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Copyright © 2007, 1999, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com

ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2558-1

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Preface to the Second Edition
This book Basic Fluid Mechanics is revised and enlarged by the addition of four chapters on Hydraulic Machinery and is now titled as Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. The authors hope this book will have a wider scope. This book will be suitable for the courses on Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of the various branches of study of Anna University and also other Indian universities and the Institution of Engineers (India). Professor Obert has observed in his famous treatise on Thermodynamics that concepts are better understood by their repeated applications to real life situations. A firm conviction of this principle has prompted the author to arrange the text material in each chapter in the following order. In the first section after enunciating the basic concepts and laws, physical and mathematical models are developed leading to the formulation of relevant equations for the determination of outputs. Simple and direct numerical examples are included to illustrate the basic laws. More stress is on the model development as compared to numerical problems. A section titled “SOLVED PROBLEMS” comes next. In this section more involved derivations and numerical problems of practical interest are solved. The investigation of the effect of influencing parameters for the complete spectrum of values is attempted here. Problems involving complex situations are shown solved in this section. It will also illustrate the range of values that may be expected under different situations. Two important ideas are stressed in this section. These are (1) checking for dimensional homogeneity in the case of all equations derived before these equations can be used and (2) The validation of numerical answers by cross checking. This concept of validation in professional practice is a must in all design situations. In the next section a large number of objective type questions with answers are given. These are very useful for understanding the basics and resolving misunderstandings. In the final section a large number of graded exercise problems involving simple to complex situations, most of them with answers, are included. The material is divided into sixteen chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next chapter discusses the determination of variation of pressure with depth in stationary and moving fluids. The third chapter deals with determination of forces on surfaces in contact with stationary fluids. Chapter four deals with buoyant forces on immersed or floating bodies and the importance of metacentric height on stability. In chapter five basic fluid flow concepts and hydrodynamics are discussed. Energy equations and the variation of flow parameters along flow as well as pressure loss due to friction are dealt with in chapter six. (v)

(vi) In chapter seven flow in closed conduits including flow in pipe net work are discussed. Dimensional analysis and model testing and discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and determination of forces due to fluid flow on bodies are dealt with in chapter ten. In chapter eleven various flow measuring methods and instruments are described. Flow in open channels is dealt with in detail in chapter twelve. Chapter thirteen deals with dynamics of fluid flow in terms force exerted on surface due to change of momentum along the flow on the surface. Chapter fourteen deals with the theory of turbo machines as applied to the different type of hydraulic turbines. The working of centrifugal and axial flow pumps is detailed in chapter fifteen. The last chapter sixteen discusses the working of reciprocating and other positive displacement pumps. The total number of illustrative worked examples is around five hundred. The objective questions number around seven hundred. More than 450 exercise problems with answers are also included. The authors thank all the professors who have given very useful suggestions for the improvement of the book. Authors

Preface to the First Edition
This book is intended for use in B.E./B.Tech. courses of various branches of specialisation like Civil, Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. The material is adequate for the prescribed syllabi of various Universities in India and the Institution of Engineers. SI system of units is adopted throughout as this is the official system of units in India. In order to give extensive practice in the application of various concepts, the following format is used in all the chapters. • Enunciation of Basic concepts • Development of physical and mathematical models with interspersed numerical examples • Illustrative examples involving the application and extension of the models developed • Objective questions and exercise problems The material is divided into 12 chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next two chapters discuss the variation of pressure with depth in liquid columns, at stationary and at accelerating conditions and the forces on surfaces exerted by fluids. The fourth chapter deals with buoyant forces and their effect on floating and immersed bodies. The kinetics of fluid flow is discussed in chapter five. Energy equations and the determination of pressure variation in flowing fluids and loss of pressure due to friction are discussed in chapters six and seven. Dimensional analysis and model testing are discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and forces due to flow of fluids over bodies are discussed in chapter ten. Chapter eleven details the methods of measurement of flow rates and of pressure in fluid systems. Open channel flow is analyzed in chapter twelve. The total number of illustrative numerical examples is 426. The objective questions included number 669. A total number of 352 exercise problems, mostly with answers are available. We wish to express our sincere thanks to the authorities of the PSG College of Technology for the generous permission extended to us to use the facilities of the college. Our thanks are due to Mr. R. Palaniappan and Mr. C. Kuttumani for their help in the preparation of the manuscript. C.P. Kothandaraman R. Rudramoorthy (vii)

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Contents
Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition (v) (vii)

1

Physical Properties of Fluids .................................................................... 1
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1 Three Phases of Matter............................................................................................ 2 Compressible and Incompressible Fluids ............................................................... 2 Dimensions and Units .............................................................................................. 3 Continuum ................................................................................................................ 4 Definition of Some Common Terminology ............................................................. 4 Vapour and Gas ........................................................................................................ 5 Characteristic Equation for Gases .......................................................................... 6 Viscosity .................................................................................................................... 7 1.8.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids................................................ 10 1.8.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer ...................................................... 11 1.8.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity ...................................................... 11 1.8.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity...................................................... 11 1.8.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids ..................................................... 12 Application of Viscosity Concept .......................................................................... 13 1.9.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts ...................................... 13 1.9.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate ....................... 14 1.9.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support ....................................... 16 Surface Tension ...................................................................................................... 17 1.10.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface ............................... 17 1.10.2 Capillary Rise or Depression ................................................................ 18 1.10.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface ....................................................................................... 19 1.10.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet ............................................ 20 Compressibility and Bulk Modulus ...................................................................... 21 1.11.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases ..................................... 22 Vapour Pressure ..................................................................................................... 23 1.12.1 Partial Pressure ..................................................................................... 23 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 24 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 33 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 38 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 39 (ix)

1.9

1.10

1.11 1.12

(x)

2

Pressure Distribution in Fluids ............................................................... 42
2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 42 Pressure .................................................................................................................. 42 Pressure Measurement .......................................................................................... 43 Pascal’s Law ........................................................................................................... 45 Pressure Variation in Static Fluid (Hydrostatic Law) ........................................ 46 2.4.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density ........................... 47 2.4.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density ............................. 48 Manometers ............................................................................................................ 49 2.5.1 Micromanometer .................................................................................... 51 Distribution of Pressure in Static Fluids Subjected to Acceleration, as .......... 53 2.6.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid ....................................................... 54 2.6.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction ................................................................................................. 55 Forced Vortex ......................................................................................................... 58 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 60 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 71 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 71 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 74

2.5 2.6

2.7

3

Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids ................................................ 80
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 80 Centroid and Moment of Inertia of Areas ............................................................ 81 Force on an Arbitrarily Shaped Plate Immersed in a Liquid ............................. 83 Centre of Pressure for an Immersed Inclined Plane ........................................... 84 3.3.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes .............................. 86 Component of Forces on Immersed Inclined Rectangles .................................... 87 Forces on Curved Surfaces .................................................................................... 89 Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids .................................................................. 92 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 93 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 111 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 112 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 115

4

Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ............................. 119
4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Archimedes Principle ........................................................................................... 119 Buoyancy Force .................................................................................................... 119 Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies ..................................................... 121 Conditions for the Stability of Floating Bodies .................................................. 123

(xi) 4.4 Metacentric Height .............................................................................................. 124 4.4.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height ................................................................................................... 125 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 125 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 136 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 137 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 139

5

Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics .................................. 142
5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 142 Lagrangian and Eularian Methods of Study of Fluid Flow .............................. 143 Basic Scientific Laws Used in the Analysis of Fluid Flow ................................ 143 Flow of Ideal / Inviscid and Real Fluids ............................................................. 143 Steady and Unsteady Flow .................................................................................. 144 Compressible and Incompressible Flow ............................................................. 144 Laminar and Turbulent Flow .............................................................................. 144 Concepts of Uniform Flow, Reversible Flow and Three Dimensional Flow ................................................................................................. 145 Velocity and Acceleration Components .............................................................. 145 Continuity Equation for Flow—Cartesian Co-ordinates .................................. 146 Irrotational Flow and Condition for Such Flows ............................................... 148 Concepts of Circulation and Vorticity ................................................................ 148 Stream Lines, Stream Tube, Path Lines, Streak Lines and Time Lines ........ 149 Concept of Stream Line ....................................................................................... 150 Concept of Stream Function ................................................................................ 151 Potential Function ................................................................................................ 153 Stream Function for Rectilinear Flow Field (Positive X Direction) ................. 154 Two Dimensional Flows—Types of Flow ............................................................ 154 5.17.1 Source Flow .......................................................................................... 155 5.17.2 Sink Flow .............................................................................................. 155 5.17.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K ....................................................... 155 5.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ .......................................................................... 156 Principle of Superposing of Flows (or Combining of Flows) ............................. 157 5.18.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) .......................... 157 5.18.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-Axis .......................................................................................... 157 5.18.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) ................................................................ 158 5.18.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ............................................... 158 5.18.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) .......................... 158 5.18.6 Doublet, Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ................................ 158

5.18

..........................3 6...............6 6............................................. 219 7.............8 7 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes).............7 6....................1 Kinetic Energy ...................................................................... 178 5........ 160 Objective Questions ..............................1........................................................ 181 6................18................................... 159 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) ......7 5................. 183 Euler’s Equation of Motion for Flow Along a Stream Line .............................(xii) Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) .................................................0 7.......9 5... 221 Features of Laminar and Turbulent Flows .....18................ 174 Exercise Problems ...5 7..................................... 220 Boundary Layer Development Over A Flat Plate .......................................................................4 Internal Energy...............1 Pitot Tube .................3 7.............. 222 Hydraulically “Rough” and “Smooth” Pipes ..................................................... 182 6................................................................ 182 6.....................................................................2 7..................... Static and Total Head ................................................ 191 Concept and Measurement of Dynamic........................3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy) ..............................4 6.............................. 183 Bernoulli Equation for Fluid Flow .........................................18. 226 ... 188 Euler and Bernoulli Equation for Flow with Friction .......... 187 Volume Flow Through a Venturimeter ...6 7...................... 180 6............... 219 Boundary Layer Concept in the Study of Fluid Flow ............................................................................2 6............................................................. 193 Solved Problems .....................1 Introduction .......................................................................... 181 6.............................................................................5 6.........................0 6.... 215 6.......................................................................... 213 Exercise Problems ................................................1 7........................ 180 Forms of Energy Encountered in Fluid Flow...................8 Parameters Involved in the Study of Flow Through Closed Conduits .... 159 Concept of Flow Net .............. 223 Concept of “Hydraulic Diameter”: (Dh) ............................................... Opposite Rotation....... 184 Energy Line and Hydraulic Gradient Line ..............................................................1........... 180 6....................................................... 159 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength..........1.........................5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy ..................................................4 7...................8................. 159 Solved Problems .............................1........................... 194 Objective Questions ............................................ 220 Development of Boundary Layer in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ...........................................................1...2 Potential Energy .......................................................... 183 Variation in the Relative Values of Various Forms of Energy During Flow .......................................................... 223 Velocity Variation with Radius for Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Pipes .7 7......................................................................................................... Separation by 2a) ....................................................... 224 Darcy–Weisbach Equation for Calculating Pressure Drop ......... 192 6............8 5.....19 6 Bernoulli Equation and Applications .....

. 270 Correlation of Experimental Data .................................................................................................................... 265 Buckingham Pi Theorem .........................................................15 7..................17 7.. 297 9.............2 Dynamic Similarity ...2 Pipes in Parallel .....................................................18................................ 241 7.13 7...... 238 Network of Pipes ..........19..................3 8..........................................................................................................................................3 Kinematic Similarity .................2...... 271 8...............14 7................................................ 264 The Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity ....18 7.................4 8............................................ 229 Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor for Turbulent Flow in Pipes .................9 7....1 Geometric Similarity ................................................................................(xiii) 7................................................3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters .............. 245 Objective Questions .......... 270 8. 235 Fluid Power Transmission Through Pipes ..19............... 256 Exercise Problems ..........................................................19....... 293 9 Similitude and Model Testing .....................5....5.1 9......................................................................10 7.........................19. 230 Minor Losses in Pipe Flow ................................... 263 Methods of Determination of Dimensionless Groups . 235 Concept of Equivalent Pipe or Equivalent Length ........................2....................................................................................5.................................................................................................................................. 271 8...1 Problems with One Pi Term ..... 234 Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line in Conduit Flow ..................................................................................................................1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission .............................. 291 Exercise Problems ..... 240 7..................................................... 263 8.1 Determination of π Groups......................................2........................... Bends and Other Pipe Fittings ..................2 8...... 239 7.......................................................................................................................................2 Problems with Two Pi Terms ......1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy ....0 9............................................................. 265 8...............................................0 8...................................... 297 9................5 Introduction ... 296 Model and Prototype ....................................................................................................... 273 Objective Questions . 265 Important Dimensionless Parameters ... 232 Losses in Elbows...........................12 7............................................................................................................. 259 8 Dimensional Analysis .... 245 Solved Problems ............................................... 243 7.............................................................4 Pipe Network ..........................................................3 Branching Pipes .....................................11 7..................................................................... 231 Expression for the Loss of Head at Sudden Expansion in Pipe Flow .......................19 Hagen–Poiseuille Equation for Friction Drop ...................2 Introduction ........................................................ 228 Significance of Reynolds Number in Pipe Flow ................................3..... 298 ............................... 296 9......................... 296 Conditions for Similarity Between Models and Prototype ..........................................1 8............... 234 Concept of Equivalent Length ............................... 238 7.............................16 7................. 297 9.............. 273 Solved Problems ......................

.. 300 9.........3...................3........1............................................. 353 Exercise Problems ............................................. 331 Turbulent Flow .3.....................................1...............................................7 Momentum Thickness ........ 322 10. 362 11................................................ 335 10.................. 321 10........................................................................... 359 Velocity Measurements........................................................ 327 10...... 338 10.................. 330 10............ 298 9....5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift ........................................................................2 Introduction ................................................3............ 363 ....................................................................................................4 9............. 360 11..... 299 9............................. 315 Exercise Problems ...............................................1 Introduction ...................................................................................3..................3 Pressure Drag ............................................. 303 Objective Questions ....3 Momentum Equation ....................................... 324 10............... 322 10................3.................................4 Models for Turbomachinery ................................ 359 11.................................................5 Integral Method ....................................................... 332 Flow Separation in Boundary Layers ....................................2........................................................................... 341 Objective Questions ...4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders ............................. 336 10........ 298 9.......................................................... 339 Solved Problems .......................................................................1 Flow Over Flat Plate .........................1 Pitot Tube ............................. 334 10...3..............2 Continuity Equation ......................................................................................2.2.............................3......................... 359 11..2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag ........1...............................3 Flow with Free Surface ......6 Displacement Thickness .....1................................... 321 Boundary Layer Thickness .....3 11 Flow Measurements ...................................................... 337 10............................2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies..3.............................4 Solution for Velocity Profile ......................... 356 10..........................................................................................................2 10........................ 325 10.....................................................1 Flow Through Closed Conduits .............4 Laser Doppler Anemometer .......................................................(xiv) 9...............................................................................................................................................0 10................ 321 10.... 362 11............. 301 Nondimensionalising Governing Differential Equations ...................3 Types of Model Studies .....................................................................................................................................................1................1.1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift ............................................6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder .... 317 9...................3.... 302 Conclusion ................................3 Hot Wire Anemometer............................................................................................................................................5 10 Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces ............................................................... 334 10................................................1 11......................2...........1.... 303 Solved Problems ...........2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter ......

(xv) 11.3 Volume Flow Rate Measurement ........................................................................ 364 11.3.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) ..................................................................... 364 11.3.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter ..................................................................... 364 11.3.3 Venturi, Nozzle and Orifice Meters .................................................... 365 11.3.4 Elbow Meter ......................................................................................... 367 Flow Measurement Using Orifices, Notches and Weirs ................................... 367 11.4.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices ............................................ 367 11.4.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels ............................................. 368 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 371 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 379 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 380 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 381

11.4

12

Flow in Open Channels .......................................................................... 383
12.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 383 12.1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels ...................................................... 383 12.1.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow ................................................. 384 12.2 Uniform Flow: (Also Called Flow at Normal Depth) ......................................... 384 12.3 Chezy’s Equation for Discharge .......................................................................... 385 12.4 Determination of Chezy’s Constant .................................................................... 386 12.4.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant .............................................. 386 12.4.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C ......................................... 387 12.4.3 Manning’s Equation for C ................................................................... 388 12.5 Economical Cross-Section for Open Channels ................................................... 390 12.6 Flow with Varying Slopes and Areas .................................................................. 395 12.6.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow ....................... 395 12.6.2 Froude Number .................................................................................... 397 12.6.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy .................... 397 12.6.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve ............ 400 12.7 Effect of Area Change .......................................................................................... 404 12.7.1 Flow Over a Bump ............................................................................... 404 12.7.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate, from Stagnant Condition ...................... 406 12.7.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel............................................. 407 12.8 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth .................................................................. 409 12.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations ................................................... 410 12.9 The Hydraulic Jump (Rapidly Varied Flow) ...................................................... 411 12.10 Flow Over Broad Crested Weir ........................................................................... 414 12.11 Effect of Lateral Contraction ............................................................................... 415 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 416 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 430 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 430 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 432

(xvi)

13

Dynamics of Fluid Flow.......................................................................... 435
13.0 13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 435 Impulse Momentum Principle ............................................................................. 435 13.1.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits ................................................ 436 13.1.2 Force Exerted on a Stationary Vane or Blade ................................... 438 Absolute and Relative Velocity Relations .......................................................... 439 Force on a Moving Vane or Blade ....................................................................... 439 Torque on Rotating Wheel ................................................................................... 443 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 445 Exercise Questions ................................................................................................ 450

13.2 13.3 13.4

14

Hydraulic Turbines.................................................................................. 452
14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 452 Hydraulic Power Plant......................................................................................... 452 Classification of Turbines .................................................................................... 453 Similitude and Model Testing ............................................................................. 453 14.3.1 Model and Prototype ............................................................................ 457 14.3.2 Unit Quantities .................................................................................... 459 Turbine Efficiencies ............................................................................................. 460 Euler Turbine Equation ....................................................................................... 461 14.5.1 Components of Power Produced ......................................................... 462 Pelton Turbine ...................................................................................................... 464 14.6.1 Power Development ............................................................................. 466 14.6.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio ........ 470 Reaction Turbines ................................................................................................ 472 14.7.1 Francis Turbines .................................................................................. 473 Axial Flow Turbines ............................................................................................. 480 Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines ...................................................................... 482 Governing of Hydraulic Turbines ....................................................................... 484 Worked Examples ................................................................................................. 486 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 513 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 514 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 515

14.4 14.5 14.6

14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9

15

Rotodynamic Pumps .............................................................................. 519
15.0 15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 519 Centrifugal Pumps ............................................................................................... 519 15.1.1 Impeller ................................................................................................ 521 15.1.2 Classification ........................................................................................ 521 Pressure Developed by the Impeller ................................................................... 522 15.2.1 Manometric Head ................................................................................ 523

15.2

(xvii) 15.3 Energy Transfer by Impeller ............................................................................... 523 15.3.1 Slip and Slip Factor ............................................................................. 525 15.3.3 Losses in Centrifugal Pumps .............................................................. 525 15.3.4 Effect of Outlet Blade Angle ............................................................... 526 Pump Characteristics........................................................................................... 527 Operation of Pumps in Series and Parallel ........................................................ 529 Specific Speed and Significance .......................................................................... 531 Cavitation ............................................................................................................. 532 Axial Flow Pump .................................................................................................. 533 Power Transmitting Systems .............................................................................. 535 15.9.1 Fluid Coupling...................................................................................... 535 15.9.2 Torque Converter ................................................................................. 536 Solved Examples ................................................................................................... 538 Revierw Questions ................................................................................................ 556 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 556 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 557

15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9

16

Reciprocating Pumps ............................................................................. 560
16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 560 Comparison ........................................................................................................... 560 Description and Working ..................................................................................... 560 Flow Rate and Power .......................................................................................... 562 16.3.1 Slip ........................................................................................................ 563 Indicator Diagram ................................................................................................ 564 16.4.1 Acceleration Head ................................................................................ 565 16.4.2 Minimum Speed of Rotation of Crank................................................ 569 16.4.3 Friction Head ....................................................................................... 570 Air Vessels ............................................................................................................ 572 16.5.1 Flow into and out of Air Vessel ........................................................... 575 Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps ................................................................ 576 16.6.1 Gear Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.2 Lobe Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.3 Vane Pump ........................................................................................... 577 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 578 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 587 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 587 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 587 Appendix ............................................................................................................. 590 Index .................................................................................................................... 595

16.5 16.6

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1.0

Physical Properties of Fluids

INTRODUCTION

The flow of ideal non-viscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were developed during the last century. The field of study was called as ‘Hydrodynamics’. However the results of mathematical analysis could not be applied directly to the flow of real fluids. Experiments with water flow resulted in the formulation of empirical equations applicable to engineering designs. The field was called Hydraulics. Due to the development of industries there arose a need for the study of fluids other than water. Theories like boundary layer theory were developed which could be applied to all types of real fluids, under various conditions of flow. The combination of experiments, the mathematical analysis of hydrodynamics and the new theories is known as ‘Fluid Mechanics’. Fluid Mechanics encompasses the study of all types of fluids under static, kinematic and dynamic conditions. The study of properties of fluids is basic for the understanding of flow or static condition of fluids. The important properties are density, viscosity, surface tension, bulk modulus and vapour pressure. Viscosity causes resistance to flow. Surface tension leads to capillary effects. Bulk modulus is involved in the propagation of disturbances like sound waves in fluids. Vapour pressure can cause flow disturbances due to evaporation at locations of low pressure. It plays an important role in cavitation studies in fluid machinery. In this chapter various properties of fluids are discussed in detail, with stress on their effect on flow. Fairly elaborate treatment is attempted due to their importance in engineering applications. The basic laws used in the discussions are : (i) Newton’s laws of motion, (ii) Laws of conservation of mass and energy, (iii) Laws of Thermodynamics, and (iv) Newton’s law of viscosity. A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of shear force however small the force may be.

1

2 1.1 THREE PHASES OF MATTER

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Generally matter exists in three phases namely (i) Solid (ii) Liquid and (iii) Gas (includes vapour). The last two together are also called by the common term fluids. In solids atoms/molecules are closely spaced and the attractive (cohesive) forces between atoms/molecules is high. The shape is maintained by the cohesive forces binding the atoms. When an external force is applied on a solid component, slight rearrangement in atomic positions balances the force. Depending upon the nature of force the solid may elongate or shorten or bend. When the applied force is removed the atoms move back to the original position and the former shape is regained. Only when the forces exceed a certain value (yield), a small deformation called plastic deformation will be retained as the atoms are unable to move to their original positions. When the force exceeds a still higher value (ultimate), the cohesive forces are not adequate to resist the applied force and the component will break. In liquids the inter molecular distances are longer and the cohesive forces are of smaller in magnitude. The molecules are not bound rigidly as in solids and can move randomly. However, the cohesive forces are large enough to hold the molecules together below a free surface that forms in the container. Liquids will continue to deform when a shear or tangential force is applied. The deformation continues as long as the force exists. In fluids the rate of deformation controls the force (not deformation as in solids). More popularly it is stated that a fluid (liquid) cannot withstand applied shear force and will continue to deform. When at rest liquids will assume the shape of the container forming a free surface at the top. In gases the distance between molecules is much larger compared to atomic dimensions and the cohesive force between atoms/molecules is low. So gas molecules move freely and fill the full volume of the container. If the container is open the molecules will diffuse to the outside. Gases also cannot withstand shear. The rate of deformation is proportional to the applied force as in the case of liquids. Liquids and gases together are classified as fluids. Vapour is gaseous state near the evaporation temperature. The state in which a material exists depends on the pressure and temperature. For example, steel at atmospheric temperature exists in the solid state. At higher temperatures it can be liquefied. At still higher temperatures it will exist as a vapour. A fourth state of matter is its existence as charged particles or ions known as plasma. This is encountered in MHD power generation. This phase is not considered in the text.

1.2

COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

If the density of a fluid varies significantly due to moderate changes in pressure or temperature, then the fluid is called compressible fluid. Generally gases and vapours under normal conditions can be classified as compressible fluids. In these phases the distance between atoms or molecules is large and cohesive forces are small. So increase in pressure or temperature will change the density by a significant value. If the change in density of a fluid is small due to changes in temperature and or pressure, then the fluid is called incompressible fluid. All liquids are classified under this category.

Physical Properties of Fluids

3
Chapter 1

When the change in pressure and temperature is small, gases and vapours are treated as incompressible fluids. For certain applications like propagation of pressure disturbances, liquids should be considered as compressible. In this chapter some of the properties relevant to fluid mechanics are discussed with a view to bring out their influence on the design and operation of fluid machinery and equipments.

1.3

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

It is necessary to distinguish clearly between the terms “Units” and “Dimensions”. The word “dimension” is used to describe basic concepts like mass, length, time, temperature and force. “Large mass, long distance, high temperature” does not mean much in terms of visualising the quantity. Dimension merely describes the concept and does not provide any method for the quantitative expression of the same. Units are the means of expressing the value of the dimension quantitatively or numerically The term “second” for example is used to quantify time. “Ten seconds elapsed between starting and ending of an act” is the way of expressing the elapsed time in numerical form. The value of dimension should be expressed in terms of units before any quantitative assessment can be made. There are three widely used systems of units in the world. These are (1) British or English system (it is not in official use now in Briton) (2) Metric system and (3) SI system (System International d’Unites or International System of Units). India has passed through the first two systems in that order and has now adopted the SI system of units. The basic units required in Fluid Mechanics are for mass, length, time and temperature. These are kilogram (kg), metre (m), second (s) and kelvin (K). The unit of force is defined using Newton’s second law of motion which states that applied force is proportional to the time rate of change of momentum of the body on which the force acts. For a given mass m, subjected to the action of a force F, resulting in an acceleration a, Newton’s law can be written in the form F = (1/go) m a (1.3.1) where go is a dimensional constant whose numerical value and units depend on those selected for force, F, mass, m, and acceleration, a. The unit of force is newton (N) in the SI system. One newton is defined as the force which acting on a mass of one kilogram will produce an acceleration of 1 m/s2. This leads to the relation 1 N = (1/go) × 1 kg × 1 m/s2 Hence go = 1 kg m/N s2 (1.3.2) (1.3.3)

The numerical value of go is unity (1) in the SI system and this is found advantageous in numerical calculations. However this constant should necessarily be used to obtain dimensional homogeneity in equations. In metric system the unit of force is kgf defined as the force acted on one kg mass by standard gravitational acceleration taken as 9.81 m/s2. The value of go is 9.81 kg m/kgf s2. In the English system the unit of force is lbf defined as the force on one lb mass due to standard gravitational acceleration of 32.2 ft/s2. The value of go is 32.2 ft lb/lbf s2.

4

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
Some of the units used in this text are listed in the table below:
Quantity mass time length temperature force energy, work, heat power pressure Unit symbol kg s m K, (273 + °C) N (newton) Nm, J W = (Nm/s, J/s) N/m2, (pascal, pa) Derived units ton (tonne) = 1000 kg min (60s), hr (3600s) mm, cm, km °C kN, MN (106 N) kJ, MJ, kNm kW, MW kPa, MPa, bar (105Pa)

Conversion constants between the metric and SI system of units are tabulated elsewhere in the text.

1.4

CONTINUUM

As gas molecules are far apart from each other and as there is empty space between molecules doubt arises as to whether a gas volume can be considered as a continuous matter like a solid for situations similar to application of forces. Under normal pressure and temperature levels, gases are considered as a continuum (i.e., as if no empty spaces exist between atoms). The test for continuum is to measure properties like density by sampling at different locations and also reducing the sampling volume to low levels. If the property is constant irrespective of the location and size of sample volume, then the gas body can be considered as a continuum for purposes of mechanics (application of force, consideration of acceleration, velocity etc.) and for the gas volume to be considered as a single body or entity. This is a very important test for the application of all laws of mechanics to a gas volume as a whole. When the pressure is extremely low, and when there are only few molecules in a cubic metre of volume, then the laws of mechanics should be applied to the molecules as entities and not to the gas body as a whole. In this text, only systems satisfying continuum requirements are discussed.

1.5

DEFINITION OF SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY

Density (mass density): The mass per unit volume is defined as density. The unit used is kg/m3. The measurement is simple in the case of solids and liquids. In the case of gases and vapours it is rather involved. The symbol used is ρ. The characteristic equation for gases provides a means to estimate the density from the measurement of pressure, temperature and volume. Specific Volume: The volume occupied by unit mass is called the specific volume of the material. The symbol used is v, the unit being m3/kg. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

Physical Properties of Fluids

5
Chapter 1

In the case of solids and liquids, the change in density or specific volume with changes in pressure and temperature is rather small, whereas in the case of gases and vapours, density will change significantly due to changes in pressure and/or temperature. Weight Density or Specific Weight: The force due to gravity on the mass in unit volume is defined as Weight Density or Specific Weight. The unit used is N/m3. The symbol used is γ. At a location where g is the local acceleration due to gravity, Specific weight, γ = g ρ (1.5.1) In the above equation direct substitution of dimensions will show apparent nonhomogeneity as the dimensions on the LHS and RHS will not be the same. On the LHS the dimension will be N/m3 but on the RHS it is kg/m2 s2. The use of go will clear this anomaly. As seen in section 1.1, go = 1 kg m/N s2. The RHS of the equation 1.3.1 when divided by go will lead to perfect dimensional homogeneity. The equation should preferably be written as, Specific weight, γ = (g/go) ρ (1.5.2)

Since newton (N) is defined as the force required to accelerate 1 kg of mass by 1/s2, it can also be expressed as kg.m/s2. Density can also be expressed as Ns2/m4 (as kg = Ns2/m). Beam balances compare the mass while spring balances compare the weights. The mass is the same (invariant) irrespective of location but the weight will vary according to the local gravitational constant. Density will be invariant while specific weight will vary with variations in gravitational acceleration. Specific Gravity or Relative Density: The ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water—usually 1000 kg/m3 at a standard condition—is defined as Specific Gravity or Relative Density δ of fluids. This is a ratio and hence no dimension or unit is involved.
Example 1.1. The weight of an object measured on ground level where ge = 9.81 m/s2 is 35,000 N. Calculate its weight at the following locations (i) Moon, gm = 1.62 m/s2 (ii) Sun, gs = 274.68 m/s2 (iii) Mercury, gme = 3.53 m/s2 (iv) Jupiter, gj = 26.0 m/s2 (v) Saturn, gsa = 11.2 m/s2 and (vi) Venus, gv = 8.54 m/s2. Mass of the object, me = weight × (go/g) = 35,000 × (1/9.81) = 3567.8 kg Weight of the object on a planet, p = me × (gp/go) where me is the mass on earth, gp is gravity on the planet and go has the usual meaning, force conversion constant. Hence the weight of the given object on, (i) Moon (ii) Sun (iii) Mercury (iv) Jupiter (v) Saturn (vi) Venus = = = = = = 3567.8 × 1.62 3567.8 × 274.68 3567.8 × 3.53 3567.8 × 26.0 3567.8 × 11.2 3567.8 × 8.54 = 5,780 N = 9,80,000 N = 12,594 N = 92,762 N = 39,959 N = 30,469 N

Note that the mass is constant whereas the weight varies directly with the gravitational constant. Also note that the ratio of weights will be the same as the ratio of gravity values.

1.6

VAPOUR AND GAS

When a liquid is heated under a constant pressure, first its temperature rises to the boiling point (defined as saturation temperature). Then the liquid begins to change its phase to the

6

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

gaseous condition, with molecules escaping from the surface due to higher thermal energy level. When the gas phase is in contact with the liquid or its temperature is near the saturation condition it is termed as vapour. Vapour is in gaseous condition but it does not follow the gas laws. Its specific heats will vary significantly. Moderate changes in temperature may change its phase to the liquid state. When the temperature is well above the saturation temperature, vapour begins to behave as a gas. It will also obey the characteristic equation for gases. Then the specific heat will be nearly constant.

1.7

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION FOR GASES

The characteristic equation for gases can be derived from Boyle’s law and Charles’ law. Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature the volume of a gas body will vary inversely with pressure. Charles’ law states that at constant pressure, the temperature will vary inversely with volume. Combining these two, the characteristic equation for a system containing m kg of a gas can be obtained as PV = mRT (1.7.1) This equation when applied to a given system leads to the relation 1.7.2 applicable for all equilibrium conditions irrespective of the process between the states. (P1V1/T1) = (P2V2/T2) = (P3 V3/T3) = (PV/T) = Constant N/m2, (1.7.2) In the SI system, the units to be used in the equation are Pressure, P → volume, V → m3, mass, m → kg, temperature, T → K and gas constant, R → Nm/kgK or J/kgK (Note: K = (273 + °C), J = Nm). This equation defines the equilibrium state for any gas body. For a specified gas body with mass m, if two properties like P, V are specified then the third property T is automatically specified by this equation. The equation can also be written as, Pv = RT where v = V/m or specific volume. The value for R for air is 287 J/kgK. Application of Avagadro’s hypothesis leads to the definition of a new volume measure called molal volume. This is the volume occupied by the molecular mass of any gas at standard temperature and pressure. This volume as per the above hypothesis will be the same for all gases at any given temperature and pressure. Denoting this volume as Vm and the pressure as P and the temperature as T, For a gas a, For a gas b, PVm = Ma Ra T PVm = Mb Rb T MaRa = MbRb = M × R = Constant (1.7.4) (1.7.5) (1.7.6) (1.7.3)

As P, T and Vm are the same in both cases. The product M × R is called Universal gas constant and is denoted by the symbol R. Its numerical value in SI system is 8314 J/kg mole K. For any gas the value of gas constant R is obtained by dividing universal gas constant by the molecular mass in kg of that gas. The gas constant R for any gas (in the SI system, J/kg K) can be calculated using, R = 8314/M (1.7.7)

Physical Properties of Fluids

7
Chapter 1

The characteristic equation for gases can be applied for all gases with slight approximations, and for practical calculations this equation is used in all cases.
Example 1.2. A balloon is filled with 6 kg of hydrogen at 2 bar and 20°C. What will be the diameter of the balloon when it reaches an altitude where the pressure and temperature are 0.2 bar and –60° C. Assume that the pressure and temperature inside are the same as that at the outside at this altitude. The characteristic equation for gases PV = mRT is used to calculate the initial volume, V1 = [(m RT1)/P1], For hydrogen, molecular mass = 2, and so RH = 8314/2 = 4157 J/kgK, ∴ V1 = 6 × 4157 × (273 + 20)/2 × 105 = 36.54 m3 Using the general gas equation the volume after the balloon has reached the altitude, V2 is calculated. [(P1V1)/T1] = [(P2V2)/T2] [(2 × 105 × 36.54)/(273+20)] = [(0.2) × 105 × V2)/(273 – 60)] solving, V2 = 265.63 m3, Considering the shape of the balloon as a sphere of radius r, Volume = (4/3) π r3 = 265.63 m3, solving Radius, r = 3.99 m and diameter of the balloon = 7.98 m (The pressure inside the balloon should be slightly higher to overcome the stress in the wall material)

1.8

VISCOSITY

A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of a shear force. However, different fluids deform at different rates when the same shear stress (force/ area) is applied. Viscosity is that property of a real fluid by virtue of which it offers resistance to shear force. Referring to Fig. 1.8.1, it may be noted that a force is required to move one layer of fluid over another. For a given fluid the force required varies directly as the rate of deformation. As the rate of deformation increases the force required also increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (i). The force required to cause the same rate of movement depends on the nature of the fluid. The resistance offered for the same rate of deformation varies directly as the viscosity of the fluid. As viscosity increases the force required to cause the same rate of deformation increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (ii). Newton’s law of viscosity states that the shear force to be applied for a deformation rate of (du/dy) over an area A is given by, F = µ A (du/dy) or (F/A) = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y) m2, (1.8.1) (1.8.2)

where F is the applied force in N, A is area in du/dy is the velocity gradient (or rate of deformation), 1/s, perpendicular to flow direction, here assumed linear, and µ is the proportionality constant defined as the dynamic or absolute viscosity of the fluid.

8
uA FA ub FB ua

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
ub FA FB

tA

tB

tA

tB

ub > ua , Fb > Fa µa = µb (i) same fluid

ua = ub , µa < µb , Fb > Fa (ii) same velocity
Figure 1.8.1 Concept of viscosity

The dimensions for dynamic viscosity µ can be obtained from the definition as Ns/m2 or kg/ms. The first dimension set is more advantageously used in engineering problems. However, if the dimension of N is substituted, then the second dimension set, more popularly used by scientists can be obtained. The numerical value in both cases will be the same. N = kg m/s2 ; µ = (kg m/s2) (s/m2) = kg/ms The popular unit for viscosity is Poise named in honour of Poiseuille. Poise = 0.1 Ns/m2 Centipoise (cP) is also used more frequently as, cP = 0.001 Ns/m2 (1.8.3a) For water the viscosity at 20°C is nearly 1 cP. The ratio of dynamic viscosity to the density is defined as kinematic viscosity, ν, having a dimension of m2/s. Later it will be seen to relate to momentum transfer. Because of this kinematic viscosity is also called momentum diffusivity. The popular unit used is stokes (in honour of the scientist Stokes). Centistoke is also often used. 1 stoke = 1 cm2/s = 10–4 m2/s (1.8.3b) Of all the fluid properties, viscosity plays a very important role in fluid flow problems. The velocity distribution in flow, the flow resistance etc. are directly controlled by viscosity. In the study of fluid statics (i.e., when fluid is at rest), viscosity and shear force are not generally involved. In this chapter problems are worked assuming linear variation of velocity in the fluid filling the clearance space between surfaces with relative movement.
Example 1.3. The space between two large inclined parallel planes is 6mm and is filled with a fluid. The planes are inclined at 30° to the horizontal. A small thin square plate of 100 mm side slides freely down parallel and midway between the inclined planes with a constant velocity of 3 m/ s due to its weight of 2N. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. The vertical force of 2 N due to the weight of the plate can be resolved along and perpendicular to the inclined plane. The force along the inclined plane is equal to the drag force on both sides of the plane due to the viscosity of the oil. Force due to the weight of the sliding plane along the direction of motion = 2 sin 30 = 1N

(1.8.3)

63 2.5. µ = 0. A thin sheet of 1 mm thickness and 150 mm × 150 mm size.1 × 2)] × [(3 – 0)/6/(2 × 1000)}] Solving for viscosity.00 Example 1.5 Poise Oil Sliding plate 100 mm sq.10 Shear stress. 1 = µ × [(0. F = τ (A × 2) = µ × (du/dy) (A × 2) = weight of the plate. 0.1 m (wall surface.00 0.00 0. Substituting the values. u = 10 [1 – (r/0.018 × 2000 r = 36 rN/m2 Shear force over 2 m length = shear stress × area over 2m = 36r × 2πrL = 72 πr2 × 2 = 144 πr2 The calculated values are tabulated below: Radius.1)2] m/s ∴ du/dr = 10 (– 2r/0. determine the shear stress and shear force over cylindrical layers of fluid at r = 0 (centre line). when dropped vertically between the two plates attains a steady velocity of 4 m/s. u. 0.72 1. 0.02. Substituting the values. For 2 m length of the cylinder.88 3.60 8.08 and 0.60 Shear force.06 0. 6 mm gap 9 Chapter 1 2 sin 30 N 30° 2N 2N 30° 30° Figure Ex.018 Ns/m2. N 0. N/m2 0.04 0. Determine weight of the plate. The velocity of the fluid filling a hollow cylinder of radius 0. dy = [(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)] m and du = 4 m/s F = 2 × 10–2 [4/{(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)}] [0.1)2] m/s along the radius r. The 8 mm gap between two large vertical parallel plane surfaces is filled with a liquid of dynamic viscosity 2 × 10–2 Ns/m2. Assume that the plate moves centrally.) Shear stress = µ (du/dy) or µ (du/dr).15 × 2] = 1.44 2.Physical Properties of Fluids Viscous force. m/s 0.60 0.00 9. 1.18 0.40 6.1 × 0. The viscosity of the fluid is 0.40 3.00 0.12 ) = – 2000 r The – ve sign indicates that the force acts in a direction opposite to the direction of velocity. Shear stress = 0.1 m varies as u = 10 [1 – (r/0.72 1.90 4.05 Ns/m2 or 0.3 Example 1.08 0.52 Velocity.04.02 N (weight of the plate) .16 2.02 0.06 0. m 0. F = (A × 2) × µ × (du/dy) (both sides of plate).15 × 0.4.

1 m/s. Paint. The characteristics is shown plotted in Fig.4 × 10–4 × 900 × {(0.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids An ideal fluid has zero viscosity.1) = 2714 N 1.4 m dy = (402 – 400)/(2 × 1000)m. ideal plastic and shear thinning. The viscosity at any given temperature and pressure is constant for a Newtonian fluid and is independent of the rate of deformation.8. In Newtonian fluids a linear relationship exists between the magnitude of the applied shear stress and the resulting rate of deformation. Bernoulli equation can be used to analyse the flow. In shear thickening materials. An ideal fluid has to be also incompressible. F = 2. Substituting. shear thickening and real plastic fluids. 1. Determine the resistance offered to the downward sliding of a shaft of 400 mm dia and 0. D= 0. printers ink .8. Ideal plastic t 4 5 Real plastic Shear thinning 3 2 1 3 2 du/dy Newtonian 1 5 4 Shear thickening du/dy t Figure 1. After this limit it has a constant viscosity at any given temperature. Force. Shear stress is zero irrespective of the value of du/dy. Two different plots are shown as different authors use different representations.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density is 900 kg/m3. µ is constant in the case of Newtonian fluids (other conditions and parameters remaining the same).2. F opposing the movement of the shaft = shear stress × area F = µ (du/dy) ( π × D × L ) µ = 2.10 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 1. It means that the proportionality parameter (in equation 1. up to a certain value of applied shear stress there is no flow.4 × 0. viscosity.8. Real fluids having viscosity are divided into two groups namely Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids.8. L = 0.1 – 0)/[(402 – 400)/ (2 × 1000)]} ( π × 0.1 m length by the oil film between the shaft and a bearing of ID 402 mm. The shaft is to move centrally and axially at a constant velocity of 0.1 m/s.2 Rheological behaviour of fluids Non Newtonian fluids can be further classified as simple non Newtonian. In non Newtonian fluids the viscosity will vary with variation in the rate of deformation. The kinematic viscosity is 2. tooth paste. Linear relationship between shear stress and rate of deformation (du/dy) does not exist.6.2. the viscosity will increase with (du/dy) deformation rate. In shear thinning materials viscosity will decrease with du/dy. τ = µ (du/dy)).1 m.4 × 10–4 × 900 Ns/m2. Shear force is not involved in its deformation. du = 0. In plastics.

ν = µ/ρ . viscosity of liquids decrease when temperature increases. (1.8. In the case of gases.8. namely.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity When temperature increases the distance between molecules increases and the cohesive force decreases. In gas flow it is better to use absolute viscosity and density. A shear force is to be exerted to cause fluids to flow. The main topic of study in this text will involve only Newtonian fluids.4) . 1. With increase in temperature kinematic viscosity decreases in the case of liquids and increases in the case of gases. in the case of gases. When cohesive forces exist between atoms or molecules these forces have to be overcome. rather than tabulated values of kinematic viscosity. It may be explained by modifying equation 1.8.8. In the case of gases viscous forces are more due to momentum transfer as distance between molecules is larger and velocities are higher. The unit in SI system is m2/s. 1.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity Kinematic viscosity.8.8. Kinematic viscosity represents momentum diffusivity. For liquids and gases absolute (dynamic) viscosity is not influenced significantly by pressure. Viscous forces can be considered as the sum of these two. Thus the molecules diffusing across layers transport a net momentum introducing a shear stress between the layers. (µ/ρ) = ν kinematic viscosity gives the rate of momentum flux or momentum diffusivity.m/s2) (s/m2)] [m3/kg] = m2/s Popularly used unit is stoke (cm2/s) = 10–4 m2/s named in honour of Stokes. These are also shown in Fig. So. The force will be zero if both layers move at the same speed or if the fluid is at rest. the force due to momentum transfer and the force for overcoming cohesion.Physical Properties of Fluids 11 Chapter 1 are some examples for different behaviours.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer In the flow of liquids and gases molecules are free to move from one layer to another.2 τ = µ (du/dy) = (µ/ρ) × {d (ρu/dy)} = ν × {d (ρu/dy)} µρ ρ ρ d (ρu/dy) represents momentum flux in the y direction. Many other behaviours have been observed which are more specialised in nature. more molecules cross over with higher momentum differences. 1. When the velocity in the layers are different as in viscous flow. (Ns/m2) (m3/ kg) = [(kg. for relative motion between layers. So. Centi stoke is also popular = 10–6 m2/s. 1. Hence. the molecules moving from the layer at lower speed to the layer at higher speed have to be accelerated. viscosity increases with temperature. In the case of liquids. As temperature increases. Similarly the molecules moving from the layer at higher velocity to a layer at a lower velocity carry with them a higher value of momentum and these are to be slowed down.2. the contribution to viscosity is more due to momentum transfer. which is usually for 1 atm. the viscous forces are due more to the breaking of cohesive forces than due to momentum transfer (as molecular velocities are low). But kinematic viscosity of gases is influenced by pressure due to change in density.

7 Viscosity test setup Where h is the clearance between the sleeve and cylinder and also base and bottom.1 Using Flow Through Orifices Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In viscosity determination using Saybolt or Redwood viscometers.2 = [(µ × π2 900 × 0.7.8. the cylinder supported by a torsion spring is 20 cm in dia and 20 cm long. In case the clearances are different then h1 and h2 should be used. 1. In a test set up as in figure to measure viscosity. µ = 0. rpm and the torque. 1.00225 Ns/m2 or 2. Total torque is the sum of values given by the above equations.8. of a fixed quantity of the liquid kept in a cup of specified dimensions is measured in seconds and the viscosity is expressed as Saybolt seconds or Redwood seconds. These are the popular instruments for industrial use. This situation is similar to that in a Foot Step bearing. the time for the flow through a standard orifice. Tb = µπ2 NR4/60 h 900 rpm Figure Ex. determine the viscosity of the oil. Knowing the length.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids 1. The outer cylinder is rotated keeping the inner cylinder stationary and the reaction torque on the inner cylinder is measured using a torsion spring. the value of viscosity can be calculated. and length L is measured or the pressure causing flow is maintained constant and the flow rate is measured.7. In this case both are assumed to be equal. Example 1.8.1a).15 200 The total torque is given by the sum of the torque due to the shear forces on the cylindrical surface and that on the bottom surface. Torque on bottom surface (eqn 1. However for design purposes viscosity should be expressed in the standard units of Ns/m2.2 + (0. Ts = µπ2 NLR3/15 h.12 1.25 cP.2 Nm. diameter. The procedure is simple and a quick assessment is possible.5. Torque due to shear on the cylindrical surface (eqn 1. A sleeve surrounding the cylinder rotates at 900 rpm and the torque measured is 0. 200 .0015)] × [0. Total torque = (µ π2NR3/ 15.1/4)] Solving for viscosity.3 Capillary Tube Method The time for the flow of a given quantity under a constant head (pressure) through a tube of known diameter d.15 mm.5.3).h) {L + (R/4)}.2 Rotating Cylinder Method The fluid is filled in the interspace between two cylinders.9. film thickness.5. If the film thickness between the cylinder and sleeve is 0. 0. 1. 0.9.8. Refer Example 1. substituting. The time is converted to poise by empirical equations.13)/(15 × 0.

Tangential force = τ × A.80 attains a terminal velocity of 2mm/s. The pressure difference across a length of 15 m of the pipe is 6 kPa. Determine the viscosity of oil flowing through the pipe. h should be in meter and N in rpm.8. 1.2) (1. Viscosity µ should be in Ns/m2 (or Pas). Oil flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a pipe of 50 mm diameter.052)/(32 × 1. As power.9. (1. The head causing flow is known. ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of the ball and the liquid.53 m/s µ = ∆ P × d2/32uL = (6000 × 0.1 Ns/m2) (1. 1 poise = 0.2. Hence µ can be calculated.9. Q = ( π d2/4) V. gravity force will equal the viscous drag. Using Hagen-Poiesuille equation-1.6 µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9u = 2 × (0. The velocity is measured by timing a constant distance of fall.85 Ns/m2.1a) . A steel ball of 2 mm dia and density 8000 kg/m3 dropped into a column of oil of specific gravity 0. substituting If radius is used.9 APPLICATION OF VISCOSITY CONCEPT 1. ∆P = (32 µuL)/d2 u = Q/(πd2/4) = 3 × 10–3/(π × 0. clearance in m τ = µ (πDN/60h). τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y). Determine the viscosity of the oil.9.5. as linearity is assumed u = π DN/60.002/2)2 × 9. The torque will be obtained in Nm and the power calculated will be in W. The viscosity can be calculated using the flow rate and the diameter. A = πDL Torque. y = h.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts Refer Figure 1.6) where r is the radius of the ball. V is the terminal velocity (constant velocity).4 Falling Sphere Method A small polished steel ball is allowed to fall freely through the liquid column.002) = 7.9. 1.8.53 × 15) = 0. 1.9. Example 1. R.1 Shear stress.8. This equation is known as Stokes equation.9.5 .8.5) Chapter 1 This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation. Volume flow per second. D. At this condition. T = tangential force × D/2 =µ (πDN/60h) (πDL) (D/2) T = µ π2NLD3/ 120 h T= µπ2NLR3/15 h P = 2πNT/60. Q is experimentally measured using the apparatus.8. Using Stokes equation. µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9V ρ (µ will be in poise.Physical Properties of Fluids ∆P = (32 µ VL)/d2 13 (1.1) (1.9. P = µπ3N2LR3/450 h For equations 1. proper units are listed below: L.8.052/4) = 1.0204 Ns m2 Example 1.81 × (8000 – 800)/(9 × 0. The ball will reach a uniform velocity after some distance.9.1 and 1.

