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General Electric Company Corporate Research and Development Center Schenectady, New York With a Foreword by
Large electric arc furnace used in steel production. Such loads on the electricity supply system often require reactive power control equipment of the type described in Chapter 9. Reproduced by kind permission of United States Steel, American Bridge Division.
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Copyright O 1982 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging in Pubtication Data Main entry under title: Reactive power control in electric systems "A WileyInterscience publication." Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Reactive power (Electrical engineering) I. Miller, T. J. E. (Timothy John Eastham), 1947TK3226.R38 1982 621.319 8210838 ISBN 0471869333 Printed m the United States of America
PLANTS OF CHARLES P. STEINMETZ MEMORIAL PARK, SCHENECTADY
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Capacitor Products Department, Hudson Falls, N.Y
Philip 9;. Brown Electric Utility Systems Engineering Department, Schenectady, N.Y.
Electric Utility Systems Engineering Department, Schenectady, N.Y.
Ronald W. Lye Canadian General Electric Company, Peterborough, Ontario T. 3. E. Miller Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, N.Y.
Industrial Power Systems Engineering Operation, Schenectady, N.Y.
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But why should we want to transmit reactive power anyway? Is ~t not just a troublesome concept. then it ought to be generated where it is needed. that is best disregarded? The answer is that reactive power is consumed not only by most of the network elements. This partially explains the superficially strange fact that we can often observe in the same network. If we can't transmit it very easily. when we consider that the average transmission distance in the United States is only of the order of 100 miles. There is a fundamental and important interrelation between active and reactive power transmission. Still. when we speak of transmiss~onof electricity. the same might be said about active power. We have said that the transmlssion of active power requires a phase displacement of voltages. the reactance of a transformer may be as great as that of 50 miles of transmlssion line. so it must be supplied somewhere. But the magnitudes of . It is important to recognize that. whereas the transmission of reactive power requires a difference in tizagtzitrrde of these same voltages (which is feasible only within very narrow limits). the transmission of active power requlres a difference in augular phase between the voltages at the sending and receiving points (which is feasible within rather wide limits). invented by the theoreticians. it is evident that we do not really avoid transmission entirely unless the generation of reactive power is at the same voltage level as is the consumption to be supplied. Of course. the differences are only quantitative.Reactive power has been recognized as a significant factor in the design and operation of alternating current electric power systems for a long time. it has been observed that. Thus. but the constraints on its transmission are much less severe and the penalt~eson inappropriate generator siting (and sizing) much more severe. since the impedances of the network components are predominantly reactive. For example. we must speak of electrical distances. shunt compensation in the form of capacitors in the distribution system and shunt inductors in the transmission system. In a very general and greatly oversimplified way. but also by most of the consumer toads.
and the present book includes a treatment of harmonics. with different effects on the magnitudes of the harmonics. is to compensate part of the series inductive reactance by series capacitors. the concept is simple. Many years ago. reactive power should be obtained from the synchronous generators themselves. The rapid development and relative economy of these shunt capacitors led to their almost displacing synchronous condensers in the transmission system also. from an economic point of view. Another aspect of the definition of reactive power is whether we speak of it as a single entity (as we have done in this Foreword) that is consumed by an inductor and generated by a capacitor. synchronous condensers were used for voltage support and power transfer capability improvement. the voltages at all the key points of the network.Foreword X xi Foreword these voltages are equally important. and of reducing voltage drop in distribution systems. the development of newer static types of controllable reactivepower compensators. and there is a simple righttriangle relation between active. and controlled reactivepower supplies are beginning to return in the form of static devices. Not only are they necessary for power transmission. It has also been used to balance line loadings among network branches. since in compensating the fundamental we may be left only with harmonics. We have so far discussed reactive power as being supplied to. to support. or to power factor. with a result that may be more esthetically satisfying but still does not relate reactive power to apparent power. the increasing pressures to utilize transmission capacity as much as possible. for example. or by multiplying instantaneous values of voltage and current and integrating over a cycle (in which case it might appear that the entire current is useful). reactive current is the component outofphase with the voltage. especially when we compensate reactive power. However. As a corollary to this. for example. or whether we speak of it as being either positive or negative. and second. Thus. but merely to caution the reader to think precisely about hislher observations and terms. but the power factor is still less than unity. how much needs to be switched. Now there are signs that the tide may have turned again. there also remains the question of how much. harmonics are considered individually. we can have cases where the reactive power by any direct measurement is practically zero. a direct way of increasing power transfer capacity in transmission systems. it is still thejob of the system engineer to determine how much can be accomplished by fixed capacitors (and inductors).) We do not wish to belabor these academic considerations. But we don't have purely sinusoidal wave forms. and apparent power. in a meshed network the application of series capacitors must be coordinated in order to preserve. the network. we may shift. a proper distribution of line loadings. Moreover. we are undone by the simple case of a purely sinusoidal voltage applied across a nonlinear resistor. it may be well to define what we mean by reactive power. wh6n the growing extent of electric power networks began to justify it. This control may be accomplished in large part by the supply or consumption of reactive power at these points. singlefrequency voltages and currents. We can easily calculate the active power either by multiplying the voltage by the fundamental component of the current (in which case it might appear that the harmonic components are reactive). shunt capacitors began to be installed in distribution circuits to improve voltage profiles and reduce line loading and losses by powerfactor improvement. In any case the subjects of reactive power and harmonics are essentially related. Of course. and whether one calls them reactive power is immaterial. If we take the definition of reactive current as the part that does no work. For purely sinusoidal. rather than in terms of reactivepower supply. It was found that practically as much could be gained by switched capacitors as by synchronous condensers. In the design of static compensators. sometimes larger than the original values. in transmission lines and transformer leakage reactances. Although these aspects of reactive power have long been recognized. and finally how much needs to be rapidly and continuously controlled. and at a much lower cost. as. for example. with a capacitor or an inductor. We have to keep in mind that there are really two reasons for the apparent power being larger than the active power: reactive power and harmonics. and applications to distribution systems have become rare. the phase of the voltage by 90 degrees. However. At the same time. while a shunt capacitor (or other means of voltage support) can often be applied with benefit at a single point. Both practices have t h e ~ rap . if any. or somehow shift the whole voltage bodily. we have to control. or constrain. this is looked at from the standpoint of reducing the net inductive reactance. they have recently acquired increased importance for at least two reasons: first. in the direct measurement of reactive power. And no matter how we shift the voltage. Also. but the series capacitor remains the best way to increase transmission capacity in many cases. If we then hold to the simple concept of reactive power being the product of voltage and the outofphase component of current. during disturbances. Thus. (The root of the difficulty IS that apparent power is r i m voltage times rtns current. reactive. Finally. or obtain. but also they must be high enough to support the loads and low enough to avoid equipment breakdown. there is no direct way we can find any reactive power. Ordinarily. Operating problems hava been encountered. at the beginning of this Foreword it was pointed out that some of the consumption of reactive power is in the network series elements themselves. the static controlled reactivepower sources almost always produce harmonics. if necessary. or from. and.
and because of the wide range of subjects treated. Reactive power control. and becoming more so. this book should appeal to a broad cross section of electrical. Vetme. the losses in the system can be reduced by minimizing the total flow of reactive power. in a network the concepts of leading and lagging currents must be used with due consideration of the assumed reference direction of current flow. Practising engineers in the utility industry and in industrial plants will find both the theory and the description of reactive power control equipment invaluable in solving problems in powerfactor correction. as well as the method of treatment. to the sophisticated algorithms described in Chapter 11 which may be used in large interconnected networks controlled by computers. and several sections of it have already been used for this purpose at the University of Wisconsin and in the General Electric Power Systems Engineering Course. In universities the book should form an ideal basis for a postgraduate or even an undergraduate course in power systems. and control engineers. This principle is applied throughout the system. Second. The authors are all practising powersystem engineers who have had a total of many decades of experience in the technologies related to reactive power. from the simple powerfactor correction capacitor used with a single inductive load. It is now more important than ever to design and operate power systems with not only the highest practicable efficiency but also the highest degree of security and reliability. which is the theme of the book. it is important. For a given distribution of power. regardless of what we think reactive power is. Also. voltage control and stabilization. Florrda October 1982 About thirty percent of all primary energy resources worldwide are used to generate electrical energy. and almost all of this is transmitted and distributed by alternating current at 50 or 60 Hz. Thus the present book. electronics. phase balancing and the handling of harmonics. Because of the fundamental importance of reactive power control.xii Foreword propriate places. the extension of transmission networks has been curtailed in general by high interest rates. is particularly appropriate at this time. These requirements are motivating a wide range of advances in the technology of ac power transmission and the purpose of this book is to describe some of the more important theoretical and practical developments. Anyway. First. the requirement for more efficient operation of power systems has increased with the price of fuels. and in particular cases by the difficulty of acquiring . with its emphasis on compensation and control (and harmonics). has grown in importance for a number of reasons which are briefly as follows.
powerfactor correction. Chapter 4 introduces and describes in detail the principles of modern static reactive power compensators. Certain types of industrial load. Fifth. both in terms of phasors and instantaneous voltages and currents. In Chapter 9 there is a detailed treatment of reactive power control in connection with electric arc furnaces. the thyristorswitched capacitor. such as those around Hudson Bay and in mountainous regions of Africa and South America. hostile generation sites have been developed. starting with the simplest case of powerfactor correction and moving on to the detailed principles on which the extremely rapidresponse static compensator is designed and applied. the development and application of dc transmission schemes has created a requirement for reactive power control on the ac side of the converters. have helped restore the series capacitor to its place as an economic and very effective means for increasing the power transmission capability and stability of long lines. Both the varistor and the means for controlling SSR are described in this chapter. Voltage or frequency depressions are particularly undesirable with such loads. and dragline excavators. together with the introduction of virtually instantaneous reinsertion using metaloxide varistors. including the thyristorcontrolled reactor. mine hoists. and a wide range of different solutions has been developed. and interruptions of supply can be very harmful and expensive. Reactive power control is an essential tool in maintaining the quality of supply. Chapter 5 describes the highpower ac thyristor controller and associated systems. and it is often necessary to compensate for them with voltage stabilizing equipment in the form of static reactive power compensators. where the three fundamental techniques of compensation by sectioning. which present one of the most challenging load compensation problems. In Chapter 7 the series capacitor is described. rolling mills. Third. All these aspects of ac power engineering are discussed. In spite of the parallel development of dc transmission technology. while Chapter 6 gives a complete description of a modern compensator installation including details of the control system and performance testing. even when these are required for other reasons (such as the reduction of flicker?. requiring large compensator ratings and extremely rapid response to minimize "flicker. In Chapter 2 the principles of transmitting power at high voltages and over longer distances are treated. Fourth. Particular attention is given to control aspects. synchronous condensers. ac transmission has been preferred in many of these schemes. from both a theoretical and a practical point of view. ranging from the use of fixed shunt reactors and capacitors. which are the commonest type of disturbance. The subject of reactive power control is closely connected with the subject of harmonics. A separate reason for the importance of harmonics in a book on reactive power control is that reactive compensation almost always . The problems of stability and voltage control are identifiable as problems in reactive power control. and the saturated reactor. and phase balancing. the compensating network is successively described in terms of its powerfactor correction attributes. The solution of the subsynchronous resonance (SSR) problem. and several of the most recent installations have been very large and technically advanced. and Chapter 3 deals with the important aspects of the dynamics of ac power systems and the effect of reactive power control. requiring the application of reactive power control measures to restore stability margins. Chapter 8 on synchronous condensers has been included because of the continuing importance of this class of compensation equipment. the exploitation of hydropower resources has proceeded spectacularly to the point where remote. and a detailed treatment of switching phenomena in the thyristorswitched capacitor is included. Chapter 1 is also unified in its approach to the compensation or reactive power control of loads. and finally its properties as a set of sequence networks capable of voltage stabilization.Xiv Preface Preface xv rightofway." Chapter 9 will be of interest to the general reader for its exploration of the limits of the speed of response of different methods of reactive power control. impose on the supply large and rapid variations in their demand for power and reactive power. The modern static compensator receives further detailed treatment in Chapters 5 and 6. because reactive power compensation and control is often required in connection with loads which are also sources of harmonics. and the modern static compensator. surgeimpedance compensation. and linelength compensation are defined and compared. the requirement for a high quality of supply has increased because of the increasing use of electronic equipment (especially computers and color television receivers). especially in preventing voltage disturbances. including electric furnaces. The unified approach to the "compensation" problem is particularly emphasized in Chapter 2. Rapid response excitation systems and new control strategies have steadily enhanced the performance of the condenser. to series capacitors. which exemplifies the principle that the performance of the load is often significantly improved by voltage and reactive power control. and because of the growth in continuousprocess industries. In many cases the power transmitted through older circuits has been increased. It also shows clearly the advantages of compensation on the steelproducing process. As a rotating machine the synchronous condenser has a natural and important place in the theory of reactive power control. its voltagestabilizing attributes. Chapters 1 through 3 deal with the theory of ac power transmission. to stabilize the voltage and to assist the commutation of the converter.
The Institution of Electrical Engineers is acknowledged for the use of material and figures in Section 3 of Chapter 4 which are taken from IEE Conference Publication CP205. Lamont. and to him and R. Young. for his comments on the whole work and on Chapters 2 and 7 in particular. R. deals with the relatively new subject of reactive power coordination. This promising new subject is given the last word in leaving the reader to the future. Philadelphia Electric Co. Acknowledgment is also due to the staff of John Wiley and Sons for their expert guidance throughout the writing and production of the book. and compensators be deployed in such a way as to avoid problems with harmonic resonances.W. and thanks are due to A. D. T. Miss Kathy Kinch. Moran. and includes a treatment of filters with practical examples. J. J. Special thanks are also due to Mrs. Chapter 11. and in particular the authors accept no responsibility for any adverse consequences arising out of the interpretation of material in the book. and the editor would like to record his warmest thanks for all contributions great and small. Minimization of system losses is one of several possible optimal conditions which can be determined and maintained by computer analysis and control. The chapters are all written from the individual points of view of the authors." No book is the sole work of its named authors. H. Laszio Gyugyi of Westinghouse Electric for permission to use some of his ideas in Section 9 of Chapter 1. and acknowledgment is made to the many unnamed contributors to the technology and application of reactive power control. The final chapter. Acknowledgment is also due to the U. E. D. Demarest. and do not represent the position of any manufacturing company or other institution. F. This book does not attempt to set out hardandfast rules for the application of any particular type of equipment. Folger. E. H. K~rchmayer. and it is important that capacitors. Christine Quaresimo. M ILLER Schenectady. Special thanks are due to Dr. W. Mrs. Others who helped at various stages include D. Happ. L. Swann. Berninger and Dr. and Dean Klimek with the figures. New York October 198. Hughes. We are also especially grateful to Dr. Dr. Miske. N. Boenig of Los Alamos Laboratory in connection with studies which formed the basis of some sections in Chapter 3. John A. James Lommel.xvi Preface Preface xvii influences the resonant frequencies of the power system. reactors. Chadwick. P. Ellert. E. P. Piwko and Dr. Barbara West for her tremendous assistance in the preparation (and often the repair) of the manuscript. D. Dr. and Holly Powers also helped substantially with the manuscript. Nozari (all of the GE Electric Utility Systems Engineering Department) for contributions to Chapter 3.2 . Department of Energy and to Dr. is acknowledged for the photograph of the synchronous condenser station in Chapter 8. Ewart. Steinberg.S. Starbird and his staff. and Dr. J. A. J. Chapter 10 deals with these matters. J. Many people have contributed to the writing and production of this book. H. "Thyristor and Variable Static Equipment for AC and DC Transmission. United States Steel is acknowledged for the Frontispiece arc furnace photograph. Dr. and also to Dr. and describes a number of systematic approaches to the coordinated control of reactive power in a large interconnected network. at least locally. R. F. Composition was by the Word Processing Unit of General Electric's Corporate Research and Development Center. Also to S. H. Cornell. R. D. Mallick made several helpful suggestions in connection with Chapters 1 and 2. A. S. Jr. and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers for the use of several figures and material throughout the book. Eike Richter of the General Electric Research and Development Center for his generosity and sustained support of the project.
1. I0 5.2. 21 6. Power Factor and Its Correction. 32 9.2. The Ideal Compensating Admittance Network. 45 References. 18 6. Acceptance Standards for the Quality of Supply.Introduction: The Requirement for Compensation. 8 4. 2 Objectives in Load Compensation.3. 38 Conclusion. 18 ih 6. 13 Approximate Reactive Power Characteristics.1. Load Compensation in Terms of Symmetrical Components. 5 Practical Considerations.1. 24 7. 9 5. Specification of a Load Compensator. Compensation for Constant Voltage.3. 27 Phase Balancing and PowerFactor Correction of Unsymmetrical Loads.2. Voltage Regulation wt a Varying Inductive Load. Power Factor Improvement.2. 32 9.1. 45 Appendix. 6 4. 25 7. Loads Requiring Compensation. 3 The Ideal Compensator. 48 .1. 27 Load Compensator as a Voltage Regulator. 23 An Example. Reactive Power Bias. Voltage Regulation. 9 Fundamentd Theory of Compensation: PowerFactor Correction and Voltage Regulation in SinglePhase Systems.2. 6 4. Compensation for Unity Power Factor.
Control of OpenCircuit Voltage with Shunt Reactors. 97 4. Fundamental Concepts. 143 3.2. 181 1.3. 3. 67 2.1. 60 2. 85 3. 145 4. Transient Period. 109 5. FirstSwing Period and Transient Stability. 102 4.2. Summary . Transient Period.2. 73 Compensated Transmission Lines.4.1. 4. 57 2. The Uncompensated Line Under Load: Maximum Power and Stability Considerations.1. FirstSwing Period. Fundamental Requirements in ac Power Transmission. FirstSwing Period.1. Voltage Control by Means of Switched Shunt Compensation. 119 6. 137 2. Oscillatory Period. The Effect of Static Shunt Compensation on Transient Stability. Load Power. 180 129 2. Compensation and System Dynamics. 94 Passive Shunt Compensation. Oscillatory Period. 131 2. 103 Series Compensation.1. Symmetrical Line with Midpoint Series Capacitor and Shunt Reactors. 6. 51 1.1. 140 3. 144 3. 174 5. Engineering Factors Affecting Stability and Voltage Control. 181 1. 62 2. Oscillatory Period. 81 3. 171 Synchronous Condensers. 3. 125 References. 5. 52 1.6. 140 3.3. The Oscillatory Period.3. 57 2. 81 3. The Need for Adjustable Reactive Compensation. 7.1.1. 176 6. Introduction. 129 1. 144 4. 176 6. The Midpoint Shunt Reactor or Capacitor.2.2.1. FirstSwing and Oscillatory Periods. 1. and "Compensation by Sectioning". Surge Impedance and Natural Loading. Preventing Voltage Instability with Static Compensation.4.2. 54 Uncompensated Transmission Lines. Virtual@.1. 108' 5. and Power Factor on Voltage and Reactive Power. Main Types of Compensator.6. 83 3. Example of a SeriesCompensated Line. The Uncompensated Line on OpenCircuit. Passive and Active Compensators.Passive Shunt Compensation. 179 Summary. 136 2. 5.2. 176 Series Capacitor Compensation.2.Compensator Dynamic Performance. Dynamic Working of the Midpoint Compensator. 51 1. 168 4. 159 4. Properties of Static Compensators. Electrical Parameters.2.2.5.1. 119 6. 183 . 115 Compensation by Sectioning (Dynamic Shunt Compensation). 144 Static Compensators. Transient Period. Uniformly Distributed Fixed Compensation.2. 176 6.3.4.1. 130 Four Characteristic Time Periods. 156 4. 120 6. Historical Background. SYSTEMS 1. The FirstSwing Period and Transient Stability. The Dynamics of an Electric Power System. Fundamental Transmission Line Equation.XX Contents Contents ORY OF STEADYSTATE NShlIISSION SYSTEMS CONTROL IN ELEC 1. Example of Line Compensated by Sectioning. The Uncompensated Line Under Load: Effect of Line Length. Uniformly Distributed Regulated Shunt Compensation.3. 173 5. 127 3. 170 4.3. Compensator Applications.3. 179 References. Transient Period.2. 4. 2. Objectives and Practical Limitations. Summary .1.4. 108 5.3.4. 97 4.2.5. 134 2.3. Introduction. 129 1.3. 140 Passive Shunt Compensation. Types of Compensation: VirtualZo. 57 2. 6. The Transient Period.
257 3. Control Strategies.d Contents . Fusing. Basic Electrical Characteristics. Power System Voltage Control. Gating Energy.3.2.3. History. Principles of Operation.4. Introduction.2. 196 2. 253 2. 280 4. Introduction.2. 290 5. 281 4. 204 3.1. Summary. 3. 293 . 264 6. Physical Arrangement. Emergency Reactive Power Supply. Reduced Voltage Starting. The ThyristorControlled Transformer. Minimizing Transient Swings. 223 Thermal Considerations.1. 278 3.3.2. Ratings. 193 2. 277 3. Variation of Thyristor Controller Losses during Operation.4. 226 Description of Thyristor Controller.1. 230 4. 2. Machine Constants. The ThyristorControlled Reactor (TCR) and Related Types of Compensator. 290 5.2.a Contents 2. 265 7. 204 3. 185 2. 238 5. DESIGN O F T 6. Capacitor Units.. 228 4. 255 3.2. Starting Motor. Compensation Factors. Harmonics. General.5. 3. 200 3.5. 217 5. Summary.5. Condenser Design Features. Thyristors. 238 References. 272 References.3. An Example of a Thyristor Controller. Reinsertion Schemes. Recirculated Air System. RC Snubber Circuit. Static Starting. 240 1. HVDC Applications. Switching Transients and the Concept of TransientFree Switching. 185 2. Varistor Protective Gear. 236 5.3. 2. 254 3. Overvoltage Protection. Principles of Operation. 291 5.2. SaturatedReactor Compensators. 232 4. The TCR with Shunt Capacitors. 219 6. Protective Gear. Voltage/Current Characteristics. 248 Performance Testing. 284 4. Liquid Cooling System.4. 272 1. 282 4. 289 5. 192 2.3. Oncethrough Filtered Air System.1.1. Resonance Effects with Series Capacitors. 255 3. 5. Cooling System. 273 2.1. Other Performance Characteristics of TCR Compensators.3. 236 5. 189 2. 238 6. Voltage/Current Characteristics. 188 2. 234 5. 274 3. 281 4. 238 5. VCurve. 269 8.7. Simplified Equivalents.1. Starting Methods. 4.4. General Comments on Cooling Systems.3. Fundamental Voltage/Current Characteristic. 233 4.2. A N E 1.4. 223 The Thyristor as a Switch. Phasor Diagram. General Equipment Design. 243 Control System of Thyristor Controller. 241 Description of Main Components. Variations of the Oncethrough Filtered Air System.1. 214 4. 278 3. 257 4. 214 4. Introduction. 211 4. 250 21 4 STOR CONTROLLERS 1. 235 5. 204 3. Principles of Operation. Future Developments and Requirements. 4. 241 Basic Arrangement.6.1. The ThyristorSwitched Capacitor. 255 3. Condenser Operation. 228 4.2. 277 3.4. 222 5. 258 5.
6. 306 3. 356 2. 331 Harmonic Sources.4. The Polyphase HarmonicCompensated Selfsaturating Reactor Compensator.Conclusions. Control and Protection. Flicker Compensation Strategies.1.3. Transmission Benefits.5.2. Reactive Power Management. 296 References. 322 5. Experience with Reactive Power Dispatch.1. 323 5. Example of Flicker Compensation Results with a TCR Compensator. 316 4. Flicker and Principles of Its Compensation. 331 Effect of Harmonics on Electrical Equipment. Introduction. 5. 300 2. Relationship between Compensator Reactive Power and Thyristor Gating Angle. 355 2. 310 3. Auxiliary Systems. Utility Practices.1.Contents Contents 6. 296 1.2. Utility Objectives. 316 4. Equipment Impact. Station Design Considerations. and Filters.1. The Arc Furnace in Steelmaking.2. 338 Filter Systems. Shunt Capacitors. The TappedReactor/SaturatedReactor Compensator. 361 References. Basic OneLine Arrangement. Electrical Supply Requirements of Arc Furnaces. Summary.3. 348 References. 320 4. 6. Introduction. 360 3. 300 3.3. 353 2. 358 2. Introduction. 323 5. 345 Telephone Interference. . 327 1. General Nature of the nicker Problem.2. ThyristorControlled Compensators.3. Determination of Reactive Power Demand. 337 Resonance. 294 6. 351 . 325 References. 295 6.1. 299 2. 294 6. 361 INDEX 1. 306 3. The Arc Furnace as an Electrical Load. 315 4.2. Types of Compensator. 295 7.1. 4. 355 2. 300 2. SaturatedReactor Compensators. 3. 354 2. 360 2. Mathematical Modeling.2. 2.
Reactive Power Control In Electric Systems .
denote instantaneous values. MILLER PRINCIPAL SUM Note: Lower case symbols for voltage. Ohm Apparent power. J.. W Reactive power. adrn~ttances. E. Boldface symbols denote complex numbers (i. Symbols Susceptance. A JT Slope of voltage/current characteristic. impedances.. and phasor voltages and currents). Ohm . VAr (inductive positive) Resistance. S Source voltage.e. Plaiu italic type denotes the magnitude of a phasor voltage or current. V Reactance. S Complex operator ej2rr'3 Current. VA Voltage. etc. V Conductance. current.Chapter 1 T. The asterisk denotes complex conjugation. Ohm Power.
The term load compensation is used where the reactive power management is effected for a single load (or group of loads). Section 1. concentrating on those which can be corrected by compensation. Most industrial loads have lagging powerfactors. " or radian A small change in.1.2. the compensating equipment usually being installed on the consumer's own premises near to the load. The techniques used. 3.e. In later sections the theory of compensation is developed for steadystate and slowly varying conditions. they absorb reactive power. and the power factor would be unity. INTRODUCTION: THE REQUIREMENT FOR COMPENSATION In an ideal ac power system. Objectives in Load Compensation 3 Y Z Admittance. each load could be designed for optimum performance at the given supply voltage. In an ideal system. The supply utilities also have good reasons for not transmitting unnecessary reactive power from generators to loads: their generators and distribution networks cannot be . Specifications of this kind can be made more precise through the use of statistical concepts. differ considerably from those met in the compensation of bulk supply networks (transmission compensation). 1. 2. A study of how the quality of supply can be degraded by such loads will lead to the definition of the "ideal" compensator. OBJECTIVES IN LOAD COMPENSATION Y Compensator 1. and how near to unity is the power factor. Moreover. there could be no interference between different loads as a result of variations in the current taken by each one. The load current therefore tends to be larger than is required to supply the real power alone. Improvement of voltage regulation. Ohm Greek Symbols (P A w Powerfactor angle. at the supply to arc furnaces). radianlsec Subscripts The three phases of the power system Kneepoint Load Maximum permitted Real or resistive component Supply system Short circuit Imaginary or reactive component Greek subscript time. In particular these parameters would be independent of the size and characteristics of consumers' loads.4 discusses the types of load which require compensation and outlines the effects of modern trends in the electrical characteristics of industrial' plant design. Load balancing. that is. Radian frequency. virtually constant and independent of the load). In this chapter we identify some of the characteristics of power systems and their loads which can deteriorate the quality of supply. A definition of "quality of supply" in numerical terms involves the specification of such quantities as the maximum fluctuation in rms supply voltage averaged over a stated period of We shall take the view that powerfactor correction and load balancing are desirable even when the supply voltage is very "stiff" (i. the degree to which the phase currents and voltages are balanced must also be included in the notion of quality of supply. In threephase systems.. . by the supply or absorption of an appropriately variable quantity of reactive power. In load compensation there are three main objectives: 1. S Impedance.2 The Theory of Load Compensation 1.. rather than supplying it from a remote power station. Powerfactor correction usually means the practice of generating reactive power as close as possible to the load which requires it. and indeed some of the objectives. rather than for merely adequate performance over an unpredictable range of voltage. Only the real power is ultimately useful in energy conversion and the excess load current represents a waste to the consumer. the voltage and frequency at every supply point would be constant and free from harmonics. We can form a notion of the quality of supply in terms of how nearly constant are the voltage and frequency at the supply point. Powerfactor correction.2. who has to pay not only for the excess cable capacity to carry it but also for the excess Joule loss produced in the supply cables. Load conzpensation is the management of reactive power to improve the quality of supply in ac power systems. that is. and these are especially helpful in problems where voltage fluctuations can take place very rapidly (for example.
e. and (3) balance the load currents or phase voltages. 1. A further property of the ideal compensator is the ability to respond instantaneously in performing its three main functions."fompensating devices have a vital role to play in maintaining supply voltages within the intended limits. these would appear in the power system.4 The Theory of Load Compensation 1. To protect against this.. Moreover. and without delay. although they differ widely in their range and rate of variation. Indeed.and zerosequence components). Harmonics are usually eliminated by filters.(2' Nevertheless. In all cases. saturation of transformers. The three main functions of the ideal compensator are interdependent. Frequency variations are not considered in this chapter. Such components can have undesirable effects. The ideal compensator can be specified more precisely by stating that it must 1. The harmonic content in the voltage supply waveform is an important parameter in the quality of supply. Present a constantvoltage characteristic at its terminals. Under unbalanced conditions. that is. The most obvious way to improve voltage regulation would be to "strengthen" the power system by increasing the size and number of generating units and by making the network more densely interconnected. ?' The supply authority is usually also bound by statute to maintain frequency within defined linitts. These limits may vary from typically +5% averaged over a period of a few minutes or hours. 2. . oscillating torque in ac machines.. increased ripple in rectifiers.3. and have done so for many years. and excessive neutral currents. 3. (2) eliminate (or reduce to an acceptable level) the voltage regulation. Supply tariffs to industrial customers almost always penalize low powerfactor loads. many types of compensator inherently generate harmonics which must be either suppressed internally or filtered externally. the result has been the extensive development of powerfactor correction systems for industrial plants. and are designed for balanced operation. and to manage the reactive power by means of compensators and other equipment which can be deployed more flexibly than generating units and which make no contribution to fault levels. in some instances. Provide a controllable and variable amount of reactive power precisely according to the requirements of the load. negative. to the much more stringent constraints imposed where large. or flicker annoying to the eye. but it is a problem specialized by the fact that the spectrum of fluctuations is entirely above the fundamental power frequency. the concept of instantaneous response requires the definition of instantaneous powerfactor and instantaneous phaseunbalance. harmonic problems often arise together with compensation problems and frequent reference will be made to harmonics and their filtration. it is now 130ssible to form a concept of the ideal compensator. but the ideal compensator would not itself generate any extra harmonics. THE IDEAL COMPENSATOR Having outlined the main objectives in load compensation. including additional losses in motors and generating units. In particular. the variation in demand for reactive power causes variation (or regulation) in the voltage at the supply point. This is a device which can be connected at a supply point (i. The Ideal Compensator 5 used at full efficiency. It is much more practical and economic to size the power system according to the maximum demand for real power. the powerfactor correction and phasebalancing themselves tend to improve voltage regulation. the supply utility is usually bound by statute to maintain supply voltages within defined limits. Strictly. Voltage regulation becomes an important and sometimes critical issue in the presence of loads which vary their demand for reactive power. and the control of voltage in the supply system can become more difficult. Unbalanced operation gives rise to components of current in the wrong phasesequence (i. The third main concern in load compensation is load balarzcing. malfunction of several types of equipment. which can interfere with the efficient operation trf all plants connected to that point. in parallel with the load) and which will perform the following three main functions: (1) correct the power factor to unity. All loads vary their demand for reactive power. The ideal compensator would also consume zero average power. Most ac power systems are threephase. rapidly varying loads could produce voltage dips hazardous to the operation of protective equipment. whose design principles differ from those of compensators as developed in this chapter.e. Be capable of operating independently in the three phases.3. it would be lossless. a compensator designed for powerfactor correction or phasebalancing is not required to perform any specific voltage regulating function. giving rise to the possibility of interference between loads belonging to different consumers. This approach would in general be uneconomic and would introduce problems associated with high fault levels and switchgear ratings. Certain types of equipment (including several types of compensators) depend on balanced operation for suppression of triplen harmonics. especially those where load fluctuations are slow or infrequent. The ideal compensator will not be expected to eliminate harmonic distortion existing in the load current or the supply voltage (this function being assigned to an appropriate harmonic filter).
7 and often for orders 2. on the other hand. A first idea of the compensation requirement can be formed by characterizing the load according to the following headings: 1. the highvoltage side of the distribution transformer supplying a particular factory. Whether a given load should have powerfactor correction in the steady state is an economic question whose answer depends on several factors mcluding the supply tariff.(" Both powerfactor and voltage regulation can be improved if some of the drives in a plant are synchronous motors instead of induction motors. very large motors (particularly those which start and stop frequently). the motor is started through an adjustable transformer or by an electronic drive with facilities for a gradual start. and highenergy physics experiments (e. In many cases..4. It is often the case that the consumer assumes responsibility for powerfactor correction and for balancing the load currents. Type of drive (dc or ac. for example. synchrotrons) which require pulsed highpower supplies. Not only are the reactive power variations large (about 50 MVAr). Concurrence of maximum reai and reactive power requirements in multipleload plants. steel rolling mills. Typical variation in the reactive power requirements of a steel rollrng mill . Generation of harmonics. motor starts are avoided by having "soft starts". wood chip mills. Figure 1). Figure 1 shows the typical form of variation in the reactive power requirement of a steel rolling mill. for example. opencast excavators. and have no rotational inertia. because the synchronous motor can be controlled to supply (or absorb) an adjustable amount of reactive power. Dutycycle in terms of the real and reactive power requirements (e. These loads can be classified into those which are inherently nonlinear in operation and those which cause disturbance by being switched on and off. Rate of change of real and reactive power (or the time taken for the real or reactive power to swing from maximum to minimum). The nonlinear loads usually generate harmonics as well as fundamentalfrequency voltage variations.. the national standards in force. 2.4. the size of the load. which is usually the point in the network where the customer's and the supplier's areas of responsibility meet.6 The Theory of Load Compensation 1. It is typical that for sizeable industrial loads. and the degree to which other consumers may be affected. t. is more usually the concern of the supplier. 4. and its uncompensated powerfactor. Voltage regulation.4. indeed. Practical Considerations 7 The burden of responsibility for providing compensation divides between supplier and consumer according to several factors including the size and nature of the load and any future extensions projected for it. local practice:. voltage dips caused by 4. The degree of voltage variation is assessed at the "gauge point" or "point of common coupling" (PCC). The modern trend with large dc drives which are used in an "onoff" mode is to use thyristor controls. 11. and 13 as well. mine winders. By virtue of its rotating mass it also stores kinetic energy which tends to support the supply system against suddenly applied loads.g. Arc furnace compensators. induction furnaces. thyristorfed or transformerfed). so the compensator must be able to respond rapidly. sec FIGURE 1 .8. arc welders. require reactive power for commutation. powerfactor correction is economically advantageous if the uncompensated powerfactor is less than 0. which themselves exacerbate the compensation problem because they generate harmonics. 1.g. but they are also sudden. that is. 3. usually for harmonic orders 3. 5. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS Loads Requiring Compensation 1. virtually always include harmonic filters. Loads which cause fluctuations in the supply voltage may have to be compensated not only for power factor but for voltage regulation also. most supply tariffs require consumers to do this. Typical of loads requiring compensation are arc furnaces. induction welders. 5.1.
steel rolling mills.5. wind and seismic factors. Acceptance Standards for the Quality of Supply 1. FUNDAMENTAL THEORY OF COMPENSATION: POWERFACTOR CORRECTION AND VOLTAGE REGULATION IN SINGLEPRASE SYSTEMS The first purpose of a theory of compensation must be to explam the relationships between the supply system. spare parts. In the case of the welding plant.4. Cabling requirements and layout. and the compensator. and lamps of the discharge and fluorescent types. including reactive power limits if necessary. the "improvement ratio" or "flicker reduction ratio" may be specified as one principal measure of the compensator's performance. cooling systems. The list is not intended to be complete. Specification of a Load Compensator The parameters and factors which need to be considered when specifying a load compensator are summarized in the following list. Accuracy of voltage regulation required. . Table 1 is representative of the type of standards which might be prescribed for the performance of a system with a disturbing load. especially computers. Maximum harmonic distortion with compensator in service.3. Compensation may therefore be applied to improve this performance as well as to benefit other consumers. Very slow variations of up to 3% may be tolerable. pollution. the permitted voltage variation is inversely related to the sensitivity of the human eye to light fluctuations as a function of frequency. both absorbing and generating. leakage from transformers. Response time of the compensator for a specified disturbance. Frequency and its variation. in Arc furnaces a See Reference 3.8 The Theory of Load Compensation 1. large thyristorfed dc drives Welding plant Induction furnaces Limits Permitted in Voltage Fluctuation 13% depending on frequency 13% at distribution voltages %I%% at transmission voltages %2% depending on frequency Up to 1% depending on time between steps of "soft start" See Chapter 9  1. TABLE 1 Typical Voltage Fluctuation Standards" Type of Load Large motor starts Mine hoists. Fundamental Theory of Compensation Y 1. because of the sensitivity characteristics of the human eye. Reliability and redundancy of components. Performance with unbalanced supply voltages and/or with unbalanced load. certain types of relays employed in control and protective schemes.2. Special control requirements. excavators. capacitors. Maintenance. induction motors. indoor/outdoor installation. Rated voltage and limits of voltage between which the reactive power ratings must not be exceeded. enclosure. In the case of arc furnace compensation. Very often the variation in supply voltage is detrimental to the performance of the load which is causing the variation.25% or less. The first objectionable effect of supply voltage variations in a distribution system is the disturbance to the lighting level produced by tungsten filament lamps. humidity. Energization procedure and precautions. Maximum continuous reactive power requirement. but only to give an idea of the kind of practical considerations which are important. access. the load. Protection arrangements for the compensator and coordination with other protection systems. grounding. Several other types of loads are sensitive to supply voltage variations.5. provision for future expansion or rearrangement of plant. Overload rating and duration (if any). while the rapid variations caused by arc furnaces or welding plant can coincide with the maximum visual sensitivity (between 1 and 25 Hz) and must be limited in magnitude to 0. temperature. The degree to which variations are objectionable depends not only on the magnitude of the light variation but also on its frequency or rate of change. Environmental factors: noise level.4.
Power Factor and Its Correction = (cj Ix = +\/Be (d) FIGURE 2.10 The Theory of Load Compensation 1. in an induction motor.. Thus the supply system can be modeled as a Thkvenin equivalent circuit with an opencircuit voltage and either a series impedance. (1) The apparent power thus has a real component Pi (i. essentially equivalent. For example.. of course. Ix is negative. and the load is inductive (this is the commonest case). Ix= VB. the power wh~ch is usefully converted into heat. = jv2~p Pa = T Note that S + jQ. The load current is 11 and I1=V(Gp + j B y ) = Gp + jB1 sup VGa + jVBa = I R + j I x . Fundamental Theory of Compensation Section 1. and a "reactive" component. we examine voltage regulation and phase unbalance. by the factor Both V and Ip are phasors. The supply system. The principle of powerfactor correction is to compensate for the reactive power. Qp represents the magnetizing reactive power. cos 4 1 is that fraction of the apparent power which can be usefully converted into other forms of energy.5. Powerfactor correction Figure 2a shows a singlephase load of admittance Yp plied from a voltage V. The relationship between S l . so called because cos 5b1 = P. In most practical instances. the phasor equations are not entirely valid. in various ways. light. and the losses must be paid for by the consumer.e. in phase with V. P that is. which. to provide it locally by connecting in parallel with the . and Equation 1 is represented in the phasor diagram (Figure 2 b ) in which V is the reference phasor. or its power and reactive power (or powerfactor) requirements.. can be studied without reference to the supply system. 11 is lagging. or modeled.5. P I . which cannot be converted into useful forms of energy but whose existence is nevertheless an inherent requirement of the load).1 we begin with the principle of powerfactor correction. or as a variable source (or sink) of reactive power. The different models for each element are.. This simplifies the analysis considerably.. the phasor or quasistationary equations are adequate for determining the rating and external characteristics of the compensator. Cable ratings must be increased accordingly. The Joule losses in the supply cables are increased by the factor 1/cos2 4. The angle between V and Ipis 4 . and Q are not phasor quantfkes. which is in phase quadrature with V . I. its current. by convention. For lagging (inductive) loads Bl is negative and Q p is positive. The compensator can be modeled as a variable impedance.5. / S . = 11 supplied by the power system is larger than is necessary to supply the real power alone. as well as to develop equations of practical utility. The choick of model used for each element can be varied according to requirements. the load. and the compensator can be characterized. ' (4) s. and a reactive component Ql (the reactive power. or other forms of energy). and can be transformed into one another. that is. In later sections. P . mechanical work. For loads whose power and reactive power vary rapidly (such as electric arc furnaces). cos I $ ~is the power factor. in its simplest form. = VI. and in the following sections the models will be combined in different ways as appropriate to give the greatest physical insight.1. (2) 8' 9. The load current has a "resistive" component. and Qp is shown in Figure 2 c . special analysis methods have been developed for these. and build up a quantitative concept of the ideal compensator. implying that loads and system characteristics are understood to be either constant or changing slowly enough so that phasors can be used. 1. in the example shown. The apparent power supplied to the loads is i Here. The theory is developed first for stationary or nearly stationary conditions. The current I. or as a variable source (or sink) of reactive current. (a) through ( d ) .
\Q. Fundamental Theory of Compensation load a compensator having a purely reactive admittance jBp.) The foregoing analysis has taken no account of the effect of supply voltage variations on the effectiveness of the compensator in maintaming an overall powerfactor of unity.cos2 +g. The load may be partially compensated tie. Relieved of the reactive requirements of the load. Rating Q (per unit of rated Ioad apparent power) which is in phase with V. We also see how the improvement of powerfactor by itself tends to improve voltage regulation.g. synchronous condensers or static compensators) are capable of stepless variation of their reactive power. the reactive power rating of the compensator is related to the rated power Pl of the load by Qp = Pp tan +p. the compensator is a fixed admittance (or susceptance) incapable of following variations in the reactive power requirement of the load. The apparent power exchanged with the supply system is Thus P. and we find out what extra features the ideal compensator must have to perform satisfactorily when both the load and the supply system parameters can vary. (See Chapter 4. . Then we introduck the concept of a1 compensator that maintains constant supplypoint voltage by g the supplysystem reactive power approximately constant.2. = Sp sin + p = Sg 41 . The current supplied by the power system to the combined installation of load and compensator becomes TABLE 2 Reactive Power Required for Complete Compensation at Various Power Factors Compensator . cteristics of the compensator are developed both graphically and cally. = VY. making the overall powerfactor unity. Q. we can see that for total compensation of reactive power. and all the reactive power required by the load is suppliCd locally by the compensator: the load is thus totally compensated. = jVBB (6) As developed so far.5. the degree of compensation being decided by an economic tradeoff between the capital cost of the compensator (which depends on its rating) and the capitalized cost of obtaining the reactive power from the supply system over a period of time. The supply current I. From Figure 2c. 1. according to the requirements of the load.12 The Theory of Load Con~pensation 1.5.\ < \ Q p \ or \By\ < \ B p \ ) . = 0 and Q. More sophisticated compensators (e. The rated current of the compensator is given by QJ V. now has the smallest value capable of supplying full power Pi at the voltage V. In the next section the effects of voltage variations are examined. i' The subscript phase "c" y is used to denote compensator quant~tres. which equals the reactive current of the load at rated voltage. so that discrete changes in the compensating reactive power may be made. (9) Table 2 shows the compensator rating per unit of S p for various powerfactors. requiring capacitive compensation ( B y positive.. identifying the most important paramethe load and the supply system. the supply now has excess capacity which is available for supplying other loads.Qg. The compensator current is given by i Load PowerFactor (cos I. each switched separately. The compensator requires no mechanical power input. and a compensation "error" will arise. Voltage Regulation would be confused We begin thls section by determining the voltage regulation that would be obtained without a compensator. = V*B! = . Figure 2d shows the phasor relationships.. In practice a compensator such as a bank of capacitors (or inductors) can be divided into parallel sections. In general the reactive power of a fixedreactance compensator will not vary in sympathy with that of the load as the supply voltage varies. and to the rated apparent power Sp of the load by Q. Most loads are inductive. " c " in later sectmns. negative).
(c! Phasor diagram for Figure 3a (compensated for constant voltage). it is possible to make [El= lVl. It is clear that both the magnitude and the phase of V. and Q. From Equations 10 and 12. = Q. from no load to full load). In the absence of a compensator. to make the voltage regulation zero.14 The Theory of Load Con~pensation 1. The algebraic solution for Q. + A V = E . What is important here is that there is always a solution for Q. This leads to the following important conclusion: . + Qp. ( b j Phasor diagram for Figure 3 0 (uncompensated). and Now Z. that is. in other words. ( a ) Equtvalent ctrcutt of load and supply system. are functions of the magnitude and phase of the load current. is given in Section B of the Appendix. the voltage change depends on both the real and reactive power of the load.V = Z I 1' jX. The required value of Q.IVI) / IVI = (IEI . It is caused by the voltage drop in the supply impedance carrying the load current. V being the reference phasor.Qp.. By adding a compensator in parallel with the load. is adjusted in such a way as to rotate the phasor A untillEl= IVl. In an actual compensator. or to maintain the supply voltage magnitude constant at the value E in the presence of the load. If the supply system is represented by the singlephase Thbvenin equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3a. = Q. whatever the value of P p .. is found by solving this equation for Q.g. the supply voltage change caused by the load current I1 is shown in Figure 3 b as AV. . The reactive power Qp in Equation 12 is replaced by the sum Q. V (ci FIGURE 3. then the voltage regulation is given by (IEI .V)l V . (10) so that The voltage change has a component AVR in phase with V and a component AVx in quadrature with V. or. then Q. This is shown in Figure 3 c for a purely reactive compensator.5. while from Equation 2. relative to the supply voltage E. these are illustrated in Figure 3b. the value would be determined automatically by a control loop. = R. with IEI = V. Fundamental Theory of Compensation Voltage regulation can be defined as the proportional (or perunit) change in supply voltage magnitude associated with a defined change in load current (e.
we can replace Q p in Equation 12 by Q . Substituting in Equation 12 for R . (17) xs that is. normalizing AVR and AVx to V. the "shortcircuit apparent power" will be Very often AVx is ignored on the grounds that it tends to produce only a phase change in the supply point voltage (relative to E ). can reduce to zero the reactive power supplied by the system. Provided that the reactive power of the compensator can be controlled smoothly.16 The Theory of Load Compensation 1. the bulk of the change in magnitude being represented by AVR. Since \Z&\ = for small changes. It is important to note that the principle refers to instarztatzeous powerfactor: it is quite possible for a purely reactive compensator to maintain both constant voltage and unity average powerfactor (see Section 1. as follows. but this is generally not of practical ilnterest. and assuming that E/ V .= IZscIsin cbsc = .5. Rs E2 Ssc cpsc . It should be realized that only the magnitude of the voltage is being controlled. is the shortcircuit current. instead of acting as a voltage regulator. and X. sin cbSc] + . The voltage change phasor is then and X.sin with tan cbsc = . . in general) and at an adequate rate. and 20 are also valid for small changes in P p and Qp . It is instructive to consider this principle from a different point of view. So far the equations have been written as though AV were assoc~ated with a fullscale change from 0 to P p or from 0 to Q p in the load. the compensator can perform as an ideal voltage regulator. Equation 19 is frequently quoted in the literature. R . thus. P p and Qj . Ssc I which is independent of Q p and not under the control of the compensator.. The only exception to this rule is when Pl = 0. Therefore The purely reactive compensator carmot nzaintaitz both constant voltage and unity powerfactor at the same time. That is. its phase varies continuously with the load current. v . the compensator acts as a powerfactor corrector.. The expressions for AVR and AVx in Equation 12 are sometimes given in a useful alternative form. If the compensator is designed to do this. X:R ratio (i. the formulas are useful in that they are expressed in terms of quantities that are in common parlance: fault level or shortcircuit level Ssc.= \Z we have . the expressions in Equations 19 and 20 should be multiplied by E*/ v2. tan cbSc)..I Ssc [ Apl cos rsc A Q . the X:R ratio of the supply system. and Approximate Formula for the Voltage Regulation. 1 . AVR where Z . Equations 12.. For accurate results. = Q p + Q.e. 19.\.5.. for example. and the power and reactive power of the load. Although approximate. Fundamental Theory of Compensation 17 A purely reactive compensator can eliminate supplyvoltage variations caused by changes in both the real and the reactive power of the load.6). + jXs and I. If the system is shortcircuited at the load busbar.. which is zero. we have AVR  v  1 [PI cos cbSc + Q p sin I$. We have already seen in Section 1.1 how the compensato. over a sufficient range (both lagging and leading.
Voltage Regulation with a Varying Inductive Load In this section. it may be permissible to neglect the voltage changes caused by swings in the real power APl . =. FIGURE 5. SUPP~Y Impedance Zs = . This relationship can be represented graphically.?I Qs + jX.<< X. the perunit voltage change or swing is equal to the ratio of the reactive power swing to the shortcircuit level of the supply system. Approximate Reactive Power Characteristics 1') If the supply resistance R. J SC S The load will be assumed to be threephase. e . we shall deduce the properties of an ideal compensator intended for voltage regulation improvement with a variable inductive load. so that the voltage regulation is governed by the equation AV R _v_. as in Figure 4. Figure 5 a shows the arrangement of the system. and it is also assumed that R. and to vary sufficiently slowly so that the perphase phasor or quasistationary equations may be used..Av~ . yhich shows the supply system voltage characteristic (or system load line) as approximately linear.6. as will appear below.AQp SSC A Qa sin $. ( e ) Reactive power baiance diagram (variation of Q.1. is much less than the reactance X.18 The Theory of Load Compensation 1. APPROXIMATE REACTIVE POWER CHARACTERISTICS (d) (el 1. ( b ) Approximate voltagelreactive power characteristic of completely compensated system. System Load Line V \  Gradient = ssc E i o Qr FIGURE 4. Supply system approxtmate voltagelreactive power characteristic. Compensator Although the characteristic is only approximate. and Q. with Q ). and load. 1. ( c f Approximate voltagelreactive power characteristic of partially compensated system. balanced. The load variations are assumed to be small so that AV<< V . (a) Singlephase equivalent circuit of compensated load. so that the approximate Equations 22 and 23 are applicable. ( d ) Ideal compensator voltage/reactive power characteristic (ap p roximate).6. it is very useful in visualizing the action of the compensator. compensator. An alternate representation is Q. the system characteristic is drawn in That is.6.
.. on a 10kV busbar with a shortcircuit level of 250 MVA. = (27) then V is constant with the value E ( l . corresponds to the maximum permitted voltage swing AV. Figure 5c shows that the compensator reactivepower rating need be no larger than the variation in load reactive power in order to maintam constant supply voltage as the load varies. The two segments of Figure 5c can be identified as an unregulated .. for example. twice as much. the compensator reactive power absorption decreases..: it represents the compensated system characteristic and should be compared with the uncompensated characteristic of Figure 5b. if Q .Q y m a x )and a regulated range for ( Q p m aQymax) < Qp < Qlmax. Since there is no voltage change for 0 < Q .2. = 0 the compensator will absorb QYmax the voltage regulation will and be It is now instructive to split Figure 56 into two separate diagrams as shown in Figures 5c and 5 d . if Q p falls below the regulated range.. 1. then system to the compensated . If the compensator reactive power is limited to Q.. supplied by the system is given by Qs= Q.. that is. Throughout the unregulated range.. the compensator is fully on and absorbs Q p m a x . then whatever the load reactive power. irrespective of the voltage. that is. The I S s c just minimum compensator rating can be chosen so that Q. : thus The reactive power Q. .. Provided that the compensator is rated according to Equation 29.Q p m a x / S S c )as shown in . When the Ioad reactive power Q p increases. say 0. the compensator merely absorbs a constant Q.. The compensator is rated at Q.(= Qd Q. Qm = Qp. in that the maximum value of AV/ V which can be caused by a change in the compensator's reactive power from zero The average powerfactor of the inductively is substantially worse than that of the load average reactive power of the load Ql were the average reactive power supplied by the load would be 2 0 1 . the supply voltage could be constant. This affords a useful economy in compensator rating where the load reactive power varies between maximum and some fractional value.. This equation illustrates the "leverage" which the compensator has on the system voltage. the compensator maintains Q. constant as in Equation 27.6. + to maximum is given by Q. compensated inductive load itself.. Figure 5b. < Q. If... their sum remaining constant. the compensation is said to be partial. = Qpmax constant. The voltage regulation A V V can be kept zero only if the reactive power rating of the compensator equals or exceeds Qpmax.6..)... = constant and AV = 0. supplied by the system decreases the voltage at the supply point. < Qpmax and is controlled ideally in such a way as to maintain Q . Replacing Q p in Equation 23 by Q. X range for 0 < Q p < ( Q p .5 pu... when When Qp = 0 . Approximate Reactive Power Characteristics 21 Figure 56. Power Factor Improvement This situation is illustrated in Figure 5c. This characteristic is drooping.. and limits the voltage rise to the maximum permitted level AV. the onehalf its maximum.. In the regulated range. the supply voltage variation does not exceed AV..20 The Theory of Load Compensation 1. the compensator absorbs Q. the compensator is fully off and absorbs no reactive power.. The compensation shown in Figure 5b is said to be complete. because constant voltage is maintained throughout the reactive power range of the load. IS.. could be varied in such a way as to keep Q.. Q... In particular. the characteristic is flat in the regulated range. the smallest compensator capable of forcing a 1% change in voltage is rated 0. (less than Q p m a x )then when . The control characteristic of the compensator is shown in Figure 5d. Figure 5c shows the variation of the supplypoint voltage with Q.. the compensator acts as an ideal voltage regulator. provided that its rating is not exceeded. this can be done with the aid of the reactive power balance diagram shown in Figure 5e. Note that we have a purely inductive compensator holding constant supply voltage with an inductive load.01 x 250 = 2.. that is.. an increase in the reactive power Q . constant.+ Qy (26) and it is clear that if the compensator reactive power Q .5 MVA. For example.
6.Q characteristic extends into both quadrants as in Figure 7a. In the same way. .3. Figures 6a through 6d illustrate the procedures. is usually biased at least part way into the leading quadrant by means of shunt capacitors. and the mean operating point is at V = 1.. Approximate Reactive Power Characteristics 23 To achieve ideal voltage regulation as well as unity average powerfactor. If the shunt capacitor of Figure 7 b is sufficiently large. The distinction between an inductive and a capacitive compensator may now seem a little artificial.) + 1. = 0. = constant = Qpma. Reactive Bower Qymax 0 (a) (dl FIGURE 6 . as in Equation 27. while biasing it with a fixed shunt reactance to achieve the desired average power factor.1 will bring out the voltagelreactive power characteristic of the ideal compensator which achieves this.7. The minimum capacitive rating of the compensatdr is given by Resultant Regulated Unregulated Equation 29.. the compensator should keep Q . The inductive compensator characteristic of Figure 5c can be biased in this way by means of a fixed shunt capacitor as shown in Figure 7b. and outside its regulating range the compensator is assumed Unity voltage is now to generate a constant reactive power Q. with Q ) of 4 ' If the load reactive power can vary From leading to lagging. If the compensator is designed as an ideal voltage regulator. the compensator is purely capacitive. the compensator now generates whatever the load absorbs. as shown in Figure 7c. for exarnple.22 The Theory of Load Compensation 1. (30) Neglecting the effect of variations in load power.6.. then the inductive compensator can be biased so that its characteristic is wholly in the leading quadrant. Instead of absorbing just enough reactive power to make up the total Q p Q . to Q. and 7 the voltagelreactive power characteristics of both the compensator and the supply system are not truly straight but are quadratic. (c) Ideal compensator voltagelreacttve power characteristic (approximatel. 6. They are shown approximately as straight lines under the assumption that Vdoes not deviate appreciably from 1. then what is required is a compensator whose regulated V . Generally this effect will be small. the capacitive compensator can be biased into the lagging quadrant by a fixed shunt inductor. and Q. Instead of keeping Q . ( b ) Approximate voltagelreactive power characteristic of conipensated system.. a procedure similar to that of Section 1.. and it is sometimes economic to size the compensator to match only the variatiorrs in load reactive power. is not quite constantly zero because of load power variations.. A fixed shunt reactance is cheaper than a variable compensator having the same reactive power rating.0 per unit with Q . it is clear that a capacitive compensator is required. (See the worked example in Section 1. (a! Approximate voltagelreactive power characteristic of uncompensated system. the working can be done in terms of the currents instead of the reactive powers. Figure 6c shows the ideal compensator characteristic. ( d l Reactive power balance diagram ( v a r ~ a t ~ o n Q. When combined with a shunt capacitor.6. but it is important from a practical point of view because all real compensators except the synchronous condenser work by controlling the currents in either a capacitor bank or in an arrangement of inductors. defined so as to correspond to the fully compensated condition defined by Equation 30. the inductive compensator becomes capable of keeping both constant voltage and unity average powerfactor of an inductive load. The saturated reactor compensator.. then Q . Alternatively..0 pu. More exact calculation requires the exact forms of Equations 12 or 13. = constant = 0. In Figures 5.
69". supplying a wyeconnected inductive load whose mean power is 25 MW and whose reactive power varies from zero to 50 MVAr. V = 6.1. x m (lag) 1. The accurate forms of Equations 19 and 20 have been used for this calculation. FIGURE 7 . so that Consider a supply system at 10 kV lineneutral voltage with a shortcircuit level of 250 MVA and an X.t we have.7.lo2 X lo2 Vanable Capacitive Compensator Hence. Q7rnax (lead) (a) Qa .4 Ohm/phase. + X: = 0.35 or 484 MVAr 1.242 L63. The voltage magnitude is depressed by 10 .44"kA at full load. .447 lagging. With tan 4.7. ( c ) Inductive bias of variable capacitive compensator.I T See Section B In Appendix at the end of this chapter. The phasor diagram is drawn in Figure 8a.0 kV in Equation 13. so that X.The Theory of Load Compensation 1. we have 4. all quantities are expressed per phase.182 = 3. ratio of 5. we have.7..jQp)/V = 3.218 kV.782 kV(111) and Now the line current is given by I = (Pp .0 pu = 10 kV.0784 Ohm. AN EXAMPLE Only the first solution gives E = 10. = 6.0784 X C = B i a g Reactor h $J = 25)2 + (0.j7. Compensation for Constant Voltage Following the method of Section B in the Appendix.686 .. The ThCvenin impedance of the supply system is Z.= Z.160 = 2 v 2 x S= 2 x 10' x 0.3922 Ohm and R .pp2.:R. = 78. with a powerfactor of 0.E ' V ~ ) ~ + (lo2+ 0. = 0.3922 X 25)2 . = (10 kV)2/250 MVA = 0.6. a b = R. = 5.. ( a ) Approximate voltage/reactive power characteristic of ideal compensator capable of leading and lagging reactive power. An Example 25 phasor construction or "load flow" calculation.372 = 8. ( 6 ) Capacitive bias of variable inductive compensator. = &?IS. sin $ = 0.44 ( V 2 + R ~ P ~ x. By . with v = 10.3922 = 78. with E = 1.
The gain K.8. In the diagram. The kneepoint voltage V .0 pu and it is now not permissible to calculate AV as A V R .252 kV. 1. Consequently the system powerfactor is not unity but 25/ 25* 6. The voltage is V = 9.2.969 leading. In many situations this degree of improvement is adequate and the compensator can be designed to provide the reactive power requirement of the load rather than as an ideal voltage regulator.3".352 = 0. The gain may be defined as the change in reactive power Q. can be seen leading the voltage by cos' (0. The maximum or rated reactive power Q. neglecting A V x . = j 5. and the compensator current is given by jQ.50 1j0. .jQ.635 kA with Q. LOAD COMPENSATOR AS A VOLTAGE REGULATOR The control characteristics shown in Figures 5d and 6 c can be characterized by three numbers: 1. = Q.201 kV and AVx = 1. Compensation for Unity Power Factor With Q. = 56.006 kV. but exceeds it by 6.7.748 . the supply line current I. divided by the change in voltage V : thus Uncompensated load (25 f j50 MVA).5%. the phasor diagram is as shown in Figure 8c.10. The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 8b.)/ V = 2. Instead.8. The powerfactor correction thus improves the voltage regulation enormously compared with the uncompensated case.129 kA = .. both components must be calculated accurately. ( c ! Load compensated for unity powerfactor.. t Calculated by the nlelhod of Sect~onC in Appendix . Load Compensator as a Voltage Regulator 27 The total current in the supply lines is (Pp .I p and Q. . The compensator reactive power is not equal to the load reactive power. or approximately 2. It has a number of interesting features. = 0.969) = 14. + J..635 kA. 1 V = j5. 2. The voltage magnitude is held exactly to 1. (a) FIGURE 8.1.35 MVAr as a result of the compensation of the voltage regulation caused by the real load ower PP. 3. ( b ) Load compensated for constant voltage. .35 MVAr. the voltage depression is therefore 9. with I.748 k V t with AVR = 0.+  1.0 = 0..
and er fluctuations are neglected. is the base reactive power and E the base voltage. < Q. Load Compensator a s a Voltage ReguIator V ! ontrol characteristic is linear. so that d V= E  (34) This equation shows how the supply point voltage V varies with load reactive power Qa in the presence of the compensator. are rare in prache stability of the compensator's operating in certam types of compensator it is inherently expensive to e performance with finite K ./K. implies a flat V/Q characteristic.6. Qv= K. the compensator characteristic V k and K. that is a "stiff.8. ( V  vk). = 0 and Q.. operating on a supply system el S. making the me flat. is a function of Y . is determined by the voltage difference V . As in Section 1." constant voltage characteristic.. h shortcircuit level S.. and the system characteristic E and S.. is important.V k (or V ) equal to 1/40 or 0.... say. assuming balanced condiX. 40 pu means that the compensator reactive power changes from zero to 1 pu for a change in V .025 pu. tivity E/S. (36) re 9a). the system is then termed "stiff.. V = Vk it is (32) System Voltage Character~st~c or Load L~ne + Q..1. < Q. . In per unit (pu) terms. it will be convenient to use a perunit system in which Q.. ratio of the supply system is assumed to be high. Although approximate.. The compensator reactive power Q. so that voltage characteristic or load line is given by Equation 24.. The influence of the compensator is determined by substituting for Q? from Equation 36 in Equation 35 and rearranging. We have already seen that a high compensator gain K . In the following.. ( a ) Approximate voltagelreactive power character~stic of supply system.:R... (b) (0 l FIGURE 9.. = Q s . Q.The Theory of Load Con~pensation 1. The system is as shown in Reactive power balance is expressed by 0 0 I Qs . then for Q. is infinite. (33) and since Q. the compensator absorbs or mount of reactive power to maintain the supconstant as the load varies.Vk according to Equation 32 (see Figure 9b). = Q p . the sensitivity will be modified. so that the voltage tivity to the load reactive power Q j is the same as its intrinsic sensi . inue to work on a perphase basis. The gradient of the load line represents the intrinsic vity of the supply voltage to variations in the reactive power Q. reduces the voltage sensitivity. mine the voltage regulating properties of a compensator gain K." the uncompensated case.. In the presence of a compensator. from Equations 24 Qp + Q. the central quessupplypoint voltage magnitude varies with the load (in ideal compensator in its voltageregulating Very high values of K . a gain of. ( b ) Ideal compensator voltagelreactive power characteristic.. provided of course that Q. it directly shows the influence of all the major parameters: the load reactive power itself. and 33....
