Dr.P.Yogesh, Senior Lecturer, DCSE, CEG Campus, Anna University, Chennai-25.

I/O Basics

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The microprocessor communicates with the peripherals in either of the two formats: asynchronous or synchronous In synchronous mode the sender and the receiver are synchronized with the same clock. In asynchronous mode, the communication takes place at irregular intervals The communication between the microprocessor and the peripherals is by and large asynchronous

I/O Basics

The microprocessor receives or sends the data in either of the two modes: parallel and serial In parallel mode entire word is transferred at a time In serial mode, one bit is transferred at a time over a single line between the microprocessor and the peripheral

I/O Basics

The microprocessor uses two types of mappings to identify the I/O devices
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Memory mapped I/O Direct I/O

The microprocessor uses a common bus to transfer information between the processor and the memory as well as the I/O devices

I/O Basics

The distinction between a memory transfer and an I/O transfer is made through the control signals Moreover the I/O devices and the memory use separate address spaces Such a mapping is called I/O mapped I/O

I/O Basics     The other type of mapping used by the microprocessors is Memory-Mapped I/O in which the I/O devices are treated alike memory Same address space is shared between the memory and I/O devices and a common set of control signals are used In this arrangement an address will refer to memory. if a memory device is connected there. it will refer to an I/O location. if an I/O device is connected there In memory-mapped I/O no separate instructions are needed to differentiate between the memory and I/O devices .

I/O Basics     Data transfer between the microprocessor and the peripherals can be controlled either by the microprocessor or by the peripherals Most peripherals are slower than the microprocessor and hence the conditions for the data transfer are to be set up In this case. conditions are set up by the microprocessor and this type of transfer is called microprocessor controlled data transfer If the peripheral is faster than the microprocessor then the conditions are set up by the peripheral and this type of data transfer is called peripheral controlled data transfer .

Programmable Interfacing Devices     I/O functions can be done with the help of either simple integrated circuits or programmable devices Latches and tri-state buffers are simple integrated circuits whose capabilities are limited The major limitation of these devices is they are hard-wired and hence each device can perform only one function On the other hand. a programmable interfacing device is capable of performing various input/output functions according to the way in which we program the device .

Programmable Interfacing Devices       This type of device can be set up to perform specific functions by writing an instruction (or instructions) in its internal register The internal register is called control register The particular function the device will perform depends on the instruction we write into the control register Hence it is possible to change the function at any time In general. programmable interfacing devices are flexible. versatile and economical They are widely used in microprocessor based products .

Programmable Interfacing Devices .

Matrix Keyboard and Multiplexed Display Interface       A matrix keyboard is a commonly used input device when more than eight keys are necessary A matrix keyboard reduces the number of connections and hence reduces the number of interfacing devices The rows and columns do not have any connection and the connection occurs when a key is pressed In other words. we can say that pressing a key shorts one row and column The interfacing of a matrix keyboard requires one input port and one output port Rows are connected to the output port and columns are connected to the input port .

Matrix Keyboard and Multiplexed Display Interface .

Matrix Keyboard and Multiplexed Display Interface  The steps involved in this process are     Check whether all keys are open Check a key closure Identify the key Find the binary key code for the key .

Matrix Keyboard and Multiplexed Display Interface .

Intel 8279 Keyboard/Display Controller    Intel 8279 is the keyboard/display controller that is used to interface the keyboard and the display of a system to the microprocessor The advantage of 8279 is that it is able to drive the signals for both the keyboard and display and hence it is possible for the microprocessor to concentrate in its routine tasks The 8279 has two sections: keyboard and display .

Intel 8279 Keyboard/Display Controller    The 8279 chip provides a set of four scan lines and eight return lines for interfacing keyboards and a set of eight output lines for interfacing display The keyboard portion can provide a scanned interface to a 64-contact key matrix The keyboard portion interfaces an array of sensors or a strobed interface keyboard .

Intel 8279 Keyboard Section     Keyboard depressions can be 2-key lockout or N-key rollover Keyboard entries are debounced and strobed in an 8-charcter FIFO If more than 8 characters are entered. overrun status is set Key entries set the interrupt output line to the CPU .

Intel 8279 Display Section       The display portion provides a scanned display interface for LED. incandescent and other popular display technologies Both numeric and alphanumeric segment displays may be used as well as simple indicators The 8279 has 16*8 display RAM which can be organized into dual 16*4 The RAM can be loaded or interrogated by the CPU Both right entry. calculator and left entry typewriter display formats are possible Both read and write of the display RAM can be done with auto-increment of the display RAM address .

Functional Block Diagram .

Signal description 8279 pins .