The force on the strip is given by. P = µ π3 N2LR3/450 h = 669. substituting the above values torque dT on the strip is.3 × 400/60 = 6.9.r/60. End effects are neglected. (Pas = (N/m2) × s).9.2.2.28 m/s τ = 0. F = Aµ (du/dy) = A µ (u/y) (as y is small linear velocity variation can be assumed) u = 2 πrN/60.74 W) 1. A = 2πr dr Torque = Force × radius.001} = 188. Axial location is assumed.h = [µπ2N/15.9.h]r3dr . 2πrN. dT = 2πr dr µ(2πrN/60h)r dT = 2πr.2.4 × (2 × π × 0. Consider an annular strip of radius r and width dr shown in Figure 1.9. Example 1.14 Bearing sleeve h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Oil of viscosity m N rpm D h L Figure 1.3 × 0. Linear velocity variation is assumed.µ.03 Pas.1 Rotating Shaft in Bearing Note: Clearance h is also the oil film thickness in bearings.9.28 – 0)/ 0.03 {(6. Two bearings of 300 mm width are used to support the shaft.4 N/m2 Surface area of the two bearings. A = 2 π DL Force on shaft surface = τ × A = 188. Determine the power required to run a 300 mm dia shaft at 400 rpm in journals with uniform oil thickness of 1 mm.dr. The dynamic viscosity of oil is 0. (check using eqn.10. y = h.15 = 15. Shear stress on the shaft surface = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ(u/y) u = π DN/60 = π × 0.995/60 = 670 W.6 N Torque Power required = 106.6 × 0.3) = 106. 1.995 Nm = 2 π NT/60 = 2 × π × 400 × 15.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate Refer Figure 1.

1. if 50 W was required to overcome viscous friction while running at 700 rpm. R4 = (1/16)D4 (1. Solving torque.11 This is a situation where an annular surface rotates over a flat surface. T = µπ2N (RO4 – Ri4)/60.9.9.682 = (30 × 0. Torque.14)/60 × h ∴ h = 0.0001) × π2 × 700 × (0.6) Example 1. P= µπ3N2(Ro4 – Ri4)/1800 h (1. P = 2πNT/60 P = µπ3N2R4/1800 h use R in metre. Power = 2πNT/60 W.9.h µ = 30 cP = 30 × . Viscosity m Plate 15 Chapter 1 h r Q dr Figure 1.2 m ID and 0.9.9.206 mm .682 Nm Figure Ex.Physical Properties of Fluids N rpm Oil.154 – 0.e.9. substituting the given values. substituting the values. 50 = 2π × 700 × T/60. T = µπ2NR4/60 h If diameter is used. 0 to R.000206m = 0.9.3) For an annular area like a collar the integration limits are Ro and Ri and the torque is given by T = µπ 2N(Ro4 – Ri4)/60 h Power.3 m OD transmitting power.11.4) T = µπ2ND4/960 h The power required.2 Rotating disk Integrating the expression from centre to edge i.. Hence.0001 Ns/m2. Determine the oil film thickness between the plates of a collar bearing of 0. N in rpm and µ in Ns/m2 or Pa s.3a) (1. using equation 1. The oil used has a viscosity of 30 cP. 0. (1.5.5) (1. Oil film Collar T = 0.

3 m and 0. h and R in metre the torque will be in N.sin θ = (πµN/15 h sin θ)r3 dr Integrating between r = 0 and r = R T = π2 µNR4/60. The height of the cone is 0.3 = 0.h. Determine the power required to overcome viscous friction for a shaft running at 700 rpm fitted with a conical bearing. this reduces to the expression for the disk—equation 1.3.3 Rotating cone or conical bearing The velocity along the surface is (2πrN/60).h sin θ (1.sin θ.9) π Exmaple 1.9. The 1.3. dT = π2µNr2dr.9.12 Ri4)/ 60.9. When semicone angle Using µ in Ns/m θ = 90°.8 is applicable in this case. substituting the values .sin θ).16 1.3 m 34° ∴ θ = 34° Figure Ex.9.m. The inner and outer radius of the conical bearing are 0.3)/0.9.667.3 m 0.r Torque on element. Equation 1.dr/sin θ. The surface width of the element in contact with oil is dx = dr/sin θ The surface area should be calculated with respect to centre O as shown in figure—the point where the normal to the surface meets the axis—or the centre of rotation.cos θ)} µ(2πrN.r/15. Torque = F.cos θ.5 m 0.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering a small element between radius r and r + dr.9. the length OA being r/cos θ.h.h.5 – 0./sin θ. as shown in figure 1.5 mm uniform clearance between the bearing and support is filled with oil of viscosity 0. T = µπ2 N(R24 – R14)/60.9.7) 2. R2 O dr A h r q r/cos q dx dr q A Figure 1. F = Aµ (du/dy) = {(2πr. N rpm R. P = 2πNT/60 = µ3N2[R24 – R14]/1800 h sin θ (1. 1.02 Ns/m2. For contact only between R1 and R2.3 m.8) Power required.5 m.9. sin θ (1. T= π2µ N (Ro – 4 dx q R1 0. h.cos θ/60) (1/h) F = (π2µNr2dr)/(15.12. tan θ = (0.cos θ and the film thickness is h. Hence contact surface area = 2πr.

1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface In liquids cohesive forces between molecules lead to surface tension.54 – 0.Physical Properties of Fluids T = π2 × 0. The molecules below the surface are generally free to move within the liquid and they move at random. Liquid molecules exhibit cohesive forces binding them with each other.36/60 = 10948 W Check using equation 1.54 – 0. This is due to the surface tension of water.36 Nm Power required = 2πNT/60 = 2π × 700 × 149.9.03 × 700 × (0. when liquid flows out of an orifice or opening like a tap. Wall Liquid surface Liquid surface Wall Adhesive forces lower b b Adhesive forces higher Liquid droplet Spreads Point contact Real fluids Wetting Non wetting Figure 1. Another definition for surface tension is the force required to keep unit length of the surface film in equilibrium (N/m). The work is actually required for pulling up the molecules with lower energy from below. So they stop and return back into the liquid. Force is found necessary to stretch the surface. to form the surface. Note the high value of viscosity 1. When they reach the surface they reach a dead end in the sense that no molecules are present in great numbers above the surface to attract or pull them out of the surface. This cohesive bond exhibits a tensile strength for the surface layer and this is known as surface tension. The pressure inside the droplets or jet is higher due to the surface tension. The formation of droplets is a direct effect of this phenomenon.10.34)/60 × 0. 17 Chapter 1 P = µ × π3 × 7002 × [0.9 also. 1.0015 × sin 34 = 149.10.0015 × sin 34] = 10948 W. A thin layer of few atomic thickness at the surface formed by the cohesive bond between atoms slows down and sends back the molecules reaching the surface. So also the formation of a free jet.34]/ [1800 × 0. The formation of bubbles. All liquids exhibit a free surface known as meniscus when in contact with vapour or gas. Surface tension may also be defined as the work in Nm/m2 or N/m required to create unit surface of the liquid.1 Surface tension effect at solid-liquid interface . droplets and free jets are due to the surface tension of the liquid.10 SURFACE TENSION Many of us would have seen the demonstration of a needle being supported on water surface without it being wetted.

1) At the surface this contact angle will be maintained due to molecular equilibrium. The angle of contact “β” defines the concavity or convexity of the liquid surface. the specific weight of liquid being γ.2 Capillary Rise or Depression Refer Figure 1.2 Surface tension. Determine the surface tension acting on the surface of a vertical thin plate of 1m length when it is lifted vertically from a liquid using a force of 0. Two contact lines form at the surface and hence. water etc. σ = 0. Such liquids are called nonwetting. exhibit such behaviour. Solving. h.10. 1. 1.10. At the interface this leads to the liquid surface being moved up or down forming a curved surface.10.2.10. Force = 2 × 1 × Surface tension 0.18 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Liquids also exhibit adhesive forces when they come in contact with other solid or liquid surfaces. The vertical component of this force = π × D × σ × cos β This is balanced by the fluid column of height.15 N/m. (i) capillary rise (ii) depression . When the adhesive forces are lower.10.1.2) s b s b h b < 90° Liquid level h D s D s b > 90° (i) (ii) Figure 1. The curved surface creates a pressure differential across the free surface and causes the liquid level to be raised or lowered until static equilibrium is reached. These are said to be surface wetting. Surface tension. When the adhesive forces are higher the contact surface is lifted up forming a concave surface.13. The surface tension forces acting around the circumference of the tube = π × D × σ. These are shown in Fig.3 = 2 × 1 × Surface tension.10. Equating.3N. It can be shown that if the surface tension at the solid liquid interface (due to adhesive forces) is σs1 and if the surface tension in the liquid (due to cohesive forces) is σ11 then cos β = [(2σs1/σ11) – 1] σ σ (1. A = πD2/4 and so h = (4π × D × σ × cos β)/(γπ 2) = (4σ × cos β)/ρgD γπD γπ σ ρ (1. Let D be the diameter of the tube and β is the contact angle. Example 1. the contact surface is lowered at the interface and a convex surface results as in the case of mercury. The result of this phenomenon is capillary action at the solid liquid interface. h × γ × A = π × D × σ cos β. Oils.

10.5 × cos130)/(13600 × 9. For equilibrium the components of the surface tension forces along the normal should be equal to the pressure difference.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/γD = (4 × 0.09 mm 1. The ID of the tube is 2 mm.15.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface Consider the small doubly curved element with radius r1 and included angle dφ in one direction and radius r2 and dθ in the perpendicular direction referred to the normal at its center.81 × 0. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.10.48 N/m. 2σr1dφ sin(dθ/2) + 2σr2 dθ sin (dφ/2) = (pi – po)r1r2 dθdφ df r1 dfs dq r1 df r2 dqs r2 d q R1 r2 dqs r1 dfs R2 PodA = Por1 df r2 dq Saddle surface Figure 1. 1. Components are σr1 sin (dθ/2) from θ direction sides and σr2 sin (dφ/2) from the φ direction sides.09 mm (depression) Corrected height of mercury column = 757 + 5. Determine the actual height representing the atmospheric pressure if surface tension is 0.Physical Properties of Fluids 19 Chapter 1 This equation provides the means for calculating the capillary rise or depression. Using eqn.82 mm Example1.3 Pressure difference.14. The sign of cos β depending on β > 90 or otherwise determines the capillary rise or depression.10. Actual height of mercury column = Mercury column height + Capillary depression Specific weight of mercury Capillary depression.81) = – 5. γ = 13600 × 9. Example 1.48 × cos135)/(0.002) = – 4.5 N/m and β = 130°.09 = 762. The contact angle is 135°. doubly curved surface .82 × 10–3 m = – 4.002 × 13600 × 9. = ρg = 13600 × 9. In a closed end single tube manometer.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/ρg/D = (4 × 0. the height of mercury column above the mercury well shows 757 mm against the atmospheric pressure. Specific weight of mercury.09 × 10–3m = – 5.2. Assume σ = 0. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 2 mm ID glass tube. The sides are r1 dφ and r2 dθ long.

10. This situation can be seen in the jet formed in tap flow where internal pressure cannot be maintained. The pressure inside a free jet will be higher compared to the outside. pressure force = DL(pi – po). The pressure inside air bubbles will be higher compared to the outside pressure.3) (1.6) . and so (pi – po) = σ/R (1.10.4a) These equations give the pressure difference between inside and outside of droplets and free jets of liquids due to surface tension.10. (pi – po) = 2σ/R Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For small values of angles. For cylindrical shapes one radius is infinite. Rearranging. 1. taking two halves of the cylinder.10. sin θ = θ. (pi – po)(πD2/4) = σ × π × D σ σ (pi – po) = 4(σ/D) = 2(σ/R) (1.10.10.20 σ [r1 + r2] = (pi – po) × r1r2.4.10. Cancelling the common terms (1. s 2 RLD P = s 2 Ls s D PÕ R = 2 Õ Rs 2 s R s s L R Figure 1.4 Surface tension effects on bubbles and free jets Considering the sphere as two halves or hemispheres of diameter D and considering the equilibrium of these halves. The pressure difference can be made zero for a doubly curved surface if the curvature is like that of a saddle (one positive and the other negative).10. in radians. r1 = r2 = R So.4) where R is the radius of the sphere. Pressure forces = Surface tension forces.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet Refer Figure 1.5) Considering a cylinder of length L and diameter D and considering its equilibrium. (pi – po) = [(1/r1) + (1/r2)] × σ For a spherical surface. surface tension force = 2σL (pi – po) = 2 (σ/D) = (σ/R) (1.

The unit is the same as that of pressure. With temperature the bulk modulus of liquids generally increases. Macroscopically the above equation can be modified as Ev = – {P1 – P2}{(v2 – v1)/v1}.11. Referring equation 1. In the case of gases. Ev is defined as the ratio of the change in pressure to the rate of change of volume due to the change in pressure. Bulk modulus is defined as Ev = – dp/(dv/v).25 × 109/100]0.16. The surface tension is 0. This definition can be applied to liquids as such.03mm. The value increases with pressure as dv will be lower at higher pressures for the same value of dp.18. ∆ P = 4σ/D Surface tension.0135 N/m 1.5. Calculate the surface tension if the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 3mm dia is 18 N/m2. Bulk modulus influences the velocity of sound in the medium. Rearranging. Determine the bulk modulus of a liquid whose volume decreases by 4% for an increase in pressure of 500 × 105 pa. Also determine the velocity of sound in the medium if the density is 1000 kg/m3.67 N/m2 = 2. Ev = (– 500 × 105)/(–4/100) = 1. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) is used to obtain the solution. The bulk modulus for liquids depends on both pressure and temperature. For water the maximum is at about 50°C. The pressure of water in a power press cylinder is released from 990 bar to 1 bar isothermally. the value of compressibility will depend on the process law for the change of volume and will be different for different processes. . It can also be expressed in terms of change of density.04/(0.10.003/4) = 0.04N/m. so that the bulk modulus is always positive (N/m2). Determine the pressure difference across a nozzle if diesel is sprayed through it with an average diameter of 0. What will be the percentage increase in specific volume? The definition of bulk modulus. without any modifications. σ = ∆P × D/4 = 18 × (0. reaches a maximum and then decreases.67 kpa Example 1.5. Note that dv/v = – dρ/ρ.1) where dp is the change in pressure causing a change in volume dv when the original volume was v. which equals (go × Ev/ρ)0. obviously. substituting the values.05 = 1118 m/s.Physical Properties of Fluids 21 Chapter 1 Example 1. The symbol used in this text for bulk modulus is Ev (K is more popularly used).17.5 ∴ c = [1 × 1. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = dp/(dρ/ρ) ρρ (1.19.000 atm. Example 1.11 COMPRESSIBILITY AND BULK MODULUS Bulk modulus. The spray is of cylindrical shape P = σ/R = 0. The value is in the range of 2000 MN/m2 or 2000 × 106 N/m2 or about 20. Example 1. The negative sign indicates that if dp is positive then dv is negative and vice versa. If the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range is 2430 × 106 N/m2.25 × 109 N/m2 Velocity of sound c is defined as = (go × Ev /ρ)0.03 × 10–3/2) = 2666.

The value n = 1 means Pv = constant or isothermal process and n = cp/cv = k means isentropic process. For constant pressure and constant volume processes compressibility values are zero and ∞ respectively.22 Change in specific volume = (v2 – v1)/v1 = – (P2 – P1)/Ev Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = (990 × 105 – 1 × 105)/2430 × 106 = 0. If n = 0. The relationship between these can be obtained using the characteristic gas equation and the equation describing the process. the density was found to be 1055 kg/m3. For isentropic process.07% Example 1. oxygen.659 × 106 N/m2 or about 326. 353.59 bar.5) c = [go × k P/ρ]0. Density of sea water at the surface was measured as 1040 kg/m3 at an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar.3 m/s. then v = constant and the process is constant volume process. namely.3 m/s. The processes of practical interest are for values of n = 1 to n = cp/cv (the ratio of specific heats.1 m/s and 1321.20.11. compressibility is zero and if dv = 0. compressibility is infinite. Process equation for gases can be written in the following general form (1. then P = constant or the process is a constant pressure process. nPv(n–1)dv + vndp = 0 (1. dv. In the case of gases the velocity of propagation of sound is assumed to be isentropic. As an exercise the velocity of sound at 27°C for air. will depend on the process used. . Determine the pressure at that point.2) Pvn = constant where n can take values from 0 to ∞. From the definition of velocity of sound as [go × Ev/ρ]0. The bulk modulus is 2290 × 106 N/m2. For isothermal process.5 It may be noted that for a given gas the velocity of sound depends only on the temperature. As Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1 )/ [(v2 – v1)v1] v = 1/ρ. compressibility = P. Bulk modulus. denoted as k).11.11.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases The expression for compressibility of gases for different processes can be obtained using the definition. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = n × P (1. dp.0407 % change in specific volume = 4.5 it can be shown that (1. If dp = 0. In the case of gases the variation of volume.4) Hence compressibility of gas varies as the product n × P. Using the equation Pvn = constant and differentiating the same.6 m/s.3) rearranging and using the definition of Ev. These are not of immediate interest in calculating compressibility.11. nitrogen and hydrogen may be calculated as 347.5 = [go × k × R × T]0. n = 1. 330. with variation in pressure. If n = ∞.11. compressibility = – dp/(dv/v). At certain depth in water. 1. – (P2 – P1) = Ev × [{1/ρ2) – (1/ρ1)}/(1/ρ1)] = Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] P2 = P1 – Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] = 1 ×105 – 2290 × 106 {(1040 – 1055)/1055} = 32. compressibility = k × P.

The vapour pressure is also known as saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature. . Liquid molecules have higher cohesive forces and are bound to each other.1 Partial Pressure In a mixture of gases the total pressure P will equal the sum of pressures exerted by each of the components if that component alone occupies the full volume at that temperature. The vapour pressure increases with the temperature. cm = Σ (ci × mi)/ Σ mi (1. This pressure is known as critical pressure. The number of molecules escaping from the surface or re-entering will depend upon the temperature. For example air is a mixture of various gases as well as some water vapour. Such boiling leads to the phenomenon known as cavitation in pumps and turbines.12 VAPOUR PRESSURE 23 Chapter 1 Liquids exhibit a free surface in the container whereas vapours and gases fill the full volume. The pressure exerted by each component is known as its partial pressure.1) where p1 = (m1R1T)/V . If liquid is in contact with vapour both will be at the same temperature and under this condition these phases will be in equilibrium unless energy transaction takes place. This pressure is known as vapour pressure corresponding to the temperature. In the gaseous state the binding forces are minimal. gas constant etc. The temperature corresponding to the pressure is known as saturation temperature. (1. The various properties like specific heat. Sublimating solids also exhibit this phenomenon. The vapour pressure data for water and refrigerants are available in tabular form. The atmospheric pressure is nothing but the sum of the pressures exerted by each of these components.. All liquids exhibit this phenomenon. Under equilibrium conditions these molecules above the free surface exert a certain pressure. As the temperature increases.12.Physical Properties of Fluids 1. For all liquids there exists a pressure above which there is no observable difference between the two phases. p2 = (m2R2T)/V in which T and V are the common temperature and volume. P = p1 +p2 + p3 + . 1. Liquid will begin to boil if the pressure falls to the level of vapour pressure corresponding to that temperature..12. Molecules constantly escape out of a liquid surface and an equal number constantly enter the surface when there is no energy addition.2) where cm is the specific heat of the mixture and ci and mi are the specific heat and the mass of component i in the mixture. In pumps it is usually at the suction side and in turbines it is usually at the exit end. Of special interest in this case is the partial pressure of water vapour. of the mixture can be determined from the composition..12. more molecules will leave and re-enter the surface and so the vapour pressure increases with temperature. This topic is studied under Psychrometry.

2 Problem model . Equating to zero y2 = (h – y)2 or y = h/2 or the plane should be located at the mid gap position for the force to be minimum. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 3 centi stokes and specific weight 9 kN/m3 fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 475 mm square.17 h–y y h Figure P.17 5 28.1. Density = specific weight/g. A small thin plane surface is pulled through the liquid filled space between two large horizontal planes in the parallel direction. Force on the bottom surface = µ × (u/y).1.2. F = 0. Let the velocity of the small plane be u. Differentiating the expression A.0/0. µ = 0. Equation A is used in the calculation.81] × (4.002)]} = 43. Refer Fig. and the distance between the large planes be h.8.75 N/m2 Note that the minimum occurs at mid position Distance.2. determine the force required if the liquid film is maintained all through.014 Ns/m2 . So. Let the small plane be located at a distance of y from the bottom plane.475 = 2. If the smaller plate is to be pulled with uniform velocity of 4 m/s.81 Ns/m2 Force = [0.484 N.03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. P 1. the film thickness being 1 mm. τ × A = A × µ × (du/dy).014 × 5 × {(1/0. Show that the force required will be minimum if the plate is located midway between the planes. µ = 0.33 4 29. where τ is shear stress. or dF/dy = 0.2).1 m. Model calculation is given for y = 0. Considering unit area. Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h – y). dF/dy = µ × u {(–1/y2) + [1/(h – y)2]}. The force required (eqn 1.01 – 0. N/m2 2 43. Stoke = 10–4 m2/s..03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. Assume linear variation of velocity and unit area. Force on the top surface = µ × u/(h – y) Total force to pull the plane = µ × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} . h = 0.475 × 0. The force required for different location of the plate is calculated using the following data and tabulated below. and µ is dynamic viscosity.24 SOLVED PROBLEMS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.002 m. u = 5 m/s.(A) To obtain the condition for minimisation of the force the variation of force with respect to y should be zero. In this problem kinematic viscosity and specific weight are given. Problem 1.001) × 0.002) + [1/0. y mm Force..00 6 29.75 3 33.

014 × {(0.Physical Properties of Fluids 25 Chapter 1 Problem 1. c × (h – y) = y or y = (h × c )/(1 + c ) = h/[1 + (1/ c )] Consider the following values for the variables and calculate the force for different locations of the plate.49 or c = 0. P1.63 1.0 52.001647 m Using F = 5 × 0.15 2. mm Force. If a lighter oil of viscosity µ2 fills the gap what should be the location of the plate for the force to be the same when pulled with the same velocity u. The force will not be minimum if the plate is centrally located as the viscosity are not equal.4. A small plane is pulled along the centre plane of the oil filled space between two large horizontal planes with a velocity u and the force was measured as F.0 57. y2 = c × (h – y)2 Taking the root. N/m2 1. Equating to zero yields. So the plane should now be located away from the central plane.014 N/m2 .39 c = 0.7)/(1 + 0.87 1.65 50. h = 4 mm and For optimum conditions y = (0.2 : Case 1: The velocity gradient is equal on both sides = u/(h/2) = 2 × u/h Total force = µ1 × {(2u/h) + (2u/h)} = 4 × µ1 × u/h Case 2: Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h–y) Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Total force = µ2 × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} = µ2 × u × {h/[y × (h – y)]} Equating and solving.5 60. u = 5 m/s. the total force for unit area will be F = cµ × (u/y) + µ × u/(h – y) = µ × u {(c/y) + [1/(h – y)]} At the minimum conditions the slope i.49/y) + [1/(0.5 50. Problem 1. Let the gap size be h.004 – y)]}.7) = 0..7 . Derive an expression for the location of the plate in the gap for the total force to be minimum.3. A quadratic equation. y from the lower plane as shown in Fig. (µ2/µ1) = 4 × y × (h – y)/h2 = 4[y/h] × [1 – (y/h)] Solve for (y/h).004 × 0. If the plane is located centrally in the case where the oil is lighter the force will be smaller.e. the derivative dF/dy should be zero. Let it be located at a distance. µ = 0. A large thin plate is pulled through a narrow gap filled with a fluid of viscosity µ on the upper side and a fluid of viscosity cµ on the lower side. Let the plate be located at a distance of y from the lower surface on the side where the viscosity is cµ. the force for various locations is calculated and tabulated below: y.58 2. The viscosity of the oil was µ1. dF/dy = µ × u {[1/(h – y)2] – [c/y2]}.

. R = 0. check from basics.9.182 m2.6.1 and 1. Determine the viscosity of the fluid if the torque required to rotate the disc at 300 rpm was 0.3 m dia rotates over a large stationary plate with 1 mm thick fluid film between them. (h – clearance). Determine the uniform velocity of movement of the shaft if the drag resistance was 300 N. The equation to be used is 1.019 Ns/m2.3 m OD with an oil film thickness of 1 mm and a viscosity of 30 cP if it rotates at 500 rpm. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2. 0. The equation that can be used is.4 × 10–4 × 900 = 0.216 Ns/m2. Torque = force × radius.20) × 0. µ = 19 cP = 0.26 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. the area being π × D × L.145 × n/60 = 7. Determine the viscous drag torque and power absorbed on one surface of a collar bearing of 0. Clearance = (Do – Di)/2 = 0.2885 × n N/m2.5 mm.2 Drag resistance = 300 = µ × 0.07253/ (450 × 0. µ = ρv = 2.019 × π3 × n2 (2 × 0.001). A shaft of 145 mm dia runs in journals with a uniform oil film thickness of 0.806 × 10–3 × n Nm Power. Solving for µ Viscosity µ = 4 × 10–3 Ns/m2 or 4 cP.1 = µ × π2 × 300 × 0. Substituting the values.1 Nm.7. The viscosity of the oil is 19 cP.182 = 0. Two bearings of 20 cm width are used.592 × 10–3 × n τ = 0..2) n = 194 rpm. n = 300 rpm. Adopting the second method. 15 = [0. The force can be determined assuming that the sliding is between the developed surfaces. Determine the speed if the power absorbed is 15 W.5.8.2885 × n × 0. y = 0.019 (7.9.16374 m/s.e.9.5 mm = 0.) Problem 1.3.8. velocity = 0.2 m ID and 0.0525 × n.0005 m.0005)] Problem 1.145/2 = 3.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 900 kg/m3. speed.0525 × n × 0. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y).806 × 10–3 × n/60 n = 194 rpm. Solving. A circular disc of 0. Problem 1.154/ (60 × 0.0005) Solving for u. P = 2πnT/60 = 15 = 2 × π × n 3. Force F = A × τ = 0.45 × 3 × 0. (n denoting rpm) Torque T = (µ × π2 × n × R4)/(60 × h).8.216 × (u/0. h = 0.5 mm. let the rpm be n u = π Dn/60 = π × 0. A hydraulic lift shaft of 450 mm dia moves in a cylinder of 451 mm dia with the length of engagement of 3 m.0005) = 0. Solving speed. (n is used to denote rpm) P = [µπ3n2LR3/450 h] The solution can be obtained from basics also. T = 0. (care should be taken to use radius value.001 m. 1. (Check using the equation 1. Using equations 1.592 × 10–3 × n/0.15 m. A = 2 × π DL = 0.2 i.

01 m/s So At At (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) = 0. h = 6.14}/{(60 × 0. At the wall.2 = 1. The hollow cylinder rotates while the shaft is stationary. Shear stress is first calculated at the hollow cylinder wall (Assume 1 m length).68.e.11.002 m T = 30 × 0.03 Ns/m2.3)/0. Determine the shear stress on the shaft wall.5 whre u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0.9. u = 10y0.5 m 0. y is given by u = 10 y0. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0.0.5. h = 0.001= 0.5 – 0. Clearance.04 and 0.3 m) 0.040.08 m from the surface.15 m. µ = 14 × 0.04 m.3 m and height 0. A hollow cylinder of 12 cm ID filled with fluid of viscosity 14 cP rotates at 600 rpm. So θ = 45°. n = 500 rpm.10.5 m and inner radius 0.68 × µ (using u = 10 y0. T = µ × π2 × n × (Ro4 – Ri4)/60 × h substituting the values 27 Chapter 1 µ = 30 × 0. Problem 1.08 m. Linear velocity variation is assumed.154 – 0.9. the velocities are 0.04.5 m.2 m 0. Using equation 1. R2 = 0.34)/1800 × h × sin 45° Solving for clearance.5 = 17. If the variation of velocity with distance from the surface. The substitution y = 0 in the above will give division by zero error.63 mm Problem 1. Problem 1. tan θ = (0.5 = 25. Ri = 0.3 m 45° 1500 = π3 × 0.1 m. (du/dy) = 5/y0.5012/60 = 26.Physical Properties of Fluids The equation applicable is 1. n = 500 rpm.080. τ = 25 × µ y = 0.0 and 0. h = 0.243 W.5012 Nm P = 2πnT/60 = 2 × π × 500 × 0. (du/dy) = 5/0.5. Determine the clearance if the power required was 1500 W. It has to be approximated as (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) for near zero values of y. The angle θ is determined using the difference in radius and the length. In this case the clearance considered is large and so the assumption of linear velocity variation may lead to larger error.2 m runs on a conical support with a uniform clearance between surfaces. R1 = 0. A shaft of diameter 4 cm is placed centrally inside.9. Oil with viscosity of 30 cP is used. P = π3 × µ × n2 × (R24 – R14)/1800 × h × sin θ (µ = 30 cP = 0. Solution is obtained from basics.08.002)} = 0.001 × π2 × 500 × {0. Ro = 0.9 i..5. the difference in y value is 10–6. (du/dy) = 5/0. The concept that the torque along the radius should be constant can be used to determine the torque more accurately.626 × 10–3 m or 6. τ = µ (du/dy) = 10000 × µ y = 0.01/10–6 = 10000.5).54 – 0.03 × 5002 × (0. (du/dy) = 10000.014 N/m2 . The support is rotated at 500 rpm. Considering layers y = 0 and y =10–6. A conical bearing of outer radius 0. τ = 17.001 Ns/m2.

1)2] m/s.06/s.13) du dr R1 = du dr R2 × (R22/R12) at 0.32 N/m2 F = π × D × L × τ = π × 0.25 × 0. the velocity gradient is obtained by using this concept. τ = – 2 N/m2. Shear force F = 2πrLτ.014 = 11.513 N.022 = 848.04 m.08 × 1 × 0. τi [2π ri × L] × ri = τo [2π ro × L] × ro τi = µ (du/dr)ri.05.86 × 10–3 Nm Torque at all radii should be the same.12) = – 2000 r (the –ve sign indicates that the force acts opposite to the flow direction.05 and r = 0. Problem 1.06 = 29. F = 2.04 This can be checked using equation.86 10–3 = du dr du dr 0.04 × 0.1 m. du/dr = – 10 × (2 × r/0.04. u = 10 × [1 – (r/0.) τ = 0.28 At the inside wall of the hollow cylinder. u = 2 πRn/60 = 3. Solving.1.25 = 1. 0. = 212.062/0.25 × 0. Considering L = 1 At At r = 0.498 N torque = F × R = 0.014 × π × 0.04 The velocity gradient at the shaft surface = 94. r = 0.042 = 212. The torque required for the rotation will be the same in both cases. τ = µ (du/dr). Determine the shear stress and the shear force over the surface at r = 0. At mid radius R = 0.88 N/m2.628 N τ = – 4 N/m2. The velocity along the radius of a pipe of 0. F = 0.12.77/0. The viscosity of the fluid is 0. τ = µ (du/dr)ro Substituting in the previous expression and solving (du/dr)i = (du/dr)o × [ro2/ri2] o .04 = 94.014 × 94.02 × (– 2000) × r = – 40 r. Using general notations.25/s Shear stress at the shaft wall = 848.06/s 0. 29.1)2].77 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (du/dr) = u/h = 3.04. Assuming that when the sleeve rotates velocity gradient exists only at the sleeve surface and when the shaft rotates velocity gradient exists only at the shaft surface.498 × 0. Problem 1.31 = 0. (see problem 1.25/s. τ = µ (du/dr) = 0. determine the ratio of these velocity gradients.062/0. du dr × 25 × 0.13.02 Ns/m2 .12 × 1 × 1. A sleeve surrounds a shaft with the space between them filled with a fluid.1 m radius varies as u = 10 × [1 – (r/0.

Problem 1.Physical Properties of Fluids 29 Chapter 1 This will plot as a second degree curve.0002 – 0.1 × 0. The axial velocity of the shaft is 0. The clearance at the ends are t1m and t2m. .814 N. F = π × D × L × u × µ/t For t = 0. Using the equation derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values F = [{π × D × u × L × µ}/{t1– t2}] [ln(t1/t2)] F = [{π × 0. The total force required can be determined by integrating the elemental force over a differential length dX. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient will vary along the length.6 m/s.14.8 × 10–2 Ns/m2.1 mm.814 N If the clearance was uniform.15. assumed linear. assuming t1 > t2.3 × 4.1 mm over a length of 0. For t = 0. 18. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 4. The clearance. The oil has a viscosity of µ and the shaft moves axially at a velocity u.2 mm.143 N The arithmetic average is 20. The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0.2 = 13. F0.0001)] = 18. Determine the force required. Hence the shear stress also will vary along the length.0001}] × [ln(0. F0.1 = 27.3 m.14 Problem 1. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) X}/L du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} The velocity gradient at this location is u/t.6 × 0. while the logarithmic average is what is determined in this problem.2 mm to 0.36 N. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Integrating between the limits X = 0 to X = L F = [{π × D × u × L × µ 1 – t2}] × [ln(t1/t2)] µ}/{t π t1 t2 X L dX Figure P.0002/0.8 × 10–2}/{0.572 N. t at location X is obtained. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX.1. τ = µ (du/dy). When the gap is large % error will be high if linear variation is assumed. Derive an expression for the force required for axial movement of a shaft through a taper bearing as shown in figure. The diameter of the shaft is D m and the length is L m.

431 × 10–3 m or – 1. Using the equations derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values T = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ}/{120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] T = [{π2 × 0. Derive an expression for the torque required to overcome the viscous resistance when a circular shaft of diameter D rotating at N rpm in a bearing with the clearance t varying uniformly from t1 m at one end to t2m at the other end.3 m.1 × 10–2}/{3600(0.13 × 0.0001)}] × [ln (0. Hence the shear stress and the torque also will vary along the length. Assume surface tension as 0.81 N/m3. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 7. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}/L The velocity gradient at this location X is u/t. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX. The distance between the ends is L m. Check: P = 2π × 600 × 7. ∴ du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} τ = µ (du/dy). as linear profile is assumed.2 mm to 0.0002 – 0. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = [4 × 0. Equating the surface force and the pressure force.0002 – 0. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Torque = dF × (d/2) and u = (π DN)/60.29/60 = 458W.431 mm.81 × 0. Torque = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ {120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)] π Power = 2πNT/60.0002/0. (depression) P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ}/{3600(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] . assuming t1 > t2 .0001)}] × [ln (0. hence P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ µ}/{3600(t1 –t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)].3 × 6002 × 7.1 × 10–2}/{120(0.30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.0001)] = 7. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient (du/dr) will vary along the length.8 W.s (Ns/m2). The total torque required can be determined by integrating the elemental torque over a differential length dX. The shaft runs at 600 rpm.29 Nm. [h × γ × πD2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].0002/0.18.17 The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0. t at location X is obtained. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 4 mm ID glass tube.1 mm over a length of 0.16. π Problem 1.0001)] = 457. Determine the torque and power required.45 N/m and β =115°. Problem 1. The oil has a viscosity of µ.004] = – 1. The clearance.45 × cos 115]/[13550 × 9. P = [{π3 × 0. Solving for h.13 × 0. Substituting and Integrating between the limits µ}/ X = 0 to X = L.3 × 600 × 7.1 × 10–2 Pa.

The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3.21. A droplet forms at the mouth of the nozzle. The force required at the time of separation was 0.1005 N.19.1005 N.0365 × 2}/{10 × 10–6} = 14600 N/m2 = 14.0254 × 10–3} = 5748 N/m2 = 5. A ring 200 mm mean dia is to be separated from water surface as shown in figure.20. Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel with an average diameter of 0. A thin plate 1 m wide is slowly lifted vertically from a liquid with a surface tension of 0.1 = 0.0365 N/m. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact.748 kN/m2 When the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm the pressure difference is (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0.22. Calculate the capillary rise and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus. Problem 1. The total length of contact just before separation from the surface will be twice the width of the plate or 2L. σ × 2 × π × 0.2 = 0. So (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0.19 The total length of contact just before lifting from the surface will be twice the circumference or 2πD. .08 N/m The surface tension of a liquid can be measured using this principle provided the fluid wets the surface. Determine the surface tension of water. Determine what force will be required to overcome the surface tension. 0. The contact angle is 60°.Physical Properties of Fluids 31 Chapter 1 Problem 1. Problem 1. Assume β = 0.0365 × 2}/{0. Problem 1. Solving σ = 0. Determine the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle. The surface tension is 0. A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C. The pressure inside the droplet will be higher compared to that at outside. The equation applicable is (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R. Surface tension is 0.0254 mm.6 kN/m2.1.15 N/m. F = 2 × 1 × 0.1005 N A A 200 mm Figure P.02 N. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact. Also determine the pressure difference if the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm.1 N/m.

15 × cos 60}/{20601 × 0. Determine the additional force required due to surface tension. A hollow cylinder of 150 mm OD with its weight equal to the buoyant forces is to be kept floating vertically in a liquid with a surface tension of 0. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.10. R = [2 × 0. The piston diameter is 100 mm.92 × 10–3 m or – 3. So h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} h = (4 × 0. In this case capillary depression is involved and so the true pressure = mercury column + capillary depression. Problem 1.15]/ [1. In this case a capillary rise will occur and this requires an additional force to keep the cylinder floating.81 N/m3. Determine the distance through which the piston has to move so that the pressure will increase to 200 bar. (Pi – Po) = {4 × σ × cos β}/D (Pi – Po) = {4 × 0. Determine the true pressure in mm of mercury if surface tension is 0.212 N.23. So the additional force = 2 × 0.022 N/m. A mercury column is used to measure the atmospheric pressure.0152/4} × 6 = 0. Problem 1. The average value of bulk modulus for the liquid is 2430 × 10–6 N/m2. The tube is 3 mm in dia.106 N As the immersion leads to additional buoyant force the force required to kept the cylinder floating will be double this value. Capillary rise. .92 mm.45 N/m2.5 mm dia if the surface tension is 0.92 = 765. [h × γ × π D2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β]. As (Pi – Po) = h × specific weight. (using equation 1.106 = 0. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D}. equating forces. The pressure difference in the case of a sphere is given by. Initially the pressure is 10 bar.25. Calculate the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9. equation 1. (depression) Hence actual pressure indicated = 762 + 3.92 mm of mercury. The contact angle is 140°.3) (Pi – Po) = σ × {(1/R1) + (1/R2)} = 2 σ/R So.51 N/m.81 × 0.32 = 1.82 × 10–3 m or 1.15} = 6.5 (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R = {2 × 0. The contact angle is 60°. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = {4 × 0.26. The volume of liquid in a rigid piston—cylinder arrangement is 2000 cc.51) × cos 140]/[13550 × 9.022}/{0.5 N/m2.008} The meniscus is a doubly curved surface with equal radius as the section is circular. Problem 1.24.10. The temperature remains constant.0 N/m2 Force = Area × (Pi – Po) = {π × 0. Problem 1.82 × 10–3 × 2060] = 8 × 10–3 m or R = 2σ/(Pi – Po). The height of column above the mercury well surface is 762 mm.003] = – 3.45 × cos 60}/{0. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Capillary rise. (Pi – Po) = specific weight × h 8 mm.0025} = 17.82 mm.

The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean.12 = 1. dv = – 0.28. [(v2 – v1)/v1] also equals [(ρ1 – ρ2)/ρ2] = [(P2 – P1)/Ev] Use of this equation should also give the same answer.1 Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[(v2 – v1)/v1] So 2430 × 106 = –190 × 105/(dv/0.347 mm (the pressure rise will also be affected by the expansion of the pipe line).77 × 10–8 m3 Plunger movement = dv/area = – 2. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q 1.03772 × (1/1015)] + (1/1015) = 9.Physical Properties of Fluids By definition—refer eqn 1.79 kg/m3 an increase of 4%. [(v2 – v1)/v1] = – (P2 – P1)/Ev = – [880 × 105 – 1. . At the surface. Determine the density of sea water at the depth. The atmospheric pressure is 1.5 × 10–6). 2.1—the bulk modulus is Ev = – dP/(dv/v).00152) = 3.11.27.002).11. 1100 × 106 = – 200 × 105/(dv/1. Problem 1. Bulk modulus is defined in eqn 1. The density increases by 4. At a certain depth.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. the density was measured as 1015 kg/m3.1 as Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[v2 – v1)/v1].5 cc. the pressure is 880 bar.002 × 190 × 105/2430 × 106 = 15.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg) = 1054. Solids _________ applied shear while liquids _________.77 × 10–8 × 4/( π × 0. substituting the values in v2 = [v1 × {– (P2 – P1)/Ev}] + v1. Cohesive forces between molecules/atoms are highest in the _________ phase.01 bar. A diesel fuel pump of 10 mm ID is to deliver against a pressure of 200 bar.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg Density = 1/(9. v2 = [– 0. The bulk modulus of the fuel is 1100 × 106 N/m2. The density will increase due to the pressure increase. 3. The fuel volume in the barrel at the time of closure is 1. The average value of bulk modulus is 2330 × 106 N/m2.991 mm (the piston-cylinder arrangement is assumed to be rigid so that there is no expansion of the container) Problem 1. By definition—eqn 1. When the applied load is released solids _________.03772 v1 = 1/1015 m3/kg.64 × 10–6 m3 Piston movement.991 × 10–3 m = 1. Assuming rigid barrel determine the plunger movement before delivery begins. Solving. L = dv/area 33 Chapter 1 L = dv × 4/πD2 = 15.64 × 10–6 × 4/π × 0.11.01 × 105]/2330 × 106 = –0.47 × 10–4 m = 0. Solving dv = – 2.0% due to the increase in pressure.

The phenomenon is called _________. Answers (1) shear force (2) continue (3) free (4) rate of deformation (5) that the atomic molecular spacing is much larger in gas and atoms move all over the container filling it (6) free surface (7) completely fill (8) gases (9) gases (10) saturation conditions (Boiling conditions) O Q 1. A mole is defined as _________. 10. A vapour is defined as _________. 3. 7. Answers (1) Solid (2) regain their original shape (3) resist. liquid & gas (2) plasma (3) mass per unit volume (4) force due to gravity on mass in unit volume (5) ratio of mass of substance/mass of water at 10°C per unit volume (6) Material which cannot resist shear stress or material which will continuously deform under applied shear stress (7) A material which will exhibit a free surface in a container (8) gaseous state .2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. The atoms/molecules are _________ to move in fluids. O Q 1. In liquids _________ is proportional to shear stress. Specific weight is defined as _________. A gas is defined as _________. 9. 8. 6. 5. 8. Density is defined as _________. 8. The distance between molecules is highest in _________. Vapour is the gaseous state of matter when the temperature is near the _________. 2. A special state of matter at very high temperatures is _________. 10. The mobility of atoms is least in _________. 7. In solids _________ is proportional to the applied stress. For solids the proportionality limit between deformation and stress is called _________. 6. 7. 2. When heated the atoms in solids _________. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. Answers (1) Solid.3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 10. A liquid is defined as _________. 4. Fluids cannot withstand _________. 5. Specific gravity is defined as _________. 3. A fluid is defined as _________. Liquids form a _________ when in a container. In some solids molecules come out when heated. Fluids _________ to deform when a shear force is applied. The three phases of matter are _________ . 6. continue to deform (4) deformation (5) Solids (6) Solids (7) Solids (8) vibrate more (9) Sublimation (10) Elastic limit. Gases _________ the container. 4. The distance between atoms is least in _________. _________ have specific shape that does not change by itself.34 4.5. 9. The difference between liquids and gases is _________. Cohesive faces between atoms is least in _________. .

3. 3. O Q 1. When gravitational force increases specific weight _________. Viscosity is defined as _________. Bulk modulus of liquid will _________ with pressure. Droplet formation and free circular jet formation is due to _________. 6. 7.6 Fill in the blanks with “increasing ” or “decreasing” or “remains constant”: 1. Answers (1) a fluid whose viscosity varies with the velocity gradient (2) a material which requires a definite shear to cause the first deformation but then the stress is proportional to the velocity gradient (3) A substance whose viscosity increases with increase in velocity gradient (4) Work required to create a unit area of free surface in a liquid/force required to keep unit length of free surface in equilibrium (5) The pressure over the fluid due to the vapour over a liquid under equilibrium conditions of temperature (6) Cohesive (7) Adhesive forces (8) Adhesive (9) Cohesive (10) Surface tension O Q 1. Capillary rise is caused by _________ forces. Answers (1) –dp/(dv/v) (2) the process of change (3) increase (4) high (5) pressure (6) sound (7) µ = τ/(du/dy) the proportionality constant between shear stress and velocity gradient (8) µ/ρ (9) one with no viscosity or compressibility (10) A constant viscosity irrespective of the velocity gradient. Bulk modulus is defined as _________. 7. 3. An ideal plastic is defined as _________. 2. An ideal fluid is defined as _________.5 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 2. 10. A thixotropic fluid is defined as _________.Physical Properties of Fluids 35 Chapter 1 very near the formation temperature at that pressure (9) material with low cohesive force with large distance between molecules which will occupy the full volume of the container (10) Molecular mass of a substance. 9. 4. 5. 5. Surface tension is due to _________ forces. Unit of bulk modulus is the same as that of _________. Liquids have _________bulk modulus. When gravitational force increases density _________. 10. A non Newtonian fluid is defined as _________. 6. . 2. The concept of bulk modulus is used in the analysis of _________ propagation in the medium. O Q 1. When gravitational force decreases density _________. A Newtonian fluid is defined as one having _________. 4. 8. 4. 8. Capillary depression is when _________ forces predominate.4 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 9. When gravitational force decreases specific weight _________. Kinematic viscosity is defined as _________. Bulk modulus of gases depend on _________. Capillary rise is when _________ forces predominate. Vapour pressure is defined as _________. Surface tension is defined as _________.

9. 2. the pressure exerted by a gas in a container _________ when the volume increases. 5. 4. As cohesive force _________ compared to adhesive forces. 9. 4. At constant temperature. The vapour pressure over a liquid _________ when other gases are present in addition to the vapour. As tube diameter increases the capillary rise _________. 5. Viscosity of gases _________ with increase of temperature. 6. 7. 4. Specific weight is the mass of unit volume. In fluids the shear force is proportional to the rate of deformation. 10. 3. Ideal fluid has zero viscosity and is incompressible. 3. 9 O Q 1. 7.7 Fill in the blanks with “increases”. At constant pressure the bulk modulus of liquids (a) _________ and then (b) _________ with increase in temperature. 5. .36 5. 7 O Q 1. “decreases” or “remains constant” 1. 6. 6. Bulk modulus of liquids _________ with increase in pressure at constant temperature. 10b Remains constant 3. the vapour pressure _________. 4. As tube diameter decreases the capillary rise _________. The shear force in solid is proportional to the deformation. Answers Increases 1. 8. 9. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 6. The vapour pressure will vary with temperature. 6.8 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 3. In the gas equation temperature should be used in Kelvin scale. Viscosity of liquids _________ with increase of temperature. 7. As the diameter of a bubble increases the pressure difference between inside and outside _________. As temperature increases. 5. Density is the ratio of mass of unit volume of liquid to the mass of unit volume of water. The specific gravity _________ when density increases. 10a Decrease 2. Gases can be treated as incompressible when small changes in pressure and temperature are involved. As the diameter decreases the pressure difference between inside and outside of a free jet _________. 2. 10 Remains constant 7. 8 Decreases 1. 9. 8. 8. 10. the capillary will rise. Newtonian fluid is one whose viscosity will increase directly with rate of deformation. 10. 8. Answers Increases 2. As molecular weight of a gas increases its gas constant _________. At a given temperature the vapour pressure for a liquid _________. The cohesive forces are highest in gases. The product of gas constant and molecular weight _________. 1.

1. The kinematic viscosity in m2/s is (a) 72 × 10–3 (b) 20 × 10–8 (c) 7. 8 Answers (1) d (2) b (3) a . The density is 600 kg/m3. The weight of man will be lower on the moon. 8. 3.002 m dia a fluid with surface tension of 0. 8. Higher the surface tension higher will be the pressure inside a bubble. 9. 1. 6 O Q 1. Specific weight of a body will vary from place to place. 7. Capillary rise 3.2 × 102 N/m2 (d) 1. 4. The dynamic viscosity is 1. 5. Momentum transfer 2. 3. 3.2 × 10–10 N/m2 (a) 1. 4. The velocity gradient is 1000/s.9 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect.00004 π Viscosity 2. 11 O Q 1. 5. The velocity distribution in a flow through a tube is given by u = (– 10/µ) (0. Dynamic viscosity is a measure of momentum diffusivity.2 × 10–7 N/m2 (c) 1. The pipe radius R = 0. 10 Incorrect 2. Viscosity of gases increases with temperature. Classify them accordingly. The shear stress is 3.Physical Properties of Fluids Answers Correct 2. 9. The excess pressure in a droplet of 0. The specific weight is (a) 2 N (b) 15 N (c) 5 N (d) 50 N 2. 37 Chapter 1 (d) 2/µ (4) d (5) b Answers Correct 1. The viscosity is 1. 6. 4. Mass is measured by a spring balance. Free jet 6. The weight of a man will be higher in Jupiter. 3. 2. The gravitational acceleration at a location is 5 m/s2.01 – r2).2 × 10 (b) 1. 7.11 Choose the correct answer. 9. Liquid bubble 5. The shear stress at the wall in N/m2 is (a) 10/µ (b) 0 (c) 2µ 5.2 × 103 (d) 70 × 106 –4 Ns/m2. The mass of an object is 10 kg. Gas flow Answers Surface tension 1. Viscosity of liquids increases with temperature. 11. 6.2 × 10–1 N/m 4. The head indicated by a mercury manometer is lower than the actual value. 10 Incorrect 1. Heating of lubricating oil in bearings 7. The head indicated by a water manometer is lower than the actual value. 1. 7. Specific weight is measured by a spring balance. 10. Free surface of liquids 8. 4. 8.1 m.10 The following refer either to viscosity effects or surface tension effects.2 × 10–4 Ns/m2. 5. 6.01 N/m is (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 4π (d) 0. 5. Drag 4. 7 O Q 1.