K . el. It can be made equal to the uncompensated noload voltage E by making Vk = E./K.EIS.Q... = 25 pu (based on Q.. = 100 pu would reduce this sensitivity to I I Overload I L Q MVAr The noload supplypoint voltage is expressed by the first term on the righthand side of Equation 37.. is then anaiogous to K. ( 6 ) Reactive power balance diagram.. If the compensator gain K . in a form analogous to that of K. for the compensator. < Q... (a! Construction of compensated system voltagelreactive power ~ h a r ~ i c t e r i s tic.00 pu and S. The compensator reactive power corresponding to a given value of Ql can be determined from Equations 36 and 37 as and if E = V k Figure 10 shows the relationship between these characteristics. . then the voltage sensitivity is reduced: ___I Load Range Regulated Range I ! I I I I For instance. suppose E = 1.: if we write then K ... . A compensator with K . Because the compensator FIGURE l o . = 0 and Equation 37 reduces to Equation 24. we have K . = 250 MVA and assuming = 10 MVAr = ... and the leverage which the compensator has in determining the overall sensitivity of the supplypoint voltage to the load reactive power is clearly a function of the ratio K. represents the system "gain" in that it equals the rate at which reactive power must be absorbed from the system in order to depress the system voltage by unit amount. then the uncompensated voltage sensitivity to load reactive power variations is (from Equation 34) 0. = Q. is positive.04 pu. that is. The compensator has two effects immediately apparent from Equation 37: it alters the noload suppippoint voltage and it modifies the sensitivity of the supplypoint voltage to the load reactive power. using the example with S. provided that Q.. the compensator is capacitive.30 The Theory of Load Con~pensation 1 . .. It is useful to express the gradient . 1...O With Compensator 008 pu compensated 4 pu uncompensated If the load is uncompensated.
In taking this point of view. the reactive power compensation is imperfect and Q. (cf Resultant load. and we come now to the third fundamental objective in load compensation: the balancing of unbalanced (unsymmetrical) threephase loads.25 pu). When the load reactive power equals the compensator's rated reactive power. Otto and ~ u t m a n . (b! 1. FIGURE 11. the compensator still has 2 MVAr (20%) in hand so that the regulated range extends in this example into the overload range up to a load reactive power of 12. Although the models are ultimately equivalent. the one may be more convenient or more illuminating in a given application than the other. The compensator reactive power correspondingly varies from zero to only 8 MVAr over this range while the voltage regulation is held to 0. we shall follow the excellent paper 'by Gyugyi. y. ( b l Connection of powerracttrr correcting susceptances in individual phases.9. as indeed throughout this section. More importantly. ( ~ ) which the reader to should refer for greater detail.008 pu (Figure 10a).gain is finite. because this helps to preserve continuity with the earlier analysis. Any ungrounded wyeconnected load can be represented by Figure I l a by means of the wyedelta transformation (Section A in Appendix). Y ~ b c . In developing the concept of the ideal compensator as used for powerfactor correction or for voltage regulation. b y ~ b lab NASE BALANCING AND POWERFACTOR CORRECTION OF UNSYMMETRICAL LOADS 1 Our discussion of load compensation has so far been on a perphase or singlephase basis. ( a ) General unbalanced threephase load.1. unbalanced but with unity powerfactor. the simultaneous treatment of phase balancing and powerfactor correction in terms of load and compensator admittances leads to a fundamental view of load compensation which is different from the aspects developed so far and which gives further insight into the nature of the problem. Changes in the load are assumed to be 7 2.5 MVAr (1. The load is represented by the Y deltaconnected network of Figure 11 in which the admittances U and Y are complex and unequal. In considering unbalanced loads it is helpful to begin by modeling both the load and the compensator in terms of their admittances and impedances. varies from 0 to 2 MVAr (0.20 pu) as QQ varies from 0 to 10 MVAr. @ . The analysis will be made sufficiently general to include powerfactor correction at the same time. The Ideal Compensating Admittance Network Supply voltages will be assumed balanced. we have modeled the compensator either as a controllable source of reactive power or as a reactive device with a constantvoltage control characteristic. .
The total power is 3 V 2 G T . Thus if Y ? = G > ~ + ~ B ~ . The construction of the line currents I. unbalanced load. They are real.bC = .B j C and B y = . Vbc and Vca is shown in Figure 13a. so that each phase of a wyeconnected supply system would supply onethird of the total power and no reactive power.." so that phasor analysis is permitted. ( a ) Smglephase. each having the conductance GIb. Similarly the compensating susceptances B. as shown in Figure l2c. there is a reactive power equilib FIGURE 12. in which the reactive power generated by the capacitor between lines b and c equals that absorbed by the inductor between lines c and a. unitypo\\erfactor load before pos~tivesequencebdlanclng ( b ) Pos~t~vesequence balanctng of singlephase. when combined in parallel with the load. or "quasistationary. Correction of Unsymmetrical Loads sufficiently slow. so that none is generated or absorbed in the supply system. the compensating susceptance is (43) (44) B." = B . and I .B T are connected in parallel with and Y y respectively. and the load is assumed to be linear. Beginning with the powerfactor correction concept of Equation 5. will present a real and symmetrical load to the supply. Although the currents in the three branches of the delta are unbalanced. but they remain unbalanced. To emphasize the fact that the balance depends on the phase sequence. each load admittance can first be made purely reai by connecting in parallel a compensating susceptance equal to the negative of the load susceptance in that branch of the delta. assumed balanced. where V is the rms value of the lineneutral supply voltage.b . The threephase positivesequence line currents can be balanced by connecting between phases b and c the capacitive susceptance YP together with the inductive susceptance between phases c and a. As a first step towards balancing this real. I. The line currents are not only balanced.9. Both the overall powerfactor and the powerfactor in each phase of the supply are unity. then. . This is illustrated in Figure !2b. but are also in phase with their respective phase voltages. consider the singlephase load G )b (Figure l 2 a 1. giving an overall powerfactor of unity. The ideal load compensator (if one exists) is conceived as any passive threephase admittance network which.34 The Theory of Load Compensation 1.. the equivalent circuit is three wyeconnected resistors.. The resulting load admittances are shown in Figure 1 l c . for positivesequence voltages Vab. . For positivesequence voltages. as shown in Figure I1 b. unitypowerfactor load ( ( ) Postt~vesequence equivalent circult of compensated singlephdse load rium within the delta.
and so on. and the compensating network does no more than cancel the reactive power in each branch of the load. Figure 13b shows the line currents obtained with pure negativesequence supply voltages. as shown in the equivalent circuit of Figure 14b. then so must the susceptances of the compensating network if the compensation is to remain perfect.The Theory of Load Compensation 1.9. respectively. real threephase load witl7olct changtng the real power exchange between source and load. Thus G ' f is balanced by the compensating susceptances B.E" = and B $ = . attributed to C. deltaconnected ideal cotnpensating nerwork. T f ~ ideal comperrsatirrg network can be purely reacrive. FIGURE 13. each branch of the delta now has three parallel compensating susceptances which can be added together to give the threephase. Both the line currents and the currents in the three branches of the delta are unbalanced. ( a ) Positwesequence phasor diagram corresponding to Figure 12c. The real admittances in the remaining phases bc and ca can be balanced in turn by the same procedure. If the load conductances are balanced (implying that the load requires the same power in all three phases). The resulting compensated load admittances are purely real and balanced. then G. different from unity. The powerfactor in all three phases of the supply is. (a)General ideal threephase compensating network. e If the load admittances vary. . This equivalent circuit is valid only for positivesequence voltages. ( b ) Negatrvesequence phasor diagram corresponding to Figure 12c.P . Correction of Unsymmetrical Loads 37 This is illustrated in Figure 14a.G? = 0. Steirimetz: We can summarize this approach to load compensation in the following important principles: 1. however. although the total power remains the same (=3 v2G?) and no net reactive power is supplied or absorbed by the supply system. G Y / ~ 2. by connecting an ideal competmztitzg network in parallel with it. Any unbalatlced linear ungrounded threephase load can be transformed into a balanced. circult FIGURE 14.G?/& between ~ lines a and b and lines b and c. Together with the powerfactorcorrecting susceptances given by Equation 44 et seq.P. ( 6 ) Equ~valent for positwesequence voltages..
11. it would not be convenient to make Equation 47 the basis of its control system because. that is. Correction of Unsymmetrical Loads 1. V. This difficulty is removed by first transforming the currents and voltages into their symmetrical components. = (55) t T h e 1 / f i factor that IS. and I. In the design of a compensator.Vc = f h 2 . the functional elements of the control system may be realized explicitly in electronic circuits or implicitly in the equations describing the saturation of iron in the saturablereactor type of compensator. and this is. we show how one such formula can be derived. zero.. = (53) where Io.)/d'3 . CI = IS C'" mcluded to make the symrnetrlcal component transformation unltary. What is needed instead is a formula for the desired compensating susceptances in terms of these currents and voltages. = (52) I. the formula for the desired compensating susceptances will also be developed in terms of them. = Y"1 Vab = Y 7 (1 .and negativesequence sets.h ) $I V.h ) . where = V.ab + B$" + B y ) V a 12(. With I.9. Depending on the type of compensator. .1) V . Vbc = Vb . In this section. for one thing. = . + h21.The Theory of Load Con~pensation 1.)/J?.) I.= [Y?(h(I.h2) I7 I b c = Y F ~ b c = Y ( h 2 .9. (54) The third line of Equation 54 shows that with a balanced load there is no negativesequence current. The analysis of the unbalanced load has so far been developed implicitly in terms of the actual line currents and voltages.Y P (h . [ ~ r ( h ~ .h 2 ) . 1)Y?(h2 h)] V .V I ." Since these are the currents and voltages most readily measured. the inverse transformation will be applied so that the desired compensating susceptances can be expressed in terms of actual line currents and voltages.= I.. . The formula will directly show how to generate electrical signals representing to the compensator the demand for capacitive or inductive susceptance in each phase.)V.. .2.h! V T I c . . = (I. The symmetrical components of the line currents are given by? I.I)] V I ~ = I ~ .. I.( 1 .(. + h ~ + h2~. positive. of course. . V. = (qJ+Ybpr+Y.. = Y ~ V a = Y ~ ( h . . and I2 are the reference phasors of the zero. we get Io= 0 I . given by Equation 52.Ica= [U 1 (1 . in "phase coordinates. This guarantees power invariance and makes mversion simple . I. An analytical difficulty with this approach is that there is no concise way of specifying mathematically that the currents in the compensated system must be balanced. Compensators differ in their negativesequence characteristics. The unbalanced load of Figure l l a is supplied by a balanced threephase set of voltages with positive phase sequence.h2)I v ~= ( I.I . The use of symmetrical components is also useful in determining the performance of different types of compensator with unbalanced loads. Later. + I b + Ic)/d'3 I~= (I. since with Y = Y = U P ' ( h 2 + 1 + h ) becomes a factor of IZ. I. The compensator's control system must adjust the effective susceptances of the compensator to satisfy this demand. The rms lineneutral voltages are The lineline voltages are V : = V . Such considerations are the subjects of later chapters.. respectively.~ 1f. The load currents in the three branches of the delta are I. = hV . + h1.V. The symmetrical components of the line currents to a deltaconnected reactive compensator are given similarly by 7 7 Io(vf = 0 V. the desired compensator susceptances are prescribed in terms of the load admittances which are not so readily measured as are the separate line currents and voltages. Vb = h 2 v .h 2 ) V . however.+Ybpi+ vljj hY7) V a . Load Compensation in Terms of Symmetrical Components The principles of load compensation summarized in Equation 47 and as stated in the foregoing summary are a usefuI theoretical statement of what can be done with a reactive compensator..=(h2Y. j(h2Byab + B$" + h B 7 ) Vd'3 . 1 and the line currents are I. (48) I..=j(B.. = ( h .
1 and cos ot = 0. This equation applies to both the real and imaginary parts of Izte) and 12(y). a reference phasor is necessary. at a positivegoing zerocrossing of the voltage v. can therefore be measured by sampling i./dt is positive.*. the term Im I. . The desired compensating susceptances can be expressed in terms of the instantaneous values of voltage and load current. = Re I V ejwt 1 (61) =JZ v. and it is convenient to choose the lineneutral voltage V. This requires that Im~Ilte)+1~(. All terms on the righthand side of Equation 59 can be similarly expressed in terms of instantaneous values of the line currents and the lineneutral voltages and their derivatives. Desired Compensating Susceptances Expressed in Terms of Instantaneous Currents and Voltages.@) by the equation i. since The extreme conciseness of Equations 56 and 57 should be noted. I. Correction of Unsymmetrical Loads 41 The compensated load will be balanced if its negativesequence current is zero. which occurs one halfcycle later.I. and these equations are solved for B . If there is no zerosequence current the result is > 0. Im I. To define this instant.and Ictp) of the load. = I. = A Re [(IaR+ jIaX)eJwt] = AUaR o t . If the compensator currents I. . = vcosot. at the instant when v.9../dt The righthand side must now be transformed back into phase coordinates by means of the inverse of the symmetrical components transformation (Equation 53)..* sin w t ) .(l). dt The condition that the derivative be positive is necessary to distinguish the required instant from the one when cos o t = 0 and sin o t = 1. giving the following result: B: = 1 .?:=  2 lv.Ca. cos (60) (57) Now Im Lala) that is. Byb" and B. then the following formula results for the susceptances of the ideal compensator: v. = 0 and dv.[Im h I b ( b+ Im h2IC(p) Im IacllI 3v :591 This equation expresses the desired compensating susceptances in terms of the phasor line currents I.(pl is related to the instantaneous line current I.=o + (63) dv. The required instant is therefore defined by 0 and d va .~I=O.The overall powerfactor of the compensated load will be unity if the imaginary part of the positivesequence line current is zero. is equal to i.> 0. Ib(p). This can'be done in two ways: one is by a sampling process.40 The Theory of Load Conlpensation 1. whereas the other is by an averaging process. that is. ~ . Taking the sampling approach first. We can now write Im I.. and 12(?) substituted from Equation 55 into are Equations 56 and 57. requiring that where the subscript P has been added to emphasize that Iz(p) is the load current.(. at the instant when sin w t = .
The reactive power represented by this equation cannot be meaningfully associated with one phase or one branch of the load circuit because the voltages V. follow one another at inte:vals of 27~13electrical radians. Correction of Unsymnletrical Loads 43 The desired compensating susceptances are thus expressed in terms of the three line currents sampled at instants defined by the positivegoing zerocrossings of the lineneutral voltages v. Since $Tab = = .. and v. by definition.g. . and v.. and V. = V. Since V. gives no information about the response of the compensator under such rapidly changing conditions.j 2 Vb we have Vb (. Vb = h 2 v .j 2 Vc. Vbc = . this equation also can be directly employed as the basis a compensator control system. Although the integration or averaging period is shown as one period of fundamental frequency. Vb. are. Equation 69. Equation 64 can be used directly as the basis of a compensator control system. and so on. v b . This expression can be interpreted as a reactive power averaged over one complete cycle.j 2 V. arc furnaces) it may be appreciably shorter in order to make the compensator rapid in its response. voltages to lineline voltages (Section E in Appendix).) 7T 2 = "ca 4 Desired Compensating Susceptances Expressed in Teims of Average Real or Reactive Power Quantities.. Since the positivegoing zerocrossings of v. one of which supplies the positivesequence components of the compensating currents and the other the negativesequence components. for some applications (e. we can substitute for the sequence components from . can be immediately derived from the diagram relating lineneutral pensator Represented as Separate Positive.. In Equation 58.. = hV.9. and T is the period 2 7 ~ 1 ~ . the signal defining each desired compensating susceptance can in principle be updated three times per cycle.42 The Theory of Load Con~pensation 1. since all the mathematical operations on .and NegativeSequence mittance Networks. we can include V. It is possible to consider the compensator split o two networks. (Note that an artificial neutral may need to be provided in the measuring circuit).. of course. whereas the currents Ia(p... vb. and V.) 2 = vab  2' so that Equation 65 finally becomes We now make use of the relation where v(7~/2) represents the signal v phaseshifted by rr/2 electrical radians at the fundamental frequency. Now in practice the signals v. balanced. and a corztinuotts signal representing desired susceptance can thus be generated for each branch of the compensator. It is also not strictly necessary that the integrator timeconstant be equal to T . and Icilr are not.n/2). it is not strictly necessary to reset the electronic integrator every cycle. Thus the first "reactive power" term in Equation 65 is ke Equation 64. (. and V.righthand side can be performed straightforwardly by electronic rirts. and V.. in Equation 59 in the following way: 7T v (. Vb.
It also provides a basis on which the performance of different types of compensator can be compared under unbalanced conditions.. (71) 3 P + sating network carries the negativesequence currents necessary to balance the load. 71.and negativesequence components.[B. form the positivesequence compensating network: 1 B. APPENDIX A. and phase balancing. . + B r a ] .G2b) a 1 + . = .. as a voltageregulating feedback device. CONCLUSION + 1 B. and 7 2 . and as a network of desired susceptances. and so forth. = B:. As a check on Equations 7 0 . so that no negativesequence current flows to or from the supply. PositiveSequence Compensating Network NegativeSeauence Compensating Network Unity Power Factor FIGURE 15. voltage regulation.2 B y ) & 3 1. voltage regulation.and negativesequence compensating susceptances agrees with Equation 47.($ = .( B : ~ B bc .( B f + B? . The essential compensator characteristics necessary to achieve this have been derived..The Theory of Load Con~pensation Appendix 45 where B $ . A reactive compensator with a voltageregulating control system cannot maintain unity powerfactor all the time. The positivesequence compensating network provides the reactive power compensation necessary to correct the powerfactor (on all three phases simultaneously) to unity..2 B 7 ) . + P 3 These networks are shown in Figure 15.10. The ideal compensating network separated into positive.b B .G . The symmetricalcomponent analysis of load compensation enables a more general approach to be formulated. ) . and load balancing. and B. the sum of the positive. form the negativesequence compensating network: 1 1 B$ = . WyeDelta Impedance Transformation In terms of the impedances and admittances marked on Figure A l . It has been shown that the purely reactive threephase compensator can fulfill all the three major functions of powerfactor correction. and so forth. The negativesequence compen In order to deal in a practical way with the major functions of powerfactor correction.( G ? .. but can be biased so that unity average powerfactor is obtained. a theory of load compensation characterizes the compensator variously as a controlled source of reactive power. = B.( G q . It leads to the derivation of ways in which "susceptancedemand" control signals can be physically obtained in an actual compensator.
I a x sin w tl = Therefore the instantaneous power in phase "a" is This can be rearranged as a simple quadratic equation in v2. The instantaneous value of voltage in phase "a" is = A j + v B v v. The inverse transformation is The problem is to find Q s from Equation 13 which will make E = V Then Q y = Q s .Iax sin 2 w t l . Wyedelta impedance transformation. In matrix terms.(cos 2 ~ +t 1 ) .The Theory of Load Compensation Appendix 47 D. ] .. I. the forward transformation is FIGURE A l . Pa= Re {Val. = .Q8. .= 3V Re[eJ"'] = V cos w t From Equation 13.i./?[IaR cos w t . a ~ : bQ. v..j V a I a X P a = + jQ. = 2 V I I a RCOS* w t . . Q . S. = VJ.IaXsin w t cos w t ] = VU. C' = C'".. Rearranging Equation 1 3 .Im [Val: . = I a R jIax represents an inductive (lagging) load current in phase "a. Solution for Voltage When Real and Reactive Power are Known From Equation 12. that is. SoIution for Compensating Reactive Power to Achieve a Given Terminal Voltage where h = ej2"I3. Expressions for Average Real and Reactive Power in Terms of Instantaneous Voltages and Currents Taking Va = V as reference phasor." The apparent power is b = 2 v2xS therefore + C. The transformation is therefore unitary. . = VI. + +c=0 where a = R: +X : E. that is. The Symmetrical Components Transformation The transformation is written with the multiplying factor l/ain order to ensure power invariance. .
97. R. England. Moore. P. (September 1976).cos 2cut)I Integrating over one complete cycle of period T and dividing by T. Ashmole. H. Gyugyi.~ / 2 i. "Technical Summary of Reactive Compensation in Power Systems Industrial Applications. y a ( . 1823. Then pa(n/2) Note also that = a V cos (cotn/2) [&(wrs/2'] = JZ V sin cut . V Re[jeJw'] . 232257. Putman. 3. MILLE v a ( . E. REFERENCES L. the average power is Chapter 2 Let v . "Application of Capacitors in Arc Furnace Power Supply Power Syst.1 t sin ) OJ t . (September/October 1978). The receiving end of a transmission line is always treated as a load. or v ~ / ifz Vo is phasephase voltage." Trails. (MayIJune 1976). 1. P." T r a m IEEE. Stratford. PerUnit and Ordinary Units Most equations are given in terms of positivesequence phaseneutral quantities. 19351945. 2. ( . Base power is therefore 3 v i / Z o watts if V o is ~ phaseneutral voltage. University of Birmingham. Reactive power at a generating station is positive if generated negative if absorbed. H. T. Power Appar. Sysf." li~d~tsrrrai D. E. (1112 September 1979). Reactive power at a load is negative if generated positive if absorbed. Otto. = 2 V [ I a Rcos 6. phaseshifted through 90" or n1'2 radians. the average reactive power is CONVENTIONS AND SYM The following relationships have been used in Section E: Reactive Power In accordance with the widely used convention. and T.Iax sin 2 w t l V [ I a Rsin 2wt . and dividing by T. Bock and A.~ / 2 ) represent v. E. IEEE IA12. "Principles and Application of Static ThyristorControlled Shunt Compensators. The perunit system is based on rated voItage Vo and the surge impedance Zo. . In both cases base power is threephase power.~ / 2 )= a V Re = = Taking the instantaneous product with i. L. J. A.. H. "Reactive Compensation and H a r m o n ~ c Suppression for Industrial Power Systems Using Thyristor Converters.." IEE Digest 1979/52.48 The Theory of Load Compensation Integrating over one complete cycle of period T. Systems.I a x ( l . Steeper and R.
. additional constraints loom much larger than they did in the past. S Impedance.50 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. power. LI Characteristic or Surge Impedance. E Primes indicate compensated or virtual quantities. Symbols Line length. The development of compensation schemes has helped to make ac transmission technically and economically competitive even in an age when the dc transmission alternative has made great strides also. Symmetrical and Radial Lines The term radial line is used to describe a single transmission line with synchronous machines controlling the voltage at the sending end and no voltage control at the receiving end. This means that the security.1. Second.1. W Reactive power. 1000 km from Montrkal and Qukbec city. S Capacitance per mile. there has been extensive development of remote hydroelectric resources. W Maximum transmissible power. radian Propagation constant Subscripts Receiving end Sending end Capacitive Inductive Compensator Natural or characteristic 2.000 MW in the case of the James Bay scheme). The sytnmetrical line has identical synchronous machines at both ends. VAr Series compensation factor Voltage r s c I Y 0 Reactance. F/mi (positivesequence equivalent. radian or degree Electrical length of line. W Natural load or SurgeImpedance load ( SIL). P6 Frequency is assumed to be 60 Hz. for example. Introduction Lowercase letters are sometimes used for perunit voltages.1. constraining the terminal voltages to be equal. mi Shunt susceptance. or reliability. currents. LI Wavenumber. however. and so on.(I6' Both these ac schemes are characterized not only by the long distances. reactances. Phasors are denoted by boldface type. the dependence of load centers on the continuity of electrical supplies has become more critical (as witnessed by events during the NorthEast power blackout of 1965 and the New York City blackout of 19?7(~)). for example. Modern compensation methods have helped to make these improvements possible. 2.1. Inductances and capacitances in lower case are usually permile values. Today. Emf and Voltage The symbol E is used for an emf or controlled voltage. and the James Bay scheme in QuCbec. phaseneutral) (controlled) voltage current. First. A Midpoint compensation factor Degree of series compensation Degree of shunt compensation Inductance per mile. but also by the large amounts of power to be transmitted (over 11. phaseneutral) Power. The symbol Vis used for voltage more generally. H/mi (positivesequence equivalent. They may be in perunit or in ordinary units. radian/mi Transmission Angle. such as the El ChoconCerros Colorados complex in Argentina. INTRODUCTION Historical The economics of ac power transmission have always forced the planning engineer to transmit as much power as possible through a given transrnission line. LI Admittance. of transmission circuits has needed to be continuously improved. I000 km from Buenos Aires.
52
SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems
2.1.
Introduction
53
A third planning constraint has been the difficulty of acquiring rightofway for new transmission circuits (the socalled corridor crisis). Increased pressure to maximize the utilization of both new and existing lines has helped to motivate the development and application of compensation systems. This chapter begins with an account of the fundamental requirements in ac power transmission, stability and voltage control. The principles of operation of the main types of compensation are then studied in a generalized way, assuming that the compensation is uniformly distributed along a single transmission line. Later, in Sections 2.4, 2.3, and 2.6, detailed attention is given to lumped shunt, series, and dynamic shunt compensation respectively. The effects of each of these types of compensation on voltage control, reactive power requirements, and the steadystate stability limit are systematically explored.
2.1.2. Fundamental Requirements in ac Power Transmission
Bulk transmission of electrical power by ac is possible only if the following two fundamental reqirements are satisfied:
1. Major syrrct~ronous machines must remain stably in synchronism. The major synchronous machines in a transmission system are the generators and synchronous condensers, all of which are incapable of operating usefully other than in synchronism with all the others.?' The central concept in the maintenance of synchronism is stability. Stability is the tendency of the power system (and of the synchronous machines in particular) to continue to operate steadily in the intended mode.$ It is also a measure of the inherent ability of the system to recover from extraneous disturbances (such as faults, lightning, and changes of load), as well as from planned disturbances (such as switching operations). One of the limits to the utilization of a transmission line is that for a given length of line the stability tends to become less as the transmitted power is increased. If the power could be gradually increased (with no extraneous disturbances), a level would be reached at which the system
iSynchronous motors are usually (but not always) smaller than even the smallest generators. They are not usually considered individually in the study and planning of the bulk transmtssion system, even though they can cause severe local disturbances as a result of loss of synchron~sm. Sometimes the major synchronous machines in one power station or in one region are grouped together and treated as one machine, in order to simplify analysis of the system as a whole. Each group IS called a djvianzic eqzrA'alerrt group, and must remain in synchronism with all the other connected groups.

would suddently become unstable. The synchronous machines at the two ends of the line would pull out of step, that is, lose synchronism. This level of power transmission is the steadystate stability limit, so called because it is the maximum steady power that can (in theory) be transmitted stably. The steadystate stability limit is not a hard and fast number fixed forever by the design of the synchronous machines and the transmission equipment. It can be considerably modified by several factors. Among the most important are the excitation of the synchronous machines (and therefore the line voltage): the number and connection of the transmission lines; the number and types of synchronous machines connected (which frequently change with the time of day); the pattern of real and reactive power flows in the system; and, of central interest here, the connection and characteristics of compensation equipment. It is not practical to operate a transmission system too near to its steadystate stability limit; there must be a margin in the power transfer to allow for disturbances (such as load changes, faults, and switching operations). In determining an appropriate margin, the concepts of transienc and dynamic stability are useful. A transmission system is said to be dyrzarnicalt'y stable if it recovers normal operation following a specified minor disturbance. The degree of dynamic stability can be expressed in terms of the rate of damping of the transient components of voltages, currents, and the load angles of the synchronous machines. The rate of damping, or settling, is the principal interest in a dynamic stability study, Accordingly, modern caiculations are usually based on smallperturbation theory and eigenanalysis. A third major concern in the stability of power transmission systems is whether the system will recover normal operation following a major disturbance, such as a fault severe enough to trip a major circuit, or failure of a major item of plant, such as a generator, overhead line, or transformer. This is the socalled question of transierzt stability. A system has transient stability if it can recover normal operation following a specified major disturbance. Whether recovery is possible depends, among other factors, on the level of power transmission immediately before the disturbance occurred. The trans~entstability limit is the highest level of prior power transmission for which the system has transient stability following the specified disturbance.?
2 . Voltages must be kept near to their rated values. The second fundamental requirement in ac power transmission is the maintenance of correct voltage levels. Modern power systems are not very tolerant of abnormal voltages, even for short periods.
'i For a fuller discussion of these aspects of power system stability. see References 7 through 9.
+ The intended or normal mode is that in which power and reactive power flows have theu
intended values. while voltages and currents and the mechanical phase angles between synchronousmachine rotors are all constant.
54
SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems
Undervoltage, which is generally associated with heavy loading andlor a shortage of generation, causes degradation in the performance of loads, particularly induction motors. In heavily loaded systems, undervoltage may be an indication that the load is approaching the steadystate stability limit. Sudden undervoltages can result from the connection of very large loads. Overvoltage is a dangerous condition because of the risk of flashover or the breakdown of insulation. Saturation of transformers subjected to overvoltage can produce high currents rich in harmonics, and in the presence of sufficient capacitance there is a risk of ferroresonance as well as of harmonic resonances. Overvoltages arise from several causes. The reduction of load during certain parts of the daily load cycle causes a gradual voltage rise. Uncontrolled, this overvoltage would shorten the useful life of insulation even if the breakdown level were not reached. Sudden overvoltage can result from disconnection of loads or other equipment, while overvoltages of extreme rapidity and severity can be caused by line switching operations, faults, and lightning. In longdistance transmission systems, the Ferranti effect (overvoltage at light load) would limit the power transfer and the transmission distance if no compensating measures were taken.
2.1.3.
Engineering Factors Affecting Stability and Voltage Control
The design of virtually every item of plant in a transmission system has a bearing on at least one of the fundamental requirements discussed above. The general study of power system voltage control and stability is too vast a subject for this chapter, which is concerned only with compensation techniques. In view of this, the broad picture of power system voltage control and stability is briefly summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (See also the References at the end of this chapter). In Table 1 the main problems or applications of compensating equipment are grouped under the two fundamental transmission requirements discussed previously, and it can be seen that most of the specialpurpose compensating equipments have a role to play under several headings. This makes the general subject of the deployment of compensating equipment a rather complicated one, and the literature is correspondingly extensive. In this chapter emphasis is laid on the theory of what can be achieved using (mainly) series capacitors, shunt capacitors and reactors, polyphase saturated reactors, and thyristorcontrolled compensators. In the next section the basic compensation requirements are defined by looking at the uncon~petzsafed transmission line.
TABLE 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Compensating Equipment for Transmission Systems Compensating Equipment Switched shunt reactor Switched shunt capacitor Series capacitor
2.2.
Uncompensated Transmission Lines
2.2.
UNCOMPENSATED TRANSMISSION LINES
2.2.1.
Advantages Simple in principle and construction Simple in principle and construction Simple in principle Performance relatively insensitive to location Has useful overload capability Fully controllable Low harmonics Disadvantages Fixed in value
Electrical Parameters
Fixed in value Switching transients Requires overvoltage protection and subharmonic filters Limited overload capability High maintenance requirement Slow control response Performance sensitive to location Requires strong foundations Essentially fixed in value Performance sensitive to location Noisy Generates harmonics Performance sensitive to location
Synchronous condenser
Polyphase saturated reactor"
Very rugged construction Large overload capability No effect on fault level
A transmission line is characterized by four distributed circuit parameters: its series resistance r and inductance I, and its shunt conductance g and capacitance c, the lowercase symbols indicating permile values. All four parameters are functions of the line design, that is, of the conductor size, type, spacing, height above ground, frequency, and temperature. They also vary according fo the number of nearby parallel lines, and different values are obtained for positivesequence and zerosequence currents. Some typical values are given in Table 3. The characteristic behavior of the line is dominated by the series inductance and the shunt capacitance. Series resistance has a secondary but not insignificant influence, and has a separate importance in determining losses. In this chapter it is largely ignored. Positivesequence nominal values are assumed, and shunt conductance is ignored. Balanced conditions are assumed except where stated, and one phase of the positivesequence equivalent circuit is used. Figure 1 shows a lumpedparameter equivalent circuit of one phase of a transmission line, having identical synchronous machines connected at both ends. Such a line is called symmetrical. 2.2.2.
Fundamental Transmission Line Equation
Low harmonics
Fast response Fully controllable No effect on fault level Can be rapidly repaired after failures Thyristorswitched capacitor (TSC) Can be rapidly repaired after failures No harmonics
The fundamental equation governing the propagation of energy along a transmission line is the wave equation
No inherent absorbing capability to limit overvoltages Complex buswork and controls Low frequency resonances with system Performance sensitive to location
Frequency is assumed fixed, and V is the phasor voltage ^veJw'/d?at any point on the line. The phasor current I satisfies the equation also. (For derivation see Reference 10). Since x is distance along the line measured from any convenient reference point, the equation describes the variation of the voltage V and the line current I along the line, and it implies that both will have a wavelike or sinusoidal variation. Solution of the transmission line wave equation: Standing Waves. If the line is assumed lossless, the general solution of Equation 1 (for voltage and current) is V(x)
=
" With shunt capacitors where necessary.
V, cosp ( a  x )
+ jZoI, sin @ ( a x )
(2a)
2.2.
Uncompensated Transmission Lines
SENDING END
's
RECEIVING END I(x) ,Line Inductance
I
I
'
Line c a ~ a c i t a n c e
I
FIGURE 1 .
Lumpedelement representation o f a long transmission line.
where p is derived from the propagation constant This gives r = jp and
r
by putting r
=
g
=
0
The form of Equation 2 shows the expected sine wave variation of V and I along the line, each quantity having two terms or components. V and I are said to form standing waves because of the sinusoidal variation of both their real and imaginary parts along the line. The quantity l l a is the propagation velocity of electromagnetic effects along the line. For overhead highvoltage transmission lines it has a value somewhat less than the velocity of light, u = 3 x lo0rn/sec = 186,000 miisec. Since also w = 27rf, Equation 3 gives
where A is the wavelength. p is the wave number, that is, the number o r complete waves per unit of line length. At 60 Hz A = 3100 mi and /3 ran be expressed as one wavelength per 3100 mi, that is, 360" per 3100 mi, or 0.116" per mi, or 2.027 x lop3 radlmi. T h e quantity pa is the elearical length of the line expressed in radians or in wavelengths: symbol 6 .
For reactivepower balance in this element of line. the ratio of voltage to current at any point along it. Surge Impedance and Natural Loading The constant Zoin Equation 2 is the surge itnpedance (sometimes called the characteristic impedance): A line in this condition is said to be naturally loaded.2. including the ends. The natural load (or surgeimpedance load. Phasor diagram of naturally This must be true at all points along the line. Pois the threephase value. The surge impedance is the apparent impedance of an infinitely long line.2". An advantage of operating the line at the natural load is that because of the flat voltage profile. where Vo is the nominal or rated voltage of the line. The natural load is an important reference quantity which will be used extensively below. . the behavior of all lines is fundamentally the same.2.3.405 rad or 23. For a 200mi line at 60 Hz the angle is 0. The reactive power generated in the shunt capacitance of the line is exactly absorbed by the series inductance.that is. the cosine of the angle between V and I . so that if Vr/Ir= Zothen from Equation 2 the apparent impedance at any point is which is independent of x. that is. This helps to explain why transmission voltages have increased as the level of transmitted power has grown. Table 3 shows the natural load for some common line voltages. at the natural load the power factor . Equation 8 gives the perphase value of surgeimpedance power. Uncompensated Transmission Lines 61 2.is unity at all points along the line. it is 6 = p a rad. A line of finite length terminated at one end by an impedance Zois electrically indistinguishable from an infinite line. the "natural" reactive power is zero. with Po= v2/zo. The natural load of the uncompensated line increases with the square of the voltage (Equation 8). and the level of power transmission.60 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. including the sending and the receiving end. loaded line. Therefore. In any short element of the line the reactive power per u n ~ t length generated by the shunt capacitance is v2b= v 2 w c . The surge impedance Zois a real number. reactive power balance is achieved at the natural loading.1 and Table 3). The line is said to have a flat voltage projle. both are rotated in phase. while the reactive power per unit length absorbed by the series inductance is 12wl. More importantly. The phasor relationships are shown in Figure 2. Since these values are roughly comparable for all lines. In the sense that Po1s the natural power of the line. The phase angle between sendingend and receivingend quantities is implicit in Equation 7. While V and I are in phase with each other all along the line.2. the positivesequence value typically lies in the range 200400 R . SIL) is Its value depends on the line design (see Section 2. Therefore. If losses are neglected the line is characterized entirely by its length and by the two parameters Zoand p. It means that at the natural load no reactive power has to be absorbed or generated at either end. lr FIGURE 2. This important condition can be further explained as follows. If Vo is the linetoneutral voltage. both V and I have constant amplitude along the line. the insulation is uniformly stressed at all points. if V o is the linetoline voltage. I Er or V. This 1 s apparent from Equation 6. For highvoltage overhead lines. that is. is the only value of transmitted This power that gives a flat voltage profile and unity power factor at both ends of the line. and differences only arise according to the length. the voltage.
this complication will not be considered further. (See Section 2. In spite of its practical importance. A rise of 8.2.088 pu. = 0. and V. (1 la) These profiles are shown in Figure 4 for a line 200 miles in length.sinp(a . VOLTAGE PROFILE E.0 pu the receivingend voltage is V.8%. that is a rise of 8. for which at 60 Hz 0 = 0. miles zo coso Es vr FIGURE 3. except to note that typically it is desirable to limit the opencircuit voltage rise to about 25% at the sending end and about 40% at the receiving end under worst conditionsthat is. FIGURE 4.2". Voltage and current profiles for a 200mi line opencircuited at the recel\tng . which is consistent with the fact that there is no power transfer. = V. The Uncompensated Line on OpenCircuit Voltage and Current Profiles. end. In practice the opencircuit voltage rise will be greater than is indicated by Equation l i a . The line voltage profile expressed by Equation 10a can be written more conveniently in terms of E. so that and The voltage and current at the sending end are given by these equations with x = 0: E. if not dangerous. the sendingend voltage tends to rise immediately to the openrircuit voltage of the sendingend generators.62 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. A lossless line that is energized by generators at the sending end and is opencircuited at the receiving end is described by Equations 2a and b with I. = 1. Phasor diagram of 200mi line X. The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 3.8% is not enough to cause severe problems for insulation or for voltage regulating equipment. which assumes that the sendingend voltage is fixed. With E. This rise is called the Ferranti effect.cosO .6).x ) CURRENT PROFILE m X. Following a sudden opencircuiting of the line at the receiving end. are in phase.: Similarly the current projle is given by I(x) = j ES . Uncompensated Transmission Lines 63 2. which exceeds the terminal voltage by approximately the voltage drop due to the prior current flowing in their shortcircuit reactances.2.4. At 775 mi (one quarterwavelength) the voltage rise would be infinite. operation of such a line is completely impractical without some means of compensation.579 pu which is unacceptable.405 radian = 23. But at 400 mi the opencircuit voltage would be 1. miles opencircuit a t the receiving end.2. = 1.
is equal to the rated voltage of the line. Uncompensated Transmission Lines with all parallel lines connected. in Figure 3 is 0. i T h e negatrve sign In Equatron 14 arrses because of the convention tn whrch postttve . sin e : (13a) (13b) v. The magnitude of I. equal to the opencircuit voltage of a line having half the total length: E. cos (8/2) ' = j . are in phase. sinp(a/2 . with .429 pu. therefore. current flows away from the sending end and towards the recerving end With (20) Qs = Im (EsI:) .sin B [ :I] Is = I.0 pu. The midpoint voltage is. The current at each end is ing current. I. Half the linecharging current is supplied from each d. This is a line chronous machines at both ends. FIGURE 5. which again is consistent the fact that there is no power transfer. For the other half of the line. terminal voltages are controlled to have the same magniE. = E. By symmetry the midpoint current is zero. = Po tan0 . cos !3 . + I. (21) .. Phasor diagram. Underexcited Operation of Generators Due to LineCharging. minimum generators connected. a / 2 and < x < a. It is interesting to compare these with Figure 4. This means that the linecharging current flowing in the sendingend generators is 42. Q. = E. = 0 the charging reactive power at the sending end is given by uation 16 shows that E. cos + jZoI. but is nearer to the end of the line which has the higher terminal voltage.2. If E. Akin to the opencircuited line energized from one end is the symmetrical line at no load.= E.. From Equations 2a and b. with x = 0.64 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. (16) The profiles are shown in Figure 6. The voltage and current profiles for the symmetrical line at no load can be derived from Equations 12a and b with a replaced by a12: power transfer the electrical conditions are the same at both erefore by symmetryT (14) and =j E. The Symmetrical Line at NoLoad. # E.power transfer.I r = j ~ + C O S ~ zo ~ 2 ing this value for I. that is.(" The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 5 for a = 200 mi. = E. . in Equation 13a gives E. and E. Comparison of Equations 15 and '17 with I l b shows that the line is equivalent to two equal halves conted backtoback. (15) for x . and before the excitation on the generators has been reduced to bring the voltage down to a safe level. so that if E.9% of the current corresponding to the natural load. the current and voltage profiles are no longer symmetrical and the highest voltage is no longer at the midpoint. . = V o= 1. The currents in the synchronous machines are also unequal.x ) cos (812) E1 sine Er ( 3 =j. I.tan. The linecharging current is given by Equation l l b . but no. of 200mr symmetrical line.< a / 2 .
The absorption limit is typically not more than 0. It is better to satisfy this requirement by means of compensation. Their ratings and points of connection should ideally be optimized and coordinated with other equipment to achieve satisfactory control of line voltage under all conditions. Second. The reactive power absorption capability of synchronous generators is limited for two reasons. which is definitely above the limit. = 0. Shunt reactors.. Uncompensated Transmission Lines 67 CURRENT PROFILE 0. The underexcited operation of generators can set a more stringent limit to the maximum length of an uncompensated line than the opencircuit voltage rise.3 consequent reduction in security of supply at the receiving end is acceptable. the reduced field current reduces the internal emf of the generators. the remainder would have to absorb 0. In the 200mi example line. This is permissible only if the If. Aside from using compensation..43 Po if q. or static compensators can be connected at the receiving end or at points along the line. for instance. underexcited operation increases the heating of the ends of the stator core. Second. Alternatively a line 200 mi long would require P . one or more of the circuits can be switched off under lightload or opencircuit conditions. and let their maximum reactive power absorption be q.2. 2. varies with the load and its power factor and with the line . It would generally be wasteful to have so much excess generating capacity connected (or even installed) merely in order to satisfy the linecharging requirement.43 pu would be just within the limit. This must not be less than the linecharging reactive power given by Equation 21. A load P ceiving end of a transmission line draws the current + jQ at the re From Equation 2a with x = 0. The solution shows how V.429 pu and so Q. It follows that the generating capacity must satisfy the relation miles X.3 and the sendingend generating capacity is P. q u = 0. were limited to 0. and this impairs stability (see later).P. is fixed.5. there are two main ways in which this problem can sometimes be alleviated. the load being small or zero. if the line is assumed lossless the sendingand receivingend voltages are related by If E. and Power Factor on Voltage and Reactive Power Radial Line with Fixed Sendingend Voltage. if the total MVA rating of the synchronous generators is equal to the natural load.66 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transntission Systems VOLTAGE PROFILE 2. synchronous condensers.86 pu of their MVA capacity.2. But if (for economy) half the generators were disconnected. First. For the 200mi line I. The Uncompensated Line Under Load: Effect of Line Length. = Po. 2 1. is nearly 43% of the natural load expressed in MVA. the absorption limit can be increased by using a rapidresponse excitation system which restores the stability margins when the steadystate field current is low. the maximum length of uncompensated line is only 144 mi.45 pu of the MVA rating. this quadratic equation can be solved for V. Let the total generator rating be P. as well as to relieve the generators of excessive reactive power absorption. if the line is made up of two or more parallel circuits. Load Power. the charging reactive power at 0. First.3. if the generator absorption is limited by stability and not by coreend heating. Po tan 0 P. Voltage and current profiles for a 200mi symmetrical line.>/ 4u FIGURE 6. The charging current leads the line terminal voltage by 90" and flows in the generators. At 400 kV the generators would have to absorb I72 MVAr.
as the load P increases. Also apparent in Figure 7 is the flat voltage profile achieved a t unity power factor when P = Po. Normal operation of the power system is always at the upper value.0 pu. Figures 8a through c show the results for three different power factors with a = 100. load. and 500 mi. for which a = 200 mi. Leading power factor loads generate reactive power which supplements the linecharging reactive power and tends to support the line voltage. Equation 24 reduces to Equation l l a for the opencircuit condition. within narrow limits around 1. 200. or with very high leading power factor. longer lines are impractical at all power factors unless some means of voltage I (b] Unity p.f. A typical result is shown in Figure 7.. with E. = E. two roots of Equation 24). until P reaches a much higher value. For each load power factor there is a rnaxinrirnl transmissible power. Receivingend voltage magnitude as a function of load ( P ) and load power lossless radial line factor for a 200n~i FIGURE 8. With leading power factors (except those very near unity). tend to reduce V . (i.0 pu. 400.9 lead +P/P0 FIGURE 7.5). the tendency is to increase V . (See Section 2. The magnitude V . with unity. The effect of the line length can be determined by redrawing Figure 7 for different values of a.68 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in EIectric Transn~ission Systems length. 300. When P = Q = 0. Receivingend voltage as a function of line length. Because of their large voltage variations..e. = V o= 1. V . It appears from Figure 8 that uncompensated lines between about 100 and 200 mi long can be operated at normal voltage provided that the load power factor is high. For any value of P below the maximum there are two possible solutions for V . 0. Loads with lagging power factor. is plotted against the normalized load power P I P o for five different power factors. and load power fackor (radial line). that is. . The load power factor has a strong influence on the receivingend voltage. Several fundamentally important properties of ac transmission are evident from Figure 7.
Making use of the relations Po = V o 2 / z 0 and P . this is written Q.I. = VJ. Provided that E. cos . Note that Q . = V. e. for example. = 1. = Q.0 pu at natural load ( P jQ = P o ) . The real and reactive power which must be supplied at the sending end are given by Substituting for E. at the natural load. would still ave unacceptably large voltage variations at the midpoint (equal to the receivingend variations on a 250mi line). and .e. if V . Although the symmetrical line is a special case. 2 sin 2 e (25a) j v. Note that the terminal power factor is the resultant of all circuits connected at that end of the line. and I . The equations for the sendingend half of the symmetrical line are E. = PO [$I2  [%]I FIGURE 9. and Since the line is assumed lossless. By symmetry again. = Q + jZoI. The reactive power requirements of the Iine are determined by the voltage and the level of power transmission.. the synchronous machines must absorb or generate the difference between the reactive power of the line and that of the local load. + ymmetrical Line. Under load E.2. as reference phasor. and by symmetry the midpoint voltage is midway in phase beeen them: See Figure 9. Even though V . Uncompensated Transmission Lines 71 control or compensation is provided.70 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transntission Systents 2. can be read off Figure 8b. The symmetrical line under load can be treated same way. = E . The expression for Q. Any inductive load connected. In this condition Q . leads E.. with PIPo = 1.0 pu. in the absence of compensating equipment. This being so. however. = 1. from Equation 25 and treating V. and each end supplies half the total. 2 0 2 where P is the transmitted power. cos 2 I. It is important to know what these requirements are. Where P = Po. because they deter mine the reactive power ratings of the terminal synchronous machines as well as of any compensating equipment. P . that is. likewise P. For example. if the line length is longer than about mi Vr is extremely sensitive to any variation in P.(" efinition the symmetrical line has E. = V. while the power or at the midpoint is unity. This equation shows how the midpoint voltage is related to the reactive power requirement of the symmetrical line. the power factor angle at ne end must be the negative of that at the other end. the midpoint voltage tions on a symmetrical 200mi line are the same as the receivingend age variations on a 100mi line with a unity powerfactor load. At the midpoint. 8 > 45") then at the natural load the receivingend oltage is the lower of the two roots of Equation 24: See Figure 8 b for = 400 and 500 mi.0 pu Equation 29 gives the familiar result: Q. Reactive Power Requirements. can be rearranged as follows. At mi a marked improvement results from having synchronous achines at both ends. In Section 2. In virtually all cases such operation ould be unstable. By symmetry. varies with the transmitted ower.. = 0 also. = l. If a is greater than 390 mi or h / 8 (i. A symmetrical 500mi line. = P is expected.4 the noload behavior of the symetrical line was deduced in terms of two opencircuited halflength lines onnected backtoback... Phasor diagram of symmetrical line with P > Pw Note that the receiving end has a leading power factor and that both ends are supplying reactive power to the line. it is possible and conient to use Figure 86 to describe how V . that is. at the sending end will assist the synchronous generators to absorb the linecharging reactive power.2.+ I . = 0. sin Q Q. In general. Q Q sin . = P at the receiving end. no reactive power flows past the midpoint. Equation 29 applies to both ends of the line. = E. the line length is replaced by a / 2 V . the result P. = 0. the ent provides a physical understanding which is helpful in dealing re complex cases.. Because of the reactive power sign convention. = E.
It shows that when E. ejs = E. is positive. A more familiar form is obtained when. the midpoint voltage is higher than the terminal voltages.5 = 0. Uncompensated Transmission Lines 73 E. Then Zoo= . If P > Po. = ere 6 is the phase angle between E. if the terminal voltages are both adjusted so that E.Q . the reverse is true.6. P = 0. the sendingend reactive power is the linecharging reactive power for half the line. can be written as Qs = PO ]:I[ E. consider an uncompensated symmetrical line 200 mi long with P = 1.0 pu. Equating the real and imaginary ts of Equations 33 and 34. E. = 0 and from Equation 29. = E. = . then the terminal voltages are related by + This is identical in form to Equation 21. and a ESE. and P = 0. (34) . a total reactive power of 2 x 0. 0 Q. = E. quation 36 can be rearranged in the form .. f E . Er P These two equations illustrate the general behavior of the symmetrical line. The receivingend generators absorb'an equal amount from the other half. E .3. When P > Po there is an overall deficit of reactive power in the line.72 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. = E .246 Po. for an electriort line. sin 6 = Z o .sin 6 . Here the load is assumed to be synchronous and E. then from Equation 29 sin 0 This equation is valid for synchronous and nonsynchronous loads alike. indicating absorption at both terminals. and is valid for synchronous nonsynchronous loads alike. Alternative useful given later in Section E. = V m= Vo = 1. cos 6 = Q . sin Q is replaced by 6 = p a = ma&. the series reactance of the line. At no load. as is seen in Section 2. = 0. For every megawatt of transmitted power. and if P = Po the voltage profile is flat. Q. (see Figure 9).246/1. If P < Po. from Equations 25 and 26 it can be shown that for V . is negative and Q .I] =  Qr . As an example.394 and Q . P = . is taken as reference phasor. that is. = . Vo. = V o = 1. (cos 6 + j sin 6) . The Uncompensated Line Under Load: Maximum and Stability Considerations 2 ymmetrical Line. P = ESE.2.Po tan  2.sin Q E. When P < Po there is an excess of linecharging reactive power. x i .2. If the terminal voltages are continuously adjusted so that the midpoint voltage V m= V o = 1.329 MVAr has to be supplied from the ends. Then sin 0 = 0. = wal = X. 6 is called load angle or the tratzstnissiorz angle.sin 0 . then I. Zosin Q sin 6 s equation is important because of its simplicity and its wideranging dity. and E. It should be noted that the reactive power requirement is determined by the square of the power transmitted. is written instead of V. In addition.. cos Q + Z o . If E.0 pu at all levels of power transmission.5 Po. The excess or deficit can be corrected by means of compensation. The equation is true when E. = E .0 pu. that is. Its only major shortcoming is that it losses. If the load at the receiving end of a lossless transmission line is P jQ. E.
2. and E. The theoretical steadystate stability limit for other .. so that if the generator maintains constant speed the motor will slow down still more and will lose synchronism. The load angle 6 is then a measure of the relative mechanical position of the rotors of these two machines as Steady state stability limit Pma. . and if this condition is arrived at by the gradual process just described. length 0. It is useful to have a physical understanding of t phenomenon. sin % Figure 10 shows this relationship for a 200mi line at 60 Hz. deg." the midpoint voltage experiencing the greatest decrease along the line. = Natural Load / / EsEr 0 0. GURE 11. According to Figure 10 and Equation 37. attained at the new power level. This causes the motor to ow down.5 PIP.394 = 2. The terminal voltages are assumed to be d constant by excitation control. are fixed. At 200 mi this is P0/0. It can be seen that as the load is increased from zero the load angle increases. Power transn~issionangle characteristic for 200nli line. larger. As indicated in Section 2. This point occurs when 6 = 90". product P = V. Equation 31 shows that if E. decreases with any further increase in the transmission angle.0 2.74 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transn~ission Systems 2.I. V will now be smaller than it was efore. . the power transmitte can be expressed in terms of only one variable: the transmission angle If E. = Vo./Po o p = . 6 increases but the transmitted power now decreases. = E . If E. the load angle increases. e. are held constant the voltage profile "sags. so that if the generator is assumed to continue at constant eed.2. the power is said to have exceeded the steadystate stability limit Polsin 8. The load power can be increased by reasing the torque on the shaft of the motor.5 2.O  1. and their . FIGURE 10. The graph is ordinarily plotted with P as'ordinate. Pma. Variation of midpoint voltage with power transmitted along a symmetrical  PIP. It'also reflects the similarity with the voltageversuspower characteristic of Figure 8 b . The system is unstable. = Vo then V = V O / ~ If the load torque is increased slightly. and I. = E. but here it is rotated clockwise by 90" to reflect the fact that P is the independent and 6 the dependent variable. and if E.394.54 Po. for which % = 0. e increased load angle is accompanied by an increase in the transmitted ower.5 there is a maximum power that can transmitted. however small. which causes the motor to speed up again until a new steady state .405 rad and sin % = 0.P sin 6 . and the receivingend machines as an equivalent synchronous motor. which for convenience is reproduced as Figure 11 with the correct linelengths for the symmetrical line. then  Uncompensated Transmission Lines Elec.5 1 . Let the sendingend synchronous machines be thought as an equivalent synchronous generator. For successive power increments this process canot continue indefinitely because there comes a point at which the fraconal reduction in V exceeds the fractional increase in I. and E . y rotate in synchronism.
and the high voltage sensitivity associated with t parts of the curves for a > h / 4 . The rats are each assumed equal to Po and their transient = 0. the maximum power that ca drawn by a unity power factor load from a supply represented as an circuit voltage in series with a shortcircuit impedance. as well as occasional major disturbances caused by fau and switching operations. as follows. Because of frequent minor disturbances in the power transmi any real system. and 4. causing them to slow down: the inuces the effective resistance of the motors. In practice this might be done switching on more lighting load. but in t absence of compensation the maximum permissible line length limited by the noload value of V . If this empirical rule is lowed. pmax E: Z o sin 28 ' (43) scribes a locus on which lie all the maximumpower Since the load is nonsynchronous. is given by 2 (1 I. See Reference 9. = 90°. Radial Line with Nonsynchronous Load. it is not practical to operate an uncompensat line too near to its steadystate stability limit. = 0. then a flat voltage profile is una at any stable level of power transmission. The value of the maximum power can be calculated simply. If th ply is regarded as the sendingend emf together with the transmissi up to the receivingend terminals.2. om elementary circuit theory. Effect of Generator Reactances. then the maximum electrical length over which the natu can be transmitted without compensation is given by Equation 39 wi P = Po and 6 = 30°. and at unity power factor the voltage decreases (Figure 8b). and from Equation 40. an based on experience. The internal reactances of the synchromachines at the end(s) of the line add to the series impedance and the phase angle between the internal emf's. (b. or the reactive power ratings of synchronous machines (whether absorbing at no load or generating at load). The question of the maintenance of synchronism is therefore not an issue.25 PU. the impractical reactive power quirements. rice = (42) Eo kads Is by 90". The power system at each end of the line is represented by an hronous machine with its stepup transformer. 1 is the shortcircuit current. E~ is the opencircuit voltage. Uncompensated Transn~issionLines line lengths is given in the table in Figure 11 and its locus is plotted also For lines less than h/4 in length (775 mi at 60 Hz). for a unity power factor load. the load torque on inbe increased. even w the load is nonsynchronous. 8 = 30" or a = 260 mi at 60 Hz. Up to the point of maximum f voltage and current increases. Even without these difficulties be practically impossible to "maneuver" a line into such an operati condition without passing through an unstable range. smaller power can be stably transmitted over a longer distance. any further reduction of the tive load resistance produces a reduction in transmitted power. that is. If the system is operating on the upper part of one of the curves in ase in power transmission can be caused by a reducn in the effective resistance of the load. the steadystate sta bility limit decreases rapidly with increasing line length.? The transformer reactances on the same The transient reactance is used on the assumption that the generators are fitted wjth fastacting voltage regulators. a general rule is that the load angle on any uncom pensated line should not exceed about 30".76 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transn~issionSystems 2. the angle 6 cannot be interpreted in rms of the relative angular positions of the rotors of an equivalent machine at the receivingend and the sendingend generator. The fact that the ste stability limit increases with line length for a > A / 4 is not of practical terest because of the high voltages. A margin is necessary. It appears from Figure 11 that if the uncompensated line exceeds one quarterwavelength. and the system is of maximum power. This is best illustrated Figure 12 shows a symmetrical 200mi line carrying the natural load Pmax = + cos $3 . Figures 7 and 8 show there is a maximum power that can be transmitted over a line. cos = 4. EO~S Po. . Reduced load resistance draws more current from the supply. corresponding to a po transmission of half the steadystate Iimit. then from Equations 2a and b . phase angle between them when the supply is shortcircuited. Alternatively.
Symmetrical line transmitting the natural load Po. The result is 0 0 xt cos .) The power transmission relationship can be expressed with E replaced y V.. will generally be less than The effect of the generator reactance is therefore to widen the phase le 6 for a given level of power transmission.0 pu.. s the voltage profile is flat along the line and V . and xi + XT = 0.. = 0. is high. so that if the synchronous machine tances are neglected the voltage drops across x. This phenomenon is t of practical interest because operation under such conditions involves ry high voltages and reactivepower levels.7 l 0.1 t 0.) can calculated from Equations 25a and b with P = V. The result is: 2.35 pu. 0. = Vo = 1.I. and it reduces to Equation 37 when x.. The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 13. for various line lengths. = V... = x.I. since I.35 pu. Midpomt "  I Recewing End 200 miles P FIGURE 12. which shows the maximum power a function of x. and E. in Equation 45. = 1. effect of generator re tances at the ends. are in phase qu drature with I. or from Equation 37.0 P = [zo  $1 E~ sin 0 sin 6 .78 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. uncompensated e lengths do not exceed 100200 mi.O 500 400 300 200 100 0. The factor is unity at both ends..5 E. The form of this relationship is exactly as shown in ure 10.3. = x.2 l 0. and x.1 = 0.3 0.9 1. = I 1.2". = E.8 xt/Zo Effect of generator reactances on maximum transrn~ssible power for different .4 ~ 0.5 1. The total angle 6 is 64. = V.0 ~ L 0. = E. The maximum r is modified considerably by x.0 pu. and both are equal to 0. the phase angle between E. or to lower the power ansmission corresponding to a given angle. as calculated in Section 2.. the re tionship between P and 6 (i.2"nearly 2..25 + ere E.2. = xJ..e. Po P ~ x + 2x1cos 1.5 ! 0 Llne lengths shown are In miles o l 0.6 0. and I.sin 2 Zo 2 0 P= V : Z o sin . The line is 23..0 pu.+ x.. tjx. The effect depends on the line h and is illustrated in Figure 14.1 pu so that x. .2. Uncompensated Transn~issionLines I Sending end . In practice.5 ' t 0.8 times that of the line a10 In the general case of a symmetrical line (with x. (For very long lines there is upturn in the maximum power when x. perunit base are assumed to be x~ = 0. 2 2. The excitation of the chronous machines is adjusted so that V. and x. cos 2 2 6 0 tan ..
