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Journal of Food Engineering 67 (2005) 113128 www.elsevier.


Transport phenomena in food engineering: basic concepts and advances

J. Welti-Chanes *, F. Vergara-Balderas, D. Bermudez-Aguirre
Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica y Alimentos, Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, Puebla, 72820, Mexico Received 10 October 2003; accepted 1 May 2004

Abstract Food Engineering development is related to the knowledge advances of dierent areas of Chemical Engineering and other engineering elds. One of these areas is Transport Phenomena, and the advances in mathematical analysis and computer tools help to solve complex problems involving momentum, heat and mass transfer. Transport Phenomena applied to food processing presents special challenges regarding the complexity of biological material and how it changes during the application of dierent transformation or preservation treatments. Study of the basic concepts of Transport Phenomena and their applications to analyzing, predicting and designing any process is an important step in the advance of Food Engineering. Some of those basic concepts and examples of recent applications and research orientations are presented in this paper. 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Transport phenomena; Food engineering; Rheology; Heat transfer; Mass transfer

1. Introduction In the chemical, food and biological processing industries, many similarities exist in the manner in which the entering materials are modied or processed into the nal chemical and biological materials. These dierent chemical, physical, or biological processes can be separated into distinct steps that were originally called unit operations. However, in Chemical Engineering the term unit operations has largely been superseded by the modern and descriptive term separation processes (Geankoplis, 2003), but in Food Engineering there are some preservation processes (sterilization, pasteurization, salting, refrigeration, etc.), which are not exactly a separation, in this way the concept of unit operation or process is applied in a more ample sense. Many of these processes have in common certain fundamental principles or mechanisms; for example, the

Corresponding author. Tel.: +52 2 229 2005; fax: +52 2 229 2009. E-mail address: (J. Welti-Chanes).

mechanism of diusion or mass transfer occurs in drying of foods, gas transfer in exible packages, osmotic processes, and membrane separations, while heat transfer occurs in thermal treatment, drying, evaporation, pasteurization, cooking and other food preservation processes. These processes are denominated in a general way as transport phenomena. Transport phenomena of food and other important biological materials is a signicant link between the processing of these materials and the quality and safety of the products. Unfortunately, this link, although important, is not given the attention it deserves in practice. The consequence is that bio- and food industries are still dominated by empiricism, or so-called pragmatic approaches. Possible reasons for this situation are (1) transport phenomena per se are poorly understand, due for example, to dicult mathematics; (2) classical transport phenomena theory, even when understood, is dicult to apply to biological materials due to the peculiar character of the latter: structure, properties, etc.; (3) individuals working in the industry

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J. Welti-Chanes et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 67 (2005) 113128

Nomenclature Symbols Ci molar concentration of component i (mol/m3) Cp specic heat at constant pressure (J/gC) D mass diusivity (m2/s) f friction factor h heat transfer coecient (W/m2 C) Ji mass ux of component i (kg/m2s) K thermal conductivity (W/m C), or consistence index (Pa sn) km mass transfer coecient (m/s) n ow behavior index () Ni molar ux of component i (mol/m2s) q heat ux (J/m2 s) T temperature (C) v velocity (m/s) Z position 0 distance (m) Greek symbols a thermal diusivity (m2/s), or aspect ratio () D gradient _ c shear rate (s1) g viscosity (Pa s) gp apparent viscosity (Pa s) l viscosity (Pa s) s shear stress (Pa) s0 yield stress (Pa) q density (kg/m3) t kinematic viscosity U volume fraction of walls ()

are not convinced of the importance of transport phenomena, possibly because of how the subject is taught in the universities (Gekas, 1992). In addition to those reasons, other aspects must be considered when applying the classic transport phenomena concepts to Food Process Engineering, for example: the need to obtain specic transport properties for a lot of food materials and new products, the understanding of new technologies (high pressure, electric pulses, ohmic heating, etc.) and their relationship with the transfer phenomenon to be applied in each case, and the generation of specic software and computational modeling or adaptation of that used in Chemical Engineering to the needs of food preservation processes. In this paper some basic concepts of transport phenomena and examples of the present situation of applications and research in Food Engineering using these basic concepts and the advances to resolve and to understand better this knowledge area are discussed.

tions. The basic laws governing the ux of momentum, heat and mass transport due to molecular motion or vibration are the Newton (1), Fourier (2) and Fick (3) Laws and they have the form: l d d s qv v qv 1 q dz dz q k d d qC p T a qC p T qC p dz dz 2

2. Fundamental aspects of transport phenomena and their analogies The three fundamental mechanisms of transport involved in some way in each process are: momentum, heat and mass transfer. The rst one is concerned with the momentum transfer which occurs in moving media; heat transfer is concerned with the exchange of heat; in the case of mass transfer, mass is transferred from one phase to another distinct phase; the basic mechanism is the same whether the phases are gas, solid or liquid. The three mechanisms of transport have some similarities and dierences, but the similarities or analogies are useful in understanding their origin and applica-

dC 3 dz All three processes are quite dierent at a molecular level. However, there are certain analogies between them. In eect, kinematic viscosity (m), thermal diusivity (a) and diusion (D) have the same dimensions (L2/t). In Ficks law, the molar ux varies with the gradient in mol per unit volume; in the Fouriers law, the energy ux is proportional to the gradient of energy per unit volume (qCpT); and the momentum ux, given by the rewritten Newtons law, varies with the gradient of the momentum per unit volume (qv) (Cussler, 1984). These analogies are shown in Table 1 (Welti-Chanes, Mujica Paz, Valdez-Fragoso, & Leon-Cruz, 2003a), together with additional information about the kind of food transport properties that are very important to evaluate the phenomena to be studied for any process conditions. The corresponding equations for momentum, heat and mass ux in the particular case of convective motion are:     1 2 fv sf qv qv 0 4 2 2 J i D q hDT h DqC p T qC p 5