15.12 Match the pairs. kg/m3 D. Derive expressions from basics for the pressure inside a droplet and a free jet. 17. 3-B. 8. ideal fluid 4. constant viscosity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C. . 21. Derive an expression for the pressure difference caused by surface tension on a doubly curved surface. weight 3. 4. Define “Compressibility” and “Bulk Modulus”. surface tension 3. specific weight (ii) 1. zero viscosity B. 3. shear stress A. Explain the concepts of (i) vapour pressure (ii) partial pressure and (iii) surface tension. Distinguish between vapour and gas. weight density and specific gravity. dynamic viscosity 2.38 O Q 1. 2. Define density. Differentiate between the three states of matter. Explain how viscosity of liquids and gases behave with temperature. 3-D. Describe some methods to determine the viscosity of a fluid. free surface (iii) 1. Distinguish between compressible and incompressible fluids. surface tension Answers (i) 1-C. specific volume. m2 /s A. density 2. 11. Explain from microscopic point of view the concept of viscosity and momentum transfer. given the value of the contact angle β and the density and surface tension of the liquid. Explain the concept of “Continuum”. 2-A. State the characteristic equation for gases and explain its significance. 12. 18. kinematic viscosity 4. 14. kinematic viscosity 4. 13. 7. surface tension B. 16. 4-B REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 19. momentum transfer C. Newtonian fluid Set B A. 4-B (ii) 1-D. Derive the general expression for compressibility of gases. 20. Define the term viscosity and explain the significance of the same. Explain how liquid surface behaves by itself and when it is in contact with other surfaces. droplet formation 2. 4-C (iii) 1-D. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a collar bearing (disc over a parallel plate). 2-C. Distinguish between Newtonian and non Newtonian Fluids. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a conical bearing. Derive an expression for the capillary rise or depression. 6. liquid D. N/m B. Define kinematic viscosity and explain the significance of the same. 10. 2-A. N/m3 C. capillary rise 3. 9. Derive an expression for the torque and power required to overcome the viscous drag for a shaft running at a particular rpm. gravitational acceleration D. 3-A. 5. Set A (i) 1.

determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0.8 mm.4 m and inner radius 0. If the force required to pull the smaller plate with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s was 1.98 cp in a pipe. The force required was 0.58 Nm) E1.13 The viscosity of an oil of density 820 kg/m3 is 30.79 Nm.2.069 Nm. (2 × 10–2 Ns/m2) E1. A small thin plate of 0. (11.8 A circular disc rotates over a large stationary plate with a 2 mm thick fluid film between them. (8. (10. pipe of 40 mm diameter. The torque required to rotate the disc at 200 rpm was 0. Determine the ID of the cylinder. the viscosity of the fluid being 40 cp.4. the flow velocity being 1.3.5. 0. Determine the density. specific weight and specific volume of air if the specific gravity (with water as reference fluid) is 0.08 m. determine specific weight of the liquid.2 mm) E1.12 Determine the pressure difference between two points 10 m apart in flow of oil of viscosity 13. Two large planes are parallel to each other and are inclined at 30° to the horizontal with the space between them filled with a fluid of viscosity 20 cp. E1. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. Determine the viscosity of the oil used if the torque required was 21. The weight of the plate is 1 N. (1.04 and 0.81 N.326 Nm. Two bearings of 15 cm width are used.2 m and height 0. Two large plates are 6 mm apart and the space in-between in filled with a fluid. Determine the film thickness. A plate of 1 mm thickness and 10 cm square is pulled parallel to the planes and midway between them with a velocity of 2 m/s.5 N) viscosity of the fluid filling the space is 0.16 m ID and 0. (20.8 m/s. Assume that the liquid film is maintained all over.1.Physical Properties of Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 39 Chapter 1 E1. The support is rotated at 600 rpm. 1. E1.2 m/s is 267.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 888 kg/m3 . (5 kN/m2) E1.6.7 poise.4 kN/m3) E1.0 cP. A thin plate of 12. A hydraulic lift shaft of 500 mm dia moves in a cylindrical sleeve the length of engagement being 2 m.125 m square slides parallel and midway between the planes and reaches a constant velocity of 2 m/s.2 m runs on a conical support with a clearance of 1 mm all around. 113.28 m OD running at 600 rpm was 0. Determine the diameter of the disc. The drag resistance when the shaft moves at 0.11 If u = 10 y1. Determine the weight of the plate if the (0.5 cm square falls freely between the planes along the central plane and reaches a steady velocity of 2 m/s.7 A shaft of 150 mm dia rotates in bearings with a uniform oil film of thickness 0.011614. Also determine the power dissipated (Fig.9 The torque to overcome viscous drag of the oil film of viscosity of 28 cp in collar bearing of 0. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 2.10 A conical bearing of outer radius 0.02 Ns/m2. (200 mm) E1. Determine the torque if the speed is 210 rpm. 1340 W) E1. Two large vertical plane parallel surfaces are 5 mm apart and the space between them is filled with a fluid. E1.614 kg/m3.1 mm when dropped in the oil? (90 mm/min) . (5 mm) E1.0861 m3/kg) E1. Assume linear velocity profile on either side. Determine the distance between the plates.7 centistokes fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 500 mm square.3). The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2. the film thickness being 1 mm.734 N.5 where u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0.94 N/m3. The viscosity of the oil is 22 cP.32 N.08. What will be the terminal velocity of a steel ball of density 7800 kg/m3 and dia 1.9.

Derive an expression for the torque and power transmitted. Determine the surface tension of water at that temperature. Determine the value of surface tension. β = 129°. m m u Figure E.1. 1. r. P= πµω 2 (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a) ω ω E1.511 N/m) E1. Determine the value of surface tension.0254 mm) .99 mm. Determine the value of surface tension. in terms of h. µ = 0.19 In order to separate a ring of 160 mm mean dia from water surface the force required just at the point of separation was 0. Also obtain an expression for the maximum speed of the block.0365 N/m.21 In order to lift a thin plate 1 m width slowly and vertically from a liquid.22 Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel of surface tension 0. a block of mass M slides on a horizontal table on oil film of thickness h and viscosity µ. α and µ. (T = πµ (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a.17 Calculate the shear stress due to fluid flow at the plate and at 10 mm above it if the velocity distribution along y direction is u = 2y – 2y3 + y4 . The height of water column (at 20°C) in a tube of 8 mm ID is 12 mm. ω. (0.0728 N/m) E1. Determine the droplet size.40 E1.874 kN/m2. (0. (0.14 As shown in figure. Derive an expression for the viscous force on the block when it moves at a velocity u. out of this 3.0732 N. (0. umax = mgh/µA) µ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M h Oil.1 N/m) E1. The pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle was 2. m) Figure E. a force of 0.15 A viscous clutch as shown in figure transmits torque.16 Derive an expression for the torque in the case of a spherical bearing as shown in figure.15 Figure E.20 In manometers an error in measurement will occur when a small bore tube is used. T= 2πµωR4 cos2 α 2 − cos α + 3 3 h LM MN OP PQ w R h q R wi wo µ a Oil film (velocity.0728 N/m) E1.16 E1.2 N was required at the instant of separation to overcome surface tension forces. (2 × 10–3 N/m2. Capillary rise adds to the column height and capillary depression reduces the column height.1.001 Ns/m2. (0. Assume β = 0.13 E1. β = 0. (F = µu A/ h.17 mm is due to capillary action.94 N/m2) E1.18 The capillary depression of mercury in a 3.1.25 mm ID glass tube was found as 2. The mass m causes the movement.

At a certain depth where the pressure was 900 bar the density was measured as 1065. floating in a liquid with contact angle β = 60° due to surface tension effects.25 The actual atmospheric pressure was 765. Determine the coefficient of linear expansion for the vessel material. E1. (0. Determine the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range.1 × 10–4 m3/m3 per °C. determine the value of surface tension of the soap solution.24 A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C.26 If the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2. (2430 × 106 N/m2) E133 The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean. Determine the pres(1000 bar) sure increase. Determine the value of surface tension and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus. (172 N/m2) E1.45 N/m) E1. E1. (10 µm) E1. Determine the pressure inside the bubble at formation. At the surface.43 kg/m3.6 N/m2.30 Bubbles are to be blown using a glass tube of 2 mm diameter immersed in oil to a depth of 10 mm.15 N/m. Determine the value of surface tension. (2340 × 106 N/m2) E1.29 In case a capillary of diameter 3 × 10–6 m is used. Determine the height of column above the mercury well in a Fortins barometer using a tube of 3 mm dia.0389 N/m. E1. The contact angle is 60°.63%) E1.28 Show that the capillary rise in an annulus is given by 2σ cos β/γ (ro – ri). (0.35 Due to an increase in pressure the volume of a liquid increases by 2.31 When 1000 cc of water is heated in a cylindrical vessel of 100 mm diameter from 20°C to 50°C the increase in the water level was 0. 8 mm) E1.5 kg/m3. (3.04 × 109 N/m2. there was a 4. if 5.0365 N/m. The contact angle is 140°.34 When water was heated in a rigid vessel the pressure rise was 14. γ is the specific weight and β is the contact angle.32 When the pressure of water in a press cylinder is released from 1000 × 105 N/m2 to 1 bar. determine the capillary rise in water.0735 N/m. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.1 bar and –50°C. The capillary rise was 1. σ = 0.82 mm.27 An additional force of 0.01 bar.51 N/m. The surface tension is 0.212 N was required to keep a cylinder of 150 mm OD with weight equal to the buoyant forces. determine the percentage change in density. the density was measured as 1024.022 N/m) 17.96. Determine the average value of bulk modulus. Assuming that the vessel volume did not increase due to the increase in temperature or due to the stress induced. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3. (0. If the surface tension of the oil is 0.23 Determine the droplet size if the pressure difference is increased to 7300 N/m3 in the nozzle of a diesel engine. The specific gravity of oil is 0.11 percentage increase in specific volume while the temperature remained constant. The atmospheric pressure is 1.65 kg of hydrogen was charged into the balloon at ground level where the pressure and temperature were 1 bar and 30°C.5 mm dia is (0. (762 mm) E1. Assume Ev = 2300 × 106 N/m2.92 mm of mercury column.6 × 10–6 m/m per °C) E1. For water the coefficient of cubical expansion is 2. where ro and ri are the radii and σ is the surface tension.49 × 106 N/m2. Assume the value of surface tension as 0.36 Determine the diameter of a spherical balloon at an altitude where pressure and temperature are 0. (10 m) E1.7%.76 mm. The bulk modulus of the liquid is 37. (10 m) .Physical Properties of Fluids 41 Chapter 1 E1.

Water in the sea and in reservoirs are in contact with the ground and supporting walls. This chapter also deals with pressure exerted by fluids due to the weight and due to the acceleration/deceleration of the whole mass of the fluid without relative motion within the fluid. In the case of gases molecular activity is the main cause of force exerted on the surfaces of the containers. The force exerted by fluids vary with location. Liquids held in containers may or may not fill the container completely. When the whole mass of a fluid held in a container is accelerated or decelerated without relative motion between layers inertia forces also exert a force on the container walls. Surfaces may also be immersed in fluids. This is dealt with in a subsequent chapter. This alters the force distribution at stationary or atatic conditions. Gas column will also exert a force on the base. 2. Fluids filling vessels are in contact with the walls of the vessels. Gases and vapours always expand and fill the container completely. Atmospheric air is in contact with the ground.0 INTRODUCTION Fluids are generally found in contact with surfaces. However a more precise definition of pressure. Fluids in contact with surfaces exert a force on the surfaces. P is as below: 42 . The variation of force under static or dynamic condition is discussed in this chapter.1 PRESSURE Pressure is a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with the force. The force is mainly due to the specific weight of the fluid in the case of liquids. A ship floating in sea is an example. but this is usually small in magnitude. In this case the force exerted by the fluid is called buoyant force. Pressure may be defined as the force acting along the normal direction on unit area of the surface. Pressure is a surface phenomenon and it can be physically visualised or calculated only if the surface over which it acts is specified.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 2. When liquids partially fill a container a free surface will be formed.

The details of some of the pressure measuring instruments are as shown in Fig. Vacuum also can be measured by such a gauge. .Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = lim (∆F/∆A) = dF/dA ∆ ∆ A→a → 43 (2. This is also a popular unit of pressure. dF = P dA (2. In the metric system the popular unit of pressure is kgf/cm2. ‘a’ is the limiting area which will give results independent of the area. will actuate the pointer to indicate the vacuum pressure. The tube will tend to straighten under pressure.2. X Section X X X Flattened phosphere bronze tube P atm Pointer Sensor P Figure 2.1 Pressure gauges In the Borden gauge a tube of elliptical section bent into circular shape is exposed on the inside to the pressure to be measured and on the outside to atmospheric pressure.1) F is the resultant force acting normal to the surface area A. Under vacuum the tube will tend to bend further inwards and as in the case of pressure. This explicitly means that pressure is the ratio of the elemental force to the elemental area normal to it. 2. As the magnitude is small kN/m2 (kPa) and MN/m2 (Mpa) are more popularly used.1.1.1. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 105 N/m2 and is designated as ‘‘bar’’.2) Chapter 2 The force dF in the normal direction on the elemental area dA due to the pressure P is The unit of pressure in the SI system is N/m2 also called Pascal (Pa). The scale is obtained by calibration with known pressure source. This is approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure or 1 bar. 2.2. The end of the tube will move due to this action and will actuate through linkages the indicating pointer in proportion to the pressure.2 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Pressure is generally measured using a sensing element which is exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and on the other side to the surrounding atmospheric pressure or other reference pressure.

The mercury barometer and bellow type meter have zero as the reference pressure. The amplified signal is generally calibrated to indicate the pressure to be measured.2. The other side of the measuring surface in these cases is exposed to vacuum.62 bar. The sum of the gauge pressure and the outside pressure gives the absolute pressure which actually is the pressure measured. If the pressure measured is lower than that of surrounding pressure then Absolute pressure = surrounding pressure – gauge reading This will be less than the surrounding pressure. The deformation provides a signal either as a change in electrical resistance or by a change in the capacitance value. 1.44 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The pressure measured by the gauge is called gauge pressure.2. An amplifier is used to amplify the value of the signal. The outside pressure is measured using a mercury barometer (Fortins) or a bellows type meter called Aneroid barometer shown in Fig. A gauge indicates 12 kPa as the fluid pressure while. the outside pressure is 150 kPa. Convert this pressure into kgf/cm2 Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Outside pressure = 150 + 12 = 162 kPa or 1.62 bar = 1. In this text the mension pressure means absolute pressure. Gauge pressure will be specifically indicated.2 Barometer When the pressure measured is above surroundings. This is called Vacuum. Determine the absolute pressure of the fluid.1. Vacuum (Zero pressure) Mercury H Pointer Bearing for pointer pivot spring box P atm P atm Thread Partially evacuated Figure 2.2.62 × 105 N/m2 . Electrical pressure transducers use the deformation of a flexible diaphragm exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and to the surrounding pressure or reference pressure on the other side. Hence these meters provide the absolute pressure value. 2. Example 2. then Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + surrounding pressure The surrounding pressure is usually the atmospheric pressure.

013 bar = 101. Determine the absolute pressure inside the condenser. Tangential stress cannot exist if a fluid is to be at rest.3 kPa = 760 mm of Hg. the force due to specific weight should be considered. For the element to be in equilibrium. dl × cos θ = dz So. Pz × dx × dy = Pθ × dl × dy × sin θ + 0. The barometer indicates 1.3.81 N/cm2 = 9.3.62 × 105/98100 = 1.013 bar. Convert this pressure into head of mercury.3 kPa = (21.81 × 104 N/m2 = 98100 N/m2 1. Let the thickness perpendicular to the paper be dy.3 kPa 101.2.3 – 80 = 21. Pθ = Px When considering the vertical components.8 mm of Hg 2.3/101.1. Barometer reading = 1.62 × 105 N/m2 = 1.3 PASCAL’S LAW In fluids under static conditions pressure is found to be independent of the orientation of the area. Let the pressure on the surface inclined at an angle θ to vertical be Pθ and its length be dl.5 × γ × dx × dy × dz Chapter 2 . Pz. y and z directions be Px. 2.3 kPa. This concept is explained by Pascal’s law which states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading Absolute pressure in the condenser = 101. A vacuum gauge fixed on a steam condenser indicates 80 kPa vacuum.1 Pascals law demonstration Consider a wedge shaped element in a volume of fluid as shown in Fig. The proof for the statement is given below. Pθ × dl × dy × cos θ = Px × dy × dz But.651 kgf/cm2 45 Example 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids As 1 kgf/cm2 = 9. Let the pressure in the x. z y q q Pq dl dy dl Px dy dz x dz dx g dx dy dz/2 Pz dx dy Figure 2. (standard atmosphere) ∴ 21. Py. This is possible only if the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions so that the resultant force at that point will be zero.3) × 760 = 159. First considering the x direction.

4. it can be shown that Py = Pθ and so Px = Py = Pz Hence. the pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions. its magnitude is one order less compared to the other terms. A force balance in the s direction (for the element to be in equilibrium) gives P × dAs – (P + dp) × dAs – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ = 0 Simplifying. 2. The body force due to gravity acts vertically and its value is γ × ds × dAs. Surfaces generally experience compressive forces due to the action of fluid pressure. 2. The surface forces on the curved area are balanced. . dl × sin θ = dx. Pressure forces are called surface forces. if these relations are specified as (see also section 2. The surface forces are P at section s and P + dp at section s + ds. The variation of specific weight γ with location or pressure can also be taken into account.2). as shown in Fig.1 Free body diagram to obtain hydrostatic law Consider an element in the shape of a small cylinder of constant area dAs along the s direction inclined at angle θ to the horizontal. So. dp/ds = – γ × sin θ or. By using an element in the other direction. dp = – γ × ds × sin θ (2. This can be extended to conditions where fluid as a whole (like a rotating container) is accelerated like in forced vortex or a tank of water getting accelerated without relative motion between layers of fluid.4. The pressure at a point has only one value regardless of the orientation of the area on which it is measured.4. Pz = Pθ Px = Pz = Pθ Note that the angle has been chosen arbitrarily and so this relationship should hold for all angles.4 PRESSURE VARIATION IN STATIC FLUID (HYDROSTATIC LAW) It is necessary to determine the pressure at various locations in a stationary fluid to solve engineering problems involving these situations. dS P+ dP dAS P Y S q X rg dAS ds Figure 2. Also. Hence.1) This is the fundamental equation in fluid statics.4.46 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The second term on RHS of the above equation is negligible.1. Gravitational force is called body force as it acts on the whole body of the fluid.

. these being incompressible. if y = y1 then P = P1 and dp = 0. If the atmospheric pressure at that location is 1 bar.82 = 820 kg/m3 = (ρ × g × h)*oil = 820 × 9.6) If γ is constant as in the case of liquids.e.0322 bar = ρ × g × h = 1000 × 9.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density Consider the equation 2. Density of the oil Gauge pressure at interface Absolute pressure at interface Pressure due to water column = 1000 × 0.82 for another 40 cm.3. where the free surface is everywhere exposed to the same pressure. first for oil and then for water.68 N/m2 = 3217. then the pressure at any y location is the product of head and specific weight.6.3 = 2943 N/m2 . θ = 90 and sin θ = 1. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = – ρ g (y – y1)/go As P1. 2. the pressure increases along the depth. This has to be calculated in two steps. In a static fluid.4. In equation 2. This result is used very extensively in solving problems on manometers.4.81 × 0. ∴ θ = 0 and sin θ = 0. where head is the y distance of the point from the reference location.6.2) In a static fluid with no acceleration.4. If the fluid is incompressible. The pressure will be the same at the same level in any connected static fluid whose density is constant or a function of pressure only. Example 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids γ = γ (P.4 = 3217. s) For x axis.7) As y increases. P will be constant if y is constant. dP/dy = – γ = – ρg/go Rearranging and integrating between limits y1 and y (2.68 N/m2 = 1. planes normal to the gravity direction.4.68 + 1 × 105 N/m2 = 103217.4. An open cylindrical vertical container is filled with water to a height of 30 cm above the bottom and over that an oil of specific gravity 0.81 × 0.4. The oil does not mix with water. This leads to the statement. y1 and γ are specified for any given situation. dP/dx = 0 47 (2. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = γ × (y1 – y) = ρ g (y1 – y)/go (2. the pressure decreases and vice versa (y is generally measured in the upward direction).4) Chapter 2 In y direction.4.4. determine the absolute and gauge pressures at the oil water interface and at the bottom of the cylinder. A consequence is that the free surface of a liquid will seek a common level in any container.5) (2. z p p1 dp = − γ z y y1 dy (2. the pressure gradient is zero along any horizontal line i.

(P/γ) = (Po/γo).48 Gauge pressure at the bottom Absolute pressure at bottom Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = gauge pressure at the interface + (ρ × g × h)water = 3217. y) then the variables should be separated and integrated. γ = (P × γo)/Po (dP/P) = – (γo/Po) dy Integrating from zero altitude to y m As (dP/dy) = – γ = – (P × γo)/Po. P = 43. separating variables z In p1 ( dp/ p) = − (γ o / po ) dy 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (γo/Po) × y (2.28 × (5000 – 0). at any location i.68 N/m2 or 1. Example 2. 2..e.3 = 6160. P50 = atmospheric pressure + pressure at top surface + ρgh = 1 × 105 + 0.81 = 11.68 N/m2 = 6160.600 N/m2 = 0.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density Consider equation 2. using equation 2.3 and 2.4.4.4.4.005°C per metre. If the atmospheric pressure is 1 × 105 Pa.2.8145 × 105 Pa = 5.4 bar.5.4.436 bar (ii) isothermal P × v = constant or (P/ρ) = constant or (P/ρ g) = constant or (P/γ) = constant.4 × 105 + 900 × 9.81 × 50 N/m2 = 5. The gauge pressure at the surface of a liquid of density 900 kg/m3 is 0.5 z z p1 p dp = − y y1 γdy γ = (P/RT) × g = {1 × 105/[287 × (273 + 30)]} × 9.28 N/m3 Integrating between 0 and 5000 m P – 1 × 105 = – 11. Gas constant R = 287 J/kg K (i) constant air density. If γ = γ(y) then ∫ dP = – γ (y) dy. If γ = γ (P.4. calulate the absolute pressure at a depth of 50 m.68 + 1000 × 9.4. The local atmospheric pressure at a place at 30° C is 1 bar.8145 bar (absolute) 2. dP/dy = – γ Gamma can be a function of either P or y or both. Solving.4.81 × 0. *Note: go is left out as go = 1 in SI units Example 2.7) .0616 bar This value also equals the sum of absolute pressure at interface and the pressure due to water column. If γ = γ (P) then ∫ γ (P) dP = ∫ dy. Determine the pressure at an altitude of 5 km if (i) the air density is assumed to be constant (ii) if the temperature is assumed to be constant and (iii) if with altitude the temperature decreases linearly at a rate of 0.68 + 1 × 105 = 106160.

4. 2.1 (a) and some types of manometers are shown in Fig.506 N/m2 = 0.1 (b). γ = Pg/RT = (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] 49 (2.4.55506 bar (2. The principle of operation is shown in Fig.56893 bar (iii) The condition reduces to the form. T = To – cy Pv = RT. The pressure due to a constant density liquid (ρ) column if height h is equal to ρ gh/go.5. (dP/P) = – (g/R) × [dy/(To – c × y)].5. For dimensional homogenity go should be used. Integrating. Chapter 2 .9) (2. ρ = (P/RT). y = 5000 m and solving. In Fig. ρ × g = (P × g/RT). 2. to the end point. P=1× 105 exp [– (11. 2. It needs no calibration. the pressure inside the conduit is higher than atmospheric pressure. go in SI system of units has a numerical value of unity. and h is the height of the column of liquid (AB). Hence it is often left out in the equations. The pressure at the centre point D can be calculated as Pd = Pc – γ2 × h′ Generally the pressure at various points can be calculated using the basic hydrostatic equation dP/dy = – γ and continuing the summation from the starting point at which pressure is known.005. Very low pressures can be measured using micromanometers. The column of liquid marked AB balances the pressure existing inside the conduit. The pressure at the end point will be the result of this series of operations. The pressure at point C above the atmospheric pressure (acting on the open limb) is given by h × (γ1– γ2) where γ1 and γ2 are the specific weights of fluids 1 and 2.893 N/m2 = 0.1 (a).8) z In or p1 ( dp/ p) = − ( g/ R) dy/(T1 − cy) 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (g/R) {1/(– c)} In {(To – cy)/(To – c × 0) = (g/Rc) ln {(To – cy)/To} P/Po = [(To – cy)/To]–g/RC P = 55. the pressure is the same. 2.4.10) Substituting for To = 303 and c = 0.5 MANOMETERS Manometer is a device to measure pressure or mostly difference in pressure using a column of liquid to balance the pressure. where the pressure is to be determined. It is a basic instrument and is used extensively in flow measurement. (dP/dy) = – γ = – (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] or.Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = Po exp [– (γo × y/Po )].28 × 5000)/(1 × 105)] = 56. The basic principle of operation of manometers is that at the same level in contigues fluid at rest. Now y = 5000. Another method of solving is to start from a point of known pressure as datum and adding γ × ∆y when going downwards and subtracting of γ × ∆y while going upwards. (P/ρ) = RT.5.

2. A manometer is fitted as shown in Fig. The sensitivity of simple manometers can be improved by using inclined tubes (at known angle) where the length of the column will be increased by (1/sin θ) where θ is the angle of inclination with the horizontal (Fig.5.6 . horizontal distances need not be considered in the calculation.35 kPa gauge Pa Oil.9 m Water C B Hg (13. The advantages of using manometers are (i) their simplicity (ii) reliability and (iii) ease of operation and maintenance and freedom from frequent calibration needed with other types of gauges.81 = Pa + 121178 N/m2 Consider the right limb PA = PB – 0.6.6. 2. pressure at left hand side = pressure at right hand side PC = PB Consider the left limb PC = Pa + 0. With respect to datum at B.1 (b)).9 × 1000 × 9.5.125 m A 0.9 0. Ex.9 × 13600 × 9.125 × 900 × 9. Example 2. S = 0. Determine the pressure at point A.600 kg/m ) 3 Figure Ex.81 + 0.9 × 1000 × 9. As only gravity is involved.50 P atm D + g2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h¢ 1 C B h A 2 g1 g2 3 g1 g1 g1 1 g1 (a) B h A 2 (b) A q g2 B h Figure 2.81 = Pa + 112349 N/m2 Expressed as gauge pressure PA = 112349 N/m2 = 112.1 Types of manometers ∆P1–5 = γ1 ∆y1 + γ2 ∆y2 + γ3 ∆y3 + γ4 ∆y4 with proper sign for ∆y values. 2.81 = Pa + 121178 – 0.

7 = Patm + 3237. 2.6) = Patm + 5886 Pa As PC = PD PB = PC – [0.81 × 0. The volumes above this manometric fluid is filled with a fluid of slightly lower density. S = 0. Pressure at E = atmospheric pressure.5.9 + A Water Figure Ex.2] = 40000 – [(0.19 kPa (gauge) P atm Oil.8.81 × 0. Chapter 2 PC = PD = 22342 N/m2 . A multiple U-tube manometer is fitted to a pipe with centre at A as shown in Fig. S = 0.7.405. 2. Determine the pressure at E if PA = 0.2 N/m2 PC = PB – [(0.2.81 × 0.8] = 22342 N/m2 PE = PD + [1000 × 9.3] = Patm + 5886 – 2648.4 m E + 0.8. Determine the pressure at A.3 = Patm + 7161. PA – PB is the required value. The area ratio is the significant parameter. These chambers are connected by a U tube having a much smaller area compared to the chambers A and B. 2.2] = 29.7.8 Example 2.1.81 × 0.3 N/m2 or 7161.4 bar (gauge) PB = PA – [(0.9 × 1000) × 9.9 × 1000) × 9. Ex. An inverted U-tube manometer is fitted between two pipes as shown in Fig.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 51 Example 2.2.8] = 30190 N/m2 = 30. the reading may be amplified.3 C + A E 0. Chambers A and B are exposed to the fluid pressures to be measured.81 × 1.5.3 Pa PA = PB + [1000 × 9.9 × 1000) × 9.81 × 0.4] = Patm + 7161.9 × 1000 × 9.Ex. For improved accuracy the manometer fluid density should be close to that of the fluid used for measurement.81 × 1.9 C D B B Water 1.6 m D Water Oil. Patm PD = Patm + (1000 × 9.2 m 0.7 Figure Ex.1 Micromanometer Small differences in liquid levels are difficult to measure and may lead to significant errors in reading.3 kPa (gauge) 2. Using an arrangement as shown in Fig.8 m B 0.

PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] (2. Let the displacement in the chamber A be ∆y.9. the manometric fluid movement on the pressure side is 5 cm.5. .2 Micromanometer So Starting from level in chamber A and level 3 as datum PB = PA + {(y1 + ∆y) × γ1} + {(y2 + y3 – ∆y) × γ2} – {2y3 × γ3} – {(y2 – y3 + ∆y) × γ2} – {(y1 – ∆y) × γ1} = PA – [2 × y3 × (γ3 – γ2) + 2 × ∆y × (γ2 – γ1)] As ∆y = (a/A) × y3 PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – [2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1] (2. The displacement in the limb will therefore by (y × A/a) which becomes better readable. The fluid displaced goes into the U tube limb of area a.2) For a given instrument y3 is a direct measure of ∆P → (PA – PB).2 kg/m3.5. The micromanometer fluid is having a specific gravity of 1. After connecting to the pressure sides let the level of manometric fluid be 3-3 on the high pressure side. The air density is 1. if the area of the well chamber is 10 times that of the tube. The fall in level of the manometric fluid from 2–3 on the left limb will equal the rise of the level from 3 to 4 in the right limb. Under measuring conditions.1 and the filler fluid is water. Let the specific weight of the pressure side fluid be γ1 and that of the other fluid be γ2 and that of the manometric fluid be γ3.5. Let the original level of manometric fluid in the U tube be at 2-2 and let the fluid levels originally in the chambers be 1-1. it is necessary that (γ3 – γ2) is small. To facilitate improved reading accuracy or increased value of y3. γ Example 2.52 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let pressure PA > PB and let it cause a depression of ∆y in chamber A. Determine the pressure difference between the two points A and B.1) Very often γ1 is small (because gas is generally the medium) and the last term is negligible. A micromanometer is to be used to find the pressure difference of air flowing in a pipeline between two points A and B. Y1 g1 A Dy g2 Filler fluid 2 g3 3 PA 1 1 PB g1 B DY g2 4 y3 2 y3 3 y2 Manometric fluid Figure 2.

10 2. This helps to measure very low pressure differences with sufficient accuracy.05 × (1/10) × 1.1 × 1000 × 9.1%.81) – 1000 × 9.1 y3 = 5 cm = 0. The actual head. Surface forces + Body forces = Inertia forces The net force in the s direction = rate of change of momentum is s direction.2 × 9.81 N/m3. γ3 = 1. Using equation 2.2 × 9.6 DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE IN STATIC FLUIDS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION.5. γ1 = 1.05 × [1.5. 2. y = 0.42 N/m2 (gauge) Reading accuracy is improved as 3. The advantage of this micromanometer is that the deflection is as high as 5 cm even for a pressure difference of 196.08 N/m2 The second term due to air is negligible as it does not contribute even 0. aS Consider the small cylindrical element of sectional area dAs and length s inside the fluid.42 cm is amplified to 10 cm. P m 10 c Pressure at the tapping point = γ × y = 800 × 9.81} = 196.11772 = 196.81 × 0.1 × sin 20 = 0.1 × 1000 × 9. γ2 = 1000 × 9.1 = 2 × 0. Determine the fluid pressure at a tapping connected with an inclined manometer if the rise in fluid level is 10 cm along the inclined tube above the reservoir level.05 m. which is accelerated at as along the s direction.81 N/m3. For equilibrium along s direction.0342 20° Figure Ex. In case ordinary manometer is used the deflection will be 5 mm only. 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Refer Fig.81) PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – {2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1} 53 × (1 – 1/10)] – {2 × 0.2 – 0.81 N/m3. The tube is inclined at 20° to horizontal as shown in figure. Pressure force + Body force along s direction = {P × dAs – (P + dP) × dAs} – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ Chapter 2 . The density of manometric fluid is 800 kg/m3. Example 2.0342 m = 268.10.08 Pa. and (a/A) = 1/10.

If the direction of free surface is s then dP/ds = 0. variable density problems are more involved in this situation and solutions become more complex. θ = 90° (2.6. These equations can be integrated if as.6.6.6. (two dimensional) as = ay × sin θ + ax × cos θ . 2. ρ are specified as functions of P or s. However.6. for acceleration. a pressure gradient in x direction (horizontal direction) is also possible.1) This shows that when there is acceleration. Using equation 2.6.3) dP/dx = – ρ × ax (2.6.5) (2.6. in direction s inclined at θ to x direction.6.1 Free body diagram for accelerating fluid element Inertial force = The rate of change of momentum = ρ × dAs × ds × as Equating and simplifying. The above three equations are to be used to determine the pressure distribution in cases where the fluid as a whole is accelerated without flow or relative motion in the fluid. as this surface is exposed to the same pressure all over.6) In general.54 dS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P+ dP dAs P Y S q X rg dAs ds aS Figure 2.2) dP/dy = – (γ + ρ × ay) dP/dy will be zero when. dP/ds = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) For the y direction. γ.1 ay Free surface ax q Container Figure 2.2 Free surface of accelerating fluid γ × sin θ = – ρ × as or θ= sin–1 (– ρ × as/γ) = sin–1 (–as/g) (2. γ = – ρ × ay For the x direction.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid The pressure gradient along any free surface is zero. θ = 0° (2.

6. When a closed container completely filled with liquid is accelerated a free surface cannot form.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction Using the general expression for the model (fluid under acceleration) and the equation 2. tan θ = – ax/ay (iii) In general.6. the free surface angle will depend on ax.5 and rearranging tan θ = – [ax/(g + ay)] The consequence of these equations are (i) If ax = 0. ds = dx. When an open container filled with liquid accelerates. B are constants): Using equation 2.7.6. ay and g. a free surface will be formed as specified by the above equations. In space liquid spilling poses problems because of this condition.6. [dP/(AP + B)] = – ax × dx Integrating.6.10) This equation provides solution for pressure variation in the x direction when density varies linearly with pressure. When gravity is not present.6.6.7) (iv) The free surfaces of liquids are constant pressure surfaces and hence follow equations 2. . (ii) If density varies with pressure as.6. liquids may not assume a free surface but will be influenced only by surface tension.1 (dP/ds) = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) θ = 0 for x direction. (2. ρ = AP + B (A.9) Chapter 2 The constant pressure surface (free surface) will be normal to the resultant acceleration.6.6. between the locations x1 and x2 (1/A) × [ln( AP + B)] p2 = – ax(x2 – x1) or p1 ln [(AP2 + B)/(AP1 + B) = – A × ax × (x2 – x1) (AP2 + B) = (AP1 + B) exp [– A × ax × (x2 – x1)] or P2 = (1/A) [(AP1 + B) exp {– A × ax × (x2 – x1)} – B] (2. 2. the free surface will be horizontal (ii) If g = 0. But the pressure at the various locations will be governed by these equations.8.5–2.8) p1 z dp = − (ρ as ) x1 z dx (P2 – P1) = – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = P1 – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) ax is positive in x direction (towards right) and negative in the – x direction (left). as = ax (x directional acceleration) (dP/dx) = – (ρ × ax) (i) For constant density conditions: p2 x2 (2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Substituting in equation 2. 55 (2.

B = 0.50. P2 = P1 – ρ × ax × (x2 – x1) Case (i) ax is towards right and so +ve and (x2 – x1) = 2 m 1.000 = {1/1.8 is accelerated at 5 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.50.000 = P1 + 800 × 5 × 2 P1 = 1. Determine the pressure at a point which is 5 m to the left of a point where the pressure gauge shows a reading of 250 kPa.11) containing oil of specific gravity 0.12 Equation 2.2 × 10–5 × 15 × 5)]} P1 = 250225 Pa = 250. ∴ 1 S = 0. x2 – x1 = 5 m 2.58.2 × 10–5} × {(1/1. (note the unit of pressure used is N/m2) Example 2.6.000 Pa = 142 kPa. ±5 m/s 2 2 150 kPa 2m 158 a + 150 _ a 142 Figure Ex.12.000 N/m2 = 158 kPa. ax = 15 m/s2. 15 m/s 2 250 kPa 5m P P Figure Ex.11 Case (ii) ax is towards left and so –ve. 2. Since the specific gravity of the oil is constant.9 can be used to solve this problem. A = 1.8 P1 = 1.42. Determine the pressure at the left end if the tube is 2 m long.50.10 has to be used as density varies with pressure P2 = {1/A} {AP1 + B) × exp [– A × ax(x2 – x1)] – B} Here. 2. A cylinder (Figure Ex.225 kPa. 2.2 × 10–5 × P is accelerated towards right at 15 m/s2.11.56 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 2. 1.2 × 10–5.2 × 10–5 × P1) × exp [(–1.000 = P1 – 800 × 5 × 2. equation 2. A horizontal long cylinder containing fluid whose density varies as = 1. .6. Under this condition the pressure gauge fitted at the right end shows a reading of 150 kPa.

A U-tube as shown in figure filled with water to mid level is used to measure the acceleration when fixed on moving equipment.25 m. Using equation 2.0613125 = 0. The tank is uniformly accelerated to the right at 10 m/s2.4905 × 0. A fluid of specific gravity 0.2 m3 Fluid spilled = 0.5 × 0. using eqn.13 tan θ = – 0. As tan θ = 2h/A.1386875 m3 Example 2.6. h = A ax/2g Example 2. tan θ = – ax/(g + ay) = – 10/(9.14 This is similar to the formation of free surface with angle θ.5 × 0.14. 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 57 Example 2.2 – 0.15.81. A ax A Fluid tank volume or initial volume of fluid h q Figure Ex.5 = 0. 2.5 m wide and 0.5/x = – 10/9. 0.81 + 0) With reference to the figure.5 q X Figure Ex.13.8 m long to a depth of 0. Free surface 0. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to just start to spill and also when half the water has spilled.8 m long. Determine the acceleration ax as a function of the angle θ and the distance A between legs. 0. As ay = 0. Since the fluid tank is accelerated in the horizontal direction ay = 0.8 0.6. So x = 0.5 0.4905 m Remaining volume of fluid = (1/2) × 0.8 = 0.5 m high.5 m wide and 0.5 × 0.7 tan θ = – ax/(g + ay). θ = tan–1 (ax/g) ax = g × tan θ.5 m high.0613125 m3 = 0. Determine the volume of fluid spilled from the tank. tan θ = – ax/g The acute angle θ will be given by.7. 2. Chapter 2 . Water is filled in a rectangular tank of 0.8 is filled fully in a rectangular open tank of size 0.

2.6.25 ∴ ax = 1. the liquid as a whole rotates. the weight of water is zero 2.5 × 1000 × 9. Fluid particles rotating in concentric circle with velocities of r × ω along the tangent to the circles form a forced vortex. (dP/dy) = – (γ + ρ × ay). The variation of the linear speed with radius causes a concave free surface to form. Equation 2.1 is considered.5 [9810 – 1000 ay].6. What should be the acceleration if the pressure on the base to be atmospheric? Using equation 2. The fluid rotates as a rigid body with velocity of ω × r at a radius r (ω being the angular velocity).16.5 (9810 – 1000 × 3. but the linear velocity varies along the radius.7. The pressure variations and gradients caused by the rotation can be determined using equations 2.5 m.5/0. The radius r is taken as positive along the outward direction.3.25 × 9.5/0. It is assumed that there is no relative sliding between layers. dP = – (γ + ρ × ay) dy (P2 – P1) = (y1 – y2) (γ + ρ ×ay) (y1 – y2) = 1.625 × 9.e. the pressure change along r1 and r2 is obtained as ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) (2. i.465 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) At static conditions.4 = 1.7. 2.1 gives dP/dr = – ρ × as = ρ × r × ω2 as θ = 0. The angular velocity is the same at all points.8 = 0. The angle of the free surface with horizontal at the time of starting of spill is ax/g = tan θ = 0.625 ∴ ax = 0. the water will be at 0.5 m height of water in it is accelerating downwards at 3.26 m/s2 Example 2.58 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Since the tank is half full. where ay = – g.. A tank containing 1. An element of fluid as shown in Fig. P2 – P1 = 0 = 1. at the time of spill the free surface will be along the left top and right bottom.6. as ay is downwards and hence negative (P2 – P1) = 1. Determine the pressure at the base of the tank above the atmospheric pressure.81/1000 = 14.6.5 m/s2.5 (γ – ρ × ay) When half the water has spilled.81 = 6. ay = 9.1 – 2. and ar = – r × ω2 dP/dy = – γ as ay = 0 Using the first equation.7 FORCED VORTEX When a cylindrical container filled with a liquid is rotated about its axis.715 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) for the pressure at base to be atmospheric.1) . with fluid moving away from the centre.81 = 12.13 m/s2 tan θ = 0.81 m/s2 This is the situation of weightlessness. the pressure would have been 1.4 m at bottom (P2 – P1) = 1.5)/1000 = 9.

the pressure at all other points on the base can be calculated.2. (P – Pb) = – γ × (y – yo) = – γ × y.7. (Pr – Po) = ρ × (ω2/2) × r2 = ρ × (ωr2)/2 (2.7.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Free surface A r PdA PdA + d (PdA) dF1 dq/2 dr 59 dF1 w dq 2 Figure 2.6.7.7 is used. v/r = constant as v = ω. taking yo as the datum Here P is the pressure at the surface at any radius and Pb is the pressure at the base at the same radius and y is the height of liquid at that location. The surface profile is shown in Fig. ax = – r × ω2 and tan θ = dy/dr = rω2/g Hence. 2. y2 – y1 = ω2 [r 2 – r12] 2g 2 (2. ay = 0. Chapter 2 s dr .2) If the pressure at the centre of the base or any radius is known. This shows that the free surface is a paraboloid.7. radius and g.7.3) In order to determine the value of slope at any radius equation 2. the velocity near the centre being the highest (v × r = constant). In forced vortex.4 (a)) y = yo + [(ω × r)2/(2 × g)] where yo is the height of liquid at the centre. Here the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (volume flow depends on area).7. (space application) then y → ∞ and the free surface becomes cylindrical or the liquid adheres to the surface in a layer. This gives Pb = P + γ × y (2.1 Free body diagram of rotating fluid element From centre to any radius r. dy/dr = r × ω2/g ∴ dy = r dr × ω2/g Integrating from centre to radius r and rearranging. tan θ = – ax / (g + ay) For a rotating cylinder.r and ω is constant If g = 0. The height y at any radius depends on the angular velocity. A free vortex forms when the container is stationary and the fluid drains at the centre as in the case of draining a filled sink.4) (2.

42)/2 × 9.1 is applicable.42) N/m2 Pr2 = 11106. Pr2 – 0 = 1000 × (15.4.71 rad/s. It is to be noted here that the volume of a paraboloid of height h is equal to the volume of cylinder of half its height and the same radius. B.712/2) × (0.2 Forced Vortex—Free surface Example 2. Equation 2. Hence the height at the outer radius is 1 m. 0. ∴ ω = 8. A tall cylinder of 1 m dia is filled with a fluid to a depth of 0.5 m and rotated at a speed such that the height at the centre is zero.7.7.86 rad/s ω = 2π N/60. Determine the speed of rotation.52 – 0. The outside pressure is 1.4 Using equation 2.52)/(2 × 9. ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) Pr1 = 0 (gauge) at r1 = 0. y2 – y 1 = ω2 [r22 – r12] 2g = 15.4 y = yo + [(ω2 × r2)/(2 × g)]. while the gauge . substituting the values. C and D are installed as shown in figure in chambers 1 and 2.01 bar. 1 = 0 + (ω2 × 0.5 m ω = 2 π N/60 = 2 × π × 150/60 = 15. Four pressure gauges A.7. r2 = 0. Using equation 2. The cylinder is empty at the bottom surface up to a radius of 0.1.60 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A Free surface q dr A dy w Figure 2.7.52 – 0.132 m SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 2. Determine the pressure at the extreme bottom edge.6 rpm Example 2. The gauge A reads 0. N = (8.17.18.2 bar.4.4 m.184 N/m2 (gauge). Water is filled partially in a cylinder of 1 m dia and rotated at 150 rpm.81).86 × 60)/(2 × π) = 84.712 (0. Also calculate the height of liquid at the edge.81 = 1.

2. Determine the readings of gauges 1 to 6. A. Figure P.4 5 1. 4.1 D 3 A B 2. PC = P4 + PB. 3. This gauge measures the pressure in Pressure in bar chamber A.6 bar.8 bar.6. PC = P5 + PA. By similar procedure the reading of gaug 3.1 = 1. Gauge 1.8 = 3.2 = 1.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 61 B reads – 0.4 + P6 ∴ P3 = 0.01 + 0.11 = 0. 5.6 + P4 1.6 = 3.1 bar Gauge D reads the pressure in chamber 1 as compared to chamber 2 gauge reading D = pressure in chamber 1 – pressure in chamber 2 = 1.11 bar atmospheric pressure reading of gauge = pressure in chamber 2 + reading of gauge C C = 1. denoting the gauge reading by the corresponding suffix.1 ∴ P2 = 1. 2. PB = P1 + PD.1 bar respectively. 1.1 ∴ P1 = 0. ∴ P4 = – 0.6 6 1 3.5 bar gauge 1 should show 0.8 4 C Gauge 2.8 + P3 1. The gauge is in chamber D. 6 are obtained as below: P3: P4: P5: P6: PD = P3 + PC.1 pressure in chamber 1 = atmospheric pr + reading of gauge A = 1.2 are 3. 2. The pressures in chambers A.11 = – 0.2.21 bar pressure in chamber 2 = pressure in chamber 1 + reading of gauge B = 1. ∴ P5 = – 1.01 – 1.1 bar. C and D as shown in Fig.5 bar 2 2. B. ∴ P6 = – 0.2 2 B D Pressure in bar Figure P.21 – 1.1 = 1.2 PA = P2 + PD . P. Determine the pressures in chamber 1 and chamber 2 and the reading of gauge C and D. 2.4 = P2 + 2.6 = P1 + 2. 0.1 C . 2. PB = P6 + PA.3 bar.8 = 2.8 and 2.8 bar Chapter 2 1 –0.2.4.4 + P5 2.1 bar (opposite of gauge B) Problem 2. This gauge measures the pressure in chamber B and the gauge is situated in chamber D.21 – 0.3 bar.

Then γ = (p/p1)1/kγ1 The hydrostatic equation is dP/dy = – γ or dP = – γ dy The equation ∴ or ∴ Pvk = constant can be rewritten as.81] = 4000 ∴ ∴ hw = 0.3 kPa. dP/P1/k = – Po–1/k γο dy.81 × 830) Solving. Summing the pressures due to the two columns.6 bar.4 = const. h = 0.02996 m or about 3 cm. The pressure due to the atmosphere at the earths surface is 101.62 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The gauge readings show the pressure difference between the chambers connected and not absolute pressures.5. A U-tube open to atmosphere is first filled to a sufficient height with mercury. Problem 2.5. To = 300 K .25 × 9.000 m altitude.25) × 900 × 9.25) hw × 1000 × 9.81 = (0. Such a vacuum is not possible. Let the rise in mercury column be h.81 × 1000) + (0. On one side water of volume equal to 200 mm column over which kerosene of density 830 m3/kg of volume equal to 250 mm column are added. Then h × 13600 × 9. The law can be written as [P/(ρg)1. (As hk = hw/1. The gauge pressure at the base was 4 kN/m2.2371 m. or 18.9 floats. Determine the rise in the mercury column in the other limb. For example reading of P5 = – 1. 2.25.1896 m.4 = constant.. (A) substituting in A and separating variables [k/(k – 1)] [P(k–1)/k – Po(k–1)/k] = Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) (y – yo) . Temperature at ground level is 27°C.1) The values at various altitudes are calculated using the equation and compared with air table values.96 cm Problem 2.71 cm hk = 0.3.81 + [(hw/1. Problem 2. If the ratio of hw/hk = 1.. Denoting the index as k. or 23.4.2 × 9. Determine pressure at 10. determine the heights of the columns. integrating between limits yo and y = – Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) y P(k–1) / k = {Po(k–1)/k – [((k – 1)/k)] Po(k–1)/k (g/RTo) y} P = Po {1 – [(k – 1)/k] (g/RTo) y} (P. P/γk = Po /γok γk = (P/Po)γok γ = P1/k Po–1/k γο = γο Po–1/k P1/k. A container has hw cm of water over which hk cm of kerosene of specific gravity 0. or P/γ1.4] = const. assuming that the condition of air can be represented by the law Pv1. P1 γ1–k = P2γ2–k = P γ –k Let the specific weight at altitude y be γ.

