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A rectangular array of numbers enclosed by square brackets “ [ ]” is called matrix.

**Rows and Columns of a Matrix:
**

The entries presented in horizontal way are called rows. The entries presented in vertical way are called columns.

Order of Matrix:

(Number of rows) by (Number of columns) is called order of the matrix.

Equal Matrices:

Two matrices will be equal if: (i) (ii) The order of one matrix = The order of other matrix Their corresponding entries are the same

Row Matrix:

A matrix which has only one row is called row matrix. E.g. [ ]

Column Matrix:

A matrix which has only one column is called column matrix. E.g.

Rectangular Matrix:

If the no. of rows is not equal to the no. of columns in a matrix then it is a rectangular matrix.

Square Matrix:

A matrix is called square matrix if its no. of rows is equal to its no. of columns.

**Null or Zero Matrix:
**

A matrix is called null or zero matrix if each of its entries is zero.

Negative of a Matrix:

A matrix obtained by changing the sign of all its entries is called negative of a matrix.

Symmetric Matrix:

If A be any matrix then it is called symmetric if At = A

**Skew-Symmetric Matrix:
**

If A be any matrix then it is called skew-symmetric if At = -A

Diagonal Matrix:

A square matrix is called a diagonal matrix if at least any one of the entries of its main diagonal is not zero & non-diagonal entries mist all be zero.

Scalar Matrix:

A diagonal matrix is called scalar matrix if all the diagonal entries are same and non zero.

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