J. Welti-Chanes et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 67 (2005) 113128 Table 1 Analogies between momentum, heat and mass transfer Analogous form Momentum transfer Variable Molecular diusivity Transfer coecient Dimensionless number qv (momentum/volume) m (kinematics viscosity) f (friction factor) Heat transfer qCpT (energy/volume) a (thermal diusivity) h (heat transfer coecient) m Pr a h=qC St v p Mass transfer C (mol/volume) D (diusion coecient) km (mass transfer coecient) m Sc D m St kv
a Le D


N i k m DC i
fv 2 h qC p

and where the transfer coecient is equivalent to km. Note that the driving forces in the momentum, heat and mass ux are volume concentrations: (qv 0) (expressed in momentum per volume), D(qCpT) (expressed in energy per volume) and DCi (mol per volume) (Table 1). Since the molecular diusivities have the same dimensions, a ratio of any of two of these leads to dimensionless numbers: the Prandtl (Pr) number for heat transfer and the Schmidt (Sc) and the Lewis (Le) numbers for mass transfer. Likewise, the ratio transfer coecients to the ow velocity leads to the Stanton (St) number for heat transfer, and the Stanton (St) number for mass transfer (Table 1), numbers which are very important for modeling and analyzing dierent food preservation processes. In addition to the previous mathematical models, a useful and simple analogy relating all three types of transport simultaneously is the ChiltonColburn model, which is written as k m 2=3 h=qC p 2=3 f 7 Sc Pr 2 v v m The group kv Sc2=3 is called the jD factor for mass transh=qC p fer and v Pr2=3 St Pr2=3 denes the jH factor for heat transfer. The ChiltonColburn analogy agrees well with a wide range of experimental data for ow and geometries of dierent types in forced convection systems. Therefore, when an engineer is concerned with the calculation of heat and mass transfer coecients, the analogies are very useful. In this way, when heat transfer and mass transfer occur by the same mechanism, the results of experiments on heat transfer may be used to calculate diusion processes, or vice versa. Also, information obtained from a small-scale model can be used to scale-up the process, or information obtained with one substance can be extended to another substance. In very specic cases, Pr = Sc = 1, which means that m = a = D, and heat and mass transfer measurements may be used to predict momentum transfer or vice versa (Sherwood, Pigford, & Wilke, 1975; Treybal, 1981). But to apply the aforementioned concepts to evaluate or design any preservation process on food it is

necessary to have information about the transport phenomena properties, in this way the need to evaluate these properties in dierent systems and under dierent process conditions is at present a prior research activity. Dierent studies have been developed in the last years oriented to obtain more information about the transport properties. Some examples of these studies are presented in Tables 24 for momentum, heat and mass transfer, respectively. The way information is shown in tables is oriented to evaluate the changes of dierent properties as a function of factors such as composition, solids concentration and type of food, temperature, pressure, process or storage time, and other preservation factors. The tables show in some way the research evolution of this eld in the last 20 years.

3. Momentum transport Momentum transfer is present in several processes of the food industry in association with ow and involves convection mechanisms between molecules (or groups of molecules). On the other hand, foods are complex systems, frequently with non-Newtonian behavior and subjected to several conditions. Under these situations, equations to describe momentum transfer are complicated. For this reason, empirical and numerical methods have been developed to solve these equations, using a practical approach. Equations used to describe momentum transfer are similar to those used for other transport phenomena (mass and heat transfer) and they are mentioned in the transport analogies section. Among the situations in which momentum transfer phenomena are important, we can emphasize: uid mechanics (statics and dynamics), and several unit operations such as mixing, uidization, pneumatic transport, sedimentation, ltration, ultraltration, etc. Specic examples of research orientation and applications on momentum transfer are presented in Table 5. Sterilization, drying, extrusion, and packaging are some of the examples presented in which momentum transport is an important phenomenon to be evaluated. Some of these situations have been suciently studied as the case of uid mechanics and we can nd several


Table 2 Examples of evaluation of momentun transfer properties in food systems Property Flow index (n) (dimensionless) Product Banana puree Magnitude 0.460 0.477 0.486 0.478 @ @ @ @ 22 32 40 50 C C C C Study Eect of temperature on consistency of banana pure Reference Barbosa and Peleg, 1982 J. Welti-Chanes et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 67 (2005) 113128

Flow index (n) (dimensionless) and consistency coecient (K) (N * sn/m2)

CMC solutions (0.5%)

0.735 and 0.151 @ 30 C 0.747 0.747 0.748 0.780 and and and and 0.123 0.103 0.081 0.060 @ @ @ @ 40 50 60 70 C C C C

Eect of temperature on viscosity of solutions of CMC with dierent concentration

Fito et al., 1983

Flow index (n) (dimensionless) and consistency coecient (K) (N * sn/m2)

Concentrated milk @ 25 C

1 and 0.002 with 12.6% w/w 1 and 0.003 with 17.2% w/w 1 and 0.003 with 19.6% w/w 1 and 0.004 with 22.3% w/w 0.95 and 0.007 with 24.9% w/w 0.94 and 0.011 with 30.5% w/w 0.89 and 0.069 with 42.4% w/w

