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Dr. Clement A. Whiting
PRESENTED BY Dr. Lillian Berlier
NEW YORK APPLETON AND COMPANY 1897 . THE STORY OF CREATION. ETC. WITH PORTRAITS D.PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION' FROM THALES TO HUXLEY WITH AN INTERMEDIATE CHAPTER ON THE CAUSES OF ARREST OF THE MOVEMENT BY EDWARD CLODD PRESIDENT OF THE FOLK-LORE SOCIETY AUTHOR OF THE CHILDHOOD OF THE WORLD. THE STORY OF PRIMITIVE MAN.
1897. .- MI-iT. BY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY. COPYRIGHT.
. A. L.TO MY BELOVED A. WHOSE FELLOWSHIP AND HELP HAVE SWEETENED LIFE.
. through the courtesy of Mr. when its profound and all permanent influence on thought and. and. . that idea in modern times. when the nepenthe the reason. THIS book needs only tempts to tell brief introduction. arid the laity mechanically accepting. apparent Between turies of birth revival there were the cen- suspended animation. the writer. Hence the necessity for particularizing the causes which actively arrested advance in knowledge for sixteen hundred years. the of dogma drugged Church teaching. is human and relations and conduct. therefore. It at- the story of the origin of the Evolution idea in Ionia. In indicating the parts severally played in the Renascence of Evolution by a small group of trious illus- men. the sufficiency of the Scriptures and of the General Councils to delie cide on matters which outside the domain of both.PREFACE. on in directions. after long arrest. of the revival of.
. 1896. of Evolu- tion as a whole. i4th December. ROSEMONT.. was formulated by Mr. . has been permitted to see the nal documents which show that the theory i. e. contents of the Universe. as dealing with the non-living. origi- Herbert Spencer. LONDON. Spencer in the year pre- ceding the publication of the Origin of Species. N.yi PREFA CE. TUFNELL PARK. as well as with the living.
I..CONTENTS.126 . 3. 400 .. A. 50 . SO-A. 1600 . - . . 99 PART MODERN EVOLUTION 1. . . .. SO-A. c. A.. D. ..201 267 vii . 37 40073 PART THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE III. . 1600. D.. .. D. D. FROM AUGUSTINE TO LORD BACON A. PAGE PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS 6oo-A.1 PART THE ARREST OF INQUIRY 1. . II. 1600 ONWARD . .. .175 . DARWIN AND WALLACE HERBERT SPENCER THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY . FROM THE EARLY CHRISTIAN PERIOD TO THE TIME OF AUGUSTINE 2. . A. D. IV. PART B. 2... . D. .. A. D. INDEX . . D.
" Nature. in order that the world may be t ever new. will soon change all things which thou seest. Marcus Aureliu< 25. and again other things from the sub- stance of them." vii. and out of their substance will make other things. which governs the whole. .
yields is not practicable. as they are. More- over. the design of is which to bring out what the brilliancy of present-day discoveries tends to throw into shadow. with many crudities. and said a we must never forget the parentage. for in his words lay that doctrine of continuity and unity which the creed of modern science. since the remote past to fix their beginnings. deed. 6oo-A. 50. it at least. C. no documents. D. they are not detachable from the barbaric conceptions of i . Bechuana phi- The barbarian is losopher spoke wiser than he knew. B. not having received the promises. charged. the speculations which made pos- are. PART I." chief to Casalis the missionary. 13. namely. the antiquity of the ideas of which those discoveries are of Evolution.PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. " These all having seen them afar died in faith. Although the Theory we In- is new. They are a suitable text to the discourse of this chapter." BREWS " xi. and were persuaded of them. as it the result. define sible it. PIONEERS OF 'EVOLUTION FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. but HEoff. twenty-five centuries old. ONE event is always the son of another.
intellec- . and the legends of present.2 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. tive And as primi- myth embodies primitive theology. Hence ments the persistence of coarse and grotesque elein speculations wherein man has made gradthe ual approach to the truth of things. the lower races are nonprogressive both through fear and instinct. Dissatisfaction is a necessary condition of pro- gress. questioning what is commonly accepted. and dissatisfaction involves opposition. it. Revolt is a part of the order. primitive morals. the history of beliefs shows how few there be who have escaped from the tyranny of that authority and sanctity with which the lapse of time invests old ideas. Hence in a stage in the history of certain peoples when." For. times. too the like phenomena having to be interpreted similarity of the explanation of them. As Grant Allen puts in one of his most felicitous poems: If systems that be are the order of God. as Walter Bagehot argues in his brilliant little book Politics. remarked that Fontenelle. and primitive science. a writer of the last century. and retained them from custom and religious conservatism. and as all anthropological research goes to prove. hence. the Universe which are the philosophies of past. And the on Physics and majority of the members of higher races have not escaped from the operation of the same causes. shrewdly " all nations made the astounding part of their myths while they were savage.
beliefs held because they were taught. Italian. in the Greece limited. the isl- ands of the ^gean had been the nurseries of culture and adventure. for example. literally. matters not lived in Greece about the time already mentioned. Thence the maritime inhabitants had spread themselves both east and west. special fitness in the present connection. men who hence its Hence the application of the term to are in the van of any new movement. pionnicr. from Latin pedcs) is. a foot-soldier. one who goes before an army to clear the road of obstructions. Such a stage was markedly reached whenever. but in the Greece which then included Ionia. and imbibing influences from . on record to doubt the truth of the theory of special whether as the work of departmental gods or of one Supreme Deity. From times beyond memory or record. an individual here and there challenged the current belief about the beginnings and nature of things. as designating men whose speculations cut a pathway realities first through jungles of myth and legend to the of things. A pioneer (French. six centuries before Christ. Not in the early stages of the Evolution idea. not because their correspondence with fact had been examined. pedone. on the opposite sea- board of Asia Minor.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. feeding the spirit of inquiry. tual 3 freedom is born. to a rugged peninsula in the southeastern corner of Europe and to the surrounding islands. as now. The Pioneers of Evolution the creation.
as Professor Butcher aptly remarks in his Aspects of the Greek Genius. While the Oriental shrunk from quest after causes. ancient Greece is in debt to none. To what extent they had been influenced by contact with their neighbours is a question which. mix as they might with other peoples. notably of Egypt and Chaldaea. dreamy East had touched them. even were it easy to answer. there was Babylonia with her starwatchers. From the one. At the later period with which we are dealing.4 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. older civilizations. refugees from the Peloponnesus. and from the other. these lonians probably gained knowledge of certain periodic movements of some of the heav- enly bodies. them nothing). But. in imparting what they had acquired in culture." the . For all the rest that she evolved. that is. they or discovered to younger peoples. who would not submit to the Dorian yoke. and Egypt with her land-surveyors. Certain it is that trade and travel had widened and although India lay too remote to touch them closely (if that incurious. need not occupy us here. younger stamped it with an impress all their own. had been long settled in Ionia. looking. and. and with which she enriched the world. But this is conjecture. a few rules of mensuration. on " each fresh gain of earth as so much robbery of heaven. it would have taught their intellectual horizon. perchance a little crude science. the Greeks never lost their own strongly marked indi- viduality.
In his excellent and cautious survey of Early Greek Philosophy. as craftiness. by Greece as the giver quickening idea which has develall sides. and enriched every Amid serious defects of character. 435). oped human faculty on province of life. " . nothing is not Greek in its origin. vol. which we mainly follow in this section.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS." and we feel it is how hard to avoid exaggeration when speaking of the heritage bequeathed of every fruitful. p. and that healthy outlook on things which saved them from morbid introspection. iv. avariciousness. Professor Burnet says that the real advance made by was through their leaving off telling They gave up the hopeless task of describing what was when as yet there was nothing. Greek eagerly sought around him. the Greeks had the redeeming grace of pursuit after knowledge which naught could baffle (Plato. and unscrupulousness. Sir Henry Maine said And that " moves which except the blind forces of Nature. no filth-ingrained fakir to waste tip of his life in contemplating the nose. There arose among them no Simeon Stylites to mount his profitless pillar. of for the 5 law governing the facts Ionia was born the idea foreign to the East. angels could dance upon or to debate such fatuous questions saints in heaven will speak Last Judgment. no schoolman to idly speculate how many which the a needle's point as the language after the . the lonians tales. but which has become the starting-point in all subsequent scientific inquiry the idea that Nature works by fixed laws. Republic.
of And Thales. For example. the most flourishing city of Ionia.6 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. but the sixth century before Christ may be held to cover the period when he " flourished. was this per- what manent and primary substance? in other words. were embodied in myths and legends bearing strong resemblance to those found tribes of Polynesia among in the uncivilized and elsewhere our day. liquid. Thales. and asked instead what all things really are now. and of all the motions which produce them. " all in everything always becoming something else. As with other noted philosophers of this and later periods. motion like streams. being an inheritance from their barbaric ancestors. the old nature-myth of Cronus separating heaven and earth by the mutilation of Uranus occurs among Chinese. perhaps if." That " nothing comes into being out of nothing. and among the ancient Hindus and Egyptians. perhaps is the world made? through observing that it could become vaporous. therefore. whose name heads the list of the " Seven Sages. and that nothing passes away into nothing. The earliest school of scientific speculation was at Miletus. and solid in turn. neither the exact date of his birth nor of his death are known." There must be that which is the vehicle of all the changes." For the early notions of the Greeks about nature. All around was change. and Maoris. as tradition ." was its founder. What." was the conviction with which he and those who followed him started on their quest. Japanese.
argued.. the famous pupil of Aristotle. Anaximander. 371 B. his friend and pupil. in the be- ginning." and to speak of man " like to assert the origin of " as another animal. a fish. following Professor Burcalled the elements net's able guidance through the complexities of defi- nitions. said that the primary substance was WATER. although it is one of many ancient speculations as to the origin of life in slimy matter. and of what modern biology has proved concerning the marine ancestry of the highest animals. namely. records. c. Anaximander was the first life it from the non-living. And when Anaximander adds that " while other . he visited Egypt 7 through watching the wonder-working. indestructible substance out of which more returns continually everything arises.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. and " is neither water nor any other of what are " now (we quote from Theophrastus. in other words. born at Eresus in Lesbos. the term BOUNDLESS best expresses the " one eternal. disagreeing with what seemed to him a too concrete answer. e. which he was the first thus to name. that " the material cause element of things was the Infinite." This material cause. in more first abstract fashion.). i. perhaps as doubtless sharing the current belief in an ocean-washed earth. the moist element as was evaporated by the sun. and into which everything once ". the exhaustless stock of matter from which the waste of existence is being made good. Perhaps." This looks well-nigh akin to prevision of the mutability of species. life-giving Nile.
we find him describing the sun as " a ring twentywith the felloe hollow and fire at eight times the size of the earth. ii. of the origin of the rudimentary family through the development of the social instincts The lengthening lies at of the period of infancy involves dependence parents.) In dealing with speculations so remote. 344. or of observation before theory. For example. thought of it as flat and as floating on the all-surrounding lacked not insight. as in the days of Homer. to vol. shrewd as are some of the guesses made by Anaximander. as if pair of bellows. water." And if through the nozzle of a he made some approach " to truer ideas of the earth's shape as convex and round. The Ionian philosophers but the scientific method of start- ing with working hypotheses. like a cartwheel full of fire. pp. Outlines of Cos- mic Philosophy." the world of his day. In this brief survey of the subject there will be no advantage in detailing the various speculations which followed on the heels of those of Thales and . Fiske's base of social relations. man alone requires a prolonged period of suckling. on the the and evolves the sympathy which (Cf. and whose temper and standpoint are wholly alien to our own. 360. we have guard against reading modern meanings into writings produced in ages whose limitations of knowl- edge were serious.8 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. was as yet unborn. animals quickly find food for themselves. showing the a certain point." he anticipates the modern explanation and affections.
squaring and cubing. which Zeller regards as the outcome of the teachings of Anaximander. among the eccentric people who still believe in the modern sham agnosticism. held that all made its of numbers. fine and tactics. or that these speculations were more than once revived in after ages. A besuch symbols as entities seems impossible to special character but its existence in early thought is conceivable " not separated when. and in astrology. were purely abstract and fanciful. a lifeless abstraction. each of which they be- had and property.. merce. i. the rule of three. or. whose philoso- phy was things are lieved lief in ethical as well as cosmical. the Pythagoreans. like that of Pythagoras and his school. p." Even in the present day. were just as strange and that a wonderful as electrical phenomena are to us . with all manifold applications to industry." Xenophanes of Colophon. Benn remarks lively in his Greek Philosophers at a " (vol. the construction and equivalence of figures. Anaximander. one of the twelve . and we shall cease to wonder mere form of thought. comarts." as Mr. the emotions excited time when multiplica- tion and their division. as Aristotle says. So far as " the ancients are concerned. us. should once have been regarded as the solution of every problem. 12).. we find the delusion that numbers possess inherent magic or mystic virtues. the cause of all existence.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. As is well known. g since these varied only in non-essen- tials. they were from the objects of sense. known as theosophy. consider.
are the chief representatives of the Eleatic school." " There never was nor be a man who has clear certainty as to what I if say about the gods and about all is things. Then tendency of that school was toward metaphysical theories. for even he does chance to say what is so. but his chief claim to notice rests on the fact that. " . a passing reference. he denied the idea of a primary substance.10 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION." Mortals think that the gods were born as they and have senses and a voice and body like their own. He was the sils first known observer to detect the value of fos- as evidences of the action of water. right. however. yet all he himself does not know that it But are free to guess. deserves. So the Ethiopians make their gods black and are. shame and a disgrace among and adulteries and deception of one anwill other. of old Living at a time when there was a revival and gross superstitions to which the vulgar fears of invasions arose. the following sentences from the fragments of have ascribed to the gods his writings: " all Homer and Hesiod theft things that are a men. had recourse when to attack the old he dared as in and persistent ideas about the gods. and theorized about the nature and actions of superhuman beings. so He. with Parmenides and Zeno. passing beyond the purely physical speculations of the Ionian school. named from the city in southwestern Italy where a Greek colony had settled. cities Ionian of Asia Minor.
" There is one god. the greatest among gods and men." " Man's character is his fate. But in Elea. arm " of have made short work the secular " the archons of would probably Xenophanes. Many of his that yield their gestiveness. like many of these." " aphorisms are indeed dark sayings." Had such heresies been spoken in Athens. unlike mortals both in mind and body." ." from the obscurity of his style. where the effects of a religious revival were still " in force. " or in whatever other colony he may have lived." travelling in " any Man is kindled and put out like a light in the nighttime. His original writings have shared the fate of most documents of antiquity. for fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you." But these have special value as keys losophy: to his phi- "You cannot step twice into the same rivers. " ears." the Greater than the philosophers yet named is " Heraclitus of Ephesus. only in fragments preserved in the works of other authors. gods were left to take care of themselves. It snub-nosed. nicknamed the dark.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. the Thracians give theirs red hair and blue eyes. and exist. but those meaning are full of truth and sug- As for example: The eyes are more exact will witnesses than the You not find out the boundaries of soul by direction.
the all- opposition of forces. We are and are not the same is for two consecutive moments. "the fire in perpetually becoming water. says Heraclitus. and the earth. and which no one of gods or men has made always becoming ' we can understand how things.12 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. man.' And in ' FIRE. while fire is all it. This is just ' what we want. there is underlying harmony. made up. both soul and body." Flux or movement. it became more and applied to details." are always returning to is And as is all things the world. ' ' If we re- this order. gard the world as an ever-living fire which is the same in all things. It always passing away in smoke. "Homer was wrong strife in saying: 'Would ' ! that He might perish from among gods and men did not see that he was praying for the destruction of the universe. is all things would pass away. of the the water. Still on the quest after the pri- pervading law of things. the flames seems to be what we call a thing. but as the opposite process goes on simul- us taneously we appear to remain the same. since " yet the substance of is it is continually changing. and in the mary substance whose manifestations he found it are so various." As more speculation advanced. like it. by which things are kept going. theories of the beginnings . if his prayer were heard. and its place is always being taken by fresh matter from the fuel that feeds it. the quantity of it in a flame burning steadily appears to remain the same. and the water earth. so fire. for.
it will be remembered. c. thou son of Anchitus. The philosopher was brought back to life a woman who apparently had been dead for thirty days. B. This is a feature of the philosophy of Empedocles. AIR. of life i$ being followed by theories of the origin of its various forms. at was place among the earliest who supplanted guesses about the world by inquiry into the world itself. who flourished in the fifth century The advance it of Persia westward had led to Sicily. EARTH. set like those of Par- menides before him and of Lucretius after him. that EmpeHe has an honoured docles was born about 490. migrations of Greeks to the south of Italy and and Agrigentum. are down all in verse. But ask how thou such sights May'st see without dismay Ask what most helps when known. last miracle. with an address to whom the poem of have his curiosity slaked as to other marvels reported of him: fain would Empedocles opens. in that island. lacking far-reaching thoughts. Pausanias of Gela. and WATER. who . . one of which. His speculations about things. " are fools. Matthew Arnold of makes an occasion some fine reflections in his poem Empedocles said to have in Etna. As he ascends the mountain.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. From the remains of his " Poem on Nature we learn that he conceived of " the four roots They things to be FIRE. this and Ask not the latest news of the Ask not what days and nights In trance Pantheia lay. Many legends are told of his magic arts.
arise the colours and forms" of living things. Herein. From " the four roots. . and that the moon had plains and ravines in it. and eyes that strayed up and down in want of a forehead. the famous Pericles. lacking power to propagate. interests us because he Anaxagoras. then fragmentary parts of animals. both male and female. that deem what before was not comes " into being. and were replaced by "wholenatured " but sexless " forms " which " arose from the earth. and but for the in- fluence of his friend. might have suffered death. that the unadapted beand that only the adapted survive.14 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. trees first. thus operated upon. became male and female. he was put upon his trial. combined together. or that aught can perish and be utterly destroyed." Therefore the indestructible. which are also material. the one They are acted a uniting agent. and the first sufferer for truth's sake of whom we have record in Greek annals. as Strife gained the upper hand. the other a disrupting agent. produced monstrous forms. perished. who was a contemporary of Empewas the first philoso- pher to repair to Athens. would appear to be the of the modern theory extinct. LOVE and STRIFE. heads " without necks. however bold they be." and which." which. Nature kills off her failures to make room for her successes. These. Speculations. amidst much germ come fantastic speculation. docles. Because he taught that the sun was a redhot stone. roots " or elements are eternal and upon by two forces.
FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS.
pass unheeded till they collide with the popular creed, and in thus attacking the gods, attack a seemingly divinely settled order. Athens- then, and long after,
while indifferent about natural science, was, under
the influence of the revival referred to above, actively
hostile to free thinking. The opinions of Anaxagoras struck at the existence of the gods and emptied Olympus. If the sky was but an air-filled
what became of Zeus?
the sun was only a
Mr. Grote says " in the view (History of Greece, vol. i, p. 466) that of the early Greek, the description of the sun, as
given in a modern astronomical treatise, would have appeared not merely absurd, but repulsive and impious; even in later times, Anaxagoras and other astronomers incurred the charge of blasphemy for
dispersonifying Helios." Of Socrates, who was himself condemned to death for impiety in denying old gods and introducing news ones, the same authority
Physics and astronomy, in his opinion, belonged to the divine class of phenomena, in which
human research was insane, fruitless, and impious." " So Demos and his " betters clung, as the majority
cling, to the
of their forefathers.
paired to the oracles, and watched for the will of the
In his philosophy Anaxagoras held that there
was a portion
of everything in everything, and that things are variously mixed in infinite numbers of
seeds, each after
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
action of an external cause, called
material, although the
the purest," and has power over all arose plants and animals. It is probable, as Professor Burnet remarks,
things and things," there
that Anaxagoras substituted Nous, still conceived as a body, for the LOVE and STRIFE of Empedocles simply because he wished
to retain the old Ionic doctrine of a substance that
to identify this with the
of a substance that
has run largely on the ori-
gin of life forms, but now we find revival of speculation about the nature of things generally, and the formulation of a theory which links Greek cosmology
with early nineteenth-century science with Dalton's
Democritus of Abdera, who was born about 460 B. c., has the credit of having elaborated an atomic theory, but probably he only further
developed what Leucippus had taught before him. Of this last-named philosopher nothing whatever is
indeed, his existence has been doubted, but counts for something that Aristotle gives him the
credit of the discovery,
and that Theophrastus,
of his Opinions, wrote of Leucippus as
innumerable and ever-mov-
ing elements, namely, the atoms. And he made their forms infinite in number, since there was no reason why they should be of one kind rather than another,
and because he saw that there was unceasing becomHe held, further, that ing and change in things.
FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS.
being; for he laid
both are alike causes of the things that come into down that the substance of the
atoms was compact and
while they moved in the void which he called not, but affirmed to be just as real as what is."
he answer the question that Thales had
Postponing further reference to
name of Lucretius, its Roman exponent, is we find a genuine scientific method making
person of Aristotle.
This remarkof the experimental school,
start in the
man, the founder
and the Father
of Natural History, was born 384 In his eighteenth Stagira in Macedonia.
his native place for
Athens, where he
Disappointed, as it is thought, at not succeeding his master in the Acad-
became a pupil
emy, he removed to Mytilene in the island of Lesbos, where he received an invitation from Philip of Mace-
don to become tutor
ander the Great.
to his son, the
famous Alexhis ex-
Alexander went on
pedition to Asia, Aristotle returned to Athens, teach" " which his genius raised to the school ing in the
There he wrote the greater part
works, the completion of some of which was stopped by his death at Chalcis in 322. The range of his studies was boundless, but in this brief notice we
and the more so because Aris-
speculations outside natural history
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
to his pioneer work in organic evolution. Here, in the one possible method of reaching the
truth, theory follows observation.
Stagira lay on the
and a boyhood spent by the seashore
gave Aristotle ample opportunity for noting the variations, and withal gradations, between marine plants
and animals, among which last-named
noted as proof of his insight that he was keen enough to include sponges. Here was laid the foundation
of a classification of life-forms
sponding attempts were based. Then, he saw, as none other before him had seen, and as none after
for centuries, the force of heredity, that
unsolved problem of biology.
of his teaching, the details of
Speaking broadly which would fill pages,
main features are
His insistence on observa-
In his History of Animals he says
not accept a general principle from logic only, but must prove its application to each fact. For it is
in facts that
seek general principles, and
these must always accord with facts. Experience furnishes the particular facts from which induction
the pathway to general laws."
chance and assertion of law, not, following a common error, of law personified as cause, but as
the term by which we express the fact that certain phenomena always occur in a certain order. In his
Physics Aristotle says that Jupiter rains not that corn may be increased, but from necessity. Similarly,
destroyed by rain,
FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS.
not rain for this purpose, but as an accidental cirIt does not appear to be from fortune
or chance that
frequently rains in winter, but from the question of the origin of lifeall
forms he was nearest of
setting forth the necessity
modern solution, germs should have
was the germ.
produced, and not immediately animals;
In plants, also, there
shows that plants were produced
as animals, not
by chance, as by the union
of olives with grape vines.
argued, that there should be an accidental generation of the germs of things, but he who asserts this
subverts Nature herself, for Nature produces those
things which, being continually moved by a certain principle contained in themselves, arrive at a cer-
In the eagerness of theologians to distain end." cover proof of a belief in one God among the old philosophers, the references made by Aristotle to a
perfecting principle," an
mover," and so
us of the
efficient cause," a prime have been too readily construed
as denoting a monotheistic creed which, reminding
also akin to
Mr. Benn remarks (Greek Philosophers, vol. i, " p. 312), agrees with Catholic theism, and he agrees with the First Article of the English Church, though
not with the Pentateuch, in saying that God is without parts or passions, but there his agreement ceases.
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
Excluding such a thing as divine interference with
Nature, his theology, of course, excludes the posof
does not interest himself
But, differ as the commentators
as to Aris-
line led, as will
be seen hereafter, to the acceptance
of his philosophy
in the fourth century,
by Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, and by other Fathers of the
Church, so that the mediaeval theories of the Bible, blended with Aristotle, represent the sum of knowl-
edge held as
sufficient until the discoveries of
pernicus in the sixteenth century upset the Ptolemaic theory with its fixed earth and system of cycles and epicycles in which the heavenly bodies moved. He
thereby upset very much besides. Like Anaximander and others, Aristotle believed in spontaneous
generation, although only in the case of certain animals, as of eels from the mud of ponds, and of insects
from putrid matter. However, in this, both Augusand Thomas Aquinas, and many men of science
to the latter part of the seventeenth century,
For example, Van Helmont, an experimental chemist of that period, gave a recipe for making fleas; and another scholar showed himself
level with the unlettered rustics of to-day,
produced from horse hairs
thrown into a pond.
was opposed by Malpighi. an Italian physician. born in 1628. chick. tion. before fecunda- plete.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. or the theory of the development of the indi- germ into the adult form among the higher viduals through the union of the fertilizing powers of the male and female organs. is 2 l his anticipation of what is known as Epi- genesis. the is dis- coverer of the circulation of the blood. estimating these sand millions! two hundred thou- When the " " preformation theory was revived by Bonnet and others in the eighteenth century. vision. the year in which Harvey published his great discovery. and of science his school " by other prominent men century. which was proved by the researches cepted by all of Harvey. for in the already preformed example. passed " it : the following shrewd criticism on Many in- genious philosophers have found so great in conceiving the difficulty manner of reproduction in animals all that they to have supposed the numerous progeny have existed in miniature in the animal originally . but comIt therefore followed that in any germ the box tained. " germs of all subsequent offspring must be conand in the application of this "box-withintheory its ber of human germs defenders even computed the numconcentrated in the ovary of at mother Eve. This theory. containing an excessively minute. Eras- mus Darwin. grandfather of Charles Darwin. Malpighi and the perfect animal is down to the last " contended that germ. the hen's egg. and ac- biologists to-day.
but he did not thereby mean the pursuit of the unworthy. . his teaching has been perverted. of . in pleasure the highest happiness. besides its being unsupported by any analogy we are acquainted with. whom to dance a saraband twenty thousand were said to have been able on the point of a needle without the least incommoding each other. and noble aims. who was born at what is Samos. c. Anthony." Although no theistic element could be extracted by the theologians of the early Christian Church from the systems of Empedocles and Democritus. This idea. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. high. moreover. the founder of the loosely identified with Stoic school. they were formative powers " in Greek philosophy. and. ascribes a greater continuity to organized matter than we can These embryons must possess readily admit. . so name has become indulgence in gross and sensual living. 342 that his B. a greater degree of minuteness than that which was ascribed to the devils who tempted St. He saw and therefore ad- vocated the pursuit of pleasure to attain happiness. whereby alone a man not hard to see that ideals the in could have peace of mind. have their come by own is " in these latter days/ Their chief representative in Aristotelian period known as the PostEpicurus. thereby securing them a share in the influence exercised by the great Stagirite.22 created. As with Zeno. in the minds of men of low wards passivity which lurked tendency tosuch teaching would . Rather did he counsel the following It is after pure.
and about whom men should therefore have no who all dread. Between riod of ficient this great Roman and there is Epicurus a peof suf- some two centuries no name prominence to warrant attention. hence the gross and limited association of the term Epicurean. he vehicle of didactic Adopting the physical made them the which in- and ethical philosophies spired the production of the wonderful poem of Lucretius. He also accepted the theory broached as to the survival of life fit by Empedocles forms after and capable through the processes of spontaneous generation and the production of had arrived at these monstrosities.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. and applied it all round. things. and the work done by the Pioneers be resumed elsewhere. What lingered in her philosophy within her own borders expired with the loss of freedom. Epicurus accepted the theory of Leucippus. speculations of these forerunners. and of Epicurus as the mouthpiece of the atomic theory. aid their sliding into the pursuit of 23 mere animal en- joyment. and in her consequent adof Greece dition to the provinces of the life Roman Empire. even the ideas that enter the mind. was revived by Lucretius in his De . are alike composed of atoms. The faineant dwell serenely indifferent to human afgods. The decline had culminated in her conquest by the semi-barbarian Mummius. whether dead or living. of Evolution in Greece was to In the few years of the preChristian period that remained the teaching of Empedocles. fairs.
no proof in taking up his wonderful poem. touching every point with the grace of poesy. resist the it. and poet. c. With the dignity which his high mission resisted. reformer. temptation to make even through the translation. notably that which asserts " kind for that things came from nothing if^so. as a reformer he attacks superstition." Lucretius proceeds to of expound the teaching Leucippus and other atomists as to the constitu- . and because I set the mind free from the close-drawn bonds of superstition. copious extracts from since. it Munro's exquisite is probably evil little known to the general reader in these literature. and next because.24 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. was probably born 99 hand. Rerum is Of that remarkable is man but little recorded. must be moderate degree. but his forty-fourth year. on so dark a theme. save in Lucretius appeals to us in the threefold character of teacher. I comthe greatness of my pose such lucid verse. ori- Discussing at the outset various theories of and dismissing these." As a teacher he expounds the doc- Epicurus concerning life and nature. nothing would require seed. to vehicle of Mr. days of snippety But the temptation inspires. akin to religious emotion. as a poet he informs both the atomic philosophy and its moral aptrines of plication with harmonious and beautiful verse swayed is by a fervour that gins. by reason of argument. Jerome says.. any might be born of anything. and the record B. and died by his is He own of this there It is difficult. untrustworthy. Natura. " First.
growth. wind. and a finer essence." Change is the law of the universe." Lucretius explains that the soul. not by the rays of the sun or the bright shafts of day. but by the outward aspect and harmonious plan of Nature. will perish. This theory he works all round. explaining the processes by which the atoms unite to carry on the birth. therefore.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. men and of animals. the proportions of which determine the character of both heat. and this darkness. and decay of things. so determined is he to who through fear of death are all their lifetime subject to bondage. must be dispelled. "the only immortal". since or properties of the atoms absolutely decreed what each thing can and what it cannot do by the conditions of Nature." fill These themes fourth the first three books. tion of things 2$ by particles of matter ruled in their movements by unvarying laws. and it is that and what may follow it which are the chief tormentors Death of men. It dies with the body. in support " which statement Lucretius advances seventeen deliver those arguments. In the he grapples with the mental problems of sensation and conception. is also formed of very minute atoms of calm air. the combinations being deter- mined by the " affinities it is themselves. " This terror of the soul. which he places in the centre of the breast. what is. the variety of which is due to variety of form of the atoms and to differences in modes of their combination. and explains the origin of . is but only to reappear in another form.
In all this he excludes design. and of civilization. and to such a degree that we seem without a doubt to perceive him whom life has This Naleft." thus repeating the old speculations of the emergence of life from slime. of its and development. and the race of living things. and centaurs which form a part of .26 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. and cannot refute the unreal by real In the fifth things. book Lucretius deals with origins moon. due to ghosts and appari" When sleep has belief in immortality as tions which appear in dreams. suddenly brought together. " wherefore the earth with good title has gotten and keeps the name of mother. under the influence of rain of the sun. and death and earth gotten hold of." He did not adopt Em- and the heat pedocles's theory of the " four roots of all and he griffs." of the sun. became the rudiments of earth. for no other reason does the mind's intelligence wake. except because the very same images provoke our minds which provoke them when we are awake. and heaven." the hippo- chimeras. will have none of the monsters things. "the masses. the flat. ture constrains to of the come to pass because all the senses body are then hampered and at rest throughout the limbs. explaining everything as pro- duced and maintained by natural agents." He believed in the successive appearance of plants in their arising separately " and animals. sea. prostrated the body. the earth (which he held to be life denying the existence of the antipodes). but and di- rectly out of the earth.
" many nor find food. dragons. he cleared men's breasts with truth-telling precepts. exaggerated than those which he applied to EpiThe latter is " a god " who first found out life that plan of which is now termed wisdom. too." thus showing himself far in advance of ages when unicorns.FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. marvellous. and make known his great discoveries. that since upon " the increase of For he argues some Nature set a ban. he accepts the doctrine of the survival of the fittest as taught by the sage of Agrigentum.. have never existed. and life who by tried skill rescued from such great it bil- lows and such thick darkness and moored perfect a in so calm and in so brilliant a light. of this godlike genius cry with a loud voice.. nothing more and dear." Lucretius speaks of Empedocles in terms scarcely less curus. nor be united in marriage. so that he seems scarcely born of a mortal stock. that great country (Sicily) seems to have held within this nothing more glorious than holy. and suchlike fabled beasts were seriously believed to exist. The verses. and explained what to reach. " 27 These. and fixed a limit to lust and fear. In one respect." was the chief good which we " it all strive As to Empedocles. he says. more discerning than Aristotle." races of living things have died out. so that they could not reach the coveted flower of age. . the scheme of that philosopher." Continuing his speculations on the development and of living things. . Lucretius strikes out in bolder .. man. and been unable to beget and continue their breed..
by their Only when easily coaxing ways. Afterward the and copper was discovered. and the struggles of wavering man were rendered equal. With copper they would labour the soil of the earth Then by slow and stir up the billows of war. and use struck out the names of things. but in one of struggle " out of savagery. " In his battle for food and shelter. children. and make the whole story subordinate to the high purpose of his poem in deliverance of the beings whose career he thus traces from superMan " seeing the system of heaven and the stition. and flame and fire.28 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. and with iron is ." did there arise the family ties out which the wider social bond has grown. man's first arms were hands. of broke down the proud temper of their fathers. . nails and teeth and stones and boughs broken off from the forests. and softening and civilizing agencies begin their fair offices. he says. lies no heroic or golden age. they began to plough through the earth's soil. and sought refuge . and the use easier to work." As Nature impelled them to utter the various sounds of the tongue. as force of iron of copper soon as they had become known. . as its nature and it is found in greater quantity. original vein. was known before that of iron." Thus does Lucretius point the to language. different seasons of the years could not find out by in what causes this was done. " road along which physical and mental evolution have since travelled. in The past history of man. steps the sword of iron gained ground and the make of the copper sickle became a byword.
FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS. suffering ." foolishly who thereby make known their anger. peopling the void air. loath to suffer mute. pomp and rejoicings from Phrygia 204 to Isis. to Herakles." Then. the completion of which would by his death. the Great Mother. For the minor gods survive the changes in the pantheon of every race. to Cybele. Demeter.. which men lay to the charge of the gods. easily. AsBut klepios. and many another god from Greece. Make Gods to whom to impute The ills we ought to bear With God and Fate to rail at. and who controlled every action of the day. imported in the shape of a rough-hewn stone with B. So. in the sixth and last seem to have been arrested " law of winds explains the book. 29 handing over all things to the gods and supposing all things to be guided by their nod." of earth" quakes and volcanic outbursts. Rennel Rodd testifies. They had less influence on the Roman's life than the crowd of native godlings who were thinly disguised fetiches. We. c. Lucretius and storms. welcomed from Egypt. Of the Greek peasant of to-day Mr. And what a motley crowd of gods they were on whose caprice or indifference he pours his vials of The tolerant pantheon of anger and contempt! Rome gave welcome to any foreign deity with respectable credentials. in his . these were dismissed from a man's thought when the prayer or sacrifice to them had been offered at the due season.
the spirit of furrowin the seed. preservation. life He says: It is rather the minor deities and those asthat have escaped sociated with man's ordinary the brunt of the storm.30 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. that much as at the accusation of any taint of paganism. Sir Alfred supreme triad of Hindu which represents the almighty powers of creation. and returned to live in a twilight of popular belief. is old Roman catalogue of spiritual beings. The detail. Crooke in is his instructive personal and special. a long one. Tozer confirms " this in his Highlands of Turkey." " even the Lyall tells us that. and destruction. dim In India. ately real to him than divine omnipotence. they reign. of Custom and Lore he would shudder Modern Greece. but do not govern. abstractions as they were. as shown by Introduction to the Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India. as no less such lists we learn that than fortyfor a three were concerned with the actions of a child." Like limited monarchs. When the farmer asked Mother Earth good harvest. are called. the weeding and the . and the spirit of harrowing. allegory. the ruling of the Fates is more immediMr. They are superseded by the ever-increasing crowd of godlings whose influence Mr. who guarded life in minute From the indigit amenta. the prayer would not avail unless he also " invoked the spirit of breaking up the land and the spirit of ploughing it ing and the spirit of spirit of ploughing crosswise. have long ceased to preside actively over any such correspond- ing distribution of functions.
FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS.
spirit of reaping; the spirit of carrying corn to the barn; and the spirit of bringing it out again." The
country, moreover, swarmed with Chaldaean astrologers and casters of nativities; with Etruscan haruspices full of
events from the entrails of sacrificed animals; while
in competition with these there
was the State-sup-
ported college of augurs to divine the will of the
gods by the cries and direction of the flight of birds. Well might the satirist of such a time say that the "place was so densely populated with gods as to leave hardly room for the men."
be seen that the justification for including among the Pioneers of Evolution lies in
two signal and momentous contributions to the man; namely, the primitive savagery of the human race, and the origin of the belief in a
soul and a future
thropological research, in its vast accumulation of materials during the last sixty years, has done little
in the outline
which the insight of
Lucretius enabled him to sketch.
to the second,
he anticipates, well-nigh in
of the origin of belief in spirits generally
bert Spencer and Dr. Tylor, following the lines laid
down by Hume and Turgot
formulated and sustained by an enormous mass of evidence. The credit thus due to Lucretius for the
original ideas in his majestic
Greek in conbeen ob-
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
scured in the general eclipse which that
fered for centuries through
Grinding at the same philosophical mill, Aristotle, because of the theism assumed to be involved in his
" a pillar of the perfecting principle," was cited as " by the Fathers and Schoolmen while Lucre;
because of his denial of design, was anathema maranatha." Only in these days, when the far-reaching effects of the theory of evolution, supported by observation in every branch of inquiry, are apparent, are the merits of Lucretius as an original seer, more
than as an expounder of the teachings of Empedocles
and Epicurus, made
Standing well-nigh on the threshold of the Chriswe may pause to ask what is the sum of
the speculation into the causes and nature of things which, begun in Ionia (with impulse more or less
from the East,
by Thales, ceased,
the sixth century before for many centuries, in the
of Lucretius, thus covering
an active period
of about five
The caution not
in these speculations
is a primary substance which abides amidst the general flux of things.
proach to 1. There
more than an approximate apmodern theories must be kept in mind.
All modern research tends
that the various
combinations of matter are formed of some prima
ultimate nature remains
nothing comes nothing.
FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS.
knows nothing of a beginning, and,
in direct opposition to the theological
dogma that God of nothing; a dogma still
and binding on
accepted by the majority of Protestants
Roman Catholics. For the doctrine of the Church of Rome thereon, as expressed in the Canons of the
"If any one
not that the world
things which are contained
and mental, have
substance, produced by
out of nothing; or
say that God created, not by His free will from but by a necessity equal to the necessity
whereby He loves Himself, or shall deny that the world was made for the glory of God: let him be
The primary substance is indestructible. The modern doctrine of the Conservation of Energy
and motion can
neither be cre-
teaches that both matter
ated nor destroyed.
of indivisible particles
atoms, whose manifold combinations, ruled
modifications based on chemical as well as
Leucippus and Democritus
experiments and discoveries show that reconstruction of chemical theories as to the properties of the atom may
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
the law of things, and
about by the play of opposing forces.
science explains the changes in
antagonism of repelling and attracting modes of motion; when the latter overcome the former,
the present state of
a necessary condition of
beginnings in water; a theory
wholly indorsed by modern biology. 7. Life arose out of non-living matter.
Although modern biology leaves the origin of life an insoluble problem, it supports the theory of
fundamental continuity between the inorganic and the
the higher organ8. Plants came before animals isms are of separate sex, and appeared subsequent
to the lower.
Generally confirmed by modern biology, but with
the lowest animals.
the lowest plants
a continuity in the
And, of order and
succession of life which
not grasped by the Greeks.
and others before him
forms sprang from slimy matter direct. Adverse conditions cause the extinction of
for those better
some organisms, thus leaving room
Herein lay the crude germ of the modern doctrine
survival of the
FROM THALES TO LUCRETIUS.
the last to appear, and his primiwas one of savagery. His first tools and weapons were of stone; then, after the discovery of metals, of copper; and, following that, of iron. His
body and soul are
extinguished at death. The science of Prehistoric Archeology confirms the
theory of man's slow passage from barbarism
the science of
Comparative Psychology de-
clares that the evidence of his immortality is neither
stronger nor weaker than the evidence of the immortality
of the lower animals.
