635 1.5M5 1.6977 1.6953 1.700~ 1.7322 1,7243 1.7267 1.7606 1.7579 1.7637 1,7916 1.7889 1.7949 1.8258 1.8224 L8195 \ .8530 1.8499 1.8565 1,!lg7() l.fUl33 1.8801 1.9133 \.9100 ] 9172 1.9431 1.9397 1.9728 1,9692 \.9769 2.(X)65 20022 19964 2,0359 2.0314 2.0275 2,0650 H)60) 2,0563 2.0940 2.0891 2.0849 2,1228 2.1178 2.1134 2.1462 2.1417 2.\514 2. 17')8 2.1744 2. 1698

,""'"

,"

Table 72 (g) Extended Sukkar...comell Integral tor Bottomhole Pressure Calculation

~
~

P,
1.1 020 0." 1.00 200 2,. 300 3.50 4.00 4.50 '.00 0.0000 1.2 0.0000 1.3 00000 1.4 0.0000 1.S 0.0000

Reduced Temperature for B .; 30.0


1.' 0.0000 1 .7 0.0000 1.' 0.0000 1 .' 0.0000 20 00000 2.2 00000 2.4 00000 2.' 0.0000 2.' 0.0000 3.0 00000

I."

.00 '.50 700 7." 8.00 850 9.00 9.50

,."

0.0039 0,0199 0,0521 0,0967 0,1422 0,1870 0,2314 0.2756 0.3195 0.3632 0,4067 0,4500 0.49]1 0,5361 0.5789 0.6216 0.6642 0.7066 0.7488
0.7909

0.0038 0.0184 0.0447


0.0823

1000 10.50 lUll) 11.50 12.00 1150


13 Ol) \\.511

0.8329 0,8747 0,9165 0.9581


U""""

0.1264 0.1719 0.2174 0.2625 0.3071 0.3513 0.395\ 0.4386 0.4817 0.5247 0.5574 0.6098 0.6521 0.6941 0,7360 Q,m5 0.8181 o8roI 0.9()16 U.942/1
U.911~~

0.0037 0.0176 0.0418 0,0755 0.1164 0,1608 0.2063 0.2519 0.2970 0.3416 0.3858 0.4295 0.4728 0.5158 0.5584
0.6007

0.0037 0.0112 0.O-W1 0.0718 0.\103 01531 0.\980 0.2436 0.2891 0.3343 0.3789 0.4230 0.4667
0._

0,0036 0,0168 0,0390


0.0692

0,106(} 0,1474 0,1914 0.2367


0.2823

0.6428 0.6846 0.7261 0.7674


0.808S

0.8"94
08901 OmOb

0.5527 0.5951 0,6372 0.6789 0,7204 0,7615 0,8026 0,8430 0.8833 0.9234
(I9f,:n

U 9710
'.11!1~
1.0~1I

I 11411 1IIIQ4

1 H2J~ I 0(>4"

1 unn I 0425

0,3278 0,3729 0,4175 0.4616 0,5052 0.5483 0.5909 0.6331 0.6749 0,7163 0.7573 0.7980 0,8384 0,8785 0.9183 O.YS711 (19'173
ll1.lM

0.0036 0.0166 0.0382 0.0676 0,1033 0,1436 0.1869 0.2318 0.2n3 0.3229
0.3683

0,4132 0.4576 0.5015 0.5-1-49 0.511n 0,63(11 0.6719 0.7134 0.7544 0.7951 0.8354 0.8754 0.9150
n.9~4-'

1I.'J'lJI,
l.()-'~-'

0,0036 0,016--\ 0,0375 00672 0.1010 0,1404 01831 0.2275 0.2729 0.3186 0.3641 0.4092 0.4539 0.4981 0.5417 0.5848 0,6273 0.6693 0.7109 0.7520 0.7926 08329 0.8728 0912.l o 9~1~ n,'I'/I14 1.02'HI

O,(lIns 0,0162 0,0371 0,0652 0.0993 o 1381 0.1801 0.2242 0,2693 0.3149 0.3605 0.4059 0.4508 0,4952 0.5391 0.5824 0.6252 0.6674 0.7091 0.7503 0.7910 0,1013 0,11711 0.9106 U'HII7
" W~X4

0,0035 0,0162 O,036!l


0_

0.0963 01366 0.1782 0.2219 0.2669 0.3124 0.3580 0 ...t035 0.4486 0.4932 0.5372 0.5808 0.6237 0.6660 0.7078 0,7491 0.71199 O,R302 (J,87()(' U YO')5 U II-'X~
II
<}1017~

0,0035 0.0161 0,0365 0.0640 0,0974 0,1353 0.1765 0.2199 0,2647 0,3101 03551:1 0,4013 0,4465 0,4913 0,5355 0.5792 0,6223 0.6647 0.7066 0.7480 0.71!S8 O,82Y2 0!i690 U.90114 U.9-'74
(J,i)SW

0,0035 0,0169 0,0361 0,0632


0.0960

0,1334 0,1741 0.2112 0,2617


0.J069

0,0035 0,0159 0,0351:1 0,0626 0.()951 01321 o 1725 0.2152


O,25~

0.3525 0.3981 0.405 0,4&14 0.5329 0.5767 o 62()() 0.6627 0.7048 0,7463 0.71173 O,II2n O,I!676 o 9()7U
U '1J~1I

0.3046 0.3501 0,3957 0.4412 0,4863 0.5309 0.57411


O,61~

0.6612 0,7034 0.7451 (),7!S61 0,11265 0.""" () ()I]57


n" -'Jo
1I'11oI:.'S

0,0035 0,0158 0,03.56 0,0621 0,0943 0,1309 0,1710 0,2135 0,2675 0.3025 0,3480 0,3937 0.4392 0.4843 0.5291 0.5712 0.61bR 0.6597 0,7020 0,74]6 () 7847 0.8251 086:'iO 0,90n
0.'1-'.11 lI'Jlln

onoo
0,1697 0,2120 0,2559
0.3008

0,0035 0,0157 0,0355 0,0618 0,0937

0,0035 0,0157 0,0353 0,0615 0.0931 0,1292 0.1687 0.2108 0.2545 0.2993
0.J448

0.3462 0.)919 0.4374 04826 0.5274 0,5716 0,6152 0.6582 O,71()6 0.7'-23 0.7833 0.1I23R 0.11637 0.9()]() 0.9-117
U97W

O,39(}.\ 0,4359 0,4812 0,5260 0.5703 0,6139 0.6570


0_

n \//1.1:'
, .11.'

0.7411 0.71122 0,11227 0.11626 0.9019 09-'06 II.Y7117


! IJJN

1 ml>s

, leM

1.02.11

11:.'11(,

1 1l1'!1

1.11171>

14.00
"50

1 1237 I 1649
1.2060

15.00
15.50 16.00 16.50 17.00 17.50 18,00 18.50 19.00 19.50
20.00 20.50

21.00 21.50
2200 22.SO 23.00 23.50

\.2471 1.2881 1.3291 1.3700 \.4109 1.4517 1.4924 1.5332 \,5738 1.6145 1.6S51 1.6956 1.7361 \,n66 1.8171 1.8575
1.8979

I 10Sol I 1459 I 1862 1,2264 1,2666 1.3067 1,)467 1.3866 1.4264


14662

10912 I 1310 1.1707 1.2102 1.2497 1.2890 1.3282 1.3674


1.-

1.0318

11209
1 1598 119116 1.2372 1.2757 1.3140 1.3522 1.3903 1.4282 1.4661 1.5038 1.5414 1.5789 1,6163 1.6537
1.6909

1 0753 1 1139 I 1524 11907


1.2287

1.0710
1 109-1

1,0673
1.l054

1.~9

106J4

1,2666
1.-

1.3419
1.37~

1.5059 1.5456 1,5852 1.6247 1,6642 1.7037 1.743\ 1.7824 L8217 1,8610
1.9002

24.00
24 SO "00 ".50

26,00
26.50

27.00 27.50
28.00

28.50 29,00
29.SO 30.00

1.9383 1.9786 2.0189 2.0592 2.0995 2.1397 2.1799 2.22{\1 2.2603 2.3OCl5
2._ 2.J807

1.9393 1.9785 2.0176


2.0S66

2.4208

2.0957 2.1346 2.1736 2.2125 2.2514 2.2903 2.3291 2.3679

1.4454 1.4843 1.5231 1.5618 1.6005 1.6391 1.6n6 1. 7160 1.7544 1.7928 1.8311 1.8693 1.9075 1.9456 1.9837 2.0217 2.0597 2.0976 2.1355 2.1734 2.2112 2.2490
2.2868

1.7281 1.7651 1.8021 1.8390 1.8759 1.9127 1.9493


1.9860

2.0226 2.0591 2.0955 2.1319 2.1682 2.2045


2.2407

1.4167 1.4538 1.4908 1.52n 1,5644 1,6011 1.6376 1,6740 l.7i03 1,7485 1,7826 1.8186 1,8546 1,8904 1.9262 1.9618 1.9974 2.0330

I 1475 I 1855 1.2232 1.2607 \,2981 1.3352 1.3722 1.4091 1.4457 14823 1.5187 1.5549 1.5910 1.6270 1 6629 1.6987 1.7343 I. 7698 1.8053
1.8406

I 1431
1 1606

1.2179 1.2549 1.2917 1.3283 1.3847


1.4009

1.4370 1.4728
1.S08S 1.-

1 1027 1 1402 IIn4 1.2144 1.2511 1.2876 1.3238 1.3598 1.3956 1.4312
14666

11009 1.1382 I 1751 1,2117 1.2481 1.2842 1.3200 1.3555 1.3908 1.4259
1-

1.5794 1.6146 1.6497


1.684<>

1.8758 1.9110
19460

2.11684
2.1038 2.1391 2.1743 2.2095 2.2446

1.9810 2,0159 2.0507


208S4

1.7194 1.7541 1.7886 1.8230 1.8573 1.8915 1.92.56 1.9596 1.9934 2.0272
2.0609

2.3245

2.2769

2.1200 2,1546 2.1891 2.2235

2.0945 2.1280 2.1614 2.1947

1.5019 1.5369 1.5718 1.6065 \.6410 1.6754 1,7(1% 1,7437 I.7m 1.8115 1.8452 1,8788 1.9123 1,9-'56 1.9788 2.0119 2.04J9 2.0779 2.1107 2.1434 2.1760

1.4954 1.5298 1.5MI 1,59S 1 1.6320 1.6657 1.6992 1.7325 1,7657 1.7987 1,8316
1.-

1,8970
1 ,92~

1.9618 1.9940 2.0261 2.0580


2.01199

2.1216 2.153]

1.0618 1.0992 1 1362 I 1729 1.2092 1.2453 1.2610 1.3164 1.3515 1 J864 1.4211 1.4554 1.4896 1.5235 155n 1.5906 1.6239 1.6570 1.6899 1.7226 1.7551 1.787<1 1.8196 1,8516 1.8835 1.9152 1,9468 1,9782 2,0095 2.0407 2.0717 2.1026 2.1334

1.0596
1.il966

1~79

1 09-17

I 1332 116<J.i 1.2052 1.2<W7 1.2757 1.3105 1,3449 1.3789 1.4127 1.4462 1.4794 1.512.1 1.5449 1.5773 1.6095 1.6414 1.6731
1.7~6

1 1311 1 1670 1.2026 1.2377 1.272'1.3067


1.J407

I 374.I 4077 1,4734 1 ~58 I ~379 1.5697 160iJ 1.6326 1.6636 UJ9.-5 1,72S0 1,7554 1,7855 iJ!l55
I.~S2

"-107

I 056~ 10930 1 1293 I 165\ 1,2005 1.2354 \.2700 1.3042 1.3380 I 3714 1.4U45 1.4373 1,'-698 1.5019 \.5338 1.5654 15967 162n 1.6585
16890

1.0547 1.0914 I 1276 I 1633 I 19K7 1.2:'15 1.2(>110


1.3021

1.7358 1.7669 1.79n 1.8284 1.85119 1,8891 1.9192 1,9492


197'JO

1.7193 1.7494 1.7792


1.8088

2.0086
2.03AO 2.0673 2.(1%5

11047 1.9040 1.9332 1.9672 1.'J910 2,()196 2.i)4S1 2.0764

1.8382 1.8674 1.8964 1.9252 1.9538 1.9R23 2,0105 2,0386

2.0666

1.3358 1.3692 1.4022 1.4349 1.4672 1.4993 1,5310 1,5625 1,5937 1.6246 1.6552 1.6856 1.7158 1.7457 l,n54 1,8O-tS 1,8341 1.8631 1.8920 1.9206 1.9.-91 1.9774 2.0055 2.0334 2.0612

\ U5.lS 11110\ I 121>3 1 I"2U I 1972 I.HW 1.2665 1.3005 1.3.\41 I 3674 1.4003 I 4329 1.4652 1.4971 I .S2RB 1,5601 1.5912 1.6220 1.6525 1.6828 1.7128 1.7<126 1.7722 1.8015
1 1<306

18595 1.8AA2 1 9167 1 9.-51 1.9732 2.0012 2.0289 2.0566

Table 7-2 (h) Extended Sukkar-Cornellintegral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation

S1
2.' 00000 0.0030 0.0136 O,OJ07 0.0537 0,0819 0,1142 01499 0.1880 02279 0.2690 0,3107 0.3529 03951 04373 0,4792 0,5208 0.5619 0,6026 0.6428 06825 07217 0,7604 0.7987 0.8364 08737 U9106
11'1-17(1

P,
1.1 0.20 O.SO 1.00 I.SO 2.00 2.SO 3.00 3.SO 4.00 4.SO '.00 '.SO 600 6.SO 7.00 7.SO 8.00 8.SO 9.00 9.SO 10.00 10.50 11 .00 11.50 12.00 12.50
13.00 BStl

1.2 0.000l 0.0032 0.0158 0.0387 0.0720 0.1119 0.1538 0.1960 0.2382 0.2800 0.3216 0.3630 0.4040 0.4449 0.4856 0.5261 0."" 0._ 0.6466 0.686S 0.7262 0.7657 0.8051 0..... 0.8836 0.9227 0,9617
1.{){X)(,

1.3 0.000l 0.0032 0,0152 0.0361 0,0657 0.1022 0, 1425 0.1844 0.2266 0.2688 0.3106 0.3522 03934 0.4344 0,4752 0.5 156 0.5558 0.5959 06357 0.6753 0,7147 0,7539 0.7930 0.8319 08607 0.9094 09479
{) <)101/,1

1.4 0.000l 0.0031 0.0148 0.0346 0.0623 00965 0.1350 0,1759 0.2179 0.2601 0.3023 0.3442 0.3857 0.4270 0.4679 0.S08S 0.5487 0.5888 0.6285 0.6681 0.7073 0.7464 0.7852 0,8239 0.8623 09006 0.9386
II <J7f15

1.5 0.000l 0.0031 0.0145 0.0336 0.0601 0,0925 0.1295 0.1694 0,2108 0.2529 0.2951 0.3373 0.3791 0.4207 0,46 18 0.5026 0.5431 0.5832 0.6230 0.6625 0,7017 0.7406 0,m3
0.8171

Reduced Temperature for 8 - 35.0 1.' 1.7 1.6 2.0 1.'

2.2 0000l 0.0030 0.0137 0,0311 0.0546 0,0834 0,1165 0,1528 0.1916 0,2320 0.2734 0.3153 0.3576 0,3998 04418 0.4836 0.5247 0.5657 0.6062 06462 0.6858 0.7250 0,7637 0,8019 08398 0,8m 0.9141 (1'150

2.4

0.0000 0.0033 0,0171


0 . ~S4

2.6 0.0000 0.0030 0.0135 0.0305 0.0534 0,0813 0.1134 0.1487 0.[866 0.2263 0.2672 0.3089 0.3910 0.3932: 0,4354 0.4n4 0.5190 0.5(;)2 0.6009 0,6412 0.6809 0.7201 0.7589 0.7971 0.8349 0.8721 0.9089
f) ()-l~.1

3.0 0.0000 0.0030 0.0135 0,0304 0.0531 0""" o 1127 0.1478 o 1855 0.2250 0.2658 0.3014 0.3495 0,3918 0.4339 04759 0.5175 0.5588 0,5996 0.6398 0,6796 0.7189 07576 0.7958 0.8336 0.8708 0.9076
f) 9~.19

0.086 1 0.1283 0,1703 0.2 120 0.2536 0.2950 0.3362 0.3773 0.4183 0.4591 0.4999 0.S405 0.58 10 0.6214 0.66 17 0.7018 0.74 19 0.7818 0.8217 0.8614 0.9011 0,9407 0911.03 I 0\97

08559 0.8939 0.\)317


11 9(,(j,

0000l 0.0031 0.0143 0,0329 0.0585 00900 0.1259 0,1650 0,2059 0.2477 0.2899 0.3321 0.3742 0,4159 0.4573 04983 0.5390 0.5792 0.6191 0.6586 0.6978 0.7367 0.7753 08136 0,8517 0.8895 U9271
{)(jM~

0000l 0.0031 0.0141 0.0323 0,0573 00879 0,1230 0. 1613 0.2017 0.2433 0.2854 0.3276 0.3698 0.4117 0.4532 0.4944 0,5352 0.5756 0.6156 0.6552 0.6945 0.7334 0.nI9 0.8 102 0.8481 0.8858 0,9232
lL'MI4

0.000l 0.0030 0,0139 0.0320 0.0564 0._ 0,1208 0.1585 01984 0.2396 0,2816 0.3238 0.3660 0_ 04-198 0,4912 0,5822 0.5727 0,6129 0.6526 0.69 19 0.7308 0,7694 0.8076 0.8655 0.8831 O,92U4
()
(j~7.1

0.0000 0.0030 0.0139 0.0317 0.0559 0.11055 0,119.1 0.1567 0.1962 0.2372 0.2790 0.3211 0.3634 04{l55 0,4473
OA~

0.5300 0.5707 0.6109 0.6507 0.6901 0.7291 0,7677 0.8059 08438 0.8813 0918.'1
11
(J~S~

0000l 00030 0.0139 0.0315 00554 0.0847 01182 0,1550 0, [942 0,2350 0.2766 0.3187 0,3610 0,4032 0,4451 04867 0.5280 0S688 0.6091 0.6490 06S85 0.7275 0.7661 0,8043 0.3422 0.8797 091611
II "'~1~

o000l 0.0030 0.0136 0.0309 0.0542 00826 0,1153 0,15 13 0.1897 0.2298 0.2710 0.3128 0.3550 03972 0,4394 0,48 12 0.5227 0.5638 0.6044 0.6445 0.6842 0.7234 0,7621 0.8001 0.8381 08755 1)'112-l
J 'qXl

1400 14.50
15,00 15.50 /6.00 16.50 17.00 17.50 18.00 18.50 19.00 19,50

20.00 2O.SO 21.00 21.50 22.00 22.SO 23.00 23,SO 24.00 24.50 2500 25.SO 26,00 26,50 27.00 27.50 28.00 28.SO 2900 29 SO 30.00

1,0591 U1985 1.1377 I 1770 1.2162 1.2553 1. 2944 1.3334 1,3725 1.4114 1.4504 1.4893 1,5281

1.5610 1.6058 1,6446 1,68)3 1.7220 1.7607 1.7994 1.8381 1.8767 1.9153 1,9539 1.9924 2.0310 2.0695 2 1080 2,1465 21850 2,2234 2,26 1 9 2,3003

1.0394 1.078 1 1.1167 1.1552 1.1937 1.2321 1.2705 1.3087 1.3470 1.3851 1.4232 1.4613 1.4993 1.5373 1.5752 1.6130 1.6509 1.6887 1.7264 1.7641 1.8018 1.8394
1.871 1

1.9146 1.9522 1.9897 2.0272 2.0647 2.1021 2,1395 2.1769 2,2142 2.2516

1.0246 1.0627 1,1008 1.1388 1.1767 1,2 144 1.2521 12898 1.3273 1.3648 1.4022 1.4395 1.4768 1.5140 1.55 II 1.5882 1.6252 1.6622 1.6991 1.7360 1.7729 1.111m 1.8464 1.8831 1,9198 1.9564 1.9930 2.0295 2.066 1 2,1025 2. 1390 2,1754 2.2118

1.0143 1.0519 1.0893 1.1 266 1.1638 1.2008 1.2378 1.2746 1.31 13 1.3479 1.3844 1.4208 1.4571 1.4933 1.5294 1.5655 1.60 14 1.6373 1.6732 1.7089 1.7446 1.7802 1.8158 18513 1.8867 1.9221 1.9574 1.9927 2.0279 2,0631 2.0983 2.13J3 2. 1684

1'(l067 1.0439 1.0809 1.1178 1,1549 I 191/ 1.2275 1.2638 1.2999 1.3359 1.3718 1.4075 1.4432 1.4788 1.5142 1,5495 1.5848 1.6199 1.6550 1.6900 1.7249 1.7597 1.7944
18291

1.8637 1.8982 1.9326 1.9670 H)014 2.0356 2.0698 2.1040 2.1381

1.0017 1.0386 1.0754 1.1120 1.1484 1.1846 1,2207 1.2566 1.2923 1.3280 1.3634 1.3988 1,4340 1.4691 1.5041 1.5390 1.5738 1.6084 1.6430 1.6775 1.7118 l.7461 l.7803 1,8 144 1.8484 1.8824 1.9163 1.9501 1.9838 2.0175 2.051 1 2._ 2.1180

0.9913 1.0340 1.0704 1.1066 1.1426 1.1784 1.2140 1.2494 1.2846 1.3197 1.3546 1.3893 1.4239 1.4584 1.4927 1.5269 1.S609 1.5948 1,6286 1.6623 1.6959 1.7294 1.7627 17960 1.8191 1.8622 1.8951 1.9280 1.9608 1.9935 2.0261 2.0587 2.0912

0.9941 1.0305 1.0667 1.1027 1.1 384 1.1739 12092 1.2443 1.2792 1.3139 1.3484 1.3828 1.4170 1.4510 1.4849 1,5186 1,5522 1.5856 1,6U19 1.6521 1.6851 1.11110 \.7508 1,7835 1.8161 1.8486
1.8810

0.9920 1.0282 1.0642


I.Il999 1.1354 I 1705 1.2055 1.2402 1.2747 1,3089 1.3430 1.3769 1,4105 1.4440 IA773 1.5104 1.5434 1.5762 1.6088 1.6413 1.6736 1.1{)58 1.7379 1.7698 1.8016 1.8333 1.8649 1,8963 1.9277 1.9589 1.9900 2.02iO 2.0519

0.9900 1.0261 1.0618 1.0973 1.1325 1.1674 1,2020


12364

0.9869 1.0226 1.0500 1.0931 1.1278 1.1622


1.1962

0.9848

1.9133 1.9454 1.9775 2.0095


2.~14

2.0732

1.2705 1.3044 1.3380 1.3714 1.4046 1.4376 1.4704 1.5030 1.5355 1.5677 1.5998 1.6317 1,6634 1.6950 1.7264 1.7577 1.7888 1.8198 1.8506 UI814 1.9119 1.9424 19726 2.0030 2.033 1

1.2300 1.2634 \.2966 1,3294 1.3620 1.3944 1,4265 1,4583 1,4900 1,5214 1.5525 1,5835 1.6143 1.6448 1.6752 1,1054 1.7354 1.7652 1.7949 1.8244 1.8537 I.M29 1.9119 I.1.9696
1.9982

1.0205 1.0557 1.0905 1.1247 1.1590 1.1928 1.2262 1.2592 1.2970 1.3245

3166
,3885 ,4201 ,45 15 ,4826 ,5134 5440 5744
6()'16

6345 6642 .6937 ,723 1 I. 7522 1.7812 1.8100 1.8386 1.8670 1.8953 1.9234 1.9513 1.9791

0.9ln9 0.9812 0,9793 1.0184 1.0\67 \.0\53 1.0536 1.0517 I.OS03 1.0883 10864 1.0849 1.1226 1 1206 1-1191 11566 1.lS45 I 1529 1.1 88() 111164 1.1901 1.2234 1.2212 1.2195 12563 1.2540 1.2522 1.2889 1.2865 1.2847 1.3212 1.3187 1.3168 1.3531 1.3506 1.348S 1.3848 1.3822 1,4162 1.4135 1,4112 1,4473 1.4445 14422 1,4782 1.4752 1,4120 1.S088 1.5057 1.5032 1.5391 1.5360 U333 1.5693 1.S66il 1.5632 1.5957 I-sm 1.5992 1.6288 1.6253 1.6223 1.6583 1.6546 1.6S15 1,6837 1.68Ol 1.6875 I. 7165 1.7126 1.7093 1.7454 1.7413 1.7378 1.1698 1,7662 1.7740 1,7981 1.7944 1.8025 1.8306 1.8262 1.8224 1.8542 1,8502 1.8589 1.8868 1.8820 1,8779 1,9/46 1.9096 1,90S3 1.9422 1.9370 1.9327 1.9696 1.9643 1.9598

"""

Table 7-2 (I) Extended Sukkar-Comell Integral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation

~ ~
~

P,
1.1 0.20 00000 O.SO 00029 1.00 O.OLSO I.SO 0.0403 2.00 0.0776 2.SO 0,1170 300 0.1565 3SO 0.1958 4.00 0.2351 4SO 0.2743 '00 0.3133 '.SO 0.3523 6.00 0.3912 6.SO 0.'1300 7.00 0.4687 7.SO 0.0573 800 0,$458 8.SO 0.5843 9.00 0.6227 9SO 0.6609 1.2 0.0000

Reduced Temperalure for 8 - 40.0

1.3
0.0000

0.0000

'"

1.5 0.0000

1.6 0.0000

1.7 0.0000

1 . 0.0000

1.' 0.0000

2.0 0.0000 00026

2.2 00000

2.' 0.0000

2.6 0.0000

2 . 0.0000 00026

J.O
0.0000

O,(JO?..8 0.0139 0.0341


0.0640

1000 10.50 11,00 11,SO 12,00


IBO

0.6991 0.7372 0.n53 0,8132 0.8511


(),AA~

0.1005 0.1393 0.1787 0,2182 0,2576 0.2969 0.3360 0.3750 0.4138 0.4525 0.4910 0.5294 0.5677 0.6059 0,6439 0.6818 0.7196 0.7573 0.m9 0.8324
0_

0,0028 0.0133 0.0318 0,0582 0.0912 0.1281 0.1668 0,2062 0,2457 0.2851 0.3244 0.3634 04023 0.44\0 0.4795 0.5179 0.5560 0.5940 0,6319
0.6696

0.0027 0.0129 0.OJ05 0.0551


00858

D,no
I'~I

n Q~t.X
II ,lid'

0907:'
01--1.1'\

0.7071 0,nt6 0.7819 0.8190 0,851'01 tUN'1


L)?'N

0.1208 0.]584 0.]973 0.2367 0.2762 0.3156 0.3549 0,3939 0.4328 0.47]4 0 ..5097 0,$479 0.5859 0.6237 0.6612 0.6987 0.7359 0.7729
0.8098
n~66

0.0027 0.0127 0.0296 0,0530 0.0821 0.1156 0.1520 0.1901 0,2292 0.2686 0.3081 0.3476 0,386!1 0.4258 0.4646 0.5031 0,5413 0.5793 0.6 171
0._

0.0027 0.0125
0.0290

0,0517 0.0798 0.1122 0.1477 0.1853 0.2240 0.2633 0.3028 0.3423 0,3816 0,42{)8 0.4597 0.4983 0.5367 0.5747 0.612S
0.6500

0.0027 0,0123 0,0284 0.0505 0.0779 0.1095 0.1442 0.1812 0.2]95 0.2586 0.2980 0,3376 0.3170 0.4163 0.4553 0,4941 0.5325 0.5707
0._

0,6919 0.7290 0.7659 0.8026 (),8J91


II
~7'i~

n ~~n~
" 'I' '.

0,6873 0,7243 0.76] I 0.7977 OSJJI IlInm


II )1111.'

0,6461 0.6833 97203 0.7571 0,7936 0,8299


n.so~'1

0,0027 0.0122 0.0281 0.0497 0.0765 0,2074 0.1416 0.1780 0.2159 0.2548 0,2941 0.3336 0.3731 0.4124 0,4516 0.4905 0.5290 0.5673 0.6052 0.6429 0.6802 0.7172 0,7539 0,7903 O.IQM
II IIO~J
II
~'Il'il

0,0027 00122 0.0279 0,0493 0,0756 0.106] 0.1398 0.1758 0,2JJS 0.2521 0.2913 0.3308 0.3703 0,4097 0,449(} 0.4879 0.5266 0,5650 0.6030
06407

0.0121 0.0276 0.0488 0.0749 0.1050 0. 13&3 0.1740 0.2113 0,2498 0.2889 0.3283 0.3678 0.4073 0,4466 0.4856 0.5244 0.5628
0.6009

0.0026 0.0 120 0.0273


0"",

0.6780 0.7150 0,7517 0.7882 n,!Q43


!1iWIZ

0.6386 0,6760 0.7130 0.7498 0.7862 Q,K!2J

0.0738 0.1034 0.1362 0,1714 0.2084 0.2465 0.2854 0.3247 0.3642 0.4037 0.4431 0,4819 0,52{)8 0.5593 0.5975 0,6353 06728
07099

0,7466 0,78JO 0,819n


US.~4

0.0026 0,0119 0.0271 O.04n 0.0730 0,1023 0,1348 0.1696 0.2063 0.2442 0,2829 0.3221 0.3616 0.4011 0,44{)5 0,4797 0.5]87 0.5573 0,5955 0.6334 067\0 0,7081 0,7448 0.7812
IUIl7I
II
S~:>7

0.0026 0,0119 0.0270 0.0473 0.0724 0.1013 0,1335 0.1681 0.2045 0.2422 0,2808 0.3199 0.3594 0.3989 0,4383 0.4776 0.5166 0.5553 0.5936 0,6315
06690

0.0118 0.0268 0.0471 0.0468 0,0718 0.0714 0.1005 O.om 0.1324 0.lJI5 0.1667 0,1656 0,2029 0.2017 0.2405 0.2391 0.2790 0,2175 0.3181 0.3166 0.3575 0.3560 0.3970 0.3955 0,4365 0,4350 0.4758 0.4743 0.5148 0.5133 0.5535 0.5521 0.5918 0.5904
0.6298

0.0026 00118 0.0267

n 'JI

n H'iSO
/I,
,'Il~

0.7052 0.7429 0,7792 1),11152


II
H~17

II '~IL'

0.6673 0,7045 0.7412 0.m5 0.8]34 01490


(l ,~.~~I

0.6284 0.6660

"

0,7031 0.7398 0.7762 0,8121 0,8-176


{) 1<827

HINIJrI

'K"I,~'

'I!'SiO

14.00

14 SO

15.00 15 ..~
J/)I~l

16.50 17,00 17.50 18.00 18.50 19.00 19.5O


20.00

20.SO 21.00 21,50


22,(k)

22.SO 23.00 23SO

,"00
24.50
23.00 23 SO

26.00 26.50 27.00 27,SO 28.00 28.SO

29.00
2950
3000

10022 1.0398 1.0774 1 1149 r 1525 1 1"'.19 ]2274 1.2648 1.3021 1.3395 1.3768 1,4140 1,4513 1,4885 1.5257 15629 1.6001 1.6372 1.6743 1.7114 1.74K5 1.7855 1.8226 1.8596 1.8966 1.9336 1.9705 2.0075 2.0444 2.0!!\3 2.1182 2.1551 2,1920

0.9816 0,0188 1.0558 1.0928 1.1297


II""

1.2034 1.2402 ].2769 1.3136 1.3502


13868

0,9667 1.0034 10400 1.0765 I 1129 1 1492 I 1855 1.2217 1,2579


12940

0,9559 0,9921 1.02112 1.0641


I 1000

\ 1357
I.J 713

1,4233 1.4598
1.4963

1.5327 1.S691

\.6417 1.6780 1.7143 1.7505 1.7867 1.8229 1.8591 1.8952 1.9313 1.9674 2.0034 2.0194 2.0755 2.1114 2.1474

I._ I."""
1.6163 16519 1.6874 1,7229 1.7584 1.7938 1.8292 1.8645 1.8999 1.9352 1.9704 2.0057 2,0409 2,0761 2,1112

].330) ],)659 1.4019 1,4)77 1.4735 1.5093 1.5450

1.2068 12422 1.2776 1.3128 13480 1.3831 1.4181 1.4530 1.4879 1.5227 1.5574 1.5920 1.6266 I.MI2 1,6957 1,7301 1.7645 1,7988 l.8m 1.8673 1.9015 1.9356 1,9697 2.0038 2.0378 2.0717

I."'"

0.9477 098.15 1.0193 1.0548 ].0903 J 12S5 I 1607 1.1958 1.2307 1.2655 ] .30)2 ] ,3349 1.3694 1.4038 1.4381 1.4723 1S4<J6 1.5746
I """ 1,6423

0,9421 0.9778
I ,OJ))

].0486 J .0837 1.1187 I 1536

11884
1.2230 1.2574 1.2918 1.3261 1.3602 1.3942
1~281

1.6761 1,7098 1,7434 1,7770 1,8105 1,8439 1.8773 1,9107 1.9439 1.977J 2,0103 2,0434

I 4620 J 4957 1.5293 1.5629 1.5963 1.1'0297 1.6630 1.6962 1.7293 1.7624 1,7954 1,11283 1,1\612 1.11940 1.9267 1.9594 1.9920 2.0246

0.9373 0.9727 1.0079 1.0429 1.0777 1.1123 1 14611 I 1811 1.2152 1.2492 1.2831 ] ,3168 ] .3504 1.3838 1.4171 1.4503 1.4834 1.5 164 1.5492 1,5820 I.nt46 1.6472 1.6797 1.7120 1.7443 1.7765 1.81186 1.1H06 1.8726 1.9044 1.9302
19680 1 \l996

0.9335 0,9588 1.0037 1,0)85 1.0731 1.1075 I 1417 1.1757 1.2095 1.2432 1.2767 ] .3101 1.3433 1,3763 1.4093 1.4421 1.4747 1,5072 1.5396 1.5719 16041 1.6362 1.6582 1.7000 1.7318 1.7634 \.79.50 1.8265 1.8579 1.8892 1.9204 1.9516 1.9826

0.9310 09287 0.9661 0.9636 1.0009 0.9982 1.0328 \.0355 1.0698 1.0667 1.1039 1.1005 \.1378 1.1341 1.1714 I 11'075 1.2049 12006 1,2336 1.2382 1,2663 1.2713 J .3042 1.2988 1,3311 1.3369 1.3695 1.3633 1.4019 1.3952 1.4J.t 1 1.4270 1.4662 1.4586 1.4982 1.4900 1.5300 1.5213 1.5617 1.5525 1.5834 1.5932 ] ,6246 1.6143 1.6559 1.6-*.50 1.6871 1.6755 1.7181 1.7059 1.7491 1.7362 1.7799 1.7664 1.8106 1.7965 1.8412 1.8264 1.8717 1.8562 1.9021 1.K859 1.9325 1.9155 1.9450 1.9627

09250 0.9596 0,9939 1.0279 1.0516 \ .0949 I 121!O

0.9228 0.9'201 0,9188 0,9\14 0,9532 0.95\1 0.95n 0.9551 0.9914 0.9891 0.987i 0.9856 1,0228 1,0208 1.0192 1.0251 1.0541 1.0525 1.051\6 1.0561 1.0917 1.089\ 1.0870 1.0853 I 1245 I 12111 I 1196 I 1179 I 1541 I 1008 I 1570 I 1519 1 1501 I 1934 I 1S92 I 1862 I 1839 ] 1820 l.llS6 1,2211 1.2180 1.2155 1.2136 1,2528 1.249~ 1.2577 1.2469 1.2450 1,2780 1.2760 1.2842 1.2894 1.J(]68 1,3210 1.3153 13116 1.3462 1.3422 1.3395 1,3373 US23 1,3K34 1.3768 1.3727 1.3698 1.3675 1.4143 1.4072 1.4028 13999 1.3975 1.4449 1 4373 1.4328 I 4297 142n \,4754 \ ,4593 1.4567 14673 I 462.\ 1.4970 1.4920 1 4887 1 _ I.S057 1.5265 1.5358 1.5213 15178 1.5151 1,5657 1.5559 1.5503 1.5468 1,5439 1.5954 1.5792 1.5755 JS725 1.S85O 1,6249 1,6041 1.6010 1.5078 1.6139 1,6427 1.6S43 1.6363 1.6324 1.6292 1,6646 1.6606 1.6572 1.6836 Ui713 Ui997 1.6927 1.7126 1.6886 1.6851 1.7415 1.7279 1,7207 1.7164 1,7128 1,7560 1,7484 1.7440 \.7403 1.7703 1.7839 1.7760 1.79fl9 1.7715 1.7676 1.11274 IKI16 1,8035 \.7988 \.7946 1,8308 1.11259 1.8216 1.8557 I.K393 1.8X4U 1,8579 1.8529 18487 1R667 ].8849 1.8797 1.8754 1.9120 1.8940

"806

I._

Table 72 (j) Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integral for 9oHomhole Pressure Calc'" II....
P,

!l
2.6
0.0000 0.0023 0.0106 0,0240 O.OU) 0.0648 0,0910 0.1203 0.1520 0.1855 0.2204 0,2562 0.2928 0.3297 0.3669 0,4042 0.4414 0,4785 0.5153 0.5519 05882 0,6242 0,6598 06952 07302 0.7649 II 7IN2
" "II.'

1.1
0.20 0." 1.00 I." 200 00000 0.0026 0.0134 0.0362 0,0707 0.1016 o 1449 0.1821 0,2193 0.2565 0.2936 0.3306 0.3676 0.40-'5 0.4414 0.4782 0,5150 0.5517 0.5883 0.6248 0,6613 0.6978 0,7342 0.7705 0.8068

1.2
0.0000 0.0025 0.0124 0.0305 0.0576 0.0912 0.1273 0,1643 0.2015 0.2388 0.2760 0.3131 0.3501 0.3871 0.42]9

1.3
00000 0.0025 0.0119

Reduced Temperature for 8 = 45.0

1.4
0.0000 0.0024 0,0115 0.0272 0,0494

1.5
0.0000 0.0024 0,0113 0.0264 0.0475 0.0738 o 1043 0.1378 0.1732 0,2096 0.2466 0.2838 0,3211 0.3583 0.3954 0.4323 0._ 0.5055 0.5419 0.5780 0,6140 0.6498 0.6854 0.7209 0,7562 0,7914 IUC:I, I
t kl>I.1

1.6
0.0000 0.0024 0,0111 0.0258 0.0462 0.0716 0.1012 0.1338 0.1685 0.2045 0.2412 0.2783 0.3158 0.3528 0.3900 0,4270 0.4638

1.7
00000 0.0024 0.0110 0.0254 0,0452 0.0699 00986 0.1304 0.1645 0.2001 0.2366 0.27]5 0.3107 0.3480 0.3852 0.422] 0.4592 0,4959 0.5]23 0.5686
0.~6

1.8
0.0000 0.0024 0.0109 0.0250 0.0445 0.0586 0.0967 0.1279 0,1614 0.1966 0.2327 0,2695 0._ 0.3439 0,3811 0.4182 0.4552 0,4920 0,5286 05649 06009 0,6367 0,6723 0.7076 0.7427 0, 7776 IUll 22
() KI(,7

1.9
0.0000 0.0024 0.0108 0,0248 0.0440 0,0678 0.0955 0.1263 0. 1594 0.1942 0.2301 0,2667 0.3038 0,3410 0.3782 0.4154 0,4525 04893 0.5259 0.5623 0.5984 0.63-;2 0,6698 0.7051 0. 7402 1)'775 1
O,XlI'J7
!I X4_h!

2.0
00000 0,0024 0.0108 0,0247 0.0436 0.0671 0.0944 0.1248 0,1576 0.1921 0.2278 0.264] 0.3012 0,]384 0.3757 0.4129 0,4SOO 0."" 0,5235 0.5599 0,5961 0.6320 0,6676 0.7029 0,7380 0.7728
Okl'l7)
) )0(-1 11,

2.2
0.0000 00023 0.0107 0,0244 0.0430 0,0661 0.0930 01229 0.1552 0.1893 02246 0.2608 0.2976 0.3347 0.3719 0.4092 04459 04828 0.5196 0,5561 0.592] 0,6283 06639 06993 0.7343 0,7690
II
tI
~n~

2.4
00000 00023 00106 0.0242 0,0426 0.0654 0,0919 0.1215 o 1534 0. 1872 0.2223 0.25113 0.2949 0.3319 0,3692 04064 04436 04806 0,5174 0.5540 0.5903 06262 0,6619 0,6977 0,7323 0,7670
() XHU
d.~

2.8
00000 00023 0.0105 0.0239 0.0420 0.0644 0.0903 0,1193 0.1507 0.1840 0.2187 0.2544 0.2909 0.3278 0.3650

3.0
0.0000 0.0023 0.0105 0.02J8 0.0418 0.0640 0.0897 0.1185 0.1496 0.1828 0.2174 0.2530 0.2895 0.3264 0.3635 0.4008 0,4360 0.4751 0.5120 0."" 05650 0.6210 0."" 0.6920 07270 0.7616 0.7959
IIK!'I'J

0.0284
0.0522 0.0823 0.1163 0,1523 0.1892 0.2264 0,2637 0.3009 0.3380 0.3750 0.4118 0_ 0,4852 0.5216 0,5580 0.5942 0.6301 06664 07023 0,7381 0.TI]8 a 8Il94 II S4--l'J
(\I!I'.\l-\

2."
3.00 3." 4.00 4." 5.00 5." '.00

,,.
7.00 7." 8.00

0.on2 0.109] 0.1441 0.IS03 0.2172 0.2544 0.2917 0.3289


0."'" 0.4029 0,4397 0.4763 0.5128 0.5492 0.5853 0,6214 0.6573 0,6930 0.7286 0,764] 0, 7994 n K\47
lJ ,1>')\

o 46()7

8,.
900 9." 10,00 10,50 11.00 1I,SO 12 .00
12 ,50 I' Ull
\ '\ \II

o &.no
o R"7<l2
\I 'HS]

0.4973 0.5]39 0.5704 0.6067 0.6430 0.6792 0,7153 0.7514 0.7874 OR2]]
1))1<;'11
U,I('I.\'1

0402.l
0,4395 0.4766 0.5135 0,5501 0."" 0,6224 0.6580 0,6934 0.7284 0,7630 (l 7974
OH.IJ.l

D."""
05368 0.5730 06090 06447 0,6803 0.7157 07509 0.7MO
OIQm
f) k~'

o"'" 0,6759 0,7113 0.7464 0,7K14 {) KIM


!I

ill7

1'-

1\.1

0,9514 0.9875 15.00 1.0235 15.SO 1.0595 16.00 1.0955 16.50 1.J315 17.00 1.1674 17.50 1.2032 18.00 1.2391 18.50 1.2749 19.00 1.3107 19.5O 1.3465 20.00 \.3823 20.SO 1.4180 21.00 \.4538 21.SO 1,4895 22.00 1,5251 22." 1.5608 23.00 1.5965 23." 1.6]21 24.00 1.66TI 24.50 1.70]3 25.00 1.7389 25.50 1.7745 26.00 1.8100 26.SO 1.8456 27.00 1.8811 27.50 1.9166 28.00 1.9521 28." 1.9876 29.00 2.0231 29.50 2.0586 30.00 2.0941
14.50

14.00

0.9306 0.9663 1.0019 1.0374 1.0729

1.1084 1.1438 1.1791 1.2145 1.2497 1.2850 1.3202 1.3554 1.31X15 1.4256 1.4607 1.4958 1.5308 1.5658 1.6008 1.6357 1.6706 1.7055 1.7404 1.7752 1.8101 1.8449 1.8797 1.9144 1.9492 1.9839 2.0186 2.0533

0.9157 0.9510 0.9863 1.0214 1.0565 1.0915 1.1265 1.1614 1.1962 1.2310 1.2658 1.3005 1.3351 1.3697 1.4043 1.4388 1.4733 1.5077 1.542] 1.5765 1.6108 1.6451 1.6794 1.7136 1.7478 1.7820 1.8162 1.850] 1.8844 1.9184 1.9525 ).9865 2.0205

0.9048 09396 0.9744 1.0091 1.0437 1.0782 1.1126 1.1469 1.1811 1,2153 1.2494 1.2834 1.3173 1,3512 1,38SO 14187 \.4524 1.4860 1.5196 1.5531 1.5866 1,6200 1.6534 1.6867 ].7200 1.7532 1.7864 L8195 1.8526 1.8857 1.9187 1.9517 1.9847

0.8961 0.9307 0.9652 0.9995 1.0338 1.0679 1.1019 I 1358 1.1696 1.20]3 1.2370 1.2705 1.3039 1,]373 1.]706 1.4038 1.4369 1.4699 1.5029 1.5358 1.5687 1,6015 1,6342 1.6995 1.7320 1.7645 1.7969 1,8293 1,8617 1.8940 1.9262 1.9584
)

""

0.8902 0.9246 0.9589 0.9931 1.0271 1.0609 1.0947 1.1283 1.1619 1.1953 1,2286 1.2618 1.2949 1.3279 1.3608 1.3937 1.4264 1,4591 1.4916 1.5242 1.5566 1,5890 1.6212 1.6535 1.6856 1.7177 1.7498 1.7817 1,8136 1.8455 1,8773 1.9091 1.9408

0.8851 0.9193 0.9533 0.9872 1.0209 1.0544 1.0878 1.1211 1.1542 1.1872 1,2200 1.2528
) 2854

I_
1.4788 1.5106 1.5424 1.5741 1.6057 1.6]73 1.6687 1.7001 1".7314 1.7626 \.7937 1.8248 1.8558 1.8868 1.9176

1.3179 1.3503 U825 1.4147

08809 0.9]50 0.9489 0.9825 1.0160 1.0494 1.0825 1.1155 1.1484 1.1811 1.2136 1.2460 1.278] 1.3105 1.3425 1.3744 1.4062 1,4]79 1.1.5009 1.5323 1.5635 1.5947 1.6257 1.6567 1.6876 1.7184 \.7491 1.7798 1.810] 1.8408 1.8712 1.9016

0.8782 0.9 121 0.9458 0.9793 1.0125 1.0456 1.0785 1.1112 1.1437 J.l761 1.2Q82 1.2403 1.2721 1.3038 U354 1.3668 1.3981 1.4292 1.4603 1.4912 1.52]9 1.5526 1.583] 1.6136 1.64]9 1.6741 1.7042 1.7343 1.7642 1.7940 1.8238 ].8534
I.Il8.3O

0.8756 0.9094 0.9429 0.9762 1.0093 1.0422 1.0748 1.1072 1.1394 1.1715 1.2033 1.2350 1.2665 1.2978 1.3290 U599 1.]908 1.4215 1,4520 1.4824 1,5]27 1.5428 1.5728 1.0027 1.6]24 1.6621 1.6916 1.7210 1.7503 1.7795 1.8086 1.8376 1.8664

0.87\5 0.9050 0.9382 0.9712 1.0039 1.0]64 1.0685 1.1005 1.1321 1 1636 11948 1.2258 1.2566 1.2871 1,3175 1,3477
1.3n6

.869 1

.902S
.9355 .9684 1.0009 1.0331 1.0650 1.0967 1.1281 1 1592 1 1901 1.2207 1.2511 1.2812 1.3112 1.34()9 1.3704 1.3997 1.4288 14577 1.4865 1.5150 1.5436 1.5716 1.5996 1,6275 1,6552 1,6828 1.7102 1.7375 17646 1,7916 1.8184

0 .... 0.9002 0.9332


0._ 0.9984 1.0305

H)623 1.0938 I 1250


11560 I 1867

1.2172 U474
12n4 1.3071 1.3367 1.3660 1.3951 1 4239 1.4526 14811 1._ 1.5375 1,5655 1.5933 1.6209 1.6483 1.6756 1.7027 1.7297 1.7565 1.7832 1.8097

14074 1.4371 1.4665 14958 1.5249 ].5538 1.5826 1.6112 1.6397 1.6681 1.6963 1.7244 i.7523 1.7801 ] .8078 1.8354

0.8650 0.8635 0.89S3 0.8968 0,9312 0.9297 0.9639 0.%23 0,9963 09946 1.0283 1.0266 I . _ 1.0583 1.0915 1,0697 U227 1.1208 1 1536 1.1517 I 1842 11823 UI46 1.2126 12447 1.2426 1.2746 Im4 1.30'1 IJ020 1.3337 1.3]14 1.3629 1 3605 1.3919 IJ"" 1.4207 1 4181 1.4493 1._ 1.4n6 1.4748 1.5058 1.5029 1.5338 1.5308 1,5617 1.5585 ] ,5893 l.S86t 1.6168 1.6134 1.644] 1.6406 1.6712 1.6677 1.6982 1.6945 1,7251 1.7212 1.75!8 1.7478 1.7783 1.7742 1.8047 1.8005

Table 7-2 (k) Extended Sukkar-Comell Integral for Bottom-hole Pressure Calculation

w w

P,
1.1 0.20 0.50 1.00 150 2.00 2.50 300 3.50 400 450 500 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 850 900 9.50 0.0000 0.0023 1.2 0.0000 0.0023

Reduced Temperalure for 8::0 50.0 1.3


0.0000 1.4 0.0000 1.S 0.0000 1.6 0.0000 1.7 0.0000 1.8 0.0000 1.9 0.0000 2.0 00000 2.2 00000 2.4 0.0000 2.6 00000 2.8 0.0000 3.0 0.0000

0,0121 0,0328 0,0649


0.0997

10,00 10.50 11.00 II.SO 12,00 12,SO IHO


1:\
~~l

0.1350 0.1703 0.2057 0,2410 0.2763 0.3116 0,3469 0.3821 0.4173 0.4525 0.4876 0.5227 0,5577 0.S927 0,6277 0.6626 0.6974 0.7323 0,7670 0,S018
n,lnf>5
U

0.0111 0.0276 0.0524 0.0835 0.1173 0.1521 0.1873 0.2226 0.2579 0.2933 0.3285 0.3638 0.3990 0.4341 0.4692 0.5042 0,5391 0.5739
0.6087

r.- I~

0.6435 0.6181 0.7127 0.7473 0,7818 0,8163 n 1'<'111

0,0022 0,0107 0,0:251 0.0474 0.0750 0.1066 0.1402 0.1749 0.2101 0,2454 0.2807 0.3161 0.3513 0.3865 0.4216 0.4567 0,4916 0,5264 0.5612 0.5959 0,6304 0.6649
0.69'J.I

0,0022 00104 0,0246 0.0447 0.0702 0.0998 0.1322 0.1660 0,2008 0,2359 0.2712 0.3066 0.3419 0.3772 0.4123 0,4474 04823 0.5171 0.5518 0,....
0.6209

0,0022 00102
00238

0,0430 0,0670 0,0951 0.1261 0.1591 0.1933 0.2281 0.2632 0,2985 0.3339 0,3692
0_

0,6553
0.,""

0.7337 0,7680 o 1'022


(I II 'In~

0.1237 0.1578 II 7')17 n K;"t.