Study of rheological properties as a function of concentration, temperature and storage time

Velez-Ruiz and Barbosa-Canovas, 1998

Flow index (n) (dimensionless) and consistency coecient (K) (N * sn/m2)

Apricot puree

0.59 and 1.65 (puree 1) 0.79 and 0.96 (puree 2) 0.62 and 0.82 (puree 3) 0.66 and 1.29 (puree 4)

Eect of yield stress value in four dierent purees on rheological parameters

Costell and Duran (1979)

Flow index (n) (dimensionless) and consistency coecient (K) (N * sn/m2)

Chicory extract

0.65 and 0.48 @ 25 C 0.47 and 0.83 @ 40 C 0.50 and 0.46 @ 55 C

Eect of temperature

Nogueira et al. (2001)

Flow index (n) (dimensionless) and consistency coecient (K) (N * sn/m2)

Fresh assai pulp

0.53 and 0.66

Eect of storage time

Carneiro et al. (2001)

Table 3 Examples of evaluation of heat transfer properties in food systems Property Heat transfer coecient (W/m C) Heat transfer coecient (W/m2 C) Thermal conductivity (W/m C) Specic heat (kJ/kg C) Specic heat (kJ/kg K) Specic heat (kJ/kg C) Specic heat (kJ/kg K)

Product Meat patties Meat patties Raw tortilla and tortilla chips fried Raw tortilla and tortilla chips fried Fresh seafood (calamari, cuttle, prawn, octopus and squid) Cornish pasty Surimi

Magnitude 250300 150165 0.230.09 3.362.19 3.293.79 3.3076 1.64 @ 20 C 3.67 @ 40 C 392.6 @ 20 C 0.545 @ 50 C 0.957 @ 100 C 1.4667E7, 1.8410E7, 1.406E7 and 1.2990E7 3.3502.0 0.03650.0929 101.518.7 3.64, 3.39 and 3.94 0.1670.306 @ 800 kg/m3 0.1700.331 @ 900 kg/m3 0.2440.383 @ 1000 kg/m3 2.79

Study Eect of frying time before water evaporated Eect of oil temperature (50100 C) Eect of frying time Eect of moisture and oil content Specic heat predictions based on composition Study of thermal properties in prepared foods with a calorimetric method Study of thermal properties of surimi with dierent cryoprotectan concentration and temperature Study of thermal properties of surimi with dierent cryoprotectan concentration and temperature Study of thermal conductivity in potato during frying Evaluation of physical properties of dierent fruits Eect of temperature and concentration Eect of temperature and bulk density Eect of temperature Eect of moisture content in dehydrated pulps of fruits Eect of bulk density

Reference Moreira et al. (1995) Moreira et al. (1995) Moreira et al. (1995) Moreira et al. (1995) Rahman (1993) Peralta Rodrguez et al. (1995) Wang and Kolbe (1991) J. Welti-Chanes et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 67 (2005) 113128

Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Thermal conductivity (W/m C)

Surimi Potato

Wang and Kolbe (1991) Califano and Calvelo (1991)

Thermal diusivity (m2/s) Specic heat (kJ/kg K) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Enthalpy (kcal/kg) Specic heat (kJ/kg K) Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

Melon, papaya, banana and watermelon Concentrated reconstituted milk Spray-dried whole milk powder Orange juice Apple, avocado and tomato Cooked rice

Velez and Torres (1994) Reddy and Datta (1993) MacCarthy (1985) Chen (1985) Alvarado (1991) Chun et al. (2001)

Gelanization enthalpy (cal/g)

Corn our

Eect of heating rate, water to our ratio and particle size

Ojeda et al. (2001)



J. Welti-Chanes et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 67 (2005) 113128

Table 4 Examples of evaluation of mass transfer properties in food systems Product Magnitude

Study Eect of frying temperature Eect of moisture content and baking temperature Eect of high pressure on diusion Eect of air temperature and composition material

Reference Moreira et al. (1995) Marcotte and Baik (2001) Rastogi et al. (2001) Al-Muhtaseb et al. (2004)

Property (diusivity coecient (m /s)) Tortilla chip fried 9.348E8 @ 190 C 5.408E8 @ 150 C Cake 8.95E114.36 E8 Potato 0.31E90.67E9 (solute) 0.37E90.84E9 (water) Potato starch gel 4.97E104.07E10 @ 30 C 7.62E106.36 E10 @ 45 C 10.1E108.19E10 @ 60 C 4.32E5 @ 80 C, 1 m/s 4.56E5 @ 80 C, 2 m/s 4.77E5 @ 80 C, 3 m/s 4.2E112.5E11


Eect of air velocity in uidized bed

Laguna-Cortes et al. (2004)

Nisin in agarose gel

Eect of agarose and fat content

Carnet-Anne and Issam (2004)