Such, in very broad outline,
the legacy of sug-
gestive theories bequeathed by the Ionian school
successors, theories which
into the rear
Athens became a centre of
intellectual life in
discussion passed from the physical to those ethical
outside the range of this survey.
by his prolonged and careful forms a conspicuous exception, the abides that insight, rather than experiment, ruled
fantastic guesses of parts of
Greek speculation, the
which themselves evidence the survival of the crude
about earth and sky long prevailing.
The more wonderful
therein points the
therefore, that so
inquiry travelled after its subsequent long arrest; and the more apparent is it that nothing in science or art, and but
way along which
in theological speculations, at least
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
Westerns, can be understood without reference to
became the chief barrier to the development of Greek ideas. DETAILED account is the Christian religion of the rise and progress of not within the scope of this But as that religion. and to that wise adaptation to circumstances which linked its fortunes with those 37 .PART II." RENAN. 400. i. and brought into harmony with it. Essay on Islamism and Science. except. A. more especially in the elaborated theological form which it ultimately assumed. but ever to place it at a greater distance from the world of particular facts in which men once believed they saw it. THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. They explain Paganism guidance of its . 5O-A. a short survey of its origin and early stages is necessary to the con- tinuity of our story. to the Time of " A revealed contradict dogma is always opposed to the free research that may The result of science is not to banish the divine it. The its history of that great movement is told ac- cording to the bias of the writers. altogether. as has been remarked. D. in the degree that these were represented by Aristotle. rapid diffusion and its ultimate triumph over as due either to its Divine origin and or to the favourable conditions of the time early propagation. A book. From the Early Christian Period Augustine. D.
or. its manifold forms. no). and therefore special. includes partial and local corto make its history as clear as it is pro- ." To bring the Christian religion. Western Europe. for example. as Sir Alfred Lyall testifies in his Asiatic Studies (p. and of persecutions between parties and nations. in competition with Brahmanism. and why. whose animosity seems the deeper ble of proof." It has been the cause of un- " dying hate. from the purest spiritualistic to such degraded type as exists.38 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. therefore. brought not peace but a sword. In of the progressive peoples of the judgment of every unofficial narrator. and with Mohammedanism in it Africa. this latter explanation best accords with the facts of history. why the fortunes of the Chrislike those of other great have varied both older and younger than it. ruption. like Buddhism. fields has it less success than these in the mission where comes into rivalry with them. and with the natural causes which largely determine success or failure. and lawless ages. while exercising a beneficent influence in turbulent on earth. Riven into wrangling sects tory. rather. character have to show reason tian religion religions. when stirred by matters which are incapaAs Montaigne says. " Nothing is so which is firmly believed as that least known. is operation of the law which governs development. why. of bloody wars. it has been ousted from the eountry in which it rose. within the and which. The most partisan advocates of its supernatural. it from an early period of its his- has. in Abyssinia.
and what is the effect of such an explanation upon the super" Its inclusion natural claims of the Christian idea? as which one of other modes. 90). John Morley observes in his criticism of Turgot's dissertation upon The Advantages that the Establishment of Christianity has conferred upon the Human Race (Miscell. that it human power and should actually . is to import confusion into the story of mankind. vol. how sowing quality came it that in the Eastern part of the Empire it was as powerless for spiritual or moral regeneration as it in the Christian idea the was for political health it Western part portant of all and vitality. while in the became the organ of the most im- world? Is not the difference to the past transformations of the civilized be explained by the difference in the surrounding medium. p. ii. by man has progressed from the " ape and tiger " stage to the highest ideals of the race.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. to demand for it an origin and character different in kind from other religions. 39 foundly instructive. varying only in degree. its attitude toward and the consequent serious arknowledge. and secured from error by the perpetual guidance of a secular knowledge. " If." and to as raise a swarm of artificial difficulties. makes clear what concerns us rest of that here. while.. namely. Holy Spirit. "there had been mysterious selfso constantly claimed for it. ters the faculty for investigating should have opposed inquiry into matwhich lay within province. That a religion which its followers claim to be of supernatural origin.
and is. alike with that which attracts. who dared thus to inquire. in the development of ideas. survive when dogma has become only That element. was the belief in the manifestation of the divine griefs. incarnates. is a problem which its advocates may settle among themIt is no problem to those who take the opselves. therefore. its place. and then deifies the object of its worship. there- . all Hence the importance of study the denial of religions. Recognising the present as the outcome it searches after origins. born a matter of of antiquarian interest. the heart of man. It knows that both that which revolts us in man's spiritual history has. For no religion and here Evolution comes in as witness can take root which does not adapt of the history of itself to. and which may tion. carried their through the human Jesus who had borne men's sorrows. have put to death those to and posite view. in his spiritual emancipation from terrors begotten of ignorance. of the past. Evolution knows only one heresy continuity. make known what they had discovered. as a crowd of kindred examples show. It does not fall within our survey to speak of that primary element in it which was before all dogma. emo- which. In outlining the history of Christianity stress will be here laid only upon those elements which caused it to be an arresting force in man's intellectual de- velopment. and. and answer some need of. its necessary place. and offered rest to the weary and heavy-laden.4o PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
are the feelings aroused over the most temperate discussion is it remains necessary not to attack.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. Religions are no longer treated as true or false. Let us now summarize certain occurrences which. and of his spiritual needs. work to prove it. but as the product of man's intellectual specu- lations. often so bitter. however crude or coarse. Nevertheless. and Gifford Lectures. fore. must be repeated for the clear understanding of their effects. It looks with no favour on criticism that is only destructive. with its Hibbert Lectures. Boyle and Hulse Lectures. For " " proofs and " evidences " we have sub- stituted explanations. no matter in what repulsive form they are satisfied. so strong. as critical and construc- opposed to Bampton Lectures. and that of the origin of Christianity that to repeat that to explain to narrate is not to apportion blame. as inventions of priests or of divine origin. not flippant. Hence we have the modern science of comparative theology. Some sixty years after the death of Lucretius . although familiar enough. 41 For this capable of explanation from its roots upward. the speaker Deist caustically said that nobody Collings the doubted the existence of the Deity till they set to official brief. for no religion reflect the can do aught than temper of the age in which it flourishes. age is sympathetic. or on ridicule or ribaldry as modes of attack on current beliefs. which are tive. which are apologetic. " " holding an Of the Boyle Lecturers.
. c. u. but to have been incarnated in the womb of a virgin. as sinless man. was the day dedicated to the sun-god Mithra. curiously enough. for the sins which the human race had committed since tions. sent to this earth-speck no less a person than His Eternal Son. in hospitable Rome. He was said to have been born. not by the natural processes of generation. or which yet to be born might commit. an Oriental deity to whom altars had been raised and sacrifices performed. which. men The " miraculous " birth of Jesus took place at Nazareth in Galilee. the transgression of Adam and Eve. noth- . with rites of baptisms of blood. Ex- Jesus is said to have lived till in the obscurity of his native mountain village his thirtieth year. in the subsequent belief of millions of mankind. and to the requirements of divine justice. Augustus. time.42 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. explaining the choice. an event for which all that had gone before in the history of this planet is said to have been a preparation. there happened. about 750 as the Romans reckoned Tradition afterward fixed his birthday on the 25th December. In the fulness of time the Om- nipotent maker and ruler of a universe to which no boundaries can be set by human thought. although. in the reign of Caesar A. become an expiatory sacrifice to offended deity. cept one doubtful story of his going to Jerusalem with his parents when he was twelve years old. perhaps. retaining his divine nature while subjecting it to human limita- This he had done that he might.
wandering from place to place. from feeding thousands of folk with a few loaves of bread to raising the dead to life. Among a people to whom the unvarying order of Nature was an idea wholly foreign into for Palestine Greek speculations had not penetrated stories of miracle-working found easy credit. recorded in the various biographies of him his birth and his appearance as a public a carpenter. often of the outcast class. brightened by happy illustration or striking parable. At hands Jesus submitted to the baptismal and then en- tered on his career. show him and to have been gifted with a simple. was to heighten his while the effect of success upon himself own conception of the impor- tance of his work. ing is 43 between teacher. home to the hearts of his Women. His itinerant mission secured him a few devoted followers from various towns and villages. Thus. Probably he followed his father's trade as The event that seems to have called of him from home was the preaching astic ascetic an enthusihis named John the Baptist. went hearers. rite. sermons. with popular belief in the constant intervention of deity. The skill of the Romans in fusing together subject races had failed them in the case of . were drawn to him by the sympathy which attracted even more than his teaching. falling in. his winning style. as they did. which have survived in the short biographies known as the Gospels.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. to the reports of what Jesus taught were added those of the wonders which he had wrought. The fragments of his discourses.
the highest judicial council. that that faith which was. for trial. the Messiah. led him to the belief.44 the Jews. dreaming of a purer faith. he spoke ominous words about the destruction of the temple. involving claim to kingship over the Jews. material he was the spiritual Messiah. their belief that Nor had their misfortunes weakened the Messiah predicted by their prophets would ap- pear to deliver them. but it set him brooding on some nobler. and therefore rebellion against the Empire. was . because more of it it conception than his fellow-countrymen nurtured. however. and when. Jesus shared. the charge of blasphemy was laid against him. Finally. and plant their feet on the neck of the hated conqueror. when. answering a he declared himself to be This. his nearer disciples. was made the plea of haling him before the Roman governor. as became a pious Jew. Pilate. His guilt was made clear to his judges question of the high priest. in its hopes. This hope. his plainness of speech raised the fury of the sects. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. his daring in clearing the holy temple of money-changers and traders led to his appearance before the Sanhedrin. make his appeal to the nation. before the chief priests and elders. In he repaired to Jerusalem at the time of the Passover feast when the city was crowded with devotees. According to the story. fostered by the ambition of spiritual. Pontius Pilate. looking disin- upon the whole affair as a local entente. whose " belief in their special place in the " world as the chosen people never forsook them. that he might.
striking With truer insight. and added the crime of sedition to the Pilate himself passed on. Roman embroiled himself with his fellow-countrymen. the particular of transfixion mode not being clear. which over- looks the lake of Lucerne. contemptuous. without folly of blasphemy. In the no attention outside Judaea. as widely held. Tradition. more ado. as bution followed his criminal after-time to be. tells was judged in from the how he mountain known flung himself in remorse as Pilatus. makes Pilate. hang the attracted destinies of mankind to the end of time. Pontius. L'Etui de Nacre. anxious to prove that retriact. 45 clined to severity. few months after I had lost sight of her I heard by accident that she had joined a small party of men and women who were following a young Galilean miracle-worker. cold. it was but the execution of a troublesome fanatic who had eye. thus refer to the incident in conversation with a " Roman friend who had loved a Jewish maiden. or. a modern story. and practical. on his retirement to Sicily in old age. His name was Jesus. on a stake. to the it next duty. and there put to death by the torturing process of crucifixion. and he was crucified for I don't know what crime. on which.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. but nothing short of the death of Jesus as a blasphemer (although his chief offence appears to have been his disclaimer of earthly sovereignty) would satisfy the angry mob. by Anatole France. Amidst their taunts and jeers he was taken to a place named Calvary. is still This tragic event. and put his hand to his A . do you remember this man ? Pontius Pilate knit his brow. he came from Nazareth.
" Both these statements Jesus wrote nothing himself. priesthood. Nazareth. and appeared to a faithful few of his disciples. heard them. and their life and attitude toward everything was shaped accordingly. therefore brethren. No. The earliest of these. Without sacred books." as his intimate followers called one believed that Jesus was the another. .' murmured : then after a ' he. They Messiah predicted in Daniel and some of the apocry" " phal writings. and they cherished certain logia or sayings of his which formed the basis of the first three Gospels.46 forehead PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. probably took the shape in which (some spurious verses at the end excepted) about 70 A. which tradition generally believed to be half a century later than Mark. had no other sacred books than those of the Old Testament.' " Jesus of On the third day after his death. I don't remember him. D. It seems likely that the importance of collecting the words of Jesus into any permanent form did not occur to those who had attributes to John. on the authority of the biographies which were compiled some years after the his death. these earliest disciples. gathered . that bearing the name it of we have Mark. or organization. whom the fate of their leader had driven into hiding for a time. because the belief in his speedy return was all-powerful among them. Jesus is said to have risen from the grave. The is fourth Gospel. On the fortieth day after his resurrection he is said to rest have ascended to heaven. like one who is searching his memory few moments of silence 'Jesus.
convert had been the Apostle Paul. sub- had been prudently granted by their Roman masters. " In the church of Jerusalem. tianity as a won He distinguished to the faith in the person of is the real founder of Chris- A more or less systematized creed. through his defeat of the narrower section headed by Peter. and all the development of dogma which followed are integral parts of the structure raised by him. would have compelled submit to the rite of all non-Jewish converts to circumcision. These formed a very impor- Roman Empire.in the onward career of the movement a division broke out among in the immediate disciples of Jesus which ended lasting rupture. known as those of the Dispersion. being scattered from Asia Minor to Egypt. The new teaching spread from Antioch to Alexandria and Rome." says Selden in his Table Talk sect of " (xiv). But early . . He conit from a local religion into a widespread This came about. who verted faith. had been long settled." From this went forth preachers of simple doctrine through the lands where Greekthat sacred city there speaking Jews. 47 themselves into groups for communion and worship.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. them certain privileges. at the start. a series of tol- erant measures securing ject to loyal behaviour. the Christians were but another Jews that did believe the Messias was come. As their racial tant element in the isolation and national hopes made them the least contented among the subject-peoples. and thence in all the lands washed by the Mediterranean.
as its Gnostic phases show. priceless and. in the wake of the dispersed Jews. who had been executed in the time of Tiberius. along the Medi- terranean seaboard. The author of that denomination was Christus. The chance. visiting. Tacitus. causing the destruction of magnificent buildings raised by Augustus. those detestable criminals who went by the name of Christians. as has been suggested. to put an fire end to the common by imputing the to others. Happily for the future of Chris- the early missionaries travelled westward. Pontius . a fierce fire broke out in Rome. tianity. communication between peoples followed the lines of least resistance. Judaism. as it was once oddly called. it might have been blended with Buddhism.~ 48 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Suspicion fell on Nero. a convert to talk. Had they travelled eastward. D. 64. become merged in Oriental mysticism. The story of progress ran smoothly till A. by the procurator. or. writing many years after the event. and of works of Greek art. according to " some authorities. unity of the Empire gave Christianity its Through the connection of Eurasia from the Euphrates to the Atlantic by magnificent roads. was instigated by his wife Poppaea Sabina. when we " " first hear of the Christians for by such name " " they had become known in profane history. in the sixty-fourth year of our era. an unscrupulous woman. with a refine- ment of punishment. tells how on the night of the 1 8th July. and he. and thus identified its fortunes became with the civilizing portion of mankind.
far as religious persecution went." and its adherents as guilty " of hatred to the human race. from its nature. a man might be- what he chose." Why should he care? Now." Tacitus goes on to describe Christianity as " a pestilent superstition. Their success among the lower classes had been rapid. and the result was to make them re- garded as anti-patriotic and anti-social. Broa'dly speaking. Chris- . 49 Pilate. first at they suffered this to the hands of Jews. Polytheism is." In Rome. seems strange. easy-going and tolerant. and not of superstition. so long as there was no open opposition to the authorized public worship. the Christians set their faces sternly. the or- dinary pagan did not care two straws whether his neighbour worshipped twenty gods or twenty-one. lieve gods on whose favour the safety of That done. Thereupon it was the binding duty religio of every citizen to pay due honour toleration. that vast Cosmopolis. the essential thing was that he should duly sacrifice " his pig. on tion." The indictment. In Greece a the worshipper could explain man " it any way he chose. to the protecting the State depended. against all this.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. but it has an explanaalthough the Christians were brutally murdered on the charge of arson. a national affair. might believe or disbelieve that the Mysteries taught the doctrine of immortality. the Roman note was Throughout the Empire religion was because it began and ended with the preservation of the State. So the face of it. the Empire intervening protect them.
But Christianity held aloof from the common social life. " " And so it came to pass that . for who would care to heap up wealth. dis- couraged marriage." when these imperilled the soul. it counselled avoidance of service in the army or acceptance of any public office. to strive for place or to pursue pleasure. expressed in such direct action as refusal to worship the guardian gods and the genius of the Emperor. This general at hand. Here there was no continuing city. was wholly due return of Jesus. it brought disunion into family life. to apply certain It sought it maxims of Jesus literally. or to search after what men called "wisdom. was deepened by ugly. although the old Mithraic religion had done well-nigh as much. and blocked the way to heaven? The prejudice created by this belief. although baseless. Therefore to give thought to the earthly and fleeting was folly and impiety. putting itself out of touch with the manifold activity of Rome.50 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. each the hope of a future Thus far. the end attitude to the belief that with the of the world was For Jesus had pare for foretold his second coming. all was to the good. and the earliest epistles of the apostles bade the faithful pre- it. for the kingdom of Christ was not of this world. citizenship was in heaven. it tianity levelled all distinctions: ter welcomed the mas: and his slave. rumours as to the cruel and immoral things done by the Christians at their secret meetings. the outcast woman as the spiritual and the pure it treated equal of man: it held out to life.
tianity Then. as Chris- came into nearer touch with the enfeebled remnants of Greek philosophy. too.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. indicate The object in how enthusiasts. and how. with the letters of the apostles. to be afterward called the held to New Testament (a collection embrace. discussions about . people called it became a proscribed to pursue its and persecuted religion. into one more or less com- plete collection. and became worldly in policy. with wholly changed fortunes. finally. tracing it thus far is to thus filled with an anti- worldly of spirit. the committal of the floating biographies of Jesus to written form. it would the more strongly assert supremacy over the reason. common it and that. 51 that Epictetus it Tacitus spoke of Christianity in the terms quoted. For intellectual activity would lead to inquiry into the claims and authority of the Church. all that it is needful for man to know). that the atheistic. was the thing to be proscribed. therefore. and their grouping. as itself power. would create a further barrier against intellectual activity. Further than this there is no need career until. and with other foreign influences shaping its dogmas. as the theory of inspiration became formulated. and inquiry. therefore. and Marcus Aurelius (who refers to only once in his Meditations) dismissed it with a scornful phrase. Then. knowledge. it we meet as a tolerated religion under a so-called Christian Emperor. would become and remain an arresting their religion gathered force against the advance of inquiry and.
and may I do to others as I would that they should " do to me And (Jowett's translation.52 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. statements the nature and limits of which might be delivered. and as Very the person of Christ God of Very God " the final appeal was. place him high among the sages of antiquity. words spoken by the King Nicocles when " You should be to others addressing his governors. it is easy to group together maxims which do not yield to the more famous examples in the Sermon on the Mount high Plato's as guides to conduct. Hence another on the barrier against Conflict has never arisen of Jesus. to the words of Jesus. as best they can with this. it is paralleled in those by Isocrates. The simple fluent creed of the early Christians took rigid form in " the subtleties of the Nicene Creed. became active. what you think I should be to you. and therefore incapable of error. ethical sayings making allowance for the impracticableness of a few." But if there was nothing new in what Jesus taught. so If they say that much of this as may be reported in the records of . expected from the place and age when they were They who hold that Jesus was God the Eternal. 483). Comparing their teaching with his. his belief in the mischievous delusions of his time. a contemporary of Plato. or as inspiration to " ideals. p. logically. Son may reconcile. The " golden rule " is anticipated by Thou shalt not take that which is mine. v. inquiry. which. there was freshConflict is waged only over ness in the method.
to Germany for the verdict. they throw the whole contents of the gospels into the melting-pot of criticism. and as re. and of the delivery of predictions to be thereafter fulfilled. the cos- mogonic and other legends are inspired." we learn that Jesus accepted the accuracy of the sacred writ- author of the Pentateuch ings of his people. the Church of Eng- Canon Driver. that he spoke of Moses as the that he referred to its legends as dealing with historical persons. " or borrowed from their neighbours. land. both of past events. incontrovertibly the actual historical truth in all records. " declaring. the Jews formed theories to account for the beginnings of the earth and man they either did this for themselves. porting actual events. it critical officials of We is need not indorsed by eminent Hebraists. documents stamped with the hall-mark of the centuries." and that of ". that " the theories current in Assyria and Phoenicia fragments have been preserved which exhibit parts of resemblance to the Bible narratives sufficient to war- rant the inference that both are derived from the same the cycle of traditions.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. All these beliefs are refuted by the go scholarship of to-day." as a " body of clergymen proclaimed re- cently. Professor of " Hebrew at Ox- ford. The matter might be pursued through the patriarchal age to the eve of the . says that like other people. his life 53 are spurious." If. therefore. so must also common original of these and their correspond- ing stories be inspired. Taking the narratives as we have them.
and. rules their lives. That Homer and which sivity." scholars place composition. in There heaven of unending is no surer index of the intellectual stage of any people than the degree which belief in the supernatural. and in a happiness for the good. who was permitted by Omnipotence. ment self Exodus. especially in the activity of supernatural agents. Buddha had founded a religion with when Western activity met Eastern pasthese. the existence of Abraham him" dissolving in the solution of the higher critiAs to the Pentateuch. the more detailed and famil- . that his. about the sixth and Jesus spoke of the earth as if it were flat. to set loose countless num- bers of evil spirits to work havoc on men and animals. would vainly compete. in the form in which centuries we have it older documents being blended therein fifth B. the larger number of its cism. Knowledge of the active speculations that went on centuries before his time on the Ionian seaboard. and aught else that had known the great world without. showing that. the Omnipotence against which he had rebelled. here also. The lower we descend. c. the mythical eleis dominant. Jesus also believed in a hell of eternal tor- ment for the wicked. were unto the Syrian teacher. and the most important among the heavenly bodies. that Plato had dis- coursed. moved Jesus believed in an arch-fiend. Virgil had sung.54 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. prevision of what secrets men would wrest from the stars centuries hence of neither did he dream.
" and it may be added that giving up belief in the devil is giving up belief in the atonement belief has stained the annals of the central doctrine of the Christian faith. as also. It is only amorphous form of that faith which." that he is might destroy the works of the other proofs of his divine ministry. for this follows. therefore. powers followed human mind " who have him the in ancient confessions of the faith. would the great Augustine. But they who abandon belief in maleficent demons and in witches. iar is the 55 of these agents. Here we are concerned only with the momentous fact that belief in demoniacal activity pervades the New Testament from beginning to end. denies by evasion. gave the warrant for the unspeakable cruelties with which that Christendom. to have cast out demons from reported. in beneficent agents. assumption of knowledge of the behaviour and of the nature of the places they haunt. John " was consistent when he wrote that Giving Wesley up the belief in witchcraft was in effect giving up the Bible. also. and modern books of anthropology. For " to this are such committed. as angels. mediaeval speculations on demonology. since greater of the that authority than all the . who came devil. come from or Of this. If Jesus. To this the early Christians would have subscribed: so. and who among . supply any number of examples. anaemic and boneless. and. who said that " nothing is to be accepted save is on the authority so would all of Scripture. land themselves in serious dilemma.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. lingering on.
the multi- form elements of which the Empire was made up philosophic and pagan being gradually absorbed by Christianity. to have permitted a crowd of the infernal agents to enter into a herd of swine. if he verily believed that he actually did these things and if it be true that the belief is a superstition limited to the ignorant or barbaric mind what value can be attached to any state. (2) in the assumed authority of Scripture as a full revelation of both earthly and heavenly things. the unity of the Empire secured Christianity its fortunate start. and theories of capricious gov- ernment of the universe sheltered and upheld. While. and. ment that Jesus world? is reported to have made about a spiritual Here then tians (i) in the attitude of the early Chrisall mundane affairs as of no moment compared with those affecting their souls' salvation. fice we have the words of Jesus three factors which suf- to explain why the great movement toward dis- covery of the orderly relations of phenomena was arrested for centuries. and toward (3) in the assumed infallibility of reported therein. " " possessed human beings. The adoption of pagan rites and customs. was an added cause of arrest of inquiry. largely The absorption . The break up of the Empire secured its supremacy. Christianity.56 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. of foreign ideas and practices by through the influence of Hellenic Jews. secured it acceptance among the different subject-peoples. as has been said. resting. in one case. .
in the person of the is the tenuous parody. Appeals to the Old Testament touched not the Greek as they did the Jewish Christian. in more or less regular federation. and the Canon of 5 . gave the great impulse to scientific inquiry. There " was no official priesthood." tianity The inchoate and mobile first during the three centuries gave both in- fluences pagan and philosophic their opportunity. as these did. That old Greek habit of asking questions. which. was as active as ever. dragged it to a lower level. no formulated set of doc- no Apostles' Creed. their disciples was the pride of the professors and of satisfied with the science of character of Chris- words. as has been seen.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. of seeking to reach the reason of things. no worship or apotheosis of Mary as the Mother of God. and by the expectation of his second coming. only overseers epis" for social purposes. no dogmas of baptismal regeneration or of the real presence. no wor- ship of saints or relics. it was the Greek influence more educated converts that shaped the dogmas of the Church and sought to blend them with the occult and mysterious elements " " in Oriental systems. by the acknowledgment of Christ as Lord. who made no claims kopoi to apostolic succession. tleties led to The " intrusion of philosophic sub- terms being mistaken for explanations: as Gibbon says. trines. 57 on a bedrock of barbarism. For long years the converts scattered throughout the Empire were linked together. of which modern Theosophy On the philosophic side.
The ultimate verdict. to quote Gibbon.58 the as it PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. pre- cedence. and which upon to decide which of were not. equipped the Christian religion for the conquest of the it Roman changing tion. an integral part of supernatural revelation. doctrines of the Trinity. human judgment took them were. attested world by by Revela- They mingled together the metaphysics of Platonism. to discuss subjects affecting the faith discipline of the several groups. was delivered by the Council of Carthage in the early part of the fifth century. and blended with foreign ideas. as occasion of required. of the Virgin Birth. which came Stoics. chosen for their special gifts " the grace of the truth. with the pregnant maxims of Jesus and tions. as a matter of course. There arose a school of Apologists. Strange in view of the assumed divine origin of the Gospels and Epistles. " who. New may seem itself Testament was as yet unsettled." These met. would be accorded to the overseer of the most important Christian society . and Among such. partly learnt methods of argument and interpretation from Philo. so far as the Western Church was concerned. of creed called fell for interpretation of and this obviously to the overseers or bishops. the doctrine of the Logos." the religious language of the Christian congregaThus the road was opened for additions to dogmatic theology. morality partly Platonic. founders of theology. The growing complexity it. into a philosophy. from the Stoic. and whatever else could be inferentially extracted from the Scriptures.
east of the Euphrates. And this applies. suppressed by Imperial edict. to the Empire's westernmost limits in Britain. Empire.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. in its turn. when and where now impossible. in whom. may be taken as a truism that in the cere- monies of the higher religions there are no inven- . To determine this or that custom or rite arose is indeed. Paganism might. Moreover. the course of development is not so easily traced. in the 59 thority. human tend- The first Christian disciples were Jews: and the ritual which they followed of ideas was the direct outcome common to all barbaric religions. stripped of all the verbiage about them as semiinspired successors of the apostles. of the bishop of Rome. say. without exaggeration. we know that a policy of adaptation and conciliation wisely governed the ruling minds of the Church. tradition. It however changed in name. and hence the prominence and aufrom an early period. On the pagan side. because the conditions for its we may adoption were present throughout in encies. but it had too much in common with the later forms of Christianity not to survive in fact. to the converts scattered from Edessa. In the simple and business-like act of his election as chairman of the gatherings lay the germ of the audacious and preposterous claims of the Papacy. there was deepbe seated superstition. so that rites certain of the pagan and ceremonies with which they came in contact in all parts of the Empire fitted in with custom. and desire. with stronger force. that it never arose at all.
and Dancing is and dancing about May-Poles. . Holy Water. Conyers Middleton. The carrying ' ' of the ' Popes by Switzers under a Canopie is a Relique of the Dithe carriage of vine Honours given to Csesar Images in Procession a Relique of the Greeks and ' . the priests. recognises the continuity of " ideas: mutato nomine tantum.' of . and we our Procession " about the Fields in the Rogation -week. But Hobbes.' and the Am>0eaxris of the Heathen surviving in the Canon' ization of Saints. and we have our Wakes answering to them. notablest of all. This fact sent thinkers like tions. ' Romans. Burton sees the mimicry as the of the " arch-deceiver in the strange sacraments. 'The Heathen had them also their Lustralis.60 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. we our fetching-in.' . that is to say. Aqua The Church Rome imitates also in their Holy Dayes. and dealers of in literary antiquities of the type Burton. only survivals. with the sagacity which might be expected of him. erection. Hobbes. They had their Bacchanalia. They their Saturnalia. They their Procession of Priapus. and. and we our Carnevalls and Shrove-tuesdays liberty of Servants. which have received astonishing confirmation in our day. They had their Procession called Ambarvalia. fices. Bishop Newton. ." and the sacri- Romanist missionaries to Tibet saw the parody of their rites in Buddhist temples. on the search after parallels. one kind of worship. Venus and Cupid diabolical same (Hobbes might have added Isis and Horus) appearing as the Virgin Mary and her Sonne.
and to notice the fopperies " and ridiculous ceremonies of the present Religion. the aspergillum or brush for the ceremony of sprinkling is carved. The use of holy water suggests numerAt the entrance to Pagan temples salt stood vases of holy liquid. on bas-reliefs." Since few read his book now-adays." Middleton soon found himself tive Heathen Rome. and. some of these ence goes far to explain may be cited. Anthony to be sprinkled (Middleton had his own " for about eighteenpence of our horses thus blest . ous parallels.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. because their preswhy the conglomerate re- ligion which Christianity had become was proof against ideas spurned alike by pagans and ecclesias" not tics. <5 r in his celebrated Letter Middleton examined the matter on the spot. In the annual festival of the benediction of horses. and from Rome gives numerous examples of "an exact CONFORMITY between POPERY and PAGANISM. 420). I. when the animals were sent to the convent of St. with a white-clad attendant on a priest holding a little chest or box in ble reminds his hand. Visiting the place for classical study. as priests of in the new Rome. a mixture of and common water. the surpliced boy waiting on the priest with the thuri- him of sculptures on ancient bas-reliefs representing heathen sacrifice." with its rituals of primiif handed down by an uninterrupted succession from the priests of old to the still in old Paganism. The churches transports smoak of the incense him to the temple of the " " Paphian Venus described by Virgil (^neid.
there is money ") the survival of a ceremony in the Circensian games. whose religion was at that time in the greatest vogue in Rome. was " thus addressed by a friend You. In the lamps and wax candles before the shrines of the Madonna and Saints he is reminded of a passage in Herodotus as to the use of Egyptian temples. but the to be abolished. surnamed the Atheist. no one custom of so fre" ." is Of which offerings. being found one day in a temple. do not you see here by this number of pictures how many people. who think the : gods take no care of human affairs. erance vouchsafed upon the vow of the donor. but quently mentioned by all their writers the most common of all offerings were pictures representing the history of the miraculous cure or deliv. whose chapels stood at the corners of the streets.) forbade the lighting of wax candles during the day in cemeteries lest the spirits of the saints should be disquieted. Diagoras. have been saved in . for the sake of their vows. the said of her blessed Virgin so sure always it to carry off the greatest share. truly says that " As custom was too deeply rooted for votive offerings.62 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Montaigne quotes in his Essay on Prognostications." Middleton tells the story from Cicero which. D. Middleton antiquity " is . not without covert sympathy. that may be truly what Juvenal says of the Goddess Isis. that the painters got their livelihood out of her. The Synod of Elviri (305 A. while we know that lamps to the Madonna took the place of those before lights in the the images of the Lares.
To this day the store is receiving additions." answered Diagoras. A draught of water from the basin near the bath. v) tells of the Horace (Odes. the altars on which are hung votive offerings. shipwrecked sailor who hung up temple of the his clothes as a thank-offering in the sea-god gilius. century. tells of the votive offerings. The sick crowd thither as of old they crowded into the temples of yEsculapius and Serapis. describing the well of Saint Winifred in Flintshire in the last century. nothing new under the sun. or a plunge in the bath itself. that some 1. Perhaps one of the most pathetic sights in Catholic churches. who had preserved him. tricked out in curious robes . is especially in out-of-the-way villages.500 years after Horace. the saint's feast-day is When held. for those are never painted who happen to be drowned. in the shape of crutches and other objects. "I see how it is. mothers bring their sick children as in Imperial Rome they took them to the Temple of Romulus and Remus. which were hung about it." There is I. Bk. rude daubs depict- ing the disease or danger from which the worshipper has been delivered. the afflicted gather to kiss the reliquary that holds her bones. Polydorus Verwho lived in the early part of the sixteenth is. As to the images. devoto offerings at scribes the classic custom of ex length. while Pennant the antiquary. is followed by prayers at the altar of the chapel which incloses the well.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. and got safe into harbour?" Yes. storms at " 63 sea.
Hecuba of Troy. which had turned black in the soil. Viar. Then. the Divine Mother of the Magna Mater. lineal descendant of Isis. of Heaven reminds him of Astarte or Mylitta. In other atgreat mother tributes of Mary. an overseer of highways. Middleton could not help recollecting the picture which old Homer draws of Q. how S. by ." while his wonder at the Loretto " " Queen of Heaven with a face as " black as a Negus reminds him of the reference in " Baruch to the idols black with the perpetual smoak image of the " of lamps fessor and incense. or Maria. These were usually of wood. misinterpretation of a boundary stone. Cybele. He gives amusing examples of myths and misreadings " " through which certain saints have a place in the Roman Calendar. The Queen Middleton correctly sees those of the old. became S.64 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. prostrating herself before the miraculous Image of Pallas. " and gewgaws. Lucina. He apparently knew nothing of the under the strange confusion by which Buddha appears therein title of Saint Josaphat but he tells how. Veronica secured canonization through a blunder over the words Vera Icon : still more droll. ProefectusVia- rum. there sur- vive those of Venus. Such a black " Madonna " was found near Grenoble." refers to In his Hibbert Lectures Pro- Rhys churches dedicated to Notre Dame in virtue of legends of discovery of images of the Virgin on the spot. " " the of Oriental cults. in the commune of La Zouche. in the titles of the new deities. how hagi- ology includes both a mountain and a mantle! .
it that our divisions. 6$ The marks of hands or feet on rocks. 97- Middleton. and com- posed of. when the temple at Gnatia sought to persuade the frankincense used to dissolve and melt " fire miraculously without the help of 100). like those into must be remembered which the strata of real detachment. lay the unsuspected prehistoric deposits of barbaric ideas which are coincident with. There is no The difference between former and present methods of research is that nowadays we have gone further down for discovery of the common . suggests the descent of Numa's shield " from the clouds ". that of the weeping Madonna the statue of Apollo. and those of his school. thought that they were near primary formations when they struck on these suggestive classic or pagan parallels to Christian belief and custom. said to be made by the apparition of some saint or angel.. are artificial. far be- neath. When. (Sat. Januarius is obviously paralleled in the incidents named by Horace on priests of the " him that his journey to Brundusium. we borrow an illustration from geology. however.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. But in truth they had probed a comparatively recent layer. v. since. while the periodical miracle of the liquefaction of the blood of St. the globe are separated. which came from heaven. which Livy says wept for three successive days and nights. call " to mind the impression of Hercules' feet on a stone in Scythia". the picture of the Virgin. man's earliest speculations about himself and his surroundings.
and as afterward slain. in their efficacy. and other-.66 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. For example. as the mass of examples collected by Mr. lacked that knowledge of the origin of sacramental rites which study of barbaric customs has since supplied. god is his own sacrifice. the " central idea " of which at " is the concepearly tion of the slain god. ideas are compounded. and civilized materials of which barbaric. the we connect it rite of baptism is explained when with barbaric lustrations and water- worship generally. and in perhaps the striking form. The fundamental idea of this sacramental act. In Mr. of the shows perplexity when watching the elevation host at mass. the passage in this mode of incarnation to the custom of eating bread sacramentally being obvious. in the attribution of like qualities to things superficially resembling one an- hence belief active form in which takes what may be generally termed magic. as also that of the Eucharist by reference to sacrificial feasts in honour of the gods. he as corn-spirit. as insisted man The most is. Frazer fur- . pagan. himself a clergyman. upon by Mr. feasts at which they were held to be both the eaters and the eaten. They arise in the comparison which exists in the savage mind between the living and the non-living. Frazer' s Golden He Bough. both the incarnation and stage in his speculations the death being for the benefit of mankind. or in plant or animal. killed in the person of his representative. Middleton. Frazer." he shows what an formulated the conception of deity incarnated in himself.
it is a solemn sacrament. . the corn is beings. or to add what further parallels are suggested in the belief that Dionysus was slain. " So the barall baric mind reasons." It is. The Church Church Trent: is of Rome. Thus the drink- ing of wine in the rites of a vine-god like Dionysus is not an act of revelry. In proof of the underlying continuity of that idea two witnesses Catholic and Protestant may be cited. cal is 67 its that by eating a thing physi- and mental qualities are acquired. when he is is a vine-god. What has to be emphasized is. And when the god is a corn-god. Frazer: By eating the body of the god he shares in the god's attributes and powers. however. the juice of the grape his blood. that in the quotation just given we have transubstantiation clearly anticipated as the barbaric idea of eating the god. thus defines the term of the Council of transubstantiation in the " If any one shall say that in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist there remains the substance of bread and wine together with the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. and Canon in this the Greek at one therewith.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. and descended into Hades to bring up his mother Semele from the dead. and so by eating the bread the real and drinking the wine the worshipper partakes of body and blood of his god. by the way. needless to point out that the same explanation applies to the rites attaching to Demeter. his To proper body. ther goes to show. rose again. This. and extends the notion to quote Mr. perhaps.
' ' And my ' ' lized. is High " section. to sing Thou art with us now.68 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. and the note intimated that those who had not.' and those who had not. officiating minister (Hawarden Church). 1895). the species of bread and wine alone remaining which conversion the Catholic Church most fittingly calls Transubstantiation let him be anathema. Gladstone's son rector. communicated should sing 'with instead of 'in. from the church which Mr. This hymn opened with the following couplet : Jesu. mighty Saviour. " When the point was reached for the communicants to partake. is Whether. and shall deny that wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body. through the medium of newspaper. was arrested by an asterisk referring to a The word in.e. cards containing a hymn to be sung after Communion were distributed among the congregation. the cult be barbaric or civiwe find theory and practice identical. it is interesting to note. Rector." In the gestures denoting sacerdotal benediction we . therefore. supplies the following illustration of the position of its this. the " a well-known British Weekly and of (2Qth August. and in which the distinguished statesman himself often reads the lessons: " A few Sundays ago 8 o'clock celebration of Holy Com- munion. The god a " eaten so that the communicant thereby becomes partaker of the divine nature. those who had taken the consecrated elements to sing Thou art in us now.' in the second line. and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood. Thou art in us now. was printed in italics.' " attention footnote.' i." The Church a letter to of England.
as well as the earth beneath. add- . the soul being. with having filled the world with more gods than they had overthrown in the pagan temples. Well might Jews and Moslems re- proach the Christians. saints. the peopling of the heavens to the able above. In the offering of prayers for the dead. while we have Erasmus. or guardian. The modern spiritualist who describes apparitions as having the is " consistency of cigar-smoke. there are the manifold forms of that great cult of the this departed which is found throughout the world. in the canonisation and intercession of and saints.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. The in- haling of the last breath of the dying Roman by his nearest kinsman has parallel in the breathing of the risen Jesus on his disciples that they might receive the Holy Ghost (John xx. on a bishop at the service of consecration there was the survival of belief in trans- ference of spiritual qualities. and offerings at the shrines of and at the graves of martyrs. in his Encomium Moriae. whether good or bad. have probably an old form of averting the in the act of breathing Qg evil eye. as they did down to the eighth century. with an innumercompany of spiritual beings influencing the destinies of men. as lan- guage evidences. because the element common whole is animistic. in the prayers the Virgin 22). well-nigh universally identified with breath. when reciting the names and functions of saints." one with the Congo negroes who leave the house of the dead unswept for a time lest the dust should injure the delicate substance of the ghost. To may be linked the belief in angels.
is Second Advent which now somewhat casual belief in the is a member of the widespread group wherein human hopes fix eyes on the return there that Arthur and Olger Dansk. the vitality of which has springs too deep in abolished. the old animism per- vades the higher creeds. the Celtic and pre-Celtic paganism remained . or of the skull-bones of his ancestor of saints or martyrs which the savage carries about with him as a charm. practically. All changes in popular belief have been. Vainamoinen and Quetzalcoatl." beliefs is Closely related to this group of the adoration of relics. of Charlemagne and Barbarossa. and. more remotely." because among the two hundred and eighty-odd sects scheduled in Whitaker's Almanack the curious in such inquiries will note only three distinctive bodies of Adventists. the is reference of which to pagan prototypes but one step toward their ultimate explanation in nature- worship of . of the lost Marko of Servia and the of long-sleeping heroes. We speak of it as " casual. remain superficial. for ex- ample. savage dances and other forms of excitation. of of lost King Sebastian. In our own island. so many gods have we made. Then there is the long list of church festivals. or read of the frag- we ments which lie beneath every Catholic altar. there are the processions which are the suc- cessors of Corybantic frenzies. whether human nature to be wholly the hair of some carry about us a lock from dead loved one.JO ing that " PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. and. as many things as we wish.
THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. during the submergence of Christianity under waves of barbaric invasion. while. The eagle penetra- tion of Gibbon detected this persistent element at work when he described the sequel forts of to the futile ef- Theodosius to extirpate paganism. The bodies of prophets and apostles were discovered the strangest coincidences. unleavened by the old took back to them. But the old names were not displaced. the worship of the one Sol whose birthday at the winter solstice be- came Christ (see p. were identified with certain dii majores of the Roman pantheon. in virtue of common attributes as ele- mental nature-deities. The of it an- cestor worship which lay at the core of much took shape among the Christianized pagans in the wor- ship of martyrs and in the scramble after their relics. The legions Rome the gods which they brought with of Mithra The names " and Serapis occur on that " numerous invictus tablets. and the deae matres equated with the gracious or malevolent spirits of the indigenous faith. while the foundations of a temple to the other have been unearthed at York. and transported to the by churches by the Tiber and the Bosphorus. 71 Roman religion. aries effect Neither did the earlier Christian mission- any organic change in popular beliefs. there were infused into the old religion kindred elements from oversea which gave it yet more vigorous life. The chief Celtic gods. 42) the anniversary of the birth of had ranged as far west as South Wales and Northumberland. and although the supply of these more important remains .
tianity. in less than a century. must. Peter." re- marks Gibbon (Decline and Fall. in the bosom of ChrisThe religion of Constantine achieved. whereas the total cubic volume " It of all the known " relics is but five millions. ingeniously be confessed that the ministers of the Catholic Church imitated the profane model which they were impotent to destroy." on a topic to which prominence has been given because it brings into fuller arts of their Enough has been said . some compensation. but the victors themselves were insensibly sub- dued by the vanquished rivals. since ingenuity has computed that this must have contained at least one hundred and eighty million cubic millesuffering Christ fore the metres. The catacombs and yielded be- any number of the bodies of martyrs. end of chap. as of filings from the chains of S. but it was silenced benumerous fragments of his cross. there was no limit to the production of relics of their person or belongings. Rome huge manufactory to meet the demands for wonder-working relics from every part of Christendom. xxviii). Lawrence. was soon exhausted. and from the gridiron of S.72 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. The most respectable bishops had persuaded themselves that the ig- norant rustics would more cheerfully renounce the superstitions of paganism if they found some resemblance. the final conquest of the Roman Empire. A sceptical feeling might be aroused at the a came claims of a dozen abbeys to possession of the veritable crown of thorns wherewith the majesty of the was mocked.
and to its fortunate contact with the enter- prising peoples to whom is the civilization of Europe and the New World 2. 400-A. From Augustine to Lord Bacon. of lower cults same intrusion of the rites which marks other adHence. due. 1600. that history demands a brief notice. yield notable names. relief 73 the fact that in a religion for which its apolo" to the end of gists claim divine origin and guidance the world " we have and customs vanced faiths. accords with all that might be predicted of a religion whose success was due to its early escape from the narrow confines of Judaism. A. D. . and the crysYet one prominent actor in tallizing of the other. because of the dogma influence which his teaching wielded from the fifth to the fifteenth centuries. science and superstition being the deadly foes.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. the explanation of that hostile attitude toward inquiry and that dread of its results which Christianity down to modern times. in Africa. D. While the intrusion of corrupting elements presents diffi- marked culties which the theory of the supernatural history it of Christianity alone creates. The annals of the churches along whose northern shores Christianity had spread early and rapidly. The foregoing slight outline of the causes which operated for centuries against the freedom of the human mind will render it needless to follow the history of the development of Christian polity and the temporalizing of the one.
been created on the have originated till fifth and sixth days. as has been of Aristotle. however. mice. This greatest of the Fathers of the Church sought. but we are here concerned only with so much of it as bears on an attempt to graft the development theory on the dogma of special creation. excepted man from the operation of secondary causes. With this." Not the seventeenth century did the experiments of Redi refute a doctrine which had held part of the biological field for above two thousand years. but none so distinguished as that of Augustine. but. into line with Christian theology. but may later from putrefying matter. It explained to him the existence of apparently purflies. and held that his . Bishop of Hippo from 395 to 430 A. to bring the system the greatest of ancient naturalists. etc. the doctrine of spontaneous generation. poseless creatures. D. " may not have says. action. do modern Catholic biologists.74 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. His range of study was wellnigh as wide as that of the famous Stagirite. as already noted. he argued with certain powers the operation of left free that God had endowed matter which of self-development natural causes in the production of plants and animals. Of course Augustine." he " Cerfrogs. remarked already. Augustine. believed that the cepting the Old Testament cosmogony as a revelaworld was created out of nothing. this initial paradox accepted. he held. as tain very small animals. with preceding philosophers and with his fellowtheologians. and as which still has adherents.
when Thomas Aquinas. the spirit which reads hidden meanings in Homer." as a Di- vine warrant for the slaughter of heretics. soul 75 was created by the Augustine's real. Creator. concessions therefore. direct intervention of the are. he shows that allegorizing spirit which was manifest " in Greece a thousand years earlier. find more seeming than and. while the ghastly application of symbolical exegetics is seen in his citation of the " words of Jesus. Then. It is in of mysterious types esoteric such allegorical vein that Augus- tine explains the outside and inside pitching of the ark as typifying the safety of the Church from the leaking-in of heresy. that if God had placed any races there. mostly fantastic or illiterate cabalists. in Horace. shall meet with no other such commanding We figure in Church history till passed. To Augustine the air was full of devils who are the cause of all diseases of Christians. too. in the hands of present- day Gnostics. and in Omar Khayyam. and also. but although that period marks of the Church from her central position.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. he was not ahead of the illusions of his age. witnessed changes in her fortune through the in- . they could not see Christ descending at his second coming. and which. Compel them to come in." appears. we him denying the existence of the antipodes on the ground that Scripture is silent about them." In other words. nine hundred years have " the Angel of the no advance it Schools. moreover. converts the plain narratives of Old and New and Testa- ments into vehicles symbols.
into sects quarrelling over the nature of the Person of Christ. Perhaps there are few events in history more impressive than the conversion of the wild and ignorant Arab tribes of the seventh century from stone- worship to monotheism. him. as these last-named were. stripped of all subtleties. in fanatic impulse. the causes of the wranglings of the other. able Khalifs who succeeded was carried from East to West. the leader to preach a new faith whose one was the unity of God. The hitherto untamed nomads became the eager instruments of the prophet. These. may. and that of the for which heaven. and he had become acquainted with the narrowness of the one. perhaps. and with movement. effects of vast importance in the revival and spread of Greek culture from the Tigris to the It is not easy. neither does the inGuadalquivir. to discover the which led Mohammed. The series of conquests which followed had also. have impelled him to start a crusade the mandate he. trusion of a strange people into her territory and sanctuaries. the flag of Islam till within one hun- dred years of the flight of Mohammed from Mecca . riven. Large numbers of Jews and Christians had settled in Arabia long before his time. believed came from The result is well known.76 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. and the fetichism of his fellow-countrymen. as an indirect and unfore- seen result. Under his leadership. creed. quiry of the fall special impulses within our present purpose.
when blood was spilt like water in a conflict stirred by squabbles between Latin and Greek Christians over at possession of the key of the Church of the Nativity Bethlehem. the holy city had been taken by Chosroes. large settled there. seven years after the prophets' death. Since the loss of Greek freethat dom. The Arabian conquest of Persia followed The turn of Egypt soon came. and the a spurious relic carried off by the Persian These places have been. notably under the Ptolemies. renowned place had become.). (622 A. of the propagandism of Christianity among whom. the sacred buildings raised over the venerated tomb had been burned. and resurrection of Jesus.) 77 it waved from the Indian Ocean to the With the conquest of Syria there was achieved one of the greatest and most momentous of Atlantic. D.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. Only a few years before (614 A. the chief home of science and philosophy. the Hellenized Jews. burial. and the seiz- ure of sites sanctified to Christians by association with the crucifixion. triumphs in the capture of Jerusalem. as of Greeks. as it were. and the decay of intellectual life at Athens. D. salem under Titus to that of the Crimean war. the that of city of Alexandria being taken in 640. In the Church of the Holy Sepulchre still these sectaries are other's throats diers. kept from flying at one anof by the muskets Mohammedan sol- Syria. the cockpit of Christendom from the time of the siege of Jerucross king. it Through numbers had was also the birthplace .
the fountain whence welled the controversies whose logomachies were the gossip of the streets of Constantinople and the cause of bloody persecution. fourteen years earlier. In the fair and fertile their isle of Andalusia " aroused from his luxurious the Gothic king Roderick was life in Toledo to lead his in- army in gallant. in 718. but vain.. After a few years' pause. therefore. the north and northwestern portions excepted. the Saracens (Ar. So rapid was their advance that in six years they had subdued the whole of Spain. attempt to repel the fidel invaders.78 of PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. which arrested it against Celt. dogmatic theology. and. They captured and burnt Carthage. as. another famous centre of Christianity. and Goth. the torrent of Moham- medan conquest was first checked. with the . of Saracenic if wars and their lies destructive work. in- cluded the burning of the remnants of the vast " revealed dogma is always Alexandrian library. Enough. walls of their advance in Western Europe. as a religion. and " then crossed over to Spain. Only before the Tours did the invaders meet with a rebuff from Charles Martel and his Franks." and Islam has ever been a worse foe to science than Christianity. which. orientals) resumed conquering march. sharkiin. in a more momentous defeat before Constantinople by Leo III. tradition not. however. for the hardy Basque mountaineers maintained their independence against the Arabs. A opposed to the free research that may contradict it. Its association. as they had maintained Roman.
who number the famous Haroun al-Raschid among them. the repute of whose teachers Aristotle. Galen. and eastward from Transoxiana. but unphilosophic. " Under nontolerant. therefore. the ruthless Arab. and philosophy But with the advent of Abbaside Khalifs. and Ptolemy were textbooks in the colleges. says Renan." free thought developed. the rule of those Khalifs. and into that Arabic was the language of the conquerors. Greek philosophy and science were rendered. was as wholly accidental as the story of it is interesting. Persia had life. tongue. where religions were examined in the light of reason. Euclid. that city became also the Oxford of her time. Situated on the high road of Oriental com- merce. along which travelled foreign ideas and foreign culture. the Motecallenim or all nonreluctant persecutors. Jew. Under of its the Sassanian kings. . brought to Baghdad and Naishapur (dear to lovers " " of old Khayyam) students westward from Spain. is only a name. there came revival of the widest toleration. Then came and science were the eclipsed. poetic. and consequent return of as the seat of Baghdad arose empire. and translations of the writings of the Indian sages completed the eclecticism of that enlightened monarch. become an active centre of intellectual reaching the climax Augustan age in the reign of Chosroes. intellectual activity.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. Greek. " Arab " philosophy. " " disputants held debates. and Christian alike had welcome at his court. jg renaissance of knowledge.
mosques beautified Seville. was carried Through into Western Europe. By the latter half of the tenth century. well-paved and the constant use of the bath by the " infidel contrasted with the saintly filth and rags which were the pride of flesh-mortifying devotees and the out- streets. algebra. chemistry. " ward and odorous signs of their religion. and medicine. Seven hundred years before there was a public lamp in London. of astronomy. manufactures and agriculture were encouraged. one hundred and fifty years after the translation of Aristotle into Arabic. commentaries on whom became the chief work of scholars. which last-named city the farstill famed Alhamra or Red Fortress overlooks. The pages . whose head stands the great name of these a handful of Jews and Moslems knowledge of Greek science. and when Paris was a town of swampy roadways bordered by windowless dwellings. Cor- dova had miles of well-lighted. Spain had become no mean rival of Baghdad and Cairo. and lovely and stately palaces and ledo." began and ended with the study of Aristotle. at Averroes.80 It PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. it zeal of a small band of thinkers. has been well described as in a Semitic thought expressed a system of Greek tongue. and modified " by Oriental influences patronage of the more called into existence liberal princes. Toand Granada. Schools were founded. Cordova. colleges to which the Girton girls of the period could repair to learn mathematics and history were set up by lady principals. by the and kept alive In the by the main.
That was about the middle of the twelfth century. be condemned by the followers of Jesus. since that becoming suswhich approved " to the followers of Mohammed must. the influence of the " Arab" tell in science. Averand other scholars. Si of our dictionaries evidence in familiar mathematical and chemical terms. the deep reverence in which the Stagirite was held by his Arabian commentators ultimately led to itself his pect" by the Christians. as Hallam says.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. It forms no part of our story to rival how feuds between dynasties and rival sects of Islam. enabled Christianity to recover lost ground. put an end to Moorish rule Before that event. and dress. Hence came reaction. and recourse to the Scriptures as sole guide to secular as well as sacred knowledge. war. by the translation of the works of Avicenna. to philosophy had been diffused through Christendom roes. or added one unequivocal truth to the domain of philosophy. ipso facto. becoming more acute as time went on. also appeared in Latin dress. and in the words "admiral" and " chemise ". in the capture of in." So far as the scanty records tell (for we may . and. re" had not course to a method which. untied a single knot. detachment of any branch of knowledge from theology being a thing undreamed of. a knowledge of Greek in 1492. three cen- The turies earlier. translated into Arabic who had been when some Aristotle. Granada Spain. into Latin. in the names of the principal "fixed" stars.
chemy. ecclesiastical frowns and threats. and knew the principles on which those instruments are made. and of the components of gunIf he did not invent spectacles. nor how many none seemed possessed either thinkers toiled in secret and in dread). in Somerset. and thence to Paris. But. whence he afterward removed to Oxford.82 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. one notable exception occurred in the person of Roger Bacon. He was born in 1214 at Ilchester. sometimes called Friar Bacon in virtue of belonging to the order of Franciscans. or the powder. his That this remarkable and many-sided man. classic and Arabic scholar. To supplant it was not dreamed of. as the following extract from his Opus Majus shows: "We can place transparent bodies . of courage or desire to supplement the revealed word by examination into things themselves. in the middle of the thirteenth century. He has been credited with a number of intitle ventions. perhaps. he was skilled in optics. or fell never into oblivion. mathematician. know how much was under suppressed. has not a nals of science is more recognised place strange. al- though the doubt in nowise impairs the greatness He shared the current belief in alof his name. although it in the an- is. and natural phi- losopher. his to which is however doubtful. partly explained by the fact that his writings were not reissued for more than three centuries after his death. but made a number istry pointing to his of experiments in chem- knowledge of the properties of the various gases. microscope and telescope.
and thus from an incredible distance we may read the smallest letters. As a mathematician he " on the application of this first of all the all sciences". this was tantanay more. . laid him open to the charge of black magic. and suggested a reform of the mer the following the then unknown poet-astronoof Naishapur. in the hands of a theology thus possessed. very existence of Satan. under any angle we please. on his insistence and his enforcement by practice." He knew the " wisdom of the ancients " in the cata- loguing of the calendar stars. and as disposing us to. g-j in such a form and position between our eyes and other objects that the rays shall be refracted and bent toward any place we please. on the necessity of this precept laid stress of experiment. But he believed in astrology. indeed." His experiments. of being in league with the devil. by reason of the greatness of the angle under which they appear. and may number the smallest particles of sand. or at a distance. as "preceding others. so that we shall see the object near at hand. to of votaries among title Roger Bacon's abiding fame rests." became an instrument of awful torture to mankind. of the So. them. despite certain encour- mount to a denial of the activity. and which has no small number ourselves to this day. in other words. however. that bastard science which from remotest times had ruled life of man.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. since in denial of magic only aggravated his ecclesiastical ears. Roger Bacon's crime. " This. both from their nature and the seclusion in which they were made.
Commerce." finally secured the sup- port of the Spanish king. and rebuffs from other " states. 1492. Their schemes were justified by reports of land indications brought by seamen who had passed through the " Pillars of Hercules " to the Atlantic. whence tradition says he emerged. thrown into prison. for whose information he wrote his Opus Majus. on the death of that potentate. in his excel" though he knew it not. he was. Payne says. after ten years. Trade with the East was divided between Genoa and Venice.. and the Genoese. in Mr. alarmed growing success of the Venetians. sighted the fringes of the On nth of October he New World. resolved to try to reach India from the west. only to die. for three ships the New World exchange and pro- visions for twelve months.84 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. in his scientific agement work from an old friend who afterward became Pope Clement IV. the more so as period of discoveries need not be the we approach momentous in their ultimate effect upon opinions which now possess only the value attaching to the history of discredited conceptions of the universe. and believing . The theories of mediaeval schoolmen a monoto- nous record of unprogressive ideas scheduled here. more than scientific curiosity. Columbus. These at the cities were rivals." as lent History of America. offering. after clerical opposition. The sequel is well known. that the earth is gave the impetus to the discovery a globe. and sailed from Cadiz on the 3d of August.
the substance. he reached the Ladrone Islands where. 1522. since his ambition was to sail round the world. Lucar. brought the San Vittoria name of happy omen to anchor at St. . he was voyage. and as is the shadow. Magellan entered the vast ocean whose calm surface caused him the Pacific.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. set sail in 1497. the story of a circumnavigated globe. on 7th of September. a Portuguese. yet he comforted himself when he considered that in the eclipses of the moon is the shadow cast of the earth is round. that he 85 from Spain to India. Sebastian d'Eleano. near Seville. Twentytwo years later. and thus course. and after rounding the Cape of killed. Ferdinand Magellan started on a voyage more famous than that of Columbus. Following Columbus. His chief lieutenant. gave the name West Indies to the island-group. America itself had had sailed been discovered by roving Norsemen five hundred years before. too. continued the Good Hope. or of savages." Doubling Cape Horn through to call it the straits that bear his name. Brought. For " though the Church hath evermore from Holy Writ affirmed that the earth should be a widespread plain bordered by the waters. Vasco de Gama. such. but the fact was buried in Icelandic tradition. in like manner. of and taking a southerly Good Hope. and after terrible sufferings. doubled the Cape complete the chain of proof against the theory of its flatness. and of new groups of stars never seen under northern skies. either at the hands of a mutinous crew.
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
the time being, from the earth
to the heavens.
The Church had
from the blow struck
at her authority
when another dealt, and that by an ecclesiastic, Copernicus, Canon of Frauenburg, in Prussia. But before pursuing this, some reference
to the revolt against the Church of Rome, which is the great event of the sixteenth century, is necessary,
only to inquire whether the the Reformation justified its
movement known as name as freeing the
from theological thraldom.
as were the areas which
Far-reaching covered and the effects
wrought, its quarrel with the Church of not because of that Church's attitude to-
of thought. On the Continent it was a protest of nobler minds against the corruptions
by the Papacy;
securing popular support by anti-sacerdotal character, and its appeal to naBut, both
political in origin,
tional irritation against foreign control.
here and abroad,
sought mending rather than end" not to vary in any jot from the faith Catholic." ing; It disputed the claim of the Church to be the sole
interpreter of Scripture,
and contended that such was the right and duty of the indiBut it would not admit the right of the
individual to call in question the authority of the
Bible itself: to that book alone must a man go for knowledge of things temporal as of things spiritual. So that the Reformation was but an exchange of
THE ARREST OF INQUIRY.
fetters, or, as
Huxley happily puts
rust off the chains
Learning perished where Luther reigned," Baid Erasmus, and in proof of it we find the Reformer agreeing with his coadjutor, Melanchthon, in
permitting no tampering with the written
Copernicus notwithstanding, they had no doubt that the earth was fixed and that sun and stars travelled
because the Bible said
one of the early Lutheran converts, in his Commentary on Genesis, declared that wrong opinions
about the creation as narrated
the promises of Christ.
for the schoolmen,
book would Wherein
locusts, caterpillars, frogs,
son he denounced as the
devil's bride," Aristotle is
prince of darkness, horrid impostor, public and professed liar, beast, and twice execrable." Consistently enough, Luther believed "
vehemently in a personal devil, and in witches; would myself burn them," he says, " even as it is
demoniacal possession was a
fact clear as
written in the Bible that the priests stoned offenders."
noonday: idiocy, lunacy, epilepsy and all other mental and nervous disorders were due to it. Hence, a movement whose intent appeared to be the freeing of the
bolts that imprisoned
riveted more tightly the arresting the physical ex-
planation of mental diseases and that curative treat-
of the countless services
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
of science to suffering
descent of Christ into
which modern research
has shown to be a variant of an Orphic legend of
the underworld, was a real event, Jesus going thither
he might conquer Satan in a hand-to-hand
Therefore, freedom of thought, as
bitterest foe in Luther, although, in his con" demnation of works," and his fanatical dogma of " man's justification by faith alone," which made
place in the Canon, he unwittingly drove in the thin end of the rationalist wedge. The Reformers had hedged the canonical books with
reject the Epistle of
James as one
theories of verbal inspiration
which extended even
to the punctuation of the sentences.
dered intelligent study of the Bible impossible, and
did grievous injury to a collection of writings of vast historical value, and of abiding interest as records
man's primitive speculations and
But Luther's application
of the right of
to the omission or addition of this
or that book into a canon which had been closed by a Council of the Church, surrendered the whole position, since there
where the thing might
years before he ven-
his theory public.
system, which assumed a fixed earth with sun, moon, and stars revolving above it, had held the field for
THE ARREST OF INQUIRY.
It accorded with about fourteen hundred years. it was adopted by the Church and, moreScripture
was confirmed by the which still remains, and
senses, the correcwill
long remain, a
condition of intellectual advance.
then, that Copernicus hesitated to broach a theory
thus supported, or that,
forth in tentative
form as a possible explanation
more in accord with the phenomena. A preface, presumably by a friendly hand, commended the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies to Pope Paul
as in previous times others
been allowed the privilege of feigning what
they chose in order to explain the phenomena," Co" had conceived that he might take the libpernicus
erty of trying whether,
on the supposition of the was possible to find better explana-
tions than the ancient ones of the revolutions of the
the hands of
copy of the book was placed in author only a few hours before his
death on 23d of May, 1543. " " This upstart astrologer," this fool
the sun to stand
us that Joshua commanded " and not the earth these are
was, therefore, beyond the grip of But a substitute was forth-
coming. Giordano Bruno, a Dominican monk, had added to certain heterodox beliefs the heresy of Copernicanism, which he publicly taught from Oxford
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
For these cumulative crimes he was im-
prisoned and, after two years, condemned to be put " to death as mercifully as possible and without the shedding of his blood," a Catholic euphemism for
burning a man alive. The murder was committed Rome on I7th of February, 1600.
The year 1543 marks an epoch in biology as in astronomy. As shown in the researches of Galen, an Alexandrian physician of the second century,
there had been
studying the struc-
ture of the lower animals, but, fortified both
by tradiand by prejudice, the Church refused to permit dissection of the human body, and in the latter part
of the thirteenth century, Boniface VIII. issued a
Bull of the major excommunication against offendProhibition, as usual, led to evasion, and Ve-
resorted to various devices to procure
the bodies of criminals being easiest to obtain. The end justified the means, as he was able to correct
certain errors of Galen,
and to give the
the old legend, based
of Eve, that
upon the myth
of the creation
has one rib less than woman.
was among the discoveries announced
when he was only
twenty-eight years of age. The book fell under the of the Church because Vesalius gave no support
to the belief in an indestructible bone, nucleus of
the resurrection body, in man. The belief had, no doubt, near relation to that of the Jews in the os
THE ARREST OF INQUIRY.
and may remind us
of Descartes' fanciful loca-
tion of the soul in the minute cone-like part of the
as the conarium, or pineal gland.
baseless charge of attempting the dissection of
a living subject, the Inquisition haled Vesalius to " and would have put him to death as mercibut for the intervention of
fully as possible,"
Charles V. of Spain, to
Vesalius had been
October, 1564, from a
grimage taken, presumably, as atonement for his
alleged offence, he
was shipwrecked on the coast
Zante, and died of exhaustion.
and tendencies of anatomy awoke active opposition from the Church, the work of men of the type of Gesner, the eminent Swiss naturalist, and of
discoveries in astronomy and
Caesalpino, professor of botany at Padua, passed No dogma was endangered by the
But when a
couple of generations after the death of Copernicus had passed, the Inquisition found a second victim
who was born
at Pisa in 1564.
After spending some years in mechanical and mathematical pursuits, he began a series of observations
confirmation of the Copernican theory, of the truth which he had been convinced in early life. With
the aid of a rude telescope,
he discovered the
of Jupiter; the
phases of Venus and Mars; mountains and val-
leys in the
viz. that when the old man rose from his knees. he explained the Nought occurred to work on the Solar movements of the earth and in a of the heavenly bodies according to Copernicus.: two nostrils. in the heavens. Through that convenient medium which the title implies. as rare ex- pen for the faggot. Galileo makes the defender of the Copernican theory an easy victor. probably fictitious. and threats of " ous personal examination. and for this he was brought before the Inquisition in 1633. On the appearance of that book the authorities contented themselves with a caution to the author. the reasoning advanced by one Sizzi against the existence of Jupiter's " There are seven windows moons. in the words " e pur si muove. may be cited. through which the air is admitted to the tabernacle of the body. he muttered his conviction that the earth moves. as in macrocosm. After a tedious trial. condemned to abjure all had taught. the when they substituted. given to animals in the domicile of the head. or .92 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION." As a sample of the arguments used by the ecclesiastics ception." a euphemism for tortoo specious to deture. There is a story. two -a ears. But action followed his supplemental Dialogue on the Coperni- can and Ptolemaic Systems. and one mouth. So. composed the luminous band countless stars which known as the Milky Way. till. two eyes." he was. disturb his observations Spots. despite the plea ceive that he rigor" had merely put the pros and cons as between the that he rival theories. since it was first told in 1789.
and. known as the Inductive. But the inductive method was no invention of Bacon's. although they made no discoveries. to refer in detail to the contributions of the more speculative philosophers. it science. do not exist. can exercise no influence over the earth. Harvey's momentous discov- . undervalued Greek science. wherever obof servation or testing of a thing preceded speculation about it. Mars and Saturn. Jupiter and Venus. not possible. advocated those methods of research and directions of inquiry which made the discoveries possible. moreover." In this brief summary it of is the attitude of the if Church toward were so. two unpropitious. and. who. Moreover. which it were tedious to enumerate. two luminaries. therefore. as with his greater namesake. nothing Copernican theory. Lord Bacon. therefore.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. be useless. and would. 93 great world. and either knew or ignored. examination and comparison of any group of connected facts to the relation is them to some general principle. Among these a prominent name is that of Lord Bacon. whose system of philosophy. of course. planets lites is we gather that the number of necessarily seven. proceeds from the collection. The universal thus explained by the particular. From these and many other phenomena of Nature. he argued against the of. the satel- are invisible to the naked eye. there the Baconian system had its application. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent. there are two favourable stars. and it is not needful. the sun and moon.
published in 1755. in the roll of illustrious men prevision came. to whom But. phenomena into God. are but attributes. His short life fell within the longer span of Newton's. God. as Locke. saw that the discoveries of Galileo meant that the remotest parts of the universe were governed by mechanical laws. had glimpses goodly land which they were not themselves to enter. of this influence on an equally remarkable man. mind and matter to one phenomenon. of a Hebrew leader. These and others. none have better claim to everlasting in his remembrance than Immanuel Kant. anticipates that hypothesis of the origin of the present universe which. Herder. perhaps. whose his strange subjection to the theological influences of age is seen in this immortal interpreter of the laws of the universe wasting his later years on an attempt to interpret unfulfilled prophecy. associated with the succeeding . namely.94 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. of the For he Theory Heavens. of whom matter and spirit. " one who. a good Catholic. extension and thought. like the great and Schelling. Leibnitz. Benedict Spinoza reduced the Cartesian analysis of Spinoza. whom the Jesuits charged with Atheism. has no mean tribute in his us. our own bodily frame. a man who combined theory with observation. while those of Harvey meant that the same laws presided over the operations of that portion of the world which is nearest to namely." The greatness man." in " Huxley's words. A more illustrious name than his is that of Rene Descartes. ery of the circulation of the blood.
and that too in connection with their that mode of generation. by the application of the principle of the mechanism of Nature. and by the suppression and development of others. as shown in the following stuff to the highest types extract. far as they no science can exist.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. The agreement of so many kinds of animals in a certain plan of structure. though feeble. due to derivation . that here perhaps some results may be obtained. but also in common the arrangement of the other parts so that a wonderfully simple typical form. has. without which. This analogy of forms (in so seem to have been produced in accordance with a common prototype. of 95 names Laplace and Herschel. by the shortening or lengthening of some parts. might be able to produce an immense variety of species gives us a ray of hope. Then. which seems to be visible not only in their skeletons. under corrections furnished by modern physics. in fact. common acceptance among Kant us. of is life foresees the theory of the development " : from formless It desirable to examine the great domain of organized beings by means of a methodical comparative anatomy. in order to discover whether we may not find in them something resembling a system. so we may not be compelled to stop short with a mere consideration of forms as they are which gives no insight into their generation and need not despair of gaining a full insight into this department of Nature. notwithstanding their great variety) strengthens the supposition that they have an actual blood-relationship.
the whole apparatus of Nature seems to have been dewhich resulted rived according to mechanical laws (such as those in the production of crystals) yet this apparatus. we feel the play of a freer. man. But it would seem that the archaeologist of Nature is at liberty to regard the great Family of creatures (for as a Family we must conceive it. namely. a supposition which is arrived at by observation of the graduated approximation of one class of animals to another. From this raw matter and its forces. ignorance of. and extending down to the polyps. if the above-mentioned continu- ous and connected relationship has a real foundation) as having sprung from their immediate results of her earliest revolutions. The tolerance that approaches is due to no surrender of its main position by dogmatic theology." In our arrival at the age of these seers. and arriving finally at raw matter.from all the laws of to or conjectured by him. prehensible to us. or wilful blindness to. is so incom. the lowest stage of Nature observable by us. but to that larger perception of the variety and complexity of life. and from these even down to mosses and lichens. that we feel ourselves compelled to conceive for it a different principle. The demon- . common parent.96 from a PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. as seen in organic beings. which is the secret of the survival of rigid opinion. beginning with the one in which the principle of purposiveness seems to be most conspicuous. their mechanisms known judging. a lull in the miasmatic currents that bring intolerance on their wings. purer air.
Animism. however. the growing conception of inter-relation between the lowest and the highest life-forms. the supernature as part of Nature a thing un- dreamed of. to tributes. above all. to the minds of widest breadth. which every advance in knowledge conand fostered the free play of the Foreign as yet. in . and. was the conception of the inclusion of MAN himself in the universal order.THE ARREST OF INQUIRY. send- ing wretched victims to the stake on the evidence of conscientious witnesses. the discovery of America. Duality Nature overruled by supernature was the unaltered note. that Concerning Human Understanding. the idea of a Cosmos. and but little of its vigour. with the wise and learned. the slow but sure acceptance of the Copernican theory. 97 stration of the earth's roundness. Nor could it be otherwise while the still belief in diabolical agencies held the field. flatter myself." " I says Hume. and. the root of all per- sonification. had lost none essential character. and with the concurrence of humane its judges. an unbroken order. if just. one of a series of attacks which." Hume not overrate the force of the blow which he dealt at snpernaturalism. will. justified intellect. of whether of good or evil. consequently. discovered an argument of a like nature (he have is refer- ring to Archbishop Tillotson's argument on Transubstantiation) which. will kind of superbe useful certainly did as long as the world endures. be an everlasting check to all stitious delusion. in the in his " opening Inquiry I words of the essay upon Miracles.
belief in the miraculous events. and changed its tactics from aggressive to defensive. on which the fundamental tenets of Christianity are based. But none the less is it true that the superstitious delusions " '' against which he planted his logical artillery were killed neither by argument Delusion and error do not perish by controversial warfare.98 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. is slowly perishing belief in miracles. altered: the ished belief in witchcraft. it dies. carried the France and of the war into the camp enemy. therefore. and ascension of Jesus. . too. Thus. thus. The atmosphere is organism can neither respond nor respire. has wholly perare unable to adapt themselves. resurrection. Britain. and in which lies so largely the secret of its long hostility to knowledge. and. save where lurks the ignorance which is its breath of life. the incarnation. with this. They perish under the slow and silent operation of changes to which they nor by evidence.
D. Anatomy. Navigation. Staticks. Malpighi examined minute life-forms and the structure of or- gans under the microscope. back again. v. as Physick. yet she surely comes Prologue to Collected Essays. other. like Nature. THE RENASCENCE OF Though science. Boyle inquired into the law of the compressibility of gases. Magneticks. a famous divine. ecclesiastical or HUXLEY. SCIENCE. It is true Dr. although a Dr. Chymicks. one of the first members. may be driven out with a fork. had limits." THE that exercise of a more tolerant spirit. worked at hydrodynamics. Wallis. and their cultivation at home and abroad." Torricelli Regardless of South and such as agreed with him. 1600 " III. especially declared that " matters of " " theology were " precluded ": the business being to discourse and consider of philosophical inquiries and such as related thereunto. to its which reference has been made. Newton theorized on 09 . with the state of these studies. ONWARDS.PART A. vol. and discovered the principle of the barometer. Astronomy. Geometry. denounced the Royal Society (founded 1645) as an irreligious body. South.and Natural Experiments. Ray and Willughby classified plants and animals.
the nature of light. In the various departments of the inorganic universe the earth was the last to become subject of scientific research. and the foundations of the science of comparative anat- omy. in more powerful compeers. as in study of the organic universe. predicted the return of comets. has no distinct place in the subjects dealt with Society at the start. After more than two thousand years. Halley estimated the sun's distance. the Ionian philosophers come to their own " again. its by the Royal That science was Geology. a ultimate scope.'' But the old spirit of resistance was aroused when. and the more or less detailed account of the process of creation furnished in the book of Genesis sufficed to arrest curiosity. to prove a far science destined. and Roemer measured its speed. Hunter dissected specimens.IOO PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. it will be noticed. and observed the transits of Venus laid and Mercury. and many another let illustrious worker con" tributed to the world's stock of knowledge " without or hindrance." for in all this matters of theology were precluded. It dissolvent of dogma than any of its true shape and seems strange that the discovery of the earth's movements was not sooner followed by investigation into her contents. Xenoph- . man ex- cluded himself " till science compelled his inclusion. after a long lapse of time. inquiry was revived in a branch of science which. but the old ideas" of special creation remained unaffected by these and other discoveries.
the one. writing near the to be trusted. which. or they are the effect of water. have reached some in the sound conclusions about the action of water changes of land and sea areas. Avicenna. such as might occur during a ent causes. allied and explains the causes and eleven hundred years pass before we find any explanation of like rational character supplied. is Christian era. Augustus. Pythagoras. the strata being of different kinds. IO I five centuries B. Describing the counhe notes their various of earthquakes features. but leave the other intact. But we are on surer ground when we meet the geographer Strabo. who lived in the reign of tries in which he travelled. who lived before him. if in rocks. This was furnished by the Arabian phenomena. violent earthquake. Ovid. all It would require a long period of time for such changes to be accomplished. But that water has been the main cause of . whose theory of the origin of mountains says that is the more marvellous when we re- member what intellectual darkness surrounded him. c. some hard. during which the mountains themselves might be somewhat diminished in size. cutting for itself a new route. Then philosopher. has denuded the valleys. Most of the emi- nences of the earth have had this latter origin. anes of Colophon has been referred to as arriving.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. some The winds and waters disintegrate soft. differ- He " mountains may be due to two Either they are effects of upheavals of the crust of the earth. at a true explanation of the imprints of plants and animals may..
Here and there. Hence the renewal of struggle between the Christian Church and Science. is these effects mains tains " of aquatic (cf. and by the potter Bernard Palissy. and gives rational- interpretation of the appearance of the star of Bethlehem. years. Such was that of La Peyrere who. have never been closed again. once reopened. p. in 1655. 76). Varied as were the theories of the causes which wrought manifold changes on its surface. . at first.IO 2 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. they agreed in demanding a far longer time-history than the Church was gists willing to allow. The was as a sealed earlier chapters of its history. the earth for more than a hundred book to man. and of the darkness at the Crucifixion. proved by the existence of fossil reand other animals on many moun- Osborn's From the Greeks to Darwin. but thence onward. A similar explanation of fossils was given by the engineer-artist Leonardo de Vinci in the fifteenth century. the narrative was a myth. a sceptical voice had been raised in denial of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. in the sixteenth century. For not only does he doubt whether Moses had any hand in the writings attributed to him: he rejects the orthodox view of suffering and death as the penalties of istic Adam's disobedience. in bygone days. If the reasoning of the geoloin Genesis was sound. published an instalment of a work in which he anticipated what is nowadays accepted. waged. but what then was akin to blasphemy to utter. over the six days of the Creation.
. ' and clouds in the full same instant. practically. A seventeenth century divine. recanted his opinions. Archbishop Usher famous calculation as to the time elapsing Dr. in six days of twentyfour hours each. But La Peyrere became a 103 Roman Catholic. that profound and exhaustive study of the Scriptures. centre and circumference. suggested. Lightfoot. Thus interpreted. heaven and earth.. in a that work published 1753. was becoming one Astruc. gives an amusing example of the application of Usher's method in detail. White. nearer the time when controversy on Scriptures the historical character of the active. Dr. who. of course. by^the way.' of water. both living and non-living. was explicit. Moses under divine Genesis that The statement its in God made the universe and contents. in his important Warfare of Science with Theology. But. the five books included under that name. as the result of scholar." logian. computed that created by the Trinity on 23d October. between the creation and the birth of Christ. The same theoat nine oclock in the morning. in Moses may have used older materials his compilation of the earlier parts of the Pentateuch. 4004 B.C.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. were believed to have been written by authority.Chancellor of " man was Cambridge University. and. declared. " were created all together.a French in physician. Then. was a very eminent Hebrew following the interpretation of the great " Fathers of the Church. as their plain made his meaning warranted. Vice.