= vr(V .5. 3. (Figures show transmission angle 6") Qs=  These expressions are valid when the line is not symmetrical. For an electrically short line.V s cos 0) Z o sin 6 wer transmitted and line length. and "Compensation by ~ectionin$' If P < Po and V.cos 6 ) 6 Z o sin 0 = Q. is negative while Q.3. A us alternative formula is obtained from Equation 35 for {he receivingreactive power:  PIPO Q. cos 6 > cos 6 . Equation 29 for the reactive power required at the ends o line assumes that the line is symmetrical and that V . 6 is less than 0. = 1. cos 6 ) Z o sin 0 A similar procedure can be used to derive the following formula for th sendingend reactive power: v s ( vrcos 6 .. 2. Q. This implies that reactive power is being absorbed at both ends of the line.. It improves stability by increasing the maximum transmissible 1t provides an economical means for meeting the reactive Power requirements of the transmission system. 2. vsf V. Q s = Q .cos 6) XI =Qr. In . V: (1 . In Se tion 2. is positive.. 2 Z o tan 2 0 % ? I Alternative Expression for Reactive Power Requirements. series the reactance of the line. is known. so that Equation 50 reduces to stem ideally performs the following functions: 1. If P > Po. cos 6 = 1 and Equation 50 reduces to Equation 30. The terminal reactive power requirements represented by Equation 50 are illustrated in Figure 15. Compensated Transniission Lines If x. figure of merit used to gauge the effectiveness of a compensated SYsm is the product of line length and maximum transmissible Power. = 0.1. this reduces to P = 6 tan . If vs= Vrthe line is symmetrical and 2. If P = 0. COMPENSATED TRANSMISSION LINES Q = ~2 (COS . i. and Q .80 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2.. = with V s= V. cos S  V .. whereas if P = Po.0 pu. Types of Compensation: VirtualZ VirtualQ.e.3. reactive power is generated at both ends. +  + It helps produce a substantially flat voltage ~rofileat all levels of power transmission. cos 6 1 and Z o sin 6 X.= 0.3.2..
which show without compensation. for instance. Compensated Transn~issionLines 83 Section 2. the ideal co pensation would be capable of variation alsoand without delay. or switched.2 it was shown. They do this by generating or absorbing precisely the reired amount of corrective reactive power in response to any small varion of voltage at their point of connection. even under ideal conditions (i. that at 60 Hz without compensation it is not practical to transmit even the natural load over a distance greater than about 200 mi. The other approach is to divide the line into shorter sections which are more or less independent of one another (except that they all transmit the same power). It is achieved by connecting constantvoltage compensators at intervals along the line. In practice stability is a li factor at distances much shorter than this. and the only way to improve stability is to reduce the effective value of 8. but since this is neces line under heavy loading. A flat voltage projfe can be achieved if the effective surge impedance of the line is modified so as to have a virtual value.. Passive compensators are used only for surgeimpedance compensation nd linelength compensation.3.. for which arily shorter than the whole line. > where P i s the actual power to be transmitted and vo is the rated of the line. in stability can be expected. They are usually capable of . is determined.2. are modified (for example by appropriate connection of capacitors or reactors). Table 4 . Compensation by sectioning is fundamentally different in le onIy with active compensators. 2. shunt reactors are used to ompensate for the effects of distributed line capacitance. in the absence of compensation. Controlling the virtual surge impedance to match a given load (E ti0n 52) is not sufficient by itself to ensure the stability of transmi over longer distances. since 8 = po = at f"ILdamental frequency. an increase in maximum power and.. The maximum transmissible power is that of the weakest section. Passive and Active Compensators . Compensated lines enable the transmission of the natural load over greater distances. particularly in rder to limit voltage rise on open circuit or at light load. They tend to v8 p'=p O  z. erefore. One is to apply series capacitors to reduce X. their operation is essentially dynamic (in the consense). All three types of compensation may be used together in a single ansmission line.e. This is made clear by Figure 11. implying that if the series andlor the shunt reactances x! andlor x . These devices may be either permanently connected. with no disturbances) the natural load cannot be transmitted stably over dis greater than h/4(' 77. Two alternative compensation strategies have been developed to achieve this.At fundamental frequency this can be written Gc.82 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transn~issionSystems 2. z. They generate reactive power which tends o boost the voltage. Both of the fundamental line parameters Z o and 8 influence stability through their influence on the transmission angle 6./z~is equal to the actual load. (See Equation 37).3. They tend to reduce the virtual surge impedance and to increase P i . The uncompensated surge impedance is Z o = fi. and thereby reduce 8 . Series capacitors are used for linelength compensa. they e uncontrolled. Co pensation which can be said to have the objective of modifying Zo ( Po) will be termed surgeinrpedarrce comperrsatioir or Zoconrpetrsation. Usually a measure of surgeimpedance compensation is necessary in unction with series capacitors. for which the corresponding virtual natural load v. stepless) variation and rapid response. This might be called conzpetzsation by sectionitrg. Apart from switching. For example. Control may be Active compensators may be applied either for surgeimpedance com v'mc 1 the functions performed by fixed shunt reactors and caave the additional advantages of continuous variability with apid response. and this may be provided by an active Active compensators are usually shuntconnected devices which have of tending to maintain a substantially constant voltage at 1s. Once a line is compensated in such a way as to satisfy Equation achieve a flat voltage profile^. in their usual forms they are incapable of continuous (i. stepless) nce and their operation is essentially static. and shorter compensated lines can carry loads greater than the natural load. This strategy mi called litrelength compensation or 8comnpetrsatiotr. then the line can be made to have a virtual surge impedance ZA and a virtual natural load P. Since the load P varies. which must be capable of that is..5 mi at 60 HZ).e. sometimes suddenly.e. All active compensators except the saturatedaIso capable of acting as passive compensators.
For further reading e references listed at the end of the chapter should prove helpful. to improve its efficiency. it is useful to derive certain relationships for the ideal case of un$ounly distributed compensation ecause these relationships are simple and independent of the characteriscs of any particular type of compensator. and response characstics. More usually. reactive power management. or er applications and functions of compensators on transmission sysms include the management of reactive power Rows in order to rninilosses.84 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. They have the effect of reducing the synchronous machine effective reactance to the transient reactance xi. (Most of these types of compensator had be proposed by the mid!92O3s. These are not considered in this Both passive and active compensators are in use today and so are all e compensation strategies. and several of them can be found in the pers of E. Owen. attention is focussed on the optimal deof compensators. virtual@. and Po. (91 The application of reactive power compensation must be done as economically as possible. Compensators are mally connected at the ends of a line or at discrete points along it. In equipment development. and compensation by ectioning.3. For examle. Con~pensatedTransmission Lines 85 TABLE 4 Classification of Co~npensatorsby Function and Type Function Surgeimpedance compensation (VirtualZo compensation) voltage control. in the ratings of planned synchronous generators. private communicatton. they modify the effective series reactance of the transmission line as a whole. reliability. virtualZo. 0. foreshadowing the modern thyri controlled reactor compensator.3. . reactive power management Passive Shunt reactors (1'inear or nonlinear) Shunt capacitors Active Synchronous machines Synchronous condensers Saturatedreactor compensators Thyristqrswitched capacitors Thyristorcontrolled reactors  ower in a power system can be enhanced by modifications to the design f existing (or planned) plant. the thyristorcontrolled leakage ansforrner (TCT). and contribute improvements in both voltage control and stability. shunt reactors and capacitors an often be advantageously relocated after a period of evolutionary g pattern of the system. In of their lumped or concentrated nature. E L . the thyristorswitched capacitor (TSC). F ted to the generators at either end of a line. and the modeling of compensators in ower systems on the digital computer. In some cases the management of reactive T Uniformly Distributed Fixed Compensation odified Line Parameters: Virtual Zo. the relative merits of series and shunt comschemes for long lines. Linelength compensation (Virtual@compensation) voltage control. who in 1925 discussed the use of s reactors controlled by thyratrons.3. stability improvement Compensation by sectioning Dynamic shunt compensation. They also give considerable Thts includes the thyristorcontrolled reactor (TCR). As another example. nsating equipment is introduced precisely because it is the least exe way of satisfying the reactive power requirements. This is typiy the case when the alternatives are an increase in the number of smission lines. 2.W. In the analytical field. stability improvement on longer lines Series capacitors  Synchronous condensers Saturatedreactor compensators Thyristorswitched capacitors Thyristorcontrolled reactors summarizes the classification of the main types of compensator accordi to their usual functions. The remaining sections of this chapter attempt to develop the theory of ompensation to the point where the state of the art can be understood in 11 the main compensation strategies and applications. the provision of reactive r at dc converter terminals. however.?) Rapidresponse excitation systems used on synchronous machines a1 have a strong and important compensating effect in a power system. feedback signals can be used in the automatic voltage regulators of onous machines to enhance the stability and enable an increase in transmission. the damping of power oscillations. Alexanderson. and hybrid forms. sometimes this is a cheaper way of imroving performance than installing compensation equipment. Although most of the fundamental concepts have a long pediree modern activity is considerable. ty is concentrated on the static reactive power controllert or static ensator.F.
and 18. The surge impedance Zo of an uncompensated line can be written where k.. while inductive shunt compensation has the reverse effect....e. (H/mile) is introduced.J (1 . without reference to extensive computer studies..Te. These relationships are shown graphically in Figures 16. is added instead of shunt inductance.. Effect of Distributed Compensation on Voltage Control. additional capacitive shunt compensation increases 8' and P. are the reactance and susceptance per mile of the shunt compensating inductance. then k s r is negative and has the value where x. on 1 can be shown to give: Z. Substituting for (ioc)' in Equation 53 the surge impedance has the effective or virtual value: 8' = .. Under heavy loading. that Figure I1 can be used to determine the midpoint voltage of a compensated line under load. All the equations in Section 2. and the virtual wavenumber pr (or 6' = a@') are substituted for the uncompensated values. if the virtual surge impedance Z.2 are valid for the line with uniformly distributed compensation. / z ~ . a flat voltage . If a uniformly distributed shunt compensating inductance l. For any fixed degree of series compensation. Shunt inductive compensation.. Equation 37 can be used to determine the maximum transmissible power and the load angle. are a useful measure of the reactive power ratings required of the compensating equipment.k s h )(1 . (62) The electrical length 8 is modified according to this equation also: 6 J(1 ..) .) (63) where 8 = a @ and 8' = ap'. and decreases Zd. and help to determine the fundamental nature of the type of compensation required. Combining the effects of shunt and series compensation. and k. The formulas derived are in most cases approximately true for practical systems with concentrated compensation because the spacing between compensators is limited by the same factors that limit the maximum length of uncompensated line.. therefore. If shunt capacitance c. the effective value of the shunt capacitive admittance per mile becomes Corresponding to the virtual surge impedance Z. k.Ic. that SO The wavenumber p is also modified and has the virtual value Pr = P J(1 Here xlSh and by. given by xyse and by. for example..3.k. and blsh are the reactance and susceptance Per mile of the shunt compensating capacitance. and Equation 29 can be used to determine the reactive power requirements at the ends of the line... 100% inductive shunt compensation (i.56 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission S y s l e n ~ s 2. i~Creasesthe virtual surge impedance. 17. = z0. The parameters k. is a virtual natural load Pi given by v . In a similar way the effect of uniformly distributed series capacitance c. This means. suggesting the use of shunt reactors to cancel the Ferianti effect./lT?.h = 1) reduces 6' and Pi to zero and increases Z i to infinity: this implies a flat voltage profile at zero load.k..~. Con~pensatedTransn~issionLines 87 physical insight.. is the degree of series conzpensatron. whereas shunt capacitive compensation reduces it. are the reactance and susceptance per mile of the series compensating capacitance.
4 0.4 . be used instead of shunt capacitors to give a flat voltage profile under heavy loading. The effect of series capacitive compensation (k. Their natural application is rather in stabilization.. Compensated Transmission Lines . k. At noload the midpoint voltage of a compensated symmetrical line is given by Equation 18: 2 can be seen through their effect on 8' that both series capacitive and unt inductive distributed compensation tend to reduce the Ferranti ltage rise. whereas shunt capacitive compensation tends to aggravate it. Virtual surge impedance Z as a function of kShand k. For example. Series capacitive compensation can..45 pu of distributed shunt capacitive compensation.. that is. that is.2 0..8 0.9 1..30 pu of distributed series compensation. (66) . and 8' Q s = .5) for a radial line. in order to transmit 1. according to Figure 17. = 0) would require about 0. In reality the lumped nature of series capacitors makes them unsuitable for line voltage control. to transmit 1.I 0 0.6 0.. = 0.7 0.. > 0) is to decrease Zd and 8' and to increase P i .3 0.0 ksh Capacitive ~ornpensation Inductive Compensation _rm FIGURE 16.1 0. k. (Uniformly distribCOS T_ profile can be restored by replacing the reactors with shunt capacitors.. (from Figure 17)...5 0.88 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. d uted cornpensatlon) ksh Inductive _rm Compensatlon Virtual natural load Pi as a function of k. in principle.P o tan . k. by reducing the virtual line length 8'.3 2 .. = 0.30. = 0) would require 0.7 6 .2 Po with a flat voltage profile without series capacitors (k. Effect of Distributed Compensation on LineCharging Reactive er.5 .2 Po with a flat voltage profile without shunt compensation (k. FIGURE 17.= Qr 2 ..45. At noload the linecharging reactive power which has to b sorbed by the terminal synchronous machines is given by Q s = P6 tan 8' (6.3. For example.
The compensation heme must now acquire a second objective. Virtual wavenuniber Pt/P as a function of k. Moreover. even though their electrical length is much less than 90". On the other hand. On the other hand a low 0' (and 0') can be obtained with series capacitors and/or inductive shunt compensation.e.90 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. then 6 will necessarily be near 6'.3. Compensated Transmission Lines be relieved by means of additional shunt inductive compensation (see Equation 67). ed compensat~on) (Uniformly distribut for a symmetrical line. With a significant degree of either shunt inductive or series capacitive compensation. 0' will tend to be small enough so that tan 0' = 6' and tan (872) = 0 1 / 2 . the maximum power is given by .. The effect of uniformly distributed compensation on the maximum transmissible power (i. Only series capacitive compensation contributes to both objectives. If P i and 6 are now substituted from Equations 61 and 63 into Equation 66. If the terminal voltages are held constant at Vo. From Figure 17. It is common for shuntcompensated lines not exceeding about 200 mi in length to be loaded above the uncompensated natural load. The first general objective of a compensation scheme is to produce a high value of P o .. Effect of Distributed Compensation on Maximum Power. the factor cancels. lines longer than about 300500 mi cannot be loaded even up to the natural load because of the excessive uncompensated electrical length. Static reactive power controllers can also be used with advantage instead of synchronous condensers. These objectives will be recogized as the fundamental requirements of transmission (Section 2. not all transmission systems requiring compensation requlre it for botf?objectives. which is to ensure that 0' is all enough so that the transmission is stable. transmission Equation 37 can be very approximately written: The power {C Capacitive Compensation Inductive Com~ensation Sm * kSh FIGURE 18. Of course. the steadystate stability limit) is determined from Equation 37 as follows. equivalent to an increase in P i . and k. If the line is long enough to justify series compensation in the first place. and for the symmetrical line In the absence of shunt inductive compensation ( k s h 0) the series= compensated line generates roughly as much linecharging reactive power at noload as a completely uncompensated line of the same length. If the system is operated with P near P .1.2). the tendency of the synchronous machines to run underexcited at all but the heaviest loads degrades the stability which the capacitors are intended to enhance. This problem can When P = P i . a high P i can be obtained with series capacitors nd/or capacitive shunt comuensation. . that is. (Figure 18).. Series compensation schemes have virtually always included synchronous condensers and/or shunt reactors for this purpose. This may be provided by shunt capacitors. Short lines may require voltage support. the power level at which the voltage profile is flat.. In these cases the reduction of 0' is the first priority. the reactive power absorption required in the terminal synchronous machines at noload will be excessive. provided that 0' does not become excessive as a result. that P is not too se to the steadystate stability limit. 6 = 0' and the equation is exactly true..
!..o sin 8.0 Pmx '  PO 40 . is not much affected by the additional shunt e compensation. This is borne out by numerical exa The effect of series compensation by itself ( k s h= 0 ) is shown in l 9 where P A / P o is plotted as a function of k.2 0. Figure 18 gives 6' = 0. EBect o r series compensation on maximum transmissible power..3. while the midpoint voltage at noload is 9 pucomparable to that of an uncompensated symmetrical line of Ideally it is desirable to compensate a line in such a way that the normai actual load is equal to the virtual natural load P..... and may be desirable to employ shunt reactors to limit it.214 Po. but the virtual natural load is appreciably reduced nd so is the electrical length.5). The natural load would be unacceptably close to the stability limit.k s h ) ] The form of this equation Suggests that a given degree of series camp sation has a more Pronounced effect on P. The same I (71) FIGURE 19..4 0..447 0 = 31.5. high values of kse can lead to resonance problems. and PA. The maximum power.92 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transnlission Systems 2. These voltages are unacceptably w.869 pu. Adding niformly distributed shunt reactance. As already indicat&. in practice it is rare to find kse> 0. 8' = 22 9 = 1. ( N shunt ~ compensatronj .066 Po. and 63. the power transfer would have to be no more than out onehalf the natural load. the terminal voltes have to be E. The improvement in PA.0°. Figure 19 gives pi. = 321 Po. that is.236/4../PO is marked for higher value kse('0. With P = 0. = 0.. or state stability limit..8. 6. Furthermore./P~ for the compensated line. as well as to reeve the generators of some of the reactive power absorption. to decrease the transmission angle at the virtual natural load. At noload the uncompensated midpoint voltage of this line would rise 1.. because the factors (1 . At the virtual natural load the transmisangle is 22.0  5. The terminal wer factors are both unity and no reactive power has to be supplied or sorbed at the ends of the line. from Equations 70 and 61 this is 1. Equation 32 shows t in order to maintain a midpoint voltage of 1.2" = 8' and the voltage profile is flat.  An example of the use of Figures 16 through 19 and their associated equations is as follows. Compensated Transmission Lines Combining this with Equations 8.321) = 31. Phax .. With series compensation the midpoint volte would rise to only 1.218 pu (Equation 18).038 pu. the transmission angle is sin' ( P : / P & ) = sin' . with ksh= 0..818./P.7" and P. / ( I . The effect of compensation is to improve the ratio P.8 . The internal reactance of the terminal nchronous machines would tend to cause this voltage to be higher. = 1.704 kVAr of linecharging reactive power for every kW power transmitted.icsh)] .. from Equation 31 the terminal synchronous machines ve to absorb 0.. for stability assessment it is useful to be able to calculate the ratio P. 61. 1 .0 pu. than does the same deg shunt compensation.5 Po.  20 .0 Line lengths shown are in miles I t 0 I I 1 1 0 pmax = 1 0./cse) (I . To operate the line with a transmission gle of 6 = 30°. = E. and Figure 17 gives Pb = 36 Po. operating at a leading (underexcited) power factor 0.6 kse 0. A line 600 miles long has uncompensated values of 8 = 69..ksh) in the denomi produce opposing influences. This is clearly a marked improvement in e power transmission characteristics of the line. If the power transmitted is now equal to the virtual natural d P i .581 Po. for various 1 lengths. becomes 4. With 80% series compensation.kse)( 1.2".
k.3. a flat voltage profile is obtained only at zero load. ( a ) Effect of regulated shunt compensation on power transmission characteristic. With series (capacitive) compensation the reactance is modifiedto X. . compensation. If k S h were varied only slowly. from Equation 39. As the power varies.6 curve. However. = 0. Therefore.3. respectively. since at the virtual natural load 6 = 8' = @'a. 6 = B./ Shunt compensation regulated to make PbP at all limes 4P This relationship is not markedly different from Figure 19. If there were any "slack" or dead band in the response of ksh to a change of P. Considering shunt compensation only (k.4. given by Equation 69 with k. Uniformly Distributed Regulated Shunt Compensation FIGURE 20.. P i = 0 . Again. that is. A line operating at the natural load has a flat voltage profile and. a rapid change of P would cause the operating point to move along the sinusoidal P . that is. with 100% shunt reactive compensation. The performance of the regulated shunt compensation can be further understood in terms of Figure 20b. Some of these curves are drawn in Figure 20b. could be continuously regulated in such a way that Pd = P at all times. with ksl. A special case arises when k S h= 1. as shown in Figure 2 0 a .6 curve corresponding to the current value of ksh and if 6 > ~ / 2 rad the system would not be stable. Equation '70 reduces to ..94 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Trans~nission Systems 2.(I .. it must also be continuous. For every fixed value of kShthere is a sinusoidal P ..6 characteristic and is given by At zero power the P . 2. which is an ideal system of compensation to which the closest approach in practice is compensation by sectioning. = O). The simplest and probably the only practical way to control the compensation is not to try to control ksh directly. The line with 100% shunt compensation behaves exactly as a series inductance or reactance Xi = wal. tangent to the sinusoidal P . In practice any compensating devices would not be uniformly distributed..) Then 8' = S at ail times. therefore.6 line is.)..6. the operating point would move along the "current" sinusoidal P . (See Equation 61. Compensated Transmission Lines result can of course be deduced from Figure 18.. suppose that k.= 1. described in detail in Section 2. It is essential to realize that at large transmission angles the stability is maintained only if kShcan be varied rapidly enough to keep up with any change of P that might occur.6 curve. the transmission angle is then equal to the electrical length of the line. ( 6 ) Composition of Figure 20a from constantkSh curves. There would be a tendency towards sustained limitcycling or hunting of the operating point. suggesting that the maximum transmissible power is irEfinite.'= X. and when the compensation reacted it would have to overcorrect. the maximum power is not appreciably affected by shunt compensation. that is. The constant in Equation 74 is the slope of the P . This section develops the theory of uniformly distributed regulated shunt. This implies a linear relationship between P and 6 . Substituting for P i and 8' from Equations 61 and 6 3 . The regulation of k S hmust not only be sufficiently rapid. with P. way that it always lies on the straight line with positive slope. A line with ideal regulated shunt compensation is said to be dynamical(y stabilized.6 characteristic of the line with 100% Jixed shunt compensation (ksh = 1). The equations used so far do not suggest how such a compensation scheme could be realized in practice. the regulating mechanism (whatever it is) adjusts k s h so that the operating point continually shifts from one curve to another in such a. but would be lumped at discrete intervals along the line.
There are 0th practical limits to the performance of the regulated shunt compensat scheme. saturatedreactor compensators. In the case of very long lines.4. Baum's compensators uld have been synchronous condensers. the stability of the entire system may be seriously impaired. they are connected at the ends of the line and at interediate pointsusually at intermediate switching substations.1. since by continuously forcing the voltage to be constant and equal to Voat several points along the line the condition P i = P is automatically satisfied whatever the value of P. This equation is valid also for fixed compensation if P = Ph. A second the problem that if the regulating function fails in one compensator (or it reaches a reactivepower limit and continues as a fixed shunt susceptance). Control of OpenCircuit Voltage with Shunt Reactors t compensation with reactors increases the virtual surge impedance re 16) and reduces the virtual natural load. Reactive Power Required for Compensation.0 the voltage profile is flat noload (or on opencircuit) . Fro Equations 76 and 61 with k. = 0 and P = P& Q.6). In practice. the use of series as well as shunt comp tion. [ [rl2].. A typical rangement for a doublecircuit line is shown in Figure 23. This can also be expressed in terms of the current value of ksh. the switching stations may occur typically at intervals of between 50 and 250 mi. ~ a u m (as 'a means ~ securing constant voltage along a long line. PASSIVE SHUNT COMPENSATION 2. that is.(16' 2. Perhaps the most serious limit is that the dynamic characteristic is straight only while the compensation equipment is within its capacitive current rating. = Poeksh . a higher transmission voltage... On shorter lines. With kSh= 1. The reactive power required is capacitive if P > Ph and it increases with the square of the transmitted power. the overvoltage problem is less severe and the reactors may be switched frequently to assist in the hourbyhour management of reactive power as the load varies.2. FIGURE 22. a very large amount of compensating capacitance may be required (see Section 2. at least some of the shunt reactors are permanently connected to the line (as shown in Figure 23) in order to give maximum security against overvoltages in the event of a sudden rejection of load or opencircuiting of the line. Passive Shunt Compensation but to design the compensation as constant voltage regulators. One of the of these is the 735 kV James Bay Transmission scheme between Bay and MontrCal.4. G.g. Phasor diagram of line with regulated uniformly distributed shunt compensation. Constantvoltage Compensators v2wc)a = po9 1 . shunt compensating reactors cannot be uniformly distribed. Shunt FIGURE 21. There will be a transmitted power above which it is uneconomic to provide the necessary reactive power. but the stability issue was t fully understood at that time and no mention was made of the namic nature of this compensation scheme. or on sections of line between unswitched reactors. It is of interest to note that the concept of distributed unt compensation was proposed in 1921 by F. The phasor diagram of a system with ideal regulated shunt compensan is shown in Figure 21 and Figure 22 is an approximate lumped uivalent circuit. In order to significantly improve the transmission characteristic while maintaining adequate stability margins. A truly dynamically compented line was not built until more than half a century later. On a long radial line. the load at which at voltage profile is achieved. canada. It is given by Q . ilne ~apacitince . Llne inductance. Such constantvoltage compensators are active compensators and can be synchronous condensers. or the use of high voltage direct current (HVDC)]. Oneis the speed of response of the compensators.4. or thyristorcontrolled compensators. =(12wl . . Instead. QuCbec. and at this level alternatives may need to be considered [e. Approximate equivalent circuit of line with regulated uniformly distributed shunt compensation. The total reactive power which must be absorbed or supplied by the compensating equipment is easily calculated because the line voltage is constant.
this can be rearranged to give E. X must be given by I = j .F = . . cos Q . Required Reactance Values of Shunt Reactors. 200 mi) Voltage and current profiles of a shuntcompensated line at noload. Passive Shunt Compensation a = 200 miles Intermediate Switching Station FIGURE 23.= j . The receivingend voltage is given by V. 79. = . at the sending end. = V.j .sin Q + I. and 80.Es zO sin Q . From Equation 2 a . cos pa = + jZoIrsin pa V. which has a single shunt reactor of reactance X at the receiving end and a pure voltage source E.ES 1 . If there is a sudden loadrejection or opencircuiting of the line.t A simple approach to the problem for a single line is. For the receivingend voltage to be equal to the sendingend voltage. instructive.cos Q ~ . therefore. and Vr are. This means that the generator at the sending end behaves exactly like the shunt reactor at the receiving end in that both absorb the same amount of reactive power: Q =Q =. Arrangement of shunt reactors on a longdistance highvoltage ac transmis. cos Q I + .sin Q 20 1 Making use of Equations 78.COS sins e I.2 A comparattve study of several shunt and series compensation schemes was published by Iliceto and ~ i n i e r i .98 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transntission Systerns 2. it may be necessary to disconnect them very quickly. la = The sendingend current is given by Equation 26 as E. 2 E.XI.= X= t sin Q zo 1 . . to prevent them from increasing the voltage still futher.Current profile FIGURE 24. taking into account all possible system configurations.in phase. Consider the simple circuit in Figure 24.cos Q .4. The calculation of the optimum ratings and points of connection of shunt reactors and capacitors is generally done by means of extensive loadflow studies.. = V. nevertheless.I r since E. slon line. (78) (bl .Voltage profile capacitors are usually switched. zo (81) E. ( ~ ) x zo[ 1 . which is consistent with the fact that no real power is being transmitted. . and also to reduce the likelihood of ferroresonance where transformers remain connected.
021 p.429 Po in the absence of the compensating reactor. the equivalent on 83 as 0.2027 Po.3. With urzifortnly distributed compensation and . the reactive power to be absorbed from each . Voltage profile voltage is 1. These values should be compared with the receivingen age of 1. the voltage and current profiles in Figure 24 could section shown in Figure 24 are equal in magnitude and phase. = 1.2055 Po. and a eactive power of 205.4. = 0. B = 8. then from Equation 80 the receivingend hunt reactor has X = 1216 R = 4. The maximum voltage occurs at the midpoint an is given by Equation 2a with x = a/2: E.100mi halfsection h given by Equation 77 as 0.2 (Equation 55) ran be used define k S h for lumped compensation if bYsh is replaced by the total of the composite line. Z o being 250 R . and is shown i Figure 24 together with the linecurrent profile.u.2055 Po. FIGURE 25.100 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. at the midpoint it is zero.5 MVAr. corresponding to the charging reactive . 1f z0 250 R . Equation 84 shows that with the shunt reactor the line behaves at n load as though it were two separate opencircuited lines placed backt back and joined at the midpoint. Passive Shunt Compensation The charging current divides equally between the two halves of the lin The voltage profile is symmetrical about the midpoint. In the left half of th line the charging current is negative. currents are equal but opposite in phase. ach intermediate reactor can be thought of as absorbing the lineging current or reactive power from two halfsections of line. and the reactive power absorbed at each end 0. and in th right half it is positive. each of along the line. The correct conditions co In the shuntcompensated systems in Figures 24 and 25. Current profile Line compensated with multlple shunt reactors at noload.22 x S. The two figures differ by about The definition of k S h given in Section 2. The opencircuit voltage rise on eac half is given by Equation 84. replacing a by a h in Equation 80 gives the r quired reactance of each of the intermediate reactors: = threephase) .866 pu. For conti ous duty at noload with a line voltage of 500 kV (phasetophase) phase.088 pu and the sendingend reactivepower absorption Q.
O PIPo 1.1.97 Leading power factor + L I I I I 0.955 pu.5 I (bi 0.8  1$ Oo (cl 0. at which level the voltage has decreased 0. 1.375 Po. Vokage control by means of swrtched shunt compensation..0 0. Voltage Control by Means of Switched Shunt Compensation The voltage regulation diagram for the line of Figure 24 is shown in Figure 26 for three different power factors. It is useful to study this case in detail because it an be meaningfully compared with the seriescompensated line treated in n 2./4 connected at the ends can be omitted from the analysis it is remembered that the terminal synchronous machines absorb their active power at all times.5 2. When P = 0.04 Po. 1 .5 1 . The voltage conrol in this illustrative example is very coarse.4.4. a = 200 miles (0) 1.97 lagging.75 Po the capacitor is connected. and it susins the voltage above 0. the shunt reactor is connected nd reduces the uncompensated opencircuit voltage from 1.O pu. 2.O .4..088 pu to . and similarly for I. The terminal synchronous machines are assumed to have tant voltage and zero internal reactance. those labeled "L" apply when the shunt reactor discussed in Section 2. In effect. In this example the load power factor is sumed to be 0. To account for this.4.1 is connected. Passive Shunt Compensation 103 power of half the line. In practice.97 Laggmg power factor he shunt reactor or capacitor located at the midpoint of a symmetrical ne is a special case of the line with rz . The actor is then disconnected and the line remains uncompensated between = 0.75 Po. which may be switched on or off.95 pu until Preaches 1. Its application is in the control of line voltage and power factor. t which level the receivingend voltage has decreased to 0. The 1 = value of ksh in this example is 8.22 x 104/(100 x 8 x The use and interpretation of kshrtherefore. Figure 26b illustrates the principle by which the receivingend voltage n be kept more or less constant as the load varies. This vantage is lost if the shunt reactor is permanently connected. as will Each half of the line is represented by its nequivalent circuit as in re 27a.9 Es 0. 0 I . I.95 pu. It has n = 2. and those labeled "C" apply when a capacitor of equal reactance is connected instead of the reactor.4. .0 Power factor Capacitor C = Capacitor connected he fact that the "L" curve lies below the "U" curve in every case flects the fact that on the uncompensated line the linecharging reactive wer supports the voltage to a significant degree under load.5 and the line compensated by sectioning in Section 2. The two capacitive shunt usceptances B. by switching the actor and the capacitor. 2.3.5 L = Reactor connecred The Midpoint Shunt Reactor or Capacitor 0.2.102 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transn~ission Systems 2. is written = I: j(Bc/4)E. which is 100 x 2 = 200 MVAr. the switching shunt reactors and/or capacitors is coordinated with the control of tapanging transformers and other voltageregulating equipment to mainIn the voltage within narrower limits than are indicated in Figure 266. The central half of the line is compensated by a single shunt reacor or capacitor. It remains connected until the power transfer reaches 0. but whose susceptance annot be varied continuously.0 FIGURE 26. 1. At zero load. has to be treated wi over longer line sections.1 reactors considered in Secon 2. The curves labeled "U" are for the uncompensated line. The degree of compensation for the central half is given by 1. the two extreme quarers of the line length have 100°/o compensation of their shunt capaciance.375 Po and P = 0.6.
The midpoint voltage can be expressed as v. . If cos (6/2)/(1 . being the shunt susceptance of the whole line. Analysis o f line compensated with midpoint reactor or capacitor.I. = E cos (812) 1.. impedance. = E.s).s) X I B. is capacitive.1. making the virtual natural load zero. The basic relati&ships are Compensating Susceptance (0) v. ate the midpoint voltage sag under load. = E . . hich shows that with s < 1 the midpoint compensation increases the midpoint voltage by the factor 1/(1 .Bc 2 From these it can be shown that with E. = 1 the shunt capacitance is canceled along the entire line length. If the terminal voltages are adjusted to keep V = Vo= 1 pu .). and is unity when B.I. negative if B. This factor of increase tends to t the voltage drop in the series reactance of the line and.s FIGURE 27.) = 2(1. The line is practically reduced to its series . P E.2. is arbitrarily taken as positive if B. If k. B. At fundamental frequency. Ish = 1. therefore. x.s ) > 1 e midpoint voltage exceeds the terminal voltages even under heavy load. E2 sin 6 . is inductive. = Bc/2. Only at noload is the voltage profile flat. s=(I2 4 k.4./2 (Equation 86). The phasor diagram is given in Figure 27r.= 2 a .) = =J . The compensating susceptance is then a reactor of admittance B. the equivalent circuit reduces to Figure 27b. Passive Shunt Compensation 105 k.t1 .
4 X (98) This expression includes the reactive power of the extreme capaciti branches of the nequivalent circuits. < 0).02 1 pu = 510.6 = 101.978 leading at the If the reactor is replaced by a capacitor of equal susceptance. which is about onetenth of the natural load.106 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. that is. I' The shortsection nequivalent circuit is used tn this example.s I 2 + cos 6 ) .978 pu = 489 kV (phasetophase). = 1 and s = 0. k. The terminal currents are given by &=IF = I m I. = B. No load Reactor connected a E~ Bck. The terminal reactive powers are given by Equation 95.s).4054 pu.111 = 0./Zo = Q = 0.0 pu = 500 kV. 6 = 23. = E.6 MVA per phase. > 0) and negative for a capacitor (k. and from Equation 91 0. Note that here we hav written xl = XI/Zo= Q = p a .S) (2 . Among other equations of interest for the midpointcompensated sym metrical line are the following. and from Equation 90. midpoint voltage would be V = 1.7(2k.. An example illustrates the features of the midpointcompensated line. = cos(612) = 0. 4 Es 3 =  Qr = E3 V. 9 Es Vm ?. is positive for a reactor (k. The voltage profile is as shown in Figure 28b. Vn.978 lagging at the sending end and 0. at the natural lozd P = Po = 1000 MW (threephase).B$]+jV. The terminal reactive powers are given by Q [ Bc (phaseneutral). Passive Shunt Compensation 107 while the power transfer is increased. which the terminal synchrono machines must absorb at all times. (a.4054 Capacitor connected FIGURE 28. The voltage profile is approximately flat. For a 200mi line Bc/ Yo = X.4. the . With the reactors connected.2027 perunit of Yo. then their values are given by th equation E s = E r = VJm. (1 4 (1 . The reactive power of the midpoint compensating susceptance is given by Q.. The midpoint voltage is given by Equation 92: with E = 1. This agrees with the approximate figure obtained by reckoning 2 MVA/mi for the three phases over the central 100mi section of the line (see Table 3). giving a terminal power factor of 0. and its reactivepower rating would be [500/a12/ 1233 = 67.? For 100% compensation of the line capacitance B.4 MVA.92". Voltage profiles of line with mtdpornt shunt compensation. 2  31 3 .4054 Yo [ l .x 250 = 12330 0.5 kV (see Figure 5b ).k./2 = 0. At 500 kV with Zo = 2500 the required shunt reactor would have a reactance of Es "m Er a 3 Reactor connected r x = 2 z Bc O  .4054 Zo 2 0.(1 . tr Note that Q. Without the reactor. = V = 500 kV (phasetophase). which can be deduced from the phasor diagram.s). With the midpoint reactors connected. k . = 1  V : Bc . 212 MVAr generation at each end. with E. = Vrn E. At noload the terminal synchronous machines must each absorb L/z x 3 x 67.(. .0411 . .
with so much compensation it would either become unaccep ably high. The Iine reactance. the central concept in series compensation is to cancel part of the reactance of the line by means of series capacitors. 2. It is for voltage and power tor control that this type of compensation is normally used. 6 = 22. This requires k. or become excessively sensitive to the switching of the capa tor. however. The capacitor reactance is determined by the desired steadystate and transient power transfer characteristics..6). = 1. and it would be difficult to control transient voltages and currents during disturbances. This increases the maximum power. is made capacitive (k. as well as by the location of the capacitor on the line.t The capacitor is shown split into two 1 series parts for convenience in analysis. 2. is made inductive (k. being effectively reduced. the susceptance has to large and dytzanzically cotitrolled.108 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2. The circuit would also be series resonant at the fundamental frequency. Sometimes a series capacitor is used to increase the load share on one of two or more parallel linesespecially where a highervoltage line overlays a lowervoltage line in the same corridor. The seriescapacitor effect in the transmissionangle characteristic is weak and . As a means of reducing the "transfer reactance" between the ends of a line. SERIES COMPENSATION(^^^^) Symmetrical Line with Midpoint Series Capacitor and Shunt Reactors Objectives and Practical Limitations As discussed in Section 2. symmetrical line with a midnt series capacitor on either side of which are connected two equal nt reactors (see Figure 29a). Series Compensation 109 At the natural load. The voltage rating is determined by the severity of the worst anticipated fault currents through the capacitor and any bypass quipment"severity" being a function of duration as well as magnitude.(2)as will be seen.5. replaced by s. In other words. A practical upper limit to the degree of series compensation is of the order of 0. 2.88" and from Equation 9 V . In the preceding example the midpoint susceptance is much effective in controlling the line voltage and the terminal power f than in reducing the transmission angle. It can be used to increase the power transfer on a line of any length. so that the smallest disturbance in the relative rotor angles of the terminal synchronous machines would result in the flow of large currents. The terminal reactive powers are now each 9 MVAr a sorption at each end. reduces the transmission angle at a given level of power transfer. now absorbs less of e case studied in this section is a lossless. the series capacitor finds two main classes of application: 1. the shunt capacitatice of the line has a stabilizing itzfluetzce on the powe transtnission which can be enhanced if B. < 0) or weakened if B. which says that if B. As would be expected with such a low value of the stabilizing influence of the midpoint capacitor is insignifican although the midpoint voltage support is worthwhile.5. This makes for an uneven voltage profile.2.5. The purpose of the shunt ors is to control the line voltage. this is illustrated by an example in ther configurations are studied in Reference 2. Its location is decided partly by economic factors and partly by the severity of fault currents (which are a function of the capacitor location). often necessitating some form of shuntductive compensation. The form of Equation 90 suggests a parallel between the midpointcompensated line and the seriescompensated line because the coefficie of sin 6 is of the same form as Equation 109 with k. For these reasons the single passive shunt susceptance not a practical way of increasing the maximum transmissible power of long line. On long lines shunt inductive compensation is usually also necessary in order to limit the line voltage. = I the effective Iine reactance would be zero. this sense s can be interpreted as an equivalent degree of series compensation. For shunt stabilization of a long line.is obtained only with s < 1. > 0). as for example in the thyristorcontrol1 or saturatedreactor compensators (see Section 2. It can be used to enable power to be transmitted stably over a greater distance than is possible without compensation.. e linecharging reactive power. In practice lumped capacitors are installed at a small number of locations (typically one or two) along the line. since the midpoint voltage is also subject to the 1/(1. With k. It appea from Equation 90 that a significant effect on the transmission angle wou be achieved only if s were an order of magnitude larger than in the exa ple: this would be the case if the line length were very much lon and/or if the capacitive compensating susceptance were extremely However. 2.s ) . .022 pu.3. Clearly it is not practicable to distribute the capacitance in small units along the line.1. is inductive it must not be so large as to compensate all the shunt capacitance of the central half of the line. from Equation 90.8. and increases the virtual natural load.5.. < 1. or both.
Then other quantities can be found from Equations 99 I. = E. V .=11+=IZj. V.. With fixed terminal volt= the transmission angle 6 can be determined from y level of power transmission below the maximum. Consideri the lefthand (sendingend) line section. ( c ) Equivalent circuit with perfect shunt pensation.+ Er + . Series Conlpensation The currents I1and I2are given by jV 1 1.sin V1 z o e e . can be determined from Equation 104. = V1 cos 2 I. = .6 to derive sfer characteristic (Equation 37). 6 is known.+ I1cos .. = e e + jZoII sin 2 2 j.tan . By symmetry. VJ.1. . The general phasor diagram is shown in Figure 29b. as reference phasor. The capacitor rea tance is X. the following px= 1 Zo sin 0 + . P = = V I ..Xcv. gx.I/2VCY v2+ 1/2Vcy. This yields the fol Es (c) FIGURE 29. The most familiar form of the seriescompensated power transfer haracteristic is obtained from Equation 105 by ignoring the shunt capaci .110 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Trar~snlissionSystems 2. and taking V. PowerTrans'fer Characteristics and Maximum Transmissible Po er.1 + cos e X = + . the conditions at its two en are related by the fundamental Equation 2: E. and the voltage across the capacitor is given by V.5. = E. 2 The receivingend half of the line behaves similarly. and v.V2 = jIn. = l/wC. z0 X e 2 (106) the absence of the shunt reactors.2. it is possito follow the same procedure as was used in Section 2. ( a ) Symmetrical line w ~ t hmidpoint sertes capacitor and shunt rea ( b ) General phasor diagram for Figure 290. iGh p j i z uation 103.. V2 X X (102) ships.
112
SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems
2.5.
Series Compensation
113
tance of the line and removing the shunt reactors. Then Z o sin 0 is r placed by X[ and p, = 1, so that with E, = E, = E ,
d series compensation (Equation 70). Reference 2 describes this comrison for the scheme of Figure 29a, as well as for several other capacilocations. (See also Section 2.5.3). active Power Requirements at the Terminals. he bendingend terminal is given by Q,
=
P=
1 , 
E2
x,,
=
sin 6 .
The reactive power at
If the degree of series compensation k,, is defined by
x, c k,, = 
Im(E,I ; . )
X,
XY C 
wal'
rom Equations 99 through 102, it can be shown that E,
= F,
then
P
=
X!(l  kSJ
E2
sin 6 ,
V mcos 2
+ j v m
Zosin  
0
2
w .,xc, cOs 3
2
I
which corresponds to Equation 72. This form of the powertransf characteristic is useful because of its simplicity. The error resulting fro the neglect of shunt capacitance is illustrated in the example of Se tion 2.5.3. 2. Another important special case arises when the shunt reactors ar chosen to compensate the line capacitance perfectly as discussed in Sec tion 2.4.1. Their reactances are then each X = Zo
,
.
z 1 + cos 0 . o
p',
=
z o
0
1  cos (612)
sin (012)
'
From Equation 106 the shunt reactance factor p, reduces to
p, =
the absence of the shunt reactors, d I : Eauation 113, the result is in
1 (= C L x ) . Substituting for E,
0 sec 2
and the powertransfer characteristic becomes (with E, = E, = E) E2 sin 6 . 9 2Zo sin   Xcy 2 The perfect shunt compensation of the capacitance of each half of t line leaves only the series reactance in the equivalent circuit, which shown in Figure 29c. This equivalent circuit does not take into accou the fact that because the shuntinductive compensation is concentrate the line voltage profile is not perfectly flat, even at noload. The maximum transmissible power computed from Equation 105 can be compared with the value obtained with uniformly distributed shu
P=
symmetry the reactive power at the receiving end is Q, =  Q,. In all ses V mis given by Equation 104, with 6 derived from Equation 105. ecial Cases: 1. In the absence of the shunt reactors ion 117 for Q, and  Q , reduces to
p', = p, =
1 and the Equa
114
SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems
Q
=
51sine [:j2 [$r [$I2 $1
2
 cos 6
2.5.
Series Compensation
115
capacitor and the two halves of the line behave as backtoback opencircuited lines each with a shunt reactor at its re
[l 2.5.3.
Example of a SeriesCompensated Line
[f
.
In the absence of the series capacitor and the shunt reactors, this eq tion reduces to Equation 29 for the uncompensated line2. 1f the shunt reactors are designed for perfect noload compensati (Equation 110), then p, is given by Equation 111 and F', by px=XCSC? Then the following simplifications arise:
ollowing example shows the mechanism of series compensation in eady state. In order to demonstrate the importance of the accomng shunt reactors, the example is worked with and without them. is again emphasized that the midpoint is only one of many possible ons for the series capacitor, and is not necessarily always the most able, either technically or economically. For a comparative steadyevaluation of different capacitor locations, the reader is referred to dpoint Series Capacitor Without Shunt Reactors. The example is a 400mi line, in order to facilitate comparisons with examples elseapter.t With a = 400 mi, the electrical length is pa = 0.8108 rad or 46.5". In the perunit system based on Vo and the perunit reactance is X, = 0.8108 and the total shunt capacitive eptance is 3, = 0.8108 pu. The series compensating capacitor is sen so as to compensate 50% of the line reactance, so that X,, = x 0.8108 = 0.4054 pu. (A: 500 kV with Z o = 250 R , X,, = t midpoint shunt reactors, X = w and p, = = 1. at the terminal voltages are constant, E, = E , = Vo = 1.0 quation 104 the noload midpoint voltage (with 6 = 0) is @/2) = 1.0882 pu. Since there is no current through the series car, this voltage appears also on both sides of it. From Equation 105 power transfer characteristic is given by sin 6 sin 0.8108 x 0.4054(1
zo
6
and
ps) 
(p',y
+ p,)
cos 6 = 2
CL'XP,
=
X sin 6 .
220
The terminal reactive powers become
o  s=  2
I%
+ cos 0.8108)
(123)
Po ] 2 [ 2 ] 2 { % [ 1
 2 co
=
+
[ [tZl2
2.6144 sin 6 .
:s7:6]sin6 1   
with Q , =  Q,. Note that at noload ( P = that is, the reactive power absorption at the that in the lefthand shunt reactor. (See Set load the receivingend absorption equals the reactive Power in the r hand shunt reactor, both being eCl~alto v$/X. At noload there
re were no compensation P,,, would be 1.3796 pu (from Equa, so the series capacitor increases P,,, by a factor of 1.3796 = 1.8950. If the compensation were uniformly distributed P,,, would be 2.6072 P o (from Equation 70), which is different from the value obtained here with lumped
utedparameter representallon has been used for both halves of h e , and no1 the equivalentv circuits as in Secr~ons and 2.6. 2.4
116
SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transnlission Systems
2.5.
Series Con~pensation
117
The reactive power requirements at the terminals can be calc from Equation 118, which gives
TABLE 5
Q,
=
Q,
=
[
1
P 0.2079T  0.3624
Im
V;
Terminal Reactive
TransMission
6
where p = P I P o and v, = V m / Y o . From Equations 100 and 1 voltage on either side of the capacitor ( V l = V 2 )is given by
V ,=
V m j 0.2027  .
vm
l
("1
,
The voltage across the series capacitor is given by
5.487
1.0880 1.0872 1.0859 1.0841 1.0816 1.0784 1.0688
0.0932 0.1871 0.2824 0.3798 0.4805 0.5860 0.8218
10.440 21.249 32.932 46.456 64.966 unstable unstable
V,
=
jImX,,
=
 j 0.4054 .
vm
P
11.026 16.671 22.488 28.563 0.0440 35.01 1 49.906
Table 5 shows the variation of these parameters as the power trans creases from zero through 2.0 pu. Also shown is the variation transmission angle that would be obtained without compensation. given power transfer, this is about twice the value obtained wit series capacitor installed. Although there is a marked reduction in transmission angle, the age V l (= V 2 ) on either side of the series capacitor is rather high, there is very little reduction as the power increases. In addition the appreciable absorption of reactive power at the line ends, even at the ural load Po. This can be associated with the generally high voltage ditions along the line, together with the fact that the series capacitor generates reactive power. Midpoint Series Capacitor with Shunt Reactors. The high volta reactive power absorption at the ends of the line means of shunt reactors. The value of X required series capacitor is given by Equation 110 as X = 4.8656 Zo. From tions 119 and 111, pi = 0.5211 and p X = 1.0882. Substituting in tion 105, or directly from Equation 112,
indicates a flat voltage profile at noload (when 6 = O ) , The reacwer requirements are given by Equation 122 or 117 as
voltage on either side of the series capacitor ( VI = V J is the same voltage across the shunt reactors and is given again by
P
=
2.6084 sin 6 .
The maximum transmissible power is hardly affected by the the shunt reactors. With uniformly distributed kSh 1 and from Equation 7 2 , P = Po/0.8108 = The midpoint voltage V, is given by Equation 104 as
e capacitor voltage by
v,, = 1.0
cos , 2
6
118
SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems
2.6.
Compensation by Sectioning (Dynamic Shunt Compensation)
119
Table 6 shows the variation of these parameters as the power transfer increases from zero through 2 Po. The voltage on either side of the series capacitor is nearly 1.0 pu over practically the whole range of power transfer, implying that the shunt reactors could be permanently connected without disadvantage. The reactive absorption at the terminals is considerably reduced, and at high values of P the terminal power factors become lagging, which may be beneficial to transient stability because the internal generator voltages are increased. Note that shunt reactors have not been connected at the line ends, although it is quite practical to do this. In the calculations the generators at the ends fulfill the shunt compensating function, and at noload each absorbs exactly the same amount of reactive power as one of the central shunt reactors,that is, the linecharging reactive power of one 100mi section (=0.2055 P o ) .
TABLE 6 Performance of Midpoint Series Compensated Line with Shunt Reactors ( a = 400 mi, k s , = 0.5, Shunt Reactor X = 4.8656 Za)
2.6.
COMPENSATION BY SECTIOWIW;Q;('~~~) (DYNAMIC SHUNT COMP
2.6.1.
Fundamental Concepts
If a synchronous machine is connected at an intermediate point along a transmission line, it can maintain constant the voltage at that point, just as the terminal synchronous machines do at the ends. In so doing, it divides the line into two sections which are apparently quite independent. The voltage profile, the maximum transmissible power, and the reactive power requirements of each section can then be determined separatelythe problems in each independent section being less severe than in the line as a whole. The maximum transmissible power in particular is now determined by the "weakest link in the chain," which is generally the longest section. For example, if a line is sectioned into two equal halves, then if shunt capacitance is neglected (or completely compensated by shunt reactors), the power transmission characteristic is given by Equation 38 for each half of the line separately. Thus, replacing 6 by 612 and XI by Xl/2, with E, = E, = E , P=2
EmE
XI
p= P
v,=
vm
Po
vo
Terminal Reactive Power
Transmission Angle S
6
v1
vo
v c ~
v o
Without Compensation
6 sin  , 2
0
10.440 21.249 32.932 46.456 64.966
unstable unstable
where Em is the midpoint voltage, held constant by the synchronous machine or by some other constantvoltage compensating device. The maximum transmissible power is doubled. This scheme, called "compensation by sectioning," was proposed by F. G. Baum in 1921 (See Reference 3). Baum suggested that by connecting synchronous condensers at intervals of about 100 mi, a substantially flat voltage profile could be achieved at all levels of power transm~ssion. The condensers would adjust the virtual natural load, P i , to be equal to the actual load at all times. Baum calculated an example of an 800mi line at 220 kV transmitting about 100 MW (approximately 0.8 Po! wrrk a total tratrstmsiorz angle of about 146". Although Baum considered voltage regulation and reactive power requirements in detail, he did not consider stability. It was not until much later that the stability of long lines compensated in this way was adequately understood for practical use (see Section 2.3.4). If losses are neglected the "compensating" current taken by the intermediate synchronous machine is purely reactive (i.e., in phase quadrature with the voltage at the point of connection), and the machine supplies or absorbs only reactive power to or from the line. In the steady state, therefore, the machine can maintain constant voltage at its point of con
a T i It is true that the static compensator contains capacitors and inductors which can store energy. The analysis applies equally well with a synchronous condenser instead of a controlled susceptance.. Compensation by Sectioning (Dynamic Shunt Compensation) 1Z1 nection without requiring a azeclzanicalprinze mover. that is. the device would be functionally equivalent to the synchronous machine. and this leads to a different influence on the system under rapidly varying conditions.6.. the power transmission characteristic is modified. = E . An exception to this is the static compensator constructed of a very large dc energyT O obtain a useful storage coil connected to the line via a threephase bridge amount of stored energy. Figure 30 illustrates the principle of modulating the susceptance in such a way as to maintain constant terminal voltage. By varies with the power being transmitted. This implies that the synchronous machine could. (substituting from Equations 86 and 91). However. however. So far it has been implied that the shunt compensating device must maintain constant voltage magnitude at its point of connection. Naturally. through 6. . slowly enough for the rates of change of kinetic energy of rotating machines to be negligible. Under steadystate or very slowly varying conditions.e. This suggests that if the susceptance of a real capacitor or reactor could be modulated or controlled in such a way as to maintain constant voltage at its point of connection. must vary with the transmission angle 6 in order to maintain the midpoint voltage equal to Em.. leads V and inductive if V leads I. with acceptable losses. is the total shunt capacitive susceptance of the whole line and XIis its total reactance. if the power being transmitted along the line changed value. In spite of this. It is assumed here. In this section the same representation of the transmission line is used.. This equation tells how B. Now the midpoint voltage is related to the terminal voltages in Equation 92. a compensator having no moving parts) can be made to be functionally equivalent to an intermediate synchronous machine.? This section develops the theory of compensation by sectioning in the steady state and for very slowly varying conditions.6. In a given steady state there is a certain ratio between the compensating current I. but because they carry alternating current there is no significant net storage of energy averaged over a period long enough for a significant change to take place in the kinetic energy of the synchronous machines in the system (typically a few cycles). Principle of maintaining constant ac voltage at the terminals of a controlled equivalent circuit for each half. Instead it is used to obtain the compensating susceptance B. necessary to satisfy Equation 133.. the capacitive or inductive susceptance would have to change also. The Jxed midpoint shunt susceptance was considered in Section 2. = E. in the steady state. the voltage V would tend to change. as in Figure 27a. In order to restore V to the constant value required to maintain the independence of the line sections. which is capacitive if I. susceptance. E 1s=cos. Under more rapidly varying conditions. because of the exchange of kinetic energy between it and the system as the rotor accelerates or decelerates. so it follows that with E. and the voltage V at the point of connection. Dynamic Working of the Midpoint Compensator +: F Constantvoltage locus 0 I FIGURE 30. (134) where B. Since s now varies with 6 (Equation 1331. as in Figure 27a. Em 6 2 (133) At this stage it is not of interest to interpret s as an equivalent degree of series compensation. it is seen that in certain regimes compensation by sectioning is an essentially dynamic process (in the control engineer's sense). that the compensating susceptance is continuously controlled in such a way as to keep the midpoint voltage constant with a value E.120 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems 2.4. be replaced by a capacitor or a reactor.2. Thus. the inertia of the synchronous machine rotor influences the phase of the voltage at the point of connection. From Equation 90. The purely static compensator cannot exchange this energy with the system. 2. the storage coil would probably need to be superconduciing. The ratio has the dimensions of a susceptance. the static compensator (i.3.
122 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transn~ission Systems 2. If E..74".212) = 73.. 6 would increase to 2 sin' (1. = E.. This can be written P = PA..2 P. because E... that is. From Equation 138.....155 P. suppose P i s equal to the steadystate limit of the uncompensated line.. For example. Power transmission characteristic of line w ~ t hconstantvoltage compensator at midpoint. therefore.. the "current" 1 static power transmission characteristic has a maximum transmissible power of 1.. twice the steadystate limit of the uncompensated line.. would increase to P. It is reached when 612 = 7~12.250 P.S) sin 6 = EnlE sin 6 .155 P. Operation is at the point B in Figure 32.. Em and XI are constants. the power transmission characteristic is given by * 6 p = . also with P (through Equation 135b)... The maximum transmissible power is 2E2/Xl. XI cos (6/2) with 6 itself and. varies also (6 can always be determined from Equation 135b. E* Xl(l. sin 6 .capacitive limit reached I FIGURE 31. = E.E XI cos (612) .. P. 2 = E. Dynam~c working of m~dpoint shunt compensator. 6 = 2 sin' (1h) = 60".E xi 6 sin ...) This gives rise to the concept of a series of sinusoids wrth varying amplitudes PA. as shown in Figure 32 (dotted curves). This is identical to Equation 132. that is. ( E m = El FIGURE 32. P&. From Equation 136 with En...6. The \ I ../cos(30 " = 1. It implies that in the steady state the line is sectioned into two independent halves. and PA. From Equation 135a. with a transmission angle of 90" across each half of the line. = P. where (137) P=2 E. Each corresponds to a fixed value of the compensating susceptance B. and a total transmission angle 6 of 180" across the whole line. P. Operation is at the point A in Figure 32... (a) Illtistration o Dynamic Working. = E~/X. If the transmitted power were increased to 1. The power transmission characf teristic expressed by Equation 90 can be interpreted as a sinusoid whose amplitude Phax varies as s varies.87") = 1. .2 ~ sin XI 2 This is shown as the upper curve in Figure 31..lcos (36.. Compensation by Sectioning (Dynamic Shunt Compensation) 173 P= that is.
32". The system owes its stability to the fact that if the transmission angle 6 increases slightly.3..3. such as at point A or B.4667 Posin 2 with E. = VZB.$ This departure is shown at point D in Figure 32. The power transmission characteristic is given by Equation 132 as 6 p = .. the power transmitted P and the transmission angle 6 would then have to be kept to much lower values. the compensator reactive power Q. see Section 2. and moves on to the constantBy sinusoid . Typically. = . passing smoothly from one constantBy sinusoid to another as P varies..8 P. is a function of 6 also: Through the parameter 6.Q. = 0. a feedback control system would be used to keep Vm = Em. 2....... In other words. With constant V ..8108 Z o and B. For example. As in Section 2.sin (612). when the limit is reached the compensator ceases to maintain constant voltage at its terminals and behaves instead like a fixed susceptance.. Q.. = w2a2k = 02. The operating point then leaves the dynamically stable characteristic P = 2 P. corresponding to the maximum value of By.. or "dynamic shunt compensation. that is. = E = 1.. is related to the transmitted power P by Equations 135 and 140.. However. 133.. the point of departure could occur on the stable side of one of the dotted sinusoids in Figure 32. the capacitive current rating of the compensator is one of the main factors limiting the achievable increase in the maximum transmissible power.. 6 = 2 sin' (1.0 pu. XI = 0. Note that XIB. If By. The reactive power requirement of the compensator is given by Equation 140 as Qs= with E. t The two halves of the line are again represented by equivalentr circuits.. 6 is greater than 90"." consider a 400mi line with a midpoint constantvoltage compensator. The system is stable as long as dPld6 > 0 (i. = 2. is quite close to the value 2. = [[I  F] .6084 Po achieved with 50% series compensation (with shunt reactors connected). were smaller.. By. Instead. From Equations 95. Pi. For P > f i P. is the maximum 1.124 SteadyState Reactive Power Control i n Electric Transmission Systems 2... Q . P = 2Pma.5. in transmission systems which are compensated by sectioning and which are operating at high power levels.. so that the operating point moves along the stable characteristic.. = E. In practice there is an economic limit to the capacitive reactive power of the compensator.e.. the operating point is now on the unstable side of the "current" constantB y sinewave.. The higher the value of B. . and 134 it can be shown that the reactive power requirement at the sending end is given by (c) Conzperzsator Control atzd Reactive Power Requiretnetzts. With many types of compensator. would not be based on Equation 134.6. if P = 1. capacitive current divided by Em.8108 2 = 6 2.812) = 128. = Em... However.. the steeper is the (negative) slope of the constantBy characteristic at the point of departure. (b) Reactive Power Reqrtiretnetzts ar t/7e Termhzais...2. constant and so to increase P'. = E .294 P.6.6). Example of Line Compensated by Sectioning? As an example of compensation by sectioning. In the saturatedreactor compensator an inherent regulating process achieves the same end. By symmetry.. the compensator responds by changing By immediately in such a way as to keep V . the effective compensating susceptance By is capacitive.2x12 sin Po 0. sin (6121.8108/2. Operation is at point C in Figure 32. 6 being the electrical length of the line in radians. as long as an increase in transmission angle is accompanied by an increase in transmitted power.For a synchronous condenser or saturatedreactor compensator B. to the value which satisfies Equation 138. and P'.Em cos 4 and the terminal reactive powers are given by Equation 139 as E. because there is no information as to the value of 6 available at the intermediate compensator station. Compensation by Sectioning (Dynamic Shunt Compensation) 125 controlling effect of the midpoint compensator constrains the operating point to move along the locus given by Equation 136. A practical control system for varying B.
