Presented to the

LIBRARY of the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

from
the estate

of

Prof. W.A.G.H. Dobson

DICTIONARY
SARAT

CHANDRA BAHADUR

Published at the

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Paris.

TIBETAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY
WITH SANSKRIT SYNONYMS
BY

SARAT CHANDRA DAS,

RAI BAHADUR, C.I.E.,

AUTHOR OF "A JOURNEY TO LHASA AND

ano

oite&

nkr

t|e

orkrs of

tfre

6oternmeiit of Bengal

BY

GRAHAM SANDBERG,
CHAPLAIN, H. M. INDIAN 8EBVICB
TIBBTAN,"
;

B.A.,

ATJTHOB OF "A HAND-BOOK OF COLLOQUIAL "MANUAL OF THE SIKKIJI-BHUTIA LANGUAGE," "UILABASPA, TIBETAN POET AND MYSTIC," ETC., ETC., ETC.,

AND

A.

WILLIAM HETDE,
TIBETAN FBONTIEB.

ONE OF THE BEVISOBS OF THE TIBETAN NEW TESTAMENT, MOBAVIAN MISSIONARY ON THE

CALCUTTA:
PUBLISHED BY THE BENGAL SECEETAEIAT BOOK DEPOT.
1902.

{Price

Indian, Es.

32

;

English,

2 5s.]

CALCUTTA

:

PRINTED AT THE BEKGAL SECRETARIAT PRESS.

PREFACE.
I.

ALEX. CSOMA DE
preface of
as follows
:

Kb'fib's,

the pioneer

student

of

Tibetan,

in

the

his

Tibetan-English-Dictionary,

published in

1834, wrote

"When
has

there shall be

more

interest

taken for Buddhism (which
true

much

in

common with
and
of

the spirit

of

Christianity)

and
the

for

diffusing

Christian
parts

European
the

knowledge

eastern

Asia,

Tibetan

throughout Dictionary may be
in Csoma's

most
im-

much

proved, enlarged, and illustrated

by the addition

of Sanskrit terms."

words, waa The imof Indian origin. that the literature of Tibet is entirely volumes on different branches of science, etc., being exact mense

The result

of his investigations, to speak

own

or faithful translations from Sanskrit works, taken from Bengal,

Magadha,

Gangetic or Central India, Kashmir, and Nepal, commencing from the seventh century after Christ. And that many of these works have been
(mostly from Tibetan) into the Mongol, Manchu, and the Chinese languages ; so that by this means the Tibetan language became
translated
in Chinese Tartary the language of the learned aa the Latin in Europe. In the year 1 889 I brought these opinions of that original investigator to the notice of Sir Alfred Croft, K.C.I.E., the then Director of Public

Instruction in Bengal,

necessity of compiling a Tibetan-English Dictionary on the lines indicated by Csoma de Korbs for the use of Tibetan students and particularly to assist European
scholars in the thorough

and explained

to

him the

exploration

of the

vast

literature
all

which,
religious

besides

indigenous works,

comprises

almost

Tibet, the Buddhist

of

works of India, including the great collections of the Kahgyur and the Tangyur. Shortly before this Sir Alfred Croft had received a
communication from the
the desirability of

Right Hon'ble Professor F. Max Miiller on translating into English a Sanskrit-Tibetan work
late

on Buddhist terminology, which was looked for with interest, because it was expected to throw light on many obscure points of BuddhistSanskrit literature.

The

philosophical

terms of that literature,

many

VI

had been translated with literal accuracy into Tibetan in early times, and it was anticipated that an analysis of the meaning of these terms would elucidate that of the original Sanskrit words, of which they were the equivalent
of

which were

of extremely

doubtful meaning,

Being impressed with the importance of the proposed work, renderings. Sir Alfred Croft, in a memorandum addressed to Government, wrote
as follows
:

" Babu Sarat Chandra Das
of the classical

Tibetan

;

has brought with him four dictionaries one of these being a well-known Tibetan-

Sanskrit Dictionary, compiled from a large number of named Tibetan as well as standard Sanskrit works, and dating from the 13th century and another being a Sanskrit-Tibetan Dictionary, which explains A.D., the Tantrik portion of the Buddhist Scriptures. The external arrange-

ment

of the

be placed
equivalents will follow
dictionary.

first
;

The Tibetan words will dictionary will be as follows: in alphabetical order; next their accepted Sanskrit next the English rendering of the Tibetan terms ; then
is

what

to be a special of each

and valuable feature
technical term
is

of the

new

The meaning

to

be illustrated

by extracts, with exact references from Sanskrit-Buddhist and Tibetan works. Further, it is proposed that Babu Sarat Chandra Das should
include in the dictionary words of modern Tibetan which were not known to Csoma or Jaschke. The materials which he has amassed

during his two journeys to and residence in Tibet tional facilities for making the work complete."

give

him excep-

These recommendations having received the sanction of Government in June 1889, I was placed on special duty in connection with the compilation of the proposed dictionary. In 1899, when the work of
compilation was brought to a close, the Hon'ble Mr. C. W. Bolton, c.s.i., then Chief Secretary to the Government of Bengal, entrusted the revision

Revd. Graham Sandberg and Revd. William Heyde, and deputed Professor Satis Chandra Acharya, M.A,,, who had made Buddhist Sanskrit and Pali works his special study, to co-operate with me. My
of the

work

to the

due to Sir Alfred Croft for the keen respectful thanks are, therefore, Tibetan studies and for his kind help at the inception interest he took in

my
to

of

the work, and

Tibetan scholars

Mr. Bolton for securing the services of the two the Revd. Graham Sandberg and Revd. William Heyde
I also record

for its successful completion.

my

obligations to

Sir

John

Vll
K.C.I.E., formerly Chief Secretary to the Government of Bengal ; to Dr. Emil Schlagintweit of Bavaria, and to the Hon'ble W. W. Rockhillj Author of The Land of Lamas for encouragement, assistance, and advice

Edgar,

during the prosecution of my researches. Great is the debt of gratitude which I owe to the Revd. Gf. Sandberg for various acts of kindness.

work would hardly have assumed its present shape, as he has given a scientific finish to the work which it was not in my power to do.
Without
his scholarly

and

efficient aid this

II.

In studying the origin and growth of Tibetan literature and the landmarks in the history of that language, Jaschke, the compiler of the

second Tibetan-English Dictionary (published in 1882), noticed only two Had that critical student of Tibetan been periods of literary activity.
possession of works of modern literature, which dates from the establishment of the Dalai Lama's sovereignty over whole Tibet in the beginning of the 18th century A.D., he would certainly have modified
in
his

remarks on the subject.

Neither he nor Csoma de Korbs had any

means or opportunities of studying either the current literature of everyday business or the refined, idiomatic literature of Tibet itself, which is quite distinct from the Indian literature that was translated or imported into the language. They do not seem to have ever during
the course of
fiction,

their study
etc.

of
It

correspondence,

Tibetan come across works on drama, is, therefore, no wonder that the compiler

of

the later dictionary should assign only two periods to the history of the literature of Tibet, entirely ignoring the third, which is indeed the language of Jaschke,

not the least important of the three. The first period, to describe
the Period
Classical

it

in

is

of Translations, which, however,

might

also

be entitled the

Period,

for

the sanctity of

a

corresponding
it

reputation

form in which
half

and was conveyed. This

the religious message conferred tradition of excellence upon the

period

begins in

the second

of

the

seventh

good

Bhota or

century A.D., when Tibetan), the minister of
after

Thon-mi

Sambhota (the
under an

King Srongtsan Grampo,
language

returned to Tibet

studying

the

Sanskrit

eminent Brahman teacher of Magadha.

"His invention of the Tibetan

alphabet gave two-fold impulse: for several centuries the

wisdom

of

Vlll

India and the ingenuity of Tibet laboured in unison and with the The greatest industry and enthusiasm at the work of translation.
tribute
of

due to real genius must, be accorded to these early pioneers They had to grapple with infinite wealth and refinement of Sanskrit; they had to save the independence of their
Tibetan grammar.

own

tongue, while they strove

to subject

it

to

the rule

of scientific
to

principles,

and

it

is
.

most remarkable
literal

how they managed

produce

translations

at once

and

The
ical

Classical Period

may

the spirit of the original." be divided into three stages. The first
faithful to

or the earliest stage terminated with the downfall

of the

first histor-

monarchy,

assassin.

King Langdarma fell by The second stage commenced with the introduction

when

the

hand

of

an

of the

system of chronology, called the Vrihaspati cycle of 60 years, in Tibet by an Indian Buddhiat called Chandra Nath and Chilu Pandit
of

Tibet in 1025
illustrious

A.D.
disciple,

This

was the age of Milaraspa and Atisa,
laid (he founda-

whose
tion

of

the

first

Brom-ton Gryalwai Jungne", Buddhist Hierarchy in Tibet and

established

the

great monastery of

Rwadeng, with a

library of Sanskrit works.

Jaschke's

second period evidently corresponds with this authors began to indulge in composition of on historical and legendary subjects. The third
the conquest
after
of

" Tibetan stage, when their own" and wrote
stage

began with

Tibet

by the

Tartar
S'ri

1205 A.D., when Pandit S'akya
witnessing the plunder monasteries of Odantapuri and

Conqueror, Chingis Khan, in of Kashmir had returned to Tibet

and destruction of the great Buddhist Vikrama S'lla in Magadha, and the conquest of Bengal and Behar by the Mahomedans under Baktyar Ghilji in 1203 A.D. In this last stage flourished the grand hierarchy of Sakya, which obtained supreme influence over Tibet and the country, which was then divided into 13 provinces, called Thikor Chusum, as a gift from the immediate successors of Chingis Khan. Among the most noted Sakya Pandit Kungah Gyal-tshan, Dogon Phag-pa, the spiritual tutor of Emperor Khubli Khan, and Shongton Lotsawa, who translated the Kavyadarto, of Dandi and Kshemendra's
writers of

the time

were

Avadana Ealpalala in metrical Tibetan. With the opening of the 15th century Buton-Rinchen Diib introduced a new era in the literature of the rule of the Tibet, and Buddhism received fresh impulse under

Phagmodu

chiefs,

when Tibetan

scholars took largely to

the study of

IX

Chinese literature under the auspices of the Ming Emperors of China.

During
scholars

this period, called the

indigenous literature of Tibet arose.
like

age of Da-nying (old orthography), the great A host of learned Lotsawas and

Gyalwa Ngapa, Lama Taranatha, Desri Sangye Gyatsho, Sumpa Khampo, and others flourished. This was the age of the Gelug-pa, or the Yellow Cap School of Buddhism, founded by Tsongkhapa with Gahdan as its head-quarters.
Tsongkhapa, Buton,

The third when Chinese
last

period begins with the first quarter of the 18th century, suzerainty over Tibet was fully established and the

Tartar kings of the dynasty of Gushi Khan was killed by a General of the Jungar Tartars an incident which transferred the sovereignty of Tibet to the Dalai Lama, who was till then a mere
of the

hierarch

of

the

Gelug-pa

Church.

It

is

within

this

period

that

the

Tibet has enjoyed unprecedented peace under the benign sway of become the lingua holy Bodhisattvas, and its language has
of Higher Asia.
)

franca

LHASA VILLA, DABJBELINO,
July 1902,

SARAT CHANDRA DAS.

J

REVISORS' PREFACE.

December 1899 the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bengal handed over to us for revision the Tibetan Dictionary upon which Sarat Chandra Das had laboured for some dozen years, we found at our disposal a work embracing a mass of new and important collections on the language, the value of which was marred by two prominent characteristics first, the material had been put together in somewhat heterogein

WHEN

neous fashion, hardly systematic enough for a dictionary secondly, the vast amount of original matter had been throughout greatly interlarded
;

with lengthy excerpts from Jaschke's Dictionary, not always separable from the new information, and this imparted a second-hand appearance to large
portions of the work, which was, in reality, Moreover, in this way, no attempt had been

Jaschke's definitions of

many

of the

by no means deserved. made to improve upon commoner Buddhist philosophical

terms or to incorporate the later results of European scholarship in these instances. On the other hand, one was very often gratified to find, in the
case

terminology, that the learned Bengali had gone to original and little-explored sources of native information, such as Tsongkhapa's Lam-rim Chhenmo, and, by extracts from the
difficult

of the

more

philosophical

same, furnished valuable and novel particulars under those heads. Accordingly, the task which the Revisors set themselves was directed

mainly to counteracting the errors of judgment above indicated. Such a task proved one of a more laborious character than might be at first imagined and the fact that the work of amendment and addition has
;

taken them upwards of two years of incessant
its difficulty.

toil sufficiently

evidences

First, has

come the business

of

selection

and

excision.

and philosophy of Tibetan books are properly confined and to Buddhism. There had been, however, a tendency here to draw in all manner of Hindu thought and mythology, because one or two works
to the

The religion Bon cult

translated into Tibetan from the Sanskrit dealt with these matters.

This

tendency

all seemed right to infrequent, where the Vedic and Puranic Hinduism, in some measure, was bound up with, or bore upon, or explained, Buddhist belief or popular practice. it

curb except in those

instances, not at

Xll

Excision has had to be meted out, further, in the case of unnecessary otherwise properly-introduced information. Secondly, our repetition of
task has been one of substitution.
written, or at least

re-compiled.
to,

from Jaschke, already referred
novo the

have had to be freshly In place of the innumerable excerpts we have had to examine and to treat de

Many

articles

grammar and general usage of a large number of the commoner To illustrate these nouns, adjectives, and verbs, notably the verbs. have had to substitute for Jaschke's examples a largo new articles, we
number number
of original quotations

from Tibetan authors as well as a certain
to

various phrases Sarat Chandra Das In other articles, also, where of ordinary employment. had not thought it necessary to do more than repeat Csoma's or Jaschke's illustrative sentences, we have looked out fresh examples to replace them.
of

made-up sentences put together

exhibit

greater importance was it in the case of certain doctrinal terms and phrases of Buddhism to undertake re-definition and to connote and

Of

still

assimilate

modern
t ;

discussion

and research on the
rkyen
;
;

subject.

Among
But

those

terms
|'X| }

may
bla-ma

be noted such as

^J3j,

^3j'Q,gQl (

rtcn-hbrel
}

f'3, Ita^wa; ^31, rdul;

^-'^

)

gyun-drun

^'q^j^rq
and

dc-bsMii-pfcrjs-pa.

while

referring

to

these

substitutions

others of a like

nature,

we do

not wish to assume too much.

would rather repeat that, in the matter of philosophical definitions also, wo have been frequently surprised and instructed by the descriptions and explanations of recondite ideas and terms which Sarat Chandra Das has himself succeeded in collecting
from various native authorities. he had not sometimes confused

We

Such information would have sufficed if it by the sudden and inconsequent linking

on of Jaschke's remarks without curtailment and without any connotation of them to that which he had himself just set out. Thirdly, in the way of
direct addition to the original work, there have

plementary contributions. colloquial, and we have sought to introduce a number of the colloquial words and phrases belonging to the Central and Eastern speech. Other
additions have

been certain moderate supJaschke had dealt very fully with the Western

been short paragraphs on the mythological pantheon of and Mongolia, together with an attempt to give exact information Tibet on zoological and geographical points.
It

may

be considered by some that there

is

a certain lack of reference

to

known
work.

authorities in

this

forth in support of many of the statements set However, it should be remembered that in dealing with a

xm
language so
explored as the Tibetan (or which, indeed, in one narrow that of the Kahgyur translations from Sanskrit has, in some sense,
little

groove been over-explored), the
real

difficulty is to find

adequate authorities for the

and more current uses of words and phrases. The stilted verbiage of the Kahgyur is often mere Sanskrit idiom literally rendered into Tibetan, but it gives no idea of the elastic style to be found in the innumer-

able indigenous productions of native Tibetan writers. Sarat Chandra Das has held familiar intercourse with modern men of learning in Tibet

the professors at Tashi-lhunpo, Daipung, Samye, Mindolling, and other important monastic institutions. Much, therefore, has been gleaned him which, though absolutely reliable, cannot be given on any stated by
itself

must be accepted as information obtained at first hand and now presented for the first time. This frank acceptance should also be extended to much with which the Revisers have been able to supplement Both of them have been located for lengthy the Author's original work.
authority, but

periods where Tibetan is the language of the people of the place, and have been in constant communication with men from Lhasa and all parts Under such circumstances, "authorities" cannot of course of Tibet.

be quoted. In dealing with philosophical terms, and in general with the forms to be met with both in the old classical works and in modern treatises, it
will

certainly

be found,
exact

however,

that our

supported by
of all kinds.

references.

These have

examples are constantly been taken from writings

Hitherto European scholars seem to have thought of the literature of Tibet as one consisting wholly of Sanskritic translation and as
Tangyur. The Author and the Revisers have endeavoured, by widening the sources of their quotations, to show how extensive a field is covered by mediaeval and modern
limited to the contents
of

the Kahgyur and

Tibetan writers. Geography, history,

biography,

political

government,

It may be remarked, for accounts, astrology, are all represented. example that the official biographies of the successive Dalai Lamas alone fill some

32 volumes.
in Sarat
his

Nevertheless, although these scarce memoirs are included Chandra Das's library, we are sorry to point out that none of
the range of

examples appear to have been taken therefrom.

Knowing, however, how scanty

is

Tibetan works avail-

able to the majority of students, we have not failed to quote largely in our examples from the Kahgyur and Tangyur collections.

We may

XIV

note on this point that a suggestion has been forwarded to us that, in quoting from the former, special references should be given to Mons. Feer's Teztes tires du Kandjour. But we are afraid that the scope for
quotation would be narrowed if our references to the Kahgyur were confined to Mons. Feer's very limited extracts published in lithograph form over 30 years ago. As to the Index du Kandjour, which was issued in the pub-

Guimet 20 years back, it is evident to every Tibetan student that this Index was only a rtchauffe of Csoma Korbsi's much clearer and fuller analysis of the Kahgyur printed 68 years
lications of the

Muse"e

ago in the pages of the Asiatic Researches. We fear, indeed, that reliance on such works as these would rather expose us to charges of nonacquaintance with more recent results of European investigation in the

Although working in India, we may observe, however, present field. that we have done our best to keep pace with what European Orientalists have written on our subject ; but assistance has been mainly derived

from the many memoirs compiled by Russian and German scholars, and we would specially recommend to notice the collections in this
field

made by Prince Ukhtomski and

the very

Dr. Albert Grunwedel, Dr. A.

Conrady,

and

recent publications of Professor Huth. The

the last analyses of the Tangyur, issued by Professor Huth during To return, however, three or four years, are particularly noteworthy. to the above-mentioned suggestion, we may say that not only would the scope

be too restricted,
to in

but

also

there

is

no

necessity,

under
Nearly

present conditions,

refer to

any mere

collection of extracts.

Europe every capital city of the Kahgyur volumes, and in two or three libraries plete copies In St. the 230 volumes of the Tangyur may be also consulted.
Petersburg
are three
in Paris
is

now

has

obtained possession of com-

full

sets

of the

Kahgyur and two
in

sets

of

the

Tangyur;
great
in

a set

of

the Kahgyur;

one or other of the

German
only
a

libraries

both the Tibetan encyclopedia
British

may

be

seen;
the

England,

while

owns

curiously enough the small drawer-ful of loose

Museum
both

Library

Tibetan

book-leaves,

India Office Library can

boast a perfect series of

Kahgyur and

is preserved Tangyur; and, lastly, in the Vatican Propaganda Library Oratio della Penna's incomplete collection of Kahgyur volumes. A word as to the Sanskrit equivalents following each Tibetan term.

Sanskrit

scholars

will

perhaps

consider

these

equivalents

rather

XV
unsystematically enumerated. the majority of them, this

They

have, nevertheless, value:
later

with regard to

particular

they

were

selected

by

native Indian

scholars of mediaeval

and
as

days in

collaboration

with

Tibetan

lotsawas

or

translators,

the

appropriate

Sanskrit

synonyms
chiefly

of the

from one
a

respective Tibetan words. celebrated Sanskrit-Tibetan

They have been
Dictionary,

taken

and suppleSatis

mented

Chandra
in

well-known by Acharya Vidyab/iusan,
instances,

Calcutta

pandit
also

and

professor,

tance with literary Tibetan.

who has The same
literal

considerable
professor

learned

acquainhas also,

numerous

appended a

terms.

the initial

These renderings have been S outside the brackets, and he alone
of transliteration of
Orientalists
;

English rendering of the Sanskrit placed within square brackets with
is responsible

for such

translations.

The system

followed

Vienna Congress of all Tibetan and Sanskrit words intended to be
this

and

that adopted finally at the system is observed in the case
is

literally

transliterated

and printed in

italics.

However, when a Tibetan cr Sanskrit proper
characters,

name

occurs

in

Roman

English explanation of part of such explanation or sentence, the name is spelled according to the conventional English fashion and, in the case of Sanskrit terms or names, as in Sir Monier Williams's Dictionary. A considerable number of Tibetan words at the head of paragraphs
will

a word, or in

not as a transliteration, but in the any English sentence as an integral

be found in larger type.
all

This indicates either that the word
it is

is

the

root of

related terms, or

that

the most

common word

of the series

and thus ostensibly that from which the others have been derived. Two different arbitrary signs will be found prefixed to many words. The Author, it seems, has marked such words as he considers archaic or gone out of
and those words deemed by him to have present use with a swastika (*f,), been imported into Tibetan from the Sanskrit, whether directly or by
derivation, he has distinguished

by a double-headed dagger (*). In conclusion, the Revisors would point out that although they have been given, and have generally taken, the greatest freedom in correcting or rejecting the matter set forth in this work, and for that reason

cannot justly shift responsibility for the accuracy or non-accuracy of that which is herein written, nevertheless they have generally not reversed

XVI

the views and statements of the Author wherever these have seemed

them reasonable or fairly tenable, and to be the result of deliberatelyformed opinion. They have felt, even when differing personally from the Author, that this Dictionary was Sarat Chandra Das's not their
to

own.

We

must not omit

to

mention

that,

by the agency

of the Chief

Secretary to Government, certain brief comments on various portions of the Dictionary were received from Professor Bendall, and we have to thank

him

for his kind suggestions.

GRAHAM SANDBERG.
A.
DAEJTBELINO,

WILLIAM HEYDE.

ISDU

;

J

The

lit Starch 1903.

j

ALPHABETICAL PLAN OF THE TIBETAN LANGUAGE,
g (yang nga).

The

five

vowels:

a,

i,

,

*,

The four vowel

signs that are attached to the basic letter
shabkyii, deng-bu

w

are called

gi-gii,

and naro

:

*

^

^i
t,

,

e,

o.

siim-chu).

The

thirty consonants
*

:

ij
ka,

p
kha,
*
l

V
ga,

K-|

*' E

*

'

m.
l|

'^1
ca,

5
ta,

*
tha,

V
da,

^1
na.
-

cha, ja,
'

na.
'

q

q
ba,
' '

^
tsa,

'

a

I

qj|
wa.

a
<E|

^
ha,

||

pa, pha,

ma.
?I|
sa.

tsha, dta,
'

sha,

sa,

ya.

^
ra,

'

0|
la,

^j
fa,

^
ha,

W|
a.

with their

The Dictionary order of the Tibetan letters, IndoRomanic equivalents and their pronunciation
exemplified

by English words:

k

in kill, seek

5c(=cA)in
&cA(=cM),,

porch.
church-hill.

P
**1

Teh

ink-horn.

9

gun> go, dog.
sing, king.

E

j

jet,

jump.

K'6(=0),,

^

(=)

singe.

lc

XV111

5
SI

t

in water (in Ireland).

^ Q
l

sh
s

in shone or

s

in leisure. in
as.

</

nut-hook.
dice (more like th in this).

azure or

s

^
3j

d
n
^j

h

hour, honour.

not, nut.
pull, page.

y
r
I

yard, year.
ray, rope.
last, large.

El

*s 01

5|

jaA

uphill.
>

q
Si

i,

or

ball, boy, bard.

-^
5J

(=s/i)
s

sharp,

m
fo

man, map.
parts.
(<s

same, soon.
half,
far.

5
3
[1

^
I?)

A

happy.

isA
rfs

aspirated).

guards.
waft, wave.

w
In
all

the above twenty nine letters the last letter w is inherent, therefore the Tibetan Grammarians have included it as a basis both for vowels and consonants. The
letter * (A) called ('$*') the little a is generally joined to the basic-vowel of

a letter to
so

make

its

pronunciation long.

When

it is

subjoined to the letter

w

the

compound

father.

formed becomes equivalent to the Sanskrit ^IT a and is pronounced as a in tar, far, or When it is subjoined to the vowel & the compound so formed resembles the
Sanskrit
(

and

is

pronounced

like

i

in police

and

so on.

The

Sanskrit Alphabet

and

their Tibetan equivalents

:

The vowels

:

a,

a,

,

I.

u, u,

r,

ri.

I,

li,

e,

e.

o,

an,

am,

ah.

The consonants:

,

kha, ga, gha, Ha.

tsa, tsha,

dsa } tkha, na.

ia, tJia, da, dfia, na.

fa, tfia, da, d/ia,

na.

XIX

pa, pha, la, bha, ma.

ya, ra, la, wa.

$a, ?a, sa,

ha.

ksa.

The consonant

signs representing the letters
ya-tag)

"i,

and *

:

and

(*ifyq* ra-tag).

-yig six).

The

six inverted

Tibetan

letters representing the Sanskrit letters

:

ta,tha,da,na, sa, tea.

-%
The
six aspirates,
t'.e.,

six).

letters

having

*>

subjoined to them,

a, lha.

The compounds formed with

the four vowel signs of
'

t,

,

e

and

o called yi-g

the 'standing' stroke", and angle", shabs-kyuthe hook^, hgrefi-bu ~ sna-ro ' the horns over the nose which are joined to the

consonants including the basic vowel

%
m,
ne, no.

^"'

fl

^'

,

5
1

ci,

cu, ce, co.

*'g''3B|

chi, chu,
'

che, cho.

jo.

i

e,

no.

XX
**
'

tu > te > to
rfw >

-

T"|
3' ^ n nf

thi,

thu, the, tho.

i^

rf'
i

il

*'

rfo -

wz

nu ne
'

>

no

-

me, mo.

fat,

dsu, dse, dso.

yjJ'QJ'tiJI

wi,

wu, we, wo.
IK,
,

shi,

shu, she, sho.

S"|'i*I|

t,

so.

,

,

K
,

Ao.
ro.

^*raf|
$''$*2f|
1

y,',

yu, y,,

^.
lo.

n, rw,

K, lu, k,

',

su, BB, so.

fy seven).

The seven

basic consonants to

which the

letter

"i

y

is

subjoined

:

The four compounds which

in their pronunciation resemble
*, *, 5, 3:

the four simple letters
is

pya

pronounced as *

ca.

Q

pjiya is

pronounced as * cha
9

mya

na.

(ra-%
The
thirteen basic consonants to

thirteen).

which the
is

letter

* r

may

be subjoined and in which

though the basic constituent
different

not pronounced, in Tibet proper yet the so formed have a pronunciation altogether compounds

from that

of

any

of the constituents,

kra, khra, gra, tra, thru,

dra, pra, phra,

Ira,

mra,

fra,

sra,

hra,

hra. (ta), (tha), (da), (ta), (tha), (da), (fa), (tha), (da), (ma), (sra), (sa),

XXI

The

eight

compounds
,

cerebrals

3,

which the pronunciation resembles that of the Sanskrt represented in Tibetan by the inverted letters ^, *, ?,
of
:

m
qj

kra

(to).

K
C

tra

(ta).

a
O

pra

(ta).

ID

khra (tha).

gra (da).

dra

(fa).

bra (da).

a

phra

(tha).

orc^'lf!
The
six basic consonants to

(la-tag six).

which the

letter

*i

/ is

subjoined

:

ariT9'V'9'*l
Tcla,

ffla,

bla, rla,

$la,

sla (da).

In the compounds the

Sc/flj^ i.e.,

basic are silent except in | which

is

pronounced as d; the

letters

not pronounced are underlined.

The same with

u subjoined

:

-0
klu, gju, bin, rlu, flu, zlu (dit).

trQIJftli (wa-zur tag-pa sixteen).

The

sixteen letters with (i'l*)

i.e.

4

which

is
:

a corner of the letter v

w

subjoined to

them

m-

T

J4

ra

zn*5''5)'5
4'

s* ^* ^ *|'a'^'Qi'-fl'5|-?i|
4
<)

4

4

4'-

4

| .4

'

4

4

4

4

4'

kwa, khwa, gwa, fwa, nwa, two, dwa,

tstca, tshica,

shwa, zwa, rwa, hea, fwa,

wa, hwa.

V*flfq5'iflrSj (ra-go twelve).

The twelve

basic consonants with ^ r
'

on their head,

i.e.,

* surmounting them
*

:

^

flj

c

;.t ; i : 5 :

vv
is

*

^

r n
by an underlined
r)

T

rka, rga, rna, rja, rna, rta, rda, rna, rba, rma, rtsa, rdta.
(the superscribed letter being generally silent

represented

xxii

r*fffa5'tj (la-go ten).

The ten

basic consonants with the letter

i

/

surmounting them

:

Ika, Iga, Ina, lea, Ija, Ita, Ida, Ipa, Iba, lha.

the superscribed letter where silent

is

represented by an underlined

/.

srstfj'q^&f^ (sa-go eleven).

The

eleven basic consonants with the letter

s

surmounting them

:

ska, sga,

na, $na, sta, $da, sna, spa, $ba, sma,
is

s.t$a.

the superscribed letter which

not pronounced

is

represented by an underlined

$.

g3j'Q^'g (ngon-jug

five).

The

five letters

which,

when

prefixed to initial or basic letters to

form a word, are
italics
:

seldom in Tibet Proper pronounced and are represented by underlined

frv*'*:qi
9,

d, 6,

%

h.

The

ten letters which

when

affixed to initial letters to

form a

word are very

softly

pronounced

:

</,

n, d, n, b,

m,

h, r,

I,

s.

l^'qi'^Sil'^ (dsog-tshig eleven).

The eleven

letters

which are reduplicated

(to

form the
o
:

preterite)

when

joined

with a terminal

go,

no, do,

no, bo, mo, ho, ro,

lo, so,

to.

xxiii

arXw^si^ (la-don seven).
The seven
postpositions signifying to or at,

S'VVV^'SJ
sit,

ru, ra, du, na,

la,

tu.

Z-#a five).

The

postpositive particles to signify possession

:

gi,

kyi, gyi, hi, yi.

^l'fj'o)

che-$a or je-g!a.
particles
:

The instrumental

yis.

the basic (^ t- 1^)
bkah.

"I

and

its

compounds with the
bkan.
qrf|qj|
bkas.

letter b Q prefixed,

Z^|C'|
bknb.

bkag.

bkan.

qr^^l

qm^JI

^S!
bjcye.

- ko -'

q^ri

6Ara.
**ra^-

^TI

bkmg.
6*rz.

bkrams.

qTQJI

bkru.

qTfl

bkrol.

brkum.

XXIV

the basic *

and

its

compounds with the

letter " prefixed,

bcah.

q3^|
q5^|

bcagg.
bear.

qSCSJf
q50||

bean?.
bcal.

q^|

bead.

bcabs.

bcos.

q^fQ]

6co/.

q

Ucid.

the basic

5

and

its

compounds with the
btan.

letter 1 prefixed,

btags.
btu.

q5C"|

q^qi
^'iSI

btab.

qKC$||

btifis.

q^^l
qRJ^'L

btu$.

^twd.
ifei-

^W|
qj-j^il

-'"*

\tul.

6^M^.

q^qi

brtan.

brten.
6/<<7s

q3i|

6sto.

q3i|

6sfe.
--'-

qgi
qgSI^I
qSJJI

W<.
Warns,

q^l
niOIl

^<ffr

-

^^1
q
qi?I I

brtun.

^^.

bteg.

6?<.

the basic ^ and

its

compounds with the

letter 1 prefixed,

Wsorf.

q3

bison

brtse.

q

6^*o.

q*JJ?S

brtsams.

XXV

the basic 1 and

its

compounds wilh the

letter 1 prefixed,

&sa ff-

brgyan.
|

^

btgyir.

9AD OE THE
pronoxuiced shad in

STOPS.
in

Ladak and Amdo but

Tsang and Central Tibet

is

pronounced

:

ollciy

'^ or
~^\

eWj'-*^ single perpendicular stroke

=
J

( \

Comma.

double stroke
J|

=
||||

(.)

full stop.

r

four-fold stroke

used at the end of a chapter or section.

point, dot separating syllables.
8*' ro^ e

"T'\

w^^-

^

^ on

^ *P

t

or

ornamental stop.

ABBREVIATIONS OF NAMES.
A ...................... Ati-$ahi rnam-ttiar
A. K. A. A.
...............

Avadana Kalpalata.
Besearches.

E ................ Asiatic
S................... Asta
O.

A.

Sahasrika B. T. Society. ............... Anuruddha-Qataka B. T. Society.

Abhi. .................. Abbidhammattha-sangaho.

Ar ................... Arabic.
B. grub ............. Bon-gyi grub-mthah B. Nam .............. Bon Nam shag.
B.T.S.
Bal.
............... Buddhist

Text Society.

.................. Baltistan.

Behu ................... Behu-bum

sfion-po

Beng ................... Bengali language. Bhar ................ Bharata, dialogue,

ed.

by Dr. A. Schief ner.

Shot ................... Bhotan, province. Bodhi................ Bodhicharyavatara, B. T. Society.
B.ch ................... Bon-chos 5aj--*
|

Budh ................ Buddhism. Bum ................... Wm* '^' Smcm-hbum
1

chuft.

Burn.

I.

............ Burnouf,
............ Burnouf,

Introduction au

Buddhism
loi.

Indien.

Burn. II.

Lotus de la bonne

C...................... Central

Tibet.

Can ................... Canakya (Tsd-na-ka)
Cho-zafi ............. Lama Chos-bzafi psufi

Choi-g ................ Chos-rgyal btfod-pa

X

Cs ..................... Csoma de Korosi's Tibetan English Dictionary

Cunm ................ Cunningham

General,
-1

Ladak and the surrounding country.
1

Ce or G. don ....... Ce-rab tdon-bu

-*|

W^'5

G. gya ................ Oes-rab brgya-pa %fH'*

O. lam ................ Gam-bha-lahi lam-yig

Qer ................... Qer-gyi
Div.

me-M

A ................ Divyavadana.
Dwa^el me-M
Rinpo-che, a Bon religious work. far Q$hag W^'flj^fl|
|

D.
D.

fel ................

R ................ Dul-ica

Dran ................ Dran-pa

Dag

................... Dag-byed. g.sal-wabi

me-M tft^^m-tfc&fc

\

xx vm
Deb ................... Deb-ther %non-po
Desg ................... Desgodins,

La Mission du Tibet Dh ................... Dharmasangraha (Max Muller).
Dham.

de 1855-1870.

Do or Dsam ................ Edsam-gjiii

Dhammapado, B. Text Dom .......... Mdo-man *^',
.

.............

Society's edition.
1

-

1

rgyas-bgad ^wfjc.

J-MJ^

j

Dus-ye ................ Dus-hkhor-gyi yc-fes-kyi lehu also

Dug-hgrel

ye-le.

Dus-kho ............. V^^'^l Dus-hkhor

ti-ka.

Dug ................... Qdugs-dkar "IV'P'VIM Dzl. .................. Mdo hdsafi-blim an ancient Ev ...................... E-vam ^'W
|

collection of

Legends

of

Buddha.

G.

Bon ................ Rgyal-rabs

lon-gyi hbyufi\

0. kah ................ Rgyal-po bkah-than

G. Sndg ............. Eevd.

yf^iv^v: Graham Sandberg, B.A.,
mtshan rtscmohi
gzufig
.

LL.B.

Gyal ................... Bffyd
Gyal.

S ................ Rgyal-rabs

gsal-wahi mc-lon

ji|'^qi''J)N's

Glr ................... Rgyal-rabs, a history of the kings of Tibet quoted by Jaschke.

Gram ................ Grammar
Grub ...................

or native grammatical works. Grub-mthah $d-gyi mc-lon 9jq'*m'-)'J| g')-SlE.i

1

Gul................... wp^-^'^iscg^ Mk/tas-pahi mgul-rgyan.
Gya-cher ............. Gya-chcr rol-pa, Tib. version of the Lnlitvistarrc Ed. by Foucaux.

Glu ................... Rgyal-iea Tshans-dbyans rgya-mtshohi mgul-glu.
Gser-phreH .......... H'lps-l^fcW^^r^S-a^lC Gshon ................ Gshon-nuhi mgul mgyur

by Nagarjuna.

Qyu ................... Gyu-thog-pahi rnam-thar Hey ................... Revd. A. W. Heyde of the Moravian Mission. Hind................ Hindi language. Hook ............... Sir Joseph Hooker's Himalayan j ournals. Hue ................... A.bbe Hue and Gabet's Tibet.
Hbrom.
............... Bbrom-ston-pahi

rnam-thar

Hbum ................ Yum-chen-mo $w'^'35|
J.

Zan ................ Dpag-bsam IJon-bsan
..... Jachke's

^twi'eww !(

|

Ja ................

Tibetan-English Dictionary. Jig .................... Ejig-rten lugs-kyi bstan-bcos
fv

K.d................... Bkah-hgyur mdo

K. du ................ Bkah-hgyur hdul-wa
K. dun ................ Bkah-babs bdun-ldan-gyi rnam-thar K. g ................... Bkah-hgyur rgyud

K. ko ................ Bkah-hgyur dkon-brtsegs K. my ................ Bkah-hgyur myan-hdas K. phal ............. Bkah hgyur phul-po-che

XXIX

K.P
K.
than, or Kathan.

Karuna-pundarika, B. T. Society.

Padma Kham,

fykah than.

Kalac. T.

Kalachakra of Taranatha.
eastern part of Tibet.

Kh
Kha
Khrid.

wp^'Mf'w'qSi*

Mkhah hgro-mahi

brdah.
<

Klon-chen Skhrid-yig

|^'*S^

H%R

Kopp

Ko'ppen, die religion des Buddha.

Jun
Kye-rim
L. V.

Kunawar, province under British protection.
Ejigs-byed b$kyed-rim
Lalitavistara.

Lanka

Larjkavatara-Sutra,

B. T. Society.
-

Lam-rim

ByaK-chub Lam-gyi rim-pa sc;$q

ai*r

Lam.
Lat
Ld.

ti.

Lam-don
Latin.

ti-ka

wf^

'"1

1

Ladak.

Ld. Glr

Lex or Lexx

Ladak GyaUrabt, a history of Tibet, Ed. by Dr. E. Schlagintweit. Lexicon or Lexicons, native Tibetan dictionaries.
Lhasa.
Lha-sahi dkar-chag

Lh
Lh. kar

Lha. kah
Lif

Lha-hdre bkah-thaH
Li-fi gur-khan ^'^'^'f^' a Tibetan glossary.

Lo
Lot
L. kah
Ljafii

Thog-rmhi blo-sbyons lnf&tflfc'* (Lam-rim).

KM-rdol
volume.

gsufi-hbum

ft^r^ff^f"^^*!^-!-^*^-^-^

16th

Blon-po bkah-than
<

Itjafi-glM-gi bsgrufis

M. M. M.

V.
vrtti

Maha

Vyutpatti.

Wills

Madhyamika Vritti B. T. Society. Sir. Monier William's Sanskrit-English Dictionary.
Ma-hoAs
lufi-b$tan
!

Ma

wX^-^-q^

Tibetan Apocalypse.

M

.

gu

Margyud '^

Maha. p Maha. v

Mahaparinibbana-sutta, Pali Text Society. Mabavarhso.
W35 q^c.'^

Mam
Med.
Mi.

Mamo

bskari gso.

Medical works of Tibet.

Mihi mtshan-nid *)5'rt^^

|

Mil
Mil. nt

thousand songs. Milaragpa's gvigi mgur hbuin hundred
1 Mi-la ras-pahi rnam-thar Rir W^*^r*^ Mila's autobiography.
1

Min-rda

Min-don brdah-sprod ^K.^ ^"'^ (Dag-yig).
Mongolian.

Hong Mng

Man-Hag rgyud

^ tq

a medical work.
I'|S

XXX
Mgrin
Jlgur

Mgrin-snon sla-wahi rtogs-brjod wg^' Mi-la ras-pahi mgur-hbum *)'orwq5 W|^'Rj*4
-

Mnon

Mnon-brjod
block-print

mkhas-pahi

rna-rgyan

*&r'4ft'*fanAl*y( | a Lhasa

work

in

80 leaves compiled by
fl

Nag Wang
<l

Jigten
^rom

Wangchug Tagpai Dorje (*T^" ^fa'^'5P'!
and other
Mtshan
Mtshan-ntd
lexicons.

F l&'^)
l

Sakya Panohhen's Tshig-gter, Tibetan translation of Amarkosa

*^^

|

Ndro

Na-ro chos-dr
Nor-lhahi ffzuns

Nor
flag

Dag-yig nag-sgron
Original texts.
in

Org
Org,

Pag
Pth

Original manuscripts. Etogs-bjrod dpag-sam h

Pad-ma

than-yig

Pur Rdo
Edo-phren

Purrang.
Rdo-rifi sum-rtags

Rdo-rje phrefi-wa.

Rdsa

Sgom-cJwn

daft rdsa-rtsig-gi

rnam-thar

Egyan
Sje-nam

Rgyan-gyi bstan bcos Bje rin-po chehi rnam-thar

Rnam
Etsa-g

Rnam-bgad snin-rgyan
Etsa-rgyud ^'|\
!

Etsa

.

ti

Dbu-ma rha

hgrel-pa g.ni$-ka,

Rtsa-shufi
Rtsi.

Man-nag rgyud-kyi rtsa-wahi gshun
1

Rtsis-kyi bstan-bcos |'r|
Rtsis-yshi phyogs-bsgriys

Etsii

S
S. del 8. g
S.

Sanskrit terms from Tibetan-Sanskrit Lexicons of Tibet explained

by

Satis

Chandra Acharya, M.A.
|

Gsum-hgrel ijgw^ai Shad-gyud, a medical work.
Sanskrit lexicon.

Lex

S. phren

Legs-bfad gser-hphren

S. kar

S. lam
S. leg S. o
/S.P

Bsam-yas dkar-chag Sambhalai lam-yig.
Sa-skya legs-bgad Qser-hod dam-pa
>nr

Sama

Suvarna-prabha, B. T. Society. Samadhiraya-sutra, B. T. Society.
Samkhya-tattva Kaunwdi.
Sanskrit or Sanskrt.

Sdm
Sans

XXXI
Sch ................... Prof.
Is.

J.

Schmidt,

Tibetisch-Deutsches

Worterbuch.

and

Tibetische grammatik.

Schr ................... Dr. A. Scbiefner.
Schl. .................. Dr. E. Schlagintweit, Buddhism in Tibet. Schtr ................ Schrdter, editor of the first Tibetan Dictionary. Ser ................... Qser-gyi Melon,

Shad. .................. Sman-gyi bqad-rgyttd Shal ................... s|e% Shal-ke. Sikk ................... Sikkim.
Situ ................... Si-tuhi sum-rt

Sman. g ............... Sman-rgyud or

ffi '19^ '$*\

q^

I

Sman .................. Bder-dge
Snan ................... Snan
flag

sman-b$dus chen-mo

9 Stiay ................... Snags-skad g !"'^ a vocabulary of mystic Sanskrt terms.

melon ^Wfif^f:
snifi-thig-gi

|

Snid ................... EM-chen

theg-mchog mdsod

Tje;l

Snd. HbTc ............. Eev. G. Sandberg's Hand-book of Tibetan.
Soff ................... Sog-gtam

Sorig ................ Gso-rig chos-hbyun

Spyod.

............... Spyod-rnam

Spyo ................... Spyod-hjug
Stg ................... Jttfan-hgyur if^'"l^' collection of commentaries. Snkh ................... Sukhavati-vyuha.
Simtn ................ Surangama Sutra r 1^*r''|'.5!
Tan.
d. ............... Bstan-hgyur-mdo Tan. snag ............. Bstan hgyur snags. Ta ................... Tara Natha's Rgya-gar c/iog-hbyun, histoiy of the
I

iWS^^

rise of

Buddhism.

Theg ................... Theg-mchog mdsod ^-wXflpS^ Thgr ................... Bar-do thos-grol chen-mo w^^^'^'Sl
j

Thgy ................... Thargyan, scientific Tib ................... For Tibetan.

treatises.

Trig ................... Triglot a collection of Buddhist terms by Prof. Minayeff. Ts. or Tsan .......... Qtsan "!&' Tsang province.
Ts. kah ................ Btsun-mo bkah-than

Tshig ................ Tshigs-brgya-pa
ff.

.....................

The

province of

^

Dbus, Central Tibet.

V.

C................... Vajra-chedika.
'|'^'*\''1^'3
1

Vni. kar ............. Vai-durya dkar-po

Vai. sn ...............

2"

.^'l'^'^'

or

(

Vhi-dury

s.non-po)

.

Visuddhi.

............

Visuddhimaggo B. T. Society.

W.

or

W.

Tib ..... Western Tibet.

XXX11

Was Wik
Wts
Ya-sel.

Prof.

W.

"Wassiljew,

Der Buddhismus.
by Klaproth.

Wilson's Grammar.
a description of Tibet, Ed. ; r ..f ai-duraya-sel^'\'*'*r**3W)

Wai-tsang thu-shi
^
*"

AS **

TaA-ti

W'^'f H Dbt/afa-can
Rgya-bod
Yig-bskur
yig-tshafi
rnar*

tika.

Yig
Yig. k

j'S^irdf

|

Yon
Z.

Yon-gtan mdsod
Zafis-dkar

*w>"N
|

Zam

Brdah-yi hgtan-^cos Za-ma-tog q^s'^'flf^-rf^^'w^i

(Day-yiy).

*},

and + prefixed

to

some words Indicate them

as

("^^' brda

rnifi)

belonging to the

older orthography.

1 and
*

+ prefixed to

some words

indicate their Indian or Sanskrit origin.

words marked with asterisks were sent by Dr. Albert Grrtinwedel for being incorThey were collected by Dr. A. Schiefner. portated in this Dictionary.

GRAMMATICAL ABBREVIATIONS.
abbr.
abstr.
ace.

abbreviated; abbreviations.
abstraction; abstract.

genit.

genitive case.

gram.
ibid.
id.
i. e.

grammar.
ibidem, in the same place. idem, the same.
id
est,

accus.
act.

according to. accusative case.
active, actively.

that

is.

adj.

adjective.

imp.
impers.
incorr.
inf.

imperative mood.
impersonal, impersonally.
incorrect, incorrectly.
infinitive

adv.
arith.
b.
c.

adverb, adverbially.
arithmetic.

books.

mood.
beginning of a longer
[article.

cum, with.
construitur cum, construed with.

init.

initio, at the

c.c.

bust.

instead.

c.c.a. cf.

construed with the accusative,
confer, compare.

etc.

instr.
interj.

instrumentative case.
interjection.

ch.
cog.
col.

chapter.
cognate, related in origin. or colloq.
colloquial, colloquially.
collective, collectively.

interr.

interrogative, interrogatively.
intransitive.

inters.
i.o.

instead

of.

collect.

irr.

irregularly, irregular.

com.

comp.
conj.
contr.
corr.
correl.

commonly. compound, compounds.
conjunction.
contracted.
correct, correctly.

lang.
lit.

language.
literally, also literature.

long.

longitude.

masc.

med.

masculine gender. medical works, [longer article.

correlative, correlatively.

med.
metaph.

medio, about

the middle of a

dat.

dative case.

metaphorical, metaphorically.

demon.
deriv.

demonstrative.
derivative.

met.ormeton metonymical, metonymically.
myst.
n.

mystical or mystically.

dub.

dubious.
east.

name.
north-east.

E.
e. g.

N.E.
neut.
ni.J.

exempli gratia, for instance.
elegant, elegantly.

eleg.

neuter gender. ni fallor, if I am not mistaken.

elswh.

elsewhere.

n.p.

noun proper.
north-west'

emphat.
erron.
esp.

emphatical, emphatically.
erroneous, erroneously.
especially.

N.W.
num.
obs.

numeral.
obsolete.

equiv.

equivalent.

opp.
orig.

as opposed

to.

euph.
ex.

euphemistical, euphemistically.

for original work.

example.
explain, explanations.

orthog.
P-

orthography.
page.

expl.
extr.
fern.
fig.

extrimo, towards the end of a

para.
partic. pass.

paragraph.
participle.

feminine gender, [longer
figurative, figuratively.

article.

passive, passively.

frq.
fut.

frequently.

past.

past tense.
perhaps.
person, personal.

future tense.
general, generally.

perh.
pers.

gen.

XXXIV
pf. pi.

perfect tense.
plural number.
pleonastic, pleonastically.

8.E.

pleon.
p. n.

proper name.
poetically.

po.

pop.
poss. p.
postp.

popular language.
possessive pronoun.
postposition.

prep.
pres. pret.

preposition.

present tense, preterite.
probably.

prob. pron.
prop. pror.
j. v.

pronoun.
properly.
provincialism, provincial.

quod

vide,

which

see.

reL
resp.

relative.

respectful, respectfully.

bt,

substantive.

TIBETAN-ENGLISH

DICTIONARY.

T|

Ka

the

first

letter of

the Tibetan

that very

;

"ft"'*) g.nis-ka

the two.
find
*|

3.

in a

alphabet, corresponding in sound to the

large

number of words we

occurring
it

Sanskrit
letter
rtsci'ica

5R

or

the English K.
*|^-r i]^*'' {

Of

this

as the second syllable.

In some of these

we read:

K'W *-'
"1

shei-par grags (K. g.

4#4)

" the

has been added apparently as a differentiative particle and in the colloq. we often
;

ka
it

is

called the root."

As

the

first letter
:

find

it

annexed

to the

older monosyllabic

has the

" " the sense of beginning

form without explainable reason.
surely H^ dran-du ka sod (Pag. star yafi
'Tj
: ; :

*\W*fl'Qka-nai dag-pa pure from the begin" " ning. Again, it can signify power
:

II

indeed

t

^'^ n *f
i i

I^I^t-Jra'*)-*^ snan htsher-nifi ma-shu

42) later

ka-med though unpleasant to hear, I have no power not to say it wqflffri^ ma
;

again he indeed recollected (the separation).
"I

ka-med powerless not to give ma hgro ka-med. powerless not
i.e.,
-

ka for

;

w*3j'

;

"\t ka-tca a pillar.
1.

to go,
2. la

"|'P

ka-kha

the A-B-C, or alphabet.
bsaft-fkad

cannot avoid going. ") ka has almost the same sense in "V$ gfS)-i^S-q-9t &a c it
kyaft mi-phan hchi-wa
la

a feather:
ka-kha
secret

"I^VTTr^lf*
sgro-ho

ni

(K.

g.

"1

216)

in

(Lo. 35), no

re-

the

language ka-kha

signifies

a

source avails at death.

This letter seems

feather.

to have other metaphorical we read: "V^'a-q-nW"' 5

meanings
ka
sfiet

;

thus

"IT"
alphabet
;

ka-kha-pa a

beginner

of

the

Mod-pa

yin (K. g.

f>

bya-wa 179) "ka, so to be

^

a child.

called, is desire."

i\f ka-tho, also *[f&.'f ka-khahi tho, an

alphabetical register
T]
I:
1.

;

an index.

when used

in

numbers ka
denotes

signifies one or Tibetan as an affix to modern
it
:

first.

indicating 2. in

T^"! Ka-thog lit. "on the top of *| "; n. of a celebrated Buddhist monastery in Kham

many words
as \"\ de-ka

the, all the, the very,

belonging to the Rnifi-ma School, the Head Lama of which is believed always to be an
incarnation of his predecessor and holds the title of njlf'ir^ir'*^* The hill on
I

fkab$-ka has the
u,

same meaning
;

on a

certain occasion

2

TO
which
monastery was built have resembled the letter "\ ka.
this
is

I

said to
a

T$
I

ka-li

ordinarily written
H'

for

the

^'^' -^'

Tibetan Sanskrt word
1'3>

"^^^.^^^^l^-fta.-^m-^] (Deb. "I 26) On the bank of the Di-chu (Hlri-clui),
near Pom-po,
is

kd-li=*\'%t-' ka-phrefi the series of

the

monastery

called

letters gen.

beginning with

"1

ka,

i.e.,
:

the
")'*)'

Kathog.

consonants of the Tibetan language
ta-3>T$-5)aj yi-g*

a-lika-liyin "letters are of
i.e.,

TV ka-dag T^'^'i ka-naf dag-pa pure from the beginning. According to the Rnin-ma School of Buddhism it means
1
!

=

the

w

series,

vowels, and of the
(Situ. 3).
1.

"|

series, i.e.,

consonants"
:

?c

-' c|

'^

t
\

slon-pa-iiid (gunyata) emptiness, or
;

I the
(

kn-ka qrra
:

the crow.

2.
I

the void

that which
:

is

pure from the
1
is

cry of the crow

"I'T^^v^ V^*'

beginning
S*i'
I

f'T^f^'fl^TfTSV *'^**'
which
not comis

Vat. kar.) "if a

crow caws, wealth will be

(

Yig. lli) that

found."
Tj TJ II
in
:

pounded, being evolved of

itself,

pure

from the beginning.
Tls ka-sde ^tfif 1.

W. TT^'S

excrement (nursery word) ka-ka tan-ce= French faire
;

the four letters in

caca (Ja.).
1. a small coin of Ancient India (Cs.) TT^Ifa'g'y-gSMf " ka-ka-ni of the value of twenty shells 2. <srr^ the fourth (coteries)." part of a
:

the

first

group of the Tibetan alphabet,
1

namely,
secutive

Tp'^j't

1

2.

in

astronomy con|

numbers:
of

4'5)^'Vnv'$' |*<''*3*'|
of figures in the crocodile is con-

(Ya-sel. 45) the order

(zodiac
secutive.

sign

the)

_pwr/.

3.

the quarter of a mdna.

4.

the

seed of

TI

ka-pa the

first
;

volume of a work or

Alrm precatoriits,
5.

used as a weight
of

in

medicine.

the

a volume or anything else marked with the letter "I ka.
a series of works
ka-dpe,
also

shell

Cyprwa

moneta, used as money.
Tj

khahi dpe, an

A-B-C

expressed Tf^'^tl ka book a primer.
;

I"

TJ'^C* ka-ka-ran the cucumber

is

so called in

Kunawar

(Jd.).

Tip
series

kj-phrefi (ka-t/teng)=Ti'^ kali the

^

of

consonants

in

the

Tibetan

mountain situated
called

n. of a fabulous Ij'Tj'* ^rarrfK snowy to the north of a river

alphabet.

Patru, where

a medicinal plant
(8.

ka-mcd
J

called Tujanaya
helpless, powerless.
lit.

grows

Lam.

36).

TSY* '5 ka-smad sum-cu
letter *|."

"the thirty

(letters of the Tibetan alphabet) below the

lp|' Ka-ki-ni 1. n. of a Buddhist literary work. 2. n. of a female Buddhist
"
^q-ifa-wg-.sSc.-jj'ar'iHl-^viijXl (D. 20) (taught) the rites concerning the goddess Kakini to the saint Mai-bye Tshan-pa."
7

deity:

an acrostic; a metrical composition in which the initial letters of each line form a continuous word or
"1'fi ka-rtsom

t

H''!1'^

Ka-ku-fla

n.

of

a

river

sentence.

(K.d.^582}.

3
n.

TS'|*i *N

-

ka-ci skyem-ras fine

cotton

of a plant used in medicine, Tertninalia
arjuna.
2. = ^l'3 i'3 c
!
t .

cloth or muslin, so called

from

its

resem-

5)'^

c

-'^

dug-mo

fiufi-

blance to the superior quality of Tibetan

gi cifi-nor the

" fruit of the tree of

little

paper called skyems;
(8.

i

(ft

Wf*^r'T*|r Ml|
!

poison" (Nag.).

kar.

179)

different

sorts

of cotton

t

T^j

^

Ka-ke-ri-ya

^fw

n.

of

cloth, muslin, &c.,

brought from Upper
inferior

Tibet
cloth.

;

*!'$'

a tree which grew on Grdhrakuta, or of the Vulture-peak Hill Magadha

g*r

an

kind of ka-ci

(K.ko.^3).

Tj''Q

ka-ci-K

^f% n.
is

of a flower

*

ipf]

ka-ko applied in Sikkim for

T

(K. my.

"|

20).

-*fgf%

identical with

^

^'^ ka-ko-la.
ka-ko-la
*qft<si 1.
;

and ^f^, a plant with an esculent root (Anon colocasia) cultivated for food.
"I'l

cardamom,
a plant with

ka-lci

sometimes used for T$.

the fruit of Cocculus Indiciis

a berry, the inner part of which consists of seeds with a wax-like aromatic substance. 2.

Ka-lcog an abbr. of the names of two celebrated translators of the KahTj'^ZIJ

^*

TT^fanS

3^

Saccharum munja,

variously described as a fruit used in medicine; a poisonous tree-drug; also

but

is

T*V"*frf Ka-wa Dpal-brtseg? gyur and g'l'^'SlS'jacw^ Kluhi rgyal-mtshan of
:

Lcog-ro.

= TH'S
Syn.

the castor-oil plant.
**'*
-

T*
I'S'^l'fa'S

ka-cha -=^*\'* ka-ca.
];a-ch-ta

tnhan

man

;

s/a-wa

g*hon-nu |
;

i5-|-

sla-icahi

bye-ma (4fno.).

T|'3&'^
(Sc/itr.).

a habitation, a

hut

Tj'S /M-m(also
goods,
effects,

T* ka-cha)
I

^

articles,

property, nf jfc'trff "^'"frj^fl the king
after property;

furniture:

^1'$^!
ingly
;

ka-ihii(j
5

so,

like that, accord-

who

follows

T^T

^

ka-chug

mdsod

means

TwSwwSvi
spyud-lag;

property

^^^|^

de-ltar-byed,

do

liko that,

do accord-

causes satisfaction.

Syn.

^l
43).

^'^

yo-byad.;

ingly: rlNrfr^T^^'VTWHl "ifAme is disinclined let (him) not do like that"

f^m-3^ dnos-chas (Mnon.).
Tl'SSj

(A. M).
ka-ta in mystic language a term T|*^ for mother (K. ff. *\ 216).
a - ta - J;a !

Ka-can

n.

of a place in Tibet

(Deb.

1

Tj'5

ka-ci colloq.

T!

ka-rji

1.

a kind

n of a
-

tree

-

of coarse white cotton cloth largely im-

ported into Tibet from Nepal and used
for
is

making

prayer-flags.

A piece of ka-ci

generally four to six yards long and a foot and-a-half broad. 2. a kind of muslin;

an eye-medicine be made from kataka and honey, all eye-diseases may be removed (S. Lam. 38). 2. *ficW the
^|
if

a very fine cotton cloth imported from Benares: "l'^U q |'^''*g'P a ''*'SSI for each piece
of
kft-ci

clearing nut-plant, Strychnos potatorum. seed of this plaut when rubbed on the
inside of a water jar produces a precipitation of the earthy particles of water.

A

eight bushels of barley.

TT|
bird (K. ko.
*|

ka-ta-ma-ka n. of a kind of
2).

'^
city in
pillar of grass.

Ka-ta-ki-la
(8.

f

n.
;

of a
lit.

Ancient Sind

Lam. 35)

a

+

T5
;

***

^a-ta-ya, also "V5 -ffa-fya n.

of a place in Ancient India, probably the country of the Ocetae; according to Cs.

Tj'^'^f'^ Ka-tn

Bo-ta Indian n.

for

the town of Paro in Bhutan (Dsam.).

Scythia
+

n. of a district in Tibet.
'^'*[
<I

Ka-ta-ya-na nog-can lit. Katyayana with a hump on his shoulders
*I'$'

U|

W

f ^I'^Jj Ka-tu-ka
->a

n. of

a fabulous city
fifty

which

is

described

to

have been

;

one of the

six

heretical

teachers

who

yojana in circumference.

disputed with Buddha.

*R'*

ka-to-ra v.

*\'^'*-

ka-to-ra.

J T5*'5 Ka-tahi 6u
?fTRjniT

= 1'5'<*q ka-tya ya-m
;

Tl'^'l,

ka-tha-ra in

Kunawar

a sort of

the

son of Katyayanl

n. of a

peach

(Jd.).

Bhiksu (Buddhist monk) (flag.
+

3).
Tj'^'-'q

"H^'tf Ka-tahi bu-mo

Ka-thi-fi

a

Chinese minister

JjfTWTT*t,

<srr

the goddess
Hftiksu

Uma

who founded
xse

;

also the

mother of the

the monastery of

Hi kwan-

(Yig.46).
ka-the v. T*) ka-ica.

Katyayana.
"I'i

t T5*'g Ka-tyahi bu

JffrarRJT

lit.

the
ka-da-ru-ha

son of Katya.

It

is

said that the family

m&v

(prob.

name
the

of

Katyayana was given because
of

patriarch

the

tribe

took

the

a bird nestling on khadira trees) n. of a kind of bird (K. ko. "1 2).

vows of an
(K.
d.

ascetic

from the sage Nada
of a tree
n.
;

ka-dam-pa ^r?^,
i)^i-i5'>-fii
;

fsRfqr

1.

n.

^ 127).
ka-ta-ra
of

^^a(

-5* the

k-

t T5'^ (K.d.flS).

a

flower

dtimba flower

the tree Nauclea cadamba,

a
rehu mig a table
crossing

tree

with
2.

orange-coloured
<
<

fragrant
>
<
|

blossoms.
\

|rite Vr^?J)c|k t CT%te

of figures

made

of lines

each

of a species of bird of a deep blue colour and also that of a tree. 3. a

(ag.)

n.

other and forming squares.

kind of grass.
cotton
cloth

Tj'^
(fag.
2).

ka-ta>i

= **

rag

n|-^wq-^ ka-dam-pa can cloud, v. |^'

tprin-pa (Mnon.).

ka-tam-bha described as
' (K. d.

sfa'

t
(K.

T^'H
1.
"i

ka-da-ka

W
2.

also

"|'^'<i

ka-

62), n. of

an

insect.

da-pa
d.

n. of

a fruit.

n. of a

bird

20).

gshofi a basin,

bowl;

;r^Fcr

(also

"I'f^

ka-to*ra)

the

ka-da-pa

*m
tK

n. of a fruit

Tibetan form of the Hindi word katora.

(K.d.t

202)

;

prob.

the fruit of the

t ^1'^ v Ka-ta-ki name for mountain; n.
(8oh.),

^^
of

tree Fi'ms religiosa.

a a

generic

mountain
pedantic

ka-na-kam

?r*r5F

gold; a

synonym

for

l^v gser (Mnon.).

7

+ f

3
Tj'

7
i' T|'

(

J}|j

^*nm

n. of

an Indian

Kapistan;
Rgyal-rals

n.

paijdit

who

visited Tibet (J. Zafi.).

country. the (a history of

of a

The Bon
kings of
historians,

T|*3j'*

ka-na-tsa

(prob.

*iflfa)

lit.

Tibet), according to the

Bon

sprouting; generic

name
;

for a tree; the
|

was asserted

to

have been written in Kapi,

plant Abrus precatoriits ^ccw&frtyifipw the flowers of the ka-na-tta tree (K. g.

the language of the gods, in which the ancient Bon scriptures were mostly
written.
It
is

also stated that the

Bon

ka-na-im-na
a
tree

3>nref

n.

of

books were translated into the language of the Persians or Tajik people, from

(K.

d.

b22)

5t^f the plant

which again the Tibetans translated them
into

Commelina
Tj'^'^l
;

Benfjalvnsis.

ka-na-ya n. of a kind of a short lance attached by a string weapon to the arm, by which it can be drawn back
after having

the language Northern Tibet.

of

Shan

Shun

in

II
the
plant
resin

gum, resin (Jd.) extracted from a medicinal
;

'

1 *>ftw

an object ; 3 '^ ^'1 in aiqi^-^-ab-^qi-q^e.-'fl^-uc^f*^'
been thrown
at

called

fity-pa

The

root

is

gathered

(Juniper communis). in autumn or

the hands, a sword, a lance
'

and a large

arrow (K.

g.

113).

spring and being thoroughly cleansed, is cut into pieces and beaten into pulp. The
juice
is

+
Tj'SJ'T!

Ka-ni-ka

also

T^'l nfo*

squeezed out with a clean cotton

n. of

a celebrated Turuska (Tartar) king

who ruled over Palhava, Kashmir and Jalandhara (the provinces of the Panjab and Kabul) in ancient times he embraced
;

rag, being poured into a clean dry earthen pot is subjected to a gentle heat. As soon as it begins to thicken it
is

and

stirred with a spoon
2.

till

it

gains the

Buddhism and
last

is

said to have held the

consistency of resin.

the
tree;

hog-plum,
Pentaptira
tree ;

great Buddhist Council for the compilation of the Mahayana Tripitaka in

Spondias

magnifera
;

;

a

tomentosa
inpectoria.
3.

the

the

first

century B.C.

Also

mane-fig a wood-apple

Fiats
tree.

n. of a yellow orpiment.
ka-pi ka-lsha n. of a medi-

JKa-ynam

n. of

a province of
;

Tibet north-east of Kong-po (fnam-pa a native of Ka-ynam.
*

"|'R'i ka

cinal plant (K. g. * 51)

;

^fftf^f^

the plant

"W"! ka-na-ya smra for T^'" ka-na1

Mitcuna pruritus.
J

ya a kind of spear or lance,
are

^snra

and
of

T^

ka-pi-da

=

''\'*l

ka-pi.

synonymous terms.

t
;

ka-pa-la

m\*

^ Ka-pi-na *fiH n. of a king Southern India who lived in Buddha's
of the world.

T

the skull
kapala
skull

the
or

forehead.
knpali

In

Tib.

Budh.
the

time and considered himself the greatest

monarch
verted

signifies

either

or

a

His vanity was

drinking cup made of the
I
:

human

skull.

exposed by the Great Teacher,
raised

Kapi

n. of the

language that
of

him him

to

who conBuddhism and ultimately
of

to the position

an Arhat

was anciently spoken in the country

6
n. of a vfin Ifr Brahmanioal sage whose hermitage waa
at the
its capital
>t|-q-g

in the shape of a water-pot

;

mouth

of the

Ganges

(-S.

Lam.).
n. of a

i-^-^ ka-wa (.brul-mgo-can the pillar that had a serpent-shaped capital T*
1

'

;

^c.-J6'^ ka-ica qin-lo-can

the pillar which
trees

1 H|'^C'S| ka-pM-tha

wfr?ir
<*

had designs of leaves of
capital
;

round

its

very delicious fruit (K. d.

20).

T^cwSf -*^

ka-wa

sefi-mgo-can

+

Tfj'q^'^ ka-pin-da-ka

*ffo^

n.

of

a kind of bird.
n]'*}'^

the pillar with a lion's head on its capital. These were the names given to the four
principal pillars of the Jokhaug temple of Buddha at Lhasa, built by King Sron-

Ka-pu-ta

n.

of

a place

in

Ancient India where, in accordance with the curse of a holy sage, adultery and
incest were punished with the

btsan

ggam-po about

640

A.D., after

the house in which such crimes

burning of were

the model of the pillars in the palace of the Emperor T'ai-tsung, called Kyii liin
tin,

the palace

of

the golden dragon.
ka-ica

committed (Dvam.).
ka-pcd
a

qflwjj-tl-q

yHtim-gyi
;

^nurraww
sa-yi

the

pillar

of heaven

wSJ'T^

ka-wa

gourd;

a

sort

of

medicinal fruit (Lex.).

S^nw the pillar of earth; d'wJ'Tq nic-i/ika-iea gftrww the pillar of fire; $$'
"I'l

TV 5! ka-pha a
Tl'^
I
:

tree.

e/in-yt

ka-ica

sr^reiw

tlie

pillar

of

water,

these

are

the

fabulous
in

and
the

Ka-u-a n. of the mother of

metaphorical
astrological
ffyi<-/ti

pillars

mentioned
of

Bromton, the founder of the Buddhist
hierarchy of Tibet (Qbrom. P 37).
psug-pa
pillar,

works

Tibet.

"TO^'^'q

ka-ifii
is

one that
;

a pillar of turquoise, or studded with turquoises

dent

;

column, stake, support also trithe neck of a pillar or "V5| ka-ske

(Lha.kar. IS).
T|-jUar*)

Ja
the

khol-ma n.

of

a historical

column; *faka-tked. the shaft; "r^T" house or temple havka-gpig-ma a small ka-chen the prinbut one pillar ing
;

T^
;

grand temple of Buddha at Lhasa, inside of which the earliest
pillar in

known MS.

of Tibet, called

qTp-3*rT

ka-rten a cipal pillar, very large pillar; Tf^ the base of a pillar T^l* ka-$tcg$ the

pedestal of
"Va 6 *

a pillar;

"V*M ka-pdan the
;

fT*M, and said to be the will of King Sron-btsan Rgam-po, was alleged to have been found in the middle of the eleventh
century A.D.

base or pedestal on which a pillar stands

ka-spuns
;

of" pillars
n|-q-^K ^

a colonnade, a number Ti'fl !'*^ a grooved pillar
;

a-myo the capital of a

pillar.
lit.

q$

m-q5'3je: ^STOT

^TT:

of houses built with pillars

(lit. the town and king-posts)

ka-tca-can
;

with

one of the thirty-six holy places of the Buddhists *r*rg*)'i'*^ ka-wa bum-pa-can
;

In the sense a pillar or pillars a house. of being the supports or upholders of the
Marpa, the Tantrik sage of were called 1^ ka-can bshi "the four pillars of his
school
of

one of the

pillars of the great

Jokhang

Tibet, his four disciples

*W

temple at Lhasa, with the upper part of

school."
eion,

They

received his bkah, commis-

f)'K'J- the

extremity of a pillar which
.

regarding Buddhism, and were also called qT^-qq^rq^ " the four commissioned
ones."
disciples
:

projects over the capital (architrave)

The

following were "e|'r^ Chos-rdur

the
of

four
;

ka-fitb$=*\-t$--w ka-wahi $ubs the cover of a pillar, perhaps the abacus.
T|

T3W
^

Bnog

Bsod-i/ams

III

:

rgy/il-mfs/ian

;

Mtshur-dican
Tol;

rdo-rj?

of

by a mystic process

and

q Mi-la ka-gciy

ra$-/)(t.

sgu-g.ciij

1.

a small

hunger, This is one of the six practices of the Buddhist Tantriks who practise yoga
(meditative concentration).
T] Q|

a particular faculty acquired in which the appetites &c.^ are suppressed. thirst,

house with but one pillar and one door, 2. mode of gen. a small prison-house.

A

capital

punishment
is

is

said to be called so

IV ^fWW
:

when

in the

abdomen

the culprit

fastened to a pillar in
.

;

a large vein or artery a vessel in the side of

a dungeon until he dies of hunger (Jd.)

the breast containing vital air (sniHI0, supposed to be brought into action in

kn-hphan the

ornamental

silk

above mystic process.

fringes aud embroidered hangings made
in various mythical designs for decorating

^ t
the

T^'5

J;a

^ ta *fwi
or

n. of

a tree,
Feronia

the capitals of pillars.
*|-q'q3c.-Hj

elephant
(S.

wood-apple,
38).

Elephantum

Lam.

a

strong well-finished

pillar.

I ^'q'^'OI
ka-wahi sbyar-bkod a
cor-

ka-bi-ta-la 1. n. of a tree
2.

(K.

d.

400).

probably ^ftm

benzoin,

storax.

nice

;

the

ornamental projections,
pillar
;

&c.,
'<l
',

which surmount a
pieces

the decorative
pillar.

Ka-bu-lo, described
of a

which are attached to a
=.'*<

n.

Gandhan-a Eaja
"1

Prince
493).

ka-man-ma a house with many

of the celestial musicians (K. my.

pillars.

ka-mig the square space (of about twelve feet) enclosed by four pillars is
*V*)"|

ka-bed or S'l ku-wa, gourd. In *!] H^ the district of Ped-ma dkod in Tibet, just north of Assam, the gourd is called
a-btim
1
:

called

a ka-mig
is

;

the area or enclosure

^'Wr^^^^^i
:

w$

!

the gourd

fruit cures fever

and diarrhoea

:

of a colonnade
"1't"

measured by the ka-mig.
burnt or baked gourd eaten with molasses
cures bloody diarrhoea (K. g.
ka-yan-rfse)
pillar.

ka-rtse the top of a pillar.
1

"Vt"

ka-rtse

47).

("I'uie. !"

the
a-bel n. of a city in

upper part or capital of a
ka-pshu

Ancient

**isi<si+

capital

of

a

wooden

pillar

;

a piece of timber in the

Udyana, i.e., ur^'^ U-rgyan yul probably the modern Kabul.
Ka-bo-ka
n. of

in

shape of a bow fixed on a pillar to hold up the main beam (Lex.).

a Prince of

Ancient Kabul (S. Lam. IT).

8
Ka-ma-cha or "!''* Ka-mutsha <tim gl n. of a sacred place in
i

precious

Assam

where there
the

is

a stone-cut symbol of Kali,

^'^ S'^'9^ ri-rab-kyi thing a smaller peak of the mountain ri-phran Sumeru %'? fifl-rta a chariot
; " ; ;

Hindu

goddess.

gser-gyi kha-dog the colour of gold.

ka-ma-ta the lotus (Nag.).

a

celebrated

Buddhist
ka-ma-tsi

**fa

a kind of

philosopher

of

the
in

ancient

monastery of

Vikrama9ila

Magadha,

medicinal plant: T*^^-q-|-^-g^^-flp)v " if the root of ka-ma-t&i be placed ^<^
|

who

introduced the Yogacarya Mahayaua School of Buddhism into Tibet, after
defeating
in

on the
(K.
g.

top of the * 56).

head, sleep arises"

controversy
to

a

Chinese

t

T*^
fl'JTQI
lotus

kama-ru

1.

Kamarupa
;

in

Assam.

2. alabaster

(Scii.)

^'"VW^i rdo

ka-ma-ru-pa marble.

the Tibetans to the doctrine of the " do" nothing school during the reign of King B'ST^W'"^ Kliri-sroft gde-^u tyson about the middle of the 8th century A.D.

hoshang who wished

convert

*
lily,

ka-ma-la

inm
2.

1.

the water3.

Nelumbium.

a river.

=
is

Tj'^rEj
(flag.
(Z).

ka-mrt-li a

very sharp sword
I

3j*rlt*w gros

sems a consulting or

reflect-

2):

^^'a1n'"^'t!V^ ^l*^

ing mind (&ag.).
variously used

The word Kamala
it

by the Tibetans, and the
(both symbolic
are

R.) grasping in his nine hands nine lotus-hafted razors.
ka-mu-la

following synonyms of

and metaphoric) work (flag.)
:

enumerated in the

rdo-rgyad n.

of a sort of alabaster or steatite

found

in

Syn. 8^'* sgrahi gHe-ma soft tones " a branching tree gc-QS-JjVs* myos-bum the teats of an ele;

Central Tibet (Jd.).

;

*lS'^
crooked:
steel

ka-tsa rkfd-nng rusty
:
'

and
"the

8t '9^' ITI^
"

^S'?' I'^V

I

) l

i*

)

*I

l

phant
truth

;

yrw*iX| s^^f%

n. of a

Buddha

;

ribs of the coat of mail
(Jig.).

which are

n^'H't) bden-$mra-ica
;

one who speaks the
;

rusty and bent

fr^r* nam-mkhah the sky

nor-bu a

gem

;

^|V"f^'

c'

snafi-lyed

n-

of a kind of

pa the second luminary, the
la-plaH a bull;

moon
:

;

w'*w bar-gyi

rgF

bird (K. ko.

*|

2.).

the middle zone or boundary sbmn-chafi beer (\aft~pa swan; J|=.'**'
cf

ka-tsa-lin-di (prob.
-

J

made
heavenly
stuff,

fl'

dress

made

of

a

honey

;

^Jf5 i\**v

dwafi-pohi gsal a
;

i.e.,

the finest kind of silk

w'^ lamp, that which clears the sight Aeabufialo; *>'^'SI mi-mohi ah a woman's
^
-\

which
for

is

used

for

presentation
n. of a

at

an

interview, or

when making an
;

application

song
horse

;

i^VW'5
;

bshon-pahi

rta

a riding
;

any

favour, &c.

very fine

^'^

yul-phran a small country

cloth or linen

made

of Kacilindi (Lex,).
n.
-*\

^'Vl*! ri-dbags

a deer

;

^c.-*i|N-ci l,,n
;

tshags-

Ka-tsan-ka-la

of
18).

a

pa

a collected mind

^'5'S

rin-po die

Bhiksml (Buddhist nun) (K.

d.

g
Ka-tsi-li-ban the Kachili
forest

^

I

S'S^'f 5S'8*'Rg|*r T'3> 9 q3i qi 2rI Mr on the northern bank of the river
1

|

-

p

1

1

;

:

II ^ ka ra tent-pole ; a tent-pole with a grooved bulb sdig-pod
:

T^T

2

-

on top used

in

some countries; T^'tjT
|

Rohita there

is

the Kachili forest

and a

*\i

I

or

T^-RR-^-q

tt

tent-pole without

Nepalese stronghold (Daam. 21).
Tj'S*'^''^
(Scfitr.).

a grooved bulb on top.
sea

ka-rtsa-tja-la

the

ka-ran-dsa
*f a medicinal fruit or berry n. of the tree Pongamia glalra and Vcrbosina scandem. ^M*|J'<^*?^'|^ karandsa pro;
I

ka-rtsam a species of wild oats
it

;

differs
is

from

yug-po or

Tibetan oats

and

considered superior to buckwheat,

duces natural waimth

(in

the stomach).

but inferior to wheat.
T|
to
f^'l

Syn. ^'Ivl" rul-byed skyes;
mar-gyi gun
<*g*i'^|'q
ts/tiys
;

'ro^l

Ka-tshal n. of a place situated

f'Vl'V* rtsod bycd-ma

the east
the

Lhasa; monastery known
of

of

^3'f'S'* wl '5' 'l'*' 1 '^'
l

hjam-hbrus
;

as

Ka-tshal
tJ (Cen-

drug-pa

dbye-wa; *ipi 1'rqi'|q^ sno-ma lu-lci/>f

Lha-khan

Mal-gro in Upper

tral Tibet).

f T^'S
Ea-t&higs
title of

ka-ra-da n. of a bird, the cry
like the

cheii-po

the

of which It
is

is

sound of a drum.

a Buddhist

work on the genealogy

described in Buddhist books as like

of the

Kings

of Tibet (Gyal. S. 28).

fire in colour,

and

as located in the abodes
d.

of the

Asura

described

as

(K

R

15).

" n. of an Indian Chailya situated (Dsam.) on the high hill (of Gaya Gauri)."
I:
ka- ra

TJ^'^'^I
Chinese satin

ka-ra-m-jus a kind of fine
(Ji;/.).

*V^'|*r^*rfi'*r?w]*r

ftr^-I$-$wr|--^rgirttj
satin (called) karanajus

the kinds of

sugar:

are distinguished by their colour

and damjus, &c., and the

^wS-Y^

!

having taken sugar and

shape of the figures on them.
a kind of f|'*s'^*^f ka-ra-na-rus Chinese satin: <K. p>wi'r2vT|-^-$r^-^c
-

arsenic in equal parts, if beer made from the root of Colhajana be drunk, the gravel of the bladder will be ejected; T^'ST'

ka-ra
Jj"l
1

dkar-smug

brown
a

^ws*!

sugar;

"|'V

aprons are mostly narus and ta-shin satin.
ka-ra-naft

made

of kara-

t tST'Sj T9^i! r wn-t!!

kind of

brown
in

crystallized

treacle

and honey; T^'^T
sugar,

the

mystic

9^

ka-ra

tog-tog

loaf

sugar

in

language of the Ddkini of
of pigs (K. g.
f>

Tibet=the food

lumps; jarfriy* Rgyal-mo ka-ra sugar from Rgyal-mo Ron, situated on the confines of Tibet and China; I'*'*!'* bye-ma
ka~ra powdered sugar, or granulated sugar ^rT* fel-ka-ra rocky candy (K. y. *
6).
;

27).

ka-ra-bi-ra or

"I'V^A ka-ra
oleander,

wi-ra

^f^^k

1.
;

a
a

fragrant
species of

Ner'mm odorum

soma; a

10
formula or spell for particular magical recovering a missile of mystic properties
after its discharge.

V^'*3 Ka-ri'hi bu-mo
the daughter of Katyayana
1.
;

Uma.
2.

[The name

karavira

is

also applied to the daphne plant,

from the
(fag. 3).
a-re,

a wedge (Jd.).

white

bark of which Tibetan paper is made. The the white karavira rubbed creeper called
with the blood of the rock-lizard and the

probably "T^
is

<?a-re.

The

use

of the latter

very common
l

in Eastern

medicine gmutha rubbed with Bhringiraja, when conbined, make an ointment which
the cures venereal eruptions on the skin of 2. a sword or scimitar. penis (K.g.^^9).]

Tibet.

In Sikkim they say TJ? ka-te, what ? which? 8 3|" ri5 V' l'*''W Upasaka, in
1

>l i'

f

t

what do you delight ? (A.

94).

Syn.

*-5ffc-3jS

io-sor rgod;

-*^'^S so-sor

1*^

Ka-lu-ta in mysticism
|

T

01

'^'

Mad;
lag-pn;

y1*S

rta
)

0od;
'?'l'*^

SW^T"
ff

dpah-po

Ka-la-ta

is

described as a
g.

fllK5 q l*''*

s
;

4

f (a 9S me-tog

man of

lovely appearance (K.

*\216).

can

;

i|S'2*'

brgyad gye$

*\W

ytum-po
Ka-la.piH.ka wftv a a singing bird with a sweet voice. sparrow According to Lex. the Indian cuckoo.
;

'^'''T
kind of bird (K.
4-

ka-ra ru-be-ka
ko.
"I

2).

Syn.
ka-ra
/>a-ri=Z*>* bit-ram

3r<J|SE.-uuj-'J|<i|

rgyal psufi yan-lag;
;

t!^!j'*fwi rjef hgro tnklan

f^oS'S^

srf<m-

sugar (Snian. 291).
lea-ran da-wt

dpe-can; $'^5'q^ rna-n-ahi bcud; fc.3$go-nahi dug na$ gkad gmraht
diran (Mfion.).
,

I
sort of

:

ka-ran-da

*K"m

1.

a
I

wild duck;
is

T^'i^V^'W'^'
of
fqr^f,

l'^g JTfl-fa-jf,

^rg^ n. of a king:
at
t

karanda
bird.
2.

the

name

a sweet-voiced
in

i^ff%-^irq

h at

SiTW, also

Sans,

a

basket or covered box of

bamboo wicker;

time (there lived) a king named Kalaputra, fierce and wrathful (K. my. "I 209).

work used
for
n. of

for keeping books in
;

a basket

flowers

"X**ir

^f
d.
i

Ka-la
the black lord of death
275).
n. of a

ro-zan,

lit.

a Buddhist work (K.

who

eats the

dead

;

Naga.
<fi,,rer

II: ^<r, sjgf white.

+
ka-ras, abbr. of Kaphfihi ra$,
T|*Q1'-^

pitcher,

jar

;

a large

the Benares muslin which used to be in

waterpot.

great

demand

in Tibet.

In the sacred

Aa-%
similar

in

W. mud;
;

earth and
also other

books of Tibet the gods are generally "fw^' dressed in fine Benares muslin,

water used instead of mortar

compounds

(Jd.).

nwpr^vng'5^

|

for

imitation
ia

Benares

muslin the price per piece
barley.

two

bre of

a species of bird, probably the Bul-bul.

11

Ka-lan-da-ka
1.

the
$*'
39).

birth-place
2,

of

Vis'wantara

(Dus-ye.

a town.
!

2.

an individual:
-

T^'VI^

^'1^*

having arrived at the town of
:

a bird, a native of an island or maritime province of India bordering on
the Indian Ocean (K.
'Tj'Qj

Kalandaka

^T'i'atai v|S'g'*'V i '^r t ''
I

d. * 15).

wl^2=.-q<fi then appeared Zan-jin the long-lived, son of Kalandaka (K. d. *.

ka-le

or

T^i

kaleb

saddle-

cloth (Jd).

^
ka-lan-dsa-ri-ka
1.

T]'-^

*-pa = gt-|"
of grass

span-rtsi
d. *

(tfag.)

a

species

'(K.

91)

fsi

a flowering plant

;

also the flower

Saccharum spontaneum.
I:
l

used in yajna
2.

sacrificial fire

(K.

g. S 33).

belonging to

^rare,

an animal struck

*-?*-*

the finest Benares

with

muslin

a poisoned arrow; tobacco.
ka-lam-ka, described as
',

;

cotton cloth of the finest texture
;

W

formerly manufactured in Benares *]'^' T* "^ tnil( is i* Benares muslin which
<
)

n.

of a place in Ancient India

(D
ka-lam-ba
Cotivolvolus repens,
*<?!*>(

in ancient times was of Itgreat repute. is said that even the to wear gods

longed

clothes

the pot-herb
;

made

of this material.

According
flax as

to Cs.

Menispermum calumba

ka-gi-ka

means a kind of
-

a

medicinal

plant:

R^ni'^j

the leaf of Kalamla
4)-

"pwqS'JS'wwarpw when eaten

well as linen cloth; <%*Aftft$l|f4f| white Benares linen "1 3' ]S-'*g-|i the oil of
I

;

>3 "W

improves health (K. g. *
.

kagika grain, prob. linseed oil.

,|

q

J

ka-ld-pa

of many gate accumulation of excellent and wonderful

an aggreaccomplishments; an
*<?iin
1.

II: of Kashi (Benares) inhabitant of Benares.

j

y^
^
^

;

an

T^'TSi'*'

ka-yi

ka phra-mo fine flax;

Benares muslin.
*|-%i ka-p's, abbr.

properties in one place or thing (Lexx.). 2. the Buddhist Utopia; the capital of

of

T-W-^i,
of

cotton

cloth.

the fabulous
T|
QJ

kingdom

of S'ambhala.
1\

Ka-$i-ru

n.

a place

or
:

] .ii fa

an abbreviation of the word

island in the Indian ocean (K.
R5fa

ka-pa-li,

a skull (Lexx.).
ka-U-ka
1

d. ^ 319) one of the nine divisions of Jambu-

^

T| ^I'T]

1.

described
fruit of

as

dvipa.
Tj'^J

si^qi-^-q-^^gisi-^-^c.Htiiynolia

the

the

ka-sa

the

colloq.

form of the

flower-plant
2.

;

a bud of that flower

(Mnon.). prob. *f<a*u, a plant bearing a nut which is used as a febrifuge, grey

expression a*p'*pw bkah gsal, a definite order or clear message. According to Jd. kasa and kaso are mutilated forms
of qT^-qpi bkah bstsal,

Bonduc.

meaning in Ld.
;

Ka-M-ga
ka ^ftr^?
1.

or

*\'fo'"i\

Ka-l-in-

"yes,

sir

;

very well,

sir

at

your service."

sacred places

one of the thirty-six Buddhist said to be situated at a
yojana S.

T]'^ ka-sun ka-ra f^''|t.' n of a city of Ancient India"
,

distance of 60

E. of Gaya

also

(Dsam. 25).

12
Ka.ha-na ya-na of an Indian Pandit (Yig. SO).
I

fi-

kad in Ld. sometimes used instead
of the affix
fe'"lS
"\

la n.

ka,

e.g.,
1

^'"R

g.ni$-kad,
(Jd.).

tsan-kad; also

^' ^ mnam-kad

'

Kak-ku

ti-pa n.

of

an
I
:

Indian Buddhist sage (K. dun. 52).

kan

bank
secret

:

I'l^WJT'^TfA'Vr''^''

(see P'^ kJia-na) the side or 1' on the
I

t

Kako-ln

*Tl<d
*|

a

further

bank

of the river Sri-chu there

abode of the ZMvwi

(JT. 0.

being a country of brigands (A. 27).
II
:

IT* kag-ma mischief , harm,

also spelt
:

Vft

fkan, to

cease

danger

(Z.)
lant

;

"II or ^"| or ^"1 implies
i<i|-|*<-<>iMi:

some

absolutely from

Vs

!

*"!!

^'1^^ 1^1
;

"

now

accident or injury;
had-kyif
fleeing

from harm

;

a(K.j-ai)A$-q|

going from a place which has

give up anger and passion" *i^'*ft cease to tell anybody. Here the word "ft kan is an emphatical prohibition (Bon.).
1- TT^ the palate in padkan phlegm lit. the plywer of the palate. 2. TTTO that seizes or takes away
: ;
;

not suited one owing to bad luck or any accident also to run away from a place
;

HI

from

fear; adv. II'S)*

suddenly

(Sch.).

kog-ka-wa *ir*K* n.
speoies of bird living

of

a

by

force.

3. *tt** 4.

a thorn; an illness; a
n. of

on the Vulture-peak
"1

disease

(Lex.).

the

pulse

felt

Hill near
7

Gaya (K.
!]

ko.

2).

with the middle finger called kan-ma.
1.

Tp'
2.

kan-ka n<f, aiarzf

crane.

Kan-ni-ka

*f{*

district in

in Tibet a bird that feeds on dead
is

bodies and

therefore called

the east of India (K. d. * 267).

^'9 dur-bya

the bird of the cemetery.

f 'IR'f *1F'^ vg*
the
1.

(

Hi

the

daughter of
also

kan-ka-ra
flower described as

n.

of a

hunchback)

*|JJjj,

written

growing on the Vul-

^jS-^m Kar-nyahi

yul, a city in

Ancient

ture-peak Hill of
2. prob.

Gaya (K.

ko.

*|

ff).

"fcl^fa the plant

Alangium hexa-

India, the capital of which was Kanyakubja, the modern Kanouj (K. du. ^
131).

putalum.
:'

Kan-dan-Un prop.

n.

of a

f|3j'JI

kan-ma the middle

finger.

terrific deity,

tery of

When the monaswas built, the image of Sam-ye Kan-dan-kin was placed on the first floor
a Ddkini.
of the principal temple (Gyal. S. 87).

T Tj^'v Kan-tsiq^

n. of aprovim-e,

and

also that of a city of

Buddhist fame

in Southern India (Du$-ye. 39).

Kan-tsha-ranga a
in

kan-ta-kd-ri

<Bir< a

place

Ancient Bengal, called Gaur in the
language and Gha-bron
in

wild Rubus

;

n. of a plant, Solanumjaquithis
;

Indian

the

ni; also the fruit of

plant; a drug

colloq. of Tibet (8. Lam.).

useful in stopping fever

a thorny

stick.

13
Syn. M*W*.8tyV Man-ma; yttl hkhor gkycs ; ^'^ stag Man;
{dan;
karka-ta or " stellation of Cancer."

*pj'?

nfc, the conis

%'%*> ts/ie

It

represented

Iv*r^
*r^
skill

tshtr-ma

can;
1

$*'%*. **rg

by the frog ($**)

in Tibet.

rtsub-mohi reg-bya;

fil*!'*^'*

phyogs meddescribed as ^'S'*!*^ 5, a yellow precious stone (K. d. " 295).

ma

;

byed (Mnon.).

gem

or

TP'^ZJ
tanned skin

kab-kob=*i'<r<!i^%
(.Afy/. S).

hide

;

un-

^
kab-fa shoe
;

kar-skyin loan
1 ski/in (Jd.).

;

in polite lan-

leather shoes of

guage

v.

Hindu

fashion
(Jd.).

used

by

the

wealthier

Tihetans

Kar-rgyal a Naga
r*=
l

(S. kar.).

p.'*|

kafl-ka,

i'V^^j
line of the

members of the

la ta-mt 5j^tizT crane.

Karma-pa hierarchy;
of the

also

an

abbreviation
-./fl

a kind of
pahi-rgyudpa.

expression

Karma-

growing on the Vulture-peak Hill near

Gaya (K.

ko.

"J

3)

;

proh.

the

plant

kar-chag (also written

Crinum Amaryllacee.
Kam-bo-dsa

a register

;

list

;

index.

e\

wtw
;

1.
(

a

f

7

T|^.'^'

; T|

kar-ni-ka grp5,

fwrr

n.

country in the north-west of India
(A.),

Vai.

written Kampo-rtse (Jd.) n. of a fabulous city said to have contained an

of aflower of the shape of an ear-ring (K. * g. 2) ; the flower of the tree Ptcrospef'

mum

acerifolium

and

of Cassia fistula.
tafia-ia

area
2.

hundred yojana (S. Lam.). modern Cambodia, anciently called Champa.
|

of

a

,

karna k?a-ra=*<*

borax (Smau.
karni-ka in mystic language

Kam-bo-di-ka

n. of the coun-

=

try,

also

of the people, as

well

as of

driLbu, a

beU (K.

g.

f>

27).

articles that

come from

it

(K. du. S
(Seh.).

*
Tjfj

kar-ma

=^'w
service
;

hphrin-las. or

i*
;

kahu water-melon
Kahu-hi?
minister (Yig. 24).
n.

qp$

commission,
is

action

;

work

that which

of a

Chinese
*j*

produced
(in

from action

;

-

Wi Karma-pa
of

Nepal

called *Pit*)

n.

a

Tantrik

school of

Buddhism.

kar, also kar-kar, great

pain

;

suf-

The head
the
title

of that school in Tibet holds

fering (Lex.)
.

;

ip-np-|q|-awi

|

aching pain

of Rgyal-wa of

Karma-pa.
of

The

4-).

followers
a

the school

are generally

= V;wiMCit nad zug

designated by the

name

Karma-pa.

(Nag),
ness
;

irritation or pain in sick-

Karma-gfiii-pa the second head
of
this
sect,

exacerbation.

named

Pak&i

or Baksi,

14

was invited

China by the Emperor Kublai Khan. The third chief, called Karma Rafi-byufi rdorje, was invited to Peking
to

cowries,

commonly termed
it

a knban ;

if

of

copper,

weighs 80

raktika, or the

same

as of gold, about 176 grains.

by the Emperor Temur Toakwan.
fourth

The
was a
55*1

Karma Rol
The
fifth

pahi

rdorje

kar-pibs (abbr. of
dkar-yol-gyi
fubj)

friend of the last

monarch
to

of the

dynasty.
flfegs-pa

Karma

Mongol De bahin

the

cover of

a

china

tea-cap,

generally made

of iron,

was invited

China in the reign
10).

brass or silver: "iv-jpurarg'qj kar-qubj-la
bre-bcu (Rtsii.)

of the

Ming Emperor Tunglo (Lon.

*pfQW%*>'

Karma
the

bstan fkyofi the last

made

of silver (the price
J

"for the cover of a tea-cup is) 10 bre."

of the Sde-ba Gtsafi-pa or rulers of

Tsang

kar-sa n. of a kind of brick-

and

tJ

Khan

Mongol Chief Gu-shi overthrew (LoH * 15).

whom

tea; also called ff&'e l/an-ja (green tea) or

fc.-rT^

lj(tn-/a

pa-ri;

also

the tea that

*fiK&]&ttr-ma la-dura *4i=H| n. of an o

comes from the Chinese

district of

Jan

:

Indian pandit who worked in Tibet for

Buddhism

(J. Zan.).

kar-$mug

or T^'OT'i ktt-ra(Jig.).

by the Jang route (come) both Karsa and Bod-thing (teas), now well
*'
I

smug-pa brown sugar or treacle

known

as Jang-ja (Jig. 23).

Tl^'Sfa

kar-yol (also written *&&<*,

']
as

Kar-Sog, an abbr. of Kar-ma-

meaning white ware) porcelain; chinaware a china cup.
;

pa and Sog-po, followers of the Karmapa sect and the Mongolians.
;

Tfj^'OJC'P
to rise

kar-laA-wa to
(Jd.).

stand up

'fp
Tibet.

Karti sgan n. of a place in

suddenly
2
''^

t ^^'"T
of

kar-fa-pa-ni

^fT^nTO

1.

1
age
;

for f|t| kalpa

i^'i bskal-pa

w, an

a coin in Ancient India,

or a

weight

varying value;
;

a

Ma

a mythical period of time. kd-ka
^rrat

or one rupee

weight of gold the value of two Tibet sho ma-nu Ina sags md-sa-ka, de-rnamt bcu-drug kar:
|

T

T|'T|

a crow.

'pT*I

ka-khi-la
g.

(mystic)

door;

en-

sa-pa-na,

^q^'Sj^^'^'f

|

de bshi ni gser-

trance (K.

F 28).
ktca-txi

manu make a mdsaka, sixteen mdsaka make a kar-sa-pana, and four of these make a gold sran (i.e., half a
xran-no (Nag.) five
tola

T]'Q^fe
.

ka-hji^
(Seh.).

a shirt;

a

of gold).

2.

^KOff^ft4
3.

" value of 1,600 emeries."

^^

Chinese jacket
'

In Chinese Kua-tzn.
1

the

gmnnracoin

KMy
tl
I

bu - mo

described

or weight of different values
of gold,

= karsa

:

if

as

Vt'fT^' IIft*V

tne

goddess

Uma,

weighing sixteen masa, which are
;

wife of

Dwan dphyug

(Mnon.).

variously calculated

if

of silver, in value
i.e.,

equal to

16 pana of cowrie^,

1,280

T]''T|

kd-ta-ka fish (SaMr.).

15
ka-pa-li

mm

human

skull

;

kwa-ye an exclamation used in
calling some one, generally a subordinate.
this

cup made of

skull:

^rnwrgcqvgir^'
having

crfe-HHI

(A. 121)

made

the
cation
is

silver pieces green, (he)

put them in the

word

in its mystic signifi-

skull-cup.

symbolic of the source
(matter
that

of all

Dharma
Kd-bc-ri

and phenomena), and
they are subject to

f

7

I1'3'*

qntd

the

river

demonstrates

q

Cauvery in Mysore, a river said to be half a yojana broad and 300 yojana On long.
the banks of this river are flower gardens (K. d. * 268).
kd-tsi-kd
,

eternal change.
+ j&'SY'*
fae-tra pa-la

%^wrr
;

(Schr.)

a deity protecting the

fields

in

Budh. a

guardian of the province of a Buddha's work.
hi

j.

1.

JRTflnfT,

also

as

a species of bamboo which when bent by the wind is said to emit fire
ffipKr a plant bearing (K.d.*287). a red and black seed used as a weight, Arbus precatorius ; or another plant bear2.

numeral for thirty-one.
ki-ki

a hortative utterance in r the invocation of spirits $ T) n^-Re, y*^ " Hail, 0, ye gods to-day is warm ! "
: |

!

ing a pungent seed, Nigella Indica.
kd-ri-kd
.

ki-kafi 1.

described as

-Rifwr aphorism;
largely
7)
;

a

wild leek (Sch.). 2. v*ft -If** n of a demi-god,
.

Ndga.

It is

inauspicious

to

purely

Sanskrt
(

yet
>c>

used

in

work of merit when Kikan comes

do any
near.

Tibetan works

s

"Jl'^'"!

=
ki-gu a hook; the vowel sign which resembles a hook in shape.
i,

a Sutra or Udana in verse.

Kd-la-ko a country beyond
the sea into which the Indus flows

and

T[

5^

ki-rgyufi a mystical invocation

where the

finest coral

grows (probably

signifying "

"Lord":

^c^P^ir'r*

I

a marine province or island in the Persian

Gulf) (K.

d.

* 280).
ka-la

Lord, be appeased by this prostrate (devotee)." It is a mystic charm to
pro-

pitiate the Bon-po deity, called
sno-bsafl

Cen-gsrai

deep

Mi-mgon rgyal-po (D.B.).
Ki-ta-ka fera 1. demon (K. d. e. 189).

blue-black colour (Sch.).

Kd-fa ^mrl. a

or cannibal
city in

Ancient

2.

a

worm

India which was twenty yojana in area 2. a sort of (S. Lam). grass, Saccharum
tpontanetim.

or insect (Cs.),
ki-Uir a shrill shout

;

a savage

howl.
or

*

3

kye
!

Oh!

ki.pa a volume, &o.,

maried with

kwahi grogs-po

Oh

friend

the letter ^.

16
ki-ma according to Schr. a corof the Chinese word khin, a lyre
(Pilgrimage of Faf

'Ql''flJ

Kila-kila
2.

ftrarfw

1.

an

ruption with seven strings.

epithet of S'iva.

a town in Ancient

India.
4.

3.

a Eaksasa

King

(.K".

g.

*

62.?).

Hian. Calcutta, 181t8,p. 265)
"fj"^
ki-tsi tickling
;

an onomatopoetic

for sounds or cries

1* 'SS'" ki-tsi bycd-

(/a.).

pa to

tickle (/a.).

|
(K.

TJ'^'jB
g.
r>

ki-ra-na

(mystic)

a

flower

country of the Sapta Kosi in Nepal inhabited by the Kirat tribes and called

26).
ki-ri-kan ssror, w^fT a kind

Kiranta

;

n. of

a district in

%W*'

Sub-

Himalaj'a (Duf-yc. 39).
kt-yahi

of pepper, Piper c/uiba

;

V

-|

^i]acV|V

z5
'

Ti "V-'l

(K-

g-

210) the
tfif-s

hdab

roots of white arka tree

and

roots of white
cine, in

the leaf of the tree Achyranaxpera used in incantations, in medi-

kiri-kan (are used in medicine).

washing linen, and in

sacrifices

kin-kara
or an emissary.

a

servant

(Mnon.).
'

Kifi-kafi v.

da*

+ TJ^'^'^1
flower
;

kin-$u-ka

f^n* a kind
;

of

kin.

the tree Butca Frondosa
flowers.

a tree
2.

I:
(mystic)
;

ku

1.

for

the numeral
g.

61.
f>,

bearing pretty

a fairy or dakinl (K.

*
TJJJ'^1
fruit,

kim-pa a pretty

but bitter

179)
I

3'1 ku-pa, the 61st (volume).

J

V

erroneously for tyrr*| kim-pa-ka.
1

II

:

a

cry,
;

moan

;

S'J|

ku-fgra
;

'"!

kim-pa-ka f*li* a

fruit,

</-

clamour, noise

S'S'^'IV" a general cry

curbitaccous plant, Triohosanthen palmttta;
also possibly Cnciimis cohcynthis.
1

the vociferations of
'fc'
I

many people together

;

the noise of general conversation

:

men
transient
fruit

entertain

desires

which are

arrived at the bank of was the sound of chattering Sog chu, there

then,

when they

and deceptive
like
fish

like the

and

that eat bait

Kimpaka on a

in a house (A. 82).

hook.
lda-hu an

ktm-pa-la or

V"'
;

enigma, a riddle, a puzzling
ku-ku

question.

a musical instrument

a cymbal

f grogs

lit.

that criea

bya-gag a grey species
fce'-Aw

of

Jj^sw

a species of small
carrot.

duck

Ifi-non.).

red garlic

;

ace. to

some
|'$

Ku-ku-ra-tsa

kil
|

slowly =

ga-le

:

vvftyian(he)

teacher or trainer of

dogs

;

n.

of

an

r%n crossing a mountain pass
arrived slowly

Indian Buddhist sage

who was

also called

Kukuripa (3T*'") (K. dun.

45).

Ku-kur-ta

pi-da

4
^'q'Oj'D'^zq

kti-ba-la
;

me,-tog
also, the

T=^'S'*F' q '^ n. of a hill in

Magadha

also ^R)qf, the water-lily

jujube

(Dsam. 17).
-

plant, Zizyphus jujuba

and the

fruit of

that plant.
TT'T|

Ku-kR, erroneously for g

|

Gu-gp,

a part of the province of Nga-ri in Tibet. TT-6 ku-co
<\<d(-*-3, *<i+<!i,

^ 1]'3'^
god

JTe-6-

f^T,

^Kuvera,

the

of riches,
also as

the chief of the Noijin

5gi
J

noise,
'

known

Nnga Kuvera and W?*)''3

clamour;

B'W*^^
clamorous;

|'*

i'>T

{

l|

P

a
i'

VT J*l
X'*^

I

when an

old dog barks, go else(S. leg.).
3"

Rnam-thos kyi-bu, the son of Vaiqrmana. According to somo Tibetan writers, Kuvera
is

where without explanation
noisy,

one of the eight keepers of the horses
Ifaifrarana.

^TsTfi'jj'i to
;

of

[/utiera,

or

in

later

speak in a loud voice (meaning nothing)
to

Sanskrit

Ktmra, originally the name

of

bawl out
to

;

5'S'^'i

to bawl,
;

to

out,

make a

loud noise

^'X'fc'q

cry a

the chief of the evil beings of darkness

great noise or tumult,

an uproar.

bearing the epithet Vai^ravnna ; afterwards the god of riches and treasures, and is

TV 3^ Kn-cor,
in Tibet.

regent of the
also

5'*S

n. of a place

world,

which

northern quarter of the is hence called Kulcrais

gvpta-dik.
.-

Kubera

the son of

Vifrava

ku-den-ne

:

See ante 5

ku.

by
rlun

Idai-ida, the

chief of the

Yak? a and a

f***i* mtho-ris
the heavenly breeze
(Mnoit.).
1.

friend of Eudra.] (M. Wills.). 2* ; Kti-byi mat-ke a 1]'S'^^' T[

^

Bon

deity

who
;

resembles

the

Bodhisattta

*
Tl'j&'^l

Ku-na-la gfwra
;

the

or

Himalayan pheasant

also,

a bird with
the fabueldest

Jampal the god of learning and wisdom among the Northern Buddhists (D.R.).
ku-ma-ra = "\^ s~'f^i\ gscr-mclwg

beautiful eyes which lives in
lous

mount Sumeru.

2.

the

son

of As'oka.

^ by way

leaf -gold

(from China brought
;

of

Ceylon)

it

is

described in

TTZ3
&fl)

kit-tea

or j'i tku-tca (in Chinese
a
;

:

V51T3,

jpsi^i

goiird, Lngenaria vtilgaris.

gourd In the Pema-

the bottle

(Mon.): N^JprWrflS'^ta-aiJhl gold exported from Lanka (Ancient Ceylon).

t H'^S
moon
;

l ;u ' mtt.d

m%

the water-lily
of

koi. district this fruit is called i'g*< a-btim,
i.e.,

which opens at the appearance
said
<

the

nature's bottle.
is

A

bottle

made

of a

dried gourd

also called $'1 ku-ica.

be Nymphcea cscttli nta ; W*iaB3 w4'qq'r*l a bush or cluster
to

of water-lilies.

Syn.
tdon-bu

^wji
riti;

rnam-par rgyal; ^'9'^c.
dra-tca-can
1

V'*^

Syn.
sla-icafyi

Wi
dri

i

l

"i;i
;

;

C'l^'IS

^ 3 tit-pa-la dkar-po %&\
t

;

byed; ^ij*

^

w*w

sa-mos
;

;

AJ/<;s 5ycrf;

^N'^IJ

wpf* aa-dgah
'

;

aA Ipags (Mnon.).
fc
kn-icahi gsz'n? a float

^'1^3
W'Jl

sahi gdu-gu

=.-"=.'ST'

ttrti hi/tuft

dkar-po;

fWyp

sla-tcas
s

dgh; ty

sifa;

made

of

sa-sgrog;

,'?w

long-dried gourds.

mtshan-mo bshad (Mnon.).