Table 5 Examples of operations related to momentum transfer in food processes Application Sterilization of canned liquid foods in a spin-cooker Snack production by coextrusion-cooking Rice bread production Cooling of stirred yoghurt in a plate heat exchanger Starchmethylcellulose based edible lms Comments Use of dimensional analysis for the identication of ow regimes during heat treatment The process is modeled by considering the rheological properties of the components Study of rheological properties of rice dough using a farinograph and a rheometer Convective heat transfer coecient is related to ow behavior The rheological properties of edible lm-forming dispersions containing corn starch, methylcellulose and glycerol were studied The model is based on the momentum, mass and energy balances of each element of the dryer The use of on-line viscometry for extrusion is reviewed Power consumption with non-Newtonian uids is studied in the laminar mixing regime The eect of temperature on rheological properties is required for a good sterilization process Estimation of the critical ow conditions at which transition-to-turbulence occurs Flow and heat transfer modeling in a single screw extruder is used for the scale-up of mixing and heat transfer Simulation of velocity and temperature distribution in a tubular heat exchanger using physical and rheological properties of product Thickness of the lm was related to ow behavior and velocity of cylinders Rheological behavior of components aects properties of lms Reference De Freitas and Kieckbusch (2003)

Cindio et al. (2002) Sivaramakrishnan et al. (2004) Afonso et al. (2003) Peressini et al. (2003)

Modeling of uidized bed drying for paddy rice The role of rheology in extrusion Mixing of non-Newtonian uids Continuous sterilization of nonNewtonian uids Flow of complex diluted fruit purees in circular ducts Wheat dough extrusion

Izadifar and Mowla (2003) Campanella et al. (2002) Brito-De la Fuente et al. (2002) Guariguata et al. (1979) Perona (2003) Dhanasekharan and Kokini (2003)

Aseptically processed soybean milk

Son and Singh, 2002

Drum drying of non-Newtonian uids Edible and biodegradable packaging materials

Daud (1989) Guilbert et al. (2002)

references with a detailed description of these phenomena. In other areas a better understanding of the phenomenon is intended and the study of food rheology and rheological properties of food systems are the basis to improve the knowledge in this eld.

4. Food rheology As it is well known there are several mathematical models used to describe the rheological behavior of liquid foods. For example:

J. Welti-Chanes et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 67 (2005) 113128


Newtonian model Power law model Bingham model HerschelBulkley

s l_ c s K_ c

8 9 10

6. Heat transfer Heating and cooling are common activities in food processing. Operations involving heating of foods are performed with dierent purposes such as to reduce the microbial population, inactivate enzymes, reduce the product moisture, and modify the functionality of certain compounds and, for cooking. But in other processes (cooling and freezing), heat is removed from foods to reduce or avoid deteriorative chemical and enzymatic reactions and to inhibit microbial growth. Heat transfer plays a central role in all of these operations; therefore, its understanding is essential for those involved in food processing, in order to have better control and to avoid under- or over-processing which often result in detrimental eects on food characteristics. In practice, heat transfer to or from foods can be attained either by indirect or direct methods (Sepulveda & Barbosa-Canovas, 2003). The rst step in understanding heat transfer is to dene what heat is and how it diuses through a single body or is transferred from one body to another. The temperature gradient is the driving force in heat transfer processes, and several models have been developed to describe heat transfer behavior in dierent systems under dierent conditions, taking into account the transfer mechanism involved (conduction, convection and/or radiation). Besides the physical state or relative position, other physical properties of the bodies involved in these processes inuence the heat transfer rate (Table 3). Characteristics such as form, size, structure, thermal conductivity, specic heat, density and viscosity, among others, are of paramount importance in the denition of the behavior of a lveda & Barbosa-Canovas, 2003). system (Sepu The study of heat transfer in food engineering involves more than one mode of heat transfer simultaneously, and frequently some of the physical characteristics of food, such as density, form or viscosity, change as heat modies the chemical structure, aecting its thermal behavior. Furthermore, foods usually have neither a regular form nor a homogeneous or isotropic behavior. Finally, some particular features of food being heated, such as non-uniform evaporation of water, crust formation or closing or opening of pores, are of such complexity that it makes the modeling of these processes dicult or impracticable. Nevertheless, some of these drawbacks have been overcome and the modeling of several specic practical situations is possible, mainly due to the development of knowledge of empirical relations that properly suit these specic processes. Present-day analytical techniques, such as the nite element method (Wang & Sun, 2002), allow the modeling of situations characterized by non-uniform thermal properties that change with time, temperature and location, so that great developments can be expected in the modeling of heat transfer processes in foods (Sepulveda & Barbosa-Canovas, 2003). Food

_ s s 0 gP c c s s0 K_


There are other more complex or more specic models for dierent uid materials. In addition, there are models that consider time as another variable, so we can handle thixotropic and rheopectic behavior, besides, models in which concentration and temperature are included as variables. All these models are important tools to evaluate the behavior of food systems in dierent processes, and allow us the quantication of power requirements in the design of pipelines, mixing or dierent separation processes. However, before applying them, it is required to know the magnitude and evolution of rheological properties under dierent process conditions; in this way the determination of such properties follows as an important research activity nowadays.