0.4395 0.4745 0.5093 0,5440 0.5786 0.6130 0.6413 0,6815 0,7155 0,7494 () 7K1~
OI'lh'l

0.0022 0.0100 0.0233 0,0418 00610 0,0921 0.1222 0.1545 0.1882 0.2227 0.2577 0.2929 0,3282 0.3636 0,3989 0.4340 0.4690

0.0021
0.0099

0.0021
00098

0.0021
0.0098

0.0021
0"""

0.0021
0.0096

0,0021
0.0096

0.0021 0,0095
0,0217

0.S039
0.5386 0,5732 0,6076 0,6418 0.6759 01099 0,7437 (17774
o II to'1

0,0229 0,0409 0.0634 0.0897 0.1191 0.1507 0,1839 0,2181 0,2529 0.2880 0,3233 0.]587 0.3940 0.4292 0.4643 0,4992 0,5340 0,5685 0.6029 0.6372 0,6712 0,7051 0,7JSR 0,7724
II
!I~

0.0226 0.0402 0.0622 0.01179 0.1l67 0.1477 0.1804 0.2143 0,2488 0.28]8 0.3190 0.3544 0.3897 0,4250 0,4601 0.4951 0,5299 0.5645 0.5990 0.6332 0,6672 0,7011 0.7347
O,7~S~

0.on4 0.0398 0.0615 0.1l1168 0.1151 0.1457 0.1781 0.21\7 0.2461 0.2809 0.3161 0.]514 0.3868 0.4221 0.4573 0.4923 0.5271 0.5618 0.5962 0.6305 0,66J5 0.6984 0,7320 (I,7M4

0,0222 0,0395
0.""'"

0.0858 0.1138 0.1440 0.1761 0.2094 0,2436 0,2784 0.3135 0.3488 0.3841 0.4194 0.4547 0,4897 0.5246 0.5593 0,5938 0,6280 0.6621 0,6959 0.7295 n,1K!Q
II 'hl/l

0,0220 0.0389 0.0599 0.0844 0.1119 0.1417 0,1734 0,2063 0.2402 0.2747 0.3097 0.3450 0.3803 0,4151 0.4504 0,4855 0,5204 0,5552 0.5897 06240 0,6581 0.6919
0.72~

0,0218 0.0385 0.0593 0.0835 0.1100 0,1401 0,1714 0.2040 0,2377 0.2721 0.3069 0.3421 0.3774 0,4128 0,4481 0.4832 0.5182 0.5530 0.5875 0,6219 0,6558 0,6897 0,12]2
(l1~M

00382 0.05R7 0.0827 0.1095 0.1387 0.1697 0,2022 0.2356 0.2700 0.3048 0.3399 0.3752 0,4105 0.4458 0.4810 0.5160 0.5508 0,5854 0,6197 0,6537 0.6815 II 1210
n1~~

0.0021 0,0095 0,0216 0.0380 0.0583 0.0820 0.IOS5 0.1375 0.1683 0.2006 0.2339 0.2681 0.3029 0.3380 0.3733
0_

0.4439 0.4791 0.5142 0,5490 0,5835 0.6179 0,6.519 0,6857 0.1192


f) 1.~2,1
(I ',~P

1~K1

0,0021 0.0095 0.0215 0.0378 0.0579 0.0814 0.1078 0.1365 0.1671 0,1993 0.2326 0.2667 0.3014 0.3365 0.3718 0,4071 0.4424 O.4m 0.5127 0,5475 0.5821 0.6184 0.6505 0.6842 0.7177 0,7509
07/HIj

Ill'

"

IS7

(1 nl '

'I

71,7~

14.00 14.SO 15,00 15.SO 16,00 16.50 17.00 17 .SO 18.00 18.SO 19.00 19,5O
2000 20.50

0.9059 0.9405 0.9751 IJYJ97 1.0442 1.0788 \ 1133 1.1477 \.1822 1 2167 1.2511 1.2855 1.3199 1.3542
13886

0.8850
0.9193 0.9536 0.9878 1.0220 1.0561
1.0902

1.1243 1.1583 1.1923


1.2263

21.00 21.SO 22,00 22.SO 23.00


23.50

1,4229 1,4513 1.4916 1.5259


1.5602

1.2602 1.2942 1.3280 1.3619 1.3957 1.4295 1.4633 1.4911 1.5308


1._

0.8704 0.9044 0.9384 0.9722 1.0061 1.0399 1.0736 1.1073 11409 1 1745 U081 U416 1,2151
1.308S

1.3419 1.3753
1._

24,00 24,50
25.00 2S.50

26.00 26.50 27.00 27.50


28.00 28.50 29.00

29,SO
30.00

1.5944 1.6287 1.6629 1.6972 1.7314 1.7656 1.1998 1.8340 1.8882 1.9024 1.9366 1.9107 2.0049

1.5983 1.6319 1.6656


1.6992

1,4419 1.4752 I.1084 1.5416 1.5748


1.6079 1.6410

1.7329 1.7665 1.8001 1.8337 ].8672


1.9008

1.9341 1.9678

1.6741 1.1<r72 1.7403 1.1733 1.8063 1.8393 1.8722 1.9052 1.9381

0.859-l 0.8930 0.9266 0.9601 0.9935 \.0269 \.0601 1,0933 I 1266 I 1595 1 1925 1 2254 1.2583 I 2911 1.3238 1,3565 1.3892 1,4218 1,4543 1,4868 1.5193 1,5517 1.5841 1.6164 1.6487
1.6809

0.8504 0.8839 0.9172 0.9504 0.9836 ,0166 ,0495 ,0824 1151 1478 ,2129 2453 2m ,3100 .3422 ,3743 1.4385 1.4704 1,5024 1,5342 1.5660 1.5!n8 1.6295 1.6611 1.6927 1,7243 ] ,7558 1.7872 1.8187 1.8500 1.8814

0.8443 0.8776 0.9108 0.9438 0.9768


1.0096

I'"

....

1.7131 1.7453 1.1775


1.8096

1.8li16 1.8781 1.9057

1.0423 1.0749 1.1074 I 1398 I 1121 1,2044 1.2365 1.2686 1,3005 1,3324 1.3643 ].3960 1,4277 1,4593 1.4908 1.5223 1.5537 1.5851 1,6164 1.6476 1.6788 1,7100 1.7410 1,7721 1,1\030

0.8391 0.8722 0.9051 0.9379 0.9706 1.0031 1.0355 1,0678


1._

0.8347 0.8576

0.9004
0,9331 0.9656 0,9979 1.0301 1.0621 1.0940 1.1258 1.1575 11890 1.2204 1.2517
12829

1 1320 1 1639 I 1957 1.2274 1.2590 1.2905 1,3219 1.3532 I,31W4 \.4155 1,4456 1,4775
1._

1.3140 1,3449 1.3158


1._

1.5392 1.5700
1.6006

1834<>
1.8649

1.6312 1.6617 1.6922 1,7226 1,7529 1.7831 1,8133 1.8435

1.4372 1,4678 1.4983 1.5287 1.5590 1.5892 1.6194 1.6494 1.6194 1.7094 1.7392 1,7690 1 79117 1.S2S4

0,83 17 0,8645 0.8972 0.9297 0.9620 0,9'}41 1.0260 1.0578 1.0894 1.1209 1 1522 1 1834 12144 ] .2453 1.2761 1,3067 1,3372 1.3676 1,3979 1,4280 1 4581 14880 1.5178 1.5476 1.5772
1.6068

0.8290 0.8617 0,8942 0.9265 0.9586

0.9906
1.0223 1.0538 1.0852 1.1164 1.1474 1.1710 1.2090 1.2395
12699

0.8245 0.8510 0.889] 0.9213 0.953\ 0.9847 1.0160 1,0471 10779


1 1086

11390 1 1693
I.199J

1.3001 1.3302
1.3602

1.2292 1.2589 \,2RR4 1.3177


1._

1.6362 1.6656 1.6948 1,7240 !.7531 1.7821 1.8111

1.3900 1.4197 1.4493 1.4788 1.5081 1.5313 1.5664 1,5954 1,6243 1.6531 l.bRl8 1.7104 1.7]89 1,7673 1.7956

1,3758 1,4046 l.4333 1,4618 1.4902 15184 15465 1.5744 1.6022 1.6299 1,6574 \.6R49 1.7122 1.7394 1.7664

11.822 1 0.8198 11.8178 0.8545 0,(\521 0.8502 0.8866 0.8842 0.8822 0.9!85 0,9160 0.9139 0,950 1 0.9475 0,9454 0.98 14 0.9788 0.9766 1.0125 1.0097 10075 1.0434 1.0405 1.0]82 1,0740 1.0709 10686 I 1043 1 1012 1,0988 1 1345 1 1287 I 1312 1 1644 1 1609 1 1'" 1 1941 1 1905 I 1878 1,2198 1 2171 1.2236 1,2489 1.2461 2528 1.2778 1.2749 2819 ,31OS 1.306S 1.3035 1,33SO .3395 1.3319 .J680 1.3633 1.3601 3.... 1.3914 1.388\ 4245 1.4193 1.4160 1,4471 ,4525 1.4436 ,4803 1,4747 1,4711 1,4984 .lOBO 1.5021 .5355 1.5294 1.5256 1,5629 1,5565 1.5526 ] ,59t11 ] ,5835 1.5794 1.6J72 1.6 \03 1.606 1 1.6441 1.63H9 1.6328 1.6709 1.6634 1.6590 1.6976 1.6R911 1.6!l53 \,7160 1 7114 1.7241 1.7505 1.7421 1.7373

0.8\8] 0,8486

0._
0.9123 0.9438 0.9749 1.0058 1.0364
10668 10969

I 1268 11,.. 11858 \.2149 I 2439 1.2726 1.3011 1.3295 1.3576 1.3855 1.4iJ3 1.4408 1.4682 1.4954 1,5225 1.5494 1.5761 1.6027 1.6291 1.6553 1.6815 1.7075 1.7333

Table 72 (I) Extended Sukkar-Cornell Integral for Bo"om-ho~ Pre.sure c.lculatlon

~ ~ ~

P,
1.1 0.20 O.SO 1.00 I.SO 2.00 2.SO 3.00 3.SO 4.00 4.SO 5.00 5.SO 6.00 6.SO 7.00 7.SO 8.00 8.SO 9.00 '.SO 10.00
IO.SO 11,00
II,SO

1.2 00000 0.0019 0.0093 0.0232 0.0443 0,0115 0.1014 0.1325 0.1642 0.1962 0.2283 0.2606 0.2928 0.3251 0.3574 0.3896 0,4219 0,4541 0.4863 0.5185 0.5507 0,5828 0.6149 0."" 0,67W 0.7110 0,7429
n7'7-l1)

1.3

1.4

1.5

Reduced Temperature for 8 - 60.0 1.6 1.7 1.S 1.9 2.0

2.2 00000 00018 00060 0.0184 0.0326 0.0504 0,0714 0.0950 0.1209 0.1485 0.1775 0,2075 02383 0.2697 0.3015 0.3336 0,3651 0,3976 0.4297 0,4619 0,4940 0,5260 0.5579 0,5896 0,62J2 n 6526 I),MH
t

2.4 00000 0,0018 00060 0.0183 00323 0.0499 0.0705 0.0989 0, I 194 01466 0.1783 0.2051 0.2357 0.2670 0,2986 0,1306 0.3628 0.3951 0,4273 04596 0,4917 0,5237 0,5556 0.Sln3 0,6189 0 6503
')M I ~

2.6

2.S

3.0 0.0000 0.0017 0.0079 00180 0.0311 0.0487 O.OW 0.0913 0.1161 0.1428 0.1709 0.2003 0.2306 0.2616 0.2932 0.3251 0.35n 03894 0.4211 0.4539 0.4861 0.5181 0.5500 0,5818 0.6133 0,6446 0,6758
0,7()67

12.00 12 .50
\) ,01)

0.0000 0.IX)l9 0,0101 O,02TI 0.0559 0.0870 0.1189 0.1509 0.1831 0.2153 0.2475 0,2798 OJ120 0.3443 0.3766 0.4066 0.4411 0,4734 0.5056 0.5378 0.5701 0,6023 0.6344 0.6666 0.6987 0,7309 11 76:\11
tl '7'1<"\

\3.<;0

00000 0.0000 0,0019 0,0018 0.0069 0.0067 0.0215 00206 0.0399 0,0316 0,0631 0,0594 0.0913 0.0851 0.1211 0.\135 0.1521 o 1435 0.1837 0.1745 0.2157 0.2062 0.2479 0.2382 0.2801 0.2703 OJ124 0.3026 0."" 0.3348 0.3769 0,)671 O,409J 0.3m 0,4413 0.4316 0.4735 0,4637 0.5056 0,4958 0,5377 0,5279 05698 0,5599 0.6018 0.5718 0.6337 0,6237 0,6656 0,6555 0.697S 0,6872 Q,7 IH'J 11 72'n () 761 \ tl15H~

0.0000 00000 0,oot8 00018 0.0065 00084 0.0200 0.0195 0,0361 0,0351 0.0566 0,0549 0.0808 0,0781 0.1079 0.1043 0.1369 0.1326 0,1672 0.1624 0,1984 0. 1931 0.2301 0.2245 0.2620 0.2563 0.2942 0._ 0.3264 0.3206 0.3587 0.3529 0.3910 0,3&51 0.4232 0.4174 0.4554 0.4496 0,4875 0.4817 0.5195 0.5137 05515 0.5457 0.5833 0.5775 0,6151 0,6093 0"" {l6409 ()67}15 06725 II 7w I II 7(1.10 o 1~15 (1 ns~

0.0000 0.0018 00063 0.0192 0,0343 0.0535 0.0160 0.1014 0.1291 0,1583 0.1887 0.2198 0.2515 0.2834 0.3156 0.3478 0,3801 0.4123 0,4445 0.4767 0,5087 0,5407 05725 0,6042 0,6359 0,6674
f) (''1('
f) 7~W

0.0000 0.0018 0.0062 0,0189 0.0338 0.0524 0.0745 0.0993 0.1263 0.1551 0.1850 0.2158 0.2472 0.2791 OJJl I 0.3433 0.3756 0.4079 0.4401 0.4722 0,5043 0.5363 0.5581 0.51)98 0,6314 1)11629
f) ,6'N J

0.0000 00000 0.0018 0.0018 0'<X)81 0.0081 0.0188 0,0186 0.0334 0,0331 0.0518 0.0512 0.0734 0.0726 0.0979 0.0966 0,1245 0,1229 0.1529 0.1510 0.1826 0.1804 0.2132 0.2108 0.2444 0.2419 0,2761 0,2735 0.3081 0,3054 0.3403 0,3375 0.3725 0.3697 0,4048 0.402Q 0,5370 0,4343 0,4692 0,4665 0.5013 0,4985 0.5333 0.5305 0,5651 0,5624 0,5988 0.5942 0.6284 0,6257 0,f>S99 0,6571
() (fi 12
II.
U~

O.n'

"

1171'Jf>

'q'l

"

'I.'~

0.0000 0.0000 0.0017 0.0011 0.0060 0,0079 0.0181 0,0181 0,0321 0,0319 0.0494 0.0490 0.0698 0.0692 0.0928 0,0920 0,1181 0.1170 0,1451 0.1438 0.1736 0.1721 0.2032 0,2016 0.2337 0.2320 0,2648 0.2630 0._ 0.2946 0.3284 0.3265 0.3605 0.3586 03928 0.3909 0.4251 0,4231 0,457) 0.4554 0,4894 04875 0,5215 0.5196 0.5534 0.5515 0,5851 0.5832 0,6166 0,6148 U,MIIO 0,6461 (t oM (t,(,77J " 71ft I /I 7(1.12

14.00 0.8272 14.50 0,8592 15.00 0.8913 15.50 0.9233 16.00 0.9554 16.50 0.9874 17.00 1.0194 \1.50 1,0514 18.00 1.0834 18 ..50 1.1153 19.00 I 147) 19 ..50 1.1792 20.00 1.2112 2O.SO 1.2431 21.00 1.27.50 21.50 1.3069 22.00 1.3388 22.50 1.3707 23.00 1.4026 23.50 1.4344 24,00 1.4663 24.50 1.4982 25.00 1.5300 25.SO 1.5619 26.00 1.5937 26,50 1.6255 27.00 1.6574 27,SO 1.6892 28.00 1.7210 28.50 1.7528 29.00 1.7846 29.SO 1,8164 30.00 1.8482

0.8068 0.8387 0.8705 0.9024 0.9342

O. ""'" 0.9977 1.0295 1.0612 1,(1929 1.1246 1.1562 1.1879 1.2195 1.2511 1.2827 1,3143 13458 1.3774 1.4089 1.1.4719 1.0534 1.5349 1.5664 1.5978 1.6292 1.6607 1.692\ 1.7235 1.7549 1.7863 1.8177

0.7929 0,8246 0.8562 0.8879 0.9195 0.9510 0.9826 1.0141 1.0455 1.0769 I 1083 1.1397 1.1711 J.2o:!4 \.2337 1.2650 1.2962 1.3274 1.3586 1.3898 1.4210 1.4521 1.4832 1.5143 1.5454 1.5765 1.6075 1.6385 1.6695 1.7005 1.7315 1.7625 1.7934

0,7820 0.8i3S 0.8449 0.8763 0.9076 0.9389 0.9701 1.0012 1,0]23 1.0634 1.0944 1.1253 1 1562 1.1811 1,2179 1,2481 1.2795 1.3102 1.3409 1,3715 1.4021 1.4327 1,4632 1.4937 1.5242 1.5547 1.5851 1.6155 1.6459 1.6762 1.7065 1.7168 1.7671

0,7730 0,8043 0.8355 0,8667 0.8978 0.9288 0,9598 0,9907 1.0215 1.0523 1.0830 1.1137 1 1443 I 1748 1.2053 1.2357 1.2661
12964

0.7667 0.7979 0,8291 0.8601 0.8911 0.9219 0.9527 0.9835 1.0J41 1.0447 1.0752 I 1056

"360 1 1663 "965 1,2267


1.2568 1.2869 1.3169 1.3469 1.3768 1.\.4364 \.4662 1.4959 1.5255 1.5552 1.5847 1.6143 1.6438 1.6732 1.7026 1.7320

1.3267 1.3569 U871 1.4173 1,4474 1.4774 1,5075 1,5374 1,5674 1.5973 1.6272 1.6570 1.6868 1.7166 1.7463

0.7613 0.7924 0,8233 0,8542 0.8850 0.9156 0.9462 0.9767 1.(mO 1.0373 1.0675 1.0976 I 1277 I 1576 I 1875 1.217) 1.2470 1.2166 1.3062 1.3357 1.3652 1.39.15 \.4238 1.453\ 1.4823 1.5114 1.5405 1.5695 1.5985 1.6274 1.6563 1.6851 1.7139

0.7566 0.7876 0.8184 0.8492 0.8798 0.9103 0.9408 0.9711 1.0013 1.0313 1.0613 1.0912 1 1210 1 1507 1 1803 1.2099 1.2393 1.2667 1.2979 1.3271 1.3563 1.3833 \.4143 1.4432 1.4721 1.5008 1.5295 1.5582 \.5868 1.6153 1.6438 1.6722 1.7005

0.7534 0,7843 0.8151 0.8451 0.8762 0.9065 0.9368 0.9668 0.9968 1,0267 1.0564
10860

I 1155 1.1419 1 1741 1.2033 1.2324 1.2614 l.2902 1.3190 1.3477 1.3763 1.4048 1.4332 1..1616 1.4898 1.5180 1.5461 1,5742 1.6021 1.6300 1.6579 1.6856

0.1505 0.71m 0.8120 0.8425 0.8728 0.9030 0.9331 0.9630 0,9928 1.0224 1.0519 1.0812 1.1104 1 1395 1.1685 1.1974 1.2261 1.2547 1.2832 1.3116 1.3399 1.3681 \,3962 1.4242 1.4521 1.4799 1,5076 1.5353 1.5628 1.5903 1.6176 1.6449 1.6722

0.7457 0.7764 0.8069 0.8371 0.8612 0.8971 0.9269


0.9~64

0.9!!58 1.0150 1.1).140 1.0728 I 1015 1 1301 I 1584 I 1867 12147 12.127 1,2705 1,2981 1.3256 l.J530 1.)803 1.4014 1.4344 1,4613 1.4R81 1,5148 1.5413 1.5678 1,5941 1.6204 1.6465

0.7482 0,7409 0.1389 0.1374 0.7738 0.17\4 0.1694 0,761'1 0.8042 0.8011 0.7991 0,7982 0.8343 0.8318 0.8298 0,8282 0.8643 0,8617 08596 0.8580 0.8940 0.8914 0.8892 0.8876 0.9236 0.9208 0.9186 0.9170 0.9529 0.9501 0.9478 0.9461 0.9820 0.9791 0.9768 0.9751 10110 1.0080 10056 1.0038 1.0398 1.0:\66 1.0342 1.032~ 1.0683 1.0626 \.0607 1.0651 1,0967 1,0933 1.0908 1.0889 I 1214 1 1250 1.1188 1 1168 I 1530 I 1493 1.1466 "800 I 1770 1 \143 1 1721 1.2086 1.2046 1,2018 "995 \.2319 1.2291 1.2268 1.2361 1,2592 1,2562 1.2538 1.2635 1.2908 12862 \,2832 1.2807 1.3179 1.3131 1,3100 1.3074 1.34.18 1,3366 1.3340 1J399 1.3716 1.3664 1.3631 1.3604 1.3983 1,3895 1,3867 1.3929 1.4248 1.4192 1.4157 1.4128 1.4512 1.4454 1.4417 1.4388 1.4775 1.4714 1.4617 1.4646 1.50J6 1.4973 1.4935 1..1903 1.5296 1.5231 1.5191 1.5159 1.5555 1.5407 1.5447 1.5413 1.5813 1.5742 1.5701 1.5666 1,5997 1.6070 1.5954 1.5918 1.6325 1,62~9 1.6205 1,6168

,,4<6

Table 7-2 (m) Extended Sukkar-Comellintegral for Bottem-hole Pressure Calculation

2.6 0.0000
0.0015

~ ~

P,
1.1 020 OSO 100 I.SO 200 2.SO )00 ).SO 4.00 4.SO '00 '.SO 600 6SO 7.00 7.SO .00 8SO 9.00 9.SO
10.00 10.50 11 .00 II.SO 12.00 IBO 13 nn

1.2 0.0000
0.0016 o00I<l 0.0199 0.03&5

1.3 00000
0.0016

1.' 0.0000
0,0016 0,0074

1.5 0.0000
0.0016 OJID3 O.01n 0.0312 0.0490 0.0703 0,0943 0.1202 0.1475 0.1756 0.2045 0.2337 0.2632

Reduced Temperature for B - 70.0 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0 1.'

2.2
O.!XKXl 0,0015

2.' 00000
0.0015

2.8 0.0000
00015

3.0 00000
O.OOIS

0.0000
0.0017

0.0000
0.0015 0.0072 0.0168 0.0303 0.0475 0.0679 0,0910 0.1162 0.1429 0.1706 0.1991 0.2281 0.2574 0.2870 0.3167 0.3465 0.3764 0.4063 0,4362 0.4660 0.4958 0.5256 0.5553 0.5850 0.6146 00442
/l (,i_

0.0000
00015 00071 0.0165 0,0296 0.0462

00000
O.(XlIS 0,0070 0,0163 0,0291 00453

0.0000
0.0015 0,0070 0.0161 0,0288

0.0000
0.0015 0,0070 0,0160 0,0285 0,0443

0l1li87

0.0077
0.0185 0.0345 0,0554 00799 0.1066 0,1346 0.1634 0.1926 0,2221 0.2517 0.28 15 0,31lJ 0.3411 0,3710

oom
0,1063 0,1356 0.1651 0.1947 0,2243 0.2540 0.2838 0.3135 0.3433 0.3732 0,4030 0.4328 0.4627 0,4926 0.5225 0.5523 0.5822 0.6121 0.6420 0.6718 1l.7n17
11. 'It.

o,om

0.024(1

oom
0.0325 0.0515 0.0742 0,0994 0, 1264 0.1545 0,1833 0,2125 0.2420 0.2716 03014 0.3312 0,3611 0.3909 04208 0,4507 0.4805 0.5 104 0.5402 0.5700 0.5997 0.6294 JU,Wl
41 1>1<)(7

00069
00158 0.0281 00435 0.0618

0.0069
0,0157 00278 0,0431 0,0611 0.0815 0.1040 0.1282 0.1538 O. [805 0.2081 0.2363 0.2652 0,2944 0,3239 0.3536 0.3834 04133 0.4432 0.4730 0.5028 0.5325 0.5621 0.5916
II f.2lfl

00068
00156 00276 0.0426

00068
00155 0.0274 0,0423 0,0599

0.0068
0,01.'>4 0.0273 0.0420

00625
0.0894 0.1175 0.1464 0. 1756 0.2050 0.2347 0.2644 0.2941 0.3239 0.3538

00660 0.08S4
0.1129 0,1391 0.1664 0.1946 0.2233 0,2525

0._ 0.11864
0.1104 0,1360 0.1629 0.1907 0.2192 0.2482 0,2775 0.3071 0.3368 0,3667 0.3965 0.4264 0.4563 0,4861 0.5159 0.5456 0.5752 0,,047
1l(,.~~2

0."""
0.0637 0.0851 0.1087 0.[340 0.1606 0.1881 0.2164 0.2453 0.2745

011629
0.0840 0,1073 0,1322 0.1585 0.11159 0,2140 0.2427 02718 0.3013 0.3309 0,3607 0.3905 0,4204 0.4503 0,41\01 0.5099 0.5396 0,5692
0.~987

001<25
0.1054 0.1299 o 1558 0.1827 0.2106 0,2390 0,2680 02973 0.3262 0.3560 0.3858 0.4157 0.4456 0.4754 0.5052 05349 05645 O.W40
,,~~

0.""'" 0.0806
0.1029 01268 0.1522 O. [787 0.2061 0.2343 0.2630 02922 0.3217 0.3514 0.3812 0.4110 04409 0.4708 0.5005 0.5J03 0.5599 0,5893
O('IIH
f)'W N

0-0198
01018 0.1256 O.ISOB 0,1772 0.2045 0.2326 0.2613

0."'" 0.1)792
0,1010 0.1246 0,1497 0.1760 0.2032 0.2313 0.2599 0,2890 0,)184 0.3481 0.3779

0.2929
0.3226 0,3525 0.3824 0,4 122 0.4421 0.4720 0.5018 0.5316 0.5613 0.5910 0.6207
0 . 650~

02820
0.3116 03414 0.3713 0,4011 0,4310

0.3836
0.4135 0.4434 0.4733 0.5031 0.5330 0.5629 0.5927 0.6226 0.6524 O.6X22
n .711\

0 ....
0.3337 0,36)5 0.3934 0.4233 0.4531 0.4830 0.5127 0.5424 0.5721 0.6016

0.29(1.1
0,3198 0.3495 0.3793 0.4092 0.4390 0.4689 0,4987 0.5284 0.5580 0 ,5875
II f.IOX
/l1>-llli'

0.4009
0.4307

0._
0,4905 0.5203 0.5502 0.5800 0,6098 06396
()M9~

04609
0,4907 0.5204 0.5502 0.5798
06()t}4
O.hJ.~1j

0.,""
0.4376 04675 0,4972 0.5270 05566
0.~S60

\) su

<I t.'N \

IJ(, ' '1~

o fl.']]
n (, '>4 1--1

Hf.:!I'('
II ('5'<;

o (,:" ,1~

I l l>hH.l

I ! (,t'.~I,

0.(,(54
1If>.jt 'i

"
0,6793 n.7062 0.7370 0,7656 0.7941 0.8224 0.85U5 0,8765

/4.00
/4 ..<;(1

/5.00 15.50 /6.00 08809 /6.50 0.9107 17.00 0 _ 17.50 0._ 18.00 1,()(]()2 18.SO 1.0300 19,00 1,0599 19.5O 1.0897 20.00 1.1195 20.50 1.1493 21.00 I 1791 21.50 L2089 22.00 1.2387 22.SO 1.2685 23.00 1.2982 23.SO 1.3280 24.00 1,3578 24.50 1,)876 25.00 I 4173 25.SO 1.4471 26.00 1.4769 26.50 1.5066 27.00 1.5364 27.50 1.5661 28.00 1.5959 28.SO 1.6256 29.00 1. 6554 29.SO 1.68SJ 3000 1.7148
After M......
,~

{/7615 079/3 0,8112 0,8510

0.7419 0.7717 0.S014 0.8312

0.8609 0.8907
0,9204 0.9501 0.9798 1.0095 1.0392 1.0689 1.0985 1.1282 1.1578 1.1874 1.2170 1.2466 1,2762 1.3058 1.3354 1.3650 1.3946 1.4241 1.4537 1.4832

0,7585 0.7MI 0.8178 0,8474 0.8170

o.nl!!!

09066
0.9362 09657 0.9953 1 0248 1.0543 1.0837 I 1132 I 1426 1 1721 1.2015 1.2309 1 2602 12896 1.3190 1.3483 1.3716 1.4069 1.4362 14655 1.4948 1,5240 1.5533 1.5825 1.6117 1.6410 1.6702

0,7183 0.7479 0,m4 0.8069 0.8363 0,8658 0.895 1 0.9245 0.9538 0.9831 1,0123

0.7093 0.7388 0.7682 0.7976 0.8269 0,8662

0.8854
0.9 146 0.9437 0.9728 10018 1.0308 1.0597
1.0S86

I.om
1.0707 I Il999 1 1290 1 15tU 1 l!m 1.21(>2 1.2452 1.2742 1.3031 1,3321 1.3610

0.7031 0.7325 0.7619 0.7911 0.8203 0,8495 0,8786 0.9076 0.9366 0.9656 0.9945 1.0233 1.0521
1.Il1<08

13899
1.4187 1.4476 1.4764 1.5052 1.5340 1.5627 1.5915 1.6m 1.6489

1.5127 1.5423 1.5718 1.6013 1.6308 1.6603 1.6898


a!.
(197~);

I 1175 I 1463 1 1751 1.2039 1.2326 1.2613 1.2899 1.3185 1.3471 1.3757 1.4042 1.4327 1.461l 1.4895 1.5179 1,5463 1,5747 1,6030 1.6313

1.1095 1.1381 1.1667 1.1953 1.2238 1.2522 1,2807 1.309Il 1.3374 1.3657 1.3940 1.4222 1.4504 1.4786 1.5067 1.5341:1 1,5629 1.5909 1.61 89

06977 0.7270 0.7562 0.7854 0.8145 0.8435 0.8724 0.9013 0.9.'100 0.95118 0.91174 1.0160 10445 1.07.10 1.1014 I 1297 1 15SO 1 1862 1,2144 1,2425 1,2706 1.2986 1.3265
1.3~~4

06929 0.7222 0,7513 0,7804


0.809~

0.8.363 0.867 1 0,8958 0.9245 0.9530 0.98 15

10099
1.0383 1.0665 UJ947 1 1229 1 1509 1 1789

12069
1.2347 1,2625 1.2903 1.3180 1.3456 1.3732 1.4007 1.4282
1.45~6

1.31123 1.4[01 1.4379 1.4656 1.4933 1.5209 1.54/15 1.5761 1.6036

0.6897 0.7189 0.7479 0.n69 0.S058 0.8345 0.8632 0,8918 0.9203 0.9486 0.9769 1,0051 1.0332 Ul612 1.0892 1 1170 1 1448 I 1724 1.2000 1.2276 1,2550 1.2824 1.3097 1.3369 1.3641 1.3912 1.4182
1.44~2

0.6867 0.7158 0.7448 0.7737 0.8025 0.8311 0.11597 0.R881 0.9164 0.9446 0.9727 I.()OO7 1.0286 1.0564 1.11841 I 1116 I 1391 I 1665 I 1938 1.2210 1.2482 1.2752 1.3022 1.3290 1.3M8 1.3625 1.4092
1.43~7

0.611\8 0.7\08 0,7397 0.7684 0.7969 0.8254 0.8537 0,8818 o 909f! 0.9317
0.96~4

0.6170 0.7059 0,7346 0,7632 0,7916 0.8198 0.8479


'un~8

1l.67~1 0.70~'1

11.67'.0
0.1n2~

0.......
0.9340 0%15 0.9&\9 1,0181 1,{)432 J.()701 IO%S 1 1235 1 I~no 1 1763 1.2{126 1.2287 1,2546 1,2805 1,31162 J.3318 1.3573 1.3827 1.4079 1.4331 1.4581 1.4831 1.5079 15327

1.4829 1.5 102 1.5375 1.5547 1.5919

14721 1.4989 1,5257 1,5524 1,5791

14622 1.4!1R6 1.51SO 1.5412 1.5675

0.99:\0 1.02Jl4 \.0n8 1.0749 I 1020 1 1289 I 15~1I I 11125 12fl1X1 1 2,155 1.2619 1,28111 1.3142 1.)403 1.3662 1.392U 141711 14414 146'10 1 ~9~4 I 511,111 I 54'iO

09036 0.9311 0.951\6 0.98511 1.0129 I.OW!! LOM6 10933 I 1198 I 1461 I 1723 I 1984 12243 1,2501 1,27511 1 .'\\JI3 1,]267 1.3520 1.3772 1.402] 14272 1.4520 I 47611 L.5()J4 1.5259

0,7326 0.7612 0,7898 0.8178 0.1\4511 011737 () 9()14 0.9289 0 .9563


0,98~5

1.0105 1,0374 10641 10907 I 1171 1 14.14 I 1(1)5 I 1955 122]4 1.2471 1 2727 129111
J.)23~

0.73\\ 0.7597 0.7AAO 0,8162 0.8442 O.fl721 0.11997 0,9272 09545 0.9!U7 I'{KlS7
1.\n~5

1,0622 l.fm!l7 1 1151 1 1413 I 1674 1 193) 1.2191 1,2447 1.2702


1.29~

U2Q9

I 34117 I.H3R L39117 142:\<\ 1.44113 1.4729 1.4974 15218

1,3460 1,3710 1.3759 1.4206 1,4452 1,4698 1,4942 1,5165

C'Olltleoy of'iI'E (39131.

336

Cas Production Engineering

Steady Stale Flow of Ga,'l Through Pipe$


~ _ 4251663 - 0.641. T" - (580)/387 - 1.499

337

(tt'%t continl/ed from page 309)

G - (0.17584 - 0.002628) + (1.08235 - 0.01474B) T" - (0.SI075 - 0.00771B)

p,.

From Figure 3-2, Z., - 0.967


(753)

U,ing Equation 7-47. , - (0.0375)(0.7)(5.000)/[(0.967)(580)1 - 0.23402 Using Equation 7-46, p ... - 400 eO 234012 - 449.65 psia

For 2O:s 8.:5100, 10.:5 Pp.s30, 1.1 sTp,s3, E - (0.297336 - O.001594B) T'~ + (O.OO967SB - 1664290) T" - (O.ool963B - 0.42964S)
F - (0.019112 - O.oool7lB)"fl, - (0.001259B - 0.188162)

A second trial is not needed.

+ (0.000941B - 0.107041) T"

(b) Sukkar-Cornell method:


P 'wh - 400/663 - 0.603. T,.. h
-

(80 + 460)/387 - 1.395

G - (0.001435B - 0.212139)"fl, + (0.000941B - 0.107041) T" + (O.OO6320B - 1003890)

(7-54)

From Table 7-2a, by interpolation

This method is simple and quite accurate: Equations 7-53 and 7-54 give errors of less than 2% in the parameter ranges associated with them. No trial and error is involved, which simplifies the calculation procedure conSiderably. For these reasons, the Sukkar-Cornell method is widely used.
E%ampk 72. Determine the SBHP in a gas well, given the following: Depth, z - 5,000 ft; gas gravity, 'YK - 0.70; wellhead temperature. T ... II - BOoF; bottom-hole temperature, T ....... 160F; wellhead pressure. p...b - 400 psia. Use (8) average temperature and Z-factor method, and (b) Sukkar-Cornell method.

0.,,"

(Z/p,)dp, - 10392

0.'

Using Equation 7-51.

I. . . (Z/p,)dp, 0.2

1'''"
0.2

(Z/p,)dp, _ (0.0IS75)!7)(5.ooo)

Thus,

1. . (Z/P,)dp, .
0.'

1.0392

+ 0.11315 - 1.15235

T,~ ~ (160

+ 460)/387 - 1.602

Solution
From Table 7-2a:
T" - (SO + 160)/2 - 120"F _ 58O"R

From Figure 3-1, ?pc - 663 psia, T pc

387 R

1 (Z/p,)dp, 0.'

0.6

1.049 1.210

(a) Average temperature and Z-factor method:


First trial:

1 (Z/p,)dp, 0.'
p,~ - 0.6

07

By interpolation,

Using Equation 7-48, p.... - 400 + 0.25(400/100)(5,0001100) _ 450 psia Thus. pO' - (400 + 450)/2 - 425

+ (1.15235 - 1.049)(0.7 -

0.6)/(1.210 - 1.049) - 0.6642

pm-

Thus. p,., _ (0.6642)(663) - 440.36 psia

338

COl

Product/orl Engineering

Steady Slale Flow oj Gas Through Pipes

339

Cullender-Smith Method

I"" 1,000 -TZ d p = -21 [(P, - Po)(1, + 10) + (p, - p,)(I, + I ,) + ." "' p
where In _ 1,OOO(TZ/p)II' Greater accuracy in SBHP calculation can be obtained using more steps, requiring the use of a computer. For manual calculations, a tv.'o-step procedure is generally used, where only the value of pressure at the midpoint. Pnu is considered:

~or

Cullender and Smith (1956) used a more rigorous approach, accounting the dependence,of Z-factor on both temperature and pressure. Takin~

mto account the umts used by Cullender and Smith, Equation j42 is rear-

ranged as follows:

I""
0',

(PITZ)'(TZ. p) dp .... (pITZ)'I(I,OOO) + (6.7393 x lO")(4)(fl4)<&L1(I,OOOzd') - (1,000)(0.01875"

1
18.75

p.,

1000 TZ dp = (p~ - p..h)(l~ + l. h) + (P" - p",.)(I .. + 1=) (7-60)

p"t,'

P.' (P/TZ)dp 1 "2'.69"5"7C:x;-U1O""'("'f1"4)~q;,~'L~/'i!:m~ TZ=)'"/l;-,000= p., ( ')-'+-(P=/


Equation 7-55 is generally expressed as:

Substituting for the integral from Equation 7-00 into Equation 7-56:

>.'

(7-55)

I"" F' + (p/TZ)dp - 18.75 >"z ,.. (pITZ)'/l,OOO


where

Equation 7-61 can be separated into two parts, one for each half of the flow string. For the upper half: (7-56) and, for the lower half:
(7-63)

(7-62)

F' _ 2.6957 x 1O(f/4)q1.L

,d'

(7-57)

The expression in the left integral in Equation 7-56 is represented by 1: 1_

p/(TZ)

As demonstrated by Cui lender and Smith (1956), an accuracy equivalent to a four-step solution scheme can be obtained by using this two-step calcula. tion scheme and then using Simpson's rule (also called parabolic interpolation) to obtain a more accurate value of bottom-hole pressure as follows :

F' + (P/TZ)'/l,OOO
For the case of SBHP determination, I reduces to:
1 - 1,000 (TZ/p)

(7-58)

p...;

P..-h II...... + 4ImI + 1,....] - 37.5 ..,.~

(7-64)

(7-59)

The following solution procedure may be used: L Calculate 1....11 (using the general relationship given by Equation 7-59) at the known wellhead conditions of pressure and temperature. 2. Calculate Ptru from Equation 762, assuming Ims - I ....h 3. Using the value of Pm and temperature T ..... (obtained as the arith.. metic average of T ...... and T ....), calculate Ims using Equation 7-59 . 4. Recalculate Pms from Equation 7-62 . 5. If this recalculated value is not within 1 psi (or any other small pressure tolerance) of the p"" calculated earlier. repeat stem :l anrl 4 until this condition is met .