18

or 3 '*S

ku-mud grogs =&orK 6sz7-ser zla-hod moonbeams (Mfion.).
v.

Ku-ru

^ft

a city

in

Ancient

India near Delhi one yojana in area ; also
a province (S.

+

5WMI ku-mud tfyra,
(jMwon.).
s'SV-saj

Y"

nt-ww, the

Lam.

20).

sun
+

I
can, v.

U^IP '^
1

Eu-ru-kul-le
deity

gi^T
is

a

ku-mud

3'V*' ku-mudf<J(*S lit. the moon.

female

Buddhist

associated

with

tshal (M-non.).

Kuvera, the god of wealth;
of

goddess

*

JWlfa
3'S'^

ku-mud-gnen
;

might and power; she
(Vidyd).

is

also called

^"!3<\'*i

The

first

the friend of the water-lily 1

sovereign

Dalai

Lama

is said to

ku-nmd-ldan,

v.

3'V*i ku-mud

have acquired great
this deity.
s/ta-ne

power by propitiating

tshal.

+

3W*'
!

ku-mud lo-ma

= %'^w^'W
1.

9^
+

a medicinal plant of the lily species

t 11'^ ^'S ku-ru-pin-da^'^ $ir*< lead. 2. a fragrant
a ruby
cinnabar.
ku-rii

grass;

Cyperus rotundus; the bud of a flower.
3.
;

3'a^**

kH'tiuid-tsltal

a cluster of water-

lilies.

t
At<-rfsa
TJ'E-

TT^'^'S

ban-da,

v.

Sfy'OT

mon-litg t

the breed of sheep in the subcountries (Mnon.).

I

gro

1.

a tree;
2.

lit.

that

Himalayan

which grows on the earth. Mars.

the planet

ku-re or

3^1

ku-rcs after,
jest,

fWr,
horse-

TN, Kuhi

a

devil

or

demon

in

play;

S^'I'Vi

sport, to

diversion,
jest;

3'*3i^ for the
;

Chinese demonology.
'H'*
v

In Chinese

Kitei.

*n^

kuhi-fin a class of evil spirits

ft^ijrqi

;j-^v^w<w purpose of amusement or fun %fia'*)il ^Kfrt: not liking, dis-

(Grub.).

In Chinese Kuei-shen, "devils

gusted with, amusements.

and gods."
TIQ/^C'
kuhi-isaft

Ku-la-ku
a Chinese work on

f^rar.

a

Srin-mo

divination (Grub.

5).

(goblin) that lived only on lotus flowers and lotus-honey, and resided in the

TT^
which

A'M-ya

sediment of urine
physicians

from

fabulous island of

Ramamo

(K.

d.

*

280).

Tibetan

diagnose

disease (Med.).

jarm the country an aboriginal race of people inhabited by
TI'^l^'B ku-lan-ta
(Dus-ye.).

t

t
bird
;

^'^

ku - } '"- ra

3^ = 3T*'*
J<?*

n. of a

an osprey
ku-ra-ba-ka
;

4

7

>I

TT

3'^

Ku-ld-la for ^'"i Ku-na-la.

1 TT^'^'T]

or

TT^'R
the

Ku-lu-ta

a

place situated in

the crimson amaranth

a purple or yellow Barleria ; the blossom of the amaranth or

south-east

of Kashmir,

now

called

Barkria.
ku-ran-ga T$V$ the
also

Nyun-ti by Tibetans, by Hindus (S. Lam. 19).

Kulu

deer;
d.

arm

J H"^

*"'f a 1-

'll

'

^

tbe Bacred

trog-chag) an insect

(5".

>

certain religious ceremonies grass used in both by Brahmans and Buddhists ;

19

Poa

cynosurmdes, a grass with long stalks
leaves
:

and numerous pointed
$*n}c.*r|rK'^
I

S'^*''2' i^

c.'

title of Pan-di-ta is applied to one who is versed in intellectual science. Those who

the grass

kufa

ensures

are called Ku-qa-li have attained a high
spiritual

longevity and increases the strength of the body. 2. n. of a city (K. du. p 152).

material or intellectual enjoyments.

development by abstraction from In
it is

Syn.
"xp-ffft

t^' bdud hdul gdan; tiSF^Sfr mchod
^-$ij( nan-sel;
t'i\*j*i

some works
kit

sa-ffna$,

called Ku-sa-li.

-fit

a kind of lime

;

a kind of

gbyin

rgyan;

ite'SS
i'**"]

gisan-bycd;

EJ*i''3f

fruit;

an apple
tree
|

(fa.); "H'^*-' ku-gu fin
<
f

an

khrus-kyi

rtsa;

rtsa-mchog

;

rtsa-dwan (Mnon.).
it

apple

;

!3'-$'

^'S*'|' fc J5l'R|5ii*r' i|!v
i !

CR!*w
yron-khyer

and acute pains

the fruit of Ku-fu cures griping in the intestines.
ku-su-lu
is

Kus'ianagara, one of the thirty-six sacred places of the Buddhists,

(gifHKi)

1.

f Ty^'^I

a corrupt form of

where Gautama Buddha
breathed his
last.

is

said to have

$'-<]$ Kti-ga-li.
'

2.

n.

of Chakravartl
;

B -f* 1 **"'

n

-

f

a

Raja (Supreme Ruler
5'^'1^'q

of the Universe)
H^lfi*!
n.

kind of blue flower,v.

*$=- thin.

Ju-qa

cften-po

of

a

Chakravartl Raja.
ku-fa-na n.
n.
p.
\

Syn. ^'I'^'Tl dus-kyi me-tog; S'S^'^
lya-khyufi.

rdo;

*>'?q l'a"I'a^

me-tog $migysal-ldan

of a flower

;

also

$man

;

d'^'i me-tog

ze

;

fl[W^

t*\

^ *\

*\

9"

psal-tta-can (Mnon.).

sp'fy

whence did you bring that Srin-po's
flower (Sbrom.
of lotus flower
ric

daughter called Kusana
121).

ku-ge- 9 a- ya

^^^
324)
;

a kind

(K.

d.

*

a gene-

name

for water-lily or lotus.

T]'^'^'^

ku-fa-ban-dha

fiiw

a

gem which

is

said to possess the property

an

Indian

of curing infectious diseases

and plague.
dge-wa

pandub who preached Buddhism
(J. Zat.).

in Tibet

=^
piety, holiness.
ft t 11'"^'^ -Kw-fa Buddhist fWt, a Buddhist monk
',

also

n. of

an Indian Buddhist sage

(K. dun.

li

sage;
or

the
priest

title

13).
1.

of

who
is

has acquired spiritual knowledge and more devout than learned
:

kum

saffron. 2.

a flower (Sman.
-

Ku &u
(Yig.).

~ li

a Buddhist exorcist;

a Naljor or Buddhist yogi who carries a small hand-drum (called damaru which

Generally there
.

are

is

generally made of a

human

skull)

and a

among
those

both

Brahmans and Buddhists
and Kucali.

thigh-bone trumpet in his hands,
fesses

and prospirit^

called Pandita

The

power of exorcising

evil

20
aS'SS'i

Ku-su-luhi spyod-pa the practice
or Buddhist exorcists
(-4;

IF]

5

kug-rtse cuckoo in

W

(Ja.).

of the

Shaman

5T5T

^vjj^q-*i\q!v2|

.^6)

when

practising

the rites of a Ku-su-lu exorcist.

vince of

^g-^-q ku-m-lu-p'i
mysticism,
its

is

a word of Tantrik

TpTT^i Kun-ku-na possibly the proKonkan in Western India (8. Lam. 33).
kun-kuma
Tibetan g^'3i
is

being

^^

proper Tibetan equivalent 0cod-pa, the art of exorcism.

f*

saffron.

evidently a corruption

The mystic Tantrik rites of the Avndhauts, called Avadhutipa in Tibet, exist in
ludia.

of the Sanskrt word.
'^s

Kun-d*a-ra -WSK a fabulous

C'
also

Ku-sc-rdsod n. of a fort and
district

silver mountain situated beyond the great sea and at a distance of 2,000 yojana to

that of a

in

|**<*i

K/iamg

the south of

Sima Man, where
is full

the sun

(S. kar.).
***

never
the shrill ejaculation
at the time of sacrifice

sets.

It

of precious stones,

Tl'Z^ ku bswo su-o, swo, &c., made

to the earthly gods, demi-gods

and

lazuli, sapphire, &c., and on the sides of this mountain there grows a race of men species of tree producing a

such as lapis

spirits

who
at

live

by

priests,

&c.,

in Tibet:

^xir*F
celestial

only one day;

they are born

dawn, they begin to walk after day-

qwg*j'*rgq wq^V^'j'q'v^

the

break, in the

troops in inconceivable numbers surroundto bsico-bswo. ing them gave vent

morning they are youths, towards evening they grow old, and at
sunset they die (K.
d.

* 276.).
ftfasr,
*rt
I

cuckoo
i.e.,

;

3r5*'*3Jl'^

VT***

the

cuckoo,
all

T^i
entire,

htn
the

ufc,

^IT,

all,

whole;

H^'B^'UiW
^'VTO
j

from
those;

the bird that cries 'koohoo'; ace. to

Os. a kind of ring dove.

pores of the hair; ifVi^nll the othrrs;

all
all,

^'aws
all

every
flowers
4

TJ^'
f?ic.-ai-?iii*i

ku-hrnn sheep and goats

one included
:

;

W 3'3*raai

n the hearing of
these

all;

d'^T'^'W^'K'S

the Bon.) among followers of Shenrab the Bon-po of the
|

should be strewn about; ^|*r*?=. q seen

(G.

by everybody;
5\i
kun-la

^^1^
;

or

JF"'^ time
;

Rgyu im<\.Bbrris-po sects sacrifice sheep and
&c. goats, buffaloes, dzo, mules, camels,
T]5|
kiig

without interruption at

all

times

colloq.

means " everywhere."
ihams-cad
all;

Syn.
crooked
;

w'*S

a hook
;

;

SJ'31

gri;

tshogs various kinds; *'$**

ff*1J nama-lus without

kug (the kukri), a curved knife short sabre fl"'^"! kags-kug an iron hook; ^"l na-

leaving anything- behind;
exhaustively;
^"I'^S

^'^

sad-par

lhag-mcd

without
left

kug a fish-hook.
^1'^, l'l\
q
{|

remainder:
to

QW^

lus-mcd

nothing

kug-kug lyd-pa
(Jit.).

bend,
kun-dkyil,
;

curve, clinch (a nail)

same

as
;

Wl'*^ kunin the middle

5"1'^"1 kug-kug altogether crooked ^S kug-pa-ftid crookedness (Os.).

31'

gyi

dki/il,
;

in the midst of all

of all

at the centre.

21
kun-dkris (*Mn-#)

= W^*
;

nont<Z6?

W*<||^ Kttn-mkfiyi n=
mkliycn-pa

mons

lit.

that which binds all

misery,
sin.
1

v^s,
;

^

the

A 11-knowing

;

moral corruption, general corruptness,

the Physician

an epithet of Buddha and

^qijs) kun-bkrtim (kun-tam) or JWS'^H*

also of the highest order of Bodhisattva.

kun-tu bkram ^)T*t'5 strewn about, spread
over.
5^'g kun-gkyc,

same

as

W'| kun-tu
:

skye

kun-rnkhycn kun-gzigs omniscient and all-seeing, referring to the attributes of a Buddha or BodMsattva.

SW^H^'W^"!*

1

or 5W'r
'JRpfo,

kiin-la-ikye <3infff,

W^^'S^'*^ Kun-mkhyen
in

klon-chcn

a

grows
flowers

everywhere

W5'5
time.

grow everywhere

summer

religious teacher of the Rnin-ma School who founded a sect of his own called

JTtm dgah
S

lugs.

5^ SS
heart,
:

kun-kycd-bycd
(Mnon.).

$"'

$nin the

3fi-wj|^

*rg-*VU Kun-mkhym

chos-sku

mind

hod-ser the Tihetan hierarch of
^'S'flf'
1!

Sa-kya,
Chief

^ Tq
tkyo-ica

kun-skyo-wa or

kun-tu

who, at the request of
of Horchen,
alphabet.
first

K/nt-ltigs, the

flfm,

^^nr,

'S'ratf,

to

become

shaped the Mongolian

penitent; to thoroughly regret: Slw^'fa'

**^'W5'tfl his mind was

filled

with regret

!W* iSW* ^' qlfa
l l

Kun-mkhyen

ni-mahi

day and night.
31^'^
agitation.

gncn
agitated,

4^

SORST an epithet of Gautama

kum-skyod
e

moved;
n.

Buddha (Yig.k.83).
q 5W'*Jll ^S1' l^

5W ]f'''Ii
i

''

Kun-skyob

g.Un

of

a

n. of a
title of

Kun-mkhyen dbyfg-gRen lama who was given the religious
Jnin-kfirugs

monastery in Tibet.

WW"
cover
;

Knn-nikhyen, the all-knowing.
anxious:

the all-encompassing cover, the sky.

kun-khyab =:*?&?* nam rnkhah ^THl that which encompasses all
i:

agitated; the waves of the sea were agitated.

W*H"i kun-hkhrul o
sion
;

ufam
;

blunder;

illu-

things

;

the void space,

the sky, the four

also adj. all- delusive

all-

wandering.

quarters of heaven.

3W@q

ii:

= ^|"qI'S

HpRrog-bycd ^fx he
;

3^ |-*q kun-gyi mthuh the end or termination of all (merits) *wfl|r<rj^'3'w
:

that takes

away misery
kun-hkhor
v.

enemy; the snatcher; the lord

the all-pervading of death.

*&'

I

V*

t"r

?Mk^^fl
;

the end of the end of

accumulation
rising is fall

13

expenditure
d.
l

WF^

^'iw^pfcai kun-

(K.

330).

b_zan hk/tor-lo,

a charm in the
called

name

of the of

W3'1^*' kun-gyi-ynas the basis or abode
>

Dhyani Buddha

Samanta Bhadra.

all

(miseries)

:

T^'^''^VJ^ ^r5i|':
disease,
d. *

^'B^'Sfi'S kun-kkyab djtal-mo=si ipt*fA nam-mkhah the sky n. of a goddess
;

"I^^l the

grounds of misery are
333).

old age, and death (K.
5^'3'S"
1'

(Tig. k. 16).

kun-gyi, rtsa-tra, the root of

W^Bw

kun-hkhyams

trfr^Jira

a wan-

everything;

wisdom,

divine knowledge.

derer; a beggar, a mendicant to every door foj alms.

who goes
This seen or unseen talent has PrajnA

22
(absolute knowledge) for its basis,
i.e.,

the

root

of all things

is

wisdom

(prajnd)

(-

9V*)'"

a Kun-dgah hdsin-pa mountain in Uttara Kuru, the fabulous continent of the north (K. d. * 318).

kun-gyig bkur-wa he
;

who

is

W^ qF' q

l'fa'5

kun-dgah
4.28).

respected

by

all

a learned man,

v.

hu-su coriander (Sinan.

rnkhaf-pa (Mnon.).

WW*'* '"
phyag-byaf
to
'

kun-dgah ra-wa= l^'^
a grove; any pleasure-grove

kun-gyif

dgah

^ii\i*i

whom

all

^

paid homage:

^Tf^'^ 2K3TS*
d.
">

1

containing groups of trees, flower beds,
artificial lakes,

I

hjig-rten kun-gyi$ phyag-byuf fiH, to

whom

the world has

bowed (K.
t >''^

&c., often

113).

garden houses, shady walks, surrounded by a wall or fence.
kun-dgahi
dican-mo
1

^'31 kun-grub=$
October
*'
ftrftf

s/a-?fa

q 3K'*\ l*'S It '*

an

dgu-pa
of

or f^'l'*'^' fton-zla tha-chun the

month

address of courtesy for ^'f*'!'^"!* ladies of the class of Lhacham her grace or

Kun-glin, same as

Ttf'^'gj*.'

/Twn-

ladyship ^S'^|TW^'yK''f|l*f%f6'^| " " at the (feet) of her charming ladyship
:

the place or grove of all happione of the four royal monasteries ness; of Lhasa, this one being situated in the
glin,

(Yig.k.49).
W'S"?*' kun-mgyogs ^n%7r speed; also
as adv. speedily, at full speed. geb$

western suburbs.

WF
*

ktin-dgah

^TJT^,

frfte

amusethe

= *W*

nam-mkhah
all;

ment; great merriment or joy.

sky; that which covers

W W3" -w^-VWJK-Zi Kun-dgahrgyal1

the all-covering.
^"tff"!

mtshan-dpal-bzanpo

vn^gsi

the

name

of

kun-hgog

that

which hinders

Sagkya Pandita ('5'iV5)-

physical or moral growth.
5^'^i i: kun-hgro,v. *pr vF* nam-rnkhah,

Kun-dgah
celebrated lama of Tibet

snin-po n. of a
(Lofi.
"*

the sky (Mnon.).

12).

Kun-dgah Nor
Mongolia
(Lofi.

a

^'"5 n
lake in
the
(Mnon.).

:

snake,

v. Sji

fbrul a serpent

*

21)

;

probably

Gonga-nor (Egg

lake).

=a

In Mongol nor
assiduous
:

kttn-hgro

hbad VTHPT to be
1

lake.
'

W%flV' 5*if^r^

assi-

c|

kun-dgah-wa

duous in the manner of performance.
kun-hgrohi sro/=l' lam a
road, passage (Mnon.).
$^'$
ties or
c-**

9'* rin-po-che n. of a precious article or

gem

(K.

d.

* 29$).

Kun-dgah-bo ^rnn^ the personal attendant and cousin of Buddha.

^'W 5
of

Kvn-cins ^tiifMH
all
;

1.

that pains,
2.

WWW
son
chiefs of

Kun-dgah-hbar
snin-po,

n.

of of

the the

the

God

entangles of Love
l

at all times.

^rg=

also for ^'5'?=.> kun-tu

Kun-dgah
Sa-skya

one

who

visited India

to

fv* E-i' V l<' cW' 5K^W5"3"M by the fetters of misery the mind is always
ctnf.
I

study Buddhism (Lon.

").

fastened down.

23
Kun-bcom
quished
;

WiT,

3*T

1.

van2

kun-tu bskyed producing every-

suppressed, fully put down.

where,
!

all-producing,
s

i.e.,

imagination
is

:

the vanquisher or killer of all; the lord of death. 3. n. of a son of a Brahma? of

5wJ-^*rw5 i'5" 'iM
d.
f<

imagination

all-

productive (K.

36).

Ujjayani

(S. kg.).

kun-tu
fcs-rab all-perfec-

W3
tion
;

hkhyams

wandering
-

kun-chub
;

-*|w

everywhere:
fearful world,

tWr^iTU'W*!
i.e.,

the

wisdom
3W4*>'i

divine knowledge (K. d. V

in the

unhappy

states
d-

26)

;

^r^ra

he that has compre-

of existence, he

wanders about (K.

hended everything.
kun-mchog-ldan or ^w^'wlflr
'

169).

J<

(Mnon.),

^l*Tr^i,

the

Ttntrik doctrine of Kalachakra.

kun-tu hkhrugs signifies vfi' convulsed ; also convulsive,
subject to agitation

and shaking (Mnon.).
jras

kun-hjug

for

bringing together; putting in with all. harmony
kun-hjug pho-na the messenger of harmony, that which harmonises or

kun-tu

= ac.'^'t'?i)

$pafi-

S^VT^'?

rgyan nw-tog or ^'3'>'?'ql (autumn flower), lit. the fully developed or blown ; n. of
a species of
daisy

which

blossoms

in

makes everything agreeable, hence=T*
ka-ra, sugar.

autumn (Mnon.).

W'

Jf

f

t'

kun-tu

go-ica
;

f%^if
celebrated.

well-

5^f*w Kun-hjoms
1.

^rcrasr,
all;

^mtd*
that

known well-understood
;

Indra,

the

subduer of

by
ted

Kun-tu

dgah-war

which

everything can be
2.

subdued or

gyur-waki glin a fabulous continent situa5,000 yojana

controlled.

Yoga or the contemplative
mchog the chief
I
l 1 l

concentration of the mind.
jflAfswwXfli kun-hjoms
<

Ocean

of (Jambudvipa) India,

beyond the Western where there
some of the
*

are lions that fly in space:

all-subduing (elixir);
|

fc"'W5 V*W'

M!'

wild animals of that continent are said to
live a

an excellent preparation ^qf *w*i<i| of mercury, which subdues all evil spirits and diseases.
is a.

thousand years (K.

d.

kun-tu-hgens-pq, fgrsin;

he

that provides for

the world,

the All-

(Td. 28.)
;

Provider; Providence.
kun-tu
to be diffused
;

kun-tu unto
in

all

;

in all
l

;

everywhere

hgyed-pa

>'? T=.'*''rW2J*'! every direction: flowers were strewn everywhere, above and below: *E.-3e.-|^-^-g-qi]i articles
|

that which goes in every
spiritual

direction

:

qarq^e:^
:

emanaof

of merchandise were spread in every place,
inside

tions; envoys

^'^''I^'^'S'*^ pays
direction.

and outside

(the
to

house).

When
kun-tu
;

light

went in every

used in reference
signifies
:

time, 5H'

kun-tu rgyu-wa
1.
lit.

continually or perpetually
as

kun-tu

same

V'J^

^

dtis

going
;

everywhere.
3.

2.

tgyun-du or

as

met.

wind

a

bird.

n.

of

a

8> at all

times, always.

spirit.

24
V
c'

kun-tu rgyns-par lycd-pa
;

f"1"' W5'^
every place.

!

flowers were

scattered over

to fully spread
tiful

to

make

plen-

everywhere
3

;

to

make

copious.

*F'V>
donment:

kun-tu
-

dor fsrr^I perfect aban-

S^'S''

1M:V^'f
of the eun

Aiak^*"' kun-tu bsgribs eclipsed; i**f ft*\ the rays

V<
1'

i'V'W'Vl
bdc-va

all

faults

PKW!tfF

should be entirely thrown out.

and moon were

eclipsed.

W5'"^'
^'i|
q
l'

kun-tu

w*rergg

SH'S'iST"

kun-tu-bcug-pa

or

l<

general
(Spyod).

happinese,

prosperity; beatitude

kun-bctig-pa to

put in

;

to employ,

engage

:

$V^'W' '5 q
l!

l I

to P ut this vessel (or pot)

all

JffK*^'1'* Kun-tu hdrcs-pa n. of a river
in the

uses.

fabulous
* 331).

continent of

Godaniya

kun-tu

chags-pn

W,

^rer,

(K.

d.

anxiety; yearning, the fli*i
|

clinging

to:

mind remains

W5'4?l
stability
;

kun-tu

gnts

f^lfn,

Jnrfa

the all-abid.'ng residence,

that

attached to

its

crooked desires.

which remains
'

at all times or everywhere.

W5' q 5 t q /'""-'" ktduf>-wa the
ktnal-u;a misery, sufferings.

burning
;

rays of the sun
piercing.

;

extremely painful

all-

W5' R l q

| I'

'l'

a'

kun-tu hjug-pa

f&fti lam-bden-pa the truth

about the

way

SW'' fl ffS' tR '3*' t| kttn-tu gnod-pnr gyur-

to Nirvana,

i.e.,

out of misery.

pa trafiwx

to

do mischief everywhere.

5W''iVT3S kun-tu hjwg

bycd^f!*^*
1.

ktm hbyun-wa

sin.

the sun; n.

of a

Buddha.

2.

all-

W^S"!'^
dom from
Note.

kun-tu hjug-bral f?rfh

free-

illumined,

all-enlightened.

sin, or ^"]i hgog-pa, entire

stoppage 'of suffering.

W5SS kun-tu fpyad an usual duty, as a vb. to practise ^'T habitual work
; :

The

above four expressions are

^,*>'W'9M

practise righteousness or reliall times.

used in the higher spiritual terminology
ko. relating to Bodhisattm (K.
"|

gious acts at

235).

W5'9S' q
JJS'C" the
1

kun-tu

fpyod-pa

free

or

5fl-$qJH kun-tu

bsten^^^v^^t
;

dadalso

unbridled behaviour: described as

g*)'S5"

gut dan Idan-pa faith and reverence
etc. possessed of faith, respect,

Brahmam'cal conduct

(Mf.on.).

Syn. 3'<i gui-pa;
"^'|S

g'^

gits-Man; 3^'

W59" kun-tu tpra$ ^mj^tf<ici dressed in every way; adorning the body with
precious ornaments.

mf.on-par So'q WJO g. Idan; "|%1''^w &cirj-tu sent?;

gus-par

bycd; wK^'W^K.

pa;

*r^
|

ntos-ldan;
;

^'^

-

dad-ldan;

ft
;

giving up everything
^'5'^"1'8!^

(Mnon.).
(lit.

*qi-^ dad-chags-can SS'"'*^ S ql'V phyag-byed-pa; ^'*^'^
(Mnon.).

dai-jpa-can

kun-tu mig-ldan

with

she-sa byed

eyes everywhere), described as ^'5^'f^'^s-',
n. of a fabulous tree

on which grow

glit-

W5'^

kun-tu hthor

^^^\^ strewn
>'?1'

tering

gems
;

;

also a plant or tree in full

over, scattered, diffused, dispersed:

bloom

*V

25
this (kind of tree) is

kun-tu
lit.

rab-tu

hkhrugs

found in the lands of gods, and in the continent of Uttara demi-gods,
generally to be

very

much

agitated

;

n. of the six des-

criptions of earthquake (K. d.

259).

Kuru

1 (K. d. 16).

3H'5'W5'*3*i

kun-tu

rab-tu

hgul
;

lit.

SW'S'iTw kun-tu rmofis the all-stunning, darkness of mind ignoall-obscuring
;

;

rance:

^'*JWjlvflp*rtr*<%*-^
in precepts,

j

wrr

moving and shaking very greatly a form of earthquake.
-

n. of

5ft'8

w
lit.

-

Si'l*t kun-tu

rab-tu chem-chcm

*^'M| fyiS-filwI-w&iH

0, best of friends
morals, re-

surrfa^

roaring

all

about;

n.

of

a

who guide th me
sources, the

kind of earthquake.
5M'8'*s''^'4* kun-tu rab-tu hur-hur loud and fearful rattling or roaring; n.
of one of the six forms of earthquake in which sound comes out of the sea and the

weapons for vanquishing the

all-obscuring

enemy

!

| Tfl''*T i*''5S'3'* 4 S^ kun-tu rmofi$-byed-kyi

mdah
tion
;

^nfltTT the all- stupefying

fascina-

n. of

one of the arrows of Cupid.

mountains.
WJJ'^'S'l'fa kun-tu rab-tu 0i/o$ lit. everywhere all shaken very much ; n. of
universal earthquake in which the mountains and the oceans are movedprofoundly.
3^'5'^"I
^*!'i i:

^ij'ulf^'w

Kun-tu
all

hdsin-ma ^ravrrift
everything
;

holding to
goddess.

or

n. of

a

^g-we.-Ej
lit.

good
;

to all

Kun-tu bzan-po 1. WT^W^ and everywhere and at all

kun-tu
;

rig

^rnte=$*i' t r3W>}'
n.

times
the

n. of the first

equivalent of Khamwga-Sain of the Mongols. 2. in the Enin-ia sect, n. of the first or Adi Buddha.
3fl-ij-q*c.-3

Dhyani Bodhisattva, Samanta Bhadra; the

all-knowing

omniscient;

of

a

deity.

^''^"1
(K.
d.
<*

n :=*!'**
kun-tu

feg-rab

wisdom

Kun-tu

bzan-mo

W<\*\%\

26).
ffsal ^JT^hr^, ^JUTT, clear inside and outside ;

1. is a female figured in conn ection with the foregoing Bodhisattva. 2. a kind of

,

the sky

;

flower growing on the

Sumeru Mountain
gsigi

very

clear, lucid, illuminated.
g.sun

(K. my.
all

*|

80).

S^'S'I^ kun-tu

a flower mention*\

^g'll^m Kun-tu
;

he who sees

ed in the Kahgyur (K. my.
SW'S'*!^

20).

his divine things and everywhere by n. of a Buddha, also of knowledge eye

kun-tu

ffso
;

to heal everyone or
all.

that of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara.

repair everything
Sfl'ISJi

the healer of

3l^'8V4* kun-tu hur-hur flT^l a great noise or uproar heard everywhere; the
rattling of thunder
;

ktm-gtum
dmafo-rig$

MW^t

lit.

very

fierce

;

^sic.*r^4|q

n. of lowest caste in

also the noise of

wind

India.

or rain.

W*
S^'Sf"!

kun-Uus
is

^re

n. of a religious

^fj-f'< kun-tu ho-ma^'t:^ tree with milky sap. (Mnon.) n. of a
Wfi'*S kun-tu

si-dsa-dsu

work which

full of extracts

taken from

different sacred books (Mfion.).

hod *m*flsWT fully ensa

kun-rtog,
jf>J,

same

as

^'ifl

rnnm-

lightened; v^'^il'i

bcu-ycig-pa

the

rtog

f%3f>3i,

^^RTX, fancy,

illusory

eleventh stage of Bodhisattva perfection.

associations.

26
kun-fatags nfiK*W* ideas and
associations.

kun-hdar i(<j^!d the pulse that

always beats

=

$'*&'*>

rtsa

dvu-ma

n.

of

^qtjum'qS'W*^^^ kun-ftrtagt-pabi tntshan

the central artery.

trftwfwm^reiR one of the three signs, characteristics or laksana, v. W *V^ mtshan
nit}

?fl'^ Kun-hdren the Supreme Leader
he

;

who
;

leads all into the

way

of deliver-

ance
kun~lirtan ^r?%5rr 1.

epithet of

Buddha.

support.

2.

5^'^

kun-nas, same as 5l1'w kun-lat

negligence.
51^'''^ kttn-bsten

*nr*i or fw^rcr

from every place or
; >

direc:

tion

^iTO^nn reliance;

re-

;

round about

wholly, thoroughly
!

signation

;

service or adoration.
Jftot

rnthofi-gyi

ifrtsho

a

fqrMlMriror*} wra)|K in every direction it was surrounded by railings; S^"'*^'"! to wish from the bottom of the heart.
3^'^*) '*\5
q
l*''
{|

fabulous fresh-water lake in the land of
the Lha-ma-yin or Asttra, situated at the
centre of their chief city
It
is

kttn-nag d.krig$-pa entirely
1

darkened:

**%!h* 'W<'*\li q
all quarters.

!*'

rain-clouds

Shubhra Malika.

have darkened
SWS^'S

said to be

five

When

the

Lha

yojana on each side. fight with the Lha-ma-yin

kun-nag

&kye

WT^IW,

<3rtn<f

the signs of victory or defeat are said to be reflected on its surface.

produced or
J

grown everywhere
kun-nas

(like grass).

3tf' \*<''*B*W
1

m^fqj^-ti kttn-dafl hkhon-pa quarrelling l with all a ffW'H'*rf person whose lips are black quarrels
:
l

3^'S* gur-gum saffron
5fi'^'
<

W^%R^S

I

wh! kun-nas
is

hgeg$

=
a
;

a residence that

closed on every side,

with everybody (Tan.
1'

d.

217).

sanctum
(Mnon.).

;

residence of a queen

a convent

?W'V*W kun-dad mthtMi-pa = wrv\ ^*W*i harmonious, concordant agreeing
;

Syn. nj<fr-!S-* hkhor-tcahi khyiin
N'Ofl**

;

'S\

or in

harmony with
kun-don

all.

3tf'*tf

^W

can the public weal,
all.

;

sa-spyod-ma gnas; Jjfw-s^ srun-ma^i'i5'v^ dag-pahi mthah-can
;

general interest, cause of

mVri
b_tdom-pa

kun-dril-ica
a-11

= *WQ%*>-q
^rfri,

spco^ kun-nas hgro

commu-

tshan-ma

non.
un-nas rgod=

taken together.

S^'"!^
afflicts all
;

kun-pdufi

^*ff

that

to

laugh out

(Jjfnon.).

the all-burning one; Cupid.

^l|^j^yj|^^|^ Kun-nat
shet-pahi rndo

sgohi lefru

3K'1VI

Kun-bdag ftvrf^,

frTW

the
the

Lord World

of All.
;

^T^'SWI the Soul of
Lord
1.

THT "Sutra on the door or entrance the
all

firom

the Supreme
kun-brdufi

of the

World.
;

quarters,"

i.e.,

of

free

entrance

^fl|e.'

an oppressor
i

a

(K. ko. P 287).

tyrant
V.

:

f^t*f^*f'j<'*Vl f*'iC^*'
calculations the sixie

kun-nat
to

sgrib-par
all

In astronomical

over-shadow

round, to

teenth conjunction

called Kun-brdun.

put into shade in all directions.

27
kun-nas

non-mons-pa
;

r

kun-nas brtsegs-pa
;

made very miserable
tressed;

pained, disentirely free

built

up everywhere
a
1

piled

up

;

erected.
;

3fl-^-ifr*wravq
*|

!

3fl' i*'*

*'*'

kun-nas rndses illuminated
I

from misery (Tlbum.
nfl-aiN'1*W

239).

kun-nas snems ^l*-^H
;

a'tfi'w^'y^W*^ the or charms of the moon are exquisitely signs
very beautiful:
fine
-

very haughty

arrogant.

;

>-^j|-5|-Sqnq-|^-ijai-^^-w?i-5)t
I

^w

VFi
'ji

kun-nas

btags-pa
all sides.
tfgsr,

(the garden)

from

its

collection of

fastened or tied up on
v

flowers was lovely

and pleasant (Mnon.).

3fl-^-qij*r<i

kun-nas btus-pa
;

WWtpf:
extracted or

kun-nas

bmn

jpjrrfr,

pirrPwT

from everywhere taken from every work.
collected

dpal-gyi lo-ma n. of a tree the leaves of which are sweet.

= ^W3'!5'(
Syn.

3S'*r*i

hdud-pa ^rpog ^aj*r^'i kun-nai venerated by everybody or everywhere ^^n|-^-<j|?jr^^'^')| to reverence in every manner with body, speech, and
:

lo-ma mfiar

;

"5'wqjt lo-ma

(Mnon.).
5^*rq3f^xi

ing

;

kun-nas b_zod-pa all-forgivvery patient (K. d. * 68)
.

heart.
3^*rg;c.-q

3^q-^c,*r*|-q^-q kun-nas yons-su bskor-

kun-nas

*rg*rK

raised

mymuTT, from every place; set up

Idan-ica

wa entirely besieged, shut up surrounded on all sides.
kun-nas
(tyent

entirely,

well; got-up: $"!*<' enemies rose up in all directions.
5fl^w'|Vi kun-nas
sdud.-pa
;

W^'iF *'^
1

the

gia
:

thoroughly
col-

;

very excited

4WIVK

ri

|

|the

mind

agitated

(not

lected from every place brought together from every place.
*

being fixed on any subject).
?fl-j;i-<wq

kun-snaH
all-

hbar-wa=^-^^^
;

3 V ^'$
a

a

c

'

J

kun-nas snan-tca = JTS rgyal-

ni-mahi hod-zer
rays of the sun
%*('%*-*

illuminating rays

the

wa the

all-illuminator (Schr.).

(Jgfion.).

^a^-wprq
S^'^^'g"
perfectly

kun-nas hphags-pa

kun-spans W%mfi\;
:

S^'

bya

sprung from everywhere.
kun-nas
bris

Uan
lj=.'i

all-abstracted
I

^R^r

;

"^"I'f^'i'S'"'^'

one who has
;

left off all

the concerns
all

of this world

he who has renounced
acts

painted, described,

delineated,

worldly matters,
epithet of

and concerns; an

referred to.

Buddha.
kun-spans
;

^'^'S!^
every place.

kun-nas

blans

taken from
^3j-gMT^-Zi
chen-po
;

=^'^
:

the all-renouncer
X- i$fl!'
fire

34^ WK kun-nas hbar
inflamed
;

ablaze

:

>'

5*C |q'i5- 3^- gc.j' Ia\-Ej5- (^q- ^.-^ before the feet of the Arch Kenouncer who

w

an

ascetic

a hermit

broke out in every direction.

in one life has attained to JEhiddhahood.

5^'|Vn
combine;

^IH to kun-nas tbyor-wa combination ; fF^'^'l^ to
mix up
medicines.

T3^ kun-spyad. 1. that which is to be practised at all times.
2.

compound

or

customary or habitual work

;

habit.

28
^|\t^'ti kun-tpyo(f fian-pfi a black or fallen Brahman ; bad habits
vicious acts or professions.

consciousness of
,

self

literally the primary cause of all things, the basis of all the soul, spirit
; ;
:

JWsPVi**'" kun-gpyod
$o|*r

mtshun$-ma=
mistress
ti5'^

"
gshi

grogs-ma

a sweetheart,

is

(Won.).
Tj^'s^'q^'^-'^qfEj

vijnanft, soul,

which

a philosophical term for is considered to be the

basis of virtue, sin,

kun-phan
the

worldly or spiritual

b_du<f-rtsi

dicafl-po=jft
k.

zla-wa

moon
:

existence, &c."

(Yig.

16).

^'''^'Tl kun-za m*4off*\ 1f&f^lHfa

kun-bor all-renouncer

ifa'S*-'^'
relations,

vij^oX

|

he

cast

off

flower of the plant called Spyi-shur, which gives blue tint to water (J&fton.).

wealth, properties,
333).

realm and

all

(K.

d.

all

Wfi*\* kun-psigs =W*> '1%W who sees the All-seeing One that is cognizant
; ;

tf-'\ ffio

^'^'3i'3 kun-byed. fman spn^-rtsi a medicinal vege-

rgyal-po

1.

SW

of all

(Lon.

*

15).

^qjK."
epithet
teacher.
of

Kun- i/zaA

Wrw^
a

the all-good

;

table

growing in the grass in Tibet.

2.

in

Buddha;

Bon

sage and

the terminology of the Nying-ma sect, the $*w (mind) is called kun-byed rgyalpo, the
chief

nj^qicujifc'Si

Kun-bzafl hkhor-lo a metriin

agent,

the

prince

of

all

doings.

squares resembling a chess-board and sometimes

cal

arrangement

several

forming an

acrostic.
n. of
"[

growing

;

misery

;

sin.

^qjc.'|e.' Kiin-bzafi

glifi

a place of

3^'|^ kun-sbyor libertinism (see 5tf''5
kun-tu-ru).

pilgrimage in Tibet (Deb.
^qjc$*ri|}*i Kun-bsan

k$).

kun-mos
dri-shim-po

rnam-gmm
who
is

the

dri-fysan

sweet

three good ones

;

the

Supreme Deity of
explain:

the

Bon

religion in Tibet

perfume.

ed as having three manifestations
;

(1)

Syu. ^*\'^\ Mod-pa hi-dri Jf'^'S^ $na1 tshim-byed. K\WS. nad-bzan ^^'^'S rin-du
!

q^q[-l^5^qK.-

fHTTsiraf

^ww*^

the imper-

;

;

sonal
J"'"
I,

khyab

;

$fl|*rwsi legs-par thul

(Jlfnon.).
;

^'*fe.

kun-rmons

wm
4

God or Supreme Being, ">'trr$'*)=.r who from eternity has been free and

error

the

all-

all-perfect; (2)

*yir$V^w

j

the personal
in
;

blundering (A. K.

72).

God
everything in

fcwVitWWrtM
|

as manifest

W*^
taining
itself.
;

kun-hdsin ^WK, $Rff the all-conthat which holds

the form of a sentient being (like Shenrab) (3) ^Sflm-q^-qiB. the deity represented
in symbol,
i.e.,

form

;

**r*J

i^V^'^'oK

^'F^'^^'fl kun-rdsob

bden-pa
;

^^.fd^rtj

conditional or dependent truth

ace.

to

representations in painting, $1N'*S'!T in relief or casts. figures
l

Was.

subjective truth.
1

W$
basis
;

^'<f V kun-bzod = 1'1^
1

sa-gshi

flTOTT
for

A;MW-g8A'=^w ^^ sems-nid

the

mind

(AJ.non.)

;

.

the all-enduring the earth.

;

a figurative

name

29
Kun-chot g.tsan-wa a Buddhist sect with a few monasteries border-

kun

yes-pa *n!ir all-knowing;

knowing

all,

omniscient.

ing on Yunnan.

31^1 Kun-rig ^4ft^ all-knowing
of a

;

n.

^H-q5-Jf<|rq kun fes-pahi fo-gam-pa a religious man who, being under moral
discipline,

god

;

a learned man.
pr<i

has reduced his desires and
;

Syn.

mkhas-pa; ^'^N ktm-yeg; ^i kun-gyi bkur-wa (Mfion.).
kun-la

requirements
gatherer."

lit.

" an

all-knowing tax-

wkn

to every one, to all

Sl^-TV"
;

k un

fyad-pa

*n<^id

well

to everywhere.

5Hprty^r^qR-jf* kun-la
Idati-ma she

bkra-fi? dwan:

explained; preaching all the religions, one that preaches everywhere.

who

gives blessings to all

^?l*w kun-scms $fa^
or cognizant of all things
times.

to be conscious
;

^qc.-|U|-9|-^-35-uj-iS-)E.'

a

name

of the god-

to think at all

dess

Uma,

the wife of Mahes'wara (Mfton.).
z'

W'Bq 'SS'^'
*ftCNil

kun-la khyab-bye.d ser-po

$^

f

e.-

kun-slofi
;

^"n^,

fl^arrf

a gene-

ffhi-ieaH (Sman. 107) bright yellow pigment -prepared from the urine or bile of a cow, or vomited in the
Jj"**-

=

a

ral rising

rising from every direction or

place

;= $*rfl|S
;

conception

idea

;

f^TTfTT? sems-bgkyed the notion of a thing a
;

shape of scidulae stone.

by that animal

;

bezoar

thought;

S^*^hprtf6'M*
rise

the

mind

which gives

to thoughts

of sins or

3WrH1
enter into

kun-la hjug efficient; able to

merits, virtue or vice.

anything:

^"TftWJiWIT*

^gc.-S^-Q kun-glofi chen-po comprises the
three
*fl])^c.-jrc.

HI

the intellect being cultured becomes efficient in composing.
!

chag$-$dan-rmon,

lust,

'r^

kun-la bde happiness to

all.

anger and ignorance. ^"1*^ kun-g.sod. TRre

all-killing, that
;

kun-la phan useful or good to
all.

which

kills

everybody or thing

the lord

of death.
5fl'*r*^S

kun-la hphrod beneficial
:

;

able to all

W**wf*ftf%^pr*&|
is

agree"

^qj*im

kun-g.sal-=-*p**if>n
is

nam-mkhah

1.

cow

the sky; that
2.

fully clear, illuminated.

butter being the best of butter
to all."

agreeable

=*y*i ni-ma, the sun, the all-clearer.
:

^rn?*rci kun-la

btscs-pa injuring all,

all-hurting, hurtful, obnoxious.

^oi ^uj kun-la reg <3Trerii meddling, meddlesome, touching everything.
^'"1*1

J T]^'5 kun-ta fft from where ? one also interrogafrom an unknown place come from where? It is used in tively,
;

mystic language (K.

g.

f 26).

kun-las

= 'g* 3
'
l

\*x

kun-nas
;

4fi'-

from every place or thing
all.

from

all

;

than

the union of the TJ^'5*^ kun-tu-ru two sexes, copulation (used only in mystic

language) (K.
H,

g.

*\216).
n.

^awqijjrii kun-la$ bttis-pa
selected or compiled
of a book.

^^g
;

I U'fS}'^
bird
1

kun-thi-ra grfar
iS-a'iS-

of

a

from every book

n.

:

^V V'ws'

(K.

g.

* 58).

30
'^ kun-da
illusion
(Lex.).

vm
2.

1.

mistake, blunder,
ftmPwif,
fi*^

the

shield manufactured at

the

blue jessamine, Jasminum multiflorum or
pubescens.

Kul-kar is of superior quality (on account of its superior metal) $'r'^'Str^vw3( gi

;

as to the Kul-d.kar shield
chu-tkyet;

it costs five

sho

Syn. *'|
sla

tha-chufl fkyeg;

*$*&*&' I* dgunvp-ttftf^ fydab mohi

for the best.
'T[

ke

numeral for 91

;

ke-pa the 91st

ipdsotf (Jjffion.).
-

(volume).

!W\ SI
tffiul-chu

^w

kun-da

byafi-sems^WQ
for

ke-ka in the dialect of Sphan-yul

quicksilver (Sman. 79).

y\

skya-ka, a magpie.

'Tpj'S'^

smelling tree

kun-du-ru ^$*5, f*^ sweeta kind of incense the resin ;
; ;

1
try

a ^I'TI'^'o) Ke-ka-pi-no ^qrrfrjvi

coun-

west

of

JambudvTpa
to

of

romantic

of Boswellia thurijtra
Wills.).

gum

olibanum (M.

scenery, said

be

filled

with gardens,

dales, fountains, cascades, etc.,

and

inter-

Syn. Ji'SVi skyofi-bi/ed-pa;
kun-da;

SWS

-

sected with streams,

^\ kiut-du

(IJlfion.).

race of very
cat
rice

and inhabited by a handsome men who eat red

'*^
'

Att-rf-fe=V'S*Af-&wa

(K.

d.

* 179).
ke-kifri-igra

'Tj'TJK'fj

the

cry

of the

kun-dofi

onon.
;

peacock

(Schtr.).
*\

kum-pa crooked
very contracted.

shrivelled
;

T|
;

ke-ke-ru

<t>qt<K

or ^TO?TT a

kum-pa-nitf contraction

white precious stone.
T['3i

5J'3 ke-rgyuA a charm of the

Bon

^x'3 kttm-po cringing; one in a contracted posture 3'2fc kum-por cring;

deity called Qen-srat

mi mgon

rgyal-po:

ingly; contractedly.

(D.

.).

kum-bha fP '^ g3n. an earthen jar; a vessel for water.
TOJ'Cj'^,

'ta-ka

from %TTO

1.

a

gem
;

kum-bi-ra

jj?l<

n.

of

a

which has the property of purifying water its Tibetan name is y-i'Sl or I^'S^, the
purifier.
2. a great mountain situated north of the great forest plain beyond the north bank of the river Sita. Its peaks

srin-po (demi-god or demon).
kur-ti
to

hasten;
start or

kur-fi lafif-hgro to

go

off

business

;

(in colloq.

language) to

on any start on

are described as very grand in appearance. It contains mines of gold and silver, and

an errand or mission early in the morning without having even a cup of tea.

round
lotuses

its

which at

all seasons
lilies.

peaks are four fabulous lakes remain filled with

and

The

ruler

of

this

TJTf!^

Kul-kar, also 51'VH kul-dkar,

country in ancient times was Vatfravana,

n. of a place in

Tsang a kind
;

of shield

whose

army

consisted

of
(S.

nmazons of
Lam.).

manufactured in

Kul-kar:

great beauty and valour

31

'^ Ke-ta-ra
Kedara
(Jd.).

a mountain, probably the

/fe<$

M .fe *)V**'S customary

seal

(%K)

;

part of

Himalaya

(/a.).
'TJ!|'-*j'U^

kejiu-<}a-ya

(from

*as<fya)

J ^)'5 Ke-tu
logy.

1.

a

fabulous planet in

celestial robes;

robes worn

by

the gods

Brahmaincal as well

as in

Tibetan astrois

(K. my.

"|

7).

In Tibet the name Ke-tu
the
;

gene-

e-y

wickedness:
the
(i.e.,

=^i>*w3-i)-r

rally applied to comets, called also^'i'N&'T^
(lit. long smoke- tailed). 2. a fiery meteor a shooting star the descending 3. n. of a demon. node.
;

^-w
of a

root

of

wickedness

bad heart

envy) having sprung

forth (J. ZaA.).
1. a Re-yu-ra-ka kind of grass used in ancient times in making garments for a Bhiksu (K. du.

Ke-nehi-bu n. of
the time
of

a sage of (K.

%^R

Gautama

the

Buddha

i 388).

2. n. of

a Gandharva.
1.

Ke-bye4

Kartika, the

god

of

Ke-ru
monastery in

n.

of

a

place
of

and
in
sranI

war

(Schtr.).

the

district

Hon

'"'*3 Ke-rtse-wa n. of a Bon teacher
l

Yar-lung
:

(J.Zafi.

217).

2.
I

JJT*
5

ma

|'$"tr<'|

YV^

a species of peas:

S'"!^'
|

E

-'^'B* '^'B'V

(Deb.

"I

6) the JBonpo

^^w^$-#^*rS*-ii|e.^Mi

a fter

casting

priests invited Ke-rtse.

Ke-tshegi a
ter

where

it

resides
is

the quara certain astroduring

water in oblation, he conducted (him) inside the house and served him with a
cupful of
'TJ

Ndga

;

pea-soup (Del.
Ke-re, \.
{j}'^

*\

35).

logical period

considered inauspicious.
a tribe in Tibet
(

A

kye-ri.

Kehu
160).
2.

1.

Vat. kar.

Ke-la *w*pctft$be;
tribal clan (Yig-).
3j'W<\

\

n. of a

MSiH*

in classical Tibetan a
3.

kind of

garlic.

a cavern, den, hollow

ke-la-ka

= %'%

sga-skya

ginger

place (Cs.).
'Tjl^'s

(Smew. 267).
Kebu-rtse, also
*Tfr

ke-rtse,
;

a
ke-la-fa

=%i

'*)

kai-la-fa

^5-

jacket

made

in the Chinese

fashion

in
i.e.
,

the king of

mountains

Chinese kwa-tsu.
^jfl'dfc'
ts'ang,

Kailasa in the Himalayas.

Kehu-tshati (in Chinese K'u~ "a a store-house ") n. treasury
;

'jj''^ Ke-lan, prob. corruption of S*l'^ > follower of Tsongkhapa (Hue, vol. II).
Ke-le n. of a fabulous place or 8 the country of ^'^'^'-t'^'l'^ country
nj'Sj
:

of a sacred rock-cavern.

'^

Kehu-ri n. of a female deity of

!

fearful mien.

cannibals, Ke-le (D. M.).
ke-fa ita
letters

'^ Kebu-U the Tibetan and MonIn Chinese Kaoli. golian name for Corea.

hair;

mane;

which are

surmounted with

double e* sign called hgrefi-bu or o sign called naro. Signs for long accentuation
are also called ke-fa.
*
*)'*!'*

Kd-mag
the

possibly

indicates

Kalmuk

Tartars.

ke-fa-ra

%m* mane

Kai-ta-ka n. of a mytholo(Schr.).

i
./4rw/

^\'"^^\
v.

^

gical

demon.
ne-ya

c ~9 u - ka

a plant, perhaps
;

colocasia,

with edible roots

also
also
*|

%^i

a rishi or sage
d.

;

ftisg^r,

^'Q'"|

Kifi-$u-ka (gbttm.

patronymic of

Havana (K.

?186).

17).
_

Kai-la-^a

^ 'fj'T^ the mane of
ment
of the
saffron.

Ke-sa-ra
the lion.
lotus;

%HT

1.

the hair;

Ri-wo

2. the hairy filaa celestial flower;

huge snowy mountain on the north shore of the Manasarowaia
yafis-can the

lake called

Gang

Ti-se

by

the Tibetans

and Kailasa by the Indians.
keg

^j

=w *^
''PI

lar-cha<?

danger;

'fj

I

:

ko

num. 121

;

*T

ko-pa

the

accident, v.

kag.
(Lesr.).

volume marked with the
121st volume.

letter If ko, or the

Keg-ma=*W* kag-ma

*

II

:

$

an

expletive

meaning:

Kefi-ruf ^prer skeleton.

Ken-qu-ka
tree,
i.e.,

an

same, the same, very ; as in ^'1f hdi-ko, the same as ^'^ hdi-ni, this very ^'1^1)'
;
:

evergreen

of

the
is

(Nay.
of

3).

This

colour of the parrot evidently a corruption

<^|-3rw

|

"these

same

classifications";

^'^f de-ko=%.'% de-ni

that very.
quite,
entirely,

III:

all,

whole;

Kcr-ko a cymbal; a musical
instrument
(carrying
:

altogether (Schtr.).

w|W*K^f'^'$*'8'V
him)
(flute)

ko-wa

1.

hide,

leather

that

with

a

hand-drum,
g. 5 2).

a

derived from yaks, buffaloes and horses as
distinguished from pays-pa the skins of 2. colloq. for sheep, goats, foxes, &c.

cymbal, a pipe

(K.

kcr-gyis suddenly (Sch.).

ko-gru a hide-boat.
^ffiw
^'(311

Ker-wa to

raise

;

to lift

up

;

ko-khug a leather purse

;

a

little

to point the fingers

towards

leathern money-bag.
^j'jgi

heaven.
ker-lans

ko-khrol (ko-thof) a sieve

made

of

up:

*(^fH suddenly stood "suddenly standing erect
3).

hide-strips or strings to clean peas, barley grain, &c., of gravel, &c. ^^jgarwjfl ^N'
:

and

still (like

a tree ") (flag.

^um-q-ni

|

(Etsii.) for a hide-sieve for sift(i.e.,

>^'i3lq'j^
horse,

kcr leb tgur metaph. for

ing peas and barley
1]'5

price for).

yak: ^v<^i'U^'flji*r sheep the tax (in kind, i.e., 3-ajE.-^^v^-|-Rqq one in a hundred) on horse and yak
|

and

ko-gru (ko-du) a hide-boat a boat
of the entire hide of a yak
9'
;

made

a skin

coracle.
^f'lg

from among
(Btsii.).

the

three

kinds of cattle

said

to

be

ko-btum hide-packing. This is a criminal punishment in

33
Central Tibet, varying in severity, e.g., ci aii] ^j-q*4 -when the culprit's hands are
cut
off,
If '1*1

^

ko-fpyin (Jco-pin) glue:

for

each

stick

or

cake

of

glue

the stumps sewed up in leather
as a

(Rtsii.).
If

and the poor wretch thrown

beggar

5c.N

-

upon
If'

public charity, &c. (Ja.).
;

thin

"I ko-thag strap thong. ko-t/md a kind of tea, probably so called on account of being sold packed
Ij'S^

ko-phons guitar (gen. made of belly-skin of a cow) (Ld.) ; it is
(-/a.).

tuned in three- fourths
^'3*

in hide cases; an inferior tea
tiS-lf'SV *!
1

:

$'$'JV)Y
cost of

and painted

ko-phor a cup made of leather to look like a wooden

cup

;

(Rtsii.

74)

"to the

ko-ffshon a basin

made

of hide.

pressed brick-tea."

ko-wa rnkJian a tanner;

the

^rS*w

ko-thums packed

up
a

in

hide;

steersman of a hide boat.
ko-wa rnned-mkhan a tanner.
If'i'gi

leather ^(R-ljj-jiir^q 30 ounces of gold: package containing
>

pfc'Sfg*r-

T*v|'*flwr*QW% l*'Vi
len a

having

stoit

Ko-wa Irag fvf

<I

n. of a district in
$R-H}-q-qflj-g-jfo

bag containing

gold, (we) concealed

Upper Tibet:

in a marmot's

(^

a marmot) hole.

then he visited Ko-wa Irag

in Stod-luA (Lha. kah. 23).
^f'9>*

^wpi
leather to
^f'Tfl

ko-hthags a small instrument of

weave

lace with (Cs.).

ko-bubs an entire skin

:

If-gw^skin of

ko-ffdan,

pronounced kom-gdan,

ai'1^-^-4|W ? q)-q,gN ^
a sheep holds three

an

entire

skin-rug or seat; a piece of leather put under the saddle (Sch.): ^^'^'^fflf^Hf

khar-nag measure of

good butter

(Rtsii. 7').
;

R^'q'^

for

each tanned

skin-rug

or

IJ'^^N ko-hbtigs an awl a three-sided
needle for sewing leather (ScA.).
ff'^5

leather folding used for cushions (three
tafika) (Rtsii.).
'tf'spy*.

ko-hbo itch scab

;

ko-mdah an arrow bound with
the

1|''^v^ gcabby.
rice or barley

In Sikkim a measure for

hide

:

S^T^f*^,

hide arrow used in

made

of hide.

the north (of Tibet).

T8F' ko-ldin a vessel or basin made of
hide to keep or cleanse
rfr'i|rqS'1i'|t'^
oil

ko-sbrags

a

hide
is

filled

with

or lime- wash
for

butter
:

;

the whole package

so called.
:

(Rtsii.)

each

ko-tshal pieces of leather or hide

hide vessel for holding sa-rtsi (such and such a price).
ko-lpags hide
fassj
rial or
;

^f:*^
of butter

for

each

skin

and

honey, &c.,

with

hide

also

tanned skin
the

wrapping
;

(Rtsii.).

hide or leather matefourteen

^f8fi'"l

sw ko-rlon

gtttms packed in a

stuff

included in

fresh

skin:

materials prescribed

for clothing to be
like a

used by Buddhist monks.
ff-g|*r*ip^

man packed

ko-lpag?

mkhan = y*rW

in a fresh skin, or any-

Iham-mkhan *|ii*TT worker in hide and
leather
;

thing packed or fastened with raw hide which becomes shrivelled when the skin
dries

a shoe-maker.

and

illness is induced.
6

34
ko-rul a rotten hide.

Kokya
hides
;

xrf^l pure (Lexx.).

grub which breeds in a kind of hide-moth; the Kola moth, something ^T)'^")^'^'9
fj-ai

ko-la a

Eo-krad.

(ko-tch)

1.

fll'wjfi

*hW-1*M*t%
flesh (Rtsii.).

1

of old lham-gyi akrad the worn out leather also a leathershoes and boots; 2.

like a species of
^j
-fjsrci

vermin in

shoe (Jd.).
ff'Sf

skin or having

dressed in ko-$a*n-pa (Lex.) one a skin for his under-

ko-sko^
ko-eko

^fl|

= *%i neck: *T$f = *S! 3 aZfl** mgrin-pn hdeg$
*o-*o
\'i'

clothing, v. ^f*'3 kom-po.

hdegs raise the neck (Nag. 4).
5

Ko-ka a place in Bengal where fj'T|
in ancient times
lived (S. Lam.).

n

Ko-iia

qi^T^*

yul-shig gi-min

many

Tantrik

adepts

n. of a place in Tibet (Yig.).
f

1y^3j''3

ko-non-tse, also ^f'^r* ko-nol-

4

Jfpf|'hT|

Ko-ka-li-ka

Tffanfe*

a

tse

or

1}'%?' ko-lon-tse, the kernel
;

of

Bhiksu of the Buddha's time who sided
with Devadatta (K.
'fj'^l

d.

*]

^7).

the pine-apple (tfs.) more particularly the edible seed of the JVeosrt-pine growing in the valley of the Sutlej
;

it is

also called
(Jd.).

Ko-kia, wild mountainous country
in the

east of

Bengal

Chakma and Hamsa(S. Lam.).

VW*

ekan-nan-tse in

Kunawar
*//</
216).

vati countries
east of

which are east and south-

**5^

A-o-ta=S

l

'l

blood

in

Haribhadra (Manipur)

mystic language (K.

g. *\

Ko-ki-la srrfw the Indian ^'fj'TJ'^ as a bird that cuckoo, in books described
du. sings sweetly (K.
f>

*fj'?Jrq ko-tam-pa mountain (K. dun. 17).

*H1

'

>lte

n.

of a

99).

ko-tam-pahi-ras
laksa
n. of

*

^'^'^21

ko-ki

a tree

(Mnon.).

one of the 41 materials of clothing permisa kind of sible to Buddhist mendicants
;

Ko-ko (variously

spelt
1.

^f'SI

ko-

grass formerly

used in

making

clothes

?ko, *\t'*\ ko$-ko *}*'% kos-sko)
;

wt? the

(K. du.f* 388).
!

chin also occasionally the throat or the ^Tll'^Pr' to raise neck:

ko-tam-bhag same as above.
ko-tra-pa JFHPT, *n?^,
in vulg.

f'^^*l'=
(fiag.)

the chin
chinless, or
fl|c.

;

[see

If^'f].

i*)-fJ->'S'
:

one with a small chin
a

^f'Sfi'

Nepalese Kodu, a kind of millet largely used in Sikkim for making wnr.-beer; it
is

T^^t? with

chin;

tsfi"^'^

slightly perceptible SH*<t^ a chin like

mentioned in K.
eaten

d.

^ 333.

A.

species

of grain

by

the poor; Paspatum

that of a pig; pig-faced (no chin) "beneath the chin." *jr*jS-*r* fof or

scrobiculatutn.

a 2. f^f^i the lower part of the chin. Tibetan of mixed breed, i.e., born of a

ko-trog-can ^'S'H'W

mi kroy
childish

krog applied

to

a

thoughtless,

Chinese father and a Tibetan mother.
l

man

(K.

d.

w362).

Ko-ko than-ma a country

*fy| ko-tha *&, fre a kind of leprosy
(Jd.).

in or near Ceylon (Jd.).

35
ko-thal

cinders,

ashes;

"Western Continent of Godaniya (K.
331).
C|

d.

ko-thal-du byas

ashes

:

f}'

pa to be reduced to w.3X'qv*,'i ko-thal hthor-war

gyur-pa scattered about ashes.
ko-da-la
tree

Ko-raba tsfa the descen;

dants of

Kuru

their

party
d.
*.

;

n.

of

a

or

country in the east (K.
Called t]
;

267).

growing

in

the

moiintain
d.

Kokila Parvata (K.

* 27 It).
of

C'o
(Schtr.)
;

ko-pafi-tse

a

ko-re or If'* ko-ra cup for drink3=-'^ fiii-kor wooden cup which ing every Tibetan carries with him in the

A

sort

tea

usually called Capinze (Schtr.).
;

pocket of his great coat next to his bosom fd-kor a drinking glass.
ko-lahi

;

Ko-bi-da-ra

^f^K

the

bdab=W&

on which grows the Parijata flower also a tree the flower of which is pretty and of sweet scent, probably
tree of paradise
;

pohi pi-pi
*

lift,

plantain leaf (Kfion.).

I: ko-lon annoyance; dissatis-

Bauhinia variegata (K. my. "H 20) ^f' *~ini<* an abode of the gods *^*'
;
PT
I

the jealousy of demi-gods or of 1 ^r" 9lV3rt "pray Naga, &c. do not out of dissatisfaction be jealous of
;
:

faction

^<t'VlT

1

I

(K. du.^310).
'

me." In saying grace
n.

Ko-bo prop.
(Vai.kar.).
^J'goi'i

of

a country

at meal time the Gods are exhorted by the lamas not to be

spiteful,

jealous

or angry,

&c.

:

trik

Ko-brag-pa prop, a sect of TanBuddhists; also its founder: ^f'g*]'<r

Lord

(Atis'a)

not being actuated by any

spite did not express any dissatisfaction,

&c. (A. 58).

Bsod-nams

rgyal-mtshan brought Vibhuti Chandra

of

'

Ko-brag
ifj-iSc.-q

n

:

is

(Nepal) to the monastery of Ko-brag in
1

from Bal-po and later on founded Ding-ri

ko-lofi-wa to

a dubious word (Schtr.) hate, envy; but in a
;

Upper Myan.
sfi.).

passage in Mil., where the connection admits of no doubt, ko-lon mdsad-pa must

ko-ma a bird (Vai.
ko-tse

be taken
ko-lon

= disdain

(Ja.).

In

Amdo

= dispute,

fight.

e'qg^q ja

Irgyad-pa the
Ko-$a-ld ^t*rar mythical river east of Jambudvlpa (K. d. * 267).

Chinese name for the brick-tea used by
people of Tibet. It is called ja brgyad-pa, the eighth or the inferior quality of tea (8. kar. 80).
ko-wags
the voice of a raven
is

the

common

^

^1

H ^ Ko-fi-la
*|

*lfii<(

a ceiiain king

of birds (K. my.

18).

meant

to

express

Kondi-nya *( pig 141
(e/ci.).

the son
n.

of

Upayamatl;
or sage
;

in Tib.
n.

vwa^'w

of a

Ko-rando
country,
said
to

^tw
in

prop,

a

Muni

of

a grammarian ; a

be

the

fabulous

patronymic of the poet Jayadeva.

36

3
flowers; n.

ITo-fam-bi, also written *|V

away

(/a.).

2. ^f"!'"'^' 1
off.

'

kog-pa

Kohu-$am-bi
of

*tni^\ the

city

of

peel, pare

an ancient city situated
of the
(flag.)

kog-tse

WM

a net

:

ace.
I

to

on the Ganges in the lower part Doab, in the vicinity of Kurrah 3 Vatsapattana.
;
.

S'^'VF'^'SYS'wV*
'

"a

net

ace. to

or snare to catch birds or wild animals." I
also ^'^fE.' kod-kofi, concare

:

koti,

;

Ko-<;i-ka, also written

Ko-hu-fi-ka

^ftrer.

1. 2.

an

excavated; crooked; bent; warped,
of
1J*' sa

w^fc.'

epithet

kofi-kofi

undulating ground;

Indra

;

n. of a drug.
n.

n. of the

Vatica
koft-pa-ni4 concavity.

Robusta;

of

a

teacher; an

owl;

a

patronymic of Vis'vamitra, who was the grandson of Kus'ika n. of a river, river
;

fJK* II
6i^

:

Hf^'Zi

Koft-po, also
2. the

Ifi^>l

1.

cup
n.

;

crucible.

Kosi (K.
Syn.
khas

d.

* 267).
na-gti-h-

of

ravines,

of a

province
of

of

country Tibet

lying to

the

south-east

Lhasa and
Kofi-psitm

q$*

east

of

Tse-thang.

^'"I^

$dig$-pa;

drafi-sron

fsuni the three divisions of Kofi-yul; also
n. of a

rndsod get (Nag.).
Ko-sa-thi-la chen-po
n. of

kingdom in Ancient India which was ruled by King Susanna. ^'Ifo Kvfi(ked a kind of sash or waist-band of fine

a Crdvaka attendant of
*]

the

Buddha (K. my.
Ko-sa-la

wool manufactured in Kofi-po; If^'j^c kofi-mriiifl a kind of spear manufactured
in Kofi-po (Jig. 32)
;

^ftrar,

*rtiwr

n. of

^'S 1

-'

kofi-paft
;

planks

a part of Ancient Oudh which in the Buddha's time was ruled by King Prasenajit. I: kog-pa
1.

brought from Koti-po (8. kar. 179) ^^gm kofi-$prel an ape from Kofi-po; the name
of

an individual who made a donation

to

a cover;
a letter
;

kog-fog the paper-cover of
k.

an

aid in repairing the monastery of Samye. ^fe.-ql' kon-bzo a kind of armour or weapon

2): Ift-Jfa ri|*B.-girjr envelope (F>. Vf* the cover or envelope (of a letter) should be neat and clean, K'^f* ja-kog a
1

manufactured in Kofi-po.

*1ff^
'R

koArkun

*T*fll n. p. (Schr.).

!

hide case in which tea
called ja-ko
;

is

packed

is

usually

koH-khru
:

(kofi-thu)

a kind of

w1ffl|

mar-kog a skin of
1

butter

:

wS'^TV-'*

^ '%^

I

(8. leg.)

yellow Tatin (frrtf**M*W|fc| (8. kar. 180) a piece or roll of yellow satin for a

"like a stone in
butter."

water or package of
fj'^'^f"!

gown.
Kofi-jo, in

fun-kog shell, rind; phyi-yi-kog exterior shell ; bark.

^'^H

2.

the

Chinese Kung-chu, a

name

man

kog-pa is applied to an old after the age of 85 (Rtsa shufi.).
^fl'i
l

name of the daughprincess ; the Tibetan ter of Emperor Tai-tsung, who was married
to

King

Srofi-tsan Sgam-po,

J^T^T^Wj'
;

II
1!

:

1.

vb., to splinter off, to

n#v1]E,-I Kofi-jo,

from China
*

the Chinese

chip; ^H"!^'

to rise

suddenly and run

spouse Kofi-jo (Lod.

5).

37
Kofi-bu

a

small
;

brass or copper oil-burner

cup-shaped x^^'^Js. mchod6

kor,

same
of

as

$X

gkor.

1. is

used

as a *|'!fl^ or auxiliary particle used in

kon an offering bowl, a cup for offering

the

manner

an

affix,

as

in

fS'lf^

pure water to any divinity
kofi

;

ifl'^f

-'

Sayink;

stod-kor,

which

signifies

a

cloth

that

ink-stand,

generally

for black

**JJ-^E. mtshal-kofi ink-stand

for red ink

surrounds or covers the upper part of one's body hence ?S'^ ytod-le a kind of half
;

or vermilion

;

g*|*r^f|t

mould, crucible;

casting flj^'tf* gstr-kofi. a gold

blugg-kofi

jacket

worn by children and
;

also

by lama
dot

dancers

Jfi'lf*

klad-kor the circular

cup or oil-burner placed before Tibetan deities 3'^' bye-kofl bowl of sand.
;

put over the head of certain letters to *i ma. 2. anything that signify the letter
has been cut out by the band or a lathe, such as ST'lj* fifi-kor a wooden cup

kofi-mo

w

a cave

;

a ditch.

^'^

;

Kod
Itia

boiled:

S'^gw ja de kotf-nag ka-ra bram-po
byiH-pas JO-IPO dgyeg

rdsa-kor an earthen cup or vessel turned 3. n. of a place out. 'f^'V Kw-ni-ru;

(A. 95) the tea

pa

having been boiled (prepared) and given with five lumps of sugar, the Jo-wo was
gratified.

a great lama who was a native of the place called Kor. (Deb. 11).
n. of
|

kor also occurs in *^'Hf*
nen-kor, hotf-kor, f fdub-kor t &c.

than-kor,

^'^

^'^ patf-kor,

kon-pa, also

called

kon-pa gab-ski/eg, the

name

of a plant that

^'^
S*
!

kor-kor

coiled:

grows in solitary
clefts

places, generally in the

"a string was
dagger
kor-bzo
(

wound round
$ft.

the

of rooks.

This medicine,

gab-tkyei, is used in

kon-pa Tibet for stopping

(exorcist's)

Vat.

82).

lit.

hemorrhage.
kob-kob,

of round

make

;

a

kind of shield of round shape

(Rtsii.).

same

as

"F^i kab-kob,

f i a oolloq. form of
!ffa|-q5-ai

^.
lam-fan-

the noise or sound produced from the
stretching of hides.

kol-wahi

foj=w^-<i

pa, a bad road (Mfion.).

n]5|Z| kom-pa to tan (skin).

fj'^*^
^fw^Vi kom-pdan a seat

kol-sa, T.

(

tfFi

hgol-sa or

^'

made

of tan-

gol-sa.

ned

skin.

kos-ko

wtf the
to the

chin.

This

r5 kom-po skin which has been
soft

made

word

is

also applied

throat and

and pliable by tanning

;

leather.

even to the wind-pipe.
the
HJ'f'I

kofi-jo

Kya-la
is

(also

called

J0

petty;

princess

Kom,

Wen

Chung,

the youngest daughter of the fifth Emperor of the
to

n. of a petty state in Tibet, the chief

town

of

which

jarite-flftK.-

Tang dynasty. She was married Me.Agtshom (J. Zan.).

King

where the Tsang-po, rocky chasm in the mountains.

(lit. the lion-face), it is said, enters a

TJ-W8JI

38
large fort in

Eya-an
Tibet (Dsam. 32).
nj*l]

n. of a

II

:

also gi'g") kynl-kyal,

sometimes

written as J^'S01 rkyal-rkyal, long and flat, not globular. Described in (Sag.) ^'?'

kyag

or

gTg"!

kyag-kyag

1.

|c,-q-^q|Agq]-S'q^'X ^
1

|

like
;

straw,

hollow

throwing obstacles in the way of another's work out of spite. 2. thick; run into
clots; Sl'i'fa kyag-pa nid thickness (Cs.).

and devoid

of

meaning

worthless.

kynl-ka
tricks
:

Sifa,

^mr

joke,

jest,

gri|5-K| kyal-kahi

tshiy

^f^J^^rT,

or

l-^-355'^ii

rtteg-mohi tshiy playful

word.

kyog

spir
"

curved
I
:

;

crooked

;

not straight.
or

gTq

kyal-pa vain, idle talk, nonsense.
\ *'
/

kyafi, also ge/ge. kyafi-kyafi
1.

-'q

kyad-po,

straight;

right;
as

very
stick

^0]'^QJ
tioned.

kijnl-kyal

poor;

ill-condi-

straight ((?.).
(J2.).

2.

slender

a

H1'

II: ^rft

^

1-

and;

and

also;

This syllable is primarily an afBx attached to nouns, adj., inflecting the genitive participles, ^-c., indicating
kyi
1.

*

though; although; too; yet more; used instead of ^' dad enclitically after the

case.

This

affix takes

the form S only
*>,

after the final letters

^

or

,

and

is

In composition the word g^' is placed between the subject and the predicate, for example wftrgfwito he was beautiful and his or^*wgc.'qc/
letters

TV'*.

varied to 9 where the word to which it is attached ends in either ^, *, or i, and
,

1

:

to

5)

where the preceding
:

final

is

"I

or

mind was
"

also good.
g=.'

In the eense of
first

f, or simply to 5 if the final happens to be a vowel. Ex. SV$ of Tibet, Tibetan
;

though"
:

follows the

or contrast-

w'3 of the
it

way

;

3=-'^ of the

north

;

^'*>5'X

ed verb
his face

fl]^c.-ci-?*rg=.-$rZr3j<i|

was handsome yet his crooked." <^'*<r S) vg c-'*f lustre. handsome also sheds
1

1

^

"though body was
this
2.

at the time of going. over,
is

Sometimes, more-

elided altogether, as in
2.

^'^
to

I

!

being
since,
;

Tibetan language.

It

is

annexed

since

that

;

then,

therefore

;

likewise

verbal roots (with the same variations of form) after the manner of a continuative

whereas.

V"
idle '^C. kyan-kyon indolent, lazy,
'

and imparting the gerundial sense, but by some modern writers used as a
particle

(Jd.).

kyar-po,
flat,

also

gvg^

kyar-kyar,

generally immay be explies " followed in English by " though pressed
finite verb.

Gerundially

it

an

antithesis

which
t

not globular (Cs.). kyar-kyor
still
(

1

feeble

as

a

convalescent after disease

by "yet": 8'lNrffr*r| *t^TrA^W'^ *5or3i^ though the girl called to him, yet he went on the straight way without turning his head.
is

Jd.).

As

affix to

a finite verb
of

it

joke

;

I: kyal, resp. ^rgl shal-kyal, a also a comic or jocular look "i^'^l'
:

frequent in the

writings

Padma

"iTgT^-*!^!

(^t.

113)

once

having

a

Jungnas and Milaraspa, and is also used Attached to the in the C. colloquial.
verbal root
it

jocular smile on his face.

may

also carry the sense of

39
"as much
this road, as," "as far as"

:

Tj'Sj

kyin

a verbal

termination

used

|'q'g|E.'9|-|N'jj'?J;-

as far as

h e remembered
3.

he followed the ox.

con-

alternatively with ^ gyin and 9|^ gin and after a vowel ^ yin denoting a partic.
;

necting the auxiliary verb with the verbal root forms a much-used present tense But here the yjc|-I^ I am lying down.
:

pres. like the

'

'
:

English ing

gfi^fW'fa'**:
!

With proceed on your way singing or ^l Mug it forms a periphrastical yod
present tense:
hdebs-kyin yod he

^

final
'

vowel does not often take the simple (*)> e -9-> f I'^Vl is seeing still we have
;

^'II'^KI'^'^ smon-lam

in books

SJf

^'^"1

is

eating food.

[N.B.

The
will

use with the instrumental form

is praying (just now) Most probably the common present (Jd.). form in kyi, gi, &c., is an excised form of

come under that

article.]

this use, e.g., ^^\<vyf\ is

coming

;

s

N

'

looking.
kyir, also

'3F' kgi-g.M the elbow.

3^'^

kyir-kyir,

round
1

;

TJ

^

Kyi-Ice n. of

Gentiana decumbens.

The white
1

a medicinal plant, species of

circular; a disk

this plant called S'l'V'l
is

^

a round thing; S^'' ''^^ kyir-wa-nid roundness.
;

kyi-lce dkar-po

in

repute for

biliousness.

The

blue

with; the sign of the instrumental case, used after the letters
kyis by,

called iJ'^'g^' 2! kyi-lce snon-po heals swell-

ing in the throat or glands (Med.).
CN

\

i,

or

,

and generally indicating the

3'^i
-3|c.-$

kyi-bun

a chill;

a feeling of

personal subject of the action. It is called the IV'^'U byed-pa pohi $yra (the term of

cold (Sch.).

^'^

5'g^Q kyi-lin chu-rta $non-po= dmd-chu quicksilver (Sman. 118).
kyi-hud ?r ^<
the sound of weeping, lamentagrief, sorrow or loss ;

the doer). Gerundially kyis is annexed to a verbal root to render clauses which in would be introduced with "

3'^S
1.

English by," " from," &c., e.g., W^Tftf rtpr|cW^^ from the sword having pierced the liver, " from " he was slain. Of course the
prep.

interj.,
;

tion

an expression of
!

Alas
cnr

Ah
2.

!

S'^'^'l kyi-hud zer-wa ^T?T
deep sorrow or lamenta-

might be omitted here. Again our "because" is often an appropriate opening to clauses
terminated in
gar^c. the or,
-

|*i

;

expressing

|*i,

&c.

:

*3je.'q

g^<rjtf*r
;

tion.

one of the eight cold hells of the

Buddhist purgatory.

demon coming, he turned aside because the demon came, he, &c.
kyu
ni^si
;

3^T^~
(Sch.).

kyig-rtse

unburnt

brick

a

^|1

hook;
;

giJ*)'S

Icags;

kyu iron hook
-

an angle
(i.e.,

a fishing hook

s\Wjl shabs-kyu
of a people living in the
8).
ser-rlufi

mark

fixed

foot-hook) a at the foot of a letter to
'

the

east of

Asia (Tig.
'

signify the vowel

u and written
;

'

as

^
wind with

kyin

a violent
kya-sa,
of

S^'^E^

kyur-kyur twittering
:

the cry
byihu

hail: ace. to Jd. also 3'
;

a small bird

ai'*' ql'3^'3^'^"l

onomatopoetic word

a blowing wind.

coga kytir-kyur sgrog the swallow twitters.

40
kye %,
ft:

the vocative sign;

0!
bent,

kyog,

also

Holla

!

kye

is

called tf$ViS-|

bbog-pabi

fgra or interjection
tion or calling
v*)
:

the word of invoca|

winding, having turned his head (sideways),

3"l'Z"\ ^W, crooked, curved: w^'S'^-jfii's^

I

wa"!
;

jj'5rHi'^-Hi

great

King

!

lam-kyog a winding or surpentine road
zig-zag.

a

lotus-gem (Chenraisi).
also

Kye-kye,
abbreviation
as
of.
;

written

3

for

JJI'Q

Kyog-po

nir

crooked

;

3") '3^

conveys the same meaning

kyog-por crookedly,

not straight

:

^'^ q l*''

^Mr^iHrc^-crl^l^-^wVc. (Pag. 133) the
wild

animals

that

conceal

themselves

3'^'t Kye-rdo-rje

% TO

n.

of a terrific

bending their necks ran away.

Tantrik deity.

HJC I kyoA or
:

flVJe. kyofi-kyofi

1.

fira

kye-ga n. for the magpie.
Kye-phafi-pa n. of an idol of
the

hollow cavity tray; cognate to
; ;

the hollow of a dish or
^j*-'

kofi.

2.

obstinate;
as

unmanageable
4'3
E -' E
',

(Ja.).

3.

hard,

in

Nying-ma

sect, consisting, like

most

hard water;
$'3*.'Q.

evidently a

colloq.

of the

popular idols in Tibet, of an enchanted stick or log decked with rags,

form of

but

much dreaded and

said to be identical

II
scraper
;

:

or
1

ffl^'3

kyofi-lu a small shovel,

with Pe-$kar Gyalpo
kye-ma fr
*nr

(Ja.).

ffl^T

kyoA-Ma quarrel
flexible

(interj.)

Alas!

An
ticity
;

A-yowi

but without

elas-

of expression of surprise with sorrow, also

flabby, loose, lax.

misery; jj'wwai kye-ma-ma-la oh! an interjection expressive of
for compassion or fatigue:

'*Tt3TH but
desire
1

fflVi

kyom-pa

soft
;

and tough
toughness.
of

;

fiwi^s

kyom-pa-ni4 pliancy

J'WIWJR'B
hdi
alas
this

^

kye-ma

ma-la

kyom-kyom
shape, not rectilinear (Jo.).

irregular

glaft-po

elephant! (A. K. 1-36).
kye-re or

^

^.^
ke-re, also {I* kyer,

kyor

or

JvjX

kyor-kyor weak,

feeble, unfortified (Cs.).

or upright, erect; fl'*'" kye-re-wa the act of standing erect. kye-re-nitf

^^1

*yo/ or a *'!"! kyol-kyol=^*- kyor.
1
-

(

mteri-)
!

for * 3, 5' q ^ql*1 kra-btsii(js 1| JTra (<)

Woe

!

Ah What misery
!
; |

An expression
What oh
!

established a Dharmas'ala (A. 61).
TJ'

of grief or pain Holla! jt['TT^' JS 'V

3'? kije-ho

'^ n
l|

kye-ho and ktra-ye

JT-^'P"
l

kra-rm far-sa n. of a kind
:

of

precious stone

qvwvj*r*-*|rw
(B^seV.

are exclamatory words.

?-fl-T]-w-*|VpS>' >|i!

4^)

a

house
of

kyo-wa ^fV. a pointed iron-hook a large pin to pierce with.
'

built of
;

a dome ruby made lofty with

krama

^
rock.

farsa.

krag

(tag)=^

brag,

signifying

kyo-rafi, v.

ffl'i

kyo-wa.

41
krafi-fie

(tang-fa)

standing

;

animal being once offered as a burnt
fice to

sacri-

2'q or je.'fc'q^

an upright posture

;

the gods (K.

d.

2U).
of a

S^'i krafi-sdod-pa to stand.
*

^ 1J'^ Kri.kn
Krafi-naft (tang-nang) a gallery
evi-

ftrf^f, ?if% n.

Bud-

dhist king of Benares

who

is

said to have

round a house; a covered passage; dently an incorrect form of ^'^'.
5F'i krafi*wa (tang-wa), prob.

patronized

Buddha Eas'yapa. In the Chinese version of the Vimala-k!rti-niris

wrongly

des'a sutra, he

called Krpin, the kind

written for

^'iVS

to

make

straight.

and

merciful.

krad-hkhor (tt-Mior) a ring used in the exercise of archery as a butt for arrows ; a mark a target.
;

Tf^j^

white-breasted magpie ka in Tibet.

kri-kha (ti-kha) the magpie; the ; colloq. called kya-

kraj-rgyun (tt-gyun) a piece of long narrow leather to mend shoes with ace. to Cs. a long narrow piece of leather
Ifi'l^
;

Kr

i_

wa

n. of a

place in Tibet (J. Zafi.).

to fasten the sole to the upper leather of a

.

the

shoe or boot. krad-pa (te-pa) a shoe ; a coverthe feet of the lower classes
;

grey duck (MHon.).
!

2.

vfr a worm.
the

kriya

ftrcrr;

S'^'S'^'I^

ing

for

ritualistic part

of

Sambhawa mysticism:

of people

a leathern half-boot

;

kra4-lhan a patch for shoe.
j'SI

the krya man-tra having been performed the six-armed deity. by
Kri-(;ofi-ba-ro n. of

kran-ma (tan-ma),

colloq. for %*>'*

sran-ma, peas.
vidual

an indi-

who did some

service

kmb-kmb
3T1jq-:f *gq-q
in
is

to Atis'a

(tab-tab) =*|gr<i
:

dancing or stamping of the feet
(

during his journey to Tibet through Nepal
(A.

i^'il'

ms
'

) l

egs an(j armg moye(j ag

dancing.

According to $ag. Ji'jq

equivalent to %Q'%Q, flat.
kt-am (tarn) oa'bbage
;

krig-kng (fig-fig) beat or press with the hand or feet make the sound tig-tig.
krig-gi
(tig-gi)

=W
;

to

to

2]*'*.; sweet

or fresh cabbage

bage-pickle

;

9 kyur cabH"'|^ cabbage leaked in vinegar.
;

kram

straight: fipr

^!

the iron arrow

when

\

^TT^

Kri-ka-ru-ka

a^fw

n. of a

quite straight being good (D.R.).
krig-cags

monastery in ancient

Behar which was

also

known by the names of Samudra Gupta and Kusumapuri (A. 60).
kri-ka
Id-sa
^^rjTTJT

TVr*^-q

|

med-pa g^'^N' not customary
:

or purposelessly; for nothing

fl-^-*w|-2j3'

*4V$YM|V*V<*fQ;*^|Kj Mongol
a

tribes

small lizard.

There

is

an account of

this

without adhering to custom would always be making prayers (D. fel.10).

42
'

krin-kafi

(fifi-kan)

a

weapon

his class (Tig.

Ar.

38).

like the spear; a forked spear: w^'S*' t'-3S-qsw^ a (to the cost of) 3jc.-T|K.-nv
'

for

Chung fang, a
officials

title

Probably an error borne by certain

high

in China.

spear and
(Rtsii.).

lance

with

saw-like

teeth
1JJJ

^

krutn-pa (him-pa) broken in the

kriA-bag-sgyo

(tifi-pag-gyo)

edge or side or nibbled, but not entirely broken to pieces.

glue or paste

made

of flour.

1JJ11 Erums
1

(turn)

meat: in polite

krin-n4
Krisna VFQ

(tin-tie

)

the

colic.

language
n.

it

is

called
is

|Si'jw

(sol-turn),

of

sculptor

;

an

the

meat that

offered to a respected

image-maker during 1000 A.D. (A. 121).

Atis'a's

time about

person.
l

1|*^
Kris-na-sa-ra
SjsoflTT

tj

Krc-nag (tc-nay)

n.

of a place

the

in

Kham.
IJ'^j krag-nag
(tc-nay) the spout

spotted antelope

(

Jd.)

;

a kind of black
kettle (Sch.).

of a

antelope which

is

said to possess the heart

of a Bodhisattva.
is

The skin of this animal used by Hindus and Buddhists alike
sit

to

much
skin.

upon; the Tibetan lamas attach sanctity to this antelope and its

T]'| kre-pa (te-pa) the forehead also a colloq. spelling for \fri dpral-pa, the
;

forehead.
jfcj

Kre-bo

(te-o)

n.

of

a place in

knt-kru
(Jd.).
;\

(tu-tu)

(W.)

wind-pipe

Kham.
kro dha-na

* TPITI^
satin

kru-krw

Mf

(tu-tu

a fierce
ti)

woman an amazon
;

f^rat a kind of yellow chintz resembling
of

krog-krog

(tog-tog)

a kind of

great

value,

formerly

highly

sound produced by the grinding of hard or
brittle objects together
:

prized in India

and Tibet.

It is called

ih'^^-^ "togtog-tog
is

tog is

a sound

"
(Nag.)

an ono-

kru-ra (tu-ra)
rigt the vulgar, or the lowest class of peo-

matopoetic word meaning a grating sound.
s^

t|'
3.'
!

kron

(ton) erect;

standing:

$*rV

ple in the mystical language (K. g. P 28).
'JjC''nC'|j'i53j

the body erectly stood.
kron-krofi

Kriin-krufi sgra-can (tufig-

(tong-tong)
erect:
i

stand*''*<'fy**'

tufy'-da-can) n. of a country (filled with the

ing;

posing

still

and
|

cry of storks or cranes) said to have been visited by the Buddha (K. du. P 302).

jr^-w-|^Bn|irf'ir** ri'w

(A.

27)
in

"while the two pupils were looking on, the
as deity was able to appear erect
life."
if

F'
minister

Krun-than the chief Chinese
resident in

When

used of persons,

it

means

who was

Tibet

when

also

standing on one's

knees; kneeling

Abbe Hue

visited

Lhasa

;

an

official of

in an upright position (Jd.).

43

IF O* kiofi-rtse
of

(tong-tse) n. of a kiud round writing anciently used in China:
|

tribe of

rtf^f'W kla-klohi Turuska
;

bye-brag a Tartar.
T*\sr*a,
less

^^^^t-'^-cr^-S)^-^
called Toflg-lse.

the
klnrj-cor

characters of that time were circular letters

The word 3Ft"

clamour,
krofi-rtse

noise:

seems to be a corruption of the Chinese tany-ch'ien, copper cash. Tibetans say

T**' >Ri

WP^
Mag-pa
I

jprlSX'^'Ji
|

noisy:
a

"having made

row

about."
1. ^ggn study, reading; qrar^rr^ a teaching profes-

"a hundred

cash."

kron-kron (ton-ton) in

W. hang-

sor,

a teacher

:

ai|'<i5 *i|ijrgflm

v)5mr^flnrq

|

ing; dangling.
3T4>
kla-rtsi

"has completed

his

vow
is
:

of study to read,

"

(A. K.

musk

incorrect spelling of

*^<^ this is an n the word S|'|" gta-tsi.
:

30),

v.

ffl*i|'i

klog-pa

peruse;
sTl'i.

klags

irf^T,

pret.

of

2.

%*
SI'S]
1.

to incarnate

fc*-*to

"i^, a^K,

*W*, vtar
I

a barbarian:

S'SYSTST'^V^'ID

kyi-hud

or incarnation; in Asta.

waiting for or expectant of one's advent one
finds fault

dudhgroklu (Zam. 2) "Alas, the Mleccha, the beasts, and the Naga !" 2.
pla-glo

who

with";
1

not incarnated or obtained an incar-

any Musahnaa
laws
;

of India, a
3.

Hwi-hwi

or

Hwi-tse in China.

a nation without

a barbarous, uncivilized race.
kla-klo-kha=*t-q
sn fis

nated state ^ " there cannot be transmigration from one to another state of emptiness." (This is
:

^^'^^^"rj^ri^

|

in

reference to

%'ft'f>

the eighteen states of

copper
Sunyata.)
SI

(Mfion.).

"I"

*ST!D'VW kla-klo rnams
barians
(Sc/tr.).

W^T:

Wags,

v.

jf"!

the bar1.

"the word klad means above or up(&ag.)
brain
;

^g<r a Musalman's mouth = P'& kha-che " a wide mouthman," i.e., a Musalman of Kashmir.
;

Sl'JTST kkt-klohi

kha

ward"
head;

SJY

8

''^'^
2.

revolving
*r1%g;, H^rar

round overhead^. 155).
3JS''f^,

'SraS'X*!

kla-Ttlohi

chos

^tw

(Sc/w.)

"religion on the lips."
g'P'?1"5 kla-klohi tig-ta several bitter growing in the sub-Himalayan
is

on

it is also written as ; Siyi as ^'X, a dot or cypher placed the top or head of a letter to denote

same

the abbreviation of the letter * ma, which
is

roots

commonly used
:

in writing
3.
first;

and

occa-

regions; one

also called

%3'^'5

Gen-

tiana cheretta (Mfion.).
ffl'jf^-'gi

sionally in printing. the first

BV^N from

kla-klohi

spos

= ^f[

<WW**'^'|^'fy ^vawprvw *Wfjr*fcw as to lion's cubs, their claws
garlic

are

prominent from the
Sfi'3 klatf

first.

(Mtioii.).

rgya membrane covering the

g-jf5-^9i

kla-klohi

hphel

g^f^ir,
;

brain; pia mater;

?JT^5T
lit.

J[Y3'f
(Schr.)
;

a Turuska (Tartar) King growth of the Yacana or the Mlecc'ia
n. of

the bloody

marrowin the bones

^klad

ggo

;

the fontanel in the infant cranium

(Schr).

44

31
Man-pa 1. revenge wrong aveng1 wreak vengeance for |T &rt*'OT 3 Ki5''i^ (Lo. 9) the crow
;
:

Mad

child

the cerebellum; SS"

Mad ffshufi the spinal marrow; Mad g.zer painful pricking sensation
brain; Jft'^w or
of the brain.
Jfi'J

ed
in the

;

to

tC8l -.|-3fl-q-i3jrw

the thin covering

revenges

itself

upon the owl by what

is

called flesh-revenge. of

3]V*

Mad-tho
"tent, i.e.,

the

top length

a

JTjYS

Man-bya part to be mended

Tibetan
its

the distance between

or to be patched.

two

poles.

Sfi Xfl

Mad-don

lit.

signifies

the

meaning

gpT*! Mam-pa used by Tibetans also &pagri or turban

raw?l a thick blanket;
5

but is of the text or the original work, used as a term for the Sanskrit
gen.

when travelling: a*-^-* ^-^-^^'^'
eft-Ste-

(K. du.

|

121)

Mam
is

the term for a
tied

names or expressions which head almost
all

which long piece of cloth
head.

round the

the religious books of Tibet.
!fi

The
original

work Won- makes
a V3W
text.
Sfi-q

synonymous with
of

a

or

the

amplification

the

bya bsnafis-pa f^ojwn, yawning;
to

yawn.
"1^1

Hlad-pa

<sttfr

what

is

uppermost

;

Mas
<

<

*^<>

"
^'a

5IV

Mad-ma

*rfi[

priority,

beginning,

an equivalent
as in
*S*''a*',

of "

copious, ond ' yat* t) e y
rnthah

abundant

;

W***'

Mas or w*'
be taken

top.

jj^q-nq|*rq

Mad-pa hgem$-pa

lit.
;

whose
;

uw (^jp). In
to

this case SI*
is

may

mean

"without,' and

an equivalent

brains have become confounded
to

to stun

surprise;

to confound; to overthrow

of the Sanskrit ^. ^v

,

in argument.

Mad-bzo the making of the outer q<r side of anything: S*|T^'i 5F'V Mad bzo sbug tlier $kabs dan bstun-bar
1ft *8

Min-ma or g) * J]^'*J or lake. margin of a river
5]

.

**

gW^,

/^

fVi

I

:

Mu TTI
"I

n. of

a kind of flower

K'Sl

bya this outer covering within must be made to (Yig.SS).

and the
fit

flannel

(K. my.

20).

in their size

blame; JIVTl Man-ka ^ran? censure, mi htshol-wa one not pH'H-R*rfl Man-ka
seeking
R.forq-1*,

Indian Naga, that is, a demi-god having a serpent, human head and the body of

the

which

is

generally supposed

to

live

in

brawls:
casting
'

W'*''f^'*''
imputations

w *^
;

against
f*\

another is called
a n^-"' Q)
U|C-'a 3i''tl' a *'

Man-ka htshol-wa
Man-ka

and lakes. fountains, rivers, be the guardian of great also believed to are ablet treasures under-ground; they and certain maladies, and rain
cause

The Lu

are

al80 fomenting a dis;

pute

is
;

called

IFT**'?= 1T
!

become

iTj-tiN^'y

^<?T?pt^J one

who

seeks brawls;

angry. dangerous in general. snake serpent or any

when

2.

a

to censure, blame.

wahi dot-gar the drama of Nagananda;

45
klu hjog-po

<rgw

the class of

dramatic

treatise

by

Harsadeva

Lu ZM

or

Naga

called

Takmka.
the coming forth of the
their retreats.

(Ya-sel. 230).
a'P*.'

ffl'^N klu-thebs

klu-khafi the residence of the Lti

in
is

'o

summer from

This

imaginary palace gods. supposed to exist at the bottom of the sea or of some lake where the Naga reside
:

or serpent

Au

time

fixed in Tibetan almanacs for wort

shipping them: ^3^ w|=.'^'Ji''(e.'q'acji^n3* db yar-sa $tefi-du klu hod-tea la klu-thcbs
zer the

|-pf|^*r|^rgi(-4l^r the palace of the Lu and
delight.

(Jig.)

saw

coming upwards

of the
is

Lu from
-o

their grove with

their retreats in
klu-thebs.

summer

called JI'S'W

klu-pfafi

nag-po
is

ba-ru

jraf*|

i=|lito

the crab which

called

the Tibetans "bull-horned

black

by Lu"

to
is

their
called

klu-ldog the retiring of abodes in the nether
STlf"!

the

Lu
is

regions

klu-ldog,

which time

(Sman. 1M)*
1

generally calculated by the Tibetan astro-

STS

" klu-rgyal
=."

unrusi (Schr.).
dttfi-

logers to fall in December.
-

j|

ski/ofi

Klu-rgyal dkar-po jrmrraj-^-sii'-crna n. of a certain
or a serpent demi-god called
Shells: Sl'ST * >

o

*v3^
is

klu

rnthar

byed
;

the
also
bird.

chief patriarch of the

Naga

which

a

name

of the

Garuda

Naga Raja
the

White Protector of Conch

^7j-^e.-[ii-^-*Evraia|-*K.-S5fl|*i

the

Lu
2. n.

c,

1.

n

.

ruler called white S'ankhapala

and S'an-

of a very

of an indolent venomous snake

poison.
(Smati.

khadhara

Bahu Pani, the deity with many
M).

350).
N

arms, and others (Rtsii.

JTV!'^ klu dug-can poisonous snakes.
klu-ydon hjo
rgyal-po

I'M***'** klu-rgyal mthah-yas ^ -^
the king of the snakes described in Hindu mythology (Mnon.) one of the
infinite
; ;

tmug-po

lit.

that which

destroys poison or kills

Lu demons =STt"

eight

JT^

klu-chen, great Lu.

musk (Sman.

333).

ffl'jar^flprg

classes

among

klu-rgyal rigs-lna the five the Naga Raja or Lu kings

klu-bdud rdor-je n.of a medicinal plant which
is

believed to have the

residing in the fabulous world of the snakes.

niuS.i the STi^ Klu-sgmb (Lu-dub) expounder of the Madhyamika school of

property of healing all sorts of diseases caused by Lu or malignant spirits.
ST*1

^

klu-mdud prob. Codonopsis ovata
1

Buddhist philosophy.
jj-S^qg^
of the

(Jd.)

also

ffl^'"I^

^'

;'

kluhi g.nod-pa cures all
(

Lu

klu-chen brgyad the eight chiefs or Naga are

kinds of arthritis and rheumatism
3r|t*i
klu-sdifi$

JF.).

*ww

smrer^ the peaks or flanks of a mountain where snakes reside.
klu-nad
itt?lft7r,

^vffri the disease

caused by the

Lu

or leprosy.

46
the abode the Lu.
*j|-SS
Ttlu-bod

of

Ttlti-g.su.gs

of a snake; also a

Lu

the body or likeness in the body of a

Hirnirq

one

of

the

snake;

the anything with

body

or

iu

the guise of a snake.
of

of disciples
*a'a=>

Nagarjuna

(Sehr.).

an epithet Mu-byaA ^niRtf^

also that of one Nagarjuna" and
disciples.

of his

the language of the Tibetan authors N&ga; according to some which this is the language of India
flS-fifi

Jtluhi skad.

Nagari

jl-^-fyjarZi

1tlti-4w<Hl-gi

rgyal-po

a

the Prakrit. they identify with

Accord-

Buddha ruling over the Lu, usually depicted with 4 attendant Bodhinattra (Grub.
109).
j|-*S

historians of Tibet ffl*ing to the earliest the N&ga bhasd, was q-S kltthi stead, i.e.,

the language of the Chinese
*S'

:

W Kgya-nfifj-pa klu-las chad-pas, |*T1T
I

3'Wf^'

Klu-hbum

n. of

a section of the
1

a^V^'S
Naga
fj'5

of Sgomdfi division

the monastery of S*"
Jlbras-spufis

^Ag^-gm
|

Qpal-ldait

pungnear Lhasa): fawc*i( ^oiV^'sT'S'^a*'!

*W3F
tlie

the Chinese having originated the from the serpent demi-gods, speak \\' the language of the Lu.
krta,

naga krta

is

the distinguished from

are sections of Daipung "Monastery
;

the

n. of a Hordong, Sam-lo and Lubum treatise on a hundred thousand Nagn.

Sanskrit language which is called Leva of the gods. NagaLhasa, the language
krta

krta

means corrupt language and Sansmeans refined language.

khra-bo 1. n. of a g'^S^'H'^ Jfltt-hbum the Son-po. 2. H * religious work among " There are also khra-bo means mottled."

groA-khyer mTpnift, *ftithe Naga <pft the mythological city of nether world ruled by King S'es.a. in the
fflS-fje.'^ kltthi

a-^w^vzi Mu-hbum
klu-hbum nag-po.

4kar-po,

y<w*ft*
the mytho-

Klu-hlum, originally a
;

'hooded snake, cobra di capello
logical sense,

aS^Sqi'^ khihi hjig-rten Tnwtaf nether world or region inhabited by the
the

however,

is

only understood

Lu

or Naga.
a fabu-

and in Tibet, where every child knows Lu or Nagas, &c., cobras being believes in
unknown.
jr*>

^c^'if&H Kltthi diig-bcom n. of lous sea which lies beyond a great sandy
desert.

The Lu

chieftain Stobs-Uan (Bala-

Ttlu-mes

g-w^'51'^l

(Deb. 46) n.

tdn) resides there

and

excites dissensions
d.

of a
>

lama

of Tibet.

among

living beings (K.
Ttlnhi

* 335). the

g-35

klu-mo a female serpent; also a

^UI^^-TI
neck of a
*
JoS'3

gdeMia

hood or

serpent demoness.

Naga

or of a serpent.

jj-^'s^Ti'^'^

klu-mo

mu-tig

nu-sho-

Kluhi-sde stroifr (Schr.) n. of the

cann. of medicinal plant used for wounds
or sores.
Its flowers are of garnet colour
;

celebrated Buddhist sage

the
(of

interrogations

of
;

who answered King Menander

when they
milkish

are plucked there oozes out a sap which is said to possess

Milinda Pannha)

one of the eighty

Buddhist

saints of the northern school.

healing power

(Sman. 350). S'S^ Iflu-iman n. of a medicine.

"ftV Mubi
,

g.nod-pa

or
JjS'sfa

Itluhi

plague

;

a disease of

unknown

origin ;

47
maladies supposed to be originated from
the malignity of the serpent demi-gods.
* IT*'& E-'4
'

(

dsam-bu-ka ^J|*H^;, the plant
(Jlffion.).
#fefi?

Flacourtia spadia
11
ffl'

Uuhi

byaH-chub

srR%rfa

!^'^*

1

&/M

g.sw>w

the names of
sdig-srin,

(8e*r.).
ffl^-gui

three
kluhi gbrul TT5T

medicines,

viz.,

|l'^

a class of very

W*,i\ shal-nag and S^'^"I byan-nag
450).

(Sman.

venomous snakes.
JjS'SV*)

kluhi yi-ge ^in ^IW: ace. to Cs.

a valley

;

river
;

;

$'3F' chu-klud

the Chinese character ; ace. to some authors
the Nagari character.

a nver in general ^"IN'jjc.' nags-klun & river passing through wooded tracts the name SF ifon is seldom applied to small
;

(Schr.) n. of a
31')'

Buddhist

saint.

streams or rivulets.
SF'J^ Mun-rgyun a
^

^

klu-yi skad

miwwi
>

the language
<

stream,

current;

of the

Naga:
(it)

*FF |'fV^?M l^R V
<
I

a river.

fl|SMraj-^'flRj*

it is

said that (he) under-

a

kind

of

stood
in the

when

related in the Sanskrit

garlic

or

language of the Naga.

growing wild on the margins of rivers in Tibet: I*'ft***Hr|'ffMrf^J wild
garlic cures leprous sores

and

dries

up the

n.

of a leafy creeping plant (Mnon.).
5
l'

fluids in swellings (Med.).
!=.'$

^ klu-yi = w~ir|R
&je

lit.

the snake's

klufi-rta

(in

Wj'**

nag-rtsi? the

tongue; n. of a plant used in medicine.

art of divination)

= 5^'?'

rlufi-rta.

Syn.

'*.(

<*j|'.J|K.

gfo-safis

hkhri-fin;

jTc.*rw)<v<w

S no-sans
;

mthah-yas;

Ww'r
*>'
;

JF'gl** klun-phyugs cattle living in the lower table-lands of Tibet. This term is
also applied to the

rnthah-yas rtsa

s'gp'qg * la-plait bsruft

yaks which are kept
31

fl'S'S me-tog phra-mo (Mnon.).
jj-^-flj^

in the lower plains of Tibet:

E
.'|''I'^'

k/w-

W=sr^
lit.

the

earth

*fy*''

u

^ I'Ti'^l

klufi-phyitgs
(i.e.,

so-g.ni$

yan-

gyi ko-wa rer "for

the price

of)

each

the

snake-

hide of cattle of two teeth,"

(i.e.,

above

tree

;

^<Q<^
^5-

the tree of golden bark.

two years

old)

(Rtsii.).

Syn.

S"'*^ bum-can; |'9'**? $kyc$-bu

jje.A'W'q khifi
hill torrent
!!='*<
N>
;

mtho;

hbab-pa the rushing of a the flowing of a river.

lcitg-ma;

klun-ma a river.
klufi-tsfiag

&/&>' me-tog; fi)'WR'q ge-sar mar-po

;

J]'|

%z.'i\

klu-skyes (Mfion.).

The names
called
df7

of

some

species of trees

^^ij ri-tshag a hill

a yak of the valley ; yak a yak belonging

r&?

are the

to the higher elevations

and

hill-tops of

a(-a^q'4

tshad-ldan

following: hdab- ma; ^'Tl'f"
J^'w*^
fc/Ai

Tibet

(Rtsii.).

31=.'^ KluH-qod

n.

of

a place in the

dri-shim; ^'^'

rtsa-wa

mad;

uplands of ^ij'^ (Digun) situated to the north-east of Lhasa (Lofi. > 12).

48
klufi-fos

a kind of plant growing

or

5H11

Wtlog, til'n'^'S bklag-par-bya

jh'W

on*the margins of rivers in Tibet, and said to be efficacious when applied to sores
:

j^I'w^V *\ klog-par-byed is reading; klog-par byed-pa the act of reading, the
causing to be read; jffTS Mog-bya anything to be read ^"I'S'^II'^ klog-tu hjug;

Qt-'jfa kluti-igog

garlic of the valley.

I:

ItluHs this

term

is

applied

pa

to begin or cause one to read;

JOT'''

2)

to the astrological results arrived at by one's age in reference to that

5 klog-pa po or JT"! ^ ktog-mkhan a reader
JSfrS!,

;

computing
one's

klog-grra a reading school, a school
\2)'*'^"l'J i|'J
|

parents by consulting their It occurs in the Vaidurya horoscopes.
of

for

reading;

dpe-eha

sogs

Iflog-pa

reading books, &c. J'l'^l klogread aloud
;

Karpo in expressions such
,

frdon to

jfTS^ klog-b_yafi ^nr-

ma-k.!ufis.

II:

cultivated

lands;

a field:

Pi*l well-read, accomplished in reading, a scholar ^*m*^'fl klog-pa yafi klog-pa
;

]tlufis-m skye

soil:
Jtlttfis

V^'"*^
tshaft-ma

S'S'^
all

^ * Dkar-mdafis-kyi
fields

grow on

cultivated

to read again.

SH'ft

Kiog-thob
50).
kloft

n. of

a Bodhisottva

belonging to

(K.

ko.
'

Qkar-hdafa.
extent
;

I:

or

a 6-'"
;

f-SP^
to put

Klub-pa,

pf.