5. Rheological properties and their relation to food process operations The importance of rheological properties in several unit operations has been treated in several studies (Table 2). There are papers in which pipeline transport, mixing, pumping, mechanical separations, heating, cooling, evaporation, drying, fermentation, etc. are tied to the knowledge of rheological properties of the foods handled in these processes. Some recent works combine the concepts of rheology and glass transition (Sopade et al., 2003) to understand the relationships between viscosity and temperature. In other cases, knowledge of the rheological properties of dierent food systems as aque ous solutions of food additives (Gomez-Daz & Navaza, 2003), semisolids foodstu (Abu-Jdayil, 2003), solutions of glucose and sodium chloride (Moreira, Chenlo, & Pereira, 2003), starch/meat complexes (Li & Yeh, 2003), nixtamalised maize (Nunez-Santiago, Santoyo, Bello-Perez, & Santoyo-Gutierrez, 2003), soluble coee (Sobolk, Zitny, Tovcigrecko, Delgado, & Allaf, 2002), olive oil (Resa, Gonzalez, Fanega, Ortizde Landaluce, & Lanz, 2002), chocolate-milk beverages (Yanes, Dur an, & Costell, 2002) concentrated beverage emulsions (Buo & Reineccius, 2002), yogurt (ODonnell & Butler, 2002), or the use of modied viscometers to describe the behavior of uids in specic processes (Campanella, Li, Ross, & Okos, 2002; Shi & Keum, 2003), are the key component to improve the design of equipments and processes. The design of new food products and processes make necessary the study of the evolution of rheological properties in this context.


J. Welti-Chanes et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 67 (2005) 113128

composition, shape and size (food or container), mechanisms for heat transfer in dierent process systems, and application of new mathematical and computational tools are some priorities in heat transfer research, oriented to improve quality, stability and security of foods and some examples of advances and applications of heat transfer phenomena are now presented in those areas.

7. Numerical dierence models applied to heat conduction in foods with irregular shapes and non-homogeneous thermal properties Foods commonly have irregular shapes, and heat transfer analysis is usually avoided because of the dicult mathematical treatment and numerical solutions (Erdogdu, Balaban, & Chau, 1998). Many of the studies in this area are made with circular cylinders, and therefore it is important to study and develop knowledge about heat transfer with dierent geometries of foods. With this intention, Manson, Stumbo, and Zahradnik (1974) used a nite dierence model to predict the temperatures in conduction heating of pear-shaped objects, and Simpson, Aris, and Torres (1989) applied a nite dierence approximation to the dierential equation for transient heat conduction in three dimensions to evaluate thermal processing of foods in oval-shaped containers. The method of nite dierence has been used by other researchers to simulate heat conduction in irregularly shaped foods (Califano & Zaritzky, 1993; Sheen, Tong, Fu, & Lund, 1993; Akterian & Fikiin, 1994; Kim & Teixeira, 1997). More recently, Erdogdu, Balaban, and Chau (2003) reported results using a volume element based approach to nite dierence model for heat transfer in elliptical cross sections by using power curves; an important contribution of this work was the use of dierent boundary conditions at the surface and non-homogeneous thermo physical properties inside the food. Using a Windows-based software it was possible to calculate the temperature distribution in an innite elliptical cylinder, knowing the outside temperature (constant or variable), product properties (homogeneous or heterogeneous), and heat transfer conditions at the surface (constant through the surface or variable). As Erdogdu et al. (2003) proposed, this kind of mathematical analysis of heat transfer is a powerful tool, which can be used for the analysis of thermal processing of foods with non-homogeneous thermal properties.

8. Transport phenomena during contact cooking of foods The analysis of heat transfer in cooking of some foods related to microbial, textural and sensory as-

pects is not well understood; simplications of that analysis or overestimation of the process generate microbiologically unsafe products on one side or overcooked with undesirable characteristics on the other. One example of this problem is the estimation of heat transfer during beef patty cooking applying two heating plates. In this case the cooking method in restaurants involves placing frozen patties between the hot plates and as the heat penetrates the patty, a thawing process begins. After that, higher temperatures cause protein denaturation and reduction of water holding capacity, water and fat may be partially squeezed out, and near the patties surface browning reactions occur. The combination of all those processes promotes the formation of a crust (Dagerskog & Bengtsson, 1978; Lawrie, 1991). Dierent mathematical models have been developed to describe the aforementioned heat transfer process, considering the internal mass transfer and the other physicochemical changes. Dagerskog (1979a, 1979b) presented a heat transfer model based on solving the heat conduction equation by nite dierence methods without good results to predict experimental values of the process. Ikediala, Correia, Fenton, and Ben_Abdallah (1996) modeled the process of cooking using singlesided pan frying with the assumptions: heat conduction with no heat generation, negligible shrinkage or swelling, cylindrical geometry and heat removed by moisture loss. The model was solved by a nite element model with good results. Pan, Singh, and Rumsey (2000) developed a model for cooking a frozen patty based on: the enthalpy formulation, the eect of mass transfer, variable heating temperature and heat transfer coecient; they showed that taking into account the mass transfer did not improve the prediction of the heat process. Finally in recent studies, Zorrilla and Singh (2000a, 2000b) and Zorrilla, Wichchukit, and Singh (2003), showed that mathematical models based on classic transport phenomena equations are excellent for predicting the temperature proles inside hamburger patties during double-sided contact cooking, and they teach us that, in some cases, complex modeling of a transport phenomena is not necessary. Results showed that the use of a model considering a one-dimensional geometry is appropriate to predict temperature proles at the geometric center, (enough information to evaluate the microbial destruction in the product); while a model for a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry provides a temperature history at regions close the circumferential edge of the patty (history which is important to evaluate the global cooking quality of the product). The importance of contact heat transfer coecients was showed by Zorrilla et al. (2003), and the solution of the system of equations was obtained numerically using nite dierence methods. In addition, Zorrilla, Rovedo, and Singh (2000) related textural and cooking parameters as an at-

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tempt to relate physical results and any change with the heat transfer mechanism.