The left integral in Equation 7-56 can be evaluated by numerical integration techniques. This is tedious, and acceptable accuracy can generally be obtained using trapezoidal or Simpson's rule. For the static case, the inte.. gral in Equation 7-56 can be written as:
For y - f(I), y, - f(1J: Trapezoidal rule: fIx) cb
& (h/2}(yn + 2)', + 2n + ... + 2y. _I + yJ Sim pson's rule (more accurate than the trapewidal rule): J~ f(l) cb ,. (h/3)(yo + 4)", + .2YI + 4YJ + .. + 2Yo_1 + 4yo_' + yJ, forevt"ll n.

340

Gas Production Engineering

Steady State Flow of Gas Through Pipes


p., _ 425.61

341

6. Calculate Pw. from Equation 7-63, a.ssuming I....... Izns.

7. Using the value of p...... and the bottom-hole temperature T ... ., calcu_ late I.... using Equation 7-59. 8. Recalculate p..... from Equation 7-63. 9. If this recalculated value is not within 1 psi (or any other small pressure tolerance) of the p., calculated earlier. repeat steps 7 and 8 until this condition is met. 10. Use Equation 7-64 (Simpson's rule) to obtain a more accurate valuE' ('Of the bottom-hole presstrn' P".,

+ (37.5)(0.7)(2,500)/(1,306.61 + 1,306.61) - 450.72 psi.

p.... _ 450.721663 - 0.68, T ...., - 620/387 - 1.602, and

z.... = 0.95

Using Equation 7.59, I., - (I,OOO)(620)(0.95)/(4SO.72) - 1,306.798 Thus, p..., ,. 450.72 psia
Using Simpson's rule (Equation 7&1):

Exampk 7-3. Repeat Example 7-2 using the Cullender-Smith method


Solution

[(p., - 4(0) /3][1,255.5 + 4(1.306.61) + 1,306.798J - (37.5)(0.7)(5,000)

or, p.... ,. 450.55 psia For the upper half: Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure (FBHP) Equation 7-42 describes the relationship between the pressure measured at the surface (or wellhead), P"h, and the pressure Pwf at a depth z for a flowing well:

P'wh - 400/663 - 0.603, T'wh - 540/387 ~ 1.395

From Figure 3-2, Z., ,., 0.93 Using Equation 759,


Using Equation 7-62,

I., - (1,000)(540)(0.93)/(400) -

1,255.5

_ 0.01875 I, 1 + (6.7393 x (ZT/p)dp 1O-<fLql.Z'T')/(zp'd') Yi'I

(p= - 4(0)(1,255.5 + 1,255.5) - (37.5)(0.7)(5,000)/2

Thus, PIN - 426.14 psia p,_ - 426.14/663 - 0.643, T,_ ~ 580/387 - 1,499, and

For nowing wells, the temperature-depth relationship presented by Lesem et aI. (1957) or by Ramey (1962) may be useful for greater accuracy. In most cases, however, the log-mean (or even the arithmetic average) temperature gives satisfactory results.

z... - 0.96

Average Temperotun! and Z.Foctor Method

Using Equation 759, 1_ - (1,000)(580)(0.96)/(426. 14) - 1,306.61


Using Equation 7-62,
p~ - 400

An average Z-factor (and temperature) is used, similar to the static case, to simplify the left integral in Equation 7-42:

+ (37.5)(0.7)(2,500)/(1,306.61 + 1,255.5) - 425.61 psia

Thus, PI"IIlI - 425.61 psia, and lIDS - 1,306.61


For the lower half: Assuming IWI - I .... - 1,306.61, and using Equation 7-63,

I....
p,.,

p dp

_ 0.01875-,0"

pi + 6.7393 x 10-~fL(~.,T.,,)!/(zdS)

Z.,T. v

(765)

342

CO" Production Engillcering

Steady State Flow oj Gas Through

Pip~

343

The integral of a function

Solution

pdp 1C'+p' .!In (C'+p') 2


Therefore, Equation 7-65 becomes:

U,ing Equation 7-9, N" (20)(7,000)(0.6)/((0.017)(3)) - 1.647


lid - 0.000613 .. 0.0002

10'

In

C- .,.. p;.h
0',

c:

From Figure 7.1, f - 0.014

+ ~'" 0.0375Oy,z
Z., T.,

From Figure 3-1,

~ =

672 psia, Tp<';' 358R


=

The log-mean temperature, To.. " (ISO - 95)lln (ISO/95) _ 580.41R, using Equation 727.
T" ~ (580.41)/358 - 1.621

120.4PF

where s .. (O.0375'Ygz)I(Z.. T .,). as given by Equation 7-47.

First trial: Assuming P...f " 2,400 psia, and using Equation 7-32,

Solving for p.. /:

par

C'(e' - I) +

..p;.

Po. (213)((2,400' - 2,000')/(2,400' - 2,000')] ~ 2,206.06 ",ia


p" ~ 2,206.06/672 -

Substituting (or C:
......1 - '" .,..b

3.283

...

.....

+ ---''-----''-'--=~=="-'''-----'.L zd'

6.7393

10 'fL(q.,ZT,,)'(e' - I)

From Figure 32, Zn - 0.828


U~ng

Equation 7-47,, (0.0375)(0.6)(3,500)/((0.828)(580.41)).0.16386

0',

Using Equation 7-66:

P<r ..p;. + 2.5272 X

1O-'y.zT"fL(e' - I)q!,

>d'

(7-66)

P<r -

(2,000)'.,0 '''''

This method, applicable for wells up to 8,000 (t deep, should not be used if the change in kinetic energy is significant (young, 1967).

+ (2.5272 x 1O -')(0.6)(0828)(:;~~(~~:)(5,ooo)(.,o,... - 1)(7,000)'


P...f
-

2,196.4 psia

Example 7<#. A 3.500-fl deep well is producing a 0.6 gravity gas at 7 MMscfd through a 3-in. I.D, tubing. The flowing wellhead temperature and pressure are 95F and 2,000 psia, respectively. BHT .. 150F, tubing roughness, f .. 0.0006 in., and Pox .. 0.017 cp (assume constant). The well is deviated, with tubing length equal to 5,000 ft. Estimate the flowing bot. tom-hole pressure.

Second trial:

A$uming P.i. 2,196 ",ia, p" (2/3)((2,196' - 2,000')1 (2,196' - 2,000')) .. 2,099.51 psia.

Gas Production Engineering

Steady State Flow oj Ga;! Through Pipes

345

p,. - 2,099.511672 - 3.124


B From Figure 3-2, Z..... 0.830

_ (6.6663 x 10-')(0.014)(5,000)(7,000)'(582.5)' _ 2.02 ~ 2.0 (3,500)(672)'(3)'

p..... _ 2,0001672 - 2.976 ~ 3.0 Us;ng Equation 7-47, s - (0.0375)(0.6)(3,500)1[(0.83O)(58O.41)J _ 0.16347 Using Equation 7-66: T,., - (95

+ 460)1358 - 1.55. T,"" - (150 + 460)1358 - 1.70

pi.; - (2,000),'" "'"

Interpolating from Tables 7-2a and 7-2b, the integral Using Equation 7-49,

1 1-1.6886
02

30

+ (2.5272 x 10-')(0.6)(0.830)(580.41)(0.014)(5,000)('" '0'" - 1)(7,000)'


(0.16347)(3)'

p....f .. 2,196.0 psia, which is quite close to the earlier result of 2,196.4 psia.
Thus, P... r - 2,196.0 psia.
Sukkar-Comell Method

1 1 - I' ....
0.2

0.2

I - (0.01875)(0.6)(3,500)1582.5

JP"""I - 1.7562 0.2


Interpolation using Tables 7-2a and 7-2b yields Pr", - 3.208
p.., - (3.208)(672) - 2,155.8 ps;a.
CuUender-Smith Method

This method uses an average temperature, but accounts for the pressuredependence of the Z-factor. Equation 7-49 stated earlier in the section on SBHP
~

used,

I""
P,.t

(ZIp")dp,, 0.01875-y,z 1 + BZ:Z/~r .. T."

The Cullender and Smith (1956) method uses Equation 7-56 as stated earlier in the section on static bottom-hole pressure:

For a given rate (corrected to 14.65 psia and 520F), B is calculated using
Equation 7.so:
1O-4n.q~;n,

I'"' F2 + (PITZ)dp _ 18.75 "rrz (P/TZ)!/l,OOO


Pwto

B .. 6.6663 x

zd'p1.
Thhles 7-2b through 7-2m, or Equations 7-53 and 7-54, are used in evaluat-

with the expression in the left integral represented by I:


I_ pl(1'Z)

ing the value of the integral. The Sukkar-Comell method is preferred because in addition to being simple, consistent, and accurate, it does not require any trial and error.
Example 7-5. Repeat Example 7-4 using the Sukkar-Cornell method. Solution

F' + (PITZ)'Il,ooo
As for the static case, a two-step procedure is generally used, where only the value of pressure at the midpoint. pm! is considered:

Using Equation 7.so:

(7-67)

3<6

CIlI Production Engineering Steady State Flow of Gas Through Pipe!


347

Equation 7fJ7 can be separated into two parts, one for each half of the flow

string:
(pm( - Pwh) (I...r + I. h) - 37.5 yrJ2 for the upper half
(p... r - PmlHI",r

(7-68)
(7-00)

+ Imf) .. 37.5 'YrJ2 for the lower half

And finally. Simpson's rule is used to obtain a more accurate value of bot tom-hole pressure p..,r:

(7-70)
Calculation of F involves the use of the Moody friction factor f, which can be found using the friction factor chart (Figure 7-1). The calculation can . however, be simplified using Nikuradse's friction factor equation for full~ turbulent flow, based upon an absolute roughness of 600 ~in., to givt' (ERCB, 1975), F

2. Although Simpson's rule can be used to get a better approximation, it cannot correct for inaccuracies introduced upon using large trapezoidal integration intervals. 3. Change in kinetic energy can be ignored if the well is greater than 4,000 ft deep, or the wellhead flowing pressure is above 100 psia. For accuracy in determining the pressure traverse, the kinetic energy term, however, should be included, especially if the flawing wellhead pressure is below 500 psia. 4. For the case of gas Injection, a discontinuity can develop when Equation 7-56 (or Equation 7-73) is numerically integrated. When this happens, the pressure change for that interval should be set equal to zero. Also, Simpson's rule cannot be used when a discontinuity occurs. Gas Flow Through an Annulus Although gas wells are generally produced through tubing, some wells may be produced through the casingtubing annulus. For this latter case, the tubing flow equations developed earlier must be modified to reflect the proper flow conduit diameter. The equivalent diameter relationship of Equation 7-6 cannot be used because the diameter exponent is 5 in the flow equations derived. From Equation 7-11, the pressure loss due to friction is given by:
"I'< - fLpv'I(2g"d)

.. F.<tc..

1.0797 X 1O - 4q.., f or d < 4217 m. . d 2612 .

(7-71 1

and F ... F_n __ .. . .,..,

1 0337 X 1O - 4q,.. for d > 4.277 in. d2 5o!l2

(7-721

Frequently, the kinetic energy term, neglected in the equations developed earlier, is also included. The Cullender-Smith equation (Equation 7.56) be. comes:

The velocity v - K1q.Jd1 , where KI is a constant. Thus, the friction loss term in the energy balance can be written as:

I'" (lJO.01875-yJ(pITZ) + 1.111 x lO-ql.J(dp) ... 1" + (pITZ)'ll,ooo

dp _ 1,000 z

(7-731

where 1.111 x 1O - 4q!,J(d"p) is the kinetic energy term. The following must be borne in mind when using the Cullender-Smilh method (young, 1967):
l. Smaller integration intervals obviously result in greater accuracy in the trapezoidal integration of Equation 7-56 (or Equation 7-73). An integration interval of 1,000 ft (or less) is recommended.
1 ,IIin. (micro-Inch) .. 10. 1 in

For the case of annular flow, where the outside diameter of the tubing is ~o and the inside diameter or the casing is~, velocity is related to diameter as follows:

Thus, the friction term becomes:

KifLpq!,
I'< - 2g,,(d1. -

d1o)'(do - d,.)

d,.)

348

eo, Production Engineering


INLET

Steady Stote FlolL oj Cas Through PipC8

34.

Thus, for the case of annular flow, d5 in the vertical flow equations must be repl,.,..j by,

-....---'-0.;.

SECTION I

(di. - d/.)'(do - <1,,) - (do - <I,,)'(do

+ <1,,)'

(7-74)

---.
OUTLET

Limitations in Vertical flow Calculations


7-5. Gas now over a hilly terrain.

~urate for most engineering calculation purposes. Some serious uncertai~tie.-; In bottom-hole pressure calculations, however, inevitably erist because of:

pressure are rairl\" ae-

Static Correction To account for the difference in elevation between the inlet and outlet, .:\oz, the simplest approach is to modify the outlet pressure for the pressure exerted by a static gas column of height equal to .:\oz. As described earlier in the section on static bottom-hole pressure. different techniques are available for evaluating the pra<>ure exerted by a static gas column. Since the static correction method is itself an approximation, the average temperature and Z-factor method is quite satisfactory to use. Let PI be the inlet pressure, and po the outlet pressure. Then, the outlet pressure po must be corrected as follows (Equation 7-46):
p~ - e"'2 po

1. Departure of the actual temperature-depth relationship from that assumed in the method of calculation. 2. Variations in gas gravity with depth, assumed constant in the calculation methods. For condensate systems, the change in com{XISition \\ith depth is even more significant. 3. Inaccuracies in determination of the Z-factor from the available correlabOns. For pseudoreduced pressu~ greater than 15, no correlation charts are even available. Equation-of-state methods can be used.laboratory measurements are strongly recommended for greater reliability and accuracy. 4. Imprecise friction factor. 5. Presence of unknown amounts of liquids in the well bore. lWo-phase flow relationships are necessary if liquid amount is significant. 6. Inaccuracies in flow rate, specific gravity, and pra<>ure measurements.

where s is given by Equation 7-47:

Gas Flow Over Hilly Terrain Transmission lines often deviate conSiderably from the horizontal depending upo~ ~e ter:rain o\"er which they are laid. In some cases, gas ~'ells may also exhibit sectiOns of different slope, such as the directionally drilled ~ells from off~hore platforms. This section on flow over hilly terrain essentially deals With the situation where gas is flOWing through pipes that are non-uniform in thei~ slope, such as a hypothetical situation shown in Figure 7-5. A~y flow terram can be reduced to the form shown in Figure 7-5 by approXImating the actual flow profile with small pipe sections of uniform slope. The three approaches applicable to such a flow are described in the follOwing sections.

Note that .:\oz is positive if the outlet is higher than the inlet (uphill flow), and negative if the inlet is higher than the outlet (downhill flow). Thus, s is positive for uphill flow, negative for downhill flow. The flowline shown in Figure 7-5 is equivalent to a horizontal line with an upstream pressure equal to Ph and a downstream pra<>ure equal to e"'~o' This correction can be incorporated into any horizontal flow correlation to give the flow through such a flowline. For example, the Weymouth equation for this situation can be written as:

q., - 31.5027

[T.][(P1- e'l)d''f'
1>..
'Y;.z..~ T nL

(/-75)

Similar expressions can be written for the Panhandle A and B equations, and the Clinedinst equation. This approach, though imprecise, frequently gives an adequate approximation.

350

Caa Production Engilleering

StC'od!J Stall' Flow of Gos Through Pipes

351

Flow Correction

. A mo.re rigorous ~rrection for the flow profile accounts for inclined flow ~n t~e dIfferent sections of the pipe. Equation 7-66 gives the relationship fOr
mcllned flow, assuming aa average temperature and Z.factor:

+~

I{e'u-l)I

Rearranging this equation, and replacing the pressures with the inlet and outlet pressures P, and Po:

<& _
Thus,

(pI - e'",}"J'
2.5272 x 10 -5')'~Z.\T.JL(e' - 1)

where s, represents the section i of the pipe. Note thaI: if S. "" 0 for any pipe section (this will happen if the section is horizontal. z ,., 0). the equivalent length term for that section is replaced by the actual length of the ~dion. Similar expressions can be written for the Panhandle A. Panhandle S, Clinedinst. and other equation.~, This average temperature and Z-factor approach is not exact, and is generally used where flow is almost isothermal and the pipe is essentially horizontal, \\-'ith relatively small and few sections that are not horizontal. General Method

'"

~[)'

s. '*

(778)

'k - [

(T ,1520) ][ (p1 (2.5272 x 1O')"(p,JI4.73} >,Z.,T"fL(e' - I}

e'p~}"J'

j'

0',
q. - 5.634814

[T.][M- T.,L., e'p'}d'j' P.., 'YItZ.,

The ~nstant 5.634814 is slightly different from the constant 5.6353821 in Equation 7-29 due to round-off errors. Thus:

If more precise calculations are necessary, the most rigorous method is to use a horizontal flow relationship such as the Clinedinst equation (Equation 7-39) for the horizontal section of the pipe, coupled with an inclined flow relationship such as the Cull ender-Smith equation (Equation 7-56) for the non-horizontal portion of the flow. This results in quite complex relationships that require a computer for solution. Chapter 11 provides some insight into the modeling of gas flow in pipelines and networks. Usually, the computer program that is written for this purpose also has an economic analysis package built into it, to enable design optimization for a complete gas flow system.
Example 7-6. A section of a gas transmission system consists of three stations, A, S, and C. The 7-in. pipeline from A to B is 2 miles, and from S to C is 5 miles long. Stations A, B. and C are at elevations above sea-level of 4,000 ft, 7,000 ft, and 2,000 ft, respectively. The inlet pressure at station A is 3,000 psia, and the outlet pressure from the pipeline at station C is maintained at 2,200 psia. Assuming )'It .. 0.6, T.v .. 85F, and f .. 0.025, find the gas flow rate through the system, and the pressure at station B.

'k -

5.63538 [T.][(1'1- e'pO}d'j' Po.: 'YgZ.,T.,fI.."

(7.76)

where 4 is given by:

1.,. _ (0' - I) L s

(777)

Solution

o~ ~ f1o~line. For the general case of non-uniform slope where the profile is d~\']ded mto a number of sections n of nearly uniform slope (as shown in
FIgure 7-5), the effective length is calculated as follows:

Equation 7-77 gives the expression for the effective length for a single section

From Figure 3-1, Ppc _ 672 psia, T pc _ 358R

352

Gas Production Engineering

Steady State Flow oj Gas Through Pipa

353

First trial :
Assume PH .. 2,500 psia

For section AB: Using Equation 777:

For section AB :

Us;ng Equat;on 732. p" - (213)[(3,000' - 2,500') /(3,000' _ 2,500')1 ,. 2,757.58 psia

L.

_ (~"''''' - 1)(2 x 5,280) _ ll,436.365 ft 0.15737

p,. - 2,757.58,672 - 4. 104


From Figure 3-2,

Using Equation 776:


111,919.16 - (5.63538)(520/ 14.73) (3,000' - ~ ""'1'1)(7') 1" [ (0.6)(0.787)(545)(0.025)( ll,436.365) J

Z.y .. 0.787

Us;ng EquaHon 747, s, - (0.0375)(0.6)(7,000 - 4,000) /[(0.787)(545)1 - 0.15737

For section BC:

0',
(3,()()()2 - eO I.57 37 Pi)O ..5,. 1,177.093

P., - (2/3)[(2,500' - 2.200')/(2,500' - 2,200')1 - 2,353.19 ps;.


Pp. - 2,353.191 672 .. 3.502, and, Zn. " 0.780

PH - 2,550.6 psia
Second trial: Assume PH .. 2,550.6 psia

s, - (0.0375)(0.6)(2,000 - 7,000) /[(0.780)(545)1' - 0.26464


For the complete line ABC:

P - (213)[(3,000' - 2,200') /(3,000' - 2,200')1 - 2,620.51


Ppr" 2,620.51/672 .. 3.90, and, Z.~

ps;.

"" 0.782

For section AB: p __ (213)[(3,000' - 2,550.6') /(3,000' - 2,550.6')1 - 2,781.36 ps;.

s - (0.0375)(0.6)(2,000 - 4,000) /[(0.782)(545)1 _ - 0.10559


Using Equation 7.78:

p,. _ 2,781.361672 - 4.139, and, Z" - 0.798


s, - (0.0375)(0.6)(7,000 - 4,000) /[(0.798)(545)1 - 0.15520
For section Be:

L.. .. (eD 1.5737 -

1)(2 x 5,280) + eO15i37(e-O.~ - 1)(5 x 5,280) 0.15737 - 0.26464

p __ (213)[(2,550.6' - 2,200')/(2,550.6' - 2,200')1 - 2,379.62 ps;a p" _ 2,379.62/672 - 3.541, and, Z_ - 0.778
S, -

- 38,585.154 ft

Using Equation 7.76:


q" _ (5.63538)(520/14.73) [

(0.0375)(0.6)(2,000 - 7,000)/[(0.778)(545)1 -

- 0.26532

(3,000' - e"''''''2,2OO')(7') 1" (0.6)(0.782)(545)(0.025)(38,585.154) J

Using Equation 778:

(el.ls.'520 _ 1)(2 x 5,280) + eD 1 s.520(e-O.26.\32 - 1)(5 x 5,280)

L. -

0.15520

0.26532

- 111,919.16 Mscfd - 111.92 MMscfd

- 38,504.546 ft

354

Steady State Flow of Gil" Through Pipes

355

Using Equation 7-76:

_ (5.63538)(520/14.73) [
'I.<

(3,000' - e-' ''''''2,200')(7') (0.6)(0.782)(545)(0.025)(38,504.546) J

1"

(or bottom-hole) chokes are frequently used to reduce the wellhead flowing pressure, and prevent freeze-offs (hydrate formation) in the surface flow lines and controls. The velocity of a fluid flowing through a restriction (orifice, nozzle. or choke) is expressed as follows: (7-79)

- 112,036.24 Mrid - 112.04 MMrid For section AB : Using Equation 7-77: where

K _ a constant representing the entrance/exit loss due to the


d1
-

L. _ (e' "". - 1)(2 x 5,280) _ 11 423 443 It


0.15520 Using Equation 7-76: 112,036.24 _ (5.63538)(520/14.73)[ (3,000' - e' ""'",)(7') (0.6)(0.798)(545)(0.025)(11,423.443) J ,.

d2, g_ Pit P2 -

r"
v -

p _

change in flow diameter diameter at the throat of the restriction device, ft pipe diameter, ft gravitationaJ acceleration, fUsec2 pressures at the upstream and downstream ends, respectively, of the flow restriction, Ibflft Z fluid density, lbm/ftl

Equation 7-79 is generally written as:

0',
[3,000' - e' "'"'",f'

C. [2g(p,

- p,)l pf'

(7-60)

1,185.8601

where the coefficient of discharge, Cd, is given by: (7-81) Application of Equation 7-80 to the case of single-phase gas flow resu1ts in the well known de Saint Venant equation, assuming that the gas is perfect and that the flow is frictionless and adiabatic (see for example, Binder,

PB '"' 2,549.9 psia = 2,550 psia


Thus, the gas flow rate, q.. - 112.04 MMscfd, and the pressure at station B,

PR ""' 2,550 psia.

Gas FJow Through Restrictions In several instances in a gas production system, the gas must pass through relatively short restrictions. Chokes. consisting of a metal plate with a small hole to allow flow. are the most common restriction devices used to effect a pressure drop or reduce the rate of flow. They are capable of causing very la~ge pressure drops: a gas can enter a choke at 5,000 psia and exit at 2,000

1958),
2

Vi-Cd [

{p k ~\~k-l ( l-~)'>-11')1" J

(7-82)

where

psla or less. Chokes have, therefore, found several applications as control


devices in the all and gas industry. Some of the purposes for which surface (and subsurface) chokes may be used. are to maintain a precise wellhead flow rate, provide sand control by maintaining sufficient back pressure on the producing formation, protect surface equipment andior prevent water coning by controlling the flow rate, and reservoir management. Subsurface

k _ ratio of the specific heats for the gas, cp/c.. subscripts 1,2 '"" upstream and downstream side of the choke, respectively
PI -

Substituting for gas density,

(28.97pI'YJ'(RT I),

Vi-Cd [ RT,i!< -k 1 - - ( l4.485-y1 k - 1 PI

(1'2)"-"')J'

(7-83)

35.

Cos Production Engineering

Steady State Flow oj Gos Through Pipes

357

The gas velocity Vi is related to the volumetric gas flow rate at standard conditions, q." as before:

Equation 7-86 is the general equation for flow through chokes. In common units, it can be written as:

<J,c -

1 k 974.61Cd PIrla. ('fITI ~l PI

[(v.)" (v.)"' ""])'"


PI

(7-87)

where ~ is the cross-sectional area of flow through the choke. Substitutin~ for"'" - (""4)~. and assuming perfect gas (~ - 1):

q. - v,(rd1h14)

(::)(~)

where <be'" gas flow rate, Mscfd (measured at 14 .73 psia and 520 0 R) dm = choke diameter, in. PI = pressure at the upstream side of the choke, psia P2 - pressure at the downstream side of the choke, psia TI _ inlet (or upstream) temperature, oR The flow through chokes (and flow restrictions in general) may be of two types: subcritical and critical. Subcritical Flow Flow is called subcritical when the velocity of the gas through the restriction is below the speed of sound in the gas. In the subcritical flow regime, Equations 7-86 and 7-87 apply, and the flow rate depends upon both the upstream as well as the downstream pressure. Subsurface chokes are usually designed to allow subcritical flow. Critical Flow Flow is called critical when the velocity of the gas through the restriction is equal to the speed of sound (about 1,100 fusee for air) in the gas. The maximum speed at which a pressure effect or disturbance can propagate through a gas cannot exceed the velocity of sound in the gas. Thus, once the speed of sound is attained, further increase in the pressure differential will not increase the pressure at the throat of the choke. Therefore, the flow rate cannot exceed the c ritical flow rate achieved when the ratio of the downstream pressure P2 to the upstream pressure PI reaches a critical value, however much this ratio is decreased . Unlike subcritical flow, the flow rate in critical flow depends only upon the upstream pressure, because the pressure disturbances traveling at the speed of sound imply that a pressure disturbance at the downstream end will have no effect on the upstream pressure andlor flow rate. Surface chokes are usually designed to provide critical flow. The choke flow relationships represented by Equations 7-86 and 7-87 are valid only in the subcritical flow regime, up to critical flow when the maximum flow velocity (equal to the speed of sound) is attained. If the pressure

For an adiabatic expansion/compression process for a perfect gas, pVk


- constant. Therefore,

p,V! - p,Vl
implying that

(7-85)
Substituting for T2 from Equation 7-85, and for Equation 7-84:
VI

from Equation 7-83, into

0',

0',

0',
q., _ [ r(Rg,J''T. ]
(4)( 14 .485)''1>.. C dp,d1h >,T, k _ 1

(1

[tv.)'" - (v.)'" ""])'" \p.


p,

(7-86)

358

CD, Production Engineering

Steady State Flow oj

GO.f

Through Pipes

359

ratio at which critical flow occurs is represented by (PZ/pl)~' then from elementary calculus (differentiate Equation 7-87 with respect to 1>2, and set the resultant expression equal to zero) it can be shown that:

Solution
Using Equation 7-88:

(7-881
F10w is subcritical for <Pi/PI)

(J>i/pl)c ... (212.275)127.5'0.275 ... 0.55


(a) PIl/pl ... 600/750 ... 0.80, which is greater than (pz/p\)" Using Equation 7-87,

> (PZ/pl)c,

and critical for <P2IPI) ::S (P~:lPI)<

U the operating pressure ratio is less than the critical pressure ratio, the pressure ratio in Equation 7-86 or Equation 7-87 must be replaced by the critical pressure ratio, because the maximum flow rate through the choke is that which corresp:lOds to critical flow. The critical pressure ratio {pz/pt)c is O.4g for monoatomic gases, 0.53 for diatomic gases, and slightly higher for more complex gases. Note that the analysis here assumes a perfect gas, with an adiabatic gas exponent k. No corrections have been made for deviation of gas from ideal behavior. It has been found that these relationships give very good results in field application, and a more complex analysis is generally quite unnece<isary_ The value of k is also, fortunately, relatively insensitive to temperature variations as well as to the gas molecular weight for gaseous hydrocarbons. Therefore, k is usually assumed to be constant. k :r; 1.293 for a 0.63 gravity gas. Generally, the value of k used is in the range of 1.25 to 1.31, implying from the relationship represented by Equation 7-88, that the flow is critical when the pressure ratio is in the range 0.5549 (for k - 1.25) to 0.5439 (for k - 1.31). As a rule of thumb, flow is assumed critical when the pressure ratio is less than or equal to 0.55, which implies a k equal to 1.275 approximately. Substituting Cl>2/p.)" - 0.55, and k ... 1.275 in Equation 7-87, we can get the well known choke design equation for critical flow:

q., _ (974.61)(0.88)(750)(28164)'
1 )(1.275) (0.8" '" _ 0.8"'" "') [( (0.65)(560) 0.275 - 2,471.03 Mscfd

r' j

Using Equation 7-87,

q., - (974.61)(0.86)(750)(28164)'
1 )(1.275) (0.55>1 '" _ 0.55"" , "') [((0.65)(560) 0.275 - 2,955.32 Mscfd

r' j

(7-89)
where q.. - flow rate through the choke, Mscfd dm - choke size, in. p. - upstream pressure, psia T. _ upstream temperature, D R 1', - gas gravity (air ... 1) Cd - coefficient of discharge, generally assumed to be 0.86 psia and 520 oR, of a 0.65 gravity gas through a 28f64-in.-diameter choke for a downstream pressure Pt equal to: (a) 600 psia, and (b) 300 psia. The upstream pressure PI ... 750 psia, temperature Tl .. lOOF. and k ... 1.275.
Examplf! 7-7. Find the flow rate, referred to standard conditions of 14.73

The same result can alternatively be obtained using Equation 7-89:

(456.71) (0 .88) (750) (28, 64 )'


q., [(0.65)(560)],,'

- 2,955.33 Mscfd

Temperature Profile in Flowing Cas Systems


It is quite clear from the flow relationships presented so far that flow calculations require the value of the flowing temperature in order to determine

300

Gas Production Engineering


PI-P2

Steady State Flow oj Gas Through Pipes

361

the effective g~ properties and pressure drop. To avoid complexity, most flow computations assume that the flowing temperature profile is linear. This assumption is not too far from reality, and generally gives quite good results. In some cases, however, more precise temperature and flow calculations may be required, such as in cases where phase changes occur during flow of the gas through the pipe. Pressure and temperature are mutually dependent variables in flowpressure loss depends to some extent on temperature (or heat loss), and the te~perature (~r heat loss) depends upon pressure that governs the changes in flUId enthalples, overall heat transfer coefficient, and other parameters. Thus, generating a very precise temperature profile requires an enormous amount of complex, trial-and-error type of calculations for which even the amount of data available in most cases is insufficient. Thus, an approximate temperature profile, independent of pra<lure, is satisfactory for most engineering applications.

C, - --L-

[ZVICpU'dL

+ (1 -

ZVI)CpVI'dV

1+ ZV2- ZVIQ L

V2 - VI +--L

VI

+ ghlL -hd.. T --. m


(7-9 1)

where

Zv '"

F10wing Temperature in (Horizontal) Pipelines For a given inflow temperature, TJ. and surrounding soil temperature, T ... the temperatu~ of gas flowing in a pipeline depends upon heat exchange With the surroundmgs, given by the overall heat transfer coefficient the (pressure dependent) Joule-Thomson effect- due to pra<lure changes c;used by friction, and velocity and elevation changes; phase changes (condensation, vaporization) in the gas due to pressure and temperature changes; and energy loss (due to friction) during flow that is converted into heat. Considering these factors, Papay (1970) has derived the following equation, assuming steady-state flow of gas, for the temperature T Lx at a distance 1.. from the pipeline inlet:
TJ..r'" [T. + C 4/C 2
-

mole fraction of vapor (gas) in the gas-liquid fiowstream p ". pressure, Ibf/ft 2 L = pipeline length, ft v = fluid velocity, ftlsec Cp = fluid specific heat at constant pressure, Btu/Ibm-oF I'd - Joule-Thomson coefficient, ft2-oFllbf m = mass flow rate, Ibm/sec Q = phase-transition heat, Btullbm k - thermal conductivity, Btu/ft-sec-oF g _ gravitational acceleration, equal to 32.17 ft/sec2 h = elevation difference between the inlet and outlet, ft d., = outside pipe diameter, ft T, = temperature of the soil or surroundings, O F

(C 1C s)/(C2(C 2 + C a))]CfzIC3 (C 1 + C 2 LJ C 2!Ca


(7-90)

Subscripts 1 and 2 indicate the inlet and outlet ends of the pipe, respectively (except in the numbering of the constants C), and subscripts L and V represent liquid and vapor (gas), respectively. In deriving Equation 7-90, Papay (1970) assumed that pressure, flow rate, and phase-transitions are linear functions of distance from the inlet end of the pipeline. This equation, therefore, is very accurate for short line segments. For the case where phase changes can be neglected (single-phase flow), Equation 7-90 can be simplified to:

_ C4 + Cs1.. + CS(C 1 + CaL.) C 2 (C2 + Ca) C2 where


C1
,.. ZVICpL
,..

_(v' - v.)[(v _v, - v.) (I _ e- 'L.) + (v, - v.)L,]


KLCpv
k
I

KL

(7-92)

+ (1 -

ZVI)CpV

C2 Ca

kim
ZVI)(CpL - Cpv)/L

", (ZV2 -

where K - - mc,v

(7-93)

The ~ble adiab~ticsimultaneow; pres:sure and temperature reduction process that accomparues the expanswn of a flowing gas by pressure reduction is called Joule-Thomson or throttling effect.

In Equation 7-92, the first two terms represent the heat exchange with the surroundings, the third term represents the Joule-Thomson effect, the fourth term accounts for the elevation changes, and the fifth term accounts for the

362

Gal Production Engineering

Slead!l State Flow of Gal Through Pipet

363

change in velocity head. The last two terms are small and may be neglected for most practical purposes. If the pressure drop is small, then the temperature drop due to expansion is also small, and the third term may also be neglected. Neglecting these terms. Equation 7-92 simplifies to the following familiar form: (7.!J.l) Flowing Temperatures in Wells The case of subsurface vertical flow is a special case of the general equation (Equation 7-90) where the temperature of the surrounding; varies with distance along the flow length due to the geothermal gradient, C T (OF'ft), of the earth. A simplified equation presented by Ramey (1962). similar to Equation 7-94, is widely used: (795) where

3. A 4,()()()'ft gas well requires a wellhead pressure of at least 100 psia to enable flow of the 0.85 gravity gas from the wellhead through the surface facilities. The bottom-hole temperature is 200F and the surface temperature is 82F. The casing is 4.5 in. ID. a. What is the minimum bottom-hole pressure to enable gas flow? b. What is the bottom-hole pressure for a gas flow rate of IO MMscfd? c. Repeat part (b) assuming that the gas flows through the casing-tubing annulus, the tubing being 2,1 in. 00. 4. List some limitations of the flow equations described in this chapter for (a) horizontal low and (b) vertical low. 5. A gas production system consists of three sections: Subsurface section I: inclined , length = 5,500 ft. true vertical depth - 4()()() ft inlet temperature - lsooF, outlet temperature" 85F Surface section II: horizontal, length"" 1.5 miles Surface section Ill : 2 miles long, inclined 30 from the horizontal. The temperature in the surface sections can be assumed to be 85F, 'Y, - 0.65, and f - 0.002. For a pressure of 4000 psia at the inlet of section 1, find: (a) Cas flow rate through the system. (b) Pressure at the outlet of section 111.

1... - distance from the bottom-hole or point of fluid entry, ft T l.I - temperature at location L., O F TI - temperature at point of fluid entry (at L _ 0). O F C T - geothermal gradient. Fm K :w k,'mc;.\', as gi\'en by Equation 9-93

Equation 7-95 assumes that the temperature of the fluid and surroundings is equal at the point of entry, and that the heat loss is independent of time. The parameter K is quite difficult to estimate. An analysis based upon measured temperature profiles in actual gas wells is recommended, similar to an empirical equation developed by Shiu and Beggs (1980) for flowin~ oil wells.

References ANSI, 1976. Code Jor Pressure Piping, Petroleum Refinery Piping, ANSI B31.3, Am. Soc. of Mech. Engrs., United Engineering Center, New York, NY. Beggs, H. D., 1984. Gas Production Operations. OCCl Publications, Oil & Cas Consultants International, Inc., Thlsa, Oklahoma, 287 pp. Binder, R. C., 1958. Advanced Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 1. Prentice-Ha~l, Inc., New Jersey, 296 pp. Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 1984. Edited by R. H. Perry and D. W. Creen, McCraw-Hili Book Company, New York, 6th ed. Cullender, M. H. and Smith, R. v., 1956. "Practical Solution of Cas-F1ow Equations for Wells and Pipelines with Large Temperature Cradients," 7Tan.f., AIME, 207, 281-287.

Q....oons and Problenu


1. A 12-in. 10, SO-mile gas pipeline is to deliver 100 MMscfd of gas at 250 psia. The average flOWing temperature of the 0.75 gravity gas is 90' F. and lId - 0.()()()5 for the pipe. To what pressure must the gas be comp~ at the inlet end to achieve this? Use at least hvo equations and compare the results. 2. What is the maximum throughput through the pipeline in Problem I? Assume c - 0.05, E - 1.0, Y - 0040, and S _ 35,000 psi.

364

Cas Production Engineering

ERCS, 1975. Theory and Practice of the Testing of Cos Wells, 3rd ed. Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. . Ikoku, C. U., 1984. Natural Gas Production Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 517 pp. Katz, O. L.. Cornell, D., Kobayashi, R., Poettmann, F. H., Var)" J. A., Elenbaas, J. R., and Weinaug, C. F., 1959. Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering. McCraw-HUI Book Co., Inc., New York, 802 pp. Lesem, L. B., Greytock, F., Marotta, F., and McKetta, J. J.. Jr., 1957. "A Method of Calculating the Distribution of Temperature in F10wing Cas Wells," 'Irons., AlME. 210,169-176. Messer, P. H .. Raghavan, R., and Ramey, H. J., Jr., 1974. "Calculation of Bottom-Hole Pressures for Deep, Hot, Sour Cas Wells," J. Pet. Tech., 26(1, Jan.), 85-92. Moody, L. F., 1944. "Friction Factors for Pipe F1ow," Trans. Am. Soc. Meck Eng., 66(Nov.), 671-684. Nisle, R. G. and Poettmann, F. H., 1955. "Calculation of the F10w and Storage of Natural Gas in Pipe," Petrol. Engr., 27(1):014: 27(2):C36: 27(3),037. Papa)", J., 1970. "Steady Temperature Distributions in Producing Wells and Pipelines," Koola; e8 Foldgaz, 11. Cited reference in: Production alld 1rallsport of Oil and Gas, by A. P. Szilas, 1975. Developments in Petroleum Science, 3, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam, p. 563. Ramey, H. J., Jr., 1962. "Wellbore Heat Transmission,' J. Pet. Tech., 14(4, Apr.),427-435. Shiu, K. C. and Sew, H. D., 1980. "Predicting Temperatures in Flowing Oil Wells," 7rans., ASME; J. Energy Resour. Tech., 102(1, March), 2-11. Sukkar, Y. K. and Cornell, D., 1955. "Direct Calculation of Bottom-Hole Pressures in Natural Cas Wells," 'Irons., A/ME, 204, 43-48. Swamee, P. K. and Jain, A. K" 1976. "Explicit Equations for Pipe-F1o,", Problems," J. Hydraulics Div. ASCE, 102(HY5, May), 657-664. Szilas, A. P., 1975. Production and Transport of Oil and Cas (Developments in Petroleum Science, 3), Elsevier Scientific Pub!. Co., Amsterdam, 630 pp. Young, K. L., 1967. "Effect of Assumptions Used to Calculate Bottom-Hole Pressure in Gas Wells. J. Pet. Tech., 19(4, Apr.), 547-550.

Multiphase Gas-Liquid Flow


Introduction

-------

As stated earlier. rarely do gas wells produce "dry" gas. Some liquid (oil and water) is almost always associated with it. For small amounts of liquid production, the flow may be considered single phase and the relationships for gas presented in Chapter 7 can be used with minor modifications to }ield close estimates. When a large amount of liquid is associated with the gas, however, true multi phase gas-liquid flow prevails and such simplifications are no longer valid. Although the existence of multiphase flow, defined as the simultaneous flow of free gases and liquids. has been known for a long time, its complex behavior has not vet been fully understood. The gas and liquid may exist as a homogeneous ~ixture. or as independent phases in other complex flow patterns such as slug, mist, emulsion, or bubble flow. The pressure drop for multiphase flow conditions is usually greater than for single-phase flow and, in some cases, the flow may be quite unsteady. Early attempts to use modified single-phase flow relationships for multiphase flow resulted in highly overdesigned or underdesigned flowlines. An overdesigned line is not only expensive, but for two-phase flow conditions, it may result in unstable operations, with liquid slugging and pressure fluctuations. Generally, liquid and gas are transported through different flowlines at the surface, and such ca.lculations may not always be necessary. Multiphase flow correlations are more important for wells with a significant liquid production, or for prediction of conditions for liquid loading of gas wells that are currently producing "dry" gas. This chapter outlines methods for handling multiphase flow in the context of gas engineering. For a detailed treatment of multi phase flow per se, readers may refer to the literature, notably Brown and Beggs (1977), and Dew and Brill (1973).

365

366

Gal Production Engineering

Multipha3e Cat-Liquid Flow


(;aI_Oi! R.tial ..... lor Normal Tempe,.lura
$tpal'I'on o. Iha M'.N'I for. Wt..ch the

367

Approximate Method for Tw~Phase Systems F10w streams with a CLR (gas-liquid ratio) greater than 10,000 scf/stb may be assumed to be single-phase gas, This is commonly the case for retrograde and wet gas reservoirs, where the oil and gas produced at the surface actually exist as gas within the reservoir. The small Liquid content of the gas can be accounted for by modifying the properties that are affected by the presence of liquid. These include molecular weight, gas gravity. and gas compressibility factor (Z-factor) . Molecular weight of the flow stream consisting of gas as well as liquid can be calculated from the mixture composition, similar to calculations shown in Chapter 3 for a "dry" gas mixture. The gas specific gravity (air,. 1 basis) for the total flow stream, )''''' can be obtained by dividing the molecular weight of the flow stream by the molecular weight of air, resulting in the following expression (Craft and Hawkins. 1959):

Z FKlor '1 Des""o (G_-Oil Ral'OS lor Low Temp. Sep. M.y be Gliitly Olllllfnl.)

10
~

Eumple For Pseudo Rtdu~ed Tanp of 1.195, Pseudo Reduud P'tlWfe o. 2.00 and G"-O.I Ral'o of RedUCed P'tlwr. 01 2 00 end G"-Oil Ratio of ~ 000 SCF ISl8 Z F"::lor ',om 0 .... Ph_ Z F~lor Coo,e!lIi~ tI O.SolS, Coo'Kled bel OW 10 0.732
Aecu,..::y

! !

0.9

~l"
"
-i ' .......

I~;~I
.S,

At

ISO " F 10 , 2SO"F. If Uncorftcltd."d eo .. F"::lo'l O,Ue, by no MOle Thin T.n". 0 1M lollY

o.w PO'"" Oev"uon of Flom.

.5""

K'"

O::ltn~::r flhase" P'I!SMI (... II Of

-,L~, .. ,!o

.,

C-

--

f--

::::::: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~,s , o

~~

""

'<

where ~ - gas-oil ratio, sef/stb 1'. - specific gravity of the gas (air - 1) ')'0 - oil gravity (water - 1) at standard conditions M., - molecuJar weight of the stock-tank oil

0.9

Ii
~

.......

i !

"'" L--':'
,.~

If not known, M., can be estimated using Equation 8-2:


(8-2)

.~ --'

OB

Liquid specific gravity, frequently specified in terms of APf, can be converted to specific gravity 'Yo (water - 1 basis) as follows:
141.5
')'0 0

r-: 1\1\ ~ r---- r---- 1'-~ , 1\ ,'. "' .," '~~iT'

- + 2"

J
0.1

~
~

1\

0.6

1
N

"

05

API + 131.5

(8-3)

Figure 8-1. Gas deviation factor correction for two-phase natural gas systems. (After Elfrink et aI. , 1949: redrafted by Ikoku, 1984; courtesy of SPE.)

The gas compressibility factor (Z-factor) obtained from Figure 3--2 (Chap-ter 3) using critical pressure and temperature estimates for the total f10\\ stream (using ")'w), can be corrected for the existence of two phases using Figure B-1. If this two-phase Z-factor is essentially the same as the single-phase Z-factor, the mixtu re exists as a single gaseous phase. Using these modified properties, calculations can be carried out with the relationships presented for gas in Chapter 7.