3 × 103 – K ln {[K – (9810 × 1500)]/K} 14758.47 0. At the surface γo = 9810 N/m3 and Po = 101.7848 4000 0.5 × 109 N/m2 γ = (2.5 × 103 3 × 109 14751 × 103 Note : y is –ve as measured downwards.61 0. . Using steam table indicate whether water will boil at this point if temperature is 30° C. Determine the pressure at B.5 × 103 = – K ln [K – (14.7 A chemical reaction vessel of the shape given in figure is full of water with the top of the longer limb sealed and the top of the smaller limb open to atmosphere.0561 dP/dy = – γ = – K γo /(K + γo y) ∴ dP = {– K γo /(K + γo y)} dy = – K γody/(K +γo y) P – Po = – (K.3524 10000 0. determine the value of K.03 0.5 × 109 gives the value nearest to LHS ∴ K = 2. The density of water is 992 kg/m3 at this condition. substituting the given values Integrating between the surface and the depth .3 kPa.(P .6) 2.25 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Altitude.5 × 109 + [9810 × ( – 1500)]} = 9868.2.γo/γo) ln [(K +γo y)/(K + γo × 0)] = – K ln [(K +γo y)/K] ∴ P = Po – K ln[(K +γo y)/K] 14860 × 103 = 101.6.6086 6000 0.4657 8000 0. 2. kPa 1000 9930 2000 19798 4000 39652 6000 59665 Sealed B The specific weight at this location is Problem 2. If the pressure measured at 1500 m was 14860 kPa.79 0.8874 2000 0. PA = 1.35 0.5 × 109 14758. In a fresh water lake the specific weight of water γ is found to vary with depth y as γ = K γo/(K + γo y) where K is the bulk modulus.08 N/m2 The pressure at various depths are tabulated.5 × 109 × 9810)/{2. m P. Depth.715 × 106)/K] Solving by trial (generally K is of the order of 109) Assumed value of K RHS 2 × 109 14769 × 103 2.013 bar 8m Figure P. m Calculated P/Po From air tables 1000 0.89 0.2622 63 20000 0.7 Chapter 2 Problem 2. the top of the longer limb.

A U-tube manometer has both its limbs enlarged to 25 times the tube area.8.3 × 103 – (8 × 992 × 9. calculate the height h.81 × 89h.64 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery PB = 101.9. Now let pressure P2 act on the oil side limb and let the level of water below move down by distance h to the level yy. Derive an expression for the pressure difference in the limbs. Thus the sensitivity is improved appreciably by this arrangement. when both pressures are equal. If the water just begins to boil.h Py is now calculated. Then both limbs are filled with fluid of specific weight γs to the same level. Then the pressures at these points are equal as the same liquid fills the volumes below x-x. the saturation pressure as read from steam table is 4. The area of the enlarged mouth portion is 50 times the area of the tube portion. Let the height of oil on the left limb above x-x be H.h (As the filled volumes remain the same).8 P2 P1 h(a/A) h(a/A) H Oil.45 kPa At 30°C.81 × 1000[0. S = 0. Solving.95 H (in this case).246 × 103 = 101. Figure P.81) = 23447. Consider water side Py = P1 + 9. The rise of level in the water side will be (a/ A).81 × 950[H + h – h(a/A)]. hence there will be no boiling at B. Problem 2.24 mm of water. Let the water level when P1 = P2 be at x-x. what should be the length of the limb? 4. Initially the tube is filled to some level with oil of specific weight γm. Py = P2 + 9. When a pressure is applied to one of the limbs the manometric fluid rises by h m. ∴ h = 0. The pressure on both limbs at the level yy are equal.81 [50h + 19h + 20h] = 9. Let the fluid with specific weight γs be having a height H. The height of water in the other side will be (γo /γw) H or 0. A manometer of the shape shown in figure has limb A filled with water of specific gravity 1 and the other limb with oil of specific gravity 0.95. 2. Consider stationary condition. If the pressure difference is 22 N/m2.81.8 N/m2 or 23.81 [– 950H – 950h + (950 × h/50) + 950H + 1000h + (1000 × h/50)] = 9. The fall of oil level in the other limit will be also (a/A).3 × 105 – h × 992 × 9.2 mm A manometer with constant limb area will give a reading of only 2. h = 9.81 × 89h ∴ 22 = 9. As P2 – P1 = 22 22 = 9.95H + h + h(a/A)] On the oil side.95 x x h y y gm Water . In both cases assume that the liquid level remains in the enlarged section.973 m Problem 2.0252 m or 25. Now the liquid heights in each limb can be calculated. both limbs being exposed to the same pressure.24 kPa.

If a U-tube with water was used the deflection will be of the order of 4 mm. × 9810 + 0. The top of both limbs are open to atmosphere. 2. Determine the density of the unknown fluid (dimensions in mm).2 h. γs = 0.85 A 400 300 70 x 40 S 20 50 +E 60 Water B Figure P.81 ∴ ∴ 40 = h h − h = 1334.10 Figure P.02998 m or 30 mm. Air Oil 100 90 Water D Oil. Problem 2. A U-tube is filled first with a fluid of unknown density.81. γm = 1000 × 9. Consider the left limb: P y = P2 + H + 65 FG H h h a − γs 2 2 A IJ K (h)a 2 A P2 P1 (h ) a 2 A Chapter 2 Consider the right limb: P y = P1 + h h a h γs γ + H− + 2 2 A 2 m FG H IJ K gS gS H Equating and solving ∴ P2 – P1 = h h h a γm + H − + γs 2 2 2 A FG H IJ K h/2 y h/2 y gm h = γ + γs 2 m FG H FG h a − hIJ H A K – H+ h h a γs − 2 2 A Figure P.11 150 Hg C 400 . consider pressures at y as the reference.Pressure Distribution in Fluids After pressures are applied.891 is filled over the water column on both limbs. S = 0. 2.9 × 1000 × 9.9 × 9810 25 2 FG H IJ K h = 0. 2.10. Lubricating oil of specific gravity 0. Over this water is filled to depths as in figure.9 IJ K Let P2 – P1 = 40 N/m2.

81 × 0.81 × 891] equating and solving.66 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Consider level x-x in figure. When the vehicle is accelerated the difference in level between the limbs was measured as 32 mm. on the left limb the pressure at this level is PXL = (70 × 9.4 Pa PC = PB – ρHg g hHg = 104635. tan θ = ax/g or ax = g(h/L) = 9.5 kg/m3 Note: Division by 1000 is to obtain specific gravity.81 × ρ] + [(50/1000) × 9.81 × 0.12 A U-tube with a distance of 120 mm between the limbs is filled with a liquid to mid level for use as a crude accelerometer fixed on a moving vehicle. Let the angle connecting the liquid surfaces in the limbs be θ.13.11.81 × 1000] + [(90/1000) × 9. Problem 2. What will be the angle of the free surface if the container is hauled up with an acceleration of 3 m/s2 along the plane. A container in the shape of a cube of 1 m side is filled to half its depth with water and placed on a plane inclined at 30° to the horizontal. The mass of the container is 50.2.13 .7.3° 13° FP x 30° Y Case (ii) FN Weight aS 30° ax Case (i) ay 2 Figure P.032/0.30. Then using equation 2.11.15) = 84623 Pa PD = PC = 84623 Pa (300 mm air column does not contribute much) PE = PD + ρw ghw = 84623 + (1000 × 9.12) = 2.6. Determine the acceleration. Determine the pressure in the pipe. A compound manometer is used to measure the pressure in a pipe E carrying water.4) = 88547 Pa or 88547 kPa Problem 2. as tan θ = (h/2)/(L/2) = h/L tan θ = ax/(g + ay) ay = 0.013 bar = 101300 Pa PB = PA + ρogho = 1.013 × 105 + (850 × 9. 2. Determine the angle made by the free surface with the horizontal when the container slides down. Free surface aS = 3 m/s 13. PXR = [(20/1000) × 9. The dimensions are shown in Figure P.4) = 104635.4 – (13600 × 9.616 m/s2 Problem 2.81 × 0. The coefficient of friction between the container and the plane is 0.81 × (0.81 × 1000/1000) + (100 × 9.97 kg. Calculations can be started from the open limb where the pressure is known PA = Patm = 1. ρ = 1445.81 × 891/1000) On the right limb at this level.

905 × sin 30 = – 2.4525)] θ = –19. Determine the angle the free surface makes with the horizontal.15.81 + 2.4525)] ∴ θ = 30°. ax = 4.905 m/s2 Acceleration along x direction = 4. slope = 0.ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = 980 ×103 – [(900 × 10) × (– 3)] = 1007 × 103 Pa or 1007 kPa . P.4 m × 0. Refer Fig.178 m/s2 (downwards) tan θ = (– 2.2478/(9.2.2) + 10 = 26 kg Force along the surface = 26 × 9.5/26 = 4.24/550.905 × cos 30 = – 4.5)] θ = – 12.6.5 – 1404.53 N Acceleration as = 127. When moving up. ax = 2.4 × 0. The mass of the container is 10 kg. Try to generalise assuming other angles of inclination.4525 m/s2 tan θ = – [– 4.3° ax = 3 cos 30 = 2. with the same acceleration.81 – 2.1°.14.9.26 N Net downward force along the plane = Fx – Fy.5 N Force normal to plane Fy = 550.6.13 Total mass = 1000 (0. A tank 0.178) = + 0.7 tan θ = – [ax /(g + ay)] The total mass = (1 × 1 × 0.94° with horizontal Case (i) Force along the plane Chapter 2 Problem 2. The container slides without friction downwards on a surface making 30° with the horizontal. This is an interesting result.598/(9.5 × 1000) + 50. P2 = P1 – (ρ.9. ay = 2.24 N Acceleration along the plane.4525.598 m/s2.2 m.81 – 1. the gauge indicated 980 kPa.3464 Problem 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 67 Irrespective of the inclination if the acceleration along and perpendicular to the horizontal are calculated.97 = 2. then the angle made by the free surface can be obtained using equation 2. as = F/m = 1298.041)/(9. If the tank is moved up with the same acceleration determine the slope of the free surface.9 × 0.97 = 550. An aircraft hydraulic line pressure is indicated by a gauge in the cockpit which is 3 m from the line.2 m size and of height 0.µ = (2701.81 × cos 60 = 2702.2478/(9.2478 m/s2 Acceleration along y direction = 4.041 m/s2 The component along vertical. ∴ tan θ = – [4.81 + 1. same as the slope of the plane. Specific gravity of oil is 0.2364 ∴ Case (ii) ∴ θ = + 13. When the aircraft was accelerating at 10 m/s2 at level flight.4 m is filled with water upto a depth of 0. ay = – 1.26) = 1298.97 × 9.2478.81 × sin 60 = 4680.9 N The friction force acting against Fx is Fy µ = 4680.356 × cos 30 = – 2.2 × 0.81 × cos 60 = 127. ay = 3 sin 30 = 1.356 m/s2 The component along horizontal.5 m/s2 tan θ = – [2.97 × 9.97 kg Fx = 550.3 = 1404. Determine the pressure at the oil line using equation 2.

ω2. 2. The left side is vented to atmosphere. saturation pressure is read as 0.30 to the vertical.04241 bar. x = 4. A child holds a balloon with a string and it is vertical along straight road. ∴ P = 0. Vent P2 = P1 – ρ.16 is filled with water. A fully air conditioned car takes a curve of radius 250 m at 90 kmph. A U-tube shown in figure is filled with water at 30°C and is sealed at A and is open to atmosphere at D.81 m/s2 Figure P. choosing B as origin. A tank as in Fig. A D 400 mm 100 mm B Pr1 = 0.P. P = – [γ (ax /g)x] – γ y = – 9810 (ax /g) x – 9810y P = – 1000 axx – 9810 y In this case. During the travel along the curve.81) = 0.2. r2 = 0. the balloon will turn inwards by 14. ax = r.16 Problem 2.255. ∴ v = 90 × 1000/3600 = 25 m/s ω = (v/πD). the general equation can be used.68 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 2. Problem 2. Determine the rotational speed along AB in rad/s is the pressure at the closed end A should not fall below the saturation pressure of water at this temperature. ρ = 1000 kg/m3. Determine the direction of the string measured from the vertical during the turn. ∴ ax = 9.3° As pressure increases outwards.013 bar. Determine the acceleration along the right which will cause the pressure at A to be atmospheric.04241 bar using equation 2. y = – 4 0 = – 4000ax + 4 × 9810. The air within the car can be taken to move as a solid.1 as the situation is similar to forced vortex ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ(ω2/2) (r22 – r12) r1 = 0. there should be a reduction of 4 m of water column due to the acceleration.18.7.2π = (25 × 2π)/(π/500) = 1/10 rad/s tan θ = 250 × (1/102) × (1/9. 2. The balloon will move opposite to the pressure gradient at the location.16. From steam tables at 30°C.ax (x2 – x1) For the pressure at A to be atmospheric. Initial pressure all over the surface = Patm + 4 m of water head tan θ = 4/4 = ax /g ∴ ax = 9. ay = 0 speed.17.81 m/s2 4m 2m B 2m A alternately.1 m w Figure P. Pr2 = 1. tan θ = ax / (g + ay).18 . ∴ θ = 14.

3 × 9. but the weight is increased by the upward acceleration. T = 325 + 273 substituting (P2/Po) = 3002 × 352/[2 × 8314 × (325 + 273)] = 3.7 × 0.45 m/s2 and ay = 4.19) Problem 2.9/9.4 Pa PC = PC ′ – PC = 9.20 ∴ The slope is 3.3 m 1m Oil.902 m/s2.902 m/s2 In this case tan θ = ax/(ay + g) or the slope is 2.81 C B A · 0. Pressure at A is atmospheric in all cases. B is at 0. S = 0. A container filled with oil of density 800 kg/m3 is shown in figure. substituting dP/P = (ω2/RT) dr.e. For a gas ρ = P/RT.186 P2/Po = 24.3 liquid head above i.Pressure Distribution in Fluids substituting. (1. D and E when (i) ax = 3. ay = 4. ay = 0. The molecular mass of the gas is 352.81 × 800 = – 2354.042421) × 105 = (1000/2). Determine the gauge pressures at B. determine the ratio of pressures at the outer radius to the centre.16653 At B.81 × 800) = 8613 Pa PE = 0.81 = 0.19 Patm · (P.902) = 0.3] = 765 Pa PD = PC + (1 × 9.0976 m head of fluid. the pressure is less than at A by a column of 0.81 + 4.20. As compared to A.1 namely dP/ds = – r sin θ + ρ as reduces when s is horizontal and in the case of rotation to dp/dr = ρ as = ρrω2.81 + 4. R = 8314/352. Assuming gaseous uranium hexafluride at 325°C is used. PB is lower ∴ PB = – 0. the imaginary free surface angle θ is given by (as ay = 0) tan θ = – ax/g = 3. ax = 2.ω2 × 0.902) = 3531 Pa Chapter 2 . integrating between limits ln ln ∴ (P2/P1) = (ω2/2RT)r2 = V2/2RT V = 300 m/s. ax = 3. The maximum peripheral speed is limited to 300 m/s. The small opening at A is exposed to atmosphere.9 m/s2.81 × 800 [0. Gas centrifuges are used to produce enriched uranium.. Equation 2.39755 – 0. when accelerated along the x direction. Universal gas constant = 8314 J/kgK. C.12 ∴ ω = 139.3 × 800(9.9 m/s2 and ay = 0 (ii) ax = 2.33 rad/s 69 Problem 2. 2. Determine also the values of ax and ay if PA = PB = PC Case (i). C′ will be above C by 0.45/(9.9/9. 2.013 – 0.3 m of liquid.19. ∴ PB = 0.81 = 5493 Pa All the pressures are gauge pressures with atmospheric pressure as reference pressure Case (ii).8 · D 1m E· Figure P.39755 as the length is 1 m.8 × 9.6.45 m/s2.

09/(7.1665) m PC = – 0.81 + 4. 2. The lorry accelerates towards the right.2)/1000 = 8. The air in the gap can be considered to rotate as a single body. At an instant an aircraft travelling along 40° to the horizontal at 180 m/s.69 × 10–6 m y ab R = 2600 m an 180 m/s 40° x Figure P. Slope of the free surface of fuel = 0. determine the pressure difference between the centre and the circumference.70 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Now C′ is at 0.22. Determine the position of the free surface of the fuel in the tank.16653) = – 1570 Pa PD = PC – [1 × 0. If the radius is 60 mm and if the speed is 60 rpm. ∆p = ρax(x2 – x1). If the pressure difference between the front and back at the centre line should not exceed 40 kPa.659 Problem 2.902) × (0.81) = 7. towards centre The acceleration along the tangent at = – 4 m/s2 The components along x and y directions are ax = – 4 cos 40 – 12.09 m/s2 ay = – 4 sin 40 + 12.5 cos 40 = 7.3 – 0.7 × 800(9.21 . If PA = PB then the weight of the liquid column should be zero due to the acceleration ay.24 × 10–3 × 1.902)] = 10200 Pa PE = 0.3 × 800(9. Neglect the weight component.3 × 800(9. decelerates at 4 m/s2. The accelerations are indicated. So ax = 0 Problem 2. (gauge) what should be the maximum acceleration.659.3 – 0. ∴ ay = – g or 9.21. Air fills the gap between two circular plates held horizontal.5 sin 40 = – 11. The path of the aircraft is shown in figure. If PC = PB.81 m/s2 upwards.01 + 9.06]2/(2 × 9.24 × 10–3 m of air Considering density of air to be about 1.4°. ∴ θ = 33.6.16653 m above A. head of water = (7. The plates rotate without any air flowing out. Its path is along a concave upward circular curve of radius 2600 m.81) = 0. 40000 = 830 × ax × 6 ∴ ax = 8.902) = 8239 Pa Case (iii). automatically B C should be constant pressure surface.81 + 4.81 + 4. A tanker lorry of cylindrical shape 6 m in length is filled completely with oil of density 830 kg/m3. As the level is the same the head difference between the centre and the outer radius is given by h = (ωr)2/2go = [(2π60/60) × 0.5 m/s2. using equation 2.2.01 m/s2 tan θ = ax / (ay + g) = 11.03 m/s2 Problem 2. The acceleration towards the centre of the curve is given by ax = V2/R = 1802/2600 = 12. C is above C′ by (0.9.23.

y γ. Manometers are suitable for ________ pressure measurement. Derive an expression for the pressure distribution in an incompressible fluid accelerated horizontally. Derive the expression for the angle made by the free surface in a liquid that is subjected to both acceleration and gravitation. At zero horizontal accelerating conditions on earths surface. 10. Explain the consequences of the law.Pressure Distribution in Fluids REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 6. Indicate the modifications where pressure varies along vertical and horizontal directions. On a free surface of a liquid the pressure is ________ 4. the pressure exterted by a column of fluid is ________ 5. absolute pressure and vacuum pressure. Pascals law states ________ 3. 3. Explain what is meant by forced vortex and derive the expression for the radial pressure distribution in forced vortex. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Derive an expression for the distribution of force in static fluid subjected to whole body acceleration in a general direction – s. 9. basic hydrostatic equation. State and prove Pascal’s law. 2. the free surface will be ________ 7. Define and explain the concept ‘‘pressure”. . (∆P = ∆ yγ) 8. is zero 5. 71 5. Explain the basic principle involved in measuring pressure and pressure difference using manometers. 7. Paraboloidal.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. 8. low 9. 6. is the same at all points 4. Chapter 2 4. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height y m and specific weight γ is ________ 6. As a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with a fluid (dF/dA) 2. Pressure is defined as ________ 2. In a forced vortex the height of liquid at the periphery of a cylinder of Radius R above that at the centre will be ________ 10. that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions 3. (R2 ω2/2 go) 10. 9. Explain how small pressure difference reading can be amplified by using a micro manometer or inclined tube manometer. The shape of free surface in a forced vortex is ________ Answers 1. horizontal 7. Derive the expression for the pressure variation in a static fluid under gravitational forces.2. When gravitational forces are zero. Indicate when the use of manometers is advantageous. Manometers use the principle of ________ 8. Distinguish between gauge pressure.

The pressure on the base of a liquid column will depend upon the shape of the column. When a fluid is decelerated at a rate equal to g in the vertical direction the pressure on the base will be ________ 3.2. . In a fluid at rest the pressure at a constant level will be equal at all locations. The shape of a forced vortex in the absence of gravity will be ________ 7. cylindrical 7. the gauge reading ________ when the angle is reduced. the angle the free surface will occupy is given by ________ 4. The forced vortex rise ________ with rotational speed. decreases. 7. The pressure in a fluid at rest ________ with depth. In micromanometer. 1. 3. the density difference between the filler fluid and the manometer fluid should be ________ 5. The pressure at a point in fluid at rest is ________ of direction. The pressure exerted by a liquid column on the base depends on the ________ of the liquid. 2. For low pressure measurement a manometric fluid with low density will be better. the pressure at a point varies with direction. Due to horizontal acceleration.2. 8. In a micromanometer. the fluid column will fall if the pressure inside is less than atmospheric. As the density of manometric fluid decreases. the gauge deflection will increase if the area ratio _______ 10. In inclined tube manometer. The level rise in the forced vortex is ________ of the fluid. The capillary effect can be ________ when both limbs of a manometer have equal areas. Answers Increases : 1. 7 O Q. If the density varies linearly with height the pressure will vary ________ with height.3 Fill in the blanks with increases. In a manometer. In a manometer. 8. the free surface of the fluid will be 45° when the acceleration equals ________ Answers 1. As a container with liquid is accelerated the pressure on the base along the direction of acceleration ________ 7. 5. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a point ________ 4. exponentially 2. the pressure ________ 3. small 5. the head of liquid for a given pressure ________ 5. In a fluid at rest. independent 10. specific weight 9. or remains constant. the fluid column will rise if the pressure measured is above the atmosphere. 6. When a fluid in a container is accelerated along the x direction at a m/s2. Along the free surface in a liquid. The vacuum gauge reading will increase as the absolute pressure decreases. the manometric deflection for the same pressure difference ________ 6. 9. 10. 6 Remains constant : 2. 9. 3.2. independent 8. zero 3. 9. 2.72 O Q. neglected/equal on both sides 6. 4. 5. 2. ax = g O Q.2 Fill in the blanks: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. 6. tan θ = – a/g 4. As specific weight increases.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 10 Decreases : 4. 8. The pressure over a free surface of a fluid at rest will vary with location. The forced vortex rise ________ as density of the liquid increases. 1. 8.

Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading. 8.55 × 0. The free surface of the liquid will be (a) horizontal (c) vertical (b) slopes in the direction of acceleration (d) slopes in the direction opposite of acceleration 8.4 × 1200 × 9. The gravitational forces are negligible. 4.2 (b) 13. 73 Answers Correct : 2. In a manometer using mercury as manometric fluid and measuring the pressure of water in a conduit. In a circular cylinder of 0. 10 Incorrect : 1.6 m above the centre.72 (d) 130.2 m dia and 0. 10. A horizontal cylinder half filled with fuel is having an acceleration of 10 m/s2. with y as the vertical direction. In a forced vortex (a) the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (b) the fluid rotates without any relative velocity (c) the rise depends on the specific weight (d) the rise is proportional to the cube of angular velocity 4. In a static fluid. the manometric rise is 0. The density of fluid was 2000 kg/m3.4 m height a fluid of specific weight 1200 × 9. 3.81 N/m2 5.55 × 0. In a forced vortex.2 (d) none of the above 7.8 (b) spherical (d) cylindrical N/m2 (b) Zero (d) 0. The pressure at the centre is (a) 0. 6. The specific gravity of mercury is 13.1 × 1200 × 9.5 Choose the correct answer: (a) 400 N/m2 (c) 2000 N/m2 (b) 10.2 × 1200 × 9. the pressure variation is given by (a) (c) dp =ρ dy dp =γ dy (b) (d) dp =–ρ dy dp =–γ dy Chapter 2 1.000 N/m2 (d) 5 N/m2 2.81 3.55.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 9. The gravity at a location is 5 m/s2. 9 O Q. The shape of forced vortex under gravitational conditions is 6. 5. the level at a radius of 0. The water pressure in m of water is (a) 14. 7. The angular velocity in radians is (a) 11. The pressure exerted by a column of 1 m of the fluid will be .44 (c) 32.81 N/m3 is filled to the brim and rotated about its axis at a speed when half the liquid spills out.55 × 0. The absolute pressure is equal to the vacuum gauge reading.81 N/m2 (c) 0.2 m.7 (a) hyperboloid (c) paraboloid (b) 5.6 m is 0.2 (c) 12.2.

2 kN/m2 absolute] P atm = 100.3 m of fluid B in limb 2.y) where K is the bulk modulus having a value of 2 × 109 N/m2 and y is the depth in m. Determine the pressure below 1000 m in the sea if the specific weight changes as γ = K.2. 2. c is a dimensional constant having a unit of N/m4.2.02 × 105 N/m2.3. A chamber is at a pressure of 100 kN/m2. [390.2. [9935 kN/m2] .6 Match the pairs: (a) Free surface in forced vortex (1) Vertical (2) Paraboloid (3) Negative slope (4) Horizontal (b) Free surface in static fluid (c) Free surface in forced vortex without gravity (d) Free surface in a horizontally accelerating fluid Answers a .2.2. Determine the absolute and gauge pressures in chamber A as shown in Fig. 290 kN/m2] E. c . where γ is in N/m3 and y is in m. The ratio of specific gravities of A to B is (a) 2 (c) cannot be determined (b) 0. E.4. E.2 kPa – 60 kPa A 350 kPa 100 kPa Figure E.2 E.1 Figure E. [101.4. The surface pressure is 101.2 kN/m2.000 N/m2 10.1.5 (d) 0. In an artificial atmosphere.6 m of fluid A in limb 1 is found to balance a head of 0.2.1. Determine the expression for pressure variation with altitude.1 to read the outside pressure shows 1.2 m is (a) 40. The specific weight of a fluid is 20. d . In a differential manometer a head of 0. In this case c has a value of 1.3 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E. b . γ1/(K + γ1.000 N/m2 (c) 4000 N/m2 (b) 2000 N/m2 (d) 20.000 N/m3.2. A gauge fixed into this chamber Fig.2. the gauge pressure being referred to atmospheric pressure of 1.y. the specific weight of air varies with the altitude y as γ = c.74 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. The pressure (above atmosphere) in a tank bottom containing the fluid to a height of 0.2.2. The pressure at y = 0 is 5000 N/m2. 2. Determine the outside pressure.18 Answers (1) b (2) b (3) b (4) b (5) c (6) c (7) c (8) d (9) c (10) b O Q. [P = 5000 – (y2/2)] E.2 kPa 1.3 kN/m2 and γ1 = 9810 N/m3.2.

E.6. Determine the pressure above the atmosphere at point 3 for the manometer and dimensions shown in Fig. [454. 92 6m B Figure E. E.2 m 0.2. 2.9 m of water balances a column of 1.6.5.Pressure Distribution in Fluids E.8 0. Neglect gauge height. [0.4 0. S = 0.5 m 0. 2.9 m S=2 Hg Hg Figure E. 2. Determine the pressure at point X for the situation shown in Fig.2. S = 0. 2. Determine the specific gravity of the unknown liquid.2 + X Datum Figure E.2.04 kPa] Chemical S = 1.7 E.2. In a U-tube shown in Fig.5 is filled with a liquid of specific gravity 0.6 m 1.5 E.9 Chapter 2 . a column of 0.8 Water Oil.7. open to atmosphere at both ends.8.2 m of an unknown liquid.6 Figure E. Determine the pressure read by a gauge (Bourdon type) fixed at B.8 [8.15 kN/m2] A 75 400 kPa Oil.6 0.75] E.2. [65 kN/m2] Water + 3 Water Pa 1.2.7.92.2.2. E. The pressure gauge at A reads 400 kN/m2. A vessel of the shape shown in Fig. E.

E. For the manometer shown in Figure E.9 and that of the manometer fluid is 0.2 kg/m3 at the measuring condition.10 Figure E.10. 2. E.2 m Figure E.10.9 B Hg Figure E.11 E.76 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E. The manometric fluid is having a specific gravity of 1.9 E.04 kN/m2] E.2.11. the level from the top to the filler fluid is .11. For the situation shown in Fig.7 m D C Mercury C B D + P atm 0.3 cm] 1 + L A + 4 0. [68.91 kPa] P atm Oil S = 0.2. The flowing fluid in which the pressure is to be determined is air with a density of 1.8 Water B A 1. When pressures are equal. The specific gravity of the oil is 0. The pressure at point 1 and point 4 are 30 kPa and 120 kPa.2. 2. [94.12. [111. S = 0.2.7. determine the pressure at point D.2.2.9. In a micromanometer the area of the well chamber is 12 times the area of the U tube section. Determine the pressure at A above the atmosphere for the manometer set up shown in Fig.6 m A 1m 0.03 and the filler fluid is water.6 Oil. 2.9. determine the length AB.2.

15.2.14.95 Figure E.03 Figure E. The manometric fluid is 18 cm from top at filling. 2. Determine pressure above atmospheric level. If the temperature varies at the rate of – 0. Determine the pressure at 3000 m. E.9 0. E.14.2.4 Hg 0. E.2. when the temperature was 20°C.2.13. The atmospheric pressure at an elevation of 300 m was 100 kPa.6 Water 0.14 Figure E. An inclined tube manometer with limb at 10° to horizontal shows a column length of 8 cm above the reservoir level.16.04 0.18 Water 0.2. determine the pressure at height of 1500 m. 2. Determine the pressure difference between A and B shown in Fig. [88. Determine the pressures at location 1 and 2 in Fig.15 E.4 + A + B 1 + + Oil. The specific weight of the fluid is 900 × 9.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 77 8 cm. S = 0. 2. [122.81 N/m3.006° C/m.15. 0. Under measuring condition the manometric fluid movement in one limb is 4 cm.65 N/m2] E. Water Water S = 0. Determine the pressure difference indicated.2.866 N/m2] 0.08 P1 P2 0.12 E.2 2 Chapter 2 . The pressure at sea level was 102 kPa and the temperature is constant with height at 5°C.2. E.04 S = 1.17.

6 m filled partially with a fluid and axially rotated at 15 rad/s is empty upto 0. .3 m radius.29. Determine the density of the fluid. The bourden type pressure gauge in the oxygen cylinder of a deep sea diver when he is at a depth of 50 m reads 500 kPa.8.2.2. Assume the base to be horizontal. Determine the pressure of oxygen above atmospheric pressure. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to spill.20. [120. The liquid in a tank when accelerated in the horizontal direction.25. A cylinder of radius 0.2. A rocket is accelerating horizontally to the right at 10 g.3 m wide contains water to a depth of 0. if the fluid density varies as ρ = 0.6 m is rotated at 77 rpm. [0] E. A rectangular pan 0.2.92 as shown in Fig. Determine the pressure distribution on the base. The pressure at the extreme edge at the bottom was 0. Determine the pressures at the top and bottom corners.038 kN/m2] E.18. [35. E.6 m long and 0.6 m length tube to the left end of the fuel tank.22. 0. The tube is 3 m long. the bottom face being horizontal.4 kN/m2] 3m 200 kPa as = ± 10 m/s 2 Figure E. E. determine the pressure gauge reading. [4. If the acceleration in the horizontal (along the right) and vertical directions are 5 m/s2 and 7 m/s2. The density of a fluid at rest increases with depth as 1000 + 0.26.20 E. 172.2. 2.28.3 bar gauge. [227.3 + 8 × 10–6 P. If the pressure in the tank is 35 bar.2.2. if the acceleration is to the right at 10 m/s2. Determine the decrease in pressure within the liquid per metre distance along the direction of motion. A tank containing liquid of specific gravity of 0.27. determine the pressure at the left end.19.24. E.2.2 m dia filled upto a depth of 0.8 is accelerated uniformly along the horizontal direction at 20 m/s2.20 is accelerated at 10 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.21. E.471 × 105 N/m2] E.65 kg/m3] E.2.20. E. [987. A closed tank of cubical shape of 1 m side is accelerated at 3 m/s2 along the horizontal direction and 6 m/s2 in the vertical direction. assumes a free surface making 25° with the horizontal.2.2. Assume sea water density is constant and is 1006 kg/m3.5 m side is filled to 2/3 of its height with water. The reading under accelerating conditions at the right end was 200 kN/m2.2.78 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.3 m high. and if fuel specific gravity is 0. A closed cubical tank of 1. E. where density is in kg/m3 and P is in N/m2 and if the pressure gauge at the right end reads 120 kN/m2.6. The pressure gauge is connected by a 0. Determine the liquid level at the centre when a tall cylinder of 1. Determine the pressure at the left end.05h kg/m3 where h is the depth in m from the surface.15 m.2. Determine the acceleration. Using figure in Example 2.905 m/s2] E. A cylinder containing oil of specific gravity 0. Determine the hydrostatic pressure at depth of 100 m.23.

The free surface is at the top of the pipe.6 m 0. the container is accelerated downwards with a value of v m/s2. determine the angle attained by the free surface.2. At the same time. E. Determine the force on one of the faces. If it is accelerated along the plane at 2 m/s2 (i) upwards.6 m is 0. Determine the pressure at 1 and 2. 1 1m 2 Water 1m 3 1m 4 ax = 5 m/s 2 4m Figure E. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated as a whole. Determine the circular line of maximum pressure. A hollow sphere of inside radius r is filled with water and is rotated about a vertical axis passing through the centre.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 79 E. The U-tube shown in Fig.31.2.32.34.2.2.2. E.36. Chapter 2 .34 is rotated at 120 rpm about the vertical axis along A-A. E.30.34 E. Calculate the rotational speed.3 m and 0.5 m side with base horizontal filled with water is accelerated upwards at 3 m/s2.2.2. E. A 120 rpm 1 0.3 m of water. 2. (ii) downwards. A cubical box of 1 m side is half filled with water and is placed in an inclined plane making 30° with the horizontal. A small bore pipe 3 m long and one end closed is filled with water is inclined at 20° with the vertical and is rotated at 20 rpm with respect to a vertical axis passing through its mid point. Determine the pressure at points 1. 2. E. Derive an expression for the surface of constant pressure.2. Calculate the acceleration that water will boil at point 4 at 40°C. A box of cubical shape of 1. Determine the pressure at the closed end. 3 and 4.33. A tube with closed ends filled with water is accelerated towards the right at 5 m/s2. The pressure difference between radii 0.37.2.30 E. 2. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated about its axis at an angular speed ω (vertical).5 m 2 A Figure E. E.35.

. hcp = z hdF = γ z h 2 dA (3.0. i. h. It is also necessary to determine the point of action of this force.4) A A 80 . flood gates.1) z hdA (3. The walls of reservoirs. When a fluid is in contact with a surface is exerts a normal force on the surface.! 3. moment is taken of the elemental forces with reference to an axis and equated to the product of the total force and the distance of the centre of pressure from the axis namely hcp F. oil and water tanks and the hulls of ships are exposed to the forces exerted by fluids in contact with them. To determine the point of action of the total force. The point of action of the total force is known as centre of pressure or pressure centre. will be dF = γhdA The total force is obtained by integrating the basic equation over the area F= γ (3.0.3) A where h is the depth of the centre of gravity of the area. P = γh.0. The fluids are generally under static condition.0 INTRODUCTION Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids In the previous chapter the pressure distribution in fluids in static and dynamic condition was discussed. From the basic hydrodynamic equation it is known that the force depends on the pressure at the depth considered. Force on an elemental area dA as a depth.0.2) A From the definition of centre of gravity or centroid z hdA = h A (3. For the design of such structures it is necessary to determine the total force on them. sluice gates.e.

the second moment of an area about the y axis.1. The value of x can be determined using x = (1/A) Similarly the centroidal x axis passing at y can be located using y = (1/A) The point of intersection of these centroidal axes is known as the centroid of the area. It can be shown that the moment of the area about any line passing through the centroid to be zero. The moment about the axis through the centre of gravity is always zero. If moments are taken with respect to a parallel axis at a distance of k from the y axis equation 3.5) z A x 2 dA (3.1.1.3) As k is a constant.1) (3. The moment of the area with respect to the y axis can be obtained by summing up the moments of elementary areas all over the surface with respect to this axis as shown in Fig. With reference to the Fig.1 CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA OF AREAS New axis y k 1 (x – k) dA Area A Moment about y axis = Moment about x axis = z z G A x dA y dA (3. z A x dA − x A = 0 Such an axis is called centroidal y axis.6) Considering an axis parallel to y axis through the centroid and taking the second moment of the area about the axis and calling it as IG.1.1 x A The integral has to be taken over the area.4) A y dA (3.1 First moment and second moment of an area dA = A x dA − k A (3.1. such that the moment about the axis is zero.1. . 3.2) 0 y y x x 2. 3. can be written as z A ( x − k) dA = z A x dA − k z z A Figure. Chapter 3 In the process of obtaining the resultant force and centre of pressure. 3. Thus there is a need to know the centre of gravity and the moment of inertia of areas.1. the determination of first and second moment of areas is found necessary and hence this discussion.1. where x is the distance from the axis and the centroid.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 81 The integral over the area is nothing but the second moment or the moment of inertia of the area about the axis considered.1. 3.1.1.1.1. it is possible to choose a value of x = k. Iy is defined as Iy = z z A x dA (3.

side b height h and vertex zero of x axis Rectangle of width b and depth D Circle Semicircle with diameter horizontal and zero of x axis Quadrant of a circle. 6. side b height h and base zero of x axis Triangle.8) (3. horizontal and minor axis is h CG h/3 2h/3 D/2 D/2 2D/3 π 4 R/3 π h/2 IG bh3/36 bh3/36 bD3/12 π D4/64 – – π bh3/64 π Ibase bh3/12 bh3/12 bD3/3 – D4/128 π R4/16 – . Table 3.1. Therefore 2 IG = Iy – 2 x 2 A + x 2 A = Iy – x 2 A or Similarly Iy = IG + x 2 A Iy = I G + y 2 A (3.11) It can be shown that whenever any one of the axes is an axis of symmetry for the area. 5. These two equations are used in all the subsequent problems. one radius horizontal Ellipse : area πbh/4 Major axis is b. 3. The product of inertia is defined as Ixy = z A xy dA = IGxy + x y A (3.7) A z A x dA + z A x 2 dA z A x 2 dA = I . moment of inertia through the centroid IG and moment of inertia about edge Iedge (specified) for some basic shapes are given in Table 3. 7. Triangle. The second moment is used in the determination of the centre of pressure for plane areas immersed in fluids.9) (3.1.1.1 Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia for some typical shapes Shape 1. 4.82 IG = IG = By definition Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z z A ( x − x) 2 dA x 2 dA − 2 x (3. z A x dA = x 2 A.1.1. The location of the centre of gravity. 2.1.10) The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centroid and the product of the area and the square of the distance between this axis and centroidal axis. y z A x 2 dA = x A As x 2 is constant. Ixy = 0.

F= z A γ y sin θ dA = γ sin θ z A y dA From the definition of centroidal axis at y = z A y dA = y A. 3. So Chapter 3 .2. 3. The resultant force acts vertically through the centroid of the area. Semi ellipse with major axis as horizontal and x = 0 Parabola (half) area 2bh/3 (from vertex as zero) 2h/3 π yg = 3h/5 xg= 3b/8 – – π bh3/128 2bh3/7 83 3.2. The force dF on the elemental area is given by dF = P dA = γhdA = γ y sin θ dA The total force over the whole area is obtained by integration of this expression over the whole area. P = – y × γ and as y is – ve. Case 2 : Horizontal surface at a depth y. force = area × pressure The contribution due to the weight of the gas column is negligible. Refer Fig. force = Ayγ in which y may also be expressed as head of the fluid. Let the trace of the plane (the end view of the line where it meets the horizontal plane) be ‘‘O’’. Case : Plane inclined at angle θ with horizontal.1 O q Y A P h h hcp WL Y X dy B Ycp CG X XC CP Y P Figure. Consider the elemental area dA. Consider this line as reference and set up the axes as shown in figure. 9. The resultant acts at the centroid of the area as the pressure at all depths are the same.1 Plane surface immersed in liquid at an angle Consider the plane AB of the given shape immersed in the liquid at an angle θ to the horizontal (free surface).2 FORCE ON AN ARBITRARILY SHAPED PLATE IMMERSED IN A LIQUID Case 1 : Surface exposed to gas pressure : For plane surface. Here also the pressure at all locations are the same.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 8.

2) This equation is extensively used in the calculation of total force on a surface. xcp F = The area element considered here being dxdy.1.4). 3. (3. z A x y dA = Ixy xcp = Ixy / y A = (IGxy + x A y ) = (IGxy / A y ) + x (3.1 xcp γ y A sin θ = A z z A x P dA and ycp F = z A y P dA γ x y sin θ dA (P = γ y sin θ. 3.2) . the centre of pressure will lie on that axis. 3.2.2. As h = y sin θ.1.10 z A x y dA. Along the y direction (more often the depth of centre of pressure is required) ycp = Ix / y A. With reference to the Fig. The following important conclusions can be drawn from this equation.3.2.1) and equating it to the product of the distance of the centre of pressure from this axis and the total force on the area (as calculated in section 3. let CP (xcp. Referring to the Fig. 3.1) Calling the depth at y (distance of centroid from the surface) as h . Equations (3.9 and 3.1 are used to obtain the location of the centroid.84 F = γ A y sin θ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (3.3.1. F = γ y A sin θ) As xcp = (1/ y A) From equations 3. and so h = y in this case.5) and those given in Table 3. The total force thus equals the product of area and the pressure at the centroid. F = γ A h (3.3 CENTRE OF PRESSURE FOR AN IMMERSED INCLINED PLANE The centre of pressure is determined by taking moments of the force on elementary areas with respect to an axis (say O in Fig. 1. For surfaces with an axis of symmetry.1.1) In case x = x or y = y is an axis of symmetry for the area.1. A special case of the situation is a vertical surface where θ = 90° and sin θ = 1. 2. IGxy = 0 and the centre of pressure will lie on the axis of symmetry.2. As IX = IG + y 2 A ycp = (IG / y A) + y (3.2).1. γ h equals the pressure at the centroid. In other cases xcp and ycp are calculated by the use of moments. ycp) be the centre of pressure.

5 × sin 60) / 2 = 8.81 × 8. A sluice 1m long along the slope and 0.8] + 8.3. These equations are fairly simple. 3.44/ cos 30 = 9. The depth of centre of gravity. . The wall of a reservoir is inclined at 30° to the vertical.74 m h = 9.2a) This is the general equation when the depth of the centre of pressure is required in the case of inclined planes.8 × 13 × sin2 60/8. Determine the total force and its point of action on an annular lamina of 1m ID and 3 m OD placed at an inclination of 30 degrees to the horizontal under water. (along the plane) then substituting ycp = hcp/sin θ and Substituting in equation (3.746 m Water level 4m 8m 30 = 9. then.8 = 66182 N hcp = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h .44 m 0. 8. IG = (1/12) bd3 [(1/12) 0.74 cos 30 = 8.2 1m 8/c os h 30° y = 9. In case the height hcp is required instead of ycp. If the plane is vertical. y = h the depth to the centroid.1.3) Chapter 3 y = h / sin θ (3. the main problem being the calculation of the moment of inertia for odd shapes.433 × 1 × 0. The depth of centre of lamina from water surface is 8 m.2) hcp / sin θ = [IG /{( h / sin θ) × A}] + h /sin θ ∴ hcp = [(IG sin2 θ)/ h A)] + h (3.8 m wide is closed by a plate. The angle with the horizontal is 60°.8 m 1m Sluice Figure Ex. Example 3. h = 8 + (0.44 m Distance along the wall surface.2. Determine the location of the centre of pressure and the total force on the plate.433 = 8.433 × 0.433 m Total force = γ h A = 1000 × 9. then sin2 θ = 1.3.5 0.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 85 IG is the moment of inertia along the centroidal axis and y is the location of centroid along the y direction.3. If θ = 90° (vertical surface).1 Problem model Example 3. The top of the opening is 8 m below the water level.

3.86 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.5) (3.5 m Figure Ex. Force on the gate from oil side = γ A h = (0. A = bh/2 hcp = (2 b h3/ 36 b h P) + P = (h2 /18 P) + P These equations can be used as a short cut under suitable situations. A = bd hcp = (bd3/12 bd P) + P = (d2 /12 P) + P Case 2: IG = π d4/64. Case 3: A triangle of height h with base b. h = y in the case hcp = (IG/A y ) + y Case 1: IG = bd2/12.4) b P P d d P h/3 h b (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 3.5 m Gate 7. 3.81 × π (32 – 11) × 8/4 = 493104.3. = [(π/64) (34 – 14) sin2 = 8.3. y = P.3. horizontal and nearer the free surface. (3. It has a rectangular gate 1m wide and 1.3.6) (3.9.38 N (depth is directly specified) Depth of centre of pressure = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes Case 1: A rectangle of width b and depth d.5) (6 + 0.75) = 89394 N 1. Assuming the depth of CG to be P m in all the cases.5 m with an oil of specific gravity 0. y = P.5 m high provided at the bottom of a side face.81) (1 × 1.3. Determine the resultant force on the gate and also its point of action. An oil tank is filled to a height of 7.1 Vertical Surfaces Example 3.0195 m IG = (π / 64) (D4 – d4) 30 – {8 × ((32 – 12) π/4)}] + 8 3. A = π d2/4 hcp = (π d4 × 4/64 πd2 P) + P = (d2 /16 P) + P Case 3: IG = bh3/36.9 × 1000 × 9. y = P. the side of length b being horizontal.3 . Case 2: A circle of diameter d.

5) = 2.5) + 6.78 m from the surface of oil at the centre line of the gate. hcp = (d2/12P) + P = (1.3.75) + 6.021 m In order to locate the point of action of the resultant force.5 × 13/12) (1/4 × 2.5)) + 4 = 4. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth of h m.4 COMPONENT OF FORCES ON IMMERSED INCLINED RECTANGLES Consider a case of a rectangle of a × d. hcpii = (12/12 × 4) + 4 = 4.5) = 98100 N Total force on the plate Considering ABCD Also by equation (3. The plate can be considered as two rectangles (i) ABCD 1m wide and 2 m deep and (ii) CEFG 2.5583 m Moment is taken about AF to determine the lateral location hcpx = [(49050 × 0.5 m wide and 1 m deep.0 m from the edge AF. Determine the net force and its point of action over an L shaped plate submerged vertically under water as shown in Fig. The net force acting perpendicular to the area is given by = γ A h The horizontal component equals = γ A h sin θ Chapter 3 .5 + 2 + 1/2) (1 × 2.5 m below water surface.81) (1. IG = bd3/12. 3. Example 3.021)/(49050 + 98100) = 3. 3.78 m Check using eqn.5) + (98100 × 1. = 147150 N hcpi = (Igi / hi Ai) + hi = [(1 × 23/12)/(1 × 2.5 m 1m A B Figure Ex. 3.5.53/12)/6.25)]/(49050 + 98100) = 1.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids hcp = (IG / y A) + y .5 + 2.75 = 6.5 m D E G WL 1. The top surface of the plate is 1.4.78 m 87 The resultant force will act at a distance of 6.75 m = ((1 × 1.4 Also by equation 3.4.5 = 2. which is simpler. For this case it can be shown that (i) The horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) The vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area. with side d inclined at θ to the horizontal.1).3.5 × 2)] + 2.4.0 m The resultant force acts at a depth of 3. hcpy = (Fi hcpi + Fii hcpii)/(Fi + Fii) = (49050 × 2.5583 m and at a distance of 1.75 × 1 × 1.75 = 6.633 m hcpi = (d2/12P) + P = (22/12 × 2. Ex.021 m 1m 2m C F 2.0/2) (1 × 2) = 49050 N Fii = γ hii Aii = (1000 × 9.81) (1.52 /12 × 6.633 + 98100 × 4. moment is taken with reference to the surface to determine the depth. Fi = γ hi Ai = (1000 × 9.4. 3.633 m hcpii = (Igii/hii Aii) + hii = ((2. y = 6.

1) h h/3 L/2 0 L Figure Ex. The vertical component = γ A h cos θ The horizontal projection of the area = A cos θ The volume of the fluid column above this surface = A cos θ h The weight of the fluid column = γ A h cos θ Hence the vertical component of the force equals the weight of the fluid column above the area.5. 3. Neglect the weight of gate. friction etc.5 .5.3. y = d/2 The equation reduces to ycp = (2/3) d or (2/3) y sin θ from free surface Example 3. ycp = (IG / y .1 The vertical projection of the area = A sin θ The centroid of this area will also be at h The force on the projected area = γ A h sin θ.88 0 q WL h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery hcp a G Y Yc CP d p Figure 3.4. An automatic gate which will open beyond a certain head h is shown in Fig. Determine the ratio of h/L. Water WL (3. and in case the edge is at the free surface. Ex. Using equation (3.2). Consider 1 m width of the gate The vertical force = L γ h and acts at a distance L/2 from O. Hence the horizontal component of the force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area. A) + y . It can also be shown that the location of the action of the horizontal component will be at the centre of pressure of the projected area and the line of action of the vertical component will be along the centroid of the column of the liquid above the plane. denoting the distance along the plane as y.4. 3. The horizontal force on the gate = γ h h/2 and acts at h/3 distance from O.