15(2). and Q. Friedlander and K.= . Wilson and P.. AIEE 43. = 0. "Static Shunt Devices for Reactive Power Control. 10901 102 (1964). It can be seen that the reactive power absorbed or supplied by each terminal is just half that of the compensator. C. L. Tarnawecky. the conipensator is then capacrtrve. Forml. Zarakas. Wagner. A. "Anatomy of a Blackout. REFERENCES 1. Miske. Crary. (19741... "Voltage Regulation and Insulation for Large Power Long Distance Transmrssion Systems.es compensating the extreme 100mi portions of the line. Fortescue and C. Iliceto and E. A. as long as the midpoint voltage remains constant. 5(1). "The Use of Series Capacitors to Obtain Maximum EHV Transmissron Capability. "Compensatron of Long Distance AC Transmission Lines by Shunt Connected Reactance Controllers. M. W Kimbark. New York. The variation of the main parameters is shown in Table 7 as the transmitted power varies.440 21. Elsliger et al. Friedlander. F." IEEE Spectrum. Get?.25 Po does not require excessive capacitive reactive power from the compensator. W. "Transient Reactance Effects rn Static Shunt Reactrve Compensators for Long AC Lines." IEEE Trans. 3. = 0. 0 . Power Appar. 4. corresponding to the linecharging reactive power of the central 200 mi of the line. D. "How to Improve System Stability Without Riskrng Subsynchronous Resonance. Q. i. corresponding to the linecharging reactive power of the 100 mi of line nearest to the sending end. and Q. Gibley. 96 151. the terminal synchronous machin.456 64.2027 Po. L. 3846 (February 1978). 655664 (1975). IEEE Press. Nerf. July 1949. 1974. 83. AIEE 40.. Although the overall transmission angle 6 exceeds 90°. 7. Drouin. G. G. 1945." IEEE Trans.4054 Po. "Long Distance A C Transmissron Using Static Voltage Stabilizers and Switched Linear Reactors.Mile T r a n s m i s s i o n L i n e C o m p e n s a t e d by a C o n s t a n t ." Rev. "Optimization of HydroQuibec's 735kV DynamicShuntCompensated System Vsing Static Compensators on a Large Scale. F.. 96(63. 107. 6 P P = Po Qs E. M." Electr. 8. 106113 (1924). Paper A78 1075. D. (In French) . "The Physics of Long Transmrssron Lines. Power Appar. SJW. Power Appar. Poiver Sysrettt Attalyssrs. TABLE I E x a n i p l e of a 400. J. "Recent Developments towards Long Distance AC Transmrssion Using Saturated Reactors. Barthold et al. Power Appar. This is due to the approximation involved in the Tequivalent circuit. transmission remains stable up to !SO0.932 46. 9. A. Breuer. Syst. 6. 0 .. and H." IEEE Tratts.966 unstable unstable unstable unstable unstable Note the opposrte srgn conventions for Q. Stability of Large Electrrc Power Sysrettw. Electr. Q . 18191830 (1977). Rustebakke.126 SteadyState Reactive Power Control in Electric Transmission Systems References 127 At noload Q. are both positrve for generation. E. The two vary in concert. Power Appar. Woodford and M. Wiley. New York. Kimbark." IEE Conf: Publ.." CIGRE Paper 3108." Electr. Syst. New York. "Saturated Reactors for Long Distance Bulk Power Lines. W. N.2055 Po calculated from Equation 30. E. "A New Technology for Series Capacitor Protection." IEEE Trans. 915925 (1975)." IEEE Tram. Kimbark. D. M. Syst. F.) At noload. Ainsworth et al. 1979. J . H. 1978. Ainsworth et al. and 0 . Sj~st. Sysr. 5.. L. R./Po ('1 ("1 0 10. and Q. 1820 (1979). n A. Byerly and E. (1974). G. 16081613 (1977). 16691680 (19761. R. E. 5873 (1979). Jancke. (Note that this differs from the value 0. D.. Cinieri.249 32.. Electr Rev. A.Po 6 Without Compensation Po Qr . Q. Fahlin." Get?. 94. "Comparative Analys~sof Series and Shunt Compensation Schemes for AC Transmission Systems. 10171032 (19213. R. 1948. are both negatrve for absorption.Q. It can be seen that the power transmission up to 1. Wiiey. 88(1). "Series Capacitors in Power Systems. 94." IEEE Trat~s. Boyajian.. the compensator IS then rnductrve. S.V o l t a g e Device a t i t s M i d p o i n t a Whether the system has transient stability for major faults at this level of transmission is another question.. G. Rev . while the compensator compensates the central 200mi portion. 95." IEEE PES Wirlter Power Meeting. New York. . 1947 E. S. Boidin and G. Wiley. 940943 (June 1969). Power System Stabilip. Power Systettr Stability. Z. Power Appar. T. which will be dealt with in the next chapter. 2. Simmons Jr. B. Baum. Gross." J. 1522. "Some Theoretical Considerations of Power Transmission. 242247 (1973). Jones." J." CIGRE Paper 3101. "Performance Dynamiques des Compensateurs Statrques i Thyristors et Prtncipes de Regulation.
otherwise. The steadystate conditions treated in pter 2 are shown at the far right. and especially static reactive . The control must be id and accurate. The Dynamics of an Electric electric power system is never in equilibrium for very long. unt reactors. Frequent s disturb the equilibrium so that the system is almost always in on between equilibrium or steadystate conditions. ure 1 depicts the full range of dynamic phenomena that characterize er system performance. switching operations. emphasis in this chapter is on the controlling and stabilizing uence of compensating devices such as shunt and series capacitors. synchronous condensers. this regime there is a need to control voltage excursions and redistritions of momentum among the synchronous machines which result m faults.1. locally or throughout the system. the stability of the system may be lost.Chapter 3 3. The theory in apter 2 is valid in the steadystate and when changes are taking place This chapter deals with the dynamic behavior of the electric power sysduring the transition from one equilibrium condition to another. and load changes. Here we are more concerned with namic transitions which occupy a time span near the center of Figure 1.1.
but by the events and processes taking place within them.2. It is during this period that surge arresters. the transition period beeen equilibria is divided into distinct time periods which are defined in ction 3. may lead to an outage or damage to utility or consumerowned equipment. The need to control voltage within acceptable bounds about the desired steadystate value to provide quality service to consumer loads. psec I 1 I I I loo l m s e c 10 100 l s e c psec msec msec 1 cycle 10 cycles 1 lOsec I 100 sec I I I 10 hr 2. even if temporary. To this end. a correction within a few seconds will suffice. particularly those that cause flicker. spark gaps. The periods are defined with the aid of Figure 2 shown for a typical line fault initiated disturbance. Because of the role that compensation plays in maintaining bility. which can be variable within wide limits. . power compensators. any disturbance that causes material variations in voltage can be viewed in terms of four periods or stages. 3. reactive power compensation can be used to maintain transmission losses t a practical minimum. or in the network configuration as a result of switching actions. The need to maintain the stability of synchronous machines. In general. FOUR CHARACTERISTIC TIME PERIODS The need for adjustable reactive power compensation can be divided into three basic classes: 1. Both the transient stability and the dynamic stability of a system can be enhanced. These components may also include high frequency components which are generally rapidly damped. the various forms of instability that can occur are also reviewed 1000 104 sec sec 1 min 10 mm 1 hr Time Range FIGURE 1. and nonlinear reactors (including transformer magnetizing reactances) act to prevent extreme voltages which would cause insulation failure.2. beginning at the start of the disturbance and ending when a new quasisteadystate is reached. they are becoming more important because of the high cost of transmission facilities and the need to transmit as much power as possible through the smallest number of lines.2. Although these devices are not the only ones capable of controlling voltage and power swings. The first several cycles following a disturbance such as a fault make up the szibtratzsietzt period. Uncorrected voltage deviations. They are characterized not by their duration. Time ranges of transitions in the state of a power system. For other voltage disturbances. Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance Load Cycles Thermal Overloads Four Characteristic Time Periods I Freauencv Disturbances . (The flicker problem is given special attention in Chapter 9 and is not discussed in this chapter. are often objectionable. it may be necessary to make a voltage correction in as short a time as a few cycles of the power frequency.) 3. During this time period there is an initial rapid decay of both ac and dc components of fault current. The Need for Adjustable Reactive Compensation 3.1. the adjustments an be made quite infrequently with several minutes to effect the desired For convenience in describing the influence of the various compensation methods on system dynamic performance. . While the reactive compensation must be adjustd or changed periodically to maintain minimum losses. and Prme Mover Response 1 IVoltage Control and 1L IsteadystateStability I I and Fault Clearing Load Relection Overvoltages t L~ghtnlng and Switch~ng Surges 1 .2. It is even possible with controlled compensators to drive voltages deliberately out of their normal steadystate bounds for several seconds following a fault or other major disturbance to enhance the stabilizing influence still further. Even small variations.3. The need to regulate voltage profiles in the network to prevent unnecessary flows of reactive power on transmission lines. Following certain abrupt changes in the load. We shall see that voltage control by reactive power compensation can have a positive stabilizing influence on the system during disturbances which cause the rotor angles of synchronous machines to change rapidly.
used when transmission angle swings ~nsignificant.2) i maintained or lost. unbalances between phases. Many disturbances in a power system are so small that they do cause appreciable change in the speeds or rotor angles of synchr machines. As shown in Figure 2a. Period F Per~od Transition Per~od In) 3 FIGURE 2.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time. Changes in rotor angles of synchronous machines negligible w e n for large disturbances if the disturbance is very (electrically) from the generators.Section 2. and there is no need to discuss the firstswing or scillatory periods. the voltages and currents are not pure sine waves. used when transmission angle swings are significant. phasor visualization is not rigorously correct during the subtransient transient periods. . synchronous machines are sometimes approximately represented by an emf behind a constant reactance. During this perio significant cyclic variations in voltages. synchronous machines are someti approximately characterized by constant fluxlinkages (constant inte source voltage) behind the machine's transient reactance. This period typically lasts for 0. It is often critical period during which transient stability (Chapter 2.e for the first swing (half oscilla tion) of the rotor angle(s) or synchronizing power swings follo large disturbance. and harmonics when nonar circuit elements are involved. In this chapter we restrict the term trarzsient period to mean a period when it can be assumed that no appreciable changes in the rotor angles of synchronous machines take place. thi period lasts for many cycles after the subtransient period. which have been ained from field tests. This assumption is justified by the fact that the reactive ensation methods which are of central interest are intended to be ive in the transient and subsequent periods. currents. computer simulations. When rotor angle swings a noticeable at the point of interest. and modeling on the ient network analyzer (TNA) . When such is the case. the trarlsietzt reactatzce Xi. The reason is that. such as a fault.2. They include c offset currents.state Per~od  7 8 Tr. the system's performance in this Many disturbances on high voltage power systems are either too mild r occur too far from generators to cause significant rotor angle varian these cases.m (b) ) Firstswing and oscillatory periods. most of the cases studied in this chapter the subtransient period is d and the transient period is assumed to begin instantly following e disturbance. but in general.1. Four Characteristic Time Periods The transient period is second in sequence.132 Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3.an. During this time. and oscillatory periods. and real and reactiv power take place. the subtransient and transient periods constitute the ntire transition period. this ch refers to the time periods in Figure 2a. the subdivision in Figure 2b is use Figure 2 b shows the total transition period made up of subtransient swing. The response mechanisms of the compensated power system are visued in terms of voltage and current phasors in most bf this chapter. The oscillatory period follows the firstswing period.05 0. several examples of response of compensated systems are given. achine rotor angle swings may last for 320 sec after a severe fault. power swings caused by synchrO Possible h~ghfrequency transient II I I I I I I I I I ~irstswing 0°. The firstswing period refers to the tim.steady. Some compensators are 1 in the subtransient period in limiting overvoltages. For this reason. s e c ~sciliatory period I /ICI:asl. Characteristic t m e periods: subdiv~sions of total transition pe ( a ) Subtransient and transient periods..51 sec. immediately following a disturce. In this period also.
2. T two source voltages E. however. and E. are assumed to be equal in magnitud The only loati in the system is io the receivingend system which represented by a fixed voltage source E. are instantly shifted in phase relative to each other and the sour voltages E. Let us assume the receivingend system is so large in MVA cap that E. Since E. the sum of the voltage dro across the system remains the same. the curr I2 is reduced from the initial value I. the transit period would be complete and phasor diagram (Figure 3 c ) wou represent the final equilibrium state... Immediately. the tranehavior is followed by "firstswing" and "o~cillatory" ch are discussed in subsequent sections. will be changed back toward their itial values by the unit's voltage regulator action.. Four Characteristic Time Periods this period is too short for reactive compensation to be effective. If both source voltage phasors were remain fixed in relative phase and fixed in magnitude. ( b ! Phasor diagram howing initial conditions.. ample. t conditions in phasor diagram Figure 3c result. The phasor diagram Figure corresponds to these initial conditions. Adjustment of regulawitchable passive reactive compensation and/or controlors can provide additionai "control" to restore the voltes in the system to their nominal or desired magnitudes. The Transient Period To illustrate the electrical behavior of a system during this period. the voltage phasor E( will rotate so to increase angle F 1 and subsequently settle at a larger angle consistent th the initial active power delivered by the sendingend generator.. the sending end turbine generator unit will tend accelerate. (a! Oneline diagram of a twomachine power system. remains fixed as they are fixe to inertial rotating phasors which cannot change their rotational sp instantly. Suppose breakers a and b are opened simultaneously thereby disco necting one of the currentcarrying system elements. V. The phas E. (c! Phasor diagram immediately after tripping circuit breakers a rs as a reduction in electrical power output from the generator. The total angle S1 betwee the synchronous source voltages E.2. The agnitudes of voltages V. and E. because the reactan between phasors V. leaving only the questions of the protection of the compensator and its coordination with surge arresters and other highspeed protective devices. As shown in phasor diagram Figure 3c all the bus voltages V. The magnitudes of the bus voltages increase mome tarily during the transient period. are momentarily fixed in magnitude and displaced by a (momentarily) fixed angle.. Let us now examine that phasor diagram.. and E.. V. however. . consider one phase of the positivesequence equivalent circuit of a twomachine system in Figure 3a. The reactances are chosen so the system is electrically symmet around the midpoint bus on which the voltage is shown to be V. The ch between input power (from turbine) and output nit to accelerate during which time the angle S 1 will When a disturbance is large enough to cause the unit to change speed (such as a major line trip in this example) even if momentarily.1. a V. and V. The sendingend generator delivering power to the receivingend system proportional to current which prevails in the initial steady state. is associated with a generating unit of finite MVA rating. is essentially fixed in magnitude and rotates continuously at a stant synchronous speed (377 radlsec in a 60Hz system).134 Reactive Power Compensation and Dgnantic Perforntance 3. and these assumptions are made for ease of illustration only.. The theory would apply with circuit resistances and charging included. and V. we assume the power delivered to the sending end generator by its t bine is constant. The system is assumed to be lossless (no resistance in the generators or network elements) and the line capacitance is ignored.. and E. However. Rece~ving End 3. has doubled with the line outage. That occurs because the reduction in current from I l to I Breaker (a) IGURE 3.
when Figure 4 b maps the transition of electrical power P versus the 6 = S. If a shortcircuit fault had preceded the line outage and caused the breakers to operate under relay control. In m'any systems the corrective action necessary to prevent this loss of "transient stability" must be taken within a fraction of a second. The nature of this improvement is illustrated in Figure 5a. The compensator can be a synchronous condenser or a static compensator. the period between the first swing in synchronizing power (and machine rotor angle) and the time at which a quasisteady state is reached. as indicated in Figure 5b. ( c ) Transient response of system of Figure 3a. These dynamic variations are summarized in Figure 4 for the fault discussed above. The FirstSwing Period and Transient Stability In the line switching example discussed in Figure 3. and the performance of different compensators is described more fully in Sections 3. the oscillations will damp out (if they damp at all) in anywhere from 2 to 20 sec. The voltage support provided at intermediate points tends to reduce the transmission angle variations. The need for dynamic reactive compensation is evident in the V trace . ( a ) Phasor diagram for system of Figure 3a at maximum transmission angle. Chapter 2. while the power output of the generator decreased. socalled negative damping influences can prevail. Finally. ( b ) Powerversusangle curves: . angle 6 on the transient powerangle diagram. and the phasor diagram in Figure 4 a . t=t. the post disturbance power input to the sendingend generator (from its prime mover) was assumed to remain constant at the prefault level. Sometimes. for the entire scenario." Net negative damping in postdisturbance oscillations is most likely to be found in systems in which high power levels are transmitted over long (electrical) distances. A = initial operating point. The postfault acceleration of the sendingend generator results in a much greater increase in 6 and an associated transient redistribution of angular momentum.2. Figure 4c shows the machine's load angle 6. the voltage Vm drops to a minimum value at time t. the electrical power P. 3. in Figure 4c. Depending on the characteristics of the power system. Reactive compensation at bus nz could minimize the otherwise large voltage variations during this period. and the midsystem bus voltage v. rapid . Figure 3 b represents the initial conditions for this example. Four Characteristic Time Periods 3. this tends to increase the power transfer capability of the generator and transmission system at any given 6.5. t. that is.136 Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3. This results in a reduction of firstswing angular (6) excursion during the postdisturbance synchronizing power swings. including the fault period and the firstswing period.. otherwise... sec (cl FIGURE 4.2. The Oscillatory The third characteristic time period following a disturbance is defined in Figure 2 as the oscillatory period.4 and 3.2. From Equation 38. As the power P increases. the unit's acceleration would be greater than that caused by merely opening the breakers without the fault. During the firstswing period the internal voltage El may increase as a result of rapidly increasing field current forced by the exciter. = after line section is disconnected.. which must be limited. This caused the generator to accelerate. In some cases it can maintain transient stability in a system that would otherwise become unstable.. B = final operating point. causing the postdisturbance oscillation to grow until one or more generators loses synchronism. The transmission angle 6 is still a direct measure of the mechanical phase angle between the rotors of the sendingend and receivingend synchronous machines. synchronism will be lost.2. The electromechanical behavior of synchronous machines during the firstswing period differs from that described under the transient period. This form of instability is sometimes called "dynamic instability..= before disturbance. Figure 4 a shows the phasor diagram for the time t = t .3. To maintain transient stability of the generators in these systems.
or power. and sometimes reactors.Reactive Power Conipensation and Dynamic Performance 80 3. highgain excitation systems are employed.2. capacitors.Special damping controls act on the dc power flow in response to ac bus frequency deviations. Winter and summer profiles differ in overall helght. . The steadystate reached at the end of the oscillatory period does not persist without change for very long. thereby causing a damping influence on ac power swings. Working through the generators' relatively large field time constants. and supplementary stabilizing circuits are often used in conjunction with their exciter control systems. Rapidresponse compensators are not usually required for this function per se. We shall also see later in this chapter that by modulating the reactive power flows in the system. Highvoltage dc transmission links can also be utilized to damp out the oscillatory synchronizing power swings in the adjoining ac system. the system load continually changes at a varying rate. A typical load cycle spanning a 24hour period for a large interconnected power system is shown in Figure 6. 6 I I I I i I I I I I I I . These stabilizers sense the oscillation in rotor speed. Effect of dynamtc reactive compensation on voltage and power angle swings. Four Characteristic Time Periods 1 System Load (Tens or Hundreds of MWI u61 Fault Per~od Rotor Angle.. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Midntght Noon Midntght FIGURE 6. The residual voltage error is corrected in general by slowresponse methods. as described in Chapter 2. such as transformer tapchanging and the switching of lines. if installed for other purposes (such as transient stability improvement). Figure 7 shows the effect these load changes would have on the system voltage. and there are srgnificant differences between one system and another. response. Even if no more major disturbances occur. compensators can exert a significant positive damping influence. with and without the benefit of voltage regulators on the generators. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Midn~ght FIGURE 7. ( b ) Transm~ssionangle: = uncompensated. However. Although the rates of change appear to be slow relative to those seen during and after a fault. ( a ) Voltage at intermediate substation. these can themselves have a tendency toward oscillatory instability. .with large dynamic compensator at bus ni. . FIGURE 5. they can assume a useful role in the slowly changing regime also. Noon Midnight Effect of the daily load cycle on overall system voltage. the morning load rise can be of the order of 100 MW per minute or more. and modulate the voltage regulator reference signal in the excitation controller so as to damp out the oscillation. Daily load cycle in a typical interconnected power system. deviations in bus frequency.
( X c y / 2 ) . shunt capacitors may be connected to prevent low voltage during peak load conditions. Each compensating method's influence on the system behavior during the four characteristic time periods is discussed in turn. ( d l Operating point P with shunt capacitor. The temptation to switch them off during peak power flow periods is usually avoided. shunt connected or series connected. For example. voltage change ( V c l Figure 9c illustrates that with an inductor of reactance X L at bus m. For example. (a) I(. have an impact on the dynamic behavior of systems in transition. Slope X .6. can be extended to visualize the effect of fixed capacitors and reactors on the positivesequence component of voltage during other transition periods. Figures 8c and 8d illustrate the use of this load line concept when a capacitor is added to bus tn.3. and operating points. E . its surge impedance.5. the VC2)is less than ( E l E2) without the capacitor. This shows the opencircuit voltage V . The reactive load line is shown in Figure 8b. Passive S h u n t compensation 3. introduced in Chapter 1 to describe the quasisteady state. For instance. their effects follow from the fact that they modify the network parameters. synchronous condensers in Section 3.3. Since they are usually not switched on or off during disturbances. In the general case. Compensation and System Dynamics All forms of compensation. because with conventional controls and switchgear they cannot be reconnected fast enough to . in particular. Operating point P with shunt reactor. decreasing from E l to E z and the slope of the load line increasing from Xsl to X s 2 Figure 96 shows that.4. and series capacitors in Section 3. where node m is the bus tn in Figure 3a. T I v mipiL2 load line.0 i V1 J  PASSIVE SHUNT COMPENSATION Shunt connected capacitors and/or reactors could be located at any of the buses in Figure 3. 3. particularly during peak power flow periods. 3. ( c ) Shunt capacitor at bus nl.load lines. Equivalent c~rcuits. in the presence of a shunt capacitor with reactance Xcy. whether passive or controlled. and the drivingpoint impedances at the system buses..4.1. in terms of the Thkvenin equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8a. They therefore reduce the steadystate power transfer capacity of the line.   + + inductor. we can view the system in Figure 3 a from bus m. Fixed reactors tend to reduce the steadystate voltage. Figures 8e and 8f apply the same visualization to operation with a shunt reactor at bus m. The discussions follow a common format. (el Shunt reactor at bus n ~ . The presence of capacitors and reactors also influences the dynamics of the system following a disturbance. the voltage would rise from V & to V. both capacitors and reactors can influence the magnitude of the voltage change and its direction (increase or decrease). During light load conditions shunt reactors may be connected to cancel part of the capacitive reactive power of the line and prevent unduly high voltages. Their effects are discussed in detail in the next four sections. Without a shunt reactive device at bus m. its electrical length. ( a ) ThCvenin equivalent circuit of system of Figure 3a. in Figure 96 if the capacitor rating were doubled. Transient Period The concept of the system's reactive load line.. including the transient period. the line outage disturbance discussed with respect to Figure 3 would cause the load line transition in Figure 9a.3. ( b ! System load line viewed from bus rn. static compensators in Section 3. the voltage drop from ( V L l VL2) is greater than ( E l E Z ) without the FIGURE 8. viewed from bus !?I.Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3.3. Fixed capacitors and reactors are discussed in Section 3. That is. a voltage rise would take place instead of the decrease indicated.2.
Postfault. ( b ) Effe of capacitor at bus 111. d voltage swings was shown in Figure 5 and is reproduced in Figure 10. (c) Effect of reactor at bus t11. Effect of shunt reactor or capacitor on operating point. but see FigThere are several reasons why conventionaIly switched shunt capacitors r reactors) are rarely used in the manner just described. shunt capacitors not already ergized would have to be switched on line during or immediately folwing the fault. If sufficient capacitance is switched on at precisely the the fault is removed. to celerate the generators which accelerated during the fault. it was assumed that capacitors were switched in at the With fixed shunt capacitor ai bus rn FIGURE 9. (a) 1. Prefault. With large banks capacitors there is also the possibility of overvoltages following a rejection. Because their reacti power contribution diminishes with the square of the voltage during vo age depressions. the dashed voltage curve in Figure 10a could t. Referring to gure 10 again. To be truly effective in reducing the large ltage dip during the firstswing period.. ( a ) Transition of sy tem load line at bus n~ resulting from disconnection of line section in Figure 3a. The minimum voltage experienced during the first swing is to increase the postfault power and. therefore.2. reducing the ad angle excursions.Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3.3. Hig speed mechanical switches capable of reconnecting the reactor in abo 23 cycles are available but they may not be suitable for repeated o tions (two or more times per day for operatordirected steadystate age control). shunt pacitors and reactors have only a limited effect on the total change in ltage during the first swing.( 6 ) Transn~issionangle. slope XS2 FirstSwing Period I typical system response to a disturbance that causes rotor angle. slope X . because of excessive wear on moving parts and contacts. which may r expensive and sophisticated switchgear and controls. power. it can be uneconomic to rely too heavily on fixed capa tive voltage support to improve transient stability.3. Fixed shunt capacitors raise different questions. (This is not shown in Figure 10. Voltage at intermediate bus n ~ . The size of the bank is thus limited by the feasibility of sw ing them off very quickly under these conditions. Passive Shunt Compensation 143 3. Effect of fixed shunt capacit0r on postfault response of system of Figure 30. sec URE lo. . sec (6 f ) t. ess they are switched on and off at the required moments.0 1. Period I 0 3 I 05 . suppress overvoltages in the event of a sudden load rejection. firstswing period lasts for about half a second in this example.
Ideally. the TCR includes a clos ltage regulator and thyristor gatingangle control system. the capacitor bank might have to be switched off again immediately after the first swing to prevent sustained high voltages during subsequent oscillations. and in some cases in a repeated manner. Such compensators can be controlled in such a way as to improve the power system response during all four of the characteristic time periods defined in Figure 2. 1 ' The transient response of a TCRcompensated system can be visualed in terms of Figure 11. Chapter 4 describes most of the main operating principles and control characteristics.4. the stability of generators in the system. To be effective in damping the oscillations in voltage. thyristorswitched capacitor (TSC).144 Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3. Fixed shunt capacitors and reactors merely bias the average value of the voltage up or down during the postdisturbance transition period. In the most general case the voltage/current aracteristic of the compensator extends into the lagging and leading rrent regions. We use the TCR compensator as the main vehicle for describing the generic dynamic properties of static compensators. for the phasor voltage on the compensator bus. Figure 30) how a continuously adjustable shunt susceptance with a sufficiently rapid response can behave as a constantvoltage device.Passive Shunt Compensation This section has shown that shunt capacitors and reactors do influence the postdisturbance voltage variations. Effect of TCR compensator on operating point. These s possess a slightly delayed time response in correcting for a in V . 3.4.4. they must be switched on or off rapidly. Here again. 3. the TCR being biased by a shunt capacitor as described Chapters 1 and 4.4). TCR and SR compensators are both usually used in parallel with capacitor banks which may be switched by a variety of means. Oscillatory Period Transient Period As in the case of the firstswing period. and the saturated reactor (SR). Consider a sudden disturbance in the power system at causes the load line at the compensator bus to change from 1 to 2 igure 11).to 7cycle range the capacitor switches would be required to operate in this time.3. We continue to use the symbol V.4. e tlme lag is statistical in nature. Summary .3.3. operation was at the steadystate inCompensator Character~stic A System Load Lines STATIC COMPENSATORS The static compensator can be thought of as an adjustable shunt susceptance. highspeed switches capable of opening or closing in 23 cycles could be used but repeated operation may result in prohibitive wear of the switching mechanism and contactors. resulting from disturbances on the transmission system. 3. Before the disturbance. and.1. The slower switches would not be fast enough to impact the first swing voltage dip. Its capabilities go far beyond those of fixed shunt reactors and capacitors. This switching can be more reliably achieved with thyristor switches than with conventional mechanical switchgear (see Section 3. 'Y FIGURE 11. the thyristorcontrolled reactor (TCR). Static Compensators 145 precise time the fault was removed. . shunt capacitors and reactors would have to be repeatedly switched on and off at precise times to effectively increase and decrease the transfer reactance between synchronous machines. Since modern circuit breaker and relay operating times are in the 3. Thyristor Controlled Reactor with Unswitched (Fixed) Capacitor (TC FC). power. to a limited extent. If they are to correct for momentary (halfsecond) overvoltages or voltage dips. 3. As applied on transmission systems. and machine angle swings during the oscillatory period. fixed shunt compensation has only a limited influence on voltage. In this chapter we concentrate on the commonest types. and machine angles. Their properties vary quite widely. In practice there are many different types of static compensators. but one can assume a pure delay nging from 116 cycle to 2 cycle before the TCR reacts. Conventional capacitor switching devices generally operate in 630 cycles. This is not generally practical with conventional switches. power. We have aIready seen (Chapter 2.
If the response of the TCR control system were slow. oint el results if the capacitive rating is too small to restore normal sysm voltage. but once into "full conducon" ((T = 180°. Oscillogrant of TCR compensator response to step change in load. Conside: first a balanced threephase fault somehere on the transmission system which causes the system load line to change from 1 to 2 and remain there for several cycles (Figure 13a). point a.(6) The system model included a threephase load connected to the compensator bus in a configuration similar to Figure 3a. An oscillogram of the load current in one phase is shown in Figure 12 along with the voltage v12 between phases 1 and 2 on the compensator bus. Because faults are generally red within a few cycles. The highest voltage experienced on the compensator bus during this sequence is the voltage at point b. To illustrate the benefits of this fast response. Static Compensators tersection. The thyristor current can be phased from fullon to fulloff in one half cycle in each phase in response to a step change in gating angle demand for that phase (Chapter 5 ) . shows the effect of a large load rejecon in which the compensator current is driven outside its control range the lagging region. The provision of a fficiently large TCR to hold nominal voltage indefinitely following 0 Output 7 Sudden ciange of load FIGURE 12. depending on the capacitive rating of the compensator. and may never even reach point b. With a modest TCR rating the operating point folws the trajectory abcl within 12 cycles. decreases linearly with voltage. For such a step input given simultaneously to all three phases. In practice. which in this example overshoots the voltage E2 which would be experienced and sustained on this bus in the absence of the compensator.5 cycles to change in Figure 12 due to the small time constant in the voltage reguiator which converts the voltage error into a gating angle demand signal. With a much larger capacitive rating (ICmaxZ instead of . the effective positive sequence current in the three phase inductor can be changed in about one cycle.. For an extreme example. a simulation was performed using the actual control system of a TCR wired into a system model.5 cycles after the disturbance. in Figure 13a) the compensator could restore approximately norvoltage (c2) even during the fault. The voltage at point b i's not much greater than the voltage E2 which id be experienced without the compensator.146 Reactive Power Cornpensation and Dynamic Performance 3.5 cycles. The voltage took 1. (a) Simulator Study. the voltageregulating control system would increase the conduction in the TCR to bring the operating point to c. he voltage might rise to the level E 2 1. which is a measure of the phase 2toneutral age computed by the compensator's voltagemeasuring transducer. With such rapid response the voltage rise on any phase is of very short duration. (b) Large Disturbances.4 pu.4. After the small (il6112 cydelay mentioned earlier. Figure 13b. such a large capacitive rating is rarely stified. ith a larger TCR rating (ILmax2 Figure 13 b ) the voltage is held down in o point c2. Subsequently. as ustrated in Figure 13. A screte output is plotted for each half cycle and it is clear from the oscilgram that the voltage was corrected back to the desired set point (the initial value) in about 1. in the absence of the compensator. the operating point would move straight to point b. (AVR = Automatic Voltage Regulator) . transducer continuously measures the phasetoneutral voltage and mputes an effective rms value every cycle of the voltage waveform. because the compensator ent I. At first the voltage on the compensator bus drops from point a to point b. see Chapter 4) the TCR acts as a plain linear reactor d cannot hold the voltage on the compensator bus below point cl. The load current was reduced abruptly causing the phasetophase voltage to increase. Very large system disturbances may cause the mpensator current to be driven outside its normal control range AB. the rapid response of the TCR causes point c to be reached within about 1.. The thyristor conduction angle would initially be the same as at a. The settling time is most clearly evident in the second trace in Figure 12. The capacitive rating is more often chosen to allow recovery to earnominal voltage during the postfault period (as discussed in Sec gsduc& Load current \NVVV\NV\I\NVVVVVMNVVVVV\NYVvvvVvvvvvvvv A second example. the TCR controls correct the voltage to int cl or c2.
the transmission system benefits immediately from all the reactive power available from the capacitor bank at the prevailing supply voltage. so the two transition periods (during the fault. Upon removal of the faulted line by breaker action. Overranging the TCR compensator. the TCR current recovered to a lower value than it had before the fault.100 TCR Current (A) 1000 . ground fault. (The current in a TCR is never controlled to exactly zero lest gating control be lost. it is possible to design the TCR with only a shorttime overload rating such as that corresponding to ILmaxZ. ( b ) During a voltage rise. indicating that more capacitive reactive power was required from the compensator to obtain the desired voltage after the disconnection of the faulted line. i IC max 2 I IC max 1 4 I Fault on 4 I Faulted line disconnected Field test results showing response of a TCR compensator to a smgle linc (b) FIGURE 13.1000 Voltage Regulator Output (V) 10 I0 1oL FIGURE 14. As noted in the figure. The effect of the fault is clearly evident in the 115kV voltage trace.) As soon as the inductor virtually ceases to absorb reactive power.8kV tertiary winding of a 2301'115kV autotransformer. When the capacitors are switched off.5 cycles following this disconnection. if the shunt capacitors can be rapidly switched off. the TCR is relieved of their biasing current. worstcase load rejections can be expensive. The example that follows deals with the high voltage ac bus voltage at the input to a highvoltage dc (HVDC) converter. It regulates the 115kV bus voltage to minimize voltage variations and to enhance the power transfer capacity of the 115kV network. and after its removal) are simply transient period behavior.Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Perforn~ance "m 3. (e) Field Test Involving a Large Disturbatlee. the ac voltage can be quite sensitive to variations in the active power absorbed . the voltage recovered to near normal. The oscillograph traces shown in Figure 14 were rneasured during field tests performed on a compensator installed for transmission system voltage control. However. 100 115 kv Bus Voltage (kV) 0 Static Compensators Compensator Characteristic . There were no significant rotorangle synchronizing swings.point within 1. ( a ) Durmg a voltage depression. (d) Transient Response of Conzperzsator Near a HVDC Converter Terminal. The compensator consists of a 30MVAr unswitched capacitor bank and a 40MVAr TCR connected to the 13. The fault was cleared through primary relay and breaker action in about 5 cycles. The regulator output trace shows that the compensator had settled to its new operating . Note that the TCR current was effectively "turned o f f within a cycle of fault inception. If the shortcircuit capacity of the ac system at an HVDC converter site is low. which results in an effective increase in the inductive ILmaxlfor the same reactor current. The test(" involved a staged single linetoground fault applied about 15 mi from the compensator on a 115kV circuit.4. with no subsequent firstswing or oscillatory period behavior.
The results of these three TNA studies are illustrated in Figures 16a. 3.4. To illustrate the ability of a compensator to control the overvoltage caused by such a load rejection. This blocking might be the result of a major fault on the ac system near the terminal at the other end of the dc line which requires a momentary or permanent shutdown of the HVDC power flow to protect the dc converters. @ uratedReactor Compensator with Fixed Capacitor (SRFC).150 Reactive Power Con~pensationand Dynamic Performance 3. 1982 1EEE. ( a ) Without compensation. Static Compensators or delivered by the converter. the system of Figure 15 was studied on a Transient Network Analyzer (TNA) The rectifier terminal was initially operating at its 200 MW rating. Consider the load rejection that occurs when the terrninal is operating under load and the converter valves suddenly block. Three HVDC shutdown cases were studied. depending on the namic properties of the ac system. Capacitor banks are often employed on the ac bus to supply the steadystate resctive power demand of the converter. The valveblocking action (load rejection) occurred at the fifth voltage zero from the left. the dc valve blocking control action and the order to the TCR occurred simultaneously. e overvoltage was reduced significantly. In this case. Satudreactor compensators generally do not employ an electronic control em. Without compensation. The compensator modeled had a net rating as viewed from the 230kV bus of 0130 MVAr inductive. The in the example was more than fully utilized and temporarily operated ve its normal voltage control range. Load rejection at the HVDC converter terminal. ( 6 ) With compensator regulating voltage normally. the compensator was able to ce those peaks. 2. (c) With compensator receiving a signal demanding full inductive current. Nevertheless. respectively. Harmon~c Fixed Filter Capacitor FIGURE 15. and c. it was nable to reduce the first (1 and second (+) peaks. The response delay is also . The signal is derived from the converter as 11 blocks dc conduction. With the compensator controlling the 230kV bus voltage through its automatic voltage regulator. HVDC FIGURE 16. so that the ling time following a disturbance is comparable to that of systems with R compensators. Some of these banks also serve as harmonic filters. The subsequent peak voltages are tabulated in Table 1. The ac filter and capacitor banks were together rated 114 MVAr. Traces show HVAC voltage V 0 1982 IEEE. With the TCR "phased on" fully by a control signal from the HVDC converter. b. System used to study load rejection overvoltages at a HVDC converter termmal. In both cases when the compensator was in service. 1. When given an ade signal from the dc controls (Case 3). there is a small delay in their response. being of the order of 12 cycles. The converter terminals absorb reactive power equal to approximately 60°/o of the rated dc power. When the mpensator reacted via its automatic voltage regulator (Case 2). A compensator with a greater ductive rating could have limited the overvoltage even further. The phase atoneutral voltage on the 230kV bus is shown in all three pictures.
The TSC has a control system that monitors the voltage. three times normal rated current. Static Con~pensators 153 TABLE 1 Load Rejection Overvoltage Example on T N A 1 slightly by its natural time constant.02 Sustained 'Time = 0 when dc blocking occurred. the ability to limit overv ages is determined by the inductive rating of the saturated reactor.1. Even when the spark gap circuits the slopecorrection capacitor. hen the voltage deviates from the desired value by some preset error eadband) in either direction.4. Assuming a TSC with zero. the control switches in (or out) one or ore banks until the voltage returns inside the deadband. In highvoltage applications the number of shunt apacitor banks is limited to a small number (say.95 . one.27 + 1. As in the case of the TCR compensator. and in du tion by its thermal capacity. As a result. this is limited by the voltage rating of the slopecorrection capacitor may be protected by a parallel spark gap set to a voltage correspondi say.2 + 1. the discrete steps in ompensating current may be quite large.25 1.1.1.4.95 .65 . by thyristor itches.08 + 1.33 t 1. delay which can be as much as one cycle (see The TSC by itself is incapable of limiting large transient overvoltages xcept by switching itself off.95 . at about the fifth voltage zero of phase a In the oscillograms.1. just as the TCR is slowed by its small phasecontrol gating delay. operating oint a would prevail with normal conditions and one bank connected.1. each of which is connected or disconnected. the saturatedreactor compensator operates as shown in Figure 13a.25 2.27 Normal AVR Control V Peak t 0.75 2. Effect of TSC compensator on operating .1.90 .Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3. The overload capability of the reactor is limited in magnitude the insulation requirements and the forces on its windings. provided that not all the capacitors have been switched in (out). the thyristorswitched capacitor consists of several banks of shunt capacitors.25 1. ~ ~ u aimportant is the fact that the capacitors can be connected to the l l ~ e voltage wave when the stored voltage on the ly equal. three or four) because f the expense of the thyristor switches.11 4.75 No Compensation V Peak t 0.2 f 1. For cases with the seriesconnected slop correction capacitor installations utilizing spark gaps. to the instantaneous system voltage. point. The saturated reactor is slowed FIGURE 17.1. the gaps genera1 need a bypass switch which closes when they operate and reopens whe normal voltage is restored.01 t 1. the compensating current can change only in discrete steps as a esult of control action. That damping circuit is necessary to subharmonic instability (see Chapter 4. as needed. Figure 17 shows the ponse locus for a system disturbance that tends to cause a voltage op. the beginning of the disturbance the voltage would drop to point b unthe TSC control switches in the second bank to bring the voltage up to It is important to note that because of the on/off nature of the TSC ontrol. For small or large disturbances which tend to cause a voltage reduction.75 1. As described in Chapter 4.52 + 1. the reactor itself retains a fai voltage/current characteristic (typically 815% slope) up to a much lar current.1.08 + 0.01 .1.1.32 .33 + 1. For small disturbances resulting in a voltage rise it reacts similarly to the TCR in accordance with Figure 11.27 . influenced by the damping circuit in parallel with the seriesco slopecorrection capacitor.02 + 1.65 . It has the advantage of then being able to 2 3 Time (Cycles) Oa 0. Section 4.01 + 1. giving somewhat coarse control. or two capacitor banks. ThyristorSwitched Capacitor (TSC).65 Coordinated Control V Peak A 0.2).
TCR fixed capa itor three capacitors. TCR pacitor one capacitor. the voltage would jump to point dunthe TCR corrects the voltage back to the final point e. Hybrid compensator. is at level c depends on the method of switching the pacitors. 4. The compensa voltage V . Assume initial operation at p a. Suppose a disturbance tak that alters the system load line as shown.4. If thyristor switches are used. in order to obtain the continuous overall char tic shown. th mechanical switches or circuit breakers it would be several cycles.154 Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3. The voltage control performance of the hybrid compensator during transient period is shown in Figure 20. Employing the stest available mechanical switches (2 cycles) or thyristor switches cycle) to switch in the capacitors. So far in the sequence. Effect of hybrid compensator o n operating point. with pauses at int b and d equal to no more than half a cycle. Characteristics of hybrid compensator. Combined ThyristorControlled Reactor and Switched Capacitor. the intersection of the dashed compensator characteristic labeled Oand the first system reactive load line. + + + + + + + At the same time as the TCR controls order the reduction to zero of e reactor current. will begin to fall towards point b until the TCR responds "phase off" entirely. on energization of the capacitor. (2) (31 I J (4) I fixed capacitor (filter!. TCR fixed c FIGURE 18. it can be as short as one cycle. . control action could cause the seence abcde to be completed in less than 2 cycles. a capacitor switching order can be issued. always in service with filter reactors to absorb the harmonic cur caused by the phase control action of the TCR. Static Compensators stand by in readiness to help control synchronizing power swings follo ing the disturbance (see Section 3. from 1 to 2. Control System . TCR fixed capacitor two capacitors. setpoint and control slope (or gain) must be adjusted each time a for bank is switched. bringing the operation to point c within about 1 cle. The period of e for which V . with little or no overshoot toward . In principle. 1. a capacitor switching has not occurred. voltage/current characteristic for configuration 1 is shown in Fig FIGURE 19. The voltwould stay at point c until the capacitors are energized. The TCR and the filter capacitor bank (FC) constitute configuration 1 in Figure 18.2 of this chapter). HV bus stem Load L~nes FIGURE 20. 3.4. the seence could be reduced to abe. 2.
the disturbance also upsets the distribution of momentum among the synchrono machines. Combined Saturated Reactor (SR) and Switched Capacitor. (01 Large compensa( b ) Transient response of v. however. the load line jumps initially above position 3. but each app cation should be studied in detail because the real system respon depends on many system parameters including the initial operating point. This generally valid only for a few cycles after the disturbance. in the voltV.4. by fully utilizing the timing precision of thyristor switches for both the TCR and the capacitors. by opening breakers a and b. 2. and harmonic performance are sidered).. This represents normal prefault conditions in a system of the typ shown in Figure 3. FirstSwing Period So far. (a) (6) 3. depressing the load line by a large amount. 1. . The sequence of reactive load lines 1." The capacitor switching decisions can be made i response to a combination of signals representing the voltage at the co pensator bus and the current in the reactor. The se quence discussed with the aid of Figure 20 is achieved with this type o static compensator also. with large compensator. Load line 2 is assumed to remain fixed for the duration of the fault. A pensator characteristic and a sequence of system reactive load lines ar shown in Figure 21a.156 Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance Compensator 3. and drops during the firstswing period to its lowest (minimum voltage) position 3 as shown in Figure 21a. Although static compensators generally have neither the c city nor the speed of response to limit extremely fast voltage transien such as those produced by lightning or switching surges. A fault occurs to the right of circuit breaker a in Figure 3. we have considered disturbances that can be represented by st changes in the system reactive load line at the compensator bus. ie 0 '7 IcJ rm (d) URE 21. 3 arises follows. The TCR and especially the saturatedreactor compens both have apparently large overvoltagelimiting capability. and perhaps by a large amount during t firstswing period. losses. ransient response of V . with small compensator.Behavior of Static Shunt Compensation During Trans Period. and only if t magnitude of the initiating disturbance is very small and/or the SO voltages are generated by synchronous machines of very large rating tive to the compensating means considered. The only difference is that the capacitor switch ing is under "forced control" while the reactor is selfadjusting or "i herently controlled. oscillais shown in Figure 4c. Static Compensators point d. 1 . and reproduced as trace A in Figure 21 b. ( c ) Small compensator.4. The performance of a typical shunt compensator during the firstperiod is very similar to that described for the transient period. . After the faulted line section is removed from the system in Figure 3. Different compensators achieve more or less th same results in different ways (but with significant differences in overall performance when cost. Response of static compensator in firstswmg per~od. Summary . the load line at the compensator bus will change (rise and fa continually for a longer time.2. The first half of the V . If. and in the transmission angle 6. e disturbance causes an oscillatory transient in the power. . their response certainly fast enough to stabilize the transmission voltage within th "transient" period.
the steadystate power nsfer capacity was doubled (Figure 32. and the small response delay. less than or equ to 112 cycle. it limits the minimum voltage to point g ins of point u during the first swing. the voltage drops inst ly from point a to point b along the ordinate in Figure 21 b. With a smaller capacitive ratm than the one considered in Figure 21a. the powerangle curve b is obtained according to P = 2Et2 6 sin . In general. 3. combine to reduce the erangle curve from b to c. Figures 21c and d show the expected performance with a smaller co pensator whose current and voltage are forced outside the normal cont range during the postfault power swings. The vol remains at point b during the fault and recovers to some value betwee points u and a when the faulted line section is disconnected. if the compensator responds instantaneousiy. T voltage trace C shows that the compensator was able to operate within i voltage control range. The effect of shunt capacitance ignored.4. With an ideal compensator that holds the midpoint voltage nstant at the value E'. In this section we have tacitly assumed that the variation in the syste load line is unaffected by the action of the compensator. If a relatively large compensator were in service on bus tn of Figure the dashed voltage trace B in Figure 21 b would result. As soon as the fault occur's. 7' dashed voltage trace C shows the effect of the smaller compensator. It is assumed the compensator was operating at point a before the fault occurred. Within about half cycle the TCR is "phasedoff" and the voltage rises to point c on fixedcapacitor line in Figure 21a. For the symmetrical system shown in Figure 22. the voltage V . Without the mpensator. The Effect of Static Shunt Compensation on Transient Stability ction 2. of the rators (which are assumed identical). then to c'. where E is w the "emf behind transient reactance" ( E ' ) of the two generators and is the total series reactance. When the faulted line is disconnect the voltage jumps to point d. When the fault is cleared and the postfault load line recovers to line (located between load lines 3 and 1). The so trace A in Figure 21d again shows the uncompensated response. in which a transmission system is sectioned into two or more parts shunt compensators that hold the voltage essentially constant at interdiate points. The dashed trace B in Figure 21 b shows the best voltage contr performance achievable with a relatively large compensator at bus m the system considered. Voltage level c' is sligh lower than c in Figures 21a and 21 b owing to the smaller capacitive r ing.4. equal to the sum of the line and former reactances. the TCR "phases on" part way and stabilizes the voltage point e. 2Xd+XT+Xj 2 (1) s curve is realizable only if the (transient) compensator voltage1 rrent characteristic is flat. Following a slight delay. the voltage drops to point b even with the compensator in service. Correlating th voltage trace A with the sequence of load lines. Chapter 2 ) . In general. the slope Of is attained. Static Compensators Load line 3 moves up and down the plot as time passes. it was shown that the steadystate power capacity of a symmetrical line could be increased by adding a shunt compensator at the electrical midpont.6 of Chapter 2 introduced the concept of cornpensation by secning. We next consider t influence of the compensator on the transmission angle and the transie stability of the system. As 6 i creases.. In particular. until the power swing caused the operating p to drop over the leftmost end of the compensator characteristic at poin and reach a minimum position g on load line 3. d if it has sufficient capacitive current capability. Even though the c pensator is overranged. The small positive slope in the v ~ l t a g e l c u r r e ~ t acteristic. . recovers also.158 Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3. Static Twomachme system w ~ t h i d p o ~ n t y n a m ~ c m d compensator..3. with voltage control at the midpoint bus.ing the fault: a to b. The voltage trace with the smaller compensator follows the sa sequence dur. Neither compensator does much to correct the voltage during t fault period. none of ese conditions is met. this doubling is shown the increase in the P/6 curve from a to b in Figure 23. holding the voltage nearly constant for a short t between points e and J. In the limit. while the limited capacitive current capa Compensator FIGURE 22. t compensator will tend to reduce the variation in the transmission angle which in turn affects the load line variation. zero compensating current. X p + 2XT and the transient reactances X. curve a is given by Equation 38 of Chapter 2 . the voltage drops to a minimum value (point u ) as shown Figure 21 b at time t.
The circuit was tripped and the system remained stable: no poleslip . the power. Theory of Transient Stability Improvement. For the same prefault po P I and the same fault duration. Curves 1. in principle. Imagine a fault that occurs between circuit breakers a and b in ure 22 and is cleared by those breakers. puter Simulation Examples. a thwhile improvement in transient stability is still possible with comnsators of limited size. be preloaded the transient stability power limit P I for the prescribed fault. . Curve 3 results after the faulted I section is removed and differs from curve 1 in that Xj is replaced 3 3 1 2 . E'~ x1+ 2(X. ( a ) No compensator at bus I I I . rapidresponse midpoint shunt compensato shown in Figure 24b. In the sence of the compensator. The effect of a large. Nevertheless.+ Xd) . 500kV line. Static Compensators bility breaks the curve at point D. although large rotor angle swings were experienced. Sixty percent of the linecurrent was compensated with fixed shunt reactors. the power level would be somewhat less than this. The receivinghine is assumed to be an infinite bus. El is assumed constant through the firstswing period. The generahighresponse excitation system. the transient stability limit is increased. Figure 25 shows the response he transmission angle 6. because it reduces margin area in Figure 24b to the right of point D. ( 6 ) Dynamic shunt compensator at m.tratzsietrt power angle curve which has a maximum of Pmax = power transfer can be increased up to the point where all of the is used up. First consider a c without compensation. igure 26 shows results for the same study system equipped with a pensator consisting of a 300MVAr TCR and 300 MVAr of shunt caExample I . Increase Transient Stability Margin for a Given Power Transfer twomachine model in Figure 22 is now assumed to represent a MW generator feeding a doublecircuit. 2.4. the system can.Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Perforn~ance 3. and 3 of Figure 24a are replaced the higher curves 1. provide a stability margin. such t the available decelerating energy A 2 just balances the accelerating ene A l . of large rating. the available decelerating area is larger and is only partially used up. curve d. Three examples are now described which show the performance nefits attainable with a compensator. In other words. Equalarea method illustrating ~ncreased translent stability with dynamtc nt compensation.) URE 24. Curve 1 in Figure 24a illustrate the prefault . and the midpoint bus voltage fola threephase fault on one circuit near the generator end. 2. respectively. the compensator behaving as a fix capacitor at higher load angles. and 3. Curve 2 prevails during the fault. (See also Figure 32 Chapter 2. It is clear that the capacitive current capability of the pensator is a limiting factor in the stability margin. maintains linear voltage control during entire firstswing period. We are now in a ~ o s i t i to use the equalarea criterion to compare the relative transient stabil with and without a dynamic shunt compensator. The dynamic performance of cornated systems can be studied in greater detail with computer simulas. In practice. leaving a margin as indicate Figure 24b.
Response of system In Figure 22 to a threephase fault. There was assumed to be 500 MW of load at the remote eration site. This system typefies a transmission tie between a regenerating plant and a major power grid system. The investigations were made using a digital power system stability proram. he objective of the study was to demonstrate the utilization of static compensators to increase the power that could be transferred over a (fixed) set of transmission lines without risking transient instability specific fault. threephase fault at point X. Static Con~pensators 6" loor vrn. This would be analogous to an actual condition in approval for additional transmission lines is difficult to obtain or in more economical alternatives are desired.5 1.0 1. Response of system in Figure 22 to a threephase fault.0 500 MW t.5 2. with static comp sator. no comPensa so 60 system studied in this example was theStability transmission system Maintaining Transient 500kV wn in Figure 27.1 1 I ance.0 t.0 1. with an intermediate switching ion. The voltage on the midpoint 500kV is virtually steady only three seconds after the fault.("' Compensators were considered to be located at bus 1 and bus 2. The first as well as those in the uncompensated case. 300 mi long. 1 I I I 1 I I 0 0. the faulted being tripped in 5 cycles. 0 1982 IEEE. 1982 IEEE.0 2. Although these results are based on a simple model.5 3. more omprehensive studies have shown that such improvements are obtainle in other realistic power system configurations. consistent with the increased er transfer capability made possible by the application of the compenator.4. Compensator FIGURE 27.5 3.5 1. For the transient stability investigations. indicatsignificantly reduced over the subsequent swings in the rotor angle g an increase in transient stability. Compensator 500kV system. Example 2. the system disance was a zeroimpedance.75 I I I I 3 3.5 2. 'C 1982 IEEE. The points at ch the compensator becomes overranged are clearly seen in the lower wo traces.PU r . . PU :('[' 60 0. sec FIGURE 26. Increasing Power Transfer while I 0 0. see FIGURE 25. The transmission t consisted of two lines.0 2. In contrast to the fixed ission it was presumed that the generation capability (and assoed transformers) would be increased. bus 2.P.
and a number of capacitive MVAr ings for the compensator at bus 1.and threeline circuits respecwithout compensators. b. he results also indicate the preferred location for the compensators. In the application of comensators to an actual system. compensators.200k For the circuit investigated. Since the effects on transmitted power (P. In all cases. for a P. e curves were calculated for the postfault circuit condition. of 1100 MW. n approximate transient powerangle curve for the compensated sysm is illustrated by curve b in Figure 29. to 1250 MW. MVA rating of the generators and associated transformers was ma equal to the prefault power flow. multiple program runs were mad determine the minimum capacitive MVAr rating of the compensato bus 2 required to maintain transient stability for the stated fault. three lines with no compensator. For example. two lines with 1982 compensator.that will main transient stability.) st interest. 6" B u s 2 compensator Rating. the prelocation for a single compensator is at bus 1. with the enerators modeled as a constant voltage behind transient reactance.. The ohmic value of the line ~m pedance was kept constant. this location experiences the greatest voltage dip e generator angle swings that follow the fault clearing. and the final choice of location(s) may be promise. is. the results show that the compensators inease the transient stability limit. The control settings for the com tors were modeled such that compensator output was zero under (prefault) conditions. for the fault studied in this example. This gave the effect of trying to transmit th output of larger and larger generating stations through the same transmi sion line. a. the calculations for the curves were based on the asptions of no local load and a 1000MVA fixed generation capacity. two lines with compensator. However.164 Reactive Power Con~pensation and Dynamic Performance 3.. at various prefault power levels P. each P. The increase for this circuit nfiguration is approximately equal to 100 MW for each 200 MVAr of ed compensation. c. . ratings 600 MVAr at bus 'r and 230 MVAr at bus 2 are required. Postfault power/angle curves for the system of Figure 27. This is due to the ct that bus 1 is closest to the electrical midpoint of the postfault circuit. The iscontinuity on curve b is the point at which the compensators reach the Transmission Angle. Static Compensators 165 For a number of power levels P. The power le els investigated ranged from 720 MW. @ .4. This curve is contrasted to the ponding curves a and c for the two. and can be used to achieve from two transmission es the power level associated with three lines but no compensators. @ URE 29. which is the limit with a third 1 (shown dashed in Figure 27) but no compensators. the generator and transformer perunit reactances were kept stant while the MVA base was scaled up. a number of fault conditions and conncies must be considered. which is the uncompensated tr sient stability limit. Mintmum combination of compensator ratings required for transient stab 1982 IEEE. The results are shown in Figure 28 and indicate for each P. that which provides the greatest increase in power transfer capabilor a given combined compensator rating. the co nation of capacitive ratings for the two compensators . Capacitive MVAr FIGURE 28.
The compensator capacitors were switched on followin three cycle (50 msec) delay after fault clearing. Effect of gain and delay on compensator ratings requ~redto mamta~ntra slent stability at v a r ~ o u s prefault power levels P. In this example the first swing stability nhancement of the system achieved by a compensator at bus 2 was uantified in terms of an increase in the critical clearing time. the compensators were modeled with a co trol gain of 100 (voItage droop of 1% over the compensator's total co range) and a single lag time constant of 33 msec. e effect of the compensator capacitive rating on the critical clearing e for a fault at A is shown in Figure 32 for various lengths of the total mission circuit. A fault at point B with instantaneous reclosing would yield e result as fault A. For the circuit studied. uch coordination might have resulted in a reduction of the required apacitive rating for the compensators. normally used to compensate for line chargg. included 81MVAr shunt reactors permanently connected Capacitor Switch~ng ach end of each line section. Bus 2 Compensator Rating. The permanent fault at point B results in a line ge. It during the first major angular swing and associated voltage depression th the compensator output is most important in preserving firstswing sy tem stability. Additional dynamic simulations were also performed to investigate t effect of other compensator parameters on the compensator rating quired to achieve transient stability for specific power levels. Fixed voltage shunt reactors. As shown in Figure 30. An additional consideration in the required compensator ratings is t size of the lineconnected shunt reactors. 345kVsystem. Base MVA = 1200 except for . This achieved 60% compensation of the ne capacitance. variations from this were investigated and the results are shown in ure 30. The fault at point A results in the loss of a stub line carrying no itial load.166 Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3. . . were the same. as is typical for such a circuit. the location. I I URE 31. These two cases bracket the extremes of practical postfault m conditions. This reduction caused a' slight increase the required capacitive ratings.4. In prac. These fixed reactors were eled in all cases. The circuit of Figure 27.. One variation was a reduction in control gain to 20 (total cont range voltage droop of 5%). Irzcrease Critical Fault Clearing Time for a Given Power Transfer nother investigation of transient stability was performed on the 345kV system shown in Figure 31. Static Compensators 167 end of their control range and become essentially fixed capacitors for t lower voltages associated with larger transmission angles. the switching delay required a 20% increase in t capacitive rating of the compensators to maintain transient stability f the specific power levels examined in the simulation. rating. (. Such a delay might obtained if the capacitors are switched with mechanical switches. Capacitive MVAr F I G U R E 30. The curves show a definite increase in the critical clearing time with increased compensator capacitive rating. (see Chapter 4). Zero imedance. whether or not compensators were present. Example 3. In all pre ously discussed simulations. modeled. were neglected in these studies. the ratings of the generators and mers. threephase faults at either locations A or B were the system isturbances. and switching strategy of shunt reactors must be oordinated with the application of compensators. and the prefault power (1200 MW).YT was t 5 pu on varied static compensator capacitive rating) 0 1982 IEEE. In all cases. The second variation considered was a delay in the availability of re tive power output from the compensator after the fault was cleared.of compensator.
Oscillatory Period Just as in any control system. Notice that the voltage control capability was compromised tly in order to add damping to the powerangle swings.) The use of supplementary damping controls on a compensator regulator is best illustrated with a simulation example. Supplementary damping control for providing powerangle swing damp~ng. Consider the damping controls illustrated in Figure 34 which a designed to modulate the compensator reactive power in response to bo FIGURE 34. the compensator was described as having a high voltageregulating gain and a rapid response. These dynamic properties of electronically controlled compensators can be modified or optimized to improve the damping of power swings beyond what is possible with a plain "constant voltage" reactive compensator. r 350 MVAr Itage error and deviation in bus frequency or the oscillations in ac The comparison of simulated performance in Figure 35 shows that mping of the angular swings was improved by feeding a properly condioned signal derived from power flow on the line to the voltage regulator. Here again.4. This mpromise is necessary if stability enhancement is of primary impor . for varlous The results for a fault at B are shown in Figure 33. In discussing the damping of power swings in Figures 25 and 26. the effective gain and response delay in a static compensator influence the modes (eigenvalues) of the power system. The system used in this exampl was structurally the same as shown in Figure 22.4. (Supplementary stabilizers are used on the excitation systems of synchronous generators to the same end. Vm BUS rn 3.Reactive Power Con~pensation and Dynamic Performance 6 r 3. Static Compensators o ! FIGURE 32. significant increase in critical clearing time is obtained through the stabi izing action of the compensator. use of bus frequency has been shown to provide better damping in ral. 4 i 3b0 i0 \ 5b0 Total Line Length.4. rnl Effect of compensator capacitive rating on critical clearing time for total line lengths (fault at A in Figure 31) 1982 IEEE.
It was modeled with a gain of 100 (l0/o voltage slope) and a single time constant of 33 msec (see Chapter 4). which was compensated to unity powerfactor by a fixed shunt capacitor (not part of the compensator). The reasons for the voltage collapse can be understood in the context of the quasisteadystate receivingend voltageversuspower characteristic'"' of the transmission link. In the initial steady state the reactive power requirement of the motor load was 7 1 MVAr. The compensator was assumed to be operating initially at zero current. Superimposed on the family of curves of Figure 38 are the trajectories of the system response. causing extreme penalties in lost production and loss of reve to the utility company.4. The local generators were modeled with rapidresponse exciters. The ability of a static shunt compensator to prevent this form of inst bility is best shown by the following simulation. shown in Figure 38. 0 198: With supplementary damp~ng control Without supplementary damping control 0 0.) Each curve is for a specific level of reactive power at the receiving end. The other load types were assumed to have no reactive power requirements. 3. The load area is thus dependent on power imported over a transmission link. At the time of this disturbance. The 220MW load selected consisted of 160 MW of induction motors. The system represents a mixe residential and industrial load area with local generation available to serv about half of the MW demand. A system that wou exhibit the voltage collapse phenomenon in the absence of dynamic age support is shown in Figure 36. For the example. sec FIGURE 35.6. with and without the compensator. the loss of one local generator precipitates a sudden voltage collapse and causes the induction motors to stall. the disturbance chosen was to trip one of the 60MW generators by opening breaker a.Compensator Dynamic Performance he dynamic response of compensators to typical disturbances on the power system has been described in terms of fundamentalfrequency.0 seconds following the generator trip. The curves are plotted for fixed shunt capacitors or reactors in increments of 25 MVAr (based on 1 pu voltage). Summary . starting at point 1.0 1. Static Compensators Local Generators With supplementary dampmg control FIGURE 36. bal . causing a ther decrease in voltage.Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Performance 3. Figure 8. Danlptng of rotor angle oscillations uslng supplenlentary damping controls.5. (See Chapter 2. Before the disturbance.5 1. in which continuousprocess industrial plants a stalled.0 2. Preventing Voltage Instability with Static Compensation A voltage instability can occur in the steadystate'"' if the rea demand of a load increases as the supply voltage decreases. Voltage instability (base MVA = 100). 220 M W 138kV system. 3. The induction its inertia. with the compensator this collapse is avoided. The reactive power (or power factor) at the receiving end greatly influences the maximum transmissible power. It can be particularly disruptive in the syste exemplified later. for the first 3.4. with the remainder evenly split load types.5 2. Figure 37 shows the effect of the generator trip with and without the compensator. It is obvious that the compensator (together with the remaining generator) provides the extra reactive power necessary to maintain stability while the imported power is increased. Without the compensator.0 t.5 3. the local generators were operating at rated MVA and were supplying reactive power to the transmission line in order to maintain 1 pu voltage at the receivingend bus. This voltagecollapse sequence can be trigg by a sudden disturbance.4. Proper modeling of the load proved to be important in the simulation of the voltage collapse phenomenon. However. the only transmission link in service was assumed to be a single 138kV line.
The ability of the static shunt compensator to aid power system stabilty through rapid adjustment of its reactive power was demonstrated by simulation examples.8  . Each line represents a fixed value of field current or equivalent encircuit voltage Eo. t.0 7 \ c / v .vingend voltage/power characteristics. The synchronous generator also falls in this gory because reactive power is exchanged with the transmission systhrough the same electromagnetic principles. \ phical approach of illustrating dynamic compensator performance was reinforced and extended by oscillograms from actual tests and comprehensive model tests obtained on a transient network analyzer. ( a ) Steadystate conditions.9 \ with compensator MW 50 '. 9982 IEEE.uncompensated '. with and con~pensator. 0. The controllability of TCRbased compensators permits the use of supntary damping signals to accelerate the settling of the power system llowing disturbances. The application of synin Chapter 8. fat fb) uivaient circuit.\ 1 0. Here we consider its active shunt compensator. as ell as by digital computer simulations. This equivalent circuit has age/current characteristics shown by the series of steep lines in Fig40. 3. In the steady state the synchronous condenser with fixed field current represented approximately by a generated emf E0 in series with chronous reactance Xd (Figure 39a)..5. The slope of these solid lines is proportional to xs XT @ FIGURE 38. 1982 IEEE. The use of one or more compenete with the alternative of additional transmission lines in eeting the need for greater power transfer capability. SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSERS onous compensators as they are someronous machines designed for shunt reactive power ey fall into the class of active shunt compensators ed in Chapter 2.. Response of system of Figure 36 to local generator trip.1. The speed of response and the capacitive nd inductive ratings are the key parameters which determine its benefit dynamic performance. Rece. . ... sec FIGURE P7.
(fixed field current) FIGURE 41. Lines it . Steadystate and voltage/current characteristics chronous condenser.Constant Voltage ben~nd Xh Constant field current A 0 t i IY  Synchronous Condenser Steady State FIGURE 40.m 4 IY Response of synchronous condenser to voltage drop condition .
.