<"'

klubs-pa,
;

mass, bulk, body depth, abyss. Also a wave or any undulating thing
:

iff*.'

1 . to cover the body with ornaments (<7a.)

Vi*"'"

on luxuriously

(Cn.)

:

nrw with opening or reverting folds or coils as in a conch shell.
II:
this

word

either
is

leb rta fifi dag-las legs

grub-pahi

sefi-

alone

or

khebz rab hbrifi fha-ma ysum-du klitbg (Tig.). 2. to set up (a tenant). 3. n. of a tribe

in combination with

"w yafig

generally

used to express the idea of vastness, infinitude or immensity.

in Tibet (Vai. kar. 160).

It also signifies

"space"
Ndga-hvaya, one of the 28 Buddhist sages mentioned
-\

as a definite expanse, being in

bod

smrwi,

a measure

synonymous with

^3=.J dbyifls

:

in the

M. V.
Klut byaft-chub 5TTrrrfV, Naga

the immensity or profoundness of Dharma *T2j';g,c.*i ^qrg the

Xw'I'JF"!^

;

j]*rg,e.'$q

expanse of matter or infinitude of phenotude of the mind

Sodhi, one of the chief disciples of Nagarjuna. His essence is supposed to have

mena; '^w'^vl'JF the depth or ampli'1'*** VK Xr--ai*r
-

:

been embodied in the late Kusho Sengchen of Tashi-lhunpo.

spiritual being of Dorje chang developes in the wide bound-g'2
I

this

Mas a rack
horse.

for clothes, clothes-

less

sphere of the gods into that jewel of the heavens which comprises the five illusive bodies of Dorje Naljor

fif/

imp. %y*'%*\ also ^""l^'^'n IhogS-pg do read, pf

Mog-pa

to

read,

(Naro. 1).

.

oH

HI:

centre

or

middle

;=^9

klags-pa or "S^N bk/ags, fut. SH klag

dbus or *&< dkyil as in VK'SJ* dbah klon or

49
rba-klofi the
*?*>>

5'zf*.

by 5 rba or

eddy or whirlpool caused VK'SF' dbah, the waves
;

klon-pa to

mend,

to patch shoes,

&c

;

a cobbler,

mender

of shoes.

dlah-TtM or 5'3F rba-Mofi

is

also

used to
3f

signify rba-rlabs, a wave, billow.

ksa in mystic language the term

signifies

an

evil spirit.

JF"^
(Jfrfow.).

klod-khor

a whirlpool or eddy

p
*\'

1

ksaya, pronounced in Tibetan as
phthisis

*'i kloA-du

gyur-pa

has the

meaning

of

V^'i^'", under
is

pulmomlis ; but accordTibetan pathology ywft^ ing denotes a bilious disease, prob. black jaun,

ut

^1

to

the

one's subjection or power;
to

equivalent
over-

dice (Jd.).

The symptoms

of the disease

^fta

fully

comprehended;

ksa-ya, as described in the medical
of Tibet, are as follows:

works

powered.
it

It is also used to signify per-

*|Tr$r<>rv
.-

fection in mystic arts, as Jaschke renders

"a soaring into mystic perfection." The work M|'*g)t explains it in the fol-

"the

bile hav-

HI

applied (to mean) whatever has arrived at complete perfection or
I

lowing manner " it is also

J
:

-

farg'4) <iw^nr<rae

'
>

up, the

ing permeated the body, itching is set skin becomes greenish-black in

colour, the hair

loss of strength, shrivelled flesh,

and the eyebrows fall off, and black
will

become concentrated into one."
Klofi-ehen
n.

spots

on the

nails,

be produced

"

of

a

celebrated

(Med.).

lama of Tibet who was

also called

a*.'}*

klon-sde a division of the Buddhist

ksa-su-ra a kind of precious stone resembling crystal it is very rare in Tibet p-^'fJJC^'p^lr^Kr^iw
; :

writings of

the

*^1
which

<5tf%*t
is

class,

the

nrZ!^-<iy;-U-<n
crystal

as

to

Ksasura,

that

introduction of

attributed to

and the genuine

gtan-zil stone

do

Lo-tsata Vaira-tsana.

not occur in Tibet except singly (Yig.).
1

^ "in
known
pa,

this

country of Tibet
the
are

dkag-wa

constipation;

obs-

(in books)

as

tructed bowels.

great

there

the

Man-nag rdsogsSemt section, the
section

JjoA section,

and the Man-dag

"

wf,

VT|3j

Dkan I

:

<rrg,

ace.

to
;

f!ag.

(Deb.

1

3).

jjjE.-*raai

klofi-ma dkyel 1. of great capa-

the palate, the roof of the mouth the upper part of the palate ; the lower part of the palate ;
palate
;

VW!^
the

cleft

city.

2.

grf% the cavity of the abdomen.

VR'S'^'*!
Vfl'l?"!
;

HN<<<U

palatal

letters;
Je.WJj

l*i#l*J*l**

an

abscess

kMs-pa

^fe<T,

same

as in the palate
palate.

W^ any
up

disease of the

dkruys-pa.
*A<i]

Klofis rag n. of a place in

Tibet

;

|-p
(Yig.).

the

ferry

at

KMt-rag
of

^T|3j

II

:

is

sometimes used in the place
hill;
8

!h

gyen, steep or

50
dkan psar-po a steep declivity; precipice
(flag. 5).

Dkah-lhub-kyi gna$
the residence of an ascetic; a hermitage.

Dkah,
dkah-bo
as adj.

^,
*?'

W ^tx W
1.

q dkah-wa

or
(lit.

hard, difficult; used

the ascetic's enemy) a

name

q hard to understand;
difficult.
;

w^'
i

of the

god

of love (IfHon.).
ti

VP'q very hard or
exertions,

2.

pains,
'fc-fl

non-

sufferings

^q-a\<K

or exertion; gain without pain without hardship or difficulty
'

mofif-pa *ro^, aift^f one who undergoes one who having asceticism ; a hermit
;

;

difficult of access

;

%*

W"

tffrub

renounced the worldly life has retired to solitude an epithet of the Hindu deity
;

dkah-ira hard to accomplish or to perfect ; hard to exfig. to propitiate; difficult to find ; press or describe ;"VV

Mahes'vara.

iISW"

S'

W

W"

Syn.

a=-li' tpafl
;

;

8J'*^

spu-can

;

\5

3r9

drihi-sras-po

hlyun-pohi

q hard work, or hard to do
difficulty
;

fi^jW

W\
:

;

S*!*'"^

q

^K^r^f

one

ral-pa (Mnon.).
S"r^'5^TS' q

who

accomplishes a

difficult

or hard task.
lit.

dkah-thub

spyotf-pa

the

practices of
difficul-

an

ascetic
(1/f.non.)

or hermit;
;

^'S^
to

^<v<i3jai

dkah-hgrel nfa*T

dran-sron a rishi

^Fjfne*H'9
;

ties explained;

a commentary; explana-

tion of difficulties (Jo.) cwqjjorq
difficult to

*T

1

WW

embrace the life of an anchorite
saffron

VP'S q
;

r

'i' r

meanings

of terms which are

(Sman. 351) one whose asceticism or

*W

understand are explained in a
5).

penitence

is

either visible or exemplary.
4

commentary (Nag.

^a&Ft ten ascetical a Buddhist scholar who has hardships;
dkah-bcu
in sacred acquired such great proficiency literature as to he able to interpret the

W"}

VP'^TS'* Dkah-dog bla-ma n. of a snowy mountain it is generally applied
;

to ^-5-fl|K.w^ Ri-bo gadt-can (Mfton.).

S^'ll'* Dkah-xlog-wa
dess 1'^ Gau-ri (Mfion.).

n. of the

God-

meanings

of a
i:

term in ten different ways.
<rctT;
also **ro,

WSq
ships or

dkah-thub

tpp-'W^'ldkah-lat che-tca very

difficult

;

'i't\ q free from
I:

-

difficulty

;

easy.

U^K, fa*, siftra, asceticism, also penance ; an ascetic, one who is ahle to stand hardprivations
:

dkar in
;

compounds =

dkar-po white

grey.
sincere;

II:
I

W**'*

not con;

"that an

ascetic's

body should be

a pretty woman should sleep by herself, and that a hero should be without wound-scars these
fat, that

fessing one's guilt ; making a clean breast of anything.

not exonerated

not

W5
S'lp' jf

dkar-skya
pale
;

m*3T

light

grey

:

three are things the

mind does not credit,"
for the
first

Tnw

white.
also

VFS"

ii

:

a

name

month

of

^np-fie.

dkar-khafi a lighted house
(S. kar. 66, 178).

;

the Tibetan calendar

(Btsii.).

a store

room

51
B^'

dkar-khun=^'^F-' window, a
;

dkar-thag, the string of a

bow

:

sky-light

a hole

in the wall of a house

for the entrance of light.

dkar-dro milk and curd:
streaked
I

fs.'?!'

"Vl^'BI dar-khyug
or

anything

it

wiU make milk and
with
the

ornamented with diverse

colours.

curd

of

equal

value

above

VP'B ql*'
shining
;

dkar-khrigs
;

(kar-thig)
;

white;

(Jig. 30).

bright

glittering
1.

brilliant.

Vl^'8;^

Dkar-ldan

^^(

lit.

the

fan-

one
Vl^'^p dkar-gon
porcelain
flint:

;

the Goddess Gauri, the wife of S'iva.
dkar-po, also
*\"1*'^

a kind of white clay

;

clay.

2.

same as
<

*>'^
i I

me-rdo whitefor the talent,
2.
1.

dkar-mo

clay

is

Y1^'fh-^<V qlVr'=i 'r' tw useful to expel worms and
I<'

white pure fair a qualification,
; ; ;

poison of evil
VI*' 3

spirits.

^f,
I

enlightenment; (sometimes) wise. silver ; dub grass a learned man
;

;

dkar-rgya

rose-coloured;

pale

pink.

purity: "

^ftif^rWflMfrj

TJUT

f^sn-

butter used in painting offerings barley flour or rice to the gods
:

*^'^dkar-rgyan white ornament; the made of

complete enlightenment is a stage of insight." It is one of the stages of

^f%

perfection of the
^fl^-q-Sic^q

Hinayana School.
a kind

^'w^v

dkar-po chig-thub
;

5^'W

cakes that are painted white and red
(Rtsii.).

of medicinal plant

also, its root,
;

which

is
I

with (coloured) butter

used to
it

kill

worms

VVfTOfH'*'"!

white

V^'WISS** dkar-bcud-ffsum the triple elixir, t'.e., the cream from the milk
and cow
:

draws out poisonous matter and subdues worms which infest one.
^HVZj-jjsrqWb^-q

of the female yak, ewe,

*l'$T q

'

dkar-po

rnams-par

t/fft^Ktf^V^fff "Khawfa
^jv*q|
dkar-cJiag 'fifafafLI 1.
2.

is

the mix-

hchar-pa

fT^^t

(Schr.).

ed milk of the female yak, ewe and cow."

*^^-g'Rtff dkar-po hbar itf^tfjr (Schr.)

an index;

white lustre.
^HVtrgarjq Dkar-po $bab-rgyab ^'U^'^ " white 5|')t. n. of a medicinal stone (called
!'

grey. 3. morally register. on the side of virtue; good; standing

whitish;

9

sincere

;

candid.
or

frog's back ") (Mnon.).

^^g5-q^ui'i dkar-pohi bskal-pa
glittering white rays.

^a*a?

the enlightened age or Kalpa.
n. of a

Dkar-chufi Iha-khafi

dkar-phigs used in colloq. for
dkar-phibs.

monastery in Tibet (/. Zafi.).
t V|V^ dkar-ne= VF ^-q a true friend one who has come over to one's side out
;

$kar-phib$ a tower or
built

dome

on

pillars or

on the roof of a house
<

of sincere

good

will

;

a friendly relation.

for

commanding

a view, generally in the

i^ip,-|e.--i;*<

Dkar-stin cha-fiam n. of a

place
29).

in

Kham

near Ri-wo-che.

(Lon. *

Chinese style: ^'%Wlffc'<rU *f^-f in the great domed tower is the tall pillar

with a lion's mouth.

52
dkar-phyogs Jtnfirre the light half of a month ; the period from the new
to the full

kind of coarse cotton cloth ;
^$rar^-^-n5ffiijrg^
lint

lint

:

Wt"
decay(S.

arrests

moon

;

the innocent side in two
;

ing

disease
3.

in the

flesh

and bone

contending parties

Vivf<i)*r^ the gods
;

kar. 3).

who belong

to the side of virtue

Vl^'i^'

W*

5^, *'Wfr
or

white muslin.
astrology:

dkar-tsis

S|^'S''

dkar-phred n. of the mythical capital of the Asura (Pag. 30).

J'^'^r^^'^t^r^^^'lwK
tem
of reckoning
is

the sys-

introduced in Tibet
$el- 8).

VH'l
q'fa

d.kar-wa

jjjjf

white, v.

VP'VP'
|

from India

called dkar-rtsit (D-

uanv

whiteness:

Xwar^q-^YJW
"

Wt"*'" dkar
fair
:

rtser-wa very white or
>'3

"

through sincerity in the doctrine"; "
(Pag. 30).
VH'fc

by

$-<r'|afaT<'Wt'V
fair

ql

I

a

young

piety

maiden of very
back (A. 135).

complexion on horse-

Yq

dkar-mi

byed-pa
it

to

plead

innocence. Nag. explains *6.'r^'^rr ^qfy-^-wp-jq-qw, to show by signs or by
as

^|V<^
teats.

4kar-hdsin the female breast

;

oath that he
*V1^'^

is

not guilty.
^rftfW,

dkar-min
;

WTM
;

Syn. not

^Vi5
^-(

-

grg*i hdod-pahi myof-bum;

lan-txhohi mtshan-ma;

5'w^

white

;

black

dark

;

chaos

;

bent
the

crooked.

hdsin; ifaprjw logf-skycg (Mfion.).
tp\t>'fit^

W*^'5

Qkar-min-bu

son
:

of

Dkar-min ; the offspring of chaos
epithet of the son of

^

tfkar-rndsod a dispensary.

an
dkar-&od=Jiw*-fr.
;

Brahma.
'*>

fire-fly

W** dkar-me =
|

cho g

me sacred

fire

especially lamps lighted before deities: the kind (of cloth) fit ^|V*)-sik-Mr*^flj*>

dkar-yol procelain (Nag. 5).
'

dkar-ffyen
-

is

explained as

g*w

for

wicks of lamps (lighted before the
deities)
(Rtsii.).

^q '3Vi a
law.

trial

or

investigation under

images of saints and

^-)v*i
(llfnon.)

Dkar-med-ma

v\*fft*i**:'i\t-%

dkttr-safis
^c. -6'q

pure white

;

also

V|V

a

name of the queen
1.
;
l

of the Taksa.

or ^ti^-Q-^^'jK.' very white.
\.

Vfi'tidkar-mo
;

mutton a sheep when
a<'l
'

^#'i<ir'f' **'V'^'-'l' r slaughtered a shoulder of mutton from the right side
<1 '|S !

C) l

^-j^ dkar-sob yaft-wahi

hod-

of a slaughtered sheep (Rtsii.)
33'aiq|-i5-q|?j

;

SIT^'VI^'

=^'^

alabaster (Sman. 353).

mutton of sheep slaughtered by the hand (as distinguished from the meat of a dead sheep) (Jig. 9). 2. *iwfsrar,
itfii4?l

dkar-gsal

fair

;

white
three

;

light.

dkar-psum
things,
viz.,

the

white
butter

an epithet of the goddess
rice.

curd,

milk

and

Durga.
red.

3.

white

(A. U3).

V|v^w
V|V fr
1.

dkar-dmar light red or whitish
\T'^ dkar-tse
2.

f
side

*Q
of

dku ff^;

='8'ra^

(Lea-.)

the

one's body: V3 -3i ^l'if 5-5^'iw-

dkar-rtsi, also spelt

lime;

white-wash; white-paint.

a

is

towards the small ribs just above the

53
hip,

whether on
*\"^

the
or

right

or
1

left

of

the body;

MT*

1

'^'*
;

to

carry
to

a thing at one's side (Zam.)

"tfl'sjfarq

nothing particularly rare; 1'^'S'r^'*'^ with a prattler religion is scarce (/a.). '^fa'i'^S
rarity; ^fa'^fc valuable property; riches;

to see a person like

you

is

open the side;
the "side, as
*\5

*ttTf

a heavy feeling in

a symptom of pregnancy;

rare things.

2.

sbst.,

a rarity.

There are

dku-nad apparently a disease of the kidneys (/a.) STI" dku-zlum round and
;

^

said to be seven dkon or rarities.
^fa's&qj dkon-mchog

TH

any precious

plump

buttocks ;
(/a.);

the cavity of the abdofor

object
its

;

anything very excellent or best of

men

^lV't'W'^r*f"f
to sit

kind.

The

oldest forms of this

example a bell resting on

its side (flag.).

are
;
,

or

word means

5T*^ dku-mne ^rfR a rug
a
seat.

upon

the chief of rarities, the rarest
:

being or object, the Supreme Being
*>

|

V

iH
craft
;

dku-lto contrivance, stratagem

;

under some pretext one person induces another to do a
trick, especially if
(fa.)
;

thing that proves hurtful to him using a stratagem.
'

world a precious jewel difficult to procure is a rarity that which is
this
;

"in general in
rarer

much
chog."

still

than any rarity

is

dkonis

A precious gem of the rarest kind
purposes;
his church,

dku-ste=?jfi'%

remaining;

useful only for worldly

but

n

excess.

Buddha,
dku-wa stench
;

and

creed, are of use

putrid smell

:

to all living beings, both here
after, for increasing

and heretheir

-W)
thing that
is

Dku-wa

and ensuring

signifies
;

any-

not of agreeable smell \*~
of that

happiness.

q-ar^-*r^-l, the smell

which

Apart from Buddhism, the Tibetans appear to have possessed the
conception of the Supreme Deity in the term Dkon-mchog. This term, ^fr*i&i| is
)

is

putrid is called dku-iea. M'^w'Tg the five kinds of dku-wa, i.e., objects with bad strong smell, are the following: ^1'"
garlic
C"l
;

?* onion

;

'^1 Chinese garlic
;

^'
;

used in Tibetan writings for each member of the Buddhist triad Buddha, Dharma,

the hill or Tibetan garlic

and 3*'5W
d.

asafcetida.

The

and Sangha separately, as also for the three collectively ; in the latter case often
with ffsum annexed. Mr.
has condemned
the

use of these five are for-

W. W. Eockhill
of
this

bidden to the Buddhist Bhiksu (K.
115).

V

use

word

dkon
scarce;

flfri

^WK
rain

1.

adj.

rare,

by "God."
has

Christian

missionaries

to

signify

But Jaschke has
the

elaborated

hard
this

to

acquire:

S'^'rv trvf:
and grain are
just

on the subject as follows:

"Buddhism

*9'^fal
scarce;

year

^FW*Yr%5'^|"r5<!l
is

now

always sought highest good not in anything material, but in the

Tibetan tea
exceedingly

very rare

moral
;

sphere,

rare in the world;
it is

ence, and

looking witA indifferindeed with contempt, on

^wue.2T|

of a quality rarely to be

everything
It
is

met with in the world; B

not,

merely relating to matter. however, moral perfection, or

the
is

happiness understood

attained

thereby,

which

less to

the three agents mentioned above,

by

the

'most

precious

we

are fully entitled to assign to the
also the signification of

word
God,

who thing,' but the mediator or mediators for mankind, viz., procure that happiness
Buddha
body
gsum.
(the originator of the doctrine),

Dkon-mchog

though the sublime conception which the Bible connects with the word, viz., that of
a personal absolute Omnipotent Being, will only with the spread of the Christian
religion

the doctrinal scriptures

and the corporate
this triad cannot,

of priests, called f^ncw, dkon-mcftog

Now, although

be

gradually

introduced

and

by any means, be placed on a level with the Christian doctrine of a triune God, yet it
will be "easily understood

established."

S^'^I'W^ " dkon-mchog
1

kun-hdu$ the

how

the innate

three gems,

i.e.,

Buddha,
-

Dharma and
is

desire of

man

to adore

and worship somewith
the

thing

supernatural,

together

Saygha collectively: | sw^-R^-w-uvT'fa lama
of all the

wVyrWMrj
the essence
1

hierarchical tendency of the teaching class,

Buddhas
;

of the three ages massed

have afterwards contributed to convert
the acknowledgment of human activity for the benefit of others (for such it was

together

|*^*5fT^F^"'**VI**lMr^r|
t ;

^'!'^fa'* * q r?fl'^
the church
heart,
i.e.,

the image represents the scriptures represent the
I

undoubtedly on the part of the founder himself and his earlier followers) into a
devout, and

the

Dharma and the holy
;

relics

by degrees

idolatrous, adora-

(symbolical of the spirit of Buddha) complete the three gems.

tion of these three

agents, especially as

"^j&u|-9|-*^-q the service or worship
of the Dkon-mchog.
Vlfr*iS<j]-ngE.-q]^

Buddha's religious doctrine did not at all satisfy the deeper wants of the human
mind, and
its

author
of a

himself

did

not

Dkon-mchog
of the
first

hbt/un-

know anything
and above

God

ffnas

<w*< a name

of the nine

this world.
is

standing apart For, whatever in

stages of Samadhi or

$ffc-^ the meditaa Sanskrit work

Buddhism

found of beings to

whom

tions of a Bodhisattva.
^}a|-&q|-q$-q|-i ^jf^z

divine attributes are assigned, has either been transferred from the Indian and

other mythologies, and had, accordingly, been current among the people before the introduction of Buddhism, or is the result
of philosophical speculation that has re-

on the names and attributes of Buddha, in one hundred chapters, out of which
forty-nine chapters were translated into

Tibetan

now

of these forty-nine only six are extant in Tibet. The entire work
;

mained more or
.

less foreign to

the people

at large.

As,

then, the

original

and
is

was translated into Chinese by Jfiana Gupta, A.D. 589-618.
dkon-mchog psum ft^w Precious Ones. The the three Batna or
^-<i]-<i|sj*)

etymological signification of the
1

word

no

longer current, and as to every Tibetan

Dkon-mchog' suggests the idea of some supernatural power, the existence of which he feels in his heart, and the nature and
properties of which he attributes

Buddhist triad are

(1)

Sanf-rgyas dkon-

mchog Buddha most

rare; (2)

Dharma,

called Dam-choi dkon-mchog, the holy Doctrine

more or

most rare

;

(3)

Dge-hdun dkon-rnchog

55
body of
is

priests

most

rare.

Colloq. the

SlfvJfc

dkor-nor
s

church property or

phrase frequently used as an exclamation quite in the sense of our "God

general wealth:

S l'3^' Jfe*riT>i'^K'MJvqr
accumulated

knows

!"

(Z>. M.) you possess wealth and church-property.
I

*w

dkon-mchog ysumgyi hbans fa<fl<r
(Schr.)
lit.

^[*'<i

dkor-pa a treasurer (Os.)

;

one in

a servant of

charge of the

endowments and

properties

the three gems, i.e., a devout Buddhist; n. of an individual.
dkon-gjier
is

of a temple or monastery.

^vg

dkor-bla or

^'3'5

a lama

who

=g'1^

a priest

who

in

charge of

a Buddhist

chapel or

appropriates sacred property (M. V. 66).

to himself

performs the daily services to the deities contained in it. The ku
gner
is

temple and

^[^rwm dkor-ma-hbags
church:

priating the treasures, stores,

not misapproetc.,, of the

also called

Am-chod:

frww&V^fr'

^^^i*^^rt^nWfJ
dkor-mdsod

do

the priests q)TOjMry{V*^r*f4rflwqj and image-steward and others who continually officiate get the customary allow-

not take wine for drink nor embezzle the
property of the priesthood (Kathafi. 115).

ances

^jv*^
for

(Rtsii.).

wealth

^fr3 dkon-po or
dear, precious.

^'^

a general name or property and hence is
is

rare, scarce;

frequently

used

to

signify

^S^'>n

treasury; treasure- chest (fiag. 5).

dkon-bu
flower wreath.

a wreath;

^v?^m Dkor-rdsogs
above the sea
level.

n. of a

monastery
feel;

in Southern Ladak, situated 16,000

gi* 3*r,

dkor

is

resp.
i

for ^*, substance, wealth, riches,

property:
(fiag.'S).

dkor-sas =%*'*

spendthrift

MT^'^'f*

the property of the church or
;

that of a monastic congregation

*flr^f*
;

^vRq

dkor-rigs

ft^f,

-qsr

different

foundation, endowment
"K'S^I* additional

of a

monastery

properties belonging to a monastery.

or occasional gifts for

the

support of a religious institution; *'^j* landed endowments of a monastery
or religious institution.

dkol-pa

^rm struck by

cala-

mity

;

afflicted

;

one in suffering.

dkos-thag=vw**(
rfl

1.

^[^"Sl
property.

dkor-bda-g

lit.

the

owner

of

suffering,

affliction.

2.

It generally signifies the spirit or demi-god who is supposed to be the custodian of the images of all Buddhist
deities, scriptures,

exciting disgust.

kyar any appliance for crossing snow or glaciers. Stocking boots (Sch.).

symbols
called

;

in short, of

all

The dkyar used by
Sharpa
glaciers

the Tibetans

and the

church and sacerdotal properties.
sense the

In this

Bhutias
is

demon

Pehar rgyal-po of
-or

crossing a light circular disk of wood

of

Nepal in

Sam-ye

is

a Dkor-bdag

custodian of

about a foot in diameter, with four holes

religious property.

through which strings are passed to fasten

56
it

to the knee.

In climbing up and walk-

rluft-gi-^kyil-hkhor

the
fire

ing

down

the

snowy

sides of mountains,

^'"^
t.e.,

the sphere of

atmosphere, >'")' each forming a
;

these boards are attached to the soles of

stratum over the other.
that which
is

The upper stratum,

the felt boots and are of great assistance to the traveller, preventing the feet from sinking in the soft snow.
or
die,

beyond the atmosphere,

is

called the sphere of fire or light.

^
;

dkyil-hkhor

gru-bshi-pa

*** tne

a quadrangle
cal figure
;

centre

;

war

bottom,

base

;

square ; a certain mystidiagram or model. The ex;

kyil-nas

from the middle or centre
from the bottom

;

from
'

amidst

;

^9i'* the mid-

pression the gods
in the

f^'i^ViS^lT^-q^-ci means
who
constitute the
flivruwrp*,

^ assembly
i.e.,

dle one; the central one;

&

r ^' :i=ffe
;

r

Vim&na or

superb

WKTK

B^, ^ffrar

with wide base spacious
;

mansion represented.
tfK*fviyv<iS-i^ is a description of the eight mansions of eight imaginary Bud-

interior ;

comprehensive understanding

also quick comprehension.

<$r^n
qr^
i

dkyil-dkrufis

tra,

IK^rr,
i: >'

dhas (K.

d.

72).

Whoever

utters the

TT(\*< a cross-legged posture: ^5j9i'*>' >3 c u <{]${ jj sitting in a cross-legged

names of these Buddhas aphorisms about them is
dangers caused by evil

or hears the
liberated

from

posture for mystic meditation.

spirits,

snakes, &c.

By remembering and repeating them, even
fipofo dkyil-hkhor TOST,
1.

qfr%ir,
;

itfff
:

circle

;

circumference
the
disk of

;

rnjW<

disk globe the face ft*2.

brigands, not to speak of kings, are said to be able to make the weapons of their

the full
cially

or whole face.

enemies ineffectual against themselves.
^nr^jtfv*^ dkyil-hkhor-can 4TW443 anything that has a circular and mystical also any Tantrik deity figure on it ;

espe-

used

as

the

equivalent of the

Sanskrit Mandate, the magic diagrams or

formed of grain or other materials " which are " offered to deities in Tantrik
figures
rites diagrams mansions of cerrepresenting supposed

Buddhist

rites.

In Tantrik

placed to be worshipped on the plane of his fancied celestial mansion traced on the

ground.

tain celestial Bodhisattva

and

called

*^ *pfc
to

are traced on the ground or

on paper.
the

$9r*j5Vtt Dkyil-hkhor-MA n. of the grand central temple of Buddha at
popularly

The

respective

places
deities

assigned

known

as Kinkhording.

different

minor

different colours

in

are painted in the design, and the

$ar^[&-q|?j*

dkyil-hkhor
:

gsum

diagram is occupied the tutelary deity himself, to whom the by rest are subordinate. 3. region, sphere ; surroundings; suburb. According to the
Buddhist cosmogony there are *r)'*\3K
*j**

central place in the

three cycles (of offerings) (1) &t^*r<^ S'jq-ti <it the cycle of offerings
for the

Bon gods sprung
time;
(2)

out naturally

in

course of

^' g '^'^i'^'
celestial

MpMT<^-)w^ir<r^j the
for contemplation

mansion
(to

formed in the sky
;

the sphere of earth, S'SJ'^T^j'fr, the

imagine an

aerial castle)
|

(3)

^i'8i^3l'

sphere of water, the ocean, S^

the mansions of gods

57
designed on the ground for placing the
offerings to
'*

dkyits-ja

common
in a

or inferior tea.

them

(B. Nam.).
-

Tea served
gation of

to the public or to the congre-

S 3T5

4kyu rta or S

'^'?

dliyu-wahi rta

monks

monastery or in a

a race-horse.

religious service.
'*

S3'^

dkyu-pa
;

in

Ladak

:

to

lose

dkyus-ma
*>'a*r*i

srgra

common,
tna

vulgar,
ordi-

inferior

;

colour by washing

perhaps more correctly

mi-dkym

an

nary man; one who is neither an official nor a religious man (jfrag 5) $N^*r
:

SeT*"' d.kyu-wa=.$Q
race;
1*<

1.

to

run a
^!
> :

W^jJ
quality or Ib."

(Rtsn.)
is

^3'W&*< *o o

dkyu-sar
;

4kyus=W\ t**
galloping

"indigo valued at so much

of

inferior

per

y\

running a race

*K'**|

^*rq5*!> dkyug-btags a scarf of

^W|YMir'rM*'Q!(/9a9.) "forexample running a race on horseback." 2. to wring
out; to
(Jd.)
^J'
;

ordinary quality ; {jwg* dkyus-bur treacle
of
inferior

quality

:

S3rgvs)vfl|r**
(Rtsii.).

filter

(Sch.).

3.

to caper about

^3'S^'5 d.kyu-byahi-rta a race-horse.

dkyus-bur sgar for each thick

Mugs
lump
"

rer "" coarse treacle

dkyu-sa a race-course;
(Cs.).

the race

^o

myyogs-pa

ground

quickly, swiftly.

-pa=^\
1
!

to forget;

^3^'^S

an

dkyus-tshad. the dimensions of

affectionate

letter to

prevent one being forgotten or a letter which love will not forget (Tig.
37).

anything when measured

lengthwise.

k.

spacious

;

large

;

long.

^fl"
wise.
2.

dkyus imtw

1.

length
adj.

;

length-

l=fa
extent,

Mofi the compass,

untruth;
3.

also

untrue;

bulk

of anything:
:

(Soft.). spurious (Jd.). In lexicons it is synonymous with the term

bold, insolent

the compass of the heavens the stretch of sea '\3i
:

meaning "lengthwise." In the threads that are stretched weaving, lengthwise are called S3"'**! dkyus-thag
'

IS 61

yshurl,

spacious; of wide capacity (flag. 5).
^jjpr2p& dkyel-po-che ace. to Sch.
-

is

the

(the woof)

and
are

those
called

that

pass

them

Universe; defined as p* Krei the wide
house ( Lex.)'
dkyor-hbyin swf capable of

crosswise

|fl'|

spun-thag:

-o

Q

I

(S.kar.134) upon

that stood the throne constructed of stone,

being thrown down impelled or driven on also capable of being felled down.
;

;

having a lotus cushion, in breadth two cubits and a span, in length three running
fathoms.

^>\
spyi-brtol

dkram-ko
clw-wa
1.

hthno^lajq

MJ'V1* dkyus-dkar a porcelain cup of inferior quality ; a common porcelain cup.

transgression.

2.

adj. very

impudent;

impertinent.
9

58
k
Bkras-ljofis, abbr. of

^"'i*
<=v

dpal-gyi$

dkris-gi/itr

TTfeTl

en-

(Tashi Jong), n. of a district

under Lhun-

circled with glory.

grub Rdsofi in Tibet. dkri
(ti)
;

^II'J*^ dkrig-pa ijf<3tM
anything to wrap tie round
;

1. 2.

to

sur-

ifsr

round,

encircle,

ensnare.
;

=

&*.' 1
:

with

;

a

tie

F'^fj

a cloth to

^T^f*r to lie

round

to

wind up ( Mnon.)

the face or cover the mouth muffler;
vb., wrapping or winding
Cv
f,

->fa'*S|

^'jpri^jr^S* ser-snag kun-nas dkri?
ensnared in avarice
(/a.).

quite

up with paper
k.

;

paper- wrapping ; an envelope (Tig.

2).

dkn's-phray

n.

of

a

large

^U'^

I:

dkri-wa

(ti-mt)

in

old

number ($ag.
NO

5).

Tibetan, to conduct one's pupil from one pf stage of learning to another stage
.

*VU*^ dkru-wa ($u-tea)=\'# dri-ma

^fn,

;

*'") in modern Tibetan, to wind to wrap round about ^fj'*'S dkri^51

w vb.

a.

VRS abomination, pollution; also dirt, filth
(Ltests.).

(cf.

;

;

wff-jjoisSfi'wSVM one who wraps up;
^Sfolw^-en-g'Vti to fold

|'^

dknig-pa (tug-pa)

= $*'**

g.lofi-

up

clothes, etc.

to disturb, to

put in motion

;

the
;

^tJ'ClII:
Ita-bu a snare,

^S-i^'i'^g

dkri snegs-pa
;

act of troubling, agitating, churning

to

anything to entangle with

turn

;

to turn a lathe.

vb., to ensnare.
T,

Ffaf, ^jfew stirred up, agitated,
ruffled,

dkrig
is

(tig)

personally
as

:

v!Kisv

troubled,
;

disturbed,
;

confused;

same

tw'fc'^-a'vfw

churned turned
ed
-

(as in a lathe)

confound-

not having come personally, cannot reply or say decidedly.
I
:

:

^)'*'*!1*i 4pe-cha dkrugs the leaves of
;

a book are confused or mixed up together

dkrigs ft*R,

9T

un|

*fl]^'>^5i|'j5'?>

lag-chags-kyi$ dkruys

a term

for a thousand billions.

The term

pahi semi

a

mind troubled with
rlttfi-gis

$K.'i?|wjfl|*ri5'$

passion ; dkrugs-pahi chu

3*rHHi or $j*nr3^q *<^in<*N< or is used for a still larger number.

water agitated by the wind.
confounder: 1^'

^TjJ|^ II:=^q
gathered
i;

dense;

thickly:

ji|N-q-q-l^

the

:

|fr \3H*' sprin-dkrigs (flag. 5)

=
;

man who
nigh
is

causes

confusion afar off and

1^-n.siwq gathering or condensing of clouds

called tug-papo.

alsovb. darkened, obscured, dim, diffused:

*-K'V^-*iV -OT*<i

flashing

of

his

(^- K47) the teeth bewildered them ;
.

W

*>=.'

a kind of character
is

used in Tibet

which

jjn]-iv<*|5vcrc dkrigs-par

hgyur-par grown
to

puzzling.

dim; ^$<PW'|V<R Dkrigs-par byed-pa
obscure.

STI^r^

o

dkrum-pa
Lexx.
as

(turn-pa)

brittle;

defined
dkris-gyur
(ti-.gyur)

in

VP'

I5'j

^
l

rg'g'jj*\'* T?i,

q^\
:

sur-

breaking in the manner a porcelain vessel
does.

rouuded, encircled, encompassed

^wgw

fl

59
the
<5<-^Em not permissible

f
glans- penis.

missible, not

fit

and

fit,

and perunbecoming and

pa
&c.

1. to
:

krog-pa (tog-pa) =flPT<J dkrugchurn; to agitate, mingle, trouble, ^'SifT* sho dkrog-pa churning curds
1

becoming.
q>Ti<i|-*-|^q

bkag-cha byeg-pa to forbid;
(Sch.).

to

put a hinderance

(for butter).

2. to

rouse, scare
(/a.).
i

wag,

e.g.,

the tail
*'*< *\if'l!*<'
;

Also

=

up; to
*tfT''l*<'
ci

^Ttf*

bkog sdom

prohibition;

pro-

dkrogs-pa,

ho-ma dkrogs-pa to

from passing by a road or from entering any garden or place.
qiT|ii|-3r|aii|irq

hibiting one

churn milk
gq|*T)
t

ace. to flag, is equivalent to

bkag-mo khegs-pa not to be

noys-pa.

observant
CJTJC'
1

;

to transgress, to trespass.
ace.
,

\2f"l*''3*< dkrog$-skyes (lit. anything produced from churning) butter (Mnon.).

bkafi

to

Rdo.

46,

pf.
;

of

ffifapicaft

dkrogi-pa-po

'OT'N'^'I'V* !^
1

dkrogs-par bycd-mkhan one

who

churns.

^"F* dcjan-im -^ftfT filled to the brim full to the brim as in the case of a water pot
;

,-q

snod-bkan-ica a

vessel filled

up

;

^qj^-w dkrogs-ma,
the

v.

gPN'w smb-ma,
said to

churning

rod

;

also

= whey

a
shoot;

i)

OW wjth an arrow ready

to

^-q-q^-q

w sh
i

fulfilled.

Ace.

to Jd. pf. of

^|wq,

to

fill,
"

make

full;

and

'q
neous

d.kro6-b$kyed

(tong-ke)

used in

W.

instead of
1.

of instantaneous birth ; instanta-

bkad

set

or placed in order

;

perception.

Ace.
certain

to

Lex.

in
act

meditating on a
of perceiving

deity, the

aiTangement:

*3fq^ii|*rq

same

as

him

to be a reality instan-

taneously

is

called

*$ c

-'

t

l

'| >

dkron bskyed.

hkrol: " one

dkrol tT?T; pf. and fut. of *$* ^$V*r9 dkrol-wa-po is defined as

mgo-spuhi

rim-paham gral-lahan,

thags-

kyi fnal-ma phar hgrohi dug-kyi spun hgro-

who
1

causes music to sound or be

wa

dc

dan,

Uags tshar

u-ahi

snam-buhi

sounded."
CJT]
!]

spun-gyi rj<$ hbur-hbur

yod-pafyi

mid

la

I: bkag in q^'ai^

bkag

lafis

yafi,

thags-kyi bkad aer (flag.) the order or
(of plaits) in the hair of the head,

the lid or cover of a trunk; the sides of a

row

Tibetan leather-trunk.
as

Defined in

Etsii.

the crosswise thread in the

^aj-i|W-<q%g-'fi-q-n)r<iftrcf'J|

both the

web of a cloth, also the ridge in the cross-wise texture of
a blanket, are called the bkad of weaving. ''TV^"
bkacl-nas

flat pieces of leather which are at the back and front on the right and left of a trunk.

having

described;

qTj^j

II

:

*f?r? CT, -frfa*

;

pf. of MfoN'ti,

represented in any manner.

obstructed,

opposed;

also

prohibition,
1.

EHj^'SJ

bkad-sa,

**r|-<i|3i*ri

(J$ag.)

obstruction, hindrance.
p^fll'iijVs^q

bkag-skor med-pa=vf\*.'i\\
as
let

the place where barley, corn, &c., are parched a bake-house, kitchen, cook's
;

^'Q without delay,
thing
;

in

sending any;

shop

((7s.).

2. ace. to flag.

+ Vf\vc\ff:
residence.

also

without

or hinderance

one's

own home

or

60
3.

open hall or shed erected on

festive

r (2) 93'3* '$

W

'

|

those conveyed through

occasions (Jd.).

^Tj^'^l bkan-pa

1.

to up-root or turn

the attendant Bodhisattva and S'ravaka, such as Subhuti, S'ariputra, &c., under
inspiration

up anything by applying a stick at its foot or root. 2. to bend: qF2K^i*K
($ag.)

from

Buddha
or

or

by
or
-

his

"H

the body bent backwards: to stretch the arm bending
3.

i|'<r

reexpressed implied 5 jf^ 3|* lhahi vealed in such works as
-

sanction

it

up-

1/on-fM the celestial tree;
bo che

6'5'X'w^

rfia-

wards to pull anything.
-q$-*rq-ruifq'Yfl-l>x

w$fl|4'3Ti|'

counting up and then
It

backwards
is

is

called yang-lkan (S. del).

also applied to counting
4.

from right

to left

great precepts under this head are sub: i*i divided into the personal (1) g^'S'V '$ the Buddha), also the blessblessings (of

mdo

the

drum

sutru.

The

(Fa*, kar.).
(/a.)
:

to put; to press; to

apply

^-q- J-fli'tcm-q^^-q to press one's foot agaiust a wall. 5. to hold fast to extend
;

ings received from his enchanted image the blessings derived from (2)

WWTV
;
1

;

his teachings

(3) SiJN'jI'g^'qj^q*)

the blessis

ings of the spirit.
J

This

last

again

sub-

bkab-pa,
to

pf. of

**|wi

vsra,

cover; to spread over. bkab a cover a shelter.
;

5^' divided into the following: (1) S"]*^ '* *^'" S^'fl^* the blessings of a contem1

plative heart as in the
snifi-po;
H'I

work
31*
1

called -*|*r*r
'

Syn.

^w
J

khebs

;

"I^"|

(fyogs

;

S^*

1

byils

(2)

5"!*1 1**

S^ 3*1

the grace of the spirit, as in ftv |trq$-gq|*i, the Mantras uttered
;

bkam-pa pincers or nippers qTjwq -qjjq-q to hold or cut with pincers.

:

by Noijin and other goblins
in a truthful spirit or mind.

(3)

81'^'

j5-Jfqr>&rsarqq*rci the blessings inherent

ZWp

bkah I

:

(

Vat. kar. 60) n. of a

tribe in Tibet.

:

*mnr (A. K. XXVI), " word " or primarily means simply
II
: ;

"speech"

but being the honorific form

it

g.naH-wa anything from memory by the successors reproduced of the Buddha under inspiration from him at the Buddhist convocation
(3)

l**'*}'"!^'*! rjeg-su,

usually implies an order or

When

used of

command. a sacred personage it means
e.g.,

(J. Zan.}.

Syn.

3F

h<fi

;

*rwq^'i

Acs-par
;

bstatit
fl|

his advice or precepts as well as his authoritative

pa

;

yq^'q^'i

ne-tcar

bgian-pa

;i)'i
|*i

words,
;

SJ'tS-q^

the

lama's

ffdams-pa;

tN'^'if^'i rjcg-sti bgtan-pa;

injunction

mand

;

Q*^ the king's com^aS-qip' the order of the chief.
g^'S".

rjcf-sii

gnafi-wa; ^'W^K.'^ ne-icar

III

:

also signifies, especially, the

V
claim
;

^'^ bkah-luA (Mnon.). kkah-bkod pa to publish,

pro-

enunciations and pronouncements which have issued from the Buddha. They are
said to be of three kinds
;

also publication, proclamation.

qTfvqjj^

so *)E.'g*rj(-q'Tp

implies

bkah-bkyon according to Nag. blaming; a verbal blow, repri(Jd.).

has three divisions
(1)

:

mand, rebuke (given by a superior)
qTpvqip
absence.

nm-^-qjsjMrq shal-nas ffsufis-pa predelivered by the Buddha cepts personally.

bkah bkrol

(ka-tol)

leave

of

61
bkah-skor

VK without delay.
qTp'fSai

"
|

great

many
to

thanks

bkah-khol, iprl
Jj

very im-

for the gracious letter with enclosures sent

portant order (Tig.

* the

by the Donner according
customs" (Tig.
as a
k. 12).
is

the good

most important

will of

King

Sron-btsan

sgam-po. This document having been discovered within one of the great pillars of

q*p'n<^ bkah-hgyur

generally taken

synonym

for

"the instructions and

Kinkhording temple in Lhasa

is

generally

precepts of Buddha," and

means

literally

known by
q-rp-njifc

the

name P^'J*rTfr*.
ser;

"that which has become a command."

bkah-hkhor, divided into nafibran-g.yog

This term
collection

is

in fact the title of the great

hkor
vants,

domestic servants;

of

the

religious
all,

Buddhist
translated

menials
-

;

phyi-hkhor

attendants

writings (mostly, but not

iTH.'ti('5X'g^ n|i!5q|

those

who

wait for orders,
clerks;
also

from Sanskrit into Tibetan) known as the

attendants;

l^pfc

official

Kahgyur.
into

The
series

Kahgyur
of

is

divided

private secretaries
of a

high
1

official

;

and personal assistants attendants in general.

seven

books

containing
consists pro-

several

hundred

treatises,

and

qT'S* bkah-khyab a decree, manifesto,
edict
;

perly of 108 volumes,

a general order.

though editions in 100, 102, and 104 volumes are also current.
of an official order
of gold, silver,

qrjivjgw bkah khrims a law,

command;

q^'j'qjl'i bkah-rgya bcug-pa issuing also the accumulation
;

ment

HTfVgwq^'5 strict justice severe punishment: fctt'V^'^W^ITJWl by the cmel order of the king (Ja.).
;

and grain in a Government
rgya-ma *Hmm^, ^TOTfafr
1.

treasury.

IT'S'*
in

1

^ah

qnp- g*wti bkah khrims-pa a

lawyer

;

a

Hind.

Para-wana

public

order,
2.

magistrate.

permit, missive,

communication, &c.
(Lex.)

qT'5** bkah gro$ (ka-doi) a conference,
consultation
;

q*i<vj-*r^q>T]'Vii*<c.-q-.5^

in mysticism

ST'll"'^

^i<sTl

1

^fi

^nrtfr

a secret precept; occult

communication

makes consultation; gives advice or counsel; gives

which

is

made only
i:

to the trusted few.

instructions;

J*P'

5^'l^'t

to

T'^
*&

bkah-rgyud
the

succession

or

give advice (/a.).
q]n-3j*ri bka grog-pa (ka-doi-pa)
sellor
;

descent
a coun-

of

dogmatic principles of

Buddha.

The

principal school of Tantrik

senator.
$-ft

Lamaism
debating
of
;

originating from

Naro Pan-chen

q^-q^j'q bkah bgro-wa

considering; taking measures for: ^'Sfr'

qS^c-q'^q-g-qfq-q-at

deliberating

care-

Magadha and alleged by Milaraspa to have been introduced by Mar-pa Lo-tsava in Tibet in the beginning of the llth century A.D.
are
Its different sects or branches

fully with the ten confidential ministers.

qT'^5 Tq bkah hgrol-im
dissolve a

the

to

dismiss

following

:

"H^'q^

5*\

Karma
Tyyud.,
%

;

meeting or a conference.
bkah-glegs^yy^F* phyag-bris bkah-^og a letter ; an autograph
:

Xkah-rgyud,
rgyud,

^'^^T'^

Dge-ldan Bkah-

^1''IT'^

Dicays-po

Bkah

q^'gi)*)

RD'qjc-qT|<v*5 Hbri-gufi Bkah-rgyutf, *go| r

or

)''P'-^''1

q^'|^ Ebrug-pa Bkah-rgyud.,

62
np'|^
the line
ii
:

rF-5J-|S or thread of the word,

bkah-yi tgyud,,
i.e.,

i.e.,

exhorts

the deity to

the

the patient.
suffer

be propitious 'to Those who do not actually
illness also ask

oral tradition of

the word of

Buddha

from any kind of
protective
;

which

is

supposed to

have been delivered

for such
2.

religious

measures.

through a continued chain of teachers and
disciples

commandment

precept (7a.).
.

apart from the written

scriptures.

Ht- the illuminator

J"ir$* bkah bsgos is pf of bsgo, a sentence passed.
to send verbal

of the

doctrine of

Kahgyud

School)

a

general designation of the chief lamas of the Bkah-rgyud-pa sect (Tig. k. 67).
q^'vaV^srj'Ji

message

;

to give a reply.

IT' *>5
pa, one

bkah-bcu, also

i^'^'i

b_kah beu-

Bkah-rgyud.

riiam-rgyal

the

Bkah

rgyutf, Chief

Mongol Chief

Lama whom the Gushi Khan dethroned
power of Sdc-pa in Tsang and

who has observed the ten commandments of Buddha. The title of Bkah-bcu
is

after overthrowing the

Gtsafi-pa the ruler of

given to a Buddhist monk-scholar who has passed all preliminary examinations for a religious degree. There are two
1

1643 A.D.

classes of i*!
(Lofi. 18).

^

psa6-p/ui

;

a

^-q

those of QleH-bsre-s and of monas-

^'l*
;

bkah-tgyur
;

admonition
'

and

tery
his

is

called Bkah-chcn

Tashilhunpo on account of

1 reprehension ^'f^'*!^' to issue an order to admonish q*p'gvq to translate
;

superior prestige in religious study
practice.

and

the words of

Buddha, &c.
btafi-ica

q'lp-fll^fll'ti

qip'l^-qjt-q bkah-sgyur struct a subordinate in a

to in-

an order
or

;

bkah gsog-pa to act against to disregard an express order
:

rough pointed
his faults
;

command

wrj^'w^y^

the order

manner, cautioning him against
to counsel against
q'lp'jfli'tt

of (one's father
(Ja.).

must not be disregarded)
abbreviation of

wrong

practices.

order
edict.

;

bkah sgrog-pa to publish an to proclaim or read an order or

bkah-bcos an

^-q**, or the two great collections of Buddhist writings.

kah-chem$=aw**w
qjfvq^' bkah

resp.

for

bsgo

^JTWT

1.

exhortafalls ill

tion to the deity.
either naturally

When any
or
evil spirit,

one

a great man's last will; a royal testament or will: iTS'Sswrii'jifai'wlvljqur
"I"
I

from the supposed
he goes to

in the

work

called Bkah-chcms

ka-

malignity of

an

khol-ma, etc. (J. Zafi.).

him

a lama or a Tantrik priest and begs of for a bkah bsgo permission to invoke the deity.

+ qT|<vwl^ bkah mc/iid=i"^^ or ^S^' 5l" a command in reply resp., but also

The lama touches

the patient's

head with the consecrated sceptre called Dorje (vajra), with the sacred dagger
phurbu, a string of beads, an image of a Buddha or a deity or a holy book, and repeating some charms
called

word or speech of a superior person. The term likewise signifies a conference,
debate,

&c.

|

:

qi)

v!'v^-g-s^

what

the

conversation did he hold?

q*|r*il^srq-

"pray, let the nectar of pious conversation be uttered !"

"^|"^^^'^l

63
bkah-nan
submissive
;

1.

obedient; dutiful;
of

bkah drag-pa phab-pa

to

observant
is

command.

2.

command
(Sch.)
;

sharply,

hastily

or

one's tutelary deity

severely

also called his bkah-

to issue

an ultimatum.

nan, because he carries out his protege's behest; ^jfS'^sagfjj*! service; doing
service (Mnon.).
qTfV^-ci

bkah

nan-pa

to

obey;

be

IT'V bkah-drin, resp. for \* drin TOT?, a favour, kindness, grace, boon: trw*<q<i^|?| through the kindness of the
lama.

obedient;

q'']'*'*^''!

to disobey;

i"H'3*r
bkah-drin-can=

f^TTI

an observer of orders or precepts.
;

bkah gftan the cruel commander ace. to Lex, btsan-pahi sa Mag, "the lord of the soil," is said to be a mighty
qT)q-i|^

byams-pa

dan

Idan-pa

kind;

gracious;

benevolent (Mnon.). very gracious; (you are) very kind; the usual phrase for our thank you," in
a kindness or favour
&c.
bkah-drin-che shm-pa of great kindness
;

*vi\*.\s;l,

bkah-drin-che

pre-Buddhist deity (Ja.). qi]n.-ji|^-q bkah gnan-pa

1.

severe retri-

^

acknowledgment of

bution from guardian deities for defects in worshipping them ; also the injury they

common

in letters,

do their devotees for impropriety in their conduct or language. 2. damnation into which both a teacher and his pupil fall
for disclosure of secrets of their doctrine

to

say

it

is

an

act

;

to

acknowledge kindness to thank.

without authority.
qiyvfli^-qfr^ bkah-ffnan brjid

TVli-fWi bkah-drin
pa
to

rje$-su dran-

remember a

benefit

a weighty
a

or kindness

received.

command or
proclaimed
colloq.

injunction.
1.

order

:

|wqg<ij*rq

{s

a l so
2.

called

^v^ipi

bkar-btags.

bkah-drin smn-dp ya fi s to bear in mind or remember the kindness obtained of another person.
bkah-drin mdsad-pa bestow a favour; to show kindness.

^ftrfrf^ one versed in drawing omens; an astrologer (q"]^'i|?<iprci) (jj y.
Q2).
qT|<V5<i|*i

*T'V^Y<i

to

bkah-rtags
:

mark

seal

P^VTO*^ bkah-drin
;

precept
k.

;

maxim
(Sch.)

sessed of or

(Cs.)

iT'ift

bkah-stod

*ifi^'^v=yi\-^ (Tig. a subaltern;

making use
:

27}.

gsum-ldan posof the three graces
teaching

or courtesies, viz.

(1)

^iftc^jj-c,

agent

IT
edict

(Jd.)

bkah-than =. ew^c. bkah-lun order written order command ;
; ;

of the sciences; f (2) ^|^-q^- explaining the and the Tantra; (3) ^qe.^aphorisms
; S

''l^'

'

blessing

and ordaining.
thank
;

commandment; precept (Os.). bkah-t/iam=g,w phyag-dam
'|"I

bkah-drin &sol-wa to to be grateful for favours.
bkah-drufi.

dam-phrug, seal; chief seal

:

<w\v

a

secretary of state.

*ipp3nwiitw4ifi
letter

received the
of

containing the chief seal

the

sel

;

instruction

Grand Lama and enclosing a charmed knots (Tig. k. 75).

hkah-gdams an advice; counfrom a high official.

scarf with

an
adviser (Sch.),
2.

the reformed Buddhist

school of Tibet founded

by n^ir^
It
:

the convocations

where the precepts of

cq *i R", the was divided
Bromston

chief disciple of Atisha.

Buddha were promulged.
dip-fl^'d bkah gnafi-ica, vb., to order,

into

two stages

^H'Wl*'
dip-fl|S*w

or dUVflRwrSffe,-*

the earlier school from

command,
mission
:

grant, permit

;

an order
<

;

per-

to Tsongkha-pa,

and

^>^'8'jrtft'^rlHr*i|'i ^iiifWj

ijwti or the

modern

school, said to

be

identical with that

now

called Gelug-pa,

I beg you will give her as a consort to our King of Tibet (Jd.).
qn|Vflfi*i

dating

from

Tsongkha-pa

downwards.
distin-

The
their

earlier

Bkah-pdams-pa were

Bkah-ffnam = "\'"\f a
;

district in

guished for their elaborate ritual and for

the east of Koiig-bu
of

also n. of a district

power of propitiating deities. The of the later Bkah-gdam-pa have been remarkable for scholarship and

Ngari Khorsum

in "Western Tibet.

members

bkah-phebt a great man's order.
kka/i-phrin (ka-tin) a message.

linguistic erudition.

qT^-iftw^-gc- frkah-pdamt pho-brafi the palace where the Grand Lama of Tashi-

b_kah-hphrm letter of
to

command

:

write

or issue a letter

Ihun-po resides.
qip-^<i
1

containing instructions.
for

bkah-mdah a contraction
1

qip-qq^
direction.

I:

"T'sh' ^*"^'

^

kah-babs an injunction; a

bkah-blon-dafi mdah-dpon,
k. 52).

minister and general (Yig.

dip-cm n
chos-kyi

:

bkah-babt the fulfilment of
also the

qip-^-XwI-j-w*
rgya-mtsho

bkah-hdui
ritualistic

a commission

;

lama or saint who

is

a kind of
the

obser-

vance of

Rdsogs-clien

sect

of

the

commissioned with some high duty. When a lama at the command of his spiritual
instructor fulfils

Rnin-ma Buddhist School in which a
cular deity with his followers
is

parti-

what was entrusted

to

depicted.

him, he

is

said to be a bkah-babs.

q^A-<^*4
law
;

ikafr hclogs-pa to
;

make

into

to proclaim

a proclamation

torical
(/a.).

q^-qq^q^j bkah-babs b_dun n. of a hiswork on later Indian Buddhism

qnp-q^sw bkah-hdoHit^fV-'W or **ftn
instruction; order.

by Lama Taranatha.
qip-qqw-q^

tyah

babs-bshi
(see

the

four

commissioned ones
^T'tft bka-idod, also written as

^'P'^,
q>r)vq*i

dip-qq).
order;
dip-

one waiting for orders;
011

an

attendant

bkah-bam^of^-^

a superior;

an aide-de-camp; one's
is

guardian deity
epithet
:

also
<

called

by

this

loma: Wjrw-lftijHKrt*'!*-^!! the object of sending the autograph letter (Rtsii.).

*<*^^|'<rtft S|VrB| (A. 13) "he who has propitiated the lord of
to

^g*! bkah-bris, resp. dip-^flj bkah-yog, a letter; a written authority, generally in
autograph
:

death
spirit."

serve

him

as

his

attendant

^K^I V* Vr* ^'9*'lW*'f ri'wr
l

l

l

i

qip-qjrq tyah bsdu-tca collection of the

prtow^V'S'^P'ry*! it is very gracious of you to favour me with your autograph
and enclosure presented by the hand of the Don nyer (F^. *. llf).

doctrine (Jd.)

synopsis of the scriptures at the grand Buddhist convocations also
; ;

65
%*i'

a minister
ministers

bkah-blon-gsum

the

three

(Mnon.).
qip-nqq-q bkah-hbab-pa the

who conducted

the

Government

going forth

of

an order or
q"l<v<*g*i

edict (Schr.).

of Tibet from the year of the fire-horse to the middle of the year of the earth-ape.

bkah-hbum the hundred thoubknh-blo

Their names were
blon

:

**p'sfVQsr<rq bkah-

sand precepts; n. of a religious work.
q^-ejfq^-q

Lum-pa-wa,

i^-^^^n

bkah-blon

W-?z=qT|<vipSffq
(flag.)
1.

Jna-pfiod-pa

of Kon-bu,

and i^'g^'l^'^'q

bkah-blo go-wa;
tentive
;

\yfv^n

at-

bkah-blon Sbyar-ra-wa.
spiritual

executing an instruction or order with attention; one who is cheerful at
heart owing to his attention to ic.'q'*w.

or

intellectual heir-loom.

This

-is

a philo-

sophical term

of

the

Snin-ma School,

one who easily understands what he is ordered to do; one who appreciates his
2.

superior's instruction.

3.

^^^

speaking
bkah-blo

dha's word) in an sion or without
for a period.

meaning the descent of the bkah (Budunbroken succes'

being

well;

eloquent; q*|VsfS)-q^q mi-bde-wa one whose

One who

kept concealed has received such

f4^

expression

or delivery
"F'Sfr

is

not good.

a succession, or any scripture that has come down to him in such a manner.
qf|rs<E.-3*r:i

bkah-blon or H|r$'sft-Zj bkah-yi blon-po, the name given to the four Cabinet

bkah-man thim-pa to con;

tain

Ministers

the Gyal-tshab or in the administration of the GovernEegent ment of Tibet during the of the
assist

who

many precepts or commands one on whom there are instructions or commis*i

sions to perform.

minority

bkah

gtsan-ma.

one

whose

Grand Lama of Lhasa. The four Kalbn must be laymen and are often
officers.
)
:

military

morals are pure; one his vows.

who has

preserved

Popularly they are styled Shape
qTVfrq|lswr.*|flj bkah-blon gzims-

the residence of a bkah-blon.
bkah-blon drufi-hkhor the
official staff

q*p-|Earq bkah-itsol-wa, pf . stsal, to speak ; to say (where an honoured person is the

spokesman)
to

;

according to circumstances,
ask, beg,
relate,

command,
it

answer,
in

of a Kalon.
ka-blon-bshi (particularly) the

&c., especially

in ancient

literature,

which
four
ministers

is

almost

invariably, used of

whom

Buddha and

the 4tn

Manchu

of kings speaking.

Emperor K'ien-lung

(in

Tibetan called
a reply in the

or

Lha-skyon Protected of Heaven) appointed to conduct the state affairs of Tibet.

way

of instruction

:

were
H

S^T

W^'f ^ Kim-dgah-bshi No-yon,
Tshe-rin dwan-rgyal of

They
GyaA

"

pray favour

me

with replies on internal

^e.^qc.-jai

Ron,

Xftt

Thon-pa, and

'^'

Rtse-drun

(uninterruptedly) like the flow of the river of gold " ( Tig. k.
15.)

affairs

of Po-ta-la.

These four governed the for twenty-seven country years from the
year of the iron-sheep
(Lofi. 16).

q*|<v<^ bkah-hdsin letter of

authority
(issued to
is

or commission from

Government

one who

is

on the move or who

to

10

exercise

some kind of power over the
to afford facilities for travelling
:

people)

or

rity

b^-ah-fog any writing of authofrom a superior decree diploma
;
;

;

for carrying out a mission

*)'*rti5'rgv

passport

ff*
commission was issued to despatch hither a man who would frame settled laws and
rity
;

paper or letter *)T' 'vT rdsun-ma a fabricated authobkah-$og
;

official

;

1

spurious writing or deed qiyv-3fa'^*r bkah-$og rim fkyel to circulate a pass;

shew energy.
qT]vqi^'^'q
b_kah-bsMn
;

port or an byed-pa to
:

official

order

;

serial letters sent

do

one after another.
wii-fl^im

c ^' according to order doing ; ordered qi^-^-q to be obedient; a faithful servant.

bkah-gsal= tup'ify order

;

official

message:

V^Ftrtir^fimbp
or

to

send a
after

qiipAq'^gswci bkah rab-hbyams-pa a doctor

message
another.
r

express

order

one

of

divinity

scholars of

among the monastic Tibet; one who has acquired
and
is

qT]H e'J5'S b_kahi-rfia-ico-che

proclamation
18).

the highest proficiency in the Buddhist

by the beat

of

drum

(Yty.

k.

sacred literature

of pure morals.

tj!|rsWi b_kah-rais-pa one who has passed the highest examination in Buddhist metaphysics
;

q^'^-ci^ bkahi cod-pan an instruction or precept to be received with perfect
obedience
a
;

to value or

honour an order

;

one who has reached 13 classes
the
in

command
own

carried

out with the

same
carries

the

highest of

the

the

respect as that with which a
his

man

Sfctshan-nid grva-tshaft,

school

in the

metaphysical monastic establishgreat

head-dress.
sfa'5

qT)5-*(^-e^ bkahi mdun-blon resp.

ments of Tibet.
qi^ar^'q bkah-la rtsi-wa to give heed
.

blon-po

minister:

to or attend to to listen to

an instruction or precept
advice.
;

;

my

humble

self

any

state minister together

bearing the title of with the circle of
officials,

q^'^E. bkah-lufi an order
qiyv^t-qflt/q to

a precept

:

command

or give orders;

attendants, both lay and clerical are in good health ( Yig. k. 6).

to issue

an injunction.
bkah-log=1l'*ii\ grla-log (ta-log)
;

EH] ^ the law
(Os.)
;

3

bkar

or
;

-n^'t
to

according
it

.to*

qf|n-ajq|

;

to legalize

make

into law
;

one who has given up his religious vows a BuddHist monk turned out of his

to proclaim,

publish
;

(./a.)

q*|V
:

frffl-n^n to publish
,

publication

monastery for

he

is

In KIiam$ called bknh-log; in Middle Tibet
misconduct.

for
1.

W-ar-wrapf.of vb.

ta-log.
qi]V-*jq|

separate, put. aside, select,

bkah-sag

the court or council-

banish:
place.
2.

fl]^*r^*rq ']Vi

|

banished from

his
;

house of the four kildn or ministers of

to ask

any question captiously

to
0ViHq*r!'*r|.'^sr;ijc.-q^-'^-g,*i
|j

make a

peevish enquiry.
bkal-wa, pf. of

wne n

the
at
it

3Tp'3
W.
on
is

^'i, but

in

warrant

officer registers the

document

the
1.
:

primary
to load
;.

form of the
to burden
;

verb

the court of kaldn he should also verify
at the Account Office (Rtsti.),

meaning
(Cs.)

put a load
:

wqipi'q to load wool

("

67
to load a beast of burden, &c. to levy a tux.
|
:

01 Hprq
to spin
;

2.

pf. of

r>w
5).

mi chen-po rnamg-fa bkiir-ftt's dregs-pa yod great men have the sense
|

spun; twisted (Nag.

of dignity.

bkal-thags
stuff

a

kind

of

Syn.

.

i*Y<i

mchod-pa
;

;

^

3]

rim-gro
btjas

;

made

of coarse goat-hair about nine

bsnen-bkur
s/iabs-tog
;

^^3*1

ri-mor

;

inches in width: 1*
|

Vi*WJT\Mrt| r*^r8r

s

ra spu nag-lna re, la bkal-thags byas-par with every five pounds of goat's hair to weave one blanket (Rtsii.).

bkur-iea;
nc-irar
l

^WR|f shals-hbrin -> gnff; Vwi|^
;
;

spyod

i\l rjcd-pa (Mnon.).
1.

I: 6to--;a=:W*Yi
;

to

pay

3TJSJ
of

bkas,

contraction

s^' 5)*) instr.

wp.

(t'5i' homage or reverence to esteem. jrfT<r TTSTT literally "the qTjvqS-gucQ

PTj^'^J
cleft.

bkas-pa=*cp

1. crack, split,

king honoured of

many

"

was the name

2.

pf. of

^'i.
1.

of the first king of the world according to the Buddhist legendary account. 2. to

bku-wa
(Cs.)
1

elixir,

quintessence
2.

carry
pf. of

;

;

ffi'13

'medicinal extract.

with

pf.

i !!*)' 5! to

make

W

to fetch
1!
;

;

to

J

E
if

.'^'

convey in W. being also i^') to carry upward.

extract of a drug

by
slander
;

(Lex.); wq$ drawing out the juice melted butter; i^'^i^i to extract the
spirit of
;

to

^5T^' bku phyuft
to

spirit extracted

not to accept as true or correct

blashpheme (Lif. p 4)

;

(Cs.)

;

! 1 jfl'i:iN'5' fc' '

extract

medicine

by

infusion.

q^'q^'^'4 bkur-icar byed-pa the act of respecting; to do honour; frq. to make
reverence, to salute.

*1
,

Mug-pa pf. of vyp* '^TWI, drawn or pulled forward;
(Yig. 7).
pf.

1^
t&hig

summons

bkur-tshig=^'&'**\ bsiod-pahiwords or expressions of honour,
of

^

some
bkum-pa,
pres. in

which

are:

ngqm'ifoi

bsfiags-

of

^wi,

but
hos;
flgiJN'i "ifs

W. and according
pf.

bsnag-pa

brjod;

to Lex. fut.

stod-$mra;

x^'li)
;

WMOT,

S5*wi, to

mchod-tshig;
stod-pa ?mra;
^'

kill, to

destroy
;

;

ql* to cut

off the

edge

fix

a

mtho-war-lya

lfS

-{|

'9

che-brjod; wSflj'g

boundary

to.

byim;

tf^^rmad
legs-smra; "|i=.*roj^'i gzcns-bstod-pa
safi (Mrlon.).
;

s^'l

bkur-sti

%,

H^^n;,

i&^T,
;

uftof

'g

^aiT honour, respect,

homage
;

mark

honour; respectful reception (by asking one to sit on a seat of honour) i^'jp'^'S'i
bkur-sti mchod-pa
to distinguish (a per;

Aos
respectable.

worthy

of

respect

;

son) by marks
f

of respect (Zam.)

^IJTHTJV

"tfjTi bkog-pa, pf. of

^1'i.

'^'^
;

ran-la bkur-sti
is

hbyufi-dus

when

q

W-OW-M-O, pf. of

^'P.
means

When

honour
((To.)

shewn

to (one's self)

yourself

Q^

6/;on

is

joined with
it

a to form the

^^'l^^"!^ bkur-tis dreys sense of honour self-respect S'l^
;
.

compound word sj'i^
threat, menace.

:

*>^ bskos
raise to the throne.
v.

to

appoint; to
(/o.).
2.

bkyal-trd

1.

to talk

nonsense

K-l'ism'P to rave in
:

speech ; to talk
,

ZTfj^'P
SJTW 1.
.

bkod.-pa,
1

I'M
1

nonsense

v.

w?,

iron,
;

sbst.

3J

*1

fi"'

a ^ or D"'* arrangement
;

fljvq|w order or arrangement
;

method

of

in the

colloq.
tie

of

Arranging applied to mind, as in
the
.

Tsang=
rope);
plan,

<

l

*J3

T

l<

hkhyig-pa

to

(by

a

meaning
2.

is

meditation,

$! = qSwi

bound,

tied,

vb.

= to build, arrange,

fastened (Mfion.).
bkye-wa, pf!

&c.

and

futT of

trt^-crsm-urtj

^J^^WT

of boundless

or

but in
the verb

W.

is

infinite design

;

the universe ; n. of a great

used as the only form of

= to
5

send, despatch; to cause to
r

Bodhisattva.
qf[yi5'<i|3i|'i}fc
^fl|'5' jrZj

come
bkod-pahi
g.tug-gtor=
;

forth:

yqjj pho-na bkye despatch-

ed an envoy: fS'13 ho$ bkye sent forth
rays
to
:

the prince of learning

science.

{jui'Tfljj

sprul-pa bkye caused a form
fft^'flji

otj^-^w

bkod-hdomi=&\*\'Tfa'i

bkod-

emanate:

ston-nto

bkye

made

ston-pa (Tig. k. 23).
o^fS'i?. bkod-blta (colloq.

an exhibition
flfr^ b,kob-lta)
;

of.

^SV^

Wytf-pa,

pf-

to

bend back;

the plan of an undertaking ; design

plot.

recline (vb. nt.).

6 ^ dgun-zla hbriAbcu-ffcig-pa or S$^ I'^S

= ^'i rdufi-wato beat
(Ja.)
;

fl'fp'iijft'i

resp.
(Jd.).

to

chastise

with

po the eleventh month of the Tibetan year, sometimes corresponding with January
(Ktsii.).

words,

to scold

Schtr.

mentions

cq

chiding.

bkra-wa

^

(ta-wa)
;

cog.

to

H

-J5

bkon-pa, pf. of

^'

hyon-pa.

,

ftf^H
(of

variegated

beautiful,

blooming
bkor-hdre seems to be a kind
of goblin (/a.).
q^jm'g^

complexion)
;

;

glossy, well-

fed (of

animals)
;

painting
n.

13'^ *wf^ a great qj'wut^q f^RfT a painter
:

bkol-spyod

of a

torment

;

jj]'i!$'^'?r^
:

with variegated figures; paint-

torture from being boiled in water or oil

:

gr*cfl|('|V!-|W|-qgi byol-son bkol-tpyodkyi sdug-b?nalihe sufferings of the damned

ings qytW'Sv^'wr^ f^-Miiy^iT a radiant or illuminated zone or halo 15 -U frmfw,
:

variegated

;

with shades of colour.

through the torture of being boiled.
J

'lw bkra-wahi skad-hbyin n. of

bkol-wa occasionally pf of
.

the bird called Garghotigata

;

W^^'ffc

Sv
to
J'' cl
I

t

hkhol-u-a, to boil

;

usually indicates
;

(Mnon.).

|ftrfl
l
\"

bind to service

to

employ

;

^'|

^l'

a I!'IS bkra-lyed=^' %>'#?>*( ri-mo-mkhun

snod-spyad bkol-ica
^n^aj-s.

a boiling vessel "I^T gyog-tu bko-wa to take into ser; ;

a painter (Mnon.).

vice

;

l^'S'ilJTs to set aside

to

keep

out.

*H'^t-^w bkra on a red ground.

fintfrnar parti-coloured;

69
glaring;
in glare;
1

mishaps or

accidents in

war,

and

in

R'f

Hrrf8* *lw3Ftrft
;

1

1

repelling offensive weapons.

n^q|-H the beauty or effect produced by the variegated colours as in a painting
illumination of colours as set forth in a

nj'^N'^it

bkra-fig ^go-man

n.

of

a

monastery in
qj|'3|*r^

Amdo.
^i\* n. of

rainbow

;

hence splendour.
bkar-<;i$

bkra-$i$-can

an

incense (Mnon.).

uj-^'Xsrlrc/
;

Bkra-gis chos-rdson the

prosperity
jj-^jrJjfli

blessing good luck
;

:

summer

seat of the

Government

of

Bhutan
It
is

good fortune
\

to

my

where the Dharma Eaja
maps.

resides.

people

\

may

holy- water;

consecrated
;

SJT^W'S'S they prosper water or conqj|'3*r$'wr

ordinarily called Tassisudon

on English

secrating water

auspicious

qj-^-qf^ci

bkra-$i$ brjod-pa
;

f<sflf?li

bed; nuptial bed
of blessing;

(Cs.); flST^"'!'**!'

words
-'

auspicious expression
-

a benediction.

benediction; ^g'^"'l' q I*Te
fbyofi

bkra-qis-kyi gso

fl^r
1

iffa^

auspi-

cious fasting ;i'!\'2\*'% e>' t&' t\'*bkra-fis8ru1iicahi go-cha instruments

^*r?'|*r]J^ bkra-fis rtags-brgyad the eight auspicious signs or emblems, viz. ^siTa the precious or (1) ^'^'*|^fl
33j
:

used for insuring

jewelled umbrella
;

;

(2)

"J^''9

'5^5'

luck

;

sacrificial

blessings are
qjj-S)-i

to

ceremony be drawn down
lucky;

by

which
(/a.)
;

the golden fish (3) fl|3vl^ei5-gr the pot of treasures; (4) grw
TTO the- excellent lotus; (5)

propitious;

good omens; lucky signs;
bkra-qis-pahi rtags lucky configurations or

<P1HW
flj'^'w
n<$<&\
S'^'i

llf the white conch-shell with

whorls turning to
*51<(<M

the right;

(6)

V"'

semblances
n.

;

happy omens

;

of
;

a goddess;
*2|'*i'S|r

the goddess of glory
;

sented
love;

by
(7)

auspicious reprea curled noose emblematical of
wSfli'fyjirw^
i.e.,

the

mark

(7a.)

misfortune
adj.

calamity

;

gsr

the

chief

qjj-D-^wq

calamity;

wretched;

standard of victory,
royalty; (8) golden wheel.

the

emblem

of

unlucky.
sj|'3|ri|e,'

fl^vg-^-*

^i^r

the

Bkra-fis
*

g.lin

n. of a place in

Khamt
undo

(Lon.

25).
b_kra-fis

IH'^'
brgyad-pahi
sutra in

W*^ bkra-fis
marks:

rtags-can possessed

qj'^-qg^'q?'*^
n.

of auspicious

aifli')-ii]'^*)'5ii'^'|i'

of a

short

K.

d.

*

76

T?! 9'>=.-^^w?q-q^|^-q-^ai| a glossy hand
possessing auspicious lines will cause one to obtain both a son and wealth (K. d.

which contains the names of eight Buddhas.

Whoever

recites it

and meditates

on

the

perfections

acquired

by the
-dkar yyas-hkhyil
shell
?f%mic(irt!M(f-

Buddhas escapes from the dangers of evil Such a devotee can spirits and demons.
easily have admission into the courts of

a conch-

with

its

whorls turning to the right

kings and address the highest authorities without let or hinderance. Remembrance
of this effusion is believed to be a safe-

instead of to the left (Mnon.).

Syn. ^-*(&i| dun-mchog; |'l'g'i skye-wa
lna-pa;
fl

yt'%'*$t'H

rgyal-po

hkhyit-wa

guard

against

bad

dreams

and

also

(Mnon.}.

70
Man
auspicious
;

Bkra-yis

Umn-po

(Tasbi-

lucky.
bkra-cis-pahi

rdsas
articles.

Ihunpo) the seat of the Panchhen Kin-poche, the second Lama in Tibet, ordinarily

w*r,
)'|

*if<5H'rer

lucky

Bkra-fig-pahi yi-ge n. of a
is

kind of (mystic) writing which
dered auspicious.
fll

consi-

Lama, ranking nest to the The grand monasDalai Lama tery of this name adjoining the town of
called Tashi
of Lhasa.

Shiga-tse in Tsang harbours 4,880 monks, presided over by the Tashi Lama.
gyur-cig

bkra-fis-par

may you enjoy

bkrag
prosperity.

(ta

mdang
n. of a goddess (K. g. S 112).
"U'^w'Si '**'

yod-pa

1.

dazzling
also

brightness;
1.

lustre;

*^
;

mdan$
2.

Bkra-fif

blama

Tashi

qjni'*^^ e.g.,

glitter (of jewels).

-^^

Lama

Lama, the name by which the Panchhen of Tashilhun-po is known in India and Europe. 2. a lama priest who
at

beautiful appearance
face, skin)
;

high colour (of the
pure gloss of the
(Jd.).

-|-q;]<J|-*i<^

skin

;

i3||-X

very bright

officiates

a

marriage

ceremony

in
5'

i
fine

fair

or

Sikkim

:

qj^^-g-^-qj^^l'il^-ww^-

complexion.

^-a|-|a|-aic.-|

the Tashi lama will touch

Syn.

^w^

mdan$-can

;

Mxl/rr-

with the auspicious offerings (for the gods) the head of the bride.
kra-$is-rtse (Tashi-tse) n. of a

wa

(Itlnon.).

or
dull appearance;

bad complexion

(Milan.}.

village in the district of Stod-lufi in Tibet.
J^'^'it'il Bkra-$is-bt8cgs (Tarfn'&egpa) n. of a brother of King Skyid-lde

to choose

CJTp'tl bkrab-pa (tab-pa) pf. fljwti or select from among many
;

aXl'g'qgi nichoy-tu bkrab exquisite choice
(Lex.).
CJ'TJJJ'CI

Rimahi mgon, who settled down in Mfiah* ris in Western Tibet (Lofi. 8).
ayj\ve>^iH^-cia.-sf^

bkram-pa
"H*'"

(tarn-pa), pf.

JJ*w,
to

bkra-fis

btsegs-pahi
of

a form of

sra?hJr,

^ren,

^^t^

mdo

n. of a

work the reading

which

spread over, scatter.

produced auspicious occurrences.
e''' :'5^

Syn.
also

*$p*'

ci

d(jram-pa\
*X*>*\H

J*,Ti

brdal-pa
;

the eight lucky articles
(2) 9|'il,

1?V1 ytor-iva

hthord-pa fttwl*

are

(1)

&'%*

mirror;

medicinal

gtsug^-pa (Mnon.).

concretion from the brains of elephant;

bkral-wa
(Cs.)

(tal-tva)

1. pf.
|

of

^1

(3) 3 curd

;

(4)

r^

Dai-grass

;

(5) 3)f?flj

^^'|'^'^-aii-wn3 3cqi

the wood-apple; (6)
(7)

a right- whorled conch-shell;
vermillion
;

elucidation (of the meanings of the terms 2. to in the Sutra and the Tantra).

(8)

^-^f|^ white mustard.
bkra-$is rdsogs-pa

appoint:

warsjor^to engage

iij

business.

bkrag in the passage ^w-^-gt<53J

completion of
or event.

an auspicious work

here means rolled or

varnished in variegated colours.

71
'<i

bkras-pa (te-pa)

an abbreviation
pf
l
.

CJTJ

Bkre
is

(teh)

n. of a place in

Khams,

of ^nj'^N'q, according to Sc/t. also

of
fl

which
tshan.

also

called ujj'^T^c.

Bkre-nag

the verb

^H'*!

:

QJJN'SJil**

for

flJ'3|*i'F' i5

l''

an auspicious

scarf for presentation

on the

q 3'^ Bkre-hor (te-hor) n. of a section of

occasion of a visit or some ceremony or
festivity.

the Sgo-man department of the monastic
school of
.

Dapung.
bkren-pa
;

n. of a valley qj]*r$c.- bkras-lun(Te-lung)

in Tibet (Deb.U)qijg-aw BJira$-lhun (Tei-lhun) *nf^t=Z

Z^TJ3j'|

(ten-pa),

^fa

1.

a
;

poor, indigent,
l

^fl

a

hungry ^flfrfl'^fjV resources are country where
2.

contraction of 'T|'^''^'3 (Tashi-lhun-pq) also a heap or mountain of glory or auspicious objects.
c\

scanty (Lex.).

WTO

miserly,

stingy.

"55^3 bkren-po =*&'*

a beggar; desti-

^
bkri-ica
(ti-ica)

tute person.

f ^U'3

1.

1 pf. of ^BS'*

to conduct according to

order,

e.g.,

one

Syn.

Jfc'd'S

nor-med;

i5wq

hphons-pa

after another.
3.
for.

2.

for
;

^' q *H,
;

(Mon.).
tf^/c^K bkres-skom, contraction of

to wrap.

to

draw

;

to try

to acquire

to search

^^q
in

^
:

'

;

hungry and thirsty
either

:

WTW^^^T

^q|c.-ai-uic,-s)-Bi^|

bkrid-dran (ti-dang)^*'^' 1*''^' the black discipliner of the unsub-

this tobacco does not allay

any way

^tarWlq^^T})
and
D-q^q'^-qTj*r$j*rai
|

hunger or thirst ilj*'' leading from hunger
:

dued; the black and horrible (assumed) Bodhisattva to appearance of Mafiju Ghosa
lead the sinner into the path, of righteousthe ness and virtue S*' ' "a^^'^'B''
1
:

thirst to satiety (Ja.)

q'SK-w^g<ii*<-

the cow's milk removes

hunger and
qT|*r^

thirst

and hard breathing."

dreaded (Bon) deity who leads or drags the subdued straight onward (D. R.).
-

bkres-nas

wfam

being hungry.
(tch-pa)

^, CJT]^'C|

bkres-pa

to

be
for

03*1
bkra-qis.
qi<j*rq

bkris

an

abbreviation

of

sj|

*|w

hungry;
appetite

also
;

hunger.

In. C. resp.

"hunger"
bkris-pa (ti-pd), pf. of
a

I2iwwi
;

to

have ravenous
.the

^\'i

.

**>'

(Sch.)

^'^'i
;

appetite

to q-aj-q^-q thar-pa-la b^kris-pa conducted

or

feeling

of

hunger

honorific

term

:

emancipation or Nirvana.

on
k/irus,v.

^U
(jyi

bkru

(tu),

fut.of

|9

sy^
wash

.at the top of a barren he felt hungry and was supmountain, plied with food (Deb. *|. 7).

arriving

?nod %^s?

iTrt

washing bowl
:

;

to

^,

a vessel, plate, &c.
mt,-uic.-|5-*^,

"3'S bkru-bya, ^'55il'

CJTj^^'CJ

bkrofis-pa resp.

term for

clothes, etc.^ to be washed.

killed; dead.

q
an CITJ^tTP bkntg-pa (tug-pa) probably
incorrect reading of S3PT1.
N'l

bkrol-wa

(tot)

pf. of hgrol-wa

vb. trs. to untie, to loosen ; also in

W.

is

the

only form in use
khrus.

:

^^'i'ti^fi'i

mdud-pa

bkrus-pa, pf. of

|5

bkrvl-wa

the

knot untied,

II
bf ids-pa bkrol-wa
set free

72
from bondage
;

below the
metrical
tion
:

line

IT'*!,

etc.

(Jd.).

3.

a

gm-qjarn khral bkrol-wa remitted revenue
or rent
;

line,
a

verse.
c ''

4.

base

founda-

^wrujarq

dyof>s-pa

bkrol-wa

r*!

r9'*F'

q ^ rdsu-hplmd-yyi rkan-

forgiven,

pardoned, &c.
(toi)

pa
to choose;
it.

bshi

f%<n^

the four feet (stages) of

fljw b.kro$

= **pwn
of

to

performing miracles.
gyn.
>

select; imp. "ifa'^l bkros-fiy (Sit

105).

^W

s/iabs;

fl'g'S

rgyu-byed; *%'
;

hijro-byed;

^'^

byrod-bycd

j|iFi bklays-pa pf.

sS^'i

to have

|1'S
(Jd.)

rgyuy-byed (Mnon.).

read

;

done reading ajp!'i'^S wishes to
:

read or sing.
^j

^'3"I kafi-kyoy bandy-legged.
*f-'

J

rkafi-kri (knng-ti) a piece of cloth

rka or

$5'*|

chuhi-rka or ^'^='H'*'$ a

to

wrap round the
*f,-tftfa

legs (Sch.).

roof of gutter; a small channel on the a house or at the edge of the roof
for carrying off the rain ^'iS-jj;

rkafi-bkod
;

i||<(jm the

manner
bkru-

of

small

walking

^fJTqj'tW'w

rkafi-pa

furrow conveying water from a conduit to trees or plant* ; furrow between the
beds of a garden
-

wabi sa m?'yi<<(i*l the place for washing
the feet.
*l*-qj]'*i

;

hence even flower-bed.
chuhi lha khafi
n. of a

Rkan-bkra-ma =
a name
of

^'^

born of

the hill-rat;
(Mnon.).
'tf.'!*'

Agastya Muni
Sudra caste

*f$5 3fpt

Rka

monastery near Sam-ye.
flj' rkad
descent,
I:
1.

rkafi-$kyeg n. for the

marrow,
origin
:

pith.
-

2.

(of

India) which originated from the foot

extraction,

^ft

^'S5'

(of

Brahma)

(Mfion.).

SOTV&vqpqfr^n^i
the mule

"for

example,

^t'H Rkafi khra (Kang-tha) n. of a king of Ancient India
:

on which the Goddess Paldan
is

| |'^*|fl" NF||
i

>
!

W

Lhamo

rides

called

rkaA

gsttm,

on

pt^tnr^K^rtwycM-tV^

"like the

account of a so-called three-fold origin " father is an ass, mother a mare (its

Indian Kings, Rkafi Khra, and Rab snan and others, their lineage on the mother's
side

but in
a mule

itself
!).

it

is

neither of them, but

was

also

from apes,

etc."

(</.

Zan.).

Xf
good
stuff.

II:
:

1.

stuff:

*Fw|-Hi-<i^
is

it

is

of

^'jgi rkan khrab (kang-thab) iron shoes worn along with the coat of mail; that part of armour

stuff
2.

*|e.-uiq|-r!r*>-<^fl| jt
;

not of good
:

worn
;

like boots

from the

bundle

a collection

3r*i

t qlS<|
'

foot to the knees

greaves.

a bundle of grass
l

:

g^'l^"! a

tuft of hair

:

*FJ9 rkafi-khri (kan</-t/ii=*\^'%i\*>) footstool (Mffan.).

a skein of yarn.
resp.

J

*F R BW rkan-hkhum
rkafi-pa

(probably) having

1. foot, leg,
q-S)-i|^c

hind leg of a quadruped: ff-' ^rf*rf%Bi trr?: not throwing the
2.
:

a foot contracted by disease (Lex.).
*|C-qjff*

rkafi-hk/tor

bandy-legged

(Sc/t.).

foot (Mfion.).
e.g.,

of a letter

lower part, lower end, *|=.'^'*^ having a foot, so

**{*
Tibetan

rkad-gos

=

*\wy*
of
felt

gos-lham
or
of

boots

made

the nine letters are called that extend

coarse serge.

73
*j*'flf

rlcan-mgo

the

fore

part

*Fl

rkafi-rjes

^tf^si,

ff^c

footstep,

of the foot.

foot-mark; a dog; "foot-follower."
rkan-rtse (Mnon.).
'

Syn.

*)='$

JF'if^'i rkan g.nis-pa
:

mankind

;

^=.'i)^)'

rkan-mgyogs swift-footed

13

1^'5 the

chief

of bipeds;

an epithet of
:

Buddha
mihu-rtsal rmad-du byufl-wa ykan-mgyogs rlun-dan mnam-pa gfig spyan-draiis invited (brought) one who was swiftfooted like the wind and possessed of

or

tfSfr^v^ (Mnon.)
|

Jl)i-qf^-

San$-rgyas (Buddha) the chief of the human kind.
*jE.-t]fjq

^W-Xqi^^-j

is

rkafi gtub ^31;

a foot ornament ;

miraculous powers
secret

:

blessing

of

Jp'wJ'ipr^Si'j/q the swift-footedness *f~'
:

a foot-bangle.

^'^
trestle
;

rkafi-rten tRTf^'SPT

a foot-stool

;

riftvt^Sr^fWrWII

(K. dun. 73) having

a raised

ground

or stone

step on

acquired the grace of swift-footedness.

rkan-hgro

who

travels

paying

his

(kang-do) xi^n one on foot; a vassal or subject duty by serving as a messenger

which, at the time of alighting from any conveyance, the foot is placed.
*jc.-^q]N

rkan-siegs

or

^'1

^ffl|*r^

foot-stool.

or porter (Cs.).
*p,-a$n rkan-hgro$ also
1.

Syn.
ff-'^ rkan-bros
domestic cattle
;

*F^

rkan-rten

;

^'|

rkan-khri

;

g'q'i]$flj'i

zla-wa

g.cig-pa;

i^tw'fq^

sfmbs-

walking on
cattle.

foot.

2.

stels

(Mnon.).
rkfin-stcn-lu

breeding

fj=.'=-'3

= ^''^^

the

human

rkan-glin a trumpet made of the thigh-bone used in temples ; also in

star of the

golden flight or ^'1, a name

of a fixed star (Mnon.).
e star

travelling to

keep

off evil-spirits.
v.

rkan-rgyu *j*'W| a foot-soldier,
]:

of higher flight (Mnon.').
^c,-e.

infantry ace. to Cs.

rkan-thaA

1.

on

foot.

2.

= ^'
if-'
;

*)*'"

rkan-brgya or=*F' l '' t

i

a centi-

^1

t^rffW a foot soldier (Mnon.).
rkan-than-pa a pedestrian;
;

pede: ^*,K.-ujj-'>i<i|-qg-^'vciS-*>c.| "the name of the worm which has a hundred feet

*|C.-!ifq

and arms" (Mnon.).
to
*)C.-qj^-i rkafi

''R|m-q one travelling on foot

to walk

brgyad-pa a fabulous lion

go on

foot.
m<c(<!i

having of Buddhist
generally

eight feet.

An

design

imaginary lion with eight legs,

^vftm rkan-mthil
the foot
;

the

sole

of

foot-sole.

found in

sculpture

and

in

*f,-Q>$z.

Tibetan mythological pictures.

tree,

i.e.,

rkan-hthun m^tf, metaph. for a that which drinks or draws
its

*!*.

rkafi-fiar

the leg (Mnon.).

nourishment through
i

feet, or roots:
;

*f>'i$*\'Q

rkan-g.cig-pa
;

u*M<

l

one-

^*Se.-^iVEj KHfTT^J, g?rc^ the red tree
J

looted, met. a tree of

the fabulous countries
of

the devil's tree.

the Hurafi

which are said

and Tsti-ta, the people to walk on one foot.

*FST" rkan drug-pa

or

fFITS;^
11

the

six-footed, met. for the bee.

the

described
bitl-hgros
;

as

"Sr*l[

dal-hgros;
le-lohi hgrof
;

mango

tree.

o^'^
;

FTV
**'<Vi "

r*a*-0rfft

ban-le-like ornament

*S* foot-ring; worn on the foot.
i^w^Vi,
disgrace.
c-0-i

******** j3T*P
>'/*
tfi-.flaw

*0S

WN
c

sgeg-hgros;
kcjid-pahi hgros
J
;

qoni-cuqs; %\*r% W(ioi-$tab$;

n"
fj*r*

rkan-hdren also '
foot
;

drawn by the
*f.-%*i

shame
;

gom-rlals,
;

JpT
; ;

gom-pa hkliyor
j v<*||

rkan-ldan shoes

that contains or

holds the feet; also metaph. for a road,

way,

passage;

the lion's-tail tree (Mnon.).

^

^

^A

myttr-hgro
ra

^^'"-^ mgyogs-hgro

;

JJ

^g

ro

.

*q-q rgyug-pa (Mnoti.).

^lf

r*<J-s

coarse

woollen leg-

^^ ^ ^{^^
^.^.^
is

^.^.^

^.j^.
rto ^^,;

gings manufactured
i^-irqjui
stretched
R|3^ =
:

m Tibet.
ir^a^f the
;

w

^^
tf

can

= Q^ poultry
**&

a fowl (of which the
,,

rifj-jw

legs

*K.'rqHw contracted legs
to rove,

^

weapon

in i ts feet).

> p'fl \'q

wander;
Ss

to disperse,
.

rkan-phytn felt for covering the

-&.X

lg^

g

^^q
force of

I

banished from their country, by

^'^
(Ja.).
*f-'3!
i*

^^Ul uPP
rkafi

r

Part

of the foot

Karma they wandered
rkan-pa
hthen-po

forth

and

came

to the country of Tibet.

bral ftmi

footless;

help-

^c.-q-^c.-q

UK

3*

'a^:

l e88

!

involved,

lame.

nf^'wan

rkan hbam ^\^^\ a disease in
swelling
in

rkan-pa g.sum-ldan

= *pf>*'
of

the
gout,

foot;

the

foot;

also

he

who

is

possessed

three legs or three regions; Vishnu; epithet of Vais'ravana.

an

^'^^

rkan-hlros or 'F'S*', v.
r /. afi . s i as

Syn.
j;o;

i*^T

|

W

^.^

M

*i

e.'^lj'.

hidden

feet)

= gi ^

Byan-phyogs bdagrgyal;
q

a snake (Mnon.).
jfiC.-wifjc.'Sq]

jTtfi'joi
l

rgyal-pohi

*$**'*$*;
<

Rkan-ma

rkan-chig n. of the

IE.'m ii

dpal-fftt-r
;

gter-gyi bdag

t^'Xi'g)^

l^'3'i*\ 'l pwii-bdag; mihi chos-ldan ;
i-iMr*-fl hod-yang

the part of the nether world where

Naga
up-

demi-gods reside.

vi-q-Q
tsha-bo;

tal-fas-po;
w'Ql5.'is^

^.

w

r kan-mar
1

pith;

marrow:

E-lahi

brgud;

^'|^'
od-

%q

^--?.<ncq]E,'gij]

u(^'>i<i|^i;i''*|5)]'^'q^'3^|

or-tbytn hdrcn-pa;

tbyin-rgyal;

^^w

WA

^Ifyt

nor-gyi bdag;

$*

by mVtiing
WHltraoted
(,'.

any kind Of marrow, Iimb8 may be Bmoothened
in

rfftw-jr*

char-hbcbs;

Vfrrfr

e .,

straightened).

byan-phyogs-skyofi (Mnon.).

Syn.
Hf.'VU.'^fK'^ rkan-pahi stabs-sgyttr dancing at the cadence of a song (Mnon.).
(Jfnow.).

w^*

wrfawg;

R^IS

khu-ica-byc4

^.^ R ka
of the

fi_ mi(J

^^^

(TFWK)

n.

^c.-(5'^'|^ tkai-pahi hdu-bycd q<ti^l<

founder of Nyaya philosophical

the

movements

o f

the

feet

which

are

sect in ancient India,

75
tl.zn-dmag infantry;
soldier.
r/erafi-fubs socks
;

a

foot-

fcran-fu foot-sore.

Syn. *)*.* rkan-than
rgyu; Vfeq*
3J*rq3ft

*pw&
qr*rwq
1

stocking.

rkan-pas

kan-sor toe.
1.

ran stobs-kyis bgrodlus-kyis

<F-]vq

rkan

<;ar-u-a;

sometimes used in the place

hthab; WTfr-'Sfr lu$-kyi$ rgol; *i%wr<#-q mtshon-chas htsho-ica; '^FS' ^'

of
is

fl.

2.

^^ crrg the palate

= ^*pj,
-

which
rkan-

dpun-bu

an

obsolete

form:

^'3
letters

fa(

chun (Mf.on.). *F3T
riian-rtsa, resp.

mthahi rnil end of the palate or

"gums
n,'

<W|T
is

at the

s^aJs rtsa,

end of the palate": yv*^ 9;^-^^
"the six
t,

general

name

for

shoes in Tsang.

In

%*<Ww5-^-i
r,
1,

th, d,

Tibet the sole of a shoe

arise

generally

of a kind of durable grass, hence the
*f>

made name
a

from the

tip of the tongue

and

the front palate."

$

rkan

rtsa,

foot-grass,

signifies

WI

rkan-phugila.Q cavity of the palate

:

shoe.
f|*'i-

TFr**3^,
rkan rise n^n?
the fore part
or
of
-

wwHS-ab-wj^-,

these

four letters come

the foot.
*JC.

IJN

rkafi-tahttgs=<&[*.ft*

yq

1

C"I"'i

to

have a firm footing; to take

out from partly the cavity of the palate and partly the tip of the tongue. *fl'i the roof or centre of the palate:
wq's-ab-e'^.^

q^rti^-^m-M

1

root.

^'S*-'
iron nails or spikes

I

q^'sdX rkan mdser

from the centre

these seven letters are pronounced of the and the

tongue

fastened to the boot-sole for climbing.
ff-'uZn

middle of the palate.
*I*TW

rkan-mar

flea^-mfket=3fi'ytafi^
tree,

the

the butter
to

which

is

As'oka
(Mnon.).
tf-'o^

Joncsia

n&oka

Boxburgh

mixed with barley-flour
for the food of children

make a
or milk

paste

and infants; baris

ley paste
rkan-bshi,

made with water
"|

*p-q^i
;

apt

quadruped ;
thing
that

a beast
stands

four-footed; also a chair or any-

to choke infants, so the Tibetan mothers

mix in

on four

butter (Deb.
|

1C).

legs;

*jC r
;

m-J^fl-^-q
^'"ic.

lit.

possessed of cattle

/cam-pa or *Wfrt of passion-

a herdsman (Mnon.).

ate

desire.

The
used;

latter
it

form

q*j*ri

kan-yan

agile;

quick in going

generally

or walking.

longing;
la

M^ ^51?

signifies

^^
:

is

greed

;

passionate

*F'^^ kan-rin

!^$''FKrr*pr<|
i
:

long shanks.
the crane
;

brkam-pa
:

bkur-sti dan rncd-pa a longing for honours and

*F^*
to

ii

:

v.

45-g-fl|qi

ace.

gain

some the grey
*je.-mw

p'J*)-q-q^-j-^^ becomes eager for

species of duck (Mnon.).

cakes.

rkan-lam

where a

man

foot-path; a passage can only pass but not ride.

rku-wa 'ft^ffh,
or
,

pf.

qJ*J, fut.

qj

.^4^-q

rkan-yar-pa^^^

imp. JN, to
robs;

steal,

a

rob; pres.

soldier (Mnon.).

S'^'SS

steals,

qjs

brku-bya

an

article to

be stolen;

^'

''J'S^'ir*'
;

brku-byahi
also stolen

fkan yin treadle of a loom.

rdsas things that

may be stolen

76
property.

The
are

six kinds of theft ace. to
(1)

rkmi-bcom
robbery.
^^q^-jj-gE.-q

plunder;

highway

Buddhism
rku-wa
to

wgwj-q
take

hjab-bus

steal or

away

quietly

rkun-thabs-su

blafi-tca

to

another's property; (2) J"'5'*l tgytis-rknica to rob a thing knowing all about it

take

away

by thievish means.

befcvwhand

;

(3)

*3*r*v

i

mthus-rku-wa to

3^*
%IT;,

rkun-nor stolen goods.
fern.

rob violently one's property; (4) fy* jj^' ^TW3'-q to rob a thing promising to
return it;
(5)

J^'S rkiiH-po,

J^'* rkun-mo

?,

a thief, a robber.
Mf'i

cealment;
thing

(6)

iX"F5'3' q to steal by conflm-arqjiir^-J-q to rob a

Syn.

jag-pa;
;

m^-m^-K.^ yan-lag fian

l^ww yyos-ma; w^'i ar-pa ; wg'

by

slandering

another

person

hjab-bu-pa;
(fshan-duA;

(K. d.15).

*p**\'^Xwjl chom-rkun; MwwJ'SS'B mtshams-kyi

j-q^-qjpq rku-war bgraft-wa wnfrgnrf to count as stealing.
3'*l*<i rktt-senif

byed-po

;

^1'5'

hoy-tu-rgyit

;

X'Q

chom-po

^wfaw

a

mind

to steal,

.Ja(-3^-q|pq rkun-pot

or thievish mind.

5^'i rkun-pos

"

byetf-pa the

harm done

rknr

bcug-pa

by a

thief.

rku-t/tabf-8u
r:,

the ten kinds of stealing according
:

rkun-dpon the head of a gang of wandering marauders.

3^'^
3^'*

Tibetan authors, vis. *3'3'fl mthtif rku-wa to rob by means of incantations
to
;

rkun-ma one who

steals

;

a thief ;

also applies occasionally to theft.

|'w3K3'fl sgyu t/iab$-kyi$ by producing magical illusions;
hbrid-pat rku-wa
threats
;

rku-wa to rob

3^'f

rkitn-rdsas stolen goods or things.

^'Wj-q
by using

to rob

one

Syn.

3^^

rkun-nor;

ijpT^ Ikog-nor,

apwwjq

^tarn-pas rkti-tca to rob

stolen property (Mfion.).

by speech (by lying); 8H'S^Mr*rq to rob one by soft words ^vqwlvdfjrl'q to rob by saying that he will return the thing
;

3^'9

E

rkn-irun& guard; a watchman;

to watch for thieves:

jr^*'J<*W&'

1*

rkun-ma srun-rgyuhi ched-du khyi-p*o&

afterwards;

conjuring;

W

W^T^-Jvq
e

to

steal

^3'3'i
or

misapproprittion

breach

stealing of trust

by by
;

feeding dogs to guard against thieves.

JW

tkub TH?

vulgar word
;

for

the
or

anus, backside, posterior

colloq.

^^

by gentle persuasion; Swj'q stealing by (imposing upon another in the name of) religion (Lofi.
*15).
J'9

*E*rEj'j-q ct eating

rkub-fkyod-par

to

shake one's

hinder

parts,

a

move mode

or
of

nautch
rku-bya,

girl's

dance in India.
sit

same

aa

K'*i

to

keep

secret, hide.

rkub-rgyag a chair to
rkub-ftegt a

upon.
;

3^'i^ tkun-sgyig thief's pouch of smtll wallet.
,.

;

a sort

sitting

bench

a

portable rest used

by

coolies.

*j3'<^

rkuu-can a thief.

rkub-tshos buttocks (</.).

77
(cf.^*i'<i

?kem-

pa)

lean; meagre
to

((7s.):

J'W^'W rke-

broad waist
Syn.

^Y^*< rked-sbom one with a large or a corpulent person. ;
jf*r&'i

war hgyur-war

grow

lean, thin.
lift'"

Ido-wa che-wa;

"jsjN'S'S

^'^
waist,

fked-pa, also

^,

^T, the

g.m$-poche; ^|^'i lto-ldw-wa\ ij^'ri'^
ffsus-rdses can; g'q-^-q Ito-iva hphyun-wa; fY"'^'5 grog-pa chen-po; $Y '^* 2 grodpa sbom-po (Mnon.).
'

more

particularly that part
is

where
;

the girdle

worn

;
-

also the loins

also

|

1

'

defined as "IS* n*t
of the

q|E.

the ends or notches

bow which hold the string or to which the string is attached.
Syn.
bar-ma;
q'*opr$*i

T\'>Y*" rke4-me$-ma a pretty =SY>Y*<H a woman with

woman

;

slender

ske-rags

yul;

w*

waist (Mnon.).

$'g

lus-phra (Mnon.).

+ "*|Y* rked.-so='*K*i rked-pa the waist

:

"%f\^ rked_-rgyun

an ornament (chain)

|t*f
fiu

hanging from
"

waist.

rked-hchu ftd*r the buttocks.

Sde-mig chufisna-man-pos skuhi rked.-so hkhor-u-a (A. 133) many little keys of different kinds

^nf*'*'^*^

surrounded his waist.
at

rkcd-mdud anything twisted the middle knotted- waist n. of a
;

s^

^'3
3"?
2.

;

biscuit (Jig.).

rko-wa, pf. *mp brkof, imp. rkos-fig 1. to dig, dig out; to hoe

W

to

engrave

;

turn up
: .

;

till.

"^^*^-*l rkcd-nad can-ma,
^'^'1,
a

v.

SY^YI'* *^'
1

woman who

has her monthly

=

sifl)

a
shovel.

that
2.

courses (Mnon.).

which

digs;

a

mattock,

fafao an arrow.
*\'*\

rked-pa gyoii-pa

stiff,

ing

waist:

"^Y q 'l*' c i'i5''''^'

w

unyieldthe

n

:

v.

S'fl

byi-wa that burrows; a

''*i*

husband of the
will die (JT.

woman

rat (Mflon.).

with a

stiff

waist

d.^217.).
rked-pa, rgyur-wa (metaph.) to
:

^q-yq
become a become bent
servant (K.

rAo-ma a kind of small hoe for digging earth; n. of a bird called If * ko-ma ( Vat. sti.).
"h'*

slave (female) a woman qpfrfttv*!*
|

"^V"' J^' 5''"!!'^'

like
d.

whose waist has a bow becomes a maid

WW

rkoi-mkhan or
;

^'fMi

or ^'>

a digger
'*|

one who hoes.

^ 217).
(lit.

rkog-ma incorrectly for

jffll'w

leap over a place where lions jump, he breaks his waist, i.e., dies in the attempt.

broken waist) to fail in a great undertaking: $* *(*& wrvflfe-^-q-^ if a fox (tries to)

%q-*nj tked-pa chag

ringworm

;

itch (Cs.).
rkofi-po hbras chen n. of a

V-I^VFV
skin disease

with large eruptions

;

also

^'"'S rked-pa phra a slender waist.
n. of a fruit

eruptions (Fa-.sc/.
'

rkod-pa engraving; =^'i rko"
,

used in fever (Mnon.).

wa, to dig or to engrave (Cs.).

78
j'^l

rkon-pa net

;

a fowler's net:

-

single

;

simple
t

;

alone

:

E.

jjfq*r*)'5H

I alone

cannot:
(Nag.) to set up a snare to catch, birds
called rkon-pa hd&ugs-pa.
is

^^'Jt'^

dressed only in cotton
I

cloth:

will Your |'<VI |yt*fil Honour go thus alone ? $'S^'^3^'^( drink;

*W

Syn.

S'S

bya-tgya

;

(J'^

bya-rkon

ing water only. $*i'Jj^' naked body Sfli'je.' only one **'5 t- , same as *)'^'3, i.e., a free,
;

b.rkam-chags VSfi
also greedy.

passionate;

carries

unemployed man, no burden
letter that
is

generally
)''|'jt'i

one

that

;

yi-ge rkyan-

J^wqjtrrf^q rkun-ma brku$ char-tea stolen iWij'tfvq brkus-tc bor-ica

q^

pa a

6>-fa/s

forms by

itself

a syllable,

or one that

:

to

abandon or throw away a thing
it.

after

not brtcy$-pa (mounted) and without any other consonant or any vowel
sign
1,

stealing
"i'hT^

ment to scoop out
engrave;
land;
Wj's5't
tff*ri

brko-tpyod a gouge; an instruan instrument to (Sett.)
fyrko-byahi sa

superscribed; jfcn'sjE.*! said to be 100, and the further multiples of 10; ik-|jE.ci a word that has no affix
10,

denoting case, &c., also a

name without

ploughed

any

titles

added to
re-re
;

it.