Total force normal to the plate F = γ . 3. Ex.506 m). The Chapter 3 . Determine the value of h in terms of L.6 FG 2 h from topIJ H 3 sin θ K W. 3. Weight of the gate = W and acts downwards at Lw from O.265 = 0 or 2786 h3 – 4905 h + 2120 = 0 Solving by trial. L γ h (L/2) = γ h (h/2) (h/3) L2 = h2/3 (or) L = h/(3)0. W = 8000 N.5774 h For example if L = 2 m. Hence the gate will open when water rises to 1m above O. determine the value of water head h to open the gate. Taking moments about O.4. and Lw where W is the weight for unit width of gate and Lw is the distance from O to the line of action of W. A modified form of automatic gate is shown in Fig. Considering unit width.265 m.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 89 Note : When the water level is at the top of vertical plate. With the calculators available presently cubic equations can be solved directly. Taking moments about O.). the centre of pressure will be at (2/3)h from top. Example 3.1. 3. then h = 3. An automatic gate which opens beyond a particular head is as shown in Fig.6.4. Using the equation derived in example 3. h = 1 m. See 3.7. 3.1. W.6.4641 m. or LW Hinge L WL P1 h W 3 sin q q Figure Ex. h For unit width.5 FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES (i) Vertical forces : The vertical force on a curved surface is given by the weight of the liquid enclosed by the surface and the horizontal free surface of the liquid..Lw + γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) (h/ 3 sin θ) = γ h L L/2 γ (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – (γ L2 / 2) h + W Lw = 0 γ Pressure force normal to plate = γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) and acts at (h/3 sin θ) from O.6.6. A = h/ sin θ and h = h/2 Using equation (3.5 = 0. This is a cubic equation in h and can be solved by trial. θ = 50°. For the following data. A. the line of action along the inclined side can be obtained as h/3 sin θ from bottom edge. (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – γ (L2/2) h + W Lw = 0 (9810/ 6 sin2 50) h3 – 9810(12 / 2) h + 8000 × 0. Example 3. L = 1m. (The other solution is 0. Lw = 0. Ex. The vertical force on the horizontal side = γ h L and acts upwards at L/2 from O.

3.5. The horizontal force on this area due B B¢ to liquid pressure should equal the horizontal force on the curved surface for the volume A′B′ AB to Figure 3. If the other side of the surface is exposed to the same gas pressure. The horizontal component of the force acting on the curved portion AB = γ A h = (1025 × 9. Consider an imaginary vertical surface A′B′. gravity = 1.90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery force acts along the centre of gravity of the volume. Hence the horizontal force equals the force on the projected area due to liquid pressure. This applies to doubly curved surfaces and inclined plane surfaces.1.81) (4 × 1)(15 + 4/2) = 683757 N Line of action of this horizontal force = h + (IG / h A) = 17 + [1 × 43/12] [1/(17 × 4 × 1)] = 17. These two statements can be proved as indicated below. The volume above the surface can be divided into smaller elements.025) on the curved portion AB of an oil tanker as shown in Fig. The value can be calculated using the general equation. force due to the gas pressure cancels out. The element between A′B′ and the surface Projected AB is in equilibrium. A′B′ gives the projected area vertical area. At the base of each element. Determine the force exerted by sea water (sp. 3.5.8 . the force due to gas pressure equals the product of horizontal projected area and the gas pressure and acts at the centroid of the projected area.8. Refer to Fig. Ex. Also determine the direction of action of the force. the vertical force equals the weight of the small element. Thus WL the total vertical force equals the sum of the weights of all the elements or the weight of the Sample liquid enclosed between the area and the horizontal element A A¢ surface.1 be in equilibrium. Consider 1m width perpendicular to paper.8. A D Oil tanker C WL 15 m B E 4m 4m Figure Ex. (ii) Horizontal forces: The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area of the curved surface and acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area. Example 3. In case there is gas pressure above the surface. F = γ A h. where A is the projected area and h is the depth of the centroid of the area. 3.0784 m from top and towards left The vertical force is due to the volume of sea water displaced.

The direction of action to the vertical is. Chapter 3 The resultant force = (6837572 + 7296732)0. the difference is small and so the moments are equal and the resultant can be taken as zero..0523 ) – 683757 × 2. 4m WL Gate CG 4r 3p 4m Hinge 4m 123276 q 78480 Figure Ex. at = 1. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force due to water on a quadrant shaped cylindrical gate as shown in Fig.e. Considering unit width.81] = 729673 N (acts upwards). 729673(4 – 2. tan q = 683757 / 729673 = 0. the line of action of vertical force is = [(2.9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = [volume BCDE + volume ABE] g = [(15 × 4 × 1) + (42 × p × 1/4)] [1025 × 9. Check whether the resultant passes through the centre.9. Ex. to the right It acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area i. Centre of gravity of the area ABE = (4 – 4R/3p) from the edge = (4 – 4 × 4/3p) = 2. 91 To find the location of this force : Centre of gravity of the column BCDE is in the vertical plane 2 m from the edge.333 m from the bottom (i. 3.302 m from the edge. Taking moments of the area about the edge.14° The answer can be checked by checking whether the resultant passes through the centre of the circle (as it should) by taking moments about the centre and equating them.. 3.078 = 337 Compared to the large values.937 \ q = 43. (1/3) × 4) Vertical force = the weight to the liquid displaced = π × 42 × 1 × 9810/4 = 123276 N.9 The horizontal force = γ A h where A is the projected area.e.16 N .0523 m from the edge. upwards.5 = 999973. Hence the resultant can be taken to pass through the centre of the cricle. Example 3.302 × 42 p/4) + 2 × (15 × 4)] / [(42 π/4) + (15 × 4)] = 2. Horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 × 1 = 78480 N.

10. Pressures at the centroid of each layer is Pcg1 = 881 × 4 × 9..2) ρ 1 g sin θ I xx + y1 P1 A1 This distance is with respect to the centroid of the area.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.1 Total force. The depth of centre of pressure of fluid 1 is determined using the eqn. Example 3.3.8.81) + (13600 × 2 × 9.6.1) Note : (P1 / ρ1) gives the head of the fluid as ρ is different for different fluids.698 = 42... ycp1 = − (3. Specific gravity of oil is 0. Determine the total hydrostatic force and resultant centre of pressure on the side.3333) – 123276 × 1.. from the hinge.81 = 34570.698 m. 78480 × (4 – 1. F = F1 + F2 + .5 = 146137 N Angle is determined by tan θ = 78480/123276 = 0.92 It acts at 4r/3π = 1.6 HYDROSTATIC FORCES IN LAYERED FLUIDS Two fluids may sometimes be held in a container one layer over the other. 6 m of water and 4 m of mercury.44 N/m2 Pcg2 = (881 × 4 × 9. (4. F1 h1 ycp 1 Y2 Fluid 2 F2 h2 q ycp 2 Y1 Fluid 1 Figure 3.6366. In such cases the total force will equal the some of the forces due to each fluid. A tank 20 m deep and 7 m wide is layered with 8 m of oil. this form is prferable.6.48° where θ is the angle with vertical. Resultant force = (1232762 + 784802)0. The centre of pressure has to determined for each layer separately with reference to the centroid of each area.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.. = P1 A1 + P2 A2 + . Compared to the values the difference is small and these can be assumed to the equal. Hence the resultant passes through the centre of the cricle.81) = 64000 N/m2 Pcg3 = (881 × 4 × 9..81) = 330832 N/m2 .. The location of the point of action of the total force can be determined taking moments about some convenient references. 3. ∴ θ = 32. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To check for the resultant to pass through the centre the sum of moment about O should be zero.881 and that of mercury is 13.

5 = 15700 + (1000 × 9.0 = (0. 12 × 2688018 13600 × 9.5 m.4.81 × 83 × 7 ρ1 g sin θ I xx = = 1. A tank contains water upto 3 m height over which oil of specific gravity 0. Also calculate the total force on a 6 m wide wall. Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9.944 m.81 × 2 = 15700 N/m2 P2. P1. 2 m and 2. P = 15700 + (1000 × 3 × 9.8 × 1000) × 9.81 × 1. hcp = (D2/16 h ) + h = (22/(16 × 4) + 4 = 4.333 × 1935944) + (11.333 m as θ = 90° 12 × 34570 P1 A1 1000 × 9.46 × 268808) + (16.5 = (0.11. Determine the level of water above the gate.81) = 45130 N/m2 F = (15700 × 2 × 6/2) + {(45130 + 15700) × 3 × 6/2} = 641670 N SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 3.81) (π × 22/4) × h = 123276.09 N Solving h = 4 m.5 = 11770 N/m2 P2.1. y × 13.0625 m from the centre of the gate Check using eqn.887 × 106 N/m2 ycp1 = − ycp2 = 93 881 × 9. Calculate the pressure at 1. The force due to water on a circular gate of 2m dia provided on the vertical surface of a water tank is 12376 N. Also determine the depth of the centre of pressure from the centre of the gate.81 × 43 × 7 = 0. Example 3. from the water level or 0. (3.5 m depth.8 × 1000) × 9.887 × 106 = (5.2).54 m 12 × 9263308 The line of action of the total force is determined by taking moment about the surface.8 is filled to 2 m depth.5) = 20600 N/m2 At the base.46 m.5 m. Total force.0625 m Chapter 3 ycp3 = .54 × 9263308) Solving y = 13.81 × 63 × 7 = 0.0625 m.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids F1 = Pcg1 × A1 = 34570 × 8 × 7 = 1935944 N F2 = Pcg2 × A2 = 64000 × 6 × 7 = 2688018 N F3 = Pcg3 × A3 = 330832 × 4 × 7 = 9263308 N Total force = 13. So the depth of water above the centre = 4 m Centre of action of this force = (IG / h A) + h = (π × 24/64)/(4 × π × 22/4) + 4 = 4.81 × 0. (i) At 1.

(i) The total force on the circular plate γ A h = 9810 × (π × 32/4) × 5 = 346714 N Centre of pressure Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Water level d.121324)/64}/{5 × π (32 – 2.2.121322 × 5] = 5. A plane 3 × 4 m is vertically placed in water with the shorter side horizontal with the centroid at a depth of 5m. force on the circular area = force on annular area.05625 m Centre of pressure for the annulus = 5 + [{π (34 – 2. A circular plate of 3 m dia is vertically placed in water with its centre 5 m from the free surface.3 . (iii) Determine the centre of pressures for these areas and compare the moments of these forces about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of pressure for the whole area.2 = h + (IG/ h A) = 5 + (π × 34 × 4/64 × 5 × π × 32) = 5. (i) Determine the total force on one side and the point of action of the force.05625)/2 = 5.121322)/4}] = 5. (ii) Also find the diameter of a concentric circle dividing this area into two so that force on the inner circular area will equal the force on the annular area. 3.94 Problem 3. 3. (iv) Show that the centres of pressure of the full area lies midway between these two centres of pressure. γ A1 h = γ A2 h assuming that the diameter of the smaller circle to be d. (ii) Also determine the size of an inner rectangle with equal spacing on all sides.1125 m (same as the centre of pressure of full area) Problem 3. Water level C 5m 4m 3m Figure P. (iii) Determine also the centre of pressures for these two areas separately.16875 m The mid point of these two is = (5.3. (i) Determine the force due to the fluid pressure on one side of the plate and also its point of application. A1 = π (32 – d2)/4.16875 + 5. (ii) The given condition is.121324 × 4/64 × π × 2. For the areas the centroid depth h is the same. the total force on which will equal the force on the remaining area. m 5m 3m Figure P.12132 m. A2 = π d2/4 equating ∴ 32 – d2 = d2 or 2d2 = 32 or d = 2. The force on the inner circular area = 9810 (π × 32/2 × 4) × 5 = 173357 N (Checks as it is half of 346714 N) Centre of pressure for the circle = 5 + [π × 2.1125 m. with outside diameter being 3 m.

The smaller rectangle is of 2 m × 3 m size.15) = 34335 Nm (clockwise. locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces will act at these locations due to the water pressure.5.4 Chapter 3 . If the water level is upto the top edge of the gate.81 × 5 × 4 × 3 = 588600 N Centre of pressure = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43/5 × 12) = 5. acts below) The moments are equal but are opposite in sign and the total is zero.81 × 5 × 3 × 2 = 294300 N (iii) Centre of pressure for the inner area = 5 + (1/2) (2 × 33/2 × 3 × 5) = 5.3833 m (iv) Moment of the force on the inner area about the CP of the whole area = 294300 (5.4.3833 – 5. Water level 0 0 h1 h2 10 m A A h3 Solving C = 0.5 C + 1.26667 – 5. 4 × 3 = 12. A1 = A2. (4 × 3) = 2(4 – 2C) (3 – 2C) C2 – 3.15 m Centre of pressure for the outer area = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43 – 2 × 33) / [5 × (4 × 3 – 3 × 2)] = 5. The depth CG is the same for both areas As This reduces to γ A1 h = γ A2 h . half the area) B B C 5m C Figure P.5 or 3. Problem 3.26667) = 34335 Nm (anti clockwise. 3.5 = 0. (Check : 2 × 3 = 6. acts above) Moment of the force on the outer area = 294300 (5.0. As C = 3 is not possible.2667 m 95 (ii) Assume a spacing of C m on all sides to form the inner rectangle. A water tank has an opening gate in one of its vertical side of 10 m × 5m size with 5m side in the horizontal direction.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids (i) The total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9. C = 0. Pressure on the smaller rectangle = 1000 × 9.

834 m h 3 = 10 – (1.97 – 2 × 2.. A triangular surface is kept vertical in water with one of its edges horizontal and at the free surface.038 m (iii) The depth of the third and bottom strip is = 10 – 5.97 m The depth for second strip is = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = 2 (6.33 = 0. Let h 1 be the centroid of the top portion of the surface on which the force acting is equal to 1/3 of the total. If the triangle is divided by a line drawn from one of the vertices at the free surface such that the total force is equally divided between the parts.114 m.96 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To solve this problem the area should be divided into three parts in each of which the force will be equal to 1/3 of the total force on the surface.114 m To keep the gate closed supports at these locations will be optimum i.887 (5 × 5. Therefore the depth of the top strip is 2 × 2.8343/(12 × 9. let the centroid be h 2 . Problem 3.392)] + 6. Then the centre of pressure for each of the areas should be located to obtain the points of application of the forces.887 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 h 2 2 – 5.887 = 3.774 m Centre of pressure for first strip = [IG1/ h 1 A1] + h 1 = [5 × 5.834/2) = 9.7743/12 × 2. The depth of this second strip = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) Force on the second strip. Then (i) γ h 1 A1 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 1 (2 h 1 × 5) = (1/3) × γ × (10 × 5) × 5 ∴ ∴ h 12 = 25/3 h 1 = 2.083 × 5 × 1.e..8493 m (ii) For the second strip.774 – 2.849.667 m (check).5.97 × (5 × 2. The average of these values will equal the depth of centre of pressure for the whole gate i. determine the ratio by which the opposite side is divided.834) + 9. .3923/12 × 6.083 = 9.083 m Centre of pressure for third strip is = [IG3/ h 3 A3] + h 3 = 5 × 1.887) = 2.e. solving h 2 = 6.887 = 5.774 h 2 – 8. at depths of 3. 6.774)] + 2.038 and 9. 7.392 m Centre of pressure for this second strip = [IG2/ h 2 A2] + h 2 = [5 × 2.97 = 7.392 = 1.887 m. γ h 2 A2 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 2 × 5 × 2 ( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = (1/3) × γ × 5 × 10 × 5 h 2 2 – 2 h 1 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 or h 2 2 – 2 × 2.

A water tank is provided with a gate which has a shape of a quadrant of a circle of 3 m radius.6366 = 22072 N = 22.6366) = 0. Let h1 be the height of triangle ABD and let h2 be the height of triangle ABC along the The force on ABC = 2 × the force on ABD The centroids will be at h1/3 and h2/3 for these triangles. BC/BD = 1. In a water reservoir. Determine the total pressure and its point of action if water level is up to the top edge of the gate.6366 m Total force = 1000 × 9. depth.. Determine the force acting on the gate due to water and its point of action if the tank is filled with water upto 2 m above the edge. 3.5 But ∴ BC/BD = (h2/h1) = (2)0.81 [2 + 4 × 3/3 π] [π × 32/4] = 226976 N Chapter 3 .5 Consider the triangle ABC. γ (bh2/2)(h2/3) = 2 (γ bh1/2)(h1/3).7.e.4142 The opposite side is divided the ratio of (2)0. the vertical gate provided for opening is a semicircular plate of dia 3 m with diameter horizontal and at the water level. The gate is positioned in such a way that one straight edge of it is horizontal.072 kN Ibase = π D4/ 128 (about the diameter) Depth centre of pressure = Ibase/A h = (π × 34/128)(2 × 4/π × 32) (1/0.4142 Problem 3. Let the AD divided the triangle such that the total force on ABD equals the force on ACD.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids b A h1 h2 D C B Water surface 97 Figure P.5 CD/BD = 0.6.81 × (π × 32/4 × 2) × 0. Distance of centre of gravity of the gate from the top edge = 2D/3 π = 4r/3 π Total pressure on the gate = γ h A = 1000 × 9. Total force on the gate = γ A h h = centre of gravity of the semicircular surface 2D/ 3π = 2 × 3/3 × π = 0.8836 m Problem 3. rearranging h22 = 2 h12 or (h2/h1) = (2)0.5 i.

906 ∴ xp = 1.1921 + 3. .4653 m To determine the location of centre of pressure (as there is no line of symmetry with reference to the axes).9 with one edge horizontal and at a depth of 2m.7 Depth of centre of pressure = [(π × 64/916)/(3.906 Nm 226.2156 m from the vertical edge.2732 m as r = 3. 2 x2 = (9 – y2). Force on the strip = γ. Problem 3. moment of elementary forces of the elementary strips is taken with reference to the y axis and equated to the product of total force and the distance to the centre of pressure from x axis.x.25 = 275. Circle equation is. A right angle triangle of 2m × 2m sides lies vertically in oil of specific gravity 0.976 × xp = 275.25] = (9810/2) × 56.98 Moment of inertia for the gate with reference to the diameter = π D4/ 2 × 128 IG = I – y 2 A Moment of inertia with reference to the centroid = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – (π D2/4 × 4) (2D / 3 π)2 = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – π D4/36 π2 = π D4 [(1/256) – (1/36 π2)]. dM = (γ/2) (y + 2) (9 – y2) dy Integrating the above expression from y = 0 to y = 3 M = (γ/2) z 0 [– y3 – 2y2 + 9y + 18] dy y4 2 3 9 2 γ − − y + y + 18 y = 2 4 3 2 Equating the moment for the total force LM N OP Q 3 0 = (γ/2) [56.4655 m below the free surface and 1. Simplyfying IG = π D4/ 916 Depth of centre of pressure = [IG/ h A] + h h = 2 + 4r/3π = 2 + 4/π = 3. 0) Area of strip = x.dy. Determine the net force on one side and its point of action.dy Moment of force with respect to y axis dM = γ h x dy x/2 = [force acts at a distance of x/2 from y axis] As h = y + 2 and 3 γ hx2 dy. 3.2732 = 0.8. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Xcp hcp h 2m y 3m dy CG x dy CP Figure P.2732 = 3.h.2732 × π 32/4)] + 3.2156 m from the left edge The centre of pressure is located at 3. x2 + y2 = 9 (taking centre as 0.

which is the line of symmetry. CD = 1 so.9 N) Oil level 2m 2 m 3 2.75 m In the x direction.25/2). Force on the strip = γ h A = γ (y + 2) (x dy) In this case.8 The depth of the centre of pressure = hcp = h + (IG/ h A) = (2 + 2/3) + [(2 × 33/36)/(2 + 2/3) (2 × 2/2)] = 2.625 m from the vertical side.25 E D y 0.625 2 CG 2m (i) A x (ii) Figure P. (BE/CD) = (AB/AC) = (1. M = (γ/2) z 2 0 (y3 – 2y2 – 4y + 8) dy 4 Ly = (9810 × 0. Chapter 3 2m CP dy .625 m The centre of pressure is 2.81 × 0. Integrating from 0 to 2 for value of y.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 99 The centre of gravity lies at 1/3 height from base. the centre or pressure will be on it. BE = 0.625 m (checks) Whenever there is a line of symmetry for the axis. Referring to the figure. the centre of pressure will be on the median line.75 B 1. by similar triangle (AF = FG = 2 – y) ∴ x = (2 – y) Force dF = γ (y + 2) (2 – y) dy and Moment about the vertical edge = dF (x/2) dM = γ ((2 – y)/ 2) (y + 2) (2 – y) dy. 3.9 / 2) M N4 Taking moments of the total force. The moment of inertia about the CG is bh3/36 where b is the base and h is the height.75 m from top and 0. Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9. 2 4 − y3 − y 2 + 8 y 3 2 OP Q 2 = 29430 Nm 0 xcp = 29430/47088 = 0. Check: A strip of width dy is considered.9 × (2 × 2/2)(2 + 2/3) = 47088 N (if water F = 47088/0.75 m 2m 2m C 0.

9.625 2. The centre of gravity for the plate is on its diagonal.3313 m and 0. Determine the total force and torque required to close the opening by a hinged gate exactly if the oil (sp.3. WL 1.9) = 52320 N For quadrant = 226976 N To locate the depth moment is taken about the surface.75 3.3.3.8708 m to the left of the common edge The combined centre of pressure lies at a depth of 3. Determine the centre of pressure and the total force for the combined area as shown in Fig. Assume water is the liquid. Problem 3.4655) + (47088 × 2. depth y = [(226976 × 3. P. the centre of pressure is at depth = 2.3313 m Taking moments about the common edge horizontal location is.7 and P. An oil tank has an opening of 2 m square with diagonal horizontal in one of its vertical wall as shown in Fig. x = [(1.9 The shape is a combination of the shapes of problems P. Taking moments about AB.10.7 and P.4655 m and distance from side = 1. P.9. 3.2156 A CP CP 0.90) level is 5m above the centreline of the gate.625 × 52320)]/(226976 + 52320) = 0.3.75 m and distance from the side = 0.100 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 3. gravity 0.625 m (note CP is independent of density as long as density is constant) The forces are : C from the problems P.2156 m (ii) For the triangle.8708 m to the left from the vertical common edge. Moment of inertia = Moment of inertia of the top triangle + Moment of inertia of bottom triangle = bh3/12 + bh3/12 = 2 bh3/12 . 3.3.10.2156 × 226976) – (0.8) For triangle = 47088 × (1/0. The available values from these problems are (i) For the Quadrant of circle the centre of pressure is at depth = 3.4655 B Figure P.9)]/(226976 + 52320) = 3.75/0.8.

P. W.3333/5 × 4) + 5 = 5.0667 – 5) 176580 = 11.12. 3. and held in place by a torque. Show that the torque required remains constant irrespective of the height of the fluid above the opening as long as it submerges the opening completely. The gate is L m long along the slope and b m wide. The torque required = Net force × distance from centroid to centre of pressure = γ A h (hcp – h ) = γ A h (IG / A h ) = γ IG W WL F h Hinge q L Chapter 3 . A = 4 Depth of centre of pressure = (1.11. Taking moments about the hinge. h = 5.3333 m4.sin θ) from the hinge (position of centre of pressure).778 Nm Problem 3. Neglect the weight of the gate. 3.0667 m Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9. b = 8 = 2( 8 ) ( 8 /2)3/12 = 1.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids WL 101 2 m 5m Figure P.L = γ (hb/sin θ) (h/2) (h/3 sin θ) ∴ h3 = 6 W L sin2 θγ θγb Problem 3. A hinged gate is held in position by a counter weight W as shown in Fig.10 h= Moment of Inertia 22 + 22 / 2 = 8 /2.81 × 0.9) × 4 × 5 = 176. The tension of the rope will equal W. 3.580 kN Torque required to close the gate = (5. Determine the height of water for the movement of the gate outwards. W acts perpendicular to the gate which is inclined at angle θ . The counter weight. The force Figure P. A square shaped vertical closing for an opening in a water tank is pivotted along the middle.0667 m The centre of pressure lies on the vertical diagonal at a depth of 5.11. Let h m of water cause the gate to just start to move out. Force on the gate = γ A h = γ (hb/sin θ) h/ 2.11 acts at (h/3.

θ = 45° as tan2 θ = 1 tan θ = 1 (2/3)3 = tan2 θ. Neglect the weight of the gate. Determine the angle θ in terms of the head h1 and h2 for equilibrium. Taking moments about the hinge. θ = 28. The angle between the plates is 90°. from hinge in both cases perpendicular to the plate.54 × 11 × 6/1000 = 6176. Determine the total force and location of the centre of pressure on a rectangular plate 11 m long and 6 m wide with a triangular opening immersed in water at an angle of 40° to the horizontal as shown in figure. γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) (h1/2) (h1/ 3 sin θ) = γ (h2/2) (h2/ cos θ) (h2/ 3 cos θ) ∴ (h1/ h2)3 = tan2 θ. If for example h = 6 m and a = 2 m. As force increases the distance of centre of pressure from CG decreases and hence this result.77 kN .13. 3. (hcp – h ) gives the distance of the hinge from the centroid (hcp – h ) = (IG /A h ). If h1 = 2 m and h2 = 3 m. then h = 6 + (11/2) sin 40 = 9. (i) Considering the whole plate without the opening This checks the expression. h = h/2. below the centroidal axis.15. A gate of rectangular shape hinged at A divides the upstream and downstream sides of a canal 5 m wide as shown in figure. If h1 = h2. A square gate of side. The top edge of the inclined plate is 6 m from the free surface.54 m Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9. a closing an opening is to be hinged along a horizontal axis so that the gate will open automatically when the water level reaches a certain height above the centroid of the gate.56° or the gate is tilted towards left. Figure P. Problem 3. Determine the distance of this axis from the centroid if the height h is specified. Gate WL WL h1 q A 96 – q h2 On the left side.102 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As IG depends only on the plate dimension.14. Problem 3. from hinge.14 On the right side (as sin (90° – θ) = cos θ) the force is γ(h2/2) (h2/cos θ) and acts at (1/3) (h2/cos θ). The gate will begin to open if the hinge is at the level of the centre of pressure and the water level just begins to rises. Problem 3. in which case the centre of pressure will move upwards causing the opening. the force is given by (per unit width) Hinge γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) and it acts at (1/3) (h1/ sin θ). IG = a4/12 (square plate of side a) ∴ (hcp – h ) = (a4 2/12 a2 h) = a2/6h The location of the hinge should be at (a2/6h) below the centroid. the torque is independent of the height of fluid subject to the condition that it submerges the plate fully. then (hcp – h ) = 4/(6 × 6) = 1/9m.

977 × 6176770/sin 40] – [9. Considering 1 m width.44 kN Problem 3.6425 × (4 × 5/2)/1000 = 945. 3.6425 (4 × 5/2)] = 9. The line of action (centre of pressure) is 1.6425 + [4 × 53/36] [sin2 40/9. h = 4 × 2 sin 30 = 4 m. WL 4m h 60° 4m Hinge 4 Figure P.16 Chapter 3 . 3.027 m Calculate the depth of the CG of the area and check whether it is lower than 10. at the surface [9. Height.16.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Depth of centre of pressure = h + (IG sin2 θ/A h ) = 9.77 – 945.16.33) = 5231.977 m (ii) Considering the triangular hole portion only h = 6 + (4 + 5/3) sin 40 = 9.6425 m 103 Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9.333 m from the bottom.52 m depth.702 × 945330/sin 40] = [h/sin 40] [6176770 – 945330] where h is the centre of pressure of the composite area. 3. the horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 = 78480 N. depth of centre of pressure of the composite area of the gate = 10.027 m. Determine the resultant force and the direction of its action on the segmental gate shown in Fig. Solving.54] = 9.15 m Figure P. Net force on the composite area of the gate = (6176. P. moment is taken about O.54 + [6 × 113/12] [sin2 40/(11 × 6) 9.702 m WL 0 40° 6m 6m 4 m 5 m 11 m To determine the line of action of the resultant.33 kN Depth of centre of pressure = 9. CG is at 9.

73)° with horizontal. Volume of segment of circle = [(π R2 × 60/360) – (2 R sin 30 × R cos 30/2)] × 1 = 1.5 N The centre of gravity of a segment of a circle from centre is given by (2/3) R sin3 θ/(Rad θ – sin θ cos θ) where θ is half of the segment angle. The direction with horizontal is given by tan θ = 308190 / 392400. As the net moment about the centre is zero the resultant passes through the centre. 3.3333) – 0.58°. 392400 × (2 – 1. h = 5m.5 = 498958 N Taking moments about the centre.3333 m from bottom twoards the right.449 × 9810 = 14218 N upwards direction. The vertical upward force is equal to the weight of the water displaced = 5 × 9810 × π × 22/2 = 308190 N It acts at a distance of (4r/3π) = 0.58° Gate .4494 m3 Weight = 1. 3. 3. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the elliptical tank portion AB as shown in Fig P.5 = 79757. Substituting the values hCG = (2/3) × 4 × sin3 30/[(π / 6) – sin 30 cos 30] = 3. θ = 79. tan θ = 78480/14218.17 has a span of 5 m.84883 m left of centre and upwards Resultant = (3924002 + 3081902)0. considering 1 m width. The quantities are equal. The line of action will pass through O and its direction will be (90 – 79. So the resultant passes through the centre and as the resulting moment about the centre is zero.17.18. A = 4 × 1 γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 = 196200 N acts at 1. as shown in figure.104 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vertical force (upwards) equals the weight of displaced. (14218 × 3.17 WL 4r 3p 2m G 37.84883 × 308189 = 0.33) × 78477 = 0. θ = 37. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the cylinder when water just begins to overflow. A roller gate as shown in Fig.18. Problem 3. The horizontal force on the elliptical portion equals the force on the projected area. P. γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 × 2 = 392400 N This acts at a distance of 1.67974) – (2 – 1.73° from vertical The net force is (784802 + 142182)0. Neglect weight of the gate.67974 m taking moments about the centre. Problem 3.333 m from bottom Figure P. The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area.

Considering unit width.20. 1.5 = 91818 N A B 2m 2m WL C 2m Figure P. (2. the line of action passes through a point P.616) 180747 ∴ h = 1. The shape described as x = 0. 3.392 m below O at an angle of 47. as shown in Fig. = 4 × 3/3 π = 4/π m from the major axis (as b = 3 m) Centre of gravity of the rectangle = 1. h = 8.19 = 9810 × (4 × 2 – π 22/4) × 1 = 47661 N (downward) Angle with vertical θ : tan– 1 (78480/47661) = 58. P. Consider unit width.35° from vertical. Area of ellipse = π bh/4 where b and h are minor and major axis. A = 3 π m2 (ellipse portion) Rectangular portion above = 3 × 3 = 9 m2. Problem 3.19.73° To fix the line of action. Hence.18 To determine the line of action.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force on the elliptical portion equals the weight of water above this area.5 m from the wall Taking moments and solving.2y 2 forms the wall of a gate.5 = 266766 N 3m 105 1. vertical force and the moment on the gate with respect to O. Horizontal force equals the force on the projected area = γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 2 = 78480 N This force acts at 2.666 – h) 192600 = (3 – 1. Volume = 1 × (3 π + 9) m3 Weight = 9810 (3 π + 9) = 180747 N = Total vertical force The centre of gravity of the quarter of elliptical portion = (4b/3π). Derive expressions for the horizontal force. Problem 3.616 m from wall Resultant force = (1962002 + 1807472)0.19. the location x of vertical force = [9 × 1.20. The area here is 1/4 th of the ellipse.392 O P 47. 3. Then. the line of action of the vertical force should be determined. P 3. let this line cut OA at a distance of h below O at P. Determine the resultant force on the wall of a tank ABC as shown in Fig. 3. Horizontal force = γ A h = γ × y × (y/2) = γ y2/2 Chapter 3 . b = 6.392 m. A = 12π. taking moments about P.6667 m from the top The vertical force equals the weight of the volume above the surface (unit width) Vertical force Resultant = (784802 + 476612)0.5 + 3 π (3 – 4/π)] / [9 + 3 π] = 1.35° A G B 3m 4m Figure P. Calculate the values for y = 3m.

04 y5 = .21 = 3. Let it be x from y axis. perpendicular distance from O × force = moment ∴ Distance = 53680/47456 = 1.2 y3/3 z y 0 y2 dy Y X O = 0.21.21.2 = 1.2° Resultant = (441452 + 176582)0.06 y2 For y = 3 m and unit width Horizontal force Vertical force Clockwise moment = 9810 (3 × 3/2) = 44145 N = 0.dy = 0.2 y3/3) × γ × width The position of line of action can be determined taking moment about the y axis.66071 m . dy . xy/3 = Figure P. Vertical force: weight of volume above the surface. x/2 = 0. 3. Assuming unit width. x .024 × 9) = 53680 N m The direction of the force with the vertical can be found using tan– 1 (44145/17658) = 68.129 m i) WL 2m ii) iii) Bulge A C B 3m It cuts the vertical from O at 1. Force on the surface ABC is required.2 = xy/3 Vertical force = (xy/3) × γ × width = (0. 10 10 ∴ x = (3x/10) = 0.5 × π × 32/4 = 242700 N Depth of centre of pressure Figure P. A hemispherical bulge of 3m diameter inwards is as shown in Fig.106 This force acts at y/3 from the bottom. 3. the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the wall of the bulge (i) when water is full (ii) water level comes to the top of the bulge and (iii) water level upto the centre of the bulge.129/sin 68.216 m Problem 3.5 = 47546 N To locate the actual line of action of the force.2 y3/3) γ × 0.2 y3 γ/3 = 0.20 z y 0 x . 3.5 + (π/64) (34 × 4/3. P.04 2 z y 0 y 4 dy = x2 y 0.06 y2 Clockwise moment about O = (γ y2/2) × (y/3) + (0.5 × π × 32) = 3.2 × 27 × 9810/3 = 17658 N = (γ × 27/6) (1 + 0. the volume = area × width A= WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery X = 0. Determine for the given dimensions.2 y 2 Gate 3m z y 0 x. The projected area = π D2/4 (i) Horizontal force = 9810 × 3.

6366 × π × 1. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 1. The resultant is given by [2427002 + 693432]0. The vertical force on the surface BC is due to the liquid column above it and acts downwards. The tank is 6 m 3m long and has flat vertical ends.55565/(0. 107 Note : The vertical force on the surface AB is due to the liquid column above it and acts upwards.87° with vertical.5625 × 69343 – (0.52/2)] = 0.5625 m from wall. Line of action.16071 × 242700)} ≅ 0 (ii) When water level comes up to the edge. An oil tank of elliptical section of major axis 3 m and minor axis 2 m is completely filled with oil of specific gravity 0. Problem 3. at the same level.9 × 1 × 2 × 6 = 105948 N to the left Line of action = 1 + (6 × (1/1) (1/6 × 2) = 1. . Similar force acts on the right half of the tank to the right.5 × (π × 32/4) = 104014 N Horizontal force acts at 1.31° (iii) When water comes to the centre. 3. Vertical force = γ (1/4) (4 π R3/3) = 34672 N (upwards) Resultant = 43340N. θ = 36.22.95° {0.75 × (π × 32/8) = 26004 N IG = Ib – A ( h ). h = 2D/3 π. Resultant = [1040142 + 693432]0.55565 Centre of pressure = 0.5 = 252412 N The direction is given by (angle with vertical) θ.05°. Considering the surface of the left half of the tank.5) (4/π × 32) = 1. horizontal force = 9810 × 0.9. It does. 23/12) 6 m long 2m 2 ∴ Figure P.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = weight of the liquid displaced γ (1/2) ( 4 π R3/3) = 69343 N and acts upwards For the hemisphere. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 0. So the net force is due to the weight of the volume of liquid displaced and acts upwards. down from B.22 Chapter 3 Check whether the resultant passes through the centre by taking moment. θ = tan– 1 (24700/69343) = 74.5 + (π 34/64) (1/1.333 m from top.5 = 125009 N Does the resultant pass through the centre? Check. centre of action from surface = 3 R/8 = 0.9973 m. Ib = π D4/128 IG = 0. The angle with the horizontal will be 15.875 m The vertical force remains the same.75 + [0. angle with vertical = tan– 1 (104014/69343) = 56. Determine the forces and their direction of action on the two sides and the ends.

89°.75 + (1/12) (2 × 1.5) = 1. It can be split up into two components (i) due to the water column and (ii) due to the pressure on the fluid The horizontal force =γ h A+PA = 9810 × 0.75)} / (22072.23 has the top of one side wall in the shape of a cylinder as indicated. Similar force acts on the other half. The water is under a gauge pressure of 20.9 × (π × 3 × 2/4 × 2) = 20803 N downward and the location is 4h/3π = 4 × 1. A square section tank of 3 m side and 2 m length as shown in Fig.25 m from top.000 × (1.5 = 101333 N The resultant acts at an angle (with vertical).9 × 1 × π × 3 × 2/4 = 41606 N = 1 + (π × 3 × 23/64) (1/1) (4/π × 3 × 2) = 1.000 = 82072.53/ 0.75 × 2 × 1.108 Vertical force on the left half = Weight of displaced liquid Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 9810 × 0. 3.5 = 107971 N Direction (with vertical) = tan– 1 (105948/20803) = 78. The tank is filled with water as indicated.75 × (1.5 / 59434.5 m 2 m Figure P. 20 kN/m 2 60° 1m 1.5 + 60. = {(22072.9) = 54. from centre line Resultant = (1059482 + 208032)0.000 N/m2.0 m (from top).5 × 2) + 20. tan– 1 (82072. 3. The horizontal force is the force due to water pressure on the projected area.5 + 60.09° Note : The problem can also be solved by considering an additional head of fluid equal to the gauge pressure.5 × 1) + (60000 × 0. The vertical force can also be considered as the result of two action (i) the weight of displaced volume and (ii) the pressure on the projected area.23 . Location of the net force is determined by taking moments about the top.5/3π = 0. P.5 N (to the right) The first component acts at the centre of pressure and the second at the centre of gravity. Determine the horizontal and vertical forces on the curved surface.63662 m.52 + 594352)0. = 9810 [(120 × π × 12 × 2/360) + (cos 60 × sin 60 × 2/2)] + sin 60 × 2 × 20000 = 24794 + 34641 = 59435 N (upwards) The resultant = (82072.000) = 0.8172 m from top. Also locate the line of action of the resultant force. Problem 3.5 × 2) = 22072.23. Ends: Elliptical surfaces : Line of action F = γ h A = 9810 × 0. Centre of pressure due to fluid pressure = 0.

5 m from the base.25 × 1) = 0. The other horizontal force due to oil on CD is F Oil 1. 3. The bridge is 4m wide.25 m Water B A D E 109 Figure P.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Problem 3.5 /2) × 5.91 × 9810] = (24077 + 24904) N Total upward force = 48981 N Workout the resultant as an exercise.25 m S = 0.25/2) + 1 × 1 × 1.252/4) × 0.91 × (1. Problem 3. On the upstream side the water level is 5.25 × 1. Determine the vertical and horizontal forces on the cylinder shown in Fig.25. The normal force on each gate on the upstream side = 9810 × (5. determine the reaction at each hinge.24 [(1.5 × 4 = 593505 N Chapter 3 = 9810 × 0.833 m from the top surface The vertical upward force equals the weight of water displaced + weight of oil displaced (AEDG + CDG) = [9810 × (π × 1. Determine (i) normal force on each gate and (ii) the reaction between the gates. A channel is closed by two swinging lock gates each of 4 m wide and 6 m height and when closed the angle between them is 120°. Consider 1 m length.25) + π × 1. The cylinder is in equilibrium.5 m Figure P. The horizontal force on AB and BC are equal and opposite. Determine the upward force due to water pressure.91 C 1.253 × 2/12 × 1.25 × 1.3 N and this force acts at .25 The upward force is due to the weight of water displaced as shown in figure. Water displaced Water level A D 8m E B C 1.24. A bridge is in the form of an elliptical arch and wter flows just touching the bottom.5 m and 5.252/2)] + [(1.25/ 2) × 1.25 × 1 = 6974. The major axis is 8 m and the minor axis is 3 m. P. Area of half ellipse = πbh/8 = π × 8 × 3/8 = 3πm2 Area of rectangle = 8 × 1.24. 3. If the gates are hinged at 0. The horizontal force can be calculated as the sum of forces due to the oil and due to the water on projected area.26.5 = 12 m2 Weight of water displaced = (12 – 3π) × 4 × 9810 = 101052 N Problem 3. 3.5 m and in the downstream it is 2m.

moments can be taken with reference to the other hinge.5)0. A= ∴ 6 20 C Pressure force h h/3 A B Weight of structure Water level Figure P.8 × 9810 × 3 = 9810 × (h/2) × h × (h/3) Solving. This force acts at 2/3 = 0.5 A = 0. 3.6667) = R1 (5. The area and centre of gravity are to be determined by integration. A dam section is 6 m wide and 20 m high. h = 18.5 m from base.5 – 1. (check total as 515025) Problem 3.5 should be dimensional.667 m from bottom. x = 0. Determine the resultant vertical force on the curved structure AB and also the line of action.28. Determine the height of water which may just cause overturning of the dam wall. When the moment with downstream corner A of the structures weight equals the moment of the pressure force on the structure.5 / 3 = 1. Consider a width of 1m.e.5 – 0. (CP is h/3 from bottom).8333 m from the bottom.5 . To determine the reaction at each hinge. The average specific gravity of the material is 2.8. Weight × AB = Pressure force × AC Considering 1m length. The normal force on the downstream side on each gate = 9810 × (2/2) × 2 × 4 = 78480 N. The total reaction at the hinges should also equal this value. (as half the force only is causing the reaction at the hinge. Taking moments from the top hinge at 5.5 Z2 where z is the width.5 m R 120° R A Gates 4m×6m Hinge H=2m Figure P.27. This acts perpendicular to the contact as shown.83333) – (78480/2) (5. Considering a strip at x and width dx. the structure will tilt. i. (note the constant 0. At any section the height.5 – 0.27 z x 0 Z dx where Z = (x/0.22 m. Problem 3. Water stands upto x = 2m.5) sin 30 R1 = 359373 N and by similar calculation R2 = 155652 N. taking moments 20 × 6 × 2.9428 x1. 3. 1/m).110 This force acts at 5. 515025 × 2 = R × 4 sin 30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hinge H = 5. Net normal force = 593505 – 78480 = 515025 N To determine the reaction R considering the equilibrium and taking moments about the point A.26 R = 515025 N. and as the reaction is at 30° to the plane of gate) (593505/2) (5.

5)0.9428 x1.6666 m2 Force due to water = 2.225 m from Z = 0 position. Chapter 3 . z = 1. (i) plate (ii) circle (iii) triangle. The vertical force due to the weight of water which stands upto x = 2 m over the surface. weight A = 0. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth. x = 2.8856 3m X A Air 0.5 / 1. Explain the concept of centroid of an area or centre of gravity.5. h (i) the horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) the vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area.28 Pressure force = 2. weight = area × depth × sp. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.8 bar gauge z B Water level dx x Z The vertical force due to gas pressure = vertical projected area × pressure Top width. What will be the value of first moment of area about the centroid. 0 Figure P. A = 2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids To obtain the line of centre of gravity from z = 0 line A Z = ∴ x x 111 1m z 0 Z dx Z/2 = z 0 x dx = x2/2 Z = (x2 / 2) (1/0. Obtain simplified expressions for the centre of pressure of vertical planes. 7.6666 × 9810 = 26160 N. Explain the concept of Moment of Inertia of a surface and the application of the same in the study of forces due to fluid pressure on surfaces.45 m. Considering 1 m width. Derive an expression for the force on a thin plate of given arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid at an angle θ to the free surface.8 × 105 N/m2 2m 0.75 = Z (222119). Z = (3/0.8 × 105 N = 195959 N. Weight = volume × sp. 3.5 = 2. Explain how force on curved surfaces due to fluid pressure is determined. Show that in the case of a rectangle inclined to the horizontal.45 × 1 × 0.8856 = 0. 3. 4. 5.5 / 1.225 + 26160 × 0. 6. This force acts at Z = x0.9428 x1. This acts along 1.169 m. To determine the line of action: 195959 × 1.75 m from the vertical at Z = 0 Total force = 195959 + 26160 = 222119 N. 2.5 ) = x0. Explain the importance of the study of fluid forces on surfaces and submerged bodies.8 bar = 0. P = 0.

The hydrostatic force on a submerged plane surface depends on the _________ of the centroid. (6) normal.3. The distance of centre of pressure from its centroid for a vertical area immersed in liquid is given by _________. 3. (4) the centriod of the liquid column above the surface. The second moment of area about an axis through the centre of gravity will _________ compared to any other axis.1. 9. The line of action of vertical force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is _________. The location of centre of pressure of a plane immersed in a liquid _________ with change in density of the liquid. decreases or remains constant : 1. The force due to gas pressure on curved surface in any direction _________. 8. The centre of pressure will generally be _________ the centroid. x-distance between the axes. The second moment about any axis differs from the second moment through a parallel axis through the centroid by _________. 3. The point of action of resultant fluid forces is called _________. (2) zero. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is equal to the force on _________. (3) the centre of pressure of the vertical projected area. (7) (dp/dy) = – γ. 3. (3) lower.3. O Q. When a plane is tilted with respect to any centriodal axis the normal force on the plane due to liquid pressure _________. 10.3 Fill in the blanks using increases.112 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. 2. 7. the centre. (5) equals the product of gas pressure and projected area in that direction. 2. IG / A h . . 9. The moment of area about any axis through the centre of gravity will be _________. The force due to liquid pressure _________ with depth of immersion. 4. (6) the centre. 10.3. (8) A x2. 5. (5) depth. The vertical distance between the centriod and centre of pressure over a plane area immersed at an angle θ to the free surface is given by _________. 4. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. 6. (2) the weight of column of liquid above the surface. IG sin2 θ/ A h 11. 6.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. The vertical force on a curved surface equals the _________. The pressure at the same horizontal level in a static liquid is _________. 11. 4. Fill in the blanks 1. 5. (4) below. Answers (1) the vertical projected area. The resultant force on cylindrical or spherical surfaces immersed in a fluid passes through _______. Answers (1) Centre of pressure. The law for calculating hydrostatic pressure is _________. O Q. The distance between the centriod and the center of pressure _________ with depth of immersion. The force due to liquid pressure acts _________ to the surface. The line of action of horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is_________.

4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect : 1. At location where g = 5 m/s2. 6. The centre of pressure of a rectangular plane with height of liquid h m from base Chapter 3 . The density of a liquid is 1000 kg/m3. The centre of pressure on a plane will be at a lower level with respect to the centroid. 4.3. The location of the centre of pressure over a surface immersed in a liquid is (a) always above the centroid (b) will be at the centroid (c) will be below the centroid (d) for higher densities it will be above the centroid and for lower densities it will be below the centroid. 2. the normal force on the plane will increase. O Q. Decreases : 2. The pressure at a point y m below a surface in a liquid of specific weight γ as compared to the surface pressure. 113 4. (b) 5000 N/m3 (d) 5000 × 5 / 9. 6.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Answers Increases : 1. 4. 6. When a plane is tilted along its centroidal axis so that its angle with horizontal increases. g/γ). The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid equals (a) the weight of the column of liquid above the surface (b) the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the area (c) the force on the vertical projection of the surface (d) the pressure multiplied by the average height of the area. The normal force on an immersed plane will not change as long as the depth of the centroid is not altered. 5 (2) Incorrect : 2. In a plane immersed in a liquid the centre of perssure will be above the centroid.3.5 Choose the correct answer : 1.81 / 5 N/m3 (a) h/2 m from bottom (c) h/3 m from bottom (d) can be determined only if liquid specific weight is known. 3. (above the surface pressure) is given by (a) ρ g (c) – γ d (b) γ d (d) (ρ/g)d (usual notations) 2. 5. The vertical force on an immersed curved surface will be equal to the column of liquid above the surface. the specific weight of the liquid will be (a) 200 N/m3 (c) 5000 × 9. 3. O Q. 5. The pressure at a depth ‘d’ in a liquid. The resultant force due to gas pressure will act at the centroid. P will be equal to (a) P + (y/γ) (c) P – (y g/γ) (b) P + yγ (d) P + (y . 4. Remains Constant : 3.81 N/m3 (b) h/3 m from top 3. Answers (1) Correct : 1.

2 – d. Second moment of area 4. 4 – a. Second moment of area B (a) always positive (b) area moment zero (c) resultant force (d) constant pressure Answers 1 – b. the centre of pressure will 8. Semicircle about base (a) B h3 / 36 (b) D4 / 64 (c) D4 / 128 (d) B h3 / 12 Answers 1 – b. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. Free surface 4. 4 – c. (II) A 1. Centroid 2. 3 – a. 4 – a. Rectangle about centroidal axis 3. Specific weight 2.3. Centre of pressure 3. First moment of area 5. A sphere of R m radius is immersed in a fluid with its centre at a depth h m The vertical force on the sphere will be (a) γ (4/3)π R3 (c) γ (π R2 h + 8 π R2/3) (b) γπ R2 h (d) γ (π R2 h – 8 π R2/3). 2 – c. 3 – b. 3 – d. 5 – c. . When the depth of immersion of a plane surface is increased. Triangle about centroidal axis 4. Pressure (a) m3 (b) m4 (c) N/m2 (d) kg/m3 (e) N/m3 B Answers 1 – e.6 Match the sets A and B : A (I) 1. O Q. Circle about centroidal axis 2.114 (a) come closer to the centroid (b) move farther away from centroid (c) will be at the same distance from centroid (d) depend on the specific weight of the liquid. (III) Moment of inertia of various shapes : 1. Answers (1) b (2) b (3) c (4) c (5) c (6) b (7) a (8) a. Density 3. 2 – d.