Curve S4 results after reinsertion.. d it has a greater peak synchronizing power than curve S3.178 ti^^ power c o n ~ p e n s a t i o n Dynamic Perfo rmance and Legend: ~1 prefaultall lines In SZ~uring Fault s3post~ault. The remaining series capacitors to reduce the power and angle swings compared with the oscillations would take place without them. 6" (b) 3. For any en oscillation in power the angle oscillations are smaller in magnitude curve S4 on curve S3. 6 ~ 2 1 less than 6. ( b ) = A critically stable. the total available A2 just equals the energy A 1. when discussed.7. Summary 179 p1 he time of fault clearing (6 = 63. capacitors Bypassed ~ 4 . g any disturbance while the system is in transition from one equilib. There is no " margin" because the total available decelerating (synchronizing) e fully utilized. Included in this sslon were shunt capacitors. shunt reactors. is equal to the critical value 6.. and synchronous condensers. the reinsertion is essentially in~taIltaneOUS. most capacitor bypass circuits will have been reopened in the aining compensated line sections. 8 ". This can be seen by comparing transient power le curves S3 and S4 in Figure 43. = FIGURE 43. .. In this final Case. Moreover3 the capa tors are only partially bypassed during the fault itself (see Chapter Figure lob). angle. except that the capacitors in the unfaulted line are reinserted even earlier. and voltage during these transiperiods can be reduced and damped by suitably controlled reactive effects of compensation on system dynamic behavior. state to another.. is less than the critic value 6. an even greater stabily margin than that shown in Figure 43c is achievable. static mpensators. Both passive and active (controllable) compensators play an important le in ac power system steadystate performance.. that is.7. In such a case. was labeled as the quasisteadyarbus forms of passive and controllable reactive power compensation e characterized by how they perform and effect system c performance during the basic transition periods. 3. tutes a ~f the series capacitor protective bypass scheme employs a zinc0xid device. thus utilizing the transmission system more effectively. For convenience. SUMMARY 6" (cf (0)A 2 < A l ..1 in Figure 436. this tra margin would be partially used up by operating at a higher initial wer transfer. with < 6. and while =A A is less than the total available decelera ing energy. Figure 43c is the same. &.6.F ~ UBypass Removed p I~. following a single fault and its initial gs. but now the capacitors in th unfaulted lines are reinserted when the transmission angle reaches 61 This example is chosen such that the System is just stable: the pea angular swing 6.3. AI. and series capacirs contain additional evidence that dynamic performance of a power sys Figure 436 shows the same fault.=initial angle 6c=angle at time fault cleared 6u=unstable threshold 6max=peakof stable angle swing 3.o s t . 6. firstswing. . The series capacitors in the unfaulted lines are reiEXrted . In practice. The angle at the time of reinsertion. Curve S3 characterizes the postfault stem with the capacitor bypassed. 6 . eries capacitor compensation aids the system's generators in developsynchronizing torque.. final equilibrium. synchronous condensers. Later chapters vering static ComPenSators. The magnithe swings in active Power. and oscillatory periods. Oscillatory Period p1 PI y the time this period commences. series capacitors. the transition period was broken nto basic periods: the transient. (ci margin. The unused portion of available synchronizing energy const of stability as noted in Figure 4 3 ~ . izffect of' series capacitor bypass and reinsertion. bypass not removed. Switched and/or conwer system during transitions between equilibrium states.
and the suppression of subsynchronous resonance. Some f compensator can also be designed to assist in the limitation of c overvoltages (Chapter 3). Hauth and R. 1) and 195 0'01. Georgia (Feb. 96 (5). 1948 (Val. Risan. 99 (2). Properties of Static Compensators hapter 2 it was explained how a constant ac voltage could be maind at the terminals of a controlled susceptance. 115. MANSTAB/POSSIA. Hauth. ~ t h for ~~~~~t for U. 161164 Wiley." IEEE Trans. D. ~ ~ et al.. V.1. L.S. J. [EEE Task Force On Terms and Definitions. In this and subsequent chapters xamine some of the principles by means of which compensators are chapter is concerned with static shunt compensators. Price. D. J. Kimbark. Sraric Reactrve Power Cornpe~~saiors High voitagr Power SWenls.3. Power Appar." IEEE Trarls. Kimbark. but ich may nevertheless be very beneficial. D. on 2.1. unlike the synchronous condenser. Static means that. W. IEEE Pub. Part I. MILLER and R. Srabiliry of Large Eleclric Power S~~tellis. Moran. L.2). Humann. T. Their applications are listed in greater practidetail in Table 1. IEEE Tutorial Course Text 78EH01354PWR. 97 ~. E. R. they have no moving parts. New Y o r k 1979. In addition they have a variety of loadpensating applications. B. LYE ENSATOR APPLICATIONS desirability of reactive compensation in electric power systems has explained in Chapters 1 through 3. Newell. 19551964 (Sept. R. W. S. Figure 30 in 191 . 4. "Staged Field Testing of The Victory Hill Static Var Control. "Proposed Terms and Definitions for power System Stability.. W . E." IEEEpaper 81WM 0827. 16081619 (Se~t. IEEE Press 1974.180 Reactive Power Compensation and Dynamic Perforniance tem can be improved with proper application of reactive compensation equipment. Other applications not listed in Table 1. W./Oct. Department of Energy and Los Alarnos National Laboratory. 11). 1978). DOEINBM1010 E. Atlanta. The main headings in Table I will be recognized as fundamental requirements for operating an ac power system.I Power S J W ~ Dytrarllic Arra~ssrs II graliis . The Performance of Tlgvrrsror Cor~trolled Static var SYstel'ts IN HVAC Applicatiotis. "Application of a Static Var System To Regulate System Voltage in Western Nebraska. Hauth. R. 5664 (July 1978). Wiley. New York. Wiley. 1) and 1947 (VoL 11). April 1981. 1981). L. They are used for surgeimpedance compensation d for compensation by sectioning in longdistance.Syst. E. Larsen and W . and R. These comng devices fall into the class of active Compensators (Chapter 2.reqrretrcy Dornarri Capabilities.. PICA Conference Proceedings. 1945 (Val. M. highvoltage nsmission systems. Newell. Power A P P ~&'st. New York." IEEE Trans. Chapter 4 REFERENCES resf Procedlrres for Sytrclrronorrs A:'ochr/ies. B. Power "fppar. 2nd Ed. R . Power Sysrerii Stabiliy. J. (5). Weedy. Byerly and E. Crary. Sysr. "How to Improve System Stability Without Risking Subs~nchronous Resonance.1977). L. the minimization of transmission es resulting from local generation or absorption of reactive power hapter 111. R. Power Sysierir Siabilify. 426433 (March/ April 1980). Raatz. and T. Electric Power Systems. M. R.A N~~~ Approaclz Co~iibirirt~g Norili~rear Sit~iirla/roti atrd Linearized S a Space/l. Kimbark. as dissed in Chapters 13. J. May 1977 T. include the control of ac voltnear HVDC converter terminals./Oct.
generator and line outages) To reduce voltage flicker caused by rapidly fluctuating loads (e..1. he control characteristic usually has a small positive slope to stabilize operating point (which is defined as the intersection with the system line). which is the oldest type of controllable shunt compensator. Although a fast response is generally desirable. or to id troublesome resonances (see Chapter 10). These their variants account for the majority of static compensator applicain both transmission and distribution systems.Principles of Static Compensators 4. showed this principle in terms of the voltagefcurrent cha teristic or control characteristic. The fixed shunt capacitors are often tuned with small reactors to harmonic frequencies which may f integer or noninteger order.1. and they can vary with the tem configuration. a few general features are h mentioning. with no response d over an unlimited range (lagging and leading). The most important property of the static compensator is its abili maintain a substantially constant voltage at its terminals by contin adjustment of the reactive power it exchanges with the power syste This constantvoltage property is the first requirement in dynamic shu d FIGURE 1.. The fixed capacitors bias reactive output of the compensator into the leading (generating) ime. It is hard to generalize about what itutes a sufficiently rapid response. Con~pensator Applications TABLE 1 Practical Applications of Static Compensators in Electric Power Systems MaOitaitt voltage a[ or near a cotzstatzt level Under slowly varying conditions due to load changes To correct voltage changes caused by unexpected events (e. the midpoint of a long line) By helping to improve swing damping Itnprove Power Factor Correct Plzase Utzbala/zce Chapter 2. have inuities. and change slope according to the rates of change of veral principles have been used to design static compensators with trol characteristics similar to Figure 30 in Chapter 2. The reactive r of the compensator must change sufficiently quickly in response to all change in terminal voltage. the characteristic can deviate from a straight line. The synchronous enser. but when it is it .e. Main Types of Compensator Itnprove power sysietn siabilify By supporting the voltage at key points (e. is scribed in Chapter 8. The reactive current is limited in both the lagging and the regimes by factors in the compensator design and its principle of n. In load compensation.. This is not always present. arc furnaces) nsation or compensation by sectioning (Chapter 21. and is equally ant in reducing flicker and other voltage fluctuations caused by second important property is the speed of response.g. it happen that other factors limit the stability of the system in such a that there is no point in specifying a compensator with the fastest onse that is theoretically possible.g. and the saturated reactor (SR). A second common feature of the compensators in Figures 24 is tepdown transformer. the system modes or eigenvalues) depend as much on the ernal power system as on the compensator. 4. We concentrate three main types: the thyristorcontrolled reactor (TCR). The reason for the tuning is to absorb onics generated by the controlled susceptance (TCR or SR). load rejections. In transmission systems the time stants governing the reestablishment of a steady state following a disance (i. Before examining each type in detail. The ideal compensator is a device cap of continuous adjustment of its reactive power. Idealized static reactive power compensator ures 24 show oneline schematic diagrams of the main types of comsator. the reducof flicker is possible only with the most rapid types of compensator. Figure 1 represents an idealized s reactive power compensator. First. it is common to find fixed shunt capacitors in lel with the controlled susceptance..2.g. the storswitched capacitor (TSC). Also.
T H E THYRISTORCONTROLLED REACTOR (TCR) AND RELATED TYPES OF COMPENSATOR 4. full conduction results in the reactor. shown here as two ply frequency. The ed shunt capacitors are sometimes connected on the highvoltage side this transformer. Oneline diagram of TSC compensator. HV Compensator Bus rent compensators can vary quite widely. Sometimes the compensasystem. Oneline diagram of TCR compensator with fixed shunt capacitors. Elementary thyristorcontrolled .1. For example. losses. controlling element is the thyristor controller. With TCR compensators. The same is true the thyristorcontrolled transformer (TCT). connecting the shunt capacitors highvoltage side may require a larger stepdown transformer and s can adversely affect the losses (discussed later).52% of the reactive power.2 The ThyristorControlled Reactor and Related Types of Compensator 185 Compensator Bus MV Compensator Bus Switching Device h respect to harmonics. Oneline diagram of saturatedreactor compensator with shunt and slop correcting capacitors. Compensator Bus Switching Device Slopecorrection FIGURE 4. and current is the same as though the thyristor controller were short Compensator B US Series Capacitor with MV .2. the similarity in the oneline schematic diagrams in Figures 24 is FIGURE 2. Thyristor Controller FIGURE 5. Principles of Operation ThyristorSwitched Capacitors basis of the thyristorcontrolled reactor (TCR) is shown in Figure 5. reactor. lly. MV Compensator Switching Device BUS 4. It contains a small inphase component due to the power losses in reactor. whereas the thyristor controlof the TSC and TCR compensators are physically separated from r weather protection. the saturated tor is of transformertype construction. and overvoltage performance.2. but more commonly they share the mediumvoltage pensator bus with the controlled element. which may be of the order of 0. 1 conduction is shown by the current waveform in Figure 6a. HV peaks of the supply voltage. a derivative of the TCR. If the thyristors are gated into conduction precisely at FI GURE 3.HV 4.
related to a by the equation a+u/2=n.sin u ~ X L FIGURE 6. such as those in Figures 6 a throug Each of these corresponds to a particular value of the gating angle which is measured from a zerocrossing of the voltage. XL=wL is the fundamentalfrequency reace of the reactor (in Ohms). (2) is the conductiorz angle. time origin is chosen to coincide with a positivegoing zerocrossing e fundamental component is found by Fourier analysis II= u . If the gating is delayed by equal amounts on both thyristors._. w =2nf. a series current waveforms is obtained.cos w t ) . a=90 deg. 20 40 60 80 . and a is the gating delay angle. The maximum value of B L is obtained with u=n or 180°. 0 90 180 240 360 0 90 180 240 360 Phase. The effect of increasing the angle is to reduce the fundamental harmonic component of the c This is equivalent to an increase in the inductance of the reactor. that is. Full conducti obtained with a gating angle of 90". lciple 0 deg. in write Equation 2 as ere B L ( u ) is an adjustable fundamentaifrequency susceptance conlled by the conduction angle according to the law. ._ is called phase control.sin u ~ X L V A rms. Partial conduction is obtained gating angles between 90" and 180". Line Current B L ( u >= CT . So far as the fundame component of current is concerned.2 The ThyristorControlled Reactor and Related Types of compensator 187 The instantaneous current i is given by (COS . Phase and line current waveforms in deltaconnected TCR. The minimum value is zero. the thyristorcontrolled reactor controliable susceptance. re ing its reactive power as well as its current. full conduction in the thyristor ller. and can therefore be applied as a static compe sator. deg. :ontrol law is shown in Figure 7. obtained with u=O ( a = 180°).186 Principles of Static Compensators 4. deg. a a<wt<a+u (1) a+u<wt<a+n re V is the rms voltage. Phase Current Phase.
if the reactor in Figure 5 is divided into eparate reactors (Figure 111.rmonic components in the current.e. t is. and Figure 9 b the ation of the total harmonic content. They would also cause unequal thermal stresses in the oppositely hyristors. the power losses decrease in both the thyristor ntroller and the reactor. Harmonics is normally reasing the gating angle (reducing the conduction angle) has two other portant effects. . In Figure 8. equal for both thyristors)... the current waveform becomes less usoidal. tem Load Lfne FIGURE 8. This arrangement has lower harmonics that of Figure 5 .described by the equation V = V. < I. Fundamental Current I . The control characteristic in Figure 8 can . the TCR generates harmonic currents. some designs the control system responds to a signal that direc represents the desired susceptance B L . the waveforms differ from those of phase currents. The requirement for equal conduction also limits u to a um of 180". pu +xFormation of fundamental voltagelcurrent characteristic in the TCR compe . I sin (tz+l)cr 2 (nil) + sin ncr sin (11llcr .0 pu.. If the ing angles are balanced (i.2. and the rms value of the tl th harmonic component is given I = 4 + jXJ. Unequal conduction les would produce even ha.3.) e TCR we have described so far is only a singlephase device.. rated current of the reactors. (Note that the maxima t all occur at the same conduction angle. includdc. all odd orders generated.. Secondly. and examples are given for particular conduction t is important in the TCR to ensure that the conduction angles of the oppositely poled thyristor switches are equal.cos a 2 (n1) n 1 9 (7) tr=3. In either case the result voltage/current characteristic of the form shown in Figure 8. giving a volt slightly above 1..5. Steadys operation is shown at the point of intersection with the system load 11 In the example. but this is only one of an infinite number of p ble combinations.2. 4. . the control sett and the compensator rating. .7 .2 The ThyristorControlled Reactor and Related Types of Compensator 189 4. but the power losses are increased because of rents circulating between the two halves. However. ich has been used in Chapters 1 and 3. When the system is anced. For phase systems the preferred arrangement is shown in Figure 10. and that issues the gating pulses to the thyristors.0 pu. a XL  V 0 < I . the conduction angle in each leg can be ased to as much as 360°. All the other harmonics are present in the currents and their amplitudes are in the same proportions as shown igure 9 and Table 2. Table 2 gives the maximum plitudes of the harmonics down to the 37th. ure 9a shows the variation of the amplitudes of some of the major erorder) harmonics with the conduction angles. depending on the system load line. the conduction angle is shown as 130°. Fundamental Voltage/Current Characteristic The TCR has to have a control system that determines the gating insta (and therefore cr). I. In others the control algorit processes various measured parameters of the compensated system (e the voltage) and generates the gating pulses directly without usin explicit signal for BL (discussed later). in other words.2. First.188 Principles of Static Compensators 4. shown here as 1.. However.. sator. all the triplen harmonics circulate in the closed delta and are sent from the line currents. three singlephase TCR's connected in delta.
59 (1.10 0.20 (0.' 0 ' 0. The percentage is t for both phase and line currents. which is an advantage when system resonances near these frequencies. TABLE 2 Maximum Amplitudes of Harmonic Currents in TCR* Harmonic Order Percentage 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 100 (13.3 % 4. TCR Harmonics. connected on the lowvoltage side of the stepdown ormer.35 (0.6 0.09 FIGURE 11. (a! Major harmonic current components of TCR.15 0.75 (0. TCR w ~ t hmore than 180" of conduct~on in each leg to reduce harmonic currents.29) 0. Balanced conditions are assumed.57) 0. Otherwise a highpass filter may be used.57) 1.2 0 Conduction Angle o.44 0.8 P U 0. deg. ( b ) Total harmonic content of TCR as a fraction of the fundamental component at full conduction.05 2.2 The ThyristorControlled Reactor and Related Types of Con~pensator ' 191 5th 1 .4 0 1 2 % 7th % % : 0 0 11th 13th 20 40 60 80 100120140 160180 Conduction Angle (aJ o.o 0.24 0. For higherorder harmonics a plain capacioften sufficient.78) 5. The per are the same for both phase and line currents.i m . de FIGURE 9. . is to split the TCR into two parts fed from two secondaries on r harmonic cancellation. except that triplen harmonics do not appear in the line currents. and has affinities with the polyphase satu "Values are expressed as a percentage of the amplitude of the fundamental component at full conduction.17) 0.13 (0.12) 0. The values apply to both phase and line currents. shown as a percentage of the fundamental component at full conduction.05 0. The generation of Inn . nd 7th harmonics.
and must be designed to ensure accurate harmonic cancel A variant of the 12pulse TCR uses two separate transformers inst one with two secondaries. so reactive power can only be absorbed. The ThyristorControlled Reactor and Related Types of Compensator C e f Secondary FIGURE 12. the transformer is designed with very high leakage reacta and the secondary windings are merely shortcircuited through the th tor controllers.Principles of Static Compensators 4 . (a) E 13. Instead of using a separate stepdown transformer and li reactors. between zero and a maximum e corresponding to full conduction. The effect of adding the capacitor currents to the TCR ents shown in Figure 8 is to bias the control characteristic into the . However. Harmonic propagati computer programs are used for this purpose. The ThyristorControlled Transformer The TCR with Shunt Capacitors Another variant of the TCR is the thyristorcontrolled transformer ( Figure 13). The current is always lagging. without steps. the need for fil and their frequency responses must be evaluated with due regard to possibility of unbalanced operation. and sometimes it is n sary to cover quite a large portion of the interconnected power syste The 12pulse connection has the further advantage that if one faulted the other may be able to continue to operate normally. With both 6pulse and 12pulse TCR compensators. f b ) With wyeected reactors and thyristor controller (4w~resystem). The influence of other capaci banks and sources of harmonic currents in the electrical neighborhood the compensator must also be taken into account. connected at the primary volta important to note that the TCR current (the compensating current) be varied corztinrtously.5.2. 4. The high leakage helps protect the transformer against shortcircuit forces during faults. ~th wyeconnected reactors and deltaconnected thprstor controller. doublesecondary transfornier. The trol system must take into account the 30" phase shift between the TCR's. Because of its linearity and large thermal mass the TCT ly withstand overloads in the lagging (absorbing) regime. the TCR compensacan be biased by shunt capacitors so that its overall power factor is ing and reactive power is generated into the external system pter 1). Arrangement of 12pulse TCR w ~ t h Secondary thirdharmonic currents under unbalanced conditions is similar to tha the 6pulse arrangement (Figure 10).4. ss a separate stepdown transformer is provided.2. and the transformer can take the form of three singlep transformers. With the arrangements in Figure 13 there is no secon bus and any shunt capacitors must be. 4. Alternat~vearrangements of thyristorcontrolled transformer compensator. A gapped core is necessary to obtain the high lea reactance.
Figure 13. As is common with shunt capacitor banks. When a capacitor is switched on or off. the conduction angle is immediately adjusted. It is common for the compensation requirement to extend into the lagging and the leading ranges. large tive currents circulate between the TCR and the capacitors witho forming any useful function in the power system. the accumulation of switching operations may cause a maintenance em in the circuit breakers. If the operating point is nually ranging up and down the voltagelcurrent characteristic. if the regulator gain is unchanged. I Fundamental Current FIGURE 14. and is designed to proa continuous overall voltagelcurrent characteristic. However.2 The ThyristorControlled Reactor and Related Types of Compensator 195 second quadrant. The TCR controller is provided with a signal enting the number of capacitors connected. as shown in Figure 14. so that t gree of capacitive bias in the voltage/current characteristic can be adju in steps. . Also. of Connected Switched Filter Capacitors Hybrid compensator with switched capacitors and "interpolating" TCR. The net reactive power absorption rating with t pacitors connected equals the difference between the ratings of t and the capacitors. the slope reactance X. An example of the effect of switching the car is given in Chapter 7. In a threephase system the ferred arrangement is to connect the capacitors in wye. If this is done. In such cases the required TCR rating can large indeed (up to some hundreds of MVAr in transmission sys plications). One possible choice is to have groups t the 5th and 7th harmonics. having the shunt capacitors d into three groups. and in most cases this can only be avoided by inhibthe compensator from switching the capacitors. The current in Figure 14 is. of course. will be increased when the capacitors are added. the fundamental posi sequence component. When the net reactive power is small or lagging. Unfortunately this ts the full potential of the capacitors from being used during a when they could be extremely beneficial to the stability of the sys MV Compensator Bus 1 Capacitor Only '1 Capacitor \ + React01 I Load Ltne . A TCR with fixed capacitors have a lagging current unless the TCR reactive power rating excee of the capacitors.to filter th monic currents generated by the TCR and so prevent them from in the external system. The groups can be tuned to lar frequencies by small series reactors in each ~ h a s e . Voltagelcurrent character~stic TCR. with another arranged as a highpass The capacitors arranged as filters. the capacitors ma divided into more than one threephase group.194 Principles of Static Compensators 4. as shown in ure 10. a smaller "interpolating" TCR can be used. For this reason pacitors are sometimes designed to be switched in groups. The be mechanical circuit breakers or thyristor swtches. each group being rately switched by a circuit breaker. so that the capacitive reactive power or subtracted is exactly balanced by an equal change in the inducreactive power of the TCR. e performance of this hybrid arrangement of a TCR and switched t capacitors depends critically on the method of switching the capaciand the switching strategy. Thereafter the conduction angle will continuously according to the system requirements. and indeed the entire compe must be designed with careful attention to their effect on the reso of the power system at the point of connection (see Chapter 10). with other reference signals. until the next itor switching occurs. Under these cirnces repeated switching can place extreme duty on the capacitors ircuit breakers. The least expensive way to switch the itors is with conventional circuit breakers. in transmission system applications may be conflicting requirements as to whether the capacitors should tched in or out during severe system faults. mple is shown schematically in Figure 15. and if it lies between Icmax and ILmaxthe c characteristic is again represented by Equation 6.
The main advantage of the opensystem is rapid response. C = RG/(I+GH).Principles of Static Compensators 4. OpenLoop Control. The two basic types of control which can be used are closedloop openloop control. Openloop flicker compensator control. this pair of braic equations must be solved for a . according to Equations 4 a It has already been shown (Chapter 1) that the compensator will op at the point of intersection of the V / I 1characteristic and the system line. G = feedforward transfer function. R = ence. "Openloop" implies a system without feedback. the openloop arrangement can be described in terms of re 17. This has been used successfully for flicker re tion applications where rapid response is essential. The number of separately switched capacitor groups transmission system compensators is usually less than four. In other words. E 17.2 The ThyristorControlled Reactor and Related Types of Compensator 197 In some cases these problems have been met by using thyristor trollers instead of circuit breakers to switch the capacitors.B c . and some specific examples are described in Chapter 9. SC = susceptance calculator. but even so. ( b ) OpenC = RG. TFS = thyrutor firing (gat~ng)sysAC = conduciion angle calculator. then C will not turn out as planned. Control Strategies iples have been applied in designing circuitry to generate the thyrisating pulses. and workable method is to construct a circuit with the transfer function (at (b) FIGURE 16. ( a ) Closedloop.2. = For application purposes the primary characteristic of a 'compensator is voltagelcurrent characteristic. (8) e B L ( a ) is given by Equation 5 and Figure 7. desired compensating susceptance may be expressed in a number of rent ways (Chapter 1). F ure 16b. A typical TCR characteristic is shown in Fi (solid line). In effect. Several algorit BL(u) . the properties of which have been cussed in Chapters 13. during disturbances this duty can extreme. The signal representing it is processed by a uction angle calculator (CAC) to produce a signal representing the red conduction angle according to the equation B. The t precision of the thyristor switches can be exploited to reduce the se of the switching duty. Each point on the line represents a particular value of BL. Control strategies. There measurement of C made to check the result. For all voltages the TCR current is determined by the tance of the reactors and the conduction angle u.6. The main advantage of closedloop system is accuracy. neral terms. H = feedback transfer function. C = controlled vanable. "Closedloop" implies the classical feedback syst Figure 16a. The susceptance calculators SC compute the desired compeng susceptance from input signals representing the measured voltages currents of the load and the required compensator characteristics. taking ad tage of the virtually unlimited switching life of the thyristors. all c tions must be taken into account irz advance by the function G unforeseen circumstances change the characteristics of the external tern. 4. The control system automatically adjusts the gating instants therefore a ) so that this condition is satisfied. . Here the feedforward transfer function G is "preprogram to produce a certain value of C given a certain value of R . Equation 5 is nonlinear.
the difference between the actual system voltage and a r ence applied to the compensator) is measured and used to cause the ceptance of the compensator to increase or decrease until the voltage ror is reduced to an acceptable level. K 1 a are adjustable gains. the relationship between voltage error and compensator current is aturally linear. The slope of the control characteristic is determined by the gain The current error amplifier (K2) may be an integrator so that the rent error is essentially zero. The speed of response and ity are determined by the total loop gain and time constants of the ating system. a linearizing network (similar in principle to the susnce calculator) is required if a straight characteristic is desired. Compensator w t h voltage regulator.Principles of Static Compensators 4. but will also be less stable. This means that the controlled reactive nt will be proportional to the voltage error. L~near~z~ng Function TCR Function system Voltage Feedback Processor w System Impedance = KB. FIGURE 19. Figure 19 shows the operatio this type of control. the reacs. independent of the s of XL. racy of all the components shown in Figure 19 except the system e. accuracy can be improved by using two control loops (Figure 20). This means that the impedances of the capacitors. . TCR block diagram. The loop gain is proportional to the source (or sysimpedance. and the gating pulse genator. and independent of the gains of the conducangle calculators. ClosedLoop Control. FIGURE 18. The openloop control strategy described so far is suitable for compensation where the desired response of the compensator is expre entirely in terms of admittances computed from the instantaneous vol and current of the load. stability. There is no explicit voltageregulating func in this control strategy. When this is put in the control loop ahead of transfer function of the TCR itself (Equation 51. The openloop control strategy just descri cannot be applied at an intermediate point on a transmission network mote from loads and sources. = srgnal susceptance (calculated from load voltage and current). It should be pointed out that the explicit gene of a signal representing the desired value of BL is not performed 1 compensator control systems.2 The ThyristorControlled Reactor and Related Types of Compensator 199 K2n/(cr . K I B . This is shown in Figure 18 for one phase. If the gain of this loop is very high then the nt error is negligible. and for this a closedloop control is used. some of which are described in Chapter 9. The of the regulating scheme will depend on the linearity. and the transformer must all be known and constant. This means that as the system impedance increases the ensator will have a faster response. the result is a linear lationship between the desired susceptance signal and the actual co sating susceptance.sin cr).XC. and XT.e. A vo1 error (i. er control loop in the form of a current regulator is added to the voltage regulator. This step is bypassed in certain alterna approaches. the linearizing network. In these cases the objective is usual1 regulate the voltage.. he ratio of the compensator current to the voltage error determines slope of the voltage/current characteristic.
since the comng network (Chapter 1) may in general require either inductive or we admittances in any phase.Principles of Static Compensators 4. Another important characic of all static compensators is their performance under conditions of Speed of Response. Compensator with voltage and current regulator. the accuracy of phase balancing would not be as good.2. Transformer FIGURE 20. Typically the o loop control might respond in around 1 cycle whereas the closedcontrol might respond in 1 sec. Combinations of OpenLoop and ClosedLoop Control.used with the TCR do not limit the phase ng ability: on the contrary. Another possibility is to regulate the net compensatio an average of zero MVAr. the response f a TCR with fixed capacitor can be as little as 2 cycles of the frequency (or even less) for the largest voltage disturbances.1 that the conducti angle in any phase of the TCR can change by any amount between s ressive halfcycles of the supply frequency. The spe response of the closedloop power factor or reactive power reg would be slow compared to the openloop control. they may enhance it. FIGURE 21. The plain TSC is capable of individual phase control. In particular.2. Shunt capacitors. Even so. where the stability and accuracy control system are usually more important. The TCR can therefore be or phase balancing.2 The ThyristorControlled Reactor and Related Types of Compensator TCRlFC 201 Conduction Angle Calculator Power Factor Measurement /  Gating Pulse Generator 1 Power Factor Reference lntegratoi Thyristor Gating System Combinatton of openloop and closedloop control. It is clear from Section 4. 4. The two b types of control are often used in combination (Figure 21). It is inherent in the TCR concept that the hases can be independently controlled. possibility is to regulate the overall average power factor (of the load compensator). provided that cr remains 1 . This strategy means that for a steady there would be no compensation. This extremely rapid response is rarely required in highe transmission systems applications. pendent Phase Control. as described in Chapter 1. Other Performance Characteristics of TCR Compensators 180". In nace applications fast response is of overriding importance. but rapid compensation would be plied by the openloop control for changes in load. triplen harmonics will appear in the line onse to Overvoltage and Undervoltage.7. but since only discrete steps of ive power are possible. increasing the filtering rement. For exam in a load compensator (which may have an openloop control syste the form shown in Figure 17) it is often desirable to add a closedcontrol to maintain some quantity at a prescribed average value. and the of the response of both the TCR and the TSC types of compensadiscussed in detail in Chapter 9. The unbalanced TCR may generate harmonics than under balanced conditions.
.. and as far as the fundamental current is concerned TCR will behave as a plain linear reactor. The same principle applies in the TCT. if the system voltage rises above point corresponding to the maximum conduction angle. sformer and auxiliary losses are not included in Figure 22. At higher voltage levels still. Power loss characteristic for TSCITCR hybrid compensator. When the system voltage falls below the control range of sator. it behaves as a fixed capacitor. involving the operation of circuit br and surge arresters.. Power Losses. the thyristors being " If the shunt capacitor is absent or already switched off. switching. the capitalized v of the losses can be comparable to the capital cost of the compensator a TCR compensator with a fixed shunt capacitor the losses increase conduction in the TCR as shown in Figure 22 as a percentage of the citive reactive power rating. The reactance of the TCR be too high to limit the rise of system voltage under the most ext conditions. I 1% O Small Filter Capacitor it m Compensator Reactive Power FIGURE 23. Subsequently the entire 1 and lagging capability of the compensator may be used in damping swings (Chapter 31. and it may eventually be necessary to start reducing the duction angle to protect the thyristors from excessive junction temp tures due to the high currents. Because of the high cost of energy. the controls be at their limit.) The ncrease with decreasing leading reactive power and with increasing reactive power. They include resistive losses in the reac ie Compensator Reactive Power E 22. The provision of an inherently large overload m on the normal control range of the TCR is a possibility. Referring to the stea state V I I . The satu kneevoltage of the transformer must not be set too low. the stepdown transfor will begin to saturate and its magnetizing current will increase rapidly. Power loss characteristic for TCR compensator with fixed shunt capacitor1 onduction.Principles of Static Compensators very high or very low voltages. p tive measures are necessary. This example is for thyristorswitched capaciWith mechanically switched capacitors the characteristic has the general form but the losses in the leading (capacitive) regime are Power ~osses Total Thyristor Switched Capacitors 'I . and the TCR controls may incorporate special back signals to enhance this effect. The loss characteristic for this type of compensator is of the shown in Figure 23. indeed it may been installed partly for that purpose. and in such c TCR will be of benefit in limiting the overvoltage. There are circumstances in which the voltage can after fault clearing to an initially excessive value. the has no effect. At higher voltages than those shown in Figure 8. otherwise lems with ferroresonance can arise. characteristic in Figure 8. and other losses in the thyristor controller. The opposite trend is obtained in the hybrid comr where the capacitors are switched in groups and the TCR is ller. The power losses in a compensator are an imp0 consideration. junction temperatures the risk of damage from overvoltage is increa The currentlimiting feature of the control is shown in Figure 8. This question has already been discus from the systems point of view in Chapter 3. but this wou expensive. particularly if these currents are sustai Some thyristor controllers have temperature transducers and/or tion circuits to monitor the junction temperatures (Chapter 5). the highvoltage bus this will have a beneficial effect in helping to h down the voltage.
Principles of Operation The principle of the thyristorswitched capacitor (TSC) is shown in ures 24 and 25. given number k the maximum number of steps will be obtained wh two combinations are equal. that i contains no harmonics. the voltage across the thyristors subseque alternates between zero and twice the peak phase voltage. Ignoring switching transients.3. deltaconnected TSC. This degree of flexibility is not us in powersystem compensators because of the consequent comp the controls. The susceptance is adjusted by controlling the parallel capacitors in conduction.3.1. and because it is generally more economic to make the susceptances equal. Each capacitor always cond integral number of halfcycles. ( b ) Wyeconnected secondary. halfsusceptance increases the number of combinations from k to 2 k . FIGURE 25. With k capacitors in paralle trolled by a switch as in Figure 25. ) Deltaconnected secondary. which requires at least that all the indiv~ susceptances be different. This coincides with phase voltage. the total susceptance can be equa that of any combination of the k individual susceptanc. the thyristors can be left ungated and no further current flow. The total susceptance thus varies in a stepwise man In principle the steps can be made as small and as numerous as desi by having a sufficient number of individually switched capacitors. Each phase of Figure 24 comprises a parallel conlbination of switched capacitors of thls type. 4. The relation between the compensator current and the number capacitors conducting is shown in Figure 26 (for constant terminal v age). wyennected TSC (4w~re system). One compromise is the socalled binary syste which there are k1 equal susceptances B and one susceptance B I 2 .2 or k at a time.1. the current is sinusoidal. Alternative arrangements of threephase thyristorswitched capacitor.2. When the current in an individual capacitor reaches a natural z crossing.4. Principle of operation of TSC.es taken 0.) 205 . Switching Transients and the Concept of TransientFree Switching GURE 24. however. The reactive power supplied to the power system ceases abru The capacitor. The instant when the thyristors can be gated again without transients is the voltage across them is zero (Figure 2 7 b ) . NovemberIDecem ber 1981. is left with a trapped charge (Figure 2 Because of this charge.
the thyris can be gated into conduction only at a peak value of voltage. which is considered in the next section. it is possible to switch any or all of the capacitors on or for any integral number of halfcycles without transients. Under practical conditions. transientfree switching waveforn~s. e each capacitor is charged to either the positive or the negative syspeak voltage. = l / B c its reactance. dvldt = 0 and I/. we ve the ideal case of transientfree switching. is used first describe the important concept of transientfree switching. Such a step is impossible in practice ause of inductance.dv = dt C ~ cos (oor+a).. we must also specify that the acitor be precharged to the voltage Vco= +.? is the peak value of the ac. with no other circuit elements than the voltage supply. that is. The ThyristorSwitched Capacitor current 11 rTh 2 No. s concept is the basis for switching control in the TSC. = dv dt wof cos (ooiiCK) = 0 . w ere .. First consider the . ith these restrictions.f . AA vs lac 0 ing at any other instant would require the current i=Cdv/dt to have a ontinuous step change at t=O+. (ill 0 FIGURE 27. Now woC = B. the gating must occur at a voltage peak. of Capacitors Conducting FIGURE 26. To peranalysis of Figure 28. sinwot. Ideal. 1 = ^vBc= PIX. s necessary to consider inductance and resistance. so that with AA "1 'ac i= + fBc sinoot = +i.(a)Swttching on. In principle. Figure shows the circuit. is the fundamentalfrequency suscepce of the capacitor. = + f at t = 0. it must hold the or charge + PIC. that is.. This is because any prior dc voltage on the capacitor not be accounted for in the simple circuit of Figure 28. and this restriction the current is given by i = c . . With sinusoidal ac supply voltage v = ^v sin (wot+cu). itching Transients in the General Case.3. . that is. Circuit for analysis sientfree switching.206 Principles of Static Compensators 4. The simple case of a switched cap tor. FIGURE 28. as illustrated in Figure 27. In the absence of other circuit elements. In practice oltage would appear distributed across series inductance and resiswith a portion across the thyristor switch. (b)Swltching o Ideal TransientFree Switching. ~ C (10) ere CK = & v / 2 . and X. and number TSC.
is the natural frequency of the circuit. known at all. It may not always be possible to connect the capacitor at a crest valu of the supply voltage. C FIGURE 30. B .1 1 A I sin onr cos a cos m n t .. I I ~(n2. may be known only approximately. n = ~. T h e ThyristorSwitched Capacitor addition of series inductance in Figure 28. is given by (16) talfrequency susceptance of / capacitance and inductance in series. and what will be the resulting transients.l ) . It is necessary to ask what other events in th supplyvoltage cycle can be detected and used to initiate the gating of th thyristors. which is subject to 0th constraints and cannot be chosen freely.i. Time is mea from the first instant when a thyristor is gated..3. The presence of inductance and capacitance together makes the tra sients oscillatory. wn = 1/45? nwo. For transientee switching. = = and n JX. where W. the oscillatory components of current in Equation 13 must + a ) . corresponding to the a on the voltage wave. which leads e supply voltage by 7r/2 radians. In the following. 4 n is the perunit natural frequency.. s The supply voltage is given by v = ^v sin (wo t a ) . The next section consids the behavior of the oscillatory components under important practical [ A] Ls + I(s) VCO + . In some circuits there may b more than this minimum inductance. Circuit for analysis of practical capacitor switching. It also includes the i ductance of the stepdown transformer (if used). yet it is not entirely under the designer's control because total series inductance includes the supplysystem inductance which. + (a) Necessary Conditions for TransientFree Switching. . The current has a fundamentalfrequency component i.h. Its amplitude i. The voltage equation in terms of t Laplace transform is V(s) = FIGURE 29.nBF I VcO 1z2 v sin a 1 2. If there is appreciable inductance. The term (n21) is a magnification factor which accounts for the partial seriesuning of the LC circuit. n can be as tion factor can reach 1.IXL. resistance will b neglected because it is generally small and its omission makes n significant difference to the calculation of the first few peaks of v and current. increasing L. Voltage and current magnification factor t t 2 / ( t 1 ~ . that is..1 ) . In actice. resistance causes these terms to decay. By straightforward transform manipulatio inverse transformation we get the instantaneous current: i ( t ) = ~.2 or The last two terms on the righthand side of Equation 13 represent the pected oscillatory components of current having the frequency w. The'natural frequency of the transients will be s to be a key factor in the magnitudes of the voltages and currents a switching. In any practical TSC ci there must always be at least enough series inductance to keep di/ within the capability of the thyristors.208 Principles of Static Compensators 4. The circuit is that of Figure 29.cos(wot .
The second means that t capacitors must also be precharged to the voltage in2/(n21) with t same polarity. giving sin a: = Vco/i. tching a Discharged Capacitor. There are s circumstances in which conditions A and B are far from being satis One is when the capacitor is completely discharged. is shown in Fig33 and 34. sin a: = +.I (X. relative to i. Of the two conditions necessary for transientfree switching.. oscillatory component of current is nonzero and has the same amplifor both gating angles. Amplitude of oscillatory when . The ThyristorSwitched Capacitor 211 be zero. it will be impossible to guarantee perfect transientfree rec nection. t precharging condition B is strictly outside the control of the gatingcont circuits because Vco.e.6 pu. or if it is kept precharged or "topped up" to a volta near + in2/(n21). vcofi 2 3 4 5 0 n current component.k Xc iac.2 0 1 .1) (B) Vco= t i . giving cos a: = 17 e first of these mfy never occur if the capacitor is overcharged beyond The amplitude i. The presence of inductance means that for transientfr switching the capacitor must be "overcharged" beyond i by t magnification factor n2/(n21). and (b) when dvldt = 0. The capacitor experiences voltage peaks and the supply voltage distortion is greater. Thyristors gated 6 7 8 9 1 I1 31. This can happen only when the following two conditions are multaneously satisfied: (A) cos a: = 0 (i.t3. this factor can appreciable (see Figure 30). 1 Gaing rnporrible when vc0>'? 0 i:l 0 0. and 6 can all vary during the period of nonco duction before the thyristors are gated. of the oscillatory component of current can be termined from Equation 13 for the tw? alternative gating angles. depending on conditions under which conduction last ceased and the time since it so.3. A can in principle always be satisfi Condition B can be approximately satisfied under normal conditions. changing 17.) = 3. In gene therefore.. i.0 0. In the most general case Vco can have any value.3.1 The first of these means that the thyristors must be gated at a positive negative crest of the supply voltage sinewave. Then vco 0. In the former case only condition B (Equation 18) is ed. In practice the control strategy should cause the thyristors to be ga in such a way as to keep the oscillatory transients within acceptable lim Of the two conditions A and B.. he conditions for transientfree switching appear in Figure 32 in of the precharge voltage required for two particular natural freies corresponding to n = 2. the oscillatory component has the amplitude ni. The reactances are chosen such that i. as for example w the compensator has been switched off for a while. F a range of system voltages near 1 pu. gating with v = Vcoalways gives the er oscillatory component whatever the value of n..6 030. Voltage/Current Characteristics a TSC for transmission system application the cost of the thyristor itches and other complications make it desirable to minimize the 1.210 Principles of Static Compensators 4. amplitude of the oscillatory component of current is exactly egual to In case (b). X... The capacitor will be slo discharging. how does the amplitude of the oscillat component depend on Vco? How can the gating instants be chosen minimize the oscillatory component? Two practical choices of gating angle are ( a ) at the instant when v Vco.4 0. In this case Vco= 0. An exampl.. In ures 31. Th = is then no point on the voltage wave when both conditions A and B simultaneously satisfied.3 and n = 3. In case ( a ) . The two gatangles discussed were ( a ) when v = Vco= 0 and (b) when dvldt = s a: = O). = 1 pu and the ral frequency is given by n = X. 12 2. n .. is shown as a n of Vco and 11.3. + 4. m these two figures it is apparent that if Vco is exactly equal to i. With low values of 11. From Equation 13 it can be seen that in the second case (gating n dvldt = 0) the oscillatory component of current is greater than in first case (gating when v = Vco= 0). for each of the two gating angles. and ch higher current peaks are experienced. reducing Vc0. whatever the value of the natural frequency or any value of Vcoless than i.6.. The question then arizcs. while the supply system voltage and effecti inductance may change in an unknown way. condition B will be nearly satisfi if the capacitor does not discharge (during a nonconducting period) to t low a voltage. and 32 the resulting value of i.. (b) Switching Trarzsients Under Nonideal Conditions.
1 b 1 w A 4 Vl 1 . A further istication in the control system is to incorporate a hysteresis effect so the capacitors are switched in at a lower voltage than that at which are switched out. dvldt = 0. Switching a discharged caps tor. T h e ThyristorSwitched Capacitor 213 / 1 i vc 1 2 : b v. otherwise bands arise as shown by the shading in Figure 35. operation would be at point A. and a stepped characteri is obtained (Figure 35). order to obtain a smoother voltagelcurrent characteristic it is usual ve a parallelconnected TCR which "interpolates" between the tor characteristics.=0. givrise to the possibility of bistable operation. (a1 Gating when Transientfree switching n Amplitude of oscillatory current component. the resultant characteristic is shown by the heavyline segments in gure 35. 2. circuit diagram.75 4. discharged capacitor. Switching transients lfCo= 0. ( 6 ) Gatmg when d v / dl FIGURE 32.m :w 1 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 (0) 2 (b) URE 34.50 0. ith fixed TCR controls (i. and 3 interse the system voltage/current characteristic at discrete points. This construction shows that the TCR current rating must be tle larger than that of one capacitor bank at rated voltage. This helps to prevent a "hunting" instability .04 Transformer XT=0. If the TCR characteristic has a small positive . This can in principle be done either by p or closedloop (current feedback) modification of the control m giving a continuous VII characteristic as in Figure 14. and operat can be at any of these points depending on the number of capacitors c ng.Principles of Static Compensators 0 0.3. with = 0..06 FI G U RE 33. With so few capacitors a smo voltagelcurrent characteristic is unobtainable. With two capacitors conducting.25 0. fixed knee voltage and slope) the gelcurrent characteristic of this hybrid TSCITCR is still stepped. A figure of 3 or 4 is typical of exis or presently planned installations. The capacitor characteristics 1.e. The increase in rating enables the heavy segments to be extended to the left rough the deadband. Thyristors gated wh Source X. It is therefore necessary ust the TCR knee voltage and slope by a small amount every time a is switched in or out. number of parallel capacitor units.
In practice the magneticharacteristic is not perfectly flat.1. whose idealized magnetization ristic is shown in terms of flux and current (Figure 3 6 6 ) .4. the remainder ing been employed only in smaller sizes and at lower voltages. with e proportional to the permeability of free space. SaturatedReactor Compensators Ideal Magnetization Characteristic 1 6% Voltage + TCR / TCR only Saturable Magnetic Core (a) \ 4. harmoniccompensated. the transductor. and has a series as well as a shunt element.g.. or the current. me that a sinusoidal current flows in the winding. and the ta reactodsaturatedreactor compensator. are too orted. ( c ) Variation of fundamental voltage with rent (assumed sinusoidal). he plain saturated reactor just described is unsuitable for use in nsmission systems because the voltage. The ferroresonant con voltage transformer is manufactured in the United States only in sizes. At least four basic principles have been applied. In transmissionsystem compensators the harmonics are reed to an extremely low level by internal compensation.Principles of Static Compensators System Load Lfne 4. Then the flux and ge waveforms (v = Nd4ldt) are as shown in Figure 36b.4. The flux form is approximately square. The constant fundamental voltage property ows directly from the saturation transitions of the core. the phasemultiplying type frequency multiplier. It therefore suitable only for load compensation (e. each of which uces a fixed voltage impulse (voltseconds) in the winding. 4. The controll' is the saturable magnetic core. the flux alternating between the satuIon levels +d. but is nearly linear above 4. closely related to. or both. This i socalled polyphase.4. of which many different versions were develop both in the United States and in Europe since about 1912. Its speed of response compares unfavorably with other typ of compensator. and voltage waveforms. The transductor has dc control windings and works as an adjust susceptance. selfsaturating reactor. The voltage is almost a series of impulses. tion. ( a ) Elements of saturated reac( 6 ) Flux. Principles of Operation The principle of the saturated reactor is shown in Figure 36. The tappedreactodsaturatedreactor compensator essentially singlephase. a small positive slope. The result is a funental voltage/current characteristic of the form shown in Figure 36c. small arc furna and cannot be connected to a powersystem busbar for voltage stab tion. The fundamental voltage lags 90" nd the current and reactive power is absorbed. (It interesting to compare this with Figure 5 for the TCR). current. but se the flux waveform is nearly independent of the current the funtal component of the voltage is constant. URE 36. Other classes of saturatedreactor voltage stabilizer include the roresonant constantvoItage transformer. SATURATEDREACTOR COMPENSATORS (c J (I 6 A variety of saturatingiron devices have been used for voltage stabili Principle of elementary saturated reactor. The tech . and was developed from. but only one h been developed for transmissionsystem applications.. no matter rapidly the transitions take place.
mentary frequencytripler. or by transfor coupling. by threephase symmetry it be found that most of the necessary triplen harmonic components of magnetomotive forces in each limb can be provided by the secon current. Each limb saturates alternately in both tions.216 Principles of Static Compensators 4. and much better characteristics are obtained with frequency m tipliers of up to nine times. Voltagelcurrent for polyphase saturated reactor. The secon and the circuit is thus an currents are predominantly thirdharm~nic. contain no ics lower than 5th and 7th. which shows a threephase saturated reactor ha an additional winding in the form of a closed delta. Arrangement of magnetic core and (part of the winding is omitted for simplicity). and a simple explanation is gi in terms of Figure 37. this corresponds to 18pulse operation and helps to expla~n high speed of response of the reactor by itself. under balanced conditions. In the terminol the TCR. This phenomenon of partial harmonic compensati has been exploited particularly by Friedlander.) The primary currents. . H ever. and in common with other magnetic frequency multipliers only is unsaturated at a time. Polyphase trebletripler reactor. but in order to generate from a balanced threephase system a phasemultiplying arrangeme necessary.4. A lower slope reac FIGURE 37. In the absence of secondary winding. the primary currents are highly nonsinusoidal. There are nine limbs in the mag core. The lowestorder cha teristic harmonics of the trebletripler reactor are the 17th and 19th. The harmonic performance and the voltage/current characteristics the plain frequency tripler are not good enough for application in pow systems. Elementary frequency t ler having approximately constant volt characteristic. 4. Voltage/Current Characteristics e voltagelcurrent characteristic of the saturated reactor by itself is wn in Figure 39. There is a slope of between 5 and 15% (based on reactor rating). which shows the generic relationship betwe this type of voltage stabilizer and the magnetic frequency multiplier.4. It was found in the 1930s that by in reactor of suitable value in the secondary circuit. FIGURE 39. ppropriate design of an inductive load in the 9th harmonic mesh cirthese can be reduced to around 2% by partial harmonic compensaPlain shunt capacitors can normally be used to absorb these residual onics. URE 38. The primary current is free of these harmonics. giving a total of 18 unsaturations per cycle. SaturatedReactor Conipensators Phase Termmals niques are in principle the same as used in phasemultiplying transfo ers or magnetic frequency multipliers. as shown in Figure 38. which depends on the reactor design and in particular the aftersaturation inductance of the windings.2. such as for example the trebletripler react This shares with the plain tripler the openmesh secondary wind' which carries predominantly 9th harmonic. if the secondary winding is closed. frequency multipliers the highfrequency power is transferred to a loa ther by direct series insertion in the secondary circuit. even these harmoni could be reduced.
mparisons can be realistically made only in specific circumstances and ith respect to specific operating criteria. With Shunt and slopeCorrecting Voltage ergization is by direct closure of the compensator circuit breaker. 4. In other respects the ste down transformer would be similar to the one used with the TCR co pensator. but typical slo are the same as would be specified for a TCR. This reactive power ould be representative of the average operating point of the compensathroughout its lifetime. but it has almost no control flexibility and it require appreciable expenditure on damping circuits to avoid any ssibility of subharmonic instability. The TCR ator can also be designed to have some useful overvoltagemg capability which is not available in the plain TSC. unless the capacitor is bypassed by a spark gap or some ot device. the compensator is the best type. Note that some specialized types are omitted. and their iation with current is not unlike that of the TCR. ugh the shunt capacitors need not be energized simultaneously. A lower slope reactance is sometimes obtained by connecting a cap tor in series with the saturated reactor. sses are comparable to those of similarly rated transformers. A stepdown transformer is normally used for EHV connectio because it is uneconomic or impractical to design the reactor for dir connection above about 132 kV. This slopecorrecting capac can be sized to make the slope zero or even negative. But the speed of response can be increased by reasing the exciter ceiling voltage: this has actually been done on me synchronous condensers to the point where they have sufficient eed of response to perform comparably with static compensators. The transformer may have a load ta changer that can effectively alter the kneepoint voltage of the compens tor on the high voltage side. because each type of pensator can be designed with a wide range of properties. and may enhance the control flexibility. generally results in a loss characteristic which is lower in ng regime. the yristorcontrolled transformer has many properties in common with the yristorcontrolled reactor. Noise levels can be te high near the reactor because of highfrequency magnetostrictive ces. . Breakerswitched capacitors are tted. The TSC. SUMMARY ith SlopeCorrecting 4  0 m able 3 summarizes the comparative merits of the main types of compentor. This filter as well as the capacitors must have a vo rating compatible with any transients which might occur during energl tion or other system disturbances.5. the voltagestabilized operation c be biased into the leading powerfactor region by means of shunt capa tors. Other teria. A general arrangement is shown in Figure 4. The chara teristic is very linear above about 10% of rated current. The effect of the slo correcting capacitor is shown in Figure 40. and a brick enclosure is sometimes used. it is often pointed out that the synchronous condenser has a w speed of response. It does have overload capability ch is useful in limiting overvoltages. For example. although the full exploitation of Current FIGURE 40. although they have re widely used and they certainly have lower losses. For example. Just as in the TCR compensator. which may be combined the TCR. r the ultimate flexibility of control. and their overload capability limits otherwise substantial overload capability of the saturatedreactor comp sator. These may be designed as filters if the system resonances require although this is usually not necessary for the characteristic harmonics the reactor. They are less flexible than the TSC. with presentday technology. or an absolute minimum of maintenance the saturated reactor cornator has advantages. such as cost and reliability. There is efore no general way of deciding that one type is better than another. Voltagelcurrent characteristics for saturated reactor compensator with seri (slopecorrecting) and shunt capacitors. it is meaningless say that the TSC has lower losses than the TCR. to obtain flat stabilization both the EHV and the compensator busbars. he comparisons in Table 3 are not hard and fast. Reliability is comparable h that of similarly rated transformers. The slopecorrecting capacitor also slows the response of t compensator. The dc controlled transductor is probably not ve because of its slow response. The slopecorrecting capacitors can make the saturated reactor comp sator susceptible to subharmonic instability especially on weak syste and it is normal practice to have a harmonic damping filter in parallel the capacitors. unless the reactive wer is specified at which the losses are evaluated. Again. then determine which type of comator should be used.Principles of Static Conlpensators tance requires a more expensive and larger reactor design. It is possible to insert capacitors in seri with the transformer as well as the reactor.
but ~ncrease with leading current Good. bur ~ncrease with lagging current Good.Yes Fast. with minimal transients  no .yes Fast. up to 17th and 19th Harmonics Very good Filters may be necessary depending on system conditions Good.No Capacitors . within limitations of slopecorrection capacitors No Good Saturated reactor Capacitors . excellent if TCR is added No Fast. excellent if TCR is added with lagging current Poor Flexibility (=programrnability of control) Phasebalancing Ability Overvoltage Limitation Good within limitations of' response speed Limited Good Excellent Good Moderate Limited None (or very limited with vernier TCR) No Good. dependent and slowed by slopecorrection capacitors Good.TABLE 3 Comparison of Basic Types of Compensator Quality Construction Synchronous Condenser Rotating machine TCR (with shunt capacitors where necessary) Thyristor equipment with static reactors and capacitors LaggingILeading (indirect) Continuous TSC (with TCR where necessary) Thyristor equipment with static capacitors LeadingILagging (indirect) Discontinuous (continuous with vernier TCR) Fast. but filters may be necessary with TCR Losses Moderate Good. but systemdependent Fast. but systemdependent Polyphase Saturated Reactor Transformer type with shunt capacitors Lagging/ Leading (indirect) Continuous Reactive Power Capability Control LeadingILagging Continuous Response Time Slow Fast. but system. with some transients Rotating Inertia Accuracy of Compensation Direct EHV Connection Starting Yes Good No Slow No Excellent Reactor . with some transients Limited Good. but ~ncrease Good..
6." But the name in common usage is 223 .THE THYRISTOR AS A SWITCH. L. tog economic factors which necessitate the maximum utilization of ge and transmission facilities. AS far as bulk transmission is concerned. 5 FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS AND REQUIREMENT R. the most important component in the thyristor orrect name. and innovations that impro formance in these areas are greatly to be desired. ROFINI Although the demand for electric power in the United States is in only slowly. or other device.1. Overvoltage mance is another area where improvements are desirable. Mos compensators. is locking triode thyristor. because of its inertia. the continued de of remote hydro resources worldwide should continue to demand for EHV compensators.222 Principles of Static Compensators this capability may involve bypassing the series slopecorrectin with a spark gap. thyristor valves have completefy replaced mercuryin new installations. Chapter. are their ability to hold down the system voltage under emergenc Developments in HVDC transmission also generate reactive powe trol requirements which compensators can help to fulfill.2.) 5. The synchronous condenser also has a useful overload ca~abilit good harmonic performance. Among the competitive iss field are power losses and harmonics. In addition. as later determined by industrial committees. 4. be expected. including the polyphase saturated reactor. it measure of waveform stability which is useful in some applications. THYRISTORS ci~lines used in applying thyristors to reactive power control are those used in thyristor valves for highvoltage dc transmission. RATINGS the intent of this text to provide an indepth description of the tor to understand its application in the thyristor controller. the trends in worldwide generation and transmission that reactive power compensation will become increasingly This follows from a wide commitment to ac transmission. there is no evidence th irregular loads like arc furnaces will become less Common. In addition. 5. VDC field.
the ratings of thyristors have increased over the years.STATE BREAKOVER VOLTAGE AF O R WA RD E ) ( VALANCH O FF . stor manufacturers issue detailed specification sheets for their mercially available thyristors. One region is that of the reverse avalanche area where voltage/current product (watts dissipation in the thyristor) bwxnes cessive. DE FIGURE I .. the gate has no further control .e. The reverse voltage blocking capability will be at least equal to the inhnum forward breakover voltage. and the conducting area of the silicon wafer.a voltage magltude at which the thyristor will not go into conduction unless gated. The dimensions of the wafer ermine its current rating. forwardbiased) blockregion. In a1 applications.the thyristor conduction only when the current flowing through the external circui reduced to zero. These relations are discussed in detail in the ~iterature. o by a dimensional parameter that is an indication of the size of con wafer. The figure shows two regions voltage/current characteristics that are not within the normal opera range. There is no uniform definition of this dimensional paeter. and a typical relationship is shown in Ta .". Estimated. The Thyristor as a Switch. The other area is the offstate breakover voltage area where thyristor went into the "closed switch" function without the s u p ~ l y tion or failure. In special circumstances a manufacmay provide a "custom" thyristor that is particularly suited for a tor controller application. Thyristor characteristics without applied gate voltage. it has beme common to find a thyristor described not only by its voltage rating. Introduction of doublesided cooling. The applied gate voltage causes the istor to change function from an open switch to a closed switch. the voltages applied to the thyristor are well below its and reverse voltage ratings.2. The thyristor has a voltage rating at corresponds to the peak offstate blocking voltage . Once the thyristor is ce conduction. " Year of availability for commercial application. (2) the diameter of the thyristor package. the thyristor state will change from the offstate blocking on to the highconduction region. but typical parameters used by manufacturers are (1) the diameof the silicon wafer. Introduction of neutronirradiated silicon. current (a closedswitch function) only when both the anode and the ga are made positive with respect to the cathode.S T A TE BLOCKING REGION FIGURE 2. Ratings 225 TABLE 1 Progress in Thyristor Ratings R E V E R S E BLOCK1 H I G H CONDUCTION R E G I O N Year a 1958 1960 1963 1963 1965 1969 1969 1973 1975 1977 1980 1985" a Wafer Diameter (mm) 14 24 28 28 33 40 40 53 53 77 77 100 Peak Repetitive Voltage Rating (V) 200 700 1300 1800 1800 1800 2600 2600 2900 3800 4500 6000 Average Current Rating (A) 80 150 300 225 550b 750 600 1000 1000' 1600 1350  NORMAL OPERATION ("ON" S TATE) FORWARD VOLTAGE OFF. and rate of change of applied voltage. Figure 2 shows the voltagecurrent characteristics of a thyristor wh the gatecathode voltage is zero.224 Design of Thyristor Controllers 5. e blocking voltage capability is related to gate circuit conditions. junctemperature. Thyristor circuit symbol.~' If voltage is applied to gate while the thyristor is in the offstate (i.
it is possible to calculate the junction temperature for any operating condition.5. Figure 4 represents a simple equivalent thermal circuit that allows calculation of the junction temperature. and the expression jurlctiorl tetnperature is comnlonly used to describe the "hot spot" temperature of the layer within the silicon wafer. Typical maximum operating junction temperatures for thyristor controller applications may be up to 120°C or more at maximum design current with maximum coolingmedium temperature. in other words. Also. The cooling system will determine the thermal resistance from the heat sink to the cooling medium. The watts magnitude is the total rate of heat generation within the thyristor. This thermal time constant allows the thyristor controller designer to provide for overloads lasting for milliseconds or even seconds (especially with an aircooled thyristor heat sink). This is just one example of a degradation of performance due to an increased junction temperature. Thyristor thermal circultsteadystate conditions. CERAMIC HOUSING MOUNTING SURFACE (ANODE) FIGURE 3. of course. the thyristor's capability to withstand voltage during its nonconducting state decreases. Typical thyristor outline. For a fluidcooled thyristor. \' \ 5. Typical thermal time constants for aircooled thyristors are of the order of 3 min. an increased junction temperature causes an increase in the thermal stress within the thyristor assembly. is influenced by the heat sink mass. the junction temperature can be kept within predefined limits during normal and abnormal operation. The two surfaces defined as "mounting surfaces" are placed against a surface capable of being cooled. the combination has a thermal time constant that allows overload currents for brief periods of time. By a proper selection of the cooling system parameters. As the junction temperature increases. T EM P E RA T U RE S : JUNCTION CASE HEAT S LING MEDIUM THERMAL RESISTANCES (OC/WATT) FIGURE 4. The heatdissipating element within the ceramic housing is the silicon wafer. The product of watts and the thermal resistances expressed in "Clwatt results in a temperature difference. The thermal time constant. The equivalent thermal circuit of Figure 4 is for a steadystate condition. the thermal resistance from the case to the heat sink. ThermaI Considerations Design of Thyristor Controllers 227 Figure 3 is an outline of a typical thyristor used in thyristor controllers. . The designer must choose a low enough junction temperature to ensure reliable operation.3. Given the thermal resistances from the junction to the case of the thyristor. the thermal resistance from the heat sink (or heat dissipater) to the cooling medium. The designer will consider the operating condition (current flow through the thyristor controller^ to determine the wattage dissipation in the thyristor controller.3. owing to differences in thermal expansion of the materials in it. The combination of the thyristor and its heat sink does have a heat storage capacity. the thermal time constant is generally less. The word jmction refers to a theoretical boundary layer within the silicon wafer. THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS The thyristor specifications describe the electrical characteristics at certain junction temperatures. and the coolingmedium temperature. Each side of the silicon wafer dissipates heat through metal slugs to the mounting surfaces. The operating junction temperature must be less than the maximum specified by the thyristor manufacturer.
DESCRIPTION OF THYRISTOR CONTROLLER 5.. QlA.228 Design of Thyristor Controllers 5. URE 5. 3. L1 and L1A are the aircored reactors.1. CN). The RC. they are split into two to protect the thyristor switch against certain types of electrical fault. The required voltage and current ratings are achieved respectively by series and parallel connection.. . it becomes a short circuit. 4. One way to monitor failed . Together they make up the total reactance of one phase. more th thyristor may be used to carry current in one direction. bushing andlor standoff insulator capacitances. and QNA arethe thyristors. and termi terminal capacitances). The design parameters of the thyristor be such that a small number (usually fewer than 10o/o) of rtcircuited thyristors can be tolerated. 2. The capacitances C. This limits the initial dildt (rate of rise current) in the thyristors. . 5. Q1. One phase of the thyristor controller is sometimes called a thyristor switch. General The voltage and current ratings required in a complete thyristor controller are usually greater than those of even the largest individual thyristor. A typical thyristor controller circuit used in a TCR system is shown in Figure 5. They are physically located near the terminals of the thyristor switch. . In addition.^' At ~owerfrequency series of RC circuits also equalizes the voltage distribution among thyristors. The series circuits of resistors and capacitors (Rl. are the stray capacitances (such a ground. R2. limit the transient age that appears across the thyristor switch when the thyristo current conduction. one across each thyristor level. . The current the external reactors L1 and L1A is controIled by causing the thyristo conduct current during a portion of the cycle. . Depending on the current rating. . circuit is called a "snubber" andis a c mon feature of thyristor and diode circuit^. The thyristors are connected in several series "voltage levels.4.Typical thyristor controller circuit in a TCR systemgating circuits not When a thyristor fails. ~t is to an indication of such a failure. C2. Its effect is to increase the "oilage the remaining thyristors. As many thyristors per voltage level (four carrying current in one direction nected in parallel with four carrying current in the opposite direc have been used in highcurrent TCR systems.4. Figure 5 shows thyristors per voltage level (one in each direction). external to the thyristor controller. ." each with two or more thyristors in parallel. RN C1. They are conne antiparallel for the bidirectional current flow. 42.4.. and their function is to dela discharging of the stray capacitances through the thyristor switch the thyristors are gated.(^.. for ac operation it is necessary to connect oppositelypoled thyristors in parallel to permit conduction in both directions. Only one phase of a threephase delta is shown. . . Description of Thyristor Controller 5. L2 and L2A are small reactors. The functions of the components are as follows: 1 VOLTAGE LEVEL 1.