" or. but failing this. to the influ- were said to be due to a " " ence of the heavenly bodies. as the late eminent naturalist. They in the formative quality " soil. on which the Paul- were baseless. in Paris burnt the gists. or Faculty books of the geolo- of Theology." contained in these words: "The waters of the sea have produced the . story of the The Deluge was held to furnish suf- ficing explanation of the organic remains yielded by the rocks. save the right and obvious one. which was declared trary to the creed of the Church. and to discredit was to undermine the authority of the Scriptures from Genesis to the Apocalypse. seriously suggested in his whimsical book Omphalos: an Attempt to untie the Geological Knot. the famous naturalist. Philip Gosse. to a lapidific juice". they were but simulacra wherewith a mocking Deity rebuked the curiosity of man. banished their authors. to its "plastic virtue". therefore. the statements in the Old Testament. in the case of Buffon. " " to the fermentation of fatty matter ". because it was essential to support some theory mains to rebut the evidence supplied by re- of animals as to the existence of death in fall the world before the of Adam. or that it saw in geology a deadlier foe than astronomy had ine reasoning rested. Every explanation. had its defenders. that theology was up in arms. The Sorbonne.104 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Otherwise. a multitude of fantastic theories were at hand to explain the fossils. No wonder. and. condemned him to re" contract the awful heresy. these seemed to be in ages past.
Saint Jerome. will leave dry new continents like those which we inhabit. had pointed to the now Wesley and of earthquakes. and the sea successively prevailing over the land. the. an unvarying seand of the fossils imbedded in them. the waters of the heavens." since before Adam's sions or eruptions ruffled the calm transgression. they used hurled at for delivering means that denunciation supplied them over to Satan." So the old man lished his recantation: repeated the submission of Galileo. cracked and crumpled rocks as proof of divine anger: " sin the moral cause others saw in whatever their natural cause might be. reducing all to a level. living in the fourth century." That I abandon everything in my book was in the year 1751. arguments drawn from a world the accursed of God levelled at them. Meanwhile. revealing. both as to order of time fact. If English theologians could all not deliver heretics of the type of Buffon to the secular arm. and generally all which may be contrary to the narrative of Moses. IO 5 mountains and valleys of the land. the probing of the earth's crust went on. metamorphosed rocks.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. amidst all the seeming confusion of distorted and quence of strata. and pub" I declare that I had no in- tention to contradict the text of Scripture. that I believe most firmly all therein related about the creation. will at last deliver the whole land over to the sea. Epithets were them. and matter of respecting the formation of the earth. no convulof Paradise. .
and whatever seemed contradictory was due to misapprehension either of the natural fact. and ending with narrative the creation of man. so theologians argued. But although the story of the creation might be clothed. when logians sought was some to be no longer resisted. It was suggested that perhaps these did not mean the seventh part of a week. that there could be aught else than harmony between the divine works and the writings which were assumed to be of divine origin. Different causes were assigned for the vast changes ranging over vast periods. So. It was impossible. as so exalted and moving a theme warranted. and that if the Mosaic was regarded as a poetic revelation of the succession of phenomena. more consistently. But there was no millions diversity of opinion concerning the exten- sion of the earth's time-history and life-history to on millions this of years. Scripture would be found to have anticipated or revealed what science confirms. theo- basis of compromise on such non-fundamental points as the six days of creation. in poetic form. that of the fall of Adam and of the drowning .106 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Science could not contradict revelation. beginning with the general development of order out of chaos. or to misreading of the written word. seeing. one school believing in the action of volcanic and such like catastrophic agents. or eons. in present operations the ex- planation of the causes of past changes. or something equally elastic. another in the action of aqueous agents. but periods.
must be taken in all its appalling.of mastodon and mammoth were " actually hung up in churches as evidence that " ! there were giants in those days Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire tells of one Henrion. the With candour as commendable Reverend Professor Driver. from whom quotation has been made already. as in the But to parley with science is Moreover. literalness. 107 of his descendants. the narrative of Genesis i. turning up the arti" " cle Flood. Confirmation of the Deluge story was found in the fossil shells on high mountain tops. fatal to theology. creates an impression at vari" ance with the facts revealed by science all ef. admits that "read without prejudice or bias.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. there were the huge bones in proof. while as for the giants of antediluvian times. forts at reconciliation " being only different modes Gene- of obliterating the characteristic features of . William Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (published in 1863) wherein the reader. who published a book in 1718 giving the height of Adam as one hundred and twenty-three feet nine inches. eight persons excepted. volve the cause they support in ridicule may be left to refute themselves. flood as it derived." and thence Deluge. Noah being of rather less stature. arguments which in- amusing example supplied by Dr. Some of these relics. And while theology was hesitating. rare." is referred to to " Noah is is " original of archaeology produced the Chaldaean the legend whence the story of the . and of Eve as one hundred and eighteen feet nine inches.
and of its relation to climatology. as a science. Then. comparative anatomy and palaeontology owe a vast debt to Cuvier's results. the other. unity. applied themselves to the classifying and naming of plants and animals. save in scattered hints of inter-relation between species." While the ground in favour of the literal interwas being contested. for. the theory of their immutability was dominant until forty years ago. while inverte- . an invading force.I0 8 sis. geography. the modern conception of biology. was advancing in the shape of the science of Biology. and of reading into it a view which it does not express. represented by Linnaeus and his school. examined into structure and func- Anatomy made clear the machinery: physiology the work which it did. which occur from the time of Lord Bacon onward. represented by Cuvier and tion. and geology. came growing perception of their But only to a few came gleams of that unity as proof of common descent of plant and animal. and the conditions under which the work was done. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. are as largely rooted in the labours cal of Buffon. The workers therein fall into two classes: the one. through comparison of corresponding organs and their functions in various life-forms. nomenclature have largely grown out of the work of Linnaeus. his school. Four men form the chief vanguard of the biologi" Modern classificatory method and movement. that had been gathering strength with the pretation of Genesis years.
His opinions. As has been . the main results of biology up to the early years of this century are to be found in. and less observant of general principles. dying in 1788. haps. son of a Lutheran pastor. were given in a tentative. in Sweden. 109 brate zoology and the revival of the idea of Evolution are intimately dependent on the results of the work of Lamarck. namely. he departed but slightly " from the plan with which he started.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE." Linnaeus. the works of these men. whom he survived ten years. reck- oning as many species as issued in pairs " from the Almighty fiat. or spring out of. conjoined the reason why the larger question of the fixity of constructive. throughout his working life. questioning fashion. born on his father's estate in Burgundy* in the same year as Linnaeus. In other words. its formulation was possible only to a mind intent on minute and accurate detail. Hence. species entered not into his purview. the work of Linnaeus not interpretative. so that where ecclesiastical censure fell. retreat was easier. perto the theological ideas then current. In brief. modified. born at . a system which advance in knowledge has since Based on external resemblances." and. Not so Buffon. had barely passed his twenty-fifth year before laying the ground-plan of the system of classification which bears his name. in 1707. Roeshult. To him each plant and animal retained the impress of the Creative was hand that had shaped " it in the beginning. clashing as they did with orthodox creeds.
or rudimentary structures. or rather. the thing cannot be. by food. contrary or favour- But able. his convictions Then. are of no service to it. hinting at a possible common ancestor of horse and ass. and which. by the how many prolonged influences of climate. he was not which martyrs are made. parts of which it cannot make any of other animals. and to those who read between the lines there was given a key wherewith to unlock the door to the . But. all the bones of which are perfectly formed. use. of pretence at inquiry. Perhaps he that the ultimate victory of his opinions was sufassured to make self-sacrifice needless." he writes with an eye on the Sorbonne when. " the pig does not appear to have been formed upon an original. not by direct assault. toes. and noted. as warrant of this. Nature is far from subjecting herself to final causes in the formation of her creatures." showing he says. he says. by adit. he slyly adds that since the Bible teaches the contrary.HO PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. He was no believer in the perma- nent stability of species. his convictions ficiently under cover are clear enough. nevertheless. since it is a compound has evidently useless parts. of the stuff of felt seen in his submission to the Sorbonne. are no longer what they formerly were. as on the non-fixity of species. by the favours or disfavours of Nature. " of them. special. and of ape and man. and perfect it plan. being perfected or degenerated by the great changes in land and sea. Thus he attacked covertly. further. the otherwise unexplained presence of aborted For example.
of ideas. naturalist was the most stimulating and suggestive There comes of the eighteenth century. His observations Buffon and others for the influence of . Darwin made the heroic metre. the De rerum Natura. and some Derby. in which stereotyped removing to Since Lucretius. as But both the prose work of Zoonomia and the poem The Temple to notice as the lished after the author's death in 1802) Nature (pubhave claim at matured expression of conclusions which the clear-sighted. near Newark. and makes clear that their author had the root of the matter and reading. con- sequently. the hospitals at London and Edinburgh. is not to be named in the same breath. solution of IIT many biological problems. in 1731. for form the poetry of his time rhetorical descriptions of the stateliness of diction. the vehicle of amours of flowers and the evolution of the thumb. The Loves of the Plants. ridiculed in the Loves of the Triangles in the AntiJacobin. no scientific writer had years. mtfs Krause's Life and Study of the Works of ErasDarwin supplies an excellent outline of the contents of books which are now rarely taken down from the shelves. between him and Lamarck. thoughtful.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. the distin- guished grandfather of Charles Darwin. put his cosmogonic speculations into verse until Dr. and withal. at Lichfield. ultimately was cast. and majesty of movement. he walked settled. Born for at Eton. Buffon. in him. both in order of time and sequence Erasmus Darwin. eccentric doctor had arrived in the closing years of his life.
" this extract The concluding words of make remarkable approach to the modlife ern theory of the origin of in the complex jelly- . in all and production of monsters. He saw that this theory wholly failed to account for the existence of abnormal forms. the changes . further. of his life The substance argument " is in support of a " : physical basis of as follows When we revolve in our minds the metamorphosis of animals. and sheep. of gradations be- tween living things. produced by artificial cultivation. as in the breeds of horses. as seen especially by men of different occupations. as from the tadpole to the frog secondly. and the hares and partridges of northern climates becoming white in winter. as in warm climates being covered with hair instead of wool. when. and other features inconsistent " with the doctrine of let lions be. as in the crossing of species fourth.112 is PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. apparent in his writings. dogs. when we observe the essential unity of plan warm-blooded animals we are led to con- clude that they have been alike produced from a similar living filament. thirdly. we observe the changes of structure prohabit. led him to reject the current belief in the separate creation of species. or the changes produced by arti- duced by ficial mutilation and prenatal influences. the changes pro- duced by conditions of climate and the sheep of of season. and there were lions." notion " of His shrewd comment on the preformation development has been quoted (p. of adaptations of the structure of organs to their work. 20).
and indicate that he is not yet fully adapted to the of man erect position. in which. in his excellent monograph on Charles natural selection Darwin. further. the opposing muscle brought the thumb against the tips of the fingers. " Grant Allen. Darwin shows that there is scarcely a side of the great theory of Evolution which has escaped his notice or suggestive little comment. vetius to the effect " to this law of or- He that quotes Buffon and Hel- many features in the anat- omy point to a former quadrupedal position. that. like i\$ protoplasm." live in these days of fuller knowledge of agents of variation may detect the minus in all foregoing speculations. nuclein or nucleoAnd. and many families of these animals long before other animals of them. shall we conjecture that one and the same kind of living fila- ment is and has been the cause of all organic life?" Nor does he make any exception ganic development. And a rapid run through the later writings of Dr. man may have arisen from a single family of monkeys. Erasmus Darwin further re" As the earth and ocean were probably peopled with vegetable productions long before the existence of animals. our interest is increased in the thought of their near approach to the cardinal discovery. or. on this. says that the theory of was the only cardinal one in the evolutionary system on which Erasmus Darwin did not actually forestall . marks : some call it. as plasm. and that this muscle gradually While we who increased in size by use in successive generations.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. accidentally.
followed the catastrophic annihilations of and animals. the discovery of Malthus had to be collated with the speculations of Buffon. For its perception. what amounts to the same thing. Hilaire in the Museum of Natural History at Paris. but an injury resulting from a practical joke cut short his career as a soldier. a series of special creations which. in 1744. " rendering " the eminent service of arousing attention to the probability of all change in the organic.114 his full PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. more famous and greater namesake. and ultimately became a colleague of Cuvier and Geoffroy St. because his important work in the reconstruction of skeletons of long extinct animals laid the foundation of palaeontology. and not of miraculous interLamarck was born at Bezantin. in Picar- Intended for the Church. or." In the Historical Sketch on the Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species. his researches told against his tenets. prior plants he held. he chose the army. . in which occupation he secured leifor his favourite pursuit of natural history. as well as in the inorganic world. sure banker's clerk. position. He then became a dy. Although orthodox by conviction. Through Buffon's influence he procured a civil appointment. he refers to first Lamarck as " the man whose conclusions on the subject excited much attention. Of Cuvier it will here suffice to say that he remained to the end of his life a believer in special creation. which Darwin prefixed to his book." being the result of law.
He earth's development. Life tends by its inherent forces to increase ." adds " is a purely physical Lamarck. " will 115 says Haeckel. argued that the course of the and also of all life upon it. change in he sums up the causes of organic evo- He action of the surroundings as agents living things. or what will happen in the future. and not interrupted by violent revoluIn this he followed Buffon and Hutton. lution in the following propositions: i." generation. was tions. as an inter- related organism. like man mammals." This is " modern geology. believed in a form of spontaneous Rejecting Buffon's theory of the direct of. himself being descended from apeFor the Aristotelian mechanical figure its of life as a ladder." He taught that in the beginnings of life only the very simplest and lowest animals and plants came into existence. argues that order to understand what had taken place in the past.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. All its phenomena depend on mechanical. and as the philosophi- cal foundation of the whole science of Biology. phenomenon. we have but to observe what the is going on in the present. physical. with the more appropriate detached steps. and keynote of chemical causes which are inherent in the nature of matter itself. he substituted figure of a tree. continuous. those of more complex structure developing from these. in his Theory of the Earth. To Lamarck. always belong the immortal glory of having for the first time worked out the Theory of Descent as an independent scientific theory of the first order. Buf" in fon. Life.
provoked ridicule. volume of each living body and its of all its parts up to a limit determined 2. owing to among repeated efforts to elongate themselves and to pass through narrow spaces. third propositions were illusby examples which have. with good reason. but having taken up : the earth and concealing bushes. useless. The legless con- dition of the serpent which. The development is proporto off- tion to their 4. Lamarck accounts for the long neck of the giraffe by that organ being continually The second and trated stretched out to reach the leaves at the tree-tops. their bodies. New wants in animals give rise to of these organs new movein ments which produce organs. is " thus explained by Lamarck Snakes sprang from reptiles with four extremities. for the webbed feet of aquatic animals by the outstretching of the membranes between the toes in swimming. by own needs.H6 the PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Since long feet would have been very and short . and for the erect position of man by the constant efforts of his ape-like ancestors to keep upright. in the legend of the Gar- den of Eden. New developments are transmitted spring. for the long tongue of the ant-eater or the woodpecker by these creatures protruding it to get at food in channel or crevice. employment. have acquired a considerable the habit of moving along themselves length out of all proportion to their width. is accounted for on moral grounds. 3.
Lamarck. passed away three years later. which themof Lamarck refers to the efforts of the creatures selves. who never heard of him. has placed his speculations in the museum biological curiosities. Both Cuvier. died in 1829. This burning question between Weismann and his opponents. was then a believer although. at when Darwin was an undergraduate Cambridge. of wavering type in the fixity of species." The discovery of an efficient cause of modifications. and Goethe. But . involving the serious till problem of heredity. neglected. a work destined to assist in paving the way for the removal of one difficulty attending the solution of the theory of the origin of species. but sharp controversy rages to-day over the question raised in Lamarck's fourth proposition. The year following his death. As Lyell. and blind in his old age. like a few others of his time. will remain unsettled a long series of observations supply material for judgment. the vast period of time for the life-history of the globe which that theory de- mands. namely.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. the transmission of characters acquired by the parent during its lifetime to the offspring. although they were originally part of the plan of organization in these animals. however. feet 117 their would have been incapable which has finally of moving bodies. he had other aims in view than those to which his book contributed. caused them to totally dis- appear. poor. who ridiculed him. Lyell published his Principles of Geology. there resulted a cessation of use of these parts. namely.
About this period Von Baer. and support new theories. elled the length who trav- England." of action laid Hugh " Miller. mapping out the sequence of the rocks. a theologian study- Following the theories of uniformity down by Hutton. by and breadth of Buffon. and men. lions. He was A there crept unnoticed into the world a treatise. one among others. Of this. and that out tween them. William Smith.H8 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. not being. lizards. Lyell demonstrated in detail that the formation and features of the earth's still crust are explained by the operation of causes active. however. unwittingly. independently each. collecting evidence which would help to demolish old ideas. by one Patrick Matthew. on Naval Timber and Arboriculture. who wrote as follows in 1811 no good physiologist who has not been struck. as Herbert Spencer says of ing geology. he wrote with an open mind. showed that creatures so unlike one another in their adult state as fishes. each working at different branches of research. as of a still earlier anticipation. and by that industrious surveyor. more presently. under which unexciting title Darwin's theory was anticipated. incidentally. in examining the embryos of animals. by the observation that the original form of all organisms is one and the same. resemble one another so closely in the earlier stages of their development that no differences can be detected be- But Von Baer was himself anticipated " There is by Meckel. year after the Principles of Geology appeared. and tabulating the fossils special to each stratum. : .
" were the result modify their structure as circumstances required. the book created a sensation which died away only some years ." " " Although now referred to only as marking time in the history of the theory of Evolution. nine years before Von Mohl told plasm. "from the simplest and oldest. Fol- lowing his researches. and most recent. of this ng the lowest as well as the highest. In botany Conrad Sprengel. through the permanent forms of the former as transi" (Osborn's From the Greeks to Darwin.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. up of an inherent impulse imparted by the Almighty both to advance them from the several grades and to the highest " Organisms. tory stages p. in which the origin and movements of the solar system were explained as determined by uniform laws." This was the once famous Vestiges of Creation. acknowledged after his death as the work of Robert Chambers. had shown the work fected by insects in the fertilization of plants. and Sir William Hooker traced their habits and geographical distribution. one form." the story of the building-up of life from a seemingly structureless jelly. and sapping the foundations of religion. a book appeared which critics of the time charged with " poisoning the fountains of science. 212). themselves the expression of Divine power. who belongs ef- to the eighteenth century. Robert Brown made clear the mode of the development of plants. Von Mohl discovered that material basis " of both plant and animal which he named protoIn 1844. are developed in such a manner that the latter pass all.
" when. For these rough stone workmanship. would " " sapping of the foundations it. Darwin remarks upon it after its publication. though none then knew have admitted it. in his Historical Sketch that although displaying earlier editions little accurate " in the knowledge and a great it want of scientific knowledge." Three years after the Vestiges. and went state far to refute the theories of his paradisiacal 23 October. races of tools and weapons. to com- plete the work of preparation effected by the dis- coveries now briefly outlined. near Abbeville. being of human evidenced the existence of savage men in Europe in a dim and dateless past. in removing prejudice. for countless was disturbing much besides. 95). 4004 B. makes clear the indestructibility of both matter and motion. according to Dr. Then. more when M. c. disturbing flint on that memorable " knives and spearheads. and in thus preparing the al- ground for the reception of analogous views. in a . there was. there appeared. under the name of the Conservation of Energy. Lightfoot's reckoning (see While the pickaxe.. Adam was created. in p. that had lain ages. Boucher de Perthes exflint or knowing the fact.I2O PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. in Picardy. English and German philosophers were formulating the imposing theory which. hibited some rudely-shaped and gravel implements which undisturbed in the had been found deposits of sand at intervals in hitherto old river beds Somme valley. did excellent service in this country in calling attention to the subject. of orthodox belief.
ten millions of varieties have been produced. as not adequately supported by facts.000 species. some 2.000. . as varieties are being prois it or most likely that duced still? . are born to a given Like belief. Even could the supporters of the origi- Development Hypothesis merely show that the nation of species by the process of modification is conceivable. this. in which the fol- lowing striking passage occurs: "Those who cavalierly reject the Theory of Evolution. in its issue of 2Oth of March. an article by Herbert Spencer on the Development Hypothesis. estimate the number on the earth. seem quite to forget that their own theory is the majority of men who supported by no facts at all. they demand belief. .000 species (see Carpenter). and of the other.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. Here we find. the Leader. at not less than ten millions. of the one kind (according to Humboldt) some 320. we may safely of species that have existed. due to change of circumstances. which is the most rational theory about these ten millions of species? Is it most likely and are existing. the most rigorous proof of any adverse but assume that their own needs none. 1852. But they can do much more than They can show that the process of modification 9 . scattered over the globe. Well. vegetable and animal organisms numbering. that there have been ten millions of special creations? by continual modifications. and if to these we add the table species that have numbers of animal and vegebecome extinct. \2\ now defunct newspaper. they would be in a better position than their opponents.
and the loss of aptitude that begins practice ceases ually gratified. They can show that the degrees of difference so produced are often. by the middle of the present century. They can show. of men. They can show that in successive generations these changes . varieties of condition which geo- logical records imply. as in dogs. continue. such alterations have taken place." This quotation shows. is has effected. moral. and effecting. in all organisms subject to modifying influences. an kind they assign as the cause of these specific influence which. how.122 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. according to the use made of And it are all explicable on this same principle. bodily. . decided changes . in time. greater than those on which distinctions of species are in other cases founded. action. domesticated animals. the circumstances demand produce marked changes an influence which. or intellectual. does. until ultimately the the natural ones. any amount of change. would produce in the millions of years. new conditions become They can show that in cultivated and in the several races plants. to all and under the great appearance. when the strengthening of passions habit- and the weakening of those habitually curbed the development of every faculty. too. that the changes daily taking long place in ourselves the facility that attends practice. though slow in if difits it. thus they can show that throughout all organic nature there is at work a modifying influence of the ferences. as perhaps no other reference might show. science was trembling on the verge of dis- .
A. apart from it. Spencer speaks.THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. each into its place like the pieces of a child's puzzle map. could not have been secured. . I800. D. covery of that " 123 modifying influence " of which Mr. That discovery made clear how all that had preceded it not only contributed thereto. When the relation of the whole became manifest. LEADING A. D. the several parts fell to. 800 TO NAME. MEN OF SCIENCE. but gained a significance and value which.
NAME. .124 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
THE RENASCENCE OF SCIENCE. NAME. 125 .
193. His father was a kindly. Derwent. Of the more famous grandfather. Erasmus Darwin. IV. He came long Lincolnshire yeomen. although that coveted honour was then more easily obtained than now. it may be added that of life-forms. perhaps deriving it from the river of kindred name. Darwin and Man Wallace. CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN rarely used 1 2th (the second at name was line of by him) was born Shrewsbury on the of a of February. with Society as a product of Evolution and with Moral Phenomena as products of Evolution. was occupied as volunteer naturalist on board the Beagle from 126 . HERBERT SPENCER. that he passed thence to Edinburgh and Cambridge Universities. Charles Darwin was educated at the Grammar School of his native town. as name Darwen. . prosperous doctor. We have to deal with as a product of Evolution . 1809. of suf- ficient scientific reputation to secure his election into the Royal Society. the minder suffices that re- both his prose and poetry were vehicles of suggestive speculations on the develop- ment Dealing with bald facts and dates for clearance of what follows. and Darwynne.PART i. whose forbears spelt the variously. Principles of Ethics. MODERN EVOLUTION.
that he pubepoch-making Origin of Species in November. he was placed till his sixteenth year. Francis Galton. nothing could have been worse for the development of my mind. 1859. he had inherited a taste for classics. In his answers to the series of questions ad- dressed to various scientific men in 1873 by his dis" I continguished cousin. As with not a few other men of " light and lead- ing. in the modest and candid Autobiography printed in the " Life and Letters. little taught were the and a natural history and for collecting.MODERN EVOLUTION. Butler." neither school nor university did much for him. Of the Shrewsbury Grammar School. and no modern raphy languages. 1831. and that he was buried by the side of Sir Isaac Newton in Westminster Abbey on the lished his 26th of April. after the death of his mother (daughter of Josiah Wedgwood. that desiccated pedagogue publicly rebuked him " for wasting time on such useless sub- . 1882. the head-master. but also coins and seals. the as a boarder celebrated potter). where. When the fact that he helped his brother in chemical experiments became known to Dr. December." and he adds that his education fostered no methods of observation or reasoning. no mathematics. his spoils includ- ing not only shells and plants. he says: of any value has been sider that all I have learnt self-taught. nor did his boyhood give indication of future greatness. in his ninth year. 1 27 till October." All that he was ancient geogand history. he tells us. Happily. 1836.
or the sea-mat. or in any his interest in biological sub- jects grew. as I did not then in the least doubt the strict and literal truth of every word in the Bible. as from what little I had heard or thought on the subject I had scruples about declaring my belief in all the I otherwise liked the thought of being I Accordingly of England. intention and my father's wish ever formally . reproved him for caring nothing but shooting. Then his father. proposed that he should become a clergyman! Darwin says I upon this: asked for some time to consider. though a country clergyman. it. . were larvae. but Darwin found the dulness of the lectures intolerable. and declared that he would be a disgrace to the family! sent him to Edinburgh University with his brother to study medicine. and fearing that he would degenerate into an idle sporting man. as the effect of the " it did his father.128 jects. dogs. " Although incredibly dry lectures on geology made him Society! vow never way study and the future Secretary of the Geological to read a book on the science. But his father had to accept the fact that Darwin disliked the idea of being a doctor. angry at finding that he was doing no good for at school. once intended to be a clergyman. and rat-catching. Considering it how fiercely I have been I seems ludicrous that this Nor was attacked by the orthodox. read with care Pearson on the Creed." PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. I soon persuaded myself that our creed must be fully accepted. and the sight of He blood sickened him. were shown in a paper read before the Plinian Society at Edinburgh in 1826. in which he reported his discovery that the so-called its first fruits ova of Flustra. and a few dogmas of the Church other books on divinity and.
MODERN EVOLUTION. one of the meetings. drinking com- pany. the three years spent at Darwin went which were time wasted. and therefore for the interests of science. on leaving Cambridge. and one of the speakers declared that I had the bump of reverence devel- oped enough for ten priests. as was the third one. Darwin became intimate with men Sir Whewell. If the phrenologists are to I joined the Beagle as naturalist. so I popped the one which I held in my right hand Alas! it ejected some intensely into my mouth. The " result was that early in 1828 to Cambridge. while the reading of Humboldt's Personal Narrative. of " his zeal in which the following is an example One day. I saw two rare beetles. which I could not bear to lose. i 2g given up. I was well fitted in one respect to be a clergyman. and of like John Herschel's Introduction to Natural Phi- . which was lost. which burnt my tongue so that I was forced to spit the beetle out. but science was his redemption. be trusted. No : pursuit gave him so much pleasure as collecting beetles. then I saw a third and new kind. and seized one in each hand. as far as the academical studies were concerned." Happily for his future career. in which it seemed that the shape of my head had been the subject of a public discussion. Henslow." led His passion for shooting and hunting him into a sporting. but died a natural death when. card-playing. and Sedgwick. on tearing off some old bark. acrid fluid. A few years ago the secretaries of a German psychological society asked me earnestly by letter for a photograph of myand some time afterwards I received the proceedings of self .
" win's plea that he his brother-in-law. Charles Darwin. " a burning zeal to add losophy. Josiah " Wedgwood." This refusal was given at the instance of his father." In connection with this the following memorandum from Darwin's pocket-book of 1831 is of interest: Returned to Shrewsbury at end of August. I have stated that consider you to be the best-qualified person I know of who is likely to undertake such a situation. and on Dar- On this his father answered with a smile." For on his return from a geo- logical tour in Wales with Sedgwick he found a letter from Henslow awaiting him. but it was the friendship career. Refused offer of voyage. " wild and objected to the scheme as unsettling.130 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. stirred up in him even the most humble contribution to the noble structure of Natural Science." The vow to eschew geology was quickly broken when he came under the spell of Sedgwick's influence. of Henslow that determined his " after and prevented him from becoming the Rev. employed by Government to survey the I southern extremity of America. and as disreputable to his character as a " but he soon yielded on the advice of clergyman . who " should be deuced clever to spend more than his allowance whilst on board the Beagle. " But they . the purport of which in the following extract: " I is have been asked by Peacock (Lowndean Professor of Astronomy at Cambridge) to recommend him a naturalist as companion to Captain Fitz-Roy.
that is. as a disciple of Lavater. by the South American character of most of the productions of the Galapagos Archipelago. as well as many others. . who. doubted man with such a nose as Darwin's " could possess sufficient energy and determination for the voyage. organisms of every kind are beautifully adapted to their habits of life. . . 1838. could only be explained on the supposition that species gradually became modified and the subject haunted me.. In October.MODERN EVOLUTION.. the first of the two Darwin's otherwise unadventurin his it down in delightful narrative Voyage Round the World. and will quote a passage from the autobiography five years' absence." It is amusing to find Darwin narrowly escaped being rejected by whether a Fitz-Roy. bearing on the significance of the materials collected during his During the voyage of the Beagle I had been deeply impressed by discovering in the Pampean formation great fossil animals covered with armour like that on the existing armasecondly. it seemed to me almost useless to endeavour to prove by indirect evidence that species have been modified. none of the islands appearing to on each be very ancient in a geological sense. details of that in memorable events are set Naturalist's suffice to voyage. by the manner in which closely allied animals replace one another in proceeding southwards over the continent and thirdly. It was evident that such facts as these. and more dillos .. tell 131 me you that are very clever. and until these could be explained. I had always been much struck by such adaptations." The ous life.. But it was equally evident that " none of the evolutionary theories then current in the scien" tific world could account for the innumerable cases in which . . especially by the manner in which they differ slightly island of the group.
near Beckenham. he gave the result of his long years of patient observation and inquiry. life spent the rest is of his days. months after I had begun my systematic inquiry. and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on. Wedgwood. and unfavourable ones destroyed. in the of Darwin merged books from time to time. two years and eight months Emma marriage with his first cousin. from the epoch-making Origin to the . pre- pared his journal and manuscripts of observations for publication. as his health then allowed him to go into society.132 fifteen PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. he saw a good deal of prominent literary and scientific contem- poraries. and never ceased working for the next twenty years. it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved. the air and social demands of which were alike unsuited to his health. after his Darwin removed from London. The result of Shortly after his return he settled in London. my first note-book for facts in relation to the I had long reflected. which brought him origin of species." He acted for two years as one of the honorary secretaries of the Geological Society. about which into close relations with Lyell. and opened. where he Henceforth the in which. under date of July. and. from long-continued observations of the habits of plants and animals. this would be the formation of new species. and of finally fixed upon a house in the secluded village Down. I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population. " 1837. In the autumn of 1842. who died in October last (1896). he says.
tion of animals Darwin worked and at his rough notes on the varia- plants under domestication. he tells us. as remarked above. and by extensive reading. he forgot his " daily dis- comfort. by conversations with skilful breeders and gardeners. With bad health. in The importance attached to this was shown a letter which Darwin then addressed to his wife. written out in pencil in 1842. But he was saved from the accursed monotony of a that never wealthy invalid's life by his insatiate delight in searching for that solution of the problem of the mutability of species which time would not fail to bring. to apply 400 to the expense of publication. He also named . In this. was elaborated 1844 into an essay of two hundred and thirty pages." and thus was delivered from morbid introspection. charging her." gleams he says that he are not (it is of light coming till almost convinced that species like confessing a murder) immutable. until. in A brief sketch of this theory." is " But he was still groping in the dark as to the appli- cation of selection to wild plants and animals. in the event of his death. add" ing facts collected by printed enquiries. and days that were never passed without prostrating pain. with nights gave unbroken sleep. he might well have felt justified in doing nothing whatever. the chance reading of Malthus suggested a working theory. 133 monograph on earthworms. apparently due to gouty tendencies aggravated by chronic sea-sickness during his voyage.MODERN EVOLUTION.
in which town he found a con- genial friend in the person of his future fellow-traveller. of a paper. plorer. he studied a great deal more on journeyings over England and Wales. He was educated at Hereford Grammar School. Quickwitted and observing. 1823. 1858. on the 8th of January. Bates was then employed from which he . at whose advice Darwin began to write out his views on a scale three or four times as extensive as that in which they appeared in the Origin of Species. ferule. Lyell. the results of which abide in the wide his in his scientific." from Mr. own account range of subjects and social engaging his active pen from early manhood to the present day. Their publication in an abstract form was hastened by the " receipt. in Monmouthshire. This reference to that distinguished exfurther told. certain competent men from whom an editor might be chosen. Alfred Russel Wallace at Ternate in the Moluccas. will. and in his fourteenth year began the study of land-surveying and architecture under an elder brother. Henry Walter Bates.134 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. in his father's hosiery warehouse. political. is fitly introduce a sketch of his ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE was born at Usk. preference being given to Sir Charles (then Mr. before the story of the coincident dis- covery career. containing exactly the same theory. About 1844 he exchanged the theodolite for the and became English master in the Collegiate School at Leicester. in June.
into the fields with his collecting- box. fortunately. affectation. yet so full of interest and original thought. 1845. The writer. as a work is of general interest. dated the 9th of November. ^5 escaped. an(^ October. " I first. so free from labour. as he tells us. Wallace. Wallace asks Bates if he had read the Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation." . His style all much admire. from Neath.MODERN EVOLUTION. there from Mr. 1847. He an ardent admirer and most able supporter very of Mr. back. and a subsequent letter indicates that Bates had not formed a favourable later letter is interesting opinion of the book. Both schoolmaster and shopman were ardent naturalists. In one of these. to which town he had removed. Mr. or egotism. Lyell's views. As the journal of A a scientific traveller. was a bundle of interesting from Wallace written between June. learned he did not keep But." but he after- ward took up his friend's favourite pursuit his of entomology. when preparing memoir of Bates (which prefaces a reprint of the first edition of the delightful Naturalist on the Amazons). perhaps superor to of writing I it. among Bates's letters papers. Wallace that letters in early life from Bates and other correspondents. being at that " time chiefly interested in botany. as often as the long working hours then prevailing allowed. 1845. and have lately re-read it. it is second only to Humboldt's Personal Narrative. in South Wales. " read Darwin's Journal three or four years lace says." Walas conveying an estimate of Darwin.
the plan being to make a collection of objects. nor could their scanty fulfilment of a means prevent the scheme which has enriched both scitravel. still greater moment. dispose of the dupliriver cates in London to as Mr. and gather facts. published in Murray's Family Library.!36 But. except by the German zoologist Von Spix. of "towards solving the problem species. of PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. I n tne autumn of that year Wallace proposed a joint expedition to the Amazons for the purpose of exploring the Natural History of its banks. Edwards. principally with a view to the theory of the origin of species. ence and the literature of The choice of country to explore was settled by Wallace's perusal of a little book entitled A Voyage up the River Amazons. by W. no exploration of a region so rich and to the biologist had been attempted. it in one of his letters. Early in 1848 Bates and Wallace met in London to study South American animals and plants in the interesting . H. and the botanist Von Martius in 1817-20. for. Wallace expressed pay expenses. should like to take some one family to study thoroughly. and subsequently by Count de Castelnau. including a Residence in Para." The two for friends had often discussed schemes going abroad to explore some virgin region." the origin of The choice was a happy one. in 1847. is a letter in which " I Wallace fied tells Bates that he begins to feel dissatis- with a mere local collection. an American tourist.
they embarked at Liverpool in a barque of only 192 tons burden. principal collections. Different in character 10 . is called the Upper Amazons or the Solimoens. on reach- ing Barra. Bates and Wallace. at the mouth of the Rio Negro. 1848. Like other towns along the Amazons. one thousand miles from Para. in March. parted finding it more convencollect inde- ient to explore separate districts and pendently. which May. a rocinha.MODERN EVOLUTION. On 26th of April. In that paradise of the naturalist." Wallace took the northern parts and tributaries of the Amazons. one of the few ships then trading to Para. " his younger brother. Para stands on ground cleared from the forest that stretches. 137 to Chats- and afterward went worth to gain information about orchids. which. and close came down to their doors. which they proposed to collect in the moist tropical forests and send home. of in " straight as an arrow. the collectors gathered consignments which met with ready sale in London. 1850. till. and thus spent a couple of years in pursuits moderately remunerative and wholly pleasurable. a mile and half from Para. or country-house." brought them on 28th The travellers soon settled to the forest. a well- tion. who was accompanied by company. to which seaport of the Amazons region a swift passage. and Bates kept to the main stream. nigh pathless jungle of luxuriant primeval vegetatwo thousand miles inland. from the direction it seems to take at the fork of the Rio Negro.
to Island Life. but Wallace left in 1852. That book was written under the serious disadvantage of the destruction of the greater part of the notes and specimens by the burning of the ship in which Mr. The large and varied outcome of that labour was embodied in numerous papers communicated to learned societies and scientific journals. first published in 1869. 1859. That it remains one of the select company of works of travel for which demand is continu- ous If it is evidenced in a reprint which appeared in 1891. and humid forest. it shows what interest was being aroused within him over the allied subject of the geographical distribution of plants and animals which Mr. Wallace took passage on his homeward voyage." Bates stayed in the country till June. and in the following year published an account of his journey under the title of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro. affords few hints of the author's bent of mind toward the question of the origin of species. In 1854 he sailed for the Malay Archipelago. impervious. and climatic conditions from the Lower Amazons. and five hundred or six hundred miles in breadth covered with one uniform. Wallace was to make so markedly his own. lofty. where nearly eight years were spent in exploring the region from Sumatra to New Guinea. published in 1880.I 38 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. it " flows through a vast plain about a thousand miles in length. and in a series of delightful books from The Malay Archipelago. Among for all the minor results of his extensive travels .
the plants and animals on which. 1855. when lying ill with fever at think of the Ternate. Indo-Malaysia and Austro. Wal- lace recites the several researches which he made in " " quest of that form till.Malaysia. something led him to " " described by Malthus positive checks ." which Malay Archipelago into two main groups. in February. name with Darwin's was the estabknown as " Wallace's. but somewhat farther east. famous paper In the interesting preface to the reprint of the On the Tendencies of Varieties to de- part Indefinitely from the Original Type.MODERN EVOLUTION. differ from each other even more than do the "A similar islands of Great Britain and Japan. line." distinct species That line runs through a deep channel separating the islands of Bali and Lombok. In this he shows that some form of evolution of one species logical from another is and geographical needed to explain the geofacts of which examples are given." contributions which to Among the more fugitive mark Mr. which links divides the *' i$g else that Wallace did pales before the great discovery his lishment of a line. although but fifteen miles of water separate them. Mr. Wallace's approach problem in quest of is a solution of the which he and Bates went to the Amazons a paper 'On the lated the Introduction of Law which has ReguNew Species. 1858. marked by and groups of animals. published in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. divides on the whole the Malay from the Papuan races of man.
which he does not say he wishes me to publish I shall. I never saw a more striking coincidence. therefore. but to MS. disease. in the prefatory multiplication. because of their more rapid rate of And he tells us. and in the two succeeding evenings wrote it out in full and sent it by the next post to Mr. " : if he thought well of the essay. he could not have made a better short abstract! Even his terms stand as heads of my chapters. Please return now me the . will not be deteriorated. . will So all my originality. the honours lie with the maligned Haileybury Reverend Professor of Political " Economy clue. of course. in the two hours that elapsed before my ague was over I had thought out the whole of the theory. sketch written out in 1842." the labour consists in the application of the Darwin came out well in this business. to. effectively famine Wallace must act even more on the lower animals than on man.. though my book. at once write and offer to send any journal. ever have any value. a book which he had read some years before. whatever it may amount if it be smashed. both Darwin and Wallace with the tive in furnishing " The posifelt checks war. will as all theory.. note to a reprint of his paper. .. Essay on Population." asking him. flashed " there suddenly on me the idea of the survival of the fittest. Dar- and fit win. if Wallace had my MS. send it remarks to Lyell. to This Darwin did with the following Your words have come true with a ven- geance that I should be forestalled.140 in his PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Oddly enough.
to have another " blue in the However." that an abstract of Darwin's manuscript should be read with on the Wallace's paper at a meeting of the Linnsean Society ist of July. 1858. but in the " interests of science generally. to spend the working hours of every day in collection and verification of. too. and then man launching a "bolt from the shape of a paper with exactly the same theory. as his lieutenant in the rather overawed the Fellows. After the meeting it was talked and per- over with bated breath. Lyell's approval. but the subject was too novel and too ominous for the old school to enter the lists before armouring.MODERN EVOLUTION. On the Tendency of Species to form and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Selection. had. in a small affair. both Hooker and Lyell had read his sketch a dozen years before. to keep on turning it over and over again in the mind for twenty long years. says that cited was intense. haps. The full title of the joint com- munication was Varieties. the vantage ground of being familiar with We . way mine. might well disturb even a philosopher of Darwin's serenity. facts for and against it. who would otherwise have flown out against the doctrine. Sir Joseph Hooker. which have too often been occasion of unworthy wrangling. not as considering claims of priority. " the interest exdescribing the gathering. and it was arranged by them. For to have hit 141 upon a theory which interprets so large a question as the origin and causes of modification of life-forms.
persuasive. perhaps of all men now living. and destiny of man. best fitted ." Mr. Nothing can deprive honour due to him as the co- the authors and their theme. in- volves the most there momentous changes in belief. correct. Wallace says the book will prove that he both saw at the time the value and scope of the law which he had discovered.142 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Darwin as the man. cease. I have long since measured my own strength. history. large masses that wide of facts most varied kind and accurate physiological knowledge that acuteness in devising and skill in carrying out experiments. Far abler men than myself may confess accumuskill in and that wonderful of the using. I " But. in their harmonious combination. and judicial qualities which. doubtless. and know full well that it would be quite unequal to that task. Theory of Natural SelecMr. assessment of limitations which in no wise invalidate his high claims. mark out Mr. In the Preface may be fitly to his Contributions to the tion (1870). and quoted here his own modest and. which. most sincere at satisfaction that Mr. regarded in its application to the origin. Wallace of the originator of the theory. and still feel. " here I my claims the have felt all my life. Darwin had been that it work long before me. that they have not that untiring patience in lating." he adds. and has since been able to apply to some purpose in a few original lines of investigation. and was not left for me to attempt to write the Origin of Species. and that admirable style of composition at once clear.
and I am very sorry for it. a satisfaction to you to reflect I hope it is and very few things my life we have never though in have been more satisfactory to me that felt any jealousy towards each other. I one sense believe I can say this of myself with truth. This structure classes him among the vertebrates. the structure of his heart with its veins and arteries. indeed. expected. rivals. his lungs and his whole respiratory and circulatory his blood. plished. Your modesty and far candour are very in from new to me. and his nerves. for the great 143 work he has undertaken and accomWallace dated 2Oth April. or. the mode of human suckling classes him among the mammals. There had been correspondence between them as to the bearing of the theory of natural selection on " As you man. and I am absolutely sure it is true of you. I can see no necessity for calling in an additional and proximate cause in regard to man.MODERN EVOLUTION. and cussion still that round which dis- rages. There has never been passed on me." In the fifteenth chapter of his comprehensive book on Darwinism." But on one question. 1870. and in April. Darwin wrote. his muscles. 1869. I differ grievously from you. wish that on any one. ." In a Darwin I letter to " says. Wallace admits the action of natural selection in man's physical structure. I fully deserved it. the friends were poles asunder. a higher eulogium than yours.
