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Transmission is the mechanism through which the driving torque of the engine is transmitted to the driving wheel of the vehicle so that the motor vehicle can move on the road. The reciprocating motion of the piston turns a crankshaft rotating a flywheel through the connecting rod .The circular motion of the crankshaft is to be now transmitted to the rear wheels .It is transmitted through the clutch, gear box, universal joints, propeller shaft or the drive shaft, differential and axles extending to the wheels. The application of the engine power to the driving wheels through all these parts is called POWER TRANSMISSION .The power system is usually the same on all modern passenger cars and trucks, but its arrangement may vary according to the method of drive and type of transmission units.
1.2 PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSION:
It enables the engine to be disconnected from the driving wheels. It enables the running engine to be connected to driving wheel smoothly and without shock. It enables the leverage between the engine and the driving wheels to be varied. It enables the reduction of engine speed in the ratio of 4:1 in case of passenger cars and in greater ratio in case of Lorries. It enables the driving wheels to be driven at different speeds. It enables turning the driving through 90 degrees. It enables the relative movement between the engine and the driving wheel.
In all vehicles using a transmission (virtually all modern vehicles), a coupling device is used to separate the engine and transmission when necessary. The clutch accomplishes this in manual transmissions. Without it, the engine and tires would at all times be inextricably linked, and anytime the vehicle stopped the engine would perforce stall. BCET, ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 1
Considerable power is wasted as heat (which is dissipated by the clutch). 3. and selecting a gear requires the revolution speed of the engine to be held at a very precise value which depends on the vehicle speed and desired gear. When the clutch pedal is fully released. and no torque is transferred from the engine to the transmission (and by extension to the drive wheels). a lever on the left handlebar serves the purpose. In this uncoupled state it is possible to select gears or to stop the car without stopping the engine. 5. and practically all of the engine's torque is transferred. In this coupled state.Without the clutch. changing gears would be very difficult. and power is transmitted to the wheels with minimal practical waste heat. 4. but rather acts as rigid coupling. on a motorcycle. 1. Learning to use the clutch efficiently requires the development of muscle memory and a level of coordination analogous to that required to learn a musical instrument or to play a sport. When the clutch pedal is fully depressed. and when it is already moving. Properly applied. the clutch is fully disengaged. even with the vehicle moving already: deselecting a gear while the transmission is under load requires considerable force. 2. BCET. Between these extremes of engagement and disengagement the clutch slips to varying degrees. In a car the clutch is usually operated by a pedal. allows the engine rotation to gradually adjust to a newly selected gear ratio. When the clutch slips it still transmits torque despite the difference in speeds between the engine crankshaft and the transmission input because this torque is transmitted by means of friction rather than direct mechanical contact. the clutch is fully engaged. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 2 . the clutch does not slip. slip allows the vehicle to be started from a standstill.
a dual clutch transmission also enchances refinement over a convectional manual or manual gearbox. Elaborated form of manual transmission in which two internal shafts. flappy paddle gearbox. This removes the need for a clutch pedal which the driver otherwise needs to depress before making a gear change. semi-automatic transmissions. shift-tronic. are coordinated such as to achieve a uniterrupted flow of torque to the driven wheels during gear changes. which do all of the shifting work for drivers using clutches. a torque converter and sets of planetary gears. gearbox. such as the sequential manual gearbox (or SMG). The system was designed by European automobile manufacturers to provide a better driving experience. each connected to the input via an electronically controlled clutch. e-gear. But in the world of production vehicles.the dual-clutch transmission. or direct-shift. Most people know that cars come with two basic transmission types: manuals. which require that the driver change gears by depressing a clutch pedal and using a stick shift. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 3 . or direct shift gearbox) is a system which uses electronic sensors.one that is being defined by a very specific design known as the dual-clutch. the "clutchless" manual transmission and the automated manual transmission. In the world of race cars. also called the semi-automatic transmission. since the clutch itself is actuated by electronic equipment which can synchronise the timing and torque required to make gear shifts quick and smooth. BCET. it's a relatively new technology -. But there's also something in between that offers the best of both worlds -. automated manual transmission. processors and actuators to do gear shifts on the command of the driver.DUAL CLUTCH TRANSMISSION 2. have been a staple for years. As well as reducing acceleration times. and automatics. dual-clutch transmission. especially in cities where congestion frequently causes stop-and-go traffic patterns.1 INTRODUCTION A semi-automatic transmission (also known as clutchless manual transmission.