Description of Thyristor Controller .4.Design of Thyristor Controllers 5.
Therefore most thyristor controllers contain a lo voltage electronic gating circuit that provides the gating signal to thyristors in response to a light pulse. Gating Energy The gating of the thyristor controller into conduction is initiated by co trol signals from circuits which are at ground potential. Gating energy clrcult. and will cause a corresponding difference in the voltages on C1 and C2 and will lead to a deviation from an ideal voltage distribution between the series thyristor voltage levels.4. In addition. . The power required by the voltage electronic circuit can be obtained from three sources: FIGURE 9. The usu method of transmitting the gating signal from the control circuit to thyristor controller (which is usually at 13. Description of Thyristor Controller and irecl represent the recovery currents of the individual thyristors Q1 and Q2. The thyristors used in most thyristor controller applications require electrical gating signal. It is the usual practice to minimize the recovery differences between the thyristors by careful manufacture and by the matching of thyristors with closely similar characteristics. 5.4. Light guides vide a high isolating impedance between the thyristor controller ground potential. the tolerance on the capacitances of the snubber capacitors must be allowed for in determining the maximum deviation from equal voltagesharing between the voltage levels at powerfrequency.8 kV or higher potential) i a pulse of light transmitted by fiberoptic light guides.Design of Thyristor Controllers 5.3.. The differences between the recovery currents ire.
the 1 vary from halfcycle to halfcycle. 3. 5.4. When the voltage reaches the protective level. In the other approach.234 Design of Thyristor Controfiers is activated when abnormal voltages (due to switching transients and so forth) occur across the thyristor controller. Thi . The typical operating sequence of the overvoltage protective circuit is as follows: 1. 0 approach is to monitor the voltage across the total series circuit of thyr tors of the phase.5. For the minimumcurrent condition ( ~ i g u r e both the thyristor and the snubber circuit losses are reduced. reduces the voltage across the thyristors to the onstate value of to 2 volts and prevents damage. The maximum loss dissipation within the thyristor controller o during maximum conduction. a steadystate operating condition at m current conduction is often (but not always) specified. The protective circuit initiates a gating signal to the thyristor ~ h u s the thyristors are caused to go into conduction. The waveforms shown in Figure 10 are for minimum. Variation of Thyristor Controller Losses during Opera The voltage and current waveforms of a thyristor controller for a system depend on the duration of current conduction during t cycle. There are two approaches in implementing the protective circuit.S COOLING SYSTEM medium can be either air or liquid. a gati signal is initiated to cause the series circuit of thyristors to go into co duction. The first approach has to allow for the p sibility of unequal voltage distribution among the individual thyristor 1 els particularly when a transient voltage appears across the thyristo switcl~. Otherwise the transient voltage across an individual voltage lev may exceed the thyristor capability before the overvoltage protective ci cuit across the total thyristor switch is activated. each thyristor level has its own ind overvoltage protective circuit. In quoting the design para the thyristor controller. 5. 2. The cooling arrangement can . An overvoltage occurs across the thyristor controller. The snubber circuit losses are then their peak because voltage swings on the snubber capacitors are at greatest magnitude. During dynamic operation of the thyristor controller. The overvoltage reaches a magnitude (below the voltage capability of the thyristor) that activates the overvoltage protective circuit. maxi and an intermediate length of current conduction.
The following is a summary of the schematic and the functions of the components. One practice is to have the nonenergized damper position be .1. T h e n using the partially recirculated air method. The heated air leaves the thyristor controller and is exhausted from the building through a counterbalanced backdraft damper to the outside. Figure 11 shows an air schematic of the cooling system. The air is then drawn into the intake of the operating blowe Only one of the two blowers is normally operating.5. Variations of the Oncethrough Filtered Air System When ambient temperatures are well below freezing during the wint season. Oncethrough FiItered Air System A oncethrough filteredair system is a cooling system wherein outside air is drawn through a filter and then through the thyristor controller. The controlling temperature can be intake plenum temperature or the thyristor controller room temperatur This variation allows the thyristor controller room to be held at a fortable temperature for personnel as well as limiting the minimum perature for the thyristor controller. a choice has to be made on the nonenergized position of the dampers. The air passes through a rolltype filter and then through a b type filter (both of these filters are widely used in indust plants). and the heated air then exhausted to the outside. Air is exhausted by the blower through a counterbalanced backdraft damper into the thyristor controller. The damper motors should be equipped with a spring return that automatically brings th damper to the nonenergized position when the motor control power i removed.5. The following are descriptions of various cooling systems that have been used on thyristor controllers. Outside air is drawn through a wallmounted louver into the building. It is possible to use a portion o exhausted heated air from the thyristor controller to heat adjacent rooms through a small wallmounted damper and fan. 5. the 0th blower being on standby. 5.2.Design of Thyristor Controllers standby equipment so that the thyristor controller may continue operation. a set of temperaturecontrolled dampers can be used to a110 some of the exhausted heated air from the thyristor controller to ree the intake duct of the blower.
Recirculated Air System Thyristor controllers can be built with a completely recirculated air system.3. The advantage of an aircooled system is its simplicity in operation and maintenance. An airtowater heat exchanger is often used when the ambient air conditions would require frequent changing or cleaning of the filters.5. AN EXAMPLE OF A THYRISTOR CONTROLLER Figure 12 is a photograph of an operating aircooled thyristor controller. 5. 5.6. if the control power is inadvertently disconnected during operation. Automatic changeover from the running pump to the standby pump can be done by using check valves. The thyristors and other heatdissipating components are mounted on liquidcooled heat sinks. the system is designed such that excessive temperatures do not occur in the thyristor controller room under any abnormal operating conditions.5.8 kV. However.5. A makeup air system is often used to maintain a positive air pressure within the thyristor controller room with respect to the outside.5. A standby coolant pump should be available to allow continuous operation in case the running pump malfunctions. however. to prevent excessive dust leaking into the room. A liquidcooled thyristor controller offers a lower coolingsystem power loss than the aircooled system.4. The heat is removed from the circulating air by water coils. General Comments on Cooling Systems The choice of the type of cooling system is influenced by the ambient conditions and the user's preference. The heated air leaves the room through the dampers shown at the end of the room.238 Design of Thyristor Controllers that for which no recirculation occurs. Aircooled thyristor controller. Liquid Cooling System Thyristor controller cooling can be done by liquid cooling. The cooling air is drawn in from a plenum below the structure and the heated air is exhausted from the top of the structure. The effect of possible liquid leakage within the highvoltage thyristor controller must be considered. The use of liquid cooling requires the controller design to be safe in the unlikely event of a coolant leak. 40 MVAr 5. The cooling media most usually considered are water and Freon. 5. this technology has been successfully developed and it is likely that in future the trend will be towards the use of liquid cooling. The light guides are shown near the center of the structure. Figure 13 is a photograph of a similar thyristor controller with one of . Therefore. 13. FIGURE 12.
thyr~storled static compensator. s. The main erences are in the control strategy and the system voltage.Chapter 6 . The thyristor controllers. BASIC ARRANGEMENT compensator is a thyristorcontrolled reactor (TCR) with a fixed citor. QuCbec. the Rimouski compensator installed on the ission network of Hydro QuCbec at 230 kV. The compensator is of many such installations on highvoltage transmission systems. INTRODUCTION This chapter provides a detailed description of a modern. highvoltage ransmission lines. ut many of its design features are reproduced in load compensators also. on the 230kV system of the Gasp6 region.000 hiiW of power at 735 kV over a distance of about 1000 km. and it will have dynamic shunt compensation in the form of static compensators at five locations.1. 6. Figure 1 is a simplified oneline diagram of the main com . Prior to 1978 synchronous condensers were installed o provide reactive compensation. It was commissioned in 1978 and serves as a representative example of a transmission system compensator. The Baie James project. and capacitors are essentially the same in both cases. at locations not on the Baie James system. One of these was installed near Rimouski.2. The HydroQu6bec system has many longdistance. a major extension of the system exploiting hydropower resources in the north of the province. will involve the transmission of more than 11. Planning studies. LYE 6. W. led to the decision to install two static compensators for performance evaluation. which considered various alternative forms of compensation. larly in supplies to electric arc furnaces.
6 I . 84 MVAr \1 . 97 MVAr 4 .252.
three 3phase groups. The thyristor controller is of the type discussed in ure 7) and the current rating is the same as that h phase of the controller consists of four thyrisn parallel for each polarity and 36 in series. The values are rms values for the . and a "deadfront" grounded safety barrier. The thyristors are ted on insulating panels. This arrangement is designed to coupling between the reactors. between the neutral points of the two wyes to detect unbalance. Description of Main Components An Example of a Modern Static Compensator 2 units In serges. Each reactor has a s at 60 Hz and is rated 1300 A continuously. 34. an air pIenum er. A reactor of 30 pH is conh each pole to limit dildt. 90 A for 5 min. A lamp monitors the es voltage level. h phase of each wye consists of 26 capacitor units arranged in two es groups. Each unit is rated pacitor Switches. The thyristor panels are all ed in a steel cubicle which forms a support structure. ristor Controller. Capacitor ~ ~ The capacitor bank of 93. but are never operated by the mpensator voltage regulator (as would be the case in a hybrid compen  ain power reactor bank consists of six aircore ure 5 and connected as in Figure 7.2 MVAr. The reactors also carry the harmonic comd so on (see Chapter 4). together with heat sinks. FIGURE 6. bank in foreground.5kV vacuum switch. separately switched and netted at 24 k v in ungrounded doublewe (Figure ')' A CT is . They are laid Ian (Figure 4). The switches are operated nually. 31. Each wye of each capacitor bank is switched with a reephase.6 MVAr is divided ~ k ~ . or by certain protective relays.6. each having 13 units in parallel.3.2MVAr capacitor bank. These are the currents required e (Figure 3). 1000A. each of 31. resistorcapacitor s) and gate drive circuits.
. thermally insulated. Each Air rec~rculatesIn bullding _____________. This contains the threephase thyristor controller together with its control system and protection. current balance relay.000 CFM. 49. and can be electrically heated when necessary. ac time overcurrent relay.3. ac time overcurrent relay monitoring ground current: 52. This emergency system is satisfactory for outside air temperatures of up to about 30°C. and the thyristor cooling system (except for the evaporative cooler. The building is metalsheathed. 51G. differentla1 protective relay. The thyristors are forcedair cooled. an emergency system is provided whereby outside air is blown through the building by wall fans. One of the six fans is redundant. distance relay. The glycol is in turn recirculated through an evaporative cooler. 51. for reliability. The closedcycle air recirculates after passing through airglycol heat exchangers. thermai relay. Oneline diagram showing protective relay system.49 Ohm fan has its own associated airglycol heat exchanger and one of these also is redundant. Description of Main Con~ponents 247 XL=2. 87. 60. The total air flow required is 100.000 CFM which is supplied by six fans. The 230kV and 24kV buses are protected by voltage differential relays with overcurrent backup. functions when circuit impedance increases or decreases beyond predeterm~nedlimits. each rated for 20. functions on a given difference in current between two circuits. Reactor bank connections a b Compensator Protection (Figure 9). functions when the temperature of a power rectifier exceeds a prcdetermined value. In case the glycol system or evaporative cooling system must be shut down for any reason. which is located outdoors nearby). FIGURE 7. Schematic of cooling system FIGURE 9. Figure 8 shows the cooling system schematically.246 36 thynsiors In serbes 4 In parallel \ An Exanlple of a Modern Static Compensator 6. Protective relay device function numbers from ANSI Standard C37. The capacitor banks employ neutraI unbalance current detection to avoid rapaci Thyristor Controller Building.21970 (as used in this figure): 21. Zigzag Grounding Transformer 2 4 kV Bus Vacuum Switch Hear Exchanger Fan I FIGURE 8. Inside dimensions are 40 ft x 37 ft x 25 ft high. Thyristor Switch Cooling. ac circuit breaker. the station service supplies. functions on a difference of two currents or some other electrical quantity.
4. Control System of Thyristor Controller 249 tor unit overvoltages due to failed capacitor elements. This relay is programmed with the thyristor heatinglcooling characteristics and can calculate junction temperature from a measurement of thyristor current. Ground faults on the entire 24kV system will be detected in the neutral of the zigzag grounding transformer. and thyristor gating cir . the compensator will be tripped offline by the 230kV circuit breakers. 6. motor drtven System 63 Rectifier Transformer Current limit level adjust I Amplifiers CONTROL SYSTEM OF THYRISTOR CONTROLLER Thyristor Controlled Reactor Bank Referring to the block diagram in Figure 10. and if the thyristor controller is unable to turn itself off and eliminate the fault. Fault protection is provided by inverse timelovercurrent relays. MVAr or Voltage Adlust Operator controlled. the control system consists basically of a voltage regulator. and a special thermal overload relay which monitors thyristor junction temperature. Fault currents associated with the power reactors and thyristor controller are detected by inverse overcurrent relays. a currentlimit. air temperature and flow. and if not cleared by one of the primary differential systems will result in a shutdown via the ground overcurrent relays.4.248 An Example of a Modern Static Compensator 6. Overload protection for the thyristor controller includes continuous monitoring of glycol temperature and flow.
The second section connects the compensator to the 230kV bus in a manner which causes the least disturbance to the system. Whether the stop is initiated manually or by a protective relay. Stop cooling system motors. can be accomplished by operator control from either Local or Remote locations. Suppress gating of thyristors. For switching purposes the three sections of the capacitor bank are energized in sequence. The reactor will be energized and if the operator's setting called for the existing system voltage. Trip 230icV circuit breakers. . 6. the voltage regulator automatically adjusts the reactor current to maintain zero net current from the compensator.+ 87 MVAr  I Reference Current Feedback Input to hnearmng Network FIGURE 11. 3.e . 4. In addition all the starting functions can be performed individually by control switches in the thyristor controller building (Manual Start). I (bl Stopping. e 230 kV L~ne Current 1. 4. 230 kV h e Current g 2 4 kV Llne Voltage cab 2 4 kV bne Current . The LocalAuto or LocalManual modes are used only for maintenance procedures or in an emergency. The motors operate fans and pumps associated with the thyristor cooling system. Trip all capacitor bank vacuum switches. The starting sequence can be summarized as the following steps: 1. or by various protective relays. Close 230kV breakers. Sudden change of 99 MVAr tn response to a step change In reference s~gnal.1 2 MVAr ther location (Auto Start). Close the capacitor bank switches. the following occurs in quick sequence: 1. As each section is energized. or shutdown. 2. PERFORMANCE TESTING .. Compensator performance. A complete stop. The normal starting mode is RemoteAuto. The first starts all the auxiliary motors in an orderly timed sequence. 2 3 0 kV Phase Voltage . FIGURE 12. Ph2zE:ent 230 kV Phase Voltage . 3.250 An Example of a Modern Static Compensator . Voltage and current waveforms correspl~nding to Figure 11.5. 2. the voltage regulator will call for zero current in the reactor. Remove the gating suppression signal from the thyristors. The automatic starting sequence has two main sections. Compensator performance. Start auxiliary motors.
. Shunt capacitors generate reactive power and help to reduce the mount of reactive power that flows through the network. they are typically stalled near the load.. Their benefits include: 1. Reduced voltage drops in load areas during severe disturbances.1.. These were of various magnitudes and from various starting points. This. theory of series capacitors as a means of "line length compensation" been developed in Chapter 2. then poses a limit at the continuous rated current. INTRODUCTION Rights of way for transmission lines have become increasingly difficult and costly to obtain. . Reduced transmission losses. For maximum ffectiveness in reducing line losses and voltage control. and performance of series capacitors. Series capacitors are appiied to compensate for e inductive reactance of the transmission line. E . The load cycle c trnl .252 An Eraniple of a Modern Static Compensator Accuracy of phasetophase spacing of thyristor gating (commonly known as "tracking"). coupled with concerns for our energy resources and spiraling energy costs. 230kV and 24kV line currents to compensator. Better adjustment of line loadings. 4. 3. BOCK 7. Chapter 7 L. Both series and shunt capacitor banks are useful tools in improving system efficiency and power transfer capability. Also the response is well damped with very little overshoot. Harmonic content of reactor current. Both have had growth rates significantly greater than the rate of growth of active power generation. 230kV and 24kV bus voltages. Oscillograms were taken of a number of response tests including: Injection of sinusoidal reference signals at frequencies from 0. Injection of step changes of reference. Finally the loading cycle of Figure 3 was performed. then allows 120 MVAr for 5 min. . This was done injecting a continuous highreference signal into the control causing compensator to go to the 200 MVAr currentlimit. Slope of V I I and V I Q characteristics. application.01 to 10 Hz. Better load division on parallel circuits. 127 . Some representative examples are shown in Figures 11 through 13. Improved system transient stability. as for example at an intermediate point on a long smission line. It can be observed that the response time of the reactor current and the reactive power of the compensator is about 1 cycle. In this chapter we focus attention on e design.allows this for 1 sec. to fully test the response of the compensator. . Improved system steadystate stability. forces utilities to operate transmission systems at maximum possible efficiency. They may be installed ote from the load. 2.
one for each unit. Figure 2 is a cutaway view of a typical power capacitor unit. Fusing 1 I I I 1900 1920 1940 Year 1960 1980 FIGURE 1. although the most economical unit rating today is in the 200300 kVAr size. HISTORY 7. the construction has undergone many stages of improvement. successful installations have been made at line voltages up to 550 kV. Further refinements led to single unit ratings up to 600 kVAr. so that ratings essentially the same as those for shunt applications can be provided.7. Capacitor Units One of the first installations of a series capacitor was in 1928 at a New York Power & Light substation in Ballston Spa.1. In the United States most series as well as shunt capacitor banks have been designed using external fuses. showing sustained growth in mtalied c paclty. By the early 1960s the 100kVAr rating was introduced.3. frequent maintenance checks involving detailed and accurate capacitance measurement are . very costly refinements in the basic paper/askarel dielectric. since there is no visual indication of a blown fuse. Internally fused units have the advantage that failure of a single element or "roll" within the unit does not cause the entire unit to fail. Without the advent of these larger capacitor unit ratings. and askarel to replace oil in the early 1930s. The newer allpolypropylene film dielectric units offer distinct advantages in reduced losses and probability of case rupture.25 MVAr bank on a 33kV circuit using capacitor units rated 10 kVAr each. volume. Series capacitor duty usually requires that a unit des~gned for a series application be more conservatively rated than a shunt unit. New York This was a 1. However. Replacemen! of askare! in 1976 with nonPCB fluids did not have an immediate significant effect on unit sizes or ratings.2.3.3. both in shunt and series capacitor equipments. density. In 1965 General Electric designed the Magvar unit. The introduction of thin Kraft paper to replace linen. 7. Since the first production of power capacitors in 1914. GENERAL EQUIPMENT DESIGN 7. Table 1 illustrates the effects of these changes on the capacitor unit ratings. and it was applied to control the division of load between parallel circuits. a n d unit size. Figure 1 shows the growth in installed capacitor unit size in series capacitor installations since 1920. maximum bank size. and price. made possible individual unit ratings up to 15 kVAr. This contrasts with the widespread use of internally fused units in many other places. but basically there is no significant construction difference. Series capacitor trends since 1920. with bank ratings of up to 800 MVAr Capacitor unit ratings likewise have increased. Since that time. the physical equipment size and site area requirements would make the larger shunt and series banks impracticai or uneconomical. 254 General Equipment Design Series Capacitors 7. Installed Reactive Capacitor design economics still dictate the use of individual trr~its assembled in appropriate series and parallel connected groups to obtain the desired bank voltage and reactive power ratings.2.3. as well as some improvements in unit size and rating. a 150kVAr unit using a paper/polypropylene film/askarel dielectric system. evolving from a series of comparatively small.
Use of internal fuses also limits the voltage rating of the capacitor.7.4 3. ZINC CHROMATE PRIMER compensation becomes economical for distances typically more than 200 mi* although series capacitors can be found in shorter sectiorls of line. HEXTERMINAL NUT of soft brass will strip before damage occurs lo TWO STAINL~sS. maximum ac power transfer is given by: pma. Figure 3 is a photograph of an EHV series capacitor equipment. with a physical disconnect to avoid trackover and provide a visual indication of operation. cause increased protection from oulaQes BIRD C A P S oilerareas. such as subharmonic stability. Xc is the reactance of Compensating capacitors. With the improvements previously men .70 18.ALUMiNUM TAp STRAPS provide positive (011 electrodes. Unit ALL. on Capacitor Unit Characteristics Physical Arrangement Date Maximum Unit Rating (kVAr) 10 10 15 50 100 150 300 3 00 volume (inj/kVAr) 130 65 43 32 19 11 10 8 Density Price (lb/kVAr) 8.4. several 500kv series ~ ~ capacitor equi~mentswith internal fuses that have been in service suecessfully for over 10 years.3.2 0. Suitable ratings of this type of fuse for series capacitor app]ication have been available since the early 1970s. X . Small distribution class banks may use groundnted hardware. and switching transients. The dimensions of the bank are ut 95 x 124 x 41 feet high. The bank is located on the Pacific NWsw tertie at Pacific Gas and Electric's Tesla substation near Tracy. HALF T STUDS machined from ~ ~ ~ l ~ MECHANICALLY STRONG REX flUSHINGS to the capacttor case.ARC FUSION WELDS are as srrong as Ihe stainless steel case itself. This voltage restriction is due to limits in the number of parallel connected elements within the unit to keep the overvoltage on remaining elements reasonably low when one element fails.70 S K Y .30 1. Over  ElE2 XL. subsynchronous resoce. External currenthiting fuses.2 2.gh.ST~~~ MOUNTING BRACKETS are praiection we'ded lo case.XC ' (1) 1. and must be sized to withstand all r transient overload and discharge duties without damage.6 4. DEAD. disc^^^^^ RESISTORS are de=lgned lo dram Ihe charge to SO V O I ~ Sor less within live rnlnutes. typically to 5 k v or less. MANY LAYERS of h.50 1.S placed In rack or ground when STAINLESS. often three times rated voltage O more. ANSI. 7. There are other factors that may place limits on the pensation level. is the uctive reactance between the terminal voltages.80 1929 1930 1931 1959 1962 1965 1977 I980 ies capacitor banks are built in one or more discrete segments or steps phase+ each with several components mounted on a platform insud from ground. There are. E c o ~ o m i c loading for longer distances is in the neighborhood of the surge impedance loading of the line (see Chapter 2 and Reference I ) . G ~ ~ y ALKYD.plated cast eiectrlcal bronze.3. insuiaie fOss~high required. so that there is less flexibility in the overall bank design. rated proximately 318 MVAr.3.3.die~ectncstren~th Krafl paper capacitor rolls from case.8 flush vrelded stainless steel bottom gives superi and d u r a b W . however. long l t ~ . These are usually performed annually.70 1 .STEEL BELLEVILLE WASHERS provide of 1000 p u n d s forcing connectors to loiiov' "Id spring conductors~ Flattening o i washers visually indicates a secure CONNECTORS or tin or cadmfum.00 3.4 ($/kVAr) 18. TABLE I of Desigll re El and E2 are the line terminal voltage magnitudes. i. are commonly specified. TYP1caI power unit. AUTOMA~i~ INERT. 7. with p O L y p R O P Y L E N ~s~ lrction welded around Ihe 1 ~~~ pack lor a secure hold no paris. Califorand was energized in January 1968. Compensation Factors STAINLESS. These fuses must be capsble Of clearing at voltages up to the maximum gap sparkover levels. i If resistance is neglected. Unpainted StrIP on vnderslde of bracket provides . e ~ ~ a b ~ ~ I~ k product.STEE~CASE e~immates need for protective repainting.SOm ANNEALED ALUMINUM FOIL FILM. forming an exFLANGE is strong hermetic seal. Exact length control pack to precise design dmnslons.TO 1. but the larger transmission class equipments are all atformmounted.FOIL D t E L of poiyprop~leneplasiic gLvesa E ~ ~ ~ l ~ .MELAM~NE PAINT chromate prmer aids heat dissipation. for either s h u n t or series application. used primarily on disirlbution troublesome d by General Equipment Design 257  qli'diife banks. Typical EHV applications are in the 2 ~ ~ 7 0 % pensation range.20 16.7 0.6 0.0 1.
Traditionally this has been accomplished by sparkover or triggering of a gap in parallel with the capacitor. 500kV transmissionline series capacitor. 258 Series Capacitors Protective Gear 259 FIGURE 3.4. (for example. 318MVA~.2 and IEC143).(31 The results shown are based on two parallel 500kV lines with 50% series con~pensation. as iliustrated in Figure 4. withstand a11 abnormal voltages produced by all possible excessive line and fault currents. as might occur during a line fault. For the case where the fault is cleared in five cycles. Although there are industry standards for series capacitors (ANSI C55. . rapid reinsertion after fault clearing and rapid fault clearing time are both essential for substantially increased line loading capability. when they are necessary to maintain transient stability). and is discussed later. particularly when series capacitors are functionally necessary at the time. New zincoxide varistor technology offers improvements over this method of overvoltage protection. the effects on line loading capability for reinsertion delays of five and eight cycles are also shown. For equipments in unfaulted line sections this means that the protective gear must interrupt current and withstand without sparkover a conzbitzatiorr of voltages generated by reinsertion of the bypassed capacitor bank and the electromechanical system disturbance. Equipment is provided to automatically and instantaneously bypass segments when design voltage levels are exceeded. [Line loading capability here means the maximum prefault power transfer for which the system has transient stability (Chapter 3) following the fault indicated in Figure 41. After fault clearing. each application is sufficiently different that equipment design is specifically tailored for each case after thorough studies on the transient network analyzer or by computer. control circuits initiate the reinsertion of the capacitor. The equipment is therefore designed to withstand certain less severe abnormal voltages and currents that occur during some system disturbances.7. (*' For a bank which has been installed primarily to improve transient st?bility.
A variation for an airblast gap is to monitor line current with the gap CT. Overcircuits are normally provided on only one phase. so reinserting the capacitor into the line. Increase of line loading capability w t h rapid reinsertion. and reignition t voltages above the sparkover setting usually follows due to increased ir pressure in the gap.4. This is a more severe duty on the capacitor than single sparkover followed by a single reinsertion. The disadvantage of this procedure is at the gap current will extinguish at every current zero. prevents damage to the capacitor units and fuses as well as easing uty on the gap. and when the line current as measured by the switch CT returns to normal a signal is given to automatically open the switch. eration of this circuit signals the bypass switch to close and protect the apacitor. In Figure 5 the reactor is shown in the bypass cirit. Cycles FIGURE 4. Fault Detection CT Bypass Switch Bypass CT The main gap is set to spark over at a preset level to protect the capacttors during a line fault. taking ambient temperature into account. It is sometimes located in series with the capacitor such that it still mits the discharge. Reinsertion time following fault clearing is dependent on switch operating speeds. current is diverted from the gap. The switch will automatically open to reinsert the capacitor n the overload circuit senses that the current has returned to a safe 1. The discharge reactor is necessary to limit the magnitude and frecy of the current through the capacitor when the gap sparks over. This then protects for relatively low overcurrents than about 150%). This assumes that phase currents be essentially balanced during system conditions leading to sustained FIGURE 5.54 times normal operating voltages. Usual protective values are 2. Simplified schematic diagram of a series capacitor segment. and operation ses bypass of the complete bank. but does not have to withstand the full power freuency fault current. Instantaneous Reinsertion Protective Gear 26 1 / 50% Compensation 0 I 1 I i I i I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Switch~ng Time. Overload protection is usually provided to protect the capacitor from a tained overload below the gap sparkover setting. A thermal analog to simulate capacitor unit temperature is somees used in addition to the shortertimelhighercurrent protection of imers and relays. faster reinsertion is obtained if the air is turned 011 soon as gap current is sensed. and a signal sent to automatically close the bypass switch. control circuit timing. .7. A typical control sequence is for the presence of gap current to be detected by the gap CT. The above sequence is used for a nonselfclearing gap. and gap deionization and recovery withstand time. but again each application generally has unique requirements. Frequently this is a with several current relays and appropriate timers to approximate the mecurrent withstand capability of the capacitor. For airblast gaps. and turn on the compressed air to extinguish the gap when the line fault is cleared. Industry standards ecify overload capabilities for series capacitors (higher than for shunt ts). When the switch closes.
particularly the maximum gap sparkover level. This would include operation due to capacitor differential. Figure 6 is a copy of an oscillograph taken during a field test on a series capacitor equipment at Pacific Gas & Electric Company's Table Mountain substation in 1971. owing to the change in net impedance of the test system. Capacitor ratlng = 9 Ohms. and its transfer from the gap to the switch. anc is fully closed less than 16 msec after sparkover. Often an intermediate power level is also detected to send an alarm to ground.4. Automatic switch closings. This can be com~ressed with a compressor at ground level. except those due to gap sparkover and overloads. Note too the increase in line current from 2060 to 2340 A rms when the capacitor is reinserted. Many of the operations previously discussed require that a signal be sent from the platform to the ground control circuits. Operation of this circuit will signal the bypass switch to close. IEC Standards relate all insulator BIL ratings to gap sparkover. severe swing currents and voltages. Upon clearing the faulted line section. A typical line current profile for a series capacitor bank in a parallel line section of a twoparallel line systeni is shown in Figure 7.Open Circuit Breakers Close On to Faulted Lme L capacitors Remserted FIGURE 6. platform fault. overload.5 cycles. the control circuit opens the switch to reinsert the capacitor after 2.S. and remote manual operation. these equipments must carry the full system swing current following reinsertion against more than double the normal line current. are usually designed to lock the switch in the closed position until the problem is corrected and the switches are manually reset. Except for response to a gap sparkover. current trace also shows the 60Hz current superimposed on the h~ghfrequency discharge current. bypass switch commands are normally made on a threephase basis to maintain system balance. Insulation between components on the platform must be carefully selected to assure withstand at all transient voltage levels. The switd Bypass Switch Current Gap Current Closed / Bypass Switch Travel . Serles capacitor field test. 1800 A . at one point being completely offjet. This keeps the platform from floating at some unknown potential. standards only specify values for capacitor units. These overload current requirements often determine the required coiltinuous current rating of the bank. . Sustained overloiid current following the swing may be about twice the prefault loading. A prototype system using solar power to charge the battery is also in service. or a platformmounted air battery with a charging system using line current as a primary source. and this is almost large enough to cause the gap to spark over again.262 Series Capacitors 7. overload currents and reinsertion translent voltages can occur when capacitor segments are bypassed due to a fault in a parallel line section. coiled compressed air tubing. either to signal an alarm or to relay a command to close the corresponding bypass switches in the other phases to maintain system balance. Protective Gear 2340 A rrns One end of the capacitor segment is usually connected to the platform. After the line current is reduced from about 5700 to 2060 A rms. Of particular interest is the transient voltage upon reinsertion. Usually a source of power on the platform is also required to operate the bypass switch and the platform control circuits. The capacitor current when the line circuit breakers close into a fault is sufficient to initiate a gap sparkover. whose channels can be solenoidoperated insulated rods. In a system having two parallel lines such as shown in Figure 4. Communication between platform and ground is usually made through a signal column. Switched capacitor shunting resistors can be used to substantially reduce the reinsertion transient voltages. as well as reduced BIL on one side of the platformmounted gap and switch. A fault detection CT located in the connection to the platform is used to sense an insulation failure or sparkover from any point on the equipment to the platform. loss of platform power. Note the high frequencl discharge current. Equipments are in service with all three types of communications. whereas U. The non60 Hz component is the subharmonic oscillation of the series capacitors and the system. and also allows the use of CT's rated at lesser voltage. causing immediate gap conduction. The switch travel indicator shows that the bypass switch starts to close a few milliseconds after gap conduction. It is normal practice to detect low platform power and close the bypass switch. or fiber optics. even though the steady state 60 Hz voltage is well below the gap setting.
.
6.Series Capacitors Series Capacitor 7. Varistor Protective Gear 267 Lme Current. 0 P U 2  . kA 4 Fault Duration 0 4 Bypass Switch Vartstor and c Capacitor Voltage.
If saliency is neglected. and the subharmonic mode is stable. compensation. Usually all the resulting transient currents are positively damped. the perphase equivalent circuit of a synchronous machine is of the form shown in Figure 13. The generated (powerfrequency) emf has been omitted from this circuit .. including any switching operation./X. and we say that the system has a subharmonic resonance or "mode.7. is the total reactance of the line at the power frequency f. These currents are superimposed on the powerfrequency component. The first effect of a subharmonic resonance is that during any disturbance. again in varying degrees.. f is usually less than the power frequency. In general any disturbance..g. Xc. It should be noted that the subharmonic mode is only one of the natural modes of a power system. large rectifiers) are connected (see Chapter 10). Under certain conditions the subharmonic mode associated with series capacitors can experience a destabilizing influence from polyphase ac rotating machines. in different degrees. usually is in the range 2570%. In practice these have complex frequencyresponse characteristics. Since the degree of ." XI must include the equivalent series reactance of the generators and loads connected at the ends of the line. transient currents are excited at the subharmonic resonant frequency f. and these can be troublesome if they occur at or near integerorder harmonic frequencies when sources of harmonic currents (e. will excite all the natural modes of the system. In this case the damping is said to be positive. In extreme cases it can even become unstable in the absence of corrective measures.7. is the reactance of the capacitor in each phase and X. Reactor Resonance Effects with Series Capacitors 269 0 varistor Triggered Gap Control House A capacitor in series with the inductance of the transmission iine forms a seriesresonant circuit with a natural frequency given by where Xc. and are usually damped out within a few cycles by the resistances of the line and of the loads and generators connected to it. An example is shown in& Figure 6. as does the line itself. and for accurate estimation of the resonance phenomena a more detailed circuit model of the power system must often be used. The destabilizing influence shows itself as a negative resistance in the equivalent circuit of synchronous and induction machines. Other natural modes have resonant frequencies above the power frequency.
and the subharmonic sidebands may be made unstable by these phase shifts. These can i dude any or all of those which are applied to prevent subsynchronous resonance (discussed below). It is said to be slipping relative to this field. or bypassing series capacitors. ' The use of excitation control (modulation of field current) rn turbinegenerators phased so as to provide increased positive damping at the subharmonic frequency.the slip is negative. < f.7.) can use up the fatigue life of the shaft. The electrical subharmonic natural mode is rarely troublesome except where subsyncf~rorzous resonance (SSR) can occur. But even if the oscillations are relatively well damped. In general they will be unbalanced between the three phases. if the oscillations are unstable and build up sufficiently to break the shaft. The damping of these modes is generally extremely small. Like the purely electrical subharmonic mode. as in the induction motor equivalent circuit. If this differencefrequency coincides with one of the natural torsional resonances of the machine's shaft system. but at the angular velocity 2 s f ." and in recent years considerable effort has been made to understand it quantitatively~ The corrective measures for SSR are: Tripping sections of line. Also the field winding has been omitted for simplicity. and the rotor behaves much like that of an induction motor running above synchronous speed. and resonant frequencies can extend up to hundreds of Hz. faster than the subharmonic field. while we consider the subharmonic frequency alone. This slow deterioration is called "lowcycle fatigue. Simplified equivalent c~rcultof synchronous rnach~ne. and will grow to dangerous levels of current and vo as a result of the smallest disturbance. The lowest torsional frequency is the "swing" frequency in which the entire system of turbine cylinders and the generator osciilates about synchronous speed as one inertia. As it rotates in the backward direction relative to the rotor and the main field. This situation rarely arises in tice. If s is very small.7. but when it does. The subharmonic ma is then unstable. The consequences of an SSR condition can be dangerous in the short term. SSR is a combined electrical/mechanicai natural mode or resonance. This condition is known as subsynchronous resonance. electrical radians per second. Although the negative resistance effect in synchronous machines can have a destabilizing influence. The machine is therefore capable of converiing mechanical energy into electrical energy associated with the subharmonic mode.then R r z / s can become large enough overcome the positive resistances in the system. These can take the form of blocking filters (parallelresonance type) in series with the power line. The resistance of the amortisseur (or solid rotor in the case of highspeed synchronous generators) referred to the stator is R r 2 / s . disturbances (like switching. . torsional oscillations can be excited. Suppose that subharmonic currents have been transiently excited by a disturbance in the external system. the slip s being given by Since f . corrective measures are necessary. but if we resolve them into symmetrical components the positivesequence components flowing in the machine stator will set up a magnetic flux which rotates in the same direction as the rotor. instability of the subsynchronous mode is more likely to be a result of phase shifts in the circuit external to the generator whose shaft is oscillating. or damping circuits in parallel with the series capacitors. it can be stable or unstable.! ?& FIGURE 13. The installation of special subharmonic filter circuits. etc. The machines which are most susceptible to SSR are large multipiestage steam turbines. using protective relays sensitive to very small incipient levels of subharrnonic current. Torsional resonances at higher frequencies involve the twisting of the shaft in different mode shapes. depending on the degree of damping. as can happen when the degree of series compens tion is large and fr approaches f.for explalnlng subhar I monic effects. the subharmonk field produces an alternating torque on the rotor at the frequency ffc. The oscillation produces a frequency modulation of the power frequency with subharmonic and harmonic sidebands. which typically have four or five torsional modes in the frequency range 060 Hz. fault clearing. The rotor is rotating at 211f elec radlsec. Series Capacitors Resonance Effects with Series Capacitors 271 Stator Total Leakage Resistance Reoclonce Arnortisseur Resistance . and this is a negative quantity which contributes negative damping or "undamping"") when added in series with the stator and external system resistances.
BROWN . 6 .272 7. Summary 4. The use of a static compensator whose reference voltage is modulated with such a phase as to provide increased positive damping at the subharmonic frequency. 1 Chapter 8 P.8.
Figure 3 shows the saiientpole type of rotor construction generally used. shutdown. The synchronous condenser falls into the class of active shunt compensators discussed in Chapter 2. After the unit is synchronized the field is controlled to either generate or absorb reactive power as needed by the power system. large (345 MVA) watercooled unit in service.. Growth in hydrogencooled condenser ratings 8. Large condensers of the type shown In Figure 2 are typically rated 900 rpm and operate with 30psig hydrogen pressure. In addition to providing damping of rotor oscillations. Figure 4 shows the essential elements of the condenser installation. CONDENSER DESIGN FEATURES Functionally. There is in addition a I. This permits brushchanging without the necessity of purging the entire condenser. 167MVAr. A number of fundamental design advances. with interpole connections of the arnortisseur bar groups as shown in Figure 3. highpressure bearing lift pump for reducing friction during starting. A key element is the excitation control equipment which to a large . The condenser pit area directly below the condenser. carbondioxide purging equipment and the neutral grounding equipment. with an inflatable seal for use when the unit is at rest. These include connections to the system and auxiliary systems. have accompanied the extension of ratings to the larger sizes.2. building and cooling tower In background. if one is used. and online monitoring. however. In addition to the automatic control and protection equipment. including higher operating speeds and higher hydrogen pressures. with no running seals. the control building houses the excitation control equipment and motor control equipment. . houses a number of auxiliaries. 900rpm hydrogencooled synchronous condenser. For that type of starting "complete amortisseurs" are required. which makes it inherently suitable for outdoor installation. hydrogen accessory equipment. The majority of synchronous condenser installations are outdoor design and operate unattended with automatic controls for startup.Synchronous Condensers 8. are contained in a separate compartment within the main shell. The condenser is contained entirely within a gastight enclosure. discussed later. a synchronous condenser is simply a synchronous machine that is brought up to speed and synchronized to the power system. Control 1960 YEAR 1970 FIGURE 1. nearly all of the large sizes in the United States are hydrogencooled. Historically both aircooled and hydrogencooled condensers have been used extensively.'"' Figure 2 shows a 167MVAr hydrogencooled condenser together with major auxiliary components. the amortisseur bars carry the rotor circulating currents during startup where reduced voltage starting is used. including the lube oil system. All leads required outside the shell are through individual bushings.2. Condenser Design Features 0 1910 l 1950 I I I I 1980 FIGURE 2. The slip rings for excitation power and the starting motor..
8.3.
Basic Electrical Characteristics
277
measure determines the condenser performance on the power system. This is done simply by voltage regulator, as in the excitation control of most generating stations. A major system disturbance results in abnormal voltage which the condenser and its excitation control respond to correct. Voltage sensing may be either from the condenser terminals, as shown, or from a transmission bus. Where direct sensing of transmission bus voltage is used, some droop in the control circuit will generally be required to provide stable operation. In Figure 4 this droop is provided by the stepup transformer reactance, and can be increased or decreased by the control. The total fullload losses of the condenser, including its auxiliary systems, are of the order of 1% of the condenser rating, about twothirds of which are a function of the loading. 8.3.
BASIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
8.3.1.
Machine Constants
FIGURE 3. Synchronous condenser rotor.
Typical values of the major electrical constants are given in Table 1, along with those of steam turbinegenerators and hydro generators for comparison. The reactances and time constants are similar to those of 4pole
TABLE 1 Typical Machine Constants
Synchronous Condenser
[1
AUXILIARY POWER
SzI D
LUBE OIL COOLING WATER
TurbineGenerator Hydro Constants 2Pole 4Pole
m
HYDROGEN CONTROL
Xd X'd XIId
Tdo
H X, Xp (Potier reactance)
2.0 0.22 0.16 4 2.5 2
2.0 0.33 0.22 9 4 2
1 .O 0.32 0.21 510 36 0.6
2.02.5 pu 0.350.45 pu 0.250.30 pu 910 sec 1.2 kWsec/kVA 1.21.6 pu 0.300.40
FIGURE 4.
Condenser major auxiliary systems
Note: transient and subtransient reactance values are for rated voltage
278
Sy~~chronous Condensers
8.3.
Basic Electrical Characteristics
turbinegenerator units. The inertia constant H, which is a relatively unimportant characteristic for a condenser, is much smaller because there is no connected turbine.
E,
Ep
E'
=
E'q
(Sat.)
8.3.2.
Phasor Diagram
= f(Ed
The phasor diagram for a condenser is very simple because, except for a very small loss component which can be neglected, all of the current is in quadrature with the terminal voltage either leading or lagging. Figure 5 shows the phasor relationships corresponding to the two directions of reactive power flow. From a noload condition, an increase of excitation (i.e., "overexcited" operation) generates reactive power into the system (Figure 5 a ) . The corresponding phasor relationship based on the convention normally applied for generators is also shown. Reactive power flows into the system with overexcited operation, just as that which is produced by a shunt capacitor. A decrease in excitation from the noload condition (i.e., "underexcited" operation) absorbs reactive power from the system with the phasor relation shown in Figure 5 b , just as that which is absorbed by a shunt reactor. Figure 6 shows a more complete phasor diagram for overexcited operation. The voltage El represents the perunit field current, neglecting saturation, and Er the total field current derived as shown. Since the condenser current is only reactive, the conventional generator reactive capability curve is not applicable and other curves such as the Vcurve are used to portray condenser operation.
I
I
E'E,
FIGURE 6.
Rated N.L. EXC. Phasor diagram for overexcited operation.
E ,
time overload capabilities. Steadystate operating characteristics are shown by a Vcurve, such as that of Figure 7. The right hand portion of the Vcurve represents overexcited operation, as for a shunt capacitor bank. The left hand portion of the Vcurve represents underexcited operation, in which the machine is absorbing reactive power from the system, as for a shunt reactor bank.
A synchronous condenser provides stepless adjustment of the reactive power in both the overexcited and underexcited regions. In the overexcited region there is both a continuous "nameplate" capability and short(a) OVEREXCITED
(b) UNDEREXCITED
Il> AFNL
If< AFNL
FIGURE 5. Basic definitions of excitation and reaclive power flow. (AFNL is no load excitation.)
PER UNIT FIELD CURRENl
FIGURE 7.
Condenser Vcurve. Base (1.0 puf field current as defined in Figure 6
8.4. 280 Synchronous Condensers
Condenser Operation
28 1
Normal continuous operation may be at any point on the curves below 1.0 pu or rated stator current. The dashed portion to the right represents shorttime overload operation obtained by increased excitation. The condenser underexcited capability is obtained by operating at field currents below noload excitation. As indicated in Figure 7 this operation may theoretically extend even into the negative field current range. Operation at negative field currents (within limits) is possible without pole slipping because of the reluctance torque associated with the salientpole rotor construction. The limiting condition where a pole would be slipped in steadystate operation occurs in Figure 7 at approximately 0.6 pu underexcited reactive current, corresponding to ET/X,. A dc commutator type exciter may have its polarity reversed to provide negative field currents and many condensers in service inherently have that capability. A conventional static excitation system (transformerfed thyristor) cannot provide reversed current even though it will have full voltageinverting capability for transient field forcing. This static system Oh permits operation down to a minimum exciter voltage of about 1 o of the noload excitation requirement. Typically, this underexcited capability as shown in Figure 7 is about 3 5 4 0 % of rating. A static exciter with negative current capability can be provided by using additional thyristor bridges and associated controls, so that the underexcited capability of a condenser can be increased to its stability limit. 8.3.4. Simplified Equivalents
of critical lines or generation, which reduces the transmission bus voltage at the condenser location to 70%. Assuming the lowerband reactance values of Table 1 and a 10% transformer reactance, the immediate response of the condenser (neglecting the first few cycles) would be a step increase in reactive current output to 113% of condenser rated current. Subsequent response is a function of the excitation system action, as discussed in the following section. For the same voltage disturbance shunt capacitors would experience a sharp reduction in output current. Assuming a corresponding case with the same available nominal capacity of switched capacitors the reactive current would be only 80% of rated. This shows that in comparing alternate means of emergency reactive power supply, it is important to consider equipment ratings derived from system studies that demonslrate equivalent improvement, rather than simply the nominal ratings. 8.4. CONDENSER OPERATION
In recent years the major applications of synchronous condensers have been for the following purposes:
1.
2.
Power system voltage control. (a) normal voltage control. (b) emergency voltage control. HVDC applications.
282
v
Synchronous Condensers
8.4.
Condenser Operation
283
Synchronous condensers have a technical advantage in this role in that they:
1. provide a continuously adjustable (stepless) reactive power which
2.
enables close control of transmission voltages, have the capability to provide both capacitive and inductive reactive power in accomplishing the requirements of (1).
8.4.2.
Emergency Reactive Power Supply
The ability to provide emergency voltage control during major system disturbances is probably the primary incentive for most recent utility condenser applications. Such needs arise for contingencies such as the occurrence of a fault and sudden loss of major transmission or major generation. In extreme cases this can result in system breakup, or islanding. Major system upsets are generally characterized by abnormal voltages. at least initially. Voltage extremes in either direction may occur, particularly where an area becomes islanded. Synchronous condensers under voltage regulator control automatically change their output in a direction to alleviate the voltage excursion. Figure 9 shows the shorttime emergency reactive power output with reduced voltage available at one installa
tion. As shown, condensers have shorttime capabilities well in excess of their nameplate ratings. Typically they may have a shorttime rating of 150% of rated current for 1 min. In actual operation, the condenser output is, of course, a function of the system voltage and excitation ceiling available rather than assigned ratings. Figure 10 illustrates the effect of excitation system design ceiling on the condenser response to a depressed system voltage. In this example a step change to 0.8 pu of the HV bus voltage is assumed. For extreme system conditions very high condenser output occurs automatically and it is therefore important that the control design provide for adequate stator winding as well as rotor winding overload protection for a wide range of conditions. Reduction of the field current to its rated value by a maximum excitation limit is not sufficient to guarantee protection of the stator winding which could still be considerably overloaded. The time period during which the condenser overload capability 1s available during a system emergency is adequate to allow reclosing of transmission circuits and action by some primemover controls. For example, gas turbines and some hydro units in a spinning reserve mode can pick up their full capability in a matter of less than a minute. Automatic line reclosing is usually initiated within 1020 sec. The importance of providing reactive support in a load area, on the receiving end of the transmission system, is illustrated by Figure 11, which is taken from Reference 4. This illustrates the importance of reactive support at the receiving end to improve the capability of the transmission network to import power into a generationdeficient area.
0
I
0
I
I
I
I
I .O
2.0
3.0
4.0
P.U. VOLTAGE
FIGURE 9.
Emergency reactive power supporl.
TIME SECONDS XIRE 10. Synchronous condenser translent performance. Exciter ceiling g n'en In per of rated full load exciter voltage.
4. Load area voltage swings following transrent disturbance. P o o l energy transfer. 8. Condenser Operation INTERMEDIATE LOAD AREA .4. REMOTE E O N WITH CONDENSER TOTAL POWER EMERGENCY IMPORT % OF POOL LOAD FIGURE 11. TIME. FIGURE 12. SEC.3.Synchronous Condensers 8. Minimizing Transient Swings VREF .
Synchronous condenser performance during system voltage swings. Emphasizing a point made earlier in regard to the lowvoltage capabilities inherent to the condenser. . it is interesting to note in this practica example that despite a voltage reduction to about 80% at the condense location the MVAr output is substantially above its nominal rating. Despite the additi of the condenser with a highceiling static excitation system.5cycle threephase fault on a major EHV circui which resulted in transient instability of the system. One reason this is delay in the voltage regulator control.TERMINAL VOLTS REACTIVE POWER (bl FIGURE 14. ( b ! With supplementary control. ( a ) NO supplementary control. Figure 15c shows the ph lead and MVAr output increase provided by the supplementary contr which results in maintaining system stability. case shown is for a 3. this case shown to be unstable without the supplementary control.Synchronous Condensers TIMESECONDS 671 SYSTEM VOLTS .
that is. additional shortcircuit capacity from synchronous condensers can fill this need. One demanding condition is the sudden blocking of the dc link for fault clearing which results in a sudden release of reactive power loading of the converter and corresponding instantaneous rise in the ac system voltages. These considerations establish the condenser capacity required for acceptable operation. Of the available reactive power supplies. It provides a portion of the reactive power requirements of the converter. FILTER BANKS TlME IN SECONDS ( c ) PERFORMANCE WITH CONDENSER SUPPLEMENTARY CONTROLS . It permits the dc converter control to maintain acceptable control of the ac voltage where the receiving system shortcircuit capacity is low. as well as providing a portion of the reactive requirements of the inverting process. Condenser Operation VDC Applications Figure 16 shows the use of synchronous condensers at the receiving end of a highvoltage dc line. With a strong ac receiving system. In this application the condenser fulfills several needs: 1.8. A fixed block of reactive power is available from the capacitor banks associated with filter banks. a high shortcircuit level. Additional controlled reactive power supply will generally be provided by a controlled compensator. all of the variable reactive requirements may be supplied by the system or from switched shunt capacitors. 200 I 0 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 I 7 TlME IN SECONDS ( b ) PERFORMANCE WITHOUT CONDENSER SUPPLEIIIENTARY CONTROLS When the receiving system does not in itself meet shortcircuit requirements. with the remaining normal and postsubtransient reactive requirements being provided in the most economic manner.4. the condenser has the unique ability to provide shortterm voltage stability in the subtransient range. AC RECEIVING SYSTEM SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSERS STATIC VAR SUPPLY 200 1 0 I 0 1 I 2 I 3 4 I I 5 I 6 7 I FIGURE 16. HVDC application of synchronous condenser. 2.
starting motor. There is also a considerable background of experience with t starting method which has been used extensively for startup of both sy chronous condensers and pumped hydro units. particularly with respect to auiotransformers. sometimes referred to as the Korndorfer method. the unbalanced current flows are generally small and of primary interest to the relaying designer with regard to sensitive ground relay setting. Starting Motor This method uses a woundrotor motor with one less pair of poles th the main condenser to accelerate the unit to rated speed and synchroni to the line. Two 250MVAr condensers presently in service use dc exciter starting. During t acceleration period the control positions the electrodes to maintain c stant torque.1. The transformer design should recognize the need to avoid excessive unbalance of the tap voltages. and static starter. Torque control during starting in this case is through a controlled dc voltage to the exciterlmotor. Where this may exceed the interrupting or momentary rating of the planned breaker a currentlimiting reactor (CLR) as shown in Figure 18a may be required. have been used. (of Transformer tap. At approximately 98% speed. Full voltage or acrosstheline starting is not generally used for large condensers because of the magnitude of system voltage dips and also the severity of condenser duty. General1 starting will be infrequent.5. the control responds to th pulsed output of speed matching relays to bring the slip to a very smal value and allow the automatic synchronizing relay to initiate breake closing.5. The magnetizing impedance of the usual starting autotransformer under these clrcumstances is so high that there is practically no difference in performance from the open transfers of the arrangements shown in Figure 18 The reduced voltage tap of the transformer delta winding of Figure 18a may be a symmetrical center tap for half voltage or a cornerdelta connection for a lower voltage tap. FIGURE 17.5.5% of the condenser rating is used. This includes autotransformer connections which utilize tripping of a neutral breaker w ~ t h the series winding serving as a reactor during the startrun transition. STARTING METHODS Practical starting methods for large condensers include reduced voltage. in an automated system. Torque control of the motor during startup is by means of a liq rheostat controlled as shown schematically in Figure 17.Syncl~ronousCondensers 8. However.5. Reduced voltage starlmg. 8. this may be used as a driving motor to bring the condenser up to speed and synchronize to the line. The shortcircuit current on a tap tends to be higher in amperes than that of the full winding. Starting motor control. Various switching arrangements.(61 The cornerdelta tap introduces unbalanced impedances which result in unbalanced current flow during starting. as well as stator or amortisseur winding stresses during t startup. the units being shut down only when requir for maintenance. ~ W ( i ~ CONTROL SIGNAL 1 . starting time is generally not critic 1520 min being acceptable. Reduced Voltage Starting 8.2. The choice is a matter of economics rather than any practical difference in performance. Likewise. It has the advantages of eliminating any voltage dip on t system. FIGURE 18. Where the condenser has a directconnected dc exciter. A motor rating of abo 0. Starting Methods 291 8. ( b l Autotransformer . AUXILIARY BUS T SYSTEM PILOT MOTOR i>d Two arrangements for reduced voltage starting are shown in Figures 18a and b.
The static starting equipment is a selfcontained static equivalenk of not only a starting generator but also its excitation. it becomes more difficult to provide amortisseur bars of adequate thermal capability and a different starting method is required. Typically the starting tap voltage is 3550°/o.6 0.3. Where a particularly low tap voltage is used. Hydrogencooled condenser ratings above about 170 MVA will generally require a nonamortisseur type start such as a starting motor. same time that the starting breaker is tripped. Static Starting Static starting shown schematically in Figure 20 is basically a synchronous or "backtoback" type of start in which the condenser is accelerated to rated speed in synchronism with the static equivalent of a starting generator. At the.292 Synchronous Condensers 8.4 0. the unit may pull in on the "wrong pole" initially. During acceleration the lineside converter operates as a rectifier while the machine side converter operates as an inverter.I. Delayed startrun transfer. Power switchgear for supply to the starter and for connection to the unit to be started. The major elements of the static starting system are the following: 1. valves.8 1. Above a certain minimum speed (510%) the condenser can supply the reactive commutation required for operation of the inverter. " 1976 IEEE. v I / /  1 1. SYSTEM Schematic arrangement of statlc starting system. and synchronizing controls. 2. As unit sizes increase. Excitation is applied when full speed is reached and the unit pulls into step. Below this speed it is necessary to establish the rotating stator flux by successively switching the inverter output from phase to phase.4 EHV E. As part of the automatic starting sequence. governor.2 0. FIGURE 20. A check is made using a reactive power relay to be sure that the condenser has the correct pole orientation before proceeding further. Because of the reluctance torque..O 52s FIGURE 19. PULL IN g i 1 Basicaliy the starter is like the converter equipment of a HVDC termrnal except that the receiving "system" into which the power is sent is at changing frequency. Following this check.0 DELAY TIMESEC. Starting Methods The unit is started as an induction motor on the reduced voltage tap.5. the transfer transient can be much larger than the initial transient unless control means are used to reduce this. sufficient field current is applied to insure that if necessary an intentional poleslip will be made. Conlnzutatitrg reactors and the stnootf~urg reactor located adjacent to the starter cubicles.. Static Starter Cubicles which contain the power thyristor elemerlts and associated control. full field forcing by the excitation system is used to minimize the transient current and resultant voltage dip.1 I i I 0 0. the transfer to full voltage is made by tripping the start breaker and closing the running breaker. Figure 19 illustrates a case where a slight delay in closing the running breaker reduced the second voltage dip to a small value.5. CLOSE 52R I _ I .2 1 0 1. CLOSE "05 r 5 2 5 FIELD B. .(7' Heavy amortisseurs of the type illustrated in Figure 3 are required for this starting method. 3. 8.
through gastowater heat exchangers.6.3. The ventilation of the machine of Figure 2 is totally enclosed.8. 8. The total auxiliary power requirement for a condenser operating at rated output is of the order of onetenth of one percent.1.2. The protective relaying requirements are essentially the same as for a turbinegenerator unit. Control and Protection BUS # 2 T In nearly all cases condensers are completely automated with remote startstop and voltage control provisions. allowing the desired condenser reactive power over the expected range of transmission voltage level variation without exceeding the condenser normal voltage tolerance limits of rt 5%. This function is provided by the combined logic of field current and terminal voltage so that low field current together with low terminal voltage would be considered abnormal. . the lowest impedance consistent with circuitbreaker interrupting duties is desirable. Since the only means of "unloading" a condenser is by reducing the field current. A low impedance also eases the problem of selecting a transformer turns ratlo to match a wide range of conditions. with hydrogen gas circulated by means of shaftmounted fans. 8. the condenser may have its own stepdown transformer. several considerations unique to the condenser will be mentioned. In general. through the delta tertiary winding of a tle autotransformer.6. cooling. however. 294 Station Design Considerations 295 Synchronous Condensers 8. an economic connection to the power sysHV tem may be as shown.6. either cooling towers or waterair heat exchangers are generally employed. An important protective function is the condenser stator and roior winding overload control. 8. since nearzero field current is normal for a condenser. Since cooling water is frequently at a premium. STATION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS While detailed discussion of station equipment is beyond the scope of this chapter. Where there are tie autotransformers interconnecting two transmission voltage levels at the substation. most of which IS associated with the cooling water system. A different type of lossoffield relaying is applied. this function is normally provided as part of the excitation equipment and consists of automatic runbaclc controls supplementing the normal maximum excitation limit functions. Auxiliary Systems d@PrJl REGULATOR WOUND ROTOR MOTOR I The basic auxiliary systems of a condenser in addition to the starting means are for lubrication. Two important and related considerations in either case are the impedance and turns ratio of the transformer. to permit maximum utilization of the condenser capability. Underfrequency relaying is also provided on condensers to protect for cases where they become isolated from the system by a remote tripout. Basic OneLine Arrangement The oneline diagram of condenser installation varies considerably with differences in the existing substation arrangement to be accommodated and the starting method employed. Alternately. there are several special requirements.6. Figure 21 shows a typical arrangement using a woundrotor motor for starting. In other cases freeze control is accomplished by cooling system design allowing automatic draining. and hydrogen control. A closed system containing a glycol mixture for freeze protection is commonly used in lowtemperature areas.6.
The basic condenser starting control and protection requirements have been well developed over many years. AIEE. More recently improvements have been made in two areas to permit more effective transient performance. More important however is their emergency voltage support capabilities where major disturbances and/or loss of transmission or generation facilities threaten a system collapse. detailed system studies with a suitable transient stability computer program are required to determine specific requirements. The lubricating oil system is usually located in a pit directly beneath the condenser. System disturbances may dictate a need for either capacitive or inductive reactive power to maintain reasonable voltage levels. providing makeup for leakage from the condenser shell. 5os5l]. "Operation of Synchronous Condensers on the South ern California Edison Company System. Lubricating oil is supplied to each bearing at the proper pressure and flow.. Drake. Large hydrogencooled condensers have played a major role in the reactive supply requiremeilts of utility systems. Canady and J. 71 10511058 (1952). Appor S ~ r i ." Tram. Power Appar. One is the use of voltage regulator supplementary controls to increase the condenser effectiveness during transient swings. REFERENCES I. In general. Condensers automatically provide capability in excess of nameplate ratings during an interval required for transmission line reclosing and primemover governor controls to act. high pressure oil is supplied to the bearings during startup in order to lift the journals above the bearing surface.. R. The MVAr which can be made available during these critical emergencies is an important consideration in the comparison of alternate forms of reactive supply. Also." Tram. . G "Reduced Voltage Starting Perfornlance of Synchronous ~~~d~~~~~~~ and Pumped Hydro units. H. C. IEEE Po.. to reduce starting friction and to reduce babbitt wear.296 References A hydrogen control system maintains normal pressure by means of References pressure regulators. 6436447 (March/April 1976). Another is the improvement in overload controls to permit maximum advantage to be taken the condenser shorttime capabilities. Sysl. Their characteristic of providing a stepless controlled reactive supply for both overexcited and underexcited requirements makes them effective for normal control of transmission voltage levels. A dc backup lube oil pump provides emergency backup to the normal ac lube oil pump.
and in many such cases the thyristorcontrolled or saturatedreactor compensator proves to be economic and technically advantageous. J." While voltage stabilization is always a benefit to the steelmaker. to the supply utility it may be necessary as a remedy for voltage disturbances (flicker) caused by the rapid. and erratic variations in furnace current. which reduces refractory wear and helps to limit vo!tage "flicker. The rapid response of highspeed compensators helps to resolve the conflict between furnace performance and flicker reduction which is met with the synchronous condenserjbuffer reactor combination.T. Voltage stabilization can markedly improve furnace operation: either by increasing the maximum power and therefore the rate of steel production. Methods that have been used for voltage stabilization include connection of the furnace at a higher network voltage. Such disturbances might otherwise be a nuisance to neighboring customers. . large. and the modern highspeed thyristorcontrolled and saturatedreactor compensators. but also in power factor correction and harmonic filtering. OLTROGGE 9. E.1. INTRODUCTION For the efficient use of electrical power in the steelmaker's arc furnace. a unique combination of problems must be solved. synchronous'condensers with buffer reactors. Connecting the furnace at a higher network voltage is often expensive and sometimes impractical. R. MILLER and A. or by enabling the furnace to work at the same maximum power but with a shorter arc. particularly in voltage stabilization.