3.5 0.3. 3. X 3m X X 2m X 0.3.1 from the given reference lines.2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 115 E.3. 3. Chapter 3 2m 1.414 m X X . 3.1.3.4.1. Determine the centroid of the following shapes shown in Fig E.3. E.5 2m 1m 5m 3m X X X X 1m 60° 1m 2m 1m 1m X 1m 1m 1m 1m X X 1. determine the moment of inertia of the surfaces about the axis xx and also about the centroid. For the shapes in Fig E. From basics (by integration) determine the forces acting on one side of a surface kept vertical in water as shown in Fig. E. WL h 5m 30° y=2 2 y = X /6 a 5m b Figure E. 3.5 m 3m X Ellipse 1m Figure E.1 E.3 E. 3. Determine the magnitude and location of the hydrostatic force on one side of annular surface of 2 m ID and 4 m OD kept vertical in water.

E. 4 m wide. Determine the hydrostatic force on one side of the plane. A gate as shown in Fig. Also find the height above the base at which the resultant force acts. E.5 Figure E. 3.11 weighing 9000 N with the centre of gravity 0. the centre being at 4 m depth.3.5 m to the right of the vertical face holds 3 m of water.3.3. in the vertical wall of a reservoir.9.9 with 8 m length on the base level. WL 4m 3m Gate 8m 60° 4m Figure E.10. For a width of 1 m determine the total pressure and also the point of action of the same. if the gate is hinged at (i) the mid diameter (ii) at the top. 3.3. 3. WL WL 1m 8m Hinge i) Strut 3m 60° Gate 30° 4m Figure E. What should be the value of counter weight W to hold the gate in the position shown. E.6 E. Show that the resultant force on a submerged plane remains unchanged if the area is rotated about an axis through the centroid.5. E.116 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E. 3. 3.3 m over which water stands to a depth of 1 m and oil of specific gravity 0.7.5 m over water. Also locate the centre of pressure. A tank contains mercury upto a height of 0. E.8. E.3. 3.11.3. E. An annular plate of 4 m OD and 2 m ID is kept in water at an angle of 30° with the horizontal.3.6.9 E.6.8 stands to a depth of 0. shown in Fig. . Determine the net force on the gate due to the water. Determine the compressive force on each of the two struts supporting the gate. Determine the moment required to hold a circular gate of 4 m dia. A trapezoidal gate of parallel sides 8 m and 4 m with a width of 3 m is at an angle of 60° to the horizontal as shown in Fig. The top of the gate is 8 m from the water surface.

E. The gate is 1 m wide. WL WL 8m 4m 3 2m WL 2500 kg/m 20 m 11 2. E. 3. Also determine the force at the edge required to lift the gate.3. Determine the air pressure required.5 Figure E. The mass of the gate is 2500 kg and its section is uniform.12.3.11 Figure E. E. E.14.4 m 2m F 60° 3. E. Determine the location of hinge from the base. 3.12 E.16. Also calculate the maximum and minimum compressive stress on the base. Compressed air is used to keep the gate shown in Fig. E. 3. 1m W WL 5m 3m 9 kN 0.5 m y Figure E.3. Determine the location where the resultant hydrostatic force crosses the base. A dam section is shown in figure.15.3. Chapter 3 .Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 117 E. 3.17. Show that as the depth of immersion increases. Determine the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force on the gate shown in Fig. Determine height of water backing up which can lift the gate.3.5 m high and 1 m wide is installed in a drainage channel as shown in Fig.14.15 E. 3.16. 3. The gate weighs 6 kN.13. A rectangular gate of 2 m height and 1 m width is to be supported on hinges such that it will tilt open when the water level is 5 m above the top.17 closed.14 Figure E. 3. An automatic flood gate 1. the centre of pressure approaches the centroid.3.5 2m Hinge level 1.

E.21. 3. Determine the force required to open the stopper.2 m Figure E.73.4 m 1m 1m W 60° 60° 0.22. The water level is up to the top of the gate. 3. Also determine the direction of action of the force.3.21.16 Figure E.17 E. A gate 12 m long by 3 m wide is vertical and closes an opening in a water tank. 3. E. 3. Also determine the line of action.19. Determine the force on one half of the wall.3. E. E. [3.3. A spherical container of 6 m diameter is filled with oil of specific gravity 0. 3. Locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces acting at these locations will balance the water pressure. Determine the resultant force on one half of the sphere divided along the vertical plane. Figure E.8 m 0.18.21 E.9362 m] .118 WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Compressed air Hinge W 2m 6m 0. 8. A conical stopper is used in a tank as shown in Fig. F WL 0.3.8 msq.4452 m 10. Determine the total weight/m length of a gate made of a cylindrical drum and a plate as shown in Fig. if it is in equilibrium when water level is at the top of the cylinder.8 m Plate 0. E.3. An inverted frustum of a cone of base dia 1 m and top dia 6 m and height 5 m is filled with water. 3.4641 m.20.20.20 Figure E. The 3 m side is along horizontal.

ships. Archimedes principle can be stated as (i) a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced and (ii) a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it floats. It is applicable in the design of boats. F = γ Ah and is applied in the design of ships. boats. 4.1. In this chapter the forces due to fluid on floating and submerged bodies is discussed. The total force on the body can be calculated by considering the body to consist of a large number of cylindrical or prismatic elements and calculating the sum of forces on the top and bottom area of each element. This principle directly follows from the general hydrostatic equation. 4. Other possible statements are: The resultant pressure force acting on the surface of a volume partially or completely surrounded by one or more fluids under non flow conditions is defined as buoyant force and acts vertically on the volume.0 Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE In the previous chapter the forces due to fluid on surfaces was discussed.1 BUOYANCY FORCE Consider the immersed or floating body shown in Fig. The stability of such bodies against tilting over due to small disturbance can be also checked using this principle. This force is called buoyant force. balloons and other such similar systems. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid and acts upwards through the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid. Consider a prismatic element : Let the sectional area be dA. common for both terms) 119 . In addition to the discussion of forces the stability of floating bodies due to small disturbances is also discussed." 4. The calculation of this force is based on Archimedes principle. Force on the top dF1 = dA γ h1 and Force on the base dF2 = dA γ h2 (cancelling Patm. balloons and submersibles and also hydrometers. (i) Immersed body. This point is called the centre of buoyancy for the body. If an object is immersed in or floated on the surface of fluid under static conditions a force acts on it due to the fluid pressure.1.

6 – 1000 × 9. K.81 × 1.32/4) 0. as h2 > h1 Summing up over the volume. Force on the top of the element dF1 = dA.1 A cylinder of diameter 0.2 Determine the maximum weight that may be supported by a hot air balloon of 10 m diameter at a location where the air temperature is 20° C while the hot air temperature is 80° C. Pa and Force on the base of the element dF2 = dA (γ h2 + Pa) dF2 – dF1 = γ dA h2 = γ dV where dV is the volume of the fluid element displaced. Example.3 m and height 0. The pressure is assumed to be the same both inside and outside of the balloon. The volume of cold air displaced equals the volume of the balloon. (ii) Floating body. The buoyant force equals the weight of the cold surrounding air displaced. R = 287 J/kg. Top is at 0.81 × 1. The pressure at the location is 0. The forces that act on the balloon are its weight downward and the buoyant force upwards.6 m depth Buoyant force = Force on the bottom face – Force on top face = (π × 0. F = γ V.0) = 416. F = γ V (or) the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. where dV is the volume of the element.6 × 1000 × 9. This force acts upwards.6 m depth.06 N This acts upward at the centre of gravity G Check: Bottom is at 1.1.8 bar. It is seen that the equation holds good in both cases – immersed or floating.120 dF1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h1 = 0 WL dF1 h1 h2 h2 dA dF2 (ii) Floating body dF2 (i) Immersed body WL dA Figure 4. Considering an element of volume dV. Summing up over the area.81 = 416. The difference between these two gives the maximum weight that may be carried by the balloon. .1 Proof for Archimedes principle Net force on the element (dF2 – dF1) = γ dA (h2 – h1) = γ dV. Determine the buoyant force on the cylinder. 4.16 N Example. the weight of volume displaced. Check the value from basics Buoyant force = Weight of water displaced = (π × 0. 4.6 m stays afloat vertically in water at a depth of 1 m from the free surface to the top surface of the cylinder.32/4) (1000 × 9.

(i) If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the liquid of equal volume then the body will sink into the liquid (To keep it floating additional upward force is required). Weight of hot air = m. These are the gravitational force on the body (weight) acting downward along the centroid of the body and buoyant force acting upward along the centroid of the displaced liquid. No further change in position occurs in this case.8 × 105 × 523.6 – 4056 = 830. A submarine or ship though made of denser material floats because.e.6/287 × (273 + 80) = 413. (iii) If the weight of the body is less than the weight of equal volume of liquid.6 N (i.81] /[287 × (273 + 20)] = 4886. under equilibrium conditions these two forces are equal and opposite and act along the same line. then the body will be partly submerged and will float in the liquid.6 × 9. (iii) Unstable equilibrium: A small disturbance creates a couple which acts to increase the disturbance and the body may tilt over completely.46 × 9.8 × 105 × 523. to its original position. Equilibrium of a body exists when there is no resultant force or moment on the body. Comparison of densities cannot be used directly to determine whether the body will float or sink unless the body is solid over the full volume like a lump of iron. In the case of submarine its weight should equal the weight of water displaced for it to lay submerged.67 kg mass under earths gravity) This should include the weight of the balloon material and fittings.6 N Weight that can be carried by the balloon = 4886.2 STABILITY OF SUBMERGED AND FLOATING BODIES There are three possible situations for a body when immersed in a fluid. Chapter 4 .g = 413. (i) Stable equilibrium: Small disturbances will create a correcting couple and the body will go back to its original position prior to the disturbance. two forces of equal magnitude acting along the same line of action.81 = 4056 N Weight of cold air = [0. However the apparent density calculated by the ratio of weight to total volume can be used to check whether a body will float or sink. the body will stay afloat at any location. (ii) If the weight of the body equals the weight of equal volume of liquid.. Stability of a body: A ship or a boat should not overturn due to small disturbances but should be stable and return. then the body will submerge and may stay at any location below the surface. 121 4. but in the opposite directions exist on a floating/submerged body.6 m3 Mass of hot air = (PV/RT) = 0. (ii) Neutral equilibrium Small disturbances do not create any additional force and so the body remains in the disturbed position. If it is less. the weight/volume of the ship will be less than the density of water. If apparent density is higher than that of the liquid. Whether floating or submerged. Under equilibrium conditions. about 84. the body will sink. A body can stay in three states of equilibrium.46 kg.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies Volume of balloon = (4 × π × 53/3) = 523. the body will float with part above the surface. If these are equal.

1 Stability of floating and submerged bodies Figure 4. Point C is the centre of gravity.2. This body is in unstable equilibrium.1 (v) shows the objects in Figures 4. Equations will be derived for simple shapes and for small disturbances. (Note: For practical cases. The equations and calculations are more involved for the actual shapes.122 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the position of the body is disturbed or rocked by external forces (like wind on a ship). This body is in a state of stable equilibrium.1 (i) and 4.2. WL W B C W Submerged.2 (iii) shows the body under neutral equilibrium.1 (ii) in a slightly disturbed condition.2. Now these two forces constitute a couple which may correct the original tilt or add to the original tilt.2.2. Hence the body will remain in the disturbed position. If the couple opposes the movement. In the case of top heavy body (Figure 4. It is essential that the stability of ships and boats are well established. In the case of Figure 4. In the case of Figure 4.2. the position of the centre of gravity of the body (with respect to the body) remains at the same position. Point B is the centre of buoyancy. In the case of figure 4.2.1 (iv) the couple formed is opposed to the direction of disturbance and tends to return the body to the original position.2. Figure 4.1 (i) and 4. It can be seen that the gravity and buoyant forces are equal and act along the same line but in the opposite directions.1 (ii) shows bodies under equilibrium condition.1 (iii) no couple is formed due to disturbance as both forces act at the same point. The couple is called righting couple. Equilibrium (i) WL Couple C B Neutral W B C (iii) W (iv) B Equilibrium (ii) B Tilted WL Couple disturbing C C Unstable Figure 4.) . Under such a condition a couple is found to form by the two forces. then the body will regain or go back to the original position. These conditions are illustrated in Fig 4. The centre of gravity and the centre of buoyancy conicide.2 (ii)) the couple created by a small disturbance tends to further increase the tilt and so the body is unstable. the calculations will be elaborate and cannot be attempted at this level.1 (ii) the couple formed is in the same direction as the disturbance and hence tends to increase the disturbance.1 (iv) and 4. If the couple acts to increase the tilt then the body becomes unstable.2. because the point of application of these forces are moved to new positions.2. But the shape of the displaced volume of liquid changes and so its centre of gravity shifts to a new location.2. Figures 4.

4. additional analysis is required to establish stable conditions of floating. . A righting couple is always created to bring the body back to the stable condition.1. correcting the disturbance. the floating body will be unstable. Referring to Fig 4. (ii) When the centre of buoyancy coincides with the centre of gravity. the centre of buoyancy has moved to B′. If it is at the centroid. If the distance moved by the centre of gravity is larger. the floating body will be in neutral equilibrium. the resulting couple will act anticlockwise. The shape of the liquid displaced also changes and the centre of buoyancy also generally moves to the right. The distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity is known is metacentric height. say clockwise. This involves the concept of metacentre and metacentric height. Larger the metacentric height. (iii) When the centre of buoyancy is below the centre of gravity as in the case of ships. the two forces act at the same point.3. It may also be noted that the couple is anticlockwise. If it is below the centroid. In this case metacentric height is positive and the body is stable. The line of action of this force is upward and it meets the body centre line at the metacentre M which is above G. If M falls below G. when disturbed. stable condition When a small disturbance occurs. the body is always stable under all conditions of disturbance. A disturbance does not create any couple and so the body just remains in the disturbed position. The location M at which the line of action of buoyant force meets the centroidal axis of the body. After a small clockwise tilt. If the distance moved by the centre of buoyancy is larger than the distance moved by the centre of gravity. The distance of this point from the centroid of the body is called metacentric height.1.3 CONDITIONS FOR THE STABILITY OF FLOATING BODIES 123 (i) When the centre of buoyancy is above the centre of gravity of the floating body. The shape of the displaced volume changes and the centre of buoyancy moves from its previous position.3. then the couple will be clockwise and the body will be unstable. the floating body will be stable. This is illustrated in Figure 4. Chapter 4 If the metacentre is above the centroid of the body. The magnitude of the righting couple is directly proportional to the metacentric height. then the centre of gravity moves to the right of the original centre line.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 4. is defined as metacentre. the centre of gravity G is above the centre of buoyancy B. better will be the stability. the couple will be clockwise and it will tend to increase the disturbance or tilting. There is no tendency to tilt further or to correct the tilt.1 Metacentric height. Metacentric height Couple opposing WL C C M WL B B Equilibrium condition After small tilt Figure 4. When the body is disturbed the centre of gravity still remains on the centroidal line of the body.

So the metacentric height can be determined. the submerged section is FGHE.4. R = MB sin θ or R = MB θ ∴ MB =R/θ = I/V (4.4. P × S = W × R The moment P × S can be determined by taking moments of elements displaced about O. ∴ P × S = γ θ ∫A x2 dA = γ I θ (4.2 .4. the metacentric height is given by. If G is below B +ve sign is to be used.4.4.2) From the triangle MBB′. as the angle of tilt is small.3) Both I and V are known. expressed in radians) The mass of the element γ × θ dA (γ – specific weight). The original centre of buoyancy B was along the centre line.4. Let it move through a distance R. Let the weight of the wedge portion be P. Taking moments about B.1 in section and plan view (part). S F A WL F q M O G B G R C H q B¢ GM metacentric height y x dx E F D Plan Xd q I WL x dA y Figure 4.1) where I = ∫A x2 dA. the intersection of water surface and centre line.4) GB is originally specified. Consider a small element at x with area dA The height of the element = θ × x (as θ is small. moment of inertia about the axis y – y W × R = γ θ I. If G is above B –ve sign is used.4. In the tilted position. MG = MB ± GB (4. The new location B′ can be determined by a moment balance.4 METACENTRIC HEIGHT Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A floating object is shown in Figure 4.124 4.1 Metacentric height – derivation The force system consists of the original buoyant force acting at B and the forces due to the wedges and the resultant is at B′ due to the new location of the buoyant force. but W = Vγ where V is the displaced volume (4. The moment distance is x. Uniform section is assumed at the water line. As V = W/γ. Originally the submerged portion is AFGHD. ∴ γ θ I = Vγ R (W = P) Centre line of the body M (Metacentre) q MG sin q W centroid G Original centre of buoyance B B¢ Centre of buoyancy after tilting Figure 4.

63 m4 . V = W/γ = m/ρ Considering sea water of density 1030 kg/m3 and V as the liquid volume displaced. Then the disturbing moment is W1 2X.15 – 1.87 MG = MB – GB = (3053. This is positive and so the ship is stable about rolling by small angles.4 A ship displacing 4000 tons has an angle of tilt of 5.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 125 B = W acts vertically along B′ M.8 – 0. 4. 4.3 = 1.3 m below the water level.87 m3 . SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 4. say W.08 kg/m3.5 = 1. A known weight W1 is located at a distance of X from the centre line.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height The weight of the ship should be specified. Determine the metacentric height for rolling (y – y axis) and pitching (x – x axis).62/970. For pitching MG = (π × 12 × 363/64 × 970. This equals the restoring couple W MG sin θ.8 kg/m3 and that of the hydrogen in the balloon is 0.3 A ship’s plan view is in the form of an ellipse with a major axis of 36 m and minor axis of 12 m. Example. Chapter 4 . The weight is now moved by 2X m so that it is at a distance of X m on the otherside of the centre line.8 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.1 Determine the diameter of a hydrogen filled balloon to support a total of 1 kg at a location where the density of air is 0. The distance between the couple formed is MG sin θ. V = 1000. Example.042 m (here X is half the distance moved) check using the degree of tilt and MG = 2MX/W sin θ. in the upward direction W acts vertically downwards at G. The angle of tilt of the pendulum or plumb bob is measured.5 m For rolling: I = x (bh3/64) = π × 36 × 123/64 = 3053. A plumb bob or pendulum is used to mark the vartical. The mass of the ship is 1000 tons.5 × π/180) = 1.000/1030 = 970.3 m Highly stable in this direction. This situation is for small angles and uniform section at the water line.5. Hence the righting couple = γ V MG θ = W MG sin θ. The centre of buoyancy is 1.87) – 1.87) – 1. GB = 1. 4.4.65 m (–ve) sign as B is below G). MG = (2W1 X/W θ) = 2 × 200 × 1000 × 9. MB = I/V = 3053.63/970. The angle can be measured by noting the length of the pendulum and the distance moved by the plumb bob weight. For small angles sin θ θ W1 2X = W MG sin θ = W MG θ (θ in radians) Metacentric height MG = 2 W1 X/W θ (X is half the distance or distance of weight from centre and θ is the angle in radians).81 (. Determine the value of metacentric height.5 = 28.81 × 1/4000 × 1000 × 9.5 = 3. MG = (I/V) ± GB.5° caused by the movement of a weight of 200 tons through 2m from one side of centre line to the other.

5 m in sea water with a density of 1024 kg/m3 moves to fresh water. Solving r = 0.93/3) = 45.4 A cubical block with a density of 2500 kg/m3 fully submerged in water is used to hold down a box 0. It is supported by a cylindrical tank of 3 m dia and 6 m lenght of mass 4500 kg when empty and filled with oil of specific gravity 0. The box has a mass of 110 kg.7 m Problem 4.7.81 = 66708 N Total weight = 335384. Assume density of sea water as 1024 kg/m3. Determine the weight of the block.3 ∴ The total volume displaced = volume of cylinder + volume of sphere = (π × 33 × 6/4) + (4 × π × 0.384 m Problem 4. Determine the maximum mass of equipment that can be supported in the bathy sphere.08) × 9. Equivalent Depth = 93.8 + 66708 = 402092.6 × 0.126 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The weight that can be supported equals the difference in weights of air and hydrogen.81 in both numerator and denominator) Volume of sea water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1024 = 3906.2 Ship weighing 4000 tons and having an area of 465 m2 at water line submerging to depth of 4.8 m is to be used in an ocean exploration.25 m3 To support the same weight. The important thing to note is that the limiting condition is when the supporting cylinder just submerges. 6 m long Bathy sphere Figure P. (omitting 9.25 = 93.81.81 = 456717 N The weight of cylinder and oil = 9.5 + 0.5 N (about 5568 kg of mass) Problem 4.2 = 4.3 A bathy sphere of mass 6800 kg (empty) and having a diameter of 1.465 m3 Weight of water displaced = 45.81 [4500 + (π × 32 × 6 × 700/4)] = 335384.75/465 = 0.692 m D = 2r = 1. the volume of fresh water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1000 = 4000 m3 Extra volume = 4000 – 3906. 9.9 m size just submerged in water. Neglect metal thickness.3 × 0. Determine the depth of submergence in fresh water.8 = 54624.81 × 1 = (4/3) × π × r3 × (0. Assume that sides are vertical at the water line.8 – 0.465 × 1024 × 9. 4.8 N The weight of empty sphere = 6800 × 9. . Originally the weight of the ship equals the weight of sea water displaced.8 N The additional weight that can be supported = 456717 – 402092.2 m ∴ The depth of submergence in fresh water = 4.75 m3 Area at this level = 465 m2. WL 3 m f.

026 × 10–5 h] × sp. The downward forces are due to the weight of the box and the block. downward from the surface. 0. gravity × 9810 = 14 × 9.9. 1. gravity = 1. Chapter 4 Subtracting Ww – WO = 8 N .5 1.85. W – WO = 30 N V(9810 – 0.1 + 24525 h3 h = 0. Cheak whether the intervals are uniform. gravity) – 0. Only the sphere will be immersed when the sp. specific weight = W/V = 15205.1 and hence not uniform.7 kg) Problem 4. Obviously this object is immersed in the fluid completely during weighment. it displaces V m3 and so also when in oil. Usually the major portion of the weight is placed in the spherical portion. Total upward force = (0. When in water.81 [110 + h3 × 2500] 1589. Determine the depth of immersion of the stem in liquids of specific gravity of 0.15.711.4 The intervals in mm are : 43. Solving Weight of the block = 9.05 102. Problem 4.7. its weight is balanced by the buoyant force and so the apparent weight will be zero.5 Determine the volume and specific weight of an object which weighs 22 N in water and 30 N in oil of specific gravity 0.025/2)3 + π (0. 23. The total mass of the unit is 14 grams. The volume of liquid displaced × sepecific weight = Weight of the hydrometer The volume is made up of the sphere and the cylindrical of length h.7 The specific weight of a liquid varies as γ = 9810 (1 + y) where y is measured in m.80 × 9810) = 8 .5.2786/sp.0775 litre ∴ Ww = 4. Let its volume be V m3. This is due to the combined spherical and cylindrical shape.5 N/m3 Problem 4. 34.9 1.85 164.6 A hydrometer (to measure specific gravity of a liquid) is in the form of a sphere of 25 mm dia attached to a cylindrical stem of 8 mm dia and 250 mm length.81 × 0.3 × 0. 27. Let buoyant force when in water be Ww and when in oil Wo Let the real weight of the object be W kg W – Ww = 22 N .4 × 10–5 This reduces to h = (0. Determine the depth of immersion.75.8 1. gravity of liquid equals 1.0775 × 9. ∴ V = 4. So the buoyant force creates a righting couple and the instrument is stable till the spherical portion alone is immersed.15 79.6 × 0.004)2 h] × sp.8181 × 10–6 + 5.1628 The only unknown is h and is tabulated below Sp.326065 m = 2500 × 9. If it is just floating.81 × 1/1000 [0. Let the side of the block be h m.9 × 9810) + (h3 × 9810) Downward force Equating.75 208. 0. [(4/3) π (0. mm 0. gravity h.05 and 1.22 + 9810 h3 = 1079.81 = 40 N Substituting for Ww in equaion 1 W = 22 + Ww = 62 N .00 115.2 N (86.3260653 = 850.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 127 The upward forces are due to buoyancy on the block and buoyancy on the box.80.6 0. A block 1 m × 2 m area and 2 m deep weighing 19620 N floats in the liquid with the 2 m side vertical.95.0775 × 10– 3 m3 or 4.

The original volume was 0. ∴ γ = 8618. It was found that the spheres floated vertically with the lighter sphere just submerging.128 The weight of liquid displaced = weight of the body Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the weight of the liquid displaced.1 + V) 10000 = 2000.3 m3 at a pressure of 1. Problem 4.9 N The weight of the sphere = 12000 N.2 m f .9 = 3124. it will stop sinking further. rope. Solving D = 0. are tied with a rope and placed in water. Check whether it will be stable.63 × 9810 = 8875.10 A mass of volume 0. The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3. (0. The weight of any floating body equals the weight of liquid displaced by it. ∴ y + y2 / 2 D 0 =1 or D2 + 2D – 2 = 0.9 WL WL D=? 4000 N Rope 12000 N 1. consider a small thickness by at distance y. Determine the level to which the unit will sink. So the assumption that the body floats is valid. The difference between these two is the tension in the The tenstion in the rope = 12000 – 8875. 4. one heavier and weighing 12000 N and of diameter 1. Assume the specific weight of sea water as 10000 N/m3 and the air temperature in the balloon remains constant. Buoyant force on the heavier sphere = (4/3) × π × 0. The unit is released in the sea. Let the volume of the balloon at this level be V m3. This is less than the depth of the body.57 kg/m3 Problem 4. Determine the diameter of the lighter sphere and the tension in the rope. (as γ = 9810 (1 + y)) The weight of the element dW = 1 × 2dy × γ = 2 (1 + y) 9810 dy Let the depth of immersion be D. The buoyant force on the heavier sphere equals the weight of water displaced.79 N/m3 ∴ density of ice = γ /g = 878. 2 × 9810 z 0 D (1 + y) dy = 19620 .1 m3 attached to a balloon of 0.1 . Determine the density of ice.9 Two spheres.1152 m Problem 4.2 m and the other lighter and weighing 4000 N. The buoyant force equals the weight of water displaced.8 An iceberg floats in sea water with 1/7 of the volume outside water. Then integrating the expression and equating it to the weight of the solid.1 N The weight of the lighter sphere and the rope tension together should balance the buoyant force on the smaller sphere of diameter D. ∴ D = 1. ∴ V = 0.4 bar (abs) weigh totally 2000 N. (4/3) × π × R3 × 9810 = 4000 + 3124. Let the vulume of iceberg be V m3. When the unit sinks to a level such that the weight equals the buoyant force.3 m3. The iceberg displaces 6/7 of its volume of sea water. As it goes down in the water the volume of the balloon shrinks due to the increase in surrounding pressure.1 m3.81. Figure P.732 m (the other root is negative). Then 1 × γ × V = (6/7)V × 1025 × 9.

Buoyant force = (4/3) πR3 [9810 – 1500] N acts at 2 m from hinge. R = 1. The sphere weighs 1500 N/m3. (4πR3/3) = 463. Determine the diameter of the balloon if the tension in the rope was 3500 N. P.0556 m.5) = 3500 + 1000.12 Determine the diameter of the sphere to open a cylindrical gate hinged at the top and connected to the sphere as shown in Fig.4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies As (P2/P1) = (V1/V2).1) = 4.11 A helium balloon is floating (tied to a rope) at a location where the specific weight of air is 11.4 × (0.81 = 18614 N. L = 1.3/0. weight of helium) = Rope tension + weight of balloon V × (11.87 m Problem 4. acts from the hinge at: 1. The width of the gate is 1.6 m Problem 4. The empty balloon weighs 1000 N. 4. ∴ D = 9. as h = 6 m. acts upwards). 129 Hence the unit will sink to a depth of 31.2 – 1. Vertical upward force = – 4500 + π (R2/2) L × 1000 × 9. (ii) horizontal force due to pressure and (iii) vertical force due to pressure and weight. WL D 6m Hinge 2m Gate 4500 N Figure P. Chapter 4 .5 m. Vertical force = Weight of gate + Pressure force (Pressure force equals the weight of the volume displaced.013) × 105.5 N = 176580 N Centre of pressure = 6 + (1/12) (1. ∴ V = 463.12 when the water level reaches 6 m above the centre of the gate.92 m3.2 N/m3 and that of helium is 1. The gate weighs 4500 N and its centroid coincides with the centroid of the semicircle.12 The forces on the gate are (i) tension in the rope equal to the buoyant force on the sphere minus the weight of the sphere.5 m.92 m3. The buoyant force on the balloon = Rope tension + weight of balloon Volume × (sq weight of surrounding fluid air – sp.0556 m.2 bar (abs) The depth at which this pressure reached is given by 10000 × y = (4.2 – 1.5 × 23/6 × 2 × 1.87 m. P2 = 1. Solving y = 31.5) = 6.5 N/m3. horizontal force due to water = 9810 × 6 × 2 × 1.

5425 m When water rises to about 0. At the point when the tank begins to break free due to water seeping all around. The depth of oil above the hinge (friction negligible) is 2 m. R = 1.2/cos θ)] = (1/2) [3 + (1. Check = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1. Taking moments about the hinge.16 m square section of length 3m and weighing 425 N and of dimensions as shown in Fig. Hinge 3m q 1.4488 m Problem 4.81 × 1000 × 6× 6 × h ∴ h = 0. (4R/3π) = 0.4244 + (4/3) πR3 (9810 – 1500) Solving.4244 m from hinge. Length of the submerged portion = 3 – (1. The distance along the pole it acts = (1.15 A wooden pole of 0.22/cos2 θ)] Equating to 135 Nm and solving. 4.22/cos2 45)] = 135. .2/cos θ)] Moment of buoyant force = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1.815.81 = 9. Problem 4.2/cos θ)].5425 m from battom the tank will begin to break free.2 m WL 40 cm 2 Figure P.15 floats in oil of specific gravity 0.2/cos θ). then (2250 + 6 × 6 × 1 × 480) 9. P. 176580 × 1.7244 m or D = 3. Problem 4. The pole weighs 90 N.2 m high of mass 2250 kg is buried under loose soil at a depth of 1 m.14 The problem is solved by taking moment of the weight at the hinge and equating it to the moment of the buoyancy force at the hinge.2/cos θ) +(1/2) [3 – (1. Also determine the oil level for the pole to float vertically.08 Nm.130 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery It acts at the centroid of the semicircle. Moment of the weight = (3/2) 90 = 135 Nm. The density of the soil is 480 kg/m3. The total weight should equal the weight of water displaced. 4. Determine the angle of inclination of the pole with horizontal.2 m above the water surface and floats in water at an angle of θ with vertical Determine the value of the angle.0555 = 18614 × 0. checks This can be extended to analyse the water level control valve in tanks.14 A wooden pole of 45 cm2 section and 3 m length is hinged at 1. A spring causes water to seep below the tank. Taking moment along the pole.13 An empty storage tank of square section 6 m side and 1. it can be considered that the tank floats with a weight equal to its own and the weight of soil above it. Weight of the displaced water or buoyancy force = (45/104) × 9810 [3 – (1. Determine the height of water that may cause the tank to break free and start to rise. If h is the height upto which the water rises. θ = 45°.

The volume of fluid displaced in both cases are equal as the weight is submerged.81) m3 = 7.3117 m Case (ii) Let h be the depth of immersion. Also calculate the depth oil in the container so that the depth of oil and depth of immersion are equal.21 N Volume of water displaced = 384. θ = 53. the weight equals the buoyant force. 60 + (π × 0. Chapter 4 425 (3/2) cos θ = (2/sin θ) × 0. a force of 100 N acting upward is required.22) = 0.15 The problem is solved by taking moment about the hinge for the weight and the buoyant force and equating them. Let the angle of inclination be θ with horizontal. Problem 4. and 0.7 kg/m3c Problem 4.3 m.0392 m3 ∴ Depth of immersion = 0. h × 0.815 = 425.4 m dia. Case (i) The buoyant force in this case = (160 – 100) N = 60 N The volume of the fluid displaced = 60/(0. Determine the specific weight of the second liquid. Solving h = 0. When the pole begins to float vertically.0765 m.26°.81) m3 = 0. h = 2.815 N Moment arm = (2/sin θ) (1/2) (cos θ).81) = 3466.9 m height weighing 60 N contains oil of specific weight 8600 N/m3 to a depth of 0.16 In order to keep a weight of 160 N just submerged in a liquid of specific gravity of 0.3 × 8600 N = 384.022 × h × 9810. The weight of oil displaced (buoyant force) = (2/sin θ ) × 0. weight of liquid) density will be = (34008/9. Case (i) Total weight of the container = 60 + π × 0.21/(1000 × 9.65 × 10–3 = 34008 N/m3 (Note : Buoyant force = volume displaced × sp.16 m sq Oil lever 2m q Hinge 131 Figure P. Determine the depth upto which it will float in water. The depth of oil will also be h.162 × 9810 × 0. The same mass requires a downward force of 100 N to keep it submerged in another liquid.162 × 9810 × 0.3946 m .17 A cylindrical container of 0. 4. a vertical force will act on the hinge.22 × h × 8600) = π × 0. The moment for the weight about the hinge (along × direction) = 425 × (3/2) cos θ.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 3m 0. If the level rises above this value.8 × 1000 × 9.65 × 10–3 m3 Case (ii) The buoyant force = 160 + 100 = 260 N Specific weight of the other liquid = 260/7.22 × 0. Equating the moments.0392/(π × 0.8.162 × 9810 × 0.815 (2/sin θ)(1/2) cos θ Solving.

31 cm This is also downwards as V3 is less than V2.75 m long for the composite cylinder to float vertically. ∴ V2 = 4.5) + (π × R2 × h × 9810 × 0.097 × 10–6 m3 (ii) Relative density = 1. Let ‘‘h’’ be the length of the wooden cylinder. This is downwards as V2 is less than V1. (i) Relative density = 0.5. Determine the limit of the ratio D/h for the required situation.3) and (4. (D2/16hs) = [h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ (D/h) = 2 [2 S (1 – S)]0.. As density increases. Let the volume displaced be V1 V1 × 9810 × 0. Problem 4. Let the volume displaced be V2 V2 × 9810 = 0.2 + h ∴ h = 0.5 .5 + 0.4.1314 h .2 + h).4.19 A wooden cylinder having a specific gravity of 0. The weight of the composite block = (π × R2 × 0.6) This equals the weight of water displaced when the block just floats. The specific gravity of the concrete is 2. (1) For example if ∴ S = 0. The weight of water displaced = π × R2 × 9810 (0.75 m The wooden cylinder should be atleast 0. equating.0775 × 10–6 m3.132 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 4. Indicate the direction of the markings as up or down also..1 specific gravity values.1.6 has a concrete cylinder of the same diameter and 0.6 cm. The limiting condition is for the composite block to float with top surface at water level. 1.18 A cylindrical hydrometer weighing 0. the limiting condition is that the metacentre approach the centre of gravity. the depth of immersion decreases and is non linear. Determine the distance between the markings for 0.8.04/(9810 × 1. ∴ (I/V) = D2//16hS Also from basics GB = (h/2) – (h S/2) = h (1 – S)/2. Using equation (4.0 and 1. (I/V) = GB I = π D4/64. Determine the length of the wooden cylinder for the composite block to float vertically.707 × 10–6 m3 (V3 – V3) π (D2/4) × l1.036052 m or 3.01311 m or 1. D = 1. The volume displaced in each case equals the weight of the hydrometer.1) = 3. Solving l1 = 0. (V – volume displaced).6 h = 0. V = π D2 h S/4. Work the problem for 1 m long cylinder and find the length above the water line.8.04 N has a stem diameter of 6 mm.8 = 0. (V1 – V2) = π (D2/4) l1. MB = I/V MG = (I/V) ± GB. ∴ V1 = 5.20 A right circular cylinder of diameter D m and height h m with a relative density of (S < 1) is to float in water in a stable vertical condition. For stability. Equating and solving. Problem 4.4). Let the volume displaced be V3.8. (iii) Relative density = 1.2 × 9810 × 2. l2 = 0. D > h.2 m length attached to it at one end. V3 = 0. Here MG = 0 for the limiting condition.04.04 . 0.

9 and S = 0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 133 The diameter should be larger than the length.32 × 0. I = π × 0.32 × 0. Problem 4. Determine the stability of the cylinder.20) D = 2h [2S (1 – S)]0.6 × 7500)] – [0.3 m dia and 0. The same expression can be solved for limiting density for a given D/h ratio.5 . equation 1.8 then.6 m length with a specific weight of 7500 N/m3 is to float vertically in kerosene of specific weight of 8900 N/m3.5 = 0.34/64 Volume displaced. The given cylinder is of lower diameter and hence unstable.33333 to float in water. G is located at h/2 from base and B is located at h S/2 from base.21 A right circular cylinder of 0.22 Derive the expression for (D/h) for a hollow right circular cylinder of outer diameter D and inner diameter kD and height h.5.20. the cylinder is unstable. D = 2 × 0. ∴ GB = 0.3 – (0. Equating.20.6 × 7500)/(4 × 8900) Location of G = 0. D > h.8 m. Refer Problem 4.2354 Problem 4.5 as in problem Problem 4.61788 m. the minimum Value of D is given by D = 2h [2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0.5 . This is the value of D which is required for stability.3 m from bottom Location of B = 0.3 × (7500/8900) m from the bottom.8 m with a specific gravity 0f 0.2. [D4 (1 – k4)/64] [4/(D2 (1 – k2) hS] = h (1 – S)/2. then S = 0.3 – 0 – 3 × (7500/8900) MG = [(π × 0.5 }/2. V = (π × 0.20) I = D4 (1 – k4)/64. Problem 4.3 × 7500/8900)] = – 0. Chapter 4 Hence. GB = h (1 – S)/2 . The ID is 0. Here.841 (compare with Problem 4. MG = (I/V) – GB. The limiting condition for stability is MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB With usual notations (refer P 4. V = π D2 (1 – k3) h S/4 where V is the volume of the liquid displaced. (D/h) = 0. where k = 0..34 × 4 × 8900)/ 64 × π × 0.(1) For example if k = 0 this becomes a solid cylinder and the expression reduces to (D/h) = 2 [2S ( 1 – S)]0.2 m and h = 1. This is the reason why long rods float with length along horizontal.20). Consider a thin cylinder. For stability.6 [2 × (7500/8900) × (1 – 7500/8900)]0.5D. Solving (D/h) = 2[2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0. here S = 7500/8900 Substituting. Check : (use the eqn.036 m. h = 1. 1 in problem 4.. Using equation 1 (D/h)2 = 8 S (1 – S) or 8 S2 – 8 S + (D/h)2 = 0 S = {1 ± [1 – (4/8) (D/h)2]0. to float vertically in a liquid with relative density S. say if (D/h) = 1. k = 0.5.23 Check the stability of a hollow cylinder with D = 1.7646 or 0.

Hence.5 when it floats in water with its axis vertical.52) 1. GB = h(1 – S)/2 (k3a4/12) (1/a2khS) = h(1 – S)/2. The relative density of the log is S.8 value.2 m.6 m with specific gravity 0. Refer Problem 4. (a/h) = [6S (1 – S)]0.a (where k is a fraction).. MG = (I/V) – GB .147 m > 1. V = h Sa2 k . I = π × 2.1474 (1 – 0.A .23 Consider S = 0. a of a square log to float stably in a vertical direction.1472 (1 – 0.5. So.8 × 0.33333 (1 – 0.134 Substituting the values. h to side. Considering the calculated D = 2. (I/V) = 0.5. I = π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/64 as the section along the free surface is annular with OD = D + d and ID = D – d.8 × 0. Position of G = h/2 and position of B = h S/2. then..54)/64. or (I/V) = GB. V = (1/2) (πd2/4)πD.5 when floating in water with axis vertical. checks.8 m and d = 0. The limiting condition for floating in a stable position is that metacentre and centre of gravity coincide.5. ∴ GB = (2d/3π) MG = {π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4] × 8/[64 × π2 × D × d2] } – (2d/3π) Simplifying MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × d × d2]} – (2d/3π) Problem 4. as S decreases (a/h) increases. The volume displaced V = a2hS where h is the immersion height. then (a/h) = 0. The specific gravity is 0. (a/h) = [65 (1 – S)] 0.24]/[8 × π × 1.33333)/2 = 0.5/k . The sides should be longer than the height.5 S = 0.147 m.24 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of mean diameter D with a section diameter d and specific gravity 0. GB = h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ I/V = [(a4/12)(1/a2hS)] = [h (1 – S)/2]. Centre of gravity is on the water surface. The specified diameter is only 1.5 = 2. I = (a4/12) where a is the side of square.26 Derive on expression for the ratio of length. for stability Fluid Mechanics and Machinery D = 2 × 1. I = ak3 a3/12. the determination of the value of GB is more involved as the determination of the position of CG is difficult] Problem 4.7826 m [Note : If the relative density is different from 0.333333/4. Problem 4.8 [2 × 0.60002 and GB = 1. MG = 0.8 (1 – 0.44 – 1.98.25 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of D = 1. So it floats such that half its volume will be displaced. Centre of buoyancy will be at the CG of displaced volume equals 2d/3π.52)]0.24 MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × D × d2]} – {2d/3π} = ([2.8.6/3π} = 1. The is the reason why long logs float with length along horizontal.33333)/(1 + 0.62]} – {2 × 0. So it is not stable. Then the stability is poorer along the shorter length ka. (a/h) = 1. The expression can be generalised for a rectangular section with sides a and k.6. V = π × 2.

h H H Figure P..5]/2 Problem 4.8 for a fluid in which it floats.4 m dia and 0.27 Volume displaced ∴ ∴ Equating A and B (3D2S1/3/16H) = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) (D2/H2) = 4 (1 – S1/3)/S1/3 or H2 = D2S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) In actual case H2 should be less than this value for stability.20). P. The limiting conditions is that MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB. S = Also as (h/H) = (d/D) h/H = (d/D) = S1/3 D d WL G b 3 H 4 3 h 4 h WL d2 D 2 . (k2 × a2/h2) = 6S – 6S2 or S2 – S + (k2a2/6h2) = 0 ∴ S = { 1 ± [1 – (4k2a2)/(6h2)]0. In this case the volume displaced and the relationship between D and d and H and h are to be established.A G = 3H/4 (from vertex) and B = (3h/4) = (3/4) HS1/3 (from vertex) GB = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) .27. The situation is shown in the Fig. 4. For stability. Consider the general eqn. The cone displaces liquid upto a depth h where the diameter is d. A.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 135 Here the side has to be still larger or the height shorter. This expression can be used also to determine the limiting density for a given (side/height) ratio to float stably in a vertical position.. Determine whether it can float in a stable condition. D2 HS = d2h..B (1/3)(πd2/4) Chapter 4 .27 Derive the expression for the ratio of base diameter to the height of a cone to float in a fluid in a stable condition given the relative density between the solid and the fluid as S.5 }/2 if k = 1. (1/3)(D2/4) HS = (1/3) (d2/4) h .6 m high has a relative density of 0. S4/3) I/V = (D4 S(4/3)/64)/(D2 HS/12) = (3/16) (D3/H) S1/3 . the limiting value of H is given by = h = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS I = πd4/64 = πD4 S4/3/64 (d4 =D4 .. 4. then S = [1 ± {1 – (4a2/6h2)}0.28 A conical wooden block of 0. This case is different from the cylinder due to variation of area along the height (Refer Problem 4. Problem 4. reordering.

∴ I/V = 0.01416 m.9 m.29 OB = 1.557) = 0. OP = 1.81/3) = 0.332 × 10–4 m4. This is positive and hence stable.68 × 105 Nm. The centre of gravity of each may be taken to be at the geometric centre.0201 m3 . Prove Archimedes principle from basics. V = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS V = (1/3) (π × 0. Assuming the centres to be on the vertical line G (Common) WL WL for the combined unit. Describe an experimental method to determine the metacentric height of a boat.03226 = 0.9227 m This is positive and hence the unit is stable.371 m I = πd4 /64 = 9. D = 0. 5. Define centre of buoyancy.6371 m.04642 – 0. 0 OP × 6 × 105 + OA × 4 × 105 = OG × 106. h = H S1/3 = 0. 4. 4.2629 = 1. . 8m Solving. State the conditions for the stability of floating bodies.81/3/4 (1 – 0.7197 m. the position of the centre of 1.518 m2 ∴ H = 0. 8m wide and 3m deep weighs 6 × 105 N and carries a boiler of 4 m dia on its deck which weighs 2m 4 × 105 N. Problem 4. Describe how the density of liquid can be estimated using a cylindrical hydrometer. Determine the value of 5m A the meta centric height of the combined unit. when it floats in river water. GB = OG – OB = 2. MG = (I/V) – GB = 0.7197 and so the cone will float in a stable position.6 < 0.03226 m.9227 × (π × 5/180) = 1.4 m. Define metacentre and metacentric height. Total weight = 106 N Depth of immersion: 106 = 10 × 8 × h × 9810. ∴ h = 1.2742] – 2. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. OG = 2.6 – 0. Check: H = 0.5 m.557 m.8 = 0. Derive an expression for the height to diameter ratio of a cylinder of specific gravity S to float with its axis vertical in a stable condition. Restoring torque = W MG θ (θ in radian) = 106 × 1. d = DS1/3 = 0. The actual value of is 0.29 A rectangular pontoon 10 m long. OA = 5 m. Calculate also the restoring torque for a tilt of 5° from vertical.42 × 0. 3.136 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery H2 = D2 S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) = 0. 7.2742/2 = 0.42/4) 0.2742 m Figure P.04642 m GB = (3/4) (0.6 m.2629 MG = (I/V) – GB = [(1/12) × 10 × 83]/[10 × 8 × 1.5 m P gravity from base can be determined by taking 3m B moments about O. 6.6 × 0. 2.

The position of a floating body will ______ when a small tilt is given if the metacentric height is positive. 8. Stability of a floating body improves as the metacentric height ____ 2. stable 11. The stability of a floating body deteriotes as the metacentric height ________. The condition for a square prism of given side to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. decreases or remains constant 1. 11. 4. the floating body will be in _______ equilibrium. The weight of volume of liquid displaced by a floating body equals _____. The statement of Archimedes Principle is ______. (H/D)2 = s1/3/[4(1 – s1/3)] 17. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in stable equilibrium it will ____. Answers 1. 5. 13. return to the original position 7. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in unstable equilibrium it will ___. 6. The condition for a cylinder of given diameter to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. satble. Metacentric height is equal to _____. When a given body floats in different liquids the volume displaced will ________ with increase in the specific gravity of the fluid. 2. positive 12.1 Fill in the blanks 1. The height to diameter ratio for stable floating condition of a cone is ______.5 15. The weight of volume of water displaced 2. The body displaces 1m3 of water when it floats. 15. It’s weight is ______. 5. The volume of liquid displaced by a floating body of wieght W will _______ irrespective of the shape of the body.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 137 O Q. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in neutral equilibrium it will ____. If the centre of gravity coincides with the centre of buoyancy. The centre of buoyancy is defined as ______. If the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the body will always be in _____ equilibrium. neutral and unstable 6. W MG sin θ. 4.2 Fill in the blanks with increases. 3. 14. The righting moment due to a tilt of a floating body equals_____. the centre of gravity of the displaced volume 4. remain in the new position 8. shorter O Q. distance between the metacentre and centre of gravity 13. As fluid density increases the hydrometer will sink by a ______ distance. (a/h) = [6s(1 – s)] –0. 7. overturn 9. 9. 3. neutral 10. 9810 N 19.5 16. If the centre of gravity is above the centre of buoyancy the metacentric height should be ______ stable equilibrium. 19. 4. (d/h) = 2[2s(1 – s)]0. 17. Chapter 4 . 18. the weight of the body 3. The three states of equilibrium of a floating body are______. The line of action of the buoyant force in the displaced position 18. 12. 6. the buoyant force on a floating body equals the weight of the displaced volume and a floating body displaces it’s own weight of liquid in which it floats 5. 10. Metacenter is the point at which ________ cuts the body centre line. As the density of the floating body increases the distance between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy _______ 4. 16. W MG θ 14. When a body floats in water the buoyancy force equals _____.