the gear lever appears similar to manual shifts. except that the gear stick only moves forward and backward to shift into higher and lower gears. together with a sensor in the gear box which senses the current speed and gear selected. after this has been accomplished the car will prompt for one of the three options. The even BCET. and this input. which is kept in close synchronization with the gear-shifting action the driver has started. and takes advantage of the precision of electronic signals to allow a complete clutch operation without the intervention of the driver. such as engine rotation. reversing and neutralizing the transmission. but also the position must match. the driver must engage both paddles at once. while depressing the left paddle shifts into a lower one. instead of the traditional H-pattern. In Formula One. The hydro-mechanical unit contains a servomotor coupled to a gear arrangement for a linear actuator. This unit then determines the optimal timing and torque required for a smooth clutch engagement. For a quicker upshift. The power of the system lies in the fact that electronic equipment can react much faster and more precisely than a human. and the throttle may need to be opened softer or harder. For the needs of parking. and the collar disengaged until the engine drops to the correct speed for the next gear. Hall Effect sensors sense the direction of requested shift. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 4 . the engine power can be cut.2. The central processing unit powers a hydro-mechanical unit to either engage or disengage the clutch. Numerous road cars have inherited the same mechanism. the Electronic Stability Program. The clutch is really only needed to start the car. air conditioner and dashboard instruments. the system is adapted to fit onto the steering wheel in the form of two paddles. The Bugatti Veyron uses this approach for its 7-speed transmission. depressing the right paddle shifts into a higher gear. feeds into a central processing unit. based on input from these two sensors as well as other factors. which uses brake fluid from the braking system to impel a hydraulic cylinder to move the main clutch actuator. This needs sensors to measure not only the speed. For the teeth of the collar to slide into the teeth of the rings not only the speed.2 OPERATION OF DCT In standard mass-production automobiles. but the positions of the teeth.
it's helpful to review how a conventional manual gearbox works.3 (6-Speed Basic Design of DCT) BCET. which disconnects the engine from the gearbox and interrupts power flow to the transmission. Once the new gear is engaged. So.faster shifting techniques like powershifting require a heavier gearbox or clutch or even a twin-clutch gearbox. When a driver wants to change from one gear to another in a standard stick-shift car. This operates a single clutch. Devices called synchronizers match the gears before they are engaged to prevent grinding. a process that involves moving a toothed collar from one gear wheel to another gear wheel of a different size. there is not a continuous flow of power from the engine to the wheels. To understand what this means. in a conventional manual transmission. this can result in passengers being thrown forward and back again as gears are changed. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 5 . which re-connects the engine to the gearbox and transmits power to the wheels. the driver releases the clutch pedal. Instead. causing a phenomenon known as "shift shock" or "torque interrupt. he first presses down the clutch pedal. Then the driver uses the stick shift to select a new gear. 2. Fig 2." For an unskilled driver. power delivery changes from on to off to on during gearshift.3 BASIC DESIGN OF DUAL CLUTCH TRNSMISSION A dual-clutch transmission offers the function of two manual gearboxes in one.
the driving experience is very similar to that delivered by a conventional automatic. uses two clutches. while the other controls the even gears (second. More importantly. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 6 . BCET. just as they do in a Standard automatic transmission. fifth and reverse). fourth and sixth).Power is sent to second gear along the outer transmission shaft As the car increases speed. but has no clutch pedal.A dual-clutch gearbox. In a DCT. it works like this: • • • • A car travelling in second gear is controlled by the inner clutch . third. Drivers can also choose a fully automatic mode that relinquishes all gear-changing duties to the computer. Using this arrangement. An ingenious two-shaft construction separating the odd and even gears makes all of this possible. The power is transferred along the inner transmission shafts to the preselected gear. gears can be changed without interrupting the power flow from the engine to the transmission. the inner clutch disengages and the outer clutch is activated. the clutches operate independently. Sophisticated electronics and hydraulics control the clutches. the gear change takes place under load so that a permanent flow of power is maintained. In this mode. Because a DCT transmission can "phase out" one gear and "phase in" a second gear. by contrast. When the driver changes gears. however. Sequentially. the computer detects the next gearshift point and the third gear is pre-selected. One clutch controls the odd gears (first. shift shock is reduced.
