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Vpt 311 General and Systemic Veterinary Pharamacology Tanuvas Lect Notes

Vpt 311 General and Systemic Veterinary Pharamacology Tanuvas Lect Notes

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Published by Sunil
VPT 311 TANUVAS LECTURE NOTES
VPT 311 TANUVAS LECTURE NOTES

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Published by: Sunil on Sep 11, 2012
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•The cough centre is located in the medulla oblongata, in close association with the
respiratory centre.
•Specific neurons involved in cough coordination have shown to be suppressed by
antitussives.
•Codeine (methyl morphine) is a naturally occurring alkaloid and has been the major
antitussive

• It shares many other actions of morphine at a less potent level, eg. it is analgesic and

constipant.

•It can be converted to morphine in the body, but this does not give rise to habituation at
the doses used for cough control, although addiction to codeine is possible.
•Codeine is well absorbed from the gut and owes its satisfactory duration of action to a
slower metabolism.
•Codeine does not cause respiratory depression as does morphine.
•Codeine is effective at an oral dose of 1-2 mg/kg.
•Morphine and dimorphine (heroin) can be used as cough suppressant, their use is
restricted to the control of severe cough in terminal stages.
•Butorphanol is a centrally acting opioid cough depressant that causes little sedation as
compared to stronger opioid drugs.
•Hydrocodone is a narcotic drug that is used as an antitussive in which sedation is
common and long-term administration results in constipation with an overdose of
hydrocodone causing severe respiratory and cardiovascular depression.
•Non-narcotic antitussives have been developed to increase the safety of these agents for
use in man, in an attempt to retain the ability of codeine to suppress the cough centre but
to lose the CNS effects e.g. respiratory depression, analgesia and a tendency to
habituation.
•Pholcodeine is about twice as potent as codeine, nosacapine (a histamine – releaser in
dogs) and dextromethorphan are about equipotent, and dextrorphan is about half as
potent.

•All share the mild sedative effect of codeine and its occasional tendency to induce

vomiting.

•The levo isomers of dextrorphan and dextromethorphan have both analgesic and
addictive properties.
•Oral route is conventional for cough remedies; these agents may be given parenterally.

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