9. Computational uid dynamics and modeling of sterilization processes with natural convection Optimization of canning requires an estimation of the heat transfer rate, and in the case of solid or semisolid foods which are usually assumed to be heated by pure conduction a lot of analytical or numerical solutions to the heat conduction equation have been presented by dierent authors taking account of dierent parameters or process variables (can wall temperature, can shape, boundary conditions, etc.), (Datta, Teixeira, & Manson, 1986; Dincer, Varlik, & Gun, 1993; Akterian & Fikiin, 1994). Analysis and simulation of heat transfer in liquid and semi-liquid foods (that show natural convection) is more dicult and some eorts have been made to describe this kind of heat transfer related to the sterility level and the loss of quality (sensory and nutritional) (Rao & Anantheswaran, 1988). Datta and Teixeira (1987, 1988) predicted transient temperature and velocity proles during natural convection heating of canned liquid foods. They showed that the slowest heating zone is a doughnut-shaped region located near of the bottom of the can at about one tenth of the can height. Kumar and Bhattacharya (1991), and Kumar, Bhattacharya, and Blaylock (1990) carried out a simulation of the sterilization of a viscous liquid food in a metal can. Their results showed that natural convection tends to push the slowest heating region to the bottom of the can. Ghani, Farid, and Chen (2003) showed that observation of the slowest heating zone is a dicult task and requires knowledge of detailed transient ow patterns and temperature proles, due to the complex nature of heat transfer in natural convection partial dierential equations used to describe this kind of heat transfer need the application of numerical techniques, and for this purpose the use of computational uid dynamics (CFD) techniques seems to be a good decision. The application of CFD could assist in a better understanding of the complex physical mechanisms that govern the thermal, physical and rheological properties of foods (Ghani, Farid, & Zarrouk, 2003; Grijspeerdt, Hazarika, & Vucinic, 2003). Ghani et al. (2003) evaluated the thermal process of a canned liquid food (carrotorange soup) using CFD. Results were presented in the form of transient temperature, concentration (microorganisms and vitamin C), and velocity proles. They used PHOENICS code based on the nite volume method developed by Patankar and Spalding (1972). Then the governing equations for continuity, momentum, and energy conservation were solved together with those for bacteria and vitamin C

concentrations. The results of the simulation showed a recirculating ow inside the can, and the location of the slowest heating zone through all the process, and the relationship of the bacteria and vitamin C concentrations with both temperature and ow pattern. CFD seems a good alternative to resolve complex transport phenomena.

10. Dimensional analysis applied to convection heat transfer in food systems containing solid particles Heat transfer by convection is one of the most important problems studied in the last years oriented to improve sterilization processes of dierent food systems, and new concepts and applications are generated in the industrial sector processing foods with this kind of processes. A basic concept that has been used to analyze this kind of transport phenomena problems is the mez-Palomares, dimensional analysis (Welti-Chanes, Go Vergara-Balderas, & Alzamora, in press). Dimensional analysis is a useful technique for generalization of data, as it reduces the number of variables that must be studied by permitting the grouping of physical variables that aect the process of heat transfer. In the dimensional analysis of convection heat transfer, the Nusselt number (Nu), a dimensionless measure of convective heat transfer coecient is correlated with other dimensionless numbers such as the Reynolds (Re), Prandlt (Pr), and Grashof (Gr) numbers (Ramaswamy & Zareifard, 2003). That coecient and data on residence time distribution are necessary to design dierent processes, such as those in which particles are moving through a heat exchanger and holding tubes sections (as is the case of aseptic processing systems). Dierent correlations to predict uid-to-particle heat transfer coecients (hfp) for processing of particle foods owing in tubes have been developed recently to solve this kind of problems (Sastry & Zuritz, 1987; Chandarana, Gavin, & Wheaton, 1990; Zuritz, McCoy, & Sastry, 1990; Mwangi, Datta, & Rizvi, 1992; Balasubramaniam, 1993; Zitoun & Sastry, 1994a, 1994b; Astrom & Bark, 1994; Bhamidipati & Singh, 1995; Awuah & Ramaswamy, 1996; Chakrabandhu & Singh, 1998). Ramaswamy and Zareifard (2000, 2003), and Zareifard and Ramaswamy (2001) developed correlations for experimental data obtained from two techniques allowing particle motion during the heating process: a calorimetric method (CM) in which the particle was free to move and rotate along the length of holding tube, and a particle oscillatory motion method (POMM) in which particle was allowed a controlled movement in an oscillatory fashion. The CM involved an indirect measurement of particle temperature, instead of recording the particle center point temperature, the mass average temperature of a freely moving particle (which is not attached to any


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thermocouple), was estimated using a calorimeter. The POMM involved direct measurement of center point temperatures of thermocouple-equipped particles xed at the center of a set of circular holding tubes of dierent radii cut out in quarter lengths. A multiple regression analysis with a backward elimination procedure was used to obtain the best model with statistically signicant parameters associated with hfp. Heat transfer to the particle (aluminium, nylon or aluminium epoxy spheres) from the carrier medium (water or aqueous solutions of CMC), was modeled using Re, Pr and Gr numbers, and other factors as the particle/tube diameter ratio, thermal diusivity between uid and particle and the velocity ratio (particle/ uid).Their relationships were attributed to the carrier uid and various parameters aecting the boundary condition. The Nusselt number estimated from the developed models showed good agreement with experimental conditions.