" must have had another origin.144 systems. begotten by sexual conjugation. and are often almost identical with them." More de- and . as belong fundamentally to the theirs. arrangement. is as a class found also them only in He like is. developed from a fertilized egg. all closely correspond to those of other mammals. like them. them. as well as in But he would not allow the origin of the highest degree improbable. bone for bone. he appears as most nearly allied to the anthropoid or man-like apes. terminating in the same number of digits. Wallace. so much does his skeleton resemble theirs that. Mr. with very few exceptions. comparing him with the chimpanzee. detail of structure which is common to the mammalia in man. man's spiritual and intellectual nature. rejected the idea of man's " as being entirely unsupported by facts. and in his embryonic condition passes through stages recapitulating the variety of enormously remote ancestors of whom he is the perfected descendant. he argues. differing only in size. possesses the same number of limbs. his His senses are identical with in and organs of sense are the same numEvery ber and occupy the same relative position. special creation therefore. for this origin we can only find an adequate cause in the unseen universe of Spirit. we find. He mammals." that natural selection explains These. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Full-grown. while he differs from such ways and degrees as the various species or groups of mammals differ from each other. and proportion.
the prominence which all social matters occupy in the minds of the leading exponents of the theory of Evolution. But it is as a not wholly orthodox. with attendant beliefs in miracles and the grosser forms of spiritualism. with chapters on Apparitions and Phantasms. causes of depression in trade." and dropped out of the ranks of Pioneers of Evolution." and wholly explicable on the theory of continuity. here reference made why Mr. pen land nationalization. and eminent men of the type of Mr. as will be seen. was issued in 1895. Spiritualism. For of this. of supernaturalisiri. vaccina- genus omne. and when also supported by several prominent to men of science. have to it ther on. Wallace appears in the character of opponent to the inclusion of man's psychical nature as a defender. although on lines of his own product of Evolution. at least. Wallace occupied his tion. if true. sincere. Wallace contends that " Spiritualism. showing.MODERN EVOLUTION. labourers' allotments. of furnishes such proofs of the existence of ethereal . renders is it desirable show that modern psychism but savage animism " writ large. Wallace. et hoc facile. Mr. both Herbert Spencer and Huxley supply cogent examples in their application of that theory to human interests. Many subjects. In his book on Miracles and Modern which a revised edition. The arresting influence of these views when backed by honest. tailed treatment of this 145 argument is will be given fur- the explanation as furnishing " kept not his first estate. as hinted above. that Mr.
" men and most advanced still men.I46 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Wallace " starts. man's relation to the universe of things whence our race has come. that all the wisest held. Yet more. the ascertainment of ." rests on the assumption with which Mr. so many in posi- tive disbelief. and unsatisIt furnishes actual knowledge on a fying faith. It demonstrates the actuality of forms of matter and modes of being before inconceivable. beings and of their power to act upon matter. able. that our friends are still with us. It thus furnishes a proof of a future life many tical which so many crave. as must revolutionise philosophy. and pracconviction for a vague. seen. owing to absence of proper conditions. as completely as the fact can be demonstrated. brain. it demonstrates mind without and intelligence disconnected from what we know as the material body and it thus cuts away all . matter of vital importance to hold. that the so-called dead are still alive. It substitutes a definite. it demonstrates. if true" . they cannot make their presence known. and for want of which so live and die in anxious doubt. presumption against our continued existence after the physical body is disorganised and dissolved. Spiritualism. and as to which thinkers have attain- and no knowledge was the to This claim. though unand guide and strengthen us when. real. theoretical. on behalf of phenomena of spiritualism to supply an answer "the question of questions. to what goal we are tending. this tremendous claim.
are " feebly is monotonous. limited " : medium the order. if it be deemed worth while. the evi- dence of genuineness of the occurrences. Pro- . The distinguished physicist. not on the honesty. contrasted with the full-flavoured eerie tales of old. The quoted \^-j is essay from which the above passages are preceded by references in detail to a con- siderable number of cases of "the appearance of preterhuman or spiritual beings. In considering. a hazy." like the departed bargee whose " " communicating intelligence (we quote from a re- cent book on spiritualism entitled The Great Secret) was as coarse-mouthed as when in the flesh. who has been described to the writer by an intimate " friend of the Professor as longing to believe some- thing. show themselves persons of undisciplined emotions." the evidence of " which is as good and definite as it is possible for any evidence of any fact to be. "argues that in dealing with psychical ena. we are thrown. " mind phenommuzzy state of mind is better than a " " " and on the spot (see Adkeenly awake dress to the Society for Psychical Research. but on the competency The most eminent among these of the witnesses." only to find that the shades are but diluted or vulgarized parodies of ourselves. horse-play vainly seek for some ennobling and exalting concep" tion of a life beyond. some glimpses behind the The apparatus of the phenomena are largely of the Through the whole series we veil.MODERN EVOLUTION. or that "the filthy are filthy still." These ghost-stories. Professor Oliver Lodge.
declared that the whole " business was the sorriest of trickeries. became " expected instrument of driving conviction as to the reality of psychical manifestations by the invisible into the minds of many scientists." Mr. Ochorowicz. Concerning the competence of Mr. With this may be compared a Mohammedan receipt for summoning spirits given in Klunzinger's Upper Egypt (p. and take incense with you.148 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. That is scribable wonders. a Neapolitan medium." who." A number of distinguished savants testified to the genuineness of the woman's performances in Professor Richet's cot- tage on the He Roubant in the autumn of 1893. ceedings. and you will see dreamy Oriental Moslem and the self-hypnotized Western professor met tospirits. it under- . and others) that " on no single occasion during the occurrence of an event recorded by them was a hand of Eusapia's free to execute any trick whatever." Thus have elicit the gether to self to truth from trance. and you will see indedrums will be beaten beside you. in the words " the unof one of her most ardent dupes. the secret. 15). 386): Fast seven days in a lonely place. Read a chapter 1001 times from the " Koran." and. pp. It was the serious and complete conviction of all of them (Lodge. part xxvi. to the credit of the Society for Psychical Research. the evidence which comes it before him. Richet. Maskelyne. suffices to cite the case of Eusapia Paladino. Wallace himweigh. and flags hoisted over your head. such testimony notwithstanding. 14. unbiassed.
and the whole of his recognises the doctrine of the Conservation of Energy as a fundamental honesty. but what becomes of his competence to judge prejudice blinds itself when to facts? Spiritualism. 1896. She was taken to a house in Cambridge. Yet Mr. only prove that Eusapia might have deceived. it would seem that that doctrine. lacks half the dexterity of an astute conjurer. in the dark) " tions like pseudopodia. we should feel alike depressed and confounded were there not abundant . and detected as a vulgar impostor. Wallace is not to be doubted. Every scientific man canon. as also the not unimportant conditions of Time and Space. demonstrates this and that about the unseen. in the new edition of his Miracles and Modern Spiritualism.MODERN EVOLUTION. 149 took the expense of bringing Eusapia to England for the purpose of testing the genuineness of her doings. of Spiritualism as But with those who regard the phenomena " " not explicable except by supernatural causes. describes all the phenomena occurring " at not explicable as the result of any known physical causes." The integrity of Mr. proved to be untrue. ports of the behaviour of " When we read their mediums who project re(of abnormal temporary prolongacourse." and. so far as they are recorded. but spiritualism. count for nothing. in a subsequent explanatory letter to the Daily Chronicle of 24th of January. Wallace. expresses the opinion that Professor Richet's house as "the Cambridge experiments. if true. not that she actually and consciously did so.
there was tional deception else on the part of interested persons. words the more weighty because they are man whose philosophy was influenced by deep religious convictions: "With every disposition to accept facts when I could once clearly the utterance of a satisfy myself that they were to the conclusion that facts. Carpenter may be quoted. minds of this type must be built in water-tight compartments. throughout human history. even of a in the higher culture. and contribute to the rise and spread of another of the epidemic delusions of which history supplies warning examples. I have had to I come in whenever I have been permitted to employ such tests as should employ either inten- any scientific investigation. and his preconceptions their abettors." very sober-minded and rational upon all ordinary He adds further: " It has been my business lately to inquire into the mental condition of some of the individuals who have reported the .150 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. They show how. Upon this matter the words of the late Dr. or self-deception on the part of persons who were affairs of life. that advance has been possible only as he has escaped through the disci- They also show pline of the intellect from the illusive impressions about phenomena which the senses convey. As the writer has remarked elsewhere. tific proofs what wholly untrustworthy observers scienspecialists can be outside their own domain. that man's senses have been his arch-deceivers. the force dominant idea may suspend or narcotize the reason and judgment.
equilibrium. The inmethod in its application to But this." Mr. modified.") Therefore the superstitions that still dominate the life of man. but I could with regard to that mencan only say this. the great majority of mankind have remained. as yet. and his adaptation thereto trusion of the scientific man disturbed that was complete. (For that doctrine does not " Let us never imply all-round continuous advance. viz. not be tal fair I 15 it 1 cannot would say all I condition. be they what they may. but slightly. only superficially." The fact abides that the great mass of super- natural beliefs which.MODERN EVOLUTION.. is adaptation to circumstances. thus illustrating the truth of the doctrine of evolution in their psychical history. and which are still held by an overwhelming majority of civilized mankind. most remarkable occurrences. if at all. that there is nothing too strange to be believed by those who have once surrendered their judgment to the extent of accepting as credible things which common sense tells us are entirely incredible. Spencer says in Social Statics. barbaric past his- his was constant for thousands of years. even in so-called civilized law . have persisted from the lower culture till now. Like the foraminifera that persist in the ocean depths. that it all fits in studies perfectly well with the result of my previous upon the subject. " that the forget. ar~ referable to causes concomitant with man's mental development: causes operative throughout his The low intellectual environment of tory.
It is and the strength of prejudice and here that anthropology. and the general conservatism of " Born into life in vain. Opinions. speaking comparatively. the force of imitation. takes up the cue from the momentous doctrine of heredity. the line countless ages because feeling travels along of least resistance. fear. common base. They are supports along the path of inquiry. and the causes of man's tardy escape from the illu- human those sions of the senses. In other words. unalter'd to retain the obstinate mind decrees." as in the striking illustration cited in . or the man wondered challenge by inquiry therefore the assumption that there may be two sides to a question must pursue a path obstructed by the dominance of custom. while thought. may we not say that it began at least in the domain of years of scientific naturalism with the Ionian philosophers? Emotionally. notably that it psychical branch of comprehended under folk-lore. Thought and feeling have a duality. are no stumbling-blocks to us. because we account for their persistence. centres. rationally.152 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. ! or these. So far as its influence on the modern world goes. we are hundreds of thousands we are embryos. nature. old. explains the persistence of the primitive. before he reasoned. has but recently been called into play. not a But the exercise of the one has been active from the beginnings of his history indeed we know not at what point backward we can classify it as human or quasi-human while the other. because man is a unit.
The investiga- tion of hallucinations (Lat. we learn that the art of largely consists in that control of the emotions and that diversion of them into wholesome channels. discarding theories of revelation. but either perverted or not exercised. which the intellect. from a high Superstitions which are the pity. braced with the latest knowledge. there is nightmares of olden time. Heine's Travel-Pictures. outcome of ignorance can only awaken is Where see that the corrective of knowledge it could not be otherwise. sufficing causes of abnormal mental phenomena are found in abnormal working of the mental apparatus." delusion. can alone Therefore. pity supplanted by blame. is is absent. and for three centuries had been engaged in ploughing and harrowing their minds and implanting the seed of Christianity. life In either case. The causes of error and and of the spiritual clear. And sword. spiritual effect. and other assumed supra- mundane sources of knowledge. and the it had been crowned during yet the Spaniard had exterminated the old Mexican religion with fire and next day he found that the night with flowers. delicately poised . " 153 A few years ago Bullock dug up an ancient stone idol in Mexico. illumination.MODERN EVOLUTION. to wander in mind) leaves no doubt that they are the effect of a morbid condition of that intricate. alucinor. being made begotten a generous of sympathy with that which empirical notions human fall nature attributed to wilfulness or to man's estate. we Where that corrective present.
bloody business which informs Thus to mine eyes. A mental visual image. the nervous system. are the victims. may be heard. the unbalanced. Only the mentally anaemic. as the great physiologist." . the emotionally overwrought. under which objects structure. " I am confident that I can testified when he said." Shakespere portrays the to clutch the like condition when Macbeth attempts with to stab Duncan: dagger where- There's no such thing It is the . hallucinations of mind." is no respecter victims. causing the patient. When the nervous system is out of gear." all Under such conditions. are seen and sensations when no corresponding impression has been made through the medium of felt the senses. This abnormal state. image becomes a and actual figures may be seen. has no syssorts possess the is delivered. fix my attention to any part until I have a sensation in that part. whether divine or of the dead. or derangement of the digestive system. functional. existence outside the of persons. voices. the savage and the civilized are alike It may be organic or functional. whether of the lofty illu- tem. when disease is present. hallucinations from which " the true peptic. its " which sees things having no mind's eye. an imagined pain a real pain. Organic.154 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. John Hunter. and the epileptic. who. to think he's pious when he's only bilious. through excessive fatigue. " as Hood says. lack of food or sleep. as Carlyle says.
Had a man of lesser renown and mental calibre than Mr. Gower's Bowman when. Often they are more elaborate.MODERN EVOLUTION. accom- g. Saint Theresa. objects. smell of Tonquin beans." born of the disordered nerves of Mrs. and Joan of Arc. thin and dripping with water. Thames emptied to receive the rubbish. and then he lost consciousness. spherical luminous bodies. where it became a beating Then two lights appeared. constant for years. Wallace thrown the weight of his testimony into the scales in favour of spiritualism. distinct visions of faces. 155 sions of august visions such as carried Saint Paul. there would have been neither necessity nor excuse for this diBut both these pleas prevail when we gression. " or hallucination of drowned cat. places.. e. In one case a warning. sensations of sight occur with- out the retina being stimulated: The spectra perceived before epileptic fits vary widely. Such warnings may be called psychovisual sensations. 4th July. into the presence of the holiest. still or in movement. They may be combined with sensations from the other special senses. white or coloured. as in one woman whose fits the river were preceded by a sudden distinct vision of London in ruins. Suddenly these disappeared and were replaced by the figure of an old woman in a red cloak. such pany fits. advancing nearer with a pulsating motion. as with hearing and smell. persons. began with thumping in the chest ascending to the head. They may be stars or sparks. find the co-formulator of the Darwinian theory . or mere flashes of light. 1895) as on Subjective Visual Sensations. Lecture (Nature. who offered the patient something that had the sound. always the same. and she the only survivor of the inhabitants. Gordon Jones. The psychical element may be very strong. To quote from Dr.
156 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. and as revealing the conditions under which it lives. it works toward definite ends within the domain. is the solid basis of fruitful ideas moods. Hence the necessity of curbing a faculty so that in unison with reason. is the initiative of inquiry. A salutary lesson is imagination thus on the use and misuse of the That which. showing with all we know of man's tend- encies to imperfect observation and self-deception. of enterprise. and incentive ideas. marking man's limits of service. wholesome restraint. but by large and close and faithful converse with Nature and human nature in all their relations. : among mediums and attention which his The respectful words command the tremendous claims which he at seances as makes on behalf of the phenomena proving the existence of soul apart from body after death. leads the and of noble un- dreamer and the enthusiast into ingulfing quicksands of illusions and delusions. As Dr. their dupes. have made incumbent the foregoing attempt to indicate what other ex- how planation these is fall in given of those phenomena. Maudsley reminds us in his sane and sober book on Natural Causes and Supernatural Seeming. and with all that history tells of the persistence of animistic ideas. and and the soundest mental development laid. The endeavour to stimulate and strain any mental function to an . " not by standing out of Nature in the ecstasy of a rapt and over-strained idealism of any sort. aspects. restricted. under taught.
. " estimation in which Danvin's views are now held in the scientific world. the contrast between the present condition of public opinion upon the Darwinian question. as useful reading to a generation which. at least. its drinking-in Darwinism from birth. and was published. under the title of the Origin of Species. story of the reception of the The work and is admir- ably told by Huxley in the chapter which he conit tributed to Darwin's Life and Letters. between the " could have been raised. 1859. of the theologian of the self-respecting order at the present day." The sumed.MODERN EVOLUTION. on the 24th of November." ultimately took book form. or. may be commended understand air. he pre" pared a series of chapters which. when the new first I theory respecting the origin of species became is known to the older generation to which belong. story of Darwin's work must now be re- Shortly after the Linnaean meeting. will not readily how such storm and scientific outcry as rent the both in In fact. quiescence. which solid human development is has taken place in the past. ly contrary to the sober and salutary method by correlate in external nature. and taking place in the present. activity i$f beyond the reach and need of a physical and to give it an indeis certainly an endeavour to go directpendent value. and the outburst of antagonism on all sides in 1858-59. always regarded by him as an Abstract. between the acquiescence." says Huxley. as well as clerical quarters.
both in theology and morals. and not all that Mr. above all men. I should be sometimes inclined to think my memories dreams. complex explanations of the theory of the evosidereal systems out of diffused . But it needed the leaven of the human and personal to stir it into life. as the foregoing sections of this book have shown. There had been. so startling that. and touch man in his various interests. and placed it on a base broad as the facts which supported it. and to of its type. and his time more than two thousand years after moved it Herbert Spencer." The like reflection arises when we con- sider the indifference with which books of the most daring and revolutionary character. had refrom the empirical stage. were concerned. are treated nowadays.I5 8 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Spencer had done in application of the theory of development to social questions and institutions could avail much till Darwin's theory gave it practical shape. orthodoxy has long taken them bosom. books its As for Colenso's Pentateuch. in contrast to the uproar which greeted such a brutum fulmen as Essays and Reviews. except for documentary evidence. a long time of preparation and speculation. there was an absolutely open mind on the question of the mutation of species. So far as the larger number of naturalists. Dissertations " on the passage of the homogeneous to the hetero" geneous lution of . and of the intelligent public who followed their lead. We certainly find the keynote of Evolution in Heraclitus.
as explaining man's descent from a monkey. operating on favourable variations. has brought about myriads of species from simple forms. Dr. as some. vapours people of 159 interested seemingly in simple texture. interpret it even now. and from intercourse with breeders of pigeons. always a " knew that it was so." at Church Congresses nowadays. Here and there Evolution. It is absurd " . even claimed as defender of the faith. or how a bear became a whale by taking to swimming. horses. As Huxley reminds us in the passage quoted above. Whewell remarked that every great discovery in science has had to pass through three stages. " ." dogs. who should know better. but the mystery of the ceaselessly-acting agent which. It was not so in the sixties. " people said. But when Darwin illustrated the theory of the modionly a fication of life-forms from his own experiments and " by familiar examples gathered observations. Thus it has been with We It is calmly discussed. then they said. a single voice was raised in qualified sympathy Charles Kingsley showed more than this but both " in the Old and the New World the drum ecclesias- . " It is contrary to the Bible " finally. First. and business and bosoms. vague and wondering fashion.MODERN EVOLUTION." they said. the thoughtful accepted it as a master-key unlocking not the mystery of origins or of causes of variations. this went to men's and if the vulgar interpreted Darwinism. the attitude of the clergy toward the theory of Evolution has undergone an astounding change.
" Occasionally " some parody of reasoning appears when the argu" " ment is advanced that there is a simpler explanation of the presence of these strange forms among this the works of God in the fall of is Adam. who life know " of His Son. or better. in his review of Haeckel's Evolution of Man.' not the Gospel But the most notable attack came in not God and obey from Samuel Wilberforce. asses' skin." Protestant and " an attempt to Catholic agreed in condemning it as " " " tendas a huge imposture." and . the Quarterly Review of July. then Bishop of Oxford. " a production which should be bound in good stout calf. away with all idea of God. was beaten. there no God and the ape is our Adam. have their portion with those in this ' who will." said Dr. Duffield in the Princeton Review." as " out of doors. " " Cardinal Manning declared Daris winism to be a brutal philosophy. to wit." but even rare. " It is. pseudo-concession to logic and one divine had no hesitation and in predicting the fate of Darwin a the de- his followers in the world to come. 1860." as dethrone God " to do ing to produce disbelief of the Bible. of " velopment theory of the origin little man it shall. by the curious book-col- . " If. then they accept it with its proper logical consequences in the life to come. take the place as doubtless will with other exploded scientific speculations. in a while." Such are " fair turning the Creator samples to be culled from the anthology of invective which was the staple content of nearly every criticism." said Huxley.l6o tic PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
. together with Brougham's attack on the undulatory theory of light when it was first propounded " by Young. In contrast to all this. and in evidence of the is compromise by which theology justify itself. j6i lector." of in If by the revealed relations is " and the " word is God " Bible intended." The bishop declared the principle of natural selection to be absolutely incompatible with " " and as the word of God contradicting the re- vealed relations of creation to " its Creator. will therefore remain the same But the form in which that doctrine will be presented must change with man's intellectual environment. Christian doctrine. apart from is the attempt to life create out of Christ's teachirg. a philosophy of which shall satisfy these it needs (i. and justification for reference to them lies only in the fact that the contest between the biologists and the bishops is not yet ended.MODERN EVOLUTION. But." the statement of historical facts. the needs of in humanity). and cannot find a difficulty in the Incarnation or in the doctrine of the Holy " Spirit. at this time of day. and substance. it seems scarcely worth while to shake the dust off articles which have gone the way of all purely controversial matter. The bearing of Evolution on Christian . are these vainly striving to vague sentences from Archdeacon Wilson's address at the Church Congress at Shrewsbury in the autumn of 1896: " It is scarcely too much to say that the Theistic Evolutionist cannot be otherwise than a practical Trinitarian. e. the evolutionist agreement with the bishop.
but refused to go " never wholly accepted the inclusion of man. and spirit. not the doctrine doctrine. to modify. but with whose creed was Unitarian. Herbert Spen- cer's position. Although it is not included in the list of his writings given in the Life by his grandson. couched in loving terms. and Harvey would have none of the new heresy. Hooker. but the form in which it is expressed. parently neutral or tentative in open conversation. in a word. who said that he was prepared to needs be. At the outset of the article he speaks of Darwin's " " " seduction of several." as the Henslow and twain. who wrote a long protest to Darwin. as will be shown later on. neither would Adam Sedgwick. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. went one mile. go to the stake. Huxley. for Lyell. body outcome of natural selection. of the book. and Lubbock were immediate if converts. as an anonymous critic. he is known to have been the author of the critique on the Origin of Species in the Edinburgh Review of April. soul. was. 1860.1 62 is. therefore. Pictet Agassiz. in support of some parts Bates. Asa Gray and Lyell." The attitude of Owen. the reception accorded to the Origin of Species by Darwin's scientific contemporaries may be noted. so were reservations. Murray. deadly hostile. was already distinctive: he was a Darwinian before Darwin." Postponing the story of the famous debate between Wilberforce and Huxley. perhaps the majority of our younger naturalists" by the homoeopathic form of . shall and ending with the hope that " if we ap- meet in heaven.
that the hippocampus minor " in the human brain is absent from the brain of the ape. . living in his time. especially in its application to man's descent. . he remained to the end of a type of arrested development.". 532). mummified ibis. or Darwin Entangled in the meshes of this theory of a preordained law. of Neuchatel (Agassiz as of far truer value in reference to the inductive determination of the question of the origin of species than the speculations of ' Demailler. Vestiges/ Baden " Powell. at " whose his life feet Owen had sat. there remained in the memory of his brother savants his lack of candour in never withdrawing the statement made by him.'." which seems to bear some relation to Aristotle's perfecting principle. and demonstrated by Hux" ley as untrue. . (p." and is in close alliance with the teaching of the great Cuvier.MODERN EVOLUTION. While the Church cited him as an authority against the Dar- winian theory. Buffon.*' Owen has long stated his belief that some pre-ordained law or secondary cause is operative in bringing about the we therefore regard the painstaking change and minute comparison by Cuvier of the osteological and every other character that could be tested in the . or crocodile with those of species and the equally philosophical investigation of the polyps operating at an interval of thirty reefs thousand years is in the building-up of coral by the profound palaeontologist here referred to). " Lamarck. the transmutation of species presented to ^3 them under the phrase of natural selection. . cat.
unless our tame pigeons and ducks lie From the tail and hind legs. nor sermon. in brief words. and the other From the bill. Punch seized on it as subject of caricature. and writers " of light verse found welcome material for of oblivion have chaff " which the winds blown away. Between these dates Huxley's Man's Place in Nature logical . satire. with Haeckel at their head.!64 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. collecting new materials. a stanza here and there surviving. Courthope's Aristophanic lines: Eggs were laid as before. went on rearranging old materials. in the quiet of his Kentish home. Darlike all prophets. Evolution being rechris- win had. but the Germans. the apes. the French savants were somewhat coy. in the second-laid eggs. of the Translation after translation in- Origin followed apace. and verifying both. and Professor Huxley . more honour in other countries than in his own. Dar- win. but each time more and more varieties ancestor's struggled and bred. and the personal terest that gathered round the central idea led to the perusal of the book by people who had never before opened a scientific treatise. Till one end of the scale dropped got rid of his head. ! Heeding neither squib. tened Darwinismus. were enthusiastic. the outcome of this being his works on the Fertilization of Orchids and the Variation of Plants and Animals under Domestication. were developed the Birds. published in 1862 and 1867 respectively. as in Mr. As for the reception of the book abroad. its tail.
Patrick Matthew had in the Gardener's Chronicle of 7th April. more robust. adaptive disposition of be traced to the extreme fecundity of Nature. Meanwhile. action. in part. But more anon. As the field of existence is limited and pre-occupied. those individuals in each suited species whose colour and covering are best to concealment or protection from enemies. Mr. the caand instincts. whose capacities and can best regulate the physical energies to . as already named. 1860. defence. whose figure is strength. has in all the varieties cf her offspring a prolific power much cases a thousandfold) what is necesup the vacancies caused by senile decay. the figure. these inhabiting only the situations to which they have superior adaptation and greater power of occupancy than any other kind. and support. pacities. supplement to the Origin of Species of this i6 5 appeared. in which he anticipated Darwin and Wallace's theory as follows: "The organised self-regulating life may. the weaker and less circumstance-suited being pre- maturely destroyed. as before stated. it is only the hardier. better-suited-to- beyond sary to (in many fill circumstance individuals.MODERN EVOLUTION. who. drawn attention to an appendix to his book on Naval Timber and Arboriculture published in 1831. or de- fence from inclemencies or vicissitudes of climate. who are able to struggle forward to maturity. it This principle is in constant regulates the colour. instincts best accommodated to health.
and. but he applies it only to the races of man. he adds that one may be excused in not having discovered the fact in a work on Naval Timber!" Five years after this. in referring to it in a letter " to Lyell. Matthew's appendix. Of the accidental varieties of first man. and to certain the first characters alone. " Sketch Darwin says that Wells distinctly recognises the principle of natural selection. some one would be better fitted than the others to bear the diseases of the country. Wells read a paper before the Royal Society in 1813 on a White Female Part of whose Skin resembles that of a Negro. like Patrick Matthew. in unsuspected company.. but this was not published till 1818. in self-advantage according to circumstances such immense waste of primary and youthful life those only come to maturity from the strict ordeal by which Nature of perfection " tests their adaptation to her standard and fitness to continue their kind by reproduction (pp. and this is recognition which has been indicated. While speaking of difficulty in understanding some passages in Mr. when it formed part of a volume including the author's famous Two Essays In his Historical upon Dew and Single Vision.1 66 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. which would occur among the few and scattered inhabitants of the middle regions of Africa. 384.. Darwin says that selection " " the is full force of the principle of natural there. 385). C. . This race would . and. another pre-Darwinian was unearthed. W. Dr.
and the remodelled form of his Psychology. and the Introduction to the Classification of Animals. and Galton wrote his admirable produced his tions to the . Huxley brought out Man's Place in Nature. the progress of research in unexplored countries kept species adding to our knowledge of existing intermediate and varieties. not only from their inability to sustain the attacks of disease. Her- bert Spencer published his First Principles. I6 7 consequently multiply. his Biology. published his paper on Mimicry in 1861. we may here add to Mr. w. Quoting Grant Allen's able summary of the advance of the Twelve years elapsed before Darwin followed world-shaking book with the Descent of Man." is When the simplicity of the long-hidden solution brought home. Allen's list. while the others would decrease. Wallace Malay Archipelago and his ContribuTheory of Natural Selection (Bates. but from their incapacity of contending with their more vigorous neighbours. the Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. One theory of Evolution in his Charles Darwin: by one the few scientific men who still held out were overborne by the weight of evidence. During those ten years.MODERN EVOLUTION.e can understand Huxley's reflection on mastering the central idea of the Origin: " How " extremely stupid not to have thought of that! up his But the ground had been prepared for its reception in the decade between 1860 and 1870. " Geology kept supplying fresh instances of transitional forms. and his Naturalist on the Amazons in 1863).
at Camto of bridge. was intended as a rough draft or preliminary outline of the theory of natural selection. in which he dealt with the history and development of the human race. everywhere the impulse sent forth from the quiet Kentish home was permeating and quickening the entire pulse of intelligent humanity. At Oxford. the year before his death." The Origin of Species. the several books which followed between 1859 and 1 88 1. The materials which Darwin had collected in support of that theory being enormous. Tylor was welcoming the assistance of the new ideas. and led up to the preparation of his second. In the domain anthropology. while Lubbock was engaged on his kindred investigations into the Origin of Civilization and the Primitive Condition of Man. All these diverse lines of thought both influence of Darwin's first showed the widespread great work.1 68 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. as we have seen. signified their Tyndall and Lewes had long since tion of warm new adhesion. a whole school of brilliant make itself and accurate physiologists was beginning both felt and heard. regarded as a whole: everywhere the great evolutionary movement was well in progress. The last to appear was that treating of The Forma- . were expansions of hints and parts of the pioneer book. And what was thus true of England was equally true of the civilized world. is which his own family so remarkable an instance. Darwin's old university. of work on Hereditary Genius. Rolleston was bringing up a fresh genera- young biologists in the faith.
Darwin read a paper on the subject before the Geological Society. and our second relates to the burial of Darwin tures of in Westminster Abbey. John B. Martin prints the following letter. partner in the well- known bank the " tion of that name. which he handed to Murray with the timidity of an unMurray. of this day drawn a check for the which closes our account with your Our reasons for thus closing an account . which was received on the 27th of April. drew out a packet." In his history of this old institu- Mr. Among the signa- members of Parliament. since." he if " said. tion of Vegetable It 169 of Mould through the Action embodied the results of experiments which had been carried on for more than forty years. 1882. as far back as 1837. a little thing of mine on the action of worms on in soil. trading under the sign Grasshopper. have sum firm. the after day Darwin's funeral: SIRS We 280. Richard B. modesty. fledged author submitting his first " manuscript. Reference to it recalls a story characteristic of Darwin's innate ^ Worms. Darwin called in sumably some time 1880). Martin. told to the writer by the present John on the elder Murray (preand after fumbling in his coat-tail pocket.MODERN EVOLUTION." and then paused as doubt whether Murray would care to run the risk of bringing out the book! One story leads to another. that of Mr. I have brought you. requesting Dean was of Bradley's consent to Darwin's interment there.
. It would be unjust to say of him what John Morley says of Voltaire. Darwin's & Co. as best they could. he was content to collect and co-ordinate facts. it is is built. have done more than any other to undermine the supernatural assumptions on which it Darwin was a man of aggressive on the high matters round which. The . of a resting-place to Darwin's illustrious among England's dead in that was an irenicon from Theology to one whose theories. If he speaks like planet tethered revolves by irresistible atwith hesitating voice and with no deep man A man of placid temper. to sun." but limitations finer vibrations of the spiritual we know from his own confessions. The accordance remains Valhalla. deemed wholly inadequate . B. work of pointing out their and adjusting them. in whom the observing faculties were stronger than the reflective. Martin Westminster Abbey. to this or that theory.I7 o PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. that " he had no ear for the voice. . They at are entirely the presence of Mr. not merely as giving sanction same as an individual. emotion. but appearing as one of the deputation from a Society which has especially to the become the indorser and theories. R. Not that type. the spirit of traction. sustainer of Mr. pushed to their logical issues. leaving to others the significance. what hemmed in his emotional nature. of so exceptional opened so very many years ago are a kind that are we are quite prepared to find that they to the result.
Life and Letters 171 more serious tells us that he was glad." But art. he found him especially the historical plays. so strangely enough. but in his old age " so intolerably dull that it nauseated tastes This curious and lamentable loss of the higher aesthetic is all the odder. biographies. if I had to live my life again. as books on history. My kind of machine for grinding general laws out of large collections of facts. and Scott.MODERN EVOLUTION. and may possibly be injurious to the intellect. for which he had a great love so long as they ended happily. by enfeebling the emotional part is of our nature. Shelley gave him intense delight. he lost if much all the better. I suppose. at school and poetry after thirty. interest me as mind seems to have become a A or better constituted than mine would not. after the work and correspondence of the day were over. pleasure in music. would have at made least a rule to read some poetry and listen to some music once every week. and travels (independently of any all scientific facts which they may contain). tained a pretty woman. The loss of these tastes is a loss of happiness. have I thus suffered . much sorts of subjects. to listen to novels. for perhaps the parts of my brain now atrophied would thus have been kept active through use. and essays on as ever they did. Byron. It often said that a man's religion concerns himself only. but why this should have caused the atrophy of that part of the brain alone on which the higher tastes depend man with a mind more highly organised I cannot conceive. So far as the value of the majority . and more probably to the moral character. When he enjoyed Thomson. and. and con" some person whom one can thoroughly love. and he was fond of Shakespeare.
of human sin and divine forgiveness. intelligent of presentments of his theory. in the intermittent thus excluding that super- natural action of which miracles are the decaying stock evidence. on such high matters goes. his Whatever silence Darwin maintained in books as to his religious opinions. " already anticipated in this application by his more daring disciples. published his Descent of Man. what Darwin himself believed was a matter of moment. with its outspoken chapter on the origin of conscience and the develop- ment of belief in spiritual beings. this a shallow saying when applied to of people's opinions is true. And when Darwin. Therefore. and therefore interference of a deity. or whose discoveries cause us to ask what is their bearing on the larger human relations and destinies to which past ages have given answers that no longer satisfy us. beliefs in special providence. or that are not compatible with the facts dis- covered. dogmas of His answers to inquiries which were made public . Nor could they fail to ask whether the theory of " natural selection by descent with modification was to apply to the human species. Professors Huxley and Haeckel. man's fall it was all obvious that the bottom was knocked out of traditional and redemption. a belief subject to periodical revision as knowledge increased. but it is men whose words questions of carry weight.172 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. readers would see that unaggressive as was the mode it undermined current with its special creations and contrivances.
that generally (and God. ^3 during his lifetime told us that while the varying circumstances and modes of life caused his judg- ment of a to often fluctuate. and I remember being heartily laughed at by several of the officers (though themselves orthodox) for quoting the Bible as an unanswerable authority on some point of morality." The chapter on although a part of the autobiography. e. Siva. then. printed the following interesting as detailing a few As Whilst on board the Beagle I was quite orthodox. more and more as I grow older) but not always.MODERN EVOLUTION. it is of the steps by which Darwin reached that suspensive stage. But I had gradually come by this time i. continually rose before my mind. as Christianity is connected with the Old Testament ? that the Old This appeared to me utterly incredible. is in the sense of my state of mind. that the Gospels can not be proved to have been written simultaneously with . etc. The question.." he says.. and that while he had never been an atheist denying the existence " " I think. an agnostic would be the most correct description of Religion. 1836 to 1839 to see Testament was no more to be trusted than the sacred books of the Hindoos. I suppose it was the novelty of the argument that amused them. separately in the Life and Letters. quotation shows. further reflecting that the clearest evidence would be requisite to make any sane man believe in the miracles by By which Christianity of the fixed laws of come supported and that the more we know Nature the more incredible do miracles bethat the men at that time were ignorant and credulous is to a degree almost incomprehensible by us. and would not be banished is it credible that if God were now to make a revelation to the Hindoos he would permit it to be connected with the belief in Vishnu.
for instance. which I give not as having the least novelty or value. like the hinge of a door by a man. fails. dreams of between distinguished Romans. Thus disbelief crept over me at a very slow rate. fatal to When we say the super- . We can no longer argue that. that they differ in many important details. The old argument from design in Nature. as it seems to me. have discussed this subject at the end of my book on the Variation of Domesticated Animals and Plants. but was at last complete. the events. I will here give the vague conclusions to which I have been driven. with free scope given to my imagination. in the variability of There seems to be no more design organic beings. and the argument there given has never. than in the course which the wind blows. been an- swered. and manuscripts being discovered at Pompeii or elsewhere. as given by Paley. But I found it more and more difficult. now that the law of natural selection has been discovered. which confirmed in the most striking manner all that was written in the Gospels. for was very unwilling to I can well remember old letters give up my belief I feel sure often and often inventing day. divine revelation. I Although did not think much about the existence of a personal God until a considerably later period of my life. to be admitted as the usual in- accuracies of eye-witnesses by such reflections as these. the beautiful hinge of a bivalve shell must have been made by an intelligent being. Without doubt. over large with me. The rate was so slow that I felt no distress. far too important. and in the action of natural But I selection. but as they in: fluenced me. the influence of the conclusions deducible from the theory of Evolution are belief in the supernatural. to invent evidence which would suffice to convince me.174 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. as far as I can see. came to disbelieve in Christianity as a The fact that many false religions have spread portions of the earth like wildfire had some weight I gradually But I of this. which formerly seemed to me so conclusive.
of whom certain qualities are predi- These beings have no longer any cated." that the infinite spaces.MODERN EVOLUTION. A survey of the history of philosophies of the origin of the cosmos from the time of the renascence of inquiry. Inorganic Evolution. and. sometimes. After centuries of discouragement. Contact with men " brings " sorts and conditions of many home the need of ceaselessly dinning into their ears the fact that Darwin's theory deals only with the evolution of plants and animals from a common It is not concerned with the origin of life ancestry. the essential element in these being the intimate relation between spiritual beings. natural. 2. Therefore. it was revived. without further seriits rise in ous arrest. of 175 we mean that great all body of assumptions out which are constructed theologies. some three hundred years ago. " it forms but a very small part of the gen- eral theory of the origin of the earth and other bodies. actual persecution. shows that the great Immanuel Kant has not had his . place in the effective belief of intelligent and unprejudiced men. Herbert Spencer. We had have seen that speculation about the universe Ionia. prohibition. correspondence with the ascertained operations of Nature. itself. because they are found to have no and man. to advance. nor with those conditions preceding life which are covered by the general term. fill as the sand by the seashore innumerable.
