A rectangular array of numbers enclosed by square brackets “ [ ]” is called matrix.

Rows and Columns of a Matrix:
The entries presented in horizontal way are called rows. The entries presented in vertical way are called columns.

Order of Matrix:
(Number of rows) by (Number of columns) is called order of the matrix.

Equal Matrices:
Two matrices will be equal if: (i) (ii) The order of one matrix = The order of other matrix Their corresponding entries are the same

Row Matrix:
A matrix which has only one row is called row matrix. E.g. [ ]

Column Matrix:
A matrix which has only one column is called column matrix. E.g.

Rectangular Matrix:
If the no. of rows is not equal to the no. of columns in a matrix then it is a rectangular matrix.

Square Matrix:
A matrix is called square matrix if its no. of rows is equal to its no. of columns.

Null or Zero Matrix:
A matrix is called null or zero matrix if each of its entries is zero.

Negative of a Matrix:
A matrix obtained by changing the sign of all its entries is called negative of a matrix.

Symmetric Matrix:
If A be any matrix then it is called symmetric if At = A

Skew-Symmetric Matrix:
If A be any matrix then it is called skew-symmetric if At = -A

Diagonal Matrix:
A square matrix is called a diagonal matrix if at least any one of the entries of its main diagonal is not zero & non-diagonal entries mist all be zero.

Scalar Matrix:
A diagonal matrix is called scalar matrix if all the diagonal entries are same and non zero.

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