Answers Correct : 3. 6.3 l. When a heavy object is immersed in a liquid completely the centre of byoyancy will be at (a) The centre of gravity of the object. 10 Incorrect 1. 8 Decreases 3. 2. Answers Increases 1. If a body is in stable equilibrium the metacentric height should be (a) zero (b) positive (c) negative (d) depends on the fluid. For a given floating body in stable equilibrium the righting couple will ______ with increasing metacentric height. 4. (b) The centre of gravity of the volume of the liquid displaced. 4. 7. 7. 6. As the metacentric height increases the stability of a floating body will improve. When it is fully immersed in water its weight will be (a) 25 N (b) 75 N (c) 50 N (d) None of the above. For a body immersed in a fluid the buoyant force _______ with increase in density of the body. When the metacentric height is zero the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. When the length of a square log is larger than the side of section the log will float horizontally.3 Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect 1. 3. An object weighs 50 N in water. A floating body will displace a volume of liquid whose weight will equal the weight of the body. 9. Its volume is 15. The buoyant force on a given body immersed in a liquid will be the same irrespective of the liquid. Its weight when fully immersed in oil of specific gravity 0. 5. 5. 10 Remains constant 2. 9. The metacentric height of a given floating body will ________ if the density of the liquid decreases. (c) Above the centre of gravity of the object. When the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the floating body will be unstable. 2.8 will be . 10. A given cubic piece will float more stably in mercury than in water. (d) Below the centre of gravity of the displaced volume. 7 O Q. 6. 5 O Q. 5. 4. A solid with a specific weight 9020 N/m3 floats in a fluid with a specific weight 10250 N/m3. An object with specific gravity 4 weighs 100N in air. When the metacentre is between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy the body will be unstable.4 Choose the correct answer 1. 4. 8. 9. 10. When the centre of buyoancy is below the metacenter the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. 2. 8. For a given shape of a floating body the stability will improve when the density of the body_____ 9. The percentage of volume submerged will be (a) 90% (b) 92% (c) 88% (d) 78%. 8. A floating body will displace the same volume of liquid irrespective of the liquid in which it floats.138 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. 3. 4. 4.

6. (2) d. Two cubes of equal volume but of specific weights of 0. O Q. (3) b. Metacentric height G below B Centre of buoyancy Buoyant force (6) a. Considering the relative density of mercury as 13.3 (b) 7. 8. 2. 7.6/2 .5 Match the sets A and B A 1. [70632 N] E 4. the relative density of the cube will be (a) 6.5 N (c) 80 N (d) 65 N. [3074. (10) b B (a) (b) (c) (d) weight of displaced volume CG of displaced volume Stability Always stabe. (3) b. A cube of side. (a) one cube will completely submerged and the other will be completely outside the surface. (5) c. at what height of water level.8 times its volume.8 and 1.93 N.37 N] E 4. (4) c. (7) b. If water is filled in the tank. the drum will start floating. (b) heavier cube will go down completely and the lighter one to 0. (4) a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 4. For a floating body to be in stable equilibrium (with usual notations) (a) I/V = GB (b) I/V < GB (c) I/V > GB (d) I/V = MG.1 Determine the buoyant force on a cube of 2 m side which stays afloat in water with its top face horizontal and 0. 4. (a) 40 N (b) 62.2 A hot air filled balloon of 8m diameter is used to support a platform. Answers (1) b. (8) c. (d) heavier cube will submerge completely and the lighter one will submerge to 0. 9. a floats in a mercury/water layers with half its height in mercury. (9) c. 403. (d) It will depend on the type of the ship.8 (d) a × 13. [1. (2) b. (c) will float in neutral equilibrium. Neglect the self weight of the drum.3 (c) 6.80 m from bottom] Chapter 4 10. Determine the buoyant force and the weight that may be supported by the balloon. 4. When a ship leaves a river and enters the sea (a) It will rise a little (b) It will sink a little (c) There will be no change in the draft.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 139 6.25 times its volume. When a block of ice floating in water in a container begins to melt the water level in the container (a) will rise (b) will fall (c) will remains constant (d) will depend on the shape of the ice block. 3. Answers (1) c.2 m above the free surface. The surrounding air is at 20° C and 1 bar while the hot air inside the balloon is at a temperature of 70° C.9 is placed inside an empty tank vertically.3 A closed cylindrical drum of 3 m dia and 2 m height is filled fully with oil of specific gravity 0.2 are connected by a weightless string and placed in water.

5 mm deeper in an oil than in alcohol of specific gravity 0.13] E 4. determine the specific gravity of the metal.11 A cylinder with diameter 0.21 A long log of 2.19 A piece of material weighs 100 N in air and when immersed in water completely it weighs 60 N.6 m and height 2 m floats in water.67] E 4. [0.5 with specific gravity 0.08 kg/m3.8. [1.78] E 4.8 m height to float stably in water.458] E 4.25 m and length 0.5 m dia and 0. It floats 22. [756 kg/m3] E 4. how much of the block wil project above the surface in water. The same object weighs 35 N when fully submerged in an oil of specific gravity 0.6.8 m. The total mass of hydrometer is 15 grams. find the dimension of the cubic block. [unstable] E 4.65 × 10–3 m–3. [1. The centre of gravity of each unit may be taken to be at the geometric centre and along the same line.17 The stem of a hydrometer is of cylindrical shape of 2.5 m dia and 4.00408 m3. Determine its stability if its specific weight is 8000 N/m3.12 A hollow cylinder with ID 0.5 m length and of specific gravity of 0. [1. [1.5 floats in water. Calculate the diameter of the balloon? [2.9 kg/m3.88 kg/m3] E 4.81 m] E 4.6 Determine the depth of immersion of a cubic block of 2 m side weighing 20 kN which floats in a liquid whose specific weight varies as 9810 (1 + depth in m).20 A wooden block when floating in glycerin projects 76 mm above the surface of the liquid.9 Determine the metacentric height of a ship for rolling (Y – Y aixs) and pitching (X – X axis) whose plan view is in the form of an ellipse with major axis of 40 m and minor axis of 15 m.4 A balloon is filled with hydrogen of density 0.14 Determine the D/h ratio for a stable floating log of circular cross section with density 800 kg/ m 3. Assume the centre to be on the vertical line. If the density of the cubic block material is 2000 kg/m3. Determine its volume and density. Determine the specific gravity of the oil. 7 wide and 2 m deep weighing 500 kN carrying on its deck a boiler of 3 m dia weighing 300 kN. [7. Determine its metacentric height.667.8 mm dia and it weighs 0. [0. [0. If the fraction of volume above the surface was 0.0216 N. 1.15 m] E 4.45 floats in water. 51. 2. 9 m long. 1. OD 1.5 m floats in water. If the specific gravity of the wood was 0. [50 mm] E 4.28 m] E 4. The weight of the ship is 9000 kN and the centre of buoyancy is 2 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.5 A box of size 1m × 2m × 3m and weight 1000 N to lie just submerged in water is held down with a cubic block placed on it. To support 50 N of weight in an atmospheric condition where the sir/density is 0.10 Determine the metacentric height of a ship which displaces 5000 kN of water when it tilts by 6° due to the movement of 300 kN weight through 3 m from one side of center line to the other.18 A metal piece floats in mercury of specific gravity 13. Calculate the depth of floatation.45.865 m. Specific gravity of glycerin is 1. [7.4. Assume density of sea water as 1025 kg/ m 3.6 m] E 4. [1 m] E 4.15 Determine the maximum density of a conical wooden block of 0.8 Determine the specific gravity of a liquid when a hydrometer which is in the form of a sphere of 20 mm dia attached with a cylindrical stem of 5 mm dia and 200 mm length showed a depth of immersion of the stem of 100 mm. what is the required outer diameter? [unstable.72 m] E 4. 1265.7 An object weighs 20 N when fully submerged in water.8] E 4.56.9 m.13 A torus of D = 2 m and d = 0.821.140 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 4. .5 m below the water level. For stability of the cylinder.16 Determine the metacentric height of the combined unit of a rectangular pontoon.479 m] E 4.0416 × 105 Nm] E 4. Check the stability of the cylinder if its specific gravity is 0. [5. [2. Calculate the volume and specific gravity of the material. Also calculate the restoring torque for a tilt of 4° from vertical. The cubic block is also submerged in water.

1 and 1. [0. Determine the location of the centre of the sphere when it will float in nuteral equilibrium. [1.95 mm] E 4.23 A ship with vertical sides near the water line weighs 4000 tons and the depth of immersion is 6.4 m. E 4. (y in mm). If the wedge is 50 cm wide. the top layer being 60 cm thick.5 m is forced into water by 666 N.2 is immersed in a fluid whose sepcific gravity increases with depth y as 1 + 20 × 10–6 y.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 141 E 4. When 200 tons or water ballast is discharged. determine the depth of immersion.32 A cube of side 40 cm weighing 1050 N is lowered into a tank containing water over a layer of mercury.22 A tank of 1.25 A sphere of 1.02.1 is 10 mm.65 and base width 0. stable.3 m length will float vertically in stable condition in oil of specific gravity 0.27 The difference in specific gravities of 1.4 and 0. E 4.26 The distance between the markings of specific gravity of 1 and 1.9. If 3000 m3 protrudes above the water level calculate the total volume of the iceberg. Determine the weight of the unit.29 A cube side 60 cm is made of two equal horizontal layers of specific gravity 1. and A is the sectional area of the stem. Calculate the depth of immersion in fresh water.4 is to be shown by 40 mm by a hyrometer of mass 25 gram. over the height h of immersion in water is given by h = V (S – 1) × A × S where V is the submerged volume in water. the depth of immersion is 6.24 Determine whether a cylinder of 0. Investigate the stability. Determine the metacentric height for rotation along the 26.5 m dia and 2 m length open at one end is immersed in water with the open end in water. If a chain is used to tie it at the bottom so that it is submerged completely.62 tons with load. The water level is 1 m from the top. 1904 kN/m] E 4. [0.31 A wedge of wood of specific gravity 0. determine the tension in the chain.7 m × 10 m and is 3 m in height. The mass is 453.67 m dia and 1.7 m centreline.25 m dia floats half submerged in water.33 An iceberg of specific gravity 0.28 A sphere of specific gravity 1. Water rises by 0. What should be the diameter of the stem.6 m inside.2 m] E 4. Determine the location of the base from the liquid surface.5 m and height 0.34 Show that in the case of cylindrical hydrometer. The centre of gravity is at 4 m from bottom. Determine the weight of the tank.7056 m in sea water of specific gravity 1. for a hydrometer of 10 mm dia.753 m. [4. E 4.2 and 0.92 floats in ocean water of specific gravity 1.026. Also determine the restoring torque if it is rotated by 5° about the axis.30 A barge is of rectangular section of 26. E 4. Chapter 4 .83. E 4. E 4. E 4.08475 N] E 4.6 and floats in a bath made of two layers of sepecific gravity 1. the difference in the height of immersion in liquid of specific gravity S. Determine the position of the block under equilibrium. E 4.

0 Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts— Hydrodynamics INTRODUCTION In the previous three chapters the pressure distribution in static fluids and its effect on surfaces exposed to the fluid was discussed. In this chapter the flow of ideal fluids will be discussed. In order to obtain a complete picture of the flow the fluid motion should be described mathematically. fluids which are incompressible and inviscid. Application of a shear force on an element or particle of a fluid will cause continuous deformation of the element. In real fluid shows. It may also vary completely randomly as in the atmosphere. The main attempt in this chapter is to visualise flow fields. In some cases the velocity may vary randomly with time but the variation will be about a mean value . 142 . The fluid element acted on by the force may move along a steady regular path or randomly changing path depending on the factors controlling the flow. Hence these studies are applicable in real fluid flow also with some limitations. the flow can be visualised using the velocity at all points at a given time or the velocity of a given particle at different times. Such a study is generally limited to ideal fluids. It should be noted that the velocity at a point is the velocity of the fluid particle that occupies that point. beyond a certain distance from the surfaces. The study of the velocity of various particles in the flow and the instantaneous flow pattern of the flow field is called flow kinematics or hydrodynamics. The means to that is to define the velocities at all the points at different times. Such continuing deformation will lead to the displacement of the fluid element from its location and this results in fluid flow. the flow behaves very much like ideal fluid. A flow field is a region in which the flow is defined at all points at any instant of time. It is then possible to also define the potential causing the flow.# 5. Just like the topography of a region is visualised using the contour map. The velocity may also remain constant with time or may vary randomly.

V = V (x.3 FLOW OF IDEAL / INVISCID AND REAL FLUIDS Ideal fluid is nonviscous and incompressible.2 BASIC SCIENTIFIC LAWS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW (ii) Newton’s laws of motion: These are basic to any force analysis under various conditions of flow. t) and not with reference to a particular particle. (iv) Thermodynamic laws: are applied in the study of flow of compressible fluids. Chapter 5 (i) Law of conservation of mass: This law when applied to a control volume states that the net mass flow through the volume will equal the mass stored or removed from the volume.. Such an analysis provides a picture of various parameters at all locations in the flow field at different instants of time. The resultant force is calculated using the condition that it equals the rate of change of momentum. The reaction on surfaces are calculated on the basis of these laws. In the Eularian method.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics 5. This is the basis for the derivation of Euler and Bernoulli equations for fluid flow. .e. y. Under conditions of steady flow this will mean that the mass leaving the control volume should be equal to the mass entering the volume.1 LAGRANGIAN AND EULARIAN METHODS OF STUDY OF FLUID FLOW 143 In the Lagrangian method a single particle is followed over the flow field. 5. (iii) Law of conservation of energy: Considering a control volume the law can be stated as “the energy flow into the volume will equal the energy flow out of the volume under steady conditions”. Shear force between the boundary surface and fluid or between the fluid layers is absent and only pressure forces and body forces are controlling. 5. This method provides an easier visualisation of the flow field and is popularly used in fluid flow studies. A moving coordinate system has to be used. This is equivalent to the observer moving with the particle to study the flow of the particle. are with reference to location and time i. The flow description is particle based and not space based. the description of flow is on fixed coordinate system based and the description of the velocity etc. However the final description of a given flow will be the same by both the methods. z. This method is more involved mathematically and is used mainly in special cases. Momentum equation for flow is derived based on these laws. This also leads to the situation that the total energy of a fluid element in a steady flow field is conserved. The determination of flow velocity for a specified mass flow rate and flow area is based on the continuity equation derived on the basis of this law. the co-ordinate system following the particle.

5 COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW If the density of the flowing fluid is the same all over the flow field at all times. 5. The velocity or pressure at a point remains constant with time.4 STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOW In order to study the flow pattern it is necessary to classify the various types of flow. 5. y. In turbulent flow the velocity at any point fluctuates around a mean value. t). t) where t is time. In the case of unsteady flow. However the flow after a short distance from the surface is not affected by the viscous effects and approximates to ideal fluid flow. For example u = u + u′ where u is the velocity at an instant at a location and u is the average velocity over a period of time at that location and u′ is the fluctuating component. heat and mass transfer between layers will be at molecular level of pure diffusion. In this chapter the study is mainly on incompressible flow. the properties vary with time or V = V(x. In laminar flow layers will glide over each other without mixing.6 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW If the flow is smooth and if the layers in the flow do not mix macroscopically then the flow is called laminar flow. In unsteady flow the appearance of the flow field will vary with time and will be constantly changing. The results of ideal fluid flow analysis are found applicable in the study of flow of real fluids when viscosity values are small. y. Low velocity flow of gases with small changes in pressure and temperature can also be considered as incompressible flow. but the mean value at a point over a period of time is constant. 5. the flow is called compressible flow. In steady flow a picture of the flow field recorded at different times will be identical. For practical purposes turbulent flow is considered as steady flow as long as the mean value of properties do not vary with time. In the next three sections. P = P(x. z. Flow of liquids can be considered as incompressible even if the density varies a little due to temperature difference between locations.144 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Real fluids have viscosity and surface shear forces are involved during flow. Momentum. Flow through fans and blowers is considered incompressible as long as the density variation is below 5%. P = P(x. In turbulent flow fluid layers mix macroscopically and the velocity/temperature/mass concentration at any point is found to vary with reference to a mean value over a time period. In steady flow the property values at a location in the flow are constant and the values do not vary with time. z). these are described. z. y. y. z) etc. then such flow is called incompressible flow. For example a dye injected at a point in laminar flow will travel along a continuous smooth line without generally mixing with the main body of the fluid. If the density varies with location. The classification will depend upon the constancy or variability of the velocity with time. This causes . These can be expressed as V = V(x.

The velocity in the flow is independent of location. v and w. For a flow to be reversible. At a distance which will depend on flow conditions the smoke will be found to mix with the air as the flow becomes turbulent. in one dimensional flow two of the components of velocity will be zero. y. t) .Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics 145 higher rate of momentum/heat/mass transfer. y. t). Laminar flow will prevail when viscous forces are larger than inertia forces. z. z. dz are the displacements in the directions x.8 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION COMPONENTS The components of velocity can be designated as u= dx dy . . y). y. The flow in a venturi (at low velocities) can be considered as reversible and the pressures upstream and downstream of the venturi will be the same in such a case.7 CONCEPTS OF UNIFORM FLOW. though ideally the flow may not be uniform. In unsteady flow V = V(x. In general as u = u(x. Chapter 5 5. no surface or fluid friction should exist. In two dimensional flow one of the components will be zero or V = V(x. dy. z). If there are no pressure or head losses in the fluid due to frictional forces to be overcome by loss of kinetic energy (being converted to heat). ay = dt dt dt as u = u (x. z. The smoke in still air will be found to rise along a vertical line without mixing. Depending on the relative values of u.v= dt dt and w = dz dt where t is the time and dx. If the components of the velocity in a flow field exist only in one direction it is called one dimensional flow and V = V (x). z. v = v(x. The fluid can be restored to its original condition without additional work input. t). v and w approximations can be made in the analysis. y. The difference between the flows can be distinguished by observing the smoke coming out of an incense stick. y and z directions as u. This describes the general steady flow situation. then the flow is defined as uniform flow. y. Certain flows may be approximated as uniform flow for the purpose of analysis. The flow becomes irreversible if there are pressure or head losses. Denoting the velocity components in x. In three dimensional flow all the three components will exist and V = V(x. This is the laminar region. t) Defining acceleration components as ax = dw du dv and az = . y. y. z. A dye injected into such a flow will not flow along a smooth line but will mix with the main stream within a short distance. REVERSIBLE FLOW AND THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW If the velocity value at all points in a flow field is the same. the flow becomes reversible. 5. Turbulence will begin where inertia forces begin to increase and become higher than viscous forces. z. t) and w = w(x.

The net mass flow into the element through all the surfaces = The change in mass in the element.9 CONTINUITY EQUATION FOR FLOW—CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y B r u dy r v dx A C rudy + ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x D Figure. because these represent the convective act of moving from one position to another. Under steady flow conditions. 5. the flow through face during time dt is given by ρu dy dz dt The flow through the y – z face at x + dx is given by ρu dy dz dt + ∂ (ρ u dy dz dt) dx ∂x (5. 5.9. and ay = u az = u The first three terms in each case is known as convective acceleration terms.9. perpendicular to the x direction and located at x. dz in the flow as shown in Fig 5. only the convective acceleration terms will exist. The last term is known as local accleration term.9.2) .9. Applying the law of conservation of mass.1 Derivation of continuity equation Consider an element of size dx.1.1) (5. for a given time interval. because the flow at a point is changing with time.146 ax = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z ∂u + + + ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t ∂z ∂t ∂t ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t =u Similarly. dy. First considering the y – z face.

9.6) The sum of these quantities should equal zero. Chapter 5 ∂ ρu b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = 0 .7) This is the general equation.9.5 ) The change in the mass in the control volume equals the rate of change of density × volume × time or ∂ρ dx dy dz dt ∂t ∂ ρu ∂x (5. cancelling common terms dx dy dz dt b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = ∂ρ ∂y ∂z ∂t (5.9) Whether a flow is steady can be checked using this equation when the velocity components are specified. like flow in a nozzle or venturi.9. the equation reduces to ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (5.9. or (5.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics 147 The net mass flow in the x direction is the difference between the quantities given by (5.9. Integrating ρuA = constant.4) (5.2) and is equal to ∂ (ρu) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.8) For incompressible flow this becomes ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ( 5. or velocity in one dimensional varying area flow. For steady flow this reduces to ∂x ∂y ∂z (5.1) and (5.3) Similarly the net mass through the faces z – x and x – y in y and z directions respectively are given by ∂ (ρv) dx dy dz dt ∂x ∂ (ρw) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.9.9.9. the first term of the general equation alone need be considered.10) For one dimensional flow with varying area.9.9.11) ρ1u1A1 = ρ2 u2 A2 This equation is used to calculate the area. For two dimensional steady incompressible flow. For steady flow ∂ ρu dy dz ∂x b g = 0 as dy dz = dA.9.

(5. This means that as long as the algebraic average rotation is zero.1 Irrotational flow : Da = Db y D Dy A 1 O Dx x 2A B u = u (x. ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y or ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (5.1) Another significance of irrotational flow is that it is defined by a potential function φ for the flow described in para 5. As it moves to location 2 the element is deformed. The idea is illustrated in Fig. the flow is irrotational.∆t. ∆y. 5. The angle of rotation of y axis is given by (∂u/∂y). If the axes of the element rotate equally towards or away from each other.10 IRROTATIONAL FLOW AND CONDITION FOR SUCH FLOWS Irrotational flow may be described as flow in which each element of the moving fluid suffers no net rotation from one instant to the next with respect to a given frame of reference. .11.15. the condition to be satisfied for irrotational flow is.e. In flow along a curved path fluid elements will deform. ∆y.10. y) v = v (x. At 1 the undeformed element is shown.. y) B Da ¶v Dx.11 CONCEPTS OF CIRCULATION AND VORTICITY Considering a closed path in a flow field as shown in Fig. In case there is rotation.1. circulation is defined as the line integral of velocity about this closed path.Dt ¶y Db D C C Deformed element Figure 5. For irrotational flow.∆t. The symbol used is Γ. 5. (It is assumed that ∆x = ∆y.148 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5.2) 5.10.10. The angle of rotation of x axis is given by (∂v/∂y). the angle of rotation of the axes towards each other or away from each other should be equal i. then the rotation is given by (with respect to the Z axis in the case of two dimensional flow along x and y) ωz = (1/2) (∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y) and ωz = 0 for irrotational flow.10.1 Rotation in Flow An element is shown moving from point 1 to point 2 along a curved path in the flow field.Dt ¶x ¶u Dy. then the flow will be irrotational.

¶y ¶y 3 v+ ¶v .11. STREAK LINES AND TIME LINES The analytical description of flow velocity is geometrically depicted through the concept of stream lines.1 Circulation in flow The integration can be performed over an element as shown in Fig.11.11. In the cartesian co-ordinate if an element dx.dy] dx – vdy = [∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y]dxdy Vorticity is defined as circulation per unit area. 5.1) Chapter 5 Consider the element 1234 in Fig. here area is dx dy. STREAM TUBE. Starting at 1 and proceeding counter clockwise. vorticity and circulation are both zero. so Vorticity = (5. If at a fixed instant of time a curve is drawn so that it is tangent everywhere to the velocity vectors at these locations .3b. ¶x ¶x Figure. PATH LINES. 5.1 (b). The velocity vector is a function of both position and time. Vorticity = circulation per unit area. In polar coordinates Vorticity = ∂vθ 1 ∂vr vθ − + ∂r r ∂θ r 5. dy is considered. then the circulation can be calculated as detailed below: dΓ = u dx + [v+(∂v/∂x)dx]dy – [u+(∂u/∂y). 5. as its tangent at that point.2) For irrotational flow.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics Γ= 149 u cos β dL z z u ds = L L where dL is the length on the closed curve. i. The closed path may cut across several stream lines and at each point the direction of the velocity is obtained from the stream line. ∂v dΓ ∂u = – ∂x ∂y dxdy (5..12 STREAM LINES. u is the velocity at the location and β is the angle between the velocity vector and the length dL. Stream lines b L V CO b b dL (a) (b) V y 4 v 1 u x 2 u+ ¶u .11.e.

.150 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery then the curve is called a stream line.1 Stream tube. starting from point P at successive times pass along path lines shown.13 CONCEPT OF STREAM LINE In a flow field if a continuous line can be drawn such that the tangent at every point on the line gives the direction of the velocity of flow at that point. Thus stream line shows the mean direction of a number of particles in the flow at the same instant of time. A line joining these points is the streak line. Such a passage is called a stream tube. Path line shows the direction of the velocity of a particle at successive instants of time. they form a line at that instant. Under steady flow condition. In steady flow any particle entering the flow on the line will travel only along this line. A bundle of neighbouring stream lines may be imagined to form a passage through which the fluid flows. which have passed through a given point like the injection point of a dye in a flow. Flow can be only through the ends. Since the stream tube is bounded on all sides by stream lines. This line is called time line. For example the deformation of a fluid under shear force can be studied using time lines. P2. Path line is the trace of the path of a single particle over a period of time. Streak line Stream tube Stream lines End End (a) P (b) 1 P1 P3 P2 P4 Path lines 3 2 4 Figure 5. Subsequent observations of the line may provide information about the flow field. In steady flow path lines and stream lines will be identical. This leads to visualisation of a stream line in laminar flow as the path of a dye injected into the flow. the flow through a stream tube will be constant along the length.12. Path lines and streak lines are shown in Figure 5. there can be no flow across the surface. P3. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at 1.12. Stream lines are a series of curves drawn tangent to the mean velocity vectors of a number of particles in the flow. 5. A stream tube is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5.1.1. Path lines and Streak lines Particles P1.12. 3 and 4. P4. such a line is defined as a stream line. Since stream lines are tangent to the velocity vector at every point in the flow field. If a number of adjacent fluid particles in a flow field are marked at a given instant. Streak lines provide an instantaneous picture of the particles. there can be no flow across a stream line. In steady flow these lines will also coincide with stream lines. 2.

13. 5. it is shown that stream lines in a flow can be described by a stream function having distinct values along each stream line.14. though the stream line may be curved as there is no component of velocity in the other directions. 5.1 Stream function—Definition Chapter 5 . 5.13. along the stream line in two dimensional flow it can be shown that dx dy = u v v y u or v dx – u dy = 0 (5.14. the flow along y direction = dx v the flow along x direction = dy u These two quantities should be equal for the condition that the flow across ds is zero. 5.1). The flow entering between two stream lines will always flow between the lines. Stream lines define the flow paths of streams in the flow. The lines serve as boundaries for the stream.1 showing the flow field. In the cartesian co-ordinate system. co-ordinate system and two stream lines.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics 151 There can be no flow across the stream line.13.5 considering the velocity at a point and taking the distance ds and considering its x and y components as dx and dy.1 Velocity components along a stream line Referring to Fig.14 CONCEPT OF STREAM FUNCTION Refer to Fig.1) Stream line (s) ds ds x dx dy dx v dx u dy dy Figure 5. The flow along the stream line can be considered as one dimensional flow. B y y + dy dy dy y + dy y y dy dx A y u dy – v dx B A O x Figure. as the velocity perpendicular to the stream line is zero at all points. and noting that the net flow across ds is zero. In the next para. thus proving the equation (5.

5) As the value of the derivative is the same irrespective of the order in which it is taken the continuity equation is automatically satisfied by the stream function. If the value of stream function is expressed in terms of x and y. y) (as it has a value at every point) dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂y (5. Let the flow between stream lines A and B be dψ.14. If ψ can be described by an equation in x and y then stream line A can be plotted on the flow field. Considering the stream line A in figure. This technique of superposition is found very useful in the analysis of more complex flows. Let the slow rate be denoted as ψ. Consider another stream line B close to A.14.14. It provides a means of plotting and interpreting flow fields.14.152 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Stream function is a mathematical expression that describes a flow field.10 in terms of ψ.1) If the stream function ψ can be expressed as ψ = ψ (x. By substituting for the values of u and v in the continuity equation 5. ψ= z ∂ψ dx + ∂x z ∂ψ dy + c ∂y (5. Now taking components in the x and y directions. stream lines can be plotted and the flow values can also be obtained between the stream lines. Many real flows can be obtained by the combination of the simple flows. ∂2ψ ∂2ψ − =0 ∂x∂y ∂y∂x (5.2) and comparing the above two equations.14.1. If the velocity is expressed for a flow field in terms of x and y then the stream function value can be obtained by integrating equation 5. Then ψ is a constant of the streamline A. with complex boundary conditions.14. the flow rate across any line joining 0 and any point on A should be the same as no flow can cross the stream line A.9. . if the stream function for a stream line is known. It is also possible to combine two flows and then obtain the stream lines for the combined flow. The definition is based on the continuity principle. it is seen that u= and v = – ∂ψ ∂x (5.14.4) The constant provides the difference in flow between various stream lines.3) In the practical point of view equation 5. dψ = u dy – v dx then (5.3 can be considered as the definition of stream function. The flow across any line between A and B will be dψ. As a result of the definition. There are only a limited number of flows which are simple enough that stream function can be easily obtained. then the velocity at each point can be determined and vice versa.

Substituting this in equation 5. v=− ∂y ∂x (5.13. ∂u ∂v = ∂y ∂x Fluid flows which approximate to this condition are found to be large in number.15.15 POTENTIAL FUNCTION 153 Flow is caused by a driving potential. then equation 5. (5. It will be useful to have an idea of the potential at various locations. =− 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x Substituting.12 and 5. it is mathematically possible to define a velocity potential function φ as u= − ∂φ ∂φ . The proof is given in solved problem 5.2) This is similar to heat conduction equation with temperature T replacing φ as potential.10.1 is satisfied i.15. 5..e. =− =− ∂x∂y ∂y ∂y∂x ∂x as these two quantities are equal the irrotationality condition is satisfied. Substituting these in the continuity equation. Potential functions exist only in irrotational flow whereas stream functions can be written for all flows. If a fluid flow is irrotational. Converging flows. Potential function and stream functions are orthogonal to each other. and flows outside the boundary layer are essentially irrotational.1 (irrotational flow) ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y ∂ 2 φ ∂u ∂2 φ ∂v . Considering the continuity equation ∂2 φ ∂u ∂ 2 φ ∂v =− 2 . The method of determination of potential function given the velocities or the stream function is described under solved problems 5.1) The negative sign indicates that φ decreases in the direction of velocity increase. If this condition is satisfied everywhere in a flow except at a few singular points. an equation known as Laplace’s equation results.3) Chapter 5 ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y .10. ∂2φ ∂2φ + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 =0 (5. These partial derivatives are known as potential gradients and give the flow velocity in the direction of the gradient.15.1.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics 5.11.

5.16. . 5.1. with distance ‘a’ then C0 = 0.. For other flows can be generally approximated as combinations of these flows. φ = u(x cos α + y sin α) The stream lines are shown in Fig.154 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. By applying the boundary at y = 0.1.e.16. The extent of the approaching flow is often large and possesses straight and parallel stream lines. c2 = 0. The flow can be described by the condition.1. φ = ur cos θ Considering uniform flow at an angle α with x-axis ψ = u(y cos α – x sin α). c) (5.16. C1 = ua. b) (5. dy + z (0) dx = c1 y + c2 where c1 and c2 are constants. f=0 f = – k1 f = – k2 f = k2 f = k1 y = Cy = uy (5.16 STREAM FUNCTION FOR RECTILINEAR FLOW FIELD (POSITIVE X DIRECTION) It is often found necessary to analyse flow fields around immersed bodies. In this section.16.1 Rectilinear flow stream and potential lines It y distances are equally spaced. d) y = C3 y = C2 y x y = C1 y=0 y = – C1 y = – C2 y = – C3 Figure. u = constant and v = 0. The circulation Γ around any closed curve will be zero in this flow (check) Potential function is orthogonal to stream function. ∴ ψ= z const.16.16. Such a flow is termed as rectilinear flow and is of practical importance.1. 5.17 TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOWS—TYPES OF FLOW There are only a few types of flow for which stream and potential functions can be determined directly. C3 = 2ua etc. the simple flows are described. So and φ = cx = ux In polar coordinates ψ = ur sin θ. coincident with x axis. a) (5. i.1. and the velocity distribution is uniform at a distance from the object.

1 Potential and stream lines for source flow The origin is a singular point. the velocity will increase.6) y=0 y = – C5 y = – C6 y = – C7 Figure 5.17. 5.17.17. The circulation around any closed curve is zero.5) (5.1) y = C3 y y = C4 y = C2 y = C1 f = – k2 f = – k1 y=0 z Stream function is represented by ψ = (q/2π)θ The velocity in the tangential direction is zero uθ = 0 (5.7) (5. counter clockwise is taken as +ve.17. the origin from where fluid is supplied at a constant rate q. The origin is a singular point.17. (5. The origin is at the centre and is a singular point).2 Sink Flow Sink is the opposite of source and the radial streamlines are directed inwards to a common point. ψ = – (q/2π)θ . The equations describing the flow are: by Velocity at radius r for flow rate of strength q is given ur = q/2πr (5. uθ = 0. Here C1.2. H 2π K y = – C2 y = – C3 y y = – C4 y = – C1 f = k2 f = k1 z 5.3) (5.1.17.17.17. where θ is the angle of the stream line.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K (Free vortex. φ = – (K/2π)θ (5. uθ = (K/2πr) ψ = – (K/2π) ln r. where the fluid is absorbed at a constant rate. The velocity at all points at a given radial distance will be the same.17. As the area increases along the outward direction.17.2 Stream and potential lines for sink flow 5. In this case also the velocity at all points at a given radial distance from the origin will be the same.2) (5.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics 5.17. C2 etc are simply Figure 5. origin. The circulation Γ around any closed curve is zero. FG q IJ θ .17.4) y = C5 y = C6 y = C7 The potential function is represented by φ = – (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig. the velocity will decrease and the stream lines will spread out as the fluid moves outwards.17.17. The velocity increases as the fluid moves inwards or as the radius decreases. 5. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (q/2πr) . The equations describing the flow are ur = 0.8) Chapter 5 .1 Source Flow 155 A source flow consists of a symmetrical flow field with radial stream lines directed outwards from a common point.17. φ = (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.

17. ds→0.17. 5. In this case Λ takes a definite value.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ The centre is at the origin and is a singular point.4 Potential and stream line for doublet . At r = o. In this case the velocity varies inversely with radius. where ds is the distance between them.17.17. f = k1 y = – C2 y = – C3 y f = k2 z f = – k2 y=0 f = – k1 y = – C1 y = C3 y = C2 y = C1 Figure 5.156 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Circulation Γ = K for closed curve enclosing origin and Γ = 0 for any other closed curves. Such a flow is obtained by allowing a source and sink of equal strengths merge and Λ = q ds/2π . velocity will tend to be ∞ and that is why the centre is a singular point. f = – k2 f = – k3 f = – k1 y = – C4 y = – C3 y = – C2 y = – C1 f=0 z y f = – k4 f = – k5 f = – k6 f = – k1 Figure 5.3 Irrotational vortex Forced vortex is discussed in solved problem 5. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (Λ/r2) cos θ .10) The equation and the plot are for the limiting condition.3. φ = – (Λ cos θ/r) (5.9) (5. uθ = – (Λ/r2) sin θ ψ = – ( Λ sin θ/r).

5. it is found useful to study such combination of flows.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics 5. in polar coordinates. As equations for stream lines are available for flows like uniform flow.18. The simple rule for such a combination of two flows A and B is ψ = ψA + ψB where ψ describes the combined flow and ψA and ψB describe the component flows.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-axis For source flow ψ 1 = (q/2π) θ 1 .18.18. if in uniform flow a cylinder like body is interposed. 5.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) The combined stream lines are shown in Fig. For uniform flow ψ2 = cy = uy ∴ ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π) θ + uy. the flow area reduces. The equations describing the flows are. For source flow ψ1 = (q/2π) θ .1 Source and uniform flow P 5. In polar coordinates ψ = (q/2π)θ + ur sin θ For uniform flow φ2 = – ux. For source flow φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r. Combining ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π)θ1 – (q/2π)θ2 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2) Similarly using φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r1 and φ2 = (q/2π) ln r2 φ = φ1 + φ2 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) Figure 5. φ = – (q/2π) ln r – ur cos θ Figure 5. The wake flow (behind the body) can be visualised by means of a sink and uniform flow. The flow rate of the source is q.2 Source and sink of equal strength 2 a P Chapter 5 . The stream lines nearer the body move closer to each other and the flow far removed from the body is still uniform. sink etc.18 PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSING OF FLOWS (OR COMBINING OF FLOWS) 157 Some of the practical flow problems can be more easily described by combination of the simple flows discussed in previous article. For example.18.18. source. for sink flow ψ2 = – (q/2π) θ2. Similarly φ = φA + φB Some of the examples follow. Combining φ = φ1 + φ2 = – (q/ 2π) ln r – ux. This flow can be visualised by the combination of uniform flow and a source. The velocity in uniform flow along the x direction is u and along y direction is zero.1.

18.18. Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of para 15.4.5 Flow past a cylinder P Figure 5.18. φ2 = – ux = – ur cos θ ∴ φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ P 5. ψ = (K/2π) ln r + ur sin θ For vortex φ1 = (K/2π)θ.18. ψ1 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2).4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of section 5.18.3 for the vortex ψ = (K/ 2π) ln r (clockwise) For uniform flow ψ = uy ∴ ψ = (K/2π) ln r + uy.18. For uniform flow φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (K/2π)θ – ux In polar coordinates.4 Vortex and uniform flow 5. sink and uniform flow Figure 5. P 5. ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ φ1 = – (Λ cos θ/r).17.6 Doublet. For doublet ψ1 = Λ sin θ/r.158 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5.18. φ = (K/2π)θ – ur cos θ Figure 5.5 and 15. In polar coordinates.6 Doublet. ψ2 =uy ∴ ψ = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + uy = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + ur sin θ φ1 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) and φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) – ur cos θ here r is the distance from the origin to the point and θ is the angle made by this line with x axis.17. For uniform flow ψ2 = uy = ur sin θ ∴ ψ = (Λ sin θ/r) + ur sin θ defining a2 = Λ/u.18.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) In this case refer para 5. vortex and uniform flow .5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) Refer results of para 5.3 ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ + (K/2π) ln r φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ + (K/2π)θ where a2 = Λ/u.3 Source. and for K<4πau Figure 5.1 and 2.17.18.18.

8 Vortex pair 5.7 Source and vortex 5.18.1 and 3 ψ = (q/2π) θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = – (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π) θ P 159 Figure 5.3 ψ = (K/2π) ln (r2/r1).18.2 and 3 ψ = – (q/2π)θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π)θ 5.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics 5.18. The lines can be drawn by trial or electrical or magnetic analogue can also be used. Such a plot is useful for flow visualisation as well as calculation of flow rates at various locations and the pressure along the flow. Opposite Rotation.18. The idea that stream lines and potential lines are orthogonal is used in arriving at the plot.7 Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 5.17.18. Chapter 5 Figure 5.19 CONCEPT OF FLOW NET The plot of stream lines and potential flow lines for a flow in such a way that these form curvilinear squares is known as flow net. Separation by 2a) Refer results of para 15.8 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 15.17. φ = (K/2π) (θ2 – θ1) Many more actual problems can be modelled by the use of this basic principle.9 Sink and vortex . 2a P Figure 5.18.17.9 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength.

160 An example is shown in Fig. The slope of the stream line at this point is thus given by dy v = dx u Similarly. ψ = ψ (x.19.1 Flow Net SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 5. ∴ Substituting for φ = φ (x. . Hence stream lines and equipotential lines are orthogonal. The flow rate along each channel formed by the stream lines will be equal.1 for flow through a well rounded orifice in a large tank. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y f Tank Stream lines Equipotential lines Figure 5. Prove that the stream function and potential function lead to orthogonality of stream lines and equipotential flow lines. y) ∴ dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ and as – v and u ∂y ∂x Substituting from definition of ∴ ∴ ∂ψ = – vdx + udy vdx = udy as ψ is constant along a stream line dψ = 0. However the basic idea of flow net is useful. The pressure drop between adjacent potential lines will also be equal. y) dφ = (1) ∂φ ∂φ dx + dy ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂φ and as – u and – v ∂x ∂y dφ = – udx – vdy as dφ = 0 along an equipotential line. udx = – vdy ∴ ∂y = – u/v ∂x (2) These values of slopes show that the two sets of lines are perpendicular to each other.19.1. With the advent of computer softwares for flow analysis. the mechanical labour in the plotting of such flow net has been removed. 5.

Determine the stream function for a forced vortex. vr = 0 = 2πr ∂r (radial velocity) Γ dr + (0) rdθ + C 2πr taking that ψ = 0 for the stream line at r =1 z − z ψ= For a clockwise vortex Γ ln r 2π (1) Γ ln r 2π Problem 5. circulation is constant for the vortex and Γ is known as vortex strength. (r + dr) dq rdq 1 Vt dr dq 4 r Figure P. Determine the stream function in the case of free vortex.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics Problem 5.2 dΓ = (vt + dvt) (r + dr) d θ + 0 – vt rd θ + 0 = 0 neglecting second order terms and simplifying v t.3. ψ= A forced vortex is obtained by rotating the fluid as a whole. This is done by considering the circulation around the element going along 1234. 161 In free vortex flow the stream lines are concentric circles around the singular point. dr + r dvt = d (rvt) = 0 or vt r = constant for the flow This relationship holds at all locations except the centre (singular point) The circulation along any streamline can be calculated by the usual procedure of v dL and Γ = 2πrvt Chapter 5 z L As vt r = constant for the flow. The flow is irrotational except at the singularity. This condition can be used to show that vt r = constant where vt is the tangential velocity. The stream function can be determined by integration vt = ∴ ψ= Γ − ∂ψ .2. The flow is characterised by the equation vt = – ωr and vr = 0 (– sign for clockwise vortex) . y2 y1 vt dr r 0=1 y=0 3 2 vt + dvt. 5.

Show that the flow is steady and 2. ∂u 2 xy ∂v ∂u ∂v 2 xy . P. the continuity equation should be used.3 ∴ ψ= z (ωr) dr + z (0) rd ϕ + C = ωr2/2 + C taking ψ = 0 for the stream line at r = 0. ∂y x + y2 )2 ∂x ∂y ( ∂x ( x + y ) The difference is zero and hence the flow is irrotational. . Problem 5. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y LM N L (x + y ) − 2 y ∂v = −M ∂y N (x + y ) 2 2 2 2 2 ( x2 + y2 ) − 2 x2 x2 − y2 ∂u = 2 =– (x 2 + y2 ) 2 (x + y2 )2 ∂x 2 2 2 OP Q OP = y − x Q (x + y ) 2 2 2 The sum is zero and this satisfies the continuity equation and so the flow is steady. 5. v= − y x + y2 2 1.4. Check whether the flow is irrotational To check for steady flow. Hence flow is rotational.162 2 vt y 3 dq r wr r dq 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery w (r + dr) (r + dr) dq 1 dr Figure P. To check for irrotationality.3 and calculating the circulation and then vorticity d Γ = – ω (r + dr) (r + dr) d θ + 0 + ω r rd θ + 0 = – 2 ω rd rd θ as vorticity = d Γ/area and as area = r dθ dr Vorticity = – 2 ω .5. the condition to be satisfied is. In a two dimensional flow the x and y directional velocities u and v are given by u= − x x +y 2 2 . C will vanish and so ψ = ωr2/2 An important aspect of the flow is that the flow is rotational This can be shown by considering an element in the flow as shown in Fig. = 2 − = 2 =0 2 2 . The vorticity is directly related to the angular velocity of the mass.

= yt ∂y ∂x (ii) (iii) Problem 5. = 2x ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. v = xyt + y2 To check for steady flow use continuity equation: (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. (i) u = x + y. =–1 ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = t2. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = 3y. v = – 3x. Check whether the following velocity relations satisfy the requirements for steady irrotational flow. =2 ∂y ∂x So steady flow prevails (ii) This is not a steady flow (iii) So steady flow prevails (b) Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (i) ∂u ∂v = 2.5. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = – 2. (iii) u = –2x. = xt + 2y ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v + = 0 So the flow is steady ∂x ∂y (ii) ∴ satisfies the continuity equation and flow is steady (iii) This does not satisfy the requirements for steady flow To Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v − =0 ∂y ∂x ∴ flow is irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational Chapter 5 (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. v = x2 – y t2 (iii) u = xt2. v = 2y ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (i) ∂v ∂u = 0. v = x – y (ii) u = xt2 + 2y .Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics 163 Problem 5. Check whether the following flows are (i) steady and (ii) irrotational (i) u = 2y.6. =1 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 2. v = 0. (a) Check for steady flow: (ii) u = 3xy. = – t2 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = t2. =–3 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational .

Describe the method of determination of the stream function given the velocity relationship and also determine the stream function given u = 4xy and (1) First check for continuity v = c – 2y2 The method used for the determination of stream function is described below ∂v ∂u + = 0. using equation 1 determine the derivative.8.7. ∂x ∂ψ ∂ = [ ∂x ∂x z f1 (x. ∴Flow is irrotational ∂y ∂x (ii) vorticity and (iii) circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. v = – y ∂v ∂u = . y) u= ψ= ∂ψ = ƒ1 (x. y) ∂y z f1 (x. u = =x ∂y ∂x u = x. y). The stream function for a flow is given by ψ = xy. ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂v = 0. f ′ (x) can be obtained . y) dy + f (x) where the second terms is a function of x only (3) Let –v= ∂ψ = ƒ2 (x. u = ∂ψ and ∂y v=– ∂ψ . ∂x v=– ∴ For irrotational flow ∂ψ ∂ψ = – y. ∂x ∂y (2) Let ∴ ∴ u = f1 (x. = 0. v (ii) the vorticity and (iii) circulation. y). y) = – v comparing the terms with f2 (x. as ψ = xy. (i) From the definition stream function. Is the flow irrotational? Determine (i) u. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. Problem 5. =0 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational (iii) Hence irrotational Problem 5. y) dy ] + f ′ (x) = f2 (x.164 (ii) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂v = 3x.

t.9.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics (4) (1) u = 4xy. v = – = – 2y2 + c ∂y ∂x . Determine the stream function given.r. ψ= 165 z f(x)dx + z f1 (x. x and comparing f ′(x) = – c. = – 2 ∴ Satisfies continuity ∂y ∂x (2) ∂ψ = u = 2x + y ∂y ψ= z (2x + y) dy + f(x) (A) = 2xy+ (y2/2) + f(x) (3) Using A. ∂ψ = 2y + f ′ (x) = – v = 2y – x ∂x f ′ (x) = – x. f(x) = – x2/2 ψ = 2xy + (y2/2) – (x2/ 2) + Constant u= ∴ Check ∂ψ ∂ψ = 2x + y. = – 4y. u = 2x + y . f(x) = – cx (4) Now substitute for f(x) in A ψ = 2xy2 – cx + constant Check (use equation B) u= (B) Problem 5. v = – = – 2y + x ∂y ∂x Chapter 5 ∂ψ ∂ψ = 4xy. v = x – 2y (1) Check for continuity ∂v ∂u = 2. y)dy + constant v = c – 2y2 ∂v ∂u = 4y. ∴ continuity is satisfied ∂y ∂x (2) ∴ u= ψ= ∂ψ = 4xy ∂y z 4xy dy = 2xy2 + f(x) (A) where f(x) is a function of x only (3) ∂ψ = – v = 2y2 – c ∂x = 2y2 + f ′ (x) (Using equation A) Differentiating equation (A) w.

166 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 5. (2) The values of u and v are obtained from the stream function as ∂ψ ∂ψ = u and =–v ∂y ∂x (3) From the knowledge of u and v. Explain how the validity of a given potential function φ is established. ∂φ =y ∂x ∴ ∂2φ ∂φ = 0. ∂y ∂y ∴ v=– ∴ So the flow is irrotational and hence the function is valid. Validate the potential function given as (i) φ = y2 – x2 (ii) φ = xy A potential function should satisfy the laplace equation ∂2φ ∂2φ + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 It should also satisfy the condition for irrotational flow ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y Case (i) ∂φ ∂φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ = – 2x. 2 = – 2. (1) Irrotational nature of the flow should be checked first. = x. To check for irrotational flow u=– ∂φ ∂( y 2 − x 2 ) =− = 2x. φ can be determined using the same procedure as per the determination of stream function u=– ∴ φ=– ∂φ ∂x z udx – f(y) (A) where f(y) is a function of y only . Problem 5.11.v=– =–x ∴ ∂y ∂y Hence irrotationality is satisfied. ∂x ∂x ∂φ ∂( y 2 + x 2 ) =– = –2y. Explain how the potential function can be obtained if the stream function for the flow is specified. Stream function may exist. but if the flow is rotational potential function will not be valid. u=– ∂φ =–y ∴ ∂x ∂u ∂ψ =–1. 2 = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂u =0 ∂y ∂v =0 ∂x Hence Laplace equation is satisfied.10. ∂y ∂x 2 ∴ ∂2φ =0 ∂y 2 ∂v =–1 ∂x Hence valid. Case (ii) φ = xy. The function is a valid potential function. = 2y.