The outer shaft is hollowed out. independent clutch controls first. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 7 . Notice that one clutch controls second and fourth gears.2. A standard manual transmission can't do this because it must use one clutch for all odd and even gears. Fig 2. the DCT splits up odd and even gears on two input shafts. The outer hollow shaft feeds second and fourth gears. while another. while the inner shaft feeds first. making room for an inner shaft. Unlike a conventional manual gearbox. which is nested inside. The diagram below shows this arrangement for a typical five-speed DCT. That's the trick that allows lightning-fast gear changes and keeps power delivery constant. third and fifth gears. this houses all of its gears on a single input shaft. third and fifth.4 (Basic Arrangement of DCT) BCET.4 DUAL CLUTCH TRANSMISSION SHAFTS A two-part transmission shaft is at the heart of a DCT.
the drum is connected to the gearset that will receive the transfer force. DCTs currently on the market use wet multi-plate clutches. however. The friction discs have internal teeth that are sized and shaped to mesh with splines on the clutch drum. A "wet" clutch is one that bathes the clutch components in lubricating fluid to reduce friction and limit the production of heat. Fig 2. BCET. but all production vehicles equipped with DCTs today use the wet version.5(a) (Basic Multi-Plate Wet Clutch Design) Like torque converters. Audi's dual-clutch transmission has both a small coil spring and a large diaphragm spring in its wet multi-plate clutches. like those usually associated with manual transmissions. seen in the diagram above.5 MULTI PLATE CLUTCH Since a dual-clutch transmission is similar to an automatic. which pushes a series of stacked clutch plates and friction discs against a fixed pressure plate. Several manufacturers are developing DCTs that use dry clutches. Instead. which is how an automatic transfers engine torque from the engine to the transmission.2. In turn. one might think that it requires a torque converter. wet multi-plate clutches use hydraulic pressure to drive the gears. hydraulic pressure inside the piston forces a set of coil springs part. Many motorcycles have single multi-plate clutches. don't require torque converters. DCTs. When the clutch is engaged. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 8 . The fluid does its work inside the clutch piston.
fluid pressure inside the piston is reduced. The method changes over the gears driven by the first clutch from the initial gear to the final gear as the engine continues to tracks the target speed. which eases pressure on the clutch pack and pressure plate. BCET.6 CONTROLLING OF DCT A method of controlling the clutches of a dual clutch transmission during a two-gear positive downshift.Fig 2.5 (b) (Basic Dual Wet Clutch Design) To disengage the clutch. The torque transfer across each clutch is controlled so that the torque output will be linearly changed back from the second clutch to the first clutch in an inversely proportional rate to continue to cause the engine to track the target engine speed profile. This allows the piston springs to relax. The torque transfer across each clutch is controlled so that the torque output of the transmission will be linearly changed over from the first clutch to the second clutch to cause the engine to track a target engine speed profile. 2. wherein the first clutch drives an initial gear and the final gear and the second clutch drives an intermediate gear. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 9 .
it affords drivers the luxury of choosing whether they prefer to control the shifting or let the computer do all of the work. • It certainly offers smooth acceleration by eliminating the shift shock that accompanies gearshifts in manual transmissions and even some automatics. Even without a clutch pedal. BCET. synchronizers and a clutch.1 ADVANTAGES In principle. the DCT behaves just like a standard manual transmission: • It's got input and auxiliary shafts to house gears. because computers. • Driver experience is just one of the many advantages of a DCT. the driver can still "tell" the computer when to take action through paddles. With upshifts taking a mere 8 milliseconds. many feel that the DCT offers the most dynamic acceleration of any vehicle on the market. It doesn't have a clutch pedal. Best of all.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 3. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 10 . buttons or a gearshift. solenoids and hydraulics do the actual shifting.
Just one percent of cars produced in Western Europe will be fitted with a CVT by 2012. manufacturers are already investing heavily in alternate transmission technologies. fuel efficiency increases dramatically. However. In Europe. • In addition. some predict that DCTs will capture 25 percent of the market. some automakers are wary of the additional costs associated with modifying production lines to accommodate a new type of transmission. One of the most notable is the continuously variable transmission. BCET. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 11 . CVTs also reduce shift shock and increase fuel efficiency significantly. which might discourage cost-conscious consumers. Some experts say that a six-speed DCT can deliver up to a 10 percent increase in relative fuel efficiency when compared to a conventional five-speed automatic. Because power flow from the engine to the transmission is not interrupted. Audi TT Roadster One of several Audi models available with a dual-shift transmission • Perhaps the most compelling advantage of a DCT is improved fuel economy. or CVT. where manual transmissions are preferred because of their performance and fuel efficiency. A CVT is a type of automatic transmission that uses a moving pulley system and a belt or chain to infinitely adjust the gear ratio across a wide range. But CVTs can't handle the high torque demands of performance cars. 3.DCTs don't have such issues and are ideal for high-performance vehicles.1.2 DISADVANTAGES • Many car manufacturers are interested in DCT technology. This could initially drive up the costs of cars outfitted with DCTs.Fig 3.