Multiphase fl ow For flow conditions that cannot be approximated as single-phase gas, it is necessary to use more complex procedures. Multiphase flow has been stU?ied in detail by numerous investigators and several correlations are available. These correlations account for the flow geometry (vertical, inclined,

368

Gal Production Engineering

Mu/tiphose Gas-Liquid Flow

369

horizontal), flo" pattern (slug, mist, bubble. plug, etc.), fluid properties (formation volume factor for oil and water, gas in solution in oU as well as water, surface tension, density and viscosity of the multiphase mixture), and other parameters related to flow (Reynolds number, friction factor, holdup. etc.). They are. however. quite complex. requiring the use of computers. Appendix B at the back of the book gives computer programs for two such methods. For our purposes. it is satisfactory to consider a fairly good and practically expedient technique that uses pressure traverse curves. Pressure travcl"S( curves are plots of pressure versus flow distance for a pipe of a gh-en diameter for selected oil and gas properties at various gas/liquid ratios and flo\\. rates. Some of the most commonly used pressure traverse curves, prepared usin~ the I.:orrelations of Hagedorn and Brown (1965), are shown In Figure 8-2(a-v). Such cun'es can easily be generated for any other set of fluid properties. pipe diameters. or flow rates using the available correlations for multi phase flow. Pressure traverse curves are simple to understand and use. fast, and fairly accurate. Since no single correlation is best over all ranges, it is better to construct a pressure traverse curve using the best applicable method for the range that we are interested in. To generate better traverse curves, a combination of several correlations and/or experimental data can be useful.
Pressure Traverse Curves for Horizontal Gas-Liquid Flow The hOrizontal flow pressure traverse curves shown in Figures 8-2a-f were prepared using Eaton et al.'s (1967) correlation and give satisfactory results except for low rates and low C, L ratios. Although these curves were prepared for water, they can be used for oil, provided the free-gas/oil ratio is used for the C. L parameter, as follows:
1. Select the applicable curve for the given flowline size, flow rate, and gas/liquid ratio. 2. On the pressure axis, locate the known pressure, go vertically down to the applicable gas/liquid ratio curve, and read off the length on the length axis. 3. Correct this length for the pipeline length by: adding the pipeline length to the length determined in Step 2. if the known pressure is the outlet pressure; or subtracti ng the pipeline length from the length in Step 2, if the known pressure is the inlet pressure. 4. The unknown pressure is the pressure corresponding to the corrected length determined in Step 3.

Example 8-1 illustrates this procedure.


(tnt continued on page 380)

370

Cas Prodllctioll Eligineering

371

Ii

ii

~
! , ill

.",
N

r aJ

~ II

d.
~~ jJ
0

!j; ~ , 0_"1 -

,
~ , i

i~ go:;

, -

III

III

III

_ ..' ...... o'n"

Ii Ii

I
.p>

" !;!I

i I' If
i

.. ,--I

, I~ ~i~

u: '"

I-

,;

00, ,
!

.- ~

I ! ,'}
II,
_ _ ..... lII<tl

III

"I

372

ell.t

ProductiOIl Engineering

Multiphase Gas-Liquid Flow

373

~~.p'"

,
" s'1

.\

'"

1~--~-4---+- Lf---+------+--Vh4L-x< ,
.i--+---Y

, !'

.l!

ill

r---,---,----r---~--,_--_,--~~'~7~T'~__, ,. ,!

.\

'"

I r--+---1I---+----;r::0--/t7L-~

~?-+----1

1'r--+--+---Yh"--71-7"'z

. ~n.=tn.=to
_ _ ...... 00<1'1

GtU Production Engineering

Multiphase Gas-Liquid Flow

375

II

fI---l-+-+-Dt4Lj.L----bL~~~
1,1---+--+-.,.1hL--I,L---i,,4

I.,~--~--l___+~~~~~~~

i,I---+--+--AL,L.,/L-,.f,.

-_............

- _ ..... 00Q'1

376

Gas Production Erlgineering Multiphose Cos-Liquid Flow


377

.-to., ,

;
,

~ -

I~ ~ Vh ,...
~

:af// v:
F"'"

;f:

VV~2 ./

t0V
.... _

~V 1/ ~ ~ V l(V ,-t: ~ V V V V
",;

,.

'1

VV:~,

....

'

::t ,

0-

f i:1" ,
'I'

. - . .
.. 1U00tJ'

.li

. .

III

. . .
.... ..... DIU'!

.It ,['

ill

378

CO$ Production Engi'leering

Mulripha~e Gas-Liquid FIQU;

379

.! "

.' i,>---l---I-----A+-,.<+--++-----.L--~~
I

III

.1{ ' I'

.~Etr.ntD.. -_ ..
"'."..,

.!

"

I, ~__+___-J,:H---,l'_+J~-I-----+-___1

l ~~--~--+-~~~~~~~/~~

.;,

_ _ ..... twol1

380

CDs Production Engineering

Multiphase CasLiquid Flow

381

(text continued from page 368)

Examph- 8'. A \\'cU is producing 1,500 stb/d of oil with aGIO -; 800 sci' stb at a flowing wellhead pressure of 700 psig. Determine the separator pres---

Therefore. P.. h is equal to the pressure corresponding to a depth _ 9,000 - 8,000 - 1,000 ft. Thus, P"h - 100 psig. Handling Directional Wells For directional wells with df"viations from the vertical less than 15-20. the true vertical depth can be used to ascertain the pressure trawrse. This approximation, howe\'er. is im'alid for deviations exceeding 20 0 , becall5C a directional well has a greater length than a yertical well for the same depth. resulting in a greater frictional head ios.... Also. holdup. defined lU the volume fraction of the flow conduit occupied by liquid. differs and rna, be greater for inclined than for vertical low. . For pressure tra,-er.,e curves. an approximate ansv.er can be obtained using the vertical and horizontal flow curves as follows:

sure for a 2.5-in. ID, 9,000-ft line.


Solution
Assume that at a pressure of 700 psig there is no gas in solution. Hence free-gas/oil ratio is 800 scf/stb. Using Figure 8-ld and the procedure described earlier.

Psev

400 psig.

Pressure Traverse Curves for Vertical Cas-Li(luid Flow

The vertical pressure traverse curves, shown in Figures 8-2g-v, are used in a manner similar to the curves for horizontal flow: 1. Select the applicable curve for the given tubing size. flow rate, and gas/liquid ratio. 2. On the pres..~ure axis. locate the known pressure, go vertically down to

the applicable gas/liquid ratio curve. and read off the depth on the
depth axis. 3. Correct this depth by: adding the well depth to the depth determined in Step 2, if the known pressure was the surface pressure: or subtracting the well depth from the depth in Step 2, if the known pressure was the bottom-hole pressure. 4. The unknown pressure is the pressure corresponding to the corrected depth determined in Step 3.
Erampl~ 82. For a bottom-hole flowing pressure of 2,000 psig, a well is producing 1,000 stb/d of oil with aGIO - 300 sef/stb. Given that the tubing size is 2.5 in. and the well is 8,000 ft deep, find the flowing wellhead pressure P.. h.

I. Determine the pressure loss using only the true vertical depth and the applicable vertical flow correlation . 2. Assume a value for the inlet or outlet pressure, whichever is unknown, and calculate the average of the inlet and outlet pressures. 3. Determine the frictional pressure drop due to the extra length of the tubing (i.e., total tubing length minus true "ertical depth of tubing) using the applicable horizontal flow correlation, and the average pressure estimated in step (2). 4. Calculate the total pressure loss for the d(!\.iated well. This is equal to the sum of the m'O pressure losses obtained in steps (1) and (3), From this new total pressure loss, find the new estimate of the inlet or outlet pressure, whichever is unknown. 5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 till the unknown pressure (inlet or outlet) from steps (2) and (4) agree within a specified tolerance.

Example 8-3. In a directionally-drilled well, the true vertical depth is ~ual to 5,000 ft. and the length of the 2-in. tubing is equal to 7.500 ft. <?Iven p..h - 100 psig, q., 1.000 stb/d (50% water), elL _ 800 scf/stb, fmd the flowing bottom hole pressure P,,'f.
Solutioll
Using Figure 8-2m for vertical flow,

Solution
Using Figure 8-20 for vertical flow: A
P",f

2.000 psig corresponds to 9.000 ft approximatel}'.

P=f - 1,100 psig for a vertical depth of 5,000 f1.

382

MIJltiphasl' Gas-Uqllid Flow

383

A trial and error procedure is required to determine p...f. As a first guess, assume P.. f - 1,150 psig. Then, the a\'erage pressure, P psig.
=

(8-4)

(p..-h + p"l)i2 .. (100 + 1,150)/2"" 625

where HF ,., ele\ation component of the total static pTe"Sure drop, fraction. and V'I[ is given by:
\.
'11;

On locatin~ P.v ( - 625 psig) on the horizontal flow correlation in Figur<.' 8-2c (100% water chart is a reasonable approximation). and using the addi tional length of 2,500 ft ( = 7.500 - 5,000), the downstream pra;;urt: i.~ found to be 525 psig. Therefore. the pressure Ios..<; due to friction in the extra 2,000 ft of pipe, dp! 625 - 525 - 100 psig. Thus, P.. f
-

31lg., q,(ZT) .. (520)p.,d2


\-'1[

(8-5)

where

(lg =

P;f + .6.p! -- 1.100 + 100


pw/ -

1,200 psig.

T = P., ., Z~, -d ...

superficial gas \'(locity. ft,sec gas flow rate. M\1scfd avcrage flowing temperature, R average lowing pressure, psia average gas compressibility factor (at P." T., ) inside diameter of flow conduit, in.

Second trial: Assume

1,200 psig.

Bakcr (1960) showed that for v>~ > SO, the applicable relationship is: 0.00967

P -- (100 + 1.200)12 - 650 psig. From the horizontal flow correlation, downstream pressure - 550 psig. Thus, .6.PI .. 650 - 550 s 100 psig, and P"I -- 1,100 + 100 - 1.200 psig.

Hf'''''

">, ,

o~

L O,5

(8-6)

Thus, p...{ - 1.200 psig. Flow Over Inclined or Hilly Terrain Inclined f10\\ implies flow through pipes that deviate from the horizon tal, such as flow over hills. Flanigan (1958) pre;entoo. the only a\'ailable method that can be applied to field problems without the use of complex computer programs. By conducting several field tests, Flanigan concluded that most of the pressure drop occurred in the uphill section of the line, and identified two main components of the p~re drop for multiphase flow in an inclined system: pressure drop due to friction, which is the predominant component in hOrizontal lines, and pressure drop due to the liquid head, which is the predominant component in vertical and inclined flows. The sum of these two components determines the total pTe"Sure drop. The uphill sections are treated as equivalent vertical columns containing an equivalent amount of liquid. Because in multiphase flow the pipe is never completely filled with only liquid, Flanigan introouceci the term Hf' to repre;ent the fraction of the total static pTe"Sure drop that exists as the elevation component. Hf" correlates with the superficial gas velocity, v'S, as follows (F1anigan, 1958):

where L '" length of the flowline, ft. Using H F , the pTe"Sure drop through the pipe is calculated as follows:
~p";,H,,,,:;:-E:.:H .6.p= 144

(8-7)

where PI ,. liquid density. Ibm ftl

Example 84. A 4in. 10, 2.000 ft long flowline passes over 5 hills having the following vertical heights: 130 ft. 40 ft, 210 ft. 80 ft, and 185 ft. Gh'en ql = 2.000 stbld (95% water). G,L .. 1,000 scffstb, I'll = 0.7 (air" I), ),,,, = 1.02. ),,, - 40" API, average pres.'iure P., - 300 psig, and average temperature T _ 120"F, find the pressure loss due to the hills.

Solution
For 'YK ... 0.7, at P., - 300 pslg, and T~. - 120"F. the average gas compra<; ibility factor Z.. from Figure 3-2 - 0.96.

384

Gas Production ElIgilweriug

Mu{tiphnse Gas-Liquid Flow

385

Using Equation 85,

v ~ (31,194)(2,000 x 1,000 x 10-')(0.9)(580) _ 13.9173 fU"",

>,

(520)(300)(16)

Example 85. (After Kumar et aI., 1986). A well is producing through a 2.S-in. 10 tubing, 5,000 ft deep, at a rate go = 1.000 stb/d with a CIO = 600 seE/stb. This well produces a large amount of sand when the oil prcx:iuction rate is above 1,000 stbfd; therefore. it is required to install a
choke ("choke the well back',). Because hydrate problems have made it impossible to install a surface choke, a bottom-hole choke must be designed. It i<; proposed that the choke be installed at a depth of 4,000 ft, i.e., 1.000 ft above the bottom of the tubing. For a 1,000 stb/d oil rate, the oottom-hole

Using Equation 8-4,


1

!:H ,. 130

+ 40 + 210 + 80 + 185
+ 40)
~

645 ft.

qui red, (b) the flowing pressure, assuming that the flow through the choke is critical (Pu "" 2Pd)'
Solution
~ 1.01

, .. ~ (141.5)/(131.5

0.8251

Therefo,e, "

~ (0.95)(1.02)

+ (0.05)(0.8251)

Using Figure 8-2p, the pressure at 1,000 ft above the bottom of tubing is equal to 1.175 psig. Thus, Pu = 1,175 psig, implying that Pd = 1,175/2 = 588 psig.

Using Equation 8-7,


~p"", ~

(1.01

x 62.4)(0.1781)(645)/144

50.28 p'i. (a) Using Equation 8-9,

Flow Through Chokes The generalized equation for critical multiphase flow through a choke is written as; (8-8) d1.g9". (10)(1,000)(600)5.16 = 279.8 1175 Thus, d _ (279.8)11
89 =

19.71164 in., or 20164 inch.

(b) Using Figure 8-2p for Pd ,. 588 psig, the wellhead flowing pressure, P ...h "" 100 psig.

where

ql = liquid flow rate, stb/d pu = upstream pressure, psia d = inside diameter of the choke, 64ths of an inch R -.: producing gas-liquid ratio, scf/sth a, b, c = empirical constants

Liquid Loading in Gas Wells The liquid loading of a gas well refer:s to the accumulation of liquids in the wellbore of a flowing gas well. a common operating problem in gas pro-duction operations. Liquid loading imposes an additional back pressure on the producing formation, restricting gas flow. In high-pressure gas wells, liquid loading will result in slugging flow and reduced well deliverability: fluctuations in gas flow rate and casing pressure will be observed, caused by the buildup of casing pressure until it becomes sufficient to blow the liquid to the surface. In low-pressure gas ,veils, the flow rate drops drastically and

Various investigator:s have proposed different values for a, h, and c. Most commonly, however, Cilbert's (1954) correlation is used, where a = 1.89, b = 10.0, and c - 0.546: (8-9)

3S6

Cas Production Engineering

MultiphaSl! Cas-Liquid Flau:

387

casing pressure starts to build up, but because enough casing pressure cannot be achieved, liquid loading may completely -kill" the well. Liquid loading occurs in gas wells that have liquid proouction (however small the amount may be). but do not provide enough energy for the continuous removal of these liquids. As stated earlier. Iiqu.id loading can be recognized by fluctuations in gas flow rate and casing pressure for high-pressure wells, or by flow stoppage and casing pressure buildup for low-pressure wells. Pressure surveys and flow computations are very helpful in determin.h

"t

. - [4gd,(PP 3CdPtt:

p~r'

(8-10)

assuming Newtonian (turbulent) flow. Thus. a particle of diame~er dp will be removed by the gas stream if the velocity of the gas stream V,IS equal .to the terminal velocity v. of the particle. Equation 8-10 can therefore be wnlten as:
\' = .... _

nfl; '"

There are tv.'o sources of liquids in a gas well: water and hydrocarbon condensate from condensation of the hydrocarbon gas. and water from the producing reservoir. If the gas velocity is not high enough to transport these liquids to the surface, they accumulate at the bottom of the well The back pressure on the formation due to the hydrostatic head of this liqu.id column further reduces the flo", rate and the velocity of the produced gas. This process continues until the well dies, or produces onJy intermittently. There are essentially two approaches in solving this problem: prevent liquid accumulation, or remove the liquid as it is produced. A brief description follows of some available methods. Preventing Liqu.id Loading: Minimum Flow Rate for Continuous Liqu.id Removal

4gdp(pp 3CdP,

pJ

.5

Substituting Cd '" 0.44 for Newtonian flow, and replacing the particle density Pp by the liquid density Ph we get:

v, ~ [4

d,(PI -

1.32p~

p~l"

(B-ll)

I
I

Turner et at. (1969) conceptuali7.oo two physical models for the removal of liquid droplets from gas wells: liquid film movement along the pipe walls, and entrairunent of liquid droplets in the gas stream. According to the wall film model, the well is unJoaded by providing a gas flow rate suficient to cause the movement of liquids up along the walls of the casing andlor tubing pipe. The droplet model assumes that liquid is removed as entrained droplets in the flowing gas stream. In a real system, both these models probably exist, with a continuous exchange of liquid between the gas stream and the wall film. From an analysis of both these models, Turner et al. (1969) found the droplet mooel to be superior because, among other reasons, it agrees with observed data. The liquid film model does not represent the controlling liquid transport mechanism; the liquid film moving down along the pipe walls eventually breaks into droplets that are re-entrained in the gas stream, and the droplet model is applicable. The more complex wall film mooel can, therefore, be ignored here. According to the droplet model. the minimum gas flow rate to unJoad a gas well is one that enables the largest liquid droplets that can exist in the gas stream to move upwards. As discussed in Chapter 4 (Equation 4-17), the terminal velocity V t (fusee) of a particle of diameter ~ (ft) and density Pp (lbmfft3) falling under gravitational acceleration g in a gas of density PI (lbm/ft3) is given by:

Thus, the larger the drop, greater is the gas flow velocity required to remove it. The diameter of the drop, however, cannot be determined directly. 'furner et al. (1969) used correlations for the Weber number to determine the maximum drop diameter that can exist under given flow conditions. The Weber number, Nw~, is a dimensionless number expressing the ratio of the velocity forces that try to disintegrate the drop, and the surface tension forces that tend to keep it together:
N
w _
C

vjp,/g, = v2sP.dp
aldp ag.;,

(8-12)

The maximum drop diameter, d",... can now be specified using the fact that the drop will disintegrate if the Weber number exceeds a critical value of 20 to 30:
(8-13)

Substituting for dmu from Equation 8-13 into Equation 8-11, the required minimum gas velocity is given by:

v. - [(4)(30)ogg.,(PI - PJr' L32pjYi


o..._~

Substituting for g and g.,. and solving for v.:

\" _ 17.514

CQ.f Productiorl E'I~i1lCf"rlllg

Multiphou Cos-Liquid Flow

389

0"( PI

- P~" P, -

,.

1980). Some of the methods that have been successfuJly used in field operations are briefly reviewed here.
Beam PUn/lnng Units

As a safety ~eas~re, Turner et a!. (1969) use a 20% (approximately) safet\' factor, resultmg m the folloWing equation for minimwn gas flo\, \-elocity;
'II. -

20A -

00_'~'(~p~,~-~P~!L.

In this method. liquids are produced through the tubing, whereas gas is

p~1 2

,,,

produced through the tubing-casing annulus. It is desirable to have the tub(8- 14) ing set as close to the bottom perforation as possible, and preferably below it (Hutla!\ and Granberry. 1972). so as to provide a liquid cushion to prevent gas interference problems in the downhole pump. If a liquid divcrter is provided in the subsu rface tubing string to allow only liqUids to enter the tubing, no liquid cushion is required and gas interference problems are minimized . One advantage of pumping units over other t}1)CS of liquid removal techniques is that they do not depend on gas velocity for lift-the energy for Hquid lift is provided by the pump itself. Beam pumping units are quite inexpensive and economical for shallow wells, but become very expensive for deeper and more highly pressured wells (Hutlas and Granberry, 1972). Their applicability is best for low gas rates. with a liquid production of greater than about IO bbliday. Beam pumping units cannot be adjusted to handle very low rates and problems may. therefore, arise if they are used for low liquid-rate wells.

For field applications, the folloWing equations are recommended by Thrner et al. (1969) for use when the liquid is either water or condensate:
( V \

v ....,.. -

5.62 (67 - O.OO3lp)l. (O.OO3lp), ,

(8-15)

4.02 (45 - 0.OO3Ip)' , ( V' V""ndellSoo'. "" (0.OO3Ip)"

(8- 16)

Equations 8- 15 and 8-16 were derh'ed assuming the folloWing:

1. A 0.6 gr~vity gas at a temperature of 120F, to enable expressing the gas denslt)' as a function of pressure. 2. For water, (J "" 60 dynes/em, PI ,., 67 Ibm/ft'. 3. For condensate, a,.. 20 dynes/cm, PI ,., 45 Ibm/ft'.

Plunger Lift This method has proved to be very successful in unloading liquids from gas wells (Libson and Henry, 1980). It uses a steel plunger. equipped with a valve, in the tubing string (see Figure 8-3). The plunger acts as an interface between the gas stored in the annulus and the liquid accumulated above the plunger in the tubing, virtually eliminating gas slippage and liquid fallback. Both gas and liquid are allowed to flow into the tubing through a valve.. type opening at the tubing bottom. When the plunger is at the bottom of the tubing, this valve is shut off , and all production goes into the casing. The casing pressure builds up, until it is sufficient to transport the plunger and allliqujd and gas abo"e it in the tubing to the surface. A motor valve. operated either by a clock or by well fl ow rate monitoring, may be used on the flowline to control the cyclic rate of the plunger (Libson and Henry, 1980). If a clock is used, the optimum time cycle has to be determined by trial-anderror. Following plunger arrival at the surface, a bumper opens the valve in the plunger, and the well is allowed to flow for a period of time. This time period may be preset by a clock, or surface flow controllers may be used to aUo w the well to flow until the gas velocity drops to some critical value. Flow controllers are more desirable. because they permit the well to flo\\

'~~en ~th water ~nd condensate are present, the water equation, which
gJ\'CS

follows:

a hIgher required gas \'elocity VI' should be used. The gas '-elocit) VI in ft/sec can be converted to field units of MMscfd as
_ 3.06Apv,

'"

ZT

(8-17)

w here Cia .. A .. p T Z -

required minimum gas flow rate, MMscfd cross-sectional area of the gas flow conduit ft2 flOWing pressure, psia ' flOwing temperature, O R gas compressibility factor at the flowing pressure and tempera_

ture

Liquid Unloading: Removal of Liquid as it Accumulates

Nu~erous methods have been proposed for the liquid unloading or dewatermg, of gas wells (Hutlas and Granberrv 1972 L'bson an d ' Henry, ;, ,I

390

Gas Productioll Engi'leeririg

Mllltiphase Cas-Liquid Flow


CASING PRESSURE

391

'~'~O~':.'f'~j~~~~~~~~l~1
TlM CLOCK

1oI0TOA VAlVE

Small Tubing String This technique operates on the principle of increasing the gas velocity, to enable liquid carryover to the surface, by providing a reduced flow area. Small tubing strings of I-in. diameter are quite common for such an application. This method applies best to low volume wells in which friction loss is not severe, and has proven quite useful in several field applications (Hutlas and Granberry, 1972: Libson and Henry, 1980). Surfactallt Injection

GAUGE CASINQ SHut-I'"

CASING - TUBING ANNULUS

-1._-"1

GAS PROOUCED EACH CYCLE UP TU81/o10

0"5 E ... TEAS ""''''UlUS


FRO'" PAY DURING SHUT-IN

AS AFTEAflOW TO
HIGH PRESSURE GAS FOR NEltT CYCLE
LEGEND .. LIQUID C",SIHC-TUBING ANNULUS

....

..
CYCLE UP TUBING
LIft

. . 1__ o!-4_-tWIlTEA PROOUCED EACH

.....

Injection of surfactants and foaming agents into the tubing-casing annulus has produced successful results in several wells (Libson and Henry, 1980). Figure 8-4 shows a schematic diagram of a surfactant injection system. Surfactant (or soap) is injected using a chemical pump and a time clock. Water is continuously unloaded in a foamed slug state through reduction in surface tension. This method has proved less successful for unloading condensate (oil), perhaps because the surface tension reduction dynamics were not suitable in the cases tested.

CASING

peR~S

-:::--!;-, .,"'" II ..
, .... -

SPRING

.. . .".UO U'A~'""'O"_ _

J L~

STORACE O"'S PRODUCEO TU81"10 CAS

STOP

. . . " . TO ".~ I U U "

Figure 8-3 . Plunger lift operations. (After Ubson and Henry, 1980; courtesy of SPE.)

C .... 0 . . . . . ~ IIUA'U

II lI,nON 10AO . . . . . yO'

for an optimum time period before shut-in. Wells having sufficient deliverability to maintain rates above this critical rate for short periods are ideal candidates for flow controllers.

OA, ... ",CTlD

''''''CTOo .., ...

em Lift
The gas lift system also uses a liquid flow diverter in the tubing string. with liquid production through the tubing and gas production through the annulus. This system, however, uses a gas-lift valve (usually one, sometimes more than one if liquid production is quite high) mounted on the tubing at a calculated depth, and actuated (opened or closed) by anyone of the several available techniques. Liquid accumulates in the tubing, until the gas-lift valve opens to lift the liquid slug to the surface.

Figure 8-4. Gas well soap injection system. (After Ubson and Henry. 1980; courtesy of SPE.)

Questions and ProWems 1. What is multiphase flow? For what purpose are multi phase flow computations useful in the context of gas production operations and how important are they?

392

GaJ Production Engineering

Multiphase Gas-Liquid Flow

393

~____________~j-fA~O;.~75~~~~g~a~S~~ff~IO~"~.;:ng~at~O~.~25~~1~~~I.cr~d~ili:,~O~Ugh~~a~2~.5~-,~.n~.f;ID~t~Ub:.:-________~~~B~.~c!.~a~n~d~~~~M~.~~1~95:9~.~~
pressure of 200 psig is desired for this. ft gas well. bottom-hole pressure is 1.100 psig. Use the approximate method for two-phase systems to answer the following:
I . C an t he gas f 1 under these conditions? If yes, do not anS\\ler any ow

2. Describe the development of flow correlations for muJtiphase flow. 3. A well is producing 800 bblJd oiJ with a gas-oil ratio of 1.500 seC/stb through a 2-in. tubing, with a safety valve installed at a depth of 2,500 ft from the surface. The total well depth is 5,000 ft. The pressures recorded at the surface and bottom-hole are 150 psig and 1,000 psig, respectively. Is the valve partially closed? If so, what is the pressure drop across the valve?

References
8eg&';. H. O. and Brill, J. P., 1973. "'A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes," }. Pet. Tech., 25(5, May), 607~617. Brown, K. E. and BeW. H. D., 1977. The Techrwlogy of Artificial Lift Methods, Vol. 1. PennWell Publ. Co., Tulsa. Oklahoma, 487pp.

of the parts below. 2. What methods are available to make this well flow? 3 . H ow much gas injection is required per day to keep this well flowing? 4. What is the pipe diameter that will keep this well flowing?

5. Repeat problem 4 using multi phase flow charts. 6. Use N-O methods to design the required flowline to transport a twophase gas-oil mixture from a wellhead o\'er hills with the follo\\in~ conditions: Gas flow rate _ 3.5 MMscfd Gas-oil ratio = 11.000 sefistb Length of pipeline "" 4 miles Total elevation of hills ,. 1,500 ft A\erage fl owing temperature _ 95 F Gas gravity (air .. I) = 0.68 Oil gravity (water _ I) _ 0.85 Upstream pressure must not exceed 1,200 psig. and the downstream pressure must not be less than 250 psig. 7. Solve problem 6 assuming a horizontal pipeline (no hills). 8. Design a surface choke. assuming critical flow through it, for a ~as well with the following operating conditions: Cas flow rate'" 1.2 MMscfd Gas-oil ratio _ 11,000 sef/stb Wellhead pressure _ 1,200 psig Use two methods, and compare the results. 9. List the advantages and disad ....antages of the known methods of unloading gas wells. What data would you need to consider before deciding on using any of these techniques for a specific well?

437pp. Eaton, A., Andrews, D. E., Knowles. C. E., Silberberg, I. H., and Brown, K. E., 1967. "The Prediction of Flow Patterns, Liquid Holdup and Pressure Losses Occurring During Continuous Two-Phase F10w in Horizontal Pipelines," Trans., AIME, 240. 815-828. Elfrink, E. B., Sandberg, C. R., and Pollard, T. A., 1949. "A New Compressibility Correlation for Natural Gases and its Application to Estimates of Gas-in-Place," 7rans., AIME, 186, 219-223. Flanigan, 0., 1958. "Effect of Uphill Flow on Pressure Drop in Design of lWo-Phase Gathering Systems," O. & Gas f., 56(Mar_ 10), 132- 141. Gilbert, W. E., 1954. "F1owing and Gas-Lift Well Performance," Drilling and Production Practice, API, 126-157. Hagedorn, A. R. and Brown, K. E., 1965. "Experimental Study of Pressure Gradients Occurring During Continuous Two-Phase F10w in Small-Diameter Vertical Conduits," J. Pet. Tech., 17(4, Apr.), 475-484. Halliburton Energy Institute, 1976. Thbing Size Selection. Halliburton Services, Duncan, Oklahoma, 57pp. Hutlas, E. J. and Granberry, W. R., 1972. "A Practical Approach to Removing Cas Well Liquids," J. Pet. Tech., 24(8, Aug.), 916-922. Ikoku, C. U., 1984. Natural Gas Production Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 517pp. Kumar, S., Guppy, K. H., and Chilingar, G. V., 1986. "Design of F10wing Well Systems," In: Slirface Operatiom in Petroleum Production, Vol. 1, Elsevier Scientific Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 279-326. Libson, T. N. and Henry, J. R., 1980. "Case Histories: Identification of and Remedial Action for Liquid Loading in Gas Wells-Intermediate Shelf Gas Play," J. Pet. Tech., 32(4, Apr.), 685-693. Thrner, R. G., Hubbard, M. G., and Dukler, A. E., 1969. "Analysis and Prediction of Minimum F10w Rate for the Continuous Removal of Liq uids From Gas Wells," J. Pet. Tech., 21(11, Nov.), 1475-1482.

J~~~~~~~~llc________

Gao! Compres.Jion

395

volume in the enclosure, or by carrying the gas without volume change to the discharge and compressing the gas by backflow from the discharge system. Positive-displacement compressors are of two types-reciprocating positive-displacement compressors, and rotary positive-displacement compres-

son.

Gas Compression
Introduction
Gas production operations often require compressors to raise the pressure of ("pressurize") the gas. One of the most important applications of compressors is for providing enough pre'iSure to a gas for transport through transmission and distribution systems. Another transport-related application of compressors is for reducing the gas volume for shipment by tankers or for storage. In reservoir engineering operations, compressors are important in lowering the wellhead pressure below atmospheric in order to produce the well at a higher rate, for reinjection of gas for pressure maintenance or cycling, and for injection of gas into subsurface strata for underground storage. In gas processing operations, compressors arc required for circulation of gas through the process or system, and for raising gas pressure to the required level for a chemical processing reaction. This chapter presents the common types of compressors being used for these purposes in the natural gas industry. Basic elements in the design of these compressors are also discussed. Much of the material has been drawn from an Ingersoll-Rand Company (1982) publication entitled. Compressed Air and Cas Data, an excellent reference for readers who rna}' be interested in further details about gas compression operations.

Continuous flow compressors acce.lerate a continually lo'wing gas stream and subsequently com-'ert the velocity head into pressure. The two types of continuous flow compressors are dynamic and ejector. Dynamic compreselement, and convert the \'elocity head into pressure, partly in the rotating element partly in stationary blades or diffusers. Ejectors increase the gas velocity by entraining it in a high-velocity jet of the same or another gas, and convert this kinetic energy into pressure in a long venturitype flow chamber. Figure 9-1 shows a breakdown of principal compressor types, and Table 9-1 describes their approximate parameters. Among these. the ones currently used in the gas industry arc discussed in the following sections.

CO"PR[SSORS

IIEC"

"

--

Types of Compressors
Sl.IO'N"-YAN( 5TII ... , ....1-.08( C(NT

" 'UO- ,,"ow

The two major types of compressors are positive displacement or intermittent flow, and continuous jlotL'. Positive-displacement units are those in which successive volumes of gas are confined within some type of enclosure (compression chamber) and elevated to a higher pressure, T his pressure elevation or compression can be achieved in two ways-by reducing the gas

lI01... O-"'5TON

.. H,eAl- LOI(

A."L - hoOW

Figure 91. PrinCipal compressor types. (From Compressed Air and Gss Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

394

300

Gas Production Engineering


Table 9-1 tor Common Compressor Types
Appro)!. Mulmum Pr...ure, pallil Approa:. Maximum

Go.!' Compre&8ion

397

Approximate

Paramete~

ComprHSOr TYIM
Reciprocating Vane-type Rotary Helicallobe Rotary

Power, BHP

1(1(),OOO

> 12,000
6.000 > 3.5,000 > 100,000

400
5.:500 :500

Centrifugal D)'JIamle Asilli-flow D)-namk

~rom C:omp~

""

""

Air and GIl. DIl, .. , 1982, rourtes\- of inltf',wURand Co

'~,;!,,------'-l~ ""'B

o
~S~[ '~~

Reciprocating Positive-Displacement Compressors Reciprocating compressors consist of a ringed piston that mO\'e5 inside a cylinder. They may be of two types: single-acting, in which the piston com presses on only onc side; and double-ading, in which two single-acting pistons operate in parallel inside one cylinder, thereby compressing on ooth sides. Besides the piston and cylinder, a suction valve and a discharge valve are provided. The suction valve opens when the pressure in the cylinder falls below the intake pressure. The discharge valve opens when the pressure in the cylinder equals or exceeds the discharge pressure. Figure 9-2 shows the various steps in a reciprocating compressor cycle. In Figure 9-2A, the cylinder is full of the gas that is to be compressed, and is at the beginning of the compression cycle. In Figure 9-2B, the compression stroke has been completed. The discharge valve opens and the delivery stroke begins; the gas is delivered at a constant pressure as shown in Figure 9-2C. Next, the expansion stroke occurs, as shown in Figure 9-20. Both valves remain closed. The small amount of gas trapped is expanded, leading to a reduction in pressure inside the cylinder. In the next step (Figure 9-2E), the inlet valve opens and the intake cycle begins, filling the cylinder with gas again. Reciprocating compressors are the older type, with more moving parts and hence a lower mechanical efficiency and higher maintenance costs. The}' are still very widely used, and are available for all pressure and capacity ranges. Typically, they have a volumetric rate up to 30,000 cfm (cubic feet per minute) and a discharge pressure up to 10,000 psig. Rotary Positive-Displacement Compressors In this type, the positive action of rotating elements is used for compression and displacement. Rotary compressors usually offer low pressure differentials. but can handle large quantities of low-pressure gas at comparaDISCHARGE

. '~~ 0=E

EXPANSION

Figure 9-2. The variouS steps in a reciprocating compressor cycle. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982: courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

39B

Gas ProdllctiOfI Engineering

Gas Compression

399

tively low horsepower. They are easy to install, operate and maintain, and are used primarily in distribution systems where the pressure differential between suction and discharge is quite small. The four types of rotary compressors, indicated in Figure 9-1, are described as follows.

(\~

Sliding- Vane Compres:!lOrs The sliding-vane oompr~or consists of axial vanes that slide in a

identical in operation to the reciprocating compressor, except that it no valves. The inlet and discharge conditions are determined by the location of the vanes that move over the inlet and discharge ports. The compression cycle begins when the leading vane of each pocket uncovers the intake port, as ~hown in Figure 9-~. As the rotor turns, the pocket volume decreases and gas IS compressed, until the discharge port is uncovered by the leading vane of each pocket. Because this discharge point is prefixed in the design, the rotary sliding-vane compressor always compresses gas to the design pressure, regard.l~ of the pressure in the receiver into which it is discharging. Shdmg-vane compressors can typically handle 3,000 cfm of gas, with a maximum discharge pressure of 50 psig per compression stage. They are primarily used as air compressors, boosters, and vacuum pumps.

Figure 9-4. The operating cycle of a rotary two-impeller straight-lobe compressor. (From Compressed Ai, and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy ollngersollRand Co.)

Two-Impeller Stmight/A.lhe Compressors

ROTOR WlTl'1 NDN-I>IETAlliC SLIDING VANES.

GAS IS GRADUAllY COI>IPR[SSEO AS POCKETS GET SI>IAllER

Also known as rotary blower, the rotary two-impeller straight-lobe compressor consists of two identical rotors (or impellers) mounted symmetrically in a casing (Figure 9-4). The rotors usually have a cross section similar to the numeral eight. The two rotors intermesh, and rotate in opp05ite directions. One of the rotors is driven directly, while the other is driven and kept in phase by means of phasing/timing gears. The rotors do not directly compress the gas or reduce its volume and there is no internal compression; they merely transmit the gas from the inlet to the discharge. Compression occurs by backflow into the casing from the discharge line at the time the discharge port is uncovered. It is a simple device. with no contact between the rotors or between rotors and casing. The operation is shown in Figure 9-4, with the light shading indicating gas at inlet pressure, and the dark shading indicating gas at discharge pressure. Rotary blowers can typically handle gas at 15,000 cfm, with a maximum discharge pressure of 20 psig or less per compression stage.
LiquidPiston Compressors

DlSCHARGf AS ROTOR TURN~, GAS IS TRAPIN POCkETS FORMED 8Y VANES COMPRESSED GAS IS PUSHED OUT Tl'1ROUGH DISCHARGE PORT

Figure 93. The steps involved in compression lor a rotary sliding-vane comt~.)sor. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand

Liquid-piston compressors use water or another liquid as the piston to compress and displace the gas. They are not used much in the natural gas industry.

'00

Gas Production Engineering


COlnptTSlJOra

Cas Compression

.01

IlelicaJ-LoJH or SpiraILobe

Helical-lobe compressors use two helical-type intermeshing rotors, giving a d~harge pressure typically up to ISO psig per compression stage for gas f10wmg at 3.000 elm. They are primarily used for vacuum and specialty applications at moderate pressum;:, but have not found significant application in the natural gas industry. Dynamic Compressors

impeller. The velocity thus generated is converted into pressure partly in the impeller itself, and partly in stationary diffusers following the impeller. Centrifugal compressors have low maintenance costs because they have fewer moving parts-only the shaft and impeller rotate. Delivery is continuous, without cyclic variations. The discharge pressure from a single stage is about 100 psig, but the flow capacity is very high, up to about 100,000 cfm. They adapt easily to multistage operations, enabling greater compression. Multistage centrifugal compressor units with two or more impellers in series, each with its own radial diffuser. are often built as a single unit. as shown in Figure 9-6.

Dynamic compressors operate by transferring energy from a rotating set of blades to the gas. The rotor effects this energy transfer by changing the pressure and momentum of the gas. The Olomentum also is subsequently converted into pressure by reducing the gas velocity in stationary blades or diffusers. The three types of dynamic compressors are as follows .

/OIFFUSER

VOLUTE

f-__-:____L-__:'O:'L':":T,;O' I STR[Afroj

hVOI..UTE'I OIHUSE~

VOLUTE

LINE

SPACER

II

_~-IMP[LL[R---:f--fl-_

/ ' - '" ,

RADIAL _ _\---"~
DIFFUSER VOLUl OLLECTOR ARROWS SHOW DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW :::::::::::::::::::

Figure 9-6. Cross-sectional view 01 a typical multistage uncooled centrifugal compressor. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of ingersollRand Co.)

Figure 9-5. A typical overhung-impeller single-stage centrifugal compressor. (From Compressed Afr and Gas Data. 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

Axial-Flow

Com~rll

Ce1ltrifogal ComprTlflOrl In centrifugal compressors, gas flow is radial, and the energy transfer is e~fected predominantly by changing the centrifugal forces acting on the gas. F~gure 9-5 shows a single-stage centrifugal compressor. The impeller has radIal or backward leaning vanes usually between two shrouds. The mechanical action of the rapidly rotating impeUer vanes force the gas through the

In axial-flow compressors, gas flow is parallel to the compressor shaft (axial), because unlike centrifugal compressors, there is no vortex action. Energy is transferred by means of a number of stages of blades. Each stage consists of two rows of blades-one row (mounted on the rotor) rotating, and the next row (mounted on the casing or stator) stationary. Both the rotor and stator contribute almost equally to the pr~ure rise generated by the axialflow compressor. It is a high-speed. large-capacity machine with characteristics quite different from the centrifugal type of compressor. A multistage axial-flow dynamic compressor is shown in Figure 9-7.

402

Gu, Production EFlgint'erillf(

Gas Comprurion

403

Ejectors generally give a relatively small compression ratio. But they have no moving parts. so that maintenance and wear is minimum. Although they can handle liquid carryover without physical damage, they should not be exposed to a steady flow of liquid.

Figure 97. Cross-sectional view of a typical axialflow dynamic compressor


(From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)

'"
.\tixed-FfoU' CompreSllOrs

These have gas flow that is in between axial and centrifugal, and combine some characteristics of both the centrifugal and axial types. Because of the long length required for each stage, mixed-flow compressors are generally not used as multistage units. Ejectors

---- SHAM

Figure 9--8. Pressure and velocity variations within a steam Jet ejector handhng air. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

Compressor Selection Several factors must be considered in selecting a compressor for a particular application. A multistage compression system may use different compressor types for its stages in order to optimize performance or enable more desirable operating features. Some major considerations in selecting compressors are described in this section. The discussion is limited to the two principal types of compressors used most commonly for handling natural gas: reciprocaU'lg, and centrifugal dynamic compressors. In some cases, the analysis can be quite complex and these general guidelines may not be suffi. cient. It is best in such cases to discuss the particular situation with the compressor manufacturers themsel\'es.

An ejector consists of a relatively high-pressure motive steam or gas nozzle discharging a high-velocity jet across a suction chamber into a venturishaped diffuser (Figure 9-8). The gas to be compressed is entrained by the jet in the suction chamber, resulting in a high velocity mixture at the pressure of the steam or gas emanating from the nozzle. The diffuser provides the compression by converting the velocity of the mixture into pressure. The drop in velocity and rise in pressure along the diffuser length is shown in Figure 9-8. Temperature changes are similar to pressure changes, and follow the pressure curve quitecloseJy. The gas is separated from steam in condensers (coolers) that also seT\'e to reduce the gas temperature. Ejectors are generally used to compress from pressures below atmospheric (vacuum) to near atmospheric discharge pressures, such as for pumping waste gases and vapors out of a system. A similar design, known as a thermal compressor, is used for compressing gas from atmospheric to above atmospheric pressures. Thermal compfeW)fS are used where available energy in gas or ~team, instead of being wasted, may be used for compression.

em Characteristica
Cas characteristics such as the ratio of specific heats, compressibility, or moisture content, do not affect the choice of compressor type. Cas composi-

CD.J Compression 404 CO.J Production Engineering

405

tion. however, significantly affects centrifugal compressors-many more stages are required if the inlet gas density is low. Positive-displacement compressors are not much affected by the gas molecular weight, specific gravity. or inlet density.
Flow
Rat~
f10y,

cracking of the lubricating oils. None of the compressors has any signifiadvantage in this respect; intercoolers are required to be used between can h st es to overcome high_temperature problems. Were lb" u ncahng-Ol'1 a~ng and contamination problems are particularly severe, special par~~y_lubricated or nonlubricated reciprocating compressors may be more suitable than the centrifugal compressors.
'" t

For higher

rales, centrifugal machines may be used for the lower The power source to or nvmg e compressor a. I uences choice. Generally, the driver is selected based upon available power source(s), the heat balance or utilization, waste gas use, and other factors. Centrifugal compressors are always preferred if the driver must ~ a turbine; reciprocating type are preferred if the driver must be an electriC ~otor. This is so because motor-driven reciprocating compressors can be dlTec~ly driven by the motor, whereas motor-driven centrifugal compressors requue gears for increasing the speed. The opposite is true for turbines.
Foundation and Floor Spau

atively lower flow rates, the reciprocating compressor can be used for all the stages. F1ow-rate variation is another factor. Reciprocating compressors can handle enormous flow-rate variations with little loss in efficiency. Centrifugal compressors, howe\'er, do not perform efficiently below 50-90% of their rated capacity. In general, reciprocating compressors are more flexible in handling various t)'I>es and sizes of gas f10wstreams than centrifugal compressors.
Cumprnriol1 Ratioll Ulltl Operatil1g PrntUrn

Low compression ratios with moderate capacities favor centrifugal com-

pressors. High compression ratios and higher pressures favor reciprocating compressors. Because too many other factors are involved, defining a precise borderline between these two types is difficult. Variations in inlet and discharge pressures are important to consider also. In reciprocating compressors, if the inlet (suction) pressure is lowered while maintaining the same discharge pressure, the overall horsepower is lowered, the differential pressure of all but the last stage is lowered, and the pressure differential and temperature rise of the last stage are increased. If the suction pressure to the first stage is increased, horsepower of the complete system increases, pressure differential across all but the last stage is increased, while the pressure differential and temperature rise in the last stage are low-

The centrifugal compressor is usually favorable from the point of vie\\ of floor space and foundation requirements. Reciprocating compressors .g~ner ally produce some unbalanced forces during their ope.rati?n, ~ulTlng a foundation that will support their dead weight plus mamtam alignment of the compressor and driver by absorbing the unbalanced forces that may be present.
Contil1uity of o,Jer(ltimi

ered.
In centrifugal compresson, if the suction pressure is raised, the discharge pressure ~iJl increase, frequently beyond the design point, and horsepower will also increase. I the suction pressure is lowered, the centrifugal compressor will not compress to the desired discharge pressure.
Opemtil1g TffllpnTJtUtn

The value of lost production usually exceeds the actual cost of repairs, and continuity of operation or availability becomes an important ~actor. ~y namic compressors can operate uninterrupted for a longer perIod of bme and their malfunctioning (stoppage) is more predictable than reciprocating compressors. However, the average yearly availability of both compressor types is very high and quite similar.
Capital C03'~ It is difficult to compare the cost of centrifugal compressors versus rec.iprocating compressors. For the same \'olume, pressure, and other compressIOn factors, gas specific gravity influences the cost of the centrifugal compressor but not the reciprocating compressor. Often, the cost of the driver is used. as a cost criterion. As stated earlier, if the power source is conducive to turbme operations, then the centrifugal compressor will be cheaper.