General layout of a large modern electrrc arc furnace (electrrcai connectrons are shown for only one phase).. . in diameter. 1 to account for the harmonrcs. it gives a surprisingly accurate account of furnace operation in terms of averaged quantities..? The operation of the furnace will be described as though the furnace currents were balanced and sinusoidal. Furnace Operating Characteristics. between 1975 and 1981.1. In the United States alone. The emf E is the opencircuit voltage at the furnace transformer second ary terminals. Control of the circuit of Figure 2 is by vertical movement of the graphite electrodes.3 to 9.5.(" There are at present about 850 electric furnaces with electrodes more than 6 in.2. Electrical Supply Requirements of Arc Furnaces FIGURE 1.300 Reactive Compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 9. which controls the arc length and therefore its voltage (discussed later): and by tapchanging on the furnace transformer. it is necessary to look at the furnace operating characteristics. THE ARC FURNACE AS AN ELECTRICAL LOAD Graohlte Electrodes 9. In order to appreciate the benefits of voltage stabilization to the furnace. = E ~ / perxphase. The Arc Furnace a s an Electrical Load Electrode Am Busbar r The order in which the subject matter is treated is intended to reflect the importance of voltage stabiiization to the steelmaking process. The largest furnaces now are more than 30 ft in diameter and require up to I10 MW of electric power. Figure 1 shows a typical large furnace. while the leads from the secondary terminals of the furnace transformer to the graphite electrodes may account for as much as 70%. 9. the electrodes. The Arc Furnace in Steelmaking Worldwide electric arc furnace capacity is today continuing to increase at a significant rate in spite of an overall slowing of the growth in steel production. and their capacities range from a few tons to over 400 tons. which varies E Tapchanging also varies X slightly: but this effect will be ignored.2. ~ (1i 1In practice X may be Increased by a factor of the order of 1 . These can be derived as follows. All reactances are referred to the secondary winding of the furnace transformer.2. Although this model is a sweeping simplification of a real furnace.e. This is in contrast to many publications which only treat the static compensator as a means for limiting flicker on the external system. and together with Xdefines the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the supply to the arc. the furnace transformer and the main steelworks transformer. while E IS ~ncreasedby about 5% to allow for uncertarntres In reactance values and varlatlon In the supply voltage. It is well known that in a circuit of the form of Figure 2 the power which can be delivered to the load (i. The shortcircuit reactance of the supply network may be of the order of 1520% of the total. some 15 million tons of newly installed arc furnace capacity brought the arc furnace's share up to onethird of total steel production. The reactance X is the sum of all reactances in series with the arc: it includes the reactances of the flexible leads and the electrodearm busbar. The arc can be represented as a variable resistance in a simple singlephase equivalent circuit of the furnace and its supply system (see Figure 2). It is convenient to ignore all resistances except that of the arc. the arc) as R varies is limited to the maximum value P. 9. and the shortcircuit reactance of the supply network.2. Flicker correction is considered in Sections 9..2. These statistics underline the importance of the arc furnace both as a steel producer and as a load on the electric supply system.
of which 80% is "downstream" of the furnace transformer primary (the "furnace bus" in Figure 2). and X is 4. = The voltage drop across the arc i then equal to the voltage drop across X.Reactive Compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace Mam Supply Steelworks Transformer Furnace Transformer Leads and (500900 V) I Consumers Compensator Furnace q /' (a) Furnace Bus X = X + X2 I (bl FIGURE 2.04 mOhm." giving X i 0. these curves are called the "operating characteristics" of the furnace. Figure 3 shows the variation of furnace power and other quantities as R varies. The furnace rating is approximately 60 MW. E is 700 V rms (lineline). The primary of the furnace transformer is the most usual . Plotted to a base of arc current.23 mOhm. 1981 IEEE. D e n v a t i o n o f smglephase equivalent crrcult f o r eshmatmg furnace operating character~st~cs.. The tapsetting is assumed fixed in Figure 3. and 20% is "upstream. The value of R at the maximumpower condition is R~rnax = X and the current corresponding to maximum power is IPm. s both being equal to E I ~ . E I ~ x .81 mOhm and X 2 = = 3.
.. This is illustrated in Figure 3a by the solid curves of arc power. implying uneconomic utilization of the furnace. W. V f = E. The rapid response is necessary because the compensator works essentially by providing all or most of the reactive current required by the furnace. busbar and upstream of the condenser.25. wliose choice of constants appears In Equation 3.. Refractory maintenance cost is a significant fraction of steel production cost. (3) where k = 29 Vlin. length. the flicker improvement was limited to the point of common coupiing and was obtained at the expense of an itlcrease of flicker at the furnace busbar.. If it is capable of mainta~ning constant voltage. that is. in order to limit the arc length. = E / d . the furnace must be operated at a higher current.5 Vlcm). A higher current. It is therefore important to understand how the wear rate is related to the operating point and the operating power. where the furnace busbar voltage is stabilized to E.. however. The reduction in X reduces the arc length at all levels. is stabilized to E J x ~( / I + X 2 ) . It is here that a compensator would normally be connected. Benefits of Compensation.. which may be as much as 1. but of course the power and the powerfactor are both reduced in consequence.. (11. + 40 Volts rms. on the other hand. at the maximumpower point are unchanged. The synchronous condenser was applied in a few installations before the development of these highspeed compensators. If. while the current is increased by the factor 1. then X 1 is effectively eliminated... It is known that satisfactory arc stability is achieved at the maximumpower point. and as we have seen this can vary rapidly. for example. and powerfactor. which from Equation 1 becomes V. but a less stable arc and lower power. It is now clear how a compensator can provide the same benefits as a reduction in X. and therefore the arc length. and the maximum power is increased by this factor. A current lower than Ipn. It can be seen that power is now possible with a reduced arc operation at the same n~aximunl length. This resort is by no means uncommon in practice. that is. and by the degree to which the furnace builder can control the reactance upstream of the steelworks. and is becoming more important with the trend towards higher power inputs in a given furnace diameter. Schwabe.. constant.. with less refractory wear... kl. has suggested a ReTractory Wear index('' (RWI) defined by: Arc Power x Arc Length (Arcsidewall Clearance)* +  .2.. Again XIis effectively eliminated. the furnace busbar voltage V . Choice of Operating Point and the Importance of Supply Reactance. limited by the wear rate of the refractory sidewall lining. this increases the maximum power by the ratio ( X I + X 2 ) / X 2 . being almost independent of current. The dotted curves in Figure 3a show the effect of eliminating X I . Modern furnaces have special arrangements of their flexible leads and electrodearm busbars to minimize the reactance. as in Figure 3a. At the maximum power point V. to the right of the maximumpower point.. and the power factor shown in Figure 3 is at this point. In many cases lower reactance has been achieved by reinforcing the steelworks supply. This had a deleterious effect on furnace performance if two furnaces were operating in parallel. gives a lower powerfactor and a lower power. Taken by itself. An alternative compensation strategy is shown in Figure 3b. Because of the need for a buffer reactor in series with the furnac. The refractory wear rate at a given power level is approximately proportional to the arc length... / P. Approximately. The power factor at the maximum power point is slightly reduced. the reactive power is increased by the ratio (Xi X2)/X.3.. that is. ( X I + X 2 ) / X 2= 1.. = for a / Thus . T h e Arc Furnace as an Electrical Load 305 metering point.. In the example.E. and the thyristorswitched capacitor. = .? Now the arc length depends almost exclusively on the arc voltage. V. reducing X to 80% of its original value. The only types of compensator capable of realizing the benefits of voltage stabilization are active compensators with very rapid response.. These include the saturatedreactor compensator. with direct connection to a higher network voltage having a higher fault level and a lower effective shortcircuit reactance. This is illustrated by the dotted lines in Figure 3b. the thyristorcontrolled reactor. If X exceeds this value. E is reduced by the square root of this factor in order to keep P. A compensator may be connected at the furnace busbar (see Figure 2 a ) . that is..(3' The extent to which X can be reduced is limited by practical and economic factors. the key to making the desired power input equal to the maximum power with an acceptably short arc is to have the total reactonce X as low as ~ossible.25.. = In summary. given maximum arc length (i.e. The freedom to operate at this point is. Even when the primary reason for this has been to reduce flicker. In this case the powerfactor correction kVAr requirement is increased along with the maximum power. then the maximum power is unchanged while the arc X length and the refractory wear are both reduced. The arc voltage. At the maximumpower point. this consideration suggests the desirability of operating the furnace near to the maximumpower point. gives a higher powerfactor. not just at maximum power. voltage) and a desired maximum arc power P. the reactance X must not exceed v&.304 Reactive Compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 9. and according to Equation I. the benefits to the furnsce are nevertheless the same.
Some give a continuous reading. points in the supply system where other loads are connected. IIW FIGURE 4. It is simple. because the SCVD can be calculated in advance from the . discussed below. . and 1. Typical of the standards and recommendations that are applied is the one used in the United ~ i n ~ d o m .38' principles of measurement. The SCVD is usually expressed as the percentage decrease in voltage at the PCC when the furnace goes from opencircuit to shortcircuit on all three phases. To minimize these effects. Some use a photocell responding to the light from a tungsten filament lamp.306 Reactive Conipensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 9. Three of the best known are described in References 18. and 31." The term "voltage flicker" is often used to embrace all adverse effects of rapid voltage fluctuations.3. Flicker and Principles of Its Co~npensation Furnace shortc 1 rcul t klVA 9. and therefore it does not indicate how actual voltage flicker can be quantified for the purpose of measurement or prediction. the voltage fluctuations must be kept below some agreed "threshold of irritation.3. while prediction is important in the design of control circuitry for certain types of compensator. because this is the most important single common factor in the flicker perceived by a large number of consumers. the SCVD method and the flickermeter method.3. (where the SCVD is limited to '~) 2. resulting in lamp flicker. Some attempt to reproduce the "visual sensitivity" curve of the human eye. There are. (b) The Flickernleter Mefhod. There are fundamental differences between the two. and a simplified (though widely used) representation of the UIE/UNIPEDE(~" and AIEE(~') survey results is reproduced in Figure 4 (see also Reference 2). Measurement is important in evaluating the flicker in both compensated and uncompensated installations. Note that the SCVD will be worse at the PCC (point of common coupling) than at other. Television receivers and sensitive electronic equipment can also be adversely affected. With this method it is possible to predict at the desigtz stage whether a planned new furnace installation will cause objectionable flicker.g.('8.1. The difficulty of precisely defining flicker is reflected in the large using various variety of flickermeters which have been tried.."" while others employ no frequencyresponse weighting at all. while others are directly sensitive to input voltage.32. A difficulty with the SCVD method is that it does not dejitze flicker. more remote. All of these parameters are usually available at the design stage. Flickermeters also differ widely in the averaging period they use to determine the rootmeansquare value. Most types essentially measure the rms value of the fluctuat~on (or modulation) of the voltage. Some types incorporate harmon~c filters. FLICKER AND PRINCIPLES OF ITS COMPENSATION 9. SCVD = Shortcircuit voltage depression. on the grounds that harmonics can affect the meter reading without contributing much to the rms value of the fluctuation. mine hoists) are sometimes large enough to cause voltage fluctuations in the supply system. e. These figures apply to the SCVD calculated with minimum shortcircuit level in the supply system. . however.22. Electric utilities differ in the methods they use to characterize the "threshold of irritation" due to flicker. some g h c (a) The SCVD Method. Characterization of the Flicker Problem. 30.6% at higher voltages. rolling mills. and it defines the "threshold of irritation" in a way which should be automatically acceptable to the utility's customers as a whole. The correlation between the SCVD and the incidence of flicker complaints is determined from past surveys. but broadly speaking there are two main approaches. Typical relationship between SCVD and objectlonability of flicker power and reactive power ratings of the furnace and the impedance of the supply system. and the shortcircuit voltage depression at the point of common coupling. Furnace llox~mumPower P ~ . The SCVD method of dealing with the flicker problem has important practical advantages. The SCVD method is based on a correlation between the iizcidetlce offlicker conzplaiizts from other consumers near the steelworks. General Nature of the Flicker Problem Rapid fluctuations in the currents supplied to arc furnaces (and other large loads. wide differences in the frequencyresponses and In the interpretation of different flickermeters.0% at voltages at and below 132 kV.
and because the arc moves about. An idea of the size of the current variations in a large furnace can be gained from Figure 6 and the example in Section 9. in which a 60MW furnace operating at an electrode voltage of 700 V has arc currents over 70. The "threshold of perception" of continuous sinusoidal voltage modulation at 78 Hz has been put at around 0. The main value of the flickermeter so far has been in making "before and after" measurements of flicker when a compensator is added to an existing furnace installation. not for the purpose of describing any particular flickermeter. the arc becomes shorter and more stable and the subsequent "refining" period is characterized by much steadier currents with relatively little distortion." It appears to be relatively uncommon for electric utilities to specify the "threshold of irritation" in terms of a reading on a particular flickermeter. convection currents. Nature of ArcFurnace Current Variations. the "threshold of irritation" could be defined by an rms fluctuation exceeding 0. by tapchanging on the furnace transformer.K. Power and reactive power variations of a typlcal electric arc furnace. under the combined influence of electromagnetic forces. because it is not at present possible to predict from design data what the flickermeter reading will be. The voltage fluctuations result from the large and sometimes erratic variations in current flowing through the common supply impedance upstream of the point of measurement. metal grows. but merely to show that the eye is sensitive. As the pool of molten. but perception of sharp variations lasting less than one halfcycle has been recorded.1. Figure 5 shows a peak sensitivity to voltage fluctuation frequencies around 610 Hz. I t 1 FIGURE 6. and already some purchasers of compensation equipment have used such a criterion in their specifications. The currents are unbalanced. The furnace power may be reduced in this period to a small fraction of its "boredown" value. The survey results reported in Reference 18 showed that. based on complaints. sometimes erratically. The current tends to be irregular because of ignit~on delay and the nonlinear resistance of the arc. FIGURE 5. to the spectral character of the flicker. This serves to show that any compensator intended to reduce flicker must be both fast and accurate in response. but in a continuous 6 MA Vr I 10 30 1 I 10 I 30 I 60 I 3 I 6 I 10 J 20 I 3 Fluctuot~OflS/hr Fluctuot lons/ntln FIuctuatlon~/sec Typical vtsual response to flicker under ~ncandescent lighting. the movement of the electrodes. IEEE. requiring a very large capacitor bank for complete power factor correction. The SCVD recommendations of one utility (the U. An example of a "visual sensitivity" curve is reproduced in Figure 5 . Flicker and Principles of Its Coiripensatiorl 309 a sampled reading at intervals of a few seconds or minutes. However. and can detect very small voltage variations.3% rms. and the cavingin and sliding of the melting "charge" (which consists mainly of scrap metal in most cases). Electricity Council) have been correlated with a particular value of the rms value of the voltage fluctuation.25% for 1% of the time. The average reactive power is of the order of 60 MVAr. as the graphite electrodes are tteing driven down into the charge ("boredown"). it is of little help in planning a new furnace installation or in designing a compensator. " 1981 . This is the socalled "gaugepoint" fluctuation. The variability and the distortion tend to be more severe during the first few minutes of a melting cycle. although the increasing use of these instruments may change this. and fluctuate by large amounts even between consecutive halfcycles. via electric lighting.000 A per phase.3. A recording of typical furnace power and reactive power is shown in Figure 6. either with or without the compensator.308 Reactive compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 9. distorted. Spectral analysis of the distorted furnace current does not result in discrete integralorder harmonic components. others integrate continuously to give a cumulative "flicker dose.
The supply can be stiffened by tapping it at a higher voltage level. Table 1 summarizes the results of a digital Fourier analysis of furnace currents. correction Generates harmonics Limited speed of response Thyristorswitched capacitor 2 3 4 2. Synchronous condenser  Increase supply shortcircuit level High reliability Future expansion of furnace installation High cost .f.5 5 4.3. . Some of the practical merits and demerits of the different types are summarized in Table 2.8 3. used in the determination of filter ratings. or both. and the ~ r i n c i ~ l e s operation of the most important modern types are disof . stiffening the supply. . When compensation is to be employed. 3. Flicker Compensation Strategies Harmoniccompensated saturated reactor If the calculated SCVD of a planned furnace installation falls in the Borderline or Objectionable regions of Figure 4.2.4.(1524) is nevertheless important to extract the spectral amIt plitudes at the low integral multiples of fundamental frequency for the purpose of rating the harmonic filters associated with the furnace. This option may'be expensive. 5 . or installing compensating equipment.7 5. but it is often adopted when future expansion of the steelworlts or of neighboring loads is anticipated.1 Tapped reactor/ saturated reactor Rapid response gives large Requires large shunt flicker suppression capacitor bank for p.f.(6' TABLE 1 Illustration of Harmonic Content of Arc Furnace Current at Two Stages of the Melting Cycle Harmonic Current % of Fundamental Furnace Condition Initial melting (active arc) Refining (stable arc) Harmonic Order: TABLE 2 Some Practical Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Flicker Compensator Flicker Con~pensating Equipment or Technique Thyristorcontrolled reactor Advantages Rapid response Independent operation of phases No harmonics generated No reactors required Independent operation of phases Disadvantages Requires shunt capacitor for p. or if flicker complaints are aiready being provoked by an existing installation. correction Energizing transients Phases not independently controlled Requires regular maintenance Limited flicker suppression capability. 4. even with buffer reactor 9. or by installing additional lines.3 and 9.2 7 7.f. These are usually tuned to harmonics of such orders (typically 2. the choice can be made between several different types of compensator. cussed in sections 9.Reactive Compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace (though uneven) spectrum whose amplitude is broadly inversely related to frequency. correction Independent operation of phases Generates harmonics Transformertype Applicable to only construction one furnace Rapid response Negligible harmonics generated Transformertype construction Requires shunt capacitor for p. and 7). then the choice must be made between reducing the furnace load.
and in any case both A Q p ( t ? and Q y ( t ) are not unique but depend on the definition of reactive power and the method by which it is measured. (a) Cotnperzsatiorz Ratio. and Q e ( t ) is shown in phasor terms in Figure 7. of course.(t) does not in general have the same form as a Q 1 ( t ) . Q.Y ) .? The res~dualreactive power fluciua~ion after compensation is (7) Q6 = A Q p . A flicker suppr.ession ratio of F= 4 at a fluctuation frequency of 10 Hz is representative of a typical compensation requirement. that is.(t). and of the type of compensator. T Th~s treatment presupposes that reactive power can be defined in such a way as to have an instantaneous value as expressed in Equations 5 and 6. in broad terms. It is not uncommon to have C > 1. These factors make it difficult to define the response of the compensator in terms of a single number. If. the flicker is actually arnplged by the compensator. Flicker and Principles of Its Compensation 313 Basic Notions of Conlpensator Performance. of reactire ratio F as .3. which are defined as follows. y = The controllable part of a compensator is distinct from the fixed shunt capacitors which may be included for overall powerfactor improvement.08 radians (14"). F is plotted in Figure 76 as a function of the retard angle y for various values of C. QY(O in some cases includes a contribution from the harmonic filters. and for y > n / 3 . . on the cotpensation ratio and the speed of response. as is sometimes done. l t .0. Sometimes the compensator is "overrated" (i.(t) = C A ~ sin ( w . The ability of a compensator to reduce voltage flicker depends. 712~ (=fmT). F< 1 . a function of the fluctuation frequency co. These curves apply for fluctuations at one frequency taken in isolation. especially where the compensator is required to correct unbalance. Notwithstanding these difficulties it is helpful to examine in a general way the effect of delay in the response of the compensator. ( b ) Flicker function of the retard angle y with C = 1. under idealized conditions in which the furnace reactive power is modulated sinusoidally at a single frequency: Suppose that the compensato~'~ reactive power response Q ..T. but are both extended in time. F. for y = 7ri3 there is no improvement in flicker. This is because the compensating reactive power swing needed in one phase when the other two are shortcircuited exceeds the perphase reactive power swing needed under balanced conditions.. and with C = 100% this requires y < . ( a ) Effect of compensation ratlo C and delay y on power fluctuations at a single modulating frequency.Q J t ) . The compensator's response Q.e.. From this diagram it is possible to define a flicker suppression ratio.. ( t ) is also sinusoidal.312 Reactive Con~pensationand the Electric Arc Furnace 9. as Reactive power rating of controllable part of compensator Variation in Reactive Power of Furnace (4) The flicker suppression ratio F is. This is defined as C = The relationship between A Q p ( t ) . of amplitude C A Q 1 . It can be seen that with C = loo%. (a) (J 6 compensation suppression FIGURE 7. In general C and y are both functions of the modulating frequency w.< 4 msec (with C = 100%). and great care should be exercised in interpreting claimed figures for response time or even frequencyresponse. rad.I . (b) Speed of Response. C > 1) in order to compensate for the voltage drop in the main supply transformer and improve the voltage stability at the PCC. The reactive power fluctuation AQl(t? of the furnace and the compensator's response to it are not instantaneous events. Thus Q. then and to achieve F = comT= 27Ff. but retarded in phase by an angle y . the compensator delay is represented by a fixed time delay T. (9) 4 at 10 Hz requires T.
14~5~22.38~4146) synchronous condenser and the Like the busbar variant of the saturatedreactor compensator. Harmonic filters are often necessary to absorb the furnace harmonics.314 Reactive Conlpensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 9. whlch reads the flicker without the compensator. A slower compensator may need to be oversized in order to achieve comparable performance with a faster one. The duty for the harmonic filters can therefore vary according to the type of compensator used. Reactance X in the secondary of the CT develops a voltage that represents the compensator's effect on the PCC voltage. and is not described here. It also depends strongly on the frequencyresponse characteristics of the supply system. Although this approach is in a sense the most direct it requires sophisticated powerelectronics technology with a large number of thyristor switches.19739340) tappedreactor scheme is The essentially a singlephase device. . (See References 19. This voltage is subtracted from the input to flickermeter B. Nevertheless. and Table 2). and the response of a particular type of compensator to a real furnace cannot be completely defined in terms of a single response delay T. which is not described.3. The TCR and the tappedreactor types themselves generate harmonic currents in addition lo those of the furnace.3. Conceptually the compensator is only intended to stabilize and compensate the fundamentalfrequency reactive power. First reported in service by Friedlander in !964. these compensators are connected in parallel with the furnace (or furnaces) at the furnace busbar. Types of Compensator ~orn&nsator + PowerFactor Correction Capacitors FIGURE 8. and although it is rapid in response it requires a series element. Flicker and Principles of I t s Conipensation 315 The other curves in Figure 7 b show that for a given flicker suppression factor. In an attempt to avoid the problem of reproducing the furnace flicker exactly. which makes it unsuitable for multiplefurnace installations. the flicker with and without the compensator has been measured simultaneously by means of the mimic circuit shown in Figure 8 (see Reference 22).27. some corresponding to the SCVD criterion and some to field measurements using a particular type of flickermeter.(33' One device suggested for this is a toleranceband current c o n t r ~ l l e r ."." which employs the twin. This is in contrast with Equation 8 which represents the simplest theoretical definition. 20. It is often quoted in the literature. Reactive power fluctuations from a real furnace can never be characterized by a single modulation frequency. there is a tradeoff between the size of the compensator (C) and its speed of response. More sophisticated theoretical treatments are possible. A third approach to flicker compensation is a direct attempt to achieve iiutantatzeous compensation of reactive current including harmonic currents.3. The second approach to flicker compensation is that employed in the thyristorcontrolled reactor (TCR) or thyristorswitched capacitor (TSC) compensators. ' ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ' is controlled to provide all components of the furwhich nace current except that inphase fundamentalfrequency component which is required to produce the useful power of the furnace. the principle is to measure the reactive power (or current) of the furnace as fast as possible. the flicker suppression factor is a useful figure of merit for a compensator's performance. and to control the compensator in such a way that the sum of the furnace reactive power and the compensator reactive power is as nearly constant as possible. although several alternative definitions are used. It has so far not been widely applied. Two approaches to the compensation of flicker will be described. However. Both of these are superior in overall performance to the older synchronous condenser approach. this method assumes that the furnace currents are just as distorted and erratic with the compensator stabilizing the voltage. Its rapid response is achieved at the expense of a large harmonic filtering requirement. The saturatedreactor cotnpetzsator was the first of the modern fastresponse compensators to be applied widely. as they are without it.or trebletripler type of polyphase harmoniccompensated selfsaturating reactor. 9. In simplified terms. Mimic circuit for measuring flicker with and without the compensator.@' this compensator appears in two main variants: the earlier tappedreactor arrangement and the brisbar compensator.
This is called "direct" compensation.1. each one having its own thyris TSC fbJ Furnace FIGURE 10. Represents Bank of Switched Capacitors as in Fig. Capac tor TCR Furnace FIGURE 9. This strategy automatically reduces the voltage fluctuations at and upstream of the compensator connection point.switclzed capacitor. Connected in parallel with the arc furnace. ThyristorControlled Conlpensators %I 9. In the interest of rapid .4.316 Reactive Compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 9. The tfyistor. The demand for reactive power is met by switching into (or out of) conduction the appropriate n~imber capacitor units of according to the relationship shown in Figure 26 of Chapter 4. This happens only once per period so the control circuit always has at least one full period in which to "decide" whether or not to switch on a particular waiting capacitor unit. (TSC) is comprised in each phase of several smaller capacitor units in parallel. The ideal switching waveforms of voltage and current for one capacitor unit are shown in Figure 11. This is called "indirect" compensation. Note the tuning reactors. as shown in Figures 9 and 10. General arrangement of a thyristorcontrolled reactor compensator applied to an arc furnace. In the " o f f state the capacitor has a precharge voltage equal to the positive or negative peak of the ac voltage. the control signals being applied to the gates of the thyristors.4.4. ( a ) Principle of TSC compensator. Relationship between Compensator Reactive Power and Thyristor Gating Angle Each Am. which it has retained from the currentzero when it was last switched off. The effective fundamentalfrequency susceptance is controlled by switching. THYRISTORCONTROLLED COMPENSATORS I The basic element of all thyristorcontrolled compensators is a capacitor or reactor in series with an ac thyristor switch. In TCRcompensated systems this constant reactive power is usually equal to the maximum frequently repeated reactive power peaks of the furnace. In TSCcompensated systems the constant reactive power is near zero. 10a It is important to understand how the reactive power of the compensator is determined by the gating arzgles of the thyristor switches. Note the reactors which tune the shunt powerfactor correction capacitors to loworder integral harmonic frequencies. 0 1981 IEEE. In order to minimize transient currents the capacitor is switched on only when the ac voltage is equal to (or very close to) the precharge voltage. Fixed capacitors in parallel with the compensator can be used to adjust the overall average power factor. 9. and the overall power factor is corrected by means of shunt capacitors. the TSC generating what the furnace absorbs. Similarly the control circuit always has at least one haifperiod in which to "decide" whether or not to switch offa particular conducting capacitor (by withholding the gating pulse to the conducting thyristor at the next natural currentzero). ( b ! General arrangement of TSC colrlpensator applied to an arc furnace. tor switch (Figure 10). the controlled susceptance supplies or absorbs reactive power in such a way that the combined reactive power of the furnace and the compensator is as nearly constant as possible.
Reactive Compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 9.4. ThyristorControlled Conlpensators 319 .
1 The integration interval is shown here as exactly one period.320 Reactive Compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 9. and unless a = 90" it starts before the gating pulse is issued. In other words. according to the definition q = VILI . tGating Instants i. This trajectory is defined by Equation 11. (151 The lefthand side is equal to twice the load reactive power per phase + ir sin i w t . right up to the start of the conducting interval. I A A Principles of algorithme circuit for determining thyristor gating angles Determination of Reactive Power Demand Although the TCR and the TSC differ as to the time and manner in which gating pulse decisions are made.vj2) . the conducting interval is generally shorter than the determining interval. This gives rise to the possibility of extending the "compute" interval beyond the start of the determining interval. ip sin ( ' ~. which gives a continuous signal representing the load reactive power in the period which has just finished at time t. This is in principle undesirable because the compensator proper is intended to compensate only the "fundamental" reactive power while the harmonics or "harmonic reactive power" are absorbed in parallelconnected filters. they both require a signal which accurately represents the most uptodate value of the "fundamental" or "displacement" reactive power of the furnace. The integration interval (that is. and compensators which use the "running average" method may employ a shorter integration interval. In practice it IS found that an integration interval of one period is too long for acceptable flicker suppression. Logic circuitry determines which of the two oppositely poled thyristors in each switch should be gated. and ql (t) no longer means the "fundamental" reactive power. the gating pulse is generally issued afler the start of the determining interval. The curve labeled q. and since these two intervals are both symmetrical about the 180" point on the voltage waveform. Another method used to determine q l (t) is based on the relationship A vil s i n + = . q l (0is corrupted by harmonic components of tile current i (voltage harmonics being negligible).2.^v sinwr . With any other vaii~e of integration interval. I B sin (wt  + . as a "running average. because ILI Equation 11 was determined by Fourier analysis as The issuance of a gating pulse to a thyristor switch at an angle a commits the associated reactor to conduct until the next currentzero and so deliver compensating reactive power according to the definition in Equations 12 and 13. (12) This again must be interpreted in terms of an average taken over one in halfperiod.4." This relationship can be realized in an algorithmic circuit. 9. (In practice the integrand may be more complicated than shown here.v/2) . Line Voltage ThyristorControlled Compensators from IL1 that the reactive power delivered by the compensator is determined." FIGURE 13. with a increasing linearly through time. At each voltage peak the trajectory labeled L'prospective compensating reactive power" is initiated. The gating angle a may be determined by an algorithmic circuit operating according to Figure 13. the detemzinittg ititerval) in Equation 13 is from 90" to 270" on the voltage waveform. and causes a gating pulse to be issued to the appropriate thyristor.(t) is a continuous signal representing the computed reactive power which is needed for compensating the load (discussed later). sacrificing acburacy for speed in an attempt to optimize the flicker suppression capability.$1 t . A comparator detects the instant when the two curves cross. This reactive power can be defined per phase by that is. if the compensator is expected to correct phase unbalance: see Chapter 1. which improves the speed with which the TCR responds to a given demand for "fundamental" reactive power.4.
The furnace impedance can vary from full opencircuit to full shortcircuit. Since the average power in the reactor is zero.4.4) is sud$nly switched on at time t = + / w . For operation above the ac kneepoint in Figure 16. SATURATEDREACTOR COMPENSATORS 9..10. 2f . f .. there may be some residual response at higher frequencies. Such a circuit canAbe made extremely rapid in response.5. Algoritbrn~c circuit for determining instantaneous reactive power q 1 (0.322 Reactive compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 1 sec. To overcome this.reactive compensator. . if the current il sin(ot . With such a widely varying ioad the finite slope reactance X.5. The TCR compensator in this example is rated 60 MVAr and connected at i(t) Filters 1 n'iyJ K 2 1 Phase Shifters Multipliers FIGURE 14. at the PCC).1. Figure 16 shows the relationship between terminal voltage and fundatnental current for a singlephase saturated reactor wlth just one winding on a closed iron core. V and V.then the output of the measuring circuit may have components at the frequencies f. However.f. These can be removed by filtering.. For example. intended to respond only to the f component. 9. of course. An approximation to such a device IS the selfsaturating reactor. but . Several other algorithmic circuits for determining the load reactive power have been described in the literature. The requirements for reactivepower compensation and phase balancing are discussed in more detail in Chapter 1. I I r Uncompensated I I With TCR Compensator I I  FIGURE 15.there can result undesirable interference between this resonance and the compensator. The VI curve is related to the BH curve of the core steel. This relationship can be realized by the algorithmic circuit shown in Figure 14. The compensator is. owing to the finite slope reactance X . the fundamental VI characteristic can be approximately represented by the equation Figure 15 shows an actual recording of the compensated and uncompensated voltage fluctuations at the 230kV point of common coupling. + 9. and only partial compensation is achieved with the plain saturated reactor. as shown in Figure 14. the output can reach a steady value i i sin 4 within 2 msec. Should there be a supply system resonance at or near the frequency 2f .5. It is even possible to overcompensate so that approximately constant voltage is achieved at some point upstream of the compensator connection (for example.3.f . The TappedReactor/SaturatedReactor Compensator Q 9.15 pu.prevents the reactor from drawing enough current to match the shortcircuit current of the furnace. which is typically 0. An additional problem may arise as a result of taking products of v and if. fundamentalfrequency conditions. Typical improvement in the rms voltage at the PCC wlth a thyr~siorcontrolled reactor compensator..busbar voltage. are in phase and the phasor notation can be dropped. and 2f f. If if has the form of a fundamentalfrequency sinewave modulated at a frequency f. SaturatedReactor Compensators 0. Some of this can be recovered by means of phaselead compensation techniques.7% rms Volts / under steadystate. Equation 16 is then represented by the straight line in Figure 16. This can be avoided by means of adequate rolloff of the compensator's frequencyresponse at higher frequencies. but differs from it in shape because of harmonic currents which are inevitable with such nonlinearity. The characteristic is not quite constantvoltage. 2f . but filtering introduces a further response delay. Example of Flicker Compensation Results with a TCR Compensator The ideal device for eliminating flicker would be a constnntvoltag. the result is corrupted by harmonic components in the current. a tapped reactor is introduced (Figure 17) which redistributes the "leverage7' that the saturated reactor and the furnace currents have on the furnac. A realistic stepresponse time of the type described above is then of the order of 45 msec.
At the same time the shortcircuit reactance is increased from (X. the voltage boosting winding shown in Reference 8 has been successfully used. and to avoid systern resonances.Vk = jXsIs (V. Two main variants are conimonly used. + and the furnace voltage is given by Vf = V. the tappedreactor total reactance. .4.2. and a. to use the flat VI characteristic of a saturating If Xi. 9. + nIf) (1 + n)Xi . the supply current is constant. .(l+n).V.9. The Polyphase HarmonicCompensated Selfsaturating Reactor Compensator A second type of saturatedreactor compensator. quite distinct from the tappedreactor arrangement described in Section 9."' Fundamental Current (r. + X.5. and capacitors are generally connected at the supply end of the tapped reactor.1. The basic principle is the same as that of the tappedreactorlsaturateclreactor scheme. FIGURE 17. = V. (19) The supply current I. the voltage at the supply end of the tapped reactor is constant and is given by Topped Reoc tor The voltage supplied to the primary of the furnace transformer is now given by Equations 19.) + + jXrIr =j (X. then the supply current I. In order to restore the furnace supply to the condition it had without the compensator.S.X r ) I f . The voltage divides across the two sections of the tapped reactor according to the relations V. 1s indepeudent o the fi~rrzacecurrent I. the twintripler and trebletripler reactors. P r ~ n c ~ p l e of the tappedreactorlsaturatedreactor conipensator. must satisfy the equation E . Both of these effects reduce the furnace power. Relationship between voltage and fundamental current for a simple singlephase closedcore saturating reactor. and 23 as which is itzdependent o the suppb voltage E (or V.1 FIGURE 16. 8. + The principle of the scheme is shown by the following simplified analysis.j(I.5. (depending on the other loads connected at the PCC and elsewhere). ar chosen to satisfy (21 nXi = X. nIf)X. . its tapping ratio. = j (I. The alternative of reducing k by means of a capacitor in series with the saturated reactor is not used because it delays the response of the compensator. that is. + X. .j XJ. Sometimes called a busbar compensator (because it can be connected directly to the furnace busbar without the need for a tapped series reactor!.(') The power factor is also reduced by the tappedreactodsaturatedreactor compensator. XJ to Xs+Xf+X. is the polyphase harmoniccompensated reactor. Filters for frequencies up to the 15th have been employed. this compensator was developed by Friedlander (see Figure 38 of Chapter 51. i f then given by Equations 20 and 21: . since E .)I..) and is determined f exclusively by the compensator and the furnace current. 324 Reactive Con:pensation and the Electric Arc Furnace SaturatedReactor Compensators 325 Neglecting any phase change between E and V. In particular. and 36). (which in practice is small anyway). + j (tiX1.V. A disadvantage of the plain tappedreactor/saturatedreactor arrangement described so far is that the furnace opencircuit voltage is reduced to V k (see Equation 24 with If=O) from its original level which was intermediate between E and V. The voltage at all points upstream of the tapped reactor is therefore constant and free from fluctuations. in which all resistances (except that of the arc) are ignored (see references 7.. 21. These are usually divided into banks and combined with linear aircore reactors to make harmonic filters to absorb harmonic currents from the furnace as well as from the compensator. I.m.
The shunt capacitors modify the resulting VI characteristic as shown in Figure 19. Power Appl. R.. "Efiicient Use of Power In Electric Arc Furnnccs. the pulsemultiplication techniques used in rectifiers). February 1963. September 1976. 1 (11. 7587 (1976). February 1978. E. however. Oltrogge. E. 916 (1977). Dixon. and Distorting Loads and their Effect on Power Systems and C o n ~ ~ ~ u r i ! ~ ~ tions. IEE Eleclr. Freeman and J." It~di(s[r. 32 (1).5% and 24% respectively). 5. 1. In the twintripler 11 = 6. "Static Shunt ComIlcnsation for VoltageFlicker Suppression. IEE Conference Report Series No. J. In the trebletripler n = 9 . "Application of Capacitors In Arc Furnace Power Sui~ply Systems. J. .ecm7coi l~f/orlcl. "ArcFurnace Flicker Contpensat~ociin Ethiopia." GEC J. L. Pettersson. Friedlander. "Arc Furnace Voltage Can be Cr~tical." Proc. F. By loading the main reactor with a "mesh tuning reactor. and these may be divided up into harmonic filters. "Abnormal Loads on Power Systems. E. Seddon. Friedlander. 1974. "Electric Furnace Succeeds in Technology and Profit. and D. typically for orders 2. where s is the number of "phases" produced (cf. REFERENCES G." which itself is loaded with a shortcircuited deltaconnected winding. the three phases are mutually coupled on a multiplelimb core in a phaseandfrequencymultiplying arrangement which results in the elimination of harmonic currents up to orders 2n+1. December 1. Bock and A. 1980. Moore." L. 8 (19641. and the lowestorder harmonic currents are are the 17th and 19th under balanced conditions. VI characteristic of saturatedreactor con~pensatorof the busbartype with and without shunt capacitors. iron core to approximate an ideal constantvoltage reactive characteristic. 3. Young. Shunt capacitors are usually provided for overall powerfactor correction. The internal harmonic canceiation in the saturated reactor is imperfect under unbalanced conditions. 50 (I). Fiuctuating. hthout Shunt Capacitors Current FIGURE 19. "The Arc Furnace as a Load on the Network. Power Sysi. Y." Paper 7.3% over the normal range of currents (i. IEE Symposium on Transie n t." ASEA J. E. for rolling mills and other highly variable large loads as well as for arc furnaces. and the lowestorder harmonic currents are the i l th and 13th." iroir Age. but the harmonic currents which apuear are usually not excessive in the presence of current harmonics from the arc furnace. Young. The obtainable flicker suppression ratio is somewhat less than what is obtainable with the tappedreactorlsaturatedreactor compensator. H. A. Both of these harmonic suppression techniques have the additional effect of improving the linearity and flatness of the VI characteristic to within +0. R. 19 (3). Compensators rated up to 177 MVAr have been applied at voltages up to 70 kV. R. A. 210 (1965). "Raising the Production of Arc Furnaces by Stabilizing the Voltage with ThyristorSwitched Capacitors. SCL Tech. L. G. Frank and K. 49 (4). the lowestorder harmonics can be further suppressed. H.'"' However. Sundberg. 7 and sometimes also for 4 and 6 and a "highpass" branch (Figure 18)." A S M J. In arc furnace applications this residual slope reduces the effective compensation ratio. Telahun. leaving negligible residual harmonics below the 23rd and 25th in the twintripler and the 35th and 37th in the trebletripler under balanced conditions (11. 1823.and trebletripler reactors." E. Medley. February 4. MP7 to MP18. In the twin. General arrangen~entfor flicker conlpensation with busbartype of saturatedreactor compensator.e. from about 10% to 100% of rated current). McManus. and D .Reactive Con~pensation and the ELectric Arc Furnace References 327 Other Consumers 2+ 1 " 1 Furnace Busbar w T T u Furnace(s1 Saturated Shunt Capacitors/ Reactor Harmonlc Filters FIGURE 18. the linearity as well as the size of the iron core can be unfavorabiy affected unless the slope is kept above about 7%. 1724.
Rev. Frank and S. Young. April 2224. 43. 124129. 110116. and F. 33 (2). Friedlander and D. 33. "Static Network Stabilization: Recent Progress in Reactive Power Control. Chanas. Loughran. 33." ETZ(A) 98. and K. Armstrong." Proc..issociation. (in French~. 1974. "Dispositifs Experimentaux pur Settide du Flicker. Liitge 1973. "Tolerance Band Controlied SinglePhase Inverbr Circuits with Optimun~ Selection of Control Values. A. Hunter Memorial Lecture. "Solidstate Converters for Power System Voltage Control. "Saturated Reactor Compensator Achieves Major Reduction of Flicker Caused by Arc Furnace Installation. "The Statrc Compensator for the BSC Anchor Project. 1 (3). nous Condenser for Reducrng Voltage Flicker. E.' GEC J. Power CotJ: 37. Toronto. PowerFactor Correction Equipment Using ThyristorControlled Capacitors for Arc Furnaces.. 1976." IEE Cot$ Pztbl. 110. Op rri. Scr. "UltraHigh Power Arc Furnances." ETZ(AI97. 41. 130137. 99107. 925943. Power Cot$. 36. L. IEE 119 (4). 123135. R. Mav 1957. Lemoine. "The Static VAr Generator and Alternative Approaches to Power Systems VAr Compensation. Y H. Wanner and W. Kendall. Nishidai. "The Development of Saturated Reactors for Network Stabilization as ~pplicableto Magnet Power Supplies. F. 37 12711285 (1976).. "VoltageFlicker Compensation with AC Saturated Reactors." Bto~vii Boverl Pithi. G ." Proc. Francaise Elecrr. "Flicker Suppression for SinglePhase ResistanceWelding Machines. G. Ivner. and D. E. September 1969. 22. L. G. 32. Boidrn and G Drouin. 1974. E." presented at CEA Spring bleeting. (in German). 10321040 11975). Brown. A. Gaussens. C. 263272. . Anter. April 2224." Proc. a ThvrrstorControlled VAr Compensator.. and C. 6775. J. IEEE Summer Meet* mg. Los Angeles. J. Klinger.  ." Pt. W E. Coates and G . 35. April 2224." Iroti atid Steei Etigr. 132137. G&." AIEE Tratis. Robinson. "Applicat~ons of a Stat~c Suppressor to Reduce Voltage Fluctuations Caused by a Multiple Arc Furnace Installat~on. L. Harras and R." Indusn Power Sjvr. W . Friedlander. "Predicting the Electrrcal Performance of Arc Furnaces. 21. 29 (2). Concordia. 951956. Kasper.328 9. Thomas. Schwabe and R. October 1955. 70. February 1976. R 3. Hill and C. "Perturbations on Industrial and Distribution Systems . "The Physics of HighCurrent Arcs. 50. Tecfi. R. A. Levoy. 20. Sci. April 2224. Op crl. "The Measurement and Analysis of Waveform Distortlon Caused by a Large MultiFurnace Arc Furnace Installat~on. 40. 408411. Fitzgerald. M. 110. 8690. M Depenbrock. Moran. Young. June 1979. Lemrnenmeier et al. CHlit' 511 790 E. Concordia. Tratis.. 107114 (1962). G . 14." J. 76. 2 (3).. Irorz and S~eel Insf. J. S. PI. E. September 1968. Dejoue and P." GEC J. "Control and Regulation Dev~ceof a SelfGuiding Compensatlon Commutator Connection." Iro11 andSree1 Eiigr. 21 (I). 1974. P Charles. 6173." IEE Cot$ Prrbl. "Static VAr Control for the Steel Indusiry. 47 (1978). George and R. Kennedy. Tecll. C. Aoril 1967 "Survey of Arc Furnace Installations on Power Systen~s Resulting Lanll~ and Flicker. April 2224. R. 28. Pioc. 147152 (1973). Robinson. 26. 4047. Electr. H." Paper A78 5902. T. "A Stat~c VAr Compensator for Flicker Control on the Saskatchewan Power Corporation System. Atner. Black and L. 944862. Moran et al. W. 456465 (April 1972). G. M." Iroti and Sleel Engr. Rev. Schwabe. 74. H. 15. J ." AIEE . 3. Sjokvist. March 2224. November 1978. Clegg." AIEE Trarls." Presented to Canadian Electrrcal ." 1EE Cot$ Pribl.. Friedlander. "Large Arc Furnaces and the Effect of Key Dimensions on the Performance of UHP Furnaces. "Selection of Buffer Reactors and Svnchronous Condensers on Power Systems Supplying ArcFurnace Loads. "Supply to Arc Furnaces: Measurement and Predictron of SupplyVoltage Fluctuation. Dixon and P G. "Suppression of Flicker Due to Arc Furnaces hv . 145150 (1951). Heath." Proc. Tech.. Lye. June 1969. J. Motto et al. December 1978. 110." GEC J. 117123. 748805. 25. B. W E. April 1977. G. Bowman. The Big Power Play in Arc Furrlace Steelmaking. C. "The Application of a Series Capacrtor to a Synchro. 1974. "Voltage Dip and SynchronousCondenser Swings Caused by ArcFurnace Loads. Klinger. Electr. Elecrr. Jordan. 3336." AIEE Trans. "Thyrtstor Switched Capacitors for Reactive Power Compensatlon. Herbst. Young. E. 27 E. E. Murotani. Pr." IEE Coilf: P~tbl. "Report on Ultrahigh Power Operairiin of Electric Steel Furnaces. T. 1974. JUIY 1979. Seki. M. 37 38. E. Elecrr. 8790. 4957. Gosselin. C. J. E. 32 (2). "TYCAP. J. 4. P M. 135145." Second International Conference on Magnet Technology. Robinson. UIE/UNIPEDE Survey. Schwabe and C. Reactive Compensation and the Electric Arc Furnace 29. J. April 2224. Brewer. LEE.T h e ~ r sation by Static Means. 7 (77). Gyugyi. PI.." J. and I). "Static Power Factor Compensators for use with Arc Furnaces. h l y 1978. 24. 16. K. D H. Montreal. June 1977. Power Cot$ 10411047 (1975). G. 13. Power Appl... Op. Compen23." Biill. M. 110. Sci. W." ASEA J. "Static Shunt Compensation for Voltage Flicker Reduction and Power Factor Correction. 1964. 5865 (1966).'' Proc. 146150. L. 34. 39. 31. 1957. J. March 27. Cooksley et al. m. August 1978. B. 110. W.." ETZiAi 98. E. 1. G. Internationai Symposium on Electric Arc Furnaces. 49. "Static Compensators of Simplified Construction as a Remedy to Power System Disturbances. 42. 87 (121. Friedlander. January 1979. "UHP. 54 (4). July 1957. 88 (11. References W. Soc. Cooper. Amer. Gerl. IEE. 2. 1974.. 1974. Schwabe and C. "Requirements and Compensatron Methods for Scrap Melting Arc Furnaces." IEE Cor$ Pub/. R. 411414 (1977). Metals. G. 46. Berry et al. "Compensation of Rapidly Vary~ngReactwe Currents." IEE Cot$ Ptrbl. 110. PoTver Appl. F Llscher. 7984 (1965). 0." paper presented to CNBEBrazilian Nattonal CommitteeUIE." Magazine Melals Prod. H. "The Compensation of Voltage Dips and Harmonics at Brrtish Steel Corporation's Anchor Developnlent. 5872. Friedlander. "Flicker Caused by UHP Arc Furnaces Using Scrap and Directly Reduced Matertals..
Chapter 10 HAR A. MOORE . H.
17th and 19th. When two equally rated rectifiers are combined. 18. Voltage and current waveforms for Figure l a a where 1 is the rms value of the fundamental component of the ac line .. Note also that the magnitude of the harmonic current is .. When the pulse number q is used in Equation 4. the resulting system is said to operate "12pulse. the orders of the harmonics may be determined. (a) b H 3 R2 dc wtnding winding R2 Transformer dc winding voltages 5 (b) 1 I 7 3 1 4 5 1 3 0. and 24..5 . these alternate pairs of harmonics will cancel in the common source path.. etc. + . + .. with equal line currents.2." or with a pulse number of 12. The current in the secondary or "dc" winding is the same as in Figure 2 c .. four units separated by 15" result in 24pulse operation. Table 1 gives the harmonics for q = 6. This suggests that if the two types of rectifier are paralleled. the order of the harmonic.cs. . An alterand 12 is native transformer connection is shown in Figure I b . 6 IZ FIGURE 2. Additional rectifier units equally phase shifted from one another create other pulse numbers.. sin rtwt + . Fourier analysis of this primary current wave yields the following series of harmonics: The harmonic "spectra" represented by Equations 1 and 2 are identical except that alternate harmonic pairs (5th and 7th. one with a transformer phase shift 30' from the other.+ 7 11 13 2 o? nn. Harmonic Sources . 12.) are negative in Equation 1 while all are positive in Equation 2.. but the 30' phase shift introduced by the deltalwye connection produces the stepped line current waveform of Figure 2d.10. Three units phase shifted from one another by 20' constitute an 18pulse system. 6 2 6 2 4 R3 Current in rectifytng elements Current in dc winding R1 By Fourier analysis the ac waveform of Figure 2c can be decomposed into the following series of harmonic components: sin5wt sin7wt s i n l l w t + sin13wt sin wt . with the primary winding in delta.. . current (equal to 6/n Id).
~ e a d " ' presents curves of harmonic current amplitude versus Xc for various angles of phase retard for harmonics up to the 25th. impedance unbalances. Ehect of phase co~ltrol degrees and that only the following "characteristic" harmonics appear under ideal conditions: (4) I1 = kq i 1 Here. and u can be calculated using the classical equations of Fourier analysis.2. The other two columns list calculated magnitudes for an assumed commutating reactance Xc of 0.. Aluminum potline rectifier systems are always rated to deliver full potline power with one unit out of service. or unequal loadings or phase retard angles in the rectifiers. and overlap. and q is the pulse number.Harmonics TABLE 1 Characteristic AC Supply Line Harmonic Currents in 6. The squarecornered wave shapes of Figure 2 are possible only with idealized zero commutating reactance. The reduction in p further modifies the harmonic amplitudes. 12. The harmonic duty of capacitor banks should always be calculated for projected conditions with the highest degree of unbalance. As well as solid state rectifiers. The current waveforms will be modified by finite amounts of commutating reactance and phase retard. The ac thyris . k is any integer.one for phase retard angle of a = 0' and the other for a = 32'. Under reasonably balanced conditions. Harmonic current magnitudes in percent of the fundamental are tabulated in Table 1. It is not to be inferred from Table 1 that complete harmonic cancelation occurs for the harmonics "eliminated" by higher than 6pulse operation. Harmonic Sources 335 I I I 0 60 120 180 I 240 I 300 I 360 I FIGURE 3. II is the amplitude of the fundamental component. Figure 30 shows how finite commutating reactance results in a gradual rise time and fall time represented by the angle p . The last two columns of Table 1 were taken from the printout of a computer calculation based on the classical equations relating these quantities. if one unit of a 4unit balanced 24pulse rectifier system is removed for service. 18. Under unbalanced conditions.  . For circuits such as those in Figure 1. and 24Pulse Rectifiers 6Pulse Rectifier Harmonic Current 10. harmonic currents are reduced. For e r ample. Magnitudes for other values of X .15 per unit . there are other examples of switching devices that control the power in different types of loads. Controlling the dc voltage by thyristor phase retard delays the time of commutation by the angle a and reduces the commutation angle p (Figure 36). the harmonics will be those of a 12pulse rectifier plus a 6pulse rectifier. With finite "real worlrl" commutating reactance X. These two factors will affect the magnitude and phase angle of each harmonic but the same harmonic orders will prevail.. greater amounts of residual harmonics are produced. residual harmonics are often assumed to be 10 to 20% of the value present in a 6pulse rectifier of the same total rating. The column headed "Theoretical" follows Equation 3. There will always be residual harmonics due to imperfect transformer phase shift.
particularly the 3rd. Spectrum of arc furnace line current during active arcing. rotate against the rotation of the rotor. Continuous operation with excessive harmonic current can lead to increased voltage stress and overtemperature. particularly solidrotor (nonsalientpole) synchronous generators. The damage done by corona produced by excessive peak voltages depends on both the intensity and duration of the corona. where the 5th and 7th harmonics dominate.3. Even so. Figure 4 is a trace of the spectral response measured by means of a FFTcomputing spectrum analyzer in the primary of a furnace transformer while the arc is boring into new scrap (active arcing). It will be noted from that table. Induction motors are much less affected by harmonics than are solidrotor synchronous generators. and the surface of the molten steel is flat. a 10% increase in voltage stress will result in a 7% increase in temperature. 5th. Another potentially troublesome source of harmonics is the magnetizing inrush current of transformers. Positivesequence rectifier 1 (7th. 13th.3. and allowances are made for increases in both the effective voltage and current due to harmonics. and so on. The presence of rotor amortisseur windings greatly alleviates the rotor heating problem. considerable attention is given to harmonics. The frequency range is 0500 Hz and the magnitudes. the harmonics generated by electric arc furnaces are unpredictable because of the cyclebycycle variation of the arc. The resulting pulsating magnetic field caused by the oppositely rotating pairs of magnetomotive forces sets up localized heating in the rotor which may require a derating of the machine. particularly when boring into new. which was for selected maximum arc activity periods of five consecutive 5cycle periods. and that even harmonics are present. reducing the life expectancy to 30%. harmonic measurements have shown that integerorder harmonic frequencies. as well as a high threshold of noninteger orders. However. and inverters are among the less common solidstate power converters found in power systems in large sizes. etc. Derating for balanced 12pulse rectifier operation is generally minimal. l i t h . We have already seen in Chapter 5 an example of the harmonics generated by thyristorcontrolled reactors. when the arc is steady. are seen. 12. Later. Cycloconverters. depending on the particular machine design. excessive harmonic currents can  + .11 rotate harmonics [following the equation ri = k g forwards and cause harmonic orders 6. even harmonics are included because of asymmetry. Those harmonics following the equation n = kg . Effect of Harmonics on Electrical Equipment 337 tor controller described in Chapters 5 and 6 is used for heating control in furnaces and other types of resistive loads.as a result of inadequate provision for harmonic voltages. in the rotor. adding to the heating. can be considerable. unlike the harmonics from rectifiers.I (5th. scrap. In these standards. Distinct lines for integer orders. and so on. although they persist only for a short time (up to a second or two for large transformers). Blown capacitor fuses or failed capacitors in power capacitor banks are often the first evidence of excessive ac harmonic levels.336 Harmonics 10. There have been numerous cases of premature failure . This "life" analysis does not allow for capacitor failure initiated by dielectric corona.I1980 and NEMA CP11973 cover the characteristics of shunt power capacitors. and these all contribute harmonics in varying degrees. the harmonic magnitudes decrease considerably and the even harmonics virtually disappear. which can be calculated from periodic waveforms. Fourier analysis of typical magnetic tape recordings taken of arc furnace currents yielded the harmonic percentages in Table 1 of Chapter 9. 10. Typically. etc. Unlike the harmonics of static power converters (such as rectifiers).) are negative sequence. Harmonic currents produce a magnetomotive force that causes currents to flow in the solid rotor surface. The arc current is nonperiodic. and that the amplitude of the harmonics decreases with order. and 7th. narmonic currents can cause overheating of rotating machinery. . The derating for 6pulse operation. ANSI Standard C55. and again produce harmonic orders 6. Second and fourth order harmonics can be particularly high and need to be considered when designing filters. in the rotor. EFFECT OF HARMONICS ON ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FIGURE 4. displayed on a logarithmic scale. 12. that low order harmonics prevail. are peaks averaged over several seconds. frequency converters. predominate over the noninteger ones. and can shorten the life of capacitors.in the order of months rather than years . However. The harmonic magnitudes can be very large. and analysis reveals a continuous spectrum of harmonic frequencies of both integer and noninteger orders. In most cases the harmonic magnitudes just reported would not by themselves be troublesome to power systems were it not for the possibility of their amplification by resonance of the power capacitors almost always associated with the inherently low powerfactor arc furnaces.
Harmonics "injected" into the system at coincident frequencies will be amplified. especially when they are connected into systems where capacitors in resonance with the system are aggravating one or more harmonics. The impedance of the capacitor branch at any frequency is given by Z f = Zrc+ (6) where Za is the impedance of the capacitor and Zfl is the impedance of the tuning reactor. and Filters overheat induction motors. of Harmonics I Harmonic Source I supply I Capacitor or Filter RESONANCE.0 so that the harmonic current "escaping" into the supply is reduced or eliminated. the system is resonant at that frequency. the oneline diagram of Figure 5 0 may be represented on a perphase basis by Figure 5 b .. all the harmonic current generated enters the filter. The amount of the increase depends on the proportion of I'R loss proportional to frequency squared (eddy current loss). l'he function of the tuning reactor shown in series with the capacjtor in Figure 5 0 is to form a seriesresonant branch or filter. designers of reactors need to know the amount and order of each significant harmonic so that thev can apply the proper factor for 12R loss contributed by the fundamehta~ and each contributing harmonic. each of which can be calculated by Fourier analysis or determined by test. for which Z. In partici~iar if Zr f Z. must be kept low at these frequencies. 0 at some harmonic frequency. As a result. The typical harmonic source may be assumed to be a generator of constant harmonic currents in.04 MVAr T7 and . .g. This being the case. In other wards. It is clearly important to avoid this condition at harmonic frequencies near those excited by the harmonic source. The harmonic current in divides between the capacitor and the supply in proportion to the admittances of these parallel branches. that is. . As a result. Resonance. To illustrate the principles of harmonic current flow and resonance. there will be one or more frequencies at which the capacitors will be in parallel resonance with the inductance of the system. p . Shunt Capacitors. is large at a particular harmonic frequency coincident with one of the harmonics generated by the harmonic sources. AND FILTERS When static power capacitors are added to a power system for reactive power compensation. The subscript "f" alludes to the filtering action of the capacitor branch. then amplification of the harmonic current will occur and the currents in the capacitor and the supply may be excessive. reference is made to the network in Figure 5 0 . is the equivalent impedance of transformer shown in Figure 501. . Assume that the stepdown transformer impedance is much greater than the source impedance so that for a narrow range of frequencies the a~proximation Xs/Rs = constant may be used. SHUNT CAPACITORS. and the amount proportional to the first power of frequency (stray load loss) The same is true of currentlimiting or tuning reactors. (5) in = is.8 kV Short circuit MVA = 476 Capacitor reactive power = 19. If 2 .0 at the resonant frequency (e.338 Harmonics Supply 10. while pr + 1 so that ifn = in. then the supply (including the sl~pply If the distribution fictor p. .4. the 5th harmonic). Harmonic currents carried by transformers will increase the load ( I ' R ) loss by a factor greater than the mere increase in rms current. 4 if. Parameters assumed ore:  Bus voltage = 13. The harmonic current in divides between the capacitor and the supply according to the equation . A numerical example shows how these relationships can be used to explore the performance of an untuned capacitor and a tuned capacitor filter. p. if fitted (discussed later).
If a tuning reactor xrltsadded to the capacitor to form a series 5thharmonic filter.5). For this reason. There is a parallel resonance between the capacitor and the supply at the 5th har. a highpass filter may be required in parallel with the 5th harmonic filter (see Section 10. Figure 7 shows a hypothetical H a r m o m Order. with the tuning reactor. about 3. The equation for pf now becomes Figure 6b shows the response in terms of p f and p. n (a) xfl=xi.340 Harmonics Since inductive reactance is proportional to frequency. = pr. and if the resistance of the reactor is considered negligible in comparison with the system resistance.0. It can be seen in Figure 6 that at high frequencies the tuning reactor reduces the ratio pi/ps as compared with the value obtained without it. n . Note that pi = ! at the 5th harmonic ( p s = 0). = W2 . note p. Harmon~c Order. monic. we have and In Figure 6a pf and p . and pi is a maximum (parallel resonance) at a iower harmonic order..4 Ohm lo 25  . are plotted against the harmonic order n . then at 60 Hz.54. More complex systems can be solved by the use of "harmonic loadflow" programs on the digital computer. and capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to frequency.
For capacitor C1 the two peaks are at 268 Hz and 350 Hz. Without going into the details of an extensive network. as a function of frequency with and without the sendingend transformer.== I./Zo) sinh I'a + cosh T a + % (1 1) This demonstrates how a change in the system configuration . we can explore an example of a more complex frequency response in terms of a long transmission line. 60 f0. Hz FIGURE 8. Resonance. If the circuit breaker to transformer T2 is opened.even on another bus . the presence of capacitor C2 on bus 2 alters the harmonic impedance of the system upstream of transformer T I . Rectifier at bus 1 produces harmonics 1. From Equation 2 of Chapter 2. Z..4. The dual resonant peaks are caused by the. if the line resistance is included. Figure 8 shows p f l and pr:! calculated by a harmonic loadflow program. Effect of harmonics on transmission line 100mi section of 500kV transmission line similar to those studied earlier (see Table 3 in Chapter 2). 1 and 2. Hypothetical electrochemical plant illustrating the use of the harmonic loadflow program. Harmonic loadflow for circuit of Figure 7 FIGURE 7. and FiIters Infinite Bus &J 50 MVA xT=O. Figures 10a and b show the magnitude Z.. Because of the distributed nature of its parameters.10. z. Figure 9 shows an example of a where Zo = [ ( r jwl) ( g j w c ) ] " is the characteristic impedance at the harmonic frequency w. and L .1 + 0. Z. A source of harmonic currents is shown on bus 1. is the impedance of the transformer at the sending end. because of interconnections. there will be a single resonant peak at f = FIGURE 9. This is a condition to be avoided. For each harmonic frequency the proportion of the total harmonic current that flows into each capacitor can be determined in terms of distribution factors p n and p f 2 Likewise the proportion entering the supply is determined by p.0333 3'333 = 300 Hz. cosh I'a + Zo sinh I'a (Z.can affect parallel resonance. + + . it can be shown that the drivingpoint impedance per phase at the sending end is given by V. The poles in particular represent paralleltype resonances in which large circulating currents form standing waves along the line. the long line behaves like a ladder network containing a large number of inductive and capacitive reactances. but the basic equations are simple enough to be developed in closed form. MVA industrial plant with two main busses. presence of two LC circuits. As the frequency is increased.. I' is given by Equation 1 in Chapter 2.' &J S MVA O ?n pu T2TXT=o'1 Pu Frequency. In effect. The remaining symbols are the same as in Chapter 2. a series of alternate poles and zeroes are met. and it is important to study the harmonic characteristics of such systems whenever reactive compensation is applied. Shunt Capacitors. The frequency responses that are met in practice are often more complicated than the examples just described. is the impedance per phase at the receiving end.
