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Vpt 311 General and Systemic Veterinary Pharamacology Tanuvas Lect Notes

Vpt 311 General and Systemic Veterinary Pharamacology Tanuvas Lect Notes

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VPT 311 TANUVAS LECTURE NOTES
VPT 311 TANUVAS LECTURE NOTES

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Published by: Sunil on Sep 11, 2012
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Hepatic elimination of drugs

•Hepatically eliminated drugs usually move by passive diffusion from the blood into the
hepatocyte from where they are secreted into the bile or metabolised first and then
secreted into the bile.
•The bile then conveys this to the duodenum. In acute liver diseases and in chronic
degenerative processes like cirrhosis, the liver’s ability to metabolise and/or eliminate
drugs is reduced. Therefore the dose of the drugs eliminated by liver must be reduced in
liver disorders in order to prevent drug accumulation in toxic concentrations.
•Choleretics or a high fat intake promote bile flow and therefore, biliary excretion and
enhance the hepatic secretion of drugs. Broad spectrum antibacterial agents are
expected to diminish the hydrolytic action of intestinal flora and thus, may prevent
effective enterohepatic cycles.
•Large polar molecules (molecular weight >300) are often excreted and are not
reabsorbed in the intestine.
•The ability to excrete polar compounds in bile with molecular weights between 300 and
500 is good in dog, chicken and rat, moderate in cat and sheep and poor in guinea pig,
rabbit, monkey and man.

Compounds that undergo biliary excretion
Unchanged drugs and
endogenous substances

Compounds excreted as
glucuronide conjugates

Erythromycin

Chloramphenicol

Clindamycin

Trimethoprim

Digitoxin

Sulphadimethoxine

Steroid hormones

Morhine

Excretion of drugs in milk

•This route of excretion has both therapeutic and public health importance.
•The principles of excretion through the mammary gland are similar to those acting in the
kidneys, namely the diffusion of unionised lipid soluble forms of the drugs diffusing
through the epithelial cells of the mammary gland.
•The pH of plasma and milk are important factors. Since milk is usually more acidic than
plasma the basic compounds may be slightly more concentrated and acidic compounds
are less concentrated in milk than plasma.
•Excretion of drugs is altered in cases of mastitis due to changes in the pH of milk.

Pharmacokinetic Parameters : INTRODUCTION

Pharmacokinetics

The mathematical description of drug concentration in the body
The importance of kinetic study:
•For arriving at the dosage regimen (dose amount and dosing interval)
•For understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs
•For comparison of drug routes
•For comparison of different formulations (bioequivalence)
•As an essential part of any drug development study

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•For therapeutic drug monitoring

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