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Embedded Systems Project

Embedded Systems Project


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Published by mrs.mohmed
Embedded Systems
Embedded Systems

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Published by: mrs.mohmed on Jan 17, 2009
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Embedded Systems

Embedded Systems
Under the supervision of :

Dr / Farhat Farg Farhat

q q q q q q q q q introduction What is an embedded system? Characteristics of Embedded Systems Categories of Embedded Systems Major Components in Embedded Systems Embedded Systems HW / SW Embedded Systems Applications Software Development Tools Examples of Embedded Systems

Today’s embedded systems development ranges from microprocessor-based control systems, to systems-on-chip (SoC) design, and device software development. A myriad of implementations can be found in consumer electronics, medical devices, and commercial and military applications. This program looks at embedded systems engineering as a synergistic function between hardware and software device design and development. Participants learn the essential concepts of embedded systems development through a practical handson approach utilizing industry design automation (EDA) tools and design kits.

Embedded systems are ubiquitous. They can be found in consumer products such as washers, microwave ovens, and automobiles; industrial process controllers; as well as cellular phones, and personal digital assistants.

What is an Embedded Systems ?
q An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware and software, possibly with some mechanics, that is specifically designed for a particular kind of application device. An embedded system can be part of a larger system 90% of all computers are embedded computers!

• Anything that uses a microprocessor but isn't a generalpurpose computer • Take advantage of application characteristics to optimize the design ex:
• • • • • • • • • • Personal digital assistant (PDA) Set-top boxes Televisions Video Games Refrigerators Cars CPU Planes Elevators Remote Controls Alarm Systems

output input

analog analog

embedded computer


Major Components in Embedded Systems
q q q q q Data acquisition and processing Communication System logic and control algorithm Interface Auxiliary units s display s storage s monitoring and protection s test and diagnosis.



H ar dw

ar e


Characteristics of Embedded Systems
q 1.Device Programmability or Manageable The functioning of a specific hardware part on a smart device can be easily changed by simply changing the software associated with it. q 2.Multi-tasking An embedded system employed in a modern refrigerator performs door sense and temp sense at the same times, which are two functions at the same time. q 3.Real-time Response It is the ability of an embedded system to respond to ambient conditions suddenly. That is, a smart TV adjusts picture quality suddenly in response to sudden environmental brightness variations.

Embedded Systems: Applications

q Consumer electronics, cameras, camcorders, .... q Consumer products, e.g., washers, microwave ovens, ... q Automobiles (anti-lock braking, engine control, ...) q Industrial process controllers & avionics/defense applications q Computer/Communication products printers, FAX machines, ... q Emerging multimedia applications & consumer electronics

Categories of Embedded Systems
q 1. Stand-alone embedded systems Embedded logic circuit placed in a stand-alone smart device like a TV receiver q 2. Real-time embedded systems It can be again classified as hard real-time and soft Real-time embedded systems Hard systems are employed in biomedical smart devices, where real-time response is crucial. Soft systems have less real-time response than a hard system. Smart TV is an example for soft system. q 3. Networked embedded systems Here a smart device is networked with other systems. The networking may be wired or wire-less. Mobile phone is an example for wire-less smart device.

x Any systems that contained a ‘Microcontroller’ are called as Embedded Systems.

q 1.Processor
It is the brain of the embedded logic circuit. The processor can be of three types: x 8b Microcontroller (MC) For applications where space requirement is high but processing power and memory requirements are low, like in toys, smart cards, etc. x 32b Microprocessor (MP) For applications where space requirement is low but processing power and memory requirements are high, like in handheld computers. x Digital Signal Processor (DSP) For applications where signals are handled than Data, like audio and video applications. DSP contain a MAC (MultiplyAccumulate) unit, which performs all complex floating point Fourier calculations. Of the worlds total processor production 94% holds for embedded systems.

Embedded systems design: Major subtasks
q Modeling s the system to be designed, and experimenting with algorithms involved; q Refining (or “partitioning”) s the function to be implemented into smaller, interacting pieces; q HW-SW partitioning: Allocating s elements in the refined model to either (1) HW units, or (2) SW running on custom hardware or a general microprocessor. q Scheduling s the times at which the functions are executed. This is important when several modules in the partition share a single hardware unit. q Mapping (Implementing) s a functional description into (1) software that runs on a processor or (2) a collection of custom, semi-custom, or commodity HW.