^rra brkos-pa dug out; ^N'5f brkog-p/ior a mould for making
^'tf'tf

Syn.
srab-pa
;

gciy-bu

;

clay images:

'^'"l^'^'g^'

9

ffccr-bu.

*%&

J^'$ Bkyan
I

c/iu

n. of a lake in the south

in the time of the Lhatho-

of

Ladak,

in the

thori dynasty there fell

on the top of the a book called Spafi gkon phyag-rgya palace and a mould for clay miniature images

neighbourhood of which

there are

many

wild asses.

and brought the commencement of the
holy doctrine.
qjjq-N

)

a rope that

top of a
sculpture;

is lowered from the mountain or from the roof of a

brkos-ma

anything

lofty house (Yig.).
J^'i
1
.

that has been engraved upon.

rkyan-pa

rei
ci

prose

;

^J'^J ordure; dung
;

rkyag-pa,

also

y\'i

skyag-pa,
Jl'i'i?c.'P
v. 8"!

2.

ffl^-q

rkyan-tca = ^'
;

writing.

rkyon-wa iivtiRd

excrement:

extended
je/'Cj*!

spread.

rkyag-pa ^ton-tea to cause purging,

rkyan-hphycs

flfnro

an

im-

mensely large number.
I:

rkyan

^ar,

ii^j

Equus kyang,
jc.'*

e wild ass of Tibet It
is

and Higher Asia.

rkyan-ma

n. of

an artery often

found everywhere in Tibet in large droves, and is distinct from the wild ass of Sindh and Persia. ^'J 6 a male kyang
, ;

referred to in mystic meditation. It is one of the three arteries denominated

Srog-rfga rin-po, and

is

asserted

to

run

35'

J

r -

a female kyang;
Jj^flfi

Jt'^vw an
((?.).

adult

towards the
jc.-gu|

left side.

tyang;

an old kyang

JC

II; or

JR-'l rkyafi-pa, also S^'J^

by prostrating one's self on the ground with the
hands and feet stretched out (A.
8).

rkyafi-phyag salutation

rkyan-t kyan

ij*\fal,

*W,

^J%^r,

each;

79
rkyan 1. a brass vessel like a teawith a spout in W. "o-kyan," a milkpot,
;

rkyen I

:

In Buddhist science

this

pot.

2. pot-belly
;

;

paunch

(Sc/t.)

;

**i'$1,

a vessel for water
(J3).

*^'j^ a vessel for wine

expresses any co-operating influence which serves to shape and bring about an event as distinguished

important

term

3 rkyan-bu ^gw^i hgrim-shal a kind of vessel made of brass or silver
or gold of the shape of a wine glass.

5T

=

from * Tgyu, its direct and obvious cause. ^s In plain language, rgyu is the primary
cause of anything, but rgyu is frequently controlled and modified by a co-ordinate
influence

known

as rkyen.
to

As

a medical rkyen
it is

5pT1|

rkyal-ha

=

'H'*>

vain talk; rkyal;

term,

according

Jaschke,

differentiated

ka bycd-pa to play a practical joke on

to

from rgyu

in that

indi-

make game
J

of.

cates the pathological or secondary cause

of disease, while the latter

word denotes its

rkyal-pa MHHiii'sfl' a sack or leather bag, frq. is poetical term for the body or the five aggregates, i.e., ^'q'*)' "the body is a bag of fl|*E.-ffw3-jijrq

primary or anthropological cause. However, while assigning to rkyen the primary

meaning

of

"cause" and "occasion" in

unclean things"

(Jo..).

the qualified sense of being contributary only to that which comes to pass, we have
to

note

the

apparently
effect,

contradictory
incident,

rkyal-tca

T)<II

to

swim; yv
self

signification

occurrence,

rkyal-rsted-pa

to

amuse one's

event.

So we meet with J^'^'i rkyen-

by swimming
khan
"

(Jd.);

colloq.

"khyal-gyab

a swimmer.
tkyal-bu small bag; pouch; *>'* a bag of goat skin ; kyal-bu.
1

fan-pa unfortunate accident; ^'*1'w *V he has perished by an evil incident ; lA^'j^'ift^Wf^wl the adversities arising
>

5^*'
colloq.

in this life

;

**'ft'tf^'ti$ jaj

an event
;

dis-

3'Ji

a bag for flour 4 'I " water bag or Hindi won/ink *vjm butter bag.
; ;

agreeable to one's
de-la
;

own

self

^"'9^' J^ bio;

bur rkyen a sudden accident
9f*

'|^'^'

al

of^'

rkyal bycd-pa ^janTWf the act In the mystic of swimming or bathing.

rkyen circumstance

bricn-nas

owing

to

that

$V qS'i^' ar*'?*r$

me-pahi

rkyen-la bltas-te or s|^'5 brten-te consider-

language of the Brahmakayika deva
S rkyal-byed or

JT

5rs

signifies

|T

*)"!''

ing the case of not being, not having ; thus fVSr^rV** *^! stands also for a
1

misery;
5jaj-|E.-q

JF^'J^'IS or ^'5'5i'IS means
sins;

cause

of disease

and of death

;

JCi'^'|S

denotes

the exhaustion of misery, '.e., of misery or its ^I'l ftfta
1

J"!'^ the cessation
1

bgol-rkyen

any

circumstance or

^"I'J^ event

;

Ji'*!'^

^

adverse to the success of an action, any obstacle, anything opposed or hostile to
the
existence of another thing 'S'r'jl mthun-rkycn a happy, favourable circum:

signifies J't'^'IT*

'* 1
!

*' e ->

*

meditate on the

exhaustion of misery signifies "W or the way to Nirvana. These are the terms
believed to be used in the language of the celestial beings who dwell in the heaven
called

stance

;

furtherance

;

assistance

;

supply

;

W^'^V

rnthun-rkyen byed.-pa to assist
;

in; to help to

wsVj^Ai'q mthun-tkyen

*3TV<p Fwfc<cre (K.

ko.

1

836).

Reborn-pa altogether successful.

80
In
Buddhist
SHJ

:

-*3j

II:

rkyen-rtsi

=
that
is

metaphysics

there are four kinds of

TOl^

a

medicine

administered
;

for

determining

the

co-

tkyen, viz, (1) relation of causality

(2)

V

<fe-

of a disease. operative cause

relation

of posteriority; (3) tffa^a relation of

bdag-rkyen *ftsubordination or

*K*q

rkyod-u-a,

pf.

"J^,

fut.

flS^'"

stretch or qjjt-qvg, to stretch, extend, hand to a person) ; put out forth (one's
(the tongue)
;

conditionally

;

(4)

^Ttmroira
instance

for relation of dependence (as of parts to the whole the relation
versd)
:

spread; distend (the wings,

a

curtain)

:

*WMV''^'V
in.

sliaLs-nit
out, the

and

vice

M

brkyofi

bskum one leg stretched

other

drawn
1*

Syn.

"i"

fckyan-wa

fljprn brki/afig-

pa;
.

If*'

rki/afo-pa;

^'
TT.

rkyofis-pa;

are Besides the above four there
Jfi

two other subdivisions of
16).

rkyen, viz,
(Ja.).

'-^

rkyon-tse in

lamp; candle
literally

.

q|=.-5)K.

brk>/afi-sM

1.

'the

III misfortune
:

;

ill-luck

;

cakmity

:

an instrument of torture extending- wood," in Tibet; a wooden frame on which the extended arms and legs of the delinquent
are fastened down, whilst burning pitch or sealing
breast,
U^-ti

avert a misfortune : fkyen gloij-pa to to endure misfor

r^w

<*W-1

tune

:

i^'l"'"

the occassion,

Jf 5" rkyen-gyis, reason of on account
;

e 1ual to f*r n ^'W*-^ to cope with calamity. with gen. by postp.

^
;

wax

is

dropped on his naked
-

which procedure

is

called U|E- ^=,-

of

;

by

or qjfSjfm-qjfli-q or a stretching one on cross

^'i,
(<7d.)
.

placing or
2.

in

New

therefore

;

accordingly.
rken-gpig

Testament
rtogs=
" cross."

translation adopted to signify

^^fom
y* an
epithet
ge.-q

for a Pratyeka

Buddha

qjtw brkyans
fatigue)
;

fV*Tft
;

prostrated

(by

stretched out

sjjfcn%*

to rkyen-chags hbyuti-tca

^

for the purpose of stretching.

die or to be abolished (D. pi. 11).
^jjfq|5i

^
the

a wager:

rkyen-stoys
of

^Wf^ll

also

contemplation

a

Pratyeka

Buddha
Buddhist
the

gain a wager

in dice-playing, &c."

and ordinary
devotees

saint; a class of

who meditate
l

on

rkyen,

mute; 1. dun'); kha lkugt-p<*r byed-pa to put S^
lku<js-pa

co-operative cause.

to'silence
2.

;

%\*

a

dumb woman
to

(Co.).

'**'& rkyen-t/mb=^' >fa:iwnce; bearance (Mno.).

for-

*$, *J3 dull, stupid (8oh.). lowing examples may belong
I

The

fol-

either.

or 2

:

4 il**' '*'!*' lkugs-par skyt-s

bom

*5't|

rkyen-pa q=r barley.

idiotic or

mute:

^r^

81
-j&i
|

if

one

is

born a deafnot being

out of sight (7d.)

;

^-^>I'5i

gin-tu tkog-

mute, one's consciousness

(soul)

gyur very secret
8f l'5'

;

most confidential.
;

suited to work, one cannot act religiously.

Syn.
dbul;

ft **^
-

1

smra-bcad M|'3K^sr
;

flag-gig

'^' Ikog-tu brkus stolen removed secretly; JjfTSih'i to converse secretly;
Sf"I'556i

q

MI *>'^ fag mildan;
;

w*r3*r3 sem$
**|-l>-*mQi
;

a secret
;

doctrine;

to

worship

bem-po

3in*w
yes

tshignams

;

tshig

secretly

3fT5'Wi

mi-gsal; **#$*>' jfltm-po Itar Ikug
*)

$

to speak confidentially.

fj'

mi-smra

(Mfion.).
''!

I
the

passage

= />A-0 yonder. In |^^'f^ ip'<|fc^rnrt^
:

Sh'"^ !kog-mJud=Kw*^ the larynx. ^T"!'^^ Ikog-hdun is described as meaning V*rf'w!|r3Y<i, secret conversation or
deliberating, so that others

>

he said "from here look to yonder
side":
sfl'Sr^'lf

may not

under-

hill-

stand

it.

Ikoy-girisna^vif^'l*. the

corner of the

hill there.

STT^* Ikog-na-ma that which
evident.

is

not

II: secrecy; lf"I 5|'$t.'< a wife kept Where polyandry presecretly in Tibet. vails any of the brothers who is not satis-

Syn. flUlkog-gyur; sum min-pa (Mfion.).

25cgc%q ^on-

spouse takes to himself a wife called Kok-gi chung-ma a
fied

with the

common

or^^Z*

rkun-rdag,

lit.

secret articles; stolen property (Mflon.).

concubine
N/" I

(Cs.).
dkritg-fifl

^

f\'*^

lkog-ma,

vulg. Ki)'^i

byed-pa misunderstanding

;

og-hjol

difference (between

two

parties).

2. 1. gullet, oesophagus. wind-pipe. 3. the throat; SpT*^^'^ Ikog-tnahi lha-gon

^*\-x^rt\ik g zan-w-ica to take usurious

the larynx (Sch.)\ also written ifi|'i5-^
C"I">"1^

^.

interest in secret (Sch.)

%H'*v\w%'q

to

watch

;

to witness

Ikog-dkar

the

from a lurking-place.
take food

ferret-badger

(Helictis monticola).

^wrrq
secretly.

Ikog-zas za-ica to

3TTI* Ikog-gyur,
(S[fion.)
;

v.

sfl'^'

Ikog-nrt-ma

if |'i^9*'

l|

Ikog-gya

byag

made

IFfFg*'VtjrFl
gyi rgyal khams the

name

secret.
i^fl'SI

lkog-la bra* hbyarof a kingdom

lkog-g.hi

a secret

hummed
not hear

song:
a song
it is

^jrar^JR'gir^'B-^VarjjVS'*
sung so that others
called Kog-lu (flag.).

of the Asura (demons) where people have no neck, their chins being joined to the
breast.
^f'T-'l'*'

may

Ikog-cal

WTOT dew-lap

(of

oxen)

;

Ikog-chad secret punishment.

genera] (Mrion.).
I

bycd-pa to apply one's self to religious studies secretly.
Ikog-chos
ijfl'f^

\i

Ikog-sog

craw

(of birds) (Cs.).

Ikoy-rnan a reward given secretly

;

Ikob fat, heavy,

plump
a

(Sch.).

a bribe.
ifl'g
^""I'l^

^ **V\

lkol-mdud=^ i'f^ larynx.
this

bkog-tu

confidentially,

secretly

;

ska

word

is

thus

explained
12

or

^""I'^'i^'f

q<W

secret;

hidden;

82
shows
the

1ft

I

complete knowledge of

the

Syn.

iftE.w*v^-tf

ffdetis-can

lha-mo\

aggregation of all
(K.
d.

dharma or phenomena"
This explanation also

wa

(Rtsi.
Kl

and

Mrion.).

^

11/i).

9 !' J""

occurs in the aphorism on the interrogation of the Naga-raja Samudra (K. d. <|
178), also in (Sbum.
t
t

skag-rtsts astrology

of the planets

and

of

which treats bad omens, &c.
kye$ 5Sg;

1 283)

:

^R^W
is

'

*^'* |^'*l "W5'$*|^ "tka bol of the law of Buddha (Buddhism)
it

the symas

qq|-aw| a comet
of

gkag-lat
;

= V'

born under the constellation

explains mystically that all things are (lHl<d*l) not dependant; they are supi.e.,

Syn.

portless,

have no real existence."
ig for

gtmg-phud-can

%*'**\ $brtil-can

;

J|'fyr

(Mnon.).

a moment.
1.

satisfac-

ska-cog

or

Til

ka-!coy

the

tion

(Sch.).

2.

a

kind of
for

expiatory

names of two grammarians jointly written Ska standing for ^'f for abbreviation,
nfvn

sacrifice to

make amends
(Ja.).

a

duty not

performed
yf-'-*

q|-qm

an(i

Cog

for

*1 '* 'S '^'J^ '*^

gkaii-fa sods

cut out (Sch.).

Cog-ro klu-yi rgyal-mtsha.
$^'Q
sla-tva)
;

gka-tca

thick

(of

fluids,
;

cf.

^

skad. I

ska-slad

consistence

density

cry, sound.

m^T, TTnf 1. voice, and 3 are geneThough
:

(keh)

^

(Ja.).

rally used as synonymous words, yet the majority of the grammarians of Tibet

apply the former to
also
;
>

all

manner
Hf\ is

of sounds

$|'

|*,
:

in

resp.

lan-

and the
3* in

latter to the

sounds uttered by
2.

guage g'*1 a girdle q-vipr^Sfq to put on a girdle. W'^l^'O^o (Sch.) a girdle
with a clasp JT*1*'^'3'*^ **J\JK, ^^iTPC ornamental chain worn by Tibetan
;

animate things only.

equivalent

some expressions such as ^'S|S, of " " ^'mS, which mean thus he said," speaking these words," &c., and in ^'f/f\, fy'V\
&c.,

women on

the waist.
-*-* Skt-ragifaan-po

may
you

be traced similar significations
is

:

ma;
of the

qV^'l^'^yi what
did
say,

your pleasure

?

what

S*

n.

of a

sir?

princess

3vr^3'qvfy the

Noijin demi-gods (Mfion.).
keg f^\ Skag *\*\ kag n. of one of the 27 constellations,

=

or

^

spoken what speech are they? what do they mean? (Ja.) ^Hft^ "in " is used before a literally these words
(words)

quoted speech and ^'mV^* after
1 ;

it.

%'Sfa also

an

evil star. 2.

mischief; bad luck

evil
;

;

often occurs after statements
is

meaning

" it

the

name
tf'^1

of the
lo-gkag

goddess Bhogavati

a

said" or "it
:

is

rumoured."

Other
;

fox

an an

unlucky
evil or

or

bad

phrases are

^'W*'^

don't do that or so

year

W\

zla-skag

unlucky

month ^I'^l
dui-skag evil

hour

shag-skag a bad day ; ^'^| inauspicious time.
;

3. mVfr 13 to give an account, to relate. ^-^ the Tibetan language ; language
:

the

Indian language;

q

83
in the provincial dialect
;

"'f^'H speaking

i|S'$

q

rSSq l*' skad-cig-dbugs

lit.

that takes
otter

human language
Idtr

;

^gT^'^*'^ hbrug-kad
of

breath only for a
(Mnon.).

moment = 3", an

zer

the voice

thunder

rattles;

gjR.-cj-15'^-^-35'g

elephant
to send

;

a voice like the cry of an c to utter |l'ig*i' i5'^y.g^'i
;

^'$1'^*) gkad-cig
flash
;

Mod

^wi*r sudden

painful or lamentable cries

flash of lightning.
1

$

forth cries for pity;

W^TSf"!'

^

skad-cig

the root of a word.
II: ladder =W*T"1 $ka$-ka (Jd.}.
!

lightning (Mnon.).
H\*> skad-cha

^w,
;

fkad-hgag or q\*BvZi skad hdser(Cs.).

news, report, discourse, conversation, topic to converse to have a chat.
i

;

po hoarseness of the voice
yfttfi

skad-rgyal,

metaph.

a

donkey
one

^flf^N't) $kad-gni$-pa

lit.

that has two

(Sman.

kinds of voices,

i.e.,

a parrot.

2).

Syn. 1'ift*ri
hkhyog-pohi

lce-gnis-pa; nj$]'3S-<$-^

who has changed

his language.

mthu-can;

^o\'.&\'^

tshig-

^YS'^ $kad,-sgra che (ke' da-che) the vulgar expression for "fame": P'^'WflY!!' he is just now very famous.
skad-nar rough language
:

hjam-ldan; ^wgc.^^'^ hjam-ljan hdubIdan (Mnon.).

fV'ft*'!^'^' 1'

&ad-g.ni$

smra-tcahi
;

Sft't*'

i-f*-*->^q9qpi| on account
of of

dwan-po one learned in science one who has mastered (at least) two languages
(Yig.k.tf).
skad
gentle voice
;

rough speech the name that place was called ffa-ra t/iafi
their speaking

mnen-pa

of a

(Yig. 65).

soft voiced.

gkad-can having a voice
ing.
$K'3fl|

;

sound(returned by a rock) (Mnon.).

an

echo

fkad-ciy

'gw,

one

*'*'

skad-snan bsgyur-wa to sing

moment;
^S'^'i
g^'*,
is

an

instant.

described as
fifth

or whistle in a quavering, warbling ner, of birds, flute-players, &c. (Jd.)
SI'S

man:

'one
the

part of the time required

a singing or playing of this kind.

for

sound of the snapping of the
with
fkad-cig bcorn, \.

skad man-pa ^tf%^,
a

<Rijr!K

one
the

fingers."

sweet

voice;

spoken

of

m^&yqXw

rtwi.
v.

cuckoo.

|\'Sl'^V^

fkad-cighdod-ldan,

9"!'^

^Y?^'* skad-snam-ma
1

the princess of

a pigeon (Mnon.).
skad-cig-pa
vj fin*

the Noijin demi-gods;
or
also

cf.

instanteneous ;
;

ephe-

Skad

s

to

call

meral,

momentary

also lightning.

to a person (Schtr.).

84
^wgdfci* skad. rnthun-par with one accord.
;

with

one

fkad-rigg hen-po

bsM the
-

voice

qV^S

skad-dod.=itft*i

an equivalent
;
:

term in another language the original from which another is translated Sft^V
s^V*)^

four great divisions of language (1) g 5' qfi'ttft Sanskrit, the language of the gods; (I) a-Jj-'J!^-^^-^ Pifatsl, the language of
the meat-eating people
;

(3)

vsty^wtrErj^
Prakrta or
;

whether there qS'^V*^
it is

are

rafi-bshin shef-pa pra-kr-ta the

any

original

texts

:

without the original

the natural language of the people
wq^*r-j-|V.M|-j|

(4)

text (Situ. 110).
'HV3' q K**' $ka<?-kyi (fdads the character

Apa

bf,ram-fa

corrupt

language (T. K.).
or tone of the voice:

s.i'^

1

l

"I'9|'^'

I^'
dialect.
I!

skad-lugs

= ^'
;

s A, id.-rigs

^W^t
(Mfsfinn.)
is

jn'MT*k-g5-qyq|^MrjMirq|wr3.

when

the

tone of one's voice
it

skad.-log

clamour

screaming.

that of a goose or dragon

betokens
a celestial courtezan
fkan-te, W., instead of *r! ka-wa.

voice like the possession of wealth. that of an ass or ox indicates great
troubles.

A

wq

skag-ydafis
;

dmah-wa
voice.

low sinking voice

poor

^r^'fTWirl^-tc
out;
swift not
finishing.

IIS'^ fkad-hdon
loud voice.
qS'

*T* bawling

delay: (Rdsa. 28) the hurrying, the lingerers not
|

hgor-po

fkad-pa
;

i:

= ^rg w
-

shes

bya-tcas

called

named

(A. 120).
tunity,
to say, tell,

?1T,
occasion,
relate:

?K

1.

time, oppor?e/n5'

circumstance:
:

qV*!n:l.

vb.

^'

W*
or
f)j

opportunity of seeing
to find
t 'i'^ '''fj

qwlV"
:

skalf

pw

3<i]

<$v^-)j|VKTi that a land (of bliss)
;

rncd-pa

heard people say. 2. interpreter language master teacher (Ja.)
exists I
;

an opportunity ^1*1' y now and then; sometimes.

qwj

or Sl^w with genit.
of,

= at the time

of,
:

^\t'^> skad-pa-cfie

or

Vft^

$kad.-po-che

on the occasion
der
; ;

during, while,
thereafter:
case
;
;

when

celebrated; famed.

^'T$| IW '?J in a moment; instantly:

^V^'* skad-po cht

TWTT rumour.

fkabs

^nftf
in
this

^'^
bird.

fkad-hbyin

fa$M

singing of a

now here qiiA once
state,

in this place
;

:

for a time

each time

wqw
for;
3.

interval; inter-lapse of time.

2. sphere,
fit

^S'S

t "'^l q skad gbyafit-fiy cultivate your
l

situation:
;

qwrvf|vi
occasion.
lehu,

voice

;

improve the voice by exercise.
skad mi-ffsal not intelligible

adapted
also

suited to the
">4

qw
is

j^-&-ii)w

^^
;

means

one whose

chapter,

and

language
^V^E,

is

a barbarian.

synonymous

with **l*
:

**'

"I^*1 ,

<%c.,

skad-riH
;

i.^mv

a voice heard

HW^5 fkabs bcu, the signifying section ten sections of the doctrine also he that
;

at a distance

a high pitched voice.

has

observed

them

(Ja.).

4.

mode,

85
method, way, manner, so the word seems to be used in Vaigfio n*rgS'qwrifl|'V.'|*r
:

Skam
(

I:

n. of a tribe in Tibet

Vat. kar. 160).

Q"|'^'K

|

Idum-buhi

skab$

la-phug daft

(nature) of the plants being similar to that of a raddish as to growth (Jd.).
qqtrqfyirq

gkye$ lugs hdra-war the

manner

II

:

a

pair of tongs

;

pincers

;

an

instrument for seizing anything. Syn.

^'^

hdsin-byed;

*i|t.'SS

bsufi-

fkabg

gnif-pa

ft<u

the

byed. (Ijffion.).
qi'lfl skatr. ^JJ'21 skam-pa stjg; dry; rlon lit. dry and wet all articles (furni;

second chapter.
HfW'*& tkabi-don
of leisure
;

^Rmi

for the sake

also circumstance.
s kabs

ture, chattels, clothes, utensils, &c.)

and

qq-a\ai
this

hdi-la

wfaK
;

s^rrS

at
this

food, drink, etc., being included in the term.

opportunity; at this time

on

subject.
5jq

often used as equivalent to $(**'*', the dry land, hence a plain or Wjpri 'fj'wi
11" is

3 ^ fkabg phye-na

VTVni fll<l

to

fkam-la slebs-pa]to get ashore

;

qwi*

jour-

make opportunity.
$kab$ hbyed-pa

ney by land,
meat, $[*'%#

dry food, W-*\ dry fkam-skom the dry or stuffed
the
dried carcasses
of
all

W*\

^*fK

leisure.

carcass

of

an animal; "W^TV'^'^*''^'
|

o gkabs-la babg-pa qrf^[

when

WW^'J'fT^I
beasts

of

the time came

;

opportunity arrived.

and

game and

(others)

(D..B.)I

the drink of the gods

;

ambrosia:

*'!5

'I

skam-glog a flash
:

of

summer

lightning

J^r^HSfrw^f^fl^wW
forth,

8v fp -ar*^

|

pray

send

^^ A

letterg

*V3*-%'!|M"on
ning coming became very
17).

like the flow of the

drink of the gods over

a great flash of lightall his attendants

the heads of the good (Yig. k. 78).

much

"
frightened

(A.

the residence of the gods

;

the heaven.

qtraw skam-chas all goods except
stock.
'

live-

pw-TO*rq skabs
;

gsmninf.ftfa, fk^i

i)(*rii

corn or

a god a common name for gods possessed of the knowledge of their past and future
births

barley flour to
^*
4

make

gruel.

and

also of those of others.
(-cj
:

q '5 l

skam-thug gruel made of barley-

flour,

dry meat and raddish.
gkam-dras
neat

a

name

O f tb

^w^w
(Jig. 30).

and

clean

musician ^'gl'f^ lhahi glu-mkhan (M.non.).
;

^q^-qigw^qE. $kabs-gsum-dwafi a

name

of

$kam-pag dry, flour of barley.
r9 skam-po
jjq;,

Indra;

*>$Ji*i

Brgya-byin

or

^'^'V^q

aftftw

dry dried.

W ^l*
mtshon-cha
of

an

officer

skam-phogt allowances or wages or inferior servant in
tea
or coin,
etc.,

thunderbolt of Indra.

barley-flour,

but not

86
cooked food;
to

"ItftwrtWM* according
;

gkar-mkhan pwf an astrologer.
skar-lcag a rigorous enquiry
;

Government order
.

dry allowance

a

(/. Zafi.)

flogging (Jd.).

qsrowij-q skam-las gkye-u-a duced or born on land.

*mf

pro-

$(*<

skar-chu

i

:

literally star-water

;

bathing when

the star Agastya (Ri-byi)

qw'HiS skam-bqa$ dry or meaningless hollow meaning expressions words;

to appears in October, when, according Tibetan astrologers, water becomes pure

p-|v^5^i-q^vW nothing: versed in talking nonsense, as if only for his mouth's sake" (or "as if on
J5

"one

and wholesome.

qv*
which
is

ii

:

generally

said to

come

applied to dew from the stars

:

account of his mouth") (Eo.).
c qwti skam$-pa=v'1j bleak and barren
'

tkar-tag

tafi

che (Jd.) to enquire rigorously

;

to restrict

;

to bind

down
a'

;

to flog.

place

(Sfrfion.).

D|V*S* skar-mdah a shooting star;
:

|^*
:

$j^'Q

Skar-ica I
;

pf.
;

m*

,

imp^'"1,

Si*,

to

Sgron-ma a
q*,-*^<vaje.'q

lamp
or

;

5'

(J''

<5Wf a meteor

weigh hang up measure weight ^'*S
;

to

^,
;

^'l*

l^'fl

^tmia

the falling or

;

scale

for

1

St*'

"!,

^'^

and qv

qvp (kar-wa points on a steel:

shooting of a meteor.
'll

tkar-mdahi

gdofl-fi>

yard for weight
points
to ten

or measure

qvg

five

on

the
:

steel-yard weighing two

one having either his face or nose glowing as a meteor a
'^r

or

I

3'?s(iTTr^

;

annas of silver

^

(one jkar) is equal hon, which is a little less than

^'*F

demon

;

a meteor-mouthed arrow

;

n. of a

fire-arm anciently used in India.

One

of

an Indian anna.

Gautama Buddha, directly descended from Mahasammata, the first
the ancestors of
;
>

a star

;

a fixed star
1

constellation

:

elected king of the world.
q^'fl'S

i'9S,

^'3S J'* *F'V-g

SS

(

Foi. tor.)

the stars that are liberated and that soar

astrology;
(JGfoM.).

tkar-4pya4=1p'tm skar-rtsit ^'^'i=|''' c an astrologer
i

on high and roam are twenty-eight in

number

:

M*''*r

^ $kar-ma-can
on

with stars or

m*'W
star.

skar-phran

or

%*&

a

little

figures of stars
1|*'B*'

anything, a shawl, &c.
arra

skar-khun TTfTHM, J^TO,

5|Vje. Skar-hprefi

1.

n. of a fabulous

a hole or small opening for the admission of light in a house a window same as
;

city situated at the foot of

Rirab (Sumeru)
2.

mountain said
in

to be the residence of the

;

"VI^S*; qvRc-gj'jfatqm a pi ail k or board for a window; shutters HH'fl^'V

8f*.

v.

Asura King, Kantha-Mali.
a
chart
of

the squares
in

the

constellations

;

*>'*^

ii<aqii<4i

lattice

window a grated
;

which the figures representing the
are
written.
3.

stars

window.
skar-khofl$

the

angular

distance

between two
the

stars or planets (Cs.).
(Cs.)
;

sphere

of

a

lunar mansion

;

with the minor
within
its

constellation together stars which are included

a

II:
cattle
;

1.

a

penning
;

of
;

assortment
;

separation

to

pen

sphere.

to fold

to separate, v.

87
skar-ma
stod-phur

^
star
is

supposed

to

be

Leonis.

This

qvii^ skar-hdsin star-catching making
;

sure of a
for

propitious

believed to be the most steady among the stars and is therefore called the sure-star or fixed-star
;

constellation,
(Jo.).

e.g.,

an intended journey

also called the crown-star.

ted

Syn.
bu;

WQ

*P'*S skar-hod srtf?i:^T the light emitby a star name of a kind of flower.
;

brtan-pa;

^=.'g

rkaft gteti-

^=.'gi^-^c.'5

gnan-ldan fin-rta;

qipr*-

kar-yum works or
the stars
stars
;

treatises

on

*fw)-^
tog;

qvj*rfli*-8j*(

ffzah-yi rten;

^.T^ workg on

ipTfarg gan-rgyal-

and planets.
|

bu;

'&K*V> gsstr-bpkw (Mnon.).
fortune

^Wff^ skar-tna tfsag-rtsig, also ^'<'
twinkling star painting on a or on a ceiling in canopy starry design
; ;

skat-pa

^f^,

sr

luck,

chance,

g-ln-1*!, a

particularly

when

propitious.

qr^
lucky
;

$kal-nan

^*rmj wretched;

un-

unfortunate.

those constellations through which the moon passes in her revolution round
J'fl*

the heaven;

!***
is
;

the constellation under
;

pr*?i skal-can-ma, also called qr^r*i Skal-ldan-ma 1. nijj<ft n. of a goddess ;

which one
which
one

born
the

*l"iE,'fjH

a propitious

constellation

constellation

under
brings

pa

a blessed lady. 2. =a' a r { spu-la hbabn. of a disease in which the hairs are
<

W

i

prospers fortune and good luck to one.
qv*r<O5 skar-ma
htshe

or

which

affected.

skal-ldan

blessed
tTKliflyr
star.

the

;

also n. of

W, wrsrrn happy; one of the 28 ancient
H*Tk*r n.
is

injury caused by a malignant
ahi

sages mentioned in Buddhist works.
*pr^>r3*-$ Skal-ldan

dpyod
"

tdq
stars.

an

fin-rta

examination or observation of the
t|'9

of a king of the solar race

who

said to

son of Star-eye or Skar-mig," the eagle. certain hermit called Skar-mig found three These eggs. he gave to a woman in distress,

Skar-mig-bu

A

have brought the river Ganges to Jambuone of the dvlpa (India) from heaven
;

ancestors

of

the

Buddha S'akya-muni:
letters

saying

"favour
like

me

with

that

if

she broke

them

uninterruptedly

after seven days

the

course

they would bring her happiness. Out of impatient curiosity she broke two on the
third
sixth day. These turned into lightning and the dawn. The third she broke on the seventh when there

of the river BhaglrathI
k. 17).
i

(Ganges)" (Tig.

and the

tkal-ldan fifi-rtahi

bu-mo

day,

Gafi-ga, the daughter of the river Ganges Bhaglratha, (Mfion.).
,

v. $'5'ij5|

sprung forth a full-fledged eagle which turning round asked what she wanted of
him.

^rr5
tunate
:

skal-pa-can

M*' 11 '*^'*!*

w, tn^H the mf^ft *f?f'H

for-

are

In reply she wished him to kill the Lu demons and this he accordingly did.
;

very fortunate.

Thenceforth the eagle came to be known as the son of Skar-mig (Jtffion.).

very fortunate, lucky
rich.

;

also powerful

and

rq $kal-pa,

mnam-pa uniformly
lucky;

'i

to place a to
ir

ladder

;

fortunate or fortunate
:

always

f>r<r^'wi

come down a ladder
to climb

;

**

*FW*

**>>*'

1^1

mi daft

skal-

up

a ladder.
lattice,

pa mnam-par fkyeg *M<jqtiii ^HmfftiTW'm born with fortune equal to that of a human
being.
-

w skas-gkor khra-ma the S|*i'^'B'
rail or

fencing by the sides of

stairs.

)l|ui

q-qjE,-!5

skal-pa fyzang-po

H^*w good

^'"I^'S skas-gdafi-bu, abbr.
^s.'Q,

of ^N'^iise.

fortune;

q"< 'I'M'"
lli

bad

a flight of long steps in a ladder:

luck, unfortunate;

X'^^5'^ ql*''^

the matrimonial share of

j^Vfl-arqiTififgbring him

^' ^'*|-^vqi

|

to

the present life; the connubial fate for which a person is predestined ; Xw'S'jprq religious good luck also the merit of the
;

(here) a seven-step ladder was

necessary (A. 91).

W**-

skas-tshafi signifies

a flight

of

pious
nate.

;

$pr&'i very lucky;

^T*^

unfortu-

steps (Jig.).

^'^q
;

fkas-leb the steps of a ladder or

tprq-J^-q s kal-pa yo4-pa fortunate

qT

stair; the planks of a ladder.

v^-tt extra luck.
$Cr<vn skal-hphar enlarged lucky or of increased luck.

S
fortune;

sku
1.

q\TO,

JTT^,

?fi,

resp. for $*< Ins,

tku may be prefixed to the body. names of parts of the body and even of

anything
gkal-wa-=* cha HT7T
share
;

belonging to a person, thus

1.

portion

;

imparting to
pectful terms.

them the character

of resit
:

^vqSf*rq5 '^'fl*

the
;

apportioned
inheritance
;

As honorific particle
nouns in general
;

can

share of hereditary wealth

portion of food ; ration; f-'W* personal share: jprrr*^'q^ without
share or

rm

also be prefixed to

g'$*i

the person or body of a great man g'**< goods, stores or property of a man of

being deprived of any of his portion.

2.

rank

;

also the religious robe of a lama.

the portion of good or bad fortune that falls to a man's lot as a consequence of
his former actions
p

'|*> gku-skyi't a present (given to or re1 ceived from a respected personage) g'
;

^

;

lot, fate,

destiny.

virtue,

$|urq

*\q
;

skal-wa

chad-pa suppressed

fortune
5^01

unhappy.
skal-bsafi ^JHTT 1.
2.

happiness; g'W] image, statue; the wrapper used by a lama or a Jj' 1*^ great man ; J'3* the cloak used by the
;
;

qjc.

prosperous; of

good fortune.
coronarium.

a plant

Chrysanthemum

lamas when attending a religious service fa the inner lower garment of a man J''
of rank.

Even buildings
honoured .by
g'V'l*''*!^'*
; 1

(monasteries,
respectful

qr^

skal-rin the valuation
;

of

one's

&c.)

are

this to

share of property the price of one's share in any concern (Jig.).
skas or q*r*| $kas-ka, also called
rfi) q*i
:

expression: a house, &c.

'*'

white-wash

*ji'(j|

rkos-gku an engraved
;

image

;

^'g

tapestry
silk
;

a figure worked

qw
;

upon
clay;

satin

with
a

Swq'N ft:^fa, a stair

;

a flight of steps
qw'^SI*!

Tg

woven image;
a molten
;

wi'JJ an image of ^'J a stone

S'^wi order of steps

;

the two

image;

1*<'*j

image;

g'Sj

a

side- pieces of a staircase or ladder (Cs.)

;^'

painted image

*3*'g

a

Basso Relievo

image;
"I^

ig"!^'!

blugs-$ku

a cast image;

$ku-mched

brothers

and

sisters

:

v

g.ser-sku a golden

|J'i

sku-yi

may

image. 2. g or be also used honorifically as
pupils of one
%)

those

who

are born the

a poss. meaning "his," "her," "yours," 3. It is further employed to express &c. sku the reflective verb khyed-gaft la
hdeg

sons of kings are

'kum-che,' and the lama are 'kum-che' (Lofi.*
-

S'**S "19* the three spiritual sons of
(l)Q

"why

are

you beating yourself ?"
portion or share of a

Bromston

f q%S^npwi,

(2) f^g'trC""'
;

g'^i fku-skal
respected person.
J'li|*

|wws,

(3)

g'Sfq-Biafrj'jarw^

<^-<i|*i*-<sr
;

^m't^W|'*^W*< (Lot. * 3)
three were called the

these
of

spiritual sons

gku-skem the lean slender body of

Bromston.
g'wfa skn-mncd handkerchief (Yig.

a respectable person.

= ifMJ

Ito-ras or

" g'P* sku-khams a great man's person;
1

k. 55).

also the state of health.

*

$kii-gam do-bear

a personal

^rasrt? g'"]^ sku-yner keeper images in a temple or monastery.

of

interview; to approach or

come before a

Syn.

^"l^

Iha-gner;

^5-n*-q

lhahi

great

man

personally.

htsho-wa (Mfion.).

g'^
g-qq|a|'*li

sku-brna n

i

:

a reflected image, v.

sku-bgegs
spirits.

chagf

disease

Sg'^ or

"lll^i^
:

likeness (Mfion.).

caused by evil
g'g'gai'Q

g'^f ^ ii

=

'<}

the health or flesh of a

ku-lna rgyal-po the five divine
of the five highest

respectable person (Mfton.).
g'f^

Buddhas symbolical

tku-rten
It

an
is

moral virtues inculcated in Buddhism.
the matter or substance g'J $ku-rgyu

image

of

Buddha

or of a saint.
three words
:

a contraction of the

skit, g.sufis,

whereof an image

is

made.

image,

i.e.,

of a

thug-rten the holy Buddha or saint; the

g' |S ikii-rgyud a scion, descendant, of a noble family.

sacred books or volumes containing religious precepts; and the chaitya (mchorteri),

J'q* tku-^car personal attendant of a
the Dalai

the symbol of the resting of the thugs or
heart.

greatman; gen. the attendant monks of Lama (S. kar. 181); also same as
g-*^-ci a8
i

n g'qww^^-Hj fku-bcar mkhan-

$ku-bltams=$ a great man).
g'tf"!

f^w

a

c -& >'*

birth

(of

po, the domestic priest of the Dalai

Lama
worn

sku-thog=Q'^'
/3
l

lifetime;

age;

who

is also

called

f*=
1

<

3

s

i'*W9.
the raiment

generation; g T'Tg'<='5S'
|fr*

r^Fi

or

ftfT
suc-

former
;

generation

;

also ancestor
5S'< ll '!''*| ]'*

sku-bcar-nio jj-qv next to the skin

or predecessor

g'3f'Ti*<'**=g'
;

ceeding generation
g'*
sku-cfuts

g'?i|'ic.-Q

many gene-

rations

:

ll'i the chattels and other possessions of

^ c 'S^'5 q *' ^ q
of Tibet

tf\-|i'g'ii*-'^^-g'#Tc.-q-Qqithe three incarnate beings

^

I

any high
5'X

class person.

(i.e.,

the Dalai Lama, Panchen

$ku-cho$='&**'%fa robes; dress

worn

by great men

or

by lamas.

Lama and* Tavanath Lama) having rome in many re-births are greatly blessed.
13

$&'*]
g'^'fl skit drufi-pa a

90
;

page an attendant

of a great

man

;

a private secretary to a

a poplar tree, the leaves of which are said to bear miraculous impressions of a hun-

high

official.

9' TV-

tku-gdufi

relics,

remains; also

lineage, descendants.
jj'^ sku-hdra

dred thousand images of Buddha on them. Hue and W. W. Eockhill have given elaborate accounts of Kumbum monastery:
(Lofi. 17) he erected the gilt

(kunda)
of

sfffjrr,

yfiifoiaj,

^fn image

;

statue

Buddha

or

any

dome

of the monastery in

sainted persons.

of

Chambaling above
g'H*>

Kum-bum

Amdo.

Syn.

y
gzitgs-krnait
; ;

t'-u-smatf
;

rqn
*<*\'S

mchod-bya

V

w wt
;

SH'

below the navel
ne-war hjal
;

the part of the body g'fVffi the upper and

lower parts of the body.
g'* sku-tsha a brother's son ; a nephew called *'S tsha-tco in colloquial language.
;

^qvn^Mi Mra-war
;

^
;

de-lta
*fi

;

^
?*i
;

fa/ietis

^""I Mfa;

de-bdfa
;

^*<$M* detpts/iufis
',

4pe
i

;

mnam *$**
b_shin;

$*Qtku-t8/iab a representative

;

deputy.

yshi-hdsin;

Wfi'**

rab-tit

pra-phab
leys-par
-|q-w
fyshefis;

%*\vcn*c
lder-b.zo;

^Vflf

8'*ft tku tnAe-sto4=$*F*&-'& during the time of his predecessors.
sku-mtshal, resp. for H*FH|, the blood (of a great man's) body.
|'*i*>!

slar-g rib-ma

S^'S^'^S^ glar-byag

ipthun; <j&*-ti-N&M gfios-po mtshufii;

*%*

hdra-wa; g'9 ^a-i;

^'^ ner-tshaj;

i'j|^

U'V"

sku-fhabt

lit.

"your honour's
colloq.

feet," is the correct

form of the

idem-pa
ill-health.

to be unwell,

ill;

expression

J

g'

f"I*',

honour, your lordship,
is

meaning your your worship. It

Syn.

^'$ri5i
;

naj-kyt's
w-!Cfl
t

generally pronounced as ku-sho.
g'"l
jaS

phog-pa
hbyufi-wa
'q
;

^'^

;

^'rf'^fq na-tslia
;

$ku-g.zani\*3\
(

gzm

shawl wrap.

ffwtft^'n khamt ma-b_de-ica hdu-tca hk/irugs-pa V w*|y s
; ;

"V
<?;

per worn by lamas

Yig. k.

55)

$(W^
also healthy.

skti-gzugs b_dc= *K**<n health

;

?*''q^'q WO>MJ

ma-b.de-tca

htshal-ica; ^'Qsniat-pa (Jjffion.).

Syn. pw^-q^ khamt
htshe

bde;

fycaX-i^ ner-

g'^ sku-na a respectable person's age.

I'Si iku-bub
class

a

monkey

of the langur

med; *gVE^'|w hbyufi-bsM ^a-^<u bro mi-htslxtl (Jgtion.).
g-5J-qq^e.-q|aj s ku-yi babs daft according as his health permits
;

nomt;

found near Bathang.

b_stun

g'*S*i

Sku-hbum "a hundred thousand

according

images," commonly pronounced Kumbum. The name of the birth place of

to the state of one's health.
g-S)T*i^i] fkti-yi zo-mdog, resp. of

Amdo, Tsongkhapa of lake Kokonor also the name of huge monastery built on the spot. Village and
;

in

situated to the east

P

lui-kyi-khamt health
|

:

^'S' ^' |ST*Vr ^*
' i

(

monastery both derive their names from

g|-^5S-^-fww^-qjt^f just now your health is good like the condition of the gold in the Dsam-bu river.

91
sku-rags

=^'^1

gke-rags, also

y

9 ffol-drug

thafi-po

;

(3) flif-g-gw^R*

Qto-bu
;

Ska-rags, a sash (F?#. A. 55.).

bum-safis', (4)

^"VS'ii'^ Dpya$-bu
(6)

g'^' fku-rtA the period of a

life

one's

(5)

^-^ lufi-hdren;
;
I

own

or another's. sku-rim, resp. for ^w'3j rim-hgro,

hdren
(8)

^^

khri-fifi

Brgyud
;

^*-<m

(7) fff^^f|*,-q Eoft-tsha dltar-po a c Kofi-tsha 9' hphul-bu chuti.
i
'

g'^

reverence, respect, and thence the

common

skit

gsufi-thugs,

resp.

for

word

for

any

set service in

a temple and in

body,

speech,

thought, which

general for a ceremonial act of worship, and particularly in the special sense of a

constitute the three spheres of a

man's

doings or sufferings
thoughts.

;

works in words and

solemn

sacrificial

ceremony.

jf^i'j'F'T

W^T*)'"!^'"!^ indicates the allowance granted by the Government of Lhasa for

g'|g

sku-ffsum fiPSfff, f^rra the three
viz.,
i

personal exsistences of a Buddha,
spiritual

Kurim
Tibet.

in the

different

monasteries

of

existence

;

$=^'

celestial

existence,

and
gku-ru a water-wheel

gTi'S'

f^^fw^fni bodily

existence;

without a
all

rm

also miraculously
g'i]*tt

emanated existence.

;

such are the water-wheels of

the mills in the Himalaya (Jd.).

sku-ffseft rest

and gentle

exercise
:

(of a great man)

when

convalescent

ST^'p
also

sku-ru-kha

asterisks;

marks

generally of the figure

of a

cross,

+
slight

when gout was
improvement approached,
convalescence,

indica-

x

.

The

latter is

common

in books

ted in the form of swelling of the body and

as

an abbreviation

like "ditto," to save

the repeated writing at full length of the

the time of (Ya-sel.ll).
g-qjie^ -*a
bsrufis-pa

being he went out

it

same sentence or word or

expression.
as 3'5'P.
for $*i, the

Some authors
g'$

spell this

word
resp.

fku-bsrufis ~

or

g'liiW! sku~v
'

sku-lits

l^k,

tT^RTr,

^fsfi^W

attendant

;

body.

waiter ; body-guard.
skugs

= $*(

wager; the stake in a
g"!N'j'
is,

!'

1)

corpulent

;

also corpulence

;

the ori-

game
^C'l*'''
1

received

ginal

name

of

Ebrom Rgyal-wahi hbyun
;

by the winner.

signifies IS'mTfll^-scai-q^-ei, that

pnas (Mfon.).
CQ $ku-ff$egs-pa dying
death.

^'K^W^rt^%irr q^'I'qJfr^&rV^ Ho$-zer 4pal was my
:

Sku-gfen-gyen teacher of the Bon "
father, I

Eab the

great

anything placed in pawn: gl^'-^'^'S'M" |-*(*-fl(Q( (D, js.) if the wager is lost he will be plunged into an ocean of grief.
|

^'3 skufi-wa=%*\-3,w
"'S^' bskufi.
i

to conceal in

Sku gyen of Yag
P 22).

g.sher

am

a secret place (Nag.), pf. sge-w bkung, fut.
1. to hide in the ground to c bury; to inter: <V r*i*<' ql!?^ fc'fl|E.*r'^| I have found hidden treasures and
;
-'

called

Sbrom" (Mbrom.
1'5^'^JS
spiritual sous of

!

iku-sras

the eight S'en-rab are the Bon-po

brgyad,

concealed

wealth

(nor.).

2.
;

<8TJteiH

'

following:

(1)

Mu-chos

;

(2)

(A. K. 53-55)

to fasten

down

to tie, to

92
tie

on

all

sides (a corpse in a
it is

doubled up
burnt).

'ZJ
;

skur-pa VTSTC
;
:

slander; false

or twisted position before

witness blasphemy abuse

gv^wq

same

gc.r
place.

fkufii-sa

lurking place; hiding

as g^'i'fl^' 1) to throw abuse, cast aspersion and to bear false witness; to speak im-

u 1

or

8V

piously of holy things

:

vK^T"!^'**''^'
by view-

thread, yarn, wire:
i.e.,

gV '*f6*\i

to
;

cut
to

)*,-^c.-g*-cr<^twq to blaspheme

the thread,
divorce.

the

tie of

marriage

5fa'*3fr*$' JV" the thread to
;

sew
;

ing Ones.

as

untrue the three most precious

a dress with

wg"S

cotton thread, yarn woollen thread ; "l^'g'S gold wire
silver wire;
silk

WJS

S^,'^ I-.gkur-wa or

J^'8*''

ti

to slander,

;

mock,

ridicule.
srtra

thread;

%gS
;

g*\'^ yellow thread coloured thread;
; ;

S^,'^ II:=fl5^'fl
giving,

a bestowing,
to bestow,
to

the frayed

ends of a seam

sending

;

also vb. a.

JS'JJ"'

an embroiderer

one that makes up a
;

give,

send; ^ffl|^'fl ^rfn^^f

furnish

picture with threads of different colours

gV^= *pw?i'9'i ?jf^^t
cloth;
.

needle-work on
thread.
to
)

with power; to empower or instal; "*?K J^'i to send intelligence ; J'g* probably
decorating one with the peacock's feather
(as in China).

|Vrif*r

spinning
g*<,

2.
;

vb. pf ^S^, fut. 15, imp.

smear
c'

to

besmear; to daub: smeared with oil:
door: Tfc'S'fiV

^8V '=|
jf
a

S qI''

to be

rJ"5V
or

1'

to paint a

jjvq'R^wt) gkur-wa hdebf-pa to hold as not existing what exists ; to belittle.
jm'*)"^
(Jd.).
jgm'fl

to anoint;

to apply

an
<i

skul-mk/ian

in

W.

overseer

ointment;

8Vrij|w
gkud-piihi

^'tro $*w^

threads twisted together.

skul-rgyu to render service; to

gViS^g

A6M=V-jfl'g

dar-

exact service:

T* frWrf*r'*nF fT|
|
>

gyi srin-bn silk-worm (Affion.).

the son-in-law (elect), though he
chufi-mahi
slave

is

not a

$Y^
spun
in
is

ikad-po =&*'<&'&'%
1.

by birth, must render service for three
(to

sla
2.

wife's

brother;

brother3.

years

the parents of the bride).
skul-wa, pf.
"$!,

in-law.

^13*

father-iti-law (Jd.).

$pTZJ
excite
;

*!"i''9, to
:

Sikkim a husband's younger brother
also called skutf-po.

tkun-bu

is

described

as OT'

>9 i'

admonish, enjoin ft' ^Qurl^qvgorq to exhort a man to do a thing to appoint ft'^'WTac^ai'y imto exhort,
:

;

smyug-ma-la btays-pahi tnod a wicker-work basket but a basket or vessel
;

^

posed some work on a person:

^5'fcfl|'8)r

being induced by his words:
soul urged on
sins:

^*r

made

of

bamboo

is

called

^'3

or Vi'

gkub
'^J
,

^nw

very low (Lex.).
ig*w,fut. ^l", imp. also to be drawn up to be
pf.
;

frXMr^r^pr^ll the (departed) by its former deeds and flTt*S'fr3F' though I tried to
spirits
8i

bring round the gods and evil

skum-pa,
;

to contract

paralysed:
limba.

q-nrj*ri

to

draw

in

the

arousing strongly (the actors) with flutes and other instruments. iij"i'i and more frequently
'i

by

sacrifices:

K '* q l*

I

'Vr'S a| '3 t

'

exhortation

;

admonition,

11

93
and

*^w

also

yryn't

f r*T'V
j

{|

to

expostulate with, rebuke; incite.

skyed-dkar same as white sash.

|r\ skul-byed.,
tive or imperative

v.

WT^^'^J
neck
;

da-dru

gT3i| skul-tshig a word in the horta-

hjoms n. of a medicinal drug (Mnon.).

mood.
eked-pa=^f\t ^rfk
the

waist

:

ike ^ra, resp. *yn,

throat

:

unanimously ")' =^-i)5Q-i and "^"l'" to cut one's throat to behead l^'wr*! to seize by the
;
:

with one throat

Sl'IS sku $kyed oi^'W** $ked-$kabs fsra^l', the hind parts below the waist ^'"^'^"1^ ^*f^TT waist-band. ^'*S fked-so the waists
;
:

;

:

^|5'^ jj-^E.-3R.^^-w|q-q the
hair reaching

length of
waist

worry (Sch.) round the neck (an amulet) ^j^ necklace (Schr.) "$!'* ornament for the neck a
; :

throat

to

$|v

Vl^

to

tie

down even

to the

;

(Mbrom. f>35).
"fa*
(Mrton.).

;

;

$ked-ma,

v.

^'^g,

necklace
lace of a

:

P*ir*SH'j^'g'5 the coral neck-

pomegranate

woman

of

Khams.

"^'IK ske-tfoA cavity of the throat
l

'^ $kem-nad consumption.
(Jti.),
'

defined in Med. as 8fa'*^ v3'* q r** ri *i''l|*' ! lft ^'i the cavity as far down as below the

!'!
S,

skem-pa = wn, vb. pf *wp
.

WQ

^^r,

adj.

^i,

jftfoer,

fut. tnip or

larynx.
ske-tse

'WS, imp.
1. to

%w

skoms, pros. <li'w9vi

or^'X

rrftraT, ^t?:

Sinapis
seeds

2.
;

ramosa, black mustard;

mustard
it

dry, lean meagre; to dry up. also as adj. H|*r3 skam-po dry; dried

make

up meagre.
q*ri

(Ja
evil

)

:

5<|<ij>N-<^ai

gMT^'spT^!

removes

spirits

and cures

swellings

and

skem-pa

= WP>BW*

lean,

thin

carbuncles (Med.).
"${***'

body (Mnon.).
^'I'S Skem-byed. n. of a demon that
causes
n.

Ske-ts/iafi n. of

situated

an old monastery in the mountains behind the
"\

drought

;

^"'I^'S'"!^^

of

a

monastery of Sera (Deb.

13).

trouble (in the body of a person) caused

by an

evil spirit.
'

a sash; an ornament like a sash worn

round the

waist.

^"'SS'VP' 2 $kem-byed dkar-po the resin of the sal tree, which is burnt as an
incense; same as Ifr'V]^ white

skeg

va<n

n.

of a constellation:

incense

*h <9| 'l*

skeg-la $kye$ ^wqTffar

born in the

gum

(Sman. M7.)
'!^'*

constellation of Aflesd.

[The man born

Skem-byed.-ma n. of a goddess.

in the constellation of A9lesa is unfortunate, inasmuch as his birth is followed by

the death of himself, his mother or father.] ^1'**i gkeg-tshos paint, rouge (for the
face)
(Scfi.).

the younger son of

^S'l^'WI an epithet of Kumara, Mahadeva (Mnon.).

very thin, lean.
-

Skefi-lufls n.

of a place in

I|*wi5 flwi tkems-pahi ebrebs-pa
the hunger of emaciating disease.

Tibet (Deb.

*{

11).

94
sker
is

sometimes written as
j^, gker lebtgur

*)* her.

vow

;

se.'JW'qmc.'fli'S

the ceremony to satisfy

one's guardian deity

pony, sheep,

by supplementing

;

collectively cattle.

what was wanting and making amends for the same: ^Sl*'*!^ is an offering or
tor ma for

sko-sko fa.^5 the chin.

a deficiency:

i!|(E.'*,w

offering

of

q -tiv 5. q tko-wa, pf. i$f", fut. ^ or ^
to select
;

some representation of

celestial

man-

also to appoint,

mission,

charge;
:

nominate, comWrtf* to appoint a

sions,

made

of coloured threads, to one's

guardian deities; fl^'"!* offering to the
gods and guardian
deities.

"^ S "^ ST 9*person to work I^'P^ q should appoint a ge-long (K. du. *\ 362) to arrange for lodg(Buddhist monk)
'

^

w2)n]

may your
v.

hope be

fulfilled.

ing;

::

5"i'''^'

i^' Q

raised

to

the
;

throne;
2.
;

t

1.

sbst.
;

%.
clothe

rqijfr^e.-

without

mandate

unbidden

vb. pf

.

and

fut.

to dress

to

w-i'q?f') destined; appointed to the work,
i.e.,

another person.

destined (to be a

man)
1

of his

works

;

fcvfr"!*'

^

in consequence

appointed by

a !)-) signifies the

comwork.

my

destiny; fate (Jd.).
sko-tse

ing occasion of
^|*J
fl\c^N

doing some

difficult

a mixture of the leaves I
:

kinds of leeks pounded and formed into balls and dried ; when used,
of various

shorn fam*rr,

vs\
'

thirst

;

resp.

t shal-gkom, **' <*'%*'' ^f-'

tormented
drink:
%**'

a small portion
butter,
spice

is

broken

off,

fried in

by

thirst;

w^'^

food and

and then added

to the food.

This

yW>'*f*'V*ltr\4 take milk

forms a lucrative
is

article of

commerce

to Kashmir and exported from Ladak to India (Jd.). and from Lhasa

"white") and tea for thirst: $f*r^*e.-<q*wi gkom-du wine for thirst (Kathaft. cJuifl-gsol take
(lit.

115).

s^l'i
;

or *h'> a hard cover-

"^*J
>

II

:

the dry land (Jd.).
sour
beer;

bark a shell: ifF** tkogscan ing; rind; shell ((?.). having a cover or
adj.,
skofi, v.

fa'Z* skom-gkyur fermented liquor.

sour

^

kofi.

ifw^
^jw-l-q

kom-da4 or %*''&'*

thirst
:

;

%-%*\w

one
TjrW
;

who

is

pf.

-aC5J4

TTmTfW:

very thirsty (give) drink to the

^fi'^V

fut.

also sbst. imp. %**, to fulfil; a hope: r^'" to fill up *r|(k, to fulfil to make up a deficiency: ^' what is

F

thirsty

V'V^asf^
mouth drying;
|

wishing
thirsty
:

for %*'

drink

;

f^"

open

;

tr^^rq^fTW^
fa'sfi
SjwrSjfll

the thirsty will be

fulfil perfectly Bfrr^E. dge-u-ahi kha-skofito or l"^*! also P' the laws of virtue,

freed from their thirst.

r^
;

gkom-nat

eftcf

supplement Sf=- signify an appendix t be described in the ""ill S ^'P 'M '^'' to do a appendix below: ^'S'STi^'r*'
: q
:

*W

thirsty;
;

imp.

^H^

become

thirsty

^'l^'^
that

l

''*i

fnmf

thirsty.

^'^

fkom-yaihe

flesh of a calf
it

certain

ceremony fully according to your

died or was

killed as soon as

was born,

95
even before
it

could suck milk from

its

birth, growth, maidens, old persons,
ness,

ill-

mother's teat (Sman.).

husbandry, houses, service, &c.

***'
; ;

%wt skoms-pa ftnTT^
8yn.

thirsty.

Jfr^i
skor
1.

btun-wa

Mod;

about profit in trade Profit from the com-

chuhdog; r$f

pounding of medicines and drugs

;

%i'

kha-ikom( Mnon.).
class,

^ra$4r*r|^'?
^VfflijN

|

interest
silver

accruing

order;

ing to subject ; circle ; body used to signify a retinue, a
;

appertaina term often

from the laying out of
getting into his rear

(money).

$kor-rgyug$ turning the
(</&.).

enemy;

set of atten**^'$fc
(

dants, persons of one class

;

class

skor-tliag the

cord of a lathe.
or
rate;
;

of official staff
S'^'ijjX
class

;

also court

Tig.

k.

37)

;

skor-thafi

price

also

concerns a

husband; that husband SV*^'3'^
of
;
;

which
class of

interest

on anything in kind
tkor-thig

in grain

women, about women
order
;

given as loan.
a pair of compasses
;

^'sfvm of that with respect to that also of that
; ;

a sling.
SjV

subject

Fr$S-$jVi
;

on the

subject

of
also

litigation

*Y'$j*
'$(*

worship

;

the paraphernalia of S^qgaprBW circuit, tour
:

^' vq or C^'T ^ a turner one who goes on his rounds.
skor-pa or
1

;

q^-^V^H^ J*Wf

ff*S

|

"the

Eesident
1.

SjVs

Amban
a

of Tibet (started)
2.

from Lhasa on
anything round,

to

fill

^, skor-wa, vb., pf., &c., fut. with ; to surround, encircle,
;

a military tour, &c."
circle
;

enclose, besiege

to

come again and again
I

;

*>T^
bamboo

eye-ball.
(Schtr.)
;

In W.

T^

to revolve

:

r*-q*$jVq5-SF!$^|

(4. K.)

hoop of

(circumference) of the top of a house.
e.g.,

Sfc'gT^ the a man's head P^'^l'^
;

the town that was encircled

(filled)

with
the

houses:
three

^c^
of those

^v-^--S)-fligi-3|

3.

section, division,

men
:

who were surrounding
|

of a book, similar to ">^
;

chapter.

4.
5.

them

rt-yrff^WwiP^
mountains
rocks:
is

the Chief of the

repetition

Sfvgw'Q to repeat (Schtr.).
v. SjVfl.

Ta-rtse

surrounded

by
the

religious circumambulation,

rugged
gra$,
glaciers:

J^fCtffwrJr*^
is

^ don

Syn. \'*^ sde-tshan, ^"F
(Mflon.).

rigs, 3P

Ti-rise (Tise)

mountain

surrounded by
the

g-vjarq-aq-i^-q^
is

Eyura

Rgyalpo mountain
;

skor-mkhan one who goes round one who turns a lathe one who ciri(Vq cumambulates or walks round a sacred

^'"W

(D. K). 2.

surrounded by water to traverse ; ride round a thing.
:

;

Also metaphorically in the religious sense
to'S'^pSvarSjVq to preach, to

propound the
f

object.

doctrine of

Buddhism

:

*flpr3hj^-< ijVa
(i.e.,

^o^skor-hfo,
heads or

^v^fc^n-ifi^
according

\

(Fa*.

to

make mystic

offerings

the symbo-

kar.) classes in -astrology.

sections

There are eight to Indian

lical offerings

representing one's accumu-

lated merits) to the Tantrik deities,
to observe the ceremonies thereof.
3.

and

astrology ; there are fifteen

according to

^'^

Tibetan astrology heads of astrology,
priests,

^'q

such as about kings, ministers,
B&ges, mystica,

ipri(^ s^farr the reverential ceremony of circumambulation which consists
or

queens,

&c.

;

also

about

in walking round a holy

object

with

1

one's right side towards
called

it.

This

is also

E.

tkor-$ifi

a turner's lathe or tool.

*'$*

chos-skor

^^f^^K

Buddhist
priests
boils tea.

circumambulation.
of Tibet

The Buddhist

=^t

pf.
:

and
3/*'**

fut.

perform this in contradistinction to ^'<S(% or the ceremony of the Son, who
reverences a
sacred object
it

to boil (vb., act., of. *j*r>)

one

who

by walking

Sfa'i skof-pa, v.

f " sko-wa.
;

round

it

keeping

to his left.

The Bon
to the left

&

ceremony is round a holy object keeping
-

also

called "T5^'^, walking
it

sky a
i.e.,

1.

crop
this

the

produce

of

a year,

H*!; |'3"
^ J5'5^w3'gc.-

plenteous crop:
this

jai^c. i)fviT|'V,

as a specification of reli-

^i-j-2)-5'gE.-|

year the crop has been
1

abundant

:

year the

gious duties, to

make

salutation

and

cir-

inner patha holy place way for circumambulating or shrine %'$* the outer passage for the

cumambulations.

f-'ifc

the

a loser "). crop has been unsuccessful (lit. 3. wall or partiladle. also 2. a paddle
;

"

tion, usually

wg.

4.

plain,

without dis:

;

above object
for the

;

**'$* the middle
;

pathway

i^'IS bkor-byeg one who goes round or makes a circle or traverse.

same

f tinguishing colour, but see jj'i below a plain unpainted box | **< a blank "I a plain hat without riband. book
:

:

g'<2

Other usages of
person

this

verb are

:

w^'iifr'

1!

or w^'^'3^'1 to befool, delude, deceive a
;

JCWI skya-bag greyish colour colour (Jig.)-

;

iron-grey

alter one's sentiments; to divert

P'^'i khn skor-ica to make one one from
*>%*

= y*\
n. of a bird (Cs.)
.

magpie;

in

Ld.

a plan, &c.
if all

wfl^'^'n?^ signifies were taken into account; the cir-

$kor in

Syn.

S'H'

25

bya khra-wo

;

w^'a'^'gai'a

cumstances or things available (A.
Syn. *j*v* hkhor-wa;
yafi hofi-wa (Mfion.).

mgron-gyi

hphrin-skycl

bya;

*% 3\*c *^

rnfion-fei-can (JHfion.).

S'5 Ski/a skya pale-white

;

grey colour.
;

ij|VI^

skor-tshcr
|

on

this occasion

:

^'

to jfjq'y ski/a rgyab-pa

row

to ladle.

3,-|^-q-^i| gc-

on

this (present) occasion

g'^ skya-chen a

superior kind of plain

prosperity arose.

scarf (for presentation) (S. kar. 179).

rotation,

one coming after
gkar-lam
or

n another and
courses;

l^ "
1

skya-nil zinc.

fro) skya-tha-le of plain white colour.
3'SS $kya-thud a kind of plain cheese

again going back.
SjX'aw

a

roundabout

way;

made

of

pounded dried milk with butter
a kind of cheese-

the

passage round any sacred place, temple or town for pilgrims to circumambulate it; the pathway round

way

but not with sugar.
3'SS

^ skya-thn$-leb

cake made of dried milk and butter.
5'S* skya-thum a kind of cake or biscuit made without sugar or treacle.
j-lf*r)-i

about a monastery used for holy processions.
qvafiif q

gkor-log-pa

a wrong turn
to his left.

:

fr'

JSi|-n-^-q

to

walk round an object in the
it

wrong way, keeping

skya thom-me-wa glaring white at all times one of
:

97
skya-nar in^r, tTT^T
flower,
buff.
1.

n.

of a
;

fa
whitish yellow.
g'^'l

pale

Bignoma

graveolens.

2.

brown

skya-wo spyl vulgar people; the

S'^'H'S fki/a-nar khra-bo, also g'^'^H'^ MII, n. of a flower; g'Sf^H'^
^T
ii

common worldly men.
g'*

skya-ma hard and rough

soil

for

another

species of

Bigno-

cultivation:

w^arj'jr^ywBi
alluvial

(Jig.)

in (jravcoL')is.

g'^'1'9

Skya-nar-gyi bu

mr<!igf

n.

two kinds, the and the hard or gravelly.
as to
soil,

or soft

of a city in ancient India,

Pataliputra,

g'*

1

'^'!"

Skya-tw na-kha
of

n.

of

a vast
to the

now
also

supposed to be Patna. kya-nar Idan-ma 5'^ '8ft'*
1

grassy plain or
triz<$i <!?),

common belonging
Lhasa in

Government
Tibet).

U

(Central

i|i4H<ici1 n.
;

of a river in Ancient

India

ace.

to

Bhavabhuti's description

the river

flowed by miMat or
river occurs in

modern
This

Narwar in Malwa latter name of the
bhuti's

wrenr (<3^5ifil^).

Skya-rtsa dry grass. a layman at the top (of > a row) ife*7$i| the front
g'ST

g't" skya-rtse
:

qW**$f$f*
it (Jig.).

Bhava-

left

hand row
heading

of seats should have a lay-

Halatlmadhava, written early in

man

the 8th century.

S'^
fut.

fkya-tcal: 1. vb. pf. ^g" bskya, ig bskya, to carry convey to a place
;

skya-ris outline, sketch, drawing of the outlines of a picture, which is generally done with charcoal in Tibet:
g'^*i

(a quantity of stones, wood, water, &c.).

"fa*T*W*H'fi'^l

then outlines of this

2.=*Ti

to

change place.
:

kind are necessary (A. 108.).
g'^' Skya-refi, also called
n. of the lake
jj'wv* *i^n;
,

S'^J fkya-wa II also g'S skyn-ico ITPST, fsrsR grey or whitish grey; pale- white;
**'g

a secular personage
;

;

one clothed in no

kiang) the
takes
its rise.

(the Yang-tse Biver of the Golden Sands

from which

from the grey particular colour a layman, colour of the coarse serge which is generally

g-^sr^-S}
several

skya-rcfis

nu-lo

^unit

the

worn by the lay people of Tibet g' n<v^ when (he was still) a layman, i.e., had not entered the sacred order (A. 126) from the time I was a j-ofv^*raiw (A. 126)
:

stages

or divisions of the
trrfrerrcpir

dawn

whichare
red

g'^w^
;

:

dawn; g'^'V!* dawn (the earth) g'^c.*)'^
yellow

the coppernl^T the white the golden or
sf^rreir
;

layman

;

|f'g

light blue. !=-'! light green

dawn;

g-^^^c.-g-^^-q

;

V'g

light red;
;

*'g
;

^fft^l

tawny;

light

yellow
to eat

$'g rice

it

with

;

barley without anything insipid miserable food g
1

w

the

first

appearance of the
the

dawn

g'^e.r

w-fj^-q ^cfr^ir

appearance of

the

middle
-

or

the

yellow

;

Q^ whiteness

;

faintness

;

^'g^

fe.' *fM<*i-

*rreT^5 the last (stage of the)

dawn; g-^t,rq-< dawn.
;

*'the city of Kapila the residence of Kapila;
;

skya-lan also g 3 in C. morning twilight; dawn.

|

q

the hermitage of Kapila.
\

J-ata

skya.leb=y^i\ a rudder.
Skya-scfi
n.

skya-wa

hdsin=^ i\^

mnati-pa or

g'*E-

of

a

tree

(Jd.)-,

a rower (Mfton.).

translation of the

name Paudu.

98
U'Sfr-fyg skya-sefi-gi

gW|
2. pf.
,

bu

m*** the sons
the

^,

fat.

Pandu; |*Mfa'#'WT*rS'**' names of Karna, the eldest of the Pagdava
of

imp.

jf"!

to spend, lay out,

expend:

expenditure or items of expenditure: skyag-tho list or account of expenses.
3.

in

W.

Jl'S^'^ to slaughter, to

murder

KVu^'i5-S>e.- the names of Yti-

(Jd.).

qfofo*,
'S"'*^,

**<'' 3
'fte.

kyag-po n. of a place in Tibet yi|-2jApr* the marshy plain of 5^3.
SI'Q
the names of

:

Bhima-se
stobs-ldaii,

W'^

Klu-yi

|C' sAy^
brown.

TTTO?;;

NW'S^^'S reddish

#m

-l

iN'|m Tshogs-las skycs V*'
**"
=

iul='
plaster
flour;
;

or
;

**p,
*tc.'

e.'9|'9

troi^f, frfr'tf

SV^'fr
of
^fsffi

also

Sriil sgrub-kyi min, the

names

pavement
-

= |s.-$or3'Vi
skijans

is\i

-l '

clay-flour 3v " to
;

mud-

pave; to

to rub, polish. plaster; according to Seh.
-g,

gyjf.B/v!-ta g/w,

ashamed

;

in

shame

:

T^^'
maras Sahadeva

the names of As'vinlku-

.

being ashamed (A. K.).
skyabs J^TU protection,

l^'fS

41

Skyes rgu skycs,
help,

defence;
protec:

assistance:

"J^'qwl'gw

g'^'Sl'g'g^'^'w^-Se.' the

names
R

tion for the

of the wife of the five Paijdava

*'%'*,

V*" Skyid-ma,

and for the occasion permanent and ever^-gq]-fl]^--jjiw which according to lasting protection can only be obtained from the Buddhists
place

taking
3'^*.

Buddha who
skya-ser white

refuge in the three holies: is the teacher is called

(1)
5^*1'

and yellow,

i.e.,

Ift'i

or the

Eefuge Master;
(3)

(2)

Dharma
the

the laity and the clergy, the latter being distinguished from the former by their

or the sacred doctrine called
real protection;

jw^w,

yellow dress.

hood
in

called

gtw'|q'i5-f

Sangha, the priestim, the friend for

3'*w
sage

skya-slomg occurs

the pasl

gaining protection.
completely liberates
of the world

^t'^N''i(NN'|'ijN'3>^$*'*)VW'iJ J|'*<5'

Eefuge in these three ie from the miseries

and

secures the state of omnis-

3'5j

skya-lham

leather

boots put on

cience for the devotee:
3o|-ij?j*

|W!*J*-^if-iS-

by laymen.
I: same as H*.'*J 1. |R|'1 skyag-pa human excrement ; also any kind of ordure. 2. bad man, the dreg or scum of society
*>1'|"1 secretion

the three formula or expressions for
:

seeking refuge in the three holies

(1) *)*

^

t

)

--*43'ii-wur5r'Jrgw i'*iSS|

"I come
the chief of

;

for refuge to

Buddha who
(2)

is

from the eyes

;

g"I' )'"l?c.'q

the two-footed";
i*rarjji!r $}$!

*Sw*fK*n*&*9*l
for refuge
to

to ease nature.

"I come

Syn.
*'**

\'%*t dri-chen

;

g^ brun (tun)

;

%'

mi-gisafi-ma

Dharma which separates from desires"; 9r {W '3'* *'( "I come (3) #q]--*^'*Vi' 3
)
I

99
for refuge to the priesthood, the chief of
all

assemblies."
gqr*i5fa skyabs-mgon helper

deliverer.

The Kyap-gon

is

protector the popular
;

;

rgya-chen the great object of worship or adoration (JSffion.).

=

ywn

8kyabs-pa=.*$*M

bskyabs

siKm

term for the Dalai
for

the

Lama Panchen Lama

in

Lhasa and
Shigatse

protection; saved (Zam.).

in

and throughout Tsang. It is also applied to other incarnate lamas by courtesy. kyab-myon sbuy original w*<*fo',|"|
or real protector; a of the Dalai Lama:

JWS
refuge.

skyabs-bya the person

who

seeks

tyw^ |q'^
save.
-

skyabs-byed

= ^-o, ^r

pro-

tection, defence (Mfion.).
i

complementary

title

IW^frH'^'^H'^'

skyabs byed-pa to protect, help,

according to the spirit of the letter of command of the Protector.
f[q*<-a%t"Jft

^*r^4^

|w*
protection
;

skyabs-hos
also
i.e.,

t^m

worthy

of

gq^-njsj*) f%(S{^ut

the three

fkyabs-mgon rtse-$o$

lit.

the

Potala

Protector (residing on the) top (of and the court) below:
"
offer,

protectors,

Buddha,

Dharma and

Sangha. |w g^$'q skyabs-su hgro-wa or
-

yw
seek

without

fail

before,

the new Grand Lama and

year's

annually, as homage to the

o^'l refuge

skyabs
;

hgro-wa

stKHT?TTK

to

a going unto or repairing to for

his Court."

protection.

snwrR or faumpwr has been
srT^TfW

tector

gwsfa skyabs-sgron SI^MVWU both proand enlightener.
i

defined in the Bodhicharyavatara as fol" I lows TW3f?f t
:

f^rowiHm

i

$ki/abs-bcol,

take refuge in the three gems." In the same work f^rsrr has been substituted for it

and
r*)

it

is

found in the

list

of seven-fold

skyabs

bcol-sa the place
1

of

highest modes of worship.
skyab-seni? fWfptff'fr'Nrflj^l the idea of seeking refuge.
T

refuge: fW4Jfr^lft'rtfa|'HW* A^j cept the three precious ones there is noplace of refuge.
skyabs-hjttg = *&!'*&
:

ex-

jw^w
*l
3i

kyar-phu

a

place

in

Tibet

gw*|i|
;
-

a blessing;

(Deb. 45).

favour taken under protection ^Y^V'tffa'
*3q iS'5qr*gflj blessing attained in accordance with one's mental prayer (Tig.
|

f^'^1
^^'^S^J
recollection,

$kyar-gog

naked

(in

the

dialect of Purang).

skyar-bcag

to

k. 25).
5q*T*|fl|-g-q

bring

into

to bring back into

skyabs-fyug $hu-wa to ask

memory

benediction

from

the

higher

class

of

anything that has been forgotten.

incarnate lamas

for protection

against

S^,'J
(Sch.).

skyar-po

snipe

;

wood- cock

disease, evil spirits, also for a safe

and other enemies, and

journey to heaven without
the
of

g^'P

skyar-wa^*.'*
f

^'^

^:

5*1.

falling into hell, &c.
gqr<ifi

again and again.
place

skyabs-pnas
;

Syn. |jvq5
sJtyor-tshig
;

2flj

skyar-wahi tshig;
slos-tshig;
*

refuge, shelter

also of persons, helper.

|*'*"1

100
Skyi-mkhar
l/ia-k/tafi
"{

n. of a

(Won.).

monastery in
(Cs.)

Tsang

(Deb.

12).

g^'V skyar-rbab
of dropsy
5*'*)
;

trnJf 'CfT a kind

g'J|w

skyi-tgam a box, chest or trunk

a greyish rheumatic swelling.

lined outside with dressed hide.

gkyar-mo a kind of

water fowl;

according to Sc/t. a heron.
tered
flesh

The

flesh of

|-qgw

skyi-btumg

anything packed
;

this fowl is antidote for a poison adminis-

or tied round with dressed hide

a skin or

Mongolia mixed with horse (Sman ps/ntfi). $$*> duck (Cs., Sc/t.)
in

hide to pack with:
rtse skyi bstiims-ma.

tff'=.'t"g'q|*ira dkrofi-

;

bittern,

but the

^TV"

of the

Lex.

is

a

kind of goose.

Skyi-nag or g'g'^'l gkyi-gkyi na-ga n. of a pasture land in province Tsang.
g'^"I
g'gjij*)

gv^q

skyar-leb the sheldrake.

gkyi-lpags chamois wash-leather

skyal ijtt

swimming.
;

(Sc/t.).

gi'f skyal-k/ia =RTT leaping
garg^'lpi $kyal-gyi$ tgrol

a boat.
cross-

5*^
(Med.)
;

skyi-wa

I:

a

medicinal

plant

trf^<ir:

ace. to Jd. potato.

ing over by swimming.

g*r^

a fkyal-chcn = y

^'3 II
na-pa
fish;

a

imp. 3"
or goods

vb. pf. *g fakyig, fut. ig bskyi, tkyis, to borrow, especially money
:

fisherman (Mnon.).

(cf.

1"wn and

g^'^ skyin-pa).
<

S?l

skya*.
;

residence

a changing of abode or g^'^'Q'^ ^Vl** g*'3^'5 death
:

g 'fjt' gkyi-bnfi cloud: ^'i'^'J"^^i'g'5i Ej-uifl'gE.-gwJSf^i thereupon the phantom

the great change of place that uplifts, i.e., death g^'^iwi to change one's dwelling
;

King Kong-tse departed with
(D. R.).
'5^

the clouds

place;

(cf.

g'")

gwS^^flprq to die; vb.
fut.

skyag-pa, pf.
transfer,

qg,

g

or

ig'W9,

to

fkyi-bun prob. an itching of the

and hence

skin (7a.).
j'qjuR

to depart this life.

tkyi-gi/ha=
:

a

*\w >

c

fear;

dread

f^'Si gkyas-ma
(in Sikkim).

1.

v.

|r.

2.

fern

(Mfion.)

g'|wq

A;^

pyah-ica to shiver,
;

tremble with fear

(C7.)

to be struck

with

S

skyi

1. interest

on loan; |'^ wealth
i.e.,

panic.
g'-^
A'y

accrued from interest,
according to

money-lending; some borrowed wealth. 2.

fa

outward and inward
;

side

of

a

hide (Jd.)

according to Sch. the

the outward side of a skin or hide (Cs.).
e ?i g'VT* skyi dkar=f\' >'$"F'W the white g'VP''*|rq fatty side of a skin (flag.)
:

anus.
tgyig-pa or g"I''
i

Ip]"^

skyigs-pa also
i-khug f^rr>
:

gkyigt-bii vulgo.

'B*I
;

ace. to Cs., dressed leather

;

tanned leather,
cwl*''''ft

hicough
wj'q'?flm'^N'p'*ii'

; |

yex

also a sob
t
\' )

*|$v

sometimes

hide:

g'Vl^'!i'

parch-

"
|

T|5)flii'

coughing by
;

ment.
g'R*-'

those
Skyi-khufi
34).

who eat the berry (gyer-ma)" (faf.)

a

place

in

Tibet

jfljwg-q|-fl|*qf

skyigs-bu brfaeg-par to keep

(Deb.

1

on sobbing.

101
skyifi-khab in

embroidery manufactured both in India and China.

inlaid

with

Hindi Kifikab, gold and silk

circumstances
circumstances

:

| Vfqr3' t '3 t
I

'

whatever
:

may happen |S'| pleasure and pain intermingled.
gkyid-pa or

fl

?''S'

1'

J*'ifc skyefi ser eagle; vulture (Ja.).
skyifls

Iv"
;

skyd-po sbst.

occurs in the
(D. E.).

passage

happiness

|iMrdfr%^fi'
"*'

happy
no,

:

S

tiRK Modskyid-po
adj.

sdotf if
i.e.,

town

Skyid-grofi n. of a well-known in Southern Tib., near sources of the

live alone,

to be happy, be a celibate (Lo. 27).
'

you wish

Q-anduk on Nepal border, commonly called

(kyi

ftofi-fie

Kirong
of

:

|\f^**^rWT^-|?W
to

|

always happy

;

having come
(Mil).

meditate on the mountains

|^'^c,'lf|^') $kyicl

uninterrupted happiness: sifi-zifi byed-pa to be

Kirong between Tibet

and Nepal

continuously happy.
kyid-fod the district including the tracts in the lower valley of the river

|VS
song.

skytf gin

song of joy; a

merry

Kyi
skyitf

;

the central district of

l \5J*'

or tJ, the

Iv'f
ness.

mgo beginning

of happi-

province of which

Lhasa

is

the chief city.

VSP
%*\$Skyid-chu "the river of happiness," n. of northern tributary of the great Yeru
skyi-po-la

skyi-lhan
hgro-icar,

signifies

|^HJ'm'^'w
prosperous;

to

be

Tsangpo or Brahmaputra Eiver, on which tributary Lhasa is situated.

happy

(Lo.).

S^
sakeen
:

fkyin

the

Tibetan

ibex,

Capra
<

*

gkyid-hes

comfortable
ski/id ches-pa

:

ivi*
yujwcrqi^q]

B^'V|Tt^"TT^'l'V'|
ral-gri

fyd-rnami

we have
mode
of

khyehu chufi-ikyin-gyi ral-ka-can
thog$-pa
g.cig

been comfortable (A. 129).

gser-gyi

(D. R.)

a
;

Y*w
nqj-fiff-^-ai

skyid-thabs comforts

comfortable

living:

g-^-wr|vwv*r
hjam-

boy who had the horns of an ibex holding a golden sword. In Ladak the
little
is
5

female ibex
M

differentiated as

bti-de bde-thabs skyid-thabt

thabs kho-na-la the son only sought for

tkyin-gor

or
called

skyin-

opportunities of happiness

and comfort.

rngo a lizard (Lex.); also

presented to the time of marriage as a token the bride at
silk scarf

IV*^ skyid-dar a

snow-frog.
%*'i
ser-tca

hail

of prosperity.

and
Skyid-lde

sleet (Sch.).
1. sbst.

|v|f'y*
of a

r * |5 fo

m-ma-mgon

n.

"S^*y (kyin-pa

a loan

;

money

King

of

Tibet
1

:

Iv^-waffr^-ww

borrowed

irrespective of interest;

^rfj-fcw jarljv 1'!*''

Kyi-de Nima-gon came into Ngari and seized the kingdom

this

w-j^-ci loan

producing interest

:

grant me a loan; l^'fjVi fkyin-pa sprod.this as

^^ai

fa-la hdi fltyin-du htshal

skyid-sduy

good

and
one's

ill-luck,

pa

happiness

and

misery;

general

or |^ i'^E l' e skyin-pa hjal-wa to pay back or return a loan ^'|^ nor-skyin a
|J
l

-

;

102
loan of

money
take

or goods
;

;

f'i^
2. vb.

gos-skyin

JBod/iisattva

a loan of clothes

p'l'^'i

skyin-pa lenpf.

^m^S^
still

pa

to

on

credit.

^'i'Si'J* rdo-rjt skyil-kruA the posture of sitting perfectly the unwithout moving the body
:

;

to borrow. gkyin-po
chiefly colloq. resp.

changeable posture of sitting cross-legged

;

^'
;

^flUrciS'garip.

rdsogs-pahi skyil-kruA
i.e.,

the

borrowed kar-skyin a loan ; a thing advanced without interest (</.). money
i

posture of perfection,

of a

Buddha.
bskyil-pa or

|(TC|
q|<jr

skyil-wa, pf.

"Ijarti

bskyil-to,fa.t.
1.

lyw^'Q,

bski/il-icar

bya

skyin-mi ace. to Schr. a debtor.

or b$kyil

to pen up, shut
8'' t'
1

up

;

to

dam up

skyin-tshaba-Aebt; anything paid In as equivalent of thing taken on loan. for same as **, the pledge
a\-^q

a river

;

$'S

chu tkyU-wa
*'*

to

bank up
>

water

;

S't^'S

chu rdsM-dit skyil-wa

C. signifies

to collect water in a

pond

;

$'?C^'!K

loan.
skyibs a

chu
place giving
shelter

rjift-bitr

gkyil-ica

to collect water for
itself

a rock, (either in

under a

tree, roof or

When the water collects a pond. a pool or tank it is called into
chu
flj

hkhyil-wa:

T*STO'H'V'
mtshoof
sea.

i zag-med
fyskyil

bdud-rtsihi btufi-wa

Itar

the

exhaustless
collected

drink

hanging rock, the reason is termed "bird-shelter" for
that
it

cause birds dwell in the hollow of an oversuch rock known as skyibs

ambrosia

stands

like

a

the legs [2. to bend, esp.

when

sitting
;

on

affords protection (flag.)

:

9TV"<
:

also the ground after Oriental fashion to bend in another's leg by a kick from

under an Irag-skyibg a sheltering place roof overhanging rock or a projecting
or bkah-skyibs a covered terrace q eharbefore a house **'S small portico

behind

;

to

bend the bow

(<7a.)].

nip'lw

of sitting;

jnrS'ijc skyil-inokruH it is same as ^i'|

9

^'^^
II

posture
rdo-rje

i'2p'

:

gkyib shelter

from

rain.

skyil-kruA (Mfion.).
skytt-gafi
1.

ace.

to

Seh.

a

\34 $kyim dressed leather painted red or in other colours, japanned or varnished leather.
STJ'TIC' $kyil-kruA (kil-iun) the posture
of sitting

gulp draught. with tea:
;

2.

dough made

of flour

without cross-legged serenely
;

pap of barley becomes formed like a dough hollow bowl and the name of the rounded
(flag.)

at the time of eating

flour the

moving the limbs
byed-jM tnTO

Jji'TFlV* skyil-krufi

1

-

to take a particular kind of ascetics in mediposture practised by

buttery lump
I

is

kyu-gang
c-' t
(

1

:

i*r^'*'Srra|

tation;

m?i-2|c.-S|-^i-)

Mug-pa

or PJl^'i bshugs-pa
;

skyil-mo to

kruR-gi
sit

a'^NWR'^'t S'"l >^* '5 on a journey when eating barley flour mixed with butter and boiled tea the dough so made (Lo.).
'

in a
-S3

$*wrv&'8 QI '2l*' sentfcross-legged posture il-knifi the mental concentration, d.pahi ski,
or the posture of sitting perfectly
still,

Skyu-ra-sgafi, one of the six
districts of

p*w Klutms designated under

of a

the

name

of ?*'%"!.

The

six Sgafi are the

103
following
(1) |'*'IF Skyu-ra Sgaft, (2) Rab-Sgafi, (3) Ift^'SF Spo-hbyr
:

"W'iF Sgan,
(5)

IT^N-ci skyug nes-pa not be taken or eaten.

that can-

(4)

piv|wwrs|c Dmar-ETiams Sgafi,

*$;

Tsha-Sgan,

(6)

aarfrjje.

the cud

;

ace.

skyug-ldad rumination; chewing to Sch. eructation gT3|Y
:

Na

to

chew the cud

as cattle.

I

:

skyu-ru a kind of
skyer- fun.
:

medicinal
^'3fl|

fruit called

skyug bro-wa (kyug-to-wa) or ^-iK'q nausea (Mfion.) also what is \ /
; *

S'^
vinegar

II

skyu-ru in Sikk. and |V*5

skyitr-mo in Lhasa, signify a sour liquid or
(Ja.).

repulsive to taste or sight or smell ; causing nausea ; 5*T' w<ffi the disease of nausea ;
g<i]'sj-q*i

SJI'Ef

anything) ; kyug-bro in C. shameful impure
;

from disgust

(to eat

S'^'^
n.

kyu-ru-ra
fruit

with regard to religion
to

(Ja.).

of

a sour
of

said
bile

cure

the
2.

>

STfft skyug-sman

= tyy&\
s*

an emetic; a

diseases

phlegm,
:

and blood.

medicine causing to vomit.
|*| iSq| q
-

Ja. in his Diet, says

" In later times the
also for the
tree,

word seems to have been used olive, and skyu-ru $in, the olive
in Sikkim
is

skyug log-pa
f Tjf
*i

(Sch.)

to

feel

which

disgust, v.

skyug bro-wa.

called kha skyur-pohi qifi."
;

S^I^T^I
;

skyugs-po
n. of

=

"I*'"!

s

gsal-wa

syVg'i

Syn. Jr^g*i rgyal-hbras. bmd lna-pa; !**

^'S

shi-byed

1.
is

clear; 2.

a bird the

bill of

which

q^-^
;

lan-ts/w
',

of coral colour.
;

brtan-lyed; ^'^'"I^ na-tshod-gnas
dpal-ldan

*\Wg;^

t^^*?*

bcud-g.na

ww ma-ma

Syn. g'^'*<$'^ byu-ruhi mchu-can ^T c^'n5^ hbod; 31 K grafi-reg
yul-fian

^19

(Won.).
s%w-rm=*S'*<5-a=.- tshod-mahi miff (flag.) I- n- of a kind of table vege3'%*
table. 2.

pho-na (Mfion.).
SC,'Z^ skyun-ica, pf. q|**ri fakyufis-pa,
^y
~*&

condiment; sauce; pickle (Cs.). According to others, at least in W., only
the resp. word for a"!" $pag$: (Ja.) 5 *T *'g'S* sauce IV*! to prepare sauce, &c.
1

fut. W&F*' bskyufl,

imp. g^
i|
f{ i

skaufig, to

dimi-

gV

nish or reduce
fibri-wa,
skyufis.

;

b$kum-pa or also ^l'i
;

S^'^'

c

'5

e'' 1'
;
f

nufi-du btan-ica
:

I 6**

;

made
sauce

of

vinegar for meat

reduced

subdued

;

^w'l'S*

1

il

6.*'

bs,kyufis

made

of vegetable or pot-herbs.

"he was c.-*ui'q|E,*i'^*i'^''J| a.^q|'q'3( (^. J^ on his cushion after his pride was seated
Ace. to Ja. in C. ekyud-ica, to leave behind ; to lay aside, e.g., & task.

g^j'^

tkyug-pa,

pf.

|'|

skriif/s

1.

subdued."

skyug-te

to vomit, eject, e.g., blood hjug-pa to cause to

;

!*|*r'

vomit

;

skyud-pa

to

forget,

resp.

sktjug-pa dren-pa to excite vomit-

vomit (it is the Tng; wj'31*' nan-skyiigs of certain demons, and being boiled food
in
it is

fulness; ace.

thugs brje4 for-wa forgetto Ja. to leave oE: ^|V

one of the punishments of
2.

hell)

b$kyud-pa

(Zam. W).
;

Ace.

to

Sch.

to

(Ja.).

to lose colour

;

to stain.

communicate

to swallow.

104
I
fut. skyur-wa, vb. pf. and

,'Dj

:

mr
off;

to throw,

to

cast

;

to leave

skyur-hjug-pa to leaven to turn sour; to take a sour taste; F'S*' 2 Ei kha-skyiir-po or |"'^"S*>' kha-ya skyur-po
'

S^Si'S*

rgyab-tu

fkytir

^M-J^,

to cast behind;

^W'* rM-tu skyur-ica,

olive (Ja.).

to throw at a distance: | Ihuft-bzed nam-mkhah-la **(

W skyur-tam ^wr a condiment fq^'t.' a sour vegetable curry. sauce
I^'5 Q
;

;

mendicant's platter having flung his towards the sky $ T|VI chu-la gkyur-wa, also to throw into the water. 3/> skyur to mix throw pour out *5*' btafi,
-

II

:

V9,
5**'

^f

adj

.

sour,

acid

;

;

more frequently
skyur-mo.
hbras-bu
fruits
;

3 skyur-po also

|V*

Also

sbst. sourness.

implies
to

;

;

;

8*'VW
*UM

skyur-byed

jrs=ig'g'W
<

throw away

;

throw down a

stone, a

corpse, &o.:
chafi

*W'^tyW^
b_$ha(j-pa yin

Wa 9
fa4-pa

gsum the three sour medicinal
also called

!WW

(

A'|*

tVW

1

hthud-rgyu fkynr
off

I have

left

drinking beer.

$ V t)'5 vq
I
;

skyur-ica to eject a

rider; to

phlegm to throw off a a work; to give up, abandon
;

$kyur-byed pmm "the " and three tnyrobolau which agree with all are (1) w% a-ru, (2) *$ ba-ru, (3) |'5
daft mtliiin-pahi
:

forsake a friend

to abort (A. 155.).

skyu-ru (Suutn. 447). v< skyur-ma abortion
&kytt>;

;

in JF. $'1^ <//-

l^q skyur-pa
:

^r
the

bleached;

bleach-

ing white like the moon.
acid; sour.

S'^'^'S like

moon

bleached, or

ment

in Tibet,

l^fi^ gyrd fkyitt; capital punishwhen the delinquent, with
is

%*' 5 skyur-po

^re

a weight fastened to his neck, from a rock into a river (/a.).

thrown

|^'H fkyur-k/iu
1

1.

a sour soup
in

;

sour
(in

gv&
S*>'^ ^

skyttr-mo leaf of the
v.

Eld plant;
fin-ka

Skttaria cardamomum,
tha a kind of

fr*fa*f (Mnon.).
i>f

juice.

2.

"V.

!*

ran-skyur

vinegar

Sikkim "skyitr-nt,"
nto").

Lahoul "skyur-

$kmtr-rtsi=% e

>'"i\'

<*

padthe

lemon (Mnon.).
chiiA

S^'t"^ rskynr-rtsi
skyur-gofi, also

TTntiF

g> ^'

8*'^

skyitr-dad,

smaller species of orange.
5^'J"3^'3 skyur-rtsi v of a kind of lemon.
c/tcn-po
*t**(\<

same as 8^'^ skyitr-noii. g^ skyur signiJ hence fies "thrown" and 'F gon over; wine a drunkard one over-powered by
;
:

n.

Syn.

*i

|3

so-rtsi;

)1'^
;

leys-Msin

;

sv9fc.'^'q'oi'g^'*)*\'

a|

'S1^ q one

powered by wine
!*,
-

delights 5ffe.-3\-m-awjw|f^S a tipsy
8>^fl|

who is over^' in women
:

^q-fll^-d'^q) rab-ffna$ mv.-twj

l^'l snin-rje

;

"l^'S^'l^ pso-dyah-bi/ed ;

Jj*rww r>*rag-chuft

man

is

conif

par-mdses (Mnon.).

temptible:

*e.'8|rJf^|vtfF'*

a
fiti

y>'%F

tkyvr-fM=**f1F3lF
ace.

layman
*,'"*
T

is

intoxicated with beef, drunken

u. of a plant (Mnon.).

noisiness arises (Bdsa. 11).
skinir-noni or 5^'SS -O
lJ
\

*4c.'5'.SK.'

ff*'

skyur-dad =*>*<' necessity (by habit) to drink

N3

|?J {Ayj,
to

to ScA.

l^'^l'" ?*y!s

thoy-pa

altogether:

S^'^'aT"

skyug-su
viz.,

;

passion for drinking.

Mog-pa

pronounce jointly, consonants without a vowel

two

between

3*'^ skyur-can powerful

;

spirited.

them

(/a.).

105
skye, v.

f S gkyed, and |'i $kyc-wa.

Of

these

there are four

:

(1)

^
all beings.

-jfl

This word

is

skye-bo kun sometimes writ-

"mrj-w!^

nam mkhah
sky;

tnthah

ya$

$kyeinfi-

mched
nite

^rr^ri^i'i>rij|^di
(2)

a world as

ten as } dgu "nine," in |'J skye-rgu. the word | -l\3 skye-dgu signifies many: j'
-

as the

rnthah ya$

kye-mched
;

^j-*)yq skye-dgu marufi-iva or f

a world as formless as consciousness
(3) 3-<=.-sl'VC|S-|-*i^ d.yafi

\3'*r*.'

q$-qwq^ gtyg dgu-ma rufi-wahi bsam-pa can wicked and vicious animals or sensate
beings (K. du.
i

me d.pahi

skye-

mched

^f^^r^nm

a world as unlimited

as void; (4)

*|

453).

^
is

skye-dguhi

yes-med hdw-qes-med mifi $kye-mched a world where there
1.

tkar-ma snar-ma

ftlWNwi

n.

of the

neither consciousness nor unconsciousness.

fourth constellation (Mfion.). 2. god Brahma of the Hindus (Mnon.).

*wi

the

| '*&S
of sense.

ii

:

the inner and outward organs

Skyc-dgu-hi bdag-mo, the step-mother and first governess of

|-l^-jtj-q^ skye-mchcd

mu-bshi
.

is

said to

mean jt^fq-pw! **-, n
1

of the world.

Buddha

;

also

a

name

of

the

goddess Paldan Lhamo.

|-^-sJ^ q skye-bchi med-pa without birth or death ; eternal.
f'"H*i

gro=o^^
human being
(Mnon.).

kye-gna$

1.
;

birth-place
also

;

station
sfffo

hgro-wa

beings or moving beings; also |'5 skye-bo

or locality of a plant

= S'^qc
;

the female generative organ. 2. state or sphere of birth or rebirth

srrftf

the

gi'SE.'3)'

skye-hgro yofa-kyi

f 'S

honey (Sman.
,

73).

skye-wa the being born as an animal; |'^'^ skye-wa, bshioi |'"I^'
byol-$ofi-gi

| '^ skye-rgas, contraction of | q^e.-^-q^
fkye-wa dnfi rga-icas, by birth and old age, i.e., death.

Q ^ $kye-gna$ bshi the four states or of being born.

ways

'

mifi-srtfi

brother and sister (Mfion.).
.

|
viz.,

'if

rebirth, to one of the six regions of birth:
l <

skyf-sgo

1.

entrance to

i'^'"l* V

skye-sgo ^cod-pa to prevent birth,

'^ I skye-wa pf skyes to be born fia-la lu skyes-pa yin I have
:

:

i

to lock tgo sgo
at q

up 2. face: I'^iiwi skyelegs-pa a handsome face |'f's^'i skyealso P'^'g^g"' shan-pa an ugly face
;

it

given birth to a son, or to

me

a son has

been born.
1!

wr|*)

mftal skyes or

wra^r
-

;

kha-igo skye-hbras legs-pa for having a handsome exterior.

l'

)

is

said

mnaf-nas skye-wa ^n.ijsj viviparous; g' born of the womb, ^'f sgofi skyes or ^"
.a(N'|'q sgo fia-la$ skye-wa ^pssi born out of an egg or oviparous; ^'ij^^-l^

|'^

$kye-fia,

flnm.fr

lit.

"a bad
the

man," but
sources

also a dwarf.

I'^S skye-mched 1:=^-% v^ftnf
and places

drod-^er skyes ^?sr moisture-sprung; born out of heat and humidity; f*'|N born rdsus-skycs ^MMl^* apparitional
;

of origin of the senses.

in a supernatural

way

like

the gods who,
15

106
it

spring out from lotus flowers ; also the inhabitants of the infernal reis said,

a valiant
in

man

;

to bud, germinate, sprout

;

W.

to accelerate the

germinating

of

gions;

souls

in that state of

existence
is

the seed

by maceration.

between death and rebirth which
flv^
bar-do
;

called
S'^-J

man;

a 5'g! pho-skyes a male also one who has done a manly
;

IV:

1.

v.

3'"H*

skye-ynas in a
:

concrete sense the reborn individual

$**'

work; S'jw mo-$kyes a woman; female:
j|'qg<j|

skije-ga-nahchi-icahi gdug-

yum-gyi fkye-tca yin she ie the g-jj-q 5)^ rebirth of the mother. 2. the arising,
etc
3.

the evils of birth

old age,

sickness

the growing, etc.
gkye-tca

and death.
J'l'S"!

ryal=^'^

skye-pa

a

S'C| II
;

:

skye-wa arrfr
;

1.
;

the being
birth

person.
jj'p'*<Vap?S

born the birth

also re-birth
;

j'awTfq kyc;

$kye-ica

ryyun-ffcod to stop
to

wa

mtho-ica

high birth

of high

the continuance
it.

of

birth

interrupt

nobleman; male; jj'q'swn
tta or 3'*\*

skye-u-a dntah-

fkye-tfrnah or I'S**
;

skyc-dman
:

of

low birth

ignoble ;

also a

woman

ft'

Syn. STI}*! brag-sprai
(Mi*.).
5'1'g'i

;

1r*>c,

gab wifi

qwtfrg* I'l'^^ mi-lu.9 thob-kyafi fki,e-tra dinan born a human being, it is true, but
only a female.
3*1'"^ skyeg-dman, in colloquial kyer-men, a vulgar word for wife or woman He " skycr-mcn " my woman or
:

tkye-wa ina-pa=^'^ ^'^

J

u>^' e

-^

dufi-d.knr gyag-hkhyil

^ftror^asig'a conch

shell

with

its

coil

reverting to the right

instead of to the left (Mnon.).
'*>'g

wife:

ftvJ'i'Pfa'i mir $kye-wa bshen-pa to
life.

take or assume rebirth, existence,

skye-iea

ffia
;

srnisj*Jl
-

former

M'^

birth

;

anterior birth

III

:

1.

to

become; to begin to
ut

sfia-mahi

|'i g'5^'f gkye-ica re-kha the lines or marks in

exist; to arise:

fS*W*'l'|***'^w1^

w

morbus ullus nascatur, natus quoque sedftur

(Jd.),

^'g'i5^w|-

khe-hu khros-pahi

the hand or head which are supposed to represent the symbols of one's acts in a

sems-skyes-te the youth

thoughts of wrath
(0.see')

former

life.

arising (in him). 2. to
I'l

grow

tkye-wa rjithun-pa

is

defined as

valleys where corn

grows:
is

fu

mgo-la the head.

skye a horn
3.

growing on
<5^j,

=^i-q *%*,
grow up;
;

%fprw

" par ski/e wahm niii-gcig skye-wa the being born of one and the same lineage or the

growing up, or
to

grow

(cresccre)

^* cher

thriving. 4. or ^'efc'j's
to

being born on one day."
skye-wa dad hjig-pa birth

chen-por $kye-tca to

grow up

;

grow

tall

:

W3E.'$<sr$'.*Y^|*r

ras-kyaii lus-kyi tshad-

and death, or passing away; frequently
of thoughts, passions, &c. (the person as

du skyeg-so the garment also grew to the measure in proportion to the growth of
the body,
o,
i.e.,

well as the thing in the accusative).
skyc-tfa

jai'^'W'!*)'* rtul-phod-par

dran-pa
birth.

he grew up a valiant

man became
;

remembrance of a former

107
skye-wa b_dun seven periods
life.

of

H

skye-bo

1.

a general

name

for all

|-q-<^s(

skye-wa
life.

hdi-la

in

this

my

present period of
'if^

^'T^isri'1'5 mi la-sogspa skye-bo man and other living beings. 2. people; mankind; ^T*is*r|'5 hphrul
living creatures:
bcas skye-bo infatuated

skyc-ldan

=

$*w *^
-

men
I

,

seme-can

|'5'fm'rflpaf

animated beings
| '|w

$w

skye-bo mkhas-pa g.shan

rnams other
>

(llfnon.).

intellectual
(in

gkye-ldum a plantain

Zayul)

|'9 K'fi5'^S ^;*l'q maft-pohi yid-du hofi-u-a beloved skye-bo
people
;

(Snd. Hbk.).

by many;

*>'^"I'|'^

mi-nag skye-bo layso-so skye-

men
to copulate.

(on account of the dimness of their
;

religious knowledge) bo

5'S'g'Jf

Syn. VP'*<3^'SS dgah-mgur Spyod; *1*T

^WSFT

'the

lower clergy,

common

gS chags-spyod; "^'^"l'^ hdod-log Spyod;
^qc,'q-flf^*j-|^

dwan-po gnis sbyor;
ysiA-spyod;
.

monks, but also simple laymen if they are not quite without religious knowledge;

log-yyem;

*\^'^

not of

saintly
;

origin;

not

an

mi-t shafts tpyod (Jtfnon.)
g'q'^'w

incarnate
tshe

Lama

j'f'tiW*^'CIH'1^ skye-bo
useful

t/tami-cfiad la

skye-wa phyi-ma=.*&\ phyi-ma future birth or existence.

phan-yon ^Trr5re;

to all

;

of public utility.

an
animalculoe
;

Syn.

skye-hgro.

also a small grain

l'5'q^N'q skye-bo bkres-pa

hungry

per-

skye-wa g.shan
or previous birth.

a future

son: l&^vil^'ffc-l'S-qjm-ti skye-bo bkres-pa

the people residing in that country (or
continent) are (always)

skye-wa rig-pa inherited intelligence
:

hungry (K.

d. >

khams thams-rad hbyun-wa

Inar yes-pas

wa

rig-pa

that

all

the

elements
to

from
five is

skye-bo

fian-pa is*s

a charla|'5-

which we spring are known
hereditary knowledge.
g-qiv'-5^

tan

be

;

a knave
l|

:

I'^'^^'^frFT^I,

^"'i'5

I'wS

skye-bo f.an dafi hgrogs-pa-yis,

skye-bo dam-pa rlag-par byetf

by friendship
is

skye-wahi cha-can
-

=Q

a dog.
*'

with a bad
(Can.).

man

a holy

man

spoiled

Syn. ^'|5
5]9.'XfljN

(|ii'4

rdo-rjehi

mjug-ma;

-q sen-gehi rigs; 5^'^'1 s 1 l*^ grong-gi

gkye-bo

dam-pa ^apr a good

gcan-gzan (Mfion.).
-

or holy

man an
;

incarnate being.

|-q5

aii

f

skye-ioahi

lani-ster=*

ma
skye-bo
place of habitation.

mother (Mnon.).

of high birth

;

man.
phan-pa

skye-bo

phal-po-chefti

w&(

4rlH*|tim

of

good or

or

inheritance; heritage.

use to the general public.