Centrifugal compressors are less affected by high or low temperature extremes than reciprocating compressors in which temperature limitations are imposed by the lubricants. However, the maximum discharge temperature must generall), be kept within some limit to avoid operating problems such

Ga.r Production Enginemng

Ca$ Comprarion

'07 (9-2)

Operating

CQIIU

The operating cost, consisting mainly of the cost of power, throughout the service life of a compr~r far exceeds the capital costs and is therefore a more important consideration. The reciprocating compressor is inherentl} more efficient than the centrifugal compressor, except at very low compression ratios. Very large volumes, low compression ratios, and low discharge pressures favor the centrifugal compressor from an operating cost viewpoint.
Maintenance
COfIU

where k is the isentropic exponent, which is equal to the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure (Cp) and the specific heat at constant volume (c.) for the gas (as discussed in Chapter 7 also):
(9-3)

where cp and c. are in Btu/lbmole. In thermodynamic terms, Cp for ideal gases is given by:
C, -

It is generally accepted that for the same gas that is clean, non-corrosive, and under the same terminal pressure conditions, maintenance is less on the centrifugal compressor than the reciprocating compressor. For more difficult compression problems, maintenance requirements for both compressor types increase, and become more nearly equal, though the centrifugal compressor will frequently require a little less maintenance.

(ah) - Iff) aT, (au) _(ah) _R aT, aT


p

And c. for ideal gases is given by:


c" _

Compression Processes Gas compression processes can be thermodrnamically characterized into three types: isothermal compression, isentropic or adiabatic re\ersible compression, and polytropic compression. Isothermal Compression Isothermal compression occurs when the temperature is kept constant during the compression process. The pressure-volume behavior of the gas is given by:
(9-1)

- c, - R - I(T)
implying that for ideal gases,
c, -

(9-4)

c, - R -

C, - 1.986

where h - specific molal enthalpy, Btu/lbmole u '" specific molal internal energy, Btu llbmole T '* temperature, O R R ... gas constant. equal to 1.986 BtuiJbmole Thus, c p and c.. are functions of temperature only for ideal gases. For real gases, however, Cp and c. are functions of both pressure and temperature:

where

V I, V 2

Ph pz - gas pressures at states 1 and 2, respectively - gas volumes at states 1 and 2, respectively C - constant

c" c" - l(p, T)


and Cp - c.. is given by Equation 3-5i (Figure 3-(7):
C, -

Isentropic Compression

c. _ - T (.p/aT),

The compression process is adiabatic reversible or isentropic (constant entropy) if the gas behaves as an ideal gas, no heat is added to or removed from the gas during compression, and the process is frictionless. The pres sure-volume behavior of a gas under isentropic compression or expansion is given by:

(ap/aVh

The more complex the molecular structure, the higher the Cp is for the gas. Using Equation 9-4, c.. can be eliminated, and k can be expressed for ideal gases as:

...
and
k- 1

Cas Production Engincmng

Ga! Compre:Rion
(9-5)

'09

k -~-

c.

c,. -

c,.

I. 986

,
~

c .--c

_k __

1.986

(9-6)

i ,
W

\~ .~,
,"
I

,,

M:-POLYTfIM'IC

AIAOI .... ATIC AC-POLTTAOPIC

~ ~ ~ ~

'\ \:~ .-~ ~~.I~ , " ' AO-lSOTH(AM'L


... '"

FI gure 99. Theoretical pres

Polytropic Compression
For "real" gases under actual conditions (with friction and heat transfer), the compression process is polytropic, where the poi)tropic exponent n applies instead of the adiabatic exponent k:

, ,
, , ,
G

,:"'>, ~~

TKEOA(TlCU I ,NO Cl(l,AAMC[

relationships for ,arious gas compressIon pro

S ure-volume

cesses (From Compressed Air


8 nd Gas
A

Data, 1982; courtesy of

g.e.r:sol.l:Baod Co )

,-,
VOLUME
1

(9-7)
Characteristics of Compression Processes Isothermal compression is difficult to achieve, because it is not possible commercially to remove the heat of compression as rapidly as it is generated. Adiabatic compression is also not possible in practice because it is difficult to prevent heat exchange during the compression-expansion C)'CIes. Most positive-displacement comp~rs, however, approach adiabatic behavior, and are designed using the adiabatic compression/expansion process. Other compressors are designed using the polytropic cycle, which includes the effect of non-ideal gas under non-ideal conditions. and makes no assumptions regarding the compression Procf'S'i. The adiabatic process is reversible, while the other two types are irreversible. Figure 9-9 shows the theoretical zero-clearance work (or horsepower) necessary to compress a gas between any two pressure limits for various compression processes. For a given process, the area under its pressure-volume curve indicates its theoretical work requirements. The isothermal compression process gives the minimum theoretical compression work requirements (area ADEF). whereas the adiabatic compression process gives the m~um theoretical compression work requirements (area ABEF). A polytropiC compression process for reciprocating compressors with water*cooled cylinders generally exhibits theoretical compression work requirements that are in between the upper and lower limits of the adiabatic and isothermal compression processes, respectively (area ACEF). On the other hand, a poly_ tropic ~mpression process for uncooled dynamic compressors typically has theoretical compression work requirements that exceed even the adiabatic process (area AC'EF).

The horsepower requirements for an adiabatic or polytropic compression process can be reduced by making the process approach isothermal compres sion, such as by using multiple stages with intercoolers between the stages. This, in fact , is one important purpose of intercoolers between multistage compressors. Reciprocating compressors most common1y cool the gas to its original intake temperature between the compressions stages that are frequently built as a single unit driven from a single crankshaft. Dynamic compressors, however, have several stages in the same casing, normally without any intercooling. To improve compression efficiency of dynamic units, their internal diffusers or diaphragms are sometimes watercooled, and the gas is intercooled in external heat-exchangers after every few stages of compression. Exponents for the Isentropic and Polytropic Processes The exponent k can be determined using Equation 93 if Cp and Co. are known, or from Equation 95 if Cp is known for the gas. As discussed in Chapter 3, the low p~ure c~ can be determined using Equation 359 (by Hankinson et al.) if the gas gravity, but not the composition, is known; or by Kay's mixing rule if the gas composition is known. This low pressure cp can be corrected for p~ure using Figure 319 and the gas pseudoreduced pres Sure and temperature. For natural gases in the gravity range O.55<y.< 1, k at a temperature of 150F can be determined using the following empirical relationship (Ikoku, 1984), (k) 1!'iO'~': 2.738 - log Yl 2.328
(9-81

410

Ga.~

Productwn Enl':ineering

GO! Compres.rlon

411

Although the exponent n actually changes during compression, an effective or average value. determined experimentally for a given gas and compressor type. is generally used. The value of n may be lower or higher than k: n is usually less than k for positive-displacement and internally-cooled dynamic compressors, whereas the opposite is true for uncooled dynamic unit~ due to internal gas friction.

The value of n is experimentally determined using the ideal gas law


(Pv ... nRT) along with the polytropic compression/expansion relationship

given by Equation 9-7, resulting in:

T! "" /P2)(n-ll,n _ T(n II'n


Tl

~I

(9-9)

where Ph p~ = TJ. T2 = r _ n ...

pressures at states 1 and 2, respectively temperatures at states 1 and 2, respectively pressure ratio. equal to P2iPI polrtropic exponent

In compression terminology, PI and P2 are the compressor inlet and discharge pressures, respectively, and r is called the compression ratio. Equation 9-9 relates the intake pressure and temperature and the discharge pressure and temperature for a compre.w>r using the pol}tropic compression cycle, or the isentropic compression cycle if n is replaced by k:

(9- 10)

Figure 9-10 may be used for solving Equation 9-9 or 9-10. Another way of estimating n is by using correlations for polytropic efficiency, as shown in Figure 9-11. The pol~1ropic efficiency. 'lp. relates nand k as follows:
(k - l ), k 1)/n
(9- 11)

"lip - (n

so

IHLET VOLUME - ]oil/MIN


100 tOO _00 toO 1000 :000

,. " ~
u

<

""',' .' ' .,...


,'~

"

,.,-, ... "

..

::':~'::::-':'
.,,~.,

.... 4 _ .......

-:-::.;:.:::::....

Figure 910. Theoretical discharge temperatures for singlestage compression Read r to k to T, to T2 . (From Engineering Data Book. 1981 . courtesy of GPSA.)

~ " ~ "

"
n

- -

'.

V
-

./
: I

VZ 1 , INLET YO\..UfIj[ -

I; I
, ,

Figure 9-11. Approximate polytropic compression efficiency of a dynamic compressor versus inlet capacity. (From Compressed Air and Gas Dara, 1982: cour tesy ollngersoU-Rand Co.)

, ,

, ,

0 IIZO 100)010000 THOUSOlNOS ~ cr ...

GQ3 Productiorl Engineering Cas Compres.rion

NO.te that '1p relates the quantities (k - 1)/k and (n - 1)/ n, which are reqUired more often than k or n.

Compressor Design Fundamentals From the perspective of compressor users such as gas engineers, compres sor design involves only the determination of compressor capacity and power requirements for a given application, in order to select the t}1Je and size of compressor required. Multistaging There are practical limits to the permissible amount of compression for a single compression stage. The limitations vary with the type of compressor, and include the follOWing: Discharge temperature-all types. Compression efficiency (energy requirements)-all t}1JeS. Mechanical stress (rod loading) problems- all types. Pressure rise or differential-dynamic units, and most lX>Sitive-displacement units. 5. Compression ratio-dynamic units. 6. Effect of clearance-reciprocating units. Whenever any limitation is im'olved, it becomes necessary to use multiple compression stages (in series). Furthermore, muJtistaging may be required from a purely optimization standpoint. For example, with increasing compression ratio r, compression efficiency decreases and mechanical stress and temperature problems become more severe. Therefore, if a greater compression ratio is desired, multiple compression stages must be used. Intercoolers are generally used between the stages to increase compression efficiency as well as to lower the gas temperature that may become undesirably high (as given by Equation 9-9 or 9-10), especially for high compression ratios. Compressor Design Methods

Exampk 9.1. A gas is being compressed from 100 psia and 150F to 2,500 psia. Determine its compression parameters (k, Z, 'YJ at the suction end. The gas has the following composition (expressed as mole fraction):

C, - 0.9216, C, - 0.0488, C, - 0.0185, i - C~ - 0.0039, n - C4 .. 0.0055, i - C~ _ 0.0017


Solution
Camp.

y,
0.9216 0.0488 0.0185 0.0039 0.0055 0.0017

M,
16.043 30.070 44.097 58.124 58.124 72.151

C, C, C,
i-C 4 n-C 4 i-Cs

667.8 707.8 616.3 529.1 550.7 490.4

'"

To

c"
8.95 13.78 19.52 25.77 25.81 31.66

343.1 549.8 665.7 734.7 765.4 828.8

1. 2. 3. 4.

M .. Ey,M; .. 17.737lbm/lbmole Therefore, 1'1 - MI28.97 .. 17.737/28.97


=

0.612
_

))pc, - I:YiPci" 667.313 psia, and TI'" -- I:ylT d

363.831 oR

Therefore, PP, = p/Pp.." 100/667.313 _ O.ISO and T p,


-

TlTpr " (460 + 150) /363.831 "" 1.677

From Figure 3-2, the gas Z factor at suction == 1.0

C; - I:Y4 .. 9.578 Btu/lbmole-R


From Figure 3-19, for Pl"" O.ISO, and T p, " 1.677, ACp" 0.15 Btul lbmole-R. Therefore, Cp .. c;: + ACp - 9.578 + 0.15 .. 9.728 Btullbmole-R - 0.548 Btu/lbmoR Fwm Equation 9-5, k - c,J(c, - 1.986) - 9.728/(9.728 _ 1.9B6) - 1.2565 The design of each compression stage is best considered separately because of pressure losses and temperature changes in the intercoolers and piping between the stages, condensation (if any) of water vapor from the gas, and the consequent volume changes of the gas. The three methods used for compressor design calculations are: (1) anal}tic expressions derived from basic thermodynamic relationships; (2) enthalpy versus entropy charts, commonly known as Mollier diagrams, for ideal isentropic compression processes; and (3) empirical "quickie" charts. frequently provided by compressor manufacturers for quick estimates. The method to use depends upon the accuracy desired and the amount of data available. In many cases, very great accuracy is not required: compressors

414

Cas PrUc/llcti(m Engilleerillg

Gas Compressioll

415

are rarely chosen to satisfy a given requirement very precisely. Overdesign is quite common in order to provide an operating safety factor and to ensure that expensive compression equipment is not required to be enhanced or replaced for relatively small capacity increases in the flOWing system. All three methods. therefore, Bnd application in determining the compressor to use.
Th~

(9-14)

From the ideal gas law, for a unit mass of gas:

Analytic ",pproach

PI V, '" ~ .. (28.9i h K
where PI '" V,,.. M "" Z ~ "" TI "" )'~ "" intake pressure, psia intake volume, ft1 molecular weight of the gas, Ibm.'lbmole gas compressibility factor at intake conditions gas constant ( 10.732 psia-ft1llbmole- O R) gas intake temperature. O R gas specific gravity (air - 1 basis)

ZIRT I

ZIRT,

AC'OOrding to the general energy equation (Equation ;2 in Chapter j. the theoretical work required to compress a unit mass of gas from pressure PI at state 1 to ~ at state 2 is given by:
w -

Jp, Vdp + .lvz!2g.. + (glg.J.6z + I"


I':l

(9-12)

where w - \",'ork done by the compressor on the gas, ft.lbf/lbm V .. volume of a unit mass of gas, ft1llbm p .. pressure, Ibf/ft 2 v - gas flow velOCity, (t/sec z .. elevation above a datum plane, ft I" '" lost work due to friction and irreversibilitie.s, ft-lbfllbm g .. gravitational acceleration (= 32.17 ft /sec2) g.. - conversion constant re1ating mass and weight ( _ 32.17Ibm-ft Ibf-sec') Neglecting frictional losses, and the changes in kinetic and potential energies, the energy baJance of Equation 912 can be written as:
w -

Substituting for R and neglecting ZI which is unity for intake conditions at or near atmospheric, we obtain: (10.732)T, PlY' -

(28.97h~

(9-15)

Substituting for PIV I from Equation 9-15 into Equation 9-14:


w-~_

(9-16)

k (53.345)T, ((k r k-l )'11:

Ii k _

1)

JPt Vdp p,

where

r - (P2,'PI) is the compression ratio w _ compression work. ft-Ibf.lbm

Substituting for V from Equation 92, we get: w - Cl k 1'1 p lkdp


p,

We usually need. to compute the compression power per MM.scfd of gas flow, rather than the work \v required per pound-mass of gas, Now, (9-13)
1 ft+lbf _ 1 ft-Ibf/min Ibm Ibm/ min

where C is a constant, Upon integration, Equation 9-13 becomes:


w _

The gas flow rate in Ibm/min can be converted to MMscfd as follows:


z..,RT"" __ ~I . 1 Ibm/min ____ sef/min _ 1O.732T", :.t..'T OlIO p."M 28.97)'iCP.., _ (1440)(10.732)T. MM"'lday (28.97)(IO'h,p.. Using this and the fact that 1 hp - 33,000 ft.lb/ min:

~
k

CI

k- 1

k(~k

I).k _ p\k-I)'k]

.. k -1 PI(C/pl)Ik[(Pt/PI)lk-llk - IJ
Converting pressure p from units of Ibf/fi2 to lbf/in.!, and substituting for Ci PI from Equation 9-2, we get:

416

Cas Compression

1 ftlbf _ (28.97)(IO'h,p.(II33.000) hp Ibm (1440)(10.732)T. MMocflday

_ (O.0568056h,v..
Toe

hp Mr-.lscfd

The compressor discharge temperature C;1n be calculated using Equation 9-9 for polytropic compression or Equation 9-10 for isentropic compression. The heat removed in the intercoolers or aftercooler can be calculated using the average specific heat at constant pressure, (Cpl." as fol1ows:

Equation 9-16 can now be written in terms of the ideal horsepower per
MM.scfd. IHpiMM.scFd (hp MMscfd), required for compressing the gas

"H - n,(c,).. "T


where

(9-21)

through a compression ratio r as follows:


IHP
M~""fd

_ 3.0303 p.,T I _k_


TIC

(r1k-llk _

1)

k- 1

(9-17)

.o.H ., heat remo ....ed, Btu n>l. - numher of mole: of gas being cooled (Cp)., - constant pressure molal specific heat of the gas at cooler pressure and average cooler temperature, Btu/lbmole-f .o.T '" difference in gas temperature between the inlet and outlet of the cooler, of

where PI<' (psia) and T sc (OR) aTC the standard conditions of pressure and temperature, respectively, at which the standard cubic feet is defined. Thus,

Mollia Cha,.ts

the ideal (or theoretical) horsepower required for compre;sing Ck MMscfd gas measured at pressure PO(' psia and temperature To< oR is given by:
IHP _ 3.0303 q,..p..T! _k_
(TI1- If k _

Mol1ier charts for a gas are plots of enthalpy versus entropy as a function of pressure and temperature. Mollier charts for natural gases with specific gravities in the range of 0.6 to 1.0 are shown in Figures 9-12 through 9-17.
(text continued on page 419)

1)

To<

k- 1

(9.18)

where k is the specific heat ratio at suction conditions. This analysis assumed an ideal gas. Where deviation from idealgas behavior is significant, Equation 9-18 is empirically modified in several different ways. One such modification is:
(9-19)

i,

where Zl, ~ - gas compressibility factors at the suction and discharge, respectively Tl - inlet temperature, oR Temperature can be eliminated in Equation 9-19 if the gas flow rate is measured at suction temperature Tl (OR): IHP _ 3.0303 Q.IP.(ZI + z,) _k_ (rHI" _ I) 2Z 1 k- 1
(9-20)

",.. i
>
<

I i

where q.l is the gas flow rate in MMscfd measured at any arbitrary pressure p. psia and suction temperature Tl oR. A similar analytic expression can be deri\'ed for the polytropic compression process also.

Figure 9 12. Enthalpy-entropy diagram for O.60..gravity natural gas. (Alter Brown, 1945; courtesy of SPE of AiM E.)

41'

cOJ

Compression

419

! ,
,

'."
i, < !

; ,

'."

; , > i, ,

Figure 9-13. Enthalpy-entropy diagram for O.70-gravity natural gas. (After Brown. 1945; courtesy of SPE 01 AIM E.)

EntrOO>Y. BIY I*'

" 1>OU"Id-_

1* <Io9rM

10

12

Figure 9-15. Enthalpy-entropy diagram for a.90-gravity natural gas_ (After Brown, 1945; courtesy of SPE of AIME.)

(text continued from page 417)

!, '." '."

I I

;l

f
."'0'".

[tt,. . .".

8tu

poor _ " " - _ _ ......

Figure 9-14. Enthalpy-entropy diagram for O.SO-gravity natural gas. (After Brown, 1945; courtesy of SPE of AIM E.)

This method is a fairly good technique for solving comp~ion problems for compressors that exhibit isentropic (ideal) compression, such as the reciprocating compressors, provided a Mollier chart is available for the gas being compressed. On a Mollier chart, an isothermal compression PI"()CeSS can be traced by following the constant temperature lines, whereas an isentropic compression process can be traced simply as a verticalJine parallel to the ordinate. Inter cooling, a constantpressure (isobaric) process, is represented by following the constant pressure lines. Thus, an ideal compression process can be represented on a Mollier diagram, and the state of the gas (pressure, temperature, enthalpy, entropy) at the beginning or end of a compression process can be determined directly. Figures 9-18 and 9-19 show such a procedure for a sin g1e-stage and two-stage reciprocating compressor, respectively. In Figure 9-18, inlet gas is compressed isentropically from the inlet conditions repre sented by point 1 to the outlet conditions represented by point 2. Point 1 is determined by the given pressure and temperature conditions at the suction end. whereas point 2 is known from the desired compression ratio (or dis charge pressure). Figure 9-19 shows a two-stage compression process with an intercooler between the two stages and an aftercooler. The dotted line 1-2

420

Gaj ProdllC'tion J.:lIgineering

COJ

Cornpre3rion

421

,
,

,.. ! ...
,
I

indicates isentropic compression in the first stage. The gas is then cooled in the intercooler at constant pressure, as shown by line 2-3. Line 3-4 shows the second isentropic compression stage, and line 45 shows the isobaric cooling in the aftercooler. Neglecting heat transfer from the gas to the compression equipment and surroundings. lost work due to friction. and kinetic energy changes, the energy balance can be expressed as:

(9-22)
where w - work done by the compressor on the gas, Btu .6.H - change in enthalpy of the gas, Btu n, - number of moles of gas being compressed, lbmoles hI> h2 "" enthalpies of the gas at the compressor inlet and discharge, respectively, Btu/lbmole

E~""",,_ 8,~

-.

A lot of useful information regarding the compression process can be in_

-.0><1-"""" po.dtW..

" ,

ferred from MolHer diagrams_ Referring to the Mollier diagram of Figure

9-19 for example, the net change in enthalpy (h z - h i) is known, and the work done in the first stage of compression can be computed using Equation
9-22. Similarly, the work done in the second compression stage can be calculated using the enthalpy change (h.. - hJ). Intercooling requirements (heat removed in the intercooler) are given by the difference in enthalpy beN'een

Figure 9-16. Enthalpy-entropy diagram lor 1.O-gravity natural gas. (After Brown, 1945; courtesy of SPE 01 AIM E.)

I
~

f,

I
I I

I' z

-11 -'4 -12 -10 -I

-I _ ,

-2

10

12

14

1
ENTROPY

("''''''Y. "" -

111-- _

""""

Figure 9-17. Enthalpy-entropy diagram for O.70-gravity natural gas containing 10% nrtrogen. (After Brown, 1945; courtesy of SPE of AIM E.)

Figure 9-18. Mollier diagram of a single-stage compression process.

422

Gas Production Engineering

Gas Compression

'23

hi - enthalpy of gas at intake, Btu/lbmole hz ,., enthalpy of gas at discharge, Btu/lbmole This power requirement in Btu/day can be converted to horsepower, IHP in hp, as follows:
STAGE-I

1 hp 778.2 ft-lbffmin ng(hz - hlH Btu/day IHP ,. 33,000 ft-Ibf/ min Btu/m in 1440 min/day 1.6376 x 10 - ~ n,:(h z - hi )
t
(9-24)

(i)

where IHP - ideal compression horsepower required. hp.

G) <V KNOCKOUT ORUMSnO REMO .... E CONOENSEO LIQUID" @ COMPRESSORS .FIRST AND SECOND STAGB.

Empirical "Quickie" Charts

INTERSTAG[ COOLER/INTtRCOOLER AI'"TERCOOL [R

PRESSURE, PSIA

This method uses actual compressor manufacturers' charts that relate compression horsepower requirements to the applicable compression process variables. This method has its advantages- it is simple and easy to use. and it directly gives the actual requirements that include efficiency and other factors for the actual real compressor. However, because only the most important compression variables are considered and the charts are quite spe_ cific for some assumed gas and compressor type, this method may not be very accurate or more generally applicable to all cases. Usually, it gives slightly higher results than the other two more exact methods. Further details regarding this approximate empirical method of compressor design are discussed in succeeding sections on the design of reciprocating and centrifugal compressors. Estimating the Actual (Brake) Horsepower From Ideal Horsepower

[NTROPY, Bhll'lbmol F _ _

Figure 9-19 . Molher diagram of a two-stage compression process.

points 2 and 3. Similarly, the heat required to be removed in the aftercooler


is equal to the difference in enthalpy between points 4 and 5. The ideal compression power (or rate of work) required is given by:

The actual horsepower supplied by the compressor engine or driver is known as brake horsepower (BHP). The BHP required by a compressor is always greater than the ideal or theoretical horsepower IHP. The energy Iosseo; are represented by two t)1>e5 of efficiencies: compression efficiency, "lie. and mechanical efficiency of the compressor, "11m' Compression efficiency is the ratio of the theoretical work requirement for a given process (IHP) to the actual work required within the compressor cylinder or shaft to compress and deliver the gas (CUP):

(9-23) where P - compression power required. BtuJday ng - number of moles of gas being compressed t - time for compression, days
oc.
(9-25)

Cal Compression

425

The compression efficiency fie includes effects due to thermodynamic deviations from the theoretical compression process (such as gas turbulence and heating of the incoming gas), and fluid friction and leakage 1U'iSeS. For reciprocating compressors, it may also include a factor known as volumetric efficiency, to be discussed later. Compression efficiency does not include mechanicallU'iSeS. Besides some factors related to the compressor itseU that may affect the compression process, compression efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, such as suction pressure, compression ratio, and compressor ~~ and loading. The degree to which these factors affect compression efficiency, however, is different for different compressor types. Mechanical efficiency, defined as the ratio of the compression power required within the compression chamber to the actual horsepower supplied to it, includes frictional JU'iSeS in compressor packings and bearings, piston ringo;, and other moving parts: BHP
=

compression to overcome the several limitations. such as compression ratio achievable, inherent in single-stage compression. In designing reciprocating compressors, the compression ratio r is rarely allowed to exceed a value of 4.0, and a r ::S 6 is considered the practical limit. Theoretically, the total power required is a minimum when perfect intercooling is provided, there is no pressure loss between the stages, and the compression ratio in each stage is the same. Thus, the optimum compression ratio for each stage is given by:
(9-28)

where rop< r, .. n,. .. Pd .. P...

optimum compression ratio per stage total compression ratio desired total number of stages final discharge pressure, psia suction pressure at the very first stage, psia

GHP + mechanical losses "" GHP

'm

(9-26)

The mechanical efficiency. flm' is related to the compressor type, its design details, and the mechanical condition of the unit; the operating parameten; of the compression process do not affect it significantly. The BHP can be directly computed from IHP using an overall efficiency factor, fI:

If intercoolers are provided between the stages, reduce the theoretical intake prac;ure of each stage by about 3% to allow for interstage pressure drop. This is equivalent to dividing the theoretical r from Equation 9-28 by
(O.97)'~.

BHP~ IHP

where the overall efficiency, fI, is equal to the product of the compression and mechanical eficiencies:

(9-27)

In practice. although Equation 9-28 results in minimum power, the net work or energy required varies oo1y by a fraction of a percent for relatively large variations in the compression ratios for individual stages. This is an important fact, often used for flexibility in design for economic and technical reasons.

Exam,m 9-2. For the problem given in Example9-1, what is the compression ratio and how many reciprocating compressor stages are required if: (a) intercooUng is not provided, and (b) intercooling is provided.

In most modern compressors, 'Ie is in the range of 83% to 93% and '1m ranges from 88% to95% (Ikoku, 1984). Thus, the overall compression efficiency 'I ( - 'le'l",) ranges from 73 % to 88 % for most modern compressors.

Solution

(a) Without intercooling. Designing Reciprocating Compressors Number of Stages The first parameter in designing a compression system is to determine the number of stages. As discussed earUer, it becomes necessary to use multistage From Equation 9.28, rop! - (Pd/p,V"'''' (2.500/100)] ... ., 25! ... For For

n. ... 1, r .. 25, which is too high and hence unacceptable. n. .. 2. r .. 5, which is less than 6, hence acceptable.

Thus, 2 compression stages are required, giving an r ... 5.

426

GaJ Prod'lclioll Engineering

CD", Compression

427

(b) With intercooling.


Allowing for Intcrstage pressure drop,
Copt

'.----!
=

(25:'0.97)1 ... _ 25.773 L ...

Repeating the procedure, for n. ,., 2. r - 5.077, which is less than 6. hence acceptable.

Thus. 2 compression stages are required, gi~;ng an r - 5.077 ,


Horsepower Requirements The ideal horsepower IHP for reciprocating compressors can be obtained using either the analytical method (Equation 9-19 or 9-20) , or Mollier charts along with Equation 9-24. For the anal}tical method, intercooling requireme"l~ can be calculated using Equation 9-21. provided the specific heat for the gas being compressed is known. In the Mollier chart method, intercooliog requirements can be determined directly from the enthalpy change indi o

PISTON
_ __ _ YOlUIU

!--<'CfU.l

c.p.an

OtSPl .. t[~("T

Figure 9-20, Pressure-volume diagram for the compression cycle of an actual reciprocating compressor showing the effect of clearance.

cated on the enthalpy-entropy diagram. The IHP can be converted to brake horse{XIwer requirements using Equation 9-27 if the overall efficiency "If is known. For reciprocating compressors, volumetric (or clearance) efficiency is an important component of compression efficiencY"If< and, consequently. the overall efficiency "If.
Volumetric Effu:irtlCy

(9-30)

where V I and V3 are the volumes on the pressure-volume diagram shown in Figure 9-20. Volume V3 , representing the ....olume at the cylinder end not swept by the piston, is called clearance volume. Clearance, usually varying from 0.04 to 0.16, limits compressor throughput, and also results in horsepower being wasted in ~imply compressing and re-expanding the trapped

The ....olumetric or clearance efficiency. "If, . of a reciprocating compressor is defined as the ratio of the \'Olume of gas actually delivered, corrected to suction pressure and temperature, to the piston displacement. It represents the efficiency of the compressor cylinder in compressing the gas. and accounts for gas leakage, heating of gas as it enters the compression chamber. throttJing efrect on \ahes, re-expansion of trapped gas, etc. The theoretical volumetric efficiency, "If" is a function of the compression ratio and clearance, as follows: "If, - 1 - (rlk - l )CI where r .. compression ratio k .. isentropic exponent for the compression process CI .. clearance, fraction
(9-29)

g",

The actual volumetric efficiency includes factors for other effects such as incomplete filling of the cylinder, leakage. and friction (A), and lubrication (Lu), "lfv-l-A-Lu-Cl where

," (z~2 - 1 )

(9-31)

A _ factor for incomplete filling of the cylinder, leakage, friction, etc.; it is usually between 0.03 and 0.06 Lu _ compressor lubrication factor, generally 0.05 for non-lubricated compressors and zero otherwise Z" ~ _ gas compressibility factors at the suction and discharge, respectively

Clearance is defined as the ratio of clearance ....olume to the piston displacement (see Figure 9-20):

From Equations 9-29 and 9-31, it is obvious that the volumetric efficiency 1). increases with decreasing compression ratio, r, increasing isentropic expO-

428

Gat Production Engineering

G<u Compression

429

nent, k (for r > 1), and decreasing clearance. CI. These parameters can be varied to alter the volumetric efficiency and, consequently, the flow capacity of a reciprocating compressor. Sometimes clearance is added to reduce the capacity for fixed operating pressure conditions, or to prevent overloading the driver under variable operating pressure conditions by reducing the capacity as compression ratio changes. Figure 9-21 shows the effect of clearance on the volumetric efficiency of reciprocating compressors. The effect of compression ratio (all other factors
CLEARANCE

RATIO-4

60
,'.'....,

r~l":-

..." "",-<' y. ~
141.
.~

,l'~

\~~ '"
eo

I'~~

"-

~
64 6'1. V

o
114

PERCENT PISTON DISPLACEMENT

16." 'IE

881""'[

114 100 121 107

60

40

20

Figure 922. Effect of different co.mpression ratios on the vol~metric efficiency 01 a reciprocating compressor cylinder. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

PERCENT PISTON DISPLACEMENT

Figure 9-21 . Effect of clearance on the volumetric efficiency at constant compression ratio for reciprocating compressors. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

60
u

~K.ll ",~
", ,,, k.140

being the same) on volumetric efficiency is sho","T1 in Figure 9-22. Figure 923 shows the effect of the specific heat ratio or isentropic exponent, k, on the volumetric efficiency, for a fixed compression ratio and clearance. This discussion may lead one to believe that the clearance CI should be kept as low as ~ible in order to maximize the volumetric efficiency. How ever, lower clearance may reduce the compression efficiency 11< which de pemis primarily upon the valve area, just like volumetric efficiency depends primarily upon clearance. To obtain lower clearances, it is necessary to limit the valve area (size and number of valves). Thus, the designer must find the optimum clearance and valve area, depending upon the application desired for the particular compressor design. Direct Determination of Brake Horsepower Brake horsepower (BHP) requirements for reciprocating compressors can be estimated direct.ly from "quickie" charts. These charts plot the brake horsepower required per million cubic feet of gas per day (BHPIMMcfd),

~ 40 r ~

'" " t--~~ '" w '" 20 :t


1-:-'
~

N: '~12~2<
,,

..
~

I
100 80 60
PERCENT PISTON

"

~,
62,\V[
V[

n.,\

14''\V[

1l~

40 20 OISPLACEMENT

Figure 9-23. Effect of specific heat ratio k on the volumetric effICiency for a given reciprocating compressor cylinder. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)

referred to some defined suction pressure and actual intake temperature, versus the compression ratio r for different values or the isentropic exponent k. Figures 9-24. 9.25, and 926 show such charts by the Ingersoll. Rand Company (1982), based upon the analytic solution (Equation 9-20) cor(tn' continued on page 433)

430

Gas Production Englfleering

Cas Compression

431

66 6' 62
60

IY I" 1 I" / r/ I"


f/ I. V/
/

"0 ,08
'5 ~<>'
~

/1 V
17

, ,
,

w"'"
2

I I
I I

I ,
-t
I

!
I

i!' "

"
'6

"

0;: il
I} V; ~ IJ'l 1/ V

to- V

i"KJO
4

=t=l-~ H-- 1/ ,6 / '/ V ~, 5 / ,


I

I~'

I~

:.

'J.

~ '36
~

in
~

.,
90
8

,4
/

V
V

t/

" " '" ,.

:?
,,'RVI
A

86

V/

~ 84

:!;
~

8Z

,. "

'6

I!J
'f/

~
, , ,, , , , , , , , ; , , , , ,
'

/ VI /. / / ~ 78 / / V/ I/.: ' / '/ /' , 76 ;j / '/ 7 / !/ j0 ~ V '/ / Y /' / 'i u 7 , /, /, Ih 'iV V /' i'l::: ~ 70 ~ i-j/ /. /' ~ 68 /. ~
N
~

i:'oo

V /' /' ,z / / /' '/ V V- /' V / 'i ~ / V V /' y V V- / ' . / 'i V '/. v. /' V V- / '
!/ 1 /
'//
I

VI/

/
'/ /

1 /

/'

i/ Y

,,

/'

V V
V

/' /'

. .

CURVE B

,
,

~ ~

66

~ ~ V / /' V '/ L 6 4~

z;/ '/ V
V

, ,

60
58

IL: /'
32333435363738394041424344 4 5
COt.4PRESSIQN RATIO

COMPRESSION R.6.TlQ

56293 031

Figure 9-24. Compression power requirements for reciprocating compressors_ (From Compressed Ai, and Gas Data. 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

Figure 925. Compression power requirements lor reciprocating compressors. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

.32

GOI Prodl4ction Eng/neerlng

Gal Compre.ulon

'33

" "
"

6
4

V' V Vi
/

70

(ten continued from page 429)

'" 0
8 6

rected for overall efficiency. These figures are applicable for designing each compression stage individually and require the following considerations: 1. Suction pressure of 14.4 psia and actual intake temperature is assumed. The correction factor for intake pressure is generally included in the calculation of BHP (as in Equation 9-32 or 9-33), or obtained from Figure 9-27.

/ ' 60

/
,/
/
,/

,
0
8 6

./

V
/

/
./
/

'V
./ /

/ ' 50 ,45 ./ / , 7 7 40
/
/

,.

V
./ ./
./
./

,
~
110

/
/

/
/
/ /

'V
/

V
, / ./

V
./

", ,
1\ 1;-'

" ,, " ,

tUI'lV( 0

/ ' '0

./

108

7
/

/
./

./
/'

/'

, "
"
5

,\
'\. 1\

/
~

, .8
N
~

rooo

/ V / ./ , / ./
,/

7 7
V

,'0
o

./
./

./
/'

./
./
./

/'

./

./
,/

./
./

./
./

,~

" " ..'" "


~

",
r"'<
,I

.. ,

100TAlIl ,IIt:S_-jOS,.

,, ,

, r-...
1.4 IS

-t.)

~UIO

7
/"

"
~

If

17

,~

20

:1.1

al'IOI'II{SSIOJ<

z "

"

-,, -

'0 "

" "

.. . .

.6

'4
'0

./ ./ ./ ./ ./ ./
./
,/
/

./
./

./
./

/'

~ ~

./

V
./
./
./

V
./
CURVE C

>

Figure 9-27. Suction pressure correctIon factors for compression power requirements for reciprocating compressors. (From Compressed Ai, and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

~ , i
~

88
86
84

./

./

8' . /
4 4 ~ 4 647

01184950 51

COMP~ESSION

525354555657585960 RAllO

Figure 9-26. ComPn:tsslon power requirements for recIprocating comressors. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

2. Gas specific gravity of 1.0 is assumed. Correction factors for gas gravities other than 1.0 are shown in Figure 9-28 . 3. Cas compressibility factor of 1.0 is assumed. Corrections for gas compressibility are frequently included in the calculation of BHP (see Equation 9-33). 4. A mechanical efficiency of 95% and a compression efficiency of 83.5% is assumed. BHP value:; should be corrected if this is not the case. 5. The gas volume to be handled in each stage should be corrected to the actual intake temperature and moisture content at intake to that stage. 6. Allow interstage pressure drop if intercoolers are used. As discussed before, reduce the theoretical intake pressure of each stage by about 3%,

Gos Compression

435

"

,
Note that Equation 9-32 includes the correction factor for intake pressure and if Figure 9-2i is used for correcting the BHP for intake pressure, the factor p..-' 14.4 should be omitted. The BHP from Equation 9-32 is corrected for gas compressibility as follows:
(9-33)

" .. \

" ,"'~
IZ
0-

~ ,

t~

I",

SPECIfiC GRAIIHf

>

.....

I(

~ci
~ ~
II

'",--

I'"
~
'0

""'-

CURVE [

0'


: Q

:;: ...

~~

""

I~

C-

, "- I'---- ~

0-

where Zl and ~ are the gas compressibility factors at the suction and discharge of the compressor. respectiyely. ;o..'ote that this procedure should be applied for one compression stage at a time.

100

0>

. " ';?: ~ " ~ ,. ..


~

~tOM
09

"
~

---- y~
"

~
" "
,o
l

Compressor Speed and Stroke Length The stroke length and/or compressor speed arc selected based upon the following relationship for the flow capacity of reciprocating compressors:
(9-34)

,/

"

"

II

13

COMPRESSIO .. RAT,O

Figure 928. Gas specific gravity correction factors for compression power reqUirements lor reciprocating compressors. (From Compressed Air and Gas Dat8, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

where q", = capacity of the reciprocating compressor. ftl/unit time d = piston diameter, ft L - stroke length. ft S - compressor ~. strokes.'unit time 'I, - volumetric efficiency For double-acting reciprocating compressors. the mlume occupied by the piston rod should also be accounted for_ Thus. besides increasing volumetric efficiency, the actual capacity of a reciprocating compressor can be in creased by increasing compressor speed and stroke length.
E:tamplf! 93. A reciprocating: compression system is to be designed to com press 5 MMcfd of the gas in Example 9-1, with intercoolers and an aftercooler that cool the gas to 150F. Find:

(0.97)1 _.

which is equivalent to dividing the theoretical r from Equation 9-28 b\"

For a given gas flow rate of Clot MMscfd at standard conditions of pressure p,. (psia) and temperature T ... (OR), the required BHP can be computed as follows:

(9-32)

where

BHP .. brake horsepower required, hp ct,.; .. gas flow rate measured at pressure Po< (psia) and temperature T", (OR), MMscfd Tl .. gas temperature at the compressor suction (Inlet), OR (BHPiMMcfd)fil .. BHP/MMcfd from Figures 9-24 through 9-26

(a) Brake horsepower using the analytical method. (b) Brake horsepower using ~tol1ier diagram method. (c) Estimate the cooling requirements from the results of part (b). (d) From the results of part (b). determine whether the first stage can be handled by a compressor with a speed 1,200 rpm, piston diameter - 12 in., and stroke length - 3 ft. Assume 'I ,. 0.80, A - 0.05, Lu ,. O. and CI - O.OS. Neglect any gas comPressibility factor effects .

..

436

Gas Productioll Enginemng

Gas Compres;rion

437

Solution

Similarly, forthesecond~i.age, niP - (1.6376 x 10- 5)(76,376.46)(5,300725)11 - 5,722.1 hp.

From Examples 9-1 and 9-2: Thus. BHP for first stage - 3,039.310.80 - 3,799.1 hp.
1', - 0.612, k - 1.2565, r - 5.077,

n. - 2 stages.

and BHP for second stage - 5,722.1/0.80.., 7,152.6 hp. (c) Cooling requirements. Cooling load for the intercooler (between stages 1 and 2) - (76,376.46)(3,310 - 725) - 1.97 x 10' Btulda,..

(a) Anal)1ical method.

Using Equation 91ti. for each ot the m'o stages: IHP (3.0303)(5)(100)(150)(1.2565) (5077"""" "'" _ 1) _ 2 9191 h (0.2565)(150) , . P

Therefore. BHP for first stage - 2.919.110.80". 3,648.9 hp. and BlIP for ~nd stage - 3,648.9 hr.
(b) Mollier diagram method.

And cooling load for the aftercooler (after stage 2) - (76,376.46)[5,300 - ( - 200)]- 4.20 x 10' Btulday.
(d) Compressor speed for the first stage. Using Equation 9-31, with Zj - Z2 - 1.

For a..,.~ - 0.612. the enthalpy-entropy diagram of Figure 9-12 is approximately applicable. Use of this diagram results in:

". - 1 - 0.05 - 0 - (0.08)(5.077' , "" - I ) _ 0.7385 Using Equation 9-34, the flow capacity of the given compressor is

Point

Process

Enthalpy, h (Btu
p (psia), T(F)

q", -

14)(1~(3)(1,200)(0.7385) - 2,088.06 cr'min - 3.0 MMcfd

Ibmole) B80
3,310 725 5.300 -200

Thus, the given compressor cannot handle 5 MMcfd gas.


Example 9-4. Assuming interoooling. repeat Example 9-3 using empirical charts.

1
2
3 4

Entering gas
After isentropic compression
After isobaric cooling

After isentropic compression After isobaric cooling

100 psia, 150F 500 psia, 368F 500 psia, 150"F 2,500 psia, 490"F 2,500 psia. 150"F

Solution From Example 9-3, "Y~ - 0.612, r - 5.077, k -. 1.2565, PI ""' 100 psia, " - 0.80. From Figure 9-26, for the first stage, BHP/MMcfd From Figure 9-28, the gas gravlty correction - 1.0 Applying the appropriate correction factors, the BHP required for 5 MMcfd gas measured at suction conditions of 100 pSia and 150F is given by:
=0

Using the gas law, the number of moles of gas is given by ". - pVIZRT - (100)(5 x 10')1(1)(10.732)(610) - 76,376.46 Ibmolesl d ay From Equation 9-24, For the first stage, IHP - {1.6376 x 1O-5)(76,376.46){3,31O _ 880)1 1 - 3,039.3 hp.

98.2 hp.

44'

Go~ Produdiorl EfI~ineering

Gas CompressiOIl

447

Example 9-S. Find the horsepower required by a centrifugal (st raight. through flo\\,. no intercooling) compressor for compressing 10 M~tcfd gal> at suction conditions of ISO psia and BOoF to 500 psia. Assume ")'q .. 0.60,

BHP - (1.01)(9.181.3) + 30

9.303 hp.

k ... 1 296. and Z" Zz


Solutioll

:=

1.0.

Example 9-6. For the data given in Example 9-5. design a centrifugal compressor using the empirical chart method.

SoIutioll

r .. 500 150 .. 3.333, \1,.. (28.97hll = (28.97)(0.60) '" 17.382 Ibm lb. molt'

1. Horsepower.
From Example 9-5. r ... 3.333. M "" 17.382Ibmllbmole, k = 1. 296, and intake volume ... 6.944.4 cfrn al 150 psia and 80F.

Flow capacity'" 10 M\tcfd ... (10 x 1(1)/(24 x 60) ... 6,944.4 dm


From Figure 9-11, for q ... 6.944.4 cfm, Ill' = 0.725

From Equation 911.


n - 1 _k_-_1 _ 0.296 ~ 0.315 n k" (1.296)(0.725)

From Figure 9-32, for Cjl ... 6.944.4 cfm and r ,. 3.333, the basic BHP ~ 900 hp.
From Figure 9-31, for r - 3.333 and k - 1.296, K""JT ,.. 0.967. From Equation 9-43, BHP _ (900)(150)(0.967)(28.97) - 15,005.2 hp (14.5)(17.382) 2. Number of stages.
~

From Equation 9-36, h _ (1.545)(460 + SO) (3.333"'" _ 1) _ 70,292.1 ft-lbflbm , (17.382)(0.3 15)

Cas density at suct ion conditions is equaJ to From Figure 9-30, basic head .. -ti,OOO ft-Ibf Ibm. PI PIM _ (150)(17.382) _ 0.45 Ibm ft' (1)(10.732)(540)

Z,RT,

From Equation 9-42. h _ (47 .000)(0.967)(28.97) .75.748.33 ft-lbf'lbm. (17.382) , From Equation 9-41, the number of stages is equal to:

Therefore, the mass now rate, m is equal to m_


qlPI

_ 10 x lQ"lftl/day 0.45 Ibm = 3 125 Ibm/min 1,440 min/day ftJ '

From Equation 9-38, GHP. (3. 125)(70.292. 1) .9 181. 3 h (33.000)(0.725) p Using Equation 9-38, with the assumption that HPL m
_

1\ ""' 75,748.33/9,500 _ 7.97 :::. 8 stages 3. Compressor speed.


30 hp, and From Figure 9-29, for an intake volume of 6,944.4 drn. the compressor speed S - 8,800 rpm .

HPLt. - I % of CHP,

438

Gall ProdUCtiOll Engineering

Co ComprC8Sioll

43.