Characteristics of Embedded Systems

Application Specific s Applications are known a priori s Optimize for cost, area, power, and performance Digital Signal Processing s Signals are represented digitally Reactive s Reacts to changes in the system’s environment Real-time s Compute certain tasks before deadline Distributed, Networked, …

q Reliability

s Probability of system working correctly provided that is was working q Maintainability s Probability of system working correctly d time units after error occurred. Safety s Not harmful for user q Security s Confidential and authentic communication

Traditional Design Challenges
q Low cost q Light weight q Shrinking time-to-market q Reliability q Short product lifetime q Low power q Real-time processing q Portable q Inherent concurrency q Complexity q HW/SW co-design q Ease of use q Mixed digital/analog requirements

Recent Design Challenges
q Design Complexity q Ultra low power s Highly adaptive s Active power management (voltage scaling, etc.) s Alternative energy source (scavenge, solar, etc.) q Internet aware s Incorporate RF technologies s Networking capabilities x Larger OS, middleware, etc. x Understanding of many/changing protocols s Co-operative operation (trashcan & refrigerator) q Verification q Security

Classification of Embedded Systems
Multi-dimensional classifications: q q q q q Hard versus software systems Fail-safe versus fail-operational systems Guaranteed-response versus best-effort Resource-adequate versus resource-inadequate Event-triggered versus time-triggered.

Software Development Tools
q Compiler: compiles C/C++ and in-line assembly language q Linker: links compiled application code, OS, and runtime libraries q Memory Image tools: places code in non-volatile memory at a given physical memory address q Debugger: debugs OS and application programs q Loader: loads OS at power on and applications q Also a tool to download new code from the development system is typically provided

Examples of Embedded Systems

Example ES (II): Digital Camera
Digital camera chip

A2D CCD preprocessor Pixel coprocessor D2A

JPEG codec Microcontroller Multiplier/Accum

DMA controller

Display ctrl

Memory controller

ISA bus interface


LCD ctrl

• Single-functioned -- always a digital camera • Tightly-constrained -- Low cost, low power, small, fast • Reactive and real-time -- only to some extent


• Product: Sonic are Elite toothbrush • Microprocessor: 8-bit • Has a programmable speed control, timer, and charge gauge


Example: BMW 745i

q q q q q q q

2, 000, 000 LOC Windows CE OS 53 8-bit µP 11 32-bit µP 7 16-bit µP Multiple Networks Buggy!

Example: By 2010, electronics & software in cars will account for up to 40% of their value

Wireless parking management

Street line networks

NASA's Twin Mars Rovers

• Product: NASA's Twin Mars Rovers • Microprocessor: Radiation Hardened 20Mhz PowerPC • Commercial Real-time OS • Software and OS was developed during multiyear flight to Mars and downloaded using a radio link

Any PC Mouse, Keyboard, or USB Device
• Product: Any PC Mouse, Keyboard, or USB Device • Microprocessor: 8-bit Microcontroller
Inside view of a Microsoft Mouse

Gas Pump
• Product: Dresser Wayne Ovation iX Gas Pump • Microprocessor: Marvel Xscale (ARM) • OS: Windows CE • Displays video ads & is networked to a gas station’s back office computer system. Also has remote maintenance features

Pocket PC Phone

• Product: Pocket PC Phone • Microprocessor: TI OMAP (ARM+DSP) • OS: Windows Mobile 5.0 (Windows CE OS)


• Product: Sony Aibo ERS-7 Robotic Dog • Microprocessor: 64bit MIPS R7000 • OS: Aperios - Sony’s Real Time OS


Embedded Systems Topics
• Introduction to embedded systems • Design of embedded systems • Input/output (I/O) activities common to embedded systems • Architectures common to embedded systems • Memory concepts important to embedded systems • Real-time concepts important to embedded systems

For Further Information URLs :

http://www.scribd.com/search?l=1&page=1&query http://www.embedded.com http://www.techonline.com http://www.embeddedliinks.com/chipdir/  www.info.com/Embedded-System http://cordis.europa.eu/technology-platforms


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