108
>
<

|

q*-4^ Zj-%

fkye-bo tshnn-po-che

a large

I'^'S'Si^'

tkye-ser-gyi

rlufi

the cold
:

number

of

men

;

a crowd

;

*1'Q tshan-po

north wind

called skyefi-ner rlufi in Mil.

implying a large number.
$kye-bo
treatise
g.no-thig

n.

of

a
d.

byafi

skye-ser-gyi

rlufi-po

ma, rgyab-na
if

on ethics by Nagarjuna (Tan

Iho-ru tsan-dan-gyi-nags

mi-hgul

the

north wind does not blow, the sandal trees in the south do not move.
fkye-sritf

popular talk

;

-bohi gtam rumour.
rT<rr

a-ion=i

father

skye-bohi tshog

assem-

(Mfioii.).

bly

;

a crowd.

$kyeg= keg or kag misfortune.
mahi
queen of
skyeys
clnt-skycgi coot
;

1.

n. of

g.tso-mo

a bird;
(Sch.)
;

the harlots (Mflon.).
v.

water-hen

ri-ikypgs a large singing bird (Cs.)

also
2.

according to Sch. grouse
gtso-mo

;

heath cock.

smatf-htshon
n.).

mahi

rgya-gkyegt shell-lac (Jd.).

j'J5-^-ti skyc-bos dwen-pa

a solitary
i

man.
E

'3 $kyen-wa or J=.*r<i skycfis-pa to be ashamed shame bashfuliiess
;
;
:

|-*)^-q^-r^-q $kye-mc4 btsau-sa sin-pa attained to an exalted state of existence

P'ji

u-a

kha skyefi-wa or qr$*'q s/ial to be unable to reply out of shame.
-'

'

from which there

is

no rebirth.

E,-

$kyeti-ser rlufi,
rlufi.

v.

skye-r mod'?=$*'$

H wo

fkye-ser-gyi

skyc-bu
is

rmofit-pa a stupid

man

;

one who

sunk
shameless (Mnon.).
J'^5-

med

in pleasures or sordid acts.

5'* skye-tshe Trfaigrr
R

mustard;

skyc-tshehi hbru Trf^raT rns^t

mustard

^
gress;
fkyetf

tkyed and | $kye
increase:
3>'|*\

1.

growth; pro-

grain.

S3
one
is

skye-zla (keh-dd.) the

particular

phase
(

of the

month or the moon in which

longevity or increase of life 3!*'f *\ lu$ ?kycd growth of the body ^e.-ic.-|> dwafi-thaft
: :

tshe-skyed

growth

of wealth

and power
:

:

?<r

born

Ya-sel. 11).
1

1^ |S

stobs-skyed increase of strength $*'"' nus-pa skycd increase of efficacy or
:

(kye-rags, v.
girdle.

$T

m

for skc-rags,

ability

jV^v^vq
:

skycd che-war hgiiur"<'^' VTf V*
l

book, $kyerags-kyi rat hdi, seems an inversion of the intended order of the words.
rkafi

The term

in Mil.

wa

to

grow much *W'!'| V
zla

gshan-gyi

skycd-pa$

dc'hi

shng-$ky/'4

che his daily

growth was greater than the

growth

of others in a

month

(Jd.)

:

$vq5

-

a tree with a huge trunk.

yur-wahi chu-yis shin

109
just as the water of the irrigation canals makes growth in the fields |V
;

also

were caused a
1

little

joy

:

if 1'^5^'^gV
:

^

thams-cad-kyis brtson-hgms
;

5rn-q
interest

fkyed-kyis htsho-wa to nurse up;

bskyed-do they all created zeal

took great

IS'^fc' gkyed-yofl shall
;

make
:

progress.

2.

profit

;

gain

W'|S
;

dnul-gkyctf

pains Swm*rri|Y^*< ces bsam-pa bskyed.. nas thus were thoughts generated (Ja).
2.

profit in silver or

money
;

*g'g^ hbru-skyed.

interest of corn loan

ytafl-wa to lay out or to give

i'V^'^'i skyed-du on interest
(this)

SM*

fS'i skyeg-pa or |^'3 skycd-po father.

skyed-hphel
H9l5fc.thoft

^n
one who
has not

(C.)
is

^'I'l V'l'S nad-la skyed med. of no use for that disease ( J2.).
:

yod-pas med-la bu-lon gkyed-hphel (the rich one) who has' should give

|S'^" skyrd-sgo, not improbably $*'% rgyal-sgo, principal door (Ja.).

loan

on

interest
*\

to

(Kalhaft.
i^'l*\

115).

f

Y^

skyc4-can

i

:

yielding interest or

profit (Cs.).

$kyed-byed applies to father or also to a tree earth; lYlV" skyed lyed;

&Yfi'|"r3e,'3 tsan-dan fbrul-gyi snin-po, the sandal wood
called 'snake's heart'
iS'3*! skyed-cig
let it
(Sj.rton.).
1 "!

|V^

it

:

?kyed-can,

v.

pa blowing: ^'SYS^'iVtV./?
ni skyed byed-pa ii^-ffr
|^d:

srid rlun-

as the

wind

blows (A. K. 2-7).
cig

"H'lvS

yar-skyed

I'V* $kyed-ma

= %^'^'N
T*rr

skyed-byed
;

ma

grow
I

up, thrive.
:

mother
.

;

also

shadow shade.

g^*^
act.

$kyed.-pa vb. pf

i|S

to

f 'i skye-wa, to

skyed-tshal f?gi^, ^TR, ^tf?R the so-called Tibetan park artificial grove ;
;

procreate, gene;

also f v35r<*oi

skyed-mos

tshal.

rate, and,

sometimes, to bring forth

give |5'^< tkyed-rim
the

birth to:
lug

^ST9*'*V$V*'
pha
this

l

^q^mK

the kind of
to

'V-'

f

*ArOfl

Mi, bskyrd-pahi

dafi

ma
>

Tantrik meditation in

which one has

parents

who generated
:

body

of blood
i

and

flesh

*s.r

jr*w*^'i|X'i5 <w^i

imagine himself to be a god with a view ultimately to be changed into a god
:

oj*i

I*<<|r^*

tans-rgyas thams-cad bskyi'4-pahi gab dan yum the father and mother who have

rdsoc/s-rim,

*wnjnm,

in

which

begotten
bycd. tree.

all

the

Buddhas

:

fYl'S skyed-

according to the Tantrik process one has to pass through five stages of development before attaining the Bodhisatva rank.
thorn.

S^'^J II:

1.

to produce, form, cause;

and metaph.

to generate (opposite to *>Viv

mgyog$-pa
(&ag.)
1.

^1

mctf-par lyed-pa to destroy, annihi-

quick, swift

:

0'l'|^

khro-la

late), e.g., diseases, fear, roots of virtue,

gkyen-pa or ^^'J^''' fdafi gkyen-pa swift to

merit: n?i^*w'S'*''l*r<'^
tion of merits or the seed or

the accumula-

wrath

:

^'|^'

c'

byed fkyen-pa.
3.

2.

rash,

germ of

virtue.
I'' l

hasty, precipitate.
tffc.'|^q

nimble; dexterous:
dexterous
in

Fig.

*g'9

hbras-bu retribution:

!Jf

'i

V

hphofi
;

q^ ^S-ii-*ruiE.-|fr$e.-3^*r<>^ spro-wa btfcyed.pas, dehi pha-ma-yafi spro-wa cufi-sad skyesnas joy having arisen (in him), his parents

shooting
g^'i
(8nd.

$kyen-pa a skilful archer.
colloq.

sky en-la

C.

"upwards"

Hbk. 9Q.

110
JJ'SJ
p

skycmthirst.

,resp. to be thirsty
2.

;

8w

beverage, especially beer; also <^r|*w shal-skyems or s\ar$f*W shal-skomf jw^'ti ski/ems hdrenski/ems
;

1.

drink,

Jwj-)j^- fkyems-bzaft pleasant beverage, such as good wine or savoury tea.
skyems-ffsol
resp.

beverage,

pa to

offer or set before

an honoured person

drink

:

*)$'V<3<vg|'urv!*r|*w ij^m

mandara-

wahi

something

to

drink

;

|wrq^r
it

fflu

ya-rabs

fkyet)i(

gkyems
;

gsol (the lady)

bsheg-pa to accept of it; to take

*>'

Mandarava sang and
superior (personages).

offered drink to the

orfl|lfa'W'V! (kyems-la ffsol-ra$ bycd-pa to

be permitted to drink beer in company "J^I^'S'w gfcgs-skyems a carousal on the
;

^^'^
reddish

Skycr-skya

=

drinkdeparture of an honoured person offerings to a lama on his departure (Mil.
;

brown (Nag.).
skf/cr-skytr

S^'S^,
solitary:

solitary; perfectly

I*

12a)

of

|%V|*w ffser-gkycms an offering beer or wine to the gods for the good
;

|^i|VfrV3r*5rt

*kyer-tkyer
;

success of
also

an enterprise, a journey, etc., for recovery from illness "l*K'|*w
:

mi dan hgul-hgul khyi lonely without men where not even a dog stirs about.
skyer-kha a kind of dye
;

gxer

drink

skyems-pa " a Tuntrik priest
;

"the

offerer

of golden
offers the

colour

;

who

yellow dye
colour.

;

a light

yellow

drink to the gods; among the religious dancers of Tibet the priest who offers wine
to the gods for invocation
skyenig-pa.
is

called Gser-

Skyer-chu n. of a river of K'5
(Pa-ro) in Bhutan.

|*r\
dess

skyent-byed-ina

i^

the God-

S ^'W
dye
is

skyer-pa the barberry
its
;

;

applied to

Is'vari.

the plant and
skycm-yoff a kind of superior

wood from which a yellow
the flower of this plant
is

extracted

said to be cure for diarrhoea, its fruit

draws
is

paper manufactured in the town of $*w Skyems in the district of Dwags-po; this

out bilious

matters and
;

its

yellow bark

paper

is

of large size, generally

measuring

Jj*'!"? skycr-khanda a confection of 5 vq &yer-pa useful in

useful in dropsy, etc.

two

feet

by

six feet in size.

eye diseases.

Skyemt

n. of a place in

Syn. R'T^'5 khu-wa ser-po
skyes;

;

^'J

dug-

Upper Dbags-po.

3)*'^

fiA-ser;

-^'"1'%

ci-la-dru

|w*t- skyom-chan

beer

;

^^'i $kyem$the fort of

(Mfion.).

chu drinkable water ; drinking water.
|*w|fc,-^e.- Skyems-stofi rdsod

a woman.

= |v^w( ikycr-dman %'^''\^ fkyes-dman The former is a corruption of

Skyems-ton
lufi

;

|'gip<'^- Skyems-spragf
is

the place where the finest Daphne paper

called skyems-fog

manufactured.
;

the latter and, sounded kyermen, is one of the most familiar terms in the colloquial " " woman." or for "wife

|ww^r| $kyemi-tshug cup dish
.

(Sch.)

:

gv^f

skyer-fin

n.

skyem$-siA small beer-cup (Ja.).

of a tree, Flacourtia catnphracta

111
|l'|^
$kyel-gyur
\yifH

removal

of
:

bsu-bskyal going

to
Ji

meet and to accomygegs

articles, furniture, etc. (to

another place)
^jfrisf

pany

;

1-h w| r'V
!

a

skyal-byed-pa

jarfc'p skyel che-tca

^fNf, removal or changing.
IT^S-' skyel thun to

frequent

resp. to

accompany an honoured person on
;

departing
IT*)

to see

him

off.

accompany or to from the place of starting to a distance on the way: $*ffWf*&&;
escort one

skycl-ma

^rrgT^T^

an
yod.

escort

;

convoy:
guide

Jarw^
me)
:

sky el-mar

he

is

a

(to

rw'9 &kyel-ma shu

grant

|q-gE.-j^$j LJid btsun-pas thag rin-por Skyel thun mdsadnag Lah tshun-pa having accompanied the party to a long distance
(A. 129)
;

us safe conduct.

^lf^P*pr*|r* dmag
;

dan bvas pahi skyel-ma a military escort

ITS^I^I

skyel-thun byed-pa or

grXQ|*r\i accompany one

iskyel-rog$ byed-pa to escort or

to a place.
:

q-?|flm'gl'^'i fffegs-skyel bycd.-pa to

accom-

|T*> skyel-mi an escort
1

srw<sFr$-^j*r

pany one to a with some wine

short distance (generally for his refreshment). gr

^

^t|^-g^'^-^-S-f q3i-3i^-jq^c.-q-q-q|^ Lhasa ^( nas skyel mi dgos rigs fiar-rgyun Itar mi-

Skyel-clar,

ace. to Lex. also in colloq.,

presentation scarf of the departing person
to those that

dpon na fffofi-wa b_cas bgyis the Mi-dpon should arrange for the escort (skyel-mi} of
those formerly entitled to that privilege

had accompanied him
and

for a

short distance.
'^I

from Lhasa.
skyel-wa pf.
fut.
1.

I:

bskyal, imp.

%*skyol

to carry,

take
skyed.

I: skt/es
3.

1.

v.

|

ska.

2.

v.

away: ^'q5'X'|Tq $i-wahi ro skyel-wa to take away the body of the dead (Cs.) fy' wgai'Sfl) do not bring wood yn'^*\ bring
: :

If?! II:

also
1

gvw

kya$-ma

or
1

!

" skyos-ma, S*
gnafi-$kyc

'*

gr?if take
to

away

!

2.

to send,

e.g., clothes,

W^H,
'M

khyos-ma, resp. "I^'l* ^TT^ a present;

somebody.

3.

to risk, to stake (one's
to use, to

news, tidings;

ran-srog). 4.
-oj-g<j)

employ:

hbyon-skyes N phebs-skyes a present given to or received I
his arrival

=

baglan
;

las byed-pa la skyal

from somebody on

or going
:

use an ox for

work

aw|'Vr'r*)'S'jjai to de-

vote one's whole
idleness;
a

life to
n '' 1 '

work.

$'i5'^'^ in

fif**i'3|Vl

fftor-ma glud skyel-

of beer |"'**' skes-chaft a present chen a present sent with a letter, |*i'*^ sJ,ycs etc. ($ag.) ; 1^'S ^ skeg-khur present of

away

;

1

wa

to cast
;
'

away

as a

ransom

in the torma
;

cakes

;

5*)'!^

kes-lan a present

made

in

sacrifice

p'gTti kha $kyel-wa to kiss (Jd.)
'

return (Cs.).

"I^'

|

'i'

JI

to hurt
trick;

;

pnod-pa skyel-wa to do harm; inflict an injury to play one a
;

^5T
growth
;

III

:

HJ,

9?,

WW
;

birth
*f-'\v

or
rafi$-

w^rjorq mnah skycl-wa to swear;
;

growing or
;

grown

take an oath

kye? self -grown

^'|"

s/iifi-$kt/es

born in

f "I "'" lo skyel-wa
1

to rely

;

a grove

;

S^'|*< lhan-kyes

T3f

or fl^smr

depend upon

;

repose confidence.

I^'CJ
5"i

II: pf. and fut. )|i bgkyel, imp.
1.

born together; 5"| mo-$kye female
;

pho-skyes
"I*''i^
;

male; fr|J
of
:

siiags-$kyes

skyol

to

conduct

;

accompany

;

enchanted growth

born out of charms

resp.

IS^'5"''^

skyol-l-a

pdan-skyel-Ka; frar^"! conduct him hither ; $og

112
I

shift-skyea.

|*r|!c.'

$kcs-sdofi,

|*ri'|ft.'

skyes-la gdofl

lhan-chigskyes dad gfiagg-skyes-kyi

rnkhah-

in Sikkim the

banana,
fdofi,

plantain;
:

from
dropt
gdoft

hgrohi tshogs-kyig bu-la ma-bshin-du brtse-

Hindi
in

ke-la

and

a plant

la is

war dgofig nag dfios-grub kun sisal-shin bgcgs kun He-war shi-wahi bkah-drin mdsod, as
assemblage of khadotita fairies, who have been born in groves and born simulthe

conversation,

hence
Tib.

ke-la

and

are abbreviated
districts

into "ke-dofi."

In the
ke-doft

of

Upper

and

W.

signifies a

layman.

taneously and are of magic birth, are meditating lovingly as a mother towards a son,

(/a.).

5'^"I skyes-nag=^'^'^"\ in C. widower 5'^"1 skyeg-nag stands for J^'S'^l'Q
nag-po
(lit.

may

the grace be granted of

all

manner
and

gkyeg-bu

of perfect knowledge being bestowed of all demons being speedily soothed !
!*rj|'-5^

layman = mi-nag:
C|
$?j3j

black person)
in

a

^'Vf^l'^'tlf\

the

country dialect of the lay people.
I
:

fkyes-ggra can
ski/es-det

=

*'

goat

(l&fton.).

ski/eg-pa

]

.

man
;

;

male

jrfci being born or reborn.

"^pri^tf

certain

of

person.

2.=

the
adult

year-crop;
full

produce. 3.

grown.
bud-

skyeg-chen a present with or as an enclosure to a letter, explained in Nay.
as s HfaT3'^' q 8*' 1 ' that

|r^

Ex. of
med.

1.

jw
;

skyes-pa dafl

which

is

sent as

a support to a

letter.

men and women rgyal-po man gcig-po king alone is a man
;

gkges-pa
(Jd.)
;

yin

the

j^'i'^'q^'
bud.-med,

gkyeg-chen |4r3q-gq-q|^i of holy persons. hermitage

fgrub-gnas a

3*\'*

1

S

tkye.-pa

hdra-wahi

S^tTg^rffW^ a
i.e.,

resembling a man, possessing masculine appearance and

woman

grl^*rq

fkyes-chen

dam-pa a

holy

virtues.

incarnate person:
Bsod-nainf rgya-mtsho sogs $kye$-chen dam-

Syn. lw'3'9 skyet-bu pho

;

li'i'J"! skyes-

pa brgya-phrag

mafi-po In giis-hdtid dad d'td-

hbul rgya-cher mdse-do "

So-uam Gya-ts'o and others made salutations and offerings in full form to many hundred holy incarnate ones" (LoA. "!).
|*T*I*<I| gkyeg-mchog UTT or TretT g^r an incarnate personage; a Mahatma: |<'

pa rgyal; |rq*r*rtT gkye-icag mtho; H'^' ^"l^S khu-wahi bdag-nid; j^-g^ skyofibyc$\ *%V hzan-pho; g'|i ina-syes; 8 5
mi-pho;
3te.'"]'^ lifi-ga-can (Mflon.).
'

ST 2
also

II: pf.

of

|'l

skye-wa= ^v

q,

'sr???,

^.f^itiM growth or

grown up.
born.
full
;

IH:=*|ri
skyes-pa

hlrunf-pa

gkyes-mchog
^ the

bshi,

J'^1 9|'g''4pj-q-

dar-ma

names of four great

manhood.

learned lamas of China, the four incarnate ones: S3 3 Ha-phu-p, (1) (2)

g^'^'(^5^'aC'C|
phyufi-wa

fkyeg-pa

Abrug

WenwaA,

(3)

^-gc,-

CM

according to
is

some

:

an eunuch,
dwafi-

kyuti,

(4)

one

who

made

Khufitsi (Confucius) (Grub. * 7).

so artificially.
;qc.'ci'^ii'i

Syn.

f*|'i)^

hog-mcd;

mi-gpyi

ponams-pa;

g^'f'' khyimkhol;

1^
IJ|

'355'j!5aj'Ei

mankind

btsun-mohi khol-po;

9^^'^qI^'9

bud-med.

113
dgah
bral;

w$'^

ral-gu-can;

i*>'9'S

^"l skycg-bu khu-mchog

hkhrig mi-nus; *g*r^j*'q hbras dbyuH-u'a;

the leader of men.

ST5*'" nug-rum-pa; q**rq$-rJ|* bcos-pahi ma-niA (Afnon.).

|)'9'^ skyes-bu can 5'^-qw|5'|i-9 r tadaA beas-pahi skyes-bu a horseman; one

*|rq3-^(H

skyes-pahi rgyu-skar si^f-

on horseback.
Syn.
?'q rta-pa;

^tp( (Schf.) the particular star or constellation under which one is born.

5'c^'q

rta-la ffshon-

pa

(MAon.).

measure used by creditors in receiving back the loan of
l^'lfc skyes-spor the

l^'9'^l

skyes-bu
;

mchog
;

swtTW

a
:

superior person

lama

also B^'H"! Fisnu

grain, etc.

>
:

:

Q1fr^Ff*n|CqgK'4t | |vl

|*rg'3^-cj skyes-bu chen-po *{TT3Vf a

great

lha-spor dan lhas-sran (fsum bshi skyes-spor " che a large kye-phor contains 3 or 4 ounces

man

or saint

;

an epithet of Buddha.

i*rg'*3f
n. of a tree

skyes-bu

mtho=^^

glu-ytA

in

measure or weight."

supposed to grow in the land

of the

Naga (Mon.).

l=$Wi
or

skyes-pa
'9,

%'$ a

man

or male person (Mnon.).

bu nag-po, same as n. of a kind of flower (Sman.
'9'5

a damsel,

skyes-bu

maiden.

pho=y*' i

t

skyes-pa a

man
*tye*-bu

or male person.
skyes-bu
A6n'#5

5^
qe
l
''

man,

esp.

a holy

Iwg'^lK
Skyes-bu

= |)'9 q^-

man

;

person

;

|*''9'

skyes-bu gan whoso:

bar-ma

or

JTS'$*r*
the

skyes-bu

ever;

human

(Med.)

;

one

dbus-ma
I'J'g'il'ti'qjc.'H'

flwr^^T

second

person;

<')

skyes-bu lag-pa brkyan-wa tsam-gyi$

personal pronoun in grammar.

as quick as one stretches out his q skyes-bu dam-pa
'9

hand

(Jd.)

;

^3^

a saint;

|-g5^gfl]cq skyes-buhi ^rftTTT pride, self-respect.

hkhrugs-pa

the faithful.

dad-Man skyes-bu the believing; According to some Tibetan

|-g5if*i skyes-buhi not g^T?,
manliness;
dence.

q^w^

to

grammarians 3"'9 skyes-bu applies both men and women:

manly

self-respect

or confi-

skyes-bu
da<?-pa-can,

gati-zag

jjrw skyes-ma 1. fem. of skyes-pa, a female she that has been born. 2. *yv*i
;

gan-shig

lha

rnam$

mchod

a bride.
1

3.

|r*i skyes-ma fern in Sikkim.
;

byed-pa, Ston-pahi bkah bshin

byed-pa-ste,

I* '*'"! skyes-ma thag as soon as born

de ni Safis-rgyas-rnami-kyis bsnags (K. du.

newly born.
|*r*-M|-ci

P 96) that
acts

human being who

is

faithful,

and who worships the gods

(saints)

and

skyes-ma thag-pa a new-born

according to the commands of the Teacher is praised by the Buddhas.
fkyef-bu tkye me/tog

infant.

Syn.
<

q**rw]'q btsas-ma thag-pa;
thun-wa;
;

%'
;

*5 E-'

1'

sho

itq-^e. hjib-hthuA

^ff^: gtihib-hthuH ^BV^' hkhyud-hthufi;

the chief

among men.

5(-*i5-*%-q-^ ho-mahimgrin-pa-can (Iffnon.): 16

fl
guage a woman

114
mountain ranges
(Lo.).

skyes-dman in the vulg. lan;

to

induce repentance

= $.'

or 9*V*>S (Mnon.).
cultivation;

|W?MI
farm.
|Ti|lfl|

ikyes-rdaofis

a

skyo-bran servant; slave: -a slave for life.
i

*&'*K'*f'

skycs-gztif/s
;

sim^q
;

gold;
figure

birth

;

form or born-shape stature

(gold).
ri

I: $kyo-ma 1. quarrel; litigation. thin gruel, gruel of rice and tea, thin paste of wheat or oatmeal: jf

^'^1

2.

|*j

w>

fkyi'S-rabg

aiid*

a series

of

alleged births of history of these,

an individual, or legendary

shcs-pahi
ki/i fflin

and

especially accounts of

rgya-mthso nub Ba-lan-spyodhdas na$ yod the ocean called
lies
d.

the different births of Buddha.

Skyoma-wa
|*'*V
|'JJ
smaller
fna

beyond the continent of
*
234).

Godaniya (K.
|*r3?nj gkyes-so coy ancestors:

**w*^ skye$

tsliad

t/iamf-cad

;

g'wr

II:
2.

v.

|")
njT,

khrim-pa
<5MqTM

1.

one

convicted.

penitence;
fkyo-iiui

sna-rabs-kyi pha dad

transgression:

jpwg'i^

met-po

yan-me$

la-sogs-pa

$kye$-so-chog

btsan

g^TV

c

E

''g

''^'^''fJ'^'S''l*\' s'

kyan rim-par

fi ste da-tta

ni

min-gi lhag

one who was once convicted before on the
occasion of a former dispute. jfw^ skyo-ma can adj. slanderous (Cs.)
^'"'iS'*
(Cs.).
1

tsam-du gyur father, grandfather, greatgrandfather, &c., ancestors of the former
generations having successively died,

;

now

skyo-ma

byed-pa

a

slandering

nothing remains but their names.

x"

^
VTTT,

skyo or

jf'

skyo-wa,
;

^, *\n,
;

3'>S
^rfT,

Mv/o-egfe*tf^i'W

mtho-riskyi
is

'tn, JTRf grief

sorrow

$na$ the heaven, where there
tence.

no peni-

grieving ;

mourning.
skyo-hgyed weariness dispersed:
the
inhabitants
of of

Syn. isr*%flRrqjs. dal-hdsin
bde-hgro,

^'^

bdc-ld/-n,
!$

the

mtho-rif rgyal-srid,

land
accept

^w

of
all

bliss

iftv skabg-gsum
gjq'i5-flfti

relieved

weariness

gnaf,

|f9|-^-^ sten-gi hjig-rten,
g.na$,
%,#'%*i

your

grub-pahi

precepts (Lam-rim.).
Q

&il^ hcM-med, q>rf&'&*
sum-risen, ^'S)$t.

nam-mktiahi khyim,
semi

skyo-wa

llia-yi gron,

to repent; repentance (Mnon.).

^'^J ?! lha-yi

1

%:<&*[ fr lhu-yi hjig-rten, $' yul, f%^f a semi-divine being

+ J&HI

skyo-nogs

quarrel;

possessed of supernatural powers (Mfion.).
f'*
t

hkhrug-lon (Lex.), esp. g^'i'f^ reviving of old feuds and dissensions.

'VIS

:'

Skyo med-khyab

\'jji|-9)-fll55-ftf

n. of Visnit's
sf'*"!

bow

(Mnon.).

'^ skyo-wa
j>a

1.

g^'3'fS'O snar-gyi rtsod,
feuds.
2.

skyo-tshag a light broth made of barley-flour with the addition of a little

old quarrels

and

sorrow:

|^f-g^prt-jg|f|^|
ri-khro hgrim he

repentance} sem* skyo-

butter

(A. 155)

:

Jfav^yrnftqUK*

wa bkyed-la

(^) ^'S'"

tlw-rafa-kyi dus-su skyo-tshag

wanders

QV.

Qser-ma (rlun) mi skye-wa early in the

morning (i.e., at dawn) by taking barley gruel, wind is not engendered (A. 155).
5"'

ffzar-bu

;

W*fa**

shal-skyogs. lip-cup;
;

resp. eating or drinking-cup

9 sp'!" !"

the

MT *'**[

snyo-ras

tsho-tshogs n. of a

rein of a bridle

;

also

name

of tribe in

kind of chintz
*f'Xi*i

(8. kar. 179).

Tibet (Vai. kar.).
;

skyo-rogs

a

consoler

one who
S'^'^f

ffim'jjfag

skyogs Uo-hbu a snail in

W.

consoles

a

person during grief:

(fa).
I

XqurwwrSrt^ the mother cannot be the
consoler of her daughter's grief,
i.e.,

one
i'c)

skyo<ji-pa

1.- to

turn:
to

cannot be of service to another in certain
cases of sorrow.
sf'-*l*i

mgrin-pa skyogs-pa
i.e.,

turn

the

neck,

look round, back; also to turn
2.

skyo-^as to

be sad

;

sorrowful
ran Id

away,
:

aside.

one

who

uses or

manu-

Wq'feryf^--4pF^fVl*'
(slight)

nes-

factures the coal-shovel or stone scoop, etc.
|""l*i'
'

hbyun dan skyo-^as sad-siid fkye$ he felt
repentance and sorrow.
skyo-sans to console in his grief

skyogs-pa

|*T'*X <ilrq
1

skyon hdogs-

pa

;

^|qjfjM4lfd to find fault with.

J *)**<

or sorrow or repentance.

skyogs-med f^sllf not curved; without any curvature or crookedness.
$fl*r*)^
!c/gi^'*<

|-wur"^ skyo-sans nid freedom from
fatigue.
Jfcarflfl

skyon Idan-ma n. of a goddess

;

she

who

protects.

skyo-sans

pnas

a

pleasure

S'3

skyon-ica qt, T'W, TTT^T, pf. ^jfe.^
0$*.'*
;

garden.
~<*

bskyons, fut. "g^ bskyan, imp.
sk yog-nag iron

bskyons

spoon or scoop.
also

or q|k,^-^u| bskyons-$ig, to guard to keep ; to defend ; to save ; preserve (the life, the

body)
skyogs 1. a spoon or ladle
shovel.
;

;

to support

;

to take care of (poor

people) :^'mc,'HJ'|=.''] drin b_san-pos skyonica

Wooden spoons for wine measure
*f"|*<

to support

by

benefits, favours

:

wr

used in Tibet are called
are
for

skyogs.

There

gjrgk.'q thabs-kyis

skyon-wa to protect
to attend to:

by

three kinds of spoons used in Tibet

various
{[fc'5

means;

STi'V'S'

measuring liquids, salt, &c. those which are mounted with copper are the
largest; those

skyon-wa to protect W|' by the moral force of meditation
thugs-dam-ghyi
:

lined with

silver

are of

^'
dom:
wa

lag-len-gyi

by

exercise:
;

f^'t^'li

1-' 1!

middle size; those of the smallest size are tipped with gold and called &scr-$kyogs,
golden
'i' l* the copper with which to measure the allowance spoon in salt and oil for servants, etc. 9'!* !* s ^u ~
l| 1
1

igyalsrid skyon-ica to rule govern a kingS^i'q^aj-^'ql'c.'q

chos bshin-tu bskyon:

spoons. shovel; * |riSir
t

*>'|T'
a '' q5
'

me-$kyogs

coal

to protect

Jt

chos-skyon

by justice or justly $*!'*[*' x^f^ra protector, defender of

religion, is used for a certain individual

;

deity or for a class of exorcists in some of

skyogs

melting
;

spoon
;

or
;

crucible.

2.
ffser-

the monasteries of Tibet.

Under

this

drinking cup bowl
skyogs
5

goblet

l^'I'l''

&rf!*

dmd-skyogs,

etc.,

gold cup,

head there are certain powerful deities who have taken on themselves the duty
of

silver cup,

and wooden cup are now called

defending

Buddhism

against

its

SVI
enemies.

116
$kyod-byed=$$
gru-fkya

When

co-erced they can even

oar

make their appearance in the person of the The *\W &'*v 'Jt' Gnas-chuH invoker.
chos-skyon living near
this class

Lhasa

is

a deity of
also

skyon,

}w nef-pa <ta,
1.

by

generally consulted both the State and the people of Tibet as an
is

who

T"l q

rnog-pa
f kon

a

fault,
it

defect:

^T^'jj^' hjig-rten fkyon (*h*m*?l guardian of the world. There are four of
these, identical

oracle:

g^u]fuiE.-*)^

gan-yaA med.

has no
jfr

fault whatever.

The two words

skyon

with the j*'^'^ Rgyal-

and $*ri

iicg-pa are

chen

\nmij

fyhi, the four great spirit kings: ($i' V*vj'*' Tvl-hkJwr fkyon) the
(

as $*i' jfr ni'S-gkyon,

sometimes used together but defects in inanimate

protector of

the country
*''3
.'

or

kingdom
;

things are expressed by the word *fr skyon ncs or ^*<' jfr n^ $and never by the words

^

;

Sp/iagi skyes-bu)
mi-bzaft)
jf^'Sl

ft^-

{Ayow
are

;

slight defects in honoured persons

Spyan

^qr (W
skyon-dal

expressed by the words MT$^ 4ge-

?'5J

Snam
1

tho$-sra$).

assistance (in the colloquial of

W.)

gkyon, which also signifies faults or sins in holy persons, that is, jfr fkyon (fault)
in
*\*|

;

jf*'

^'SV

$kyon-dal

byetf-pa to help;
l?^'**

Jf*

dge or S*|'*^ dge-hdun

(clergy)

:

skyon-ma, same as
dess of

brtan-ma, the God-

the Earth; jTJJYjf*' rgyal-srid

ci yod hkhrul-pa la, (prl'^'^I'VV $kyon what harm is there in erring? ^'jfr mi-

skyon

<l^Ml<jl

a defender of the realm;
yaiiqi^ a defender
:

fkyon

no harm

;

jfr'*^

skyon-med

no

same

as vic.*)'^

or
*'

protector of the subject or of people
S skyon-byed protects.
|e.g^skyoft

harm, no matter; jfr <*5^i|c.'<iE.-*)^ skyon yon gan yati min he is without anv
imperfection
or
perfection;
jfa'^'*flfc.')

OTW* one who supports
byeg-ma,
v.

or

gkyon-du mthofi-wa to
also to find fault with.
fault, as lameness,

consider as a loss,
2.

3^5

bodily defect,

(Hfion.).
"^*

in

the

mixture

derangement, disorder of the humours. 3.
;

^'^1

skyod-pa pf. and fut. isft bskyod
"fi'i
(trans,
-

*WR(, '^arra, M^^T;

gyo-wa or *3rq
vb.)
;

f\ spiritual defect, sin, vicious quality * rdsun-du tmra-wahi skyon the sin VB'* Sfa
1
-

hgul-wa to
go, pass on:

move

also

to

of lying;
defiled

jfr! wf!
sin
:

skyon-gyi ma-gos not
far skyon che

^'9|'"'<I moves the branches. *>'jf\i Mi-fkyod-pa or

jfvi if the

wind

by

i^'jf^'S

but

S'l^l mi-yyo-wa ^tr the unmoved; he whose mind is not agitated n. of the
;

very bad (of you). lycd-pa to commit a fault
that
is

gVlV
;

skyon

^pan-tea to leave

off

g^'S^'i skyon a fault or quit it;

In W. skyod-pa the general respectful term for to go to walk. il^'^S bfkyod-hiod is same as
is
: ;

second Dhyani Buddha.

-^flprq mi-la ikyon hbebs-pa to s-pa to charge one with a crime
;

criminate

;

*W 'S'f^'S^ '^IV
brjod-pa to
ill

gs/ian-gyt

^'"^ hgro-hdod desirous
go:

^'Vls "nan-du
please);

go or about to skyod" step in (if
to

gkyon

(flefi

name
them
;

the faults
to slander
1

of others, to speak to blame, criticise

of

;

you

"tan-pokyot" tread firmly!

;

jfa 'a^'F'^V

skyor,-

ifS^i^'ai bskyod skals-la at the time of

going or coming.

span kha she incd-pa to do any work with application and at the same time without

117
any
fault or mischief to

any body

;

$^'

1

?kyon gnad mcd-pa

without

*t-*4T^-q

=:|'^s

'

'f'1,

not perceive a fault or

the least fault or blemish.

defect.

skyon-gkye ^re^or? ^i^^?

conJfa'i

'^ skyon-pa,
astride

pf.

*&

bfkyon, to put

ducive of sin
jfte.*!

upon a thing
;

(causative

form

of

;

sin-producing.
shon-pa)
3ffl?^

%-1(W*jfa-i mi-shig rta-la

fkyon-nag

thorny;

mis-

skyon-pa to
ride

cause a
;

man
ci

to

mount

;

to

chievous.
jfr'*^

on horseback
;

to fix

something on a
to impale a

sA:yo-caw = ^'^'
jfa 'gf^

tl*'' c'

skyon-daA
<*<sllFt,
;

stick

$ ^ir|w2) E-'r*fr'
him
to ride a

man

bcas-pa or
Tf'ft

skyon-ldan grrf%3\T,

(Jd.)

:

S^'^'iV? bod-bur skyon-te

having
61).

faulty,

defective, incorrect, sinful

caused

donkey (Pag.

guilty.
sp(-q*-q|^ gkyon bco-brgad the eighteen ** defects are the following: (1) |T<i mi>
-

|aj-'v5f'i]

fkyon-med rtog fsHTTO
;

free

from
less.

disease

thinking or taking as fault-

$dug-pa

ugliness; (2)

*f| ws
;

*i

mgo

skra

|^)^qflw skyon-med gnas wra^j,

^rra^T

nan-pa had or bristling hair (3) ^sprfl'4*.-q dpral-wachun-wa small or narrow forehead
(4)

;

remaining, living, or dwelling, in a state of n innocence or faultlessness jfr'*^ w^")*
:

wf'^'j mgo ser-skya brown hair

;

(5)

m igser-ica

yellow eyes;

(6)

ffrMwr
the

mcd-skyon par bshugs-pa without fault.

sifre:

residing

smin-mtshamf
;

ma-hbyar-wa

skyon-tshig slander; also scandal.
(ki/on-hdsin jf^'|''5)'^'ti to find

eye-brows disjoined (7) JJ'ta'i ?na leb-pa flat nose (8) S'^q so Ito-wa bottle-teeth ;
;

dig-pa stammering (10) S^-gwq mig slum-pa round eyes (11) Sflj $fq nrig chun-wa small eyes (12) g^'i tgur-wa
(9)
;
-

^1 1

fault with.
1

;

l^'-*)*

jfcyoM-fcissWpw'i a learned

man;

;

a critic.

crooked or bent body
che-wa
5t.'P

;

(13)

f5-X-q

If

-bo

Syn. ^'^"| kun-rig
'q

;

^'^
=
jJ^'
i

kitn-fes

;

krge

or pot-belly; (14) "vgcat'e.*rje
fiar

kun-kyis-bkur-wa.
-ci

(Idnon.)

dpufi-pa
;

thufi-wa

small
$kyon
fc-jBff

(man-pa ^^T

shoulders

tpu-can hairy body; (16) mqi'si^e.-ifiE.-ti-Sl-^wq the arms and legs
(15)

sp^

a physician (Mnon.).

with the feet not proportionate
if*

;

(17) **!'
;

^

*ta'q

gkyon scl-wa

to

remove a

sin

;

q txhigs fbom*-pa large or swollen joints

amend

or correct a fault.

(18)

pfr\*>W%<

bad

fcatid

smell
skyob-pa

coming out of the body and the mouth.
ffrqf^q gkyon bryod-pa = ?ft'&''*'i\ $madpahi tshig to slander or speak
also slander (Mnon.).
jfa'^'*SI
ill

^W,

qrfn,

T^^f,

pf.

qgw,

fut.
;

15",

imp. g*w or ffw^"!,
preserve,
bjigs-pa

to
fre-

protect

to defend,

save
la

;

of others

;

quently

*fcflprq'r!q'i

fkyob-

e.'q

$kyon-du

hgritfi-wa

pa, to protect from fear or danger or destruction qjiqTi the protecting power;
:

to reckon as or into sin or defect.
'**

the preserving cause

-

skyon-nas

smra-wa

q-^l|

to ascribe a fault.

*|rarjqr<$V jqI-|^-q^-^|q-Cw|q-I-g he that gives protection to another is called jfc'q
:

3|E,'^fl|

118
fkyob-pa
:

ffw^'*! skyobs

gbyin-pa

the

iig $kyor-ica

to repeat a word,

giver of refuge or shelter.
jf '?^
11

like the reciting of the

Mani,
:

i.e.,

BS'W

skyob-ston

= jfr<r5

skyob-pa-po

or

fwi skyobs-pa siT^t a protector.
skyobs
help, assistance;

om ma-ni pad-me hum %'5jm'tr *>'| ^^^ql-q-fli^-^-IX-qN'^-q an old.sick,
or drunken person walks being supported
t by another *R V E
:

seldom

i'

a

'

J

2'

*!r

t

rar|Vq to prop a

for

JjW

s%i? Jww
; ;

skyobs-ma and 5JT

thing that

is

falling or tumbling

down

:

4'

g^
life
;

rog-skyobs in colloq., preservation of

jfvq chu skyor-ica the pouring of water with

escape

also

he that saves another's
;

some force as

if

life

;

a helper (Ja.)

imp. of

j"

5''"

$kyob-pa

mouth

of a kettle

through a pipe or the the sprinkling of water ;
;

*tqCTWNN^nr]fcr^q
the dangers.
jf'W'I'S

protect

from

all

from a pot or vessel or a scoop 5"'p> to back to help morally or religiously or
;

skyob-byed ^T^rnir,
;

TW!', SRHO?

otherwise one
in

who

is

in difficulty,
:

engaged
;

one who protects

a

name

of Balabhadra.

war or

litigation, &c.

3.

enclosure

SJT^J skyom-pa,
fl|*i

fence (Ja.).
pf. ijf*w

b$kyom$, fut.
|V|c.N
gkyor-ibynris

bskyom, imp. jfw $kyots to pour;
stir

repetition

from
having

to

pour out, agitate,
;

up
as

;

according to
II

memory
J* *!

:

gjV^'|V|w*i^
skyor-tshig, v.
'

Lex. to give

defined

$'ijw|f l^'lK

retained in his minds, he repeated

it.

c hu snod chuaE.-^-.*rajc,-vgfl|*rtra'jj * blafis-te zafix-naii-du bliig$-pa skyogs-ki/i?

g^q (Mnon.).

Ua-bu, taking

from water-pots and water-

bowls and pouring into kettles (Nag.}. Seldom used in colloquial language ; 4'

Skyor-mo-lun n. of a village with a monastery situated to the west of

Lhasa containing
Sreschun-pa
s_kyol-ica

estate of the Shabs-pad

3'i

to stir the water

-

;

SJV

f*

i

to shake a

vessel.

sometimes

for

M^ kyor, same as $ hollow of the hand filled
:

khyor,

the

skycl-ica.

chu-skyor

v<

a handful of water

f

(Ja.).
* l '' I

^'^

skyos-pa

=

wasted

;

I

1

?

skyor,

^5 q

I'

w

spoiled; degenerated.

l^' q

hkhyog-paham
:

gner-wa bent, contracted or crooked

-^s^'

skyos-ma,

v.

|
to

skyes,

|'f

|^ $an$-skyor=sna hkhyog-pa was bent (A. 106).
's

(his)

nose

skyos-ma a present

made

a

friend or

an acquaintance at the time of his going to a distant place, or removal to some place

skyor-skyor

again

and

of residence. skra
:

again

;

repeatedly.
$J
(ia), resp.

*\$% the hair of the

skyor-ica, vb. pf.

and
;

fut.

head
of

g'^'l"'!!

skra dan kha-spu

the hair
:

bikyar
2.
fl^c.

1.

to hold up, to prop

to paste.,
''g^''?

the head

and

the

beard

fl"! 't

to

repeat; to recite
it

by heart:

bskya.f4e.btan

was repeatedly sent:

skm-bsgril-ica plaited hair or curled hair : nag-gpig a single, tuft of

119
hair
|f*V^
:

f^
of Hari,
Ions

skra-can

psod %n?T

a

name

skra-ni hjam rtsub shorn phra snomg-

who

killed the

demon

Keci.

ser

mdans-can snum
is

spyod-che

(he

g'lf^N-q sfa-a

whose) hair
thick nor

neither soft nor rough nor

3^*^ a comet
S'* ^^
1

fine

but uniform and smooth,
the

skra-mdud hair knot
of ribands at the

;

ace. to Jd.

and yellowish and glossy, becomes wealthy and prosperous (Mtshan.), g' 1^* skra dressed and hair clo-ker the plaited
of the head fj '^' together on the crown one with kra do-ker can <s*Tj-fsiK *)*'*^
;
-

bow

plaits of hair of the

women

end of the long in Ladak.

|-^*r

skra

hdrc$-ma

= $*'i!\l'*pi'%c
l

>'#

a

celestial

courtezan (Mfion.).
of a species of

.

long flowing locks; S'3^'*3M'?'g
gyen-du hgrcn-wa
Ita-bu

skra

1'iftN skra-g.nas srftr n.

whose hairs stand
JT^^jft hair g'|'l'^
;

sensitive plant.

upwards
loose
?j'3!%si

as

bristles; g'f"!

with

g^Wl
pa

skra-hbal wa=%'%i\' t> skra rkog-

or

carelessly

worn

or g'TT" skra tog-pa *sTl<8's$T (shaving
-

a skein of silk or cotton attached

the head clean)

to the flowing locks of Tibetan

women

;

to pull out the hair : ; m-ijr^sfsq]-ci-rX'<^'arari'g <vw some sent
forth cries of anguish,

g^'S^'a^V

$kra la-glan-gi

spit

hdra-iva

some pulled out the

hair like'that of ahull; !fSip=5^*>S''g
locks of hair of
(Schtr.)
;

hair of their head (Hbrom. 113).

women

;

f'^'
;

thin hair

y&^wS} skra-med mgo "a head without
hair
also Jari'$ dsa-ti arrfw nutmeg minum grandiflorum (Sman. 40%.).
;

g'^V

to

comb hair
;

shaving of one's hair

|'|V^q the |'"|^ %*prfawr a

"

;

barber; also napkin; |5'q^'i ^ft well braided hair ; also a braid or fillet of hair.

g'^i skra-tsal false hair
lj'3!

;

a peruke.

skra-rtsa SI^T clotted hair.
skra-tsfiogs, v.

Syn. g'*"JN skra-ts/ioys

;

SjV| slar-skyc
;

gV*
g

1

'-

5 ^ bi/id-u-a-can;
''5
;

i^f'l^ rnyo-skyes
Spyi-bo skyes
;

^

;

g skra (Sfnon.).
3\n-*

skra-mtshams

the

mffo-spit

'S*'

*\$\'$*\
tlior-

gt&ug-pfmd;
t&hugs
;

^I'l

ral-pa;
;

?^'^1^

arrangement of the hair. + g'^'N
s*ra-s8ns

A'^l'^ me-tog-can
mgo-nal;

"QWP
do-kcr;

hkhyil-

= =.'f>r'i

vanity,

wa;

*&\'y*

^'^
;

*'&
1

pride; adj. vain, very proud.

*fcw

ral-pahi ffdens;
;

^'^zur-phud;
f c.'^ Ican-lo
\

Sf*.

?"!

g'lK' $kra-lzaii a secret or mystic

word

thor-cog

^9'^ dwu-lo

(Mnon.).

(MM.
n. of

4).

= y<$p\'*P3 skra hdregmkhan a barber
(A[non.).
'

a Yaksa goddess (Mnon.).
>

g'^

skra-can

the
hairy.

|$j^-a^l^r(ft
byis-pahi lam
-

khyon-nam ^RTTO hair parting.

ai

skrahi

mane

(as of

a lion)

;

g5
skra-can

jijr3

$krahi rgyal-po

=

%>

fr%

Idun-po
of

gnas

lady's

*!H<1

a

grove;

a garden;

n.

a

bed-chamber.
g'*^'*

vegetable.
of hairy

skra can-ma a kind

g5'S'^ skrahi byi-dor
(Won.).

v.

!

g

worm

;

also

= g*V^ woman

(Jjfnon.).

120
fkrahi rtse-mohi mthah

I"
(Sch.).

I

or

of the glands

\$F\ skran-nad

is

* the hair-end.
U'3'1

described as a consequence of suppressed
fkrahi

skra

li-wa

or

i^**>
;

wind

(Ja.)

;

^'^ rdo-skran

*\!fl

two

sorts

rnam-gyur
hair.

itt

curly hair

to dress the

of steatite.

^'^J
skra-k=y\**^% bud-med kyi-fkra
(S&non.) .

skrab~pa

(tab-pa)
;

to

beat

the
;

f<

ground with one's feet

to stamp, tread
:

to

woman's hair

dance; also bro fkrab-pa
Q'gE.'

prK-9|-2f|q-rr

5'<S skra-shad jramoft hair separator;

yesterday's dancing

was

excellent.

a oomh.

a ladder, fj*ri| skras-ka

v.

W*\

fkas-

Syn.

*'.

so-mad,

|S'V^

?AraA

6y-

ka.

r hair cleaner

4fo.).
or

^vi\ (te-ka) ladder, which generally consists of the notched trunk of a tree (Jo.)
5E.'|*<

;

a single ladder,

i.e.,

a ladder with a flight

ra-tra hard.

one pole; ^'8* rdo skrat
terrified,

(do-te)

j'^J

tkrag-pa (tag-pa) to be
of

frightened, afraid

word

is

This something. combined with <&qpx nearly always

staircase, as in

q hjigs-pa as in

<!

|fl|'i

hjig$$krag-pa, to

a regular houses J'^w European probably a flight of steps at the corner of a building.
of stone steps
;

3'|*l rgya-skrat

;

Os^
f,

be panic-struck.

^j'^
(Cs.)
:

fkri-tca
g"^"I

(ti-tca)

to conduct

;

to

SiltV* skrag byed-ma^'W'^* mahi btsun-mo the wife of the sun (4fon.).

ni

send
let

skri-fiy^^'^
<

ifj^'^ skran-wa (tan-wn) ^^JT^, $w; pfit is jc.* jAraw? to swell ; |*.'*fe' skrans-soA

him send: l^'*Y'rt'l '|'** asked to send him to Tibet (A.

IWW
101).
fut.

tlion-nhig

I

+
$kru

%'Q
~^5

tkru-tca, pf.
;

*$* bfkrus,
to cut
;

i|

swollen
IE.*)

:

^V**fV^'V' *rtH F
1

l

bskru, to wait (Sch.)
to

wi'J
a tree
:

zag-la
c in
fj

swollen from being suddenly struck with a stick or a stone or a sword.
-

cut meat
to

;

J o

tkru, or

^=.'ji

|t

^

kruf-pa

cut

wood

"

skraft$-hbur

an abscess not yet
tkrafy-hbur
n.

bskru-ica, W'^'^'^'jj'q-S)*!

always being

open
hjoms,

(Sch.);
v.

|Wg;-<w
ba-spru

smitten by pleasures (Pag. 1-35).

^'fl'^s,'

fin,

of

a

medicinal tree

which removes tumours or

abscess (Jlfnon.).
|t*l'3'|i;-i)

f SJV^ ?*>W-ja(#M^rpa)=P^ ai'w' ^o |-^-q to make another run away by
devices.

skran-kyi
n.

fpyafi-ki,

g^5
tumour

jni-<Aar-nM
126).
|*.W'Q
(Sch.).

of

a medicine (Sman.

ffSj'^ skrun-pa

(tun-pa)

= $*\i
:

fkycd-pa
*\

to produce

;

"?*'<<
"*

6s*rw-/)a, i|Yi 6jAryrf-

skrans-po a

swelling;

J9
*\

arrff,

ftftf, wf'nT

grown up
meat;

i?^'S^'

^ J

growing crop.

jArraw (fen) fj3J

$W$

Ihan-fkren

1.

^n

^^
the
i)Saj'5j

skrum
of

(turn)

applied

to

tumour or any fleshy excrescence in the abdomen a concretion under the skin or
;

food

the

respected;
is

generally

ffsol-skrum

used in colloquial

in the bowels, womb, &c.

((7s.)

;

a swelling

language.

121
to beat

skrcg
'

(teg)

(the

dram).

each of which has been presided over by

'

!|

1'^'

1

^

dama-ru
beatirg

hkhrol-wahi don
of

signifies

the

a

skull-drum

own human Buddha respectively mrr ^'3 bskal-pa chen-po the great Kalpa *>*'
its
:

;

"Spi lar-bskal
;

the intervening or middle

l

skrog-pa to churn;

stir

(with a

rod)

:

5-wjT^'q

ho-ma skrog-pa to churn

mrnae;Zj bskal-pa bzafi-po q^ttj Kalpa the happy or glorious period in which the

milk (Nag.).
'^J

Buddhas appear pa the evil Kalpa,
;

q^arq'c^-q bskal-pa dan-

in

which no Buddhas
bzan

skrod-pa

(to-pa)

appear
eject:
:

(Ja.).

to expel, drive out,
g*\

q^prq-qje,

bskal-pa

= qSWW $&
rt sis-pa

nag-skrod to expel from a place S^'3*> phyir-skrod to drive out ^"l^'jjf^
g.na&.
:

virtuous; also virtue (Mnon.).
eiyn-irjp bskal-pa

fes=$*'i
cfo'*l

an

hgfgs-skrod to eject an evil

spirit.

accountant (Mnon.}. q^T** bskal-me
will destroy the

= ^'
9).

the

fire

which

2$j'1 bska-wa
also thick.

"\^'^,

^psnra

astringent

;

world at the end of the fo^ir?)-*^ n
of a

q^c/*^i bkafi

work made as an offering
yi-phyoys-su

a slight frameof sticks and coloured threads
to the gods in cases of sickig E

mdos

present Kalpa (Nag.
qqai-qK. bskal-bzaii

.

religious work.

ness: ^)-J'Ji^-j-q^-<t,^-^'

-^' ci^ Ihobsrttfi

CJ^ &s*=3<irq byug-pa,

fut.

bskan-mdos

dan

hkhor

q rubbed (Sag.

9).

bshag place Rskan-mdos

and amulets on
ivar s'jas-pa concealed
sacrificial cere;

the south side (Jig.).

hidden (Nag.

10.).

CJSC'E? ! bskan-rdaas a
1

t$&\ bskum,

pf. of g*r.

mony

(ScM. 360).

mn-ifi bskun-yso
a|-q^c>'q|5'5'q to

^?rr^^*'^*Vw
of

'

make

vices to the tutelar deities, angels,

copious religious serand the

qgwwjj^ bskum-mkhyid the distance or measure between the thumb and the top about oneof the forefinger drawn in
;

guardian
(Oil. 9).

spirits

the

ten

quarters

half of the measure of a span c q *r q *BV 'FI
-' l

:

^'Sv^e;
its

3$p$J
brim.
2.

b$kan

1.

rqii|=.*<

I^
1

full to the

(Rtsii.) i$V'|T*tf 3^ breadth was one finger (i.e., one inch), and length eight spans and one bskum-

Sltrswq^, ^wq-ii-q Hamsfill

mkhyid.
la*rg >9
*

pa gsos-pa
CJ^JJ

to the

brim

(Situ. 74).

b&kum-khru

about

a

cubit

bskam " q^'g/v^KVq bskam-byahi

g-fos-po"(Situ.7r).

measure with the fingers drawn in a fist. a measure of disqg*4-<0^*4 bskum-hdom tance by stretching apart the two arms
"
(with
fisted

bskams past, dried, burnt Hjf>r the fire (at the end of the by
:

hands ")

;

a

little less

than a

fathom's measure.

age) the lakes dried

up

(flag. 9).

^S^J'^J bskal-pa

^T

^^i
;qE.'q$j*

bskttr,

sbst.

sending, granting;

a fabulous period

to

bless; to

grant benediction;
17

of time; the various ages of the world,

^ijp

(fiag. 9).

122
:

v.

grq, q|rqe,R b$kul-brdah signal
;

"|V^'*i$fl|'Ci

b$kyur-du bcuy-pa to cause

to call one to his business

signal to call

workmen
one

to their respective duties.
|3s.'9|'aw|']j|'i'*i^

any one to cast or fling anything away, bgkyed-hdod HNf: growth or ^1 S'
1

^

qjjT'Ja* bskiil-gshufi,

growing; wish

to grow,
<3trrf%H

who

gets Government works excuted:
1.

qlfc'CJ bskucd-va

*H< s^fw
formationbskyedto

a production,
to

generation,

bskus,

pf.

of

1$

btku

2. ^J<vif<.d,

^mrw. ^wqjVi sows
form one's mind
;

anointed

;

stained or poisoned (ffag. 9).
pf.

pa f^itTR

have

btkon,

ftT
6Ii).

bskon-to

a conception of ; also technically means purification of the heart as in
'

to be dressed (SWt*.

to

bskor

surrounded:

q l^' J q3'^ bskycd-pa byyi-ho have a conception of.
qg^'R*)

'

surrounded by followers, admirers and
attendants.

b$kyed-n'm

1

3*rf'nnrT
;

the gra-

dual development of ideas
occult nature.

powers of an

/,

pf.

3

(Situ. 74).

bskyod-pa

numberless

;

immeasurable (Zam. 10).
;

moved, agitated; ^^ter unagitated.
q|^-|-u)c.-

i

ma

bfkyod-pa

qgtj bskyans lTt%<r protected cherished
;

nursed.
l'

yan-ma and again, at paroxysm. moving again
Igkyocl-pa
c|

q tI q *' sj'w bskyabs Tf^ff protected; T 3 trog-bskyab$ protected, saved life (Situ.

bskyod
of

med-pa,

SJ^*

grant

n.

an

immensely great
phyir-b$krad=

74).

number.
bskrad and
the
vessel

^' q ift

has

not dried.
7-4).
1

water dried up (Situ.

phyir-bton turn out, expel (Situ. 5 h*<' i5i*\ turn out a ghost or devil.
bgkrus, pf. of tC",

bskyar=%*it-' or
again and again (Zam. 10).
f

w^-uie.

waai

food cut

again;

up
mend-

(Situ. 9).

q|^

qlf

bskyar-bzo

repairing;

ing

of.

man-du
bskyur cast out; eshiled
;

btafi-tca to

multiply.
set

2.

driven

' par-du bkod-pa to print,
V

up

in print
q.

X^

#
1

.

^. q

.

J,

J ,. q

d

Wrawa

away.

^T'W

to-tog b$krun-pa.

P

kha

I:

the

second

letter

of the

hope
tunity

of;
;

w'|'p ^

w

just

Tibetan alphabet, being the aspirate of In sound it resembles *sr, the second "1 ka.
opnsonant of the Sanskrit alphabet.
1.

" in the nick of time."
1.

on the oppor-

P
mouth
is
-'

II:
;

the

front

side:

*psr

face,

On

registers

it

indicates

the second, or

also the surface or

upper

side.

P

number two.
ally, as

It is attached, often option-

an additional syllable to many

the ordinary word for " mouth," while "ft 6 is the commoner term for "face."

words, especially in the colloquial: ^^'P dgon-kha the price *'P cha-kha a thing.
;

front of

Again, to express the surface as well as the any inanimate thing, p is the
gflrp-arijwj* icicles
cliff;

2.

It implies

f>*\

kliag,

kha-(fnis-su

=F

a part: ("'"f^'g
into

usual form:
face
of

on the

l t H' <p>w$},
:

the

khag-gfiis-su
P'flp

|*Vi^'WkT'MJ'i

two parts
part.
is

(divisions)

kha-gafl.

one

sixth part of a tafi-ka (Tib. coin) called kha. 3. Origin, source, &c. : iptvp

The

mdsad-nas chu-khar byon (Pag. 117) sitting in a cross-legged posture he
$kyil-krufi

moved on the

surface of the water

;

*'3T

j[ser-k/ia= i\*.''
k/tttfis

^'ftm

p-ar^V^T^*'*^

ho-thug kha-la hod-zcr-

ffser-gyi

hbyuft:

the source of gold, gold-mine <*'P tshica-k/ia tswa-kha pas*'p salt-pit: a place where pastures abound. ture-land,
4.

gyi ri-mo mthon saw reflection of rays on the surface of milk-broth (Pag. 2. 113). HTTT language conversation; i^& word:
;

Time:

yT5'^

-l|

IV

nihchar-kha-ru

diis-ffdab(SUu. 21) calculate time

from the

yrQ-fV*V$'f*'^qc'$K 'fll the king having become powerless at (his) wife's word
(Pay. 32).

>

moment

of sunrise;

*5'P^

hgro-khar at

the time of going ; at the time

ready to start

:

when he was *rni-pvXri o^n mo fo^i.
:

Syn.
bt/ed;

smra-wahi

sgo

;

s'S
\l

za-

0?nfi-icar-byed

;

shal; I^'ls

khar cho$-la Mun-pa she at the time of

fam-ffyi hbyufi-g.na$

dying became religious, &c. (Pag. 27) S^T* bym-khar when he came; at the

rjod-bycd;
rtsihi rten;

9 don;
$kad
*\<>*<

^Vt-5'^
gtam

bdud-

moment
time of

of arrival:

fc'p yofi-kha at the

coming; w^fHj'Ifa'p'w sa dafi-po Mo6-AAa-ma*B*r^'4fr>r4^ sa dan-po thobma-thag as soon as he attained to the first
stage,
i.e.,

Ill
&c.

:

a breadth or a square of cloth,

In

its

several
it

inflected

forms

p

is

one moment before the attainrifi-gi

often used as if

were a

postposition

ment: ^^c.-qj-p-^ y un

kha na

W^^'^I'IT'^ yun rin-gi $go

nas

by

little

and

little;

gradually (Jd.)

;

*>'*$' pi

in the

khar,

governing the accusative case. These forms are P'^ kha-na, P'$ kha-ru, and p* " " and take the of

meaning

on,"

at,"

124
"beside," &o.
the chair;
:

FBI
garment
to another

*>fv on the
all

fire;

T1 on

to give his

man, and

f"F^T5

round.
to kiss.

that other
it is

kha kyel-n-a
or cluck with the

^m

held out his hand, not given to him, he is ashamed

man having

a krab-pa (kha tab-pa) to

smack

that

is

termed

kha-$kyefi$.
:

mouth.
$ari-

kha-kha I
'*>S

apart,
sit

separately

:

P'f

ha
1.

dkar-po =^^'^^
:

if

(you)

apart there will

2. q] 2)ri bkra-fis-pa. bright of happy omen agreeable ; auspicious
; ;

be no quarrel.
pTpJ II
:

pleasant looking; r gjtifmag outside white,
plausible.

r

W"$

CL

''V

I
l

kha-dkar
i.e.,

or

P"T* kha-kha-mo
a
rcr

bitter

inside black,

mouth;

bitter taste.

p-pqq
f^5) kha-dkri (kha-ti) neck-cloth, sometimes worn as a protection against cold ; a

kha-khebs ^fa a veil

;

cover

:

qHfefr^MTMrp'^
khebs
>-aj

grba-pa

kha-

kind of raw

silk stuff of

narrow breadth
largely im-

kha-re (at every offering) there is a square of cloth apiece as a face cover-

manufactured in

Assam and

is used as iieckported into Tibet, where it tie and handkerchief: r^'*"*'^'* ^'^' *g kha-dkri bcas hdra-wa kha-rer hbru
1

ing to each monk. P'j^ fcfo-ifarsWffc tha-hkhor border,

edge also the circumferc nee.
;

^i[^'i
byed-pa
liability.

kha-thcg
one's

(Rtiii.) for
is

each breadth (of cloth), which

contradict ion

;

denying

in barley grain. equal to a kha-ti, price P'S*! klia-lkng dumb; also of indis-

tinct speech:

^'iNiwrlinfrprj^'^

the

P'ST* Mia-khyag-pa, same as P'^I'SV kha-theg byed-pa, to deny having under1

removes the spleen of a goat
children.
P'tfa

dumbness of

taken

to

do

a

thing;

denying one's
t!*'g

liability.

kha-skad
;

&m*i
;

oral

account;

r&*
itcgs-bu

kha-k/iycr

1.

^'"1^ lan-krtn

;

tradition

narrative

colloquial language.
;

any

shelf or

box on which birds

f '*f=. kha-skon JUS^, fTir a mouthful

completion
klia-skon-wa
tip

;

appendix of a book
1.

:

P'^'*)

perch; also %f^iT an altar; a raised seat. 2. *m-niSjV|! mt/iah-skor-kha the surround-

to

fill

up
to

a void

;

to

a deficiency. with water, to rinse
P'ifc'
1!

2.

fill

up the

make mouth
or

ing line

or circumference of

anything;

the surrounding edge of a cloth, &c.

it.

kha

skor-wa

=

ST*)
-*

slu-wa

^f^Khn-khra
kfira

(kha-tha] ,v

.

sfn3 Blokha-

or ^'P'91

Lo

kha-brng; also n. for

pqijjk a

kha bskor-wa to speak cunningly;

certain wild

tribes of the border land of

to

circumvent by speech.

Tibet,
1.

f s|^3^ kha skmi'-pon
acid taste.
(Jd.).
C"'|=.

sour; of

an

of

namely the Aka and Mishmi tribes eastern Tibet and Assam (Ya-sel. 38).
P'gi kha-kliram (kha-tham) defined as

2. olive

;

olive tree (in Sikkim)

p-S}'a|j-*-qj]^-i

cunning

talk,

deceitful

kha-skyens shame-facedness

:

language.
p'Bi'i

ffyorgyv
If a

kha-khram-pa = tyad-mkhan one who
so as to cheat.

epeaka

man

is

about

cunningly

125
P'H
15!

I

:

kha-khral (kha-the)
;

M^S^S

res-

("|=-

Kha-g.M, tm'f6r^r%8K mthahmin n. of a border country.
is

pect, regard

lit.

tribute in language or

hklidb yul-gi

in words.
fig *! II
1

l"'^'3 kha gjin-sgra
:

defined as

"W^T

capitation tax or poll tax.

prupfo

kha-hkhor the
(Cs.)
;

circumference of

WA|t,'u5-^g-^-8| the noise of the foe which arises in a battle-field (Mr! on.).
e
f>'

the

mouth

p'^fc's kha hkhor-wa to

>^i\'ci

kha hgoy-pa mute

;

one who can-

surround.
p'A.gij'q

not or does not speak; gagged (Mnon.).

kha hkhyig-pa to bind an ani;

mal's

mouth

to

gag
l'
1

;

to strangle. to

p'^U^'q kha hyyur-wa to change one's words or promises.

p'ngiw

kha-hkhyoms

be

agitated

outwardly: j*'*T V''*'**'F*3wl fluti chen-po des rgya-mtshohi kha hkhyoms the surface of the sea was troubled by that
great wind (A.
r>'*\'Z

P^ll'i kha hgriy-pa (k/ia-dig) = f>'*.wy kha hcham-pa of the same opinion or
disposition.
f'^g"! kha-hyril (kha-dif) the

selvedge or
'l

16).

loose tufts of thread on either edge of a

kha-ya-po difficult (Sch.).

cloth:

3*'5'F*$*'

l

w8 r SW
i
!

l

the

r>'"I'x

kha-ya-ma or

F'flp.'*!

Isha-gan-ma

fringes of the tent being
cotton.

made with

blue

the square nig that is spread over a great man's cushion or seat.

P'^S kha-ryod

ill

or

rough language;

kha-yan a quadrate, square one sixth of the Tibetan coin called tanka, which is equivalent to one anna in India:
P'l*.
;

also a slanderer (Sch.).

F*fl kfia-rgan privilege of old age (Jd.).

fr<i|c,-q

kha

P'^^i kha-ryyan rrr^T which the Indians chew
beautifier of the

the betel-leaf
;

gafi-ica adj. square.
'

literally

the

mouth.
:

F'

q e >'S q r
l

ti

'I

a

kha-yafi-dyar-smra-wa
to

to

talk at
(

random;
.

speak

at

f'JTq kha-ryyal-wa to win a di-pute

pleasure

q^-^'S'^W^'P'S' bdud
5'

rigs-kyi sems-

thoughtlessly )

can kha-rgyal
lid. (Sch.).

F'*p kha-yab cover,
P'S^'I*!*'

demon kind won
I"'!*!

the animate beings of the the controversy.
;

kha yyen-phyogs '&W3 with
;

kha-rgyug idle talk

unfounded

the face upwards (in expectation)
tantly, eagerly.
F'SI

expec-

assertion (Jd.).
r"'|S

kha-rgyud, resp. ^i'*^ shal-ryyitd,

6

*

kha-yrafis (kha-dan) enumeration.

same

as

m*'^

gtam-rgyud, oral tradition

;

f'5 kha-gru (kha-du) or *W9J mthah-gru the corner limit or sphere of a place, also

also certain mystical doctrine not allowed

to be written
P'sfr

down.

of the mouth.

The width

of the

mouth
of
< '|

of

kha-sgor the shoulder bone.

a vessel or pot, also the

mouth.
grn

opening a r5' <w-''%''VT^ ''r*>V*i*

the
F'!*'*!

kha

sgyur-wa
;

kha-

r*'|^i

kha-lo

dkar-hbol rtsa-med mchog that broad in space, of white and soft being appearance, and without grass, is best
yafi$-$ifi

to rein the mouth sgyur-wa to govern a horse) to lead, guide, influence other (of
;

persons.
%

kha-sgrog
-g^'^-q.

(kha-doy)

p

gfl|-ait-cm-

(Jig.).

I n this passage

rih

kha-

126
tgrog

means shutting or binding up the
P'at*i

kha-char= abbreviation

of

P'",

straps of a trunk or leather box.
P'lflw kha-bsgos advice.

enow and

*^'", rain.
k/ia-c/iing

the taming or appeas-

P'g'i

MM

lna-pa

= ^'*{

scn-gc the lion

ing of wild beasts, &c., by witchcraft.

(Won.).
P'g'S kha sna-wa or

P$
P'gwd kha
sfias-pa

kha-chu

(W*n

shal-chab)
colloq.

^rrar,

VW.

spittle;

also used

for

P'5'$

to anticipate

hand

;

or say something beforeto speak out inconsiderately.
1.

kha-wahi chu snow-water.
P'$'5J"1 kha chu-plmg n. of a place on the uplands of Kha-chu (Lon. *| 32).

P'$1 kha-cig or P -fl $flj kha-gcig

or*

/-/, ^rfa^ a certain person
also
2.
fre

;

4 P'

!" k/uifas

""F^

hgah-re,
:

vp-'Vl

hgiih-sliig.

some

(7. 2rf.)

P^TS^'S* Ma
"or
as

P'ro Kha-che a native of Kashmir; a person that has tLe a Mahomedan
;

>call

command

over

much

;

principal or impor-

phur-sgrar

vifiiHm*^

some

it

a flying word";
said.

P'ST^

kha-cig iia-rc

tant things (p'S'H'jj*i kha-thc-ira rnams) ; n. of a mask in the religious plays of Tibet.
prafc-jM

Komeone

kha-che

fkyes.,

p'3'^ij

klin-che

P'i

kha-cnl or P'$* kha-ctir

Kashmir

;

mc/<og, v. 3*'3*< rjur-yuin (Mf.on.), 3C*fi\fVl or
fiW*T saffron, the

a Kashmirian.

produce of Kashmir.

P'1=.

k/ta-pcaft clever talking, cf.

p'fj*.

Q

kha

sbi/an-po

eloquent;

dexterous

in

kha-che hgron-khan, p'X'J'pt za-khan an inn kept by a Muesalkha-che
p'S-^Jfa'pie.

conversation.
P'lJS k/ia-bcud=$*[e
-'

man
cu-yan u.
of a
che

at

Lhasa or
HTfl

medicinal substance (Sman. 149).

finffron,

mchog which the Tibetans obtain from
-

in Peking; ffa'*&*lkh& ^S^TSI the chief article, i.e.,

Ma-gcod cover

;

in Ld. cork.

Kashmir; p

S'-]

p

*i

k/ia-c/ic

<;a-kha-ma a

A/(o-6w/idle talk, prattle (Sch.).

kind of yellow flower resembling saffron

i

kha-chag defect in the blade a knife or an axe), but P'*"!'^'^ kha(of 'hag. na-ral= to get the mouth damaged
P'*^l
:

I

which imported from Kashmir

is

largely

!

grown
of

in Tibet;

p-l--*)-p-*raX-^g kha-che

^a-kha-ma spor rcr hlru the cost of a spor

and nose torn
edge

;

P'ST^'^fc kha thug-po son the

Kashmir ^a-kha-ma flower

is

a bnt

or

(of a knife, &c.)

has become blunt

barley flour (Rttii}.

;

p^4|'3fcA:/ja

turned,

i.e.,

log-son the blade has become bad P'^'^l kha mi-Mug the
;

pT^I*J1 kha-chcm&,
c/tems, last will,

resp.
-

^ ?w
-

a/.al-

testament
to

sharpness
5'li

is

wanting;
(in

^'P grihi-kha or

c/tcms

hjog-pa

grihi so

Khams) the blade
ill

of a

g(c:m'i^ k/ia-c/tcms
last will to

p 8W^I^'q kliamoke a will; p'?**) rlun-la bkur stnt (his)
:

knife.

the winds (Bchu.).
in

P'l

II

:

abuse

;

language

(Jd.).

P'<6

kha-chos hypocrisy; religion

P'*^ kha-c/tad,

i^m'*^
;

thai-chad agreeP'*^

talk only.
ft-niai /,/<-$<;//

ment, covenant

;

a truce

kha-chad=
reason

ff/Rarfri idle talk, prattle;

chad-don special

object or

talk

as

in

a

delirium

:

p'<r^

(he)

prattles.

Ft!
kha-rnthun.

127
skad-mnam
of equal,
i.e.,

kha-mthun-

same

words
jf
(

or

opinion

:

pa or

thug-pa to agree upon

;

%mpmrqrfr*prm

you )

eat together

kha-hcham k/in<gs=%'%'<$^\H'residing wife; to live harmoniously (Mnon.).

(you) should agree in speech.

together as

husband and

Ff* kha-rnin old or second-hand articles.
k.*i

P'&Q
thiil-iea,

kha hche-wa, same as
to promise
;

p'Wi

kJut

kha-brnons,

speaking sweet words
heart,

meaning nothing

or evil.

med-pahi kha-la mdse$-po bad at but very polite in expression

(Nmj. 10).

kha-hjam g.tin-khag=fr<w kha-hjam gtin-miy p^rfftfl*'^j|cai go ft an(i polite in language but
evil at heart.

P'$*w kha-snoms of same height; also of level surface rifWF*y*$'|irq they
:

were equal in height;
1^*1'^ bsil-ri

-

nS|-^-p) |^-q?-f5it.^-

rq kha-hjal-ua to measure.

kha-snoms-pahi khon$-$kyibs-na in a sheltered corner or cleft of cool moun;

kha hjug-pa to interfere

to

tains of level surface (Ya-scl. 35.).
("'5

meddle with meddlesome.
;

kha-ta or
;

P'f kha-tta

good advice

;

P'
clouds
;

kha-rje ^3, gg;T the chief of the
cloud-god.

lesson

PTl'V

kha-ta
;

bycd-pa or

Ace. to Cs. great lord,
luck,

hjog-pa

to give advice

mighty personage; good

good

for-

not to give advice to a bad

man

(Jig.).

tune; ace. to Jd. fortune, good, wealth.
P'i'l3'**1 kha-rje

khyu-mchog=

c:

^' s

^

bsod-nams
P't'*^

Tj<a

merit, moral virtue (Mnon.).

a > P'?, kha-twa, v. f>' kha-tbam-ga, a club or staff with a skull ^'"1 at the top, the weapon of S'iva, also carried

kha-rfe-can=^\^^'^ bsod-nams
moral merit
;

by

ascetics;

a trident
staff

can possessed of
(Mf,on.).

virtuous

Tantrik club or
1 top, v. f'^' ^

kha tam-ga a with a skull at the
;

f"'5

-q

|

kha-twam ga, trident

;

the

P't'* kha-rje die

very powerful
*'^rtte t*
1 i

;

also

high moral
-

merit:
if

V'C*^^

with three skulls piled one above another at the top, the lowest one
Tantrik
staff

^c.^E.'p'|'S

8Hc.

we brother and sister were

resting

on a

pot.

This was

originally

not here, would you have been powerful

introduced into Tibet by
F'$*l

PadmaSambhava.
:

to-day? (A. 18).

kha-tig bitter

;

bitter taste, v. F'3 i

r^'i kha nan-pa or fT^'i kha-la nan2 pa to obey P'^' kha nan-po obedient.
*

kha-ica.

;

F'T-^ kha-to
as

fin is

said to

be same

P'S^ kha-nun sparing of words ; laconic
(Sch.)
:

r>-y.-<n*\-v$*-

kha-mifi lag-tsan, frvK^c

fljw^e, gsal-fin, a pointed stake used for the execution of criminals (Jd.).
P'fa kha-ton or fn&fi kha-hdon <<<i'^m,

*inif4-*f;*ptciryfn [ B one wno does not speak many words and who does not act
the thief.
P'?*l

^4Mc5 a reading or reciting from memory with a loud voice S'T'Pi'P'fa'^'m reading
;

kha-nog,

v. f>'^"\

kha-nog.

or saying by heart; F'ft'V^'*

1

*/'

ton-du

FWM
to

128
;

know by
q^Wf

heart

P'lft '3=-'"

kha-

P'lSf^

ton

byafi-ira

tfftftjrr

(mgfw'ar)
1

a

spread on a cushion
or couch.
F'

kha-stan a soft thin, rug that is a cover for a cushion
;

clear recitation of prayer or

hymns. Also

explained

as

^yn^w$**V ^:*r
t
l'

t
;

'^
;

kha sten-du above
towards
he
:

;

besides
'

;

on

;

<0^-jvg"vq to recite religious tracts from memory, without having recourse to

upon

at

^'Ft^'V'W
upon
it

(il fli -

4/'-

Sted-du

slniijs

sat

(Pag. 64.)

books:

"iC"!

Q' q

>f Vf'frSV

at scientific

works to

"by looking commit to memory"
same asP'^S'^ kha
1.

F'?^ k/ia-ston

not yet having eaten any-

thing

;

lit.

empty mouth.
kfiii-stonig

(A. 3).
P'lSS'l kha gtad-pa,

f
to bring
*9j

?*'*'

S

Q '**

rgyab-pa

is

de-

fined as

^fcT^rqfcrsr^r^-Avwp-wJ^'
no purpose.

tprad-pa or vy^'i ra-spr ad-pa

i'iri, to revile one another for

together personally; to confront:

$*<

qvj'^'p'flpv^fl'qw hgi-o ma-niis-par rta ran hdon pas (Yi<j.) not being able

P'fJJ'^j kha tbam-ga,

y%-tj,*\-*i*i lha-yi

kha-gtad
to go,
2. to

phyag mtshan,
|"'"i
IT**

v.

^'5**'*!

kJm-tam-ga.
thug-thai or

(he)

let

the horse go towards you.

kha-thal=zy\'v*

3T
to

turn one's face.
kha-gtam, resp.
*!*'*?>*

thug rttam rice or barley particles.

P'"15W

shal-gtam,

P

wi kha tlial-tca=rr '&'Q kha hchc-tca
((/.).

oral tradition.

promise

p-qji|rq kha ffti(gs-pa=r>'^'^'^^ //'" ho gtugt-pa or P'T^'IS'" klta-la ho byedla

of satin in variegapTSj kha-thi a kind

ted colours.

pa

to kiss.
(n-fl|ifc.'q ]f]ta

gtofi-wa to injure

;

to abuse

P'51 kha-thug to the
;

brim= "lV'3"!
inside

g.donfill

to call names.

thug

:

P'5"l'^'
;

'

kha-thug skon-wa to
kha-nafi the

to

P'SJI* kha-btag$ anything that is put on the face, i.e., presented or placed before

the brim
P'S*!'"

P'^

brim

khu

thug-pa to meet in a contest,

a person for his acceptance; hence that ubiquitous article of Tibetan social intercourse, the presentation or salutation scarf. These scarves are of various descriptions.

in concert with.
P'3f"|

kha-thog top

or surface;
roof,

upon a
on the

thing =VTP

thog-kha on the

upper

flat.

The longest and

the best ones are presented

P'* kha-thor
(A*.)'.

pustules in

the

mouth

to the great lamas,

high

officials,

and

to

other personages

;

they carry respect ac-

P'3^ kha-mthun,

v.

P'^*< kha-cham.

cording to their quality, colour and length. There are different sorts of P'q5"l*< khabtatjs

p-wg^-q k/ia-mthitn-pr>

=r

>

'$,*\'

ci

kha-t hug;

pa agreeing

upon,

unanimous
>

also
>

(silk

presentation scarves)

p'i5<i|*r

arl'j^-sjcsigi^Jjq^si

mdnod,

kha-btags-la nan-mdsod, nin-bde-ma, P

phyi-

together with: <-g* ^|*^'fr in concert with the men of the palace

W'fr'l

bsod-btags, *'^'^ tshe-lha-mo or

w^'
sna-Miogs

they petitioned (Pag. 275). p'W) kha-hthal 1. regulating of stores

by equalizing
brgyad-slags,
yod.
bcu-sbags,

their quantities

:

a i'SV* ll !*<'

sog

*e.-S.-^-<*VVq * yo-byed sogs man nun hdra

hdra

byi-d-pa

la,

\&&'*;*'

129
l^'i rnin-pahi chad dan gsar ^prod-la hthab

bye4-pa(Rtsii.).

2.

p'Wq
pa

kha hthab-pa=

fll^'^'i gyul gprod

or ^*|'

wl dmag
;

wears the three garments of a monk of uniform colour. P'^TJ*' 1 kha-dog sgyur ica to change colour; P'Vr^i* the colour
'

hthab-pa to fight; to give battle (Mfion.).

changes

(Ja.).
'

p-^'qsvq kha-hthen btaA-wa=^'^^'^
Ion b_taft-wa to send a reply, to reply
P'

P'^I'S"!^' 2

kha-dog dkar-po=*\*\'fr dag-

byedoT ^'5'"*) rtsba kit-pi the cleanser, purifier
;

^'i
-(

kha htlwn-pa

(to pull

the mouth) to

also a

name for the dub grass

(Mfion.).

stop a beast of draught. P rtfc-q kha-kthor-pa = *'*x.'*Q!*'*i
hbral-tca, J*rq gyes-pa to scatter,

P'Vj'^'" kha-dog flan-pa
so-sor

^Wl

of dis-

agreeable or bad color.
p'^q|l^-Ei

to sepa-

rate

one from another; also disordered,
$'*'pi'<0fvq

kha-chen-po

confused, confusion:

a book,

g$er gold (Mnofi.).

the leaves of which have become mixed
at the up together; W<^p-<OM*rfyr* there were a few scattered ones place

P'^'^'3 kha-dog Ita-bu or P' dog hdra-wa dog Ita-bu in colour
colour.

;

like its

only
classes

(A. 23);

^if^Kt^nVf^f^ft
the beasts there are two
of colours
;

ift<r<^
:

among

kha-dog fna-tshogs variety of different hues P'^ ql'^'*"l*i'
:

those that live secluded
scattered
(in

and those
of

fl-$*|-*q-<jfyj(

that

are

abodes

men

kha-dog sna-tshog mu-tig rob
S 2.).

and

yin-no an excellent pearl is of a variety of
colours (Lofi.

gods).

kha-dag swept clean, cleared up, entirely gone: ^v|qr*r*vp-vi|-*, nor phyugs thams-cad kha-dag soil his wealth
P'Vl

P'^l'i kka-dog-pa small hole or narrow
hole.

kha-dog
1

mthah

yaf-pa

and

cattle

have

all

disappeared.

l

variegated colours.
" kha-dog ysum-pa explained as
|'(5-)E.- fin

P'^"! kha-dig or P'?*| kha-ldig to

stamstama

mer

;

P'SJT*^

kha-ldig-mkhan

a

ba-gtaftrmig-pahi mid

merer.

MM
poisonous mouth

name

for

the tree called the ox-hoof

dug-can
;

(4000.)'
P'Vl
1

having poison in the
concert

mouth.

Ma-drag VS mighty,

haughty;
straight on.
signi-

P'V'i *^ a dum-pa being in
with having agreed.
;

P'VT* loquacious, talkative.

P'^' kha-draH just before
(soft

;

P'^TQ kha-dul-po
able
;

mouth) manage-

P'X kha-dro in
fies

Khams and Amdo

tractable.

iTr^* bkra-fis auspicious, of good
or appearance.

kha-dog or P'*^1 Tcha-mdog = **p.'H mdafis colour a *<^''^ E.'5|'P'' l''i s-'? the
P'^a|
-

omen

:

ie l i

P'X^ kha dro-b_o= P'^'5 kha hphro<f-po
agreeable, amiable, of pleasant

hair became blue-black;
dog-gi
pztigs
;

P'^1'5)' qIl III*i
11

kha-

company.

i^^q F^TfW

kha-dog

p-nim^-q kfia

gdafa-pa

fjRrpwur,

^mj

rnthun-pa of one uniform colour: ^'^s.'

Jhr^Tfljfirp-^^iqafW^N-q dge-sM
gos ffsum

cfiof-

yawning; opening the mouth; gaping; widening the mouth p'fte.^) kha-g.dai>$
:

kha-dog mtfmn-par ysol-pa

he

na$ having opened the

mouth widely,
18

130
kha-mdog,
v.

F'Vj kha-dog.

of

law or

religion.

kha-hdar one
or too loud.

who

speaks too fast
q J|-qJ( Householders

and monks in general,

P'^l kha-hdig

cork,

bung, stopple.

in keeping these sins

and

failings conceal-

tu mthun-pa agreeing in

an account.

ed, because they do not issue forth from the mouth, such are styled kha-na-ma-tho-

wa.

P' 3!'*!

?'q')'wq kha-na ma tho-wa mi
sinless;

kha-hdon,

v. P'fa kha~ton.

mnah-wa f^<m the

p^'wTq'^'"
-

kha-hdon byetf-pa to recite or mutter a charm or mantra.
kha-rda muttering, whispering P' q;q3E.- Ej-|^ to mutter or speak auspiciously.
!

kha na ma, tho-wa mcd-pa ^JT^B without sin or moral corruption F'^'i'f 5 flj5i kha;

P' 8

:

na-ma

thohi

pfewMBVTVtrC^rflWk
l c i'*i '\'%

1

sinful or blasphemous speech.

F', kha-brda
phecy,
*uc/2j

conversation, talk, pro;

MI'S kha nag-pa=W
nag-po darkness
ance
;

prediction

it

also signifies i-'lYi'

;

also of

mun-pa gloomy appear-

tyad-pa bzad-po good explanation or utterance ^FV*^W*JK<a<1!lfrpnH'** fl
<

morose; wicked (4f#ow.).

:

"may the doctrine (of Buddha) prosper" such was his righteous utterance (A.
U6).
F'l*^

kha-nan yesterday morning. But F'^'^'qjjw kha-nan-du blta$ ^*H^M^: to
f>'*F

look inwardly:

(i^e.-

kha brdah=yf\*
:

$kad-cha verbal

gK.'l^'i'?

the knowledge gained by intro-

utterance

S'&'vDiistfc.-uie.-w

*tfc.-q'vg*r

spection,

which
of

is

carefully to

examine

^(q-q^-i)-^ although he had beheld the girl's eyes, he acted as if he had not seen
her and gave no spoken sign.
?'?*>**

how much

good or evil and virtue or vice exists in one's own heart, causes rejection (of evil)

and acceptance

(of good).

kha-sdams = f>'') kha-ta or flftwrp
advice.

kha nad mouth disease.

gdams-kha
F'jjw'fl

v^ kha
^'^^t kha mnanspeech.

nar-can oblong.
;

kha sdom-pa
;

pa

to silence

to

gag or stop the
JsTfir

kha-nas orally by word of mouth ; B 31 ^ cuckoo also to cry or call like
;

t P'l^'^I kha-da-ga
or sabre of the Hindus.

the scimitar

the

cuckoo;

p'^*r3^'q

kha-nas

ser-tca

to

speak colloquially.
lit.
i.e.,

q kha-na
V^'i

ma-tho-wa,

f'^t kha-nin last year.

kha na ma thon-pa, not confessed,
;

not come out of the mouth

^3*1 also

of
w^j,

cotton cloth,

etc.; that

having

two

a metaphysical term defined as $*Tr^'$w i5'i)R, a name for sin and moral corruption.

colours (Rtsii.).

P'^l kha-nog or

f'^"\

kha-nog clamourous
for a thing, etc.

;

There are two kinds,

viz.,

(1)

^'"^'f 'pr

asking often
the three

and often

:

^*r?'q ran bshin-gyi kha-na ma-tho-wa sins which are committed naturally and semiconsciously; (2) P'q5-p^--1f-q bcas-pahi kha na ma tho-wa sins of overt violation

may be classed together,
(Rtsii.).

(namely)
strick-

defilement, importunity,

and being

en by lightning

131
'

kha-nor son he has erred in

well developed, full

blown.

2.

=r
Ita-

conversation.

kha hbye4-pa '^pvw to yawn.

P'W kha
pa
to silence.
f>'t

mnan-pa=f*'2W'
;

ci

kha sdom-

r!T< kha-phyogs^F^w&P* kha

to obstruct the speech

also to coerce,

wahi phyogs the direction of one's sight.

p-wq Mia-hphaA-wa^'^^i
divulge
;

to

the letter P kha,

kha-pa the volume marked with i.e., the 2nd volume. Any-

spread

ill

rumours

(Jd.).

P'^
?>'*%*{

kha-hphyur ^air^
fare Jffar
;

a solid meaor *& hlo.

thing (book or article)
letter
-2i

marked with the

sure for grain like B

f kha.
kha-po sometimes =F kha
speech,
tig

kha hphrod-po, v. P'^'S kha dro-bo.
I
:

r"

e.g.,

p'Q'^arS

mild speech and polished

P'^

kha-wa firw bitter
(""'*>

;

P'fa khai.e.,

from

and
:

^1'5

bitter,

of

language.
f>'^\'^ kha rgyag-pa or Mia man-po talking much: $" *)'$}!' fr*.-g

very bitter taste

X'p'q ro

kha-wa bitter
;

P'Q'^ kha-po-che

=

taste
F'3i

;

p'SKA kha-mfiar bitter and sweet
bitter:
*c.'f'S

kha-mo
is

chan kha-mo
taste.

JfvH'qS'p'q*'X rtsi-ge sreg-for zer-wahi

kha

beer that

very strong or of bitter
=11=.*'

pho-chc

a shrew called Rtsi-ge sreg-$or,
talkative (Rdsa. 31).
lip.

who was very

pTCJ

II:

gans f%H

snow:

r

rSI*' kha-lpa(js = rw<i'*\'H khal-pags

(^'^^"l^sf kha-wa dud Itar gsal the snow P'^'S kha-wa (was) unsullied as shells
;

P'3 kha-spu hair of the face; whiskers.

kye f%*?w,

?fa,

^VT snow-born
c c f>' ^'^l -'^

or ocean-

F*
che

kha-pho

boasting: p'9'X kha-phoalso boasting

god;
>wa

f>'^ kha-goH =

snowball;

one who boasts much;

P'** kha-char
<;/)!>

snow and

rain; ("'**
-

much.
F'Sn]

sleet;

F"'*^ Kha-wa-can
:

kha-phog verbal reproof.

F'*
saucer.

kha-phor W%(

Tibet, the snowy country |" i'*^ jj'$i the c-'^' country oji snow, or snowy country
;

;

STPWf

a cup

;

a

R^-frqj-^p-tr^-l-*^!-^ 100 years (after) my time the snowy lakes of Tibet becoming
dry;
swallow, prob. enowswallow. P'^'IOI kha-wahi rtul fV?TH9i. lumps of snow: p'nS^-*! khaP'l's?'*!

F%

kha-phyi the outer edge.

a

mthun-pa

unanimity
vote.

in

a

conference;

f?^^f%

unanimous
Fl*'^
rol-tu

wahi phye-ma ff^TTT^irr snow dust; flakes p'W) khaof snow also camphor, 3fqK
;
;

kha-phyit- lta=<*'*.'*F'fr\*c

pha-

hlab

or P'^'^i'i
;

kha-ica

hbab snow-fall,

ances

;

kha phyogs-pa examining by appearalso to look outside (Mnon.) F'^v
:

avalanche

p^Wt"*| having
f^M<qfi

the

name

of

^'"'S'^i'i kha-phyir bltas kyi yes-pa knowing or judging things by their external

suow; P'^'^S

glare

from the

appearance.

snow, snowy lustre. prq'^vQ Kha-ica tfkar-po n. of an important religious institution in KItams.
!"<

P'^
P'3'l

kha-phyis napkin.

Vn

kha-wa

ri-pa^wfcw
(Yig.
k. 6).

Gafit-

kha phye-wa=r '$wi kha rgyas-pa 1. to bloom or blossom; also
>

l?ofi$-pa

a Tibetan; one residing in the

snowy mountains

132 P'
2

^

I

:

kha-bad.

the

architectural

3 'i kha-hbu-wa, the

opening of the
nal-wa
to
lie

ornament of a Tibetan house formed by the projecting ends of the beams which
support the roof.
II:

buds of flowers.
p-figq-g-yarq

kha-hbub-tu

with one's face downwards.
l-<*grq

the humidity of the air
(fa.).
-

Ma-hbug-pa

sftr^f,

fTF^^-sirff

caused

by snow

unblown
reg-bzA

flower, buds.

P^'SS kha-war byed'=^T'P*R.
of soft or pleasant touch (Jtfnon.).

f^'l
wa
article
;

kha

hbyed-pa

= F\*

kha-phye-

to open a cover or pasted letter or
is

packed

P'9 kha-bu or P'S^'" *//a bttb-pa being

also

used of books.

turned downwards

:

wH' *'*f" '*W4'
ll

L

kha hbrt-tca (kha-di-wa) to make
less,

I have fallen headlong into the abyss %*** of sin (Pag. 185).

to

diminish; to

detract

from

(in

quality).

PS*
F'9'
1!

kha-byaft

^q:n^,
;

Vtfipl with

r=-

kfia-tbyafi

eloquence;

^'3=-'^

klia

the face downwards

learned, wise.
in bloom.

sbyan-po eloquent.
kha-fbyar or fl^'l kha fbyar-wa of a vessel or box closed or shut
l

Ma bye-tea

ft^rfti<T

r"'9"I

kha-brag (kha-tag)

forked rocks
>

the
;

mouth
:

any forked object; also as adj. %T '%i\Lokha-brag, the mountainous wild country N. E.
of

up

MriTPV'V*l'*<ril"''* F
filled

s-rtt-chen

kha-fbyar rin-chen sil-mns bkufi a covered

Bhutan inhabited by wild
kha-bral (kha-tal)

tribes.

copper vessel
etc.

with precious

thing.-,

(G

kah. 77).

P'gi

ftflT divorce,

separation, especially of lovers or

husband

f|k 3H'*

kha-tbyor ~thig-k

*jK-fn^

and

wife.
^'

n. pr. (Schr. Td. 2, 275).

kha-dwaA eloquent:

f

dwan-choy able to epoak powerfully, elo-

quent (Nag.
P'Sg"!

11).

anything that is left after eating or has been touched by the mouth but not eaten;

f>

'$*

kha ibyor ^V^f^fz,

mw

rlV"
literally

to kiss.

k/ia-tfbrag
qI

the mouth-

split
is

:

'P'*\9

chu kha-dbrag a river which

rtV*^^
i.' Rdo-rje

kha-sbyor

bdun-ldm=^
Tautrik

divided or branched out;
is

"Wf'^gi a
;

hchafi,

the

Buddha

branched into several paths 3.'9|-<w*rr>^qq| the branch of a tree which
divides into several parts
;

road which

Vajradhara

(Mfion.).

p-wn*i kha nia-hcham = r>'*)'**i kha mi-

fiT*'F'^g*J rmigis

mthun discordant;
kha
;

P>'*)A*

kha mi-hcham

pa kha-dbrag
or split.

a hoof which

bifurcated

does not agree or live in harmony.
ma-phye-u-a fi^Jm an opening bud one of the twenty-one hells in which sinners are punished, being bound
P'^'3'i

P'WH Kha
a

goddess theon Jvalamukhi (she with a burning or

hbar-ma arrar^^ n. of In the Hindu pan(Rtsii.).
is

with ropes.
P'**'3

glowing

mouth)

worshipped

as

the

kha-ma

bye

fi1^

a

store

or

goddess of cholera.

repository (Lex.).

133
frsl

i^-n kkami-fes-pa not knowing the
;

language.
P'8* kha-mur bit (of a bridle).
P'*>"S

the principal ingredient, on adding thereto another drug in less quantity, it is called adding the

having

made one drug

kha-med silent

;

cannot reply
is

:

w^
ran-

kha-tshar.

"P'*>\

i^'l 'J'*^ lab-na kho-wed,
if

bton-na
;

P'^i kha-tshub snow-storm.
P'* kha-tsho boasting
tsho f in-tu che-wa a great
:

rgyu med
sacked,

asked there

no reply
1

if

P'^'-^''^'P kha
(Jd.).

nothing to produce (from one's

pocket); P'^'IT",

V^'Vl'*

(the

common

swaggerer

saying

is)

"the dumb doss not speak,

kha-tshod

the weighing: P'*V^'

the tongueless stammers." P'S

q-3)-a^-jm'q kha-tshod, blta-phyir

Miig-

gi Ian $mras-pa (A. 6)
irresistible

considering one's

kha-mo

enchantment;

expression with a view to

reply

to

it.

influence.

(Iqj-qjK^-mtr^-gv^-q tshig gari-hdra lab-yon

kha-dmar
;

lit.

"red mouth

"
;

tshod tta-wa.)

a
P'*^ kha-tshon= p'^3") kha-hgrig,

demon or preta a ghostly apparition. This word is used in astrology and the
ative

kha-hcham or

medical works of Tibet to signify an affirmWhen prediction, good or bad.
is

kha-mthun unanimous, of one voice or opinion. Generally used with "f&^'i, meaning 1. as in w*rv*J3^P'*'3^

such a prediction
p

realized

it is

called
it

qvpt-qvp'^w^ (A.
colour
;

3),
;

all
lit.

unanimously
P'
2

<^w5i| kha-dmar phog,
called P'V*''? 1'?

when
tog.

otherwise

and firmly agreed upon
hence to be
to
1*

^ kha-tshon
2.

is

kha-dmar

all of

one colour in the

face,

i.e.,

kha-rtsat=P*K kha sad
:

yester-

=

be of the same opinion.

'"1 "l^V

thag gcod-pa a final decision or
:

the boy that P's.'5)'SW' day forenoon was here yesterday forenoon (A.) also
;

resolution

^'3'5 i'^ |^'Wp'^ iS
IJ

r

(A.

15)

they

all
;

resolved to
wi|3<!| g'p-^

forsake

their

the day before yesterday; p*'v;-fl|*v"y*4
fear-sail

kingdoms
g.cig-tu

KVF
it
is

mthah
difficult

gzah ni-ma last

Sunday

(Jd.).

kha-tshon cho$ dkah

kha-rtsod disputation,
P'* kha-tsha
bitter

to

arrive at a

final decision.

3.

surface

or width (Ja.).

and acrid; hot in
kha-mtshul jpn
the lower part of the
P'**=.*T

the

mouth; pungent

like pepper; ace. to

muzzle

;

mouth

;

Jd. (a) a very acrid

sort

of radish

human

face.

;

(b)

aphtha) thrush, a disease of the incident to horses, cows, sheep, &c.
*-^c.-fc'q

mouth
;

kha htshafis-pa=^' ci
;

smod-pa

(c) P'

to slander

to curse (Mnon.).
:

kha-tsha

rifi-fle-tca

daily

warm
|

food.
P'**,

kha-htshog abuse

p'^'l^'Q kha-

htshog chen-po a great abuser, a reviler.

kha-tshar

1.

fringes,

such as the
or cloth or

threads at the end of a
rug, scarf or sash.
in
2.

web
:

kha-hdsin *!{*

the cuckoo.
to receive
;

minor ingredients
f

kha-hdsin bye$-pa
in a friendly spirit
(Jd.)
;

a medicinal mixture

;

to be kind
-

to

assist

also

to

govern

;

p *2^c

134
sent or

commissioned

for

governing

!

tshig-gi

(Qsarn. 25).

f tad-rag
fol-

good speech

;

one who speaks

rragqmqp kha-hdsin psum are the
lowing three
:

pleasantly (llfnon.).
ffctft

^TH "
1

sug-smel

f^

small

khahi-nin

^<ETq the day
face

before

cardamom, Convolvulus turpetthum; 3^'*J* %'%'%^ pi-pi-lin long gur-gum saffron; and
pepper (Sman. &50).
t

yesterday.
P'^"l

kha-hog

lit.

downward down;

cast $^'i

;

P'^1''^51'i kha hog-tu bcug-pa

or

hdsum-pa to shut the mouth.
of
:
l

chud-pa

to

subjugate one,
l

or to

kha-shan

inferior

or of low position F' W<*'l[ q!' q a| fortune of being of low birth (Ja.).
f'Q*i
f>'$

quality the mis-

enforce obedience upon

;

r*qT'* ?*''5'3' q

kha hog-tu
head-long,

bttas-te fi-wa to die falling down
i.e.,

with the face downward.

kha-shur water-hen (Sch.).
kha-she

mouth and mind
) )

:

M'**"
;

kha ya lit. being one's partner or match as to speaking, but in general
partner,

hypocrite
;

;*) kha-she mi mchung-pa hypocrisy r kha-she med-pa unr ^'* *V
;

pa

assistant; p'^'SV^ kha-ya byedto assist : p 5 l' u K '&'3 1 ' I am not his
'

)

''

feigned sincere. f^e. kha-shen breadth, expanse,
the heavens.

e.g.,

of

match, not able to compete with him; with regard to things, I am not equal to
the task ( Ja.).

("fa kha-shen=kha-hb shan-pa modest

in speech
F'^

;

also not able to speak well.

label

f'^I kha-yig <siJ*r. the letter F, a a letter or writing on the cover
;

kfia-shes food, victuals (Cs.).

of

any parcel or

letter

;

an inscription.
1

W'3iJl

kha

zam,

P''

kha-che
;

zam

f'^m kha-yel the spout (of a kettle or

a kind of chintz from Kashmir

also a

any other

vessel):

gw*3*|* *Jp ffF<Hoi'

kind

of cloth or silk stuff in variegated
:

colours

ww

*$-^Wi
(A. 23).
("'^"l

bal

zam chintz from Nepal.

drawing with his lips at the which hangs down outside the vessel spout

F'*w kha-zif food, either in general or

some particular
n*,srq*-^

article
la
;

of food

:

fw<s

-

kha-yog a false charge (Ja)

:

'V

kha-zas

brkam-par
p'wijie.'**

gyur
kha-zis

q5-p-IQq]'gt

he longed for food
fftshan-ma
food).
F'l^'

was

ne-pahi kha-yog byun(C.) he unjustly accused (Ja.} w^wwjf ^'
1 ;

ma

clean food, or clean in (taking
cakes, etc.

In Sikk. khabze sweet
1!

unfounded accusations

arise

such as those
impli-

kha sum-pa

to close the

mouth

coming by word
cation,

of

mouth and by
-

or

any opening.
+ F'S^ kha-zur or f*'$*kha-sur *sr5sk the

though one
kha-ffyel

is guiltlesg.

wide mouth
the

:

|p

Zr>5e.*r

date fruit.
i

^F^frrq-f*

shape

of

kha zer-wa g<3T loquacious.

kha-gzar spoon or ladle. F'l^ kha-ffsi or f>'*\$ kha-gze in W. rake in gardening in Spiti a carrier's
^

Sumeru resembled that of a vessel placed with its wide mouth upwards (i.e., like a
pyramid on a point)
p-jj|^n]q

(Ya-sel. 3S).

;

kha-pyog3

= F'fi cw

kha-khebf.

load

;

kha ze-pa a coolie

(Ja.)..

cover of a vessel or basket (G. kah. 77).

135
F'^ kha-ra in TF.
(/d.)
;

for

T*

Aa-ra, sugar

kJta-rlans

TTO

vapour from the

trough

;

manger

(Sch.).

mouth.

Kha-rag
n. of

n. of a place in Tibet.

p-r>'<w kha-la me-hbar
of the Yi-dag or Preta.
p-ar^-ci kha-la

n. of the

King
zas

a celebrated lama of the

Kadampa

School of Buddhism.
;

r^-^a=metaphi *N
g.
|"

f**> kha-ra? neck-cloth
F'^ kha-ri or
F'S'^
(*'$

a towel.

to eat
a

;

do eat (K.
ai '^' f

28).

k/ia-ru, v.

pr^

khal-ri.

P' ''S|'^'^'

P

kha-la $Za-te don-la dkah

kha-ru

tshwa-^^^^
:

black salt

easily spoken but difficult in

meaning.
thanks-

used medicinally (Mnon.) *^f, ft^, ft^^I^T a kind of salt (procured by boiling
earth impregnated with saline particles)
;

P'^
giving
;

kha-lan
reply,

mouth

requital;

especially

angry reply;
:

also requital for food received (/a.)

^S'W
reply

a particular kind of

salt of fetid

odour

p-uj^-q^wt^-Rgqi

when

disordered with evil
is

(used medicinally as a tonic aperient). It is black in colour and is prepared by

thoughts, the food of faith
(Mil).

my

fusing

fossil salt

with a small proportion

of emblic

myrobalan, the product being muriate of soda with small quantities of

(""Wg*. kha-las lyufi sprung forth from the mouth.

muriate of lime, sulphur and oxide of iron (M. Wills.). Klia-ru tshtca-yi$ drod
?kyed $bo$-pa dun sgeg
rlufi

P'Qj^'CJ Kha-lin-pa n. of a place in
Tibet.
P' 5* kha-le, v.
pi'^q
|S'">

daft

hgyin khrog lad

khya-le.

hjomx-par byred. flatulence,

accom-

kha-leb cover, lid.

panied with belching, rumblings, phlegm, and wind, is overcome by the medicinal
salt.

kha-k

1.

=rr fl*'
2.

kha-phyog$

towards the mouth.
(Schr.)
;

according to
ace. to Cs.

of the ship others the helm

prow

Syn.

S'^'T rtt-tsa
fio

ka

;

jjY* $min-tshba

;

aj'^tt.

3.

and

Ja. the

glans-

$?" bi-tam
p*'|"J

(Mfion.).

penis.

kha-re

$kyens=r*'$wt

kha

fiS'vq

kha-lo sgyur-pa or

sgynr-wa

tkyafis-pa or ?#q

no tsha-wa to be ashamed.

F'^Ti kha reg-pa to touch anything by the lips to put one's mouth to a thing in order to eat or drink it.
;

kha-lo igynr-mkhan

one

who

steers

;

also

a governor, a driver, a charioteer.

See

P'X kfia-ro taste in the mouth.

especially in narrative of early life of the Buddha in Dulwa.
f'Si'i

f^FH*
:

1

kha-btsum

silent,

kha fo-/>a=[*'5ql*'' c| kha phyogs-pa

without reply ^q'ii-q-i-i-p-Xfl|-^ therefore remain silent with untingling ear
!

^nrftr,

wrm;
shadow.

Sgyur-rnkhan
also a

one

phyogs ("'ll*''!^'^^ who leads or guides;

khi

F'^TljX'^l kha-rog sdod-cig be silent ; do not speak. F'Xflj'q is also freq. ("'^T^'Ti
to remain silent.

p'Sij'ti

kha-log-pa to reply; to contra!

dict:

r^'i

kha

rog-pa g?nrar

a

kind of

3'rMj ^T$X'F'' fal' t| phyi-la hgro-na tshur kha log-pa walking out he returned

drug, prob. sulphate of copper.

hither.

136
a the spotted deer (/a.) ; elk pj'-^ kha-g Sikk. the common deer of the (Sch.). In

W'*i Kha-si

n.

of a wild hill tribe of

India (of the Khasya Hills) (Dsam.).
F*|K. kha-sifi 1.

