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Vpt421 Veterinary Toxicology Tanuvas Lecture Notes

Vpt421 Veterinary Toxicology Tanuvas Lecture Notes

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VPT 421 TOXICOLOGY TANUVAS LECTURE NOTES
VPT 421 TOXICOLOGY TANUVAS LECTURE NOTES

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Published by: Sunil on Sep 11, 2012
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•Spiders use their venom toparalyze prey while they eat victim’s body fluids.
•The venom of spiders is acomplex mixture of neuroactive proteins and other chemicals.
•Toxic principle is p roteins which include protease, hyaluronidase, sphingomyelinase D and

esterase.

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•They have direct lytic effect on RBCs.
•The most venomous spiders in the world include Brown recluse spider, Hobo spider and Black
widow spider.
•Some spider venoms can kill a mouse at a dose as low as 0.006 mg.
•The black widow species venom is made up of large proteins thought to affect the
transmission of calcium ions of nervous system cells.
•The initial sting of the bite is followed by muscle cramps, sweating and possibly decreased
blood pressure.
•There is no adequate treatment but the bite is seldom fatal.

Brown reculse spider Hobo Spider Black widow spider

Signs

•The bite initially stings, then any one of the two forms may take place.
oThe cutaneous form begins as edema, progresses to an ulcerated wound.
oThe viscerocutaneous form, which is severe, produces hemolytic anemia,
hemoglobinuria, icterus and hyperthermia.
•Ninety percent of the cases heal in 1 - 3 weeks. Some may need skin grafting.

Mechanism

•Unidentified venom component is cytotoxic to endothelial cells. This triggers intravascular
coagulation and microthrombi formation within capillaries. Capillary occlusion, hemorrhage,
and necrosis occur.
•Polymononuclear leukocytes and complements play important roles in potentiating the
response to envenomation.

Treatment

•Steroids may be used to protect against systemic effects.
•Hemolytic anemia can be managed by use of fluids and bicarbonate to minimize hemoglobin
deposition in renal tubules and by blood transfusion if anemia is severe enough to justify.

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