Thus the worlds that are that have been lie between the ruins of the worlds waste and and the chaotic materials of the all worlds that shall be. and converting chaos into cosmos. Laplace. He showed that the " " rotate in the same direction as the central rings . widening the margins of its prodigious eddy in the slow progress of millions of ages. At one point of this he supposes a single centre of attraction set up. gradually reclaiming more and more of the molecular waste. As remarked first already. " published in 1775. In vivid language he depicts the great world-maelstrom. he pictures to himself the universe as once an infinite expansion of formless and diffused matter. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. are converted once more into molecular chaos. and in spite of destruction. at the But what is gained margin is lost in the centre. or an Attempt to Account for the Constitution and the Mechanical nebular theory. by the heat evolved. Origin of the Universe upon Newtonian Principles. and shows how this must result in the development of a prodigious central body.176 due. the attractions of the central systems bring their constituents to- gether. surrounded by systems of solar and planetary worlds in all stages of development. which then. he appears to have been the to put into shape what is known as the In his General Natural History and Theory of the Celestial Bodies. Cosmos is extending his borders at the expense of Chaos." Kant's speculations were confirmed by the celebrated mathematician.
Sir William Herschel. and almost in the same plane. 177 body from which they were cast off. unstable. the highest complexity . sun. and at different rates.000 billions to one. The probability that these harmonious movements are the effects of like causes he calculated as 200. of the simple into the more and more complex. till speaking of the only planet of whose life-history we can have knowledge with the cooling of the earth to a temperature permitting of the evolution of living matter. planets. and cloud-like nebulae (as that term implies) were further confirmations of Kant's theory. of star-clusters. affect not the general theory of the origin of the heavenly bodies from seemingly formless. The assumption of primitive unstable- ness and unlikeness distribution of matter. resulting in the evolution of the seeming like into the actual unlike. and highly-diffused matter. and moons (those of Uranus excepted) moving in a common direction. and with the ceaseless redistribution of matter and changes of states are due to the rearrangement of the atoms of which matter is made all For up. The observations of the famous astronomer. squares with the unequal with the movements of its masses motion. in different directions. And such modifications in this as have been made by subsequent advance in knowledge. notably by the doctrine of the Conservation of Energy (the hypothesis of Kant and Laplace being based on gravitation alone). which resulted in the discovery of binary or double stars.MODERN EVOLUTION.
to quote the striking communication made by many the highest authority on the subject. reveals. Dr. ken. nebulae. We seem to have presented to us some stage of cosmical Evolution on a gigantic scale. Huggins. these being separated from the main body rifts or spaces. it would seem that science reduces the Universe to the intelligible concept of Motion. are masses of glowing hydrogen and nitrogen gases. once thought to be star-clusters. recording infallible vibrations on a sensitive plate. a central mass round which are distinct rings of luminous by dark " matter.178 is PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. of the Since the great discovery by Kirchoff. as in Dr. 1891." The great fact that lies at the back of all these . Roberts's grand tion. that. Therefore. while the photographic plate is a scarcely less imThe one has demonstrated that portant witness. infinitely diverse reached in the forms of plants and animals. Huggins once more. in his Presidential Address to the British Association. and securing accurate registration of the impressions. in 1859. as our knowledge of matter is limited to the changes of which we assume it to be the vehicle. the stars "in the part of the heavens within our still in the early and middle stages of evolution exceed greatly in number those which appear to be in an advanced condition of condensa- The other." photograph of the nebula in Andromeda. To quote Dr. the spectroscope has come as powerful evidence in support of the nebular theory. meaning of the dark lines that cross the refracted sun-rays.
Ionian cosmologists.MODERN EVOLUTION. there may be carrying of owls to Athens. as cosmogonists love to it us. 1894. Dr. Huggins says that if the whole earth were heated to the temperature of the sun." " In referring to this." but that re-statements may sometimes be needful has illustration in Lord Salisbury's " Presidential Address to the British Association. how comes that. off the of nitrogen in our atmosphere. we cleaned him out so completely of his nitrogen and oxygen that not a trace of these gases remains behind to be discovered even by the searching vision of the If Lord Salisbury had consulted spectroscope?" rank. his lord" if the earth be a detached bit whisked tell mass of the sun. common origin of the dominance ship asked. and of the pre- against the theory of the bodies of the solar system. in leaving the sun. and his prejudice. as Dr. \>jq confirmations of the nebular theory is the fundamental identity of the stuff of which the universe is made a fact which entered into the prevision of the . or some foreign astronomer of equal Duner or Scheiner. unmasking These authorities would have told of the incandescent him that when a mixture vapours . its spectrum would resemble very closely the solar spectrum. he would not have put a question exposing his ignorance. wherein the assumed absence of oxygen and nitrogen in the sun's spectrum is adduced as an argument Speaking of the predominant proportion of oxygen in the solid and liquid substances of the earth. Huggins.
in crowd of lines in the solar spectrum. A man can put together a machine. is the vast too. states of rarefaction extreme of the sun's absorbing layer. Nay. the absorption of the oxygen sible to us. been so far to imitate vitality as to produce a me- chanical pianoforte player. able as some have itself. is examined with the spectroscope. The genesis of an atom not easier to conceive than the genesis of a planet. among Then. ceive how.is unable to conceive . or their compounds. skill. The Nebular Hypothesis throws no light on the origin of diffused matter.!go PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Creation by manufacture is a much lower thing than creation by evolution. Hence the absence of the lines of oxygen and other metalloids. " too small to be sen- While the genesis of the Solar System. be artificially a complete man might but he . and of countless other systems like it. the spectra of the metalloids always yield before that of the metals. it makes it a greater mystery. may in some sort con- by greater produced . is thus rendered com- prehensible. and diffused matter as much needs accountit is is ing for as concrete matter. to which both oxygen and nitrogen belong). and metalloids (or non-metallic class ele- of the metals mentary substances. simply removed further back. the ultimate mystery continues as great The problem of existence is not solved: as ever. but he cannot make a machine develop The ingenious artisan. carbon and silicon excepted. so far from making the universe a less mystery than before. indeed.
In erecting a complete theory of Evolution on a purely scientific " basis his profound and vigorous writings. 1858. While the sheets of . This quotation is from an essay on the Nebular which appeared in the Westminster of July. Review and which must.MODERN EVOLUTION. Spencer has had the rare satisfaction of placing the topmost stone on the building which his brain devised and his hand upreared. therefore. how such of a minute structureless germ. and has slowly grown into its present organized state. have been written before the eventful date of the reading of Darwin and Wallace's memorable paper before the Linnaean Society. embody the spirit of Descartes in the knowledge of his of our own day." God of Paley as does the fetish of the Hypothesis." to quote " Huxley. Mr. The author of that essay is Mr. is a far its would have been more astonishing fact than formation after the artificial method vulgarly supposed. i%i a complex organism gradually arises out That our harmo- nious universe once existed potentially as formless diffuse matter. and the foregoing extract from it may fitly preface a brief account of his life-work in co-ordinating the manifold branches of knowledge into a synthetic whole. may rightly contend that the Nebular Hypothesis ' implies a First Cause as much ' transcending the mechanical savage. Herbert Spencer. Those who hold it legitimate to argue from phenomena to noumena." massive structure in Laying the foundation early manhood.
Still there is satisfaction in the consciousness that losses. Doubtless in yet at length the end is reached. thereafter limited and usually to less. says: " In the preface to the venerable author On I which looking back over the six-and-thirty years have passed since the Synthetic Philos- ophy was commenced. sane my project Sometimes a forlorn hope is justified by the event. wholly disabling me for eighteen to three hours a day. am and surprised still at my audacity in undertaking more surprised by its completion. which. this. book are being passed for press. may be judged from the fact that before the first chapter of the first volume was finished. earlier years some exultation would have resulted. now for months. Though. and once for years. caused by overtax of brain in 1855. and chief pleasure is now my emancipation. along with other deterrents. often made me despair of reaching the end. my work How in- must have seemed to onlookers. one of my nervous breakdowns obliged me to desist. this little rives the third which completes Mr. and I was suffering under a chronic disorder. disin my . there arvolume of the Principles of Sociology. I it. but as age creeps on feelings weaken. now lasting for weeks. In 1860 my small resources had been nearly all frittered away in writing and publishing books which did not repay their expenses. many relapses. months.1 82 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Spencer's Synthetic Philosophy. " But imprudent courses do not always fail.
was born at intervallo Derby on the 2/th schoolmaster. and shattered health have not prevented me from fulfilling the purpose of my life. spiritual descendant longo of Heraclitus and Lucretius." These words recall a parallel invited by Gibbon's record of his feelings on the completion of his immortal work.MODERN EVOLUTION. a series of letters to the Non- conformist in 1842 on The Proper Sphere of Government (republished as a pamphlet in 1844). 1820. Spencer's book on Education there are hints an observer " that. '83 couragements. " in which the only point of community with the . what is of importance to note. and followed that profession until he was twenty-five." but with a sober melancholy at the thought " he had taken an everlasting leave of an old that and agreeable companion." He was articled in his seventeenth year to a railway engineer." HERBERT SPENCER. is interesting to note. knows not half the halo of interest which lanes and hedgerows can assume. a of April. when walking under the acacias of his garden at Lausanne. and. and perhaps the establishment of his " " fame. and. His father was a it man of scientific tastes. In Mr. secretary of the Derby Philosophical Association founded by Erasmus Darwin. of his inheritance of the father's bent as and lover of Nature in the remark whoever has not in youth collected plants and insects. he pondered on the " recovery of his freedom. During this period he wrote various papers for the Civil Engineers' and Architects' Journal.
published. much as each slice of the polyp's body is alike stomach. Mr. which goes on in human society as it advances. Even the a tendency towards separateness of still function appears. hunter. retain their similarity to . agriculturist. Each portion of the com- munity performs the same duties with every other portion.1 84 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Spencer points out a brace of paragraphs in the chapter on General Considerations in " which may be seen the first step toward the general doctrine of Evolution. skin. The earliest social organisms conalmost wholly of repetitions of one element. In a footnote to the later editions of this work Mr. After referring to the analogy between the subdivision of labour. and the gradual diminution in the number of like parts and the multiplication of unlike parts which are observable in the higher animals. fisherman. in 1850. Spencer says: Now. and the first of them developed. Spencer joined the staff of the Economist. general doctrine of Evolution is a belief in the modifiability of human nature through adaptation to conditions. Every man is a warrior. builder. in whom first and lungs. toolmaker. and a consequent belief in human pro- After giving up engineering." employed. just the same coalescence of like parts and separation of unlike ones just the same increasing subdivision of function takes place in the development sist " of society. or the Conditions essential to Human Happiness specified. Social Statics. and while thus gression. chiefs. Mr. his first important book. muscle.
The next stage is distinguished by a segregation of these social units into a slaves. this The development ment of man and of society. And rightly interpreted. as seen in the concentration of particular manufactures and this separation of agents separate functions. may be described as a tendency to individuate to become a thing. " Thus do we find. priests. in particular districts. and A further advance seen in the sundering of the labourers into different castes. And. as among the Hindoos. but also that the same definition of applies to both. This union of many men into one community this increasing mutual dependence of units which were originally independent this formation of a whole consisting of unlike parts growth of an organism. between a society and a living creature to a degree quite unsuspected not only that the analogy is borne out by those who com- monly draw life it.MODERN EVOLUTION. While he will also perceive that this coalescence of like parts. are still going on. that from these inferior types of society up to our own complicated and more perfect one. without further illustration. the progress has ever been of the same nature. few distinct classes is warriors. as seen in the more and having more minute division of labour. of which one portion cannot be injured without the rest feeling it may all be generalized under the law of individuation. i8 5 the rest in economic respects. the reader will at once perceive. the mani13 . as well as the develop- the development of life generally. having special occupations.
everywhere pervades them social and ethical questions are kept in the van throughout.1 86 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION." crisp Emerson puts this ideal into man his form when he speaks of the time in which a shall care more that he wrongs not his neighhis bour than that " neighbour wrongs him. ." the perfecting of the adjustment being the highest " the greatest totality of life in self. the limit " others. in brought from her high seat to mix home. and in fellow-men" is conduct not being reached. then will market-cart become a chariot of the sun. in aim. and linked to conis is Conduct defined as " acts adjusted to ends. Spencer's philosophic system revolves is seen in the and notably in his making mental evolution the subject of the first instalment of his earliest Essays. For thought . in the discipline of the rivalry of market." " I Homo sum: humani nihil a me alicnum puto: am a man and nothing human is foreign to me. fold forms of progress going on around us are uniformly significant of this tendency. there are spontaneous efforts to further the welfare of others. interests human Philosophy in the sweet amenities of camp. duct. until." This oft-quoted saying of the old farmer in the SelfTormentor of Terence might be affixed as motto to Herbert Spencer's writings from the tractate on to the concluding the Proper Sphere of Government volume of of the Principles of Sociology." That humanity is the pivot round which Mr. beyond avoidance of direct and indirect injuries to of evolution of secured. so that offspring.
tem. undetermined feeling answering to a single pulsation " or shock (as for example. to its highest form as self-consciousness. of Mind. in terms of matter and motion. and traces its beginnings in the " blurred. interprets And. it could never have possessed. against such apparent materializing of mental phenomena involved in that method.MODERN EVOLUTION. in the he limits feeling or Psychology. who have not risen above the vulgar conception which unites with mat" " " ter the contemptuous epithets brute. Spencer's philosophy secures which. dealing with all cosmic processes as purely mechanical problems. in the medusa or jelly-fish). consciousness to animals possessing a nervous syspublished in 1855. in man. For." Anticipating the levelling of epithets " the phenomena its origin). Spencer remarks on the dismay with which men. to a level which they think so degraded. Synthetic 187 Principles of Philosophy. and society. had of it mechanics it a life and permanence been restricted to explaining the the inorganic universe. or knowing that we know. to go no lower down the life-scale. and of Society. the Synthetic Philosophy. This dominant element in Mr. although of life (excluding the question of mind. It has been observed winian theory aroused attention in because it how all the Dar- quarters side. of existence " Whoever remembers that the forms which the uncultivated speak of with so . touched less human interests on every obvious to the multitude." gross and regard the proposal to reduce the phenomena of Life.
as he will." matter to consist of " . in answering criticisms on First Principles. Spencer. scorn. is utterly groundless fully he will perceive how the fear referred to. the ultimate mystery must remain the same. Mr. Perceiving. Being is convinced that no matter what nomenclature used. but an elevation of the so-called lower. yet such of is some objectors that eighteen years after the above was written. and Force. can Religion. Motion. he will be as ready to formulate all phenomena in terms of Matter. space-occupying having shape and measurement. or the conscious something which perceives it whoever clearly recognises this truth. each thinking that he understands that which it is impossible for any man to understand. is that the Materialist and in Spiritualist controversy a mere war of words. are shown by the man of science to be more marvellous in their attributes the more they much the are investigated. and are also proved to be in their ultimate natures absolutely incomprehensible as absolutely incomprehensible as sensation. as in any other terms. or a consistent the crass density Philosophy. will see that the course proposed does not imply a degradation of the socalled higher." This is clear enough. and will rather indeed anticipate.1 88 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. which the disputants are equally absurd. that only in a doctrine which recognises the all Unknown Cause as co-extensive with there be a consistent orders of phenomena. had to rebut the charge that he believed units.
. 1882. The other two are the Correlation of the Physical Forces. Spencer was good enough to volunteer the following details to the writer: " You are probably aware that the conception set forth in that abstract ing many years. The and followed by a 189 Principles of Psychology was both preceded series of essays in which the " homogeneous to the process of change from the heterogeneous. during its advance from the embryonic to the fully-formed state.e. Spencer tells 1852 he first became acquainted with of Development. originally drawn Youmans. Mr. and impressed him as one of the three doctrines which are indispensable elements of the general theory of Evolution.. from the seeming like to the actual unlike. and the Conservation of Energy. or the changes each living thing. modes as of matter and motion.MODERN EVOLUTION. was reached by slow steps durThese steps occurred as follows. whatever changes or trans- formations these may undergo. from the general to the special. was imbodied of a letter to the Athenseum 22d of July. Mr. or the indestructibility of motion. or the transformation of different other modes of of motion into heat or light into electricity. in Proteus-like fashion. In permitting the quotation of the useful abstract of the Synthetic up in for the late Professor Philosophy which. That law confirmed the Von Baer's Law undergone in prevision indicated in the passages quoted above from Social Statics. us that in was expounded. and so forth." i.
) " From these last two Essays of the Synthetic Philosophy. a fragment . (Evolution at large. (Another factor of Evolution at large. as perchance they may. 1852.) 1854. Ultimate Laws of Physiology. (Evolution of Leader. July. in Westminster Review. The Genesis of Science in British Quarterly Review. National Review. April." seeing Mr. was drawn up When ideas of his synthesis. lution. he took the further trouble to point out certain passages in the essays originally comprised in the one volume edition of 1858 which contain germinal it .) 1857. p. species. March.. 1858. Theory of Population. lution. of the revealing.) 1852. Development Hypothesis. April. of in January. Evolution in general. 1857. will That they are and value his selection add to the interest of their quotation.) (Intellectual Evo- (Mental Principles of Psychology. came the inception The first programme .igO PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.) (Higher human Evoin the vid. Social Statics: especially chapter General Considerations. ante. (Higher human Evolution. in. Progress: its Law and Cause: Westminster Review. . April. 1850. etc. Spencer on the subject of this letter.) 1855. July.
have go far and the commands of the grown from the same root. vol. to the general as from the general to the Quite in harmony with this we find to be the admis- sions that the sciences are as branches of one trunk. it. however. the provisions of the statute-book. on discovering that they have a comLittle as from present appearances we shall yet find that at first. not only that the sciences have a common root. " it is igi an open secret Mr.MODERN EVOLUTION. Manners and Fashion. we the control of religion. However it may now seem. classification. identical " and Master of the Cermonies were i. autobiography which has written. Chief. and this becomes the more marked on finding. and that they were at first cultivated simultaneously. 6 5 ). as we have done. " Scientific advance is as much from the special special. were incredible it all one control. and the should suppose control of manners. . be most clearly seen mon origin. the control of laws. art. (Essays. decalogue. and Manners are thus that their respective kinds of operation lated come under one generalisation that they have in certain contrasted characteristics of men a common support and a common danger will. becomes manifest that originally Deity. we believe to be demonstrable that the rules of etiquette. P- 1883 edition. If we back enough into the ages of primeval it Fetishism. reasoning. Religion. Spencer re- That Law. but that science in general has a common root that with language.
191.I 92 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. 'Tis evident that all the sciences less.) " The analogy between individual organisms and the social organisms is one that has in all ages forced . qualities. the following may be quoted from Hume's Treatise on Human " Nature. The fun- . and that thus the develop- ment of intelligence in all its divisions visions has conformed to the this and subdisame law to which " (Ib. and Natural Religion are in some measure dependent on since they lie the sci- ence of under the cognisance of men. however wide any of them may seem to run from it. and are judged of by their powers and MAN. pp. Natural Philosophy. greater or human nature. (In correspondence with this. is becoming clear that there are no such special parallelisms between the constituent parts of a man exist. as have been thought to also becoming clear that the general principles in all organ- of development and structure displayed ised bodies are displayed in societies also. and that. . acting and reacting on each other just as the separate sciences have done. Even Mathematics. they still return back by one passage or another. recognising that the same method has to be adopted in all inquiry. . we have shown sciences conform The Genesis of Science. While it itself on the attention of the observant. and those it is of a nation. 192). whether we deal with the body or the mind. throughout civilisation these have advanced together. to have a relation.
. We and leaves the rest to dwindle. one monopolises more and more of the suburbs. we have endeavoured to that in animals the process of develop- ment is carried on. Now in the social organism we may see the same duality of process. of corn merchants about Great " Mark Lane. And we have parts. . . business. munity while. is. that they consist of mutually dependent and it would seem that this involves . of various other characteristics. yet those other integrations that result from the actual approximation of the similarly-occupied whence results such facts as the concentration of publishers in Paternoster Row. but by subordinate integrations. Street. for instance. as witness the growth of the Yorkshire cloth districts at the expense of those in the west of England. that Biology and Sociology will more or if it clear less inter- pret each other. out of several places producing a particular commodity. it is to be observed that the integrations are of the that same three kinds. not by differentiations only. a com. 193 damental characteristic both of societies and of living creatures parts. as. Thus we have integrations arise from the simple growth of adjacent parts of that perform like functions. of lawyers in the Temple and neighbourhood. " One of the positions establish is. bankers in the centre of the city . Meanis any such correspondence exists.MODERN EVOLUTION. and further. of of civil engineers in George (Essays. the co- alescence Manchester with its calico-weaving have other integrations that arise when. .
414-416). Transcendental Physiology. From which Science can fathom. But. and of an egg into an animal). it is seen in the evolution of Humanity. and summarized in words to be " understanded of the people. it is seen in the geologic and climatic evolution of the Earth. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.. The advance from the simple to the of organic complex. gives the gist of the Synthetic Phi- losophy " : that we have shown beyond question which the German physiologists (Von Baer. earliest seen alike in the changes of the Universe to which we can reason our way back. its religious. and in the earlier changes which we can inductively establish. and others) have found to be the law believe that We development (as of a seed into a tree. up to the novelties . 1878 edition. divested of technicalities. whether contemplated in the civilised individual. the appearance of differences in the parts is of a seemingly like substance). or in the aggregation of seen in the evolution of Society in respect alike of its political. e." the : following quotation from the Essay on Progress Its Law and Cause. vol. and its economical organisation. and it is seen in the evoluraces. it is tion 01 all those endless concrete and abstract prodthe remotest past of yes- ucts of human activity which constitute the environ- ment of our daily life. through a process of successive differentiations (i. Wolff. and of every single organism on its surface.I 94 iii. is the law of all development. pp.
there 3.MODERN EVOLUTION." which Mr. like the first. vegetal or ani- . 4. in pre- Throughout the universe is general and in detail there an unceasing redistribution of matter and motion. there primary change from an incoherent to a coherent go on secondary changes due to differ- ences in the circumstances of the different parts of the aggregate. This redistribution constitutes evolution when is there a predominant integration of matter and of is dissipation motion. Spencer. when along with this state. named above. in the earth as an inorganic mass. proceeds uncomplicated by other processes. into the heterogeneous" 1883. as pared for Professor Youmans. " To this may follow the succinct statement of the cardinal principles developed in the successive works. These secondary changes constitute a transformation of the homogeneous into the hetero- geneous nearly a transformation which. and constitutes dissolution a predominant absorption of motion and disintegration of matter. or the formation of a coherent aggregate. 2. Evolution is compound. all (or in the aggregate of stars and nebulae. fitly essentially consists. terday. when Evolution is simple when the process of in- tegration. vol. that in is 195 which Progress (Essays. 30). in the planetary system. 5. the transformation of the homogeneous i. in each organism. 1. is exhibited in the universe as a whole and in all) its details. p.
combines with the process of differentiation to render this change not simply from homogeneity to heterogeneity. in society. The multiplication of effects. which thereupon pro- . 6. this also becomes. the mind. of which evolution is one phase. 7. the different exposures of the dif- any limited aggregate to incident The transformations hence resulting are 10. it are these The instability of the homogeneous. The causes which finite necessitate 9. more definitely heterogeneous. that redistribution.196 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. like it. which accompanies the trait of increasing heterogeneity. exhibited in the totality of things and in all its divisions. acting locally as well as generally. in all products of social activity. is inevitable. In the absence of a homogeneity that is in- and absolute. by step. in aggregate of organisms throughout geologic time. in the mal (Von Baer's law otherwise expressed). Along with this redistribution of the matter composing any evolving aggregate there goes on a redistribution of the retained motion of its components in relation to one another. The process of integration. is. which is consequent upon ferent parts of forces. Every mass and part of a mass on which a force falls subdivides and differentiates that force. trait of and subdivisions down to the minutest. step 8. but from an indefinite homogeneity to a definite heterogeneity. and this increasing definiteness.
11. quickly under- gone by bodies lately animate. remains to be undergone at an by . and each of becomes the parent of similarly-multiplying changes.MODERN EVOLUTION. and its dissipation. And these two causes of increasing differentiations are furthered by Segregation. the multiplication of them becoming greater in proportion as the aggregate becomes more heterogeneous. ceeds to these 197 work a variety of changes. Equilibration of balanced may motions (as in a planetary pass through a transition stage system) or of balanced functions (as in a living body) on the way to ultimate equilibrium. is the necessary limit of the changes constituting evolution. or death in organic bodies. each aggregate ever liable to be its dissipated by the increase. but the state of rest in inorganic bodies. of contained motion . which is a process tending ever to separate unlike units and to bring together like units so serving continually to sharpen. gradual or sudden. is the counter-change which 13. and slowly undergone inanimate masses. is otherwise caused. Remaining exposed to surrounding forces that are is unequilibrated. Dissolution sooner or later every evolved aggregate undergoes. the final result of these trans- Equilibration formations which an evolving aggregate undergoes. differentiations 12. The changes go on until there is reached an equi- librium between the forces which all parts of the aggregate are exposed to and the forces these parts oppose to them. or make definite.
during short periods in small agthe vast and in aggregates distributed through space completing able by versal itself in human and eternal thought. either by increase or decrease. This rhythm of evolution and dissolution. as local conditions determine. is. which we are obliged scends to recognise as without limit in space and without beginning or end in time. from their great feato their minutest details. persists That which unchanging in quantity. exclusive of the minor works and the Sociological . which since an indefinitely distant period in the past has been slowly evolving. the cycle of its transformations being thus completed. remote period by each planetary and mass. in that. and their quantities being unchangeable. are necessary results of the persistence of force under its forms of matter and motion. these spe- above enumerated. there inevitably all result the continuous redistributions distinguishable as evolution and dissolution. tures down All these phenomena. under these sensible appearances which the universe presents to us. each alternating phase of the periods immeasurso far as we can see. as well as cial traits 1 6. itself completing gregates. uni- process predominating now in this region of space and now 15. Given these as distributed through space. All that is comprised in the dozen volumes which. 14. but ever changing in form.igS indefinitely stellar PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. tran- human knowledge and conception is an unknown and unknowable power.
ples For those who. it fundamentally. Spencer and his father mainly in the form of questions from the latter during that month. his courtesy the writer Through has seen the docu- ments which prove that the first draft of that prospectus was written out on the 6th of January. provided in a convenient volume the Howard Collins has of the then prepared. Tables. beginning with ends with the Principles of Sociology (18621896). and cognate questions. lack leisure. 199 losophy. Suffice of it. The revisions which may be called for will not affect details. form the great body of the Synthetic PhiThe genis the expansion of this abstract. Into these we cannot enter here. The prospectus series of ples. 1860. There- as evidencing that the scheme of the . blessed with good digestion. being limited to more especially in the settlement of the rela- tive functions of individuals and communities.MODERN EVOLUTION. that to those who have is the rare possession diet sound mental peptics. was issued by Mr. The record of these facts is of some moment thetic SynPhilosophy took definite shape in 1857. 1858. there is be recommended than excellent epitome which Mr. no more nutritive can supplied by First Princiand the works in which its theses are developed. and that it was the occasion of an interesting corre- spondence between Mr. proposed issue of the First Princi- works which. Spencer in March. eral lines laid down in that Philosophy have become a permanent way along which investigation will continue to travel.
revealing divided opinions among biologists as to the sufficiency of natural selection as a cause of all modifications in the struc- ture of living things. And. firm as that. and thus knocked the bottom out of the old belief in special creation. as the outcome of that paper. lead timid or half-informed minds to hope that the doctrine turn out not to be true. however. showed that the action of natural selection is a sufficing cause for the production of new life-forms. has been supplied by the fossilyielding rocks. The evidence as to the connection between the succession of past lifeforms which. The Origin of Species. in which only organic evolution was discussed. There is the more need for laying stress on this because recent discussions.200 fore. and the evidence as to the unbroken development of the highest plants and animals from the lowest which of more and more confirms the theory Baer. The general doctrine of Evolution. was formulated some months before the publication of the Darwin. Theory of Evolution. is not so vitally related to that of natural selection that the two stand or fall together. regard being had to the well-nigh obliterated record. dealing with the universe as a whole. the PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. alike furnish a body of testimony placing the doctrine of Organic Evolution on a foundation that can never be shaken. It is in of Evolution may yet such stratum of intel- . Von stands the doctrine of Inorganic Evolution upon the support given by modern science to the speculations of Immanuel Kant.Wallace paper.
the aver- age orthodox believer will feel a vague sort of satis- faction that the foundations of his belief in the Trinity and the Incarnation are somehow strengthened. 2OI whenever some old inscription or in the Bible is verifying statements discovered. his parents chose that of the particular apostle with whom. 1825. Flinders Petrie. Concerning his father." and. at THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY was born the 4th of May. Even the inscription which has Exodus was forthcoming from come judgment of such to light does not. But let that irrefragable witness appear. supply the exact confirmation desired. in the an expert as Dr." Speaking of his first Christian name. with like quaint precision. until the present year. as the doubting member of the twelve. Montaigne tells Ealing. that the infallibility of that monument further proof. ligence that there lurks the feeling. who was " one of the mas- . Huxley gives the " hour of his birth as about eight o'clock in the morning. he humorously said that. Tlwmas Henry Huxley. will and while the historian welcome it as evidence of the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt. he had always felt most sympathy. not a single confirmatory piece of evidence book has as to the story of the Egypt itself. thus throw- ing light on the movements of races. by curious chance.MODERN EVOLUTION. on us that he was " borne between eleven of the clock and noone. For example. and adding to the historical value of the Pentateuch. 3.
Non multa. perhaps. with a certain shrinking from anatomical work. it will to the first side. Huxley has little to say in the slight autobiographical sketch reprinted as an introduction Herbert Spencer. and in his seven- teenth year entered the Charing Cross Hospital School as a student. was also a schoolmaster). and in working with the microscope. In those days there was no instruction in physics. school" (the father of ters in a large semi-public be remembered. the evidence of that came in his discovery of a certain root-sheath in the hair. Huxley had as excellent a teacher in Wharton Jones as the latter had a promising pupil in Huxley. except a certain faculty for drawing. volume of the Collected Essays. and what was lacking in breadth was. " certain hotness of temper." and a men- he was the son of his mother. So. and but for lack life of means." " Huxley's Up to the time of his studentship. sed multum. a slender brunette. gained in thoroughness. his tastes were mechanical. Physically and " tally. On that he tells us. Fox's office for journalism. he could find hardly any trace in himself. he had been . which has since then been known as layer." His school training was brief and profitless. Huxley studied medicine for a time under a relative. and only in such branch of chemistry as dealt with the nature of drugs. of an emotional and energetic temperament. forsook he would have started in the same profession till which Herbert Spencer followed he Messrs.2Q2 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
At the end of two months he was for- tunate enough to be entered on the books of Nelson's old ship. London with honours anatomy and physiology. left. Sir John Richardson. was devoured with avidity. Mr. His official chief was the famous Arctic Explorer. renders answers to such questions. (afterwards Sir) Joseph Fayrer. M. and that the limitation accidentally of our faculties. endowed with that splendid courage in attacking any and every subject which is the blessed compensation of youth and inexperience. He well us that he was a voracious and omnivorous " reader. in a great real number of cases.MODERN EVOLUTION. and after a few months' In 1845. before he was out of his teens. through whose recommendation . 203 intellectually." and it stamped upon his mind the " that on even the most solemn strong conviction and important of questions. men are apt to take cunning phrases for answers. for duty at Haslar Hospital." Among the books and essays that impressed him were Guizot's History of Civilization. applied." Thus. B. tells altogether to his own devices. he won his practice at the East End. he adds. the Victory. but theoretically inconceivable. a dreamer and speculator of the first water. and Sir William Hamilton's essay On the Philosophy of the Unconditioned which he came upon in an odd volume of the " Edinburgh Review. the philosophy that ruled his life-teaching in was taking definite shape. at the instance of his senior fellow-student. This. not merely actually impossible. for an appointment in the medical service of the Navy.
Stanley). assistant surof the Rattlesnake. in whom the biologist dominated the doctor. the latter as assistant-surgeon on board the Erebus on her Antarctic Expedition in 1839. Darwin and Hooker had passed through a like marine curriculum. and the origi- which it evidenced justified his election . geon he was appointed. and father of Dean acceptance. wich (author of a book on birds. his four-years' During absence Huxley. These he sent home to the Linnaean Society in vain hope of more elaborate paper to the Royal communicated through the Bishop of NorSociety. and on Huxley's return 1850 a huge packet of " It dealt with the awaited him. was commissioned to survey the intricate passage within the Barrier Reef skirting the eastern shores of Australia. and to explore the sea lying between the northern end of that reef and New Guinea.2O4 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. seven months later. secured the coveted A honour " of publication. The former served as naturalist on board the Beagle when she sailed on her voyage round the world in 1831. made observations on the various marine animals collected. Fortune was to bring the three shoulder to shoulder when the battle against the theory of the immutability of species was fought. It was the best apprenticeship to what was eventually the work of Huxley's life the solution of biological problems and the indication of their far-reaching significance. separate copies in affinities of anatomy and nal research the Medusae. commanded by Captain Owen Stanley. That ship.
while adding to his established qualifications for a scientific appointment. but his services to class of been limited to the sent. nothing that he did subsequently has surpassed his contributions to scientific literature at if that period. and on histology. first. That was in 1854. and then a chair of natural history at Toronto (Tyndall was at the same time an unsuc- cessful candidate for the chair of physics in the university). and these. But these. He would seem per saltum. knowledge had work which they repre- specialist. so far as their biological value concerned. demand no detailed reference here. vacated by Edward Forbes. and Huxley was a poor man.MODERN EVOLUTION. a professorship of physiology England. he would have remained only a distinguished Further recognition of his well-won posi- tion came in the award of the society's royal medal. or the science of tissues. Between that date and the time of his return Huxley had contributed a number of valuable papers on the structure of the invertebrates. After vain atin tempts to obtain. in 1851 to the fellowship of the society 20$ whose presi- dential chair he was in after years to adorn. With both chairs there was united the curatorship of the fossil collections in the Museum of Practical Geology. is to have won the blue ribbon of science Probably. a settled position same was secured by Sir Henry de la Beche's offer of the professorship of palaeontology and of the lectureship on natural history in the Royal School of Mines. But fellowships and medals keep no wolf from the door. with .
which office he accepted in important them entific all list of Huxley's more He surrendered appointments. the loyal dis- the grant of a pension. in addition to the last" acing effects of an illness in boyhood. charge of which met with becoming recognition in This secured a modest comlife petence in the evening of to one who had never been wealthy. to fur" L. 1 88 1." And of yet. which had already been shown in abortive attempts in the pages of that " facetious " journal to appraise a Roman Catholic biologist at the expense of Huxley. con- prompted the surrender of his varied official responsibilities. having reached the age at which. the inspectorship of salmon fisheries. in 1885. to his abiding discredit. which troubled both Darwin and Bates for the rest of their lives after their return from abroad. and who had had never coveted wealth. S." Every sciPerhaps he dreaded the conservatism of attitude.206 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. which often accompany old age. the present editor Punch allowed his theological animus. . Carlyle's cursed Hag. that he be applied what Faraday said " no time to make money. D. man ought new ideas. He was never of robust constitution. the non-receptivity -to But for himself such fears were needless." ther degrade itself by affixing the letters to his name in a character-sketch. siderations of health mainly Therefore." dyspepsia. troubled him. To Huxley may fitly of himself. life His public may be said to date from 1854. to be poleaxed.' complete the public as he jocosely remarked to the " writer.
he his made debut at the Royal mumbling shirt front. But mother a short time in needs must trained him in to win the ear of an audience.MODERN EVOLUTION. 1880. of words. In 1856 Huxley visited the glaciers of the Alps with Tyndall. At the outset of his public career was as distasteful to him as in earlier years the trouble of writing wit and " was " detestable. and its effect salutary. awkwardness in use of hands. Among the most notable are those on Our Or- Knowledge lecturing of the Causes of the Phenomena of ganic Nature. it Huxley was fond of telling this story. One evening Institution. to his lecture On the Coming of Age of the Origin of Species. . 1852 and the next day he received a letter charging him with every possible fault that a lecturer co^ild commit ungraceful stoop. the result appearing in their joint authorship of a paper on Glacial Phenomena in the Philosophical Transactions of the following year. or dropping them down the The lesson was timely. and worth recording if but as encouragement to stammerers who have something to say at what " " which held an price he bought this freedom is audience spellbound. The duties 20? which he then undertook included the delivery of a course of lectures to working men Some of these models of every alternate year. How he thus held it in later years they will remember who in the packed theatre of the Royal Institution listened on the evening of Friday. their kind have been reissued in the Collected Essays. 9th of April.
Telerpeton. They might sink into the oblivion which buries most purely technical work without in any way affecting that foremost place which he fills in the ranks of philosophical biologists both as clear-headed thinker and luminous interpreter. and vertebrate morphology. and tributed to these. What time could be wrested from daily routine was given to the study of invertebrate tology. as so forth. and. his experiences as a traveller. Hence . prepared his mind for acceptance of the theory of descent with modification of living forms from one stock.2o8 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. On Ceratodus. The outcome of such varied industry is apparent to the student of scientific memoirs. palaeonfamiliarity with which was no for the conflict mean equipment soon to rage round these seemingly pacific materials when their deep import was declared. That was in 1859. As with Hooker and Bates. In this high function the publication of the Origin of Species gave him his opportunity. Hypsilophodon. his penetrating inquiry into significances and relations. Hyperodapedon Gordoni. this But was a rare interlude. But a recital of the titles of papers cone. But it is not by these that Huxley's renown as one of the most richly-endowed and widely-cultured personalities of the Victorian era will endure. The and elaborate investigations which they embody have had recognition in the degrees and medals which decorated the illustrious author.. will not here tend to original edification. g. and ethnology. more than this.