Duars

is

called

P'-q.

F-f^THI
jest
;

kha-^a-yi

the day before yester-

ja-khug a tea bag made of deer-skin.

r^
P'$

kha-$ags

joke

in

W.

day. 2. time back.

also = several

weeks ago; some-

(Ja.).

P'H

kha-sur, v. P'l* kha-zur.
1.

F-*pkha-fas (sounded "kha-she") some;
colloq. in C.
q l i ''*1

W'^J kha-so

abbreviation of P

k/td,

kha-fitgs-can
;

or P'^V*^ kha
'

mouth, and* so, teeth. 2. the edge, border P '" '" w>'^ kha-so la hphan-fio of a thing
'

:

shetf-can

eloquent
ti

P'^l"
nothing
"

>^

k/ut-fugt

meg-pa

om who has
i

much

_p-g
187)
:

l

-acm4E.'Jr

flung to the border (Pag.
Q*'
9'*''
li

to say,

r^'S'P

same

as S|Y*' n

J'*^

gkad-cha

lub-rgyu

kha-khyer las hjah

med-pa.
p'-ffl

kha-qob

in colloq.

lies

;

obscene

la <;an-rgyab gru-rdsinf-kyi mthah of the ship with iron lined the border

^y*

talk; idle talk.

P
*te

P ^' kfia-for breach of promise soA the mouth has run away, kha-for
:

^

plates (A. IS). kha-sral chufi-flu qfH deaf.
i

denoting inconsiderate talk
p'Jfrs kha-fol-xa

(Ja.).

heart

;

^TOTO rinsing the mouth; sipping water and ejecting it.

!>=p'fa kha-ton learning by used by children in W. primer
\

kha-ff*ng, v. P'l"!"! kha-bsag.

kha-g.sar

new, fresh.
or

iP'"^ Kha-fya
^a

n. of a

mountainous
I

kha-g.sal

I^^'P

ffsal-k/ta

a

country in the north-east of India (Ta.)
the

\

message;

clear
:

Khasya

Hills in Assam.

language

p'ft'fljwi'p

language; kha

intelligible
mi-ysal-irti

obscure; not in clear terms or language.

rough language controversy, discussion, with rgyag-pa to dispute ^^' dispute
;

P'l* kha-g./<o

:

;

35'q|e.'^'p'fll^ 'l*i'51'5'^ pointing his fingers
l

thing more to with the best thing and nectar in oblation
:

made full by adding someit SV >*' qy'lT' ql*' filling
I

he goes to dispute (Rdsa. 17).
kha-b<;a4 talk, gossip.

(Rtsii.).
p'jwfl)

kha $<z<7=P I**) kha gsag SIWR
kha
to associate

talkative.

Kha-sag
of a wild country

""

on the border of Tibet

p'qfj'J

Ifsre-ica

with

one another,
ing together.
P'r^
k/ia-rtsafl.

viz.,

in drinking

and smok-

Mia-sail, v.

p-flj5(E.-^

kha-b$lafi-du turned
b$lafi-pa

kha-sadt
'^'3'i-'l^
tell

explained as IWT"!^'
to speak one's

(rq^c.-ci

kha

to

lie

upwards: with the face

mind;

to

uppermost.

honestly what has occurred in the
kha-sub a bribe
l
'

mind.

fig*' kha-bslu? to tempt by false hopes to deceive by sweet words. and
; ;

fji

:

P'fi ''a^'

kha-sub

bribe. lyin-pa to offer a

promises P'$1 kha-hrag forked mouth or point the bifurcated mouth or end of anything

137
made ^T*^
of iron or

wood:

5i'*i'^

khyag in C.

ace. to

khag-

nub-na

fifl-ffcig

rtse-mo kha-hrag daft

chen important.
:

in the west a tree with forked top, &c.

kha-lhag remnant of a meal.
a raven
4
:

that which

is

fJ'^'-^K^^T" khwa^nraf^^T the science

class, part, division, section (of

divided off; a a book or
;

place)

;

"S'P'H

bcu-khag the tenth part

skad
of

qes-pafyi rig-pa

tithe: r^T^V"'*'' |

fT* May gni$-Za p/wg-sofi
places.
;

drawing omens from the caw of a raven.
able

I have hurt myself in two

^'f>"\

yul-khag a province, district
bya-khiva de<$ thub-pa
to scare a raven

frf"! rgyal-

used as attribute of Bud-

dpon-khag principality; ^%|"i| dgon-khag monastic estate
*\3^'pil

khag kingdom;

dha

;

as long as a
is

boy cannot drive away a

magpie he

not considered ready (by his

or authority. }|' t\5as'|'!j'?i'*r 3i*r* 3^'''l3l'*& t>' tf^'^'w the different divisional chiefs

age) to get religious instructions.
i;'5

should
:

make

religious offerings (service)

khwa-ta the Tibetan magpie

P,'

for one night (Loft.

*

17)

;

jwilTSwr

khwa-tahi $a-yis g.don-na4 sel-war bye<f, khba-tahi sgro-yis $grib-$in byed the flesh
of the
evil

|^'pij'ftf *r*T$*w $kyab$ hgro scms skytdkyi khag kho-mo cag-rnams we who belong

to the class in
religion)

whom

the inclination (for

magpie removes diseases caused by
the feather of the

and

to

seek refuge has arisen

spirits;

magpie

(A. 19). khag-po
difficult,

prevents the patient seeing apparitions, spotted magpie or ^TH'S ghosts, &c.
;

hard; colloq.

"

khwatakhra-wa

fuller
1

name for the magpie.
dpya-tcarent or tax

kd-le khag-po."
is

awii-<^-y.5*fw|-Ei-^ this
;

work
is

^^

in kind

:

**'^fyr$IJ

w
1.

very hard nwpwi'S'^l the difficult P"l' 3 'i^' difficulties arose
;

way
;

FT

SS'*aJ chos bshin-du

Q''q khag-po
2.

che-ica to suffer

from want.
:

khbaham

dpyu-hbul

paid

rent

or

tax

ace. to Jii. bad, spoiled, rotten

wp|'
(Jii.).

according to religious law.

5'^=.

the butter has become rancid

means, resource; ktiag-mcd=*RW3)^ without means.
khag
a task, charge, business, duty, of importance FTB*> khagresponsibility
II
:

I:

a-=ftt^'Q f* khaa-khyim

house, residence,
Sten-khaA,

;

:

home a building f t-pe. ^TP^ hog-khafi, nvp* tar-kfiad
;
;

khur=*>*P\ 'R* hgan-khur to take charge of a thing or person, to be responsible for

upper story, lower story or ground floor, middle story IS^'P^ g.shun-khan means
;

anything, to be surety for anyone
*.'q i-q
|'i

;

FT
;

also the principal

or

central

room.

A
a

khag hkhur-ica to assume charge of ;
khay hgel-wa to place in charge
:| I'

khan-pa
cavern.

is

the opposite to SJT" p/ntff-pa,

oS'F**

bzo-MaA workshop; i^'pt
if'P

khagtheg-pa orP"l'S
;

t|

khagrgyagresponsible
:

ban-kh an store-house, store-room;

1 s go-

pa to guarantee become ^v<-q aqc.-q-pi 5ij der htsho-ica
thfg I warrant
eat there.

khan entrance, vestibule
or

;

SfVp* skor-khaA

yon-tea khag-

you

will get

something to

more properly if^'Bii skor-lam, passage running round a building or temple -^T
;

PT^

khag-theg or PTI31 k/iag-

pt fog-khafi paper house or a house where
19

138
In W. or manufactured. paper is kept used in the the scooping form or mould
so called. manufacture of paper is bed (garden) (Ja.). In f>*tshafkhafl flower
'i

khad-pa
;

a masonry building
pt-q-fl)^

also astoreyed house.

khad-pa

g.yo

$^f

the roof of a

house
it
;

:

P*' fvfi'** to
1

cover a house, to roof
ral-shifi

Buddhism
,>.,

P*' khafi signifies

F

nad, inside,

pcti'wVil*''* khafl-pa
or

gram-

the

heart:

pa

^vwi
;

tdrumt-pa ^PB^V
a ruined edifice.
tiad

a delapi-

dated house
the pus issues or inwardly being corrupt,
drops fromhim; q^^mya-fan-gyiMa* 1"'* *** mourning house also the body small house ; rent
; ; ;

fit.-tfc.-ap.

kfiad-pahi

^*ifc*,
;

V\V

the inside of a house; a

room

an apart-

P"^' yla house or room reserved for decrepit a house khaA chud-pa an occupant parents; P*'* such yafi-kfiafi chuA-pa of such "K.'ps."* a person of the second degree (if, during same right) his life, his son enters into the a large house; c*e A/ifl pt'3^
1

HW

ment.
P*'S Khad-bu n, of a fabulous country
;

^

a

little

house,

cottage.
;

1

^

f*.-to\

khad-mig a room
khad-rtsa the

a

cell.

;

p.'r
house.

foundation of a

'(/a.)

;

fK-latei

kliafi

chen-pa

imw:

one taking

pf$-4|w k/iad-brtsegs f*nili upper house or a storied room, v. pf^qfr'm'w
khad-pa brtsegs-pa.

his

(Sudh.)

abode in a great house or mansion weak persons belonging to ; old,

prswm
room.
pctjc.

Miad-sfiabs floor

;

flooring of a

Gautama's family.
Syn.
pshi;

Mafl-sMsp^'S^VP
it.

khad-pa
fields

dan shin-kha house and the cultivated
1

hdug-sa;

pp

*Afli;

gnas;
J4o{;

W*

l^

^
6'

rten-gshi;

?*-; lw ^

%W*

rfen'

attached to
ficctpc.

i'* l i>

-

kkad-bzaii

vm^.

residence

;

mansion.
(J^non.).

In Hud/1,

wfa

(^*ra),

*ftf%,

r*'|>* khafi-gner Jr?^I^, ^^TTB the steward of a house; the house-keeper ;

the

monument.
khan-bso-wa
architect.

^WN

mason

;

whose charge a house person in
p*'f*
khan-sten
?ra#ttrfr

is

kept.

the upper

pt^'Z^J
delay.

*/ins-/>a=W

rafts-pa

1-

roof or terrace of a house,
p.-fi|

2. distance.

thog'

m,
;

khad-thog or p.'i5-*ii MiaH-pahi ver of a the roof or i*
2. litter
flat of

khad1.
harrow.

**\

thag or**

/<ar

near.

3.

house

the top

a house.
bkra-ica

=^
*-

^<w

like, as PS'

pK.-q-qj|-q

khan-pa

fH^

kltad-snamt, v.
>3^

equal, even

;

^'"'PS

a painted house.
pE,-q-qfcvZS

ma
or robbers cannot

as soon thag not distantly; instantly;

khafi-pa $.tsan-po a consecrated

house where

theives

as; without delay: S51'*S'''PS^ chad-ma khad-du as soon as the breathing

&W

have

access.

ceases; S'J^'W'PS'^ bu ykyes~ma khad.-ciq

rvn
;

139
pohi khab-kyi mi-rnams the courtiers; the
'

a child born just now "mvrp^ kphvr-la klia4 about to fly; ^'rp'S hgro-la Mad
about to go
fall
; ;

people of Eajagrha.
3^'*

2.

wife, spouse
first

;

P*

1

H*'"rp^
slebs-la

l/iun-la

kha$ near

to

khab chen-ma the
:

8*w*rp^
;

khad

as soon as (he)

high in rank)
hog-pa

wife (who is $rpp$ff|rr|^44 de-la khab

arrived
to die:

*S'ar^ hchi-la kha$ when about
-

ma

rned-nas as there was not found

4*'rpVi5

J&

nub-la khad_-pafri
I

tshe

a wife worthy of
80 I

him

-

;

*^'flft*'S.S pn'g'jc,'

when

the evening drew near;

S3*1*

'*' J '*'S

q'li)'li hdi-ynis fiahi

khab-tu byufi-ica rmi$-

^i$-^

d.bugs cha$-la khad-pahi dus

when
;

dreamt that these two would become
wives
(Jd.)
;

the ceasing of the breath approaches
*rpV"iV*r 1 zin-la khatf yod-pa la as
just about to seize him
;

^' we were

my

fw'i^'*'
;

khab-tu bshes-pa

to take for a wife (Schtr.)

^'wpiaq

chufi.

rv^

khad.-du as

mar khab-pa
wife.
-*<

to

marry

;

to take

one for his

far as

:

S^'i'PV^ rtin-ma kha$-du as far as
(/a.).

the heel
r*Vl

khab b,tsun-ma a married lady

;

khad-kyit^^'^K

dal-but

or^*'*
house.

khab

&to-ma=JS*'iVT*
;

khyim

by degrees; PY$i' P*V9* kha4-kyis khad.-kyi$ JH JTH: by derim-gyis JPT. slowly,
1 .

b_day-mo jj^qa^ housewife

the lady of the

grees

;

in slow motion.

II
khad.-pa

:

^a

needle

:

P^'S khab-tpu

the
fast;

same
to

as

hkhod.-pa

to

stick
v.

be

seized,

stopped, impeded,

Wi bkha$-pa.
to be stopbt/ed.-

a bristle; a needle like hair P'l'S khabphra a small, fine needle pq'if* khab-sbom
;

p^'w^'q Mad-par gyur-pa
ped or hindered pa to stop, hinder.
;

a large needle; pJ'*)<i| khab-mig the eye of a needle; P^TB'S'Vi'H'Ti khab-mig-tu

FYWVi k/iatf-par
;

sku4-pa hjug-pa to thread a needle
kha-rtse

;

Prfr
of

^K*W,

TTHT

the

point

a

P<3j

khan
1

w&\v bit
khan-da

needle.

small piece

((7s.).

pq'^i
I;

khab-ral
iA-<?tT^*

also t"*'P*i'^i

rtse-rna

p^'

^

*s*i

confection;
or

a

khab-ral

needle-case.

medicinal

syrup;

treacle

molasses

pl^

khab-le in

W.

difficult (Jd.).

partially dried; ^cos-pa the

^v^fftSvt

delakhanda

candy made of
also fa'

it (Jii.).

pq'$^
worm-

khab-len-rcio

^*H* load-stone;
:

the metal that attracts a needle

pi'^'

P^'^J khan-pa

khen-pa,
(

^tar^l'*i?fWir'M
draws
out

|l

tne

load-stone

wood

(Schtr.)

;

to add (arith.)

Vat. kr.).
(fa.).

arrow-heads

and

removes
veins.

khan-man modest in Lh
I:

diseases of the brains, bones
pfl'^fe

and

khab-lon

^l^Wlfi

the magnet;

pho-lraA -5^, if* a great man's reap, of ^'E* khaft-khyim, residence ; a castle ; court residence of a
1 ;

khab^Xy-

lit.

the needle-lifter.

khabs n. of a disease

(Jd.).

prince;

jT^rn
;

Rgyal-pohi khab

WW1
in

of metropolis; the capital Buddha's time the modern
-

Magadha
town

kham
piece
of

1.

colour.
3.

2.

a bit; a
point

si null

of Eaj-

anything.
4.

the

of

a

gir

in

Behar

:

ji 55fq-|-^*w

Rgyal-

reed pen.

appetite (Jd.).

140
kham-kham, ^Cf^f^ ter-kham
kham-bu apricot; peach; in Stick. kham-buhi rtai-gu the stone of an
:

kham

or

pale yellow:
zflfo0

*w-^q|

ser

w^if^'fwrwgl' kham-kham smug-

J"'J

apricot (Jd.)
>

w^*rp>*'g
:

Mfiah-ri$

kham:

mahi mdog the colour was pale-yellow, '.., the colour of a dry bamboo.

as

kham-khum uneven, explained, wng,vwi$v*r^-cj "in ridge.*, like a

imported from Ngari (rg4r| V^r|'|*ffe |* the peach dries the yellow humour of the body and promotes the growth of hair on the head
bu dried apricot
(Med.)
;

(W^|

puckered skin."
pwfljc.

apricot or peach

kham-tshig the stone of an j'$'fwl6i]-S^* the cost of a
;

kham-gaft
-

or

coral of the size of the stone
F*'*|SiJ

a bit

;

wp*i fliSfl|

a

mouthful
the

kham-gcig of food:

of a large

apricot.

rycyri'^'V^tynrqFF&t^

measure

pw|u| kham-gyag
niens or yak-bull of

1.

lit.

the Bos grunis
r

of food in each piece that can be put in the mouth at once when eating ; r**'4K khamchufi

of a

P*< Khamg, which brown colour: i'F**i ^^fc-pMIV N
|

r

a morsel.

pwflju]'3^ spu-khahi rndog ser-kham yod-pa
la

kham-star abbreviation of
i=.'e^'"l

kham-gyag

ser the colour of the hair (of
is

kham-bu-dafi star-go,

i.e.,

peach and

an animal) when pale yellow
"p"! kham-pyag.
2.

called F*'
(Jd.).

cherries, morels

walnut.
(wgftj

fw^-q
knam-ldog faded colour, same as
of appetite; nausea,

kham ran-pa TffTTBwmwtmi
fits

a horse's bit that

well.

pw

<$)

kham-log, want

pww

kham-sa clay for making pottery.
kham-saft
etc., resp.

aversion, dislike (Jd.).
I

fwvf.-

= WVf

chab-saH, i\^'i
;

kham-pa
;

1.

fox coloured sorrel
;
:

ffcin-pa,
;

evacuation

purging

;

kham-nag dark brown <,arq-pw^q] ral-pa kham-nag dark brown locks or mane. 2. porcelain-clay china
brownish
P"'^"!
;

making water.

P"'^ kham-ser

of a slightly pale-yellow

;

colour resembling the colour of dried
boo, v. fW|** kham-kham.
I:
tite.

bam-

clay.

3.

Tenaeetum tomentostim, a

very

aromatic plant growing on the high mouD4. a native of Kftamf in tains of Tibet.

khams=

dafis-ga appe-

Eastern Tibet.

II: ^Tg

the health,

condition,

if,

kham-phor

rra,
;

Wl a

cup

or saucer

made

of (burnt) clay

a cup made
(Jo.).

physical constitution of the body ; also root ; a constituent or essential part ; that which
constitutes the nature of a thing.

of dough, used in sacrifice as

Used

lamps

colloq. as in kus/io, khye'-kyi k/iamf ta-sam ?

,

kham-hphromi-bf ad-pa ***) '$<*' refers to Buddha hav-

"Sir,

how

are

you ?"

(Snd. Hlk.)

:

ing enjoined that a
fruit

monk must

not eat a
of
it.

khams shef-pa
tpyir rafi-bvhin

etc., leaving any should not take more than what he can or

or cake,

He

nam

fio-bo la

hjng-pahi don-

can yin-te rlun-gi khamf shes-pahi khams
de ni
rlufi rafl-gi

should

eat.

no-bo yin.

141
III
fire,

:

the six elements, earth,

air,

rgyal-Mams kingdom:

jm'

water, the heavenly ether, and nam-

shes or the physical suhstance of the

miud.
Also

rgyal-wahi khams the province or sphere of the Buddhas, also of their spiritual influence
:

For

the last two, arterial blood

and semi-

rpw<r*f]*rti

rgyal-khams hgrim-

nal fluid are sometimes substituted.

pa to roam over the kingdoms, the countries
(Jd.)
:

there are the eighteen elements aco. to the Buddhists, namely, the five organs of sense, together with manas (mind) the six
;

pw3^

empire; also the earth.
world: P'WISI*' k/tams-

faculties or senses

dependent on these and
produced by one of the five properthese
viz:

**<ri*t,

'''^Tg

the

sensual

world,

also

the

six

ideas

(1)

wrcrrg or sjrmwNr

(^'A'fP
;

six faculties.
ties

Any

Mdod-pahi khams)
(2)

the phenomenal world

or qualities of the elements observed

^WrJ

;

*|lm'3'F*w gzitgs-kyi
(3)

khams

by

the organs of sense,

viz.,

sound, tangiis

the world of astral forms;
3||i|*r*)YI*

^n^wrg;

bility, colour, flavour

and

smell,

also so

w *'

called.

world,

i.e.,

gzugs-med khams the spiritual the world of formless spirits.
n. of the

VI
tricts

:

easternmost dis-

Miami

b_co-bryyad.-kyi mig sags rten tfwandaft

embracing some dozen semi-independent petty states, about half
of

Tibet,

pohi khams drug

mig-gi rnam-par fes-pa sogs brten-pa rnam-par fes-pahi khams dan

of which
rest

own

allegiance to Lhasa,

give joint allegiance

to both
Sj

and the China

pzugs-khams nogs 4>nigs-pa yul-gi khamsdrug dan bco-brgyad-do may be rendered.

and Lhasa. pw Khams and K Sgan are the two lower regions of Tibet these
;

The eighteen P"w khams
ace. to the I.

or

Dhatu

constitute

what

is

called 5^-3^ Lo4-chen or

Buddhists are:
themselves
If'S
;
:

Greater Tibet.

The organs
1'*'
;

*H mig
nose;
the

eye

;

rna-wa ear;
lus

sna-wa

1

Ice tongue Q mind.

body and

^ yid_
;

khams brtas-pa or khams-brtas byed-pa one who

-q

omens:

*T*r

W

draws
tlicg-pa

ir

t'P'"r ***'&V q

II.

sound
touch

;

|l|w g2ugs bodily form 3 sgra \ dri smell ^ ro taste ^1 rcg
; ;

ffsum-gyi khams-brtas byed-pa (J. Zan.).

;

*"

=*&a
mercury; quicksilver (MAon.).

i'

dnul-chti

cftog,

iNt attributes.

III.

The

n<N'civ-?|ri

rnam-par feg-pa

Vijndna or consciousness produced by the

khams
lihams bde-wa

organs of sense, &c. The Vijnana of mig, of 1'* rna-wa, of ^'^ sna-ica, of f
of

*to)

good

health.

When

glass

is

Ice,

"K yicf, i.e., and mind. tongue, body,

1*

lus

and

pure -3|9(\*cil\i fel dri-ma metj-pa and clean
it is

of

eye, ear, nose,

called

J|atfryrti fel-khams
tfwans-pa;

dicans-pa.
iB

A clear cloudless sky ^ *f*v|fl-j-*)^i
;

B aid

empire domain: ^jTpws yul-kftams
: ;

P^ll IV

realm

territory

;

to be

Nam-khams

^W^'v ^'P
when
it is

political terri-

tory; empire, in a geographical sense (Jd.);

sems tgrib-pa med-pa the mind free from defilement or sin.

142
nad mej-pa
free

from

disease

;

health. bde
;

khams-su &togs-pa included in the constitution.
'q

Syn. J'lll*'^ sku-gsugs ter-htshemed,; \t**fri ne sfios-d.wn

-j/(jn=r
;

i

l

*''S'8'

t khams-kyi

lla-fia

a cooking pan

made

in Khams.

*\

$oofi-med;

|^\

snun-mej;

WS^S

wid'

pwwiSj khams-fle better

kind of coarse

bu-med; n^'tfc'ywhbi/uA-bshisnoms;
i

9'*

1

iro mi-htshal (Mfion.).

from Yarserge of the pattern coming in Khams: kand; blanket manufactured
'

dn-smed, |'*IV
S1'i5j'rw*''j5j'

i:ii

*ri*4

C|

'*

smug

fie

khams

sle

m-q

smra-wa

daA

rjee-su.

hbrel-tca

leas
is

rnam-pa
&c.

re

each piece of

blanket

to inquire of one's health

if

he

well or
costs,

used happy (a complementary expression on the occasion of meeting) (Won.). or tW^'* z"0s fwnrc^'4 Miami kde-wa
constitution; good health; healthy and the the happy state both of the body
fcde-t

f5*w'fl)^*

k/MHis-&sum f^#t*
earth and

the three

worlds
world.

heaven,

the

nether

pjwfl|gN-nf6V"G'<3|[*
los

Khams-psum
a

AAVior-

mind:
gyi

I^TP* "^'''" !*'*"'
1

1

RJe-btsiut

d$<jyi<r-w(t

^*T?mw
'(!^'ai'

name

of thei

kliams-bde lagt-tam

is

well?
are

dVP*'^'*" **y^

your reverence khatns bde-ham

Kalachakra system

(Mfion.).

MuiMt-Qxum

snftg-

you well ? (Jd.) 1 pww^I'i Warnj liifjpif** want of appetite aversion, foy-j9fl
;

ifi

n. of

the temple in the grand

^ " **>
1

dislike

;

built by monastery of Sam-ye (fsam-yas) one of the queens of King Khri sroA Iden

pw
(Os.)*.

khams-rmya
3

nausea;

falling sick

Usan

(Loft.

*

8).

mafqawfligwarwaflHrQ kham&-g.sums-la
V &'1f
{

fwjf#fl|*r*j$

1 '''

khams $na-tshogs
the
of
constitution

wkhyen-pahi

{fobs

KTmvfQvm*
the

is not passionately chags-pa fsrsn^rnmr fond of or attached to the three worlds.

power

of

knowing

pawm^-m
broken health.

khams gsos-par

to repair

all sorts of bodies.

pwwS^nj Khams
petty principalities
11

of the mi-naff n. of one

in Khamf.

P^ Khar
Lam).
(WHjai
Lelensh. 93).

n.

of

a

city

in

W.

(8.

fww^^V khatnt pwa-^V^ hjig-rten
faw*i\
to

mi-hdra-wa,
gyi khams mt hd[a-ica

khar-bkrol

fIT

(Se/ir.

;

different or dissimilar worlds.

Mtams-tshan

this

term

is

p^' Jf
fw5fE,-

khar-rkyan, v.

rj*

Ma

rkya*.

the quarters in a monastery applied for the accommodation of the reserved section of people or of a

khar-god

steatite;

soap stone;

probably ST-'M* dkar-gon
f^-l^-l
of

(Sch.).

monks of some

particular

or those coming special community

Khar

chen-bvth

the Princess

from one particular locality. fwww kham$-sas rest; health; comfort
(Sch.)
;

of King Khar-chen, one of the queens
8).

* Khri-sroA ld$u btsan (Lod.
pw,'5'5

recreation

;

recovery ;

restoration

Khar Ta-ta

n. of a city or seaport
(S.

of health.

on the mouth of the Indus, Tata

Lam,).

143
q

Khar-pa qta

1.

n. of a

demon

of

where the incarnation

of the Taranath

Puranic India who was killed by Krishna. 2. a compound of copper and zinc; bell
metal.

Lama

resides.

The

latter is

sometimes

styled rurp't'P^'Vri Khal-kha Rje-btsun dam-pa, the venerable holy one of Khal-kha.

pvrn khar-ica mgar *
of bell-metal.
p*'>**.

a

maker

pr^i
(Jd.).
r*
Ji' <I
|

khal-khol

stunned;

insensible

khal-cag the best sort of wool for

khar-san

col.

yesterday forenoon.
tP^'lf*
fiil-gi

manufacturing shawls coming from
northern solitudes of Tibet.

the

khar-dsu-ra

wStn;

^f9|^g-g
5

hbras-bu the date fruit.

*;r jq do$-rgyab or

prw

khal-ma

rta, 8=.'^"]^'^'|

plan sogs-kyi rje$ or follow the

+

sar

pv'q-^ khar-sa pa-ni or P'wrq khapa-na t^ftuw he that moves in the sky
;

those

who conduct a caravan

;

train of packed animals, such as pony, yaks,

gliding through the air a name of Avalokites'vara Bodhisattva Vishiju.
;

oxen, &c.

;

relay of packed animals
sogs

:

|"*W
thag-

tW^lfsA-lpcyrtvlfrkfonns
rin-pahi dos-rgya
beasts of burden
fykhal-rjet

khar-psd frsja the carried by mendicants of the Tantrik School.
p^-flj^Ji

trident

the relay of

when proceeding on a
fyc.

long journey to Khamt,
fH'ikhal-pa
1.

wether; castrated ram.

1.

primarily a load or burden
to carry

2.

sow-thistle, Sonchus.

in general

:

fwofankhalkhyer-wa

prS't^'i khal-gyistefi-la on the top of the baggage p*r*K*i khai fygel-wa to load p*r<tf i^rei khal hbogs-pa to take off
a burden
; ; ;

{**'*&[ Mai-ban jug or pitcher to hold wine for 20 persons or a quantity measurviwacparn^-fljc.-^* j U ga ing 20 g bre
:

of ale each sufficient for

20 of the vulgar

the

burden,

to

load;

*jjvi3'pr

unload; $TPJ> a coolie load.

a sheep
2.

folk of whatever class.

a set

F*'*

weight or measure, said to equal 30ft, used for dry goods, corn, salt, tea, &c.

khal-ma any draught animal or

beast of burden:

pr*r$*wwr|arq
;
1

to

khal=2 fo=20 bre; hence in Sikkim and W. pr"!*"! "khe-chik" has come to mean 20 or a score of anything
In Tibet
1
;

drive beasts of burden to the pasture

often the
of

contracted into

khal:
carriers

)'|''srflft

3)'S

wages
burden.

of

both

and beasts

^"'P*

hdegs-khal

a

weighing

score;

the weight of 20 points on the called rgya-ma. 3. a caravan.

steel-yard
ri or

kfial-ri=W$ khal-ru or
bushels.

F*

kha-

f '% kha-ru a measure of about 20

Khal-kha the native name of

Mongolia Proper, the country of Jenghiskhan, the Tartar Conqueror B*'P'f'^ 9i'3 9* Khal-kha khu-ral Ma-brat, lit. "the "
sacred enclosure of Khal-kha
;
-

pW
kha.
-

khas for

("'"to

kha-yif instr. of p

P

B^

khaa-khyag!=r>vc*iv khat-ihegt
;

the

name

or P1'^"IN khag-thcg$ to be witness

to give

applied to

Urga

in Northern Mongolia,

evidence.

144
pro-

H'H '! khu-khrag $3f? the mixture of
1

mse.
fwX'i khas che-wa sfinrr to promise; undertake: p'5S'i5-^ ?Jt khas che-wahi
-

the semen with the uterine blood by which
process,

according to Indian physiology,
is

the foatus
I3'5

formed (Med.).
constructed

4ge-tlofi

sfJTmf^J

a Buddhist

monk who

khu-tu a hut, cottage,

has taken the vows.

of branches of trees (Jd.).

Syn.
bzufi;

r*'* khag-che;

Jl^l*

pfiyogs
(9'

5'* Khu-thu-chi the title of a
:

6r<iV^'S

fog-par mnan-byas;

"*='

Mongo-

lian nobleman i^rlfc'B'S'W'Wrtfo Sog-pohi

VT?*!
byag;

yofi-dag-thos;

ifW^'Q,*
;

hdag-gir

khu-thu-chihi cfia$ thob obtained the robe of

<'*v^

so-sor jpnaw

a Mongolian Chief.

hos-par;

^rw

darn-beak;

P'fy khat-kn
its

u-rdul= R'l khu-rna water-spray: the water in all

(Mnon.).
(A.

WW^

particles issued fresh from the clouds

U9)

:

song; singng
p*r^-^qc.-$c.4*.'

ffff^-fWtK a-^WJl^-g^q-gqi-q-^-

kha-nan

naw

cA<^ a humhle man.

nam-rpkhahi khams mi-dans-par byctf-pa smug-pa daA rdttl sogs the firmament of the sky was obscured by mists
M'<Joii

and
promise;
approval; knowledge; acceptance.
|wsfl-q

fogs.

In medical works the seminal
male
is

conseut,

fluid of the

called

(3

khu and

of

females 5* rdul.
B'i

Ma?

shan-pa V>&-' humble.
kha-lan rgan-khur
responsi-

Khu-nu the

districts of

Kunawar

pwr^Y^m
bility.
r>

and Bissahar on the Upper Sutlej, bordering Tibet and inhabited in the northern

-

^fl A:As fc-ja or p
1.

i=.'<i

Ar/<a

fo^-

wa <3mi^frf
or security.

to

promise; to stand bail
;

by Tibetans 3'i^'J^'^* grapes from Kunawar.
part
:

4

presume to arrogate to accept, adopt with the mouth to acknowledge, admit (/a.).
2. to
;

;

B'li

khu-rna,

v.

1

B'^

" khu-rdul.

B 3 Rhit-po

n. of a place

and

also of a

kfii

numerical figure 32.
Khi-bi dsa-la fafmiM
n. of

Lama

of that place (Deb.).

khu-wa^S* shu-wa;
:,

Tflf,

a city in the neighbourhood of the fabulous S'ambhala.

sj^r,

fi^

1.

fluid, liquid:

^I'4 l/iufi-bzad

bkrus-pahi khu-

^

tca

khihu (fc khyin or p'*^' khi-chufi)

the liquid (water)

which has washed
0i'(3 \t

a

mendicant's
swill

bowl;

khrus-khu

a small cutting-knife.

dish- wash;
;

(Jd.); ^9^'B hlras-khu

{^ khu numerical figure 62

also for H'^

khu-wa (humour or juice or sap), as in B'H q r*"!*< ** kttrag sogs ^rc^rif^, humour,
blood, &c.

rice-soup (Cs.) ; rice-water (Schtr.) ; ^ffj of trees J"B rtsa-khu the fin-k/iu the sap
;

sap of plants

gravy
(Cs.).

;

WB
virile.

(Cs.); -TB fa-khu broth; mar-khu melted butter. 2.

S3

khu-gu uncle

semen

145
.Syn. jftzia-tca; ^'^thig-le;
bon;

v^

sa-

fw^

cuckoo. 15 'Q^l khu-byug ^tf%^r, ^fr^is

stobz-ldan;

Sif3VR^

efrraw-

l>or A^ro;

sf^*wv^'3
;

Syn.
byan-scms dkar-po
;

SSA'3l' S'9

J

dpyid-kyi pho-na;
;

^'*"

dbafig-wa

pw^'v

khams $kar-po

nags na dgah-wa

^H'm^ii't)

W*' Mab;

mahi thig-pa
3"
s*'

(Mnon.).

T^S'^P na-tshod gnas mig-mdses o^'^'fi hdod-pahi
; ;

%*\'
;

tola

ql ?'*<

pshan-gyis
;

psos;
-

^'^

nag-

gpos-dkar

fifi

the Sal tree, the dried sap of

snan
la

;

^^'f ^ dican-snan

flf^

ar$*w yshan-

which

is

used as incense.
^-mS-^i;- sha-lahi fin,

sems; tff{&'9'^ hdod-pahi pho-na;
;

Syn.

%$'%*'

sra-

g-q5^g,c,^ gkad-la Ina-pahi dbyafis

U^

rtsi fin, flVs"!*'^' spos-dkar fid,

**v|*ra

sbran-rtsiht sgra (Mnon.).

mchod-fbyin $pos (Mnon.).

khu-wa Idem,
S'i'I'S

v.

<V| thar-nu.

sla-wa

bshi-pa

the fourth

month

of the

khu-wa byed= *]*.'**. marrow; to
of; also to
:

Tibetan

year

corresponding
(Btsii.).

with

the

make a soup
(Mnon).
(3'q'^3<^'i

make an

infusion

month

of

May
1
i
:
;

or decoction of

J

khu-byug-mig eyes like those
red eyes.

of the cuckoo

khu-wa hbyin-pa,

"!

n :=
a tree (Mnon.).

rtfii to emit semen.
I3'q'^,'cj

n. of
(g'j g"l'

khu-wa ser-po=^'^ skyer-wan,

khu-byug-rtsa n. of a medicinal

of a plant from which a kind of yellow dye is made in Tibet (Mnon.).
-q$-q^q|*^

herb,

u-mag purse, money-bag
for @1'
|3'C^

;

colloq.

khu-wahi

khvg-ma

(/a.).

$kye$-pa

g^

meton. for a male person.
I33f

khu-tshvr ^f%-1^r the clenched
fist.

^q5'^5 khu-icahi hpho
charge of the semen.
ft\q5'^qc.'3

9 fa

the dis-

hands;

khii-tshur

gyi$

htsho=^'
who
fist,

khu-wahi dican-po

3<i*'S,

TTTT?-

K* a kind of mercurial medicine.
1'" khu-wahi slob-ma

a goldsmith ; one makes his livelihood by the use of his
g$er bzo-ica
i.e.,

hand-craft (Mnon.).

sjiR-fiiHi=

(3'3iVi3t-q khu-tshur boins-pa to clench

lha-ma-yin ^RJT the class of demi-

gods on Mount Sumeru
the Lha (Mnon.).

who

the

fight with

fist;

also

to

hold

with the

fist

(Mnon.).

khu-tshur
of a place to the west

bcifis

^ft^y

fist

;

Khu-be
of Lhasa.
'

n.

closed

hand

(Sehr.; JTalac. T. 131).

khu-tshur
khu-ico

M
,-..,
;

uncle on the father's

^u-tshur rgyab-pa to
or the half-closed
fist

strike
(Sch.).

with the

fist

side,

I'M

pha-spitn, father's brother,
1

uncle

khu-tshan, R'^^T khu-dbon also R uncle and nephew: 5-aarwR5 ^ F"''|!i *' 3 * father's brother is called A-khu or Khu-bo.
-

^

fj'^'^w Khu-hod bzah

n. of the

mother

1|

of Bromgton, the founder of the

Lamaic
20

hierarchy of Tibet.

U6
H S Ma-yw hornless having no horns
-I

;

;

also a corruption of the -word khu-byug in colloq. Tibetan.

also

i khug-pa turning like a zig-zag bending like a thread that is trimmed lam khug-pa the twist of a road
:

;

;

;

B'^ khu-ra,

|*'R^ $num-khur cakes or
oil or
1.

5* M ^ khug-pa

entwining

of

a

pastry fried in R'^ khu-lu

butter (K. du. 327).

thread
to

the short soft hair of
2.

^'Hl'" du$ khug-pa returning mundane existence at the expiration of
;

each term of
Bl'i
ii
:

life.

the yak, also pashm wool in general. In Lh. venereal disease syphilis (Jd.).
;

B'> KJm-le

1.

n. of a place in Tibet:

gn|*rq-HE.-f[^

to find, get, earn, draw: 3fc' nor k/nigs-pa haft srid it is even
;

B'^i'J"! Khu-le

rnam-rgyal the

Lama

possible that cash

Namgyal of Khu-le; R-*5-*-y5-q|M!^ Habo Gang-ri, a part of Khule. 2. In the
Deang-lun the word is used to denote the pan in an ordinary pair of scales on which the weights are placed.
or (3"1N khugs 1. a corner or

may be replenished gnid k/iugs-pa to get asleep
:

gsum khugs it drew, i.e., weighed l ounces (Jd.) B1'i' '^'if, S khug-pa " the hco-brgyatf eighteen turns," i.e., returns to life in the present kalpa.
sraft

three

l

:

*

J^| khug
nook
;

a Wiryvf % Khug-pa lha$-rtsi=^^ ^'

a creek, bay, gulf, inlet ; $'B"1 chucrook in a river RT5 khug-tu, in the khug inner recess of a cavity. 2. imp. of ^3*1'**
:

5'i'*i

Rta-nag 3go$ Lo-tsd-tca (Schr.).

khug-ma
little

^(^\
sack;

aleo zrav^

pouch

;

hgitg-pa ^'^f^ir,

drawn

or attracted by;

bag; Chinese bags
objects
at

small

J'BI

rgya-khug
^I'BI

made

of

leather;

3^'^'BI gyen-du khug called upward, i.e., to good luck or fortune RTS* khug-thub
1

ske-khug neck-bag;
or

a bag with charmed
letters

;

important
a

hanging

earned, acquired.
BTGT* ! khug-khyog
place
;
1

the

neck;

courier

bag;
;

solitude

;

solitary

g.lo-khug

bag carried

at one's side

a place with few men.
kfi 'J-r fa >

l^'j?

RT5

khug-ta or

'$'Bir

dnnl-klmg pouch for silver, a purse bul-khttg a pouch containing soda;
B"I'

;

$ ali-khug-ta f<<H*^, ^ia^f,

TClf the swal-

me-lcags khug-ma tinder-pouch with
;

low, Cuculus melanoleitcus, a kind of swallow
(<?.):

flint

$'B"|
;

nu-khug sucking

bag

for

R^fwfJJr^ the lungs of BT5
suppress

babies

JT^'BI rtsam-khug a

bag
flour

of barley

khug-rta
(Med.).

pulmonary

diseases

flour; 3'B1 iswa-khug

a salt bag;
;

shib-khug
'fS

little

bag for
luck.

Syn.
|a>-a|-g=.

char-stod; ^'jc- chufi-nufl;

gyan-khug pouch
articles to

containing

auspicious

sprin-la slot;

^^v

sprin-hclegs;

draw good
l

WXksan-mo;
Sffra-sgrogs;
f

*&'

t/iub-pahi-bu;

Khugs-pa
at a

n,

of a dynasty

v^<^ char-dgah (Mnon.}.

originated

place

called KJiugs-pa:

khug-tna or
fog, mist,

$TJ
:

khug-rna,

haze (during

a calm,
also

especially in spring time) as

mentioned
of

*4^^%4fVt'4)Ni "one

the

is the n. of a historical work containing accounts of the succession, dynasty, etc., of kings narrated by Khugg-pa Thugg-rje

^

eight varieties of causal concatenation."

chenpo (Tig.

9).

147
k/iufl

I

:

hole, pit, hollow, cavity,

religion

originally used, only of dark holes
cavities:
F*'V*

and
that
$na-

pa

l^'jgwvirti rgyud-pa of pure origin or lineage.
:

khufo dag-

The word
applied to

khun-nal

M*UI
;

(5t-^i|-( Jthufa dag-pa is also
articles of the best

sleeps in a lair or hole; a snake; $>$

make and
of

quality from

khun

nostril

;

*i'(5^ c/iab-k/iufl
:

a sink **^'
;

well-known

centres

trade:

^^'

I

5'>'

mchan-k/iud armpit armhole llfc'B* gjtor-khun a sink a gutter S*'|3* mdah; ;

H

1^

&wfr^-Jprt-}ar3q-q*j^Q-ci3i,

hdir yod

rmons-mi-rnams nag khuns-skyel thub-pahi
snun-shu hbul the benighted people of that place petitioned stating the real state (of
affairs).

k/mn loop-hole
6 S'ft
'

;

a hole

made by an arrow
;

;

by-ikhiifi

khuft a

cleft in
;

mouse-hole; g"I'B^ braga rock "&'$*> bso-khufi

peep-hole
?'B^

5'(3=.

hi-khun or

^TH^

mig-k/tufl,

original

;

RWSH khun$-thub pure and real, Rr>S khun$-me<} or BW^-ti
:

te-khuft

are used of

walls, clothes, &c.,
artificial causes.

any hole caused by natural
a root:

in or

having no good origin, i.e., mean, inferior ^5'B^i gtam-khufis historical or traditional source record document
khufi$-ftan-pa
; ;
:

^^^c.dehi khuti

"I5*W'^'^ gtam
of that speech
:

khufi s-canyin the source

is

divine.

n||W't

nahan Bo^-kyi scms-can dan Safis-rgyaskyi bstan-pa from that root the living beings of Tibet and the religion of (A. 128). spread out, &c.

JJ^E.-q^-q ^c.-^-|5-[5^N-|-^^-3i

If

Buddha

the nature of meditation, it is the secret source of being able to abandon
is

what

13^1]^

k/iufi-drogs soot

of an oven or

imaginative thoughts (rnam-ttog) together with their seed (Lam. ti., 43).
djiios-na

chimney

(Sc/i.).

R^'i khun-pa
hole.

or

B^

khun-po a large

yod-pa original and really existing or 8*'

^'S
khun-lu=^ khun
;

spits dag-po,o$.

excellent quality,

same

R^'3
(Cs.)
;

a small hole

as (gc.*J'i]^'i^i|^'^ni'aCflj^'|5c.^'^N^c.'iS-j'

a'v^-g pu-hi khun-bu the passage
hair-hole or cavity.
cavities or

"^

some of

pure descent had reasons

of perspiration

arising

from genuine grounds.
khufi$-btsun

khufi-lu can full of
holes.
'

|jwi$fo

well-founded ;
!
>

genuine; of un defiled
^^t^-iq^-siN-q^S'''

origin:

5^'i]gc. i|5.'

as described in

what-

Khun-tsi or
tsi

(

ever

Bon

texts that

have a genuine origin.
or

Confucius, the

first

law-giver of China

and founder

of Confucianism.
origin,

khud
:

coat-lap
:

any makeshift

khufig

source

khuns-skyel the act

of

making over the
in a faithful

charge of

any

office or store

wrapper 'N'J'R!* VVr&W gos-kyi khud-du dril te khur carried wrapped in the flap of his coat (3^ khud-du aside, apart
cloth
;
;

;

manner without anything missing, making
use in full of that bought over as a loan, &c.: Ifa'RWVn' chos khun dag-pas pure and
uninterpolated religious

secretly;

BV^'^I'*
:

1

khud-du

hjog-pa to

put

;

lay aside

EWS**'" khud-du byas-pa
one's
to

to have

shown

authority over

a

work

;

also

pure

thing which belongs

many.

H8
khu4-pa pocket, pouch (Sch.)
rdsaf or 5*r?*
skycl-rdsons
; :

e

B*

1

1'*5
:

khur ki-wa heavy load or respon<p'*5'* l

*ft<pf

any-

thing sent

;

a dowry

an
;

article presented.
((7s.).

being old, heavy burdens and death wore them out
Bibility

W^f'W

BV*

khttd-ma side

edge

(Lam-rim.

7/i).

BV* khud-ze for BVi'|*S khu$-la gzad
hold forth the lap of your coat
!

(from wft)

to

yyar-wa borrow to take loan of.
;

kJiur-

klnoi-ti or H^'5 khyen-ti is stated I5^'5>

to be used in

Pr.

for

he or she

(/a.).

yoni hdrcn-thag or *3*'M| hphyaA-thag the rope used in suspending loads from the

khun-pa ^TSR the uttering of any inarticulate sound cooing moaning ; the rattling of wheels rumbling of the
; ; ;

ends of a yoke-like pole; rope to carry
loads.

bowels

;

to grunt (Jd.)

;.

to groan (Sch.).

Me gs-byed giving over a charge or responsibility or load.
(3,-n\,^-q

khur hdr en-pa mft^f one who

confiiies of

Khum-bu n. of a place in the Tibet and Nepal (8. kar. 77).
k/ntm({) crooked (Jd.).

carries

or draws a load; one
of.

who

takes

charge

B*'"'

load-carrier

khur-pa and a coolie. ;

B*'*^

khur-mi

a

g=^' at "\
i|*'^
changed
:

skyes-lag,

*$
B^Sfl'"
;

don
-

b$gyur-yin

diminished
if

khur hphrog-pa
;

mTTTT the

Jiv5i

W

t

i'B* )

<'

Q i ||

l^

your faith

depriving of one's charge one's load.

the robbing of

be diminished (A. 85).

1^^ khur
load for

or B^' 2
:

"

khur-po

m burden

B^'i khur-wa, v. B*'** khur-tshos.
;

men

g^S-B^T* the
fallen

father's

khur-bor-tca

he who

on the son (Pag. 23) |3*'5Vcwn*-r^i| one that lives by carrying loads (Ja.) B*'^ kfntr-fM wooden pole
burden having
:
:

has laid

down

ponsibility.

the burden, charge or resIn Buddhism B*"'^'* khur-

ftor-M-rtorB^'^'H^n khtir-po bor-wa, one

over the neck from the ends of which loads
are
carried;

has laid
dha),

a

called

Bvq ^ khur-hdsin

milkmaid's yoke-pole is BVfjvZi khvr:

who down the five aggregates (skani.e., he who will not have again to

take corporeal existence ; one of the perfections of a S'rdvaka.

khur-po he
is

who
;

carries the bodily existence
;

Pun-gala

a corporeal being

B^'JKV"
charge
:

khur-gyis dub-pa *n<P*fl one

worn out by

khur blaii-pa to take over r*1 V|'mirWl hlrel *|* bfad kyi
l

carrying loads; B^'S^'fa'" khur-gyi$ non-

khur

pa one drooping under a burden or load, also pressed down by responsibilities and sufferings
:

blafa-pas having undertaken task of expounding (Situ. 2).

the

l|rJr*K-Hi5-BVrfa

w^

BV*K(I) khur-man(s) or B^'*^'" khurmafi-pa,

were

B^'*S

khur-tshod
(l'S|c.'f

fjrffiT,

the weight of many miseries; B^'Sl khur-pla HTT?|W the wage for carrying a load khur-rfian. id.
pressed
:

down by

Tf^<s
Ice)

dandelion, or the

bo-plan

ox-

B^

tongue

(as it is called in Tibet),

used as a

pot-herb and medicinal plant, a kind of

149
edible herb: R*'*K
is
-

l

iVfj

>r*V<rriaj dandelion

useful in fever

and brown

phlegm.
ba-glatl

Syn. R^*S khur-tshad; q'STf
ice (Mflon.).

very soft wool of Tibetan goat which grows next to skin, and also called |9'$ khu-lu or qarwi bal-hjam khul
6.
:

Ri'ftf

Sgye-mo made
:

of the softest goat-hair or

$*'%* khur-tshos or *|!jv*n rnkhur-tshos

*w

wift^r the cheek, the ruddy part of the face below the eyes. Syn. |gvq khtir-u-a.
;

yak-hair g|-|e, khul-phyifi, felt made of the softest wool of goat or yak.

Syn.

wv^w mnah-shabs

;

*K*Kv\ mfiah-

hog (Mnon.).

is

khur-bzod-pa HTWT one who able to carry a load, who has patience
(9^-qI^-y

RW khul-ma the
a thing
((7s.).

bottom or the

side of

to carry a

burden or responsibility.

BT!" khul-rtse = V**
tu to a great -measure,

ha-cafi or
lit.

%

gin-

RvarSUfcini khur-la mi-hjigs='*-ft sag.shi the earth (Mnon.).

from the bot-

tom

to

the top; hence entirely, greatly

H*^'^ khur-len the charge of

(Yig.U).
:

^Ifr*)'
the resi-

*^*fI*^^-*rrc^%vi
dent
officer in

B' rt"S

i

khul-rtsid

an abbreviation of the
!"^ rtsid.

of the

month
Jong

the Jong about this date and year took over charge

words B'$ khu-lu and

p

khe numeral ninety-two (92).
'[

of the

(district).

ig^-qwl-q khur-bsam che-ica one having
a
sense
of responsibility
:

khe-khye or
frs*!**

j*'*

khe-ma
ditto
; ;

1.

profit,

SV^'p'i^'RV

gain ; khe-spogs khe tshon byed-pa to trade
;

^*e.-gVi
;

to traffic
;

to

general instruction for the necessity of a sense of responsibilities

WWi-q-^rcA-c^
an
office.

in

*[*&$> -| bargain ga in obtained by experience. tage
herpes
;

advan2.

tetter

;

ringworm (eruption on the
Khe-gad
n. of

skin)

khul

1.
:

jurisdiction
fl

;

province

;

(Sch.).
fiifr

domain

;

district

l^'t"'B

IJ'

Qshis-rtse-khul

within the jurisdiction or province of Shiga-tse: g'5'Hi Lha-sahi khul all the places

a place, the birthLo-tsa-u-a

place of
lo

*|;q;^'*jpprq
(Lofi.

Ekhor-

grags-pa
3
l

a

30).

belonging to or within the town jurisdiction of Lhasa: ^RT'r*V dehi khul la hdug
1

!

in

subject to him (Jd.). 2. also manner,. state, or circumstance : "^.'"'-^'^'-^^^'^
is

gan-rtse n. of a monastery China erected by the Chinese Minister
'"!^'!"

Khe

if

you do not know,
:

act the

manner

of

Ka-thi-shee (Tig.). jS'tF'i khe sgrub-pa to

make
to

profit,

to

knowing
(it

*>Y^i^S-|s>jr S *, if
5

not), act as if
c

S'S

Wl'V' ^
in

( you ) hav0 **; ga\had: *|$|' you I have been doing a little

gain

:

^qjirei khe brgyab-pa
(Seh.).

make a

good bargain

^'*^ khe-can

with

profit

;

profitable.
;

business

buying and
3. 4.

reselling

from
(in

one party to another.

a ravine

^'^ khe-nen profit and loss good and evil, i.e., "wj yag and
P'l

risk; also
net.

^

Kunawar).
5.

gTWl

the soft down of furs (Sch.). khul-mal small basket for wool.

khe-pa
;

in

Amdo =
;

*. <i

tshofi-pa
profit

tradesman

dealer

one

who makes

150
by
selling or in business
;
-

;

tfcq^rp-q

tsliofi-

khels
coverlet
ficial
:

*^r, f*rr

a cover,

lid,

hdus khe-pa trader middleman. p g"T*^ Klie brag-mdo n. of a place in Kong-po, where the eighth incarnate Kar-

fit an
;

enclosure round the sacri-

ground

pq^'S'^q khebs-kyi dra-ita

mapa Lama was born.
p'*>S

srra a net (generally of iron) to cover anything i^'pq*! pafi-khebs a cover for the
;

khe-mcd. unprofitable.

p'5'^lj'q
p

khe-ru hgro-wa to fall in price.

napkin lap apron cover for the saddle
; ;

;

3i'pq*>
-

sga-khebs

a

;

Xfll

3'pq*

cog-rtse

p

o)'3fy

Khe-le man n. of
(Fi'0.).

a place in

khebs a

table cloth;
^S'l*
1'*'

*vpw
a

char-khebs a

Mongolia

rain cloak:
fl|^c,-|Bq*i

thod-khebs a cap; hood;
certain

p'gqq'^'Zj khe-(leb$ chen-po very profitable yielding

pdufl-fchebs

beam
;

or

good income.

board above the capital of a

pillar

*|^*'

P'll* Khe-ysum n. of a place in Tibet
(S. kar.).

pw
face

ffdofi-khebs,
;

veil

;

cloth to

cover the
in

"VTpw
-

mdun-khels

W.

apron.
kheg(, v. P klm.
p"

vi

i

:

khegt-pa to obstruct
(the

;

close

:

K.r

W|q v khebs-hgab-pa to place a cover;

ing (over a thing)

to cover.

J['*rqv|fi<J|*rqv*'v'X

medicine) will obstruct the passage of the womb. certainly
P1*rq
ii:

khcbs san-ica to take the cover-

= S^'

c

''i

mun-pa $pyi a general

ing

off.

name

for darkness,

gloom or obscurity
words or

(Mnon.).

^Wl kJtebt-pa=*fJH'* ^yogs-pa covered, veiled pww khelg-ma covering ((7s.).
;

pw|$i
language.

khcfis-fffam boastful

k/iem, v.

gw khyem.
;

Syn.

Vnr&!

dregs-tsig;

c.'X

fa-ro
s'

J^

kher-rkyaft alone
n|

solitary

:

ft"

j/i^9'*'^'*i bu-mo

there was only one

man, a

dar-ma a youthful maiden (4f^o.).
pu<?J
hkheHs-pa
3.
tj

solitary

man.
2'
kjier

khefi$-pa ^c?<?m,
2.

^j

1.

pride,

H^'^T
r|
.

to defraud

;

haughtiness, arrogance.
to
fill
;

pf. of

iprq
with.

to usurp (Sch.).

become

replete

Khel-sgo n. of a

district,

also

irfatT
1

puffed up, haughty, arrogant:
khcfis-pa-can
4\$k*\,

of a

mountain

:

pl's"'^'

jSm'q ?^
boasts
;

one

who

{go ri-la sdog rgyu-khyod.

braggadacio.
refig-pa;

Syn. ^MTSI

\*{Wti

dregs-pa;

p^J'^I

kfiel-ical.
2.

to load

upon ;='
;

^'J"! fia-rgyal (Affion.).

hkhel-tca (Jd.).

rely

upon

depend on

;

p^'"-.^ khen-hdra a
cloth.

kind of cotton

Sf&T
have

1!

bio k/iyel-u-a, g"'2*j'q

bio cnes-ica

to

confidence in
;

;

qf^'^^'q brten khet;

wa

to be sure
;

to be certain

to be certain
:

^
2. to

khen-pa
;

1.

wormwood

(Schtr.).

of anything

absolutely

certain

^**
(his)

lean

to repose

on (erroneously for

^e/q^'poi'S^ de-rin yofi brtan-khel-yin

qp'Vi lkhan-pa) (Sch.).

coming to-day

is

absolutely certain.

NHi
khes-nin the

151
day before yessdigpa kho-na sin only fl'^'f^ dge-ica khono, piety alone S^Tp'^ skad-cig kho-na
;
:

terday (Sch.)
*l

khes-pa

1.

to

hit

(the right

only for a moment ; ^F'^'JJ'"' 1 hdodkhonas Irel-ica to be separated even from desire :
'

thing)

:

|^'i'pi'Q
vital

gnad-la
;

khes-pa

to

strike the
2.

parts

to

hit

mortally.

tonrrp-^r^-q*-tf^-j-jj as he intended only the welfare of beings ^'l^'^'l^'f^'
:

one
;

who makes

profit or

bargain by

SJ^K,

(Pag. 13!i)

it
:

will be the fault only

selling

a petty dealer, trader. I
:

of one's
is

own doing

jarcfa''^'^'^^-!^ that
for

^kho

numeral 122.
:

just

what has been wished
1

by the
:

king

(fa.):

g'wp^-q^ ^ just as
:

before
:

p

kho II

the usual word for the pers.

T$kR't*

pron.,

3rd

pers.,

meaning

he, she, or

it.

the very same (man) q just like a worm ^V tfr^'p'^1 by the

Although not an honorific term, it occurs in many authors in referring to both compersonages and respected persons, eseven in much pecially in Milarapa and
earlier works

very same process
state of

:

^'j^ de-kho-na
;

rer

the
;

being that
;

true state

;

real state

mon

truth

;

reality
;

or fallacious

opposed to what is illusory essential nature ; the real
as being one

where kho often refers to kings

nature of the

human soul

and

and lamas.
In certain
writings

However
districts
is

ffe'

khoft

is

the

proper honorific term of the 3rd pers. pron.

the same with the supreme spirit pervading the universe ; (in philosophy) truth, reality,

and in some popular

a true principle.

% mo
it

used instead of kho for
considered a vulgar and The plural takes "| or *,

"

Syn.
(Mfion.).

*}?!

fa-stag;

W^

Mah-shig

she," but

is

illiterate usage.
e. g.,

P'*1 kho-cag, they, them; also p* In C. fi"*f-' kho-tsho, commoner in 7F. " or is the popular form for "he kho-rang

[H'| kho-pa = fi'*>*\ kho-cag or
tsho they.

ffc'3?

khon

pi'H Kho-po a
1

tribal

name
la

in Tibet

:

?"T

"

she," #c.

o)-ai

jS-q-^c.-fi^g-fl)

^ Rag-le
*tit

kho-po dad kho
is

[5*5 kho-ti
(/a.).

tea-kettle,

prob. Chinese

dbra gnis, the 9"T^ Nag-le tribe
into

divided

two

p'3 Kho-po and p'^g Kho-$bra.

kho-wo
kho-thag
acquiesce in
;

I
:

geod-pa

to

;

myself

;

hope for

;

be resigned to

kho-wo
:

cag=*f& we

^rj**
gyur this pro:

Mi-la,

kho-wos fio-mtshar

her (Pag. 45) hearing the account of the kingdom, JfphreAson having usurped can acquiesced in it. The word $*w sems often precedes this phrase.
ffr*tfE.-^-|c.

duced admiration in
^"q-^^ai

me

Qflpr^'jffSS'

for this system

my

enthusiasm

increased.

the term In 5)-jtf25'v$*r-?| " kho-wo would seem to mean himself,"
the soul of

Kho-mthin

Iha-khafi n. of

a

man

himself.

monastery in Lhobrag, South Tibet.
j

jffa Kho-lom the early Tibetan
for

name

kho-na

1.

only, solely, exclusive-

Khatmandu, the capital of Nepal. In East Tibet Khatmandu is still called

ly.

2.

the just, exactly,

very:

Yam-bu.

152
jtfw

kho-ma=F* khom knapsack
kho-mol; we (feminine).
kho-g.yu
is

;

wallet

over

is

called kho-lag che-wa. Also a geneis

(Ja.).
jtftf

rally well-developed shape
lag che-wa.
process,

called kho-

jtfflRI

the thrashing

done by driving a number of oxen fastened together round a pole that stands in the middle of the thrashing
which
floor.

tsho

dar-wa

youthfulness

;

full

youth

khog, freq. for p*'i khofi-pa
interior, inside.
2. for

1.

the

Pl

khogs or *P"]
;

evidently a corruption of jffv kho-rafi, *>-jtfv*f?| mi kho-ra rangi of the man himself (Nag.).
jtf* i
:

kho-ra

is

hkhogs.
*|'pfl|

**h*r hgcgs-pa the carcass of an animal for ya-khog
3.

also

for

PA n
ference
;

:

(Cs.) also

*pvw

khor-sa circum-

WSM</ khog-pa phycd.

dafi

lhi<-0zngs

sogs

circumjacent space.
kho-ra khor-yug
1.

pA-pfr/sjil

space;

entire body and one half of the (Jig.) the and the parts of the animal (slain). carcass

also fence ; any surrounding wall ( Ja.) ; also a ditch filled with water or moat round
JTB<T: kiui-tias a city or a fort. 2. from all directions from everywhere, pA pv"jfl|'g kho-ra khor yug-tu in a circle;
-

WW

khog-ycon chronic disease in the stomach or internal parts of the body.
ftfu|-iipfc-

p"]'$S

khog-chud for

pt '^'^

l >

khofi-du-

;

chud.
inside; the stomach:

in circumference (frequently in measuring) also roundabout, all round, e.g., to en-

\

khog-pa

\.

J'q

compass pfc'WWS in the whole circuit, roundabout (-/a.): p'^Wff'W^'^''
:

stomach.

2

the digestion of food in the the trunk of the body, con1

extending over half a yojana or two miles all round.
p'^ kho-re 1. in
difepleasure or
Xi|

&c. 5 "' taining the heart, lungs, liver, q rus sbal gyi khog the interior of S'*'3l'P
:

l

Khams an
!

expression of

the body of a tortoise.
J

anger towards a
friend
is

man

:

"
pot
;

khog-ma also

rj*>l

rdsa-khog

a-rogs
kho-re.

Oh
2

the opposite of

earthen vessel generally used in Tibet

p^

one of the early kings of

Tibet, son of

King Lde-cug tngon.
1.

for cooking rice, meat, broth, &c. ; ^'Pl used in rdo-khog a stone vessel or pot

p-arX'q kho-la che-wa
(Sch.).

a large space

Shams

for cooking purposes

;

fftq^^

khog-

(barley

dough made flour) and beer.
2.

of

r*^

rtsam-pa

stone vessels for clien large earthen or cooking the food of a large number.
puj-uicw

khog-yafa or

pfarq'fc'q

khoy-pa

kJio-lag=$1F* sku-hts limbs, the
entire

body

:

pm*!'"*.*^ kho-lag

yans-pa
;

fully developed
j*l

body or prominent limbs
1

che-wa capacious or large interior ( Ya-sel. of a tree; jfaf^' khog-fin the core
4.8)
:

heart- wood.

q|-uiW^-l-q-^W^-^'l-qt'V W-q^=.

his

was large and person being well-developed, and brightness ;''*' glowed with grace
q-q ff ain|-l-n'H

f^W khog-fugs a groan
khogs-pa
hgg-opa,
1.

;

a sigh.
of

imp.

anything that

is

large all

stop

153
that goat

from eating the

flowers.

2. to

khro za-wa to conceive anger, take dislike
to be

;

cough

(fa.).

indignant;

Mf*TF^t*'*Y
free

khon-

khrohi

PC
(*

I

:

khofi

an honorific equivalent of
ffc'^-^*'"! khoti-gi thugs-

rnam hgyur med-pa
Mon-gad
full inside

from the

state of passion or
ffe'ij^

kho, he, she:
his

anger (Pag. 130.).
;

solid.

la in

thoughts;

F^'S'*
;

Syn. *V^S

tshod-yod; j^l'^ khog-chud

sku-mdun-du in his presence KC'ofy-^jMr^ rgyal-po khofi-rafi yin dgofisnas the king supposing that he himself
gi

ffe^' khod-sniH

1.

the secret heart the
;

was meant.
them.

Plural [*='* khon-tsho they,

intention or design. 2. pith ; core * the pith or inner wood of a tree

;

+
'^I

ffc'|*

A^0n-snoz = ")*V9*i'

yid-slmm-

khoA-pa the interior of anything ; the inside ; also as adv. in the forms khoftdu,
khofi-na,
inside,

pa

of even temper.
jife'w

khon-mar butter used in making

within
;

;

also postp.
of.

cake-like offerings to the gods.
pfe'8^'*K'Ei

khofi-na,

into,

within

khon-nas out

Certain phrases occur pfc'V#V" to he anxious, to bear in mind, be impressed
:

medicine from the intestines,
gall (Stnan. 66).
fit.'f'*

khoii-sman ser-po the yellow i.e., bile or

;

|fc^*rfj-q to repeat

from memory
;

t
;

ffe'^'^J['

to collect in the

mind

to impress

on the

khon-tsil suet.

to learn (by heart); jfe'V'4^'" not to appreciate (Hbum. 239 to 2 9) ; j**'

memory;

fff^
;

hkhon-hdsin-^-^

Mofi-khro

anger vindictiveness (Mfion.).
ps,'fl|i>K
1!

^w^-q-^'o not that
1

it

was not understood
:

khoft-sen secret holes in rocks.

or appreciated (Hbum. 239 to 249)
^e.-Eje.-q

j^w
if

ffc'*!^

k/wn-ffseb the
:

hollow

^

(of

a tree)

;

khoH-nas sniA phun-wa liar as

the inner recess

their

hearts

had

burst

out;
to be

fi*>'W

S*'i khoA-nas

sdafi-wa

wtT
-'

angry

in ancient times the wife of

or indignant;
^E/a^'^E.

jfe'^'J

8

khoA-nas pyyufi=

Gautama the

sage,

Shol-med-ma by name,

nan-nas phyuA
khofi-pahi

was taken out
dro<f-Za

;

ffc-q^-^-orii^

phan

it

being very pretty and fascinating, was concealed in the hollow of a tree (Mnon.). [nC?J
ffew'fl

helps the internal heat,

i.e.,

digestion.

khofis the

middle

;

the innermost

;

uneasiness; sorrow;
anxiety.
pfc'B khoft-khro (kofi-tho) or fSt-J-q khofi

or

|few^

in

the midst:
;

k/wfis-su

htslmd-pa to go into the midst

to under-

khro-wa sfn^

the
;

angry passion
;

also

becoming inward wrath, malice
;

state

of

phra zom-lug med-pahi khons hgros yoh-wa the more and less important works, not leaving out the simpler ones, should be well studied. Hgro-wa rigs

stand; bye<i-sgo che

j&'K'*^ khofi-khro-can

*^^

bitter

;

angry

;

malicious

:

*JFfm*bftV9

t

&'

drug
of

rtsis

%-s$*f3\*-<>swtK-$ft even all the good that was done, by one angry outburst may be

khons-su hdus

pahi skabs-su klu-ni dwt-hgrohi when reckoning the six kinds
include the

animated beings,

Naga

destroyed pfe'B^'i khon-khro spoH-tca to j q khonput away or subdue anger jfe'p'
;
-

among

the beasts; *|*K|=V

3f|=.-?ifl]*r5iE.,

;

Zang-ling,
21

154
etc.,

ore

included

in the

continent of
(this)
is
:

the soul (Jd.)

;

p^nniftpK^p^K'
spiteful.

getting

Dzam-ling:
contained,

VKS'^'S'*!^'*'
included in,
bsil-ri

more and more

i.e.,

that

(Jo.)

eiq*wr3ir*'p-f^-jftyir$<rq

kha snomsprotected

vahi

khoHs-sktfibs

na

in

the

oleft of the cool
is

mountain where the snow

JH^ II: a technical term in Tibet and Chinese astrology applying to one of the eight mystical signs or parkha of divination f^'i one whose lot is cast in
;

levelled (Ya-sel. 35).
khofis-pa

this division.

*3n
cruel
;

1.

highly
2.

P^

khob

fat

;

heavy

;

clumsy

(8eh.).

injurious; adv. crooked:
it is

violent
%

;

rough.

f&i'jgq

k/iob-khrob

jfe

*'^1

khofig

cha-hdvg

the tapping of one thing

the sound caused by upon another.

bent, curved, warped.
(Jo.).

[PJ khom
:

wallet

;

leather trunk ; felt or

ffer*i khods-ril crippled.
ffcf^

khod=f*
;

Hot

1;

the

external
:

hide bag |Sflirj& gzigs-khoms a great man's trunk: [fer^flj khom-hbog a bag
usually

appearance

outward look

surface

f*w

made

of

leather
articles
I.

for

carrying

<wj*V sa khod_-$nomt-pa land of even surface; plains *S'2T'fpwi even and regular
:
1

apparel and other
I

on a journey.
have
leisure,

kfiom-pa

to

>

teeth: *r*pcflf |"rtl

<i

lat-ka

la

kfwd-

snoms-po gyit in doing a work (business) q be of even temper M'TS**V | ri*V
:

time to do a thing. 2. to be enabled to do a thing by the absence of external impediments (Schtr.): pffwer*^ khom-

i5*'^'

|*wEj-$q

shal-ica

dad tshon tyafi-rgyu-la

kho4-snoms-po gyis in plastering and in ft'wt'Z' painting make the surface even
:

pa min I have no time I cannot do it now \s)-|fa gtod mi khom no leisure to stay; *'pfa fia khom I am versed in
;
;

;

W4girirfl{ |bv9 9a mi
<
l

btuft-la khod gnomf-po food and drink to many people

fyzah mafi-pohi in giving gyis

make

khom not practised ^'^'f^^m b_rgyad_ ^NrT^TM the eight obstacles
;

to

the

distribution

uniform ^n *STJ 5vf*r9 srab
|

:

happiness caused by the rebirth in places or situations unfavourable to one's conversion
to

hthugkhog-snoms-po fine and thick levelled
into one.
hgo<t-pa.
2. v. "ffi^

Buddhism.

Such

re-births are:

%*w
as

hkhod-pa and "&&<*

^'S^l'S scms-can dmyal-wa
hell beings
;

i<.*siini

^S'^Ii

dud-hgro
8

fa4>Ji

as beasts,
5rr

f^'P^'^" an
sel.

average number

(Ya-

reptiles,

flies,

etc.;

)'<fl*

yi-dbags

35).

p3j

I
;

:

khon

$^m

sbst.
:

anger

;

ghosts the gods
;

fj'35'^9 lha tshe-rin-po

who enjoy very long
hkhob-mi
;

life

;

**

resentment ; enmity fy'ityikhon hdsin-pa or f^'^'^'i khon-du fcdsin-pa ^TT^T^ to feel rancour, hatred j^'lSY"

grudge

if?i'i) rptfiah

WHiaR^

the bor-

;

der (wild) people ffffVfWJK* dican-po matshan-wa t(H*i$fi9l those who are defective
in the faculties of the

khon
f^'3
q

bsod-pa
J'5'S!\
|

forbear,
ffug-te

endure, forgive;
sdad-pa
lit.

mind

or of the body;

khon
of
;

to sit

%i[(i*ci'ti log-par Ita-ica

ftn<*l*r following
or

waiting out

vindictiveness
fS^'*fl*

to

take

false or heretical

doctrines

theories;
fffeg-pa

revenge upon
pting
;

khon-hbar in

W.

^q^aj-i|.?|q|rq'^w*rg=.'i

de-bshin

the burning of anger or hatred in

rnams ma

byufi-wa

at|i)niiiiQM<4ifl

the

155
place where the Tathagata has not (yet)
sri^-pahi

khol

the

world

is

a

servant

made

his appearance.

of the evolving principle.
;

f&r35
;

khol-mo
f&rHrsH-

khor-mo yug incessantly
continually (Sch.), v. J5v$*| khor-yug.
-

a maid-servant ; a female slave

|^'B^'9'^ khol-po sgog-skyahi khur-po-ean

name of kind of
to

j^ 35vj^'ti khor-mor $pyod-pa continual and uninterrupted suffering (in the hell)
:

wounds and

vegetable medicine applied sores, &o. (Sman. 350).
;

khol-bu a bit

a small piece.

SV^'^'P* when born in hell, being subjected to torments in the miseries of heat

1.

a window; a hole in the wall or roof of

and

cold,

the performance of religion

is

a house to serve the purpose of a
or
;

window

impracticable.

p^'ll

khor-zug an obsolete form

of

p^'31 khor-yug, also V*F^ ne-hkhor

tfft-

ace. to Sch. an outlet sky-light the smoke in a roof. 2. anything boiled: &<i|N'q5JrqS-jjr*i ja dad chu

for

^

sogs

bskol-pahi

khol-ma tea
1
'

or
<

water

khor-yug

1.

V^

ne-hkor;
;

that has been boiled

kun-nag

Wfm:

M*((<!l the horizon

SSQ| ^'H'^'P'J| '* dmyalwahi khro-chu khol-ma the boiling or mol:
1

the outmost limit; the outer line or

cir-

ten

matter of

hell

:

Vgifffior**

ho-thug

cumference

;

"fa'i^'SW'S at all times,
2.

day day

and

night.

VFf*j^W^i^>VJM|
all

kept them without sleep at

times,

khol-ma boiling gruel. khol-mo 1. II^TS yyog-mo zrffr pfortf maid servant. 2. a coarse sort of blanket
:

and night (Yig)
chon-po the outer wall of

:

ffcajprHfl

khor-yug

4i<[-4<MI<d ace. to the Buddhists,

usually given to slaves in C. (Schtr.). mowed corn; a swath (fa.). 4.
the herdsmen called

3.

among

the world

;

the greater

Dog-pa, a

bellows

horizon from the top of Sumeru.
x khor-sa=fi' kho-ra.
*

made

of an entire goat skin.

fftf'!^

a slave family or
khol or pforg k/iol-bu abridgment; '** '1 khol-du jfi '^ phyun-wa epitome
;

khos-rgyud, mis-spelt for fi"l'%\ mean extraction wp'tf'
:

abridged

(Gs.).

mag-pa lo-gsum khot rgyud min-kyafi skul-rgyud yin though the son-in-law (elect) is not a slave (by

^fftrgVftnFiryvftl

cW^ khol-meha the mouth
bellows.

of

a

birth) yet he should be

made

to serve

(the

bride's parents) for three years.

P^l'S A/ioW(=i^'^
ner; marginally.

stir-du

in a cor-

ST khos imp. of

"l*r<i

gas-pa to split:

f^QT^I

kliol-pa boiled (Cs .)
(Sch.).

;

boiling

;

gpfcAtyfcr^j dgra-bohi mgo split the head of the enemy.
-^
'

khos fig

bubbling

^'K'-5
gyog-po ^TH a

khya-hi-tse the

running hand-

writing of the Chinese.

servant; parq^ khol-bran a slave; f&r3vt*r to take; to ^c^c,'H]chol-por rjes-su bsun-wa
hire for a servant
:

15'*
fills

khya-le or P'^kha-k as
;

much

as

the hollow of the hand
((7s.).

handful, e.g.,

*tT^'iK^'f

iflJ<

hjig-rten

of water

156
I:

khyag-pa,
frozen.
2.

seldom
the frost
ice
;

miracles are
ice
;

called

khyags-pa
igqj 3fn|'|)^

1.

" in

sublimity superior to others."
khyad,-du=.$f<*.'*

khyag thog-khar on the
of frost
it

;

*$*f

BV^
ly
;

khyad-par-du

q$-q\ojm

hkhyag-pahi Bwj-yul, Tibet, the
;

or S'9"I'5 bye-brag-tu especially, particularalso superior

country

khyag-la has stuck fast by freezing slyar BTS'T^f khyag-shu ko-ko ace. to Jd. in
soil,
:

Qflrr| v*fc
1

and

excellent

;

BV^'W
;

khyad-du ysad-pa to contradict ; also to do the contrary (out of pride or vanity) to
despise
:

Tsang,
water;

mud
;

caused by a thaw; snow-

^JT^'SK^warig^-ii^
dmah-la

na-rgynl

B"W*^

khyag sran-can hardened

(ftcarl-gi$

khyad-du

psad

from

by

frost
ice

BTV

khyag-rum or
;

BT**

khyag-

pride he speaks ironically to the lowly. B'V'^ khyad-par
distinction:
e

rom
ice.

;

pieces of ice

floating blocks of

= khyad-du 1.
v
I

difference,

^'B Vft*''B V *'*
che

$a

dad
-

II
for:

:

to undertake
r *'Bl

;

to be surety

khyod.

kkyod-khur khyag-gam mi kkyag can you undertake to do this or not s'^-^-urrr igij- v<i to
:

*WVB*'W^*

bdi

and I there

khyad-par is a great difference; ^'i* BYWWwiwqS-^ de dad khyad-par ma
d.nis

between you

mchis-pahi rten an image

not

differing

stand as security for a loan,
khyad.
1.

etc.

from
yin
:

this
is

;

^^'^'B^'W
(only)
:

5

)^

min-gi khyad-par
of

it

difference,

distinction

a difference

name.

*^ gail b_tati-na khyed.-med. it is no matter which you give me; t'^'gV"'

2. sort,

kind

^g^'S^-gvwjW
all sorts

hbras-buhi
;

khi/ad-par

kun

of fruit

^'^J'3'

VB^'* ^
1

it

is

daft phr ad-pa the same as quite
i

A

dafi
if

khyad.-nwd

they came to

ri-dbag(-kyi khyad-par shig a particular kind of game ; ^'S'BS'"^ yl-gyi

BV^'^I

sems-la khyetf-byuft myself; ?l*wrg v a difference of opinion arose (Jd.). 2.
'

e

khyed-par a particular place or province.
(5^-j^-cflj^-q

khyad-par bkod-pa,

jcHi5-

something excellent
greatly exalted
lent
pafti
;

;

superior (3v&*r<v|*rq
;

*'3F rgyal-pohi pho-brafi
special design
;

an

edifice

of

^'B bzo-khyad an excel^
-

1

palace of superb

make.

work

3' c bsgrubiD|jq-w-|3<v khyad-yoU there will be some ad-

of

art;

vantage in accomplishing it BV^ khi/adnor the principal or chief wealth BV^I
; ;

'4&'4 khyad.-par-gyi hchifi-wa that which binds particularly, i.e., worldliness.

g\q^^ khya/i-par-can special
good
;

;

specially
:

khyad-don the principal sense or reason

;

superior, excellent, capital

BV W '*V

3. is added to an advantage. adj. to the notion derivable from any express

-*rfY<i'ift! khyad-par can-gyi mdsad-pa dnis the two special achievements or exploits

quality:
UK.WCI
;

H*'9
; 1

thick;

ffw'BV

thickness;

(Yig.):

^f(^n^^t\

bla-ma khyad.-par-

wide

"f^^'B^

width; *j*Wi accus-

can rig an excellent spiritual teacher.

tomed ^^'B ^ a habit or custom.

BM3S khyad-khyud, said to be *>=-, n. of a number (Ya-sel. 57).
B"\

gj^wj-

chiefly,

BV*'^ khyad-par-du, adv. particularly, S especially: BV CW '^ " khyadI

!*''

C|

par-du
noble;

*N khya4-chos superior or
;

excellent

SV w '^*Y*K'i^ khyad-par-du
scorns,

hphags-pa

particularly

eminent,
sod.-

doctrine
those

a good religious discourse, hence
possess special qualification for

par byed he
vilifies.

despises, ridicules,

who

157
khyad-par
the Bodhi or Pipal tree (Mnon.).
'iS'^

khyab-cha Ihos med-du mcis am executing without relaxation the general duties of

both parts of
leaf; f%H7<sr

life

(i.e.,

the spiritual and

Khyad-par lo-ma excellent n. of an individual (A. K.).

temporal) (Yig. M.).

vading One,
mtshar-can wonderful
;

Khyab-hjug f<nm Vishnu. i.e.,

the All- per-

His

several

curious

;

strange.

names

are:

v P' t'^'V
i

'

i;

e

i'ff^'^

Dgah-wahi
Pleasures,

S'VI^ khyad-gshi the superior basis. basis is alone possessed superior

A
of

dicafi-po

ft1%^

the

Lord of

G-ovinda;

5i|'^-ii-q-i!|-i5-fi| Thig-le

khyad-chos, i.e., virtues which cannot be found elsewhere. The god Brahma is
called

pa hgro^cahi

tog;

v^'^'^^b^

drugTha-

guhi Ito-can sre$ med-bu; I^'^'SF'^"!'*^'

BS'I^'^' 1
of

!

Khyad-yshi
for

tshans-pa,

the god of excellent basis,
is

Brahma
merits,

"1^ Qyo-me plafi-rdsi skra-can psod the immovable Gopala the killer of Kesi;
Mi-yi theg-pa
gyi behns
rntshan
<

possessed

superior

moral

dpah-bo
dpal-

resplendence, and longevity.

-a^-)^ Re-dimH
aMTf^4<a 'rH^H
sign S'rivatea
also to

the

-pa=$*i rgyas-pa
a,
4tfc<<v
1
.

on the breast of Vishnu;

to

fill,

penetrate

;

qy*iS-!-rifc|-pK-|w
4wafl

Padmahi

Ite-wa
1

hog

embrace,
Zw'iyj'i
of, or
1

estimate,

comprise:

Rgwrw
full

skyes
g.yuft

;

^P^Nf^^PV*
druft

!

Dpal-gyi

hbrum-pa maH-pos khyab-pa

lag-pa

can; ^IfSj'
nabs-so skyes
;

quite covered with, pustules;
filled,

r

Dbyig-gi

Ito-ica

WjS^'* mkhris-pas khyab-pa

impreg-

-ica
-

brgya-pa dpal-gyibdag;

nated

with

bile;

gj-<^rsi5-q^*ragpr*)'v

tjf^-J^-mwJjrft-gq-qS-irtarg

unnumbered
beyond what In grammar
:

Sjug-pa bcu-pa mihu thufi the dwarf he of the ten incarna; <

immeasurable
the

kalpas

ago

;

tions;

fri

W WV^*'fTOI
>

Gom gsum

mind is

able to estimate.

capable of being joined to any word, inclusive of all sive
;
;

g.nan dad $tob$-ldan b$lu; wp^fjorwty ^^'^'S"I Mk/tah Idin rgyal-mtshan hkhor-lo

iyi'X'1

khyab-che-wa comprehen;

phyag

;

|'^'|

e''Q' c

-

)^

';

(''l^'>''I

Zla-wahi sniA-po
lotus-eyed;

everywhere and nowhere
;

to

be met
of

pad-dkar mig yiK^iTj
rica g.shu-can;
tsfiogg ffzugs

the

everywhere

used

also

in

the

way

Vishnu; w^-^^-ynjg-^ Mahdsagdafi ni

censure (Jd.).
wj^-qS-$-J|

*<'*&' fW*'BF*'i'%'* f*' 3* '9' wisdom of Buddha the
the
l

f
Ito.

can khyu-mtshog

encompasses

bounds
'

of
l

heaven

;

I'^'S^'^
bo

Dgah-wa brgya-pa
I
;
I

inthon-pohi

J|T|tapr^'^lF*f *' W**V $r*A'E'1
l|
;

the

Waji^'lN-^^-^'^'j^
gos-ser-can
)'5'i|'|''

Sbyin-skyes dgrai'fivq5
\gj

domain
2.

of

knowledge

is

commensurate

Me-tog

with the very extremity of the heavens.
lyJ'Sfc'"

Ito-ica

mkhar-wahi dgra

;

khyab sod-wa

all-sufficing

;

all-

Mi-yi sen-ge Khyab
Vishflu or Nrisimha.

hjug-go

covering.
|yj'*

khab-cha-=^'^ bya-wa duty, gene-

Kliyab-hjug
Granges.

rkafi-pa

= river

ral business (of a

man)

;

work; lugs

sufi-gi

158

*
the

khyab-hjug

epilepsy,

which

is

$s.'9 tsan-dan sbrul-gyi snin-po

caused

by

the

supposed to be tent or planets or the Hindu

fragrant sandal
of

wood
its

tree.
;

Snakes

deity Vishnu.
igq-ipVJi

generally coil round

branches

images

made

it

fetch very high prices.
*)

and uniformly
all,

khyab-g.dal spread out slowly in all directions ; to absorb
;
:

Khyab-hjug dgah-)>ia=

as does

a q Qunyuta voidity B '^'

chufi-ma khyab-hjug Vishnu's lover or wife.

frw
J

khyab-hjug
Visnu's wife.
are:
tV*r**

chuA-ma

h

(

flag.).

Her

different

names
vading
'

khyab-bdag f%^
lord.

the

all-per-

Padma-can,

$

ffphrog-byed. yum,
*4

miT^; ^SHlY SWU Qpat-mo, Bq

QP' BXft khyab-hdotf wishing everything.

Khyab-hjug dgah-ma.
all

QViffl kkyab-brdal=BP' >rw khyab-pdal

I

'flftc khyab-hjuy dregs-pahi s sman-eJicn aconite =$*i* (Sman. 97).
(

absorbing;

VP' 33
brdal

all- encompassing ^-'^ m wan-wa dkar-pohi khyabQq- q5,oi- ^ g
:

B^V! ""ft"
where there
is

Khyab-hjug

ffna$ fefl[iK

a

du-fpi'l

widely

diffused

like

the

place of pilgrimage in

Gaya, the temple

sunlight.

a footprint of Vishpu.

khyab-par hgro-wa to move,
covering everything in the way.

S^ET"!^ ^
tpan-gyan
lit.

khyab-hjug g.non-pa=-^f-'^ the ornament of grass or {f'V

q 3'*>'? l ston-gyi me-tog,

an autumnal flower
to envelope.

khyab-par

hdsin-pa

(ffion.).

igq^^T^'i Khyab-hjug bshon-pa the
(3*)' golden eagle on which Vishnu rides fir%tfffV|W%te; the different names
:

B1!'!^ khyab-bye4^
a
3.

ru-rta

1.

n. of

vegetable drug. met. the sun.

2.

met.

the

eye.

o

of Garuda, the conveyor of 4'' Skya-refls nu-bo the

Vishnu

g'^w
;

khyams

1.

yard,

courtyard;

younger brother

of the

dawn;

gallery (0$.);=^'^ sran-ga the hall of a house impluvium (khyams is termed sgo;

phyug, a 'w|S Klu-mthar byed ^ i)^-|'^q-^ Qser-gyi hdab can SCi^r;'eAi

ra in a poor house). 2. open; uncovered place in the upper stories of a house where
people
sit

for airing or to enjoy light, air
-

mchu,

^q'*fl]*)'lt=.'|

Bdub-c/tags sen-ye

and sun.

t"P^'^rtl 8 t^ *^>WWMf
l
I

'^' J A/<o hgro-za, ^S11 ^'^^'? Re-dban $mrta,

^'i'B*<*''!i'^*''^

qI

yitl-hhor

hdi-na skyee-

JF^IN

5na;

dul-$kye$,

H^^^Skar

bu ji-gned yod-pa thams-cad hkhor-gi khyam$
su hdus-fig bring to the courtyard all the people as many as there are in this country

mig-bu,

^r^Swa^

Dug-hjoms Man, ^i'|N
'

hdul-$kye$, v,q'*T''5

po,

Edab-chag? rgyalf-|^- Mkhah-ldM (Mfion.).
''^ q l'1^

a(

2i

to be

my
?P\

followers (K.

d.

210

to

B

l

Khyab-hjug

gser or B q q

'

khyab-hjug nod, also

*''^

^a-Aw

fe

khyams-stod upper courtyard ; khyams-smad. the lower courtyard.

B.
khyams-pa, B*' q khyar-wa or khyal-pa, v. ^gwrci hkhyams-pa, &o.

159
(S'l'i

cttfl-sad.

chog contentment with a small

quantity, ^i^'Waf^afaj legs-par g.ni$-log

B*w*> k/iyams-ra open space a house or on the roof of a house used for
airing, walking, or
sitting; also

before

always sleeping,

3^'*'^'*^

myur-war sa4

easily wakeful, ^wai dpal-la intrepidity,

play-

^'^
a

sniii-ne

faithfulness,
l

^'1

b_rtan-pa
is

firmness.

ground.
CV

S'^'JI'^

khyi-nal rgyug-lhoft

common

saying, to cause a sleeping
stick,

dog
i.e.,

[^ khyi,
or kih,
35

in

f^T'-,
B'

Tsang pronounced as kyi VI, ^RW, fa#IM hound,
a
bitch
;

to get

up by poking him with a
one who

to rouse to action

is silent.

dog

;

khyi-mo
bite;

the dog
bos-nag

will

*MF!

Syn.

3('|5'W|l'w

rdo-rjehi

mjug-ma
;

;

'!^ g.so-byed
seft-gehi

^V^
rigs;
;

hdod-d.tcafi

l>^)5-

do not beat him"

ma-brdun "after calling a dog, is a Tibetan common

|'l^'*'-8^
;

skye-teahi
t}*'5)'*|*^'

cha-can

;

g" fl|*)t,'n

rdsi gsaft-wa
-*j'0

saying to explain that it is not proper to beat or insult an invited person even
if

1^ grufi-gi g.can-g.zan
Khyi-kM
>o
valley in Tibet.

$a-khyt(%fnon.).

he be a

bad person.

Ace.

to

Sch.

n.

of a

place

and

c;aft*' Q'*t

khyi-rkan gnis a bastard dog, a
is

cur
-

;

prob. an inferior breed

meant.
Ice-yis

Q'

8)

|'oJw4'Ji*r*KTiv!S khyi-yi

rma
duft-gi

rnams hdrubs-par byed the tongue of the

thag-pa-can n. of a vegetable pos-

dog causes wounds to heal

;

'^'"1'W9'^'

sessing

medicinal

properties for healing

^3^ khyi-yi rlig-pas bu ro hbyin the testes of a dog draw out the dead child (from the

wounds and

S'^
J3'F*

sores (Sman. 350). khyi-skad the barking of a dog.

womb)
dog

;

g^lVwS'^"'^'" '^
1

klatf-pas hgrib mig-la

phan

khyi-yi the brains of a
;

khyi-khan dog kennel.
:

are useful for the cataract of the eye
i

Q'3 i khyi-gu in W., bud (of leaves and branches, not of blossoms) the eye
;

j|-i-gfl|-i|

*ig'

aft-$aj

dog's
>

blood

removes
a

leprosy

:

i|-5l'-r$-

V^w9S
i.e.,

(of a plant).

dog's

S'5

ii

:

flesh dries

up water,

heals dropsy;

a puppy

;

a dog.

Cs^v^

|-5)-g-<ffiq-$<i]'awfa khyi-yi lhog skrans g.non the burnt

spu yshob hair of a
;

0'IB Kyi-kyo
Kamsohatka

n. of a place, also of a

fabulous country to the east of Asia, prob.
(/. Zati.).

dog

absorbs

swollen
khyi-yi

ulcers

B'

5

'

^'!*

1

q|1frn2w!5c.N-cr^

drun-gyis

ffdon

hjom skraKs-pa shi the excrement of the dog subdues evil spirits in one's body

^^f
EJ'*^

-n)

Khyi-stonjo-ye n. of a Buddhist

teacher of Tibet.

and soothes
^m'fl]^

swellings;

5 S 5 S'S"I'*' J''P' >'% <'

khyi-dam
;

lit.

dog's seal; a
of

mark

khyi-thug chu-yis kha-yi rul-rdol of a dog is a cure for ulcers ycod. the urine V 5 in the gums (Smart.) ; J3' *'9 V C| khyi-yi
spyod.-pa the

burnt in
B'^"l

stigma. khyi-dng the poison

hydro-

phobia

(Sch.).

habits

cribed

by Mamraksa

the dog desare as follows **'
of
:

V khyi tndu^-pa pairing
kyi-pal jor

of dogs.

in

W.,

Btitum

mafi-du zad-pa voraciousness,

virgatam.

160
'S *
1

khyi-pul a

dog kennel

;

dog-house
diseases

(Jd.)
'S^
B~'g

khyi-$ifi a tree-drug which cures It of the lungs and the eye.

khyi-spyafl (khib-jung) a jackal.

also expectorative (Med.).

khyi-bru a

vicious,

biting

dog

B'*'5*''

:|

khyiso-rgyab-pa the bite of a
1

dog:
bite

B '" 5*

*!

khyiso

tab-$e the

dog

will

Ladak

dialect.
v.

khyi-ra-pa=Z*('<*
1.

rfion-pa,

a huntsman;

one

who

kills

khyig,

hkhyig-pa.

wild animals by chasing them with dogs, &c. 2. fy^'5 Kirata (*<! a tribe in

Nepal who
'$*

live

by hunting.
lit.

khyid breadth of the hand with the thumb extended to form a span.

khyi-sbrafi a flea;

dog's

fly.

khyim

1.

resp.

fi khab JJ
B**^

*Q'S khyi-mo bitch or female

5\

)<

i^'E

J5

^

w'*%5'*

dog:

a home, residence,
;

dwelling-place:

c Ji*'
-'

"the

woman

having transmigrated into a red bitch"
(Mil.).

khyim-na at home ftw^khyim-du at home, in the house B* '*WI '^1'5'i khyim-bdag rin;

po-che <i^nrd<.*i
;

khyi-myoA a rabid dog canine madness hydrophobia.
;

also

the ideal householder (of the Buddhists). 2. Tifa the signs of zodiac S**' q 5' q f^" khyim-fyoi-gnis <jK*Krfa
;

the twelve signs of the zodiac; ^ifijM* or

B'** khyi-tshafi a dog-house.
1

khyim-gyi hkhor-lo the zodiac
the

;

khyi-htshed

vmv
the

ram

;

the
&c.

baker
[i

^^, $* plan the bull

;

or seller of parched

hkhrig-pa (husband and wife

rice, millet,

in union) the twins; w&'Z, T*f<? kar-ka-

khyihu-ka
of anything

remainder

ta the
3FTT,

crab
^*

cut or chopped

off.

9

f^T, ^'*| sefi-ge the lion bu-mo the virgin ^j<sii, Jj^ srafi
; ;
;

the balance

;

B^'B$
^g^'^'C" '^
1

^falf, SI'i fdig-pa the scor-

khyihuhi-khyihu,
;

'9*1
:

phrug or S'3 y-khigu, puppy pup

khyiB* 5 'BV

pion;
'TCfT,

khyi-hu-hi-khyihu djbytin-tcahi tshul-du *faiifJ|Tf*rf^K<riJli in the man-

(or bow) the archer; chu-srin the sea-monster (capri4'SJ^

^5:

"19 ps/tu

ner of a puppy being brought forth.
B'* khyi-ra
cially

gw, 9*'" bum-pa water-pot waterand iffa, ^ na fish. Besides these there are mentioned twenty-four minor
corn)
;

;

bearer

;

chasing, hunting,

espe-

of a
;

single

huntsman, not
la ca-ye,

of a

signs of the zodiac such as ^TJTT, $VS=. mihu thun the dwarf ; ^TTfW, V^'S**'* ne1

party
ing
:

in

W.

khyi-ra
a
i

JS'*'

q i'* fl

P''*

khyi-ra la
;

go huntc/tags-can one
to

bum-pa, "$*[* hbrin-gar, &c., which raise the list of the signs to thirty-six
u-ahi

who

is

fond of hunting

sportsman.
c

fg'QT(JJ'3i khyi-la tra-ri=^ -'^ sefi Man f^T the tree Acacia catechu ; also Terra
japonica.

(K. g. *\129). Ace. to Jd. there is moreover a division into twenty-seven lower mansions much in use, v. *'^ rgyu3. double hours the time of two fkar.
;

hours
a
flea.

the time of the passing of a sign of the zodiac through the meridian (Jd.).
;

161
4.

halo or circle round the sun or
5.

moon

marriage

;

to give

away a woman

for a

(Cs).

symbolic numeral 21

(/a.).

E*

l

'i*<

khyim-sKyes JJ^ST domesticated;

wife; jg*'w*i khyim thab-mo wife; housewife (Cs.) ;

|sriq-wsrRj-q
1
'

tfffnurr

a

indigenous.

devoted wife

:

t

>V!'i5

V'^'S*

(

li

W&*

let

skyon-wa to have a household to gain a livelihood (Jd.) ; to stick to home and look after it.
|3*rgE.'*]

khyim

;

and me be married. Sy n B^ 9 khyo-$ug; "
!

you

w#

bzan-tsho;

bzah-tshan (Mnon).
"'^

khyim dan khyim-na house

.pa

hbrus-phyun-wa an eunuch a domestic slave ; one belonging or related
;

to house

;

each in his house.

E
pa

i)

'^'?i

khyim-du nal= S'*I'J bya-mchila
;

to a family.

the swallow (Mnon.).

khyim-gyi kun-dgah rara=|S'*M skyed-tshal a grove or garden
attached to a house (Mnon).

B^i^'W^"

B^'iVI
holder
;

khyim-bdag ij^rrfk a master of the house
;

house;

husband

owner of a house a
-

citizen.

Very

freq. in

khyim-gyi gtor-za $S S' !''l chuhi bya-gag a grey species of duck
fl

i*'!'"!^'*

**

the older writings J3**' i*\i''i)'^<ij*r3e.'s'arSf 9 JTTtrKfflTTTra fra the house-holder
!

class is like a great
r
i i

Sala tree.

(Mnon.).
i*'i'V!'* khyim-gyi dag-ra,

#*

dans-

B* *V rV r3' l'^ khyim-bdag drag-fill can a rough uncultured householder.
1

The *p\^ yard, courtyard. dag-ra of a temple or tomb is called *fi*cq hkhor-sa or fyfo ne-hkhor.
n. of

ra 'i^cjfi

W'|^ khyim-bdag

dpctl-sbyin,

^'

a householder

who was

devo-

E^'I'^'S khyim-gyi nor-bu
of the house)
>

(lit.

the

=

gem

ted to

Buddha
5

(K. ko. * 335).

|fl'*>

sgron-med or wfy35?-j;byed and

mtshan-mohi

snail

wiS'wti
rftr veran-

I^VT*
Syn.

khyim-bdag-mo

TZ*$T^

a

hbar-wahi ral-pa a lamp, light (Mnon.).
B*r3j-fl|UBW

house-wife; also a female householder.

qgiw*!

khyim-gyi nyabs

brtul shugs-ma

gwBfd
rigs-kyi-

dah or

khyim hdsin-ma- pq-^-

portico.

^|V

khab-hdsin-ma ;

B*<'i'' ?

rigs sky on-ma;

*w%
wi-q

khyim-gyi sa
;

tsis

household

;

house-keeping

J3-^r khyim-bdag-ma ma^

farming.
fish of the ; a mythological fish (Sch.).

yrW khyim-ldan,

(Mnon.).

v.

rtsat+pa a

|'9 khyim-na
size of

a whale

a

lizard (Mnon.).

a house

;

^'fy3
of a king
q-&

-

khyim-ne-wahi rin-po-che the perfect ideal of a lay subject

*

gn-^-^-q fr^^**
fin-gi
"

khyim-nas

byun-wa=^^

lo-ma

a

theg-chen byan-chvb Ijonleaf of the Bodhi-tree

and second only
che.

to the !*r

khyim-bdag rin-po
or

khyim-gnax,
bram-sehi
rig-bshi-yi $cig
ace. to
la-

'i khyim-thab

khyim enas
life

Q^Vnir

husband; frequently also wife; g i'^'q khyimthab-la slon-wa to give in

Brahmanical

religion, the worldly life, a house-holder's

(Ya-sel.,55).
22

162
khyim-pa layman
im 3'|^ q
<
-

;

married

man

:

are the following:
Itfafi

I

phyogs-su khyim-pahi to give away to a layman t^'S* ibyin-pa
:
1

daft

? *=.*rgic.-^ tho-rans before dawn wsr^f^ crowing
t

;

q$'ffcraC

q*r4i*'<l phi/is

khyim-pahi

tshul

hthdb-pa dan-ldan always fighting 1^'!' p-j |w'w3^ g.ncn-la kha-zas snoms-par
;
f

can-gyi rnal-hbyor-pa a devout

man or

yogi

who

lives

outwardly in the manner of a

byed dividing food equally with his friend S'ai'*q'oi^'^'!V|ft mola rab-pnon nc-icar

;

layman. he J3*rei5' |X'tr^ khyim-pahi spod-pa can

spyod
control

always

keeping
her.

the

hen under

and chucking

who betakes

to the life of yogi

51 gshon-nu gdun-dntg Kumara Shadanana (Mnon.)

<JKVl'^*' an epithet of
;

j|*c<*c.

khyim-tshan a family ; a house-

hold.
j|*4'*i3>*)

jyrqS-qwgw|^-$qj do not revert to the life of a
:

kliyim-mtlics a neighbour

**'
;

*i2i-^\ci'q5c,-<*gai

k/iyim-mtshes dus-pa btanof

layman (Mnon.).
khyim-pa rtag-pahi dpyad
the science of discerning the
fit
.

fcbrel

nearness

residence;

neighbourfire-

hood

so near that the

smoke from the

place of one house

place for the residence (of a householder)
gjcti*,-j|^-q

another;

)'<2*i'q

mixes up with that of khyim-mtshcs-pa a male
khyim-mtshes-ma a

khyim-par

gnas-pa

^T^,

one that abides in his house; one who living in his house a worldly man he lives as a layman.
Jjf^j
; ;

neighbour; j|*i'*i15rw female neighbour.

khyim-shag a zodiacal day. khyim-zla a zodiacal month.
khyim-la hon-wa, "fr'i gton-

QW$I

khyim-phitb
d.

living

in

divided

families (K.

75).

wa

to

get married, to

be given in mar-

j*'S khyim-bya (khyim-cha) fi^z, fWH cock hen poultry. domestic fowl
; ; ;

riage on the female part (/a.).

Syn. W'S'K'flYM'll-if* gtsug-phud;

home
sick.

gjcuc^q khyim-la shen-pa a lover of one attached to his home home; ;

mya-nan-med; |=.'|'g'^li zun-gi
;

tf*w$|S

t/io-rans

skad;

w^'S

-

B^'^'^i^'" khyim-sun
;

hbyin-pa

grr-

mtshan-mo skad;

^'^1*'^

bde-legs chn

yons-zlum mig;
hphel-byed;
buhi mgrin-can;
g""l"

W*\
;

^^

dgahnor-

the secular vituperating or blaming state or a domestic abode.
J3*rS khyim-so Ji^0lf>f%^f

^'^.'^^
;

homesick.

^\'

hod-kyi sde

g'Wfj'
zans-zi-

sna-war sgra-sgrogs
:

aw^'*^

khyim
a family.
gs4'<i|W*(

so-sor bsgo-ica gra-

can

i

one who creates dissensions in

;

>i\**'

&'''\$'*\'$^

pags-pahi gtsug phud;
rig;
^c.-q5'i^-.*-^

Hi^ SS'^ij

mtshan-mo

rkan-pahi mtshan-cha can

(Ijffion.).

khyim-g.i$ar-ma

tv*\'**

bag-tna

|wg,-^q-(5j khyim-bya mtshal-lu a very

or

^A&C
|g

lag-hdsin-ma,
;

also

ff^V*
Myu

large species of fowl which ^*-*i*i-q.
to be

is also

called

lhan-dg spyod-ma a bride

wife (Mnon.).

The bile of

this bird is believed

kyu

flock

;

herd:

W^I'B %-<7

a cure for poison.

a flock of sheep; 5^-g rtahi khyu a herd
of horses
cattle;
;

|*raS-|Vq khyim-byahi spyod-pa the four habits of the cock ace. to Masurakst

W^I'B

ffnag-gi

khyu a herd of
tshogs a

flS'S

byahi khyu

or *"!

163
flock of birds.
collect or

iS'ip^q khyu ^sags-pa
(Sc/t.)
;

to

/z!0-w

4ql*i<

with a belly

gather in flocks
to

fq jjjj
flock

resembling that of a bull.

AAyw skyons-wa
or herd;
**'

keep; tend

a

B'^'i khyu
a herd or flock
aggregate.
;

hdus-pa

&>s.

collected in
;

company; band; gang; troop:
a

also heap,

multitude

an

mi-khyu

bu-mo-khyu a bevy of girls; dmag-khyu a troop of soldiers.
khyu-nas hbud-pa to exclude from the flock
or
to

9B

company of men

(Cs.);

B'^
,

khyit-ldan,

v. *i'o)^

tsha-wa Jen

the tamarisk (Mnon.).

company;
go before
;

B'tf'"^'^

khyu $na hdrcn-pa
khyu-re

u-tyug erroneously used for
^o
(3'|1 khu-lyug, n. of

to take the lead of a troop or

a large bird of sweet

of a flock;

Bya

ser-po

hgrogs

note,

which, according to the Tibetans,

man-po yellow

birds;
3!+).

many companions
gi^,
;

in each flock (A.

migrates in summer to cooler regions and in cold 'weather returns to the warmer
zones.

khyu-mchog
1.

^r*r,
;

i^r,

In Jd.

\>

B'il'51'S

probably signifies

2.

king the bull Vishnu. S'l'IS"'" zla-wa ysum-pa the third
chief
;

the note of the black Indian cuckoo.

khyug,
-

v.

W"

hkhyug-pa.

month

of

the

Tibetan

year

generally
o

corresponding with April.
6 dpyid-tha chun Syn. Sift*'*
-'

glog-<ji

khyug-khyug *. hod khyug-khyug byed a zig-zag

flash of lightning.

nag-pa;

fl^'|

sbran-sla;

3 mn-

dri-shim
srafts;

Man;
3'

ST&
fa or
while.

1

l'^)

"^V^
a,

khyug ttampsfaf* tig-tsam oc.)^' srib-tsam a little; a little

hdod-hdus;

bzugs; ^gI'|

hlrug-zla;

the third

month

of the Tib. year

I

:

herd, multitude.
:

II
lihyu-mchog
'q

(Sch. also

khyun-mo) the garuda
;

so
bird, mythical chief of the feathered race

byu-mchil pa *<?!<*

a kind of swal-

low (4fno.).
khyu-mchog rgyal-mtshan
dicaan-phyag
n. of
-

the golden

eagle:

a B^'l"! khyun-skyttg

kind of

gem

said to have been brought

chen-po

Mahadeva (Mfwn.).
)Xfl|'^

from the Sumeru mountain by Garuda and vomited by him: B V W^V'IR'W > ^IrariH^Qhl khyuft-skyug dug sags nad kun
*

Q

khyu-mchog can=jt\'

wa brgyad-pa or ?^'|'^9^'3 ston-zla hbrin-po the eighth month of the Tibetan year corresponding with November (Rtsii.).
khyu-mcog mtshan-pa
bull or one
2.
1.

hjoms-pahi mchog, the khyun-skyug (the the chief remedy against eagle's vomit) is
the
effects of poisonous

wl'Jft'wW N9
hjoms the toe
antidote for

khyud-gi
of

E^'Sj'^' drugs: Va sen-mos klu nad
is

an eagle

used as an
>ft

one with the marks or signs of a

leprosy.

E^TSTiS-q^v!" N> N>
rtsi-

who

carries the bull

ensign.

awi'Wp'S khyufiphrug skyug-pahi bdutf

n. of

Jastica

genderussa),

a drug called cit* (the plant which is used for

chag pahi kha-chu the watery substance vomited by locusts a mystical expression
;

purifying the blood.