BHP _ 'kPY (BHP/MMcfd). (0.95)(0.835) 14.4 11

f..

where

hp - polytropic head. ft-lbfllbm


R "" gas constant, psia-ftl/lbrnole-R M '"' molecular weight of the gas, Ibmllbmole 144 - factor to convert from psia to Ibf/ft2

_ (5)(100)(98.2)(0.95)(0.835) (14.4)(0.80) - 2,704.8 hp The parameters for the second stage are the same. Therefore. second sta,a:l" brake horsepower reqUired is also equal to 2.704.8 hp.

Thus, the ideal compra<>ion horsepower, IHP, for a gas mass flow rate of m Ibm/min is given by: (9-37) where IHP "" ideal compression horsepower required, hp m ... mass flow rate of the gas, Ibmfmin 33,000 - factor to convert power requirement from ft-lbf/min to hp

Designing Centrifugal Compressors Analytical Method Calculations for centrifugal compres.'iOrs are vcry similar to those for reciprocating compressors. An analytic expression for the ideal horsepower, IHP, can be derived. similar to Equation 9-19 for reciprocating compressor\, by replacing the i.~ntropic exponent k by the polytropic exponent n: IHP _ 3.0303'kPYT,(Z, + z,) _n_ 2ZJToc n-i

The gas horsepo\\"er, CHP, is given by:

GHP-

mhp 33,000 '1p

(938)

(r" "" _ I)

where 'lp is the poJ}1ropic compression efficiency (fraction).


(935)

Mollier Charts where, as before: IHP - theoretical horsepower required for compression, hp q,., - gas flow rate, MMscfd, measured at pressure p",. psia and temperature T . OR ZJ. Zt - gas compressibility factors at the compressor suction and discharge, respectively TL - gas inlet (suction) temperature. OR n - pol)1ropic exponent r - compression ratio For centrifugal compressors, the theoretical work required for compression is represented by the polytropic head hp, similar to the theoretical work requirement w for reciprocating compressors (see Equation 9-16): hp _ (144)RTL(Zj + Z2) _n_ (rn - II
n _

Mollier charts, if available for the gas, can also be used for determining the compression parameters. The procedure outlined earlier for reciprocating compressors is used. with the assumption of isentropic compression. The polytropic head hp is then calculated as: (9-39) where hp - pol}1rOpic head. ftlbflbm 6h - enthalpy change for isentropic compression determined from the Mollier diagram. Btullbmole 'lp - polytropic efficiency 11k - isentropic efficiency M - gas molecular wei~ht, lbmllbmole The factor 778.2 ft-lbf/Btu in Equation 9-39 gives the desired units conn'.'rsion. Subsequently, the gas horsepower CHP can be determined using Equation 9-38.

1)

2Z j M
_ 1545TL (ZL

n - 1 _n_ (rn-I)
n _

+ Z,)

I)

2Z j M

n- 1

(9-36)

440

COl Production Engineering

Gas Compression

441

Estimating the Actual Horsepower The BHP for centrifugal compressors is generally estimated br adding the mechanical and hydraulic losses to the GHP:

BHP - GHP + HPL", + HPL,.

(9-40)

where HPL"" HPLt. - mechanical and hydraulic horsepower losses, repectively, hp

Mechanical horsepower losses, consisting of losses in the COmpressor seals and bearings. are generally in the range of 7 to 50 hp, depending on the speed and casing size of the unit. Hydraulic horsepower losses, consisting of
ctl5ing and piston leakage losses, vary between 0.3% to 2.5% of the gas horsepower CHp, depending primarily on the size of the unit. With increasing Si7.e, mechanical losses increase, whereas hydraulic losses decrease. Number of Stages The polytropic head. hp is an indication of the number of stages required for centrifugal compression. The number of stages required, ,\, is given by:
n, - --"'--

9.500

(941 )

..

Figure 9-29. Straight-through flow centrifugal compressor speed. (From Com where 9.500 ftlbf%m is a common limit assigned to each centrifugal compression stage. Equation 9-41 assumes that all impellers are running at optimum design speeds, and that each deve10ps a polytropic head of 9,500 rt-lhfilbm. Although the latter is true for most industrial units, machines with greater polytropic head per stage can and have been designed. Compressor Speed Empirical Charts Centrifugal compressor performance is highly dependent upon speed. The capacity varies directly as the speed, S, the head deve10ped varies as the square of the speed, and the required horsepower varies as the cube of the Centrifugal compre5S0r parameters can also be obtained from Figures 9-30 through 9-34. Figure 9-30 shows the polytropic head, h p , ver.sus thc compression ratio r for various intake temperatures T 1. The corrections required in the computation of the actual polytropic head for a givcn case are as follows: 1. For a polytropic exponent n other than 1.396, use Fi~~ 9-31 for. determining the "k" value correction factor, K.,..,. (Surpnslngiy, the !tterpressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll.Rand Co.)

Compressor speed can be estimated using Figure 9-29 as a function of the intake volume. Cenerallv. the compressor speed is obtained from Figure 9-29 by reading directly ~t the center of the shaded area that indicates the range usually involved.

,peed,

448

Gos Production Eligillt'f."ring

Gta Compreuion

449

Designing Rotary Compressors Rotary positive-displacement compressors follow the same basic theory as reciprocating positive-displacement compressors and are designed using the

ciprocating compressor, because of the speed and compactness .of the rotary that provides relatively little time or surface area for gas coohng.

same theoretical relationships. There are, however. some differences and


empirical corrections introduced by the speciHe design.

Questions and Problems

\\ell-designed rotary sliding-vane compressors do not ha\'e the clearance typical of reciprocating compressors. There are, howe\'er, leaka~e or slip losses between adjacent cells across the vanes at their edges and ends - -some
amount of the gas escapes past to the suction side. These Ios.c;es are difficult to theorize, and are generally estimated from actual tests. The capacity of rotary two-impeller compressors also is subject to leakage or slip losses rather than losses related to clearance. The losses are minimized by operating at or near the built-in. fixed compression ratio for which the unit is designed to give optimum performance. Low-clearance scaling is the usual method for controlling slip losses. Factors that increase slip losses are high pressure differential or rise across the compressor, and low gas density. Slip is usually independent of speed, but for more complex designs. it may be speed-dependent. Slip is generally reported as capacity lost, dm (cubic feet per minute) at suction conditions. It may also be accounted for as the additional rpm (rotations per minute) required to deliver a given amount of gas:
(9-46)

1. What are the desirable traits for a compressor? 2. List the applications of the various compressor types, giving appropriate reac:oos for the5(>. 3. Using basic thermodynamic principles, show that:
. . monoatomlc Ideal gases For a reciprocating compressor, is volumetric efficiency the same as compression efficiency? Why? Also, why is polytropic efficiency primarily a function of the intake volume? Discuss the basis and applicability of Equation 9-39 for determining the polytropic head of a centrifugal compressor from Mollier charts. Express the relationship of Figure 9-11 as a correlation equation. Calculate the isentropic exponent at 100F and 500 psia for a gas with the following composition (in weight %): C l - 89.1, C 2 - 6.05, C 3 - l.1l, n.C~ = 0.35, i-C~ ., 0.18, H 2S - 1.55, and CO 2 - 1.66. Determine the polytropic exponent from: (1) thermodynamic charts (Chapter 3), and (2) polytropic efficiency, given an intake volume of 10,000 dm. You have been assigned to a gas field where you notice an old compressor that can be repaired and used in the future. Searching through the company records you find that the ratio of the inlet temperature (O R) to outlet temperature rR) was 0.769 when the flow rate was 3,000 Mscfd. The inJet pressure was 1,000 psia and the horsepower was 200

(a) cp - c.. - R (b) Cp .. 5RJ2, and

c.. .. 3R/2 for

4.

5.

6.

7.

where

S, .. total rpm

qd - desired capacity, cfm


V d .. displacement, efr (cubic feet per revolution) S, .. slip, rpm

hp.
(a) What is the compression ratio (assume k - 1.28 and )', - 0.6), and the outlet pressure? (b) Assume that the compressor is used as the first stage in a two-stage compression system. The outlet gas from the first stage is cooled to its initial temperature. If the gas in the second stage is compressed to 7,000 psia, what is the outlet temperature? Use Mollier charts. (c) Determine the theoretical horsepower for the second stage in part (b) using Mollier charts. S. A compressor is to be instaUed for handling gas supply into a transmission line. The compression requirements are as follows: Cas flow rate" 17.5 MMcfd at intake conditions of 450 psia and goOF, discharge pressure _ 6,000 psia, and gas gravity 1', - 0.83. Intercooling to lOOF or any reasonably low temperature is desired.

The total rpm determined from Equation 9 -46 is used in horsepower or capacity calculations, as follows: BHP - 0.005 VdS,(dp)
(9-47)

where ~p is the pressure differential (or rise), and 0.005 is a constant. Capacity control is provided by var};ng the speed, or by installing multiple units. The discharge temperature of a rotar}' compressor can theoretically be calculated using the relationship for reciprocating compressors (Equation 9-10). In practice, the discharge temperature of a rotary compressor is substantially higher than that for an equivalent water-cooled re-

"2

Gas ProdU{'tioll Engineering


h

Cas CompressiOlI

443

ature consistently refers to this n" value correction factor as the "k" value correction factor.) 2. Appropriate adjustment for a gas molecular weight other than 28.97 (air). As shown by Equation 9--36, the polytropic head is inversely proportional to gas molecular weight M. 3. Correction for gas compressibility factors other than unity. as included in Equation 9-36.

..f-k, ,'" / .y
/.,/

,.0
1396

.J.
, - , - "- .,..

v U

"

flOM

.. ,

'00

~o.,
u

;: 0.9

, "-

Thus. the applicable actual head hp is determined from the basic head (h ,h given in Figure 930 as follows: I h _ (h pli,,(K,.,,)(28.97)(Z, + Z,) I' 2ZIM
(9-42)

~09

::! 09
uO.9

"-

"-

,
08

~ 0 .

t'k

, ---,
, , ,

'-0

0.'
~

:.

.~

0.'

, , ,

~y;

- .-

.-

7.~ /v.;:
~ 'i

~
,-:,~~

o. ,

---- " ---, , ,


"ATIO (Pz p'l

CO~PII(SSION

..

Figure 9-31. k-value correction factors for the brake horsepower requirements for straight-through flow centrifugal compressors (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)

!/

I
,

.
1
CQtolP"E5SION R4no

: ~T"!:':"":"OT-::: :~:.::~

Knowing the polytropic head, hI" the number of stages required for centrifugal compression. Il,., can be calculated as before using Equation 9-41. Compressor speed can be obtained from Figure 929 as before. Figure 9-32 shows the brake horsepower BHP '-ersus the intake gas volume measured at 14.5 psia pressure and actual intake temperature. In addition to correction factors applicable to head hI" determination of actual BliP requires a correction for intake pressure other than 14.5 psia. Thus, the actual BHP is determined from the basic brake horsepower, (BlIP),;", given in Figure 9-32 as follows:

BHP _ (BHP)",(p,)(K o .,)(28.97)(Z, + Z,) 2(l4.5)Z,M


("alp, I

(9-43)

Figure 930. Basic head for straight-through flow centrifugal compressors


(From CompreSSed Air and Gas Dara, 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)

Basic brake horsepower requirements for intercooled centrifugal compressors are shown in Figure 9-33. Appropriate correction factors need to be applied for the polytropic exponent. intake pressure and temperature, intercooling temperature, gas gravity. and gas compressibility factor.

444

Gas Production Euglucrnllg Gas Compression 445

/ II

'" j

V
/
$I

./
V-

/
/

I
--

I,P'

J.
;

I.,~ /

'j

1/
~
./

V
------

, " ~
~

/ / /
I.
/
./

I;

9-32. Basic brake horsepower requirements for straight-through flow 0,ngersolJ-Rand Co.) entnfugaJ compressors. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data 1982' courtesy 0' , ,

Flgu~e


"
~

VII II. 7(1, r;

I-l'
I;

./

Ifill

V-

------ I'

I;

'"

l.--

I;

I:
I

rs / ~

~ ~ '"
~

Figure 9-34. Temperature rise multiplier for determining the discharge temperature for straightthrough flow centrifugal compressors. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of IngersonRand Co.)

The discharge temperature of the compressed gas from a straight-through flow centrifugal compressor can be obtained, using Figure 9-34, as follows:
(9-44)

where Tit T2 - intake and discharge temperatures, respectively, OR T nn - temperature rise multiplier from Figure 9-34 The discharge volume, V 2 , of the compressed gas can now be calculated:
(9-45)
1IIT.u:1 OUI' U -_

TIt(IIJ$A_ 01< aM

~:u~~e~~ eOI t~~~;~I~~A~~~ ~~)F).

c~mpr~~rs for air at 14.1 psla and 95F intake, with perfect Intercoollng (int~~
(From Compressed Air and Gas D8t8, 1982;

Figure 9-33. Basic brake horsepower requirements for interCooled centrilu

where Ph V" T J

intake pressure, volume, and temperature of the gas. respectively 1>2, V\!, T2 - discharge pressure, volume, and temperature of the gas, respecthcly
-

450

Gos Prod,ution Engineering

Cive the design specifications (number of stages, compression ratio, CHp, BHP, speed, intercooling requirements, etc.), using at least two methods, for a reciprocating compressor. and a centrifugal compressor. Compare the requirements and select the one, giving reasons, that is most suitable for this application.

10

References Brown. C. C., 1945. "A Series of Enthalpy-Entropy Charts for Natural Gases," Trans., AIME. 160,65-76. GPSA. 1981. Engineering Data Book, 9th ed. (5th revision). Gas Processors Suppliers Association, Tui5a, Oklahoma. U:oku, C. U., 1984. Natural Gas Production Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 5Jipp. Ingersoll-Rand Company, 1982. Compressed Air and Gas Data. IngersollRand Co., Woodcliff Lake, NJ.

Gas Flow Measurement


Introduction Gas flow measurement constitutes one of the more important auxiliary operations related to gas production and transport. It is required to enable the determination of the amount of gas being produced or sold, and also as a basic parameter for almost all of the design procedures. The produced gas stream is in a continuous state of flow from the instant it leaves the reservoir until it is consumed at the delivery end. Therefore. e:tcept for underground storage or other storages such as LNG (liquified natural gas) storage facilities, gas measurements must be done on a flowing stream of gas. Accuracy in measurement is obviously of prime importance: an error of only 1 % for a typical pipeline delivering 300 MMscfd (109.5 Bscf'year) can result in an er ror of approximately 1.1 Bscf year of gas which. at a typical gas price of S3.00/Mscf, would amount to a loss of $3.3 million to the buyer or seller. Cas is most commonly measured in terms of volume because of the simplicity of such a procedure. However, to make this volumetric measurement more meaningful, base or standard pressure and temperature conditions are defined that yield measurements in standard cubic feet. This volumetric rate can be converted to mass flow rate by multiplying with the gas density at the standard pressure and temperature conditions. Since the gas density at the specified standard conditions is a constant for the particular gas under consideration, measurements in standard cubic feet are synonymous to mass flow rate measurement. However, the number of standard cubic feet measured depends upon the standard pressure and temperature conditions chosen. Table 101 shows some such measurement bases. The most common basis is the ACA and API recommended pressure of 14.73 psia and temperature of 60F.

451

452

GO! Production Engineering

Gas Flow

MeOl1l.ltemlmt

453

Table 10-1 Common Ga. Pressure and Temperature Bases for Measurement
State
Thus. Oklahoma, Kansas. Arkansas, and AlbertI! (C.n.da) California
AGA. API

Base pressure psi.


14.65 14.7
14.73

Ba. . temperlltur.

of

t: .5. 8",,,,, ... "f Shu..:i.uu.,


and Feckul Price Commbuon
l.oul>iana

00 00 00 00

measured rate of 100 MMscfd, it is between 99 and 101 MMscfd . An accuracy of 1 % of reading, however, implies that the measured flow rate is within 9.9 to 10.1 MMscfd (or a measured rate of 10 MMscfd, 49.5 to 50.5 for a measured rate of 50 MMscfd, 99 to 101 MMscfd for a measured rate of 100 MMscfd , etc. Thus, the percent o( reading results in a better overall perfonnance because the error is proportional to the magnitude of the rate. Positive displacement meters and turbine meters usually have a percent of reading accuracy, whereas orifice meters and rotameters have a percent of full scale accuracy in their <;pecifications.
Rongeability

14 735 15_025

'"

Measurement Fundamentals "'ow is one of the most difficult variables to measure (Campbell, 1984), because it cannot be measured directly like pressure and temperature. It must be inferred by indirect means, such as the pressure differential over a specified distance, speed of rotation of a rotating element, displacement rate in a measurement chamber, etc. For this and other reasons, many flow measure~en~ techn iques and devices have been developed for a wide range of apphcatlons. This discussion is limited to those devices that have found use in the oil and gas industry, primarily for natural gas measurement. Attributes of Flow Devices A flowmeter or measurement device is characterized using the following parameters.
Accuracy

A flowmeter's rangeability is the ratio of the maximum flow rate to the minimum flow rate at the specified accuracy.
'l' Maximum rate that can be measured Rangea b I Ity - ;:;::::;:==.:c;=-T'::...:=..;:::..::===;c Minimum rate that can be measured
(10-2)

Rangeability is usually reported as a ratio x: 1. For example, a meter with maximum and minimum rates of 50 MMscfd and 10 MMscfd, respectively, for a specified accuracy of 1%, has a rangeability of 5: 1. This rangeability can be increased to 10: 1 by decreasing the minimum rate by a mere 5 MMscfd to 5 MMscfd resulting in a 5- to 5O-MMscfd meter, or by increasing the maximum rate by 50 MMscfd to 100 MMscfd resulting in a 10- to 100MMscfd meter. Thus, it is important to know the flow rate range over which a quoted rangeability applies.
Repeatability

This Is a measure of a flowmeter's ability to indicate the actual fl ow rate within a specified now-ratc range. It is defined as the ratio of the diHerence between the actual and measured rates to the actual rate. Accuracy _ Abs [Actual rate - Measured rate] x 100 % Actual rate
(10-1)

Also known as reproducibility or precision, repeatability is the ability of a meter to reproduce the same measured readinw; for identical flow conditions over a period of time. It is computed as the maximum diHerence between measured readings, sometimes expressed as a percent of full scale. Notc that repeatability does not imply accu racy; a flowmeter may have very good repeatability, but a lower overall accuracy.
Linearity

where Abs(x) represents the absolute value of the argument x. Accuracy is reported in either of two ways: percent of full scale, or percent of reading. For example, for a loo-MMscfd flowmeter, a 1 % of full scale accuracy means that the measured flow rate is within 1 MMscfd of the actual flow rate, regardless of the value of the flow rate. Thus, for a measured flow rate of 10 MMscfd , the actua1 flow rate is between 9 and 11 MMscfd, and for a

This is a measure of the deviation of the calibration curve of a meter from a straight line. It can be specified over a given flow-rate range, or at a given flow rate. A linear calibration curve is desirable because it leads to a constant metering accuracy, with no portion of the sca1e being relatively more ~r less sensitive than the other. Note that a flowmeter could have a good linearity, but poor accuracy if its calibration curve is offset (shifted).

454

Cas Production Engineering

Gas Flow Measurement

455

Selection of Measurement Devices The selection of a measurement device depends upon:

Accuracy and reliability of the device. Range of flow rate-maximum and minimum. Range of flow temperature and pressure. Fluid to be measured-gas or liquid, their constituents and specific gravity. 5. Maintenance requirements. 6. Expected life of the device, and its initial and operating costs. 7. Other considerations, such as simplicity. availability of power or other inputs required by the device, its susceptibility to theft or vandalism, etc.
Methods of Measurement A brief introduction to the different fluid measurement methods, well described in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' report on this subject (ASME, 1971), and by Corcoran and Honeywell (1975), is presented here. Differential Pressure Method

1. 2. 3. 4.

Figure 10-1. ~ ve~turi meter. (After Corcoran and Honeywell, 1975; courtesy of Chemical Engineering.)

\/fmturi Meter

This type of meter, shown in Figure 10-1 , consists of a short pipe section tapering into a throat, coupled with a relatively longer diverging pipe section for pressure recovery. It is similar to an orifice meter, with the advantage of low pressure loss, and is a preferred choice where less pressure drop is available. Venturi meters have a rangeability of 3.5:1, with an accuracy of 1 % (Corcoran and Hone)'\\!ell , 1975).

Figure 10-2. Flow nozzle. (After Corcoran and Honeywell, 1975; courtesy of Chemical Engineering.)

In this method, the flow rate is computed using the pressure difference over a flow interval or restriction and other data. There are basically two types of differential pressure devices: one in which the pressure difference is measured across a flow restriction, such as the orifice meter, venturi meter, etc., and the second type where the difference in pressure is measured upon impact, such as the pitot tube. The dynamics of the relationships involved have been studied in great detail for these types of meters, and very precise and accurate results can be obtained from them. Some of the commonly used differential pressure devices are described.

Flow Nozzlel!

Orifice Meter
This is by far the most commonly used device for metering natural gas. It consists of a flat metal plate with a circuJar hole, centered in a pair of flanges in a straight pipe section. The pressure differential is mea~ured across this plate to yield the flow rate. This is a rugged, accurate, simple, and economical device, and can handle a wide range of flow rates. Orifice meters have a rangeability of about 3.5: I, with an accuracy on the order of 0.5% (Corcoran and Honeywell , 1975). Details of this important meter type are discussed later in this chapter.

Flow nozzles have a rounded edge that aids the handling of solids in the flow stream (see Figure 10-2), The analysis is similar to orifice meters. Flow nozzles are used for high flow rate streams, because they permit, for the same line size and pressure differential , a 60% greater rate of flow than an orifice plate (Corcoran and Honeywell. 1975). Flow nozzle; have a rangeahility of 3.5:1, with an accuracy of 1.5-2% (Corcoran and Honeywell, 1975).
Pitot (]mpacl) l ... be

Figure 10-3 shows a pitot tube installed in a pipe section. The pitot tube measures the difference between the static pressure at the wall of the flow conduit and the flowing pressure at its impact tip where the kinetic energy of the flOwing stream is converted into pressure. It gives the flow velocity

<5.

Gas Production Engineering


GUIde wine for po$'I'on and dorKtion of ImPKt 1<P~~

Gas Flow Measurement

.57

is maintained, and it is only necessary to determine the upstream pressure,

~
Figure 10-3. Pilot tube metering. (Aller Corcoran and Honeywell, 1975; courtesy 01
$Iat" pressure,

gas gravity, and the Jawing temperature (see Equation 7-83) in order to calculate the gas Jow rate. II is important to note that the critical-flow prover u.ses a rounded-edge orifice, because sharp-edged orifices do not conform to critical flow theories and do not give a good repeatability. Displacement Meters

Chemical Engineering .)

\~ ImpiICl

liP

only at a point (at the tip). To compute the mean flow velocity. the calibration must account for the velocity profile in the flow conduit. Another factor

These meters measure the volumetric displacement of the f1wd at flowing conditions. The number of such known volumes through the meter per unit time, corrected to the base pressure and temperature. are counted to give the flow rate, instantaneous andlor cumulative. through the meter. Displacement meters are also called positive-displacement meters because they afford a positive volume at flowing conditions: the flow is divided into is0lated measured volumes, and the number of these volumes are counted in some manner. This is in contrast with the other meter types, sometimes referred. to as rate meters, in which the fluid passes without being divided into isolated quantities. Figure 10-4 shows the two types of displacement meters commonly used: rotary or impeller type, and slide-valve diaphragm type. The rotary type
Drove 10_.

that makes the cAlibration of a pitot tube difficult is the low pressure differential produced by it. The tip can be easily clogged by liquids or solids. Because of the relatively poor accuracy of this device (most of the error is in measuring the static pressure), it is not used very often, except on a temporary basis.

This device

co~ists

of a nipple, equipped with a flange to facilitate the

attachment of different sharp-edged orifice plates at its end. The device discharges the gas to the atmosphere, and only the static prm;ure just upstream of this plate needs to be measured. It has limited accuracy, but finds application where gas is at relatively low prm;ures and is being produced to the atmosphere. Critical Flow Proven Similar to the orifice well tester, a critical-flow prover consists of a special nipple equipped to facilitate the attachment of orifice plates at its end, and it discharges the gas to the atmosphere. The critical-flow pro\'er, however, is based upon the principle of critical flow of gases through Jow restrictions (see critical Jaw through chokes in Chapter 7), In this device, critical flow

Cvhnders

tfourl

(two)

Figure 10-4. Displacement meters: (a) rotary meter, (b) reciprocatingpiston meter. (After Corcoran and Honeywell, 1975; courtesy of ChemicaJ Engineering .)

45.

Ga. Production Engineering

Go, Flow Measurement

45.

consists of a rotating element, whereas the diaphragm type has a piston-C)'Iinder arrangement. Both are quite similar in operation. They contain measuring elements (or chambers) of known volume, with valves that channel the gas into and out of these measuring elements. and counters to count the number of times the measuring element is filled per unit time.

Elbow (Centrifugal) Meter This device. shown in Figure 10-6. is based upon the principle of centrifual force that is generated when the fluid changes its direction of flow along g irCuiar path. The magnitude of this centrifugal force is governed by the a.c diameter, the radius of the circu1ar bend in the pipe, the flow velocity, ~: other fl uid properties. An elbow meter creates relatively little pressure loss or differential , and is therefore used primarily for control o~ other ~ur poses. It finds some application in large pipes where a substantial centnfugal force is generated. Elbow meters have a rangeability of 3: 1, with an accuracy of 1 % (Corcoran and Honeywell, 1975).

Turbine MetelV"'"
The.se- mf"ter; art> sometimes classified as positi"e-di>plaLtment meters. They consist of a turbine or propeller that turns at a speed proportional to the velocity of the gas flowing past it. converting linear velocity to rotational speed (see Figure 10-5). The speed of the turbine is measured as pulses that give the rate. These pulses are counted to give the instantaneous rate, or accumulated to give the cumulative rate.

__

Pr"~~lJfe

IJIJS

Figure 10-6 . An elbow meter. (After Corcoran and Honeywell , 1975; courtesy of
Chemical Engineering.)

FIgure 10-5. A turbine meter. (After Corcoran and Honeywell, 1975; courtesy of
Chemical Engineering.)

Rotameter (Variable Area Meter) A rotameter is essentially a variable orifice meter. The fluid stream is th rottled by a constriction, but instead of measuring the pressure differential across a fixed sized orifice. rotameters vary the size of the flow constriction to accommodate the flow rate, keeping the differential pressure constant. Rotameters consist of a float that is free to move up and down in a vertical tube that has a gradual taper down to its base. The fluid entering at the base of the tube causes the float to rise, until the annular area between the float and the tube wall is sueh that the pressure drop across this constriction is just sufficient to support the float. The flow rate is directly read-off from the graduations etched upon the glass tube (see Figure 10-7). Rotameters have a rangeability of 10:1, with an accuracy of 1 % (CorCOran and Honeywell , 1975).

The driving torque for the propeller is proportional to the fluid densit~ and the square of the fluid velocity. Turbine meters have therefore traditionally been used for measuring liquid flow rates rather than gas flow rate!> Fluctuations in velocity, caused by pressure fluctuations, turbulence, or un steady-state flow conditions, will cause the turbine meter to give a higher than actual value. To allow sustained accuracy and trouble-free operation. filters are almoo always used ahead of the turbine meter. Thrbine meter~ typically have a rangeability up to 100: 1 for gases, with an accuracy of 0.25% and a repeatability of 0.05 % (Evans, 1973). Further details about turbine meters can be obtained from November (1972) and Evans (1973).

460

Gal Production Engineering

Gas I-'Jow MeaSllremelit

461

ours.dt !>ere

St~!f",q

1)0.

"I~

gMtlltd 0"9"

",.;:==~

se,e",o" ,
S,,,tI,"9 boa

_,.".--::::::::;p
I~hltn

1984). The rate of vortex formation and shedding is directly proportional to the volumetric now rate, and ino.ersely proportional to the diameter of the object. Thus, the flow rate can be inferred from vortex shedding measurements, The formed vortice; can be detected in a number of ways. Four methods are mainly used:
Figure 10-7. A rotameter (From Chemical Engineers' Handbook 1984; courtesy of McGraw-Hil', Publishing Company.)

Sr~ff'''Q bOo ,,,.,... ---6",-,,~'

10

.Iull,n..

CO~OCI'Y

q,oduahons erched

-Dead "q""oe pree.s,on - bore


00<05','COI.-90U lope,ed

mete""o; r.. ot

Soul/,nq boo 10 ....1.".0 hom o.. !. dt ~., ....IIl on9'.

Inltl

1. Thermistors that detect the change in temperature caused by the changing flow of the fluid as a vortex passes. 2. A magnetic pickup coil to count the oscillations imposed on a spht!re or disk by the vortice; as they alternate on the two sides of the object (a transverse passage is provided in the flow element to allow movement of the sphere or disk). 3. Counting the motion or the induced mechanical stresses on a vane that extends behind the blunt body and moves from side to side with the passing of the alternating vortice;. 4. Ultrasonic transmitters and receivers that detect the vortices using a sonic beam. Vortex-shedding flowmeters have a rangeability of about 15: 1 or greater, an accuracy of O.Z5 to 1 % of reading, and a repeatability of I % of reading (DeVries, 1982). The flow regime, however, must remain turbulent over the entire range of flow rate. Additional details on these meters can be obtained from Powers (1975) and DeVries (1982). Ultrasonic Meters Although several ultrasonic measurement principles are known, only two
types are commercially used (Munk, 1982): the Doppler, and the contra-

Vortex-Shedding F10wmetcrs

These devices.are based upon the principle of vortex shedding, which occurs when a lUld flows past a non-streamlined (blunt) object. The flow is unable to follow the shape of the blunt object, also referred to as low element, and separates from it. This separation of the flow leads to the forma?on of eddies or turbulent vortices on the surfaces along the sides of the obJect that grow in size as they move downstream, and are eventually shed or detached from ~e obj~ (see Figur~ lO~8a and b). Shedding takes place alternately at either side of the object (Chemical Engineers' Handbook ,
!..... -ryWoo-~
112