Pin diagram and Signal description of 8279 .

that is it has at least one byte free If the FIFO does not have any free byte.2 Key Lockout     In scanned keyboard mode with 2 key lockout. the other keys are checked for closure and if no other is pressed the first pressed key is identified The key code of the identified key is entered into the FIFO with SHIFT and CNTL status. when a key is pressed. naturally the key data will not be entered and the error flag is set . provided that FIFO is not full. a debounce logic comes into operation During the next two scans.

the code is entered in FIFO RAM Any number of keys can be pressed simultaneously and recognized in the order.N-Key Rollover      In scanned keyboard with N-key rollover each key depression is treated independently When a key is pressed the debounce circuit waits for two keyboard scans and then checks whether the key is still depressed If it is still depressed. the keyboard scan recorded them All the codes of such keys are entered into FIFO .

Keyboard/Display Mode Set DD is the display mode and KKK is the keyboard mode .

Keyboard/Display Mode Set .

Keyboard/Display Mode Set .

decided by the bits of an internal prescalar PPPPP . The input frequency is divided by a decimal constant ranging from 3 to 31.Programmable Clock  PPPPP is a 5-bit binary constant.

Read FIFO/Sensor RAM X – Don’t Care AI – Auto Increment flag AAA – Address pointer to 8-bit FIFO RAM .

points to the 16-byte display RAM that is to be read.Read Display RAM  AI is auto increment flag and AAAA. . incremented after each read or write to the display RAM. the 4-bit address. the address will be automatically. If AI=1.

Write Display RAM .

e. i.Clear Display RAM 1 1 1 0 1 1 X All zeros (X don’t care) AB = 00 0 A1-A2 = 2 (0010) and B3-B0 = 00 (0000) 1 All ones (AB=FF). clear RAM .

End Interrupt/Error Mode Set For N-key rollover mode. if the E bit is programmed to be ‘1’. the 8279 operates in special error mode .

Interfacing Keyboard/Display to the Microprocessor Using Intel 8279 .

CRT Fundamentals   It is the oldest and most popular display technology Advantages of CRT are as follows     Low cost because of volume of production Speed of updating and the retention of image is good Colour display is available Text and graphics display modes .

CRT Fundamentals  Disadvantages of CRT are as follows      Large size and weight: Typical CRT displays are at least as deep as they are wide High voltage and power consumption Also generate a lot of heat CRT displays are glass vacuum tubes. and are therefore relatively fragile The microprocessor interface is relatively complex .

Basic Components of CRT .

Major Interface Signals of CRT .

Horizontal and Vertical sync Pulses .

Horizontal and Vertical sync Pulses      Horizontal sync: Retraces beam to the left edge of the screen Horizontal oscillator: Saw-tooth signal that sweeps the beam horizontally across the screen Vertical sync: Causes beam to retrace to the top of the screen Vertical oscillator: Saw-tooth signal applied to the vertical deflection amplifier to move the beam down the screen Video signal: Determines the intensity of the beam that will strike the screen. The signal is amplified and applied as the accelerating voltage in the CRT .

Internal Architecture of 8275 .

Read/Write Control Logic CS 0 0 0 0 A0 0 0 1 1 RD 0 1 0 1 WR 1 0 1 0 Operations Read 8275 parameter Reg Write 8275 parameter Reg Read 8275 status Reg Write 8275 command Reg .

Pin Diagram of 8275 .

Interfacing Schematic of 8275 with an 8257 DMAC .

and logarithms are not directly available in a general purpose processor .Coprocessors   Some applications require extremely fast and complex math functions which are not provided by a general purpose processor Such functions as square root. cosine. sine.

Coprocessors   Software routines required to implement these functions tend to be slow and not very accurate Integer data types and their arithmetic operations (i. multiply and divide) which are directly available on general purpose processors. subtract. speed and ease of use .e. add. still may not meet the needs for accuracy..

a special numeric data processor is required – one which is easy to use and has a high level of support in hardware and software . requiring large areas of silicon on integrated circuits A general data processor does not provide these features due to the extra cost burden that less complex general applications must take on For such features. accurate. complex math can be quite complicated.Coprocessors    Providing fast.

the main CPU) performs more general tasks It supports the necessary data types and operations and allows use of all the current hardware and software support for the 8086/8 and 80186/8 microprocessors .8087 Coprocessor   The 8087 is a numeric data coprocessor which is capable of performing complex mathematical functions while the host processor (i.e.

which greatly improves the processing power of the system The 8087 can increase the performance of floating point calculations by 50 to 100 times.8087 Coprocessor   The fact that the 8087 is a coprocessor means it is capable of operating in parallel with the host CPU. providing the performance and precision required for small business and graphics applications as well as scientific data processing .

reads and writes memory operands and executes the 8087 control instructions These two units may work asynchronously with each other The control unit is mainly responsible for establishing communication between the CPU and memory and also for coordinating the internal coprocessor execution . decodes instructions.CU & NEU     The 8087 is divided into two sections internally namely the Control Unit (CU) and the Numeric Extension Unit (NEU) The numeric extension unit executes all the numeric processor instructions while the control unit receives.

Internal Architecture of 8087 .

Status Word .

Status Word .

Tag Word .

Instruction and Data Pointer .

Control Word .

Control Word .

Communication between Microprocessor and Coprocessor .

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