(Min. H).

164
i:

khyufi

sfion-skyef
;

1.

khyur-po=*frt
>o sgan-po entire
;

ril-po

or

the first-born of heaven

the one

full.

that was born before garuda; an epithet of Aruna, the charioteer of the sun. 2.

=

l^^'w^'tl khyur mid-pa
S3

to swallow

;

3'^'

B^T*^ khyuA morning which advances with the wings of an eagle a name of
skya-refi

dawn.

3.

to eat the

fog-can the early

food without chewing, in the manner of birds, snakes and fish @*'**V
:

;

^'*=.'

khyur

mid-du

sofi-ste

suffering

Vajrapani Bodhisattva.

himself to be swallowed.
g,*l khyus wall side (in Tsang) ? (Ja.).

B^'l" n
^

:

*yiS-f<-*i ni-mahi kha lo-pa
(IjLHon.).

the charioteer of the sun

|,'^ khye-pa SWT wide.
khyuft-thur can-=%\'* go-cha or
*f fli

go-khrab coat of mail (Mfion.).
khyufl-$der

fy

H

khye-bo,

$*

bu-ts/ta children.

B^*>

claws of an

eagle
Ja.).

(Med.; Cs.); (Guruda-claw) the n. of amedicinal root: B^'^'W* khyufi-gder dkar-

khye-ma n. of a disease (Med.;

mo the white

species of this vegetable drug,
its

I: khyed n.

of a tribe

in

Tibet

so called on account of
:

resemblance to

(Vat. kar. 150).

the claw of an eagle B^'?^'S1'3 khyuAgder smug-po the dark brown species of the
root, in appearance like the claws of

g,^ II

:

pers. pron.

thou,

you

;

is

the

an
to

ordinary resp. form of j$V ifc^khyed-cag, in plur. of jlS khyed, is generally used
addressing lamas, but seldom in addressing as parents, uncles, and superiors, such
brothers ;
is

eagle.

Both

these

roots

are

used

neutralize snake poison, &o.

B^'q khyun-po

many

collected or assem-

used to those senior in age, and

bled together.

sometimes contemptuously, llv^ khyed-ran
is

common

colloquially for khyed; jl^'^

khyufi-dpyad a small round
basket of reed (Cs.).

jl'V'i**',

H*\'*

you

or

you

all:

*\*[&r

S'Vft''

dge-tshul

khyed gnis you

two
will

novice

monks; Hs'^'spwv
(all)

^'^

it

monas>

be as you
|^3j'f? '

think.
in

tery in the valley of

Panam
is

in Tsang.

khyen-te

Purang

he;

she

gc^ai khyun-ril
in Ld., v.

said to be a large?

(Ja.).

cylindrical basket, the same as kun-dum

ls
1

= fitw khels

cover.

%i rkon-pa.
khyud-pa
to worship,
*fy'ti

lkhyem=? * khem a shovel: to shovel away to cast out with
; ;

a

adore.

shovel

j|*r'^'

khyem-gyi hdab-ma the
:

blade of a shovel (Ja.)

*<'!!'^

I>

khyem-

khyud-mo

1.

?'*"
2.

rta-chag the

equipments of a horse.
(Sch.).

rim of

vessel

gyi-yu-wa the handle of a shovel (Cs.) ; 5 &** gru-khyem, 4JI** chu-khyem oar; in

W. f q]*<'^* kags khyem

iron spade;

*>'(!**

165
me-khyem
fire-shovel
;

V$*

wa-khyem a
(Cs.).
1.

$'5 khyo-pho husband
if 9

:

scoop; $**'9
13,^

khyem-bu a spoon

khyod-kyi khyo-pho de che-shig Ita-bu
like is

what
khyehu ^n., also *iM<<*, finj boy; an infant child. 2. a youth,
in Dzang-lun.

a
B'*^'i

your husband

(Snin.).

esp.

khyo-med-pa,

^^r,

R^^l

a

widow.
S'^
khyo-re
51).
to stand
erect,

ftVz-fo

khyehu gsar-du kha hbus-pa the tender shoots
JJfnon..

upright

(IV

of leaves

eAw mthon-pa,

j

S'-^l khyo-qug ^>^\ husband wife; a married couple; same as bzah-tshoo? la^'S bzah-mi (Lig. f ^).
;

and

w*

6ye-wa the delivery of a child

child-birth.
g-^u|-q]^j

In Kahgyur and Tangyur
wzfoas-^a=9'|') male child.
6

khyehu skyes-pa the birth of a
jjv***<'*i

khyo-sug g.na$

^m^

the place

where a married couple pass moon.

their honey-

one who is khyer-rkyan specially authorized or responsible to make payment or receive deposits in money or
in kind in a

%Z
ga and
5fr

khyog-thofi (abbr. of

g^ khyo-

^Ao4)

in

W. a young man;

a youth

(Jd.).

Jong ^'^VS^'S^*'*
1

or district:

"^ *y
(5^|*^ khyog-po crooked; curved; bent
((7s.)
JJ
;

^E.'Jpi'jiti'Rflpr

^

yon-sgos chephrahi rigs

also

cunning

(Jd.).

Rdson-sdod khyer-rkyan nas

bsdu-wa

all

4

!" AAyogrj,
1.

aW9w phebs-byams
;

^f%,
also a

proceeds (collections) large or small should be collected by the officer resident in the

ft^T

a serfaw chair, palankeen

scaffold (Cs.).

2. litter, bier (Jd.).

Jong

(Rtsii.).

*5"1
Kdlac. T.

khyogs

%tRf

a swing

(5cAr.;

gof^qi^-q khyel bshugt-pa n. of a posture in yoga a mode of sitting
; :

U6).

S"!*'" AAyo^-^as^flj-q theg-pa a vehicle

hdug-stans kyl mifi or

?1'?

q

l'9

or conveyance.
^,

tsogpur hdug-pa (Mfion.).

^*
(5 khyo or
J5''

or ffc'i khofi-wa,

khyo-bo a husband

;

5

in

colloq.

"^'B^

nin-khyon,

one

day's

IS'i khyo byed-pa to act as a

husband

;

also

entertainment.

to take a wife

:

khyod-fiahi khyo
(Jd.).

mi byed-

khyod

pers. pron.,

2nd

na

if

you do not marry me
khyo-ga husband;
-

pers., thou,

you
Ha

is

the

ordinary

form of address

jj'1

also emphatically
r"fy

to inferiors or to equals:

man,

as

j*rg'*^rJ5

$kyes-bu

your, thine
:

;

gv3 khyod-kyi BVl'l khyod cag-gi your, of
or JSVI*" 1 khyoij-

Hor-pa khyo-ga

yin, I, a Tartar,

am

a

man
.

(as distinguished
S'"!'

from effeminate people)

you all 5*V* khyod-tsho rnams you, ye: g*>'^
you, yourself

khyod-rafi thou,

2'

khyo-ga-po a hero.

very common in the celloq. of C. in place of the simple khyod..
flX'SI" khyod-fitgs ffr^sr a pair; pair-

JJ'*V' N

khyo

hdam-ma=m'# bag-ma

a bride.

ing, v. S^"! khyo-gug.

166

khyon,

wre, Ff
; :

,

V\*l the
;

measure

for hunting: |g-$'^*rr5^i<irrq5jc khrayi ggo-nas sa-bon hd/tag-pa bsrufi the

or dimensions, area, extent, size

width

;

egg

circumference

height to things material or immaterial applied ^"'3^'S^'^ ges-byahi khyon-kun the whole
;

this term can be

of the

hawk

is

curative of the disease of
;

involuntary discharge of the semen H'^ |fl|-j-S^V*N the feathers from a hawk's
tail

extent of learning or knowledge; ^'*f<v the extent of the void space or sky.
khyon-sgril altogether; all taken

remove female diseases
< 1

;

H'")'g^''g=.N-

l'W' M3 ql*

skrans-pa the excrement of the hawk rnay-tu hgugs
;

khra-yi

Irun-gyis

together

:

sfcwg^fjar^^w

$don-raf

khyon-sgril gos snams cotton cloth for wicks
all

prevents accumulation of pus in a boil gs)<i|-<jljraj'vnCi$'i|X;^-sq a hawk's eye

overcomes
together (Rtsii.).
j^'%'q khyon-che-wa far^bn,

all

demons

that

produce

*UW

broad;

apoplexy.

very widely spread.
BVif*1 khyon-idom
all

Syn.
together;

<^q-Mm^ci

hdab-cfiags

dan-ma;

sum

^qV*

ri-bon-za; S'B bya-khra; "I^'l gyo-

total; contents; ace. to Cs.

narrow extent.

tca (Mnofi.).

fa'W khyon-nas thoroughly;

(^

II: n.

of

a

tribe in

Tibet

(Vat.

$T^
not at

an out-and-out
all (/a.).

sinner;

JS

kar. 160).
P^

III: ^|<dV*
2. n. of

1.

a

lie,

falsehood; also

kyom-khyom oblique; awry;
irregularly shaped.

a

liar.

a

Naga Raja

(snake king)

.

v* (5^'^
ble
;

|^

IV:

or

R#khra-ma

(l/ia-ma)

a letter;

I

:

to
:

move totteringly

;

to stum-

8*'H skyei-k/tra a letter
g'B

with a present.

be dizzy defined in a native author as
<
i

khra-khra

{ 1 *CV>Y<rl! v ^'flpi'^'^'^S'i'S'S'^' '

" mov-

((ha-tha)

= $'%

k/ira-wo

party-colour (ffag. 10).

ing as if one went with a hungry belly and without strength"; fK^tr^K^r^r^-yf Ipri'B** to walk as an old or drunken
person; *V<W'^wp'J5*
tshad-pas

H'0'^

khra

khro-can

(tha-tho-cati)

defined as jfc'B'&'qw^^'&'q a passionate
or wrathful individual.

na-nas
H'*

kha khyor speaking irregularly as in a
feverish delirium
;

^''TSpviS**' fin-gisnof
as a

khra-rgyu variegated colour: |*' ^fl-jrr^K^S mum lag rked
dkar-po khra rgyu
dgois $in.

khyor-wa bobbing

v
JS

wooden
as

vessel.
H'

la
1

3

^*^ II

:

as

much

fills

the hollow
gafi

)^

khra-brgyan

variegating
bracelet, &c.)

an
with

of

the

hand;

B^'l'ip.
;

khyor-wo

a

ornament (amulet or
precious stones.

handful (of anything)
do two handsful.
l

5*'^'^ khyor-ica

-

H'fjil's

khra-sgrigs

(tha-dig)

H'^i i^'

jj'F'i

khra-rim bshin sgrigs-pa arranging

khyol-wa, v.

o$vt

hkhyol-wa, to

be brought or carried or
I ]^
:

BV*
1.

khyos-ma.
2.

in variegated colours with rows of turcorals, pearls, &o.
quoise,
H'jf'^'S

khra (tha)

^^^
;

a cheat.

a

Khra-sna-ke-ru

n..

of a place

kind of hawk or falcon sparrow-hawk used

near

^

Jfon in Tibet.

167
'i

khra-pa a falconer.
(thd-o)

growing and ripening rapidly within 60
days, v.
fl|<^'g*i

gyo-khram.

-j

*q khra-bo

3RT
coloured,
as

1.

many
the

coloured, with one
;

q H'**'

f^^'3*'

khra-mag.ni

predominating colour as in chintz
in
case

lery

or

lacquer

work when there

sgrom in jewelis a

party-

of

cattle

and

variegating with two colours.

wild animals, such as a tiger or leopard, and in birds. In dkar-khra, the

H'K khra-mar a kind
in

of biscuit

made
red.

WH
q

twisted

cross

ribs

and painted

white (dkar)

is

supposed to predominate.

These are
officials

In
the

*\*^'H

dmar-khra, red predominates.
Bi' a

In

Government given only to at state dinners in Tibet.

common

SJ-^c.-araj^

'\ **'^'|9' saying ? H'H'^'!' stag-gi khra-bo phyi-la yod, mi-yi
yod,

H't"

made

khra-rtse a kind of biscuit or pastry in the shape of a grating.
species of eagle (Sch.).

khra-bo nan-la

the tiger

is

party-

01^ khra-zur a
H'|

coloured externally, but

man
a

is so interis

nally
it
is

the

meaning,
to

of

course,

that

khra-zla (tha-da)
-'

= $wfywci

sla-wa

difficult

know
his
is

man
2.

the
Ja.

traits

of

mind.
to

even by Ace. to

< c ffms-pa or si V 3' R EJ
l

dpyid-sla hbrin-pofhe second Tibetan month corresponding with

H'

a

distinction

be

drawn
first

March
H'^*.

(Rtsii.).

between khra-wo and khra-wa, the

khra-rin a striped
also

long

scarf.

signifying only two-coloured or piebald,

This

is

called

*i!J'^*i')g'Rc.

bkra-fis

and the second party

or many-coloured.

khra-rin,
scarf

the
is

We

have not found

this distinction

our-

which

long striped attached to flag generally
pfw-brad rtse-nas khra-

auspicious

selves.

The

significations of the various

poles:

lhag-par

compounds of

khra have

all

a reference

rin dan dar-phan dun dan rol-mo sog$ (bro,

to the peculiar effect produced on the eye by the blending of two or more colours
together,
especially
so
H'3*4'*>

moreover they exhibited from the top of the palace long scarves and pendant silk

when
etc.

seen
is

from

a

and played on trumpets and cymbals, &c.
0-2H l5h khra
$ig-(;ig

distance

;

khra cem-tne
;

said of a

in

dazzling

rainbow, tinted meteor,

H'W*) khra

array (J. Zan.}.

lam-me or

H'^*'*>
;

khra l/iam-me of a similar

g-^i"^
(K. ko. *\3).

khra-sems

fes

n.

of a bird

phenomenon
a
se

|3'wl
:

khra chem-chem of
cham-

flight of birds

H'**r^|g-S*-*> khra
g'2*<-$

khra ehem-me or

khra chem-se in C.
$prin-ne

p^ khrag (thag)
*fa<,

$*** $ku-rntshal,
5tiPna blood
:

resp.
"c.'H"!

= l*r|g-fjfft

chem

khra

in

Ld.

^*i,
or

^ftfrcT, T^r,

Such compounds have also assumed the character of an adverb, as in 0'*)'^ khrame-re, together
;

pan-khrag blood of child-bed.
khrag

\^'S"I shaii-

altogether.

vulgarly i=.'Hi| dsan-khrag signifies blood of the menses ; !9=.'0l
ffshun-khrag healthy

and nourishing blood
is

^
hbru

JJ khra-ma 1.
3.

a register, index.

2.

((7s.);

^S'HI

nad-khrag bad or diseased

a judicial decree.

a kind of grain, *g
Vat.
sn.

blood.

In Sikkim khrag

TKWH.

4.

ace. to

= ^"\^'

V

khyak.

H1'"|?\ khrag-g.cod n. of

pronounced a medi:

mgyogs-nas a kind of

barley grain,

cinal herb

which stops bleeding (Med.)

168
to

stop

bleeding;
-

H
in

each

oher, there

is

said to

be thag-ge

cessation of

bleeding: ft'B|

RJfci'rvi|

thug-ge among them

a falling-out, dis-

throbbing, e.g., from ascending a steep bill. HT^T flowing of the blood, generally applied to menfeel

W. I

my blood

agreement.
the runi)piidi 01'!^ khrag-rgyun ning of the blood in the veins circulation.
;

81

struation; BT*"!'" clotted blood; gore

((7s.).

gi|'*n|*i-5

Syn.

ft'|

rma-skyef;
<

"^'^'^
;

gar

horse,

i.e.,

hgyur-byed.;

*)'^'

5^ qa-yi sa-bon

khrag chagt-rta a blood bred a real horse, opposed to a

*^'*lf^'

f*

mtshan-bsiiun

metaphysical one (Mil.).
fiT'S* khrag-hthud fying deities of the
Schools.
2.
1.

fkyef, 'B^'fl*'

khyaba class of territo'

gnas;

*l'^. mi-lhun; $*r|< lus-skyes; q-q rma-las hbab-pa (Mnon).

Bon and TanMk
^n^m^\;

kkray-skem,

8^ upan-rtsi n.

of a

y$*

skyu-ru-ra

vegetable medicine very useful in stopping

Myrobalaum
E fi"I'^3 -''9

emblica (Sman. 30k}.

bleeding (Sman. 86).
khrag-khrig
also
sjpr
1.

khrag hthun-hbu the

worm

that drinks blood.
(thag-thig)

one

hundred

thousand

BT^'iKS
(Mnon.).

khrag-hthufi srin-bit a leech

million, or
(Cs.)
;

an

indefinitely large

number
;

this

number has

twelve figures

BTSf^ khrag-ldad
^*cu]Jj;-2|E.'

fifi-dmar
;

vrg ram

tiger;

^c^w
n.

gyer

$ifl

of
;

gq-|q|-2^q

khrag-khrig chen-po
.

qytfcaa

a red tree
species of

this has thirteen figures, cf

^Sl*'i dkrigs-

the red pine called
(Mfon.).

f^

a

pa.

2. in
is

mahogony
a

vulgar language H"1'H"I khragexpressed
as
H'^I'H'S)

khrig
khri-gi

khra-gi

BI'S^'w khrag-ldan

and means moving and
>
!

)^|-i*^-^j|
oscillating

ma described as y\ woman at her monthly

about

:

^^JMrl^|N | <rWK*^ de-nas

period (Mnon.).
gqj-q^-|-D

yan medthen (in) a large ship which did not par even roll.

rdsifa chen-po khrag-khrig tsam

term
(Fat.

applied
sfi.).

khrag-por skye-wa a botanical to the leaves of plants

HTBTIf

11 '* 1

khrag-khrig

snaA-wa=il'^
optical illusion

HI'W
a

khrag-hbab=$ttij

chit-bo si-ta

smig-rgyu a mirage; an

name

of the river Sita (Mnon.).

(Won).
H^'HI khrag khrug (thag-thug)
disorder
;

BT^
all

in

HT^t khrag-M
gqi'-^-X'q

khrag-ro clotted blood. a clot of blood.

promiscuous state ; like a troop of
or like the loose leaves of a
of order (Zam.).
;

khrag- fas

che-wa plethoric

fighting men, book when out
gi]'H|gi|w

(Med.

;

Jd).

B*I'^ khrag- for hemorrhage; bloodyflut-

khrag-hkhrugs agitation
of the blood (Sch.).

flux (Med.;Jd.).
gn|-q^]m

ter

;

orgasm

khrag-khrog
E")

(thag-thog), v.

HT

birth ; profuse mensturation 9
:

khrag-bfal flooding after child35 ^'*>y qS-qf
4
9 '' 1
!

khrag-khrug.
HI'^'RI''!

khrag-ge

khrug-ge

(thag.-ge

'!^ it stops the flooding ^"I'^'l'^, Bl'" and internal spasms in the blood discharge
of a healthy

thug-ge)

when two men do not

agree with

woman

:

*1

rag^khrag.

169
(thang), v.

*$* mkhran.
stretched out:
to
sit

khram-kha

la

bab$

is

with

the legs stretched out (Jd.).

one's ruin having been incident on the chart
(of fate). 3.

cross

marks or lines cut into
r

khrab

(tha'j)

ijf*reiTf3T?:

shield;

a piece of wood so as to cross one another
as

buckler; coat of mail.

The
is

coat of mail

used in Tibet and Bhutan

generally

made

H* '% khram-khahi-^ii a club-like implement, carved with lines,
:

an ornament

l"'

5

of iron rings or thin disks resembling the scales of a fish netted together. Two kinds of khrab are
w^jc,-^-gq j
scales
;

representing the attributes of a

god and

known
is

in Tibet

;

one

is

called

containing squares with mystic figures in them which serve as a means to make
ineffectual
(Jd.).

which
;

S^'S^'B*1
foils.

made of iron rings or that made of thin plates

attempts of witchcraft to injure a person ^'B 51 nag-khram a notch
;

or iron
of mail
of

There are accounts of coats

made of silver and gold for the use The common quilted cloth kings.
in

B^'H" khram-khrum fragments;

baked

armour used
called

f^'wpq.

Mongolia and China is In Mongolia it is called
a

|g-|g^rq^e.^-i$'( (raw) brick containing prints or engravings thereon when burnt

dam.
igq'gq

are said to be baked fragments.

khrab-khrab

(thab-thab)

khram-ldan ajTU a tiger.

weeper; one that sheds tears
occasion (Sch.).
gq'sfi ^ khrab-rnkhan one

on every

khram-pa

(t

gr

1.

a

liar;

a swindler;
bycd-pahi

who makes

or

artful

person:

I'^"IS'frfir*

wears armour.
khrab-can scaled
;

for seducing or deceiving:

g*r^w^ khram
f

scaly

;

wearing

sems-can
lively,

lying

;

mendacious

(C

.).

2.

a coat of mail.
Hl'S^'S khrab-byafi gu scales or iron foils used in a coat of mail (Rtsii.).

brisk, quick, like boys,

kids, &o.

(the

contrary

of
:

sH'i

glen-pa,

slow,

B^'tf

Wfo

khab-byin ht$ kheb a coat of
(Rtsii.).

mail for covering the whole body

khram-pa che in W. a wish of god-speed addressed to one going on a journey, such as Good success May
indolent, apathetic)
!

|5*J khram (tham), g'* phra-ma a word 'Kqfz a cunning man.
;

false

go well 3. modest attentive to the wishes of others (Jo,). B^'i'"!^ good lit.
all
! ;

means
evil

to get out of

mishaps caused by the
to

kfiram-kha (tham-kha) 1. y*\ girSfjg'qS-pi-Vrg-ig lha-hdre bye-brag-gi
khro-tcahi

machinations of enemies;

make

the evil-charms of enemies ineffectual.
H*i'S khram-byed, v.

kha-dog

khra-khra

(tha-tha)

l3}'^ gyo-can
g'''ft*!'
i

or

5j'

spotted

the

and party-coloured appearance of wrathful demi-gods the Lhan-de
2.
:

**'^

phra-ma

byed;

Ice

g.nis-pa

double-tongued or double-dealer

(flfiion.).

($ag.).

chart used in

witchcraft or
hdrehi rfais-

necromancy 5PV*' ^'

'*>* Iha

H*r3|K.' khram-fifioT Hwii'H*''^*' khrimskyi kfiram-fifi a board on which the body

23

170
of a culprit
is

stretched to flog

him on the
to

1.

a bedstead
'

back (Nay.).
khral (thai)
tribute
;

chair or
rrf^f,

table; B'
to

Q| t

or stool; a small khri-la bsko-wa '3f q

^3
2.
;

1.

tax;

raise

the

throne; to place on

duty

;

forced service.

punish:

the

chair;
;

ment

;

chastisement for sins

visitations
:

to preside
sefi-ge

jgurq^arq khral bkal-wa to levy taxes

foi'

khri-la hkhod-pa the chair ^'*|'B occupy khri throne; a chair borne (in

|'"l*^''

to

;

B"i dnul-khral tax to be paid in money : f <*3 gat hbru-khral tribute paid in corn
:

relief)

by a carved
;

lion for rulers

and

incarnate lamas
seat

]*!*'

B gier-khri golden
for royalty; to serve

^WB*I til-d.mar khral tax sesamum.
Syn.

to be paid in red

or

chair;

seat

g'B
the

siias-khri

a
of

contrivance

a

dpya; g\

sduj-pa;

T^'H*

purpose

a pillow;
chair
; ;

*'
;

chos-k/iri

a
;

gyar-khral; ^'"\^ fo-gam;
rigs (Mnon.).
gii *qj

Hi'^l* khral-

prof essoral

pulpit

reading desk
bedstead.

table for books
resp.
*'* I

school table; ?!'
gziiiis-k/tri

nal-khri
2.

khral rgyug-pa to perform forced

"I^WB
c' e''^**

service

(*.).

HOTI^X-H khral-hjal-wa or B"'

lkor-ua to pay taxes or customs duty. Syn. BT^Tq khral hbul-wa;
hjal-ica
;

upper pedestal of a or Buddhist votive tomb. chaitya Syn. ^'B nal-khri; Wi tgyitn-khri
S'^'3'

the

'

;

^1'B

hdug-khri.

'*l=.'^

khri rkaii can ^TTTIF a seat fur;

B * tj'V
1

1

hfiral

^prod-pa

nished with legs
f>

a bedstead.
5'p khrihikha or B^'l 8''

g'Ji'^'q

BTqgN
bya.

khral tdu-wa to collect taxes; pf. B q '^ Mra/khral-hidui,
'

khri-kha=
$teft

6?rf? /sAr, fut.

''

pf.

IJ|

khrihi

on the chair:

B 'f '^ khri kha-

|*'

fii

WS Jihral-bfdu warlevying
p

na, on the chair or

seat (A. 57),
title of

B'*^ khri-chen a great chair; a
ic/iral-gstr

gTijN^
tax:
"15^'
<

of

a
<

new
<

the abbot of

Galdan monastery.
Khri-chen
flag-

|^ *^'A'(|V^WWfr^I ^'fr^'^ l|'K

-ftqX4r^M#ffq
dtcan mchog-ldan

by

levj'ing fresh taxes to oppress the

^'p^'^-ifl^'^
(Sc/ir.

Drin-

tenants.

can flag-dwafi mchog-ldan
(31**'')

B^'B"! khral-khrug

n. of a very

. |-3^-tfli^ft-^'3ipi

17 A). Khn-chen fiag-dican
Khri-chen
]

large

number
1

(Ta-sel.).

tnan-grags

n.

pr.

(Schr.).

B^'B

" k/iral-khrulja

defined as SS^T^'S'
*|-^-g-BJE.-0|B^-i5'^-)

applied to any broken things, such as furniture or utensils.
<im-ISE.-n-ai^E,-3^

Bio-

bstnn-pahi

ni-ma=^'^^-^a,-a e>^ bio*
of

ni-mnhi shals (Schr.).

khri (t/ii), B'0 1^ khri-khrag, fj I: for number: khri-grafis

$'^v
ten

^T

B'?^

khri- f nan

n.

a

Buddhist

thousand; a myriad: H''" khri bye-tea
ton millions.
II:
TSTS,

physician of Lhasa; a^-*^-9^e.-9|-^-yq*^''51 W the son of the celebrated physician

named

Xhtn-gi thor-can

(Yu

thog-pa)

^T

seat,

chair,

throne,
trestle
;

(Qyu. 33).
|-|aj-al khri

couch
jjj'H

;

also frame,

an

sawing jack, European chair; B ^
1

$an

sa-le

skin of

the

khrihu

black antelope

;

9iRrn: a devotee sitting

171
on
it

remembers the vows as well the
;

^
suited well
as of the
;

Ichrig-khrig
it fits

bsgrigs-sofi it
2.

has

duties of a Bodhisattva

S'tT^^^TIW

exactly.

quivering,
of

^'ifc spreading a skin of black antelope for a seat (A, 11.).
jg-f^-S^-q

body with cold, or chattering the teeth. 3. v. | afj* khrib-khrib.
Cs

k]ir i

? ( an
;

chen-po

ti-fHH

a large couch or bed
mtlion-po

'f^*%3 ^TIUM a high couch

kfiri-stan

[^^^ khrigs (thig)
pa
1.

3|9|-|qj-ii

gralkhrigs-

or bed

arranged in proper order or row with:

(forbidden to the devout). '"^"1^ khri-gdugs the sun.
*

out deviation from the right course or line

g-fffe-qtotfi khri-ldnn scn-gchi mclsod
;

khrigs chags-su bkod-pa seated or arranged in proper order where

l^-a^rf^-q

^fT5rft?%ni (Schr.

Td. 2, Mf).
ffnis

men, women, the old

and the young,
all

8'BWiy<
thousand.

khri-phycd dan
;

two

the great and the low,
respective order
;

are put in their

2. also

thousand and half

in reference to a

"V&

ni-khri

twenty

priest conducting a religious service, his

a high chair (Cs.)

I'^e. khri-hphaft the height of a chair; ; also the official rank.

demeanour when he does not look this side or that side but is intent on his duties and ceremonial observances; he is
then said to be
chag$-su bkod-pa.
kharigs-se plentiful,

jg'^ = q<?<*n''E.- bison-khan a prison; jail also 'S^ khri-mun a prison; (Mnon.)
;

fipr*TVC^K

>el

If/trigs

dungeon.
jg-ys

khri-hur

S'H 3)'*^'
(7.

n.

of a bird

abundant;
quite byed-pa to

thorough
well
;

;

jgiprir'qc.

khrigs-se gafi

(Far-sff. 7).

giJN-U-^-l

khrigs-se

H'

5)'^
'

&/'
i
:

fc-wa fear, in
khri-qin or

(Ja.).

treat; to entertain plentifully (Sch.).
chair.

0$ khrihu a

'

ii

:

(thi-s'iny)

^fw a creeping
Ide-btsan

I khrid. (thi) instruction, tutelage
:

;

plant

;

a creeper.
Kliri-sroA
of Tibet

^"jf^'l
the

yon-tan
;

khrid-pa
khrid.

instruction,

jg'SJV^fq^

teaching
give

8^'^rl
;

hdebs-pa
:

celeberated

King

who

formally
into

instruction

to

instruct

fJY

w

to
i6fl|

introduced
Tibet,

Buddhist monarchism
great

kfirid-pa$

chog
;

monastery of and caused numerous Buddhist Sam-ye, sacred books to be translated into Tibetan.
rq khrihi rkan-pa chos-pa
TTT^SR-

erected the

instruction

am willing to you may have lessons
I
Na

give

with

me

(Jd.).

pftwZ khrid
;

instruction
to an evil

Sj'B^

$Iu-khrid

zab-po thorough instruction
t

purpose;
to

seduction;

V

c! J
l

1

V

i

ports

;

a bed furnished with legs or supfig. to discipline the mind so that

khrid

tyad-pa

give

instruction

;

to

make admonitory
II: or
15

speeches.

religion

may

take hold of

it.

B^'*Ff^

khrihi rkaft-rten

nfJrcjT^f the

5J

)

wft row; order;
:
''

serial

legs of a chair.

C order or arrangement ^'!^'S -''I C R^-q5-g^-ai-q^ i n the same manner

w'
there

Mrig-khriff
proper, suitable; not
less

(tUg-thig)

1.

are four

stages in

the

way

to

saintly

nor more

:

BT

perfection (Lam-rim. &)

172
Ill
!Va"l
pf of "IK*.
.

khrims-hjags
scholar

= BWs'M'"^

:

khrid-phrug

(thi-thug)

;

khrims kyi don bshin ace. to the meaning or spirit of the law (flag.).

pupil (Ja.).
I

khrib-khrib (thib-thib)

la

skyal-wa to deliver

up

to justice.

n. of a large

number

(Ya-sel.).

khril (thi), v. ^|i khril.

khrims (thim),
law"* or right in
state
;

general
law.

;

the laws of a

I

khris (thi),

|wtflhjiig$-paB'

khris hjogs_-

any particular

There
^are
da'n

two

pa

peace, v.
|5

HI"'"
(thu)

khru

khru-ma

V*
;

one;

5S

khrim-la chos-khrims

rgyal-khrimf
reli-

fourth of a *V" hdom or fathom

a cubit

finis

yod

state

law and
rv

spiritual j>r

gious law. O

The proverb
nah

says: $**'
i

of eighteen t"H rtsc-khrn or the measure to the extremity elbow inches, from the of the

middle

khrims
gij
i

ffxer-gyi

<;in,

choi-khrims dtf-

finger:

B'F*

mdud-pa

Ita-bu yin the state

law

is

a

rtsam

^WTW

about the measure

khru-gan of 15

but the religious law is like a golden yoke, 1*'''* for silken knot
:

frwS'fWfWt

fisted middle inches from the elbow to the or cubit is called "^'0 bekiim-khru,

finger

: laws they pass decrees, statutes to be subject to a^v-ci khrims-la gnas-pa

B*

measure

;

p''**'"'

1'

khru

hjal-ica to

measure

with a cubit measure
|5"J

((7s.).

khru-wa

(thu-ica),

sometimes for

tr$a\

holy personages

and the incarnate

race are also subject to law.

Syn. for

laws

of

state

:

W
;

wash. *3'i hkhru-'tca, to ^ a kind of g-flja^ khru-g.zar
(Scl).
H'^""l

stew-pan

lugs; yvl-

hjig-rtcn khrims

^'^

kltru-slog

or

P'^1
to

khru-rloff

khrimg;

0*

4

*1 'SI*'

khrims-lugy

tilling
filled

a pit the ground; with corn B'Sfa'" khru-slog-pa digace.

Sch.

;

(Mnon).
gjw-pe.justice.

khrims-khan court or place of

the ging breaking up
;

soil

;

gardening.
(thung-thung)

ICC'Rt'
khrims-rnahi khan-pa
;

khrun-khrufi

Syn. pw^'t^'pfJ

njfa

|'^V*aS sgra-ldfin can;

|wc|^-5

khritns-kyi

the stork: grus cincrca; also 5 khnm-khrun rus-pas EC^f^rw^l"!*''^'
crane,
'

ra-wa;^^'*

dril-sgrog-sa (Mnon.).

pwl'p'N

khritns-kyi kha lo-pa, %**'%
oflicer

of the crane remove chu-hgags_ sel the bones milk mixed of urine. the

Blon-po a minister ; a legal

(Mnon.).
v.

stoppage with water is given to a crane it will drink basin. the milk, leaving the water in the

When

khrims bsgrags-pa,
bkah-U/igs,

The reason
is

a

proclamation or pro-

of this, according to K. d.^ 110, crane that as soon as the bill of the
it

claimed order.

touches the milk

turns into curds, which

are eaten up, leaving
inflict 0coc? to

the water in the

punishment (Mnon.).

basin.

173
Syn. w^'tr^r^; mgrin-pa rab-riA;
*ta|'

q

aic

if|E,

qat- ba-lafi rkafi-bzan

;

|l'W

sprin;

mig sman mjug-ma; 3^-5 krun-ca
on.).

bzan

;

fyi

len-pa

;

s5'|'q bya hi sin-tea

ston-zla hlrifi-po (Mfiott.).

Sw

khrun-khrufi hjoni8=*fK'$fl'

(thul),
ica

RVirf** khrul gton-

tfflft
chun-ba ffshon-nu

dbati-phyug-gi

bu
to let fall
;
;

Kumarathe

gdon-drug a name of second son of Is'vara (Mnon.).
lus

to drop (several things at
>

intervals)

& TBr^
:

mchi-ma

khrul

bshed to shed tears
intercalary
i

l'Bi zla-khrul in >

W.

khrud-pa to

month

(Jd.).

wash; cleanse out

dirt

or filth

from the
khrul-po
in
C.
1.

body

(tfay.).

so merry.
(t/tttit)

cheerful;

2.

19^ khrnn

fornicator (Jd.).

WlfH, nfwPH height
:

;

I

length

;

extension (Cs.)

M'*s.'fjs

khrun
.

khrul-ma

1. 2.

in

JF".

crooked
3.
fl'S'

phan

srid height

and breadth (equal)

crank, handle (Jd).
"'*" IS
1

a whore.

khu-wa khrul-ma rice-water or water
is

|9^'|E3^
(Sch.)
|5*)'6*<'
:

khrtim-khrum
)

(thum-thum)
or

in which millet

washed.

|L*'!5*<''V'

khnim-khrum byed-pa

i^q

khfum-khruHi

brdun-wa to

^M

&
;

pound

in a mortar.

bath; washing
n.

ablution.
\

khrums ((hum) W^-T?
constellation
:

of a

drafi-srofi,

khru-kyi b_tul-shugs a Rsi or sage who
<
:

'f^ khriims-gtod

the

name

observes the
g^'S^
kfirus

vow

of ablution

|5*''!
XI

V ci^'

of the 24th constellation, t^-HT^-iJ^.
^5'^'35 Syn. S'**$ bya-mchu *pr*i gitas-M Q 'S^'*! 6 ba-g.lin rkan
;
-'

byed-pahi

Itun-byed

^trbath-

rihi Iha-

ympyf^*
bathed

faults

committed while
clean clothes
"\

1110

;

;

(Mnon.).
9'1

put on

and take

the full
of
,

khrums-stod-kyi na-wa WT?moon of the month

milk, curds and butter (Lofi.

32).

Syn.

^''J
-

kim-tu rgyu ^''P'3^'*^ dkah; ;

July.

thub-can M| qs[*ri nag b$dams-pa
;

S^'i^'i^c,'

khritm$-smad the

name
;

of the
ace.

1 dge-war slon-wa

;

^'SR.'3i non-mons
g' ''^V
J
c'

thul;

25th constellation,

'^Trrr-iTT^'-TT?

to

ffKCf^
pa
;

dban-po thul;

smra-bn cad;

Hindu astronomy

the 26th lunar mansion,

ife.'q^'l^vi gtan-bar g.nn-pa

rftww
f

figured by a conch, and comprehending two stars, of which one is Andromeda.

I'S'i

tshan-par

spyod-pa; ^I'lS'JDI'i

-

>'('9

byed klog-pa (Mnon.).
15

T5

8"

khrus-kyi rtsa,

$,'*]

kit-fit

the

Syn. 3^
IS* **'!
1

zi'hti

;

gor^e, $brul-hchin (Mnon.).
\.

grass JTw-f
B^'S'?^'

(Mnon.).
khrus-kyi
rdsin
gN'jq'w^'f'R.'

zlti-ba

il'^'^JV brgyad-pc ftiati^, ^^^T^> the eighth
of the Tibetan year.
; ;

khrum-zla (thnm da),

rgyab-sahi rdsin a bathing tank.
'B k/triis-khu

month

^^

S'><$ bya-mchu Syn. ^gi^'q hbuys-pa nor-ldan IB'*"^ '^ khyu-mchog can
11
; !

water for bathing (Ja.). khrus-khan brtsegs-pa the

;

making

of a bath or bathing place.

174
khrus-mkhan
N>

gar
a
religious

I

^rra*i

one

who

as

bathes

;

he that has bathed.
Mtru-chal

ceremony, consisting sprinkling with water.
ft

in

B'w
|5r$

washing

Mire (the) millet:

| ^*| fcrf^ Wll'
causes

t

I

t

materials, soda, soap, etc.

consecrated
jS^'"^

khrus-chu bathing water; water by a deity being washed in it.

being both

heavy and

chilling,

wounds
unite.

to swell, but bones

which have
it

khrug-dar scraf
;

or

good

linen

been dislocated or fractured

causes to

towel for the toilet

scarf of silk

used in

washing the images of
Syn. 3"S^ lum-dar

deities (Rtsii.).
;

B^S khrc-rgod wild millet; gift' Q q r^ wild B stops diarrhoea *|9'3'*fl? v^'^ r^
l

'*iV|N-ei5<ii*r^ so-

and removes the
B'S" k/trc-tse

poison.

sor khrug b_tags-ri (Sfflon.},

Chinese vermicelli
(theg-pa),
v.

(Jd.).

B'$*

khrug-gder basin; washing bowl.
(f hug-pa)

gil'q khregg-pa
mkhrcgg-pa.

B qI*'' q

El' c' khrus-pa

V^%,

q)TS;?m,
jj*r$*.
(Mfion.).

qr* washed; also washing.

khrem-giner, v.

4'1^

c/ui-gner

Syn. B'9 khru$-bya *.%*> bk/irud ; |'J khru-wa (yfion.). B^'S" khrug-bum JR*ro<3 washing pot
;

'H khnl-po shameful.
kftrems-pa (thcm-pa)
1.

or jug.

irriga-

of

khrud-ma washings g*''*''B Y* khrus-ma rice or any other millet also the rem<

j

;

tion; also to water gardens and cultivations ; to sprinkle water. 2. n. of a book :
ge.
fSaj

nant of water in which rice, &c., is boiled. |'f" khrug-rdsag articles of washing or to wash with such as soap, etc.
Syn. gfT*m Idag-chal; Br8> khrus-rtsi;

|*irt qprtq fcr ^
>

>

<

<*$ n

byan-khog
hphro-ica

kfircmf-kyi
(Sorig. 81).

ludrin-chen

hod

khrcl
klircll.

(thet)

resp.

^v^i
2.
;

thugg-

^'S^
tub

dag-byed_ (MAon.).
k/irus-ffs/iofl

f^fgakindof
diffidence
;

millet.

^row
W.

R"' q l^
;

%^T-trn( bathing

shame
3.

;

bashfulness
Jd.,

modesty.

basin used for a bath.

E^'^ Mrus-ras q \-vni A+ a
bathing towel.
E'S'I-*!^

towel;

a

4.

piety aco. in C. disgust

to
;

especially in

aversion.

B^'l^ khrcl-gad a scornful laughter.

bathing water. Ace. to Jd. this word (in Ladak) relates to a certain medical procedure or method of
k/D-us-gyer

Bi'^ khrel-ean possessed gTS^ khrel-can bashful (Cs.)
conscientious.

of

shame

;

;

also earnest,

curing.
(S*rl*orq khrus-g.sol.wa resp. for B*''S'
t'

BT5sw
faced.

k/irel-ltog

pusilanimous

;

shame-

khrus-bycd-pa,
places used

i.e.,

when

applied to bathing
l

g^-qi^c,

khrel-gdofi

(lit.

a face

capa-

by divine beings and great
lha-mi khaH-pa "

ble of shame) a bashful face.

men:

f*fvl^nrpr|tf
khrut byea-pa

gr^v^
to

khrel-hdod-can in

W. ready
fio-ts/ta

sogs la

gods or men taking a bath in their abodes and so forth," to
administer a bath to another, especially

shame

others.
v.

B"!'^ kltrel-ldan,

P^'^m'i

pa ^MsifM't modest.

175
IT*! to be ashamed; to provoke shame:
is

much

prized

by

the Tibetans.

Huge

ftw-^'iZ&Q'd^khrel-wadan he has no shame or modesty.

no-tsha-ica

meg

bronze caldrons used in the great monasteries of Tibet for boiling tea are made of
the white bronze
;

g*r)<Vci khrel-med-pa, @*r*>Y*( khrcl-med-

*"!*<' 0"

ts/wg$-kfiro large

ma

^HTjsrai

immodest, shameless.

bronze caldrons used in cooking tea, &c., for the use of the congregation in the monasteries

gai 55^ khrel-yod ^ftrsrcri

modesty

;

chas-

of

Tibet:

f'iT^'r^'tfr'V^^f

tity

;

decency

;

gT^'i khr,

l-yod-pa to be
bi/cd-

^^*"'
hjoins

chaste:

gT^'W^'i

khrel yod-par

khro-nag gzer-srin dan dug-nad dark bronze dissipates worm-spasms

pa

to behave chastely, with modesty.

and poisonous complaints.
B'5^
bronze.

p^ khres or (the)
can a g^rcr^v^c,-^

jg*r3

khrc-po, (thc-po)

khro-rgyan ornaments

made

of

a load, burden: *)'@*r$c.-s^ mikhrcs chunman with a small load (A. 10).
Jcrrs-po

B^'S"!'^

khrohi khiig-til bronze

pot to boil tea.
$'

dehi

nan-nas from
1

khro-chu
;

1.

liquid

or

melted

within that

package:

^^J'^wr^*
fire-

bronze
before

ace.

to

some author melted iron
2. n.

S^'gS g.shun-don-gyi bsans $in
half a bundle
(

khrcs phcd

it is cast.

for

^'t t}nul-chu

or load ) of

wood

for

quicksilver; (a mystic) term (Min).
pf $'*<'

the use of government (Rtsii.),

Syn. Epy khur-pa

;

B^'"^'^ khur hdrentheg-pa
;

joints, solder.

$dom-pa to fill up with melted bronze to grooves, &c.,
;

khro-chu

pa

;

4jP'9'3|'ti

rgyab-kyis

&^"

X'V khur stsa-pa (MnonT).
or wrath:
khres-k/trci
(the-the)
:

hjoms-pa to suppress anger

^F^r^Km'HT'tiMr^
g.shan-du
his

^'

s

t'^'*F

unable

W^' ^ gan-shig bsgrims-te khro
1

hjoms-pa,

to

sit erect;

falling

down

^'^"I'HN'g^^'

de-ni hdi-dan

bde

(Spyod.)

he

T^>pr^r|K-rar%rwr^<r4 mi-g.cig khreskhres na-wa gzigs nas sman-pa la cis pJian
(A. &b) seeing a man very ill so as to be unable to sit erect, he asked the
dris-pas

who can subdue

anger will be happy

here and hereafter.

rnam-brjid or
rftam-hjigs

physician what would be of use.
to
|^
k/iro (tho)
sit

or

jfwit^ rfiom-brjid
(Mnon.).

in an angry

mood

w;* a kind

of bronze, of
as
bell-

about

same quality and worth
1

B'"I^ k/iro-ffncr jfz wrinkles gif, on the face and forehead expressive of
wrath, indignation, anger
H"'
;

metal
//.

*.'

1'

('^P

hkhar-wa), but inferior
also called

to

also indignant.

The kind

of bronze called khro-nag or

dark bronze

is

khags khro on

1$*'*^ khro-gner-can *sjife she
;

whose

account of the predominance of iron in the compound. The kind called EfST
khro-dkar, white bronze, has
M<'|5f
it

face is wrinkled with anger

also frown-

ing. *

more zinc and
of copper in

Tl^'*^'*i

khro-gncr

can-ma

(Schr.

zans-khro has

more

36

C.).

than iron.

The dark-bronze
;

manufactured in China

is largely the white-bronze

Sf'l^
free

***>'**

khro-gftcr med-p<i

from frowning or anger.

If*

I

1T6

khro-gner ffsi-brjid $'V! cu-daj n. of a medicinal root Idan-pa,

(Schr.
J

73 B.).
'

(Sman. 102).
(ffl

*M' *'*'^VJ"*B 9|

<I

khro-wo
;

b_dud-rt$i

khro-pa in

W.

for

g Mro.

hkhyil-pa WTiJT^fiT^ (Schr.

Td. 2, 103).

khro-gtum-po furious with rage.
khro-wa,
sbst.

*jg'!S^T^-jQ| khro-wo hdod-rgynl

i&\T5(

(Schr. 72 A.).

(tko-wa)

"fri

brtse-ica
*J3'^'^'!'*''*
1 '!

khro-wo

adj. angry,

also anger, wrath ; wrathful: pfc'fT^ khon-khro-t

rdo-rje

sa-hog

?wm?Tra
jiJ-ZJ

(Schr. 74- B.).

wa smouldering wrath
fyzod-pa

:

p

i'flS^

i

khro-wa

subduing
bzod-pa

or

abstaining
t

from

khro-u-o dbyug-pa tfonT&. 2, 161). po sfW?iB (Schr.;

i^jrg^Q

anger

:

j^^r^*rl*m'| *^'*
fief

*^'5-)-fl|^-q khro-u-o

mi-gi/o-pn

khro-wa-

^corn-pa

glir-i/nH

fkye-war mi-hgyur-ro anger having been

(Sehr.

58

C.).
gtne-wfi

subdued
will not

aud

inwardly
{i

suppressed,
d.

it
1

grow again (K.

* 68)

:

B "W

*B''g' q 'ij""!"'" khro-wo pa (Schr. 58 A.).
g-ZS-fll^l^'if^'il^

th* chief remedy for ^"1 '^I'H^ 'w*T5'tfV the poison of anger is forbearance (K. d.
*

khro-wo

gtstig-tor

hkhor-btgyur

^^I^^W^f

(Schr.).

68)

:

jg-n$-*W'^-'|H
if

I'**r

^ ^'ww-*^

*-^K.-n^

the wrathful mind be once

JPfWivfrf'''
g-S'nj^ai'l-fli^

khro-wo

subdued it is tantamount to subduing all the enemies one has. B'wSV or pf'
^l^'
1!

mi-t hub-pa (Schr. 71 A.).

'khro-wa
.).

to be or to

grow angry (C.)
i

;

H"* ) '3

E

''

UTT^*'
H
\

(Schr. 71

8|vSl'g''W9 though angry, to be as

if

not
;

khro-byed ftT^T, *rz frightful.

angry; |f-wg=$|'|g''wgr to look back with anger (Mfton.). Khro-wa-ma wf^sn n. |[-q-*
goddess.

angry looks
of

B'SS'w

khro byed-ma

*v&\

1.

a
2.

name
SS'**\'

of the goddess Paldan

Lhamo.
T^ra^n

a

qi'35 bud-mcd

gtum-mo

a fearful

woman
khro-wo
;

(Mnon.).

(tJio-ico)

Ji,

T<T

an
rnam-hgyur or
Sjt-Stn)

angry spirit a god or Bodhisattva in his assumed wrathful mood or manifestation.
khro-wo

$d<ifi-rig

an expres-

sion of the eye;

angry eyes
terrific

khro-mo a female
spirit.
jg

deity or

rnam-rgyal tprul-bgad

WT'J-

(Schr.; Td. 2, 276).

khro-wo chen-po
appellation of

wvr#tv
the

i

l'

an
of

khro-mon prison
khrog
((hog)

(Sch.).

Mahakala,

Lord

in
;

BTogn
to gulp

khrog

Death the Buddhism.

terrific

god

or

guardian of

brgyab-pa to drink hastily

down

:

jgu|-$e. q-5)*r|gq|-.Jj<-q|^-iS-*iXfl|

khrog chud-pa

khra-wo
(Schr. 71 C.).

rta-mgrin

yi$

khrag-qor-pcod-pahi-mchog.
is

Thog-

chung

be^t for stopping bleeding.

177
(thog-thog) 1. khrog-khrog one who speaks irrelevantly and is not steady in his acts or words. Described as

pahi chu
don-c/iu
;

well-water;
ja^'9

also

called
little

V'
well
ja^'
:

khron-bu,

a

j^'i5'$vB5 khron-pahi snin-po 5j^if|-;
E,'q

c'''

acc.

to

Jd.

in

W.

the

q'!V5'S| 2. sound caused

hron-pas run-tea ^3<HM*W water in a well that has been made fit (by the priest-

hood) for drink.
B^'9 khron-bu
1.

by

something

falling

heavily on the

a medicinal root

;

a

ground.

vegetable
khroy-cltun

purgative.

2

>

jg^gN-n**i'Hi

v'|e.-

HT^'

an herb with leaves

resembling a saw in shape.
J

g^'^^^'I'^il khron-bus hjam-por $lyon-byed grogs-kyi mchog thron-bu acts as a gentle
purgative.

khrog-po botanical term,

used
;

khrom

(thorn)

a market
;

place; a

of leaves standing round the stem scattered

or alternately.

khrog-sman the raw unprefft' pared substance of a medicine (Sch.)
J'j
:

bazar crowd of people multitude of persons; B**'^ khrom-chen a great crowd; n|q-q5'jjjj*4^*w tshogs-pahi khrom-rnams the

assembled crowd
titude
of

;

%'$** pho-khrom

mul-

B"|

sman-khrog

is

defined as

men;
:

^'B*

fft'wjMrsrjf

flj*rai

smaii-ma brduns-pa sna-ts/iogs-la, the

unpulverized ingredients of a medicine.
khroft-fie

royal gathering chen-po, chief market-place, also principal
street
:

acc. to Cs. jg*'2^g

rgyat-Khrom a khrom-

jg^'i^'

1!

khroin-skor-wa
;

to

wander

about the market
(thong-ne)

upright,
in a

to ramble through as if
E
I

straight, erect (Jd.).

market

;

*|*' ''g' l*''|i*'^,'5i''l

g.*an-$f,ags

khrom-du
close-fisted,

klog

secret

spells

(magic

khron-po
(Jd.).

stingy

formulas) are read in the market.

khrom-skor-ma
strumpet; street

harlot

;

woman

(Cs.).

assemblage, mass, multitude *^'P^ mi-khrod a troop ; crowd of men ^'J3^ ri-khrod a range of
(thod)
; ;

klirod

crowd,

khroni-thog chod& person well
dressed,

well equipped,

and possessed
;

of

mountain peaks; X"BS rtsa-khrod a heap,
^''l^'ja'S nays-k/irod a stack, rick (of hay) dense forest Wfft mun-khrod thick dark;

personal accomplishments

one above the

crowd

;

above his fellows.
I

;

ness

;

^'0^ dur-khrod a cemetery
^'ff*\

Khrom-pa

1.

n.

of

a province

;

in the crowd;

= also

in Tibet

a hermit.

tant

jsw'5'i khrom-po-pa, an inhabiKhrom (Thorn). 2. a market of
;

khron

(than)

claw:

Efr$r*f'^

vendor.

kftroU kyis rko-wahi sde the class of galli-

hrom-dpon

officer

who is charged

naceous birds (S.g.

;

Jd.).

with the supervision of a market.
khromr-vne sparkling
;

vx

|^'J

khron-pa
well
;

(thon-pa),

glittering:

spring

:

khron-

zil

p-akhrom-fne

sparkling dew.
24

178
^w^|'*j|ri
khrom
;

drop.

ja

dinar

nag

:

khrol-po (thol-po)

1.

cheerful,

hkhyil-wa a motley crowd and red intermingled.

a throng, black

merry
2.

;

sparkling,

glittering,

dazzling.

fornicator.

khrom-tshogs

(thom-tsho)

the

II

:

1.

sparkling

:

^'^'9

hod

gathering of buyers and sellers, &c., in a market -TH" qa-khrom the section of the
:

khrol-po brightness (on water when the sun shines upon it). 2. ace. to Jd. in W.
distinct
;

market where meat

is

sold

;

meat market
;

;

intelligible.
^'<*fl]i

^ gw dpe-khrom book market ?'** rtakhrom the section where ponies and horses
are sold.
v.

Pi'

khrol-ma,

nni-tshags a seive

for cleansing

and

sifting barley, grain, etc.

khrol-mo in

W.

brittle, fragile

;

khroms,
khrol

hgrcm-pa.

opposite to

ifa'S

mnon-po, tough. a sieve (Cs.)
;

(thai), v.
1.
;

% *Q hkhrol-ira
I

and
2.

gac^um
*"!*'

k/irol tshogs

g*|*i

hgrol-wa

a sound

frags tshags iron sieve.

(Ja.).
;

which
khrol

is

loosening unfastening unfastened. wf^Jri|rrqflj'flf
J

that

gi'S khrol-log=$*\'$''\ khrog-khrog in

W.
2.

of.

*$!*'*

hkhrol-wa.

;

also 1.

kettle.

<im-a)q|rwq?*r^r-f$r3S'?i s'<*3j-q
is

by

rngo-

a sound.
khros-pa

meant the separating of meat from
sheep's
^'jjji

the bones by the

head

S^^'B^'i thugs khros;

having

been boiled well,

nan khrol the conincluding

pa VI,

gif^fi

enraged
:

wrath-seeming
!

;

tents of a slaughtered animal,

appearance of wrath
tshul

ST'9

5 )$^'t' K'J9*''

^Vqji^'q phyng-nn rdo-rjc $iti-tu khrot-pahi
b$t(in-pa

the stomach, entrails, lungs, liver, spleen, &c.

The

Chagna Dorje in a very
:

expression

^-?|-^-(Ji-|-i-^-q-

wrathful form manifested himself
1*. kfiros-pahi

jari<v

ran-gi

nafi-k/irol

phyi-la-$ton-pa

means

" one's own blunders exposed to outward sod (the show" 9*'**' (Jr khrol-gyis
:

B'

gar dance in wrathful mood. khros-ma (thai-ma) or g' khro-ma
;

the wrathful female deity or Rudranl

ring)
floor).

slid

sounding

(across

the

azure

snch female divinities as outwardly show themselves to be of terrific and frightful
aspect.

khrol-khrol
khrol-po
bright,

shining

;

B

Q

''p' t'*\'

J

:J

(3*i'*

< 'l

khros-tshig

angry words.
n-

khrol-khrol bye^-pa=^"\'^'^l parS'g-q mig
khrol-le khrol-k Ita-wa to stare at.
1 6 jgV ^ khrol-doA
.

Syn. ^'^9^ rnan-hphyar or W>Q,*\
hlyin

is

said to denote a large

hand-bell.

mkhan an affix which, annexed to substantives and verbal roots, answers in
very much the same purposes as the '*r^ saHindustani appendix wala; mkhan one who has to do with the soil; lam-mkhan one who knows the
colloq.

sx

P^*& khrol-cha
from a

release

(as

of

monks

religious service

or of school-boys

from

class
;

work

;

aoo. to Sch,

the act of

wf^
way,

forgiving

pardon,

a

guide;

^c:*f^

pn-mk/tan

A

179
worker in wood,
carpenter,
joiner,

&c.

Affixed to a verbal root, signifies he

who
just

of such as khan-pa, JBalu, etc., predominates (Rtsii.).

performs an action, whether

only

now
one

or

habitually;

afe'wpwj

yon-mkhan
monastery.
cular
;

mkhan-po,

srarr^T,
;

^mwra

a

corner;

*gf|m hgro-mkhan the goer; who moves; i'*f>aj bri-mkhan the
it

professor employed to teach

the head of a

In Tibet the head of a partiattached to

writer, one who has written

BMt.'*f^ afi-

mkhan
knows;

(in

Sikkim) one

who

speaks

false-

hoods, a liar;

^N^ bstan-mkhan the shower, explainer ^prw hdogs-mkhan one who
;

3pc*w ps-mkhan he who

a monastery, give vows to the junior or inferior lamas, and professors of sacred
college

high

priests

who

literature, are called

mkhan-po

;

also learn-

ed men,

who

as such are

endowed with the
their

is

binding, fastening

;

also with

tive case,

3-g-*-qi^-*i

M

^a

^ bu
In

_

an objecmo ^ do ^_
;

TTI'S mkhan-rgyud
descended
heritage
called

or spiritual gifts or

from

spiritual

WVW
or

mkhan, such as are desiring my daughter bsad-mkhan the man who is killed

ancestors, are

mkhan-po.

Again,

who

kills;

a murderer.
to

colloq. landis-

such as are sent to China as representatives of the Grand Hierarch are
also styled mkhan-po.

learned

men

guage mkhan seems
general the agent

have entirely

Besides these, those
as his domestic

placed the termination Q pa,
:

who

signifying in

serve the

Grand Lama

ft*'*rj|viraj-jj-i)

ydun-

chaplains, teachers or advisers, such as g'

ma khyer-mkhan
the beam.
fication, it

gyi mi the

men

carrying

wwpwj-q Sku-bcar Mkhan-po
sits

Khan-po, who
;

Contrary to its original signiis even used to form the relative
:

in

company

of the

Grand Lama

*]3*)*r

WW0WW-&0M
lain

mk/ian-pothe chamber-

|

the sheep which was killed.

*W|S

mkhan-rgyud=

Bli-chen dan mkhan-pohi rgyud the lineal spiritual descendants of Bla-chen and

khan-po; mchod-dpon mkhan-po the domestic chaplain; "i^'^' pwl-dpon-mkhan-po the steward in charge of the Grand Lama's tea and food;

viWr3

W3

Mkhan-po, those through whom the vows formulated by them are handed down

TT|*i?| mkhan-sde phyi-ka outside khanpo those that enjoy this distinction but Other designations of this kind partially.
are *fwrq-ar$*rq-^

Mkhan-po
ar.K.

la

rnam-pa
zan-zin-

species.

mkhan-pa ferns of two The one growing in Tibet is

|

I:

bs/iiste:

^' 35'S
gis

TV5'*"$"'gi' mkhan-po chos-kyis sdud-la

(1)

'**$}%

called

WV1*

mkhan-dkar, or the white
is

fern

;

the other species belonging to the
called

ma-yin pahan-yod the professor who conveys to his pupil instruction, not wealth
;

Cis-Himalaya
black fern
:

Wft
;

mkhan-nag,
in
also applied

(2)

K'fe-%r|Vrtr!nr*rwMf^
who

tafi-M-

mkhan-pa

is

deemed useful
it is

gis sdud-la

healing fresh cut wounds
to

professor

cho- kyis ma-yin pahan yod the gives riches but not religi(3)

swellings.

ous instructions;

n'Q'Al'SvK'fe'M

1

^^^q-uic,'^ mkhan-po
II
:

chos-kyis sdtid-

incense

;

frankincense

:

sdud-pa yan yod the professor who gives both wealth and religious instruction to his pupil; (4)

cin san-zin-gis

various kinds of incense in which the scent

180
p.'it^-rt^ mkhan-po
chot-kyis

kyan mi-sdud-chin zafi-zin-gis kyan mi sdudpa yod the professor who neither imparts
instruction nor wealth.

"

sky-goer

mkhah-hgro (kha-do) lit. "the a god a bird arrow.
;
;

;

Syn.
chags
?'i\'\
;

SJ'i*w

lha-rnams

;

"*^q'*fl|

hdab
;

*Wg

&bya;

^

mdah

;

S'S^' bya-khyun

mkhan-bu pupil, scholar (Jd.). mkhan-mo mistress, intructress
mkhan-rabf the succession of

da-ki-ni; ^f'% gt&o-mo (Sffion.).
-ft

rnkhah-hgro-ma a class, mainly of female sprites, akin to our witches, but
are

khan-po or abbots in a great monastery.
respective prospects of being elected abbot as depending on the different ranks of the expectant

not necessarily ugly or deformed. There two kinds of k/wdowa those still in the
:

w^-Rww

mkhan-rims

the

world and those that have passed out of the world or are about to pass away from it.

Of the

candidates
abbots.
|*argfq

;

the order of the succession of

latter or those called ^')*r'*i|i: '* 'n?j

*)

mkhan-tlob

for

ye-fes kyi mkhah hgro-ma, goddessess of wisdom, they are five kinds, viz., Buddha

afwj-Q^fi^r*

mkhan-po dan flob-ma the professor
his pupil
;

and
*f ^'2r

Dakinl, Vajra Dakim, llatna Ddkiiii, Pad-

^'SK
fessor

1

^ mkhan-po

also (according to some)

ma DakiM, and Karma

Dakinl.

Of

these

dan slob-dpon the proS)

and the teacher:

'*'*r^'$" 'S'vp

Rdor-je Phag-mo, SeA gdon-ma, &c., have each a hundred thousand dakinl followers.

mkhan-slob-kyi bkah the words or commands of the lama, abbot and teachers.
bla-tiia

They

are said to be possessed of superna-

tural powers
attributes.

and resemble

fairies in their

mkhah

ir

the heaven

;

the sky

;

the worldly Dakinl there are two classes, those belonging to

Among

generally ^'ir"* nam-mkhah.

TVjjV mkhah-kM, T"'^ mkhahk/iyab, wp^ttw mkfiah-dbyifl$ the whole
compass or extent of the heavens
j^'g*
(C*.).

the pantheon of the Brahmaps and those devoted to the cause of Buddhism. In

Tibet

we read

of

X'Vwlvg

Tshc-riA mched:

mkluth-skyei

heaven-born;

a

Ifia, the five long-lived sisters J^''fl'flf^ Butan-ma bcu-ffnif the twelve nymph

name

for the year Fire-tiger d'fl of the

si-ters

who undertook

to

guard Buddhi-sm,

Tibetan calendar (Mnon.).

&o.

w^'gq mkhah-khyab vhich encompasses space
gq-^fft'^t^
Tir^f

^rr^rrr^^f:

that
:

Syn.

<i3i'nS-jfr) hgro-icahi

sgron-me;

^'

or the sky

*(*"^'

mkhah-khyab

tin-ne hdxin

^PWT-

j^'^-> srid-piihi sgron-me, the lamp of the world, the light of the universe (Mfion.).

the all-comprehending (all meditation n. of a Samadlri. absorbing)
;

?wrfV

i^R^r pv*3f|N mkhah-hfjro $kyes born of those that move in the sky.

*V*'fy*'&\

mkhah
is

he whose abode
*ipn-ipq-^

khyim-can in the sky the sun.
;

wpv^-q^ii
Deva nagari

rnkhah-hbro

brd't-yig

^v
of

^^^^^fmAf-qR,-^
character used
sect in their mystical writings.

a form

mkhah-mkhah

ro

by the Rnin-nia

(Sctir; Kalac. T. ^6).

|^'^-*^

mkhah-goi

can

clouds

^-^m ]gkhak-hgro ysan-wa
ye-qes n. of a deified lady,

who

was, in her

181
former existence, the wife of a king called (Ratna Dasa) flfr*i&<i-WMi. She is adored
in

blessing of entering into a heavenly existence without losing one's present form
:

Tibet

as

the

goddess

of

mystical

*f w TV$ l| l-*l l| l*'' e| gone to the state of beatitude,
i.e.,

learning.
El

to heaven.

mkhah-hgrohi

rgyal-po-=

wpvifrci

mkhah spyod-pa

iggiJ'T'.

n. of

!'^'^

&se>'-gyi bya-gtsitg

phud:

Avalokites'vara Bodhisattva.
|-|f^-^6.-S rnkhah-spyod
of

can the golden bird (eagle) with a crest the
of this bird
l:isuli,

dwan-mo an

crest

is

in colour
its

resplendent as lapis

and

wings

the goddess Dorje Phag-mo epithet and of the abbess of the Yamdok Samding
1

are said to be chequered all over.
sifWutjS-vqt.

monastery:
3'l.q'^c,-^

|'i$ft

H^'j^'^q^-fR-i^wq^

^

^
*3*T,

i:

mkhah-hyrohi

dican-

before the precious lotus feet of the venerable one who has attained the

phyiig

1?NT,

afiHMlfrfl

the lord of

heavens (Yig.
*ij"m-^fl|

k. 20).
lit.

the sky.
*f

n55-^qf|n| 11:

= !^;
mklttih

mkhah-dbyug w&^f
mkhah-mig
^T^.

sky-

[31 <*l"|

khyab-

sticks

;

a bedstead.
(Schi:;

hjng Vishnu (Mnon.). like the heavens; si,tA'*i}f< rnkkah-mnain
infinite
:

#)fq^-)a|

KM

ic.

T. 48).

*f*vw$wi

mnum-pu

a

wp^'^'I'i mkhah-yi$ne-ma

= $*K**\ rgyal-

name

of

Buddha

(Mnon.).
;

rntshtm T$SI the sacred ensign (Mnon.).

*f"*'^ mkhah-rtt'ii <*TlH* the firmament

sky supporting
*f'^c.'

;

a sort of ornament.

mkhah rol-pa divine musician; that plays or moves merrily in the sky.
wpw'Xarti

mkhah-ldin

inf

,

q^l met.
dknr-po

the

sfvara
*9

1.

rnkhah-la
sky.

rgyu
2.

^H^K

that

eagle, the bird that soars on high.
iNp'vlic.-^np.-g

moves
S.K.''

in
:

the

3 bya a bird

mlihah-ldin

(Mnon.)

5 *)f

"g^rTf

1 ,

T^

a general

name

for the

wander

or

move

mk/ta-la rgyit-ica to ^'i'|i'P in the sky sfH'T^'q?'")'
:

swan

species (Mnon.).

wpwvlfyr*)^ mkhah-ldin rgyul-mtshan,
khi/iil-hjug JlTf^jsi,
.'q

Preta that moves in the sky i'liE.'q mkhah-la Idin-ica to soar in the
the
air.

:

Visnu (Mnon.).

3.

ether,

as the
;

fifth

element

4.

dican-po=-$f-' kliiiun the king of birds (Yig. k. 29).
Hfm^c.'Qpfa-'i
iJS

mkhah-ldin

symbolical numbers cypher, naught.

mkhah-san = ''H**\ mo-mtshan
the female sex (Mnon.).
rnkhahi gos-can Tsrre^ cover
or dress of the sky
;

mar-gild

mkhah-hlin Moy-pa, v. *T nRT, n. of a green gem
i

w

the night
srjffgsi

;

(Mnon.).

W^'JT*)^
the

mkhah-spyod
1.

^m^^^., %^T,
(celestial
;

mkhahi
ensign
; ;

rgyal-mtshan
*i|^'qo|rci

sky-

that

which has attained
musi-

mkhahi pag$-pa = ihei
;

to the
cian).

sky, a
2.
:

gandharva

celestial

enjoyment residing in

space ^he void sphere the skin or cover of the sky, i.e., darkness, gloom *f5'^'g
;

heaven
-

>^*fYVVr*r H**'**'*'K''rfl*'
1'

mkhahi gem
star.

of

heaven

;

the sun, moon,

J V5'^"'5

bgrod-pa

rnkhah-spyod du lug ma-spans par mkhah-spyod kyi dnos-grub the

mkhahi

ssil-ba

= to

182
mkhar
nobleman's seat
freq. a citadel
;

f^t a castle, a or mansion manor house
#t*,
;

*f*.'^ rnkfiar-dcr,
dish

^

a plate or

;

made

of bell-metal.

fort

:

T^'S^ mkhar-dpon

mkhar-wa I
metal.

:

*fa,

SF^> bell-

governor of a castle;
fortress.

commander

of a

JlpVp
situated,
;

Mkfiar-k/ta

n.

to

the

north of

place Gyan-tse in

of

a

^Ip^'H
B. and
gsil a
C'.

II:
staff,

(also

^^"

Mc/iar-ii-a)

in

stick:

***$!* mkharmendicant
is

staff

of the Buddhist

Tsang the birthplace

of Qrtib-chen Gtsaft

of the celebrated tmyon He-ru-ka, one Buddhist Tantrik saints of Tsang.

of which priests, the upper part

hung

with jingling rings

(Jd.)

:

S

mkhar

resp. for wp^-q mk/iar-ica.

jHpK-jS-pm

mkhar rgyahi-khal contains
uf>*'cR'*$\

mlihnr-bnhi

</<ji",

768 Dbus s/<0=640 mgyur-sho.

*fV

mkhar-rna

W*, ^ntf^

a

drum

enemy
;

of

Kan9a

an

epithet

of

Vtenu

(Mnon.).
wp^'l- Mkhar-rtse n. of a
=

a minstrel. (according to some)

Rdson, or

Mkhar-chen Irag-dkar %*i' =.' n. of one of the
37
sacred
places
of

fort in

Phan-yul

in Tibet.

wp^-w^-|iK.-^niton n. of a fort
*ip,-q!'-q

Mkhar-zam
and town

L/ia-k/ian

the

Bon

(Q.

in Tibet.

Bon. 38).
sip^-Jaj-^e,-

mkliar-bzo-tca

^f^raTK,

^fl^^T

Mk/iar-chcn rdson n. of

a

a

maker

of articles of bell-metal.

fort near

Tengri Nor.
Mkhar-chen fcih $w%$*' '%**l one of the

'f'^'If *>'"!*
silver sraft.

rnkhar-ruhi spor
is

(,an

one

spor of Mk/tar-ru measure

equal to one

wives of

Padma Sambhava

(Lon.

*

8).

f *>'F'
q

mkhar-snin ^ft?Tra the guard

khal on jjM'^qj'^'pl'TJ mkhar-nay-gi Tibetan steel-yard ifW^^B. mkhar-nag the sfw of Dbu$ plus gan of gold weight=38 8 $kar of gold.
|iv?m mkhar-nal that sleeps

or garrison of a fortress (Cs.).
rnkliar-gnit

metal cymbal.
kidney-coloured;

ynkhal-mdorj

dark red

(Cs.).

on space

;

WRT^

*Ao#-MS/a:^wriA-J^ mMtal-mahi

a general

name

for gods

and

birds.

nad disease of the kidneys.
on the
mklittl-ma
J

JJR^'E Mkhar-rta
confines of Tibet

n. of a place

mkhal-ma
gan
yin

I:

the

kidneys:
nits

and Nepal

(S. kar. 77).

tsha-gran

pa

v*}

Mkhar-ltag an abbreviation of Tt"l? c Mkar-rtse dan Ltag-rtse
''

mthvn dan
nad-la

mkhal-nad IgaH-wa rkcd-pahi

rdson, the forts of Qfkhar-rtse and Jjtag-rtse.

phan the kidney (of cattle, etc. taken as food) equalizes the temperature,
and
is

Mkhar-ihog

n. of Tibet.

beneficial

in kidney disease

^'^ mkhar-rdo (g^ ^frr^ n. of a a metalic substance in large medicine
;

also for ailments of the bladder
l

and and groin.

II: said to be kind of fruit

grains

j

a sort of pyrites.

of

two

in species used

kidney disease.

183
mkhas-grub (wp^'tr^'^'fl mkhasxpurq-fj^q

mkhas-pa

$mad-pa

JT^T

of

pa dan grub-pa) a Buddhist scholar being learned has attained perfection.
I

who

inferior attainments,

Mkhas-grub rje=^v^'^\'

x^-tcq^-g^ mkhas-pa bshin byed showing as one skilful, but not really so.
'

Mkhas-grub Dge-legs dpal-bzcin
on.9 of

the chief disciples of Tson-khapa.

mkhas-mc/wg 'f^T{ a profound scholar eminent among the learned.
*<pwr*<<i|
;

mgul rgyan n of a '^N''*g=,'*i|<'\*r'j)'3<'i*r3J''*3pi'q commentary on Tibetan grammar called
njn^-q^-wjar ja^ mkhas-pahi
.

*f
wise;

-qVi

mkhas-brtan >?k
reliable

steady and

wp^'WwjT j^ mkhas-pahi mgul-rgyan by 8i~ tu Wos-kyi hbyun-ffnas.

of

knowledge fW'q'q^'q

xjwq^qp*^
n. of a

mkhas-pahi dgah-ston

IV

mkhas-po brten-pa.

wpvj''3f*rj8rZi'$j*<'5fl|^'^3jarq'*ip*rq5'yip'^

,-.

~
faTT'L
T^-,
:

-y

t^yr,
o,
,

sTir.,

^

srsr:,
.

commentary on Tibetan orthography (Sum-rtnq) by Blo-gros rgiial-po of r
Zur-mkhaf. ^

,

,_,
i

aT<T:,

^ii,

5TKTH wise,
q

learned,

sagacious
skiliul
-IJL
T

|J^
i.

q

"(w
:

mkhas-pa
chos-la

physician i in mkhas-pa versed
efficient

<" nnT * T^
"i

sman-pa

wp^'wa^ mkhas-pahi *
f "'3'?1 "'? l" n. of *
a
q

rat/an A'afli'q'iBi'^q'

a grammatical
of Ho-phuq.

work by '

T
religion:

Karma Rab-rgyas
can Mfedajicfli)

Ijq-ji-jjVq-arnpU'rq

in

managing

fi-q^-^-q^-^
of the

pupils.

mkhas-pahi ran-bshin possessed of the nature

Syn.

S^

lya-u-a

;

^'^

rig-ldan

;

iff

^rned;

naturally wise or skilful,

^w

ruam-ffsal;

^*\'V^ rig-pa-can;
skyon-fes;
;

T^
of

*^<rft^
mkhas-pahi
of Daksa.

mkhas-pahi rigs

blo-ldan;
tan-ges
;

^\^
4 11
!

9jw'^ grans-can
^
'

^'W-'l*' yone.rq mdsans-

the learned class:
rigs fas skyes

born of the race

>; ^'^l'*

snan-nag-mkhan; -?)'^q'^
S*)
;

fas-rab-can;

c|

dam-pa;

^fl|'q$'^vEi
;

wp^-w^'q mkhas-par
mk/ias-rlom$)
tff^gd'U'*!,

rlom-pa (fN'^<
fiJJ

rig-pahi dpah-po

%\'W( go-wa-can
-

^'^"|
sewg

conceited

kun-rig;
yes-pa;

q^'9

brtan-po;

^w -Z|'q

person; a pedant.

fw^thos-ldan;
sjij^-q-'S'q'q
;
-

|S'S(^

spyod-ldan;
rtVi;

f^'ft^fnv mkhas-pas
25a('5^'l^'5'J\W'ai'wp

dregs

pedantic:

rnam-par-dbans ; ^s.'^'?t'q
mthon-ica
;

w^fljwq'^ among the
in learn-

grags-pa thob-pa

cultured there
ing.
wp^'ci

is

much pedantry
or

I'^'sT gsal-wahi sgo

^I'^T^

dus-yig-

caw

;

^'^"
sT'

kun-gas
t'* c>

;

^ q5'^v5
;

dran-pahi

mkhas-po

wpwq mkhas-pa a
I

<?wan-po;
$>^

blo-bzan

5'$* blo-gros;

*^

learned

man;

^'3'i( '*i'9'^*j

mig-ldan; 5^'|'q^'q kun-gyis bkur-wa.

mkhas-po rnams learned
times.
|

men

snon-gyi of former

(Mnon.)
(nj'q'^

mkhas-pa-can
;

f^fT*!
;

wise;

*|"

*rs^

mkhai-blun
folly,

wise and

foolish;

learned

;

skilful

experienced
tta-bu

prudent ;

wisdom and

shrewd.
wpwq'^'9 mkhas-pa
like a dexterous

M^*w, ii^ui
skilful.

Npww tpMffj-WM^g^VSfS!^'" burf-med. ma a noble, learned woman b.lo-ldan

man

;

appearing

184
mkkag-btsun learned and righteous;
^'1 dpe-mkhyud. byed-pa to be unwilling to lend books.

*f*rq^q.
;

mkhas-btsiiH

bzaA

learned

conscientious

and good.
H^JK-.,

mkhyu<J-spya4

1.

a sort of bag

wpw-J^ mk/ias-fod
skilful or dexterous.

M*t<nl most

or vessel for carrying medicine. 2. sorcery,

witchcraft (Sch.): ^'^'^'^S^'SS'^ a \s
q (Sch.), v. H^'

little

C'
*'|3*i*

mkhun-pa

khan-

instruction or various

subjects

like

the

pa.

mkhnr-ica the cheeks:
S

WW
in
(Mi.):

alms-bag of the saint Phadam-pa (which contained different medicines).

'9S'8(^

a

little fleshiness

a medicine

man; a
v.

physician (l&non.).
I'l^'

the

cheeks

forebodes
v.

wealth

si^-Xq mk/iur-tshos,
cheeks:

RV#W

khur-tshos,

mkycn,

*^'*J mkhycn-pa.
rje

^.q'^^'*^^'**''^'''!^'^*^'^'^

her

^-5-fl|'SflI4-q-Q)r|i-)

tywn-gyis

sun. very ruddy cheeks glow like the rising

thugs rnk/iyen-gyi psigs-pa

lags-mm Has

rnk/w-wa necessary desirable ; also vb. to want farwjtfq-*)^ I don't want
;
:

your reverence seen by your propheticsight ? g'^S^ sku-tpkhyen form of abject
entreaty
:

I appeal to

your honour's wis-

it_

wjtfqS-aj's^ rnkho-wahi

yo-byad indis-

dom

pensable things; necessary articles; \"R or ^'ff ner-mkho siftfq fic-tcar mk/io-ica
requisites, wants,

"I^'*^ to your honour's sacred words; SI^'H!^ to your honour's heart;
;

**& '**&*\ you know
understand
:

full well
l

desiderata

;

most neces-

T
!

l

'&V'j|^'* iS^
:|

you will Lama, thou
;

as sary things: g'*P' '^ according wanted before as heretofore.
;

was

knowest

all

*^'

*>'*'ll^'*'(l^
!

of

your wis-

dom

permit to be
-

done

wp'^

mkho-byed,

colloq.

kho-che,

*JJ^

T^
<

mkhyen-nikhan
>
> l

very learned

:

necessary things; what

may

be needed:

khyo-la kho-che yb-pe rik di dir nyo ma chok the kind which you wanted cannot

8r|Mr*K 3 ri*fg

7'P l profound

like

the ocean in every (department of) religion.
"jl^'J'^ mkhyen-rgya-can possessed of

be bought here.
mkhos-phab ace. to ay. a liking a fancy for a thing signifies for also to wish, want something.
JEJ
;

much understanding very
;

learned

:

>'*^

ye-mkhyen^-t^uifa
sessed of prophetic

rnnon

mkhyen pos;

knowledge fore-knowknowledge

;

ledge; of a higher kind

3"l*''* il^

4

thugs-rnkhyen
;

prophetic sight.
resp. for *\w
1.
fcs-j)a,
;

the
six

fist

mkhyid-gan the measure with with thumb extended, about made
RqqN'q-jwwgS'ilt'
is

^

mkhycn-pa

inches:

(its)

length

^"I'i rig-pa, %\'t
;

go-tea

to

know

also

when

folded

one mkhyid (Tig.
v.

k.).
i

knowledge ^^'V^^^^thams-cadrnkhyen-

H
>o

pa
j-'i*

^"S

all-knowing.

2

H'-*|i

mkhyud-pa,
to

'W*'

:

hkhyud-

rnam-mkhyen

ft^r, such

rnam-$es terms

pa

to

keep,

hold, to retain;

s>'*< 3*\'^ dpe rnkhyud-can dpe mkhyud-pa, S to lend books (Cs.) unwillingness
;

though applicable to Buddha are now applied to the Grand Lamas of Tibet out
of courtesy or for the purpose of flattering

185
them:
j|i-<r3rfl|rr3'wi-q

wh ose

know-

hran-gin

Mug,

it

ledge has no bound (Lam-rim.)
;

(the

<^^w^
;

constitution)

is

sound, &o.

*$TW^
covered;

*! superior wisdom *)j$^ JS'%^ attainments accomplishments of a high order disperceived, found out,
;

mkhran-wa
mkhrans also
pact;
Re.

(than-icd), or *|
;

khran hard

solid

;

comof

wwrVT K'"il*<i perceived the sentiments to be pure.
{

5j-*t|gv.6aj-^-i)<;
;

sra-mkhran-can
;

bgyur mod firm

hearty

sound

;

a

"ll^'S'V"'

1-*-"

wide and

critical

mkhyen-dpyod yans-pa knowledge; wide discri-

robust constitution (Jo.).
l

minating wisdom.

mkhrig-ma (thig-ma) the wrist
(Jd.)
;

mkhyen-spyan yans-pa (with) broad views and wisdom; wide
prophetic vision or sight.
^lll'it" mkhijen-brtse

fclWiwi

of the

hand

the part of the hand

which
It
is

(in

women)

is

adorned with bangles.
chin-wa,

also called

^s'^c.-q nor-bu

omniscient mercy.

the part where jewels are bound.

*W' ql^

<l

!*<

perception

;

mkhyen-gzigs supernatural attributes of a high incarnate

mkhrig-pa
times for *J9T

(thig-pa) some-

mkhrig-ma.
bilious disease.

lama or a Bodhisatha.
mkhyen-rab the wise; also wisdom.
*1

^H*'^ mkhris-nad
ev

*|r*ti

*J[^

^"^ mkhris-pa
;

(thi-pa)

frm

1.

the

vesicle of the gall

mkhyen-y in-fiam= *j$^w
it

the gall-bladder, as part of the intestines. 2. generally the bile
;

mkhyen-nam did you understand

?

itself

the bilious fluid: *tq'<rj *flpriinr<r

-

"^"ra* mkhyen

g.sum:^^ ys/ii-fes,
the

wan,

or foni TJM

knowledge of the
(*<'-*|4

bsdws-pa

r^*3fi$4-feF*iq mkhris-pa sna-tshogs rma ditii dug rnkhrig mig-la phan a
biles of different
;

subject; basic knowledge: knowledge of the way (to

mixture of the
lam-yea
;

animals

is

Nirvana)

know-

useful for sores

and the

bile of poisonous
:

ing the way.
*!*

*?*'*$,*<

rnam-par

yes

rnam-mkhyen = twr* 4hro cognition

^^

useful for eye-disease aj|*rci' the four animal biles that are "I^i'l^'q^
is

animals

of all things.
NH*-'" mkhi-aA-pa (thang-pa) ace.
is

used in medicine
to /a.

:

(1)

Vrwpjw dom-rnkhris
mkhris-pa

bear's bile; (2)

R-SE.-*<jg*rci ri-bori

the fourth stage of the development of

hare's

the foetus.

(3) *|-i-*i|ri hphyi-wahi marmot's bile; (4) 9'"H namkhrit-pa

bile;

mk/iris fish bile

(Sman. 175).
splenetic;

sra-ica>-

o=&.-<t hran-pa or hgyur-wa a robust, hard and
:

"N'C

^

mkhris-pa-can

a

sound constitution

$*r|'-*|v^'

('''j

r'g c.'2i

;

n

short-tempered person.
"H*)'*!
hk/irif.

the great strength of his body there is sound health (flag). The soundness of one's
constitution
is

mkhris-ma

ace.

to

Jd.

=
;

<*

ascertained

the urine deposited in ; is natural the physician declares

by examining a bottle when it

wgw^ mkhris-tsfiag
wgw^wi

bilious fever
chill.

5*.'

"H*) graK-mkhris a feverish

mkhris-rims applied to a fever
is

mkhran-hdug,

or

colloquially

in which the liver

conjested.
25

186
fis

che,

gnis-su hkhar-sgon dan sran-ma

on both

his

wn?- ^* one

1

in

whose constitution the

right and
peas.

left there

were white pebbles and

bilious diseases predominate.

mkhregs-pa (tlicg-pa) that cannot be broken cannot hard;
;

0^^,'q
stick, staff,
^<j|'^E.'ng^

I;

1.

hk/iar-tra
>

a walking

clutcheon: t*^* ^f*'*'l^rr
(a

be divided
*itfpijg<i|-s<n

;

also fearless ;

and

ace. to

Ja.

he met

man) who

carried a
2.

mgo

mk/ircgs-can

obstinate,

stick of
?fa,

chu-pn (water-tree)
bell- metal:
riist

(A. 131).

stiffnecked, stubborn.

^rf^i
the

<^-fi-i|<wS)*rD'i|-

^"S'^i

(sulphate) of bronze, or of

Svn. %'* sra-ica
mi-hjig;

;

'ft'* mi-figs

;

**'$*\mt'-p/iycd (Mnon.).

gong-metal, removes eye disease. *f*;n is a compound of bell-metal with copper, &c.
;

'q

hkhafi-u-a,
1.

*wfrwry$
2.

semi

<*F*'q5'$

hkltar-irahi

chu molten,

liquid

mi-dgah-ica Ita-bu

to hurt at heart or vindictiveness
:

bronze; ^vn5')'aiE. hkhar-icahi
metallic mirror.

iw-loft a

offend, also to irritate.

^(^^lUr^C^'^^q*
tshig

k/iyod la hkhaH-

II. vb. to adhere to; to stick to.

cig-kyan

use

all

Mug-pas (Bbrom. 51) you manner of vindictive words. 3.
^"e.-we.

vg
to their
2.

hk/tar-rfiaoT g'C rgya-rfia

1.

gong
people

used in Tibet and China to

call

bickering, quarrelling;
rels:

many quarre hklian-

work

"S^'^'^ ^pc.'^Jt dpon

slob

or lamas to religious service.

a

drum

hlyun there arose mutual differences between masters and scholars.

of bell-metal, large bell-metal

^

producing when struck loud sound like that of a bell.
disk,
,

re

hkhan lyed-pa to make mischief
hkliad-pa,

(Mil.).
hkfiar-ffufiofl

dish of bell-metal.

especially

in

W.
to
;

1.

to
sit

sit;

to

sit

firm:

%wwi
2.

hkhar-zans a metallic kettle.
k/iar-gsil the staff carried

by

to

on the back of a camel.
;

mendicant
its

priests having a chatty a fixed on

remain sitting to
back
;

stick fast

;

to be stopped

top end, from which hang
:

down

sixteen

(Ja) kept entangled with the foot so the door sticks.

^ti^f^^ftt

to get

rings

*r*y3F''<piv|$'3!'*)?r<iv!^*wti (^.
all

as to fall:

28)

they

grasped beautiful mendi-

cant's staves.

brgyal-wa to
sink or fall
to swoon.

down
2.

senseless

;

to faint

to

take into one's

away mouth
;

m.

^ hkhar-g.sil-gyi-mdo (K. d. a tractate on the merit 425) accruing from the use of the mendicant's staff.
hkhal

=fci
chagt-pa
desire;

when spinning
is

the thread

shen-pa

or

stretched across

called hkhal,

and that

passion;

attachment
lengthwise
this

is

called

sgrim; sometimes
hkhcl (Dag-yig.).
to spin:

word

is

spelt as

^1

hkhar-sgon
called

white

pebbles
:

}

hkl,al-u-a 1.

Mar

yon in medical works

la-l

hkhel-u-a to spin wool.
;

2

in

W^aTfl W. to

gyas-gyon

send

to forward things.

187
hkhu-hkhrig
or
^l"*'*

hkhad-wa

denotes

certain

passions that

disturb the tranquility of the mind, such
as malignity
to emulate,

power: iif'|3*i*ri bio hkhums-pa a contracted mind an easily frightened heart one who is much afraid
;

restricted; deprived of

;

and covetousness
contemn, hate
;

;

ace. to Cs.

of (Nag.)

:

ace.

to

Sch.

to practise

;

to

also to

long

impress on the mind.

for; ace. to Sch. pride (Jd.).

WV?"!*''^ hkhur-du
hgran-pa=

up in order "Hl'WB*'^

to carry

;

thogs-te taking taking on one's back
;

lag-par

khur-byes
(Jd.)
;

in

W.

fully
haii

to vie with, contend ; also wrath3'^'^c t'Jfi she sdan-durebelling
-'
:

to hold in one's

hand
or

sems-la hkhur-wa to bear in

mind
;

;

fyad,

1^*^ifa'&1*Hw:*

don-la

hkhur-thag
carrying.

girth

rope

strap

for

rgyun-du ynod-pahi sons hchan-pa the real signification is always to harbour thoughts
of doing mischief.
insult, injure
i ;

hkhur-ica
to carry, as in

Ace. to Jd. to offend,
injury.

sbst.

pastry;

vb.

ako

RV^wZi

khur hkhur-u-a-

po, one who carries a burden;

"^'^

hkhur-

hkhu-wahi
a
false

bycd,

log-ltct

f*TOT?iif

creed

;

heresy

bsMA-pa carrying: s^l'W^pjvn mi-theg-par hkhur-wa to carry
;

B^'tt&fii hkfmr

(Mton.).

very heavy loads
able to carry.

to carry

what one
it
!

is

not

Khur-$og, bring
!

Khur-

hkhun-pa
sigh,

1.

groan; a deep
disease.
2.

sony, take
'**'

it

away

from

suffering or

on

account of fullness of the stomach, beasts such as cows and buffaloes make this hollow

hkhur-ts/ws, v. $*>'%* khur-tshos.

snum-hkhur
bread
or pastry baked with
or in
oil

sound at the time of chewing the cud
|fie,-|-j8K.j

:

W

hkhun-sgra khan-pa
:

khens he

the house with groanings SJ 8 -'*)?'^]' 8i-qjuiq|-n;vm sdan wahi dgra-la gyag liar
filled

hkhul-wa

ace.

to

Nag.

to

hkhun he groans
against a fierce
l

(or grunts)
(Jd.).

like a

subdue; to subject one
;

by argument and

yak

enemy

ace. to Cs. to be language to service about H^'^^'q khral hkhul-wa uneasy
;

hkhum-pa,
"tit'Q

pf.

B*w khums

(cf.

ace. to Jd. perh. to force a tax, a rate,

on

$kum-pd),
to shrink
;

thos-pa to

<iai-<J|T*|s*wq

comprehend; yan-lag hkhums;

a person.
hkhcgs-pa, pf of
.

pa

to be contracted of the limbs

l

if-'i*i'

^h
:

hgegs,
1

"ftpw 'i

rkan-lag
feet
:

hkhums-pa

contracted
<SSc^-5)^

to hinder, stop, shut

off,

debar

8'fViJflfl

hands and

jvw;q^-

yur-ra raft-bshin hkhum lyed yin the ditch
will get narrower of itself (Jd.).
I

bkag run-ma hkhegspas although they prohibited, in whatever 8 ^fjV*l *l*<' i'3 way, he was not stopped

^*r^qm-qw

ji-Uar

:

nes-skyon hkhegs-pa-po one

who has

stopped

hkums-pa
;

1.
fig.

shrunk,

evils

and dangers

:

"Pl^'I'S

hkheqi-fiyed

shriveled,

contracted

reduced

;

one

who

stops.

188
hMetis-pa, pf. j^
Metis, to

position
*jfc'*

;

to squat

;

to hide one's self

;

V*'

be replete ; filled with

to be full

:

HirSur^-^-" was
bio-grog

dpah

hkhofi-tca to
(Jd.).

be

discouraged,

blood;
his

ma

khens-te

Spf*'*^"^ mind not being

disheartened

satiated

(Jd.).

Mod,
1.

fut. of

^
; ;

ft*orf=ft khod
i

surface;

superficies

5'^fiS'^

|-q

sa

^

'P hkheb-pa, pf
to spread over
te

.

pw Mebg, to cover
yons-su khebs-

;

hkhod.

snom-pa to
;

remove inequalities of
;

a
;

ic.*<'j'|**w^

the surface

to level

to plane

being covered
thams-cad

all

over;

p'WMf^Wj

hkhod snoais-pa levelled
gaps were

*f5\|r made even plain
;
;

;

being covered over the whole face; to overshadow (Jo.).
klia
kfiebg-tc

frequently w|'f&vf*w bar-gyi khod-snoms
filled up, i.e., distinctions of rank, wealth, &c., were done away with. 2. a

khel,

hkhel-wa, *<Ki hgel-tra, pf. to |^e/n|*ai q fdeti hMcl-tra, to put on
l
; ;

^

mill stone ; r*?^ ya-hkhod the upper stone ma-hkhod. the nether stone (Jd.).

;

pack on
ica

to load

:

P5'Vl'|*i*q beu thog khcl-

when

the ten storeys shall have been

^i
down to set down
;

gdod-pa to
;

sit

put on (erected).
hkho-wa
;

sit
;

;

also to live, to dwell
:

to be

to be put

rgyal srid-la hkhod;

J

(cog.
;

to

wjffl

mkho-

pa raised

to the throne
;

flflwfnpfyti settled

tca) to

wish

to

want
;

to think useful, ser-

at a place

gpr$ijWv<i seated in
stefi-tu

rank or

viceable, necessary
!

to

have occasion for

order; f^'^^'ti
:

*j*'!'

fc it

will be of use; he will be able

above

;

^T^'^'"
I
:

hkhod-pa placed placed under.

to

make use
or

of

it

:

RJff'wrR-wpS'

w ill
it.

it

be
JHkfion n. of
1

useful

not,
it

or
;

in

W.

hkho-ce

med,
^'flt^

in Tibet

:

I do not want
fit

I do not like

ws'ifa-jj

^

an ancient family
Sa-gkya hkhon-

for use; useful (Jd.).

gyi rigs, Sa-fkya (hierarchs) belonged to the race of Ekhon ($ay.).

QjZt^'ti
from old age
tigiiifies *ft

I:
;

hkhogs-pa
;

very

infirm

II:
Gren.
tiag

= ^fa

she-hkhon

malice;

decrepit

decayed.

rgan or
:

dispute; war; spite (Nag.); ^'^*J hkhon-

j^'^fffflni

rgyas-hkhogs
sfya-

worn out by age

from the

state of dispute or

war

;

*f&r

i'fin sfio-k/wg, yfi*\

khog complexion blue or pale from old age.

*^w
evil

hkhon-ned.-par

honestly,

without

intentions
;

;

also without quarrel or

f^qjSTq
existence.

II

:

^ir,

w,

ftrn;,
fig.

wr,

dispute

^jfyQ^'ti

hk/ion

mtys-pa

to

be

*mnr migration; wandering;

worldly

spiteful or quarrelsome.
^jfy'i

hkhon-pa, also ^(^^S'" hkhon-yod-

io

pa
hgog-pa

to
;

bear a grudge or ill-will against a
;

to cough (Hnon.).

person to be dissatisfied with a thing to be malicious, spiteful.

also

^
draw in

hkhon-wa
;

(cf. jfc'fl

syon-tca) to
(Jd.).

hkhon-po

discord;

dissension

one's limbs

to

sit

in a cowering

189
hk/iolt, S'^^fftw bya-wahi hkhols the sphere of one's doing or work

hkhor kun-tu grags, *$-

resounding

in

(Zam.)

also

= |yr<i khyab-pa.
hkhobs-<;ag

every

Ace. to

t/a.

company.

to be startled, agitated, alarmed.

^'f>

hkhor-kha,

^tc^n^e^n-n
:

z la-wa

4j&w.qq|
place
;

not fitting to a
:

become larger or smaller
hkhyags-nas
it

*|S*m'^'

dan shag hkhor-u-a la return or each rotation (of a month, day, or year) we,-q5'

*j*fqr-*|l-lv^-E.

hkhob$-<;ag

A^V*l?*Vp*^4|rafc%<CT1
pa those
articles

man-wahi

cher-cher son being frozen
it

does not

fit,

rigs la M;hor-khahi lhag hkhyil yon-gi hdug-

having grown larger

(flag.).

which are found in excess
should

f ^F^'EI
wicked
*pfc
;

low

;

hkhob-wa=t.*< tif<an-pa bad; barbarous rough rude
; ; ; ;

wv

at the termination of the period be sent round (Rtm.).
njtfvwf^

mthah hkhob border
;

hkhor-mkhan
is

one
;

also border coun-

who

turns

a wheel

;

a wheel that

turned

those

try

uK'iffti

yan-hkhob distant border land.

who

cone a ad go with somebody.

I: hkhor

an

attendant

who

is

rank and superior to a servant '^fh'^-'^T^^' even if he be allowed to be among the attendants.
:

inferior to a friend in

^g-^oc^
-q

hkhor-gyi dkyil-hkhir the circle of attendants.
hklwr-gyi
ske-wa,

dependants.
,11:
1.

for ^pfc'S hkhor -lo a wheel
;

;

me-hkhor the fire-wheel

*^--$-S

hkhor-gyi

skj-bo

i'^ffo chu;

hkhor a mill or wheel turned by water Rhm-hkhor wheel turned by wind j*'ffe
"HT
1

(Schr.; Kalac. T. 21).

^
;

;

/ag-hkhor a wheel turned
2. circle;

by the

hand; a millstone.
ence

circumfer;

hkhyam courtan open space near a temple or a residential hoiue where people assemble
yard
;

"J^'S^IS*" hkhor-gyi

the persons or objects encircling that which surrounds (a certain point or
place)
:

to witness a spectacle; also the passage round a temple or monastery for devotees
to

l'*'V^'*?fc*VW
rnanig
parts
;

lte-wa

dan dehi hkhor-

walk round for religious merit.

the navel
^'fi* *
1

and the circumjacent
khor-la

de

thereabouts.
;

hkhor-gyi gtso-bo the chief of the attendants or followers.
hkhor-gfig

\*$* ne-hkhor
waiters
:

retinue,

attendants

also

*pSV^E/qwrw hkhor dan bcas-pa
with the attendants or suite; hkhor dgra-bcom-pas sur-

hkhor-riiams

one attendant; domestics ; house-

hold servants
years
:

;

5'^

lo-hkhor a cycle of
bcu-g.nis or

rounded

by

the

retinue

of

**?fc'*|'ft* lo-hkhor

Arhats:
gathered

^'^'^'S
train

hkhor-du
;

^15
years.

bgdus-po

drtig-bcu a cycle of twelve or sixty

round as his retinue
of

also frequently the

thoughts,
soul,

reminiscences,

&c.,

^^

hkhor-nan

favz

the

first

of the

which the

when

passing into a
it (Ja.),

new

seven musical notes.
hkhor-to n. of a tribe in Tibet

body, cannot take along with hkhor **fa (Schr.
;

Kalac. T. 22).

.(Vai.kar.190).

190

tan^^WQ
pa
entrance of a house.

sgohi

t

hemVAJ fc'9l'^ 9 Vjrfe the passanimals to be followers of the
|

>

<

^?s^ta: steps at the threshold or at the

^'^'"S"
recruit
;

hkhor-du b$du$ to enlist

;

to

ing of all thousand past Buddhas.

to take as one's followers.

S^Q'
Bodhifol-

ffc-q*jrfq-p<

hkhor-mi-

las

sgrol-

t*w'Yi-*lr*^iiSV$q3*r^-'^-^ A
sattva taking

mkhan one who has been
Iransmigratory existence
;

liberated
also

from

animated beings as his
;

one

who

lowers works for their good
sattva having

or a Bodhi-

liberates another from that state.
ijfcs-qS-gw
*'

brought animated beings into

hkhor-wahi khyim=.*$*\'&*'#

his followers, does

work

for the cause of

btstin-mohi pho-lran the residence of a

men
all

:

ifSV'^wtr'^l

hkhor-hdus-pa hdixj

queen (4fo.).

the attendants had collected together. */*vi hkhor-pa or ^fSX'S hkhor-po male

n^-q5

$j

hkhor-Kahi

enemy

of the world,

dym Mam.
:

^mu^

the

attendant.

**pSV|-*J

hkhor

plutg-mo

(&/<;.,

53 A.)
|

nfffvq? 5'w* hklior-wnhi rgi/(i-n,ts/,o the ocean of worldly existence Jj*rif'i|'*<'^|'?^ 5'|, j<-q3-3-4*i-|^--|^ (he Viknlpana
1

hkhor-wa I

:

to turn

round to
; ;

(the

wrong impression)

;

thrown into the
"\

circumambulate, to walk all round also to elapse, to be completed. 2. to be
j

ocean of worldly business (Gml.

76).

Rjtfvqiv*ie.-q hk/tor-miht hchin-wa the en-

formed, perfected |yn w*jifc-r^ the frost has formed iTTuffr, dew has arisen.
:

tanglements or
>

ties of

the world

:

spSVsV

;

II: the world ; rotatory existence the round of transmigration within the six classes of beings ^pSvq'arjj"'-^'^
; :

^E.-q^u|-q | ^w|^^-Ei-^--| the strong fastenings to this world are the cause of

the

suffering in

hell

of

all

animated

nature (K. v 114).
ojG^na. |<J]-qm

hkhor-wa

Id

skyo-fa? skye$

to

repent at

hkhor-wahi $dttg-b$n(il the

having come into transmigratory existence.
Syn.
'^1 ma-rig
; \

miseries of the worldly existence.
'

nK^'*fl]

mnon-c/iags;
;

hklior-mihi bl.i-ma

iKi
srid;

srid-pa

<&*[& hjig-rten
gsfii

"1=-'^ yan-

Mod-Win
Cupid, the

dy.ih-rul
(Mf.on.).

i)^^%J

fftsug-lag dan-po;

Main-pa; |f|-i|fl|^e.-Ej ^*ie,-X thun-mon chos;
;

god

of

Love

lyn&c *$*:*&*
<^vq-<^v*^

^fc'jft'&f*

hkhor-wahi

btson-ra the

scluy-bsnal hltjun-nas

*j*VQ

hkhor-ua (Mnon.).

prison-hcuse of worldly existence.

hkhor-wa

hkhar-mor

to

^fli5-iw hkhor-icahi lam i*TT3sf the
path of transmigratory existence.

transmigrate in the world (Pa-g. 291). Rf^'nA^jj hkhor-wa hjifj TK^^e**. rnrr7T?f
the breaker or destroyer of transmigratory existence the name of a former Tatha;

and go out of

RJ^'W^jf^ hkhor-mtr hkhor to come in this world very often.
hkhor-war
hkhor-ica-po

iffivqv^j^'i'S

gata.

one who transmigrates.
hkhor-wa,

**Ffc-rVB!^-f
chcn-po

dan-ldan

^f?vtp,'<*g*i*i

hkhor-war hkltyams
this world.

TfT^ft (Schr.; Kalac T. 145).

wandering purposelessly in

191
hkhor-ma
interruption.
tshags

without

weapons or *i%
bycd;

mtshon cha

:

"

yynl-du hdsin-pa; 3fi tho-wa;
hkltor

^e.-^
ka-dam-p:i

Mfn-crm

=% T
-

l

S*''

|

gin

^'>

hdsom-lyed;

I

I

>|

T dbyug-pa ;
)

3f^^

the

tree

Cadaniba

jm-n?t

(cags-bcins

*&'*\-o

dbyig-pa

;

w

(Mnon.).
^fSV*)

*^
^k/wr-mcd,
:

tyhan-mdufl;

^'^^
tsa-kra

<;an-lan\

f^^f.
hkhor-lo

**V*1^

chad-mcd unin-

gsor-mdun;
(Nnon.).

by

*fi*'%

terrupted

qip'^^ffo'sl^ bkah drin hkhor(

mcd uninterrupted mercy
ij5Vqfl|

Yig.

If.2)

.

II:
hkhor-shag the date of return
or period for
;

1.
;

vii,

the term

which leave

an orb,

circle,

disk

a wheel:

is

granted to monks or soldiers at the expiration of which they are to duty.

bound to return

the symbol of entering into the great circle. 2. the round of life ; orb or state
of existence;

|vfrffc'< &r\4-pahi hkhor:

^'1"?
RfSVoji)

hk/ior-zitg, v.

ij>5VH hkhor-yug.
;

hkhor-yug, MIHl<!l the horizon
;

H4M<* the chart or cycle of existence ^fr$wr5"fflv*-q^ lha dan mi rnams-kyi
lo

the wall surrounding a city or fort

ram-

hkhor-lo bshi the four states of existence

part

:

'^''STS hkhor-yug-tu or ^'*r?}r
everywhere
at all times. ^T?
(Schr.
;

of gods

and men:

(1)

hkhor-mo yug-tu within the limits of the
horizon
*
; ;

mthitn-pahi yul-du gnas-pa residence in a place where there

is

agree-

^^'"J"l hkhor-yug

K&lac,

ment

or which

is

agreeable

;

T. 12).

^'^
hklior-gyah latch.
T5T

skyes-bu dam-pa la brt en-pa

to take refuge with or shelter
(3)

tffr^ attendants and servants, companions and domestics W^'^pfc mdun-hkhor waiting
tffcrn;,
:

hkhor-pyog

good men;

^^&
3151

under

ned-kyi yan-dag-pahi smon-lam

5f%>TR perfect determination of one's
(4)

self

;

servant

;

valet

de

chambre

;

^.'^fc

nan-

|^-ie.-i^w-g-q snon yan-lsod-nams
moral merit acquired
:

hkhor household servants; domestics: "I?' gtso-hkhor master and servant: \5^

byas-pa -5^5^

^
3

in a former existence

^pSVtfwf (1) hkhor-lo

*fi*>

dpon-hkhor the chief and his servant
ston-hkhor
;

can
;

^\
|i

one who

is

possessed of a disk
;

;

f

!'^

the

teacher

and

his

(2)

sbrul a snake (Mnon.)

(3) v.

pupils

IF'^F^ drun-hkhor a secretary or
servants outside

by a

fiiir-wa '^rsrT^f

(Mnon.).

clerk; I'^j^ phyi-hkhor

the domestics.
*
e

n^ftdi^
hkhor ral-gcig-ma (Schr.

hkhor-lo

bsgyw,

*fi*%wiK
Universal

hkhor-lo$-sgyur ^*e(fM ?^gi an

tj5Vw|Sfl]-*
.).

Emperor.

53

nfSk-^qj^-q

hkhor-legs-pa

good

atten-

dants.

^

Syn. srgwjTSS ma-lug rgyal-po

;

J"!'^'

rgyal-kun hdud; yi-&*f\*.-$fl Ihag-yafri divan-phyug W^'^qf sa-kun dicaft ; *K'S1'
rgyal-po;
)'^'f

I hkhor-lo and other weapons of war included in the following list of
:

Ji'S yafi-dag
j

mi-yi lha\

pnam-b$ko$

1

92
^ hkhor-lo dican-sgyw
i'^|1

^peVJforstvjj'jrg'ti^'lS

hkkor-los

rgyal-gyi

btsun-mo

the

wife

tgyur of the

^''^'

n.

of a

Bon

teacher (O.Bon. 1).