'#

2 I

~~~
~@

-=@i
~

\0

@-o::::::
w

~ -..... -,.. ...

,
w

Figure 10-8, (8) Idealized Karman vortex trail behind a circular cylinder; (b) vortex flow pattern. (After Powers, 1975: courtesy of on & Gas Joumal.)

propagating (or transmitted energy) methods. Of these two, only the contrapropagating method is applicable to natural gas measurement. The Doppler method, using the reflections of ultrasonic energy off particles, is not applicable to natural gas, which is generally free from particulates. The contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter computes the flow velocity by measuring the time difference between two ultrasonic waves traveling over the same path, but with one with the flow and the other against the flow. For this purpose, two transducers are used, as shown in Figure 10-9, that alternately transmit and receive ultrasonic pulses, This flowmeter can measure flow in either direction and indicate the direction of flow. It has a rangeability of 50: 1 and an accuracy better than 2% (Monk, 1982). There are some difficulties with ultrasonic meters caused by the effect of solids, gas bubbles, etc. However, because these meters can be mounted out side the pipe, they do not disturb the flow, cause no pressure loss, are portable, and offer applicability to large pipes.

462

Ga$ Production Engineering


Tn'n-.:luc:.r
up.lt"",

Cas "'lou: Measurement

463

r---- l - - l I

Ultrnonlc path

Row

--'----''k-!'-- I - - - k -

o
BORE W/ 8 EVEL ECCENTRIC SEGMENTAL

Figure 10-9. Installation geometry of a contrapropagaling ultrasonic flowmeter. (After Munk, 1982; courtesy of Oil & Gas Journal.)

Figure 10-10. Types of orifice arrangements.

Orifice Meters

Because orifice meters are simple, accurate. relatively inexpensive, rugged. and reliable, they are the most important and widely used of the flowmeters for gases. Other devices such as turbine meters have also been used because orifice meters have a limited rangeability (typically 3.5: 1), and are difficult to adapt to automation. An orifice meter consists of a thin plate, 0.115-0.398 in. thick depending upon the pipe size and pressure, held perpendicular to the direction of flow by a pair of Clanges. with a circular sharp square-edged orifice (hole) accurately machined to the required size in the center of the plate. Pressure taps are provided on the upstream as well as downstream end in the fitting that holds the orifice plate. A pressure measuring and recording device is connected to the pressure taps. The orifice fittings are designed to permit easy changing and inspection of orifice plates. The Orifice Metering System
Oriface Typn

The eccentric and segmental types are very useful for two-phase flow streams and for flow streams with suspended solids. such as dirty gases or slurries.' They have a rangeability of 3:1, but with an accuracy of 1.52%, they are less accurate than the concentric type. The segmental type ~as the additional advantage that it does not retain solids on the upstream Side of the plate. Centering the hole, howe"'er, is critical to its performance. and it is recommended for use only on large pipe sizes (Corcoran and Honeywell, 1975).
Location of Preasure Taps

The magnitude of the measured pressure differential is obviously affected by the location of the points across the orifice between which it is measured. The four types of pressure tap locations (see Figure 10-11) that have been used are as follows:

In addition to the concentric (centered) orifice, there are two more types of orifices as shown in Figure 10-10: eccentric (off-center), and segmental (part of a circle). The concentric type is the most common, because of its low cost, ease of fabrication. and ease of calibration. It has a rangeability of 3.5:1, with an accuracy of 0.5%. The sharp-edged plate, however, is subject to wear and a consequent loss in accuracy.

1. F1ange type: In this type. the pressure is measured 1 in. from the upstream face of the plate and 1 in. from the downstream face of the orifice plate. This is the most common type of pressure tap. 2. Pipe taps: In this type, the pressure is measured 2.5 pipe [Os from the upstream, and 8 pipe IDs from the downstream (where the pressure recovery is maximum) face of the orifice plate. This type requires location tolerances 10 times higher than the flange type. 3. Vena contracta: The point at which the velocity is the highest, and pressure is the lowest. is called the vena contracta. In the vena contracta type of pressure measurement. pressure is measured 1 pipe ID upstream or the plate, and at the vena contracta downstream. It is used where flow rates are fairly constant, because the location of the

464

Gas Production Engineering

Gas Plott: Measurement

465

'.

/1.-""", ,.

lutely necessary, because they introduce additional pressure loss, clog easily, and are subject to erosion.
Si:.e and l.oca/ion of OrifICe

C I.,. -1"1,.
lIJJ.!!it!1

'-Yo" I."
o' .., ......

For commercial measurement of gases, the ratio of the orifice to pipe diameter. /3, should be between 0.15 and 0.70 for meters using flange taps, and between 0.20 and 0.67 for meters using pipe taps (CPSA. 1981). The lhiclmc<>S of the orifice plate at the orifice edge ~h(l\lld not exceed ltv! of the

g
~i

1-'
t-'

! ,

""'" c--j . ~~ ~ 1-' g tc-<~~ , ""'"

,~

'ti

Ul

1 +--1

I - 1l:J

Figure 10-11. Pressure prolile through an orifice meter and the relative locations of taps.

~-=~

r """"

8 C:C---jH,

a "

((I

1-' l:n ~8 ....,lP :i H U I


"""
l

l'k.'.,1

""'"

- \[1

1','1
"'~

I 11m

Jf5,~
0.."",,l

~73

~r

8 -1J1 1
""'"

""'" r8r1~~

"""

vena contracta depends upon the orifice size, and the orifice size chosen depends upon the rate. This type of pressure tap provides greater accuracy because it gives a greater p~ure drop. 4. Corner type: In this type. the pressure taps are located immediately adjacent to the upstream and downstream faces of the orifice plate. The use of this design is limited, for the most part, to some European countries only.
Straightening
\~JJJn

r'F~
~-

_.

<1<0250

t'''IOd

Straightening vanes consist of a symmetrical bundle of small diameter

tubing. welded together in a concentric pattern as shown in Figure 10-12.


Th~ vanes are placed in the upstream section of the orifice meter in order to eliminate any flow irregularities, such as eddies, swirls, or cross currents caused by the pipe fittings and valves preceding the orifice meter, that may affect meter accuracy. The diameter of each of the tubes should be less than li4 of the inside pipe diameter, and the length to diameter ratio for the tubes must be greater than 10 (CPSA, 1981). Installation of vanes reduces the length of straight pipe required upstream of the orifice considerably. Vanes, however, shouJd not be used unless abso-

,., " " " '" ,.., " " , u " " ., '" ..", ., " " " '" " .. ,., , '"

. .. . .
'"

..

1'. _ _

" ,. " '" '"

.. , ", ..

., .. .,

" '" '" '"

, ., , ., ," '"
5
1$,0

.. ".. ... ,.., .'" , . ,..,. " ..."" "., ". '" .. '" '",., '"... '"'"." '" '" '" '"
0
H

'"

17.'

11.$

",

lO.l

'"

'05

'"

OII01"1keIO _ _ oI_

Figure 10-12. Proper installation of an orifice meter-required meter run and straightening vanes. (From Engineering Data BOOk, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)

GaI PrlHi!lction Engineering

Gas Flow Measurement

467

pipe diameter and lIs of the orifice diameter. The orifice location should be such as to have a stabilized flow to ensure proper metering. Figure 10-12 shows the minimum requirements of straight pipe section and/or \'anes recommended by GPSA (GPSA, 1981) for this purpose.

The common chart ranges for differential pressure are from 0 to: 10, 20, SO, 100, or 200 in. of water, whereas for static pressure, the common chart ranges are from 0 to: 100. 250. 500, 1,000. or 2,500 psia. Measurement Calculations

Preau" .\lwwritlg aml Recording


Cas is a hi~ly compressible fluid and its density varies considerably with pre<ClIrE'. Recau<;(' prE'5SUIl' variations are quite substantia! through the flo" path in an orifice meter, it is necessary to measure both the differential pressure as well as the flowing pressure. This is also illustrated b\' the orifiC(' flow equations derived a bit later (Equation 10-12 or 10-14). The f1owinlo'(' pressure is often referred to as static gas pressure in gas measurement terminology. The orifice meter is generally equipped with a two-pen recorder for recording both the static as well as the differential pressure on a circular reo cording chart. The chart itself has a pressure scale on it to enable reading the measured pres.~ures that it records continuously. Static pressure is generally measured with a bourdon tube type of device that actuates the pen on the chart. Differential pressure is measured using either a mercury manometer, or a bellows meter. The be110ws meter is preferable because it avoids the problems of mercury contamination, and mercury loss and the consequent change in calibration. It is important to choose pressure measuring device; that can handle about twice the maximum anticipated pressures. Two types of circular pressure recording charts are in common use-dired-reading charts, and square-root charts. The direct-reading chart has a pressure scale with lines spaced equally apart, whereas the square-root chart records the square root of the percent of the full-scale range of the meter. Therefore, pressure from a square-root chart is determined as follows: Actua 1 pressure meter range . , (chart readmg)100 The relationship for orifice meters can be derived from the general energy equation (see Equation 7-2). written between two points in the flowing stream~point 1 bein1! some point upstream of the orifice plate, and point 2 representing the orifice throat:
~ 1 2 g 2 Vdp+-l vd\'+-1 dz-w,-I" lI (k I &c I

(10-3)

where V "" specific volume of the fluid, ft3/lbm v "" fluid velocity, ft/see p = pressure, Ibflft2 z = elevation above a given datum plane, ft WI '"' shaft work done by the fluid on the surroundings, ft-tbf/lbm I" = work energy lost due to friction, ft-Ibf/lbm g = gravitational acceleration, ft/sec2 g., = conversion factor relating mass and weight, Ibm-ft/lbf-sec2 For most meters, the elevation change between points 1 and 2 is zero, and no work is done by the flOWing fluid stream. Therefore, Equation 10-3 can be written as:

1V dp + -l &
,
I

1 '
I

,dv + I. - 0

Il1<..'Orporating the friction loss term I" in the compression-expansion term to avoid the complexity of referring to the friction factor. and multiplying both sides by fluid density p (lbmlftJ), we get:

For example, for a square-root chart with a range of SO in. x 100 psi, a differential reading of 7 is equivalent to a differential pressure of Differential pressure -

C2

I l 'dp+-l' &
I I

p vdv-O

(10-4)

1~

(7)2 - 24.5 in. of water

where C .. an empirical constant Asuming a constant, average density P.v for simplicity, and integrating Equation 10-4, we get:

and a static reading of 9 is equivalent to a static pressure of Static pressure .. 100 (9)2 _ 81 psia 100

C'(p, - PI) + P.. (v; - vj) - 0 2&

(10-5)

476

G(U Production Engint't'rlng

Gas Flott: Measu rement

477

Table 10-3 Continued " b " Values for Reynolds Number Factor F. Determination_ Flange raps

Table 10-3 Continued " b" Values lor Revnolds Number Factor F, Determination-Flange Taps
Onl,ce
o.i~l .. r,

''''
0.]75

'SOl
1),11'S UD)

'W ,.'"

0.1047 O.OI!'J.4 0076) Q,1lf>53 0.0561 01)137


00430

0816 1),01>70 I) 07}4 1),0578 00645 Q,0SQ2 O0S67


I)

I) 10$4 1),0907 I) 077<.1

.."
0336 0_0318 O.()307 0.0305 00308
I)

5.189
S_~1

."" ""
oam

8.071

00852 01)7';] OD66S 0.05117

D_OIIl!O 0.0892 I) n7A~ (I (lOOIIJl 00701 0.0718 00f02S Q,Ob(4)

1,175

'"

...

'J.!ioM

101Y./O

"

10.136 11376

11.9)4 11090 146&& 15,000 15250

"

"

0.04]] 0.0401 o.wn 0.034b 0.0322 0.0302 0.0283 0.02f>J 0.02S4 0.0243 0,0214 00226 O,Cr.!21 0,0219 0,0218 0,0218 0,0221 oons 0,02)11 0.0256 0.027':1 0,(1307 0.0]]; 0,(l3ro 0,0404 0,(1;138 0.0473 0.0505 0.053& 0.051>2

00451 0.0455 0,0501 0,0511 0.0526 O.Q6O.I 0.0612 006111 00419 0,0414 00469 0,04118 0.0492 oosn 0,0581 0,05117 00)89 0,0J62 00B7 0,031$ 0,0296 00218 0 026J 002S0 oom 002:Ml 0,022) 00216 0,0214 0.0213 00211 0.0214 0.038.1 0.01'>6 OOllO 00308 002117 O.OM 0025J o,om 0,0241 O,02Jl 0,0224 0,0218 0,0214 0,0212 0.0111 00212 0,0438 0.0410 O.OID 0.0)59 0.0)36 0.0]16 00291 0.0278 0.026-1 00251 0.0239 0.0229 0.0221 0.0214 0020tl 0,0204 0,0458 0.0429 0(1402 0.0377 0.0354 00332 00312 00294 0.02711 00lf,1 00250 0.0216 0.0226 0.0219 0.0212 0.0206 001911 00195 001% 0(1202
O.~ 0~2

2125

1),0442 O,OSOO
1),0]9(,

00520 OOS57

00718 1),0742 0.OS7& 0.0&60 DOb7b 0.06tI0

''''
2,]75 2,625

'SOl

.'"
,

1125 1315

003811
I)

O()44.4 00462 004'316 0.0517 00602 0_Ob19 Q,Ob2J

0361 (),O)M 00)99 D04H OO<Ul 00464 0.0519 (1.(1566 1),0"71 0,0347 OIl}44 I) 0J61 I) 0375 0_0403 I) 00119 00501 005111 O.05lJ
O0J4S 00]54 OO}72 00398 00430 0.0l16 OOj)8 0,0)50 0,0370 0.0]95 00344 O_OlD ij,03()(, 0,02911 0,0296 0.0367 0,01]7 0.0314 0.02'13 002&7 00151 (10343 00322 0.0301 0.02M

2.75(1

2,175

16n 1.750 1,115

'''''

..

0D4~7 IH1418 0,038.1 0.0)53 0.0327

..

0.(4).1 0.0401 0,0382 0,0358 0,03}6 0,0111 002911 0.021\1 0.0lfit> 0.025) 00241 0.0230 0.0221 00211 0.0207 0.0191'1 0.01<).1 0.019<1 (1.019')

00514 0,0467 00461 00436 00413 0,0391 00370

0.0551 O.osn 0.0496 0.(471) 0.0445 0.0422 00399 0,0371

00558 0,0529 00502 004'& 0G452 O,G4la 0,0406 0,0385

I)

(1474

OlW7<I

D_OOS 00439
00l'J9 01J.101 OOlM 00371 0014O 00341 0.0)15 0.0295 0.0278 0,0264 0.0151 0,0245 00240 0.0238 00118 00197 0028D 0.02M 0.0254 0024~ 00240 0.02)7

3.125

'''''
3.375

2.315 2625 2.7SO

,'"

2125

'SOl

'''' ,
3.125

..

0.0467 0.0507 00S4fl 00589 0.0626 0.0659

00427 0046l 0,0501 0.0540 0.057') 00615 ODM7 0.0673

0.0111 0.01J4 00354 0,03711 O.04Ob 00436 0G4611 0.0500 O.OS)} 0.0S64 0.05<)4 O,062() 0060

00]00 00110 00314 00342 0.0]65 0.0391 00418 0.0+408

0.021\1 00281 0.02116 O.om

O,OlOll
0.0124 0.034) 00)66

0.0271 0.0274 00174 0027'9 0.02117 00300 0.0114 0.0112

O,OXW O~ 0,0271 0,0259 0.0251 00246 0,0244 0.0245

'''' ... .""


H25
3.750

'.SOl

0.03SO 00J5ll 0.0365 OOlll 00319 00146 0.0114 0,0321 00328 oom 0,0305 00311 0,02112 0,02':10 00295 0.02&8 0,0275 00281 00155 0,0262 0.Olto7 ODJ43 0,0249 0.0254 00223 0.0206 00193 001.. 00178 0.017& 00176 00110 002211 00210 001% 0,0185 0.0232 0.0213 0.0196 (1.01117

SOl
~7SO

S""

0.0222 0,0219 0,0200 0023<> O,erlJl 0,02()1 0 0254 0,02~9 0,02()7 00277 0,0270 (1,0217

'''' ... .'"


'.SOl
4.750

,."" ,.'" ,.'"

3.)15

''''

00479 0.03119 00353 0.0510 0,0416 0.0375 0.~1 0,0443 0,().4()() 00569 O.04n 00416 OOS97 0.0500 00452 0.0621 00527 0047') 00640 0,055) 00505 00578 OOS11

002~ 0.0239 0.D'll7 0.0254 0.0242 O.OHO 0.026J 0.0248 00244 0.0273 00255 00251 O~ 00265 OOM O.OJOO 0.027. 0.0271 0.0)16 0.0289 0028.l 0,0034 0,(l)()4 00297

S"" S.SOl
S,7SO

S."

0,0620 0.0579 o.O)n 0.0338 00618 0,0414 0,0)116 0,0457 00416 O.OSOO 00457

DOno 0,0]66 0,040'; 0.0446

O.if,ce

DI.~I"',

"" .... ,. ,... ""'"


S.soo

S.'"

0.05J9 000t97 00417 0.OS74 OOS35 Oos.:!4 0.0S69 0.055'1

,."""

.. ... ..." '" , .'


.""
'.SOl
1,250

'''''
'SOl

001l)} o,am G,02l1 00212 0.020II O,O}J2 o,om 0,02'9 oom 0.0221 0,0363 O.oJS4 0.0270 0.0243 0.0217 0039& 00Jl\& 0.02901 0.0163 0.0255 0000' 0046l OOO} 00S2l o OSSO 0.04111 00'51 GO4&] G.osn 00540 0,0Sb0I

0,0178 00179 0,(1174 O.OIN 0,(1174 o.oln 001710 0.0173 00160 001l1li 0.01911 0.0210 0022' 00240 0,0257 00276
ODIn 0,0183 00191 00202 0.0216 G.02JO 0024(0 0.02601

..'" ,
''''
'.SOl

o,osn

00)2() 0.0285 00277 001&6 0.0)0 o.om 00300 00195 GO)i6 00}15 0.0J25 00206 G.04G6 0.0)62 00351 00220 0G435 00390 00179 0.0235 0,(1463 0G418 0.0401 0.0252 0,G491 00441> 0.043-4 0.0271 0,0517 0G47J 0.041>1 00291 O,QSooIO 0,04911 0.0417 00S60 0,QS22 O.OSl1 0,0543 OOS14 0.OS5J

00}12 0.0296 00211) OOll-' 0,0017 O,OlOJ 0.0151 o,om 00)2' 0.01110 0,0361 0.01016 000402 0G42S 0044' 0,(10169 0.0489 00501 00526 0.Q5.41
O.OJIIJ 0.040> 0.0427 0.0449

95b1

10.020 10136 11.376 11.9lII 12090 lHIIII

"

"

15000 15,250

"

10000 100250 10.SOD 10750 11000 11.250

'''' 'SOl ''''

00l6e 00)90 0,00t12 0,00tl-' 00455 0,(1475 00495 0,0513 00521

1.125

1,315

"'" .soo

1,625 l.7SO

O.O?ll1 00705 0.0635 0.0652 00656 0.0f.9II 005IIII 11,0606 0.0610 0.0654 0,os..5 0,OS6J 00S6l 0,0612 o 0S04 0052) 0,0527 O,OS73 00461 000lllS 0.Ge90 O.05:Mio

o 06M

0,0714 O,G'IB 0,06]1 00676 O.Q6jl 0.0615 0.0706 007lJ (1.0'>92 00597 0,0670 00671 0.06&1 0,0S55 00560 0,06l6 0.Dt>W 0.0650

0.(471) 0.04'iO 0.0S09 0052t1 0.0541

(table continued)

468

Cas Product/on Engilleerillg

Gos Flow Measurement

469

Equation 10-5 uses pressure p in Ibfl ft2. Converting to commonly used pressure units of psia (lbf/in.2) and rearranging, we get: vi -

vi _ 2(144)g.,C'(P,
P.

- p,)

The pressure differential, PI - 2, is generally expressed in terms of inches of water. This conversion can be achieved, using the relation .6.p - pg(.6.h)/~, as follows:

(10-6)

(PI The mass flow rate, m (Ibm /sec). is given by:


m _ p..-A 0',

. (62.43 Ibmit')(g fusec')(&h in. wate,) psla ... (144 in.t/ftt){12 in./ft)(g. Ibm.ft/lbf-sed)

(lO.j'

where A - cross-sectional area of flow, (t 2 This analysis assumes steady-state flow conditions, for which the mass flo\\rate is constant. Equation 10-6 can now be expressed. as:

62.43 "h (p, - p,) - (144)(12) where .6.h - pressure differential in inches of water. Using Equations 1010 and 10-11. Equation 10-9 becomes:

(10-11)

p~" A~

m' [~_ ~l- 2(144)g.,C'(p, AT


P '

p,) (28.97)(62.43)g,>sP" "h

m - c.dl [ (1,152)(144)(12)(1 _ ff')Z.,.RT.,J

f'

(10-12)

m'

Aj [I

(A,/A,)'] - 2(144)g.,p.C'(p, - p,)

(10-8)

Gas flow is generally reported in terms of the flow rate q.., in scf/hr at standard conditions, which is related to the mass flow rate m in Ibm/sec as fol lows (m ... qp):
m _

Let d j and d 2 be the diameters of the pipe and the orifice, respectively. in inches. Defining /3 - dz/d j and solving Equation 10-8 for m:
m - CA [2(144)g.,P"(P' - p,)f' , (I Il')
0',

q,., (28.97 h,p. (3,000) z,.RT.

Using standard conditions of PM: - 14.73 psia, TIC ., 520 oR, and the fact that ~ ... I, we obtain: (28.97)(14.73) (10-9)
m - (3,000)(520)R >,q,.,

(10-13)

Using the gas law, the gas density P., can be expressed as: (10-10)

Using Equation 1013 in Equation 10-12, substituting R '"' 10.73 psia-ft31 Ibmole_oR, and solving for cp." we obtain: q,., 7,717.96 Cd! J" ['h ~, up." [(I-ll'h.Z.,T., (10-14)

where

"f, - gas gravity (air _ 1) P... - average pressure, psia T - average temperature, oR Z., - average gas compressibility factor

Note that in Equation 10-14, cp., is in sef/hr, d 2 is in inches, .6.h is in inches of water, p.~ is in psia, T.~ is in oR, and C. {3, and Z... are dimensionless. Equation 10-14 is commonly expressed as:

1',.

R - gas COnstant

q,., -

K. ["h

p"J"

(10-15)

470

eaoS Production Engineering

Gas Flow Meollurement

471

where the constant

K.. is given

by:

Table 10-2 Flange Taps-Bule Orifice Factors-F b


line tempe,aTu,e .. 6O"f
~

flowm, lemperJIU,e ,. 6O"f lIue p,e'ss.lre .. 14.73 ps.. Spec:,foc ,rimly .. 1.0

h...IPr -

"h..p, - ..
0

SUet-Nomi-w and I'IIbliWcIlns;oe DLomet",- Inc: ....

In metering practice, the average pressure P., is replaced by a measurable gauge pressure Pt. Factors are prm;ded to account for this Pf being measured at the upstream Or downstream, or being measured as the mean of upstream and downstream static pressures. and for the type of pipe tap. Equation 10-15 is then written in the following form:
q. - K [h.

Orifd
.,....,~.

2
1,689
12MS
1I~~.

HI68 3152
1l.70)

in,

1,9:)9
12701
:u.~lq

2067

')00
lZ.71O
a~"

3438
12.1R"
llIJt..1 5(1 25e ;'852J III 1] 1'\04.n

a.m
o.~

a.2S0

unl
1lI~'~

am
11)99 156 00
lOS II

1271l

U71111

12

;:aJ&;'
SO)I]

;:a,r"

a,rJ
SO 1&1 78.S98 11).50 ISS.OJ

0.,500

a blS
o.m
1.000

50m 110090
117.0'1 lW'J5 219."

p,r'

lI~.W

50W " wt

(10-16)

1~W.

212 '7

SO S21 " )11 liS I~ lsa'7 no 22

50 OIS

where h.,. '"' differential pressure at 60F, inches of water

l.llS

,."

Pr - absolute static pressure of the flowing fluid, psia


and the constant K is expressed as a product of several different factors follows (AGA, 1969):
il.\

U. ,,,.,
,~

.n 50

~" ro ).15 1l

~'" I1H2
lS7 U

7""

50)56

so.m
!II!.lS llJ.56 ISS." 2OJ.';f
2S9(101 111 OJ

7a~ lUro ISS."


2001 (101

"'~

2Dlll
2511,(,5

20ns
2571tJ 119.hl J8'i1OJ
066.J~

on 7'i
5'0116 6lHl

." ))5.12

"'~ Jl7J'J
4/1),98

SOl 16

~"

25995 lB.1tJ J9S 80


017.)1>

1.625

,~

..."

'''' ""
12.... 7
21J51

"'.

'\()'j 65

roU7

670""
l'/HIG 9]0,(,5

U<M

J9109 4T.! ~ S61SIJ 66H2 m.18

311.37 J'JI 'P 071.14 SSV'2


6S1J.~

SSl Jl
6047.'>1

m.."

15],11
aro5~

9(16,01
1051,S lID 2

_.06
103&1
119\19

(IO-li)
where Fb - basic orifice factor, sci/hr F', - Reynold's number factor Y - expansion factor Fpb - pressure-base factor FIb - temperature-base factor Ftf - flowing temperature factor F~ - specific gravity factor

",.
2.125
2,)1'5

1091,1

,,,.,

."

1001 1147.7 1)11.7

O.il,ce
DumM ....,

. .

,
5.1&2
n(,$)
~:U4

10'111.4

U)75
.~

U"'
:'lOll III 011 ISO 27

.~
.~

n
11).IS

.~

50197

n,.

nU2

."

,~

,U
,.~

M'W
2S(>]1

Fp. - supercompressibility factor Fm - manometer factor (for mercury manometer) Fl - gauge location factor F. - orifice thermal e:tpansion factor
These factors, determined through extensive tests and reported for use as the industry standard by ACA, are given in Tables 10-2 through 10- 14 for two pressure tap types-flange taps and pipe taps,

M'.
lSS )1

112 ." IS) III

ISl:'l

.,. .,. ".


5.761

''''' ,.'"
5(1,1:'1

7.981 B071

18m

llZ75
~

ISlItJ

10119

nN 11271
IS1"'"
~.

IS1,]<I

,-us ,,,, ''''


,~

OM It'.1ll

1174S

lIS BJ

'"~ )154/1
}&2 . :

,."

,~

,~

"" , ,m, , "'.


,,~

'"'V .'fi 6n no" &I, "


&I

"''' "''' -~
SO) 61
BI19

W ..

llH6
~~

",

11(1017

2.)75
,~ ,~

lHI7
1~f,lJ2

....

&1212

,9J.o197 ,,.. ,
11&29 l<W11
1621~

., . ...
517 "
~P)

4!it191

4!it116

,..
"M "16'1
m~

.,n
1149S

~n

~.

"'''
lSl'" 11l.91

151.]1 1OOl'J
lSJl>'J 11l.7a lIJ006 4Sl.7a Sll.9S 61761) 7Il'J,/7 IIOII.SO

IS1,Jl 100le
2S1 ri1 111.74 JIJOO2 451.72 S]l.ri1 .17 SO

o<;s OJ SUO)

f>.21l'j

,."
~.

114 71 lal r 454 57

_v

4H.02

nT OJ

"5" "6 11
92407

71419 81'41
921.n 10)1 1151,] 12881 102&,0
1m)

no.n ... v
1027,1 11 .... 2 1272,] 1405.0

m.ll 6lun

1Il'i1>4
IJOII.]<I

9loCUS

""1'!1

10W5

lUSO

olin
1701(,7
1'15-~

",. 1
"5J 9
lrH
1'15-14

lU(l~

,~

1m"
11'!171

2875
,~

The factor Fb is simply the constant K., in Equation 10-15, Its va lue depends upon the type of pressure taps, and the pipe and orifice diameters, Fb can be obtained from Tables 10-2 and 10-7 for flange taps and pipe taps, respectively, For sizes that cannot be found in these tables, interpolation is
(text continued Oil page 4;5)

219'-9

, , "'"
11101 0

..

n."

"W6
1291

14H 5 IS11l 1
1700 (I

1727,S
1891'
~.I

1'1(\" 8
lOIb4 217& S 2':"11 NISI

154S] If>'JH 1143.6


2011,6 2182.6
~

91J all 111lS.' 11.." 7 1270.3 1002.9 l';fl .S 161J'J,1 1&1].5


2005.2 2174.&

911.1>4 10256 """.] llt191 10021 1541.8 Ilia 0 1&12.J


lOOU lIn 9 lJ499 r;1,

"" U"

,~

"'"

"." .," "'''

21172

210).4 U4/1 a

l250a

lWJ8
1lI0II1

Z....-..
26'\049

2)1,18

..

=.0 2511.1

(tablc continI/cd)

Gas Produl't/(m Erlgiflcerirlg

Gilt Flow MellSllrement

Table 10-3 Continued " b " values 10r Reynolds Number Factor F, Determination_Flange Taps

Table 103 Continued "b" values for Reynolds Number Factor F, Determination-Flange Taps
OttfOCI!

,us ,
2,J7S
~

..

18814 19,QOC 19250 116.2(, 2].000 2.1250 2116.28 29.000 19250 0.0667 0 OWl
O.{l6.I() 0ClM4

"

0.1,)6-('
0 (16.49
11,75(1

"'" 2500

,""

VSO

"'5

J ..
3125
3250 3.315 3500 3625 3.750 3.875 4,000 5W 4750

0.Ob14 00618 006.l! 0,0511$ 00592 0.05'r 0,0659 o OSI>J 0 OSM 0.0571 0 0bl6 n(,t<.U'l O~ 0!.'54'l !lotH 0,0511 O,Oill 0.051(, 0.0592 00490' 0 0499 O.~ 0 OS11 00471 0().\7)' 0048l 00551

12000
0,1l665 0(166') 0,0&42 0,111>46 O.tl(.,.";l 0,0/.;:4 o.om 0,(1601 0,0578 O.OW 0,0662 0,0557 0,0SI>2 0 0b44 00&4'1 0.Ob~2

0037f> 0.0367 0.0155 00lla 00118 00211 1I.0llD 0,ln26 0,0127 0.0394 003&5 0.0)73 0.0241 00230 00223 001).1 0,0111 0.0129 0.0429 004'20 0040B 00267 00255 002411 00142 0.0133 0.01.16 0.04&3 00454 0 DoW2 0,0296 0,Olll2 001"4 00153 001411 0.0145 004')4 00435 00474 OOlU 0,0111 0,0101 00166 0.0160 0.0157 00520 00512 0,0502 OOJ'M> O,O:W, 0,03]1 001&! 0,0175 o.om 00186 0,0)70 0,0360 O.ln99 0,0192 0,0187 0,0415 00400 0,0191) 0,0118 0,0209 0,0204 O,DoW) 00426 0,0418 0,0219 0,0210 0,on4 0,0470 0,04S5 0,044& 0,02bO 0,0250 0.02+1 00494 0,(1460 0,0471 0028J 0,0273 0.0266 0,050] 004'.1-4 00W7 0.0296 0,02811 Oro31 0.0319 0,0312 0.0355 0,0.143 O,OllS 00119 0,0366 0,035-8 0,0402 0,OJ9O 0,01112 0.0424 0,0412 O,Q.K1oI 0.044& 0,(10134 0,0426 00466 0,0455 0,(1448 0,0485 0,0475 00467 0,0492 0G4/1S

12500

!looo

13500 14000

00451 0,049 0.0462 0.OS31 005111 0,0542 0,06.26 0.0631 00b}4


00411 0().\14 0,0395 00378 00361 00345 00129 00.101 o (l2i5 00252 (1.0232 00214 0(1199 001U 00176 00167 (10161 0,0157 00155 0.0155 (10157 00160 0.01&6 00172 001110 00190 00201 0,().I)7 0,0'118 OOW'I 0,0J82 0,0365 O,O,W'I O,OIH 0O-H2 0,0423 O.IHOS 0,0387 0,0370 0,0154 0.0339 (10511 0.0493 0.0474 00457 O,O-HO 0.0423 (10-107 00520 (1.0500 0.0431 0.G464 0.1).147 0,04]0 00414 0.0511 0,051)4 00486 0,04b8 0,0451 O,M]S 0041'1 0,01>08 0,0590 0,05N 0,05$7 (1,05..11 0,(1525 0,0S09 0.0479 0,0450 O,MB (1,0)97 0061J 00596 00579 00562 0,0546 0.0530 00S15 00435 0045-& 0,0429 00-103 00616
0.0~99

14.500 15,000 1;,500 16,000 16,500 17,000 17,500 18,000

00';82 005-&6 00550 00534 00S18 004&8 O().l6() 00433 00407 0.0382 0(1359 OOlli 00311,

.,'"

S...
S250
SSOU

0,113(14 0,0310 00]76 0,0].6.1 0,03M 0027';1 0.0111) 0.0348 00355 Q,03hO (1,02)6 (I,Q2W (1.0122 00328 O,ODl 0,on5 o,om 0,0297 0(1304 O.OlOe 00117 00210 0,0175 00281 0,02(}1 (I,02G4 (I,02S4 00260 00UI8 0,(1191 0,023& (10241 0 DIn 0,1n]9 0,0219 o,on~ 001611 001f>l 00157 00155 001504 00155 00153 0.0163 (1.0170 00161 00157 001'>4 001$3 0,015-4 0,0156 0,0160 00165 00172 001110 110190 00201 0.021] 0,on6 (1,02.-0 0,0255 0,0270 0028& 0.0J03 00204 00191 0.0179 0,011>9 0,0161 0,0154 0,01411 0,0144 0.0142 00141 0,0141 0,014] 00146 0.0150 0,0155 0,0161 O.ln66 00176 0.0165 0.0194 O.OD (1.0195 0018) ODIn

18,SIIO 19.000

5750 6000 6250

00285 O,OJl} 00376 0,026-1 0.0.l4'1 0,03$5 0.();!45 00127 O,O)3J 00~2.8 0,0)06 0,0312

6500

"'"
~ooo

00212 (10287 O,02'n 00296 001911 0,0169 00274 002" 0,Olt15 0,0252 00257 00260 0017~ OOll6 0,02.-0 O,OJ44

" "

19.500

21.000
~.500

.. ...

... ... ... ....


nso
'500
77SO

0.0161 00165 DonI 0.0226 0,01'M> 00lS7 0020II (10112 0,0150 00151 0.0195 00199 0,01~5 O.01-1fo 0.01&-1 00187
O,OI~l 001~1

o.om
(1021; 001'(11 0(1190 (10179 0,0170 00161 0.0153 0.0146 0.0141 00136 001)2 00126 0.1ll26 0,0125 00114

(text l'Onlinued }rom page 475)

Expansion Factor, l'

"'"
8.?SO

.".

10.00:>
10250 10,SIIO 10,7S0 11000 11.250

..""

0011>9 00177 001116 (10196 0,0213 0.010II 0,0126 0.0220 0,02~ 002304 0.02'if> 00249 0,0271 00215f1 O,OJOS 0,0)22 0,0264 002t10 0,0297 0.0114

001.-0 00140 00141 00143 0.0146 0.0150 0.0155 0,01&2 0,0169 0.0176 0.01116

00140 0011'1 00140 0,0141 0,0144 0,0147 0.0152 0,0153 0.0164 o,lnn 0,0181

00174 0 DIM 001';6 0014'1 0,0141 0,01111 0,1ll3) OOllO 00128 OlnU 0012S O.01lS

00177 0.D1W1 0,015'1 001$1 0.0145 Oong 0,on5 0,01)1 00128 00126 O.OllS 00124

11.500

0.0340 OOJJ2 0,0320 0,020'; 0,0196 00190 00126 0,0125 Oln24 O.OlSa 0,0349 0,01)(1 00216 0.0207 0,0200 O,lnl& 0,0126 0.0125

The expansion factor, Y, accounts for the change in gas density with the pressure changes across the orifice. It is computed assuming a reversible adiabatic expansion of the gas through the orifice, and is a function of f3, the ratio of the differential pressure to the absolute pressure, the type of taps, and the specific heat ratio (Op/c,) for the gas (generally ignored). The expansion factor can be obtained from Tables 10-4, 10-5, and 10-6 for flange taps, and Tables 10-9 and 10-10 for pipe taps, These tables indicate the pressure tap from which the absolute static pressure PI is measured- YI for upstream, Y2 for downstream , and Ym fo r static pressure recorded as the mean of the upstream and downstream static pressures. As with F" an average h", Pf should be used .
(text continued 011 pagc 489)

472 Table 10-2 Continued

Gas Flow Measurement


Table 10-2 Continued Flange Taps-Basic Orifice Factora-Fb

473

Flange Taps- Basic Orifice Factors -Fb


Onfice
o.,~e.,

3.826

.n

.'"

)11.8

.."

5.182
5.761

=, lln.!
3<135.7 lnBl

.~

""
,~

""

",

..

.~

"" ""
,~ ,~

"''' ,.," " 9 ,,.,, 1'-' "''' -, ""2.' =, """ "". ..." .,." =.
]r<l6S
2731.S

.'" ""
11M)

ltlU

lJ6H
~,

.. ,-.
4.1t105

&.On
~.

OrifICe
Di~lTH'ter ,

7 9111

In.

9.564
10.654 I I.nl

10.(00
10,409 11,J90

"

10,136
10,]55 11.ll7 11 381 B,s,41

11]7(,
Ul5 2 10,1I00I 11m 11.72'1 13,7JOI 14,9'27
16.151>
17.505

11_938
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(table contilllll'dl

474

Ga., Production Engineering


Table 10-2 Continued Flange Taps-Basic Orifice Factors-F b
JO
'8,114
~l5Il ],'lS7~

Cas Flou' McaSlu'(-'I/INlt

475

(tnt contim4ed from page 4(0)

not recommended; the exact equations or charts given by ACA (ACA, 1969) must be used.
C,M./

19<XX1
7,9S'1
l~lbS

19.250
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1~122

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28.621
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This factor accounts for the variation of the orifice discharge coefficient with Reynold's number, Tables 10-3 and 10-8 .show the value of F, for flange taps and pipe taps, respectively. The pressure extension, [h" Pff 5, should be some sort of average pressure extension. These F, values have been calculated assuming average values of viscosity equal to 6.9 x 10 6 Ibm ft-sec. temperature equal to 60F, and gas gravity equal to 0.65, These tables do not , therefore, have a general applicability to all sy!.tems. In any e\'ent, the variation in F, in gas measurement l~ quite small. and is often neglected.
(text cOIltinll('d
011

20 414
n.H6
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18 1:""1 19,)71 2I)<IOJ

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If>S'I1 27.8:'8

21,;>19 IBll 14. 15,2'10

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ll.tm
141lS&

22.S4l
nl><;6

Table 10-3 " b" Values for Reynolds Number Factor F, Determination-Flange Taps
F, ~ 1+
f'i~

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'''''" '"'" (table contilll/cd)

CQ8 Prodllctkm Engineering

Ga3 Flow Measurt'Jllnlt

481

Table 10-4 Yt Expansion Factors_Flange raps


Shltle Presaur. raken from Upstream raps

'. ,.
"

St.~le Pressure Taken from

Table 10-4 Continued Y Expansion Factors-Flange Taps


Upstream Tsps

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0.'JIIIl6 D'JIOf 0.9792 09190

0,9~41

0,9,6' 09761 0975'1 09756 0,97';) 0.97.... 0974' 097)8 0,9714 09n) 097]1 097'iO 09743 097 .... 09:'41 09736 0,97l4 097)1 0972'1 09722 09'"20 0971B o 97111 D 97111 0,97)6 O'lng 0.9724 09m 0971' 0.9716 09]1l 09lD'1 09'117 O.ros 09727 0.9ns O'lnl 0,'1717 09711 0.'110 09:"07 0.'T."tM 09700 0'M7 01l6'Jo4 0.'J692 D'1715 09;',S 0.9713 097'(19 O.'I7OS 09:'00 0.1lI!o'M 0'll69S 0.'1692 O'IMII 0,96501 OMl 0%8(1
9:"(W

O'~

0'jlb9] 0.96&1

0%'11

09:'112 0')691

'libel

'K.7O 0 '11169 09f058 O'llt..,.

... ,0.'jIb74

0.'Jti.9I

096&

O,96M

0'lMl

D,'jIb1'9

0,'l6al

964] 0 '11>41

0.96.16 09615 09624 09624 D.""'} O'llt.l~ 01lllQ2 It 'MOl

09579 09518 0'J561 09"iS6 09SSS 095SJ

0,", O.Wo5.! 091>'>1 D'lIIIo49 09646 09&42 0,9&47 D96-IO O.~ 09llt.l4 0.'lIIIlO

0.'Jb]O

09676 O~

0967J 0':1661

O'jlbro

0':1667 0'jlb!;4

0'jlb7S

09671 0'11169 09661 09(, O.~ 0.9M4 0,9f.oI6 0 96-14 0,9bH 9f.JJ 0 96J I 0 9628 0.9621 0961' 0961S

09628 09625 09622 09617 0962.l 09616 (961) 0%09 0'lllOS .." 0,9616 09611 09(1)1 09&01 09'197 09S9] 09610 9S99 0 ~2 09589 0 ~ 0.9SIJa O'K'l) 0'J511 09SlJa 09'!n 1t957) O.~
0,9f.J5
09S~

0,,",5 0'JI6J1

09b1l 0'Jl601

.~~

096011 O~ 0960J 0'JS95 omJ 0,9S90 095lll 09SlO O.9Sn 11 957V 09561 0'564 O.9SSI 09"iS4 0955'

" " ,, " " " " " " u " "
" " " "

0979) 09792 0.97'X1 O"M 09710 Dt77'J 0.'P6I D.9766 ,~ O'~S l.m3 0.97'S1 09749 0,9742 0.9140 0.91)8 09135
0972'J 0.9716 o 9?OJ O.'WIO 0.'J677 0.'1664 0.9651 0.'J6JI 09625 0,"11 0,9600 0'9Sl1 0'574 OS1 0,9So18 095lS 09S12 09509 09727 09714 11 mt 0.!J6111 Otli1S 0.9662 096t9 O'Will 0.'M.ll 09610 095')1 09Sl'l 09S71 0~ O.'IS4S 0.95l2 09518 0 t505 0.9ns 0.9711 D.,.... 0.96IS 0.9r072 0.9659 0.9646 O.Will 0.9t020 0.96OIi 0,'}59) 0.9580 0'JS61

om) "", ,m, "'"

''''' '''''
09n1 09709 09696 D.9lJ&l 0.966'1
09720 0,9701> 0 ')691 0.96tIIO 0.9f.66

",,, '"''
09717 091001 0.9690 0'1677 O'l66l

097&] 09?69 0.9155 0.9742 09ne

,,,,,
09ll.

o.ml om1

,- ,,,"
09778
0.9737 0,9721

.,,.,,
0.9n. D9745 09731 0.'717 0.101
0,'J6II')

,- ....,
09657

0,9111:'\1 0,'>/15,

,""
0.'M16
0,'VliO

0982B 09&14

'"''
09714 09100
096a5

...

0.9841

0\111.'6

0'lll1! 0.97'!IB 09:"81

''''' 09148 '''~ '''''

09:'54 0.9'40

09715

o ~rol

o 9I">S6

0 9653 O .... l O.~ 0'l6lO 0.9626 0.9616 0."0 0.96Ol 0.9600


095'iD 0.9577 0.9!064
Q.~

..." "'" ",,,


D.96'O

0.9712 091\911 O. 9I0Il8 O. 968S 0,96]4 09671 0, '1660 0 w.57


0,9647 09tol)

09109 09J'06 0,9695 09692 0 9681 0 WI


0.96611 0')1:,64
0, 'J{64 0 9foSO

,0.96&1 0.':166'
,~,

O.'J"".:S 0'17"

O.'l67S 09611 09661 0!l6S1 0.9646 09&4)


0'J6J2 0.9618

(96)9

''''' , ,..,
0.9579 0.9571

0.9586 0.9573 09560


O,~

o.9S5-t
0.9541 0.9528 09515 D.95Ol

..

,~~

"'''' "'" ''''' o9SIIl ," ''''' 09561 0.t'iS2


D.95)/1
0.9524

....

,""
09616

o '1643

0.9640 0'.1636
0.9&26 O!l6.U

09611 09601

0._ 09S94

o 9SII4

09580

0'1628 0.9624 09614 0,9610 a.~ O!l6OO 09S9D 0'1515 0.9511' 0.957\ 09571
0.9562 09547
O,95Jl 11.9519 0.'lSO'i

09571 09566 09SS7 095Sl


0.954) 09Slll 0.9529 0'lS24 o.9S15 D'J5lO

0,9587 0.9576

0'lS7V O,'tSIil 09'iSl 0')';S2

0, 9SloS

0 9560

0.'15106

95SJ

09Sq

0,9551

0.'IS4O

0'1515

'~ll

09528 0.9516

(95)6 09524 09512

....
9Sl1

0.95-1)

,~~

0'1526 0951' 0951) 0'1501

O.!IS4S 09542 ,~~ 09512 0952') D.95lO 0.9516 1I95U 9S01 0 950-1
D""

.... ....,

'''''

..

" " " " "

0.95J7 0.952( 0.9511 0 ')191

O.95)l

"'" .""

095-17 0.95l4 09SlO

09551 095042 09S28 09514 0.9500 090485

"'" "'"
g,9SSl

(95)'

''''' ,,0.9'110 0.9465 0.9451 0,9436


o."'~~

0.'t;01 0."96

09491

D."" 09442 0.9477 0 ... 71 0.'M.7. 0,"'" 0.'Wtl O.... ~


0M60 0'MS4 D."" 0.,...2

0..",
0<J431

OM2
0,",79

I ....
0.9rn

0."""
Ottn

0 ..... 0.'M4D 0.904

a.,uI

482

Gal Production Engineering

Gas Flaw Measurement

483

Table 105
Y2 Expansion Factors-Flange Taps Static Pressure rakan from Downstr.am Taps

Table 105 Continued Y2 Expansion Factors-Flange Taps Stetlc Pre.. ure Taken Irom Downstream TIps
8 -iloIlO

'-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," ., '-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,"' ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," ,--,,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,.., ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,.. ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-, ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,.. ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,--,,. ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," '-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," ,.. ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,..
060 g.61 10011 10011 IOOIl l00U 1.0012 10011 10011 10012 10011 10011 10011 10011 l00U

.., "' "

."

,-,-~.,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,
l00v l!011i 100801 UIOII2 UIOIIO UlO78 10077 '.001S loon 10071 1007\1

,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," ,. ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,,. " ,. "


10142 1.0141

" '" ,., " u "

,.
"

" "

10081

1_~

IOU,.

un07

1 010&

101001

111101

lOO'lf1

1.~

10095
'(1101

1 QOIJl 1.01001

10114 10111 101211 10US

1.01,. 10'121 1.01211 1,0114

1.01U 1.0120 10126 IOUl

1.(nl0 1.0117

tim}
U,I1JO 10116

10I0Il 1 (Ill. 1.0121 1.0127 101.M

l!MOf unl! 10111 IOID 1.0129

1010]

10099

10109
1.00tS 1.0121 1.1t117

10107
10TH 1.0119 1.0125

10110 1.0116 10122

1.01D!! 10114

,,- ,....
HlO9Il UIOM 1.0102
1.0105 10110 1.0116

,-

1.0087

1 00II1

1.0103 1,(1109 1.0114

1.0102 1.0107
'Olll

,-,-,-,-~.,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,
,-~,-,-,-,-,_,_,_,_w~.,_

101~

1.0n,

,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-, ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," ,-,-,- ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,,. ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,..,".. ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,,-,-,--,,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,,. ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-," ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,. ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,., ,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,"
