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Cold working is the plastic deformation of metals below the recrystallization temperature. In most cases, such cold forming is done at room temperature. The major cold-working operations can be classified basically as squeezing, bending, shearing and drawing.
Cold working is the plastic deformation of metals below the recrystallization temperature. In most cases of manufacturing, such cold forming is done at room temperature. Sometimes, however, the working may be done at elevated temperatures that will provide increased ductility and reduced strength, but will be below the recrystallization temperature. When compared to hot working, cold-working processes have certain distinct advantages:
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No heating required Better surface finish obtained Superior dimension control Better reproducibility and interchangeability of parts Improved strength properties Directional properties can be minimized
Some disadvantages associated with cold-working processes include:
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Higher forces required for deformation Heavier and more powerful equipment required Less ductility available Metal surfaces must be clean and scale-free Strain hardening occurs (may require intermediate anneals) Imparted directional properties may be detrimental May produce undesirable residual stresses Table 1: The major cold-working operations
The major cold-working operations can be classified basically under the headings of squeezing, bending, shearing and drawing, as follows. Squeezing Processes Most of the cold-working squeezing processes have identical hot-working counterparts or are extensions of
or pointing round bars or tubes by external hammering.them. Cold Forging Extremely large quantities of products are made by cold forging. The primary reasons for deforming cold rather than hot are to obtain better dimensional accuracy and surface finish. most extrusion processes are performed hot in order to reduce the flow strength of the metal. nails. In many cases. b-indirect or reverse extrusion. Cold heading is used for making enlarged sections on the ends of rod or wire. is placed in a chamber and forced through a die. or the opening can have a variety of shapes. c-impact extrusion and d-hydrostatic extrusion. bars and rods are cold rolled to obtain products that have smooth surfaces and accurate dimensions. in which the metal is squeezed into a dive cavity that imparts the desired shape. strip. Sizing Sizing involves squeezing areas of forgings or ductile castings to a desired thickness. Extrusion Extrusion is a bulk deformation process where a billet. such as the heads on bolts. Cold Rolling Cold rolling accounts for by far the greatest tonnage of cold-worked products. the equipment is basically the same. It is used principally on basses and flats. Typical extrusion products are shown in Figure 1. Swaging Swaging basically is a process for reducing the diameter. except that it must be more powerful. Sheets. with only enough deformation to bring the region to a desired dimension. Cold extrusion can occur but it is usually one step in a multi step cold forging operation. Figure 1: Schematic of extrusion processes: a-direct or forward extrusion. . The die opening can be round to produce a cylindrical product. A shaped mandrel is inserted inside a tube and the tube is than collapsed around it by swaging. tapering. generally cylindrical. A useful extension of the process involves the formation of internal cavities. Because of large reductions imparted during the extrusion process. rivets and other fasteners.
com/page. http://www. chemical composition. 1. Quick and easy access to the mechanical properties. crossreference tables. and more provide users with an unprecedented wealth of information. Increased strength Improved surface finish . 2.com/2010/06/22/5benefits-of-cold-work-in-steels/ 5 Benefits of Cold Work in Steels Here are 5 benefits of cold working of steels that make a difference to your machining operations.aspx?ID=CheckArticle&site=kts&NM=266 http://pmpaspeakingofprecision. Click the buttons below to learn more from the Guided Tour or to test drive the KEY to METALS database.keytometals.The KEY to METALS database brings global metal properties together into one integrated and searchable database.
Increased Strength It is widely known that cold working strain changes the properties of most metals. The graph below shows the effect of cold drawing on the tensile properties of 1 inch round diameter steel bars. Mechanical Properties % Change resulting from % Cold Work . The reduction in area and percent elongation are reduced. When as rolled steel bars are cold worked by cold drawing through a die. a significant increase in yield and tensile strength is obtained. 4. At the same time. Improved straightness Improved machinability. 5.Controlled dimensional tolerance and concentricity 3.
The first 5% of cold work results in the greatest increase in strength. Typical tolerances for cold drawn 1 ” low carbon steel bars are +0. . This scale is hard and abrasive ranging from 270 – 1030 DPH (Vickers) microhardness depending on the type of oxide (s) formed. By pulling the bars though the die. 2) Up to about 15% cold reduction.010 for hot rolled steel of the same chemistry and diameter. ductility measures decrease. the surface finish is also improved. Improved Surface Finish Hot rolled steel bars are finished at high temperatures. this compares favorably to +/0. In cold drawn bars. Improved Straightness The straightness of hot roll bars is generally 1/4″ max deviation in any 5 foot length. This results in the removal of the hard abrasive scale. cold finshers typically remove the sacle byshot blasting or acid pickling. yield strength increases at a much greater rate than tensile strength.002″.000″/ – 0.There are two important lessons in this graph: 1) As strength properties increase. Controlled Dimensions Because the bars are cold reduced at room temperature by pulling through an oil lubricated die. In order to cold draw the bars. the dimensional conformance of the steel is much more easily controlled. with Cold Drawn bars typically running 50 microinches maximum and modern equipment typically working at 25-30 micro inches. Concentricity is improved by the cold drawing operation. Compare this to a roughness height of 250 or more for hot rolled bars. and so the surface has a hard abrasive scale made up of various oxides of Iron.
workholding. Not putting hard abrasive scale and oxides into your cutting fluids nor on to your tool because the bar has been cleaned results in longer uptime and less maintenance for tools. Finer tolerances can be held by your equipment when bars are sized properly going into the machine. Similarly. Please see our post here for a more complete discussion of bar straightness.depending on size and grade this deviation can be held to as little as 1/16″ in 10 feet. Bottom line: Hot roll bars may be cheaper by the pound. improved straightness results in less runout and permits higher speeds in production. . but machining them will cost your company a lot more because they lack the benefits of cold drawing: Increased strength Improved surface finish Controlled dimensional tolerance Improved straightness Improved machinability. This translates into less force on the tool and greater tool life and productivity. More tightly controlled dimensions and concentricity means that the bars can be run at higher speeds without creating harmful vibrations and chatter. Improved Machinability Improved machinability is really the synergistic result of all of the above improvements made by cold work (cold drawing). and machines. Higher yield to tensile ratio means the tool has less work to do to move the metal in the workpiece to its ultimate strength when it will separate as a chip.
1968.Graph and data: AISI Cold Finished Steel Bar Handbook. (Out of print) .
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