Universal Emperor.

a^^-s^n

hkhor-lo hbyed-pa

^mwf^ft

Syn. *>-5)-f* mi-yi lha-mo; ufv bud-med rin-chen; ymun b?ko$-

W

SSA'V^

one

who can

penetrate into the designs or

machinations of others.
HfiSVtf-frwfe.

ma\

^V^f^P^
^"I'^'i^ ^

Lhag-pqhi dwan-phyug
hjig-rten

hkhor-lo

rtsils-$ton
is

the

ma;

btsun-mo.

fabulous wishing wheel which

possessed
1

(Afnon.)

of one thousand radiating spokes: jurZ&'w^
hkhor-lo hjotng,
Stf' 1

^sfi'.f*
d7-rfr

v.

V% **"'
<

f4fe'|'4fftff$*nr|fc'tfv<l in

the presence

A/O/HS

^'*, vegetable medicine

for

ri

ringworm. *pSV^s. giar<i3'* Ekhor-lodan Idafipahi^UPWf n. of a fabulous mountain
-

was the golden wheel with one thousand radiating ribs; $-w**orwjr*^q^qj-^*r<i^'q'ix on each spoke, where it
of the king

touched
dainty

the felloe, there was placed a
dish
;

situated

beyond the great ocean where the horizon touches the earth. At its centre it
golden
It
hill

^.''ifK^'^f^i^'fr^fi

has an impenetrable

called

from the wheel was brought before him whatever he wished; JU^v^-jq'^^*IT<| that which he did not like turned

Vajra nabhi parvata.
trees in

is filled

with fruit

consequence of
species
of

which there are

away from him (A.
ijtfviS nf%

2).
gj*5

innumerable
there (K.
d.

monkey

living

hkhor-lo pyo

n.

of

a

* 282).
(

flower.
nj(6X'i55'*|C.'

hkhor-lo dan *j[Sxc%-*f,-9fi*c%-'$f -%-y8.-irfa lhahi me-iog (K. d. * 368) hkhor-lo chen-po
n.

hkhor-lohi rkafi

round foot;

of a celestial flower;

idem

elephant; S^'S glan-po (Mnon.).
nfU^-i55-^-Ei hkhor-lohi myon-po the lord

*'

5'^'*' 3'

3^5

(sa-kra dan tsa-kra chcn-po.

(K.

d.

^

or chief of all:

156.)

^^^)^
n. of flower.

hkhor-lo

dri-med

^iftPlH-a

before

the feet of Kalyanamitra

c

hkhor-lo ffdoH=-t"\' c> phag-pa,

a pig;
muzzle.
^jifc-Zf-^q-qj

one with

a circular

the paramount lord possessing the of the noble, wise, and good, whose grace kindness is unequalled.
i)

who

n^'HfiS-sij^ hkhor-lohi

mgrin as met.=
(llfnon.)

hkhor-lo

hdab-brgya ^m-

g-Jjf rna-mon the camel,

n. of a flower.

hkhor-lo

A^rff=^ e''*l

nfUv55-*w hkhor-lohi mthah
dofi-ga.

the circumference of a
a(

circle.

Syn. 3f95-^K.- rgyal-pohi $ in ; H^'R'^'q 5'wu=. bsan lo-ma sor-ma g.shi-pa;
(%non.).
qjffr,-!5-^-q

hkhor-lohi rnam-pa can,

described as fr5)%*i^*rs' "
hkhor-lo
;

w Vr,

a scent

hdra-ica

^w?l,

called

tiger's-claws."
i

^Tiraf: like a circle

resembling a wheel.

n^-Hfi5'uni'i<l

hkhor-lohi

yan-latj=t.c.

'i

(^(frjiVq hkhor-lo (doma-pa n. of Buddhist Tantrik deity.

|5')c.- fiafi-pa spyihi ruin *(ifT$, T^f

a general

term

for the goose species (Mnon.).

193

^Sa-q^
fcl tse

!

:

hkhor-lohi lu$

=g

to Sch. to to get

become insensible;
4. to boil (with

amber.
;

benumbed
to

to be asleep; in reference to the limbs.

Syn. S'*i bya-za?

y5)-

In Med.
if*rn|*|-<i

pf

.

[fa

khol)

:

pa

;

$^'*toj

lui-Han
:

mig (Mnon.).
umbrella.
tsha-wa

make one

boil;

place

for

^55-qw ii = qj^m ga%s an
Syn.
tgrib
;

boiling

(Jo,.).

avsfl char-skyob;
tshad-$kyob

^'1'fjq

rn hkholthub-pa explained in
gis bfgo-wahi

rafi-

*V|i

(l$.fion.).

Hag

la nan-cifi las

gad bkul-wa

afi^n-o^-n hkhor-los
'9"I

hffro-wa,

-^'S'l'V
wheeled;

thams-cad f grub-par byed, sems kyaft hgyur-

wa-med na bran gyog-tu hkhol-thub-pa
hkhol mi thub-pa

fifi-rta

tpyi-dafi

bye-brag

carriage or vehicle (jyfion.).

yin, de-ltar ma-byufi-na bran gyog-tu gyur-kyafi

red ($aff.)
i.e.,

"^Jfa'H

hkhor-los

sgyur,

v.

^*|'W

voluntary

service,

if

extracting a servant

reg-bzaft (l&non.).

obediently gives effect to the

wishes of

RJ^-^-H* r'*W r&omkhan, a potter one who lives by turning the (potter's) wheel (fiction.).
hkhor-los htsho, v.
;

his master, otherwise, although the servant be in his service, he has not rendered may
service.
r*i

the path for circumambulation round a sacred build-

a.^'tf hkhor-sa

vzfav-vfoftn

hkhor-ma

a

female

attendant

(Cs.).
r?i

ing or other object ; the positions of attendant demi-gods of a principal deity

hkhol-mo
hkhos or

^$\

maid-servant.
"\

round his mansion.
value,

^
;

hkhos-',M worth,
:

importance

also necessity

ifftr*^

khor-hyswm man, horse

and

hkhos-can
influence
;

cow

:

cwr^^rf-^ffc'^flW-fl^i^

alight-

important; mighty; of great "V"^'*^ hkhos-nwd uninfluential ;

ing from his horse, he presented the three
objects, viz., a servant, a horse,

and a cow

^-5j-(q-cj hkhos-su phab-pa to draw as a blister or poultice; ^"'^'S^'^'^-^-gf

to

him (A.

7).

^'S'^'"]^

^Vfljfiw^ww^flj'ti hkhor-psum rnam-par

alms-giver, alms-giving, and the receiver of alms, when those three are

dag-pa the

dflos-po dgah ts/iafl cig yodkyaft inod-kyi hkhos-kaham (A. lJj.2) although there have existed some articles pretty complete, there was necessity for a vessel

of pure motives.

to

receive

(deserve)
chufi-tta

them;
less

*jfcri|'$K'p

kfiol 1.

&\* bkhol, imp. j&i to make a person a slave; to bind
.

rq hkhol-wa, pf
;

hkhos-ka

of

necessity

;

bya-war

chufi-ba

less

active

or

less

as a servant

to cause to serve one.

g^'j**

energetic (Mfion.).

Iran-khol or jt'5

khol-po a slave; 6fa>-

tpyo4-kyi sdug-bsfial the miseries of servi-

hkhoi

bstun^fiw
;

hog babs,

tude

;

pshan-dag-gis dwan-med-par b_kol-wa

don dad ^stun

suited to

one's

to be enslaved to help oneself.

by

others, without ability

intention or object ; fitness

suitability.

2. ace.

to Cs. to save
3.

;

to

*j**rS| hkho$-d_pag according

to

the

spare

;

to

enjoy with moderation.

ace.

measure of one's

ability.

26

194
hkhos-su
tt^-ct fogs-sit bshag-pa to put in opposition.

hkhyar-ita
astray, to deviate
*g*,

to

err,

to
:

go
&'

from the right path

hkhyags-pa *fk, f^T,
vb. intrans. 1.
;

to freeze either into ice or
:

mi-hkhyar ening or blundering man; 5 3 $'*$*> khyihkhyar a stray dog; J'']'*[3*>'ti one who makes hkhyar -tca-po yi-ge
t

hard to coagulate, crystalise the water will be freezing
;

mistakes in writing (a do not err
S

letter, &c.)

;

S^'*'"!'

in

conversation.

the soda has congealed on the salt-lake. In Sikkim khyek or khek=ioe. 2. to feel
cold,

one

should

be

afraid
;

making

mistakes, of going astray

^W

of

become numbed ^"l^i*- hkhyags:

dpe hkhyar-po a defective simile (Ja.).
u-a

hlyufi

they

felt cold

= w*

hchal-ica

hkyags-rum or

A|yj]*r**

hkhyags

irrelevant
tedly.

:

speaking

unconnec-

ram an

ice-slip

;

also ice in blocks.

hkhyam-kyi a stray dog.
l

hkhyal-tshig irrelevant speech;
rove,

I

:

hkhyams-pa

fig. to

wander: ^-tiw^^-fj-q^-q^w, Ri|-^-RJ*v (5rq^-^-R|3*w being completely deluded by
desire,

l^^'i'^'^'^'IS'^, Rg|-'Xqi-g^-^-;c,-qu|ui if one speak misleading words which cause the youthful
speaking
:

nonsense

they rove the world as a wheel
380)
:

not to go straight,
justice).

it

infringes the law (or

(K.

d. *

j*fr-qv*|s*Wr^ hkhor-icar
1

hkhyam$-pa dan or nvV'^B*"''' bar-dor bkhyam$-pa to rove (in the world or in the
interval between death
for

ev

^O' 2
CS

!

bkhyi-wa,

ace.

to

<SM.

<

@ ci
lj

and regeneration)

hkhyil-u'a.

no purpose.
CI

II;

= *rt-a^-qfq

don-medf^*ir^,
1.
;

*^I5^I'^ kklryig-pa, =ra?Titfnn, also in take prisoner.
strangle
;

arw

to

bind

;

to
to

C.,

du bgro-ica ^fora-s^rnr, ^<i*n,
ftriT?; pf.
a

f^r,

suffocate

;

sn]

-$wi*'%*>hkhyai$-par
;

gyitr

hkhyig~pa-po one

who

WRJ|<J|-q-9 thag-pas binds with a rope.
jf

to ramble about to

to

wander purposelessly
strange
country.

Syn. ^^'i hcMH-tca;
hdogs;
I

$dom;
bcM-iea;

wander in

a

At
Hue.

W\ *
l

plays;

t&^'

certain seasons

many monks wander
vide

about

bkyig-pa.

Tibet,
frMJTO,

Mongolia and China,
f?nj5;

$ww*|3W!
<

Rgl-o
rnam-par
; !
!'

hkhyigs-pa,

pf.

i!*<

bound.

^khyams-pa, to wander about continually
to

move about unceasingly: *!S*'V! q
hjiig-pa to cause to

^t
to

hbyin-pa
:

hkhyam-du
rove

ramble or
lost;
;

draw out
{|

;

strain

;

also to roll, revolve

about;
;

to

become strayed,
;

>1'*B\

mig-hkhyid-pa to turn or roll one'n
l

wandering

vagrant

erroneous

;

erring
;

eyes

:

J**^*tf

i*|

Ht*IFiF**^

hkhyam-pa inundation
hkhyams-po
vagabond.
8. n. of
1.

flood.

erroneous;

a

Q-^-^-ai hkhor-icar hkhyid-pahi rgyuhigtsobo ni ji-ltar gnan-icahi dnos-po hdi dag la
the chief of the causes of revolving in the

a disease.

195
world
lies
ti,

in

how one

appears outwardly

there was no swirl in the waters they

dug

(Lam.
9^

36).

deeply into the ground.

e Q^JTSJ hkhyim-pa=$ fi** chu hkhor-

Syn.

*pSVq

hkhor-wa;

^i"!'

5'

hjug-pa

tca to

whirl (as of water) (VAon.).
j-q-qg

hkhyil-wa
^B""'!;^

brgya

ajdMW one

QV 13*11'^

hkhyims-pa
daft

qft^at,

^JTSffl,

hundred

coils:
is

hkhyil-sdan ^*&3\
;

described as ni-tna
sgor-sgor-du

zla-wa soys la hod

anything that
together.
"*|grq'-s^

possessed of coils

wound

hkhyims-pa, to

be encircled

with a halo, like the sun and
<j|*r

moon

;

*V
:

hkhyil-ba crw

= ^'J^

rna-rgyan

hog-hkhyims Tfrft

w*^g*w
*|*w

nimbus; halo hjah-hod hkhyims a rainbow
:

an earring.
Syn. ^'fl'x^'l^ rna-ba mdses-byed; *j'i^' rna-war hkhyil; ^'^ $nan-rgyan
(Mnon.).
hkhyis-pa, v. "flfti hkhyid-pa, to
evolve.

encircling (him)

*V9V no-bun

or

smug-pa
fog,

khyi-ms

sfr^S'w
smoke enveloped

hkhyims

mist,

or

him

(Jd.).

Ov

Q^^'q

hkhyir-wa to turn

round "&'T
:

hkhyu-u-a or

hkhyus-pa=
).

fl|^|*rq3jX-qS'<*[|vq

dbu-la g.dugs bskor-icahi

hkhyir-pa ($ag.) to turn a parasol round in a circle over the head.
hkhyil-u-a

kyog-po
2. pf.

1.

bent

;

not straight ($ag

*Q" hkhyu^ run away.

*lTTn,

iutrans. to

wind

;

to twist ; to

^n^f, vb. whirl round

Syn. ^'^ yo-ica; g^'i lros-pa (Mfion.).
;

;

pf.

"]

khyug

Skra

hair

(M.f(on.):

*'^WtT*BF
si

1'

to run,

move

swiftly

;

said to imply

chu-ran fugs-kyis hkhyil-tva water of itself whirls round, i.e., turns into a whirlpool
;

^ myur-wahi-don, the meaning
^(5"I'9

SViS NS

-

of rapidity

;

hkhyug-po runner.
rapid
ti
l'

^"I'^ST"

glog:

^.^>|Vfl| w*|STfl|' 5^J3'

|

s

dun-dkar

g.yas-

hkhyug-pa
51'^'^|3
q

hkhyil g.yon-hkhyil a white shell the right or wound to the left
sbrul hkhyil-u-a to coil

wound to
j
;

glog liar

motion of lightning hkhyug-pa to run or
lightning
:

rq

|"r*i'

move rapidly
^BT^'^S
swiftly
:

like the flash of

being wound
$-3afg-<*j|'arn'^i

in the

up manner

like a

snake to
;
:

q

hkhyug-po hkhyu-pa to run away
-

of a snake

chu

chen-po

hkhyil hdug

hkhyug-tsam in or about a moment or in a flash g *JSfli &i'9wi slcu
:

"W**

much water has accumulated surrounding a
place
in

or a

inside a

place

forming

itself

hkhyug-tsam phels-pa your honour has come c c for a rapid visit j|Y*< -'^ -''W&'9'W
:

\>

whirlpool; A as if wreathed with light; V
garq-BJ'S

*W*&**^'

hod-du

^ql*'
will
\a

khyetf-rafi, de-rin hkhyug-tsam pheb

rog$
:

you come here to-day
hkhyug-tsam
:

just for a trice
ptsigs

na yser mig hkhyil-u-a yod
its

Rj3*|'l*r*|'im

see

for

the

fish

was revolving

golden eyes

:

**'

about an instant

w<r*(S*l sons hkhyug the
H'B"]'

sie.'Q-^'a.gai'qvgv^ mi maii-po dc-ru hkhyilu-ar

mind pa
to

travels quickly.

gyur-te there many people having cijowded together or assembled together:
t

gleam

;

to twinkle

khra khyugwith light to
1!
;

*rfl|'^p

'g

although

shine in various colours: ^'^'^'^"'^Gl"' Q (Lam. ti. 35.) the mind moves

196
this is
(restless)

with suffering
yellow

;

^Sl'*!'*!
;

enough: ^jl^ there
(Jd.).
3.

is

not
;

glit;

tering

in

lustre
.

to glitter

to

shine (of the rainbow)

enough. to be acquitted
khyed-pa to
as

2.

in C. to gain (a law suit)

|*&tf1 phyir

"^ST 5)"! hkhyug-yig v current handwriting.

running

hand;

head,
(Jd.).

bow without uncovering one's a less humble way of saluting

ngq|-^^-^ hkhyug-f ar-can in

W. hasty;
to ra carry hkhyer-wa sometimes, to bring away, to take away ; carried away by $-5fa-nj|^ chu-yii hkhyer water $ fo<'8* Ic-los hkhyer to be over: -i! ;

hurrying

;

careless.

'q

ma
ma
an

thag-pa as soon as born
*l3<^-Sfc.-q5'*-^e.'
niti

(Won.)
?

hkhywd.

Mon-icahi

^mni

?W

^t

one that becomes

come, carried away by idleness. take the key Ide-mig khyer
khyer-ff>g bring;
off,

^TiS*
;

j^"!

embraced. hermaphrodite after being

$**'**>

QJZJ^'q I; hkhyud-pa 1* ifto embrace embraced
;

take

away;

carry khyer akin to the le-au and

soft

le-jao of
:

Hindustani.
hkhyer-so
1.

mgul-nas

hkhyu<?-pa to clasp

round the

0,^'^
appearance;
colloq.

bearing;
2.

neck; to
to

hug;

to encompass

by spanning.

demeanour;
;

neatness.
;

or into (as serpents) : 2. glide in of wtors^gfi mflal-du hkhyug-pa entering 3. to be the soul into new conception.
able
:

advantage

superiority

pleasant-

ness.

is.w8'*|3^
rise

Ian-war

unable to
also

(from bed).
as

hkhyud The word is
to

mi

'3
strike.

hkhyel-wa

Ld.

to

hit,

to

illustrated
la

HwffWfTrt
hgro-wa
Ita-bu,

rtsig-pa

rten

nas

hkhyog-hkhyog

bent,

move supporting himself on
'CJ

a wall, &c.

crooked (Nag.).

il:

=^i
or

hkhrig-pa ***,

sexual embrace (Won.).

Saturn or "f"'!^ p<wipen-pa the planet he in blue robe (Man.). 2. =^ tfion
;

hkhyur-wa

*B* hkhyur,
;

fut.

hbab-chu
giji-^l'^f

a

stream

;

waterfall

(Won.)

;

divorced of "3^ bskyur, to be separated an end to. Ace. to to put (Cs.): to stop ;
Jd.,

sbrul

hkhyog-hgro

the snake

because

it

creeps in a bent course (Man.).

to

be

deserted:

P^W^WW
filled

^S"!'^ hkhyog-can or

^S^^^l hkhyoginto

being separated,
bereft.

be was, so to speak,

hkhyog tortuous.
nJuj-^-ci

hkhyog fton-pa to

fly

a

=S

hkhyus, v. "^O'l hkhyu-wa.
to

passion (Sch.).
up,
v.

^=.'1 hkhyefi-wa

be

0,^1* ^ hkhyog-pa, g^ khyog 1. to lift
carry
;

pf.
;

S^ khyag, imp.
up.
sol-ja
2.

lift
I|
I

to

to QjSc *C| hkhyed-pa 1. to be sufficient, out to hold colloq. suffice, to be enough
; ;

tob ring

:

1*-B

khyog

bring in the tea (C.).

197
1'3

hkhyog-po

or

crooked

;

bent

:

gfij'Zi^'R'S

khyog-po khyog-pohi ri-mo
!

BT 2

nin-hkhyofl$,
fl^'S'* 4gon-pa la sbyin-bdag-gii ni-ma geig1

a crooked figure ; a curve, flourish, crescent, &c. ^^'W^gfl'^'^gpil nas phar hkhog:

gi bfnen-bkur shu-wa 1. to observe a day's

religious service
to Jd.

in a monastery. in

2.

ace.

'

tshun-hkhyog the
thither.
-

fish

writhing hither

and

and

Ramsay khyong

Ladak

signifies to bring.

i

<i5-*r^ hkhyog-pahi sa-bon
fig.

'

crooked seeds.

hkhyom-pa
;

HT^f,

fluid
;

hence
to be

^S 9 9 hkhyog-po
!'

giddy or giddiness
:

also to reel

*f-'%'*l*i'i*dran-po

min-

giddy
.

pa ^W,
upright
z *15 r
;

f|5T,w, *ra, faP*:!, fffz^ not not straight, i.e., crooked.
'*'S'*^
;

hkhyom hkhyom with intoxication "K-%-inr dizzy
:

^'^Hfi'^iJi't*! bzi

^e.-<gqj

y a fi

^

S oge

hkhyos dad

q

hkhyog-po'hi

rnthu-can the

bent-bill

a toucan.

hkhyor-shin hkhyog the trees being moved (by the wind) were bent (wag.) so the
;

^5"I'ti5^ hkhyog-pohi jrfe **' $ chaft-rtsi a kind of chn,

= 5'&v*

po-son

words

*i$*<

hkhyom and ^JS"! hkhyog are some$*" 'J5*4 '^ '** khyom:

churn or mixer

what similar to each other.

to

make wine

with.
yoft-bu can
;

khyom do-wa in C.
|Ste''an| gser-

to reel, stagger

*6,'9|*

Syn. ^'9'*^

n^Cj-^<i|

c han-gi

hkhyom-pa hdug he

is

V

gyi lag;

&"!< '^'3* dbitgs-hbyin fin; **'

staggering under the influence of
i&-*.'ftu

beer;
:

chan-fifi;

i<|-q$'*c^

hg-pahi

tshofi-

mtsho-hkhyom dizziness

;

vertigo

diis

S*!'!^ myoi-byed.

tTfS'*f^'^S*rr'pl

lug-gla$ mgo-hkhor hkhyom-pa yso the brain of a eheep (taken

^5u]-Ej5-1Si|

hkhyog-pohi tshig=.^i\'Vfff^:
;

**! tshig-gi

ytaA-rag rough language
.

not

as food) cures reeling or dizziness of the

head (Med.).
hkhyor-wa fw^ra to be unsteady
;

straightforward (Milan.)

^S"!'*^ hkhyog-dpi/afi a lath or pole for carrying burdens (Sch.).

to miss, fail; not to hit (Cs.)
;

;

to

"5I'gl

hkhyog-gral=\^<>^

drafi-lmn

reel, stagger,

straight road (Milan.).

(of
l-|5-*)^-

wood

or

from intoxication to warp wooden vessels) '?fa' JlfN'<r'OJ'
1

:

N

^"1^^

hkhyog-hlar

blaze

in walking his steps reeled (Bdsa.).

or flame (Mnon.).

"S"!'^ hkhyog-med=\K* drafi-po
i
firori-pa

orife.'

hkhyol-pa, pf. *$r hkhyol, cf
1"!'^ skyel-wa,\x>

.

be carried
to,

straight (llfnon.).

;

to be
:

brought

;

^3U|-q^i hkhyog-tyad a crooked, out-of-

to arrive at,

come

reach

*v*i
it

<OJarq*-

the-way construction or explanation.
or

^^^c. on reaching the end,
(unfinished)
.

was

left

8^
;

hkhyogs,

a palanquin

;

sedan chair

litter.

=^-i
(Sch.).

hphyos-fa

'q hkhyoft-wa or ^JJ^ hkhyoiif |f
-^-^R-Nj'R.

gkyofi-wa dad gkyofts:

hkhyos-ma,
$kya$-ma, a present, gift.

same

as

pahi don-dafl mtshufis to observe

"H*J5

K-*'

198
J

hkhra'ica

(tha-wa),
to

vb.,

pf.
;

probably ^H^ incline towards
''H'*'

hk/iras,
(Cs.).

lean

to

to

vr, said to be=5'J *^ rgyal-mtshan, the Buddhist flag of
hkfiri-rkafi
''

victory.
;

hkhra-sa a support to lean against a prop; the back (of a chair): *g'W*|g hkhra-sar i*Araj=^'i'i|^' { rten-la brteni

^B'fi

1'

hkhri-tgrul
:

payment
-

of stipulated

revenue or dues
bu-lon
sags,

|gTwg iS!^m khral-ham W^'t^fvwrv^*!'^ ran-gi
liabilities

pa firm

in support (flag.).
hkhratis (than) <3T:

hard

mgo-la babg-pa-ni hkhri-tra account of rent or debt, &c.
; |

on

hkfirafis-ica,

*>"$*.'*

bkran-ica adj. hard.
(t/iad-pa), in colloq.
:

hkhri-wa, pf. *%* hkhris,

cf.

W

'^ &khrad-pa
Tib. to expel
;

dkri-wa cognate. 1. to wind; compress; hold fast gwi'S'^'q khyiin entangle
; :

turn out
to

"Sh^HVl'S bgtgs
the devil

hkhrad bycd
one's body).

expel

(from

tkab-kyihkfiri-wa conjugal embrace "* '-^c. hkhri-fin or t|i'^e, hk/iril-fiA a creeper ; a
;

hkhrab-pa (thab-pa)
pf sip bkrab or ip'i fkrab-pa,
.

<S"iTT,

TO;
;

creeping plant: "wi?l V'!f*r '|t1' to be tied by taxes and entangled in debt. 2.=
(

1

1.

to strike

*prti chags-pa mostly as a sbst. thrall
attachment, but as vb. also: ^s,'^'
van,

;

to beat (in regular strokes, as in

swimming
tread

'"*|*ri

and rowing)

;
'

to
-

thrust,

stamp,

heavily; if *l9 q q $> o hkhrab-pa to dance in that manner. 2. to winnow; to fan. 3.
to blink, twinkle,

don-gyi hkhris-pa to be attached to one's interest or advantage ; 3'1^'5 bu-

wink with the

mcd-kyi to wife and children: hkhri-wa-chod= M'TV.'^rH|-X^
dan hbrcl-thag
cftod

^9"'^
s/ien-pa-

eyes.
5.

4.

fondness

;

attachment.

to jest;
leap,

to joke; to
(Sch)',

crack jokes.

to

jump
;

jump

for joy (Sc/tr.).
(Sch.).
(Jti.).

to'^i shcn-hkhris passionate attachment.
hkhri-hbub

6. to scoop

out; to bail out
in C.

7. to

assessment
|

of

fight

to

combat

and W.

revenue

or

S"$'^K.'fl|*j*i''*p{'' yw

rtsa-chu

hkhral-hkhrul (thal-thuf)
**$

=

fin

ffsum-gyi hkhri-hbab, levy for the three grass, water, wood (to be supplied
to

goj-oj-gai-a)

kfiral-le khrul-le
; ;

confused

dazed confounded

(tha-U thu-le) also as adv. ;
' '

privileged

travellers

or

officials)

(Etsii.).
l>v

-5q-q

01

iC,

hk/iril-fin

also applied to one

who

is

confused in
plant.

a creeping

and speaks unconnectedly and and being unable to sit moves up ravingly, and down and cannot even preserve his
his ideas

Syn.

uwi-u|5-^|-q

yal-gahi ral-pa.

n|-^c.-wXfll'^ hkJiri-fin mc/iog-ldan, %*'
ijE,-ci-^ir|-S|-*lc.

own

goods.

n

.

of a kind of tree.

hkhras

(the)
;

= 3*w*i|*r ji^o semsalso attached.

ehags sdod-pa hopeful

Syn. %<**.'' pri-yan ku; ^'i>\^'^lvdmed win-can; $*1*''lj sna-tsftogs $de; g^' QS *>>! hbyun-pohi me-tog; wy*[<&n sa -la
hyag-htshndl (Iffon.).

hkhri

(thi)

reduction

;

discount.

199
hkhri-fin thogs-med
.

hkhrig-pa $bed 3'^'^^s, n for
.

a

name

for the Sal tree.
sa-lahi IJon-pa;
sra-rtsi fin Si^T

the crow (Mnon.).

Syn. sa-hhi fin;
(Mnon.).

*^-q$'V-^-q hkhrig-pahi
to be given

cftog

rten-pa

up

to voluptuousness.
hklirig-pahi bsam-gtan

egn]-cj5-q{wii5^-

hkhrig-pa
2.
"ft*',

1.

fti*

(Schr.).

ma, or g^Vi^VSfl'w ma a voluptuous or

bud-med hdod-ldan
licentious

woman

g.ni

mystic number signifying
3.

" two "

(Rtsii.).

vb. to cohere
thick,

;

to stick

hkhrig-slad-qn
hkhrig-pa $bed. CS

,

v.

together,

become

intermingled:

gnam-hkhrig the sky is thick: f< hod-ser dan hjah-hod beams of light and rainbow hues hkhriy-pa
intermingled: ^jgi^'gvo
hkhrig gyur-pa,

Rf^^J'^J hkhrig-ma or

'si

hkhrig sthe wrist

ma,

miJ'Ji^ lag-pahi Jrf^ the hand). (of

$ct5-$|-w*|prq to become adherent being intimately mixed up with the saffron
of mercy. 4. coitus;

"Bl^'q hkhrigs-pa- collected or assembled
together, of |^

prm

(clouds).

sexual intercourse:
bkhrid.-pa
>-r,

^"FaY"

to perform such. *$*\'Hfrhkhrig;

(thid-pa)
5T?jf?T,
;

fWtw,

pf.

$kad= ^HT^"! hkhrig-tshig amorous speech
obscene language
q'fjRf
;

pf.

)

*/

to lead; to

*jgflj'w

hkhrig-thabs
;

amorous
Mod-ma,
5.

dalliance

^HT^VV*

4

conduct ; bring to a place especially used in connection with animals and children,
also of leading
ts/ia

hkhrig

*H*1

woman.
Zodiac.

f*nrTTTfr

voluptuous the twins in the

a

an army:

S'^'^H^'gc.' bu-

hkhrid byufi led out their children.
Cv

Q,3*J^ hkhrims
Syn. of No.
yor
nt-stifis
;
;
1

(thim), <&*[* Ifl hjig?

4.

^=.-g-iiftr|X

ditaH-po
;

krag

(flag.)

terror,

panic, fear

:

^'^^'

?jc,'ci3-X*

grofi-pahi chos
;

V SK.W
%'

*HN
wa

"I

"?!'"'

lag-bfdams
bgog-pa
;

^'"'I\ hdod-

^

hbrcd-nas hkhrims (Lex.; Jd.).
(thil-wa)

pa $pyod;^W
^e.'|S mi
ts/tans

^'1^ ye-sbyor;
r motif,
g'l'ift

^P-J^r^ Wiril-ica
to

^H'l hkhriserpents) to
;

spyod; ^e.'S'S g.san-spyod';
=.

wind,
close;

coil

round

(of

V^"! ne-reg; *&H dgah;

fvq

draw

embrace

closely;

clasp

sbyor-wa
spyod;
*><*

;

3^'|X kun-sbyor

;

skye-wa

round i^vf^hkhril-mkhan an embracer;

^'w^'^dyahmgur-spyod;
rol;
^|5S'
CJ

Wl'
s>*\wfc

^ic^
in

hkhril-ldan a

plant furnished with

dgah-wa

hkhyud-pa

;

tendrils or claspers; n^jgarq kha hkhril-wa

c/iags-fpyod ;

^'^"I'gS

Mod-log

spyod;

W.

to speak imperfectly like children

;

$q|-q|^N log-gyem (l&fion.).

to lisp, to stammer.

^HTi-^'^'^-g-q hkhrig-pa daH Manpar smra-wa H^TTKT^T speaking of
copulation or of sexual union.

Q,(gO]'g;jJ

hkhril-ldem
ifi"!

fig.

very hand-

some and young;
Idem waving
;

hkhril union.

^
A a

moving.
-

*gq-q-$?q hkhrig-pa hbyin-pa to talk
smut.
climbing plant, a creeper.

200
hkhrii
(thf)

ftw*,

vii
coast;
;

near,
also

to

be

panic-stricken:

neighbouring
postp.
*j|*<'?l

bank, shore,
a

hkhrug-par mi-hgyur-wa *
q fl1'5' t) ql rtsa

Tjfa

will not

and

$'**[ close to

very near ;

become angry; get disordered:
t

JTW*V

against:

fbrel zla-tca tned-pa

rnamf-kyaH

srid-gkyoAdehi hkhrif-su min-pa sla yod
fftogs raft-ni<f gcig-por

ma

made
boil).

all

his

hams-cad hkhrug-tu bcug it veins disordered (blood to

gxhun-Ias

mi

byed

one should not singly (venture) to do Government work unless assisted by a
colleague under the king (D.
$el.

12).
%*'

angry; also to quarrel, ^"f^^'^HI'^ de-g.nis the two quarrelling. Also as hkhrug-nag sbst. row: ^H"!"'^ fight, disruption,
fight,

2.

to be

contend:

Syn. ^SI" hgram;

IT*

rtsar;

druA

hkhrug-pa for disorder arose
place.
*|| Tr9\i

;

5 quarrel took
;

(Won.).

to
l'

show
q
'

*gV^
brass.

khhrii

frdsin,

* "R

arms
ra-gan,

;

to rebel

:

*B q

<

V tl

war

:

WiBI dmag-hkftritg=.^^
war.
of

H

fight

to take

up

r fj in

times of
i\

ht/iab-

bkhrug
bkhru-wa
N3 hkhrud-pa
(thu-wa)

ftAgom-q

Mi

hkhrug-pa a

=

name

Buddha, who

does not become

TOTWI
hkhrur

to

wash; to bathe:

agitated or ruffled at heart.

*B q l'*'*''

fl

ft

''B^'W

hjug-pa

M^T,

hkhnig-pahi
sa-ffshi

fefiftfMqQVi'4'qfy ffyul-gyi
^|-5)-Cfl|^
d.nuig-gi,

causing to be washed.

or

mi-yxhi

battle-field

(Won.).

^B'^'I^V

hk/iru-tca

pcod-pa

^BI'S^

stoppage of looseness or diarrhoea.
bkhru-pshi
bysoft,

hk/irug-dpon^-Wfi*!
;

.

dnmg

dpon general
2.
1.

commanding
2.

in war.

1.

diarrhoaa.

hk/iru-}kyug

v%*^ khru-nad, ^S'^if diarrhoea ^(fan: with

contest, strife.

*rai'|V<i pyul-sprott

pa or

^fl|^^q-q dnwg-hthub-pa (Mfion.).

vomiting.

hkhrugs (thug) defined as

i'|"9'

hkhntg
T.

(Sc/ir.;

Kahc.
ing

fltfn, quaking, trembling, shak(jftioH.)
:

^fi"!*1 '^m

hkhrugs-rnkhan in
cracks,
flaws,

^Pl'f" hkhrug-got = %\'* go-cha or
go-hhrab war-dress; coat of mail
(Sf.non.').

having potter's ware

W.

small
:

of

^HTS
battle
,

'**

hhhrug-lna-pa the

;

stated (Mnon.) to

drumming to mean also R}r
arises

^R^'t) hk/<rngf-pa= (Jd.) also f&.-.^fq khon-nas (dan-wa H^Q ldan-ua jPmi, *m, ww, ^ffvjr was
'

**

s

stirred up,
;

agitated, confused, also
;

rage,

g <ge.'q5 g-^ the clamour which on the battle-field.
I: hkfiruff-pa (thug-pa)

anger greatly angry

passionate.

^H")*'*^

hkhrugs-tshad fever caused by overwork

and

fatigue.
SSt

hkhrug-M $** hkhrug-las work

war,
of

fight:

dispute;

,

1.

vb.

pf.

'i

dkrug-pa,
;

^H^N'i hk/irugt-pa, cf. SJ"!^ bkrug-pa to be in
;

quarrel.

'q hkhrun-wa
a
resp.

(thufi-wa) or

,%wn
arm,

commotion

commotion

to be disturbed

;

for

yi

$kye-ica

201
be born: 8 *H*'i sku-hk/iruflf^*Wi sku bltams-pa to be born ; also
1. to
-

:

hkhrul

wa

(tlml) or

*|

t'i

hkrul-pa

the birth of a great man, prince or lama
birth stories or

^T, f*WT,
:

madness

;

khrun$-rab$=\'*'*.'vn skyes-rabs

^rf^fsbst. mistake; frenzy; error ; illusion ; also adj. mistaken ;
1.
; :

legends connected
;

with one's
<I

birth. 2. to arise

come from
of

:

deranged deluded *!rS*r5flji-q-*rS^ mj s. takes are not profitable ^f'l'Rigui'ci hgro;

j|Y'K% S |rR|s.rq3-*<ii just arise in the mind
3E.-t*t^|gE.rtw

Words as they may
yourself;

u-a

hkhml-pa the deluded beings
be

(of this

world).; *.&*1 to

tin-4e-Msin
:

hkhrul-wa to be mistaken; ** deceived: ra fi.
^e.-ngacq^-^<i|
;

hkhruns-pas

meditation arising ^'t'Slvarnge.*^ sninrje thugs-la hkhruns-pa

compassion arose
shoot,
(Jd.).

snan hkhrul-par Mug I have mistaken it was a deception of the senses; jK. R|gr
-

in his
sprout,

mind.

3.

to

grow

(of seeds

come up, and plants)

w*j5arj[*.

snan
delusion
;

hkhrul-ham hkhrul-snan
:

illusion

;

can delusive

erring

:

^Ri'^'^i hkhrul-snad as a syn. of ^'1 nor-

4|gc.ir<wr|9ar^(i
hdeb$ reverence

hkhnms-rabs
to a great

#so!

wa\

shown

SFr^^rWfcf^rl hhyod-cag hkhrul-

lama
of his

or saint

by

enumerating the

names

supposed successive embodiments.

o

hkhrud-pa

(thud-pa) ism, pf.

pahi hjig-sten pa ye deluded children of the world! 2. to be insane, deranged. Byn. of jjVRj!jr$ mo$-pa hkhrul-so occasion for making mistake ; wrong way peril.
;

hkhrug, fut.

13 bkru, to wash; to

II: (thul) in the words
-T

cleanse; to bathe; to

wash

off: 3f*i'^'f

mig-hkhrul
hphrttl;
it

is

a

little

different

from ^"J

*|3Vivg^ </oj dri-ma hkhrud-par byed the dirt of clothes should be washed out :
dft-m-q.qarjfl-iiSc.-^igvivt^

applies to moral or intellectual

mistakes as distinct from external blunders.

n ad-la in

ill-

In the

same manner

it

differs

one may be ness, by giving purgatives, cleansed: ^BV^'IS cause to be washed.
vS

from the word ^*'q nor-wa or ^v^E"! nor
hkhrul.

^vi nor-wa

applies to external or

IRS * hkhrud-ma the washings of plates and dishes after dinner, which are given to
1

phenomenal blunders: ^B.'3)'i>*rr^Er^' )-g-i-*)-^; jf the inner heart does not err,
one's doings in the outside world will also not be wrong ; ^rf^xjT ignorance "''
:

pigs, dogs, &c.

bkhrun-chod
don dag thag-chod finally deciding or determining
W'^T''*<'?'9''> T*S
<

dwafi-gis hkhor-ivar

hkhyams by the

influ-

any matter
dmag-daA

(J. Zaft.

:

ence of unrighteous errors (we) wander in
the cycles of existence.
*gar<*jifc

kha-mehu

Ita-bu thag-chod to decide

upon a war or

hkhrul-hkhor
artifice.

?J^ machine;
Cs. this
is

a law

suit.

contrivance;

Ace. to

same
phan mtho-wa of high rank. ili^&t'^t-'Q dkyusrin-wa lengthwise
;

as

^sjTiffc hphrul-hkhor.

**|5r*f(k

hkhrul-hkhor

fftn

(Sehr.;

Kdlac? T. 12a.).
-

Rgl

Rf6^'|5)

hkhrl-hkor-mkhyim,

v.

in length.

f- btson-khan, a prison-house

(Jlffion.).

27

202
hkhrul-hkhor
juggler.
^Ssr^flp

mkhan

a

fi,

mi-rtag-pa

la

tfag-pa

bzufi,

$dng-b$nal-

Hkhrul-dgah
$'*&* mansion.
v.

(wrongly
f'wnir

for

wa la bde-war bsun-ste hkhrul-was hkhorwa hdi yin in the same manner we
animated beings, deluded by Aridyd, mistake falsehood for truth, the transient
for the permanent, misery for happiness hence this transmigratory existence.
5<aruw hk/irul-yns
;

iSjT'W* hphrul-dgah)
n. of a celestial

Tuq:

IS*'** hkhrul-$nan. ^

i.5rq3 |K-q hkhrul

!

^

wahi snan-wa, Syn. _
>

illusive vision or exhibition.

*5arti3-itsw4

hkhml-wahi sems; *$*'
(Mnon.).

(gp) a very large
sra-ica

"K hkhrul-pahi yid

number.
<

v%vX<H
a

hkhrul byed-wa

<B qI*'

=$l

very

woman

that decoys others.
v.

stiff

or hard.

*K hkhrul-med,

^'^S mr-med
;

or

hchug-med, unmistakeably
mistake.
9
!

without

hkhren-pa (then-pa)

= fa'Q s/ten-

pa

desire

;

passion

^S "^
1

hk/irul-s/tig,

WKfor+ryr**
ham
gan-

1. J4rf^*4'npfl-i

long for : zng-skom hkhran-pa to wish
; ;

to wish

to

for food

and drink.
(/a.).

2.

to look

*\c.'*l

$ton-nid rtogf-pahi bla-ma

upon with

zag a lama or

any person who meditates on
(i.e.,

envy; jealousy
".g'P

the theory of emptiness
all nature).

the voidity of

hkhro-wa

pf.

^

k/iros

to be angry.

^"I'l hkhrol-wa
"ftf"!

(t/iol-wa),
1.
;

pf and fut.
to cause
:

*6 ar flft hkhrul-yshi cause or basis of
error
;

dkrol, imp. ^"1 khrol
;

to-

fundamental mistake.
thus
:

It

is

usually

sound

to

make

a

noise

play

rol-mo
;

illustrated

If one mistakes a fine

hkhrol-tca to play

on a musical instrument
ring a
:

rope for a snake, the rope is the basis or
cause
is

dril-bu hkhrol-wa to

bell.

2.
!

vb.

of mistake,

and

*jr-*|w hkhrul-^es

intrans. to

sound

;

resound
;

r'^S'^8 the

the idea or notion of a snake conveyed to

the

mind by the

sight of the rope

:

avalanche resounded a'SfRgnj-^K- rgya-lon a rumbling in the bowels khrog-fin
(Med.)
;

X'**! fbo-hkhrog in
hkhrog-khrog
(Ja.).

the belly

:

^BI'B"!

roaring;

rushing;

buzzing
thag-pa mthon-nas
ibrul-hjin-gyi $es-pa skyes-pa ni hkhrul-qes
yin-te, de-bshin-du bdag-cag

hkhrogs dislocated:
ff*'* ^
1

^'S'g'JU|-

ma-rig hkhorbden-par

yet wishes to walk, though her knee has been
dislocated (Rdsa. 17.).

the

old

woman

tcahi sem$-can rnains mi-bden-pa

^

I

:

ga

is

the third letter of the

y<i

"that
is

which belongs
88).

Tibetan

alphabet
It
is

corresponding

with

to

no place anywhere

ga" (Hbrom.

pronounced as soft k when alone or when placed without a prefix
Sanskrit K.
at the beginning of a

ga-khral (go-thai) tax, duty (on
cattle, butter, &c.) (/a.).

word or
it

syllable.

When
as

used
is

as a final letter

sounds
If a
(Jd.).

ga-ga a

title

of honour

in

W.

or

often barely pronounced.
"I

prefix precede

or

if it

carry a surmountS^'fl,

^f

ing letter, it sounds as a hard g. When used to represent a numerical figure it
signifies

^'^'coOI ga .ga
to tickle:

tshil

tickling

:

If "(I*.

the third,

i.e.,

the ordinal III,
II

and

as such is generally used in

in ancient time

marking

volumes of books, &c. *| ga is sometimes used as an affixed particle of a word to
complete it, as in of a tree.
II
""T"! yal-ga, the

sixteen

monks

tickled one

monk and from

branch

the excessive laugther he involuntarily sent forth, the mystic wind passing upwards " inside him, his end came (K. du.

*J|

f

born of a goat

in mystical language signifies also a he-goat WC^VST ;
:

Ga-ge-mo
place in Tibet. 2.
'5|'S

1.

n. of a certain

chege-mo, such a
(Cs.).

,-|*r5^ bsan skad-la ra-$kyeg yin (K,

g.

f>,

one; such a thing; such and such

28).

Ga-gon *r$q
:

1.

one

of the

two

^| III

1.

in

mystic

Buddhism

"I

ga

merchants

whom
2.

Buddha met immeunder
2!

means the hidden entity or the essence of

diately after his six years' asceticism

Buddha

:

the Bodhi tree.

T'fa'S'JT

Ga-gon-gyi

rgyal-po ifUrra the king of a country in

^y 3*rfc
may
207).

II

that which

is

styled ga being
it

Southern

India.

3.

a melon

(ace.

Cs.,

the hidden

essence of the Tathagata,
all

Lex., cucumber; others; barley) (Jd.).
z
l|'
Si'
(

be said (Jwi) that

sensate beings

have the nature of Buddha
2.
|-ai

t^W^V*

1

^

(K. my.
as to ga
:

*\
si"!

^

c\

t
'l

ga-hgrig

(ga-dig)

a saddle;

ga-grig equipment of a riding horse.
ga-cen

it

moves and

it is

also motionless

"*fi'

u< E-' q

r

^j'^
or a good

or
;

*|'^

ga-chen

some

S^-j|-)'P5'y^

"the cause is ga, the nature or origin of sound" (Strom.
definitions of this sort
:

real 88).

many

good deal (Jd).

without *ir36^ ga-chad involuntarily;
cause, e.g., to

Again we read

T^'

weep

(Med., Ja.).

204
l

T9I
sent

ga

chad-pa
S'S q!'
l

fatigued;

very

by

all

means:
back at

<q'^')v qrJ?' :i 5 E''^ 3
iii

>

S

!

I

tired;

^'Wl'"^
;

in despair

giving up being quite exhausted (D. R.).
<

T*V

shall give it

all

events (Ja.).

X Ga-na
e.-

pa-ti

O a ~snod
Nigella
Indica.

<innfsi

cummin

seed,

the name Lord of the Multitude

Lha-chen Tshoy$-bd'tg-yi min of the great God, called the
(Snag.).

+

^'5

~ O a ia "nwr or

n"n

T^T^ gaJ ^|'q*5'q*^
Ga-wa
ta-wa
ri-ni

tahigde tshan a kind of Indian handwriting,

or Kaithi evidently referring to the Gatha character, in which the original Magadhi

JTW^f<1% [^Tt?iwf small cardamom]. Also the n. of a flower (K. kon. "I, 4).

used to be written.
ordinarily

The Tibetan
as

pronounced

K,

*| ga is hence T5

T

T^ ^
3

plants,

ga-bur I: 1. n. of several Gentiana cherayta, probably

kn-ta, or kaithi.

1

TS ga-da n*r a club;
:

a mace.

Curcuma, Zemmbet, &o. 2. ?*.'Si'T9* is a kind of stone like JJ-^'ic^ui (Min. 4).
II
:

^I'5^
root

ga-dur an astringent medicinal
remit-

*fa, fr$ camphor

;

fel

ga-bur crystal-like camphor;

^w^if ^T^V^i it removes

mafi ga-bur

camphor resembling yak's lard
;

tent fever, diseases of the lungs

and of the

in appearance

ga-bur tsha-wa

ryyas-pa

bowels.

tltog-hbab good

camphor, where the fever
its

ss^^

gwa-dor also

f'^

has increased, cures by lowering

height

;

go-dor the tender growthof fresh horn in

rnin-shin shan-pahi tsha-wa rtsa-nadgcod
also cures long-standing fever

it

and

disease

the three animals, rhinoceros, stag, and
antelope
aer (kern

of

the

fundament

;

g.wa-dor ffsum-gyis rnag dan chuthe three ga dor dry up pus and
:

ga-bur

ti-log

glo-rims

tishad-pa set

the kind of camphor called
of the lungs

yellowish

discharges:

^iS'l'

1

^

Tilo cures inflamation
fever.

and

the

growth
(Sc/t.).

of a

new branch on

a stag's horn

Syn. F flS'j'w kha-wahi phye-ma
hod-dkar-can
;

;

|'^nwj-Wa
-

gnn-hdrag
(colloq.

i

snin-po

J'j5

wq
;

zla-wahi

tfutl-;

"gdnde")

how?

of

what kind?

wa

;

*5'*N* rohi-ge-sar
(Mnon.).

^t-q)-|t'Q

qin-gi

what

sort ?

ga-na (ka-na)

|e.'^

gan-na

ga-bur nag-po defined as il'

where? "IT" ga-na-wa and "l^'i gan-nawa, the same as a sbst., the whereabouts of
a person, his place of residence
1 :

-q5-wq phag-brun me-la bsregspahi thal-wa.
1.

the ashes
secret

of

the burnt
(Min. 4).

dung

of pigs. 2. a

name

ji'a'flj'aj

w^'*ic he went
was.

here where the king

"I'S^'^'i

ga-bur

hdsin-pa

meton.

^'i sla-wa the

moon.
a medicine
;

IT*^

ga-na
:

at all events

W.) absolutely ; T^'^'<"l"^l it must be
(in

med

^|'^ ga-bra
a twig
;

(ga-tah) n. of

also

the fresh shoot on a tree

:

205
ga-bra
(this

rlufi-tshad

rims-nad sel-war

byeif
lids of

medicine) removes the epidemic fevers and the heat induced by rlun (wind).

hu kha-sbyar charm box the a which are joined edge to edge
:

\
(K.

T^S
g.

mystical

a ~ mu from the Sans. JHT go ; in language go or go away !
ff

r 27).

Mi-wang (0 king), thy residence very solitary and so beautiful, as if the heaven and the earth kiss each other there,
is

like the lids of

an amulet (Ilbrom. 89).

of wild cat

*'|**r,'^I gn-mo byi-la n. of a species **%lrfr<pr|& **! the ga!
:

gahu-le account
cases, also of

book
;

;

list

(of

mo

byi-la catches little birds

by lying in

cash and balance)

also a short

wait (Rdsa.).

note kept on the margin: 5fljrj logs-su in a separate place that is not in the body
of a book, but
corner,
i.e.,

how ga-tsam=^'&* ji-tsam Ij'cJJ much how many how long interr. and correl., as much as, e.g., as much as you
;

;

;

on the foot or margin or 1^'^ zur-du, of a book or note-

book

:

|'2

like.

ga-Uson
of the skin (Jd.).

(in

W.) an irruption
" rin

since
of the

the date

the price how much ? In Sikkim gong-di ka-dso-mo ? (Snd. Hbk.).
di ka tso

1'*^ ga-tshod "

how much
is

month, etc., of taking over charge of the Rdson (District office) as many
criminal cases as
large and small

;

colloq.

may

be,

and the

receipts

what

;

bound together should be kept in the registration book (Rtsii. ;
all

precious c^i'^ ga-dsan-ta *iaj*ri stone used in curing infectious fevers and
*J|

a

O. Sndg.).

other diseases, also to relieve one from the
influence of malignant spirits.

Ga-ya

gau-rihi

mdo a Sutra

delivered

by the Buddha on

the mountain of

Gaya Gauri.
if

ga-yshah or

"M

ga-^a,

a-yig ?r?'i the letter
tl

g.

more properly the
signifies
:

last

word,

i.e., *!'<]

ga-$a
jest,
:

*^'*R bshad-gad a laughter,

ga-ra khaexcel:

T^'^'J^'frl" they jest and play joke ^Rf|-^-l)-n^q| ae j s no t ; n good humour,
or

tan

du

lahi
;

rtsa-wa

^<n?r^?f
of a

lent rice

the root

kind of plant

good spirits, to-day "to-day there is no fun."
ga-zug (in

in

(Jd.)

;

also
-fey

taking

W.) how,

interr.

a

confection

made

of equal

quantities
rta-dri;

and

correl (Jd.).
0^

of the

root of

Garka Tandula

sesame, barley and
ga-gzi squinting (in W.).

treacle, one becomes

youthful (K.

g.

US).

gahu wve an amulet ; a brooch containing charms (v. "I" gam).
Syn. F'f* kha-sbyar (Mfion.).

^|'*> ga-ri, for Sl*'^* dgah-ris, "\"^ gasha (in W.) dejected : flj'^'ft'^ I am in

low

spirits (Ja.).

206
-n
whither
;

in

colloquial

*p'^ gafi-du
place
;

*!'*!' J"!

ga-$a-tgrog

loud

laughter;

which

way

;

to

which

ga-$a sgrog-cin fflu-gar rol-mo hbul loudly

where ?
a * T^'f^ 9 --4<* T^r; =Q=- khyuA

laughing they danced, sang, and made music (A. 11).
*J|'"^|

the fabulous chief of the feathered race.
*?\'*\

II: n. of a place in

Upper Tibet

ga-re

1.

in

Lhasa very

com.
2.

(A. 20).

form for " what," sounded 1 where, whence: fll'V^'iV 8"*'^'
colloq.

^

kdre.
9
!

'gc,

ga .

^'^
*^I*"^

III:

v.

T^

ga-sha ^Tifhj^w

a

re hdi-hdra a-kyafi ran-drag byitn

whence

raiment used by Tantrik priests.

comes

thi}

oppression,

over-powering

IV

:

a string of beads

;

a necklace

;

(Rdsa.10).

3]'% Ga-ro

J'fljM 'S'ViS-ojar'fa '*|
;

*>=.

n. of

a string of by Tantrik

human Lamas

skulls or bone-bits
:

worn

a place in India

the Garo hills (L)sam. 28).
,

^'^

ga-la

1.

%* whither:

string of

human

blood drops from her mouth, a heads hangs down from

her neck, to thee be

my

praise

who

hast

with the palms of the hands joined he bowed in the direction where the Victorious

subdued the intolerable pride and arrogance
of the host of

demons
1.

(Choi-g.).

One
to

was.
:

2.=^

-al

ji-fa

for

what;
ga-<;ar

defined
'

in

these

owing

what

*Tr^
is

to

what does

this

serve ? of

what use

this ?

*'1^TWK <ril.pAy0JU-0M> dpunpa
la
;

where are (you or they) going ?
|
1

f<nrfl|3|-rt^Xq|-at
la
;

phyogs-g.cig

ga-la go-li-ka
it

1.

nl'

an insect which subsists,
the air only (K.
>nr.

is

said,

mtshan-hog ffdg ga- kar far g yon-pa (A. 135). Girth or rope hung across the breast and the

"19'W q$<ir<ir-*]v'^-i gshu-d

by inhaling
^|'l

d. *

4&).
softly,
:

ga-la

>M;

slowly,

shoulder in order to draw or carry anything also a dog harness a shoulder-belt
; ;

To a departing guest one says gently. " a) 3q " ka-lc | pe'p go gently. To the host " ka-le shu " you answer : "I 8( q3fli stay
i

worn

as a

badge

of dignity
2.

by

constables

and the

like officers.

sf'"! sgom-t/iag,

the cord worn round the shoulder and the
waist at the time of meditation.

quietly,

remain in peace
or gently
t
:

!

*T^'^"1 ga-le yog
'

come slowly
*3i' i'S
a

|5*

l

'*\'l'

a|

l

'I'^'

qI'^'

fl|jpwr-*g*rq ga-$ar dan ft
mdscf-pa (D. R.) Looking nice (ou account)
of (his) ga-$ar

c

''9*<''^'r

i^*i' tfc

it

is

a

common

saying (in Tibet) that by walking slowly and slowly the ass can travel all round China.
ga-log (in W.) squinting. a ^j*"^ I: <7-f laughter
:

and

petticoat.

some;
part
;

a few, com. in colloq.
ga-^ed
1.

prob. "l^'-^S gaft-$ed

"IV^'""?^ gad-

mo bgad,
laughter.

"I'

J

]^' 15

11
I

ga-$ar

bcug to

cause

not definitely known. 2. an but uncertain direction, approximate
uncertain
;

region or quarter

:

T^fll^'V^S it

is

at

a

207
certain place
;

it

is

somewhere

:

against poison and also diarrhoea,
i|q-g-*)-ifri!-ar| yyah-g.seb bye-mahi logs-la

w^tivp%'^'j\-*t without

minutely (i.e., ceeded instantly somewhere (A. 135).

explaining the particulars), he pro-

skye

^C^fC^vyj^;**|f^ 4
ganga
|S|

ga n ga chun-

gan-ga chun-gi$ dug dan tsha-hkhru g$od.

TM^
(Sch.).

ff

a ~9 e f glass beads; glass pearls

^^'^
;

gafiga JT|fT the river

Gd
r,

n. of

a Ddkini, a goddess (K.

g.

l=.'^-^'35 Gan-gahi Lha-mo *TWTGanges %^t the goddess of the river Ganga. Its different names are "^'"iirsj'Vi^ Yan:

fag brgyan-ldan, ^'l^'*q

Hchi-med
chu-bo,

chab,

*l|'| gwa-pa the white

mark

or patch

spvpa;^

Nam-mkhahi
'

^"I'Q^'^

on the forehead
of Tibet).
f.

of the kyan (the wild ass

Drag-pohi thod, ^'5'g'S Dsa-uuhi
(amrft), |i'
"'ft
fl

bu-mo

I?S*

l :|

Rgyun-ysum-pa,

wyw
'a*i'

Lam-gsum

hgro,

^^'^T'^^ Glan-chen
Ejigs-sde ma,

^pj gag
pieces,

1.

silver

in bars, ingots,
(in

kha-hbab

(jft^sPt),

^N^^
ij'"^'
2?

small
2.

&c.,

uncoined

W.).

gq-Rgir^-q

Khyab-hjvg

rkan-pa,

wad; wadding

(for

loading muskets)

Chu-byin-ma,
rtahi bu-mo

^v^^^* Sknl-ldan
:

fifi-

(Jd.).

(w?N;^),

Lha-yi chu-bo

=^
gag-lhog
is

Ihog-pa or

(Mnon.).

a swelling in the throat; a

1^'^'^
his head,

i

quinsy: nad mi dan dud-hgrohi ske-dan
mgrin-pa-la $kran-nas rnag thon-te dragyod is a malady of men and animals in

thet of S'iva.
i.e.,

gan-ga hdsin ir$Vf*. an epiHe who holds Gan-ga on

from whose head the Ganges

flows

:

rtf R<rj5

which the neck and throat become swollen,
but matter
issuing
forth,
it is

eased;

<r

mtho-ris-kyi

death occurs from obstruction.

tham$-cad b$kal-pahi mcs bsregs-pahi
skabs-su

Lha-mo Gan-ga lhun-na$ byun-wala

spyir gag-l/wg-ces min so-sor

na nam-mkhah
sten-du
tial

ral-pa bkyans-nas ral-pahi

bfad-kyan no-wo ynan-nad du-gpig rim$-nadkyi gras though the disease in general is
differently

bsun-tcas-so

when

all

the celesfire

regions were burnt by the

of the

and

Ihotj, its

expressed by real nature is but one

the names gag

among

pestilential diseases

and

it

belongs to the

class of (fw^H-^TK) fatal fevers.

appeared on having fallen from heaven. Her locks were spread out in the sky and held up aloft by S'iva (for which he is
Kalpa,

Ganga

as goddess

this

earth

bya-gag a water

called

Gangadhara, the holder of Ganga)

fowl

(Mnon.).
(Cs.).

gags
I
:

obstructed.
gan-ga-chufi a kind of

j-#-3^-q rgya-mtsho chenthe great ocean which holds the entire po discharge of Gagga (Mnon.).
:

"FU'*^ n

flower which resembles a chorten (chaitya) in shape, growing in the sandy crevices of It is used as an antidote rocks in Tibet.

'

gan what, which.
gan-gi-dus

when

;

at

which time.

208
gan-gi-phyir

WTS,

zrssft for

piled

up

:

a|K.-qwflt-fl|rti

gaU-waham
,

brt-segt-

which

;

for the sake or reason of which.

pa piled up or made
Syn.
byitr-bu;

full.

^F'^S gan-nid *%$
ever.

whichever; what-

^'^

tshan-can; ptw

k/tefis;

^'^phyur-lu

(Ifnon.).

gan-hgrigs

what (you)

like;

also

what

finished;
suits

you?
even

ted;
filled

$t.'$ri|E.'*i litft-chug

complegan-wa a valley.

full fish

with water: "
;

I'l'^flje.^

"the moon as

in the fullness of the crescent.
gaU-n-a

if

to us

any accident happened to life there, no hardship occurring, we can do
suits us, so

med-pa

n-

whatever

one Tso-tco expressed

complete.
*qie,-q-qjE.-Zj

himself (Jlbrom. 136).

gafi-wa fcafi-po

^iw

(Sc/tr.;
;

"FVI gan-dag %^T some; "FVT
gan-dag-gi phyir ifat
8i% for

9!'!*

whom

or

Td. 3, 181) completely happy or gentle also n. of a serpent demon.

what

;

for the sake of

whom

or what.

'Wt&'RQg/in-inihi
Bull. 1848, 298)
;

zla-tva

iph^f

(Svltr.
;

;

gan-dag-nid

q^? whichever.
zrrf^f,

lit.

the full

moon

n. of

a Jiodhisattara.
gan-dag-hdir
those two

vx*
ff

who

are here; all those here;
of leaves
;

whoever present.

a "-t>" ^>ft, T^rfx fresh shoots a pod or sheath ; also cluster of
Sc/i.

*F^

gafi-du fiT, qsi

where

? where.

buds.

Aco. to

flower

bud *g'"Fg >j
:

*^

"F^*'

gan-duhafi flrf^f

at whatever

time; wherever; seldom; where. gan dran-dran-du b$adbrdsttu
b.

hbru gan-bu-can grains which have husks such as wheat, sesamum, &c. ^V^'3'"! 6
:
-'

gvi\ac^j enveloping himself in a veil of
rays;
light.

fad-pa to speak at
;

wrapping himself in a sheath

of

random

;

to say

what occurs in the mind

to speak falsehood.

"FlS gan-byed
:

^
2.

SRXtfir

whatever he

gan-hdra gr^ift how, like what
.'

does, has been doing,

is

doing.
STPTT
1.

gafi-hdra mt/iofi

what have you
gaU-mos
various;
different
sorts.
is

seen?

naqn*
pertaining to what ?

where?

"F"^

gan-Mod

whatever
gan-rnanii-kyi %^i of what;

wished

for.

gan-tsam a small quantity
(in

;

not a

gan-mgo

C.)

ktwl of

considerable quantity.
gan-tsug-yin

a tobacco-pipe; I^'WII gan-mjug mouthpiece or tip of it.

= "H'W^ yan-nas-

yin or

'I

6

3 -'^'^'* ^'^ gan-na sdod mkhan1
!

gan-por in a lump, mass.

yin

;

JK^'<1%^*IV*' khyed gan-tsug;

yin gar-hgro dri-pa$ he asked whence are

khefa-pa
to
fill;

^5
also

you whither are you going (A. 131).
|K.'^i|

to

make

full;

filled

up;

gan-shig q: t V^, which.

209
u|E/j-qjs3j-i

gan-she

bstan-pa

q

that advance from

light to a greater enfl].'|

which has been explained, shewn.
TlC'a^l I:
("l"!'*'!

lightenment. has sixteen
tobacco-

The term
different

gan-zag

synonyms:
'1
;

OVI
gkye-

shal-zag)

bdag; ^"1 srog; ^wz^scfflg-caii;

but a long straight pipe, not the hukka, similar to the European smoking sort,
pipe, generally

wa

;

|3'J yso-tca

;

|N'g skyes-bu
gkycg;
f

bdag;

*Hrw|
9^'i'Q

fcs-las

made

of metal.

man;
i'Q

lye<j-pa-po;
;

lyed-du hjug-pa-po
1. gat-sag II: ifft ^ TfH 3^1^'- that which yfr

*^'i S tshor-tca-po ; *('
mthofi-ica-po
;

feg-pa-po

;

i3fs.'i'3

w% zaThese
1

I

tca-po;

^fq-Ej

glod-u-a-po (Mnon.).

becomes
(Sam.)
;

full

and then undergoes decay
;

are

all

an animated being
is 2.

a corporeal

being

that

subject

to

decay

and

being.

applied to There are

signify an animate two kinds of "l^ *"!,
;

man, as an intellectual a person: flFWT'WlMVfi'V' * 9 an being;
destruction.
1

ordinary and extraordinary
fl]K,-aq|

the ordinary

literally

means
from "F

that
gaft,

which

is
J

sag gshan-gyis

brda
it

gpratf-pa$

another

subject to decay,
zag, decay.

what, and
is

The Buddhist meaning

as

person describing
observation), hence

to

you

(opposite to

follows:-

what we know by our own perception and
a philosophical term
for

(1)

WWlK^
rafl-rgyud. gdtg-pa

non-mods

"self":

^flF^fw^i^F^W
men men
;

kyig gad

shift

yon-tan dan dge-wahi rigs ysog

learned or lettered

of science,

to especially in relation
q^or|;-i5-fl|-9ij|-$*w

religion:

*'%'

men who postpone not troubling themselves about religion, it: eiqnri$-fl|c.'3a|'n*w3|'gijr9 the prince of
the

mi-thub-par zag hgro-was sems-can phal-wahi gan-zag one's own nature being filled (*[*'
gan) with sin he cannot acquire and retain aq sag leaks out or decays, virtue, which
l

therefore an ordinary living being

is

called

reverend

(band of)

Buddha: *TfWf5'^*'.|

persons, i.e., inferior heretical

^xm

l

gad-sag;

(2)

or people: fl|*-|'WP gan-zag phal-pa common or vulgar people tha-mal-pa,
(Jd.).
fl|t,-q|-q?)

vwi
ran-rgyud
dge-wa

dad

bzan-pohi yon-tan thams-cad-kyig gad-shin
non-mofig-kyi gkyon thamg-cad zag hgro-was

human
JRWH:

gad-sag bshi the four kinds of beings or higher beings are (1)
1*
;

Buddha is flp'| gan-zag because his nature is full of all virtues or
sadg-rgyag

tmw. WrtfVWtKT*!'
;

mun-

merits and sin has been thrown out of
or has altogether

it

khrod. nag mim-khrod du hgro-ica that go on from darkness to darkness (2) *5tfif:

been

destroyed

;

(3)

TCTOT.

;

Wp\

a

$*''f

gnad-tcar hgro-ica

B;w '*3fa mun-khrod nag that go from darkness
;

imto light;

(3)

^tfwOTHTrra'ir.

^f^
du
1

S'S'BV^'^'" (nad-ica nag

mun-khrod

when
virtue

one's
it

own

nature retains whatever
undeteriorated
it

from hgro-ica that go again
darkness;
(4)

light into
;

possessed

and

rtfa*fffa:trcrau:

JM'^'i?*
hgro-ica,

whatever faults there was in

have been
28

gnaH-iva. nag

gnaft-uw

thrown out from exertion, one has entered

210
or Elnayana path. in such a stage, whatever docrtine or Persons for salvation, belong theory they may hold gaU-sag indeed of the Mahayana. In
either the

Mah& ydna

yods-su

hdah-wa he escapes that a vestige of the from misery save
mya-fian
lat

Skandha

still

remains

;

(9)

"F!

of the ordinary kind his very nature is
gafi,
i.e.,

F

filled

with
;

deeds

(las),

sin,

suffering,

and misery moreover, all virtue and talents having become exhausted, i.e., his animated being becomes what is "\
sag,

hdu-byed. par megpar yoUs-su mya-ftan la? hdah-wa he attains to Nirvana, the Skandha being utterly

mfion-du

destroyed,

i.e.,

without the least vestige
E
i

called Pudgal.

In the

strict

sense of the

remaining ; (10) ^*^t?K[ ^ -'^'^' gofi-dit hpho-tca he will in his spiritual progress
reach up to the Akanistha heavens
;

word, a Buddha is also a Pudgala, though of the extraordinary kind, he on the convirtues trary being full of

(11)

and talents and

all

w$-*i&r5i<^'V<i lut-kyi mfion irnronft; sum-du byed.-pa he will obtain the body of

in him. defects, sins, &c,, being exhausted The following are the twenty F"I gad-

supreme intelligence or knowledge

;

(12)

^mgHT^t
hbrafi-iva

;

wWK<KVq dad-pahi
;
-

rjet-su

School (1) tag (Pudgala) of the Qravaka shugt-pa one rgyun-du ^WTmf
: ;

he will here have completely
(13) ITORT-

l^'gi^

subdued the senses or passions

course performs having entered the regular

Samadhi

miH
into

;

na srid-pa

**(deep meditation); (2) dc-ltar thogs^V?i]'N-3i-i| vaiarq 3<Y Ian bdun-pa after having thus
i

^ift;
faculties

<'5i

l'^'
so
as

chos-kyi

rjef-m

hbrafi-ica all his

intellectual

and moral
be
directed
(14) rfiz-

i

become

to

effectually to all

good works;
or

spiritually

cultured the

mind he has to

pass

3TO;

*rtfe;iw?q-i

thoH-ivas thob-pa

having

^-^
he
is

seven births in the world ; (3) ^q -s *r^i|*ri-j[-q rigt-nat rigs-su
. 1
i

heretical

views
;

into religion

(15)

insight having W*?fttfW; ^'S"'^'

his birth is gkye-wa after the second stage, in his own state, i.e.,if he is a god ensured

w^m'i

duf-kyi rnam-par grol-tca getting
;

salvation in time

(16)

*ifqftnff

I
;

^''

\^'

reborn as a god,

if

man he is

reborn as
<

ft-gX'W^ww^i'H
proper time ; (17)

getting salvation not in

a man, but he never goes to any lower stage
of birth; (4)

^ssmrift;

V<f|% fe'4 ta;

a-laf

rnam-par
as well as

"he has only pe^ phyir hofi-wa (as such) to this world for doing good once to come K-avq3r bar-chad gcig-pa (5) T^fftf^i;

wa getting salvation in time
without reference to time
;

(18)
Vi-q

fkyeg-

he has only one interruption before

full

phyir fruition; (6) ^Rnnf*T; hofi-wa he will not come again to this
existence
;

^^^i

mi-

nas yons-su mya-fian into the state of Nirvana immediately after
one's birth;
(19)

las

hdah-wa entering

snnf^r;

?!

*r3r$w
or transe-

(7)
'*'

w^ni'^ fes-rab kyis rnam-par grol-wa fully
bar-ma-dor yons-su myadelivered

fian las

hdah-wa he will attain to Nirvana not from this life but from the intermediate state or

Bardo

by means of absolute cendental knowledge (20) delivered by means of faith.
;

;

fi-ya

a very

large figure

mnon-par hdu-byetf-pa dad

beat-pat

number

(Ya-sel.

5,6}.

211
,-u)e.'

gad-yad
;

gff^Tf,

?T9

whosoever;

$pal-gyi Lha-sa used to designate Lhasa,

whatever

any
tf-fo

one.

the capital of Tibet (Yig. k. 31).
;

gR(

where in whom.

'j]E.N'-5^'S^'Hi

gafis-cafi

chen-po sometimes

gan-lo an

empty
W.)
(Jd.).

pod, freed

from the kernels
F-*p; gafl-gar

(in

mountainous region covered applied with eternal snow extending from Ladak
to to the Kailas range.

|fi*wrwi anything
the

Also the name of a

that

occurs
;

(in

mind)

;

what

is

thought
of those.
ZJJC5^
2.

a thought. gan-su dag

fabulous mountainous region the chief peak of which is said to be about 1,500 miles

"l^'Sl'V!

%

^faq; whichever

round and

filled

with Yatea, Raksa and

other demi-gods.
j/rtwj

fV*T

1.

glacier;
3.

glacier- ice.

snow

(usually

kha).

the sclerotic

Gani-chen any great range of mountains or a great glacier; n. snowy
fljt^-l^

of the eye (Sch.).
a|c.*r*^

of a village at the south-western foot of
!

gafis-rgyttd

a chain of

snowy

mountains.
s]c.*r*3(

theKanchenjunga mountain. *|w3^-*iS 'vg (Kanchenjunga in Sikkim) lit. the five
great repositories of snow.
Gafls-chen Chos-rgyal u|c.-l^-Xwjm the Grand Lama of Tibet ; also the name

gans-can

feT^
2.

1.

one of the

native names of Tibet.

abounding in
:

snow snowy
;

;

full of glaciers

Gads-can-las.

fybyufi-wahi chu the

glacier

:

water issuing from a Gads-can-gyi skad the language of
Gads-can
tnkhas-

guardian deity of Buddhism in Tibet; a name of Yama, the Lord of
of a

Tibet.
q|t-.s^-*f!*rci!vi|$<i|'|^

Death, who is worshipped in Tibet under the name of Dam-chen Chos_-rgyal.

pahi ytsug-rgyan a complementary name of Tsongkha-pa, the great Buddhist reformer
of Tibet
qjc.-t||q|wci

n]W|k-q(
Tibet.

Gans-ljofis

yul=
shid.;

whose religious name was
i'^'3'&
;

Ji'^'sf

Syn.

|c.*r-s^'1|e.

gads-can
ri

Ryyal-ica filo-bsad. grays-pa; his
:

nft^'^^'pini
shin-khams
Ihahi
;

gads,

ra-waU skor-wahi
sa-

other names were
che;

Rje rin-po

i'^-p" Rje Tsod-Ma-pa qp.nc&tSp:^ Gads-can cid-rta f^Xi-pn Car Tsod-kka-pa
;

ym'W$'<$-ffi-[m gads-can snwn-ljofts (Mnon. and Yig. k.).
;

;

q|E.-Rqq gads-hbab avalanche

it

snows.
1

^'g'<

Jljam tngon blama.
ii|f^-Ei

i^'spi gads-slat, also called ^"i'
dkyil-hkhor JT^rr,
circular

^

Gdfl-can

mgon-po or j^'^w
&*!'

the
its

snow

lizard

with

Spyan-rat gsigs the patron saint of
Tibet, Avalokites'vara, also styled
:

marks

on

skin resembling

the

^^q
mgon-po.

Jfjig-rten

mgon-po;

S"|'|'3^3

Thugt-rje chen-po;

a^'n^'^^ci Hgro-wahi

(Lex.) ; a frog the male frog is said to live on the top of the snowy mountains and the female frog in the abyss of the

common Indian
:

lizard

of fabulous origin

IE.'^'gi'Hi Gadf-can rgyal-po

King

of

deep gorge below the mountain ; when the eun

Tibet

;

and in books occasionally applied

passes over the tropic of cancer (karkata or

to the Dalai

Lamas

of Lhasa.

9fm*Fyr&*Q-*W( Gats-can bsti-pnas. as also *'*j*^ W'3''*
:

rgyal-pohi
chos-hkhor

male frog descends to the foot of the mountain and the female frog ascends
crab), the

there

to

meet

him

midway.

Before

212
meeting each other the male frog remains more powerful but after they have united,
;

constructed

after

the

prescribed

model

the female becomes the stronger of the

given in Buddhist books. This is a Sanskrt word though sometimes Tibetanized,

two

(Snian.).
i
:

being written as

^fl'^
1 ^

hgan-hji-ra.
1.

gang-ri

mountain

or

lj, rHr snowy snow-mountains a com-

gad as in

"l^'"!

mon

genuine, unalloyed.

2.

gscr-gad a rock.

pure,

designation for many of the great l^'V-d gafis-ni-fu the ranges in Tibet
;
:

gad-skyils a rock cavern; a
place of shelter

twenty principal mountains of Tibet **$ TlnMha, (2) $'* Ti-se (KailSfa),
*K'*r>*

(1)

under the

cleft or

(3)

a

rock:

^jT^'^'^'^'S''
of silver

nook of 5!''!^'
1
!

MaA-wkhar,

(4)

9'* Sti-le, (5)

kept the bars

in the nook of a

Star-sgo, (6)
ri, (8)

Pho-la, (7)

wpw

rocky

hill.

I'frr**! Jo-mo kha-rag, (9)

tye,

(10)

FW

^|

Rdo-

Gafi-bzafi, (11)

*"$* RtseTsfo-rtVJ,

P
breadth
;

rdmn, (12) r$ La-phyi, (13) I'*f
(14) if'**

gad-kha uw. with breadth.
gad-mo,
35

wide,

broad;

Sna-nam, (15)

^"S

Te-sgrro, (16)

f

TTST

a

*rtyy

#orf-<fe gitfi-rgyal,

(17)

w^-^w

5 Yar-lha yam-po,

(18)

qw|

Qsal-rje, (19)

gafo-bsafi,
lahi-gafis

<'V^(20)
(Katltaft.

"IS' laughter: utters a laugh

'^
;

gad-mo
'

laughing; dgod T^fw
gad,-mo-bgad

;

!S'*'W!V3

11

\
n.

i|^'35 nqj^Se.- gad-mo b.yuA I have laughed he has laughed *!S'*''*fa gad-mo bgatf-sofi

168).

rgod to laugh

;

IS'^'^ g 6

-'

gad-mo

for-

njtw^

n

:

^^^"i^'Ei fu-dag dkar-po

lyufi

laughter sprang forth;
for-sofi

flR'fc'JjVUs.'

of a vegetable

drug

(Sfflon.).

gatf-mo
gant-hpJtred.

idem; ^'tor^Urt
laugh at a person
*S
;

gad^^"1'^'

mot Mclf-pa
)5'fll^'35

to

along or across the glacier.
yafif-sritl an avalanche; a slip in the snowy side of a mountain a snowai
;

hjig rten-pahi

ga$-mo laughter of

this '"IS '355-i^ worldly-minded people: it is ridicuis to me an object of laughter
;

lous to
.

me

(Jd.).

IVgs.w'*

3

?

gad-rgyaHs-cmi

slip.

cgfll*!'

w'fl|^'35

bsdigs-pahi gad-mo
$i|-i3-qft-l$

mineral
is

^I gafi$-thig n. of a stone or it substance resembling stone
;

Ha Ha)

loud laughter;
hihi)

fdig-pahi gad-mo (fVfr

coquettish

said

to

be a cure
liver.

for fever

that

is

produced from the

laugh; ^s*r3-u|v35 dgyes-pahi-gad-mo (%% he-he) laugh of merriment or rejoicing;

^gj <i|^-8'<j|^'35
$e-hti

Gads-pa
of a celebrated

the

name

mo Tt

zil-gyi$ giwn-pahi gyada laughter of triumph B'^5 -q^T>
;

lama and philosopher of
of Tibet.

the

Kadampa School

the eight 13^ khro-icohi bshad-pa brgyad &c. laughs of indignation and wrath,

'^> gaii-ji-ra

lit.

posessed of trea;

sure or *^K'?^ mdsod-ldan

an ornamental

gad-kgyal the walls of conglomerate rock through which mountain'"ft

S"

1

pinnacle on a temple, house or chorten

torrents have cut their way.

213
gad-snigg dust
;

refuses

;

swept-

king
king;

;

P*'^^'V^' ^e went
1

towards the

out:

with

phyags-mas </ad-nigs phyags sweep a broom the dust, refuse, etc.

house; Jrci5'3|^*r^ he came from the
Vl'Zi'flR

^

in

W.

close

(fa).
1YS*
gad-dar
sweeping,
cleansing;

brook; ^'I'i'^

chttr

gan-du in

by the W. hard

by
cleansing
it
;

the

IV^'SV

living close to

water; ^vR'i rir gan-pa one a mountain or hill.

gad-dar-byed-pa
;

sweeping well a place

keeping
;

clean.

Syn. gTS* phyag-dar S'^

byi-dor; "IV

V

ga^-dar;

|&.w|^

gtsaft-war-byed ;

|T

gan-kyal or gan-rkyal, supine ; lying on the back with the face upward: R'3a rV9 r * to lie in that
position
:

^^

sit*)

rdul-hp/tang (Mnon.).

flft'gnr^l"!^ to fall

on the back.

"IS'"^' 81

Ga<j-mdah-la n. of a

mounC?arf.

tain

;

the lowlands at the foot of a

vulg.
of the

1'3

hgan-rgya, gam-rgya, a written contract ;
(Cs.).

IVSi'i'C^ <7fl(? mdal-la tshun mountain called Ga$-dala.
i
:

this side

an agreement

*f\i

gad-pa

or TS'iffi

gan-dar, a silk handkerchief

gad-mkhan
4

a sweeper;

a cleanser;

ST'^'lY* !" ^, TV

offered as a present in

exchanging compli-

wyarg^rWqw^rt^q
servants)

the class (of menial

ments on meeting

(Sc/i.).

sweepers,
u|^q]gc-*i

wages (such as) requiring dusters and water carriers.

bha-dra

kind of drug used in liver derangement.
"l^'^'^'g"!" gan-dha rihi sdags

any

place or object well

dusted

or cleansed.
of precipitous cliff conglomerate such as often walls in the
:

wrft-

a Buddhist mantra or

TV

n

1.

a

has the power of
space.
'QJ

charm which one to move in enabling

mountain

rivers

:

2.

wide crack in a congan-d/io-la,
;

glomerate rock.

TV5H gad-phug a cavern
'

or cleft in a
'
'

the temple of fragrance
built
after

hall of worship

"!!* ?|N "I VH* 3 TV conglomerate rock $ q r'^q rg' I '9q l* gthufi-gis stag-dkar-gyi gad
:

'

'

the
doors.

model of
It
is

a

chaitya

with

many

generally attached

phug-tu shag-lna bshugs meanwhile they halted for five days in the rocky cavern of
Stuy-dkar.

to a great

monastery.

In Tibetan
the

it is

called

V^'pe. Dri

ptsafi-k/iafi,

name

being applied to the

particular
is

chapel
placed.

where the image of Buddha gan=rtsar near:
^'X*!'
1)

The
of

great temple of

dcd-dpon dchi gan-dn son-ste
the

called

pa

going near to the chief merchants (caravan), he asked.
(=fll

Buddha at Gaya was Maha gandhola Caitya. Phyi gan-

dho-la nafi-du Iha-khaft byas-pa its inside

"R

gan

was a god's house or chapel and the outside
a gandhola.
CN

gam
;

in
is

C.)

signifying

nearness,

proximity

used in such connection as

^'^
up

to,

towards, up to:
;

^'l^'^"! come

^^|^'^ gan-dhi

irf*Pt a

mineral sub-

to

me

jTSw-ift'^ he went unto the

stance used as a cure for leprosy.

214
j gan-tahi-tog or a medicinal plant. par-na

w^ gan-thi

Syn. 8|r
tea (Ifnofl.).

yib-pa; 8(W

slag-pa;

gyogs-pa; %-vifywyn mi mnon-par

bya-

-

a piece of thick

plank measuring about 6 feet by 12 inches either of white sandal wood or of deodar,

W1f>'
treatise

gab-phyuii

n.

of

a

religious

on the occult doctrine of Bud-

dhism.
gab-tse

which when struck with a hammer or
another piece of thick hard wood, produces a kind of ringing sound which is heard

= i\Q;%

gab-rtse

^^

or

from a great

distance.

It

is

used

on
of

a plan or table of points for computing the figures of divination in
gab-tshe

special occasions to

summon

the

monks

magical computations.
tion,
'ai

In
to

this

connec-

a monastery to attend any special religious
service, &c.

fl)a^-qS-*r]VT*)'t'< sa-la

pnas pahi

sa-bdag-gi rtsis refers

calculating the

gaii-gyog or "IP'?'^ gan-ti the-

hu ^ft? *~|A*
or beaten.

the rod or

hammer with
is

which the ghanti (wooden gong)

struck

identity and deeds of mischief done by a local "god of the soil." Again W|[K:ar refers to astrological qRrq$-wqv3J-$calculations worked with the gab-tse.

<W

uifg-S)-j|q-*

ia

a

my 8tic
;

chart

used for

+ "IJ'i'^

ganda-pa
g.

si
f>

(mystic)

avarice;

greed for gain (K.

bodily prognostics fTr speech
;

"Ii=.'5)'i|p'

one for the

'^*V

one for the heart.

26).

^ gong

^

c\

gan-di

THTTH

in

books

the
are included

In the general term
that for the

gab-tse

or bell to call

monks

to monastic

many particular significations,
soil,

services.

that for the sky, that for

the intermediate space, etc.

gan-rndso4= qcw*^ laft-mdsod.
store-room, store-house.
gab-k/iufi,

gal-tshad
fever;

slow,

insiduous

according to

Sch. a hectic,

con-

denned

as

S'S5'

sumptive fever.
gab-tshig Jfil, 9%ftn5T riddle;
also mystical

pus-mohi rgyab-kyi sgyi the cavities behind the knee bones.
a
belch

words or expressions used in

'fj

gab-sgra

(in

TF.)

magic to stupify one's enemies without Also the 16 ornamental killing them.

(Jd.).

'ti

gab-pa to hide; to conceal one's
Rgyal-u-ahi hbyufi-gnas hdi yon-

employed to excite laughter in a play, etc., and to convey hidden meanings in an assembly, etc. The
mystical

allusions

self

:

names

of these are as follows

:

^''^

fl

l*<'

kun-tu

ts/iogs

pahi

gab-tshig;

tan thams-cag gab-nas mi gton-par qdahtcai.

This Egyal-wahi

hbyufi-g.na$

having

flu byed-kyi rim-pa daft bral-wahi gab-tshig;

concealed all his talents does not exhibit

rab-bcom-gyi gab-tshig

;

*<S^'

them (Sbrom. p2).

yi gab-tshig;

215
rtsub-mohi gab-tshig
kyi gab-tshig;
;

1

qfJJ'Q,^ ^

gam-hbrog a dairy in the

neighbourhood of one's residence.
hbrog rgyaft
;

Qam*
dge

rab btags-kyi gab-tshig;
nnfi-du

*>

hgrog bsafi-wa

rtsa-yi

hdus-pahi
;

gab-tshig

$grib-pahi gab-tshig

tnthunSc.*ri5'<i|q'1fc!|

dairy farms become the abundance of pasthriving through
distant
tures (Jig.).

Near and

pahi sgrahi gab-tshig;
pahi
gab-tshig ;

rmofis-

phrogs-kyi gab-tshig ;
bs.grib$-kyi gab-tshig;

gni-ka

b$gribs.-pahi gab-tshig;

gam-hdsin abbr. of i ganrgya dad hdsin, a receipt, acknowledgment the letter of transfer, exchange, &c.,
;

hdreg-kyi gab-tshig.
"jq S)|

for

buying and

selling or transaction of
:

money
gab-yig
1.

business, &c.

"l"'''^'! V

>

1

i'

<

^'Vtl*.'

in the medicinal works
certain drugs

qty^-Crlfq^WJJr'Vta gam-hdsin bye<j-pa

hdod
fog

of Tibet the

names of

and

sbyargyi

bkod-pa

go-brdah

hphrod

medicines are written in words which are

certainly, the receipt

and the deed

of

not ordinarily understood, having secret meanings assigned to them. 2. in figuralanguage, meanings of names and words which are not ordinarily understood.
tive

agreement

should
).

be satisfactorily

ex-

plained (Btsii

+

fl|*r^

gam-yo

(flpr|*fa|

gam-giyog)

=

Such are
names.

called flp'fo gab-mid,

ne-hkhor attendant.
i.e.,

secret

gahu ?frz

1.

a

little

box or case

;

when
"P'w gab-sa S('
hiding-place
;

$la$-sa or

ta'w yib-sa
:

containing a talisman or amulet,

it

is

place

of

concealment
>

worn suspended round the neck.
I: gar or *pvf gar-bro ^Rl, frz, dance; acting in a dramatic play;

-we *^ came bringing much gold with us, but we were without a hiding-place or a place to
^^*,t-q-|3V'0;rq-<jr'i|q-^c.-i*3j-rlf

gesticulation

;

flU'W*^

gar-was

tbkor

go to (A. 120).

gam

^z near,
;

surrounded by dancing girls or actors ; "l^'tV gar-byed-pa to dance STT^Vfr
;

v.

*ffi

gan.

^'i fflu-gar rtsed.-mo

byed-pa to sing
gar-zas

;

to

Syn. l*'^ gam-yo hkhor (Mfion.).

^

drufi

;

V^j^

ne-

dance and play

;

!*'*
;

the food

given to performers

gar hkhrab-mkhan gyi

zas-la for the food of those

who perform
4gah-wa
"p'vqf
dance;

gam-gum a number,
(Ya-sel. 57).

dancing

;

ipvaTW 1

!

gar-la

fTTStTfara very fond of dancing; a gar-la Uta 'SW^U attending

gam-$pan$ panels or little boards beneath the cornice of a roof, often
filled

witnessing a performance.
fl|,''g\?t gar-gyi ltad.-mo

f^S

1

danc-

up with paintings.

(Ja.).

or amusement. ing entertainment

t

^'5'^
lemon

gam-bu-ra, wf^n; in
(Ja.).

W.

a
grub-chen
or

gar-gyi
r.nal-bbyor-pa

citron;

216
chen-po
fig.
:

a yogi or ascetic engaged in

by

the Rnifi-ma schools of Tibet.
-

It

is

of

meditation

j-wK^'S'V*'

5 '**

1

two kiuds H'i5

y*) phur-pahi rtsa

hcham

%* sku-mchog gar-gyi
fiotnt-fM

tficaA-po

mdsef

dancers

your holiness the lord of the (peacock), equal in beauty and
(Yig. k. 28).

the dance of the enchanted club, and ^ISi' ^* hkhrub-heham the dance of the lamas
at the time of offering sacrifice.

splendour

ijvf<w gar-ftabt dancing motion.

gesture

or

gar-gy
rpkhan-po or teacher or director of a dance or dancffht-gar-gyi

gar-pa
dance.

a dancer

;

also

a

ing performance

II

:

the encampment of an army

;

III or
:

T5

ga-ru, or

"F^

gaA-du,

a camp.
"F'f
1!

whither; where;

*!*.'<.

gar -y a A anywhere:

gar-rgyab encampment; 1*'5 c
to

i

'

flU'uicj'*! gar-yafi

skye-wa growing anygar-yaA mi bgro-wa to
gar-med. in
;

where

:

p'K & ^'l
-

gar-tgyab-pa
gafi-rgyab,

encamp;

also for

F

5*1

go nowhere.
all

1*'**^
all

W.

at

events

;

or

qvw

means "\'^'^*\ ga-na-metf by gar-bab at random haphazard
;

^'^'^ili'flivjo rdo-rndah sogf gar-tgyab fling at him stone or arrow, etc.,

whatever (you can) (J^brom.

f>

6).

(Art.).

gar-cg="\ one whichever one.
;

c

~'^

l
>\

tjan-s/tig,

which

gar-rnkhan or ^'"M bro-mkhan dancer 1. a dancer, performer, e.g.,

O ar
famous general of King
po,

pdoA-ktsan

the

even a Buddha or any saint dances when
2. displaying miracles. ace. to Sch. S'iva (Jd.).

Srofi-tysan fyam-

name

of a god,

who

visited the capital of

China and

induced Emperor Taitsung to give one of

gar-ma

the princesses imperial in marraige to his sovereign, about 630 A.D.
gar-rdvb
$*rj|^9|vs
lands,
fields,

The thirteen dancing girl. modulations of voice or musical notes
:

(1)

"I

s-'*

gar-ma
;

Sfiwf
4 (3) 'V'*

;

(2)

chus-khyer gar-rdeb-sogs-la
houses,
&c., that

rol-rtsed-ma STT^JTT
(4)

dal-ma
*'* bar-ma
(7) S'oS-

have been

devastated
of
its

S VS) myur-ma
(6)

nra

;

(5)

by a

river

by the over-flowing

JTTJJH;

**T^1

tshig-rdf,g

q*m;
(TT)
(11)

banks, &c. (Btsii.).

5,1

bya-wahi-dut rrvr;

(8) 9'"^'*^

bya-icahi

tshatj

*^T
'?

;

(9)

5'5,

ta-tva
;

(10)

o-^a (^H) flow
I' 1

^ ^a-t
(?ra)

reality;

gar-nag
I: gar-po

name
in

of

a medicine.

compact; (12) absorption; adherence
equality.

^R

"

&-ya

colloq.
is

the word *VF-'% dkar-po
*|*'3

;

(13) $'*t

sa-mya
It
is

language pronouned as

gar-po and also written as such. usual to pronounce VI*' 5 tfkar-po as
gar-po
*

gar-cham the frantic dance of the lamas of Tibet which is chiefly observed
i

flp'Q

in

the

vulgar

language

(Grub.

2).

217
II:
gjT,
;

also "!^'# gar-mo, thick;

II: importance flpr^*fyi gal-du
hdsin-pa
to

dense

;

condensed

not

fluid.

consider of

importance;

to

esteem.

'3

1.

gar-tea
2.

Sfq

bska-tca

astringent.

strong;

I*'**'

gar-chan

Syn.

"flS g.nad;

*^ mdo

(Mnon.).

strong beer (Jd.).

Ill:

1.

constraint;

compulsion:

of

Gar btsan hphags-pa name a monastery and also of a deity in
-q

na-la gal-jun in C. "I have been compelled" 2. trap; snare: in colloq. (Jd.).

Tibet (Jig.

3.).

gal hd&ug-pa to set a snare (Jd.).
fr*ir bi gar-dsa,

gar-dsa or
n.

irw,
-'
|

IV:

v. "I^'T

of a tree or kind

of

wood 3 e

fin (K. ko. 1, 5).
|-3-q

gal-hgag-="\

il

\*\^''\

important;

very important.
;

zn^'S
district

gar-sha the native name of the called La-hul or La-hol by the

1l'4s. gal-chun

cant

;

unimportant undervalued slighted.
;

insignifi-

Hindus

(Jd.).

gar-log ace.

to

the Tibetans

gal-che-wa very important ^.-^r^iWlfr^fri-q of the two,
:

'q

this

rapacious mountain

tribes

belonging to
-

life

and the
:

future, the latter

is

of greater

the far north-east of Tibet.

5M'^

"'

importance

TfoA^igmr*?] 'H -am-^-wqigq-

^a|a)-^ it is of

Tibetan tongue Gar-log are styled in the described in the Li-s'i Gur-khang as

greater importance to acquire accomplishments than to go roving about without purpose ei$ ET3' 1 Qr' important
: '! i

Turushka.

The

|V*fl|

Gai-log were a
*<*{'<$*]

moral precepts.
1 Syn. "R'V&'q g.na$-che-wa; y^'
)

different people

from the

---'-

Mgo-log.

rtsa-

che-u-a;

fl'^'l khag-clie-u-a;

I?'*'q

yfso-

Gar-log gi rgyal-po la sku-lus
btan-wat
chot-phyir

che-ica (Mnon.).

srog-kyan

bton-icahi

it is rgyal-po yin. In Atls'a's biography mentioned that the King of the Grar-log in the first part of the llth century,

y
implies

gal-te

conj.

if;

in

case
It

of;
is

a conditional
first

possibility.

placed as the

word
its

in a conditional

A.D., came from the Indian side and made the King of Tibet a captive when he was
there on a visit to Purang.

sentence while ^ na,

complement, stands

after the verb at the

Probably

"
signify

if."
still

T

1

'^,

end; together they however, is sometimes

they

were

the

earliest

Mohamedan

omitted, ^
expression

meaning "if."
gal-te
is is

In

colloq.

invaders of Kashmir.
the muscles of the '"^ gar-fa
(Med.) (Jd.).
'

pr$

seldom used;
substitute:

but " gal-shi"

a

common

thumb
you wish to enjoy all happiness, you must entirely leave off all desire "F^T
if
:

^filpjl:

gal=W

nan pressing; I"

1

I**

gal-gyis pressingly, urgently.
29

218
if

xx
''ij^'
gi-tcan

you wish

at all

and
*^f,

also

9|'^'

gl-had

times to live in friendship (with the three Holies), you should avoid the three
dangers, viz. of looking
wife, thinking of profit, in an envoy.
at

ft^TT,

t%T^f

a

yellow
in

pigment,

an
of
of

anthelminthic
a
concretion

medicine;
the
for

your loving

^f=

n.

and of confiding

entrails

some
Ace.
to

animals,

used

medicine.
l

the
is

medical works

gal-wlo=*Fi'*
!

W

of Tibet this concretion

formed in the

gal-hgag or

liver of certain

animals and seldom in

&ad,-hgag

1.

really, essentially of

men, and
size

importance.

2. n. of

a disease (Med.).

gal-po probably
^Zfy

same

as

it

resembles in appearance and yolk of a hen's egg. There are also smaller ones. Ace. to some
it

the

boiled

gal.

the important, indispensable master of the house (family).

lexicographers this concretion

is

formed in

two or three
quality
of

strata or folds.
gi-tcafi

The

best
is

is

that

which

^

gal- tea to force, to press
:

some

obtained from

thing on a person SN'q^'flpt indoor confinement is forced on men (Jd.).
flprqvSY"

an elephant, and those obtained from the ox called gorocanA
are of second quality.
gi-tcaft

A

kind of

9|'il^'

gal-war

lyed-pa

q?^q$fq

is

also

obtained

from minerals

brtson btan-ica ^1T,

^IT
(lit.

to be assiduous.

and
All

clay,

and

is

of reddish-yellow colour.

these are

"F^
"

supposed to be possessed

gal-bzufi

important thing),

=
W.
'i

got hold of the 3^'*i^ renunciation.
refuse
;

of wonderful healing power.
*' 1(

^

gal-ro in

rubbish.
Gi-ican

(K.

g. if

mixed with honey,

308). applied to

*

hgaf-pa.

both the eyes as a medicine, will give one such a clear vision, enabling one to
see all the treasures

gi I.

numeral
after

for 33, v. affix instead
;

which

are

in

the

of
v.

3 kyi 3 kyi.

1 and t

for signification

earth.

""

;%^'f3j'
for
i.

Gin

bhan-dha n.
Gi-ri

of

a

u * ne ^1 *>1 9i-9

vowel sign

mountainous country:

bhan-dha hi
rigs

yiil-gyi mtliahi ri khong-su

kla-klohi

having

a

white

speck

in

the

eye;

mi-hdra-wa leu yod-par rgya-gar-pa dag-la grags-fifi it being known to the Indians
that in the mountains skirting the country of Qiribandha there are ten different

wall-eyed (of horses) (Sch.).
gi-lji-big or *T**fl|

ko-tsi-lig

tanned skin of a kind of deer obtained

La-lo tribes (Dsam.).
*

from Mongolia and China
Gu-ne-ru
yog-inl or

(Jig.).

gi-Hn
(Sch.).

a

strong-bodied

horse

n.

of

an Indian

female ascetic (K. dun. 38).

gi-lin a

fabulous animal.

219
.

^'"^'5
Tibet.

Gi-fanrgya n. of a tribe in

Syn.

gsrupaj

bum-mkhan

;

(Mnon.).

t N^'

0"*

faWTC

probably

a

little

*T*
Amyris
incense
is

git-gul-fin

drum, or the beating of it as an accompaniment in dancing (Jd.).
gim
gra-shig n.
(K. my.
f3'^'3'3I' ''
s

galloca the plant

from which the

obtained.

q
l

of

a

soft

$gra-nan-gyi musical tone.

^
West

^|

Gu-ge

n.

of

a province in the

of Tibet.

Also

n. of a section

\293).
gi>'-mo, Ld.,

school in the Sera
of the province

monastery.

and The people
are
called

of 3'| Gu-ge

M^'*f
in C.
it

is

called

the Indian rupee ; *fjV3S gor-mo or fcV^

^'1

Go-ge-pu.

^J'*?^
gi
"lor
^.

Gu-tan also called Go-tan,

the

elder grandson of

^^^Jen-ghis Khan,
to

instead of

*<

kyis after a final

who

invited

Sakya Pandita

Mongolia
there.

in order to introduce

Buddhism
(Jd.).

^1

gu

1.

numerical for 63 = $
e.g.,

hit.

2.

=0
made

ffu-tiin

W. deaf

sign of diminutives,
;

0'3 khyi-gu

a
;

puppy little dog. 3. extension; extent room; space; R"'"'3''^q pna$ sa gu-dog,
fl
!

?

Gu-na mi-tra

gtufr=f

a
is

Buddhist monk about

whom

mention

ft-pa
\

gu-dog, w^'^i* lai gu-dog,
1
!

gu-dog-po narrow-minded
or road
; ;

;

in the Phar-pliyin section sacred books of Tibet.

of the

a

narrow

place, valley
;

3
;

lu K,*ri -u

gu-yans-pa spacious
st

roomy

wide
is

g

iw

"V gu

yans-pa hdug there

much room

^J'|^I gu-zul (for w^i*!'* ,-al-gu ztiima) hair-pendants of precious stones of

here.

women
taking
gu

in Tibet:
off

frwll'WJ'irg^Jprfsi

her hair-ornaments, she offered
*\

yans-pO^^V'Z'^'l

dogs-po

them (A.

102.).

med-pa spacious; capacious: <T'g'"iE.ri sa-cha gu yans-pa a spacious, wide place
:

^'5'<ic.N'i commodious residence

gdod-sa

gu
:

yifig-pa
U(E.'

a

gu-yar in W. slowly; gently; without noise (Sch.).
gti-yn

^N'3'

sons

gu-yans-pa a broad, generous heart.
C^'

TH^; quick-silver.
1.

\r"^
;

yu-gu-$a

enamelled

plates,

Gu-yog

sS-jarEj^flj

byah\

cups, &c.

generally enamels on copper.
9 u -9 lli or S"!! 01 gug-gul, fiH,

of birds (K. my. rgyal-po shig n. of a king 2. n. of the second son of Jengis 18).

Khan, who ruled over Eastern Mongolia.
Z

which

is

a costly incense, one kind of It is used white, another black.
its

t

\r^
;

( J u - ru

^

spiritual teacher;
;

a

in medicine and
spirits.

smell drives

away

evil

^

teacher

father-confessor

5J'*i

bla-ma, %Q'

slob-dpon.

Often in Milarapa.

220
g'S'w^'qj^ Gu-ru ifits/ian-brgyad the manifestations of the Great eight

'^

( J U ~ SU

occurs

in

(Vai. kar.)

a

garment, dress (Jd.).
f/ucj-gti, b$a>i

Teacher

;

also the eight

names

of

Padma
an oblation
>J>J-H

Sambhava.
cup:
(ju-rug 1.

STSflf'I'f*'*^
tin

in Ld. a oolt or foal
n. of a celebrated

of an ass (Jd.). 2.

b^an-ni Hor-gyi
is

las

lo<?

this

lama

now

who was

applied to enamelled cups
(Jig.).
v.

name made in

tutor to
'

Roy

Qtt-rab.

China

by mothers
of

gu-ian n. of a deity propitiated (in Tibet) for the well-being
this
3"!'
1)

l,

3'3l

gi(-(jvl

According to some deity blesses mothers with children.
their children.

gug-pa
to

1.

^V

dud-pa,

^'w'
*JTI*

dad-pas gug-pa ^wr-srw

bent as in
:

reverence,

bend

in salutation

31

'^C'

ytt-HA 1.
2.

pure gold picked out
silk:

yug-t>ca$

with
2.

humility,
to

from a mine.

also spelt g'S

modesty.

In W.

humbleness, rub or scratch

gold embroidered cloth or
Sf'ii|$q| SJIJT^

gently
a
silk
reli-

;

to tickle.

having presented gious garment of embroidered
him).

bend
(to

low:

mgo-lus gug-gug

^'Q!
softly
;

gu-le in

W.

for

ga-le

slowly;

phyag-byas he saluted low his head and body.
gyt't

thrice,

bending

gently.
SI'*!'"

guy-ge-wa
leaves)

bent
(Vai.

;

bent
$fi.),

downv.

i ^T"^ Gu-fn
form of
which
is

said

to be
title

a
of

wards
corrupt
Kau$iri,

(of

3|'i

the

Chinese

gug-pa.
'

conferred on Buddhist

monks and
the

religious

men, but

it

is

evidently

corruption of the Sanskrit title of gaufn, the lord of religion or guna-frt: in Tibetan yon-tan-dpal, the

gug-sran weight of gold according to the standard formerly used in the province of 3'*| Gu-ge, a Srafi or

^'WV
or

ounce of

-

*J *I

Gu-ge

:

l^'S^F'^l^^f<FV

blessed,

learned

talented

one.

In

having presented gold of the weight of 300 ounces (of Gu-ge) (A. 79).
title, belongsecond class of nobility in China ; ing to the it is second only to the distinction of

Mongolian Kau-$ri signifies a Pandit or a learned man.
Gu-fri soff-po Gus'ri the
1

Q]K* I: GuA an imperial

Mon-

golian, in

Tib.

called

3'f '^H **!***^
esta-

Wang
in

or

Prince,

Gu-sri bstan-hdsincfios-fgyal,t}ie Dsungarian Chief,

Tibet.

The

who conquered Tibet and
supremacy of the Dalai
all

very much prized recipient wears a ruby

and

is

blished the

Lama
an

button and three plumes of the peacock.
II
to
:

in 1643

A.D. over

Tibet; also

fsftr^

variously applied (1)
leopard- cat

CEleuth Mongolian

who belonged to Gus'ri's

a

species

of

found

in

banners.

Tibet.

221
which
is

smaller than the

Himalayan

leo-

became the high
monastery of
a

priest of

Tashi Gonian

pard, and

(2) to the broad-headed tiger of

which

Central Asia, kharakula of the Mongols, lives in the forests of the Amur
of

and erected a lofty 360 feet high and founded chorten-temple
;

Amdo

and

North- Western China.
is

The

flesh

monastery with a library containing 20,000 block-print volumes.

of latter

used in paralysis, and also as
evil spirits.

g^w5-^-^
saint.

Guft-than

Rtsahi ko ron

an antidote against

the birth-place of Milaraspa the poet and

also ^1^' III: the middle; central; midday generally the meridian noon
; ;

;

as well as, less frequently,

$* nin-gun
night.
3=.
r|Ji

midday

;

midnight *fa' noon w^'ge, mid;

the 3=-'i gun-pa hbrin-po second of three brothers the middle one.
;

=^'^

wn

;

qjE.-Wi g u fi hbab-pa to take rest at noon

on a journey;
gun-la
in the middle
'

g=.'2i|*i

g un .t s higg dinner

:

fS'S'3

E>

(8eh.).

Wfy

stod-kyi gun-nag thon taken or come

g^ '*gi\ gun-hdsug wq^ffei also gung-mo,
the middle finger.

out of the middle of
|

Upper

Tibet.

3^ ^'*\ gun-du byed-pa to divide middle to dissect anatomically through
;

;

jft'^-jC^ Gun-ri gun-^tsan the son and successor of King S'sT^V^ Khrisron

^S*'3'3

c -a|
'

divyar-gyi gun-la in the middle
;

Idehu-btsan

who

reigned

in Tibet

^srjgfai nam-gyi gun-la at the midnight hour; the middle watch of
night.

of

summer

about 733 A.D.
un .la ph u g or ^^wai'sii qj'0]'5JZlj g dmar-la phug carrot. gun
^e.-Nt.-acn$-q gun-sans la hgro-wa to take a walk about midday, also generally
to take a

Gun-rgyal
early kings of Tibet
3^'* gun-ja
(

n.
.

of one of the

Yig.)

midday

tea

;

also the reli-

walk g^'^ gun-Ion

at noon.

gious service conducted in a

Buddhist
is

gud

1.

slope;

declivity

(Cs.).

monastery

at

midday when

tea

served to

2. separation; solitude; seclusion (Sch.).

the congregated monks.
gfflft*i

3\^ gvd-du = ^i\v^^-^
sger-du aside; apart:
I

logs

suham

gufi.gn