a Porsche 962 won the Monza 1000 Kilometer World Sports Prototype Championship race -. In 1986. although its use was limited at first to racecars. Adolphe Kégresse is best known for developing the half-track. Fig 4. Both Audi and Porsche picked up on the dual-clutch concept.Porsche 962 BCET. or PDK.Dual-clutch Transmissions: (Past.1 PAST The man who invented the dual-clutch gearbox was a pioneer in automotive engineering. a race up the 4. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 12 . The 956 and 962C racecars included the Porsche Dual Klutch. a type of vehicle equipped with endless rubber treads allowing it to drive off-road over various forms of terrain. Present. which he hoped to use on the legendary Citroën "Traction" vehicle. Audi also made history in 1985 when a Sport quattro S1 rally car equipped with dual-clutch transmission won the Pikes Peak hill climb.1. Kégresse conceived the idea for a dual-clutch gearbox.300meter-high mountain.the first win for a car equipped with the PDK semi-automatic paddleshifted transmission. adverse business circumstances prevented further development.) 4. Unfortunately. In 1939.
however. and Jetta as well as the Audi TT and A3. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 13 .0 Ford is the second major manufacturer to commit to dual-clutch transmissions. European automobiles equipped with DCT include the Volkswagen Beetle. made by Ford of Europe and its 50/50 joint venture transmission manufacturer. a six-speed dual-clutch transmission. Fig 4. licensing BorgWarner's DualTronic technology.2 PRESENT Commercialization of the dual-clutch transmission.2. at the 2005 Frankfurt International Motor Show. production vehicles using a first generation Powershift are approximately two years away. Toledo and Leon. Golf. and the Seat Altea. It demonstrated the Powershift System. However. the Skoda Octavia. has not been feasible until recently.4. Volkswagen has been a pioneer in dual-clutch transmissions. GETRAG-Ford. Volkswagen Jetta 2. Touran. BCET.
an example being the well known London Route master. Fully automatic transmission became popular with increasing numbers of continental buses being bought in the UK. from the 1950s right through to the 1980s. mostly using imported gearboxes. although the latter could also be driven as a fully automatic in the 3 highest gears. mostly replacing manual gearboxes in coaches and small buses 5. In the UK though. or with a switch accessible to the left hand where the BCET. including its Leopard and Tiger coaches. Notably. while ZF markets its ASTronic system for buses and coaches. semi-automatic transmission has been very popular on buses for some time. although many are still on the roads with private owners.2 MOTORCYCLES In addition to the Hondamatic system noted above. These gearboxes have a place in public transport as they have been shown to significantly reduce fuel consumption.1 TRUCKS AND BUSES Semi-automatic transmissions have also made its way into the truck and bus market in the early 2000s. Modern types of semi-automatic transmission though are becoming more common. These days. and more and more British manufacturers began offering automatic options. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 14 .APPLICATIONS 5. and semi-automatic transmission lost favour. this system can be shifted either with the lever in the traditional position near the left foot. Volvo offers its I-shift on its heavier trucks and buses. Leyland manufactured many buses with semi-automatic transmission. Yamaha Motor Company introduced a semi-automatic transmission on its 2007 model year FJR1300 sport-touring motorcycle in 2006. very few buses with semiautomatic transmission remain in service.
BCET. The most likely winner that will replace traditional automatics and boost market penetration of automated transmissions will be the dual clutch transmission (DCT).clutch lever would go on traditional motorcycles. C0NCLUSIONS New environmental and fuel efficiency legislation coupled with advances in electronics and manufacturing techniques have triggered new automated transmission technologies. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 15 .
com 3.com 5. Automobile engineering by R. google.com BCET. howstuffwork.B. Gupta 2.REFERENCES 1. ME Dept Dual clutch transmission Page 16 . autoworld.com 4. wikipedia.
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