On the Reception of the Origin which Huxley contributed to Darwin's Life and Letters. At that time I had long done with the Pentateuchal cosmogony which had been impressed upon my childish understanding as Divine truth with all the authority of parents and instructors.. I think that I must have read the Vestiges (see 119) before I left England little in 1846. Far it be is it from me to say that I it is untrue because impossible. but if I did the I ' book made very was not brought ' impression upon me. the mutability. in which Milton so vividly embodies the natural sense of Genesis. 209 fixity. he gives an interesting account of In the chapter attitude his toward that burning question. He says " p. and into serious contact with the species question until after 1850.. confine myself to what must be regarded as a modest and reasonable request for some particle of evidence that the existing species of animals and plants did originate in that way as a . I had not then and the smallest a priori objection to raise to the account of the creation of animals and I have not now plants given in Paradise Lost. . But my mind was unbiassed in respect of any doctrine which presented itself if it professed to be based on purely philosophical and scientific reasoning. and from which it had cost me many a struggle to get free. of Species. as against the old theory of the of species.MODERN EVOLUTION.
am happy Many and to think has known no interrup- fought on this lectic skill prolonged were the battles we topic. . I think. same answer to give to the evolutionists Within the ranks of the biologists of that time I met with nobody. Looking back at the state of knowledge at that time. and his advocacy was not calculated to adactly the of 1851-58. Herbert Spenmade. took my stand upon two grounds: firstly. and secondly. vance the cause. that up to that time the evidence in favour of transmutation was wholly insufficient. " As I have already said. who had a word to say for Evolution. and at the same time a thoroughgoing cer. son Outside these ranks the only percapacity known to me whose knowledge and who was I compelled respect. except Dr. in 1852. " And by way of being perfectly fair. Grant. I had ex. I imagine that most those of of contemporaries about the matter were very my who thought seriously much in my own state . condition of to my belief in a statement which appears me to be highly improbable. and then entered into the bonds of a friendship evolutionist. . was Mr. that no suggestion in re- specting the causes of the transmutation assumed which had been made was any way adequate to explain the phenomena. But even my friend's rare diaof apt illustration could I and copiousness not drive me from my agnostic position.2io PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. of University College. I really do not see that any other conclusion was justifiable. whose acquaintance I which tion.
not to pin our faith to that or any other speculation. and still more that of the Origin in 1859. and what have you to propose that can be accepted by any cautious reasoner? In 1857 I had no answer ready. Moreover.MODERN E VOL UTION. and I do not think that any one else had. na d the effect flash of light. That which we were looking for and could not find was a hypothesis respecting the origin of known organic forms which assumed the operation of no causes but such as could be proved to be wanted. it takes him straight home or not. My reflection. We brought face to face with validity tested. self in upon them of the which to a man who has lost him- whether a dark night suddenly reveals a road which. of 2 1 I and Evoon both your houses!' and plague disposed to turn aside from an interminable and apinclined to say to both Mosaists lutionists mind 'A parently fruitless discussion to labour in the fertile fields of ascertainable fact. And I may therefore further suppose that the publication of the Darwin and Wallace papers in 1858. but to get hold of clear and definite conceptions which could be actually at work. and have their The Origin provided us with the working hypothesis we sought. certainly goes his way. facts. it did the immense service of freeing us for ever from the dilemma refuse to accept the creation hypothesis. A year later we reproached ' ourselves with dulness for being perplexed by such an inquiry. when I first made myself master of the central idea of the Origin was How extremely stupid not to .
he followed the argument whithersoever it led. as he candidly tells us in the Introduction to the Descent of Man. In 1860 he delivered a course of lectures to working-men On the Relations of Man lec- to the Lower Animals. the darkness.212 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. of the struggle for existence. For in the its it Origin of Species the theory was not pushed to obvious conclusion: Darwin only hinted that " would throw much light on the origin of man and his history. The facts of variability. of adaptation to conditions. have thought of that!' I suppose that Columbus's companions said much the same when he made the egg stand on end." His silence. at the a couple of Edinburgh Philosophical Institution. As was said of Luther in relation to Erasmus." But the disciple soon outstripped the master. and on the same subject in 1862. were notorious enough. The important and significant feature of these discourses was the demonstration tures no cerebral barrier divides man from apes that the attempt to draw a psychical distinction between " him and the lower animals is futile. the highest faculties of feeling and of intellect begin . was due to " a desire not to add to the prejudices against his views. but none of us had suspected that the road to the heart of the species problem lay through them. Huxley hatched the egg that Darwin laid. until Darwin and Wallace dispelled and the beacon-fire of the Origin guided the benighted." No such hesitancy kept Huxley silent. In the spirit of Plato's Laws. and that even that .
and one that a very shrewd friend mine implored me not to publish. at Oxford.MODERN EVOLUTION. nor anything I need add. except in confirmation and extension of the That is great good fortune for a doctrine there laid down. tends all his writings. in a letter to the writer. true workman. Then. 3Oth of June. was fought. with ideal ever lying ahead. Matthew Arnold apostrophizes her in the Preface to his Essays in Criticism. he remarked to the writer that never did a book come hot from the press. a memorable duel between biologist and bishop. book thirty years old. as it would certainly ruin of all my prospects. it momentous issues we must return " For that was the to 1860. but he wished that he could suppress and rewrite it. with the raised in Man's Place in Nature. " the historic discussion on the traditional doctrine of . more memorable than But before dealing. Sturm und Drang " home of lost causes. as he was. thus refers to the book when arranging for its reissue among the Collected Essays was looking through Man's Place in Nature the other I do not think there is a word I need delete. on Saturday." The lectures were published in 1863 in a volume entitled Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature. The sparse annotations to the whole series of reprinted matter show that the like permanence atAnd yet." as period. perhaps in its issues. and it was with pride warranted by the results of subsequent researches that Huxley. 2 l$ to germinate in lower forms of life. I day.
The scene combat. it would be a man.214 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. who. There had been " words " between Owen and Huxley on the previous Thursday. The bishop was up to time." and pledged himself to justify that unusual procedure elsewhere. I And this referred to the personal is what he said remark of asserted. although refuting Owen. and the declamation became He finished his harangue by asking Huxley whether he was related by his grandfather's or " The Lord hath degrandmother's side to an ape. an ancestor whom I should feel shame in recalling. Owen contended that there were certain funda- mental differences between the brains of apes. Library. livered him into my a friend at his side." whispered Huxley to After set- ting his opponent an example in demonstrating his case by evidence which. plunges into scientific questions with which he has no real . hands. Both Huxley and Wilberforce were doughty champions. that a man has no reason to be If there were of having an ape for his grandfather." No wonder that the atmosphere was electric. not content with an equivocal success in his own sphere of activity. Fainting women were carried out. Declamation usurped the vacant place of arin his speech. between Cuvier and Geoffrey Saint- special creation Hilaire in the French Academy of in 1830. ashamed and I repeat. gument acrid. evoked no admission of error from him then or ever after. as he rose to reply. a man of restless and versatile intellect. the Museum was crammed to suffocation. Huxley Wilberforce. man and " Huxley met this with direct and unqualified " contradiction.
and distract the attention of his hearers from the real point at issue by eloquent digressions. thus aggravating the offence. Darwin has. Few. since it seemed to reduce the soul of man to the level of his biliary duct. skilled appeals to religious preju- Perhaps the best comment on a piece of what is now ancient history is to quote the admissions by Lord Salisbury this a rigid in made High Churchman in his presidential address to the British Association in same city of Oxford 1894 are found to doubt that animals separated by differences far exceeding those that distinguish what we know as species have yet descended from common ancestors. Few now the immutability of species. this Southron troubler of with his salts. on a of " Sabbath " had settled evening in Edinburgh in 1868. only to obscure them by an aimless rhetoric. plants and animals being is alike built-up of matter acter. as a matter of fact. . have a also.MODERN EVOLUTION. 215 acquaintance. disposed of the doctrine of . into quiescent acceptance of Darwinism. was. . Hence the Oxford storm was but a wind compared with that which raged capful round Huxley's lecture on The Physical Basis of Life delivered. and dice. but also the doctrine that all life-forms common origin. shaken by And now their somnolence was rudely Israel. which identical in char- This doctrine. to-day a commonplace of biology. are now found to doubt not only that doctrine. thirty years ago. production of a bottle of solution of smelling . People down. with more or less vague under- standing of the matter. rank heresy.
as in the essay the method Hume. as his Celtic blood stirred him." and clerics alike raised the gross materialism. as facts of consciousness. philosophers cry of " so-called. was the subject of which Huxley's Presidential Address to the British Asso- The ciation in 1870. dashing. in their ultimate analysis. the statements with a touch of poetry in the famous phrase that " the genius of Newton was potential in the fires of the sun. on Descartes's Discourse touching and in his In season and out of season he never wearies of using one's reason rightly. and a pinch or two which repre- sented the elementary substances entering into the composition of every living thing from a jelly-speck to man. is in insisting that there nothing in the doctrine " in- consistent with the purest idealism. he made this statement in support of Tyn- . nomena known to us only All the pheof Nature are.2i6 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. when in 1874 he asserted the funda- mental identity of the organic and inorganic. an answer repeated again and again in his writings." The cyclone thus raised travelled westward on the heels of Tyndall." " ancient belief in spontaneous generation. But while he showed how subse- quent investigation confirmed the doctrine of Abiogenesis. Well might the removal of the stopper to that bottle take their breath away! " Microscopists." never pausing to read Huxley's anticipatory answer to the baseless charge." Redi's experiments. upset. of other ingredients. or the non-production of living from dead matter.
" . dall's 217 creed as to the fundamental unity of the vital and the non-vital. but I beg you once more to recollect that I have no right to call my opinion anything but an act of philosophical 15 faith.have originated. oxalates. I find life. with the power of de- termining the formation of new protoplasm from such matters as ammonium carbonates. Looking back through the prodigious vista no record of the commencement and therefore I am devoid of any means of of of forming a of its definite conclusion as to the conditions the word. and water. which analogical reasoning leads me. like existing fungi. and tartrates. in the admitted ab- sence of evidence. expectation it would be using words in a wrong sense. in the scientific sense of is a serious matter.MODERN EVOLUTION. Belief. and if were given to me to look beyond the abyss of geologically recorded time to the still more remote period when the earth was passing through physical and chemical conditions which it can no more see again than a man can recall his infancy. and needs strong foundations. I should expect to be a witness of the evolution of living protoplasm from non-living matter. But is permissible where belief is not. therefore. " the past. I should expect to see it appear under forms of great simplicity. appearance. alkaline without the aid of and earthy phosphates. That is the expectation to light. that I have any belief as to the mode in which the existing forms of life. endowed. To say.
Mr. that the publication of Darwin's Descent of Man in 1871 created mild excitement. ." That is the direction of the revolution to which the publication of Man's Place in Nature gave impetus. great saken the study for the arena. " marched breast fighter. The doctrine of Evolution is a generalisa- He tion of certain facts which may be observed by any necessary trouble. and it is in the all-round application of the theory of man's descent that Huxley stands foremost. to the conclusions " from which all future philosophical and theological speculations will have to accommodate themselves. and one main result of his active propagandism was to so effectively prepare the way for the reception of the profounder issues involved in the theory of the origin of species. Spencer has never shrunk from controversy. has been less direct " ever a and personal than that of his comrade. natural selection cannot bring about." one who will take the The facts are those which biologists class under the heads of Embryology and Palaeontology. both as leader and lawgiver. insists on the non-implication of the larger theory with its subordinate parts." who. and hence his influand abiding as it is. Huxley was the Apostle Paul of the Darwinian movement. in Browning's words. but he has not for- ence.2l8 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. it must be kept in mind. And the weight of his support is the greater because he never omitted to lay stress on the obscurity which still hides the causes of variation which. and on which it can only act. or with the fate of " them.
" of It " looks like the prelude to surrender what is the cardinal dogma we read in the Archdeacon's address that of Christianity " when the the- ory of Evolution is indeed fatal to certain quasimythological doctrines of the Atonement which once prevailed. and all the smooth sayings in attempted harmonies between the two. of which Professor Drummond's Ascent of Man is a type. and we must believe it accordingly. as the Venerable apologist may learn . delivered at Oxford.MODERN EVOLUTION. and in speeches at Church Congresses of which that delivered a type. the brilliant monograph on Hume. wonderful in the justification in the prevision and which has received from If all subsequent research. paralleled by a famous passage in Gibbon. and its successors. published in Man's Place series of deliverances 1879. notably in psychology. i8th of May. forward. 161) is " do but hypnotize the light half-believers of our casual creeds. but it is in harmony with its spirit. the propositions therein maintained are unis shaken." times To some there are " signs of the which point to approaching acquiescence in the sentiment of Ovid." For those doctrines. and the Romanes Lecture on Evolution and Ethics. are but expansions of the thesis laid derful fills it. 1893. " by Archdeacon Wilson (see p. that the existence of the gods is a matter of public policy. down it in that wonwhich little volume. then there no possible reconciliation be- tween Evolution and Theology." 219 in Nature was the first of a upon the most serious questions that can occupy the mind.
The decisions of these Councils represent the opinion of the majority of fallible men composing those as- semblies. The Church of that Evolution does not traverse. and only a sentence or two that find neither confirmation nor contradiction. of fallible parts can make it an infallible As Selden " quaintly puts (Table Talk. But. are wholly mythological. dismissing this for the moment. But. they talk (but blasis phemously enough) that the Holy Ghost man man is still the when the Holy Ghost. there is not a dogma of Chris- tendom. both sets of questions are settled by a human tribunal employing a circular the Church bases creeds. because barbaric. of their General Councils. There not a sentence in any one of these which finds confirmation." With truth this is president the odd " same odd " rested the decision as to what books should be included or excluded from the collection on which its authority and formulates its So. in Evolution. The wasted. " England adopts as thoroughly to be received and believed. of the question. let . and no number whole. is known as the and the Nicene. argument. in the last result.220 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. not a foundation on which the dogma rests. in truth. Councils). Golden Bough (chap. as defined by the Councils of the Church. the Athanasian. lies on which reams of paper have been in the in a nutshell. The statements Creeds profess to have warrant in the direct words Bible. or in inferences drawn from those words. in Frazer's from the evidence iii. xxx. passim)." the three ancient creeds. Apostles'.
and not a few Catholic divines are adopting an attitude toward it which is only the prelude to Matters must have moved apace in the Church which Huxley. at last. the conclusions of science are hopelessly at variance with the declarations of the sacred text. and we have seen how (?). The most enlightened Protestant divines accept this as proven. All that would logically follow from the demonstration of the animal origin of man. or the authorised teachings of the Church of Christ. far scientists are from such a demonstration there will not be. even in such an improbable event. to permit the Roman Catholic Professor of Physics in the University of Notre Dame. shall demonstrate beyond doubt that man is genetically related to the inferior animals. by of the territory spontaneous retreat of the enemy from nine-tenths which he occupied ten years ago." surrender. moral. us see to what issues the controversy 2 2I is narrowed." The battle has no longer to be fought over the question of the fundamental identity of the physical structure of man and of the anthropoid apes. to " the quote Huxley's words (written in 1871). backed by history. America. anthropology.MODERN EVOLUTION. to parley as follows: " Granting that future researches in palaeontology. would be a modification of the tradi- tional view regarding the origin of the body of our . and biology. and social life of mankind. the slightest ground for imagining that then. describes " that vigorous and consistent enemy of the highas est intellectual.
Zahm. D. A. in his Tractatus de Opere sex Dierum. We should be obliged to revise the interpretation that has usually been given to the words of Scripture which refer to the formation of Adam's body. without either distorting the mean- ing of terms. suggested revision of writings which are claimed as forming part of a divine revelation. Ph. may be attributed to the words of the inspired record. 365). which people. the character of ments found by Dr. By the Reverend J. Dubois which. C. Francisco Suarez. S. or in any text " way doing violence to the (Evolution and Dogma. thus refers. and read these words in the sense which Evolution demands. and the reproof the Creation. ancestor. C.222 first PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. pp.. In near connection with the question of man's that of his antiquity. existence of his remains." since these wise words were penned. . in inspiring Moses to write a history of " " was to be believed by ordinary would have made him use language the true meaning of which it was hard to discover. which they convey origin is is as much needed now The as then. in the judgment of several palaeontologists. Upon this one of the highest authorities. to the elastic interpretation given in his time to the days " in the first chapter of Genesis. This applies to the remarkable fragin Java. a sense which. It is not probable that God. 364. and still Three centuries have passed harder to believe. in deposits older than the Pleistocene or Quaternary Epoch is not proven. as we have seen. rare as they are everywhere.
and in a spirit or soul within. that it makes known matters which the human mind could not. and therefore that no gradual process from the mental faculties of the one to those of the other has taken place. that a revelation has been made. unaided. The evolutionist has no such corre- sponding deep concern. indicates the nearest approach 22$ between man and ape hitherto discovered. he can only challenge the ground on which that book is cited as divine authority.MODERN EVOLUTION. evidence of the supernatural. or as an authority at all. and that it embodies those matters in language as to the meaning of which there can be no doubt whatever. have found out. namely. for the sake of argument. being differences of kind. and in the spiritual nature will matter of life world-wide belief of mankind in spiritual existences without. Granting. This struggle against the application of the theory of Evolution to man's intellectual and born. the exact place of man in the earth's time-record is rendered of subordinate importance. If there be any sacred books which comply . When the argument against him is adduced from the Bible. It is a logian to be long and stuband death to the theoshow that he has in revelation. the writings purporting to contain it must comply with the twofold condition attaching to it. The theologians have come to their last ditch in contesting that the mental differences between man and the lower animals are fundamental. relation But the evidence of the physical of these two being conclusive.
or limbs. he does not dispute the existence of the belief in a soul and in all the of the supernatural. the development of function and organ going on simultaneously. Mr." that is. accompanying apparatus calls in the Meanwhile. with these conditions. a slightly higher stage. they re" named function environment. As stated on p." and it is this lastcommunication with surroundings . 187. digests and excretes. but this counts for little. when rudimentary organs appear. The amoeba eats and drinks. and responds to the various stimuli of its surroundings. let us summarize the evidence which points to the psychical unity between man and the lower life-forms. are also no traces of a mouth. they reproduce.224 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. without possessing special organs for Division of labour arises at these various functions. they have yet to be discovered. the functions spond to their of living things are threefold: they feed. but he anthropologist to explain how these arose in the barbaric mind. manifests "irritability. Herbert ness from Spencer traces the gradual evolution of conscious" the blurred. because there In these seemingly structureless creatures every part does everything. multiplies. or a stomach. Speaking broadly." is no trace of a nervous system in the simplest organisms. When the argument against the evolutionist is drawn from human testimony. indeterminate feeling which There responds to a single nerve pulsation or shock.
" cells. " Spencer's long. cells. whereby certain communication between the body and " its surroundings are established. unlikenesses would arise. the ceaseless action of the surroundings. but luminous exposition of the subject. leading. developing. As every part of an organism is made up of and as the functions govern the form of the the origin of nerves must be due to a modifica- tion in cell shape tracts or fibres of and arrangement. and touches it at every point with its throbs and vibrations. which determined its limits. to structural changes or modification into . In the beginnings of a primitive layer or skin manifested by creatures a stage above the lowest. like would become more and more things else. and the more quickly responsive to. by use. would be set up in those all more delicate These.MODERN EVOLUTION. But what excited that modification? The all- surrounding medium. it of the nervous system." This is the warrant for transferring a few sentences on the origin of the nerves from my Story of Creation. rwhich It is 2 2$ the special work was an old Greek maxim that a man may once say a thing as he would have said it: he cannot say twice. the result being that an extra sensitiveness along the lines of least resistance parts. would be the more readily stimulated by. They are but a meagre abstract of Mr. and certain parts. without which no life had been. as the molecular waves thrilled them. the selected paths of the impulses. by reason of their finer structure.
the organ of mental phenomena. how far does its structure support or destroy the theory of mental continuity? its In Man's Place in Nature. ity as PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. there if is no need to descend far in the life-scale. the second part of this subject is monograph on Hume. expounded by Huxley with his usual clearness. the brain and it all the mechanism with which controls the body. In the older book he traces the gradual modification of brain in the series of backboned animals. Speak- ing only of vertebrates. whether in fish or man. the gradations are of lesser importance. and probably in plants as well as animals must be reached before consciousness is manifest. but so long as the continuity of development is clear. man and the mammals immediately beneath him is proven. we saw. and the invaluable supplement. for the present purObscurity still irritability pose. are visible in the quivering of an amoeba. the organs of the senses alike begin as sacs formed by infoldings of the primitive outer skin. hangs round the stage at which mere passes into sensibility. and nerve-fibres. The entire nervous its we ascend system.226 nerve-cells. the brain of a fish is He points out that very small compared with the . the connection of the mammals with the lowest inverthe psychical connection between tebrate may be assumed as also established. And. of increasing complexthe scale of life. the brain being." Biologists are agreed that a certain stage in the organization of the nervous system the germs of which. with subtle connections.
there occurs by Nature " in her brain work.MODERN EVOLUTION. Between these marsupials and the highest or placental mam" the greatest leap anywhere made mals. impossibility of erecting by a striking example. therefore. bird. and laying special stress on the presence of the " " structure known as the in hippocampus minor the brain of nial of which man as well as Owen cut such of the ape in the de- a sorry figure." After giving technical descriptions in proof of this. gradations from brains little Rodent to brains little higher than that of a lower than that of Man. larger. that in reptiles is the mass of brain. the comparison of their modifica- . until among the low- mammals. organs be studied. the any cerebral barrier between man and the apes. whatever system of . Nature has provided us." Then follows this important statement in favour of continuity. and that the difference between the brains of the clear that differs less Man Chimpanzee and of Man is almost insignificant when compared with that between the Chimpanzee brain and that of a Lemur. with an almost complete series of if As to demonstrate. . relatively to the spinal cord. spinal cord into 227 which it is continued. is as the opossums and kangaroos. it is from the Chimpanzee or the Orang than these do even from the Monkeys. Thus. est and still larger in birds. Huxley adds: " So far as cerebral structure goes. in the latter animals. the fish. . brain so increased in proportion as to be extremely different from that of or reptile.
tural differences between man and tinctly assert. on the contrary. and. follows that the functions which they perform are fundamentally the same. apes are small and insignificant. that every bone of a Gorilla bears even the highest Let me then dis- marks by which it corresponding bone of a might be distinguished from the Man. I ." The brains of man and it ape being fundamentally the same in structure. between the Gorilla and the Orang. in the pres- ent creation. would be no less wrong than absurd it is to deny the ex- istence of this chasm. that there is no existing link between Man and the Gorilla. . no intermediate link bridges It over the gap between Homo and Troglodytes. . The large array of facts mustered by a series of careful observers prove how futile is the argument . Remember. to refuse to it is wide or narrow. a no less complete absence of any traditional form.228 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. existence. result. and the same which separate Man from the Gorilla and the Chimpanzee are not so great as those which separate the Gorilla from the tions in the ape series leads to one that the structural differences But in enunciating this important truth must guard myself against a form of misunderthat the strucstanding which is very prevalent lower apes. if you will. that they are great and significant. but do not forget that there is a no less sharp line of demarcation. and that. or the Orang and the Gibbon. at any rate. but at least equally wrong rest- and absurd to exaggerate ing on the admitted fact of inquire whether its its magnitude.
47). leave no reasonable doubt that the processes which go on in the one are just like those which take place in the other. between the nervous system of man and that of the dog. This passage occurs in Huxley's Reply to Mr. and in the mimetic tendency which we know was gratified by drawing as far back as the days of Quaternary man " (Huxley's Essays on Controverted Questions." . 22 9 man is advances against the Vain search after boundary lines between reflex action and instinct. volition. and volitions of man vary in kind from those of the lower creation. there can be no doubt that the nervous matter which lies between the retina and the muscles undergoes a series of changes. Darwin's Critics. lay in the faculty of modulating and articu- lating the voice. power to transmit experiences has " and they remain impassable. in his pride of birth.MODERN EVOLUTION. emotions. p. precisely in the analogous to those which. give rise to sensation. thoughts. " The essential resemblances in all far as points of structure and function. which. In the dog. and a train of thought. The potentialities of language. But these specially human characteristics are no sufficing warrant for denying that the sensations. psychical continuity. as the visual symbol of thought. The potentialities of writing. which appeared in man. Barriers there are between man and brute. and between instinct and reason. for articulate speech and the consequent set up these. lay in the hand that could draw. so they can be studied. as the vocal symbol of thought.
" the degree of sensibility of his own eye to luminous irritations. As comanatomy is easily able to show that. The subject is some- what abstruse for detailed reference here. for " It any good reason denying to the higher animals any mental state or process which the employment of the vocal or visual symbols of which language is composed is not in- volved. the Contemporary Review. and it must suffice to say that the psychologist. and it may be supplemented by a quotation from the chapter on The Mental Phenomena of Animals seems hard in to assign in his Hume. so. which lead. though but a young science. passes on to like inquiry into the numerical relations between .23 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION." Within recent years the psychologists are doing in attacking the problem of the mechanics of mental operations. for example. 1871. and already in Europe and America some thirty laboratories have been remarkable work started for experimental work. and far short of her elder sister's growth. and comparative psychology confirms the position in relation to the rest of the animal world assigned to man by comparative anatomy. which lies on the shadowy boundary between animal and vegetable life. measuring. from the highest mammal to the almost formless speck of living protoplasm. beginning with observations upon himself. physiparative man is 'cally. by slow gradations. comparative psychology. or of his own skin to pricking. points to the same conclusion. but the last term of a long series of forms.
1896. not only would it stand outside the ordinary conditions of development. any more than we can see without and any inquiry into the operation of the organ of thought must run on the same lines as inquiry into the And operations of any other organ of the body. 231 the energy of the stimuli of light. is given by Prince Kropotkin in the Nineteenth Century of August. and the energy of the sensations which they arouse in the nerve-channels. Changes take place in some of the thousands of millions of brain-cells in that every thought that we think. we may also not say that the mind is detachable from the nervous system.MODERN EVOLUTION. seems rank materialism. Were it this." An excellent summary. if brain secretes thought as we may not we say that say that the the liver se- cretes bile. and that it is an entity independent of it. to the superficial onlooker. and so forth. Nevertheless. But we cannot think without a brain eyes. with references to the newest authorities on the subject. but it would also maintain the equilibrium which a dose of narcotics or of alcohol. but the nexus remains an impenetrable mystery. All this. On the Immortality of . or which starvation and gorging In his posthumous essay alike rapidly upset. the inquiry leaves us at the point whence we began in so far as any light is thrown on the connection between the molecular vibrations in nerve-tissue and the mental processes of which they are the indis- pensable accompaniment. sound. and in every emotion we feel.
But she may borrow the Apostle's words. in psychical these matters. and the relation be- ." Science explains. or whether they are quivering with the life which is common to the amreba and the man. But the present generation has the advantage of being better provided with the means of freeing itself from the tyranny of certain sham solutions. and to which all inquiry makes approach. accounted for everything. when conception of the order of the universe was yet unborn. philosophy is at one. in explaining. and. dissipates the pseudo-mysteries by which man. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.232 the Soul." and give to them a profounder meaning as she confesses that the origin and ultimate destiny of matter and motion. " Behold! I show you a mystery. the conversion of the inorganic into the organic by the green plant. in winian generations were. And in the ultimate correlation of the physical lies and the hope of arrival at that terminus of unity which was the dream of the ancient Greeks. and we cannot determine what qualities inhere in the one or in the other. is again seen in " in respect of the great Huxley's admission that problems of philosophy. How. the post-Darwinian generation is. whether they are arranged in the lovely and varying forms which mark their crystals. Hume says: "Matter and spirit are at bottom equally unknown. one sense. exactly where the prae-DarThey remain insoluble. the causes which determine the behaviour of atoms. in his mythmaking stage." That is the conclusion to which the wisest come.
the third is an orthodox Churchman. or of knew and tried to teach my fifty students of natural philosophy first years ago in my session as professor. George Mivart. but from the pseudo-scientific who have travelled some distance with the Pioneers of Evolution. present the theological " bias whose varied forms are skilfully analyzed by In each of these there Mr. chemical affinity than I and ponderable matter.MODERN EVOLUTION. as already seen. and was therefore only derivatively 16 ' . G. but who refuse to follow is them " further. Mr. The first-named is a Roman Catholic. Alfred Russel Wallace. I know no electric Glasgow more of and magnetic electricity. Mivart contends that " man's body was evolved from pre-existing material (symbolised by the term dust of the earth'). In his speech on the all 233 im- commemoration of the jubi- lee of his Professorship in the University of " last year. Carpenter. and Mr. Stokes. that search continue to have encouragement not only from the theologian. St. In his Genesis of Species. Lord Kelvin said. For others. by Professor Sir Geo.". are penetrable mysteries. B. force. Spencer in his chapter under that heading in the Study of Sociology. and the late Dr. or of the relation be- tween ether. tween nerve-changes and consciousness. and the fourth. is a Spiritualist. This explains the attitude of various groups which are severally represented by Mr." who will This recognition of limitations will content those " seek not after a sign. the second was a Unitarian. W.
e. by the direct action of the Almighty (symbolised by the term breathing). PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. in his Gifford Lectures Carpenter argued as became a good Unitarian. and endowed him with dom of the will. postulates an Ego or Will which presides over. As." In his Mental Physiology. immortal and upright. that " God made man freethis. Dr. 27). but can be secured only to . without the exercise of mere automaton. appealing to the Bible. drawing which lie beyond man's natural powers. He might with equal effect subpoena Dr. " (p. 325." and by the animals. by the operation of secondary laws. with- out sharing in. " Thereby he became subject to death like the lower " natural effect of heredity." on the other hand. In on Natural Theology. he was exposed to the temptation of the devil. Dr. Carpenter p. but that " his soul." as a eternal man would have been transmitted the taint of sin to his offspring.. Professor Mivart actually cites Augustine and Cardinal Newman as authorities support of his theory of the special creation of the soul.. i. was created in quite a different way . but which makes these forces subservient to its deter- minations St. and fell. "an entity which does not depend for its existence on any play of physical or vital forces. Professor on sources of information Stokes asserts.. Joseph Parker or General Booth as authorities. The life thus forfeited was restored by the voluntary sacrifice of Christ.234 created. the causally determined action of the other mental functions and their correlated bodily processes." in other words.
which. which " no novel one. on the one hand. those is 235 who have faith in is him. Wallace's limitations of the theory of natural selection in the case of man's mental faculties. body. . somewhat " keeping with Dr. and yet no less our " Words. We must now pursue this somewhat in detail. . Reference has been made in some fulness to Mr. Wallace's admission that. . words. known conditional " tality." " " soul Following up certain distinctions between " " and spirit drawn by the Apostle Paul in his tripartite division of in man. Carpenter. assumes an Ego. to " So he once more has recourse formation which lie beyond man's natural powers." words. which may exist while thought is in abey- ance. is not to be identified with thought." as Hamlet says. reminding the reader of Mr. be the medium of con- What the nature of this body might be we do not know. " provision- . very different tinuity of thought. as This doctrine.MODERN EVOLUTION. and which may." Professor Stokes attaches immorno value to the a future life by metaphysical arguments founded on the supposed nature of the soul itself. with the future body of which the Christian religion speaks. but we are pretty distinctly informed that it would be something very different from that of our present body." and he admits that the purely psychic theory which belief in would discard the body altogether process of thought is in regard to the sources of in- beset by very great difficulties. in its properties own than our present and functions. Professor Stokes.
the laws of variation and natural selection . in co-ordination with it.236 ally. as well as in the highest degree improbable." But. and the high moral qualities which have given the martyr his constancy. as Mr. the larger and more developed brain by means of which he has been able to subject the whole animal and vegetable kingdoms to his service." physical analogy which " Then. that perfection of bodily structure in which man is so far above all other animals. and. and artistic this faculty to be denied the nest-decorating bower bird?). " " Applying this argument (drawn from natural " to the case of causes). he suggests that the agent by which man was upraised into a kingdom apart bears like relation to natural epoch bears to the ordinary agents of denudation and other changes in producing new effects which. . Wallace names it. first. Wallace rejects the theory of man's special creation as " being entirely unsupported by it facts. . even though developed pari passu with his physical structure. that man's intellectual and moral nature. selection as the glacial were not due to the same causes." he con- does not necessarily follow that his mental nature. are the patriot his devotion. although Mr. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION." he contends such special faculties as the mathematical. though continuous with preceding effects. by the introduction of a is no analogy at all. and the philanthropist his " due to a spiritual essence or na- . may have brought about. has been developed by tends that the same agencies. (is musical. unselfishness.
whether. Wallace has claims to a respectFortunately." inserted. man would cease to be influenced by natural selection in his faculties became fairly physical form and structure. ranks Mr. in "primi- " man. once We are not told at what stage in man's development this was tive and for all. and. Wallace foremost naturalists. of Spiritualists. As an animal he would in the sur- remain almost stationary. al- taken by Mr.MODERN EVOLUTION. with is potentiality of transmission all through Palaeolithic " folk to succeeding generations. the changes rounding universe ceasing to produce in him that powerful modifying effect which they exercise on . one compartment. Wallace vanishes before the ready enlarged upon. 237 superadded to the animal nature of man. in that duality of mind which. in the following Mr. Any perplexity that might arise at the line thus fact. him among the most credulous this. Despite ful hearing and to serious reply. ture. in the other among places compartment. that the author of the Malay Archipelago and Island Life has written a book on Miracles and Modern The explanation lies in Spiritualism in defence of both. he would appear to furnish the refutation to his own argument lightful paragraph from his deContributions to the Theory of Natural Sethe time lection " : From when the social and sympathetic feelings came into operation and the intellectual and moral developed. or " whether there sence special infusion of a spiritual es- into every human being at birth.
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
other parts of the organic world. But, from the that the form of his body became stationary,
mind would become subject to those very influences from which his body had escaped; every slight variation in his mental and moral nature which
should enable him better to guard against adverse
circumstances and combine for mutual comfort and
protection would be preserved and accumulated the better and higher specimens of our race would therefore increase and spread, the lower and more brutal
would give way and successively die out, and that advancement of mental organisation would
occur which has raised the very lowest races of
so far above the brutes -(although differing so
from some of them
in physical structure), and, in con-
junction with scarcely perceptible modifications of form, has developed the wonderful intellect of the
This argument has suggestive illustration in the
chapter of the Origin of Species. Mr. Darwin there refers to a remark to the following effect made " by Mr. Waterhouse part developed in any species
an extraordinary degree or manner in comparison with the same part in allied species tends to be highly
This applies only where there
Thus, the wing of a bat
in the class of
the rule would not apply here, because the whole group of bats possesses wings; it would apply only
some one species had wings developed in a remarkable manner in comparison with the other species of the same genius." And when this exceptional
development of any part or organ occurs, we may conclude that the modification has arisen since the
the several species branched off from
progenitor of the genus; and this period will seldom be very remote, as species rarely endure
more than one geological
completely this applies to man, the
product of organic evolution. The brain is that part " or organ in him which has been developed in an
extraordinary degree, in comparison with the same " in other Primates, and which has become
Whatever may have been the favour-
ing causes which secured his immediate progenitors such modification of brain as advanced him in intelligence over
species," the fact abides that
in this lies the explanation of their after-history; the
of the one,
the unlimited progress of the
Increasing intelligence at work through vast periods of time originated and developed those social conditions which alone made possible that progress
which, in its most advanced degree, but a small proportion of the race has reached. For in this question of mental differences the contrast is not beape, but between man savage and between the incapacity of the one to count beyond his fingers, and the capacity of the other to calculate an eclipse of the sun or a transit of Venus.
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
would therefore seem that Mr. Wallace should
spiritual essence, or nature," in the
intermediate, and not in the initial stage.
Mr. Wallace's argument that
an organ quite disproportioned to their requirements," Huxley cites Wallace's own remarks in his paper on Instinct in Man and Animals as to the
demands made by the needs of the lower on their observing faculties which call into play no mean exercise of brain function. " Add to this," Huxley says, " the knowledge which a savage is obliged to gain of the properties
of plants, of the characters
and habits of animals,
minute indications by which their course discoverable; consider that even an Australian
can make excellent baskets and nets, and neatly fitted and beautifully balanced spears; that he learns
to use these so as to be able to transfix a quartern
loaf at sixty yards;
and that very
often, as in the
case of the American Indians, the language of a savage exhibits complexities which a well-trained
European finds it difficult to master; consider that every time a savage tracks his game, he employs a minuteness of observation, and an accuracy of inductive
and deductive reasoning which, applied to other would assure some reputation, and I think
one need ask no further why he possesses such a But Mr. Wallace's objecfair supply of brains.".
applies quite as strongly to the lower animals.
Surely a wolf must have too much brain, or else is it that a dog, with only the same quantity and form of brain, is able to develop such singular
stands to the
relation as the savage to the
dog in the man; and there-
Mr. Wallace's doctrine holds good, a higher
power must have superintended the breeding up of wolves from some inferior stock, in order to prepare them to become dogs " (Critiques and Addresses,
all is said,
perhaps the effective refutation
of the belief in a spiritual entity superadded in
in the explanation of the origin of that belief
and growth of the belief and spiritual beings generally, and in a future life, which has been put into coherent form by Spencer and Tylor, is based upon an enormous
of the origin
of evidence gathered
isting barbaric peoples; evidence agreeing in char-
acter with that which
into beliefs of past races in varying stages of culture. Only brief reference to it here is necessary, but the
show from what obvious
the conception of a soul was derived, a conception of which all subsequent forms are but elaborated copies. As in other matters, crude analo-
gies have guided the barbaric
in its ideas
dreams certain things; on waking, he believes that
PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION.
these things actually happened and he therefore concludes that the dead who came to him or to
friend or foe
dreams, are alive; that the he knows to be far away, but
whom he feasted or fought in dreamland, came He sees another man fall into a swoon or
may lay him seemingly lifeless for hours or even days;, he himself may be attacked by deranging fevers and see visions stranger than those
which a healthy person sees; shadows of himself and of objects, both living and not living, follow or precede him and lengthen or shorten in the withdrawing or advancing light; the still water throws back images of himself; the hillsides resound with mocking echoes of his words and of sounds around him and
these and allied
phenomena which have given
rise to the
convenient term, or of a number of selves that
are sometimes outside the
man and sometimes
him, as to which the barbaric mind is never sure. Outside him, however, when the man is sleeping, " so that he must not be awakened, lest this other
be hindered from returning; or when he
or in the
power, as in the curious soultrap of the Polynesians a series of cocoa-nut rings
which the sorcerer makes believe
detain the soul of an offender or sick person. When Dr. Catat and his companions, Maistre and
Foucart were exploring the " Bara " country on the
west coast of Madagascar the people suddenly became hostile. On the previous day the travellers, not without difficulty, had photographed the royal
now found themselves accused of taking the souls of the natives with .the object of selling them when they returned to France. Denial was
no avail following the custom of the Malagasays, they were compelled to catch the souls, which were then put into a casket, and ordered by Dr. Catat
to return to their respective
owners (Times, 24th
Although the difference presented by such phe-
nomena and by death
abiding, while they
are temporary, to the barbaric
and not in kind. True, the " other self " has left the body, and will never return to it; but it exists, for it appears in dreams and hallucinations,
believed to revisit
as well as to tarry often near the exposed or buried
body. The nebulous theories which identified the soul with breath, and shadow, and reflection, slowly
condensed into theories of semi-substantiality
charged with ethereal conceptions, resulting in the curious amalgam which, in the minds of cultivated
persons, whenever they strive to envisage the idea, represents the disembodied soul.