11. Mass transfer Mass transfer can be dened as the migration of a substance through a mixture under the inuence of a concentration gradient in order to reach chemical equilibrium. Biochemical and chemical engineering operations, such as absorption, humidication, distillation, crystallization and aeration involve mass transfer principles. In food processing, mass transfer phenomena are present in freeze-drying, osmotic dehydration, salting or desalting, curing and pickling, extraction, smoking, baking, frying, drying, membrane separation and the transmission of water vapor, gases or contaminants across a packaging lm. Food stability and the preservation of its quality are also aected by mass transfer of environmental components that can aect the rate of reactions. Among the components involved in these mass transfer processes are water, sugars, salt, oils, proteins, acids, avor and aroma substances, oxygen, carbon dioxide, residual monomers or polymer additives, and toxins or carcinogens produced by microorganisms. Furthermore, mass transfer phenomena are important in the scale-up of processes to pilot or commercial scale plants, and in the control and optimization of the processes. To understand mass transfer, initially, the study of the variables that occur in mass transfer is important (Table 4); then, the mechanisms of mass transfer (diusion and convection), their magnitude and the method of determining the convective mass transfer coecients and, nally, it is necessary to apply the concept of transfer units. There are many processes of industrial importance where food solids are subjected to batch processes and unsteady-state transfer conditions arise. In such unsteady-state situations the food concentration distribution

varies with both time and position. Mass transfer under unsteady-state plays a key role in drying, freeze-drying (George & Datta, 2002), lixiviation, infusion, osmotic dehydration (Mauro, de Queiroz Tavares, & Menegalli, 2003; Moreira & Sereno, 2003; Sablani, Rahman, & AlSadeiri, 2002), salting or desalting, and frying processes. The transfer process of compounds from the packages into the food (Nobile, Fava, & Piergiovanni, 2002; Risbo, 2003), and controlled release of active compounds can also be considered as unsteady-state systems. Solutions derived from Ficks law are necessary to analyze the unsteady-state diusion process (WeltiChanes et al., 2003b). Those equations are used to nd the concentration of a solute as a function of time and position, and are mainly applicable to diusion in solids and to limited situations in uids. The analysis of unsteady-state systems, however, is frequently simplied by reducing the problem to considering only one-dimensional diusion. The analysis of unsteady-state diusion problems involves the solution of partial dierential equations, which have more than one independent variable. The techniques for solution of those equations include analytical solutions (transformation of variables, separation of variables or Laplace transforms), numerical and graphical methods (Welti-Chanes et al., 2003a, 2003b). Many of the actual research publications on mass transfer in food engineering are oriented to solving Ficks Law or other derivation of this law for some specic process. However, some non-Fickian approaches have been discussed as an alternative way to understand new concepts of these transport phenomena. As in the previous section of heat transfer, a general overview and some specic examples of advances and applications of mass transport are discussed.

12. Mass transport phenomena and food structure The diusion coecient (D) is the main parameter in Ficks law, and application of these mathematical models to solid foods is a common way to calculate the eective or apparent diusion coecient (De) for characterization of the mass transfer phenomena in very dierent processes (drying, lixiviation, absorption, permeation, etc.) considering most of them as homogeneous continuum approach (Aguilera, 2002). However as Gekas (1992) commented, values of De vary by several orders of magnitude for the same material and process, and this variability may be due to structural changes in the food material during the dierent stages of the process. Aguilera (2002) proposed a simple form for evaluating the eect of structure on mass transfer to compare the D of a molecule A moving through a continuum medium B at high dilution (DAB) with the De determined from experimental data. A rst approximation

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is that applied to porous solids in which DAB is corrected by the ratio of porosity to tortuosity. Taking this concept, Aguilera (2002) calculated the ratio between De and DAB for soybean akes being solvent-extracted by considering the product structure as a composite of impermeable walls arranged perpendicular and staggered to the ow and uniformly distributed through a continuous permeable matrix containing the oil. The model proposed (Eq. (12)) depends on the volume fraction of walls (U) and their aspect ratio (a) and, with it, it is possible to show the variation of De/DAB from 0 (when the volume fraction of impermeable walls and the aspect ratios are high) to near 1 (when walls are largely absent). Deff =DAB f1=1 a2 U2 =1 Ug 12

The previous consideration shows that in most cases where diusion is the main mechanism of mass transfer, the architecture and properties of the intervening elements may explain the magnitude of De, and this aspect must be taken into account for the analysis and design of processes controlled by the diusion mechanism.

13. Non-Fickian and cellular approaches for modeling mass transfer The state of the art of mass transport phenomena is dominated by the Fickian approach. However, for transport in living tissues, the cell structure plays a major role in the transport mechanisms. Evidence supplied from food-processing have shown changes in the pattern of mass transfer in some species with temperature and environmental conditions that may be intimately related to phenomena at cell level and the mechanisms of transport of the biological membrane (Gekas, Oliveira, & Crapiste, 2002). In many of food processing situations, in which convection phenomena due to turgor and to buoyancy, and agitation eects, passive membrane transport, and active membrane transport, a non-Fickian behavior is present. As Gekas et al. (2002) proposed, mass transfer elucidation requires knowledge of structural aspects and driving force aspects. Also, if a nonFickian model is intended to be applied, they proposed to consider structure aspects such as the cell wall working as an ultraltration membrane, allowing water, sugars and salts to pass freely through it, while macromolecules are hindered (except in the case of the symplastic mode of direct cell-to-cell transfer of macromolecules through the plasmodesmatta). On the other hand, they considered the application of the irreversible thermodynamics and the concept of chemical potential depending on temperature in the case of driving force aspects. The determination of the membrane deterioration temperature (Td) is an important aspect to be considered in this type on analysis.