The complex impedance locus passes essentially through zero at the tuned frequencies of 300 and 420 Hz. An example of the response of a typical filter system is shown in Figure 12. is excessive. Driv~ngpoint impedance of transmiss~oil line ( o f Without transformer. in terms of the magnitude and phase of the admittance or impedance. Figure I l b shows a system of multiple filters tuned to different frequencies. The single tuned filter has been used successfully in many industrial plants. "Harmonic load flow" computer programs are often used to model the response of the entire network including filters and harmonic sources. These calculations take into account the variation of the impedances in the system with frequency. it is often difficult to avoid resonance or nearresonance at a dominant harmonic. Filters may also be required if the harmonic outflow.10. FIGURE 10. plotted or tabulated against frequency. These plants usually take advantage of multi I (aJ 5th 7th 11th (bJ 13th High Pass FIGURE 11. versus hequency. The filter response can be represented in other ways. This is for a parallel combination of two filters tuned to the 5th and 7th harmonics.5. for example.5. Typical shunt filter. Filter Systems 345 10. the small offset being mainly due to the resistance of the tuning reactors. notably in electrochemical installations such as aluminum smelters and chlorinecaustic plants where large rectifier systems are employed for electrolysis of the product. The distribution factors p f and p . Figure l l a shows a simple example of a singlefrequency tuned filter having a very high admittance at its tuned frequency. FILTER SUSTE PI Ohm lzl Ohm Where shunt capacitors are applied for powerfactor improvement in systems with large harmonicproducing loads. ( b ) With transformer. ( b ) Bank of tuned fillers with Ii~ghpass filter. . even without the amplifying effect of resonance. may also be used. (a)Tuned filter. The solution often is to create a filter system consisting of one or more capacitor banks equipped with series tuning reactors.
approaches the rather high value of 0. Harnlonic distribution facior p5 for I t h i 7 t h / l l t h / h ~ g h .25.x 2 D. n FIGURE 13. the strong 4th harmonic in the magnetizing inrush of a large transformer on the bus can excite high peak 4th harmonic voltages.5. for a range of harmonics from the third to the 34th. The result is plotted in Figure 13. o 1 . X Ohm  A harmonic loadflow digital computer program was used to calculate harmonic current into the system in terms of the magnitude p . Filter impedance a s a function of frequency. but at higher harmonics p . multiple filters such as that in Figure 9 b may be required. with R = X o / 2 . The fundamentalfrequency reactive power of the 5th harmonic capacitor bank was 40% greater than for either the 7th or l l t h harmonic filter. The best filtering of higherorder harmonics is obtained in case C.. in which overall pulse numbers of 24 or greater are achieved by phaseshifting building blocks of 6pulse rectifiers. Ohm d m . For example. R = (shunting resistor absent) . the following assumptions were made: 1. X Ohm Four different values of resistance were investigated: A. parallel resonance with the system at any rectifier harmonic is avoided since p. but at the expense of poorer filtering of harmonic orders 11 through 2 3 Cases A and B. Filter S y s t e m s 347 2. R = . The 13th harmonic filter was eliminated and the 11th harmonic filter was converted into a highpass filter by means of a resistor shunting the reactor. By tuning the capacitor bank to a harmonic at or near the 5th (the lowest characteristic harmonic of a 6pulse rectifier). R =xo = B. The sharpest filtering of the l l t h harmonic was obtained in case D (with no shunt resistor). ple phasing. where X o = R. It is important that the resultant parallel resonance of the filter with the system reactance not be at a harmonic which will be encountered during operation of the system. with R = X . Harmonic Order. if resonance should be at or very close to the 4th harmonic.Harmonics 10. FIGURE 12. To demonstrate the performance of this type of filter.p a s s filter . will be less than unity for all frequencies above the filter tuned frequency. . It has already been pointed out in connection with Figure 6 that where the single tuned filter provides insufficient filtering above its tuned frequency. R 2x0 O . h i o C.
348
Harmonics
10.6.
Telephone Interference
339
and R = 2Xo respectively, give filtering characteristics between the preceding two limits. i n a practical case the resistance shunting the tuning reactor would typically be chosen in this range. as giving the best compromise between the higher and lowerorder harmonics. Harmonic Voltage Distortion. Harmonic currents flowing into a system will produce harmonic voltages, with each harmonic voltage following the equation
the sum of squares (RSS) of all the individual frequency I. T products including the fundamental. Similarly the influence of a complete voltage wave is the RSS of all the individual kV, T products. The TIFfactors take into account: 1. The relative subjective effect of frequency f i n the message circuit as heard in the telephone 2. Coupling between the power and telephone circuits which is assumed to be directly proportional to frequency f , The first item, called Cmessage weighting for the latest BTS telephone sets (500 type), is the interfering effect at frequency f relative to 1000 Hz as determined by subjective tests.
v n= ZnI,,
(12)
where I, is the harmonic current into the system and Z n is the harmonic drivingpoint impedance of the system. A measure of the deviation from a sinusoidal voltage wave may be made by calculating the socalled voltage distortion factor according to the following equation:
IEEE Standard 5191981 suggests permissible upper limits for the voltage distortion factor. It must be pointed out, however, that these limits are not absolute and that a particular power system might be especially sensitive to a certain harmonic or range of harmonics. In some systems, telephone interference may be detectable even though the voltage distortion factor is less than the upper limit.
10.6.
TELEPHONE INTERFERENCE
Noise originating from harmonic currents and voltages in power systems can be coupled into wire communication circuits through magnetic and electrostatic fields. Weighting factors have been developed to compare the relative effectiveness of different frequencies in interfering with teiephone conversations. The response of the telephone receiver. the coupling between power and telephone circuits, as well as the sensitivity of the human ear to varying frequencies enter into the weighting factors. In the United States, the Joint Subcommittee for Development and Research, Edison Electric Institute, and Bell Telephone System, has established a system of weighting characteristics called TIF factors. The contribution of each individual harmonic current or voltage of a disturbing power circuit is the product of the current or voltage and the weighting value for that frequency. For current, it is designated I.T; for voltage it is kV,T. The influence of a complete current wave is the square root of
where Pi is the relative interfering effect at f with Pf equal to 1 at 1000 HZ. Thus, TIFlooo= 5 x 1 x 1000 = 5000. Figure 14 displays in graphical form the latest (1960) TIF Factors. Because the Cmessage weighting is largely controlled by the characteristics of the listeners, it is unlikely that any major reevaluation of TIF will be required in the future. Measurement of current or voltage TIF can be made in several ways. Certain instruments can be used to measure TIF directly. For example, a Western Electric 106A current coupling unit connected to a Western Electric 3A Noise Measuring Set will yield the current TIF directly. The 3A setincludes a Cmessage weighting network while the coupler introduces the multiplier for f. Similarly voltage TIFcan be measured by substituting a voltage TIF coupling unit for the current coupler. Another method is to measure harmonic current or voltage with one of the various harmonic analyzers now available and multiply each harmonic magnitude so derived by the appropriate single frequency TIF factor (see
FIGURE 14. Telephone influence iactor weighting curve
350
Harmonics
References
351
Figure 14). From these values the I. T or kV. T of the complete current or voltage wave can be calculated as
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. E. W Klmbark, Drrec! C~rrretitTrarrur~rssrorr. Vol. I, Chap. 8, Wiley, New Yoih, 1971. J. C. Read. "The Calculation of Rectifier and Inverter Performance CharaLteristlcs," J. IEE. 92, pt. 2, 495509. (1945) J. H. Galloway, "Harmonic Llne Currents In Large Thyristor SixPulse Converters," IEEE Ittdtrstry App. Soc. 8th A n m ilftg. Record. 753759 (Oct.1973).
where
I/. T f = single frequency I. T product k V f 7 single frequency kV. T product = Tf = corresponding single frequency TIF from Figure 14 or a table of such factors. Whether a certain value of I. T product or kV, T product will actually interfere with a voice communication system is dependent on a number of factors relating to the physical interaction of the power system and the communication system. The complete story of "Inductive Coordination" between the power system and the voice communication circuit is beyond the scope of this cha~ter.but is adequately covered in the references. However, a few . . comments are worthy of note.
H. A. Gauper, "Regulat~ng and Industrral Aspects of Power Conversion Interference," IEEE Indtstr. Statrc Power Con~wstoriCot$ Rec., Cat. No. 34C20, pp 1091 11 (1965). 5. W, C. Ball and C. K. Poarch. "Telephone Influence Factor (TIF) and its Measurement," AIEE Trans. 79, pt. 11, 659664 (Jan. 1961) 6. Ltrlrrisfor Harorontcs ut llte United Katgdonr Ekctrrctp S~tppk S~~stenr. ten1 Design and Sys Development Committee. The Eiectr~atyCouncil (Britain), Recommendation G5i3, Sept. 1976. 7. W. G . Sherman, "Summation of Harmonics w ~ t hRandom Phase Angles," /',or. IEE 119, 16431648 (Nov. 19723. 8. N. B. Rowe, "The Summations of RandonllyVarying Phasors or Vectors wrth Particular Reference to Harmonic Levels." I E E Corg P~tbl.110, 177181 (April 1974) 9. R. D. Evans, "Harmonics and Load Balance of Multiphase Rectifiers," Tra11.5.. AIEE 62, 182187 (1943). 10. G ...I Brewer. "A Simple Method for Estimat~ngHarmonic Filter Performance." IEE Gonf: Ptrbl. 110, 162167 (April 1974).
11.
12. 13. 14.
1. Except for very close separations of these circuits such as joint use of poles, induced voltages by current TIF are more important than electric field induction by voltage TIF. 2, Induced voltage is essentially longitudinal, and is due chiefly to residual (zerosequence) current in the power line. If the harmonic currents were either positive sequence or negative sequence as from 6pulse rectifier modules, and the power circuit was perfectly balanced. essentially no residual harmonic current would flow and TIF would be minimal. 3. The unbalanced impedances of ac lines convert a part of the balanced harmonics to zero sequence which are residual as seen by the voice communication circuit. 4. A highvoltage power transmission network may be converted to a lowervoltage subtransmission network via a power transformer. Noise coupled to the lowervoltage network may be troublesome to a voice communication circuit sharing the same poles as the subtransmission network. 5. It is difficult to assign definite limits on I.T or kV. T products because of these and other variables.
D, E. Steeper and R. P Stratford, "Reactive Compensation and Harn3onrc Suppression for Industrial Power Systems Using Thyristor Converters," IEEE Tratrs. IA12, 232255 (May 1976). A. H. Moore, "Application of Power Capacitors to Electrochemical Rectifier Systems," IEEE Tram. IA136). 399406 (Sept./Oct. !977). IEEE Gurde for Haniiotirc Corm 01 artd Reactwe Conrpetrsatro~rof Po,oer Corrvette~ IEEE Standard 5191981.
Engineering Reports of the Joint Subcommittee on Development and Researcll of the Edison Electric Institute and the Bell Telephone System, 5 Volumes, July 1026 to January 1943.
Report oti Harmorrtc Distorttoti catrsed bjl Cotrwrter Eqttrpnretrr. British Electrrcity Boards A.C.E. Report No. 15. 1970.
W. L. Kidd and K. J. Duke, "Harmonic Voltage Distortion and Harmonic Currcrlts rn the British Distribution Network, Their Effects and Limitation," IEE Cot$ Pl~bl.110, 228234 (April 19741,
15. 16.
17, 18.
19. 20.
G . Deloux, "International Standardization and Electric Power Supply Network Dlsturbances." IEE Corlf: Pub/. 110, 223227 (April 1974). C. G. Amato, "A Simple and Speedy Method for Determtning the F o u r ~ e r Coefficients of Power Converter Waveforms." IEEE i n d ~ a r rGetr. Appl 4t/t ~ t l t r t t ,ijji~. ~, Rec., 477483, (Oct. 1969). Reprmted in Poner Se~n~corin'lrcror Applicorrotn XI, 4 6 5 0 , IEEE Press, New York, 1972. J. H. Galloway, "Line Current Waveforms and Harmon~csfor a Large hlultipiiase Converter System," IEEE Trans. IA13, 394399 (Sept. 1977). R. P. Stratford, "Analys~s and Control of Harmonic Currents in Systems with Slatic Power Converters," IEEE Tram IA17, 7181 (Jan. 19811,
Chapter 11
In recent years, increased attention has been given to improving power system operation by reduction of fuel consumption, and by better utilization of existing equipment to defer new equipment purchases.(''3' Other related factors influencing utilities are inflation, fuel shortages and price increases, and increased pressures to borrow less money. One approach addressing these concerns is reactive power management. Normally, there are two basic types of reactive power flows of concern in a power system:
1. 2.
Reactive power consumed by loads. Reactive power consumed within the network.
The components which absorb reactive power are generators and synchronous condensers operated with a leading angle, shunt reactors, line and transformer inductances, static reactive power compensators, and loads. Reactive power is generated by generators and synchronous condensers operated with a lagging angle, static capacitors, static compensators, and the capacitance of lines and cables. With all the interaction between system components, a coordinated procedure is needed to control voltage and reactive power flow in such a way as to minimize transmission losses. Optimization computer programs assist in achieving this goal. Reactive power management can be defined as the control of generator voltages, variable transformer tap settings, compensation, and switchable shunt capacitor and reactor banks plus the allocation of new shunt capacitor and reactor banks in a manner that best achieves a reduction in system losses and/or voltage control. Reactive power management by electric utilities, under steadystate and dynamic system conditions, can be subdivided into the following categories:
354
Reactive Power Coordination
11.2.
Reactive Power Management
355
1. 2. 3.
Reactive power planning. System operations planning. Reactive power dispatch and control.
Reactive power planning is concerned with the installation or removal of reactive power equipment in a power system. Typically, this effort is directed at system conditions from several months to several years in the future. System operations planning is concerned with the improvement of operating practices utilizing existing reactive power equipment. This planning is uerformed for system conditions anticipated to occur a few days to a year into the future. Reactive power dispatch and control determines actual equipment operations. The associated analysis is performed seconds to hours prior to its implementation. The term equiprmwt refers to the reactive power compensating devices, as well as the monitoring, control, and communication equipment . required to carry out the realtime dispatching function. Reactive power compensating equipment that may be installed, removed, or controlled, includes: switched shunt capacitors, shunt reactors, series capacitors, static compensators, synchronous condensers, generators, and load tapchanging transformers. The ancillary equipment includes: measuring devices for reactive power, relays, automatic controls (e.g., substation automation), switches and circuit breakers, and communication equipment (e.g., power line carrier).
By observing the relationships between the power system network equations before and after an equipment problem (e.g., contingency or outage), a methodology has been developed for obtaining the sparse factorization of hundreds of buses and hundreds of contingencies by only considering the sparse factors of the base case power system. The set of sparse factors is a byproduct of the power flow solution. A special version of the linear programming simplex algorithm was developed to accommodate this new formulation. The new algorithm exploits the special block diagonal structure of the problem as well as some special properties of the solution process. The formulation has been successfully applied to a 600 bus system and 285 contingencies. The following topics present an overview of reactive power management in operations. 11.2.1. Utility Objectives
The utility objectives for each management category are twofold: 1. 2. Security. Economics.
11.2.
REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT
Reactive power planning is an integral function of reactive power management. The planning problem is mathematically large (considering economics and security) and has not been solved satisfactorily to date for large systems (e.g., 500 buses, 100 contingencies). Research and development is presently underway to solve the size problem and is explained in this chapter. The objective in reactive power planning is to minimize the cost of necessary reactive power equipment to enable the power system to operate in an acceptable manner in the event of any one of a collection of contingencies occurring. This problem involves determining both the optimal installation of reactive support which satisfies every contingency in a simultaneous manner and the individual dispatches of the reactive support. The purpose of adding new reactive power devices is to control the postcontingency voltage variation.
In the past, the reactions of utilities to reactive power and voltage problems have usually been prompted by a security problem. A power system is stated to be secure if it is able to undergo a disturbance without violating any of its load and operating limits. In practice, the degree of security that can be planned into a power system is limited by economic considerations. Both planning and operations must maintain security while maximizing economy. Economics includes the evaluation of alternatives based on a comparison of total benefit to total cost. In both planning and operations. reactive power management can enhance both the economy and the security of the power system. 11.2.2. Utility Practices
Tne main simulation programs utilities use in planning (reactive power and system operations) are the power flow and transient stability programs. At the present, considerable engineering judgement and trialanderror is necessary to plan a power system for satisfactory reactive power flows and voltage profiles. It has been the practice of utilities to monitor voltage at key locations in their systems. This information, combined with offline analysis, has provided guidelines for system operators to control voltages and reactive power flows.
During the optimization.g. the Lagrange multipliers are either computed directly (e. 356 Reactive Power Management Reactive Power Coordination 357 In general. Once the gradient direction Vf is determined. then a search IS made between 0 and c. 2. Iterations are performed in the power flow routine to balance the power equations (iteration 1 of Figure l). In order to understand Figure I.11.g. In a specific application.2. a power flow is calculated and the process terminates.. Mathematical Modeling The major tool. Economic incentives. System operations planning example . 11.. The nonlinear nature of the problem requires an iterative process and careful "tuning" may be required to approach the optimum in an efficient manner.uI=0 I FIGURE 1. There are many techniques for making the calculations indicated by the blocks in Figure 1.. Lagrangian multipliers X are found to help compute the gradient direction.2. If any of the foregoing items are not met. reactive power management has suffered due to the lack of the following: 1. Depending on the power flow technique used. and all limits (constraints) are met. For example. because of higher fuel costs and because of financial and regulatory impediments to the installation of new equipment. the step length (or step size) must be found for updating the control variable settings: The first constraint encountered determines the value c. 4. If the objective function has not decreased. Knowledge and understanding by the industry. Optimal power flow algorithm (reduced gradientlsteepest descent). I) I SOLUTION ALGORITHM ASSUME 1 POWER FLOW LAGRANGIAN MULTIPLIER 1 P START ITERATION A I ITERATION GRADIENT (DIRECTION1 I I I i I ITERATION I I I 1I OPTIMIZATION l 2 POWER FLOW g(x. the fast decoupled technique can be used for the power flow routine. In the optimization routine. More attention is now being given to reactive power management. transmission system losses can be minimized by interactively adjusting selected voltages and load tapchanging (LTC) taps. Newton power flow) or solved iteratively (e. The goal (or objective) is the minimization of some nonlinear objective function (such as transmission system losses) subject to nonlinear equality and inequality constraints or limits. to determine the minimum value of the objective function along the gradient.. the terminal voltages of generators) are found and the process is repeated until the objective function f is minimized. Realtime data. and a reduced gradientlsteepest descent technique for the optimization.g.. an opti~nization routine is added to the end of the power flow routine.. the gradient is small. 3.3. Next.. FIGURE 2. Computer program availability. The control variables are then modified and convergence is tested. Optimal power flow theory for power system work was originally formulated in 1962(14' and has been refined substantially since that Figure 1 shows a flow chart of an optimal power flow algorithm. the process repeats. new values for the control variables (e.. a sample threebus system is used to illustrate the calculation steps for system operations planning (see Figures 2 and 3). used for a reactive power dispatching strategy is an optimal power flow program. fast decoupled power flow).
This condition can be alleviated by reactive power dispatching. thus having greater reactive reserves available for system 'conditions which require sudden reactive demand increases. A reactive power dispatch assumes that real power has been dispatched and will remain fixed throughout the optimization procedure. Voltage can vary considerably from location to location. with due regard to the maintenance of correct voltage levels. involving a sequence of sparse. A new algorithm is presently being developed for solving the optimal power flow problem.11. (dl Improved system securiiy. The algorithm is of the projected Lagrangian type.) (cl Better voltage control. reactive power generating capacity is not fully utilized when operators maintain margins near rotor or stator current limits to avoid overloads caused by system voltage fluctuations. (a) Cost savirrgs due to reduced system losses. Transmission Benefits The application of a reactive power dispatching strategy to improve power system operation has many identified benefits to an electric utility. Therefore system operating costs decrease. . the substantial increase in loading of already heavily loaded EHV lines. (f) hnproved system operot~on. Unloading allows higher real power capability which allows increased interchange transfer capability. Interchange transactions are big business for utilities. linearly constrained subproblems whose objective functions include a modified Lagrangian term and a modified Quadratic penalty function. (Although voltage profile is a valuable indicator of system conditions. Also. Some of these benefits are now discussed. would generally cause the greatest increase in system reactive demand. The primary responsibility of system operators is supervision of real power generation and active power and reactive power flows in the system. Investments in communication equipment and metering equipment are necessary to fully achieve this benefit. This is Important because the voltage profile is a measure of the flow of reactive power in a power system. A global voltage control strategy encompassing the entire system is used. so reactive power dispatching is attractive as a means of facilitating such transactions. either too many transformer tap adjustments are FIGURE 3. References 1721 are recommended for further reading into the area of optimization in power systems for reactive power management. Reduction in total system losses has the benefit of lowering generator fue! cost. The development of a securityconstrained optimal flow.2. Transmission equipment loading decreases due to reduced reactive power flow. reactive power absorbing capacity may not be fully utilized because of margins maintained for stability reasons or to avoid overheating of the coreends of generator stators. Note that the slack bus real power will decrease due to a reduction in total system losses. which computes in less than 5 min. Better voltage control is possible on a systemwide basis. 11. Researchers are presently trying to solve this problem. Since the real power of generators must supply the system loads and losses. Power system model.4. Power system security is improved through better utilization of reactive resources. fuel cost will decrease when system losses decrease. which can result in uneconomical operation. The application of an optimal power flow program for reactive power dispatch and control in real time is presently in its infancy. The program has been successfully applied to a large power system (600 buses). (e) bnpro ved Ititerchatzge tranger capabiiity. The general voltage profile is lmproved by flattening and increasing the nominai voltage value.2. Operators sometimes tend to maintain high reactive power reserves. Although many different conditions can cause a sudden increase in system reactive demand. it does not by itself show the system reactive reserves which are available in a disturbance. following the tripping of another EHV line. is required. especially if they can be performed with no major equipment purchases. compared with the present local voltage control strategy. 355 Reactive Power Coordination Reactive Power Management 359 Reactive power dispatching in system operations planning is the ability to minimize the total power system losses by adjusting parameters in the power system while staying within equipment limits (see Figure 3). For example. Again. (b) Improved voltage proljle.
The process can be automated and integrated with dispatching procedures presently used at dispatching centers. A reactive power dispatching strategy can give an operator improved guidelines for reactive power flows. How does reactive power dispatching affect present equipment? What future impact could reactive power dispatching have on present equipment. and monitoring throughout the power system to determine the status of critical parameters. The system operator can monitor the present status and make any necessary adjustments. April 1976. real and imaginary components of load. possibly. but a different tapsetting schedule would be needed with rnonlioring of tap position and. Meters for monitoring various parameters (e. Initial studies have shown the potential for reducing fuel costs as well as for improving the management of reactive power reserves. The current tapchanging procedure Electric utilities are increasingly interested in maximizing the utilization of existing transmission equipment. therefore. A faster cycling transformer tapchanging mechanism may be required to assist with voltage control to high voltage levels.1 1% reduction in real power generation.g. Reactive power dispatching and optima1 management provides electric utilities with an opportunity to take a further step in that direction. and an estimated 4. would be additional metering. If a faster tapchanging mechanism Is required.) is another aspect to be considered.. a communication scheme is necessary along with equipment that measures the terminal voltages of the generators.6. A. 3336. Happ and K. General Electric has been working with an electric utility since early 1977 to determine operating savings that can be realized when the control parameters are optimally determined.2. Experience with Reactive Power Dispatch The work that has been done to date in applying the optimal power flow theory to power system problems has been relatively limited. To make adjustments from a remote control center. and either additional or supplemental communications systems for handling increased metering data. "Minrn~lzatlon of VAR Allocat~onfor System Planning. REFERENCES Reactive Power Planning. and the tapchanging settings of LTC transformers. An initial computer study was executed for a system peak load condition to estimate possible savings.3%. switchable capacitor and reactor banks. A scheme could also include the system operator in the control loop. This is required to build an online digital model of the power system. It may be possible to use present communication equipment to perform monitoring and adjustments. The controlling parameters on a power system for reactive power dispatch are: the terminal voltage of generators. local voltage. A 2. terminal voltage on various key buses. (b) Possible impact otz future eqtriptnent and tzew hardware. 2. the procedure remains the same. and voltage control. static compensator control settings. Equipment Impact Reactive power dispatching requires adjustment of control settings on several power system equipments.. etc.360 Reactive Power Coordination References 361 made (decreasin~gmechanism life) or too few adjustments occur (causing uneconomical reactive power flows). and a time clock scheme as described above would have to be implemented involving the system operator in the control loop. . The major impact on present equipment. voltage) may have to be designed with greater accuracy. for transformers involves either a time clock or automatic circuitry to hold constant voltage on a busbar in the local vicinity of the transformer.3 MW out of I85 MW) could be achieved by coordinating LTC transformer tap settings with the terminal voltages on thermal generators. H. This may require purchasing additional meters and possibly supplementing or adding to the communications system in place. 1. Wirgau.2. The 8." IEEE Milwaukee Symposlurn o n A u t o m a t ~ c Computations and Control. 11. 11. Metering power system data (e.3MW reduction in total system losses represents a 0. H.4 MW out of 185 MW) was found possible if only the terminal voltages of thermal generators were adjusted. or what new equipment may be required? CONCLUSIONS (a) Impact ori present eqriipmetzt. The resulting decrease in operating costs can be as high as 0. new contact material will probably be developed to handle increased tapchanging duty. It tap changing is done by time clock. 11.48 reduction in total system losses (4.g.3.5OIo reduction in total system losses (8. The excitation system of thermal generators should be investigated for possible improvements to adjust voltage. Additional metering points may be needed to simulate the power system for reactive power dispatching. The automatic scheme would have to be deactivated if taps are to be used for optimizing. Two questions must be addressed: 1.5. reserve level.
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Second International Conference on Magnet Technology. Becker. Schweickardt. Geir.. Power Appar. 12." EPRI Seminar. 1978. Engberg. "The Statrc Var Source in EHV Transmission Systems and its Control. C. H. "How to improve System Stability Without Risking Subsynchronous Resonance." IEE CorE/ererice Pzrblica!iort CP107. "Dynamic Stability of Long Transnlission Systems with Static Compensators and Synchronous Machines. "Static Var Conipensator with Continuously Variable Output and Mininium NoLoad Losses. E. Boidin.. "Transient Reactance Effects in Stauc Shunt Reactive Compensators for Long AC Lines." IEEE Traris. "Characteristics of Static ThyristorControlled Compensators for Power Transm~ssionSystem Applications. "Modeling of Static Shunt Var Systems (SVS) for System ~nalysis. "Static Var Sources. 242247 (1973) 41. Reichert." ACEC Rev. Sj~st..
F. E. et al. 1942. Power Appar. 261 Air temperature. 323 and TCR." IEEE Tram." Jourrrol AIEE 40. and Nerf. Airblast gap. July 1949. 305 and tapped reactor. 309 electrical characteristics. 300 of load compensation. R. 292 Analysis of arc furnaces. Sysl. A. 259 Apparent power. 95. Elsliger. Z. Friedlander." IEEE Paper A78 1075. A.SjN. P. 55. F. 315 maxmum power. "Static Stability Limits and the Intermediate Condenser Station. H. G. 94. 10. M. and Petersson. 85. DYNAMIC SHUNT COMPENSATION Grund. and Gibley. L. 275." AIEE Tratts. 16.. "The Physics of Long Transmission Lines." IEEE Tram. C. "A New Technology for SeriesCapacitor Protectlon. 310. "LongDistance Power Transmission by Alternating Current. et al." Electrrc F o r ~ m 5(1)." Jour7ial AIEE 43. FahlCn. 304 benefits of compensation. 300 equivalent circuit. "Some Theoretical Considerattons of Power rransmission. "ACIDC System Dynamic Performance . S. 655664 (19751. 9 Capacitance: measurement. 246 Bushing: capacitor... Wagner. E F W . 265 Cabling. 304 operation. 304 PF correction. 182 Arc furnaces.. C. 301 current variations.368 51. Minneapolis.. 316 flicker.." CIGRE 3207 11974).. 1048 of static compensators.. 94123 (1927). A . Rustebakke. 345 Amortisseurs. N. L. Johnson. and Courts. "Voltage Regulation and Insulation for Large Power Long Distance Transmission Systems. 255 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). 309 Braking resistor.. thyristor controller. Miske. "Compensation of LongDistance A. 315 and TSC. 299. 31 J and saturated reactor... G. 6. A. M. 1980. and Tarnawecky. 325 harmonics. Transnlission Lines by Shunt Connected Reactance Controllers. 305 Building. Power Appar. 270. SJN.. Winter Power Meeting. "The Tjse of Series Capac~tors to Obtain Maximum EHV Transnlission Capability. SERIES CAPACITORS Ilaniann. 14931502 (1980). 304.. ofcompensators. New York (1978). 2. "A Zinc Oxide Vanstor Protective System for Series Capacitors.9 5 (1975). 99(4)." Cellera1 Elect~rcrev rev^. 336 indirect compensatton. S.. C.." IEEE T r a m Power rtl~par. 301. Baum. 315 instantaneous compensation. 306 harmonic filters.C. Power Appar.. R." IEEE Tram. Friedlander. Poner Ap[~ar. 321322 Aluminum smelter. C.. 304 Askarel. 274 Bypass switch. Woodford. G . Miske. A. 316 Arc length. I I Application. E. 10901102 (1964). and Wagner. B. R. G.. 309 reactive power demand. 320 reactwe power fluctuations. Jan. Summer Power Meeting. 106113 (1924). D. "Optimization of HydroQuCbec's 735kV DynamicShuntCompensated System Using Static Compensators. 49127 Anode. F." IEEE Trarrs. I. Sysf. Jan. 16691680 (1976). R. 256 synchronous condenser. 323 and synchronous condenser.. 94. Fortescue." IEEE Paper 80SM6940. Selected Bibliography Boyajian.. J. A. 10171032 (1921)." Qiglrieeririg. D. Elsliger. 224 ANSIC 552. and Evans. 225 . 327 power factor. Breuer. 299 arc length. 247 Alexanderson. 0 . "Series Capacitors in Power Systenls. D. SJG~. 185221 of transmission systems. 55 Buffer reactor. Jancke. "Transient Reactance Eirects in Static Shunt Compensators For Long AC Lines.. E. R. 310.267 Boredown. 300 and fixed capacitors. "Transn~ission of 16000 MW Over a Distance of 1200 knl From James Bay to HydroQuibec's Load Centers. 1942. 6.Transient Stability Augmentation with Dynamic Reactive Power Conipensation. 305 control. 91 2 .. R. . 1522. 9. 84 Algorithmic circuit.. 1942. 1820 (1979).. Jan. 83. Breuer. D.
55. 96* 183 Starting. 120. 120. 270 of power swings. 150. evaporative. 244. 83. 40 INDEX Control: closedloop. 7 dynamic shunt. 203 P F correction. 312 Compensation systems. Compensators. 183. 27 See a h Saturated reactor. 32. 3 15 instantaneous currents. 154. 95 instantaneous. 159 example. 187. 260 Differential Relay. 220 reactive power rating. 320 Conduction angle. 221 prog~ammability. 313 applications. 261 Current limit. 318. 51 types. 220. 23 capacitive. 181. 139 reactive power requirement. 43 desired susceptances. 220 Crltlcal faultclearing time. Y I V See ajso HVDC Deadfront safety barrier. 119. 198200 combined open. 38. 249.370 INDEX partial. 120 equivalent to synchronous machine. 84. 31 I . 323 inductive and capacitive. 238 of T C R transformer. 267 of synchronous condenser. 5 1 and arc furnace. 200 loadcycle. 8 1 see also Compensator Compensation factor. see Series capacitor shunt. 202 in TCR. 5. 54. 219. TCR. 257 See alro Compensation. 3 15 linelength. functions. 55. 144 Cmessage weighting. 318. 325 near HVDC terminal. Synchronous condenser. 85 distributed series. 21 1 and T C R . 149 hybrid. 62. 161 of series capacitor. 215 stray.and closedloop. 234. 27 See also V/1 characteristic Control law. 220 constant supply voltage. 27 harmonics. 1 location of. 84. 257. 85. 238 liquid. 94 requirement. 228 Capacitor: bushings. 189. 97. 10. 166. 23 classification. 263 C~cloconverter. 13 prices. 96 amplification of flicker. 8 1 virtuale. 84 of unbalanced load. 196 of TCR. 88. Static compensator. 221 saturated reactor. 301 of synchronous condenser. 10 voltage regulator. 13 and reactive power requirements. 140 theory. 256 roll. 12. 285 of TCR. 256 mechanically switched. 45 Determining tnterval. 25 degree of series. see Surge impedance Charging current. 119127 effect of voltage variations. 243 of th~ristor controller. 250 operating times. 40 instantaneous voltage. 349 Commutating reactance. 7 by sectioning. 257 Current profile. 195 ideal. 85 midpoint. 182 of compensator. 83. 38 See also TCR. 320 di/dt Iimitation. 120 functions. 247 reactive power capability. 187 Control system: of arc furnace. 266 . 84. 4043 dynamic working. 244 unit. 305 benefits to load. 277 midpoint. characteristic. magnetic. 224 C C P . see P C C Cell. 320 Computer simulation. 248 Currentlim~ting fuses. 22 Characteristic harmonics. rectifier. 138. 245 Dielectrtc. 161168 Condenser. see Capacitor. 167 C T (Current Transformer). 12. 8 1 switched shunt. 221 active. 8384 comparison of types. 271 negative. 40. 248 openloop. 182 bias. 103 development. 220 rotating inertia. 241250 speed of response. 133. 268 of thyrtstor controller building. 12. 87. 316 of TSC. 286 of torsional modes. Shunt capacitor for constant voltage. 84. 140 planning. 84. 101. 318. 8385 phasebalancing ability. 36. 96 regulated shunt. 21 overvoltage control.221 Properties of. 18. 38 Sequence networks. 245 switching a discharged. 168169 ~upplementary control. TCR. 120 susceptances of ideal. symmetrical. 86 duty cycle. 5. 262 Discharge Reactor. 315 as voltage regulator. TCT. 336 Damping by excttation control. 255257 Cathode. 100. 197 maximum. 221 passive. 112 degree of shunt. 32 variable reactive power. 9. 152 switched. Shunt reactor. 235 of thyristor switch. 7 dc transmisston. 8 capacitive. 215. 214 sequence components. T S C control. 196. Seealso Shunt capacitor switches. degree of series Compensation ratio. 22 I . 323 control. 27 Components. see Thyrtstor Characteristic: voltage. 47 Compute interval. 32 for unity power factor. 334 Commutating reactor. 246 Discharge Current. 168. 202. 255 Differentla1 CT. 119. 9 of transmission system. 109. Synchronous condenser Conducting interval. 246 Cooling: choice of system. 248. Shunt capacitor. 102 and system dynamics. J 4 5 types. 20 passive shunt. 219. 245 DeltaWye transformation. 86. 176. 204. 3 16319 Converter. 255 series. 289 Cooler. 5 1 principles. 345 Circuit breaker. 18 1 protection. see Shunt capacitor slopecorrection. 13 constantvoltage. reactive power requtremenrs. 285. 8283. See also Transmission line Chlorine plant. 189 Conduction angle calculator. 295 of TCR. 130131 translent response. 159 minimum rating. 19. 85 distributed. 293 Compensation. 246 Core. 195. 55. 290 superconducting. 243245 losses. 197 Construction. 108 shunt. 96. 43 specification. 13 switched shunt. See also Series capacitor. 27 See also V/ I characteristic control principles. 247 Dimensions of series capacitor bank. 253 load. 125 series. 124 response. 221. 23 instantaneous. 13 fixed shunt. 324 Characteristic impedance. 40 loading cycle. 37 rapid response. 196 Control characteristic. 5. 115 nccd for. 271 d c drtves. TSC Compensator model: as variable admtttance. 87 surgetmpedance. 81 Compensator accuracy of compensation. 18. 27 virtualZO. 16. 82. 56. 196. 195. 86 distributed shunt. 182 gain. See also V / l characteristic reactive power.
37 of dynamically compensated line. 345 Firing angle. 60 Inducttoi~ furnace. 348 Effictency. 230. 306 compensation by T C R . 263. 77 reactances. 182. of compensator. 160 Equation. 55 Faults. 213 losses. 147 in TCR. 295 External fuse. 8 Fans. 110 of shuntcompensated line. 345 Hoist. 32. 251. 248 Gating energy. 36 Ideal compensator. 248. 170. 103 of synchronous condenser. 8. See also Flicker Fluid cooling. 32 Load angle. see Formula Equivalent circuit: of arc furnace. 95 H V D C (HighVoltage Direct Current). 213 of transformer. 258 Glycol. 289 damping control. see Losses El Chocon. 218 voltage. I8 natural. 150 overvoltage. 201 telephone interference. by fiber optics. 57. 306 Flickermeter. 8 . 149 Hybrid compensator. see Transmtssion line Linearizing Network. 227 Formula. 4 Friedlander. see Grounding transformer Earthquake.222 converter. 345.216. 192 Harmonic compensated reactor. 194. 8 tungsten filament. 257 Edison Electric Institute. 336 Frequency mult~plier. 249 Light fluctuations. 331 Harmonic voltage distortion factor. 277 trip.309. 284 of synchronous condenser.T Product. 291 Kraft paper. of capacitor bank. 213 Inverse overcurrent relay. 360 effect of reactance on transmission. 96.143. See also Saturated reactor Harmonic distort~on. 248 Ferranti effect. 186 See also Phase retard angle in T C R . 98.ition Liquid cooling. 249 1. 262 capacitance. of sertes capacitor. 85 Distribution factor. 192 Harmonics. 349 Harmomc cancellation. L. 119 Dynamic stabilization. 313 UIE/ UNIPEDE survey. 306 AlEE Survey. see Flicker Lightgated thyristors. 232. 238 Load inductive. mine. 336 effects. 186. 8 Excitation: highceiling. 195 control system. 206 for transientfree switchtng.. 255. 61 Insulator: BIL rating. see Compens. 325. 73 Load balancing. 307 Lightemitting Diodes (LEDs). 289. 241 Junction. 250 Filter: Harmonic analyzer. 301 of compensated load. 13 1 uniform stress. 248 Ground Motion Response Spectrum. t n d u c t ~ o n8. 5 Harmonic distribution factor. 316 Gating control. 97 of seriescompensated line. 214. 9 Equaiarea method. See also Starting Environmental factors. 27 1 Filter systems. 149. 337 even. 248 Excavator. 259 IEEE. 248 Inverter. 132. 262 T C R . 226. 280 Error signal. 65 see also Synchronous machines Grounding transformer. 348 TCR. see Natural load nonsynchronous. 348 Impedance. 176 Flicker. 238 Ltmitcycling. 230. 307 Fluctuations. 228 Interchange transfer. 308 spectral character. 202 Korndorfer method. 255 fnterpolatlng TCR. 192 Gate. 54. 248. 262 Field test: senes capacitor. 171 underexcited.. 323 of TCR. 275 Excitation limit. dc. 5. 315 . 52 Dynamic shunt compensation. Furnace. 210 Gating ctrcuits. 27 of saturated reactor. 17.372 Dtstributed compensation. 14 I Frequency. 348 Heat sink. 76. 246. 248 Knee voltage. see Filter Harmonic loadflow. 326 sensltivlty of human ear. 355 Linelength compensation. 348 tnplen. 337 inductive coordination. 150 and synchronous condenser. 263 Fault level. 4. harmonic. 248 Feedback. 138 load rejection. 337 effects of harmonics on. 54. 257 Eye. 306 Hunting. 4. 284 Drives. 257 external. 218. 136. 203 Hydrogen pressure. 359 internal fuses. 196. 54. see Gating angle Firstswing period. 147 to lighting level. 148. 246 Fast Fourier Transform. 5. 36. 156. 51 Energization. 194. 336 Isolation. 275 Hydro Qubbec. 189. 289 transient response. 273. 199 Gapped core. 204. 226227 Highpass filter. 216 Frequency vartatrons. 255 Kv. 338 subharmonic. 322 compensation strategies. 255 Galn. 95 Line. See also Thyristor Junction temperature. 8. 183. standards for voltage. 257 Fusing. 191. 8. 232 Gating pulse generator. 199 General Electric. 335 of saturated reactor. 33 135 1 arc furnace. See also Arc furnace Fuses: currentlimiting. 338 rectifier. 1 Frequency converters. 202. 306 o n transmission line. 170 see also Stability Insulation: breakdown. 340. Power Systems Engmeering Course. 226. surge. 323 IEC143. 216. 63. 336 Fiber optics. 339 Harmon~c filter. 257 ~nternal. 76 unbalanced. 8. 173. 32 Earthing transformer. 236 harmonic. sensitivity to flicker. 347 Harmonic propagation. 4. 202 F F T (Fast Fourier Transform). 255 voltage rating. 286 phaselead. see F F T Fault cieartng. 27 of 7 C R control. 199 Linear programming. 129.T Product. xiii Generator. 33 1335 residual. Standard 5191981. 3 16 in T S C . E. 32 INDEX Induction motor. 8 fluorescent. 7 Dynamic equivalent.97. 224 Gating: angle. 350 Lamps discharge. 87 Fcrroresonance. 241 Ideal compensating network. 233 Light guides. 255. 189 Harmonic sources. 232. for voltage regulation. 339 Disturbance: large.306. 181. 350 Instability: subharmonic. 350 James Bay. 495 Gyugyi. 308 suppression ratio. 293 and compensator. 326 Frequency tripler. 337 filtration. 95 INDEX air. 310 sensitivity of human eye.
saturated reactor. 84. 246 of thyristors. 98 saturated. 3 of unsymmetrical loads. 32 Overcurrent relay. l 1 maximum transmissible. 150 Load variation. R. 168 and fixed shunt compensation. 152 and series capacitors. saturated reactor compensator. 245 Parameters: of synchronous machines. 295 of TCR. 98 transfer. 264 of series capacitor. 266 Pulse number. 292 . 258 of synchronous condenser. 109 of shunt reactors. 103 Powerfactor angle. 275 coolant. 223 Polypropylene. Locus. 93. properties. 334 Planning. 6. ! 13 of synclironous condenser. 270 Modeling: or loads. 187 Phase retard angle. 2 Qukbec. 214 TCR. 261. 295 Relaying. T C R . 51. 356 Motors: auxiliary. 219." 320 mtegral definition. 235. 326 Metaloxide varistor. 84. 91 effect of T C R compensators.. 55. 353 required for compensation. 38 worked euample. 265. 259 and shunt reactors. of compensator. 97 Radial line. 15 definition. 262 Pacific Intertie. principles. 95. 16. 32 Power swings. 255 Maintenance. 170 Loads requiring compensation. 271 L T C (Load TapChanger). security. 277 in T C R .245 Load line. subharmonic. 250252 PF. 122 of compensated line. 23 capability of compensators. 201 and TSC. 200 definition. 58 PCB. see Askarel P C C (Point of Common Coupling]. 4 Network. of thyristors. 247 inverse overcurrent. 243. S r e also Voltage regulation Reinsertion: instantaneous. 258 Losses: in saturated reactor.INDEX Load compensation. 22 of compensated load. of TCR. 306 Performance testing. 245. of maximum power. 238 Recovery characteristics. 282 and syncl~ronous and TCR. shunt compensation. 63. sixpulse. 109 translent. A. 304 average. 124 in terms of instantaneous quantitte5. 161 with nonsynchronous load. 3 symmetr~cal components. See also Saturated rcactor shunt. 47 of transmission line. 179 Otto. i I Powerfactor correction. 238 Putman. 228 multiple shunt. 270 Negatlve sequence components. 6. 247 Overload capability. effects of. 140. 32 Quality of supply. 97 tapped. 42. 153 Overvoltage protection. 83. 97 switched shunt. 16. 38 Negative sequence currents. 263 Relay: differential. 153. See aiso Ferranti effect Oscillatory Period. 36 Newton power flow. 210 Propagation of harmonics. 24 see also Compensation Load compensator. 120 and translent stability. !1 demand signals. see Varistor Midpoint compensator. 28. 33 1335 twelvepulse. I I Improvement. 9 reasons for. H. 96 requirement of serlescompensated line. 50. 259 of thyristors. 295 underfrequency. 278 of T C R . 245 see also Shunt reactor Recirculated air cooling system. 257. 219 in synchronous condenser. 201. 259. 264 Recovery current. 76 Oncethrough filtered air system. 3 objectives in. 254 Loadflow. 16 of receivingend load. 214. 91 Power factor: of arc furnace. 236 Opencircuit voltage rise. 277 of transmission lines. 74. See also Damping Power transfer characteristic. 22 of compensator. see Transformer Magnification factor. 97 condenser. 209 Magvar capacltor. 245 Parallel connection: of capacitor units. 19. 360 "displacement. 76 of series compensated line. 255 Posltlvesequence components. 82 and saturated reactor. 152. 76 Ramps. 47 bias. 70 Reactive power compensator. 229 Refractory wear rate. 233 Pacific Gas and Electric. 109 . 100 reactance of shunt. 248 Overvoltage. I I I Power system. 18. 354. 247 varistor. 304 Regulation. 354 pn junction. 143. 355. 202 Low cycle fatigue. 203 Mesh tuning reactor. 9 Maximum transmissible power. of T S C capacitors. T C R . 67. see Transient reactance Reactive compensation. 334 of series capacitor. 6 Multiplier. 129. 254 Noise level. 248 lossoffield. see Power factor Phase balancing. 192 Protection: of series capacitor. 219 Nonsynchronous load. 216 Natural load. 60 properties. 228. 157 formula for. twelvepulse Pump: bearing lift. see Compensator Reactive power demand. 61 vlrtual. seriescompensated. 221. fast decoupled. 54. 144 and series capacitor. 7 Reactor: aircored. 333 Redundancy: in cooling system. 148 definltron. 219 see aiso Redundancy Reluctance torque. I5 1 limitation of. 139 See also Loading cycle Load cycle control. 18 Load modeling. 77 Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. 220 characteristics.. 357 Loading cycle. 109. 250 induction. 194 terminal requirements. of loads. 21 Instantaneous. 119 effect of distributed compensation. 32 Phase control. 82. 66 average. 170. 177. 38 dispatch. see Protection Reliability. 337 starts. 248 Reactance: commutating. 22 control of average. T. 110 Mechanically switched capacitors. 38 Power: apparent. 67 Load rejection. 359 Precharging. thyristor controller. 89 linecharging. 8 synchronous. 230 Rectifier: harmonics. 243 Load d~vrsion. 9 of saturated reactor. 152. 147. rectifier. frequency. 91. 357 New York Power and Light. 333. 159 Mode. 170 of reactive power flow. see Compensation Reactwe power: absorption. 318 management. ideal compensating. 257 Panels. 37 specification. 9 Load cycle. See also TCR. 138139 L o c a t ~ o nof series capacltor. 93 Negatlve resistance. timing. 10. See also Overvoltage Overload protectron.
183 Sptnning reserve.376 INDEX Setsmic requirements. 103 swttched. 264 nonselfclearing. 7. 257 dielectrtc. See also Thyristor S C V D (Shortcircuit Voltage Depression). 257 platform power. 177 fault test. 145 Roll. 230. 267 field test. 269 Subharmontc stability. 117 Series compensation. C. 151. 348 of eye to flicker. 152 Sparkover.218. 258 Selfcleartng gap. 217 of TCR. 115 and oscillatory period. 168.193. 120 Suppkmentarp damping controls. 8. 84. 263 resonance effects. 8. 326 kneepoint voltage. 263 thermal analog. 253 Rtmouski. 284.289. TCR. 221 obervoltage. 234. compensator. 306. 146 Sixpulse. 109. 131. 327 midpotnt. 54 steadystate limit. 249. 28 Subharmonic filters. 214 programmability. 338. 218 losses. 306 Segment. 309 Standing waves. 114 signal column. 308 of supply voltage. 95 Stabilizers. dynamic. 265 communtcatton. 263 Sidebands. !52. 2 19 overload capabrltty. 247 ANSI C55. 257 BIL (Bastc lnsulatton Level). 288 In T C R . 215.21970. 35 Sequence network. 269 shunting resistor. 140. 159 Stabilizatton.11980.201. 264 and saturated reactor compensator. 193 transient pertod. capacitor bank. flicker. 52. 173. see Computer stmulation. 284. 156 in transient pertod. TCT. 215 harmonic compensatton. 214. 327. 261 and transtent stability. 255 history. 28 Sequence components. 245 Shortcircuit ievel. 218 damping c~rcuits. 219 response. Transtent stability. 269. 257 Subsynchronous Resonance. 348 NEMA CPI1973. 133 Superconducting compensator. 326 slope correction capacttor. See also Thyristor Stmplex algortthm. 177. 181 future developments. E.. 262 firstswtng period. 179 overload. 15 1 and shunt capacttors. 221 Starttng motor. 168 Supply system voltage charactertstic. 148 switching during transients. 102. 140 and transient stabtlity. 5556. 23 1 losses. 177. 142. 261 fault currents. 108 applications. see Saturated reactor Schwabe. 5556. 152. 220. 259 structure. for voltage fluctuations. 255 discharge reactor. 259 IEC143. 144. 327 Steinmetz. 245. 261. 270 and maxtmum transmissible power. 29 of supply. Saturated r e d ~ t o r . 223. 258 subharmonic oscillatton. 346 parallel. 271 Steel rolling mill. 262 construction. 254 reactance. 255 line current profile. compensator. 265 voltage profile. 262 spark gap. 326 see also Compensator Saturattng reactor. 87. 221 energizatton. 23. 326 twintrrpler. 259 IEEE 5191981. 138 Standards: ANSl C37. 217.. 17 Shunt capacitance. 56. 194. sertes capacitor. 109 load division. 143 and TCR. 18 Supply voltage. 259 . T S C Static excitation. 152 phasebalancing ability. 220 starting. 36 Stiffness: of compensator characteristlc. 75 transtent. 259. 218 Subharmonic mode. 221 of synchronous condenser. sensttivity. 222 properties. 176. 254 midpoint. 13. see Compensat~oit. 28 modification by compensator. 261 Speed of Response. 283 S S R (Subsynchronous Resonance). of saturated reactor. 218. 315. 194 Snubbers. 262 bypass. I76 funtions. 229. 115 Series connection: of capacitor untts. 218 Slope reactance. 13. 27 1 In transient pertod. in rectifiers. 43 Series capacttor. 152. 5556. 176 unit sizes. 253 INDEX degree of. 241 applicattons. 263 and shunt reactor. 53 factors influenctng. 140 wtth series capacitor. 290 of TCR. 304 Saturated Reactor. 103 switched. 254. see T C R Slopecorrectkon capacrtor. 26 1 parallel units. 354 Shunttng resistor. 325. 141 transient pertod.281. 230 Steam turbines. 8 o f saturated reactor. see S S R Subtransient period. ~ Supplementary damptng control Stabilizing circuits. 18 1 for S S R damping. 271 Subharmonic tnstability. 159 Static compensators. 218. 97. 269 Subharmontc resonance. 27 1 corrective measures.220. dynamic. 221 reliabiltty. 354 and arc furnace. 258 rattngs. 262 protection. 152 speed of response. 234 Soft start. W . example. 340 subharmonic. 262 S I L (SurgeImpedance Load). 313 Remote startlstop. 241 Ripple. 255 Rolling mill. P. see Natural loa d Silicon controlled rectifier. 138 in synchronous condenser. 290 Static compensation.241. 221 capactttve bias. 22 1 noise level. 30 Suppression ratio. 2 19. I5 1 trebletrtpler. 221 principle of operation. 315. 188. 109. 271 Stabiltty dynamic. 280 Status lamp. 259 of thyristors. stabilizing influence. 259 phystcal arrangement. 218 slope reactance. 337 ANSl C55.2. 254 internal fuses. 4 Resonance. 355 Simulation. 140. 271 Response: of compensator. 119 Shunt reactor. 223. 228. 271 Signal column. 324. 166167 midpoint. 218. I77 bypass switch.152. 338. 5 of T C R . 269 subsynchronous. 53. 326 V / I characteristics. see Saturated reactor Sensttivity of ear to harmonics. 7 Spark gap. 305. 306. 108. 327 spark gap. 219 flux and current waveforms. 143 Shunt compensation. 53. I 1 0 mtdpoint. 8284. 163. T N A Stmulator study. 327 RWI (Refractory Wear Index). 256 varistor. 97. xiv. 8. 295 Rights of way. see Transmission lint Starting: of motors. 263 location. 245 ctrcuit design. 108 Shunt capacitor. 323 accuracy of compensation. 264 Selfsaturattng reactor. 216 harmonics. 304 S C R (Silicon Controlled Rectifier). 84. 218 and switched capacitor. 3 15. resonances. 306. 8384. See a l . 1091 10 reinsertton. 141 swttchlng during transients. 145 see also Compensator. 253 bank dimensions. 219 dtrect EHV connection. 253 fusing. 117 Series compensated line. 31 1. 7.255. !70. 337 Standards. 221 and subharmontc instabtlity. 257. 109. 216.
w e Load l ~ n e Tapchanger. 245 capacltor banks. 149 and shunt capacitors. 60 virtual. 47 transformat~on. 278 protection. 188 control character~st~c. 7 fa~lures. 194 reactor arrangement. 97 Switching transients. 214. 102 and saturated reactor. 249 and load rejection. 337 operating margins. 228 Thyristor Switched C a p a c ~ t o rsee TSC . 282 equivalent c i r c u ~ t173. 221 power losses. 192 speed of response. 228. 305. 172. 121. 226 V/ 1 characteristics. 147 losses. 201 " 1 l characterrst~c. 202 and overvoltage. 185. 200. I74 and transient stab~llty. 275 starting. excitation limit. 274 control. 269272. 230 dc drives. 202 Surge impedance. 6 Synchrotron. 213 knee voltage. 64. 295 firstswing period. 193 Telephone influence factors. 53 Synchronous compensator. 31 1. 305 auxiliary systems. 221 stopping. 132.229 flu~dcooled. 248. 250 supplementary damping control. 161. 3 19323 accuracy of compensation. 119. 119120. 213 and large d~sturbances. 348 Telephone interference. in T C R . 6 T C R (Thyristor Controlled Reactor). 227 INDEX threephase. 271 underexcited. 280 . 278 amortlsseurs. 70. 196. 295 cooling. 277 Korndorfer starting. 306 Thyristor characterrstrcs. 290 static excitation. 219. 294 and T C R . 77. 277 watercooled. 348 Temperature atr. 291 shortc~rcuit capacity. 273 sues. 7475. 210 Sylmar. 273297. 9697. 84. 148. 249 response to faults. 245 reactors. 245 Switching stations. 295 dc exciter starting. 323 and arc furnace. 258 Symmetrical components. 126. 82 Surge impedance compensation. 145. c o n d u c t ~ o n 185. 196 SVC ( S t a t ~ c VAr Control). 103. 31 1 A F N L (Amps Field No Load). 202 direct EHV connection. 227 Threshold of irrltatlon. 173. 299. 28 1 voltage regulator. see Synchronous condenser Synchronous condenser. 202. 238 losses. 5556. see Statlc compensator VAr System). 188 control law. 359 rap~d excitation response. 353 ac compensators.189 overload margin. 185. see Static compensator SVG ( S t a t ~ c VAr Generator). 220 starting. 319 programmab~llty.221 performance testlng. 250 and filters. 143. 278 reduced voltage starting. 280 operation. 289 shortt~merating. 230 reverse avalanche. 286 lubricat~on. 275. 234 matching. 316 current Ilrnit. 224 recovery current. 232 heat sink. 189. 277 low voltage capability. 183203. 148. 90 Synchronous motors. 283 and shunt capacitors. 248 field test. 84 shaft breakage. 229 hquidcooled. 228 snubber. 291 losses. 120 controlled. 283 phasor diagram. 143 of rotor angle. control algorithm. 224225 chargecarriers. 284 underexcited. 292 and arc furnace. 198200 161168 computer simulat~on. 6 System voltage character~stic. 245 Independent phase control. 177 Synchronrsm. 221 as adjustable susceptance. 74 In transient period. 273. See also Junction temperature Thermal analog. 84. 278 voltage control. 241252. 250 and capacltors. 223 antlparallel connection. 132. 191 fundamental current. 224 Thyristor Controlled Reactor. 187 control strategies. 176 highceiling excitation. 52. 6. see Transformer Tapped reactor. 247 ratlngs. 228 voltage distribution. 194. 261 Thermal overload relay. 207. 202. 228 and translent period. 337. 274 Synchronous machines. see Static SVS ( S t a t ~ c compensator Swing frequency. 130. 65. 168 thermal stresses. 224 series and parallel connection.188. 24 hydrogen pressure. 250252 phasebalancing abllitp. 293 statlon design. 227 Thermal tlme constant. 221 principles of operation. for T C R capaators. 235 and faded thyristors. 38. 278 Vcurve. 247248. !36. 5556. 286 and HVDC. 187 algorlthm~c clrcults.INDEX Surge arrester. 274 overexcited. 145 transient response. 284. 315. 277 emergency reactive power supply. 228 coohng. 245246 silicon wafer diameter. 47 Symmetricai line. 119 harmonic effects. 228 and TCR. 187 calculator. 202. 244247 closedloop control. 186188 harmonics.84. 295 reactive power of. 20 1 T S C hybrtd. see Natural load Susceptance adjustable. 189. 9. 227 gatlng.242. 271 Swings power. 221. 244 circuit. 28 1 oscillatory p e r ~ o d . 81 Surge impedance load. 226 Junction temperature.249 see also Compensator T C T (Thyristor Controlled Transforrner). 181 demand signals. 225 thermal equivalent circuit. 285 construction. 201 overvoltage Itmltat~on. 189. 213 twelvepulse.221 protection. 201 interpolating. 163. 199. 234 w~th low harmon~cs. 50. 295 computer slmulatlon. 196 control system. 226227 overvoltage protection. 348 . 228. 248 Thermal stress.176 outdoor. 278 overload. 102 Switches. 289 hydrogencooled. 187 in. w e TCK Thyristor Controlled Transformer. 192 and overloads. 291 electr~cal parameters. 315 arrangement of thyristors. 322 and arc furnace. see I CT Thyristor controller. 81 Synchronizing capability. 169 Switched capacitors. 220. 242. 280 statlc startmg. 38. 193 SIX pulse. 295 negative field current. 232 ratings. T I F factors. 233 rating. 156 Switched reactors. 245 remote starting. 197 compensating.147 llneartzlng circuits. 189 thyristor controller. i45 triplen harmonics. 323 Tariffs. 275 Inertia constant. 27 I and SSR. 220221. 221 faults. 192 and undervoltage. 245 reactive power. 73 reactive power requirement. 274 speed.
349 Winder. 14 formulas for. 157 121. 265 Triggering. 97 electrical length. 216. 266 SWilch~ng transtents. capacitor. 153. 316319 see also Compensator accuracy of compensatlon. 207 213 TCR hybr~d. 148. 119 w~th distr~buted compensation. 221 phase balancing ab~lity. 323 of synchronous condenser. of propagatlon. 14 due to load. 277 Trans~ents swrtchmg. 256 Zinc oxrde. 133. 82 Virtual e .. 5758 power factor. 220 and interpolating TCR. 103. 21 1 Virtual natural load. 259. 177. 204 p r o g r a m m a b ~ l ~ t221 y. 61 propagatlon constant. 122 Transmission line charg~ng current. 174. 176 and static compensator. 59 propagation veloc~ty. of hybrid compensator. 267 Vcurve. 47 WyeDelta. see Voltage regulation Voltage error. 13 limits. 221 as adjustable susceptance. 64 w~th nonsynchronous load. 32 Undamping. 159 and synchronous condenser. 1 21 Tungsten filament lamps. 204214. 82180. 219 Transformat~on symmetrical components. 59 V/ 1 character~st~c. see T C R Twmtr~plerreactor. 59 quarterwavelength. 201 U n ~ t . 326 Triggered alr gap. 221 harmontcs. 204 overvoltage. 182. 159 and compensators. 5556. 176. 174175 of T C R . 213. 194195. 253 of serles compensated. 248 TNA (Translent Network Analyzer). see Gatlng Tr~plen harmon~cs. Ideal. 188.K. 76 on opencircu~t. 28 Voltage collapse.81 Voltage. 4 Tors~onal resonance. 59 Welding plant. 57 INDEX narmomc impedance.380 T~m~ng ramps. 159. 253. . 264 and shunt capacltor. 145 Translent stabil~ty. see React~ve power VAr compensatlon. 109 shunt compensation. 315 Torque osc~llations. 40 Zerosequence currents. 132. 140 and serles capacltor. 5253 mlnlmizatlon of losses. 216 saturation In. 64 uncompensated. 67. 145. 242 of TSC. 356 reactive power support. 218. 214 coolrng. control by sw~tched 102 kneepoint. abnormal. 339 Twelvepulse. 245 VAr. 220 starting. 359 effect of compensatlon. 150 Tolerance band current controller. 57 underload. 145 and synchronous condenser. 59 Wave number. 283 Trebletr~pler reactor. 67 voltage profile. 164 increase of margln. translentfree swttching. 243. 76 at noload. 59 equ~valent clrcult. 202 magnetlzlng ~ n r u s h 337 .225 sensltlvtty. 52. 202. 97 Voltage/reactive power characterist~c. 248 Zinc chromate prlmer. effects of. 309. 221 INDEX m~dpo~nt. 153 overvoltage Ilm~tation. 140. 176 and fixed shunt compensation. 155. 210 and T C R . generators. 204 and arc furnace. 62 parameters. 184. 4 by compensator. 265. 84. 18 Voltage regulator. See also Surge Impedance Zerosequence components. 202 stepdown.132. necessary c o n d ~ t ~ o n s 209 Translent p e r ~ o d . 248 Transientfree s w ~ t c h ~ n 204 g. 62 wave equation. 242 tap adjustments. Zo. 49 fundamental requirements. 54 and TCR. 348 Voltage drop. response tlme. 220. 59 symmetrlcal. 50. 70 resistance. 66 of Undervoltage. 8 Wavelength. 213 losses. number of thyr~stors. 315. 61 reactlve power requirements. 271 Transductor. 57 r ~ g h t s way. 6465. Voltage profile. 8 1 Virtual ZO. 308 Unbalanced load. 139 Voltage fluctuat~on. 10 openclrcu~trlse. 326 U. 360 zlgzag. Electr~crtyCouncil. 109 Transm~ssion angle. 19 Var~stor. 4 Zigzag grounding transformer. 45 Transformer constantvoltage. 57. 204 In translent p e r ~ o d . 343 ~nfintte length. 206 for. 359 flat. 145. 3 15. 54. 307 Tun~ng reactor. 3 16 control system. 14 w~th nduct~ve ~ load. 284 Voltage varratlon: effect on compensation.255257. 278 Velocity. 153154. 53 shunt compensatton. 214. 8 228 Voltage level. 221 princtples of operation. 50 reactive power balance. 73. 143 and shunt reactor. 8 Western Electric. 338 knee voltage. longd~stance. 59 Transm~ss~on system. 100 compensated by sectioning. 248 harmon~c effects. 270 Underexc~tat~on. 4. 76 radtal. standards. 87. 360 tapchanging. 195 of saturated reactor compensator. See also C a p a c ~ t o r Vacuum sw~tch. 27 .153 V/I characterist~c. 174 Translent reactance. 63 rcverse block~ng. 311. 85 dynam~cally compensated. neutral g r o u n d ~ n g 248 phasemult~ply~ng. 60. 6 45 WyeDelta transformat~on. 217. 243 groundtng. 62. 134135. 170 Voltage control. 284 Transm~ssion. 73 maxtmum uncompensated length. 161 and saturated reactor compensator.189 T S C ( T h y r ~ s t o Sw~tched r Capac~tor). 151 and sene.265 fault test. see H o ~ s t Woodch~pmill. 57 wave number. 100 stabilization. 60 maxlmum transmlss~ble power. 273. 3 15. 143 and static shunt compensatton. see Compensat~on Varrable load. 248 supplementary control. 317 d~rect EHV connection. 285 stand~ng waves. 87 Voltage d~stortlon.18 Voltage regulatton. 204. 77. 27 definmon. 221 number of capacitors.
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