Therefore, in vain may we seek for points of difference in our comparison of primitive ideas of the origin and nature of the soul with the later ideas.
which these have given
exclusive of many published since his Save in refinement of detail such list was compiled. as a higher culture secures. which are but the savage Their Platonists. therefore. other-self "writ large"? common source is in man's general animistic interpretation of Nature. presumably. and in the greater or lesser degree of brute power and brute cunning consequent on the difference of bodily form and bodily habits. Everard im Thurn has to say about the Indians of which what Guiana. what is there to choose between the four souls of the Hidatsa Indians. be- animals tween one kind of animal and another. the two souls of the Gold Coast natives. to the Indian objects. As an excellent illustration of is meant by animism. Every object in the whole world a is a being.244 birth PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. is to . we may cite what Mr. and differs from every other object in no respect except that of bodily form. Our next step. who are. Wallace's is a type. consisting of body and spirit. is a vera causa. is represented in the bibliography appended to Mr. except that they differ in the accident of bodily form. steps " The Indian does not see any sharp line of distinction such as we see between man and other animals. seem exactly of the same nature. or between man included and inanimate objects. On all the contrary. and the tripartite division of man by Rabbis. and Paulinists. by 4977 books. Alger's work on Theories of a Future Life. animate and inanimate. superseding the need for the assumptions of which Mr. a good " " many removed from so-called primitive man.
mate objects. as has been shown. invested ties)." The importance of the evidence gathered by anthropology in support of man's inclusion in the general theory of evolution is ever becoming more manifest. and This tardy inquiry into the history of his own its place in the order and succession of life. kind. man excepted himself. from that investigation which. finally became to integral parts of sacred literatures. the barbaric mind sees much in common. between whom and itself. it operates everywhere. have spirits 245 note that animals. . is due. And operates. its as well as relation to the lower animals. in such a way that every part co- Hence to it operates in the discharge of a universal process. and driven home the fact that if Evolution operates anywhere. These legends. so far as Christendom is concerned (and the like cause applies. he has into the earth beneath made him and the heavens above him. save in crude and superficial fashion. in non-Christian civilized communito the subjection of the intellect to pre-conceived theories based on the authority accorded to ancient legends about man. other than men. has brought witness to continuity in organic development at the point where a break has it For been assumed. with the sanctity with which time endows the past. Until the past half-century. for long periods. and even inani- which differ not at all in kind from those of men. too. mutatis mutandis.MODERN EVOLUTION. it meets the divisions which mark opposition by the transcendent power of unity.
however she may conveniently ignore the fact as concession after concession is wrung from her. Since the Church. ." and the tragedy of the self-sacrifice of God the Son enacted on earth. sciences Perhaps. has never slackened in jealousy of the advance of secular knowledge. The brilliant discoveries in astronomy. Thus it has come to pass that the only being competent to inquire into his at own antecedents has looked distorting prism of a his history through the mythopoeic past! the loss. in the precedence of study of other more remote from man's " business and bosom. to which the Copernican theory gave impetus.246 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. as the creature for whom had been formulated the great scheme of redemption " in the counsels of the Trinity. it was well for human progress that those subjects of in- quiry which affected orthodox views only indirectly were first prosecuted. question which was as superfluous as it was impious. although they displaced the earth from its assumed supremacy among the bodies in space. did not apparently affect the doctrine of the supremacy of man as the centre of Divine intervention. The surrender or negation of any fundamental dogma of Christian theology was not involved in the abandonment of the statement in the Bible as to the dominant position of the earth in relation to the sun and other self-luminous stars. the gain has exceeded For. in the long run." there has been rendered possible a more dispassionate treatment of matters charged with profounder issues.
is no possible recon- To the evidence from fossiliferous beds was added evidence from old river-gravels and limestone caverns. to supply material for speculation as to the probable extension of Di- vine paternal government throughout the universe. To our own 247 time the increase of knowledge con- cerning the myriads of sidereal systems which revolve through space is not held to be destructive of those dogmas. The relics extracted from the stalagmitic .MODERN EVOLUTION. as coming nearer home. man Between this record. spirit of criticism ficial " reconciliations interposed in the shape of super" emptying the old cosmogony its of all its poetry. the like applies to the discoveries of geology. Thus a temporary. Apart from which explains much. that unity " cannot be broken In a Scripture that But with the evidence supplied by the ancient life whose remains are imbedded is shivered. science. but held. there ciliation. and therefore of to primitive ideas. was set study of in the fossil-yielding strata. the impact of these discoveries on traditional beliefs was softened by the buffers which a moderating intellectual apathy. rather. and converting it value as a key into bastard unity. And. and that which spoke of pain and death as the consequences of man's disobedience to the frivolous prohibition of an anthropomorphic God. although. artificial. because up. " there was read the story of conflict and death aeons before appeared. with conse- quent greater chance of intrusion of elements of friction.
that the further back inquiry pushed such culture as exists is found . deposits in Kent's Hole. bone. They confirm the speculations of Lucretius as to a universal makeshift with stone. had lain un" heeded for some years save as curios. and such-like accessible or pliable substances during the ages that preceded the discovery of metals. cave-bears. From this follows the inference that man's primitive condition was tant. horn.248 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. that which corresponds to the lowest type exis the Australian and Papuan. Thomases saw depth of seventeen feet until these doubting for themselves like implements in situ at a from in the original surface of the ground. de Perthes in 1839." when M. is an established canon of archaeological science. the existence of a Stone Age at one period or another where now an Age of Iron (following an Age of Bronze) prevails. in Picardy. Therefore. Boucher des Perthes saw in the worked flints of a somewhat rougher type which he found mingled with the bones of rhinoceroses. Similar materials have been unearthed from every part of the globe habitable once or inhabited now. That was 1858: a year before the publication of the Origin of Species. the proofs of man's primitive savagery. mammoths. or woolly-haired elephants. near Torquay. but he could not persuade savants to admit that human hands had shaped them. so far as Western Europe was concerned. The presence of these rudely-chipped flints had been noticed by M. and other mammals in the " " drift or gravel-pits of Abbeville.
as notably " the in the case of the Hebrews. from rude tombs and temples. therefore." from primitive work-shops. with its enormous mass of material remains gathered from " dens and caves of the earth. from bewildering guesses to assuring certainties. and that the savage races of to-day represent not a degradation to which man. because existing to this hitherto unsuspected form. To this mode of progress no been the exception. from the lower animism to the vance of man higher conception of deity. its Readers of Tylor's Primitive signifi- Culture. While Prehistoric Archaeology. wherein is described the making of myths to this day in the heart of India. as the result of a fall from primeval purity and Eden-like ease. thus adds its testimony to the "great cloud of witnesses"." While. potent as embodying the thought of man. immaterial remains. need not be told how the slow zigzag ad- in material things has its parallel in the stages of his intellectual and spiritual advance all the world over. has sunk. was once thought between the old Israelitic and other correspondence civilized people has archaic forms of theology extending to details. to 249 have been preceded by barbarism. the discoveries of astronomers 17 . but a condition out of which all races above the savage have emerged. and of Lyall's Asiatic Studies. and Comparative Theology remains of paramount rites value.MODERN EVOLUTION. as survivals in beliefs day in and and customs. are brought by the twin sciences of Comparative Mythology and Folklore. with wealth of facts and their cance.
. and the dogma. the invocation. For the history of superstitions is included in the history of beliefs. "A Robertson Smith remarks. the superstitions being the germ-plasm of which all beliefs above the lowest are the modified products.250 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Buddhistic. legends whose tablets. Anthropology has the story of utterly de- molished the raison d'etre of the doctrine of his re- the keystone of the fabric. of the Creation. searched those and other scriptures. it gathered round Jesus has collated the rites and ceremonies of many a barbaric theology with those of old-world religions Brahmanic. rinding therein legends of founders of ancient faiths cognate to those in the course of the centuries which of Nazareth. the discoveries classed under the general term Anthropological are acting as more powerful solvents on every opinion of the past. It has " " in the spirit of the commended Bereans. and traced the myth of demption a forfeited Paradise. It has penetrated the mists of antiquity. Showing on what mythical foundation the fall of man rests. and geologists have been disintegrating agencies upon old beliefs." Professor and ceremony. the Deluge. to their birthplaces in the valley of the Euphrates or the uplands of Persia. Christian and found only such differences between them as are referable to the higher or the lower culture. in the other the ritual ritual system. and other legends. In the one we have the charm. Belief incarnates itself in word or act. earliest inscribed records are on Accadian or in the scriptures of Zarathustra.
whose application to the physical sciences is when applied to beliefs.MODERN EVOLUTION. " 351 must always remain materialistic. this does but show what mortality lay at its core." Therefore. traces variations. as John Morley puts it. and if in analyzing a be- a superstition. For error cannot survive " to dissection. the anthropologist searches into origins. nature. Its method is that of biology. even if its materialism is disguised under the cloak of mysticism. one ordinal group." And it is with the incarnated ideas. uninfluenced by it the particular creed in connection with which finds them. is. The extension of the comparative method to the various products of man's intellectual and spiritual nature is the logical sequence to the adoption of that method throughout every department of the uni- . without assumptions of relative truth or falsity. and destiny of man. we kill tamper with veracity force of partial is to tamper with the vital human progress. Without bias." method. the verdict of anthropology upon is the whole matter that the claims of Christian theologians to a special and divine origin of their of the religion are refuted by the accordant evidence latest utterances of a science whose main concern is with the origin. this " He must be what was whom no dogma is unchallenged. regarded as one of attack. instead of being one of explanation. a theologian Unfortunately. But lief this should not deter. foreign. said of Dante. delivering im- judgment. Moreover. that anthropology deals. and to relates the several families to compares and classifies.
Then." place in . The of enthusiasm carried a group of distinguished liberal candidates to the polls. Those who should have known him better thought that he was (to " quote from one of his letters to the writer) a hypo" " But. and in every case it has brought out the fact that the differences are superficial. in not so acute a form as now. evidence of which the material of the writings of his later years is the The cultivation of intellect and character expansion. crite. nor shut out is open from the perception of its the whole past history of civilised mankind. although division. The impulse thereto has come largely from the evidence focussed in Man's Place in Nature. and the interest was widened when the passing of Mr. But it equally starts with the assumption of resemblances.252 verse. and that the resem- blances are fundamental. the religious difficulty was the sole cause of any serious and Huxley's attitude therein puzzled a good many people because he advocated the retention of the Bible in the schools. else it would be superfluous. or simply a fool. and Huxley was elected a member of the School Board for London. Of course it starts with the assumption of dif- ferences in things." my meaning was that the mass of the people should not be deprived of the one great literature which to them. had always been a favourite theme with him. All this bears closely on Huxley's work. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Forster's Elementary Education Act in 1870 brought wave the problem of popular culture to the front." he adds.
" Subsequent events have justified neither the hope nor the belief.MODERN EVOLUTION. the decay of Bible reading in this generation. and therewould not trust the clergy as interpreters of After repeating in the Prologue to his the Bible. Essays on Controverted Questions what he had said about the book in his article on the School Boards " in Critiques and Addresses. Had Huxley lived to see that all dogmas which may be deduced from the sectaries. he would probably have come to see that the only solution in the interests of the young. 2 ^\ He lamented. that the theology and the legend would drop more and more out of tents sight. . and ethical con- would come more and more into view. whose miscellaneous. unequal. and often disconnected character is obscured by the common title " Bible "" which covers them. Never has any collection of writings. agree in refusing to use it other than as an instrument for the teaching of dogma. while. while the peren- nially interesting historical. is its exclusion from the schools. literary. I laid stress on the necessity of placing such instruction in lay it hands. he advocated the more strenuously its detachment from the glosses and theological inferences which do irreparable injury to a literature whose value cannot be overrated. while quarrelling as to the particular the Bible. at the same time. fore he For Huxley was well read in history. as every thoughtful person must lament. he adds. in the hope and belief that would thus gradually accommodate itself to the coming changes of opinion.
1893. to discriminate between the coarse and barbaric features which evidence the humanness its later of its origin. published in 1879. but him supremely its demands were too severe on a man never physically strong. fitted work of the School Board. and he was forced to resign.254 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. and the loftier features of portions which also evidence how it falls into line with other witnesses of man's gradual ethical and spiritual development. Huxley's breadth of view. ing with the Evolution of Theology and cognate subIn all these we have the application of the jects. Between the two lie a valuable series of papers dealstudy. his sympathy with every branch of culture. However. had such need " from the so-called believers " in Its value is only to be realized in inspiration are abanit the degree that theories of its doned. theory of Evolution to the explanation of the origin of beliefs and of the basis of morals. for deliverance it. his advocacy of literary in unison with for the scientific training. he was thereby set free for other work. and the latest was the Romanes lecture on Evolution and Ethics. To quote the saying attributed to Liebnitz. Then only is it possible to treat like any other literature of the kind.on the i8th of May. which was delivered in the Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford . both Spencer and " Huxley. which could be only effectively done by exchanging the arena for the lief The earliest important outcome of that rewas the monograph on Hume. and all who follow them. care for science .
. and being dined. 1886. devote them to the work I began in the paper on the Evolution of Theology. war- rants reference to his anticipation of accepted theories of the origin of belief in spiritual beings in his says Natural History of Religion. I mean to spell yet. But the tribute due last Lecture supplemented the to David Hume. . dining.MODERN EVOLUTION. who may well-nigh claim place the few but fit among company of Pioneers. I he says: was so I ill that I " thought with Hamlet.) my faculties may be unimpaired for a good And whether my lease is long or short. . wherein Huxley refers to his retirement from official life." In a letter to the writer. He among man- kind to conceive all beings like themselves. only because in 2 r. published " There is an universal tendency : in 1757. are be of the same kind or species. and to transfer to every object those qualities with which they are familiarly acquainted. appearing always in the same aspect. . The Romanes chapter of that book. the rest is silence. and That essay was first published in two sections in the Nineteenth Century. apprehended to is it Nor long be- . and was the sequel to the eighth chapter of his Hume. it enables them to speak with authority philosophy and religion. All these are accessible enough to render superfluous any abstract of their contents. etc. The unknown all causes which continually employ their thought." have every reason to believe that with renunciation of the all his works (i. public speaking. e. devil But and my wiry constitution has unexpectedly weathered the storm. and of which they are intimately conscious.
Worship and sacri- . the gods were expected to do their part." thinking The foregoing. that has been as a manacle to science. according to Cicero. But more important than the is decay of that belief belief in which the prelude to decay of defined. and and sometimes even the limbs and figures men. immorality. In old Rome sanctitas or his fellows." In his address to the Sorof the bonne on The Successive Advances Mind. and reason. touching. looks heavenward. too often. as John Morley says in his essay on " the root of most of the wrong that statesman. indeed.2 56 fore PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. from a theological to a social base. the one note of which is the continuity of belief in super- natural intervention. The one what dues shall holiness. wondering be paid the gods to win their smiles or ward off their frowns. his share in the contract is ended." These done. of ascribe to them thought. Human Turgot expresses the same idea. we passion. So in new Rome. in other words. of motives to conduct. delivered in 1750. is deity itself as commonly the resulting transfer of the foundation of morals. " the knowledge of the rites which had to be performed. in order to bring them nearer to a resem- blance with ourselves. it is. was. when the Catholic has attended mass. are elaborations of the several stages of theological evolution. Theology is not morality. It is concerned with man's relations to the gods in whom he believes while morals are concerned with man's relations to . and passages made by Huxley the text of his of all of a like order.
and it For it is the rejection of theology with human is the acceptance of wholly secular motives as in- centives to right action. rest on a stable No longer interlaced with the unstable theological. revolution. and to man's hopes of future reward or fears of future punishment." Certain extremists excepted. their foundation in the physical. but in social instincts. 2 $? as mere acts toward supernatural beings.MODERN EVOLUTION. This is not merely readjustment. they are keeping dogma in the background. and to be effected by it. and is prompted to action solely by what is due from a man him. And one redeem- ing feature of our time is that the churches are beginning to see this. having and moral basis. if not very consistently. or from his fellow-men to Its foundation therefore is beliefs. act: a All sin not in supernatural is thus resolved to into an anti-social wrong done by man it is man. on the other hand. they neither abide nor perish with it. be consonant with any number of lapses Morality. its to appeals obligation to deity. results of Those motives. John " Morley caustically remarks that the efforts of the heterodox have taught them to be better Christians than they were a hundred years ago. our deeds. they seeking alliance with the liberal movements is whose aim the " abolition of privilege. mental. fice. looks earthward. to his fellow-men. may in conduct. and are laying stress on the socialism which it is contended was at the heart of the teaching of Jesus. are Wisely." The lib- .
completely reverses its ethics. Cosmic Evolution has resulted in the universe with non-living and living contents. and in no wise contravened the application of Evolution to morals.258 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. else a prominent Catholic biologist would hardly have welcomed it as a possible prelude and some to Huxley's submission to the Church. there is not sufficient elbow-room or food for all the its offspring of living things. the result is a furious struggle in which the strong win and transmit their advantages to their descendants. Nature is wholly selfish. varying ethical eral theologians. misunderstanding of argument. There was much " wilful. and the battle to the strong. that HuxLecture. no longer codes. of social . looking back with horror on that which was once permitted and unquestioned. and so on the absoluteness of moral fall into line with the evolutionist in his theory of their relativeness." " angel in man. also within limits. his Romanes the ape and tiger. For society in its advance from lower to higher conceptions of duty. in the face of the standards which mark insist the Old Testament and the New. Yet the reasoning was clear enough. dealing with the conditions which obtain on our planet. But there are limits set to that struggle by man prog- in the substitution. and since. It is with this checking of " and this fostering of the ley dealt in his unintelligent. the race is to the swift. Huxley showed that Evolution is both cosmical and ethical.
Plimmer. For the common weal. tribal. in life. in which the unit shares. and becomes a bear-garden. are co-operative.MODERN EVOLUTION. 54). so with its units: there is no truce Dr. He stamps out the weeds. thus blending the selfish and the unselfish motives. for the ethical process is an integral part of the ' cosmic powers. recognising certain common rights. and national society life. Huxley aptly likens this counter-process to the action of a gardener in dealing with a piece of waste ground. just as the governor in a steam- engine is part of the mechanism of the engine. lies. is that which not good for the swarm vi. otherwise the weeds will return. and plants fragrant flowers and useful fruits. and largely help the development of family. in the words of Marcus is Aurelius. and the untended plants will be choked and perish. men check their natural impulses. and atavism asTherefore. So in conduct. only in higher degree. " For. although he do the best that in him man " can only ' set limits to that strug- gle. selfishness is 259 In this Ethical Evolution so far checked as to permit groups of human beings to live together in amity.. But he must not relax his efforts. ress for cosmic progress. The emotions and affections which they share with the lower social animals. Force being the dominant factor revives in serts its all its power." As with society. But once let these we weakened. the struggle for existence primitive violence. an eminent bacterioloin the contest. . not good for the bee" (Med. which restrain the selfregarding impulses.
describes to the writer the action of a kind of gist. Which things are fact as well as allegory." and in the success lies or failure of their attack the fate of man. yeast and get into the tissues. so marvellous is the strategy. a similar manner in ourselves certain leukocytes and pick up the (phagocytes) accumulate at any point of invasion. If they " In win. by of his intelligence life instruction. to the reissue of 1894. so long as he is compelled to be perpetually on guard against the cosmic forces. without and within himself. one year before his death Evolution and Ethics: " That man. upon a species of Daphnia. so naught in our actions can arrest the destiny of our kind. living bacteria. and time is on the side of the bacteria.2 6o PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. the Daphnia recovers. intellectual or moral. or water-flea. entertain not the slightest doubt. as if seemingly endowed with consciousness. as a ' political animal. penetrate the intestines. whose ends are not his ends. so . which gather round the invaders in larger fashion. by education. They are there seized upon by the leukocytes. if they lose. which enter with the animal's food. But. and by the application I to the adaptation of the conditions of to his higher needs. Metschnikoff observed that these yeast-cells.' is susceptible of a vast amount of improvement. For as our life is but a tem- porary arrest of the universal movement toward dissolution. so long as he remains liable to error. it dies. Huxley thus puts it in the concluding sentences of his Preface written in July.
until the evolution of our globe shall have entered so far upon its downward course that the cosmic process resumes its sway. man capable of main- taining and constantly improving itself. and. develop a worthy in which. dead before his prime. the State of Art of an organised polity. and afford scope for battle against the wrongs done by man to man. or impermanence worse. our duty is clear while the chance of doing it may be ours. once more. before the rich promise of his inevitagenius had its full fruitage. so long as the recognition of his intellectual limitations forces him to acknowl- edge his incapacity to penetrate the mystery of ex- istence. deserve the title of perfection. even remotely. is And lies many race before the human a constant struggle to maintain and improve. in his essay on The First and . appears to illusion as ever me to be as mis- leading an was dangled before the there have been eyes of poor humanity. 2 6l long as he is haunted by inexpugnable memories and hopeless aspirations. Even were it and ourselves to perish to-morrow. That which of them. may civilisation.MODERN EVOLUTION. or of a state which can. and by which. speaking of the " and all the consciousness of ble end of the earth men" reminds us. for self-indulgence. the State of Nature prevails over the surface of our planet." But only those of of low ideals would seek in this things excuse for inaction. Clifford. in opposition to the State of Nature. the prospect of attaining untroubled happiness. The world will last a very long time yet.
or not at all. which represent his non-technical contributions to knowledge. and our interest with so who much of ' are the future as we may hope will be appreciably affected by our good actions now. Notwithstanding this. Let us eat and drink. Do I seem to say. in- deed. and. for this day we are alive together. and life. the unity which is inspired by a central idea. the affluence and patience of Darwin permitted him to do.' Evolution and Ethics was Huxley's " impor- tant deliverance." Clifford adds. Balfour's Belief quaintly entitled his death " Foundations of of June. was arrested by on the 3Oth 1895. But until Huxley's later years. since the completion of his reply to Mr. for example. and to intensify our pious allegiance to the fathers who have gone before us and the brethren lies with us. there may be regret that throughout his life circumstances were against his doing any piece of long-sustained work. his work outside official demands had to be done fitfully and piecemeal. with so much of the past as may serve to guide our actions in the present. In looking through the Collected Essays. we of little Last Catastrophe. that are helped in facing the ' by the words thinks of nothing so fact " Spinoza : The free man Our as of death.' dom is a meditation not of death but of " lies his wis" " interest. it has The .2 62 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. through broken health to the end. on the contrary ' I say. such as that which. Let us take hands and " last help. for to-morrow we die?' Far from it .
seems unborrowed. " Nothing He would grieve me more than to see literary training other than a very prominent branch of education." And. nevertheless. he said. and what is a man's salvation nowadays. and general literature. the And this comes out clearly and strongly in more orderly arrangement of the material in the issue of Collected Essays. how well equipped in classics. this he called "the condemned strange bedfellows the writer asked cell. and he at once named the masculine and pelluccid Leviathan of Hobbes. As contrasted with physical science. sympathized with every branch of culture. and reduces its slave to the level of the machine-hand that spends heads of screws." When looking at that slept on the shelves. He had the happy faculty of rapidly assimilating what he read." he adds. in addition to subjects distinctly his own. freedom from that curse of specialism which kills all sense of proportion. and in blind faith as the one unpardon" " able sin. new These show what an omnivorous reader he was. Huxley what author had most influenced a style whose clearness and vigour." One corner of his library was filled with a strange company the " of antiquated books " of orthodox type. of clearly grasping an opponent's standpoint.MODERN EVOLUTION. theology. for every great advance in natural knowledge has . it cannot be otherwise. application of the theory of evolution all 263 round im- parts a quality of relation to subjects seemingly diverse. his life in making the He believed in " scepticism as the highest duty.
" as he calls . re- leadership mains the surest-footed guide of our time." In one of his replies to a prominent exponent of " the Comtian philosophy. and bidding us it leads us. Nature whenever he to thinks to test them by appealing Nature will and to observation experiment confirm them. but by verification. penetrate. not because is testified by portents and wonders. the annihilation of the spirit of blind faith. not because the men their verity he most venerates holds them." to the position taken by Huxley since he first caught His deep religious feeling kept him in sympathetic touch with his fellows. Such is his. not by faith." Therefore he nursed no illusions. Ever present " that consciousness of the limitation of to him was that sense of an open secret which he cannot man. and the most ardent votary of science holds his firmest convictions. involved the absolute rejection of authority. the public ear. have been approaches to strength. since he has gone on "from strength The changes in the attitude of man toward momentous questions which new evidence and the zeit-geist have effected. but because his experience teaches him that whenever he chooses to bring these convictions into contact with their fit primary source.264 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. the cherishing of the keenest scepticism. in which lies the essence of all religion. would not say that he knew when he follow the evidence whithersoever did not or could not know. The man of science has learned to believe in justification. that incongruous mixture of bad science with eviscerated papistry.
to permanent needs of human nature. it. 2 6$ Huxley protests against the idea that the teaching is of science I wholly negative. and has stood alone with his dead before the abyss of the Eternal has never had a thought beyond negative criticism. no longer suffice. however imperfectly. not a creed. clear- sighted and sure-footed. would have remained a fascinating study. To have futile. The old theologies of civilized races. useful in their day. and if he refused to affirm.MODERN EVOLUTION. attitude. Evolution. That extension was inevitable. That an is the Agnostic position as he defined it. halted on the route when the difficulties of the road began would have made left the journey and have their followers in the wilds. who has felt the burden of young lives entrusted to his care. in all the faculties of human relationships who has taken his share in all the deep joys and deeper anxieties which cling about them. to count an improbable suggestion that any one who has graduated . applied to everything up to man. Their dogmas are traced as the lineal descendants of barbaric conceptions. it venture. led us by ways undreamedof at the start to a goal undreamed-of by the earliest among graver them. be- cause answering. he says. Thus have the Pioneers of Evolution. but stopping at the stage when he appears. but would not have become a guiding philosophy of life. It is in the extension of its processes as explanation of all that appertains to mankind that its abiding value consists. their ritual 18 is becoming an archae- . he equally refused to deny.
They have no answer to the ological curiosity. questions propounded by the growing intelligence of our time. but surely.2 66 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. . interpreting the mighty sum of things. their inquiry is stimulated. their wonder is fed. neither can they satisfy the emotions which they but feebly discipline. filled " by a theory which." substitutes clear conceptions of unbroken order and relation between phenomena. by the consciousness of the impenetrable mysteries of the Universe. and more effectively. For men are deprived of belief in the pseudo-mysteries and coined in a pre-scientific age. Their place is being slowly. in place of hazy conceptions of intermittent interferences. a theory which gives more than if it takes away.
31. Astruc. 13. 54. river. Lord. in Evolu- Bacteria and leukocytes. of. Angels. 80. 16. 219. 20. Aurelius. and dogmas of the Fall and Bacon. Abdera. conquest osophical schools 17. 244. intellectual decay 77in. and Anaximander. fall of. 36. 216. 3. Arch-fiend. Grant. Augustine. 32. 163.. 54. phil- Arnold. 241. 69. doctrine of Anthropology. Ancestor-worship. Anatomy. Augustus. Bagehot. Amazons. Matthew.INDEX. 13. Agassiz. of. the Second. 20. Mr. 104 stature of. belief in. 255. Air as primary substance. the. Andromeda. 13. and man's place tion. 70. Averroes. 101. 74. Aquinas. go. 77 . Alexandria. 35. general relation Adam. Drummond's. 29. 230. 20. 1 1. 47. 42. Bacon. nebula in. Dr.. Anthropology and belief in the Avicenna. 69. 20. of. 213. America. 2. discovery persecution Amoeba. 16. Agrigentum. Caesar. Advent. 14. 93. human. Asklepios. Aristotle. Abiogenesis. 250. Atomic theory. 250. 245. 87. Ascent of Man. 227. the. Animism. 136. 50. 17-19. 107. Abraham. 75. 228. 108. 77. 55. Athens. Allegorical method. Antioch. Anaxagoras. Marcus. ^gean. 113. 178. Roger. the. in. brain of. Augurs. 81. 267 . 76. 7. Thomas. soul. 103. 97. 51. 82. 2. 79. 48. 84. 167. philosophy. of. 162. Atonement. Allen. Ape and man. 70. St. comparative. 74. 75. 260.. . 247. Arab conquest. Alexander the Great. the Redemption. 35. 14. 224. religious revival in. 80. 259.
258. resurrection. 70. . Clifford. Christianity 262. Courthope. Buffon. Columbus... Colophon. 49. and Anthropology. 106. W.. self-.. Giordano. H. no.268 Baghdad. Benn. Collings. 107. 79. voyage of the. PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. of. 104. nection between. Comtism. 187. 56. Dr. pagan elements of. 83. 16. Cordova. 50. Criticism of religions. features of Chambers. W. 167. A. Beagle. Caesalpino. 52. 9. anti-social nature of. mystery of con. Correlation of forces. 261. 5. Bone. 56. 242. origin of. 134. persecution of. myth of. 69. Charles Martel. " 21. of. 64. Christians. of. rite of. 231. 164. 80. A. W. Communion at Hawarden Church. 186. 187. submission to the Sorbonne. 251. Burton's Anatomy. 177. causes of success of. Robert. Butcher. 88. Crooke. symbolism Bruno. Credulity of the learned. Catat Dr. 7. 69. 38. 208. origin of Bates.. 59-73. 86. Buddha. Creeds. Chaldsea. J.. 58. Charles. evolution Burnet. Cosmic Evolution. 4. 149.. polytheism of.. Councils. Chosroes. 40. 9. 20. 57. 7. J. 220. 189. Carpenter. 60. Balfour. Prof.. Bible. Bible. 91. philosophic elements in. 85. Evolution. Canon of the Carthage. I. opposition to inquiry. 4. Conservation of energy. 58. Breathing. Council Casalis. 40. modern. general." the. Creation. Celtic religion. 103. 78. 254. bases 224. Circumnavigation of the globe. 219. 48. Conduct. 89. 33.. 41. 30. 220. 148. 79. Copernicus. varying fortunes of. 80. Christopher. place in theory of 68. days of. 120. in. 66. 136. Biology. Bonnet.. Cronus. 84. 264. Consciousness. Dictionary of the. 119. Boundless. 162. 233. advance in study 108. 159.Church Congress and Evolution. 19. Body and mind. Black magic. Prof. Mr. 37. 90. Cairo. 77. 150. 78. Mr. of. of. Prof. 131. Baptism.
law of. 114. Daphnia. 6. 107. Fall. stature Evil eye. 91. 21. 24. Cuvier. Earth as element. Dispersion of the Jews. 16. in. Eve.- Erasmus. De Perthes. 31. Education and dogma. Rev. 107. religious belief of. 173. 27. De Gama. Dionysus. Fire. 118. Descartes. 22. Fossils. Ephesus. 125. Duner. relics of the. 77. Frazer. Huxley on. 248. Driver. 53. 253. Empedocles. and Geoffrey 214. value of study of. 4. 94. Dogma and Evolution. 54. Demeter. of. pology. 22. 13. 107. revival of study of. 172. 247. 2. 259. 269 Crown of thorns. Etruscan haruspices. . 220. Dictionary of the Bible.. 87. Charles. 200. 8. Elviri.8. 188. Flint implements. Canon. 248. Demons. as primary substance. Egypt. 6. 69. 219. 7. 175. 16. 250. Diagoras. Descent of Man. 258. 56. doctrine of the. 249. ethical. Days of creation. 245. inclusion of man in. De Vinci. 66. 72. 100. 33. Folk-lore. G. inorganic. St. 260. of. Plimmer on. 21. 258. 216.Epicurus. 10. effect of study roo. 126-134. Epigenesis. 120. 29. 90. 102. Descent into Hell. Fontenelle. 83. 218. 75. Leonardo. Embryology. 220. 67. 167. 91. 117. 179. Geology. Greek notions about " Galen. 104. 189. Dr. Evolution and dogma. 218. Deluge. Vasco. Democritus. organic. 163. Cross. Dalton. the. Development. 51. and anthro12. ii. Boucher. John. Ethical Evolution. 157. cosmic. Galileo. 29. discoveries tion of. 107. 106. De Rerum Natura. conquest Hilaire. 222. 127. theories about. Epictetus. Fiske. 77. Devil.INDEX. 22. 104. Professor. 102. 254. 67. 62. 85. Dr. 63. 175- Life and Letters of. Professor.. J. 55. 27. and persecuof. First Principles. Eleatic school. 88. 157." 13. 167. 220. Darwin. 72. Synod of. Cybele. Dubois. Evolution and Ethics.
178. 216. 76. Gnosticism. 121. 58. Hutton. 3. Humboldt. superstition shared by. 15. Herodotus. the. barbaric origin of rite of. 94. 178. Instinct. 75. principles Gesner. 93. 44. 77. or of the Dispersion. Kelvin. the. 24. Sir William. Hesiod. Huxley. 29. 10. 248. for the primary Ionia. 200. 175. 220. 47. summary of life of. conquest and intellectual decline of. Gladstone. H. 155. 157. Sir William. Henrion. Dr. 48. at. 68. 107. 135.. Jews. 68. Haroun al-Raschid. Gosse. Hooker. 164.. Lamarck. 229. Isis. Language. Inquisition. Gibbon. 36. 227. 56. 62. 115. Herakles. Gods in Rome. 79. Kropotkin. 89. Homer. 4246. St. Sir Joseph. Helmholtz. Khalifs. Jerome. 8. of. 94. 255. Mr. Harvey. at. 75. 62. William. 192. Haruspices. Humanity and Evolution. 177. 219. 6. 30. Hawarden Church. Jerusalem. 93. 233. Greece.. 192. 6. 6. 153. 159. 4. Granada. Heraclitus. Holy Communion. 29. Hume. 3. 10. 119. Jesus Jesus. Hallucinations. early disciples of Jesus fall of. 21. 80. 66. 125. 32. Golden Bough. 77. Heine's Travel-Pictures. 91. 162. P. 115. 12. Kent's Hole. 105. Greek philosophers. Grote. Kant. 141. Indigitamenta. 60. II. 68. Geology. Hippocampus minor. origin Horace. Kirchoff. Dr. 229. 153.. 29. 66. 263. 104. Gower. Communion at. Inductive philosophy. 5356. 114. 117. 72.270 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. Prince. 201-266. 8. 91. 31. 57. 231. Hobbes" Leviathan. substance. of. Hellenized Jews. Greeks. 124. Haeckel. 95. Hellenized. Huggins. 77. Hartley. 46. Table of. 23. 97. search of. Wm. Gospels. 63. . Herschel. early conception of earth by. Lord.. The. 56.
216. Middleton. Matthew. antiquity 222. Motion. Oliver. George. Living and non-living matter. 33.. Mithra worship. 50. 64. 167. age Miletus. 71. 248. 141. . 8. Jewish belief 41. of. 181. Messiah. 160. Table 233- lower animals and. Malpighi. essential nature of. Man and Evolution. 134. in Evolution. Miracles and Luther. Mivart. 165. 76. 147. R. 95. 119. Man's Place in Nature. 42. 251.. famous meeting and non-living. Leibnitz. 227. 118. 188. 176. 169. 170. of. Madonna. 227. 16. 139- base of. Sir Alfred. 256. 51. Lyall. 218." 14. of. 6. 30. 35. Sir John. L'Etui de Nacre.. Lubbock. 133. 34. 237. of. 33. 39. Lyell. Modern Spiritual- ism. Leucippus. 271 inclusion of. 123-125. Morality. Locke. 216. 46. 102. 259. Mr. Marcus Aurelius. Lodge. 260. 216. Morals and Evolution. 233. 156. primitive state of. 148. 38. 85. 23. Leading of. 45. in. 145. Prof. scientific Malthus on Population. general structure of. Martin. Leukocytes. Maine.INDEX. Leo III. and ape. 254. 117. Peter. 187. period of. Metals. suckling. 120. Montaigne. Life Manning. 103. Men of Science. 108. Dr. 178. and ape. Malay Archipelago. 248. 44.. 127. 180. Man. Martyr. 249. 138. Magellan. 157. Prof. 38. Love as an " element. Society. 218. Conyers. 23. brain of. St. Morley. Mohammed. indestructibility of. mystery 232. 218. connection between. 36. 118. Maudsley... 5. 173- Lightfoot. 97. Darwin's. 254. Matter. Linnean at. La Peyrere. 248. 78. 87. 94. Mummius. 227. 164. 21. 23. 24-29. Cardinal. Lucretius. 24. Meckel. and Letters. 60. indestructibility living 217. Munro. 34. 180. concept of. 28. Linnaeus. Dr. 256. 252. 33. Patrick. 124. Sir Henry. of. 17. 213. Laplace. 143- mystery 232. Sir Charles. 143. 162. 87. 257. 168. 62. 236. Mr. Maskelyne. B. John.
Philosophy. worship of. 218. Protoplasm. 220. 9. 120. synthetic. 33. 102. Ovid. 157. 200. Pythagoras. intellectual activity in. 88. Relics. Pontius Pilate. Mysteries. 195. Poppaea. for. Philo. 9. 71. Primary substance. 212. 180. 211. Palaeontology. Society 148. Boucher de. collection of. 119. 70. 2. theory of soul 91. 215. 148. reception of.. Professor. 119. 232. search after. Photography in Science. Physical Basis of Life. 44. 79. in. Paladino. Paul. canon origin of. Preformation theory. Nervous system. 187. 36. 125. 52. 230. 64. Polytheism. 201. 168. on. Petrie. Pythagorean theory of numbers. origin of the. of. origin of the. Origin of species. 5. Psychical Research. 52. Roman. 9. 178. 13. 36. 48. 157. 16. 142. 219. Psychology. Organic Evolution. 103. 214. 162. Nicene Creed. Pagan elements 59-73- in Christianity. Perthes. Flinders. Prof. towards Darwin's theory. 88. Nero. Revelations. in Christianity. Plato. features of. St. Osborn. publication of. experimental.2/2 PIONEERS OF EVOLUTION. 49. Sabina. Pantheon. Prof. 231. 47. Papacy. Owen. experiments of. Bernard. Eusapia. 187. Reformation non-intellectual. Rhys. 29. motion. 88. 248. 58. Greek. Numbers. 6. 14. 162. 162. 58. Nebular theory. Persia. 178. condition of. Pausanias. Punch. Sir Richard. Mystery of matter. attitude of. primitive.. in primitive thought. Nous of Anaxagoras. 58. 223. Myth. Nebula in Andromeda. Huxley of. Pericles. the. Pineal gland. 216. Palissy. Pentateuch. 51. . 48. 186. Pythagorean theory 9. character of the. of. Principles of. 216. 48. 225. 21. review of the Origin of Species. disorders of 153- 199. 181. 71. 86. 206. IO2. New Testament. 20. 94. Ptolemaic System. Redi. feature 49. 189.
. 246. 17. 17. 8. 29. 178. 178. of. 193. 179. barbaric origin 65-68. 101. Lucretius on location of. 29. Tylor. Savages. 252. the. 241-245. Turgot. Saints. 199. Tacitus. Transubstantiation. Professor Robertson.. of. Sir G. 7. Selden. 273 Roman doctrine of transubstan- Soul. 36. 233. 240. Strife as of. Tozer. 22. 175-201. 256. Principles of. Thales. 254. 233. G. Sin. 6. 104. Salisbury. Saracens. 107. 47. 215. 179. Table of Greek Philosophers. 30. 140. Spinoza. tiation. 91. Suarez. 64. 125. Spontaneous generation. lines in. 125. Society. 15. 71. Serapis. 80. 103. abstract of the. . Spiritualism. Solar spectrum.. Presidential dress of. men 123- first draft of. 223. 184. of. evolution of. Herbert. V Sacraments. 256. Samos. Science. 121. final is- Smith. of leading 123-125. 48. ages Strabo. Schwann. Sanctitas. William Theophrastus. Synthetic philosophy. Social Statics. 14. modification of struggle 259. 145. 39. 205. 36. 241. 182. Scheiner. 92. 118. Ad- Stagira. 58. 184. 67. St. origin of belief in. Theology and Evolution. 99. Hilaire. fictitious. 28. Sorbonne. 50. Stokes.INDEX. Leading 125. of. Professor. intellectual advance fire in. bishop gods Spain. 70. essence of. 74. 195. 114. 250. Sizzi. in. 31. 220. 207. 48. 248. Rennell. 241. Rodd. 118. 67. Rome. Sociology. 78. in. 49. men of science. polytheism 162. brain an " element. (geologist). 25. Usher. 216. Tyndall. Theodor. School Boards. 168. Second Coming of Jesus. origin of belief in. Royal Society. Sprengel. Spencer. location of. Lord. 119. 35. Socrates. Archbishop. 256. 199. 20. Struggle for 131. 9. 257. 156. Stone. 199. Dr. Theosophy. of. Professor. Francisco. the. sue between. Spectroscope. in. 258. 222. 94. 234. 186. 16. 162. study of." life. Mr. Sedgwick.
.274 Van Helmont. PIONEERS OF EVuLUTION. 20.
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