'"
O,fo'I 070 0.14

...

Il--Roloo
D

,w

.n

.n .n

OJ

1,00151.OIIU

10015

UID14

10014

1.0014

1,0013

lOO1l

lOO1l

1.0012

1,011\1

101m

10011

!CO" 1.0041>

100015

U)(I.4

\ 00013

1.0041

101141

10CM0

HI013

1.00)1

1,011:16

lOOl4

loon

100511.0056

10055

l00S4

IODS3

10051

l11DSO

1004'1

HOI'

1,01146

I,OOU

loon

!lXlll

"

1~ 1.0IIIIl

OJ

HID!19 1,00M;

I.IXl'JoI 1.0093

10081 UlOIl6 \.0091 1.0101

l007'J 1.110114 1.00&9

1 fX1T1 10082 11)(18] l00'J7

11101'S UlOIlO 101185

'.0073 1,11011 10083 1.0092

10011

I.OOM

1001>1

1.0016 1-(10110 lOO9Il

'0014 1,0018

'0011

1.0076

1001>5 UOt.9 101113 100111

l00b2 10066 10070 lOO7tI

10060 101J601 IOI)6IJ 1007'S

10105 1.00Ql

1.00'19

100'IS

10087

100&4

" " ,. "


u

10111 1.0109 1.0\16 1.0114 '0121 1011~ 10121 10124 1.0012I.111l1l 1.01)11.0135 101431 .0140 Utl<la 1.0146 101504 10151 '.OIfoO'OIJ1 101115 1,0110 1.01'" 1.0181 1.0lSi 10192 1111911 '.02001 1020t 10215

1.0106 1.0112 1.0l11 '-0122 \.0121

1.0l04 1.0109 10114 '0\20 1.00lS

'-0102 10107 '0112 1.0111 10122

1,0100 1.0104 '-0109 10114 10'"

'0097 1.11102 1011.16 '.0111 1.0116

llXl'Jo1 1,00'19 1.0104 10108 111111

1.0II'J2 10096 1.11101 1,0l05 101'0 10114 1.0119 1.0124 1.0121 1.011)

1.0IIII'J l1lO'11 1011'Ja 1.0101 10106

11101!11i 10090 10094 loo.t 1.(10)

1.00113 100111 1.0091 1,01195 100'19

1,001'9 10081 ItlOll1 10091 lOO'K lOO9'J 10101 10107 10111 lOll' 10120 1.0124 10111 100ll 1(1)6 10100 10144 100<1a 1015) 10151

1.0182

,-,-,-,-,-,-~.,-,-,-,-,-,1.0182 LIlh!O 1.0m. 1.01n 1.0161 1.0164 LIl16, HilS/! 101504 101SO 10148 10141i
1.0196 l.o2OJ umo UI'I'I UIlIl1 1.0'89 1.11196 101115 1.0192 1.0180 1.0186

a ,.,
u

'_~.'_'_~R'_'_~.'_'_,_,_,_

1.0196 1 OlD) 10210

1.(nn 10171 1.0110 10166 10162


1.01110 1.01'" 1.00n

1.01&)

101~

I.OI~ 1.01M
1.011'1)

100S' 1016! 10166 1011't 101i1-< 1.01'10

..

" ".. ,-~.,-,-,-,-,-,-~.,-,-,-,~ , " ,.. ,"'" l.o:zsa " ,.". " ,"" " "'" ,"'"
101011 1.020) 1.01" 1.0211 10218 1(1224 1.02l1 10192 1.01" 1_020".1 1.0lDI 1.0214 1.0186 10182 1.0111 1,0189 1.019S 1.0201 1.0173

10Zl4 1.Q1lO lill)] 102<44 1,0251


I
~

1.m3 '-'1210 1.1I2ll

1Il221 1.11221 HIlJj 1 ~l

10216 1022l

'OlQS

I~

10211 10211

101... 102001 1.0210

10194 10200 1.1llO(,

1,011' 10190 1,0196

1,0111 100Si 1,0193

'0244 1.O:ZS1

102)6

.. "

" '" " u OJ

1.01]) 10113 1014) 10148 10154 1 015~ 1.01601 10110 \.OIl'S 101110 UlllIi 101't1 1.0196 1.020".1 \,0201

1(1)0 1.0115 10140 10145 1.0lj(! 1.0156 10161 1,0166 1.0111 1.00n 10182 1.0111 1.0192 1.01911 1.D201

10121 10112 1,0117 1.0142 1.0147 1.0152 lOIS/! 1.0163 101611 1.(11) 10118 1.01&) \.01. \.OI'M '0199

1,0124 1.0129 1.0134 1011' 10144 1.0149 1.01504 1.0159 1.0164 101M 10114 1.1117'9 1.01&4 1.0189 1.0194

1,0121 1.0126 1.01l1 101:16 10140 1.0145 1,01511 1.11155 101611 101M 1,0110 1.1IlTS 1.0180 1.01M '0190

1.0118 10122 1.0121 '0112 10111 10141 10146 1.0151 1,0156 101611 101M 1.0110 10175 1.0180 10185

10111 10115 10120 1.0124 1,0129 1(1)) 101111 10142 1.0141 1,0151 1,0156 10160 101M 1.0170 1.0114

1(11)1 10111 10116 10110 1.0124 10129 1.01)3 10131 10142 1.0146 1,0151 1.01S5 10160 1,0164 'Olfo'l

1.0101 1.0101 10112 1.0116 111120 1.0124 10121 1.00ll 1,01l1 1.0141 1.0146 101j(! 1,01504 10159 1,0163

1,0224

1025f

, IDio4

10255

1,021'

1024)

1 026.l

1,0251

1.0lfi

1.0220 1.D2lfi Ullll 1.02)') llmS

1,0216 llJ222 1OZ2'J l,on5 10141

1,0212 1.llll' 1.0224 10210 1.02)6

1,0l07 1,1ll1l 1,021' 1.0225 1 WI

10202 1.0l07 1.021) 10219 1,0215

1.0199 1.0204 1,0210 1.0216 1,0222

10191> 10.'01 1 (P.Ol" , rull 1,0218

,.. u "

1.016:2 1.0161 '0111 1.0111 lOll' 10189 1.019S UI200 II1'2l)6 ',0111

1.01l7 1-(''''2 11'147 1.00SI 1.0156 '0161 1.0165 1.0110 HII75 1.01110

... "

84

Cos l'roductioll Engineering


Table 10-6 Y", Expansion Factors-Flange Taps
Sqtlc Pr.ssure Muo of Upstre.m end Downstr m

Cas Flow Measurement


Table 10-6 Continued Y... Expansion Factors-Flange Taps
Stetie Pr...ure Mee" of Upstream and Downstream

485

"100

...
"
u2
. 1

". ." ..."_,_._,_._._._,-,_._._," .. ...


II
-"bO

,
o

0.1

.S>

'w

DWM
O~

G9'A6 099'>& 099'K O~


0,",' 69'191

il99"F 0.9'/95
099'1'2

ow;;
0.,,,,",,

6,,")

.." ..
as
11 12 U '4 I ~
U 17 18 " 20 21 22 2) 14 1,S U 27 Z. n )0 l' ]2 )] H
)~

0.4

09991 09990 0"",, O,'J'lIIf 09'J8il 0..9988


O'l'lelJ 09964 O'l'!i8l O<m<! 0'1'181> 0911&1 09'1111 0.997'1 0'19"

0.'1992 O'lMil o.,9'iI'J 0,'" 11._


0.9'/&1 0.9'182 0.9980 0.9977 0,.;1&1 0..9'1111
Q.9'J78

G'l9'I7 O'i~ 0._ 09'1'11 ij,':I'/9l O_'I'HI 11._ D,99'JI) 0._ O'I'IN 69'1117 0.991;1 0.9985 O.9'JM 0.,9\1&1 0911&1 O,1ffi7 D'l'I'i; 6,'I'/'l0l 0."""
0.998.2 0._ 0,'1977

D~

own 0.9'l'IO 0.9'IIl6 DMeJ


699)'9 0'197& 09:l7J 0,'196') 0.')961,

OW9lo 0.999)
Q.9'JI'I

D.9'I'JoD II ........ 6,",93 o.999!


0..9')89

69'l1l':I
O,9'MI~

69'J16 09982
0..9978 O.991S 0..9971

69985 o.,ft12

0.1 G.2 1U 0.4


D.5

0._
0.9992

0.9981

0._ 0.9984 0.'l981 0.9977


0.9971 09969 0.9966 0.99b1

C.9'J'Jf> 09992 0.9'JIIII 0._ 0.99110 0.997'

0.9')')6 0.99' 0 . " 09'J17 0 _ 09'1&] 09980 0.997')


0.9992
O.~

09996

0.!9'16 099'11 09917 O.998J 0997')


0,9974 09910 0.9966 0.9!162 o,me 09953 0'1949 09945 0'1941 099)7 09911 09929 0992.) 09921 09917

09996
09991 09917 0991ll 099711

0.9993 09991 09916 0.99112 09977


0.9971

oow
099111 09977 0,'997.1 0.9'lfI8 099I\J 0,9956 0.9'JS.! 0.9949 09945 0,99010 09'J16 09931 0.9927 0.9921 09918 0.9914 09909

0.9995 09991

oms O"'IGS 0._ 0_ 0 _ 0'J'J85 0.9981 09')80 0.99"6 09975


09971 0.9966 0.9961 0.9957 0.9951 0,9'170 0.9966 0.9961 0._ 0'1951 0.9'J046 0.9942 099)7 09932 0,'1927 09'll2 0.9'118

O"""'i 0 _ 0.9'I'JII 0998') 0,99IS 09'1&( 09')80 0997') 09975 0.9974


0.9970 0.99fIl

~-

o.9'1e6
099l!l1 09981 0'197' 09976

0..998.2 O.9'J7'j
0.,9976 6.'1'971 0..9970

o')'m
0997~

0.9'17.
0.'1972 0.997(1 0'1"167 0.9!16S 0.9962
09960 0'l'Y.>1 0995S 0,9951 09950
0.9948

0.9976 O.997l

0.""'.
0.9971

o.,'J'Jll1 69'17' 09975


Q,'l'I72

(I,"

o~r.m

0991. 099:-7 0.997. 0997~


69971 O.'l'ji'fl
Q.9o/b)

O'
OJ

0997.
o..<J971 0,'J9611
o,~

0.996& 69%7 69%6


0,99(,.1 0.99boI

O,'/'J69

1.1 1.1 I.J 1.' 1.5

O'

,.

o." n
0,')968 09965 0,9961
0.9957 0.9953 0.9949 0.9946 0.990

0,99]2 09!l6a 0.9"1601 0,996i'I

0991$ 09971 0.9967 0.99I\J 0.99;9 0995S 0.9951 0.'l9I7 099U 09939 09'1), 0991' 0.9917 09')1) 0991'

0997' 09969 0,9965 099101 0,99$6 0,9951 0'l9l8 09'1+1 099]9 0.9915 099)1 0.'1921 0992) 09918 0.9914 09910 09906 09902 0._ 0.')11904 09190 0'J111116 0'lMl 09878 0987' 0.9870 D.'*" 09l6l O'JIIISII 0'J1S4 09llSO 09846 0.960 0.911 09llJ5

0.991>11
o.~

09960 09955 09951 09946 09942 09933 099lJ 09929 0992.)

..., ..- .."" ..,,,


0,9'1611

099119 0.9984 0.99711 0'J971

.mo

0.9'lS5

0995] 09948

09952

D.~

O'l'l71 0'1910 0.9!I6a 09'11>1:> 09964 0.'1'11>1


0~9

09975 0.9'/72 0'l'l7(l 09!l6a 09966


09"1601 0"'" 0'l9S9 0.9957 099'S;

0.997. 0.9971 09'16'1 09967 09965


0.'1'162 0.9960 099Sa 09956 09'J5ot

0,9'J70 0.9%& 0'l'ltoS 0.9'J6J O.'l'9bO


09'JS7 0.9955 09951 0.9950 0.'l9I7

0.99611 0._5
0.9%2

0._7
(I,9')f,.I

0.9960 0'1\157 0.9'J5ot 09'JSl 099<19 0._ 0,99011

09961 O,'J'JS/I O,995S 0.9952 0,'J95(I 099017 0.'1'M4 O.'l9Il 09938 0.99.16 099J] 09910 0.9927 0.9924 0.99'22 0,9'119
0,991~

0.9')61; 0.996] 0.9'JbO 09'JS7 0.'1'J'i4


D.9'JS1 0._ 0.99oIS 09942 (99)')
0,99)6
(99))

0'196)
0995~

0.9961 O,'J'JS/I 09'JSS 0.9951 0.99<19


D.~

09956 0995) 0.99S0 0.'I'Jo'6 099ol} 0.99010 09917 099.14 0.9930 0.9927 0'l9l4 0.9921 0.99'11 D.""S 0.9911 099011 0990S 0.9902 D.,," 0'lll!l6 09119) 09MO D.'111117 0.91164 0.'" 09&71 0.9875 O,.. n

09961 0995a 0.995-1 09951 09')017


0.9!M4 0,99010 (99)7 099}< 0,")0 09927 09924 0,99lO 099'17 09914

0.9960 09956 0995\ 09950


O~

09959

0995,
09952 0.')'W5
O~'>

0.9956 0.9954 0.9951 0.'1947 0.9943


0.99'0 0.99l6 09911 0.9'129 0.9925

099S6 09952 0'l9l8 09'1+1 0'194<1

0.'l9I8 D.'l9IJ 0,9919 099)1 0.9'J19 09925 09920 0,9'116 0,9911 09907

0,'1945 0.'194<1 09'1)5 0.9'I1O 0,992.) 0.9920 0.9915 0.9910 0,9'lO!I 0990T

0.'1941 09933 D.9'JH 0.'1'128 0.99ll 0.9918 09911 0,9'iOII 09903

09'141 0.'1'116 099Jl


o'm~

09920 0991; 0991D 09'101 0.9900 0.'IIm 09890

099Sl 099SS 09'lS] 09951 0,," 0"" 0.,,",5 (9901) 0.,.., 0"" 09').16 0'99)1 099 0'99)0 0'1'128 0.9'126 Ow.z4 09912 09921 09919 09917 0991S

0.99<11 099)9 0.99.16 D.99)) 09910 0'l9l7 0'1924 0'l9l1 0.9911 0991S 09911 0,9910 09906 09901 09901 D."" 0.'lII95 0.91192 0.'Me!I 0.'IIIMo 0._ OWl 0.'JI18

09942 099" 099.16 09912


O.~

0'l9l1 099. D99}< 09910


0.992~

1.' 1.1 U U U 1.1 1.1 l.l


1.4

0.99" 0.9936 0.99)1 D9911 0.9'l30 0,9'129 0.9927 0992S 0992] 0.'192'
0.99" 09916 0.9911 0.99011 0.990S 0990T 6_ 0.91194 0.W90 0.911117 0.'1M3 0,'lIIlO 0 ..76 0.'lII71 0,91!I69 09917 09914 09910 0.9906 0990:.1:

09920 09916
09912 09'iOll 09901 0t1199 0.91I9S 0'"' 09817 09lll:.l 0.9178 091174 091!10 091166 09861 O'JIIISII 0.91S4 091150 0.9846 0 ....1 0.91)0 O,~ O,'JIJO

0.9911
0.99011 0.9'IOf 0._ 0.'lI895 09890 O.'JMS OWl O'JIII?' 0.'II7l 0.9167 0.'JIII6l 0.'J8SI

0._

099S) 0'l9S1 09951 099019


0.9948 Ot9ol4o 09!M4
0.9')4~

0990lS 0"")

09'J0t6 O"..} 0,"", (99)') 099.16


(99)1

O.,,",S 0.9940 0.99012 0.99. D..,.., O,99)S 0")7 09912 0"ll5 0'19)0 0.99)1 09930 D'I92B 0.9925 0992] 099lO 0.'9911 09916 0991) 09!\, 0'1'109 0.9906 099(101 09'101 O.'JII'J'I 0.9927 09924 09922 09919
09917

09930 0,'1927 0'l9l4

09925 09912 0'1911 0""5 0.",1 0.99011 0.990S 0'l'lO2 0.9Ige 0.91I9S 091192 0.91119
O!IM~

(992)

0.9920 0.9916 (991) 09910 09906 09901 0.91199 0W'16 0'J1192 0."'" 0.9886 0_1 0.9V'i
0987~

0,9921 0.9918 0991,


0.9911 0.9907

1.S U 1.7 2.1 U l.G ).1 l.2


3.)

09915 09911 09907 0990] 09'100

(991) 09'10'1 09905 0.9901 091197


0'J89] 0.9M9 09MS 0_' 0'J177

0.9905 09'102 0990T 0 _ 0'lll!l6 O!IMl 09D92 091!1119 0 _ 0,'11&4


O.~

0'lll!l6 0'J89) 0'Jl91 0._ 0.9817 O'llllll 0'lMl 0.'1B78 0'11U7 0.'lII71 0.')871 0.'II16II 0.'JIII6l 0.'J8SI 0.'J1S4 O.WoI 0,'" 0,'JI59 0.'J1S4 O.'I!W'I 0.",," 0.'il&tO (91)5 O,'JI}(! 0.'lIl6 0.91121 0.':11116 091111 0'lllO7 O.!leOl

0_5
0'l1!l!lO 09874 0,'JII7(I 0.')116.1 O'lllbl) 0.'JIIISol 0";(1
0.1I&l~

0,,",2 0"'" 0.....0 0'19. 099" 0.99.16 099.16 099}< 099)1 0'1911
099)2 09930 o.w.z. 09926 09924 09921: 09920 0'9911 09916 09914 09910 099211 0.9926 09')14 0.9922 0,9920 099'11 0'9916 099'1 4 0"12

09911 09'129 09927 0'1925 0992] 0.9'r.!O 09918 09916 0'19'4 0.9912 0.'9910 0.9907 09905

09'114 0.99'11 0,9'iOII 0.9906 0990] 0,9900 0.9II'JII 0,98'1S 0911'1) 098'JO 0_7

0,9922 0.9919 09916 0,9'111 0.9910


0.9'JOII D.990S 09902 D'lIII99 D.'lII!I6 0.'lii')0i 0'J891 0.9lI1\II 0._ 0.'lIIIll

0,9911 0.9'107 0.9904 0,9901 0.'"'


0.9fI9oI 0.9891 O.'!MII 091!1115 0'lMl

0.99D4 D.'J900
0.91I9J

O,'JI'IJ 0.'1190 0._ 0.'1M3 0.9V'i D.'J176 0.9IIn

0 .... 09ll'!6 0,'JIII9!i 09l9l 0'Jl91 0.9888 09817 0.91164 091164 0 _ ' D..., . 0'lll16 0'Jlll 0986'1 0,'J1166 O.!iIl6l 0.'J111S8 O'J1S5 O,'lBSl O.96Ca
0'11U7

09V'i 0'Jl15 0.'JI7V 0.'J11L6 091162 0'J8S1 0.'JISoI O'MSO 0.9845 0,91\011 0911]7 O,'JIll 0.91129 0.9112S

0..., 0'J17S 0'lll71 0.'lIIf>7 0'Jl6l 0.91I5a 0.'JISoI 0 ....9 O'J8oi, 0,_' 0.'11SJ6 0.'lIIJ1 0.9828 09824 0,"19

09914 0.'9911 09'JO'il 0.9906 0,99(101 0.9901 0._ 0.'iIl196 O.'iI8!M 0,'JI91

0'lMl 09V'i

14 l.S 1.' ).7 1.1 3,' 4"

0"73 0,9873 09870 0.'JI6'l 0.91166 0.9Il66 09ll6l: 09862 09MI O.'JIISII O.'JISS 0,'JIS1 0 .... ' 0 96M 09115001 O!l85O 0 .... 7 0 .... ) O,'JI)'

0.'lIS4 0 .....9 0 ....' 0 ..... 5 0 ....5 D.'il&tO 0'il&tO 0.91)5 0.'I1I.l6 O,'lIIJl O.'JIll 09QJ 0.9123 0.91118 0."14 0.91126 o.'len 0.91111 0.91111 0,_

0._
O"I~

O ..lO O'Jlll, 0.ge20 091115 0"'0 0.9110& 0'JOllD1 097%

),6 )7 ]8 " ,0

09V'i 0.ge76 0,9876 0.9872 0.'IOn O'IWI 0.91!I69 O,*" 0.91166 0916)

0987l 0.986'1 09866 O'llMil 0'l1lS9

0.'1&b9 0.'J166 0._ O.!iIl6l 0.'l8b2 O.'JIS' 0.'J1S9 O.'JIS ''1111:S6 0911S2

From on~ Mnci"l oj N/JI .. .-./ Ca . 1989, """rteoy of AGA

486

CO$ Production Engineering

Gal Flow Measurement


Table 10-7 Continued Fb Basic Orifice Factors-Pipe Taps

Table 10-7 Fb Basic Orilice Factors-Pipe Taps


~ l"m~'~IUnl! .. 6O"F Su.. pr"uute" 14 n

flooo."'l i"mpe'''\UnI! .. 6O'f Spe<:ifoc 1I'''VlIy'' \.0 h..lpf" 0 I'i~ Si>:es-Nom.... .nd htblishrd '"Jido Di._ltl1. Inchn

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pt.. J

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12850
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1939
12

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1J223
191.74

IJ 212

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11' 99
20) 27

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1.125

18102 15110

on ..

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12800

2.900
1115)
28 ~10

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5.189 5.761

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ll"'
41S1.4

7.9111
461/06
,~,

11.071
.~.

2.1126
12765
lInl 51 591
81.;>95

3152
12.7-18
28 fo82

1~30

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Oro(, ee

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lV12

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12.7IS
l\Il>6'I

l1.7:H
21.6].01

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bolaS 1 75n 4

6231.\

7220
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51241 80m 118.00 110))1 217.52


28166

51.196 80103 111.10 1&2 7;' 216 n


2!1O,02

51 (16.4 ,Iun 116.116 161 11 2U.1'i


21S42

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1175
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2.125 2150

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1.041.3

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1.lau I.ll" 1.4600 '-611 1.ms 1.9<25

I,OS16
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11:'22
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1,7269

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411.6'1 SSI 24

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2.2922

2,100.0
1 .287 8 241)4
2611'91
2,9QS 5

2,OS75

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2.421

2,1154 7 l.lll.1 14180


2.612 6 2.1161

2.014,]
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(table cOIltinlu,d)

From Orijicllfttnin. oj Nal",o/

lOOll; courtsy of .... C ....

488

Gas Production Engineering


Table 1C).7 Continued

Gas Flow M easu rement

489

Fit Basic Orifice Factors-Pipe rapa


Orillce

Table 10-7 Continued Fb Basic Orltice Factors-Pipe Taps


18
Orifice

10

12 10.136 11.J7f> 11.')8 12.090


11.5'.11

[Mmeter,
in.

ro
lB _ 814 19.000 19,250
:m,7') ::".2.151

9.564

10.020

14688

15000
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15.250
17,561

Dol-meter, in.

22.626

2)000 194W1

11_25O
19.409

28.621
19.656 21.9113

19.000
19.611 2O.1'So4

19,250
18,411Z

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19$1' 21,1'16
LI.~l~

20.107
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19.001
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26.911

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10.:z50 10.'iOJ 10.150 11 .000

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un.o ,..n

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1_60;60

'''' 2",,
)."'"

2,IJ02

""'"
18.000

.'"

.on
1lJ.231

74,074

I2,OS5
13.)10

1.9t.17 2.119 6
2.l'III2

I!W,I.
1.1~1

n.6JO
711,&11

n.19J
711.)1]

unl
un.1 2.&U'
},O)8 ,

2.144 6
1.040 0 l.l'Z.2

",

2.191 ~ 2,4729

1.0t.l 1 U616

1.&110 J.01l 2

..

,",,6011

""'"

a.~

91.900
101.'150 110.no

).2409
,~,

),2;101 I

lOO_MO 109_1.

1011.1. 117.210

...

.~
,~

"" ""
,~

5.l746
5." 90 6,. sa6
'.1001

'.m.

4mo

' ,21' 1
. m )

1.101,7 4,1(,).'

1.6"'6
',160.1 651.
5,ln)

),66-11

"."

5.261_1

'.119 J "S'1'J6
5,1011 1

' .117 1
S91.1

. m
un I
6.21.012

'.1160

127.150

S_IOS 0
5.&41.'

S_10JO

,~

..

5." 1'

.."

sm'
6,4)8,7

(text continued from page 479)


PretllrUre8aM! Factor, Fpb

1.71"19
1 ,510 4

1.m .
'.4'JS .

7.094 0

7.1*1 .
7.759 1

',':Ml1

'.In.
',278.3

5.737,1

"'"
10.522

S)lU
.~.

6,)1).1 7,5]90
I.l6Z0

H " S4 6.211 1

.'"
'B
.~
,~

"."

6.'l'Jl

6.97:12 1,S?1) 1
',1515 1.'67'

6.101.7
7.'))

6.207 Z 6.1021
7,.ltI ,

6.NII S

7.41U
8.0~6

9.2n.

t.nu

"'11>_0
t,2llS

10.079 10.m 11,W U.7i7 1l.7i2


14.110

10,051 10.90)

IO,OJO
10,111

"'"
B

''''
,~

',",,' t,m_o "....


II,},", ll,lo<9

U'"'S
',112

'.7179
10,50S
11 ,m

',08U '.777,1 9._0 10,2. 7


I!.OJO 11.1.7

1.081 0
8,7tIIIO

9.4151 10,2)4

I.TtoI9 9,4" 1
10.116
11.006

This factor corrects fo r cases where the base (standard) pressure, Ph in psia, at which flow is to be measured is other than 14.73 psia:

.~

"'" 11.m
11.7))

11,756 lU.,
1l.670

"".
1l.21. 11,11' 14.0b5
15,054 11.166 lB.l'Il

11,016
11.11JO 12,6711

11.1'1
n.09)

14 .7fJ

".19)
16.m

n,16O ".11l
15.109 16.150

.'"
,~

"._ "" "'"

'5,'" ",0:>1

17A15

".... ,,-'" """


,un

".0
U.QlO

"-

".12t

17.l.J7

".)1)

"..., "...
17.lll

".... """ "'" ",46' tun


14.$G1

Il.W

11,119 12,665

14.73 "" ---I'b

(10-18)

11.2'1

15,'57 16_'SO 17._

15'l'J 16.41'
17 ....

15.'"

Fpb - 1 for a desired base pressure of 14.73 psia, because the flow relationship assumes a standard pressure of 14,73 psia .
(text con tinued on pag' 498)

16.l97
17,421

490

C08 Producllon Engineering

Gal Flow Measuremen t

491

Table 10-8 " b " Yalue. for Reynolds Number Factor F, Determ ination-Pipe Tap,

Table 10-8 Continued "b " values for Reynolds Number Factor F, Determination-Pipe Taps
Onfi<e
[)o~et',

___',--_
),112&

489? 51119 S7f>l fdl6S 7,625 00410 00)80 0,0)2] 0.Q.4,21 O~ 0-1))18 Q.OU2 0040II OOlS] 0041' 00167 O.Ga!1I a 0381 0019) O,04()oI 00413

7.9111 8.071 0.0211 0.0212 0.0014 00218 0.0224 0.0230 0.02l8 0.0246 0.0268 0.0290 0.0314 0.D3lt> 0.0297 00220 O.02n DOll' 0,0221 0.1)21 4 a,ons 00228 00011> 00))9 00'll5 00221 O0JS.4 0014] 0,0227 00J67 0.0252 O.()2].4 011180 0 02f>2 00243 0,0)91 0.0273 0.0252 00296 00111 0,1l344 0,0364 0.Olll1 0.027l 0.0296 0.0320 0,()).42

,
1611') 1919
106.~

,
lJOO 01081 2626 2'100 } 06e


) lS2
) 418

40'16

,.'" un
)500

).125

087S

"'" "., ,.'" '''"' ,


0175

..

11.1078 C 10:'8 111080 01081 O.lOl!4 00lI90 0,0178 0,087] 0,087'9 00868 Q,OIR\ 0090S 009(1$ 00918 OOi'Sa O.07:M oom 00728 0.0737 0,0750 OOi'S3 00rb3 Gom
0,1)1,9) OQ6.tl OIJ63S 0,0&24

0.1105 0.10'11

los.~

00675 0060ll ooser. 0.0559 0.0S46 0,O!>4a OOSS2 OOSSS 00S68 0.06&4 0.0601 00570 0.05111 0,0497 004118 004M 0.0489 00496 D.07ll2 0.0614 0,0576 0.0521 00471 00452 0,0445 0.0441 00441
0.07011 0,06J5 O.OS'.lS {IOSJ2 0,06$0 0.01>16 00552 0.062':1 0,0574 O,{lS90 00469 0.0478 0.04% 0.0518 0.0519 0.0553 0,(I4J5 0,004 0.0443 0.0460 0.0482 0,QS04 o{lSI1 0.0512 00422 0,0414 0.0418 0.0431 0.0450 00471 0.0492 0.0508 00417 00407 00387 0.0405 00379 00418 0.0382 00415 00192 004Sf> 0.0405 OOoln 00427 0,00I'.IS 0,0448
O,{I406

0.0624

0,06].4

(10&42

0.0&46

1lt::1662

,."" ,.

1.125

,.'"' 1.625
1.175

'''''
U75

.. '" .."" ....


'-'00

....
,

'.m

."

''''' ,

..

0.0361 0.0356 0.03n O.03n

O" fice

,"" un
}.826 ".026 4.11'J7 5.189 5,761 6065

2,125

0.0519 0,0509 00467

7.625 7,9$1

'''"'
0.0494 8071

1.125
,,~

... ... ...

9564

10,020 10,1}6 11.376 11,9311 11.090 146M 00690 0.06041 0.0594 O.OSSO 00509 0.0694 00646 0.0599 0055S 0.0514

"

"

lHJOO

15.250

,-'"

'''' ''"' ''''


0,)75

'''"' ,
U75

.. , n,
1.)75

0.1057 0.0932 0.0799 0.0685

0,1091 009)9 0,11810 O.oeso 0,01162 006'J7 00747 0,0762 o0S90 00li02 OOr.SS 0,0672 0.0513 0.05l4 0.0575 0.0S92 0(45) 00461 0,0506 0.052) 0.G4008 00376 0.0)58 0,0JS(l 00412 00)77 0.OlS3 0.0l40

,.'" ..'" '''' ,

'"'00

0.on8 0,0674 0.0624 0,0576 0.0$32 0.G0t90

00637 006041 OC1601 00$61

00704 00661 0 0610 0.05lI0

0.07011 0.0666 0.Df>25 0,06'J7 0,071)5 O.oses 00662 0.01>70 0.0676

0.0452 0,0471 000176 0.052) 0.050 0 Q5.4II 00628 0.06J6 006042 00417 0.00136 OOMO OO4M 00508 OOS13 OOS').l 00603 00610 OOlAS 0(40) 00407 004504 000175 0 Q.t8O 00$63 O,05n 00578 0.035S 00129 OOlDS 00Ul 0 om 0()).t9 00)24 00101 O~ 00277 0.0281 0024& 0.0260 0Q26.2 011234 0.02~ 00246 00122 0.02)0 002:12 oron 00)45 00)20 0(l2'J8 00212 00204 0,0199 0,01'.1S 00193 0.0192 0.019) 0.0195 0.0203 0.0215 0.02l0 0.024 0.021' 00209 00201 0.019S 0.0191 0.Q11!1e 0,0187 001157 0.0192 0.0200 0.0212 0 0l2I 00220 00:110 00202 0,0196 00191 0011!1e 001&6 00186 o(n89 00197 0020II 0.0223 0(42) 00)94 00)607 0,0)42 00)19 0 00W] O()ol14 00la7 00361 00117 O~ OO}l1> 00279 00295 00262 00277 00260 0.0245 0.0:02 o.om 00209 00200 00192 0018S 00176 O,lnn 00111 00174 0.0449 0.()oI19 00}92 0,0.J66 00)42 0.0320 OOJOO 00281 00264 0(12'9 0 (2)5 00222 00212 00202 0.0194 001117 O.Oln 0.0171 0,017(1 O.O1ll 00512 00501 O()ol7S OOM9 0 ()oI14 0,G400 003711 0 0J56 00316 011317 00300 0026J 0,11268 0,02S4 0,0240 0.0228 0.0207 0,0190 0,0176 001 116 0,{I541 0.0512 0,04&1 0,04511 0.003 0,1)4{I9 003117 0,0J65 0,0).45 0,032f> OOlO6 00291 0.0215 0.0261 0.0247 o.om 0.0213 0.0194 0.01tIQ 0.0168 0,Q5.411 OOS1" 00492 0.0466 0,0440 O()ol17 0,03'H

O.OM) 0,078':1 0,07QJ 0.0625 0.0556

0 0II9S 00l!l02 0.on8 006042 00711> O,07lO 0.Oll1 OOS71 006S2 0.(1668 0.0662 00609 0.0555 0.0506 0.0462 00613 00Sft0 00510 000*66

''''' ,."" ,'"

0,1)1.4& 004M 0,04'.1S 00$12 00592 OQolO1 0.(011) 0,0442 000158 005)! 0,036J 0.0111 oom 000112 00489 0.Dll4 O.O~ 0.0)60 o.OJn 0,0445 00))9 00]11 0029(1 002n 0.021>2 00258 0025) 0.02S4 002S8 00lt0S 00V4 OOlAS 0,04(l0I 0,0369 00118 00]11 0021!1e 00268 0 02S2 00219 002.)0 00214 0,0220 00219

,.'" ,.... >'" ,.'" ,-'"


u~

2.125

o,mn
0.0152 0.0])2 O.OJ14 0.02'l7 0.02'1 0.0267 0.0253 0,0240 0.021' 0.019$ 0.01112 0.0170

'''''
,,~

.. ..

00351 00336 0011) OO)IS 0032'J 0)58 OO~ OOJOO 002<Jll 00104 00)71 0,()).49 002')1 00187 002115 00)38 0036J 00192 00281 0027]

000121 0 ()oI25 00}&t 00)l1li 0.0)52 o,ons 001l) 00)27 002911 00277 00259 0,02" 00232 00224 00218 0.0214 OOlDl 002(1(1 002f>1 00246 001l} 00224 00218 0(21)

,.'"
).)75

3.125

212S

"'" ''"' "" ,"" "n ,


2)7S

000407 0,0160 0,02')7 0,0421 00l'Jl!J 00)05 OOOWS 00417 00316 00460 00435 OOlJO 004n 00450 0,0345 0,G462 00)62 00379 00195

00281 0,0285 00293 0,0)04 0,0311 0,0331 0.0].47 0.0l64

OO2t>5 00261 002t>2 002t>7 00274 00264 oom ODD

.... .."" ..... ..'" ,..

' .rn ,."" ' .m

,....

0.02" 002J2 00220 00210 00200 00193 0.01'7 00182 0,1)176 0.0175 00178 0,0185

(table contimll,d,

492

Gas ProductioFi Engineering

Gas Flow Measurement

493

Table 10-8 Continued " b" Values tor Reynolds Number Factor F, Determination _ Pipe Taps

... . ...
.uo

,.'"

,..., '"'"
'"

... ..,,, .... .."" ,..

'.564

10020 10136 11.l71:o 119311 12.090

"

..
lH,ae 15000 15.250
0.0162 0.0178 0.0160 0.0161

Table 10-8 Continued " b " values for Reynolds Number Factor Fr Determination-Pipe Taps
O"fKe
[)o, ..... ler,

_ _ _ _=,,=---__ lU14 19000 19250 22!>26 21000 23250 281028 29000 2'J 2SO 0.01811 0.0190 0.01901 0,0241 0,D2S5 0.02S9 O.OJSO O.~ 0.0lI.0 0,0175 001n 00180 00210 0.02J6 0,0240 o.om 0.Q3}./. O.OlJ3 0,01&4 00165 001611 00212 002111 00222 00307 0,031] 0.0117 0,0155 0,0141 0014) 0.0141 00140 0.0140 0,0142 00146 00156 00"') 001... 0,0'.' 00140 0.0140 0,0141 0,01.... 001S11 00191 00102 OOlOb 002117 001SO 0.01&4 001119 0.01'12 0,1I2M 0014S o.oln 00176 0,0179 0.0251 00141 001102 00166 0,01611 0.0236 001)9 0,0139 0,0140 0.0142 0015) 0.0146 00140 0.0136 0,0156 0,01411 00142 0013& 001S11 OOISO 0,0144 0,013& 0.0221 0.0207 0.0195 0.01113 00193 0,0274 0,0257 0.0241 0.0226 00212 0.0199 0,0187 0.01';17 002711 0.02f,0 0.0244 0.0229 0.0215 0.0202 O.ot90 0.0179 0.0169 0.0161 00153 0.0146 0.0140 0.01304 0.0130 0.0117 0.011. 0.0122 0.0121. 0.0121 0.0122 0.0122 0.0123

m.

, '"'" ,"" ....

DQlV 00244 0_0239 0,0194 0.011' O.Ol81 0 0'26J 00251 00207 D.ono O.OJ01 0,0282 0_0276 0.0221 0_0l0'2 OIlJ26 oo.m 0_0295 D.WI 00215

0.0186 O.t)1S6 0_01.56 0,0156


0.0197 0,0155 0_0154 G.OlSJ

,-"" ,.'" ,

0 0'l10 0.0151 00154 0.OlS3


0,0151 0.01504

OJ).).t] 0 0J2(I 0,0)16 0.0253 0.02l0 0.0224 0.016'

O.crua 0,03J6 o.om 0.0Z70 O.020t6 0,01)9 0.0167 0,0162 00159


0.0151 0,0)46 0.O'28e 0.02f.2 O.1l:2S6 0.0174 00169 0.01604

,.'" ,

,-""

'.2S0

0036) 0,0:)59 00J04 0.0279 Q,02n 0.01&4 001n 001n 0.0320 D.om O.02M 0.0195 0.01&1 om!'!
D.OU4 00]10
Q,OJ(M

0,0206 0.0198 0 (tI91

1l.0J.47 D.om 0.011& 00219 01l209 0,020'2 0.03311 00332 0,0232 0.0222 0.02'. 0.0349 0,0344 0,0246 00235 0.0221 0.0259 0.0244 0.02.-0 (021) 00262 002S1 00286 00216 00267

'.500

,."" .... ....


'.2S0
'.750

",,. ,-""
'.500 '.500
'.250

..

..

0.01S1 0,0148 00146 001)) 0,01}./. oom O.ot7) 001n 0.0156 0.D1~ 00151 00132 0,0132 OOllO 001&4 00167 0.0163 0,0160 0.ot57 00111 0.0130 o,ono 0.0155 00158 0.0171 0,01611 00163 O.Onl 00130 0,0130 0.01411 00151 0.0180 0.0189 0.0191 0.0209 0.0219 00230 0.0241 0.0252 0,0176 00185 001901 0.0204 00214 0.022S 0,0236 0.0247 0.0171 0.0180 0.01119 0.0191 O.Q2OI 0.0219 0.0229 0.0240 0,0133 0,0136 001)9 00143 0,0148 0.01S04 0.0160 0.0161 0.01l1 O,O1ll 0.0136 0.0140 0.01.... 0.0150 0.0155 0.0162 0,0130 0,0132 001304 O.011S 0.0142 0.0147 0.0152 0,0151 0.0165 0.0112 0.01110 0.0190 0,0142 0.0136 0.0132 0.0128 0.0125 O.ot23 0.0122 0.0121 0.0122 0.0122 0.011. 0,0126 0.0144 0.013& 0.01)) 0.0129 0.0126 0.0114 0.0122 0.0121 0.0121 0.0121 0.0123 0.011.

>SO

'500 9.1SO
10000

0.0299 002113 00280


0.0311 D.OJOO 0.0292 00022 00]12 001 00132 (0)2) 00]1$
0,0)41 DOl]] OOlU

10.000

..""

"

IO.2S0

...

"...,
10.750 11.000

10.250

,.uo
2.625

2.125

..

0.0341 D.OllS

" " . 19.000 19250 22.1>Ui 23.000 23.250 28.623 29000 29.250 0(66) 00667 0.0&12 0.06J5 0.06J9 0,0644 00609 0061) 006111
00S8) 00511$ 0.0591 0.06SII 0.066S 0,0669

".250 "...,
" .".,

12.000 12.500 1).000 1).500 14.000 14.500 15.000 15.500 16000 16,500
17,000

0.026) 0.0261 0.02S1 00175 0.0169 0.021l 0.Q2611 0.0262 0.01&1 0.017'6 0.02&4 oava 0.0V2 0.0191 0.01&4 0.0293 0.02811 0.02S2 0.0200 0.0192

'.500

2.m

0.0312 0.0307 0.0l01 00211 0.11210 00204 0.0112 0.0110 0.0128 0.0127 0.03ll 0.0318 0.0236 01X22l 0,0222 0.0140 0.O1l7 00135 0.0250' 0,02"6 0,0240 00150 0.01"6 0.014) 0.0V2 0,1l2f>4 002Sl 0.0161 0.0156 0.0153 0.02S9 0.0280 0.0275 0.0173 0.0161 0.0165 0.01 0.02'J6 0.0291 0.0166 0.01 81 0.0117 0.Ol10 00311 0,010& 0.0200 0.0194 00190 OOl21 O,OllB 0.0215 0.0211'1 0.02G4 0,0230 0.0223 00219 00244 0,02J8 00231

'''' ,
,."
1.125

...

O.ossa 0.05304 0.0510 0.1M8II 00466 0.04045 0.0425 0.0406 O.OJ&] 0.0J69 0.0152 0.0JJ6 0.OJ2O

0.0562 0.0539 0.0515 00492 0,0470

00S6ll 0.0635 O.~ 0.0613 00520 0.0591 01M'll!! 0,0570 00476 0.0549

006042 0.0646 0.06l0 0.0624 0.05'11!! 0.060J oosn 0.0S82 0.0667 00SS6 0.0561 0.0649 O.or.s. 006S7 0.0S41 00521 0.D502 0.04&4 0.0466 0,04049 0.04Jl 0.0416 0.06J0 0.0613 0.059S 0.0571 011561 00S45 0.0528 0.051) 00639 0.0622 0,0604 OIlSIll' 0.0571 oasso 0.05S04 0.05304 005111 0.05111 0,0522 0.06J6 0.0616 0,0601 0,05&4 00S61

... ... ... ,


uo

,..., ,.'" '''' '.115


3.175

'.250

0.04049 00455 0.0529 0.0536 00429 0.0435 0.0509 0.OS16 0.0410 0,0416 0.049(1 0.00t97 o.o:m 0.0)!!7 0.0471 0.0479 o.ren 0.0379 0.0454 0.0461 0.0356 0.0)62 0.0436 0.0444 0,0J040 0,0)46 0,0419 0.0427 0032. O.OlJO 0040l 0.0411

""

0.0'291 0.0295 0,0)01 o.ren O.OlllO O,OlllS 0.G4$l 0,04&& 00492 0.02fa5 0.Cll69 00274 0.1lJ.t1 O.OJSI 0.0JS6 O.04Sl 0.04S9 0046J 0,0242 0, 0246 0 02S0 O.OJ16 0.0124 0.0328 0,0425 00411 00435
0.0Z21 O.ons 0,0229 00292 0Cl299 0.0l0l 0.0)99 0,0405 00409 0.020) O.CI206 0.0210 0.0l69 0.0276 0.02fIQ 0.0314 O.OleO 00l&t

5.150

" " "500 "


18.500

17.500

.. .. ..

o 02n

0.0259 0.0252 00248 0.0266 00261


00286 00279 0.0275
0.02'II!I 002'J2

o112M

0,0)09 0.0)0} 00299 0.03111 00313 0,0310

'9'

GU$ Prod'4ctioTi Engineering

Gas Flow MeaslIreml'llt

495

Table 10-9
YI Expansion Factors-Pipe Taps
Static Pressure Taken from Upslre.m

r.pI
J--1lo1lO

Table 10-9 Continued VI Expansion Factors-Pipe Taps


Static Pressure Taken from Upstream Taps
d
d

. ..

10000100001000010000100001000010000100001000II100001000010000
0_
&99'" 099611 D99SI

"

..
!.''''lI!5 0.9971 0.99';6 09942

.~,

051

060

.
06 07
08 0' I{}

" " " os

099'10
0,"" 0"" O'19b2

ft""tl!!
09976 09'J6ol 09951

O.!'l&I
0.9'16/1 O,'Ml 09936

09'JS:!
0.9'1>01 O.9'JoI(, 09928

0.9'II!Il
D_'J962 09'loU 0.992';

099fjQ
09'161 09'1011 09921

09979
Om')

0_9911
09951 O.9')lS 099U

09977
09'J5.1 09911 09!iOll

0997~
0995] 09'm 09'J06

099.
09911

09952 09'Joll o!I'll)

0",,1 09931 0,9926


09916 0990S 0'l8'lS

(99)9 09'JV 0991S

099V 0991] D .....


0\1811] O'le69 O.\llIS4

09919 09\W 0'lllS7


09871 0.9155

09910

0.990& 09M1 0.9169


O'l8SO (91)1 0.9812

O.99C/2 O_'iIIIIIl 0.91162


D9&lJ O.9S2.) 0_'l601

09891 0.9876 0,'.1$56


098,15

0,"' 0.9810 119&48


098:16 09l'lOS 0978) 0,976' 09n9 09718

098M 09Il102 09ll4O


098" O.9J"!M 09171 097"

09M2 09859 09l3S


0"'11 097& 0.9164 0.9741

G987~

0_1

.. " " " .. "

10000 11,997. 0.99S1


O~

." '"

...
UiOOO
O,997~

~ - -buo

."
10000 09971 09904}
0~4

0.101 1.0000
O,~

0 6'J 1.0000
0.996~

0.70

10000

10000 D9'l:"3 099047


o.~

10000

0.9975 0.9950
o~

0.9'T"2
099045
0~7

0.'1'l63
0.9'Jl5 09'lOl 0.9871
0.'lIIl9

0.9')6&

0,""

O.MU
0-9197

om)
09914 O<N(lo

..

" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " o 9?DS " o " o " " ..... ", ...n " ..... "" " ."" " , " " " " " o "
098!.!
.~~

..

"

0.9895 O,'I68S 09876 0'*'6 09857

093&01 09874 09116) 0985) 096012

....
0'710 0.101

0990] 09891 n9tl?8

Man
0.912]
O'lllO7

0985' D.W' 11.9821

0981.
09794

."
" "
" " " " 05
" u

09'10) 0,"'"
0.915<1

0.9'iOO O.9VS 09850 O.'JII2J


091!1Xl

0""
0'11145 09819 0.9"'" 0976/1 09742 09716 09690 0.96tt<I o9639 o 961) 095117 09561 095lS 09510

0..,13 0ge67
0.91140 0,." 0 97&7

D9I!I9O D91!162 0'Jlllo4


091107
o.~m

0.98e6 09857
09821 09Il00 09n1
0~"2

0.'
09851 0,'JIIll
D.<m:! 0,9)'62

0~1

0.99)8 1I.9'J07

0.9876
0.'11145 0."14

D.9lI06

O.'JIIJO
0.9lI06 0'1782 0.9151 0.97)1

0.'11&4
0.9753 0.9n1 0.9691 0.9660
0,<)629

09714
0.9742 0.9710

0,9775
09),SO 09n5

09160
09711 09707 0.9680 0965) 0 WIl7

om2
0,9n~

09n}
097lll 0,9673
0,96<IJ

09714 0.9685 0,9757 09621 09599 09571

0.9677
O.9t.4S 0.961J 0.95111 0.9S411 0.9516
0._

OOJ&ol(l
O'MlS

0.11603
(1.9785

0.9794
09775 0 ~756

0,9734
097601 0 974-4 Q,9nS 0.9705 0,'J68.S 0'11\66 0.9&<16

O.9m
0'1751 0 9n2

o9811 09796
0'1782 09761 097S2 0'1llll 0972) 09709 0,_ OtloeO 09665 0'l6'iO

0 "'" 0,9ns
0'173011 0,'1142 0W26

0 ~7(,7
09n! 0,971) O.'J&JS 09677 0.9.59 0.96011

097~9

09818
0ge05 091'91 0'781

0,m7 0'm9
0,97OCI 0_'

09n,
0,969(1 D9Iom 0,96019 09Wa

0'" 0911))' 0'J1128 091111 0'Jl109

09812 09821 091111 091!1Xl 097'JO

ogn,g 09m
0974S

09no 0_
0,9678 0'J662

0,9662 0960 O'J62S


0')601i 09511 095M 095'iO

0,'1626
0.'lIWI7
09517 0,'9567

0'l6Oll
09587 0,9$66

o9M2 O'J6Jl 0.9609 09Sl7 0,9$66


0,'JSoW 09522 0'lSOl)

..... . ... .- ..... .....


09m
0,9&7'J
0,,*,,4

0.9691>
09669 0 '16<11 0 9&14

"'" "
09623 0.9599 09576 09552

09117

o9709
0.'lWS 09660 0.9blI> 0.9612 0.95&7 0956)

0 9100
09675 09&50 O.9IilS

0.9&J3 09610

,.
" " " " "
H

0.9600
095)'] 095<17 0.9520

0 95116
09558 095)1

09614 095M 0.9554

D959S 0.9567
0,9SJ(,

0.9600
09575

095012
09514 0.9oIS5 09456 0,9421 0,9l9!1

09525
0.,..95 0.946$ 0.9oIU 0.90106

0,9S05

0947.
0944] 0,9412 09)81

0.94S2
0,9419 1,,]117 0.9]SS 0.9ID

09511
0.956S 0.95<12 0.9519 0,""

0.95
0.9515

0,!JS2'j
0,95QS 09oWl1

O9S'iO 0,952S 09500

Ut91

1'1950) 0.9476

D.,..

D."'"

0"""
'~N 0939) 0')65

09l'99 0".,

0",1 09742

.-.-.-.-.-._.-.-.-.-.- .., ..... ",..


0'710 091l'O

09179 097(.8

O~ O'~"

09n2

O~

0~
0

09716

9712

0'16114 0*12 0 9W1

a Wol1

0,t607 US'l

...,
",.,
09SlJ
0.9517

D'MoJO 0"1)

0.'t621 09EoQS 09581 095010

095<13 O"-ill

O,~ O,~

o"'n

O't505

0"'7'J

0"5(1

0"'54 0").4

095J4

095"

0,9512 0.949]

.....

0,'I<I6J

.... ... .... ... .


9nJ 09b14
0~3

9TB

09695

096011

095711

O'J6)S

0.9563
0,954'1 Q95lf 09519 0.95O!i
O,~

0'1<180 0.9'62
O.~

090156
0.9oIJ7 0.9418 0.90100 09J111

090lXl
09410 Q9l'lD D9171 oml 09331 D,9)12

o,~

09J111 09)60 09})') D.'ll9 0.92'JII 09277 a 92SJ 0.92)6 09]16 09195 09174

09611

0 .... 2

D.9Sl1 0.9574

0.9501 09<lSS 0946') 0,9452 0.9436

09426 0,'N08 0.9l'lD O.91n 0,9354 09lJ6 09118 DUll 09213

09362
0!ll41 0.9}24 0,9JQ6 09187 O.92M 09249

. ," ..,,, ..., "'" .... ..'" "'"


..m
09J111

09435 09414

O,MM

0'354

0.'170

09J111 09)6,1 09J.40 09)16

09)68

093U

om)

" " u " "

..

o"v.
0,9346

D'J11

09ZSl

'"

09351 Q,'1llO 0.9lI9 0.92S11 0.227


09196 0.91" Q91lf 0.910l

"'"
Q92S11 0.'9226 0.91'104

MlM 0.9).45 0.9321 0.9296


0.'1272

0.91SO

D'llS
0.')0(1 0.'127S 0.92S0

09ll') 09X13 09277 OW2

09)(17 09280 0925) 09227

09W 0.9255 0'1227 09200

09246

09261

.~~

0924-4 0.9221 0.9198

0'222

091>56
O~

0'1621

0956l

0.90176
09461 0,"7 D."' 0"'17

o 'J6Jl WIl7 0 ...17

0961] 0 9600 09590 09519

0.9550 D95J11 09';26 0951.

.....
09J11a 091n O.'lS6

09l9'l 09115 09151

09420

0.m2
09m am) Q,92lJ O.92U

0921& 0.9196 09115 09153

0,91)'5 09152
.,,~

0912.
09104

091)1

..." ..."
09106

" " " " " " " "


" " "

0,9226
09200 0.9174 0.91018 09122 09091

0'1100

092018

o 92ll
0.919'l O.917S

O.,\Sl
09126 09102 09078

D.9225 0, '1100 0,9115 0,91SO 0,9125

09111 0.9147 09120 09093 09061

D'lOIIl

.- . ......
0.9100
0.90)'5

.."'" ".,.
O'J02S
~

0,9071 0,91)015 091)19

...n

,"

...." ."'" ...... ...... ...,,' .... .."" .. '" ..... ."" ..... """ .... ..... . .,,, .....
091" 0.91" 0.9Il8'J 091lb2 1'1,91)).4

091n

Q,925fo. 09227 09199 09170 09142

0922)' 09198 0,91101 091J11 0.9101

09161 0,9129 0.9097 0.906<1

0.'lDn
091)011

0'lOl2

09111

.~

0.91)019 09019

0.90"10 0.t197'J

D.M)}

O.nl'

0.8970
0.11941 0,11913

0.1I91O
0.&171

O-a9S1

089))

.....

'M~ 08951

0.5841

0.l1li56

OMll

0.I11III7 0.aM6 0.1III2S 0.17'Jo' 0V6l

0.1II3'J 0.M06 0.&774 0.1742 0.8110

496

Ga.s Production Engineering


Table 10-10 Y2 Expansion Factors-Pipe Taps
Static: Prenure, Taken from Downstream
~p.

CO.f Flou: M easuremCJl t

497

Table 10-10 Continued Y2 Expansion Factors-Pipe Taps


Static Pra..ure. Taken from Downstream Taps

h.

-Ito,,,,
o
1 OOOQ

, __ Rob<>

.., Ito,..
0..

-;~---;~---;;----;;---;;;---;;;--';;';--'C:---:CO--c,~-0' 0.1 0) .. , 0.45 0,50 052 0.504 0.56 a sa


'OOOQ

10000 I UOO6

'OOOQ

1 0000

10000

UlooO

HUlO

10000

10000

.. ..

" "." " " " ".,,, " 0101 , " oon " un10 ,.... ,'''''' " " ,.... " " ens) " lin"" " " "
1 00)0

'''''' " ," >om " ,


10051 10059
, IlO6&

.. ...

10Wb

UD
11017

10002
100l)0I 1000II

10000

0.999!I

II " "

0 9997

lOOTS
1002)

loon
H'018
1 00'24

l000Q
10000 1.11001 ',0011

09999
0.9991 0 9'J'I1 0.999:'

09997
O.999S 0 99')01 09992

0_9'19S
0_9!1'12 0 99!10 o79M

0 99'JIi 0 'l'J'J) 0"" 0 9'J86 09982


O~

09995
0,9'JI'lQ

099'J04
0.99lI'J

0 w;oI
0 ....

umo
IOOH 1.000B 10021 \.0025 10028 UlOll

'!XXlI

0'" 0.911111

'00)$

, 00.10

umo
100'12
1.1101. 1.0016

o'l'm>
09972 09967 0,91J62 O.9IJSII D.'""'" 0.9'M9 O.9'MS 0.99041 0'J\lJ6 0.9'lJ2

D."" D.9!Il'a O,-m


O.'J'lI&B 0.9962 09957 0,9952 0.99of7 0990fl 0."J7

D.998J 0,'"'" 0991'0


09'l64 0.9'JS8 0995I 0,9')f6 0,9IJ4O

'.0015

1 0053 1 0060

l00~6

1.0085

1 IlO6& \.1X/7S
11)01'1)

l00J6 10011 10011 HlOS)

10001 llX102
1 oo:n 1.0001 1.0003 UlooJ UIO()4

09'l9!i 09996
0 999S

om!
099'10
0 99M

'0059

1.0036
1()(1)9 UI()oIJ 11'047 10051 1 0QS.t 1.1J05e 1001>2

1.0018 UlO21
U1021 10015 1,01127 100:10 1 0032 100M l-IXlJ6 U)(I19 1 0041 1 OOU 1.lXM(,
1,~

0.9995
0.99')4

09987
0991)6

0.9915 0'l'9l3 0 991!10 D.me


09976

0_9't7S
0 9912

..... 'm, ",,, ."" ."" ."" .."'" ."" ..... ," "'" ."" ."" .... .... .."" .... ..". ..... ..... ",,,
OmJ
O'l'lSJ
09'l~4

0.'""
09'J61

0.9990

0.99I'J

o,w!;'
0,'1'/018

0.99117 0.'197. 0.'1'1161 0.9'M9

0._
0.9!I7l 0 'J'J5a

09'Ml O.99Jl

0,9936

09')M 0"30

D9!IS'J

om)

0.9969
09965

09'Wi 09'MO 0 'l9Jl

099S" 09')f; 09')1() 099}! O.992S 099111 09911

09')f9 09911 099)] 0.9917

o.ms
09909 09'lO1

....
0.9'l17
09ll'J'l 09890

",,,
0"}5

O"lI 0992B o 9'l111 099011 0,_


0.'lIIIM

o.m.
09'l11 O. '11199 098&7 0.9875
0.9II6J

0.9'l'2O

0 9909 0.9898 0.<)667 091176


O._~

0.9'l16 09'lO1 0 'IIlM

OW.
0,'11162
O~

1.0071

0.99'104 0.99').1

0.9'184 0.9"1(1)

09914 09\112

09962 09959

, 0119 IOU7
LO'l)6 10144 I 1 (11M

10106

10051

100l)0I UlOO4
1.000'\ 10006 1.000!i 1.0007 101108 UDlI! 1.(1009 1.0010 1.11010 10011 10011

O,'M4

om}
D,""'} 099'Jl 0.99'12 0.9992 099'12 09992 O,'J'J'J2 O,m2 O.'W12 0."'91 O'J'J'J2

0.991!2 09981
0991!10 O'J97'J 09978 o 9971

0.9970 09!161
09966 0.9!I6oI 0.9961 0 9960

099$6 099'53
09950 0."'7 09i)W o !I'M 1

0,")2
O.mll

09'lJ) 09929 09924 09'l111

om7
09!llO 09914 099011

099001
098'))'

O'Wll
O.~

10111

099ll
09'l18 09'l1] 099011 0,9IJGC 0 '189'1 0,"""

099U
09907 0.9!IOl 0,'JI\lIi 0'1891 0.!lM6 0'11181 0..,. 0'.1870 '*'5 09l!1bO
O'l8SS 0'l8SO O.'1&t6 0'J&l1 0,'J1)6
0~1

'0121 1.0128 t01Jf>

TOO9!I 101m 1.01011 10114

'1D\6
UI070

0.992& om4 09nO


0.9916

10170

10m

, ono

loon
\.0077 10081 10015 lOCI!') llJO'1l

0,9976 0.9\115
0.9'11' 0997) (1.9972 0,""
(I')'JTI

0.9'JS&