Le Maguer, Mazzani, and Fernandez (2002) have been working on modeling osmotic dehydration with a similar orientation to that of Gekas et al. (2002). They considered the cellular properties of the material (diusivity, tortuosity and porosity), the properties of the solution (viscosity, diusivity and density) and process conditions (temperature and shape of the material). In this case, transport phenomena models were developed to calculate water ow and advance of the solute front, as well as to estimate the average concentration and equilibrium conditions inside the cells. The models also considered the eects of the boundary layer solution to compute uxes using overall mass transfer coecients. According to Le Maguer et al. (2002) the most dicult challenge for modeling the operation is introduced by the complexity of the solid (the insoluble solids, the extra-cellular solution, and the extra-cellular air), and therefore the tortuous route that the substance travels inside the tissue constitutes an important parameter for the modeling. Results using these concepts showed that the proposed models could be applied for the integration of the experimental work with the engineering design of industrial equipment. The proposed models oer new ways for the interpretation of mass transfer in osmotic dehydration. By accounting for the cellular nature of the materials and the interaction with the surrounding solution, it is possible to estimate the main parameters of the tissue so as to predict its behavior. Fito, Chiralt, Barat, and Martnez-Monzo (2002) presented another approach to the interpretation of mass transfer in osmotic processes taking account of the inuence of porosity on the response of the fruit tissue to solid-uid systems (SFSs). In their studies, hydrodynamic mechanisms (HDMs) have been used to describe the mass transfer phenomena when changes in temperature or pressure take place. During HDM action, the occluded gas inside the product pores is compressed or expanded according to pressure or temperature changes, and the external liquid is pumped into the pores in line with the gas compression. The vacuum impregnation (VI) promotes the exchange of the internal gas from the product with the external liquid, by using vacuum conditions during short time and then reestablishing the atmospheric pressure with the product immersed in the liquid all the time. At same time, HDM usually occurs with deformation-relaxation phenomena (DRP) of the food structure. Using all these concepts Fito et al. (2002) have proposed a series of mathematical models to calculate the volume fraction of the initial sample which is impregnated by the external liquid as function of the compression ratio, sample eective porosity, and sample volume deformation. Such models and concepts are being applied to improve the classical osmotic process and to develop operations such as the vacuum osmotic dehydration (VOD) and pulses vacuum osmotic


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dehydration (PVOD) (Fito, Chiralt, Martnez-Monzo, & Barat, 2003; Alzamora, Nieto, & Castro, 2003; pez-Malo, Palou, & Mujica-Paz, Valdez-Fragoso, Lo Welti-Chanes, 2003), improve the salting process of cheese (Chiralt, Fito, Gonzalez-Martnez, & Andres, 2003) and develop a new generation of functional foods through the use of the porosity of some fruits (Welti-Chanes et al., 2001). On the other hand, the use of new preservation factors results in the modication of the behavior of food tissues during storage or nal transformation, as AdeOmowaye, Rastogi, Angersbach, and Knorr (2002); Knorr, Heinz, Angersbach, and Lee (2002) Taiwo, Angersbach, and Knorr (2002) have shown when they used high intensity eld pulses or high hydrostatic pressures.

15. Final comments The study of the basic concepts on Transport Phenomena is an import element to understand the analysis, simulation and design of food preservation processes. Determination of transport properties in foods is a prior research area to support the development of the new era in Food Engineering. Original food structure and that modied by the dierent process variables must be considered for any analysis of transfer phenomena. It is necessary to study the transport mechanisms in the traditional preservation process but is more important for the emerging technologies (high pressure, electric pulses, ultrasound, membranes, etc.) to dene the real potential of their applications. New mathematical and computational tools must be evaluated to improve the application of the transport phenomena basic concepts, and all research advances in this eld must be oriented to improve the quality, stability and safety of foods.

14. Application of articial neural network in mass transfer As mentioned in a previous section, the use of De provokes some mistakes in the simulation of transport phenomena; then, other computational and mathematical approaches are necessary. Using this idea, some research in transport phenomena has been done by applying articial neural networks (ANN). ANN enables direct modeling of nonlinear processes without requiring a prespecied detailed relationship, as could be the relationship of De and the variables studied in a specic mass transport process Examples of the ANN application are the works of Ramesh, Kumar, and Rao (1996) (rehydration of dried rice), Balasubramanian, Panda, and Rao (1996) (drying in uidized bed), Baroni, Menezes, Adell, and Ribeiro (2003) (modeling cheese salting), and Hernandez Perez, Garca-Alvarado, Trystam, and Heyd (2003) (drying with shrinkage of mango and cassava). The modeling of Pratto cheese salting (Baroni et al., 2003) is a good example of the steps to follow in order to obtain a good prediction of the transport phenomena studied. They constructed an ANN using multilayer perceptron architecture. The network had two inputs, brining time and brine concentration, because (in opinion of the authors) these variables have a greater eect than other process variables on salt diusion, and one output, the average salt concentration of the cheese. This rst step is important to train the algorithm, determine the number of hidden neurons and nodes and dene the nal topology of the network. Final results showed that the best prediction of the average salt concentration on salt was reached with the use of an ANN in a comparative evaluation with other phenomenological and mathematical analyses. In this research, the Ficks law solution for a rectangular geometry was used to determine an average concentration of salt within the cheese.

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