φ = 3xy + constant check Chapter 5 ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and so f(y) = constant ∂φ ∂2φ ∂2 φ ∂2 φ ∂ 2φ + 2 = 0. (ii) ∂φ ∂φ = – 3y.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics ∂φ is determined and equated to – v ∂y 167 Comparing f ′(y) is found and then f(y) is determined and substituted in equation A φ=– (i) ψ = (3/2) (x2 – y2) (i) u= z udx – f(y) + C Problem 5. ∴ f(y) = – 4y2 ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = – 8y ∂y ∴ φ = 4x2 – 4y2 . v = – = – 3x also checks. also u = – φ = 3xy +f(y) z 3ydx + f(y) (A) Differentiating equation A with respect to y and equating to v. ∂y –v= ∂ψ = – 8y ∂x ∴ v = 8y Check for irrotationality : ∂u ∂v . So also 2 = 0 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x 2 u=– So checks. here both are – 3. determine the potential function (ii) ψ = – 8xy (iii) ψ = x – y ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 3y . ∂y ∂x ψ = – 8xy u= ∂ψ = – 8x ∴ u = – 8x. = ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 8x φ = ∂x z 8xdx + f(y) = 4x2 + f (y) differentiating this expression with respect to y. – v = = 3x. For the following stream functions. = 3y. = 0 .12. u = – 3y. in this case both are zero. Hence flow is irrotational. ∂φ = 3x + f ′y = – v = 3x ∂y Substituting in A. v = – 3x ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = . so checks ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂x ∴ φ= To check for irrotationality (2) u = – 3y.

x. ∂x Differentiating w. ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 1. Problem 5. ψ = x2y – y3/3 + constant ∂ψ = x2 – y2 = u.13.168 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Check for countinuity. = – 2x. Given that u = x2 – y2 and v = – 2xy. v = – =–1 ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v = = 0. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′ (x) = – v = 2xy ∂x ∴ ∴ Check: f ′ (x) = 0 and f (x) = constant. checks ∂x . In this case stream function will always exist. a constant can be added to the function ψ as well as φ. ∂v ∂u = 2x. Also calculate u and v from this expression and check (iii) ψ = x – y.r. checks. ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 1. A similar procedure is to be adopted to obtain stream function when potential function is specified.r. Laplace equation etc. = – 2y ∂y ∂x (i) To determine the stream function u= ∴ flow is irrotational ∂ψ = x2 – y2 ψ = x2 y – (y3/3) + f(x) ∂y Differentiating this expression w. determine the stream function and potential function for the flow. u= Hence flow is irrotational. the condition for irrotationality is to be checked. y. ∂y ∂ψ = 2xy = – v . φ= z 1 dx + f(y) = x + f (y) ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = 1 ∂y ∴ φ=x+y ∴ f(y) = y (Check for other conditions) Note: In all cases. Check for continuity. as an exercise.t. ∂y ∂x Hence satisfies the condition Check for rotation: ∂v ∂u + =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = – 2y. Only in the case of potential function.t.

14.4 6 3 5 0.6 26. Derive an expression for the stream function for (i) uniform flow of 10 m/s along the x direction (ii) uniform flow of 5 m/s parallel to the negative y direction (iii) the combination of the two. Hence checks. P. 5. (i) When the flow is uniform along the x direction with velocity u (ii) For uniform flow along negative y direction with velocity v ψ2 = – (– vx) = vx = 5x (iii) Combining ψ1 and ψ2..r. Problem 5. φ = – x3/3 + y2x + f(y) ∂x Differentiating w.56° 7 9 8 0.14 Chapter 5 ψ1 = uy and in polar coordinates ψ1 = ur cos θ ∴ ψ1 = 10y .Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics Also 169 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + 2 = 0 i. ψ = 10y + 5x The combined streamlines are shown in Fig.2 3 2 4 2 1 x 0 0. 2y – 2y = 0 ∂x 2 ∂y (ii) To determine the potential function ∂φ = – u = – x2 + y2 . 5. y y2 1 2 3 y= 4 y1 7 6 5 4 10 0. ∂x 2 ∂y 2 (also check calculating u. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′(y) = – v = 2xy ∂y ∴ ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and f(y) = constant φ = – x3/3 + y2x + c ∂2φ ∂2φ + = – 2x + 2x = 0.6 0.t. v) and for orthogonality.8 Figure P. y.2 0.4 0.e.14.

15 y2 – 1 y1 – 5 –4 –3 –2 –1 y 1 2 1. For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.5 –2 –3 –4 – 4. ψ2 = – 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y – (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.5 = (102 + 52)0. P.5 1 –4 y –3 –2 5. P.5 1 – 5.5 y2 5 For the combined stream lines Figure P.5 3 4 y1 5 –1 – 1. Determine the stream function for a uniform flow in the negative x direction towards the origin at 5m/s combined with a sink flow of strength 12.18 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The direction is given by θ = tan–1 (5/10) = 26.15. 5.60 to the x axis Poblem 5.5 –1 2 3 4 4.16.5 4 3 –5 2 0.16 For the combined stream lines . Determine the stream function for a uniform x directional flow towards the origin from the positive x direction at 5m/s and a source of strength 12 m For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.5 = 11. 5. 5. ψ2 = 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y + (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.170 At any point the resultant velocity is (u2 + v2)0. Show the resulting stream lines.15 Problem 5.

5) − 2 2 ∂x ∂y FG H IJ K = – 3. 2) is specified by the equation + 3y and v = – 2xy.16 u= x2 Problem 5.Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics y1 – 10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –0 2 4 6 8 10 y2 5 4 3 2 1 8 10 –2 0 2 4 6 y2 – 5 –4 –3 –2 y = 10 –8 –6 –4 –1 171 Figure P. ax = u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v + = (x2+ 3y) (2x) + (–2xy) 3 + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = 2x3 + 6xy – 6xy = 2x3 = 16 units ay = u Chapter 5 ∂v ∂v ∂v +v + = (x2+3y) (–2y) + (–2xy) (–2x) + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = – 2x2y – 6y2 + 4x2y = 2x2y – 6y2 = 2 × 8 – 6 × 4 = – 8 units wz = 1 1 ∂v ∂u = (– 2y – 3) = – (y + 1. In a two dimensional flow. Determine the accelerations and vorticity at this point. The continuity equation is ∂u ∂v =0 + ∂x ∂y ∴ ∴ ∂u ∂v =− = – [4y – 2] = 2 – 4y. 5. Assume steady incompressible flow.17. ∂x ∂y u= z (2 – 4y) dx = 2x – 4xy + f(y) .5 units v= 2y2 Problem 5.18. determine a possible x component given + 2x – 2y. The velocity components at point (2.

172
There are numerous possibilities for f(y). One possibility is ∴ f(y) = 0. u = 2x – 4xy.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 5.19. The velocity components in a flow are given by u = 4x, v = – 4y. Determine the stream and potential functions. Plot these functions for ψ = 60, 120, 180, and 240 and φ = 0, – 60, – 120, – 180, + 60, + 120, + 180. Check for continuity

∂u ∂v + = 4 – 4 = 0 checks ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y
flow is irrotational and so φ exists ψ=

z z

4x dy + f(x) = 4xy + f(x) , differentiating w.r.t. y

∂ψ = – v = – (– 4y) = 4y + f ′(x) ∴ f ′ (x) = constant ∂y
ψ = 4xy + constant or ψ = 4xy φ= – 4x dx + f(y) = – 2y2 + f(y),

∂ψ = – v = 4y = f ′(y) ∴ f(y) = 2y2 ∂y
φ = 2y2 – 2x2 + c or φ = 2y2 – 2x2 To plot the stream function, the values of y are calculated for various values of x, using ψ = 4xy or y = ψ/4x. The calculated values of y for x = 1 to 15 and ψ = 60 to 240 are tabulated below.
x ψ 60.000 120.00 180.00 240.00 15.00 30.00 45.00 60.00 7.50 15.00 22.50 30.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 3.75 7.50 11.25 15.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 1.50 3.00 4.50 6.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

These values are shown plotted in Fig P. 5.19 To plot the potential function the values of x or y are calculated for given values y or x using x=±
y 2 − (φ/2)

or y = ±

x 2 + (φ/2)

Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics
The values of y so calculated are tabulated below. The range used is x → 1 to 15, φ → 0, – 60, – 120, –180.
x φ – 60.0 – 120.0 – 180.0 y φ 60.00 120.00 180.00 5.48 7.75 9.49 5.57 7.81 9.54 5.83 8.00 9.70 6.25 8.31 9.95 6.75 8.72 10.30 7.42 9.22 10.72 11.4 12.65 13.78 0 5.57 7.81 9.54 1 5.83 8.00 9.70 2 6.25 8.31 9.95 3 6.75 8.72 10.30 4 7.42 9.22 10.72 5 11.4 12.65 13.78 10 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

173

15.97 16.88 17.75 15

15.97 16.88 17.75

(when values of x or y exceeded 15, then the corresponding values of y or x for exact values of 15 is calculated and used)
y = 60, 120, 180, 240 15 Y f=
0 0 18 12 60 – 0 – 60 0 12 0 18

10

5

0

0

5

X

10

15

Figure P. 5.19 Flux plot for plot of potential and stream lines

Chapter 5

174 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
O Q. 5.1. Fill in the blanks: 1. Ideal fluid is defined as 2. Real fluids exhibit . .

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

3. Steady flow is defined as flow where the flow parameters 4. Incompressible flow is defined as flow when 6. Hydrodynamics deals with 7. Irreversibility in flow is due to 8. The laws of thermodynamics apply to 10. 11. In turbulent flow the velocity at a point In laminar flow momentum transfer takes place at . . flow. 5. Under unsteady flow conditions the flow parameters vary with

. does not vary . .

9. The various laws applicable for steady incompressible flow are . level.

.

Answers
1. fluid with zero viscosity 2. viscosity 3. does not vary with time 4. density, with location 5. time 6. ideal fluid flow providing mathematical model for such flow 7. Frictional effects 8. compressible 9. Law of conservation of mass, Newtons laws of motion, Law of conservation of energy 10. varies with time about a mean velocity 11. molecular/microscopic level. O Q. 5.2. Fill in the blanks: 1. Stream line is defined as the line along which to the line. 2. Path line is defined as 3. Streak line is defined as 4. Irrotational flow is defined as 5. Circulation is defined as 6. Vorticity is defined as 7. Stream function is defined by 8. Potential flow function is defined by 9. Potential flow function exists only if the flow is 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Continuity equation is derived using the law of A doublet is defined as a combination of The equation for a free vortex is The slope for stream line is The slope for velocity potential line is . . . . . . . . . . . . at any point is

Answers
1. the velocity vector is, tangent. 2. line described over time by a particle which has passed through a given point. 3. the line showing the location of various particles that passed through a specified point. 4. there is no net rotation of the fluid particles along the flow – equal deformation along the axes as the flow proceeds. 5. the line integral over a closed path, the product of differential length on the path and the velocity component along the length. 6. circulation per unit area. 7. a function describing the flow field in terms of velocities at various locations – a

Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics

175

function describing the stream lines for the flow field (∂ψ/dy = u, ∂ψ/∂x = – v) 8. a function which describes the flow field potential – a function describing the equipotential lines (∂φ/∂x = – u, ∂φ/ ∂y = – v). 9. irrotational. 10. law of conservation of mass. 11. a combination of a source and sink of equal strength. 12. uθr = constant 13. v/u 14. – (u/v) O Q. 5.3. Fill in the blanks 1. Rectilinear flow is defined as . . 2. A source is defined as . 3. A sink is defined as 4. The stream function for rectilinear flow is . . 5. The stream function for source/sink is 6. The stream lines and equipotential lines for a flow field are . . 7. The x and y directional velocities in a flow is specified by the stream function by 8. The x and y directional velocities in a flow field is given by the potential function as . . 9. The condition to satisfied by irrotational flow is . 10. The stream function for a combination of flows with ψA and ψB is

Answers
1. a flow having stream lines parallel to one of the axes axis 2. flow with radial stream lines, directed outwards 3. flow with radial stream lines directed towards the centre 4. ψ = cy where c is a constant equal to the velocity 5. ψ = q θ/2π, q = total flow, θ = angle (in polar co-ordinate), ψ = – q θ/2π 6. perpendicular to each other. 7. u = ∂ψ/∂y v = – ∂ψ/∂y (8) u = – ∂φ/∂x, = – ∂φ/∂y 9. ∂v/∂x = ∂u/∂y 10. ψ = ψA + ψB. O Q. 5.4. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 1. An ideal fluid flow is a good approximation for real fluid flow if viscosity is small. 2. Compressible flow is flow of gases. 3. Turbulent flow is unsteady flow. 4. A stream line shows the path of a particle in any flow. 5. For every stream function a potential function should exist. 6. For every potential function a stream function should exist. 7. Stream function can exist only for irrotational flow. 8. Potential function can exist only for irrotational flow. 9. Circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. 10. Free vertex flow is irrotational. 11. Forced vertex flow is irrotational.

Answers
Correct: 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 10 Incorrect : 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 O Q. 5.5. Choose the correct answer: 1. A flow is defined by u = 2 (1 + t), v = 3(1 + t) where t is the time. The velocyity at t = 2 is (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 10.82 (d) 6.7. 2. The value of local acceleration in the x direction for flow with u = 2(1 + t) is given by (a) 0 (b) 2t (c) 2 (d) t. 3. The value of x directional convective acceleration in the case of flow with u = 2 (1 + t) and v = 3 (1 + t) equals (a) 0 (b) 5 (c) 1 (d) 5t.

Chapter 5

176
(a) 2x2y2 + 4xy2 + 6y + 8t2y + 6tx (c) x/y 5. The continuity equation is satisfied by (a) u = A sin xy, v = – A sin xy (c) u = 2x2 + cy, v = 3y2 (b) 4xy (d) 2x2y2 + 6tx.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

4. When u = 3 + 2xy + 4t2, v = xy2 + 3t. The x directional acceleration is given by

(b) u = x + y. v = x – y (d) u = x + 2y, v = 2x + y. (b) u = x2 + y2, v = – 2xy + 7 (d) u = 2x + y, v = 4y + x. (b) 3x2 – 3y2, 6xy (d) 3y2 – 3x2, 6xy. (b) φ = c cos x (d) φ = c (x2 + y2).

6. The following represent steady incompressible flow. (a) u = 4xy + 2y2, v = 6xy + 3x2 (c) u = x/y, v = y/x 7. If ψ = 3x2y – y3. The values u and v are (a) 6xy, 3x2 – 3y2 (c) (3x2 – 3y2), – 6xy 8. This is a valid potential function (a) φ = c ln x (c) φ = 3xy

9. The continuity equation for incompressible two dimensional steady flow is (a)

∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂u ∂v = 0, + ∂y ∂t ∂u ∂v = 0. + ∂y ∂t ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= . ∂y ∂x

(c) 10.

(d)

The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of stream function ψ is given by (a) u = (b) u =

(c) u = –

(d) u = –

Answers
1. c, 2. c, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b. O Q. 5.6. Choose the correct answer 1. The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of potential function φ is given by (a) u = –

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂φ ,v=– . ∂y ∂x

(c) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(d) u = –

2. The condition for irrotational flow is (a)

∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y

(b)

∂u ∂v =− ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u =− . ∂x ∂y

(c)

(d)

Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics
3. The equation of a stream line in two dimensional steady flow can be expressed as (a)

177
dy dx = u v dx dy = . u v

u dy = dx v dy dx = u v

(b)

(c) −

(d) −

4. The flow rate between stream lines with values ψ1 and ψ2 is given by (a) ψ1 + ψ2 (c) ψ2 – ψ1 (a) First law of thermodynamics (c) Newtons second law of motion 6. A path line describes (a) The velocity direction at all points on the line (b) The path followed by particles in a flow (c) The path over a period of times of a single particle that has passed out at a point (d) The instantaneous position of all particles that have passed a point. 7. The relationship between stream and potential functions ψ and φ is (a) (b) ψ1 + Cψ2 (d) C ψ1 + ψ2. (b) Conservation of energy (d) Conservation of mass.

5. The continuity equation is the result of application of the following law to the flow field

∂ψ ∂φ = ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂ψ = ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂φ ∂ψ =− ∂x ∂y ∂2φ ∂2 ψ . = ∂x 2 ∂y 2

8. The value that will satisfy potential function φ is (a) φ = x2 + y2 (c) φ = x + y 9. The stream function is (a) constant along an equipotential line (c) defined only in irrotational flow 10. A potential function (a) is constant along a stream line (b) is definable if a stream function is available for the flow (c) describes the flow if it is rotational (d) describes the flow if it is irrotational. (b) along a stream line (d) defined only for incompressible flow. (b) φ = sin x (d) φ = ln (x + y).

Answers
1. d, 2. c, 3. d, 4. c, 5. d, 6. c, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. d. O Q. 5.7. Match the pairs 1. Set A A. Ideal fluid B. Steady flow C. Low velocity gas flow D. Friction Set B 1. Irreversible flow 2. Incompresible flow 3. Zero viscosity 4. Velocity at a point is constant.

Chapter 5

(c)

(d)

178
Answers
A – 3, B – 4, C – 2, D – 1. 2. Set A A. Stream line B. Streak line C. Equipotential line D. Path line Set B

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. Path of particles that passed a point 2. The path of a single particle that passed a point 3. Shows velocity 4. Described by potential function.

Answers
A – 3, B – 1, C – 4, D – 2.

EXERCISE PROBLEMS
E 1. Given u = kx in a two dimensional flow determine v. E 2. Given velocity potential, determine the velocity components u and v. (a) φ = ln xy (b) φ = 3 (x2 + y2) (c) φ = a cos xy [– (1/x), (1/y)] [– 6x , – 6y)] [aysinxy, axsinxy] [– ky + f(x)]

E 3. Given stream function ψ = 3x – 4y, calculate the slope of the line and also the value of resultant velocity. Does it satisfy continuity equation? Is the flow irrotational? [θ = 37°, v = 5 units] θ E 4. Given φ = x(2y – 1), determine ψ. E 5. Given ψ = 4x2 – 4y2, find φ. E 6. Find the relationship between a and b if in steady flow u = bx and v = ay, E 7. Show that for two dimensional steady flows with velocity components u and v, ax = u [– y2 + y + f(y)] [φ = 8xy + c] [b = – a ]

∂u ∂u +v ∂x ∂y

and ay = u

∂v ∂v +v . ∂x ∂y

E 8. Given u = 2y, v = x, sketch the flow. Also find ax, ay and a. E 9. If u = 3 + 2xy and v = xy2 determine ax, ay and a. E 10. If u = 3y and v = 2, determine ax and ay. E 11. If u = 0, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 12. If u = – 2y, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 13. Determine the normal and tangential components of acceleration for a circular stream line. E 14. Find φ and ψ given u = 2x and v = – 2y. E 15. If u = 2, v = 8x determine ψ. E 16. Tabulate the values of x and y for ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 given (i) ψ = 10y. (ii) ψ = – 20x, (i) u = 5, v = 6 (iii) u = 3xy, v = 1.5x2 (v) u = 4 + 2x, v = – y. (iii) ψ = 10y – 20x. (ii) u = 3 + x, v =4 (iv) u = 3x, v = 3y E 17. Determine the stream function if it exists. Also check for irrotationality. [ψ = 2xy + c1, φ = – (x2 – y2) + c2]

Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics

179

E 18. Calculate the values of x and y for stream lines. ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, given ψ = 1.2xy (for one quadrant). E 19. Tabulate and plot ψ = 1.5x2 + y2 for positive values of x, y. E 20. If ψ = x2 – y, find u and v and also the vorticity. E 21. A source discharging 1 m3/sm is at (– 1, 0) and a sink taking in 1m3/sm is at (+1, 0). If this is combined with uniform flow of u = 1.5 m/s, left to right, calculate the length of the resolution of closed body contour. E 22. Two sources one of strength 8π and the other of 16π are located at (2, 0) and (– 3, 0) respectively. For the combined flow field, calculate the location of the stagnation point. Also plot ψ = 4π, ψ = 8π and ψ = 0. E 23. A source of 20m3/sm at (0, 0) is combined with a uniform flow with u = 3m/s from left to right. Determine ψ for the flow. E 24. Given u = x2 + 2x – y and v = – 2xy – 2y, determine ψ. Also compute vorticity.

Chapter 5

$
6.0 INTRODUCTION

Bernoulli Equation and Applications

In chapter five flow of ideal fluids was discussed. The main idea was the study of flow pattern. The determination of equal flow paths and equal potential lines was discussed. No attempt was made to determine the numerical value of these quantities. In this chapter the method of determination of the various energy levels at different locations in the flow is discussed. In this process first the various forms of energy in the fluid are identified. Applying the law of conservation of energy the velocity, pressure and potential at various locations in the flow are calculated. Initially the study is limited to ideal flow. However the modifications required to apply the analysis to real fluid flows are identified. The material discussed in this chapter are applicable to many real life fluid flow problems. The laws presented are the basis for the design of fluid flow systems. Energy consideration in fluid flow: Consider a small element of fluid in flow field. The energy in the element as it moves in the flow field is conserved. This principle of conservation of energy is used in the determination of flow parameters like pressure, velocity and potential energy at various locations in a flow. The concept is used in the analysis of flow of ideal as well as real fluids. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It is possible that one form of energy is converted to another form. The total energy of a fluid element is thus conserved under usual flow conditions. If a stream line is considered, it can be stated that the total energy of a fluid element at any location on the stream line has the same magnitude.

6.1

FORMS OF ENERGY ENCOUNTERED IN FLUID FLOW

Energy associated with a fluid element may exist in several forms. These are listed here and the method of calculation of their numerical values is also indicated.

180

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.1 Kinetic Energy

181

This is the energy due to the motion of the element as a whole. If the velocity is V, then the kinetic energy for m kg is given by

mV 2 KE = Nm 2 go
The unit in the SI system will be Nm also called Joule (J) {(kg m2/s2)/(kg m/N s2)}

(6.1.1)

The same referred to one kg (specific kinetic energy) can be obtained by dividing 6.1.1 by the mass m and then the unit will be Nm/kg. KE =

V2 , Nm/kg 2 go

(6.1.1b)

In fluid flow studies, it is found desirable to express the energy as the head of fluid in m. This unit can be obtained by multiplying equation (6.1.1) by go/g.
o = Kinetic head = 2 2g go g

V2 g

V2

(6.1.2) =m

The unit for this expression will be

m2 s2 s2 m

Apparantly the unit appears as metre, but in reality it is Nm/N, where the denominator is weight of the fluid in N. The equation in this form is used at several places particularly in flow of liquids. But the energy associated physically is given directly only be equation 6.1.1. The learner should be familiar with both forms of the equation and should be able to choose and use the proper equation as the situation demands. When different forms of the energy of a fluid element is summed up to obtain the total energy, all forms should be in the same unit.

6.1.2 Potential Energy
This energy is due to the position of the element in the gravitational field. While a zero value for KE is possible, the value of potential energy is relative to a chosen datum. The value of potential energy is given by PE = mZ g/go Nm (6.1.3) Where m is the mass of the element in kg, Z is the distance from the datum along the gravitational direction, in m. The unit will be (kg m m/s2) × (Ns2/kgm) i.e., Nm. The specific potential energy (per kg) is obtained by dividing equation 6.1.3 by the mass of the element. PE = Z g/g0 Nm/kg (6.1.3. b) This gives the physical quantity of energy associated with 1 kg due to the position of the fluid element in the gravitational field above the datum. As in the case of the kinetic energy, the value of PE also is expressed as head of fluid, Z. PE = Z (g/go) (go/g) = Z m. (6.1.4)

Chapter 6

182

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This form will be used in equations, but as in the case of KE, one should be familiar with both the forms and choose the suitable form as the situation demands.

6.1.3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy)
The element when entering the control volume has to flow against the pressure at that location. The work done can be calculated referring Fig. 6.1.1.
Area – A Fluid element 1 P1 L 1 2 Control volume

2

Figure 6.1.1 Flow work calculation

The boundary of the element of fluid considered is shown by the dotted line, Force = P1 A, distance to be moved = L, work done = P1AL = P1 mv as AL = volume = mass × specific volume, v. ∴ flow work = P mv. The pressure energy per kg can be calculated using m = 1. The flow energy is given by FE = P.v = P/ρ, Nm/kg Note:
N m3 Nm → kg m2 kg

(6.1.5)

As in the other cases, the flow energy can also expressed as head of fluid. FE =
P go ,m ρ g

(6.1.5a)

As specific weight γ = ρ g/go, the equation is written as, FE = P/γ, m (6.1.5b) It is important that in any equation, when energy quantities are summed up consistent forms of these set of equations should be used, that is, all the terms should be expressed either as head of fluid or as energy (J) per kg. These are the three forms of energy encountered more often in flow of incompressible fluids.

6.1.4 Internal Energy
This is due to the thermal condition of the fluid. This form is encountered in compressible fluid flow. For gases (above a datum temperature) IE = cv T where T is the temperature above the datum temperature and cv is the specific heat of the gas at constant volume. The unit for internal energy is J/kg (Nm/kg). When friction is significant other forms of energy is converted to internal energy both in the case of compressible and incompressible flow.

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy

183

These are not generally met with in the study of flow of fluids. However in magnetic pumps and in magneto hydrodynamic generators where plasma flow in encountered, electrical and magnetic energy should also be taken into account.

6.2

VARIATION IN THE RELATIVE VALUES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF ENERGY DURING FLOW

Under ideal conditions of flow, if one observes the movement of a fluid element along a stream line, the sum of these forms of energy will be found to remain constant. However, there may be an increase or decrease of one form of energy while the energy in the other forms will decrease or increase by the same amount. For example when the level of the fluid decreases, it is possible that the kinetic energy increases. When a liquid from a tank flows through a tap this is what happens. In a diffuser, the velocity of fluid will decrease but the pressure will increase. In a venturimeter, the pressure at the minimum area of cross section (throat) will be the lowest while the velocity at this section will be the highest. The total energy of the element will however remain constant. In case friction is present, a part of the energy will be converted to internal energy which should cause an increase in temperature. But the fraction is usually small and the resulting temperature change will be so small that it will be difficult for measurement. From the measurement of the other forms, it will be possible to estimate the frictional loss by difference.

6.3

EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION FOR FLOW ALONG A STREAM LINE

Consider a small element along the stream line, the direction being designated as s.
s dA P+ ds r dz q P V r g d s dA ¶V ¶P . ds, V + . ds ¶s ¶s

Stream line Element considered

Figure 6.3.1 Euler’s equation of Motion – Derivation

The net force on the element are the body forces and surface forces (pressure). These are indicated in the figure. Summing this up, and equating to the change in momentum. PdA – {P + (∂P/∂s} dA – ρg dA ds cos θ = ρ dA ds as (6.3.1) where as is the acceleration along the s direction. This reduces to,

1 ∂P ρ ∂s + g cos θ + as = 0

(6.3.2)

Chapter 6

3 also it is better to write the first term as go. Steady flow 2. or = Constant 2 ρ 2 g0 ρ g0 FG IJ H K (6.3 can be integrated directly if the flow is assumed to be incompressible.4) which means that the quantity within the bracket remains constant along the flow.2 reduces to.4.3. .3.3. it will also have a unit of m/s2).3. Multiplying by go.3) (Note: in equation 6. The unit of the terms will be energy unit (Nm/kg). The assumptions involved are: 1. ρ as ρ = constant P V2 P g V2 + gz + +z + = const. 1 ∂P ∂z ∂V ∂V + =0 ρ ∂s + g ∂s +V ∂s ∂t ds = V. As dV ∂V ds ∂V = + dt ∂s dt ∂t and as cos θ = dz/ds. equation 6.184 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Note: It will be desirable to add go to the first term for dimensional homogeneity. t). as = dV/dt. Ideal fluid (frictionless) In the case on incompressible flow. a) For steady flow ∂V/∂t = 0. dp V2 +d γ 2g F I GH JK + dz = 0 or d LM P + V + zOP N γ 2g Q = 0 2 (6. dP + gdz + VdV = 0. dt (6. dp ρ + gdz + VdV = 0 (6.1) The constant is to be evaluated by using specified boundary conditions. Cancelling ∂s and using total derivatives in place of partials as these are independent quantities. V = f(s.3. is also written as. dV = ∂V ∂V ds + dt ∂s ∂t dividing by dt. as velocity. this equation can be integrated to obtain Bernoulli equation. the first term will have a unit of N/kg while the other two terms will have a unit of m/s2.4 BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLUID FLOW Euler’s equation as given in 6. Motion along a stream line and 3.2. 6. This equation is known as Euler’s equation of motion. This equation after dividing by g. As it is.3. (t = time).dp/ρ for dimensional homogeneity).

832 P2 11.32 m/s 10 × 105 2. from point 1 to point 2 which is 1 m above point 1. γ = sp. Substituting. 2 2 P1 P2 V1 V2 + Z1 + = γ + Z2 + γ 2g 2g Chapter 6 .5 bar (vacuum). Barometric pressure is 1 bar. gravity × 9810. the pressure P2 can be calculated.8 × 4/π × 0.33 = 11. venturimeter.322 +0+ = + 1+ 9810 × 1. The first term represents (flow work) pressure energy. Example 6. determine the pressure at section 2. kg m/N s2 . it is desirable to use absolute pressure to avoid negative pressure values (or use of the term vacuum pressure).092 × 105 N/m2). the equations will read as.3 flows in a pipe at a rate of 800 l/s.3 2 × 9. V2 = 0.2) (γ is the specific weight N/m3).6 m and 0.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 185 In SI units the numerical value of go = 1.4.4. Equation 6. Determine the flow rate when the throat pressure is 0.8 × 4/π × 0. As P/γ is involved directly on both sides.4.6 m and 0.3 m respectively.2 Water flows through a horizontal venturimeter with diameters of 0. In case energy is added or taken out at any point in the flow. This equation is extensively used in practical design to estimate pressure/velocity in flow through ducts.62 = 2.092 bar (9.1 can also be written as to express energy as head of fluid column.2 m. P V2 + z+ = constant 2g γ (6. Using Bernoulli’s equation in the form. The guage pressure at the entry is 1 bar. the second term the potential energy and the third term the kinetic energy. nozzle meter.3 2 × 9.2) P V2 +z+ = constant. Using Bernoulli equation in the following form (6.1 A liquid of specific gravity 1. (6. If the pressure at section 1 is 10 bar. or loss of head due to friction occurs. However. hf g P2 V2 2 z2 g P1 V12 z1 g + + +W − = + + ρ 2 go ρ 2 go go go go where W is the energy added and hf is the loss of head due to friction. γ 2g Taking the datum as section 1. P2 = 9. The diameters at section 1 and 2 are 0. In calculations using SI system of units go may be omitting as its value is unity.81 Solving.3) Example 6. P1 = 10 × 105 N/m2. The constant has the same value along a stream line or a stream tube. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error.4.81 9810 × 1. V1 = 0. In this equation all the terms are in the unit of head of the fluid.83 m/s. orifice meter etc.

The jet flows down vertically in a smooth stream.5 ×105 N/m2 (absolute). As the velocity is higher the flow area is smaller. Example 6. The flow rate is 100 l/s 0. V2 = 17. V2 = Q × 4/(π × 0.62 = − 0.83Q 3.54 Q.6. Example 6. Ex. ∴ D = 0.4. P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2 (absolute) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P2 = 0. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2.3 Problem model using continuity equation (one dimensional flow) and noting that density is constant. the diameter of the jet at this point being 15 mm.6 = × 4.2 m f B 3 1 xm h Mercury Figure Ex.81 9810 9810 Solving.81 2 × 9.6 m/s ∴ ∴ 0.548 m3/s. Q = 0. Determine the velocity and the diameter of the jet at 0.6 m Q = 0.6 m. 6. γ = 9810 N/m3 V1 = Q × 4/(π × 0.202) = 31. 6. A1V1 = A2V2 Figure Ex. 2 × 105 0.01166 m or 11.66 mm 4 4 As the potential energy decreases. The manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 13.1 m f 2 0.6 m below the tap outlet.3 A tap discharges water evenly in a jet at a velocity of 2.186 and noting Z1 = Z2. The pressure around the jet is atmospheric throughout.5 × 10 5 +0+ Q2 = +0+ 2 × 9. V1 = 2. Z2 = – 0.43 m/s.4 Water flows in a tapering pipe vertically as shown in Fig.6.4 Problem model .602) = 3.81 2 × 9.6 m Jet V22 2. Taking the tap outlet as point 1 and also taking it as the datum using Bernoulli equation.94 m/s. Determine the manometer reading ‘‘h’’. V1 = 1.6 + 2 × 9.542 31832 Q2 .3.81 V2 = 4. π × 0152 π × D2 × 2.6 m/s at the tap outlet. Entrainment of air may increase the diameter somewhat. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 . Z2 = 0.3 m/s. kinetic energy increases.1 m /s Water A 0.

The difference between the energy line and hydraulic gradient line gives the value of dynamic head (velocity head). It is constant along the flow when losses γ 2g H.12) = 12.6 – 1) ∴ h = 0.346 m of water γ 187 For water γ = 9810 N/m3. V1 = 4 × 0. Rearranging Bernoulli equation for this flow.1/ (π × 0. For the manometer configuration.6 + x + sh γ γ (where x.6 + (12.Bernoulli Equation and Applications The velocities at sections 1 and 2 are first calculated.6 + h(13. considering the level AB and equating the pressures at A and B P1 P + x + h = 2 + 0.183 m/s.G.81) = 8. Energy line is the plot of are negligible. the energy line will be horizontal or parallel to the flow direction. When losses (frictional) are negligible.7322 – 3. P1 − P2 = 0. The hydraulic gradient line provides useful information about pressure variations (static head) in a flow.1.5. An example of plot of these lines for flow from a tank through a venturimeter is shown in Fig.1832)/(2 × 9.48 cm 6. h are shown on the diagram and s is specific gravity) ∴ P1 − P2 = 0. 6. γ 8.22) = 3.6148 m or 61. line hydraulic gradient line. For calculating the total energy kinetic.5. The plot of P + Z along the flow is called the γ P V2 +Z+ along the flow. When velocity increases this will dip and when velocity decreases this will rise. Figure 6.1 Energy and hydraulic gradient lines Chapter 6 Tank Energy line .732 m/s It is desired to determine P1 – P2.1/ (π × 0.346 = 0.5 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADIENT LINE The total energy plotted along the flow to some specified scale gives the energy line. V2 = 4 × 0. substituting the values. potential and flow (pressure) energy are considered.6 + h(s – 1).

5 A2 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0. Figure Ex.5 where suffix 1 and 2 refer to the inlet and the throat. inclination from horizontal or vertical position.5 Volume flow = A1 V1 = A2 V2 A2 V1 = V . LM2 g R P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 UO − Z ) VP WQP 2 0. ∴ (V22 – V12) = V22 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 OP PQ Applying Bernoulli equation to the flow and considering section 1 and 2.6. Refer to Fig.6 VOLUME FLOW THROUGH A VENTURIMETER Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 6.5 1 2 1 − Z2 gIJK OPP Q 0.5 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. 6. In numerical work consistent units should be used. Pressure should be in flow will be m3/s. V22.5 Under ideal conditions show that the volume flow through a venturimeter is given by LM2 gF P − P + b Z Q= G {1 − b A / A g } MN H γ A2 2 1 2 0.1) This is a general expression and can be used irrespective of the flow direction. N/m2.5 = V2 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 2 0.188 6. A in m2 and then volume A1 P1 1 Z1 A2 P2 Z Z2 Datum h A B A coeficient is involved in actual meters due to friction. This equation is applicable for orifice meters and nozzle flow meters also. 6. Ex. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 γ γ 2g 2g Rearranging.5 OP PQ V2 = ∴ Volume flow is A2V2 = 1 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.5 Venturimeter-flow .5 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0.5 (6. Z in m.V 2= A1 2 1 ∴ FG A IJ HA K 2 1 2 2 .

7 Problem model Chapter 6 [1 − ( A2 / A1) ] 2 0.6. it is seen that it is sufficient to prove. Example. 6.0 m Tank Pipe.7 Determine the flow rate through the siphon Fig.5 : The manometer connection at the wall measures the static pressure only) P1 + Z1 γ1 + hγ1 = P2 + Z2γ1 + hγ2 (P1 – P2) + (Z1 – Z1) γ1 = h(γ2 – γ1).06 m3/s A Water level C 1. Ex.6 Show that when a manometric fluid of specific gravity S2 is used to measure the head in a venturimeter with flow of fluid of specific gravity S1.6. causing the flow is equal to the manometer reading h[(S2/S1) – 1] and flow is independent of the inclination if the reading of the manometer and the fluids are specified..e.5 Comparing the equation (6. i.672 m/s.5 (6. dividing by γ1.3) . 6. Also determine the pressure at A. H = h[(S2/S1) – 1] Q= A2 If the pressure at various locations are specified. noting that the velocity at water surface at C = 0. Ex.2) This equation leads to another conclusion. h FG S HS 2 1 −1 = IJ K P1 − P2 + (Z2 – Z1) γ1 Considering the plane A–B in the manometer and equating the pressures at A and B Fig.6.5 LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0. As the manometer reading converted to head of flowing fluid. 6. if the manometer shows a reading of hm. Flow rate = (π D2/4) × V = (π × 0. The fluid head. Considering locations C and B and taking the datum at B.5 A2 LM2 ghF S NM GH S IO − 1J P K QP 0. H.1) with the problem at hand.5 [2 gH ]0. these equations are applicable for orifice and nozzle meters also.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 189 Example 6. 0 + 0 + VB2/2g = 3 + 0 + 0 ∴ ∴ VB = 7. γ P1 − P2 S + (Z1 – Z2) = h 2 − 1 = h 2 − 1 γ1 γ1 S1 F GH I JK F GH I JK 2 1 Hence volume flow. the volume flow is given by Q= A2 1 − ( A2 / A1)2 0.5 (6. 6.12/4) × 7. The pressure at C and B are atmospheric. Q= [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. applying Bernoulli equation. 100 mm f 3m B Figure Ex.672 = 0.7 when flow is established.

2594/r2 (P2 – P1) is the pressure difference which causes a force at the area 2πrdr at r.8 Problem model Consider an element area of width dr (annular) in the flow region at a distance r as shown in figure. 0. Now considering locations C and A.025 × r)2 = 0. the elemental force dF is given by. The force on the element area of the bottom plate = 2πrdr (P2 – P1) Substituting and nothing γ = ρg/g0.75 (0.052 ) / 2) − 0.05 × 0.08/2π × 0. Assume the pressure at radius r = 0. Determine the net force acting on the bottom plate.35 0.2594 ln LM N OP Q LM N 2 FG H 0.025)2 = 103.05 m is atmospheric.75 − 0.8 and flows outwards through the space between the top and bottom plates. 2g 2g γ PA = – 4 m checks.05 IJ OP = 17970 KQ N . The pressure at this location as compared to point 1 can be determined using Bernoulli equation. P1 V2 V2 P + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 . γ Example. Net force = 1000 × π (103. Ex.81) ∴ PA/γ = – 4m or – 4m of water head or 4m water-head below atmospheric pressure. 3 + 0 + 0 = 4 + (PA/γ) + 7. P2 – P1 = γ (V 2 – V22) 2g 1 V12 = (0.35 − 0.6722/ (2 × 9. 6. Check: Consider points A and B 4+ PA VA 2 VB 2 + = + 0 + 0 as VA = VB.8 Water flows in at a rate of 80 l/s from the pipe as shown in Fig. 6.2594 .05 to 0. P1 is atmospheric γ 2g γ 2g As Z1 = Z2. 6.1 m r dr Bearing Element considered Figure Ex.35.190 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity at A is the same as velocity at B. r2 Integrating between the limits r = 0.08/2π × 0. The top plate is fixed. dF = ρ πrdr 103.75 V22 = (0.7 m 25 mm dr r Top plate (fixed) 1 2 Bottom plate 0.

062 × 3.53 m/s and flow will be 2.1.5 V22/2g. Chapter 6 20 = 12 + 2 2 V2 V2 .3 will now read as dP 2τds + VdV + gdZ – =0 ρ ρr V2 dP +d 2g γ F I + dZ – 2τds = 0 GH JK γr ds can also be substituted in terms of Z and θ Bernoulli equation will now read as (taking s as the length) 2τs P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + γr 2g 2g γ γ The last term is the loss of head due to friction and is denoted often as hL.81 .01068 m3/s = 0. The pipe ends in a nozzle of diameter 60 mm. V2 = 3. and A = π r2) Refer Para 6. Determine the flow rate if losses in the pipe is given by 10 V22/2g. + 10 2g 2g .64 m3/min. Let the shear stress be τ. 6. The Euler equation 6.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6. Equating the total energy at inlet and outlet.3.178 m3/s.3 and Fig.777 m/s 11 π × 0.10 A tank with water level of 12 m has a pipe of 200 mm dia connected from its bottom which extends over a length to a level of 2 m below the tank bottom.3.7 EULER AND BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLOW WITH FRICTION 191 Compared to ideal flow the additional force that will be involved will be the shear force acting on the surface of the element. Calculate the pressure at this point if the flow rate is 0.13 m3/min) Example 6. There is no loss in the nozzle. V2 = 12. the force will equal τ 2πr ds (where r is the radius of the element.9 The delivery line of a pump is 100 mm ID and it delivers water at a height of 12 m above entry. The total head at the entry to the pipe is 20 m.777 = 0.hf in head of fluid in metre height (check for the unit of the last term). ∴ V 22 = 8 × 2 × 9. Example 6. The losses due to friction in the pipe length is accounted for by 4. where V2 is the velocity at nozzle outlet. 4 Flow = A2 V2 = (If losses do not occur then.

5 γ 2g 2g V2 = 0. The transition piece length is 6 m. V1 = 2.1 (a)) The velocity term in the Bernoulli equation is known as dynamic head.67 m/s P2 5. .49 bar (above atmospheric pressure) Example 6.8.672 = = 5 m of water head.1 (b)) The total head is the sum of the static and dynamic head and is measured by a single probe facing the flow direction. (Figure 6.166 m3/s 6. If frictional drop is 2 m of water head.8. It is to be measured by a probe which will be perpendicular to the velocity direction.1 = 5. using Bernoulli equation and accounting for frictional drop in head (leaving out the atmospheric pressure which is the same at the water level and at outlet).1 (c)) The location of probes and values of pressures for the above measurements are shown in Fig.8 CONCEPT AND MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC. The pressure at the bottom is 200 kPa and at the top it is 80 kPa. 14 = ∴ 14 – 5.8.8.15)4 = 16V12 ∴ ∴ 2 V1 120 × 103 – 8 = 15 .5 × ∴ 2 2 V2 V2 P2 + + 4.81 P2 = 9810 × 5 N/m2 = 0.3/0.1 × 0. Such a probe is called static probe. The head measured is also called Piezometric head.411 m/s 9810 2g Flow rate = A1 V1 = A2V2 = 0. one end of which should face the velocity direction and connected to one limb of a manometer with other end perpendicular to the velocity and connected to the other limb of the manometer. STATIC AND TOTAL HEAD In the Bernoulli equation. Solving. 6. (Figure 6. determine the rate of flow. Considering the bottom as the datum. V2 V2 200 × 103 80 × 10 3 +0+ 1 = + 6 + 2 +2 9810 9810 2g 2g V22 = V12 (0. γ 2 × 9. It is measured by a probe.178/π × 0.353 and V2 = 9.1. the pressure term is known as static head.192 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Taking location of the outlet of the pipe as the datum.11 A vertical pipe of diameter of 30 cm carrying water is reduced to a diameter of 15 cm. (Figure 6.

9 (13. Pitot tube Dynamic head Manometer Static probe openings (^ r to flow) Total pressure probe (Facing flow) Figure 6.2 Pitot-Static tube Example 6. The head will be h (s – 1) of water when a differential manometer is used (s > 1).9 × 13.8.24 m Note. The velocity variation along the radius in a duct can be conveniently measured by this arrangement by traversing the probe across the section. then the head should be calculated as 0. Determine the height to which the jet will rise when it is directed vertically upwards.9 m of mercury column.1 Pitot Tube The flow velocity can be determined by measuring the dynamic head using a device known as pitot static tube as shown in Fig. and noting that at the maximum point the velocity is zero.8.6 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + Z ∴ Z = 12. 6. The holes on the outer wall of the probe provides the static pressure (perpendicular to flow) and hole in the tube tip facing the stream direction of flow measures the total pressure.1 Pressure measurement 6.6 – 1) m.8. This instrument is also called pitot–static tube.8. The difference gives the dynamic pressure as indicated by the manometer.12 The dynamic head of a water jet stream is measured as 0. 0. Considering the location at which the dynamic head is measured as the datum and converting the column of mercury into head of water.2. If the head measured is given as the reading of a differential manometer.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 193 h h V V Static head Dynamic head Total head (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Chapter 6 .

81 2 × 9. If the reading of the manometer is the same when it is connected to a vertical pipe with flow upwards and (ii) vertical pipe with flow downwards. 6. The inlet diameter is 0.16 m of water.194 Example 6. calculate the additional head provided by the draft tube. When connected to a horizontal pipe the manometer reading was h cm.1 A venturimeter is used to measure the volume flow.81 γ ∴ P1 = – 6.5 .5 b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.5 m and the flow velocity is 8 m/s. (Below atmospheric pressure) γ Additional head provided due to the use of draft tube will equal 6. Also calculate the pressure at the inlet section.13 A diverging tube connected to the outlet of a reaction turbine (fully flowing) is called ‘‘Draft tube’’.5 m 1 3m Tail race 2 1. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 6.6.392 P1 + +3= 2 × 9.2 m. V2 = 8 × 0.22 P2 = atmospheric pressure. In a draft tube as shown in Fig. The pressure head is recorded by a manometer. 2 as the datum. 1. If the turbine outlet is open the exit pressure will be atmospheric as in Pelton wheel. 6. Ex. Z1 = 3 82 1. The outlet diameter is 1. The diverging section is immersed in the tail race water and this provides additional head for the turbine by providing a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure at the turbine exit. and calulating the velocities V1 = 8 m/s. Consider equation 6.13 Draft tube Considering tail race level.39 m/s.52 = 1. cavitation problem limits the design pressure.2 Figure Ex. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit can be reduced to a low level.16 m of water Note: This may cause cavitation if the pressure is below the vapour pressure at the temperature condition. The height of the inlet above the water level is 3 m.13. Considering sections 1 and 2 2 2 P1 V1 V1 P + Z1 = 1 + + Z2 γ 2g 2g γ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. Z2 = 0. discuss in which case the flow is highest.

Determine the throat pressure. Substituting.5 30° b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.3 A venturimeter as shown in Fig P.1FG 13. Problem 6.81 9810 9810 ∴ P2 = 223617 N/m2 = 2. 6.5 10 m A2 = (π/4) 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 195 As long as ‘h’ remains the same.5 m and 0. P1 = 2 bar (gauge) = 3 bar (absolute) 3 × 105 N/m2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q 0. S1 = 0.245 m.2 Water flows at the rate of 600 l/s through a horizontal venturi with diameter 0.8 K PQ 1 − b0.05g 4 0.3 Problem model (A2/A1)2 = (D2/D1)4 = (0. The pressure gauge fitted at the entry to the venturi reads 2 bar. 6.5 2 0.056 2 12.81 × 0.8.81 2 × 9.6. The manometer reads 10 cm of mercury of specific gravity 13. Using Bernoulli equation and neglecting losses P1 V12 P2 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2. This is because of the fact that the manometer automatically takes the inclination into account in indicating the value of (Z1 – Z2). Barometric pressure is 1 bar. the volume flow is the same for a given venturimeter as this expression is a general one derived without taking any particular inclination.03 / 0.8. h = 0. Determine the flow rate.6 = 12. Q= eπ × 0.136 bar (gauge) 3 cm f 5 cm f Using equation 6.5 2 /4) V2 = V1 FG D IJ HD K 2 1 2 V2 = 0.732 m/s.6. Substituting (π × 0.056 m/s can also use 2 (π × d /4) (π × 0.732 2 P2 3 × 105 + +0= + +0 2 × 9.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.05)4.6 = = 3.245 × 10–3 m3/s or 15.6.03 / 4j L2 × 9.5 = 4.03/0.6 − 1IJ O MN H 0.2452 /4) 3. .3 is used measure flow of petrol with a specific gravity of 0.032 ∴ as D2 = 3 cm Figure P.396 kg/s Chapter 6 Problem 6.236 bar (absolute) = 1.10 m S2 = 13.282 m3/hr or 4.245 l/s or 15282 l/hr or 3.

5 0.37 m/s.2) Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0.5 Solving.196 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.6 mm.6 Calculate the exit diameter.5 Water flows upwards in a vertical pipe line of gradually varying section from point 1 to point 2. h = 0.9m3/s.37 = 0.5m above point 1.243 m As (p/γ) is involved directly on both sides.9 m3/s 4 Solving for d2. If the manometer fluid is mercury (sp.4 A liquid with specific gravity 0.81 9810 9810 e j Solving. P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g 0.83 × 10–3 m2 . if at the inlet section of the draft tube the diameter is 1 m and the pressure is 0.6. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error.6 − 1IJ OP H 0.26 × 10–3 m2 4 3 ×10–3 = 1. 4 π × 0.52 V22 800 × 10 3 600 × 10 3 + +0= + +1.04 2 = 1.8 K Q I OP N JK P Q 2 0.9 × 4 / π × 0. of mercury column.81 × hFG 13. gr = 13. which is 1.5m and pressure is 800 kPa. Diameter of pipe at section 2 = 0. h. at the rate of 0.0146 m = 14. Problem 6.8 flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a venturimeter of diameters 6 cm and 4 cm. The flow rate of water is 1600 l/s.83 × 10 −3 −3 LM2 × 9.405 bar absolute. . Neglect losses. If pressure at section 2 is 600 kPa.5 2 × 9. Using Bernoulli equation. At section 1 the pipe dia is 0.26 × 10 −3 LM F 1. Using equation (6.b) determine the value of manometer reading. V2 = 19. However it is desirable to use absolute pressure to aviod nagative pressure values.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0. Flow = area × velocity. determine the pipe diameter at that location.81 2 × 9.5 A1 = A2 = π × 0.26 × 10 MN1 − GH 2. Problem 6. The vertical distance between inlet and outlet is 6 m.06 2 = 2. 2 π × d2 ×19.

3 × 10 5 (200 × 10 × 4)/(π × 0.516 2 V2 2g Chapter 6 .531 2 1 ∴ D2 = 1. The diameter at the bottom is 240 mm and at the top 200 mm and the length is 5m.04 2 0. V12 P1 P2 V2 + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 + losses 2g γ γ 2g (200 × 10 −3 × 4) / π × 0.07 = X V22 200 × 10 −3 × 4 = X 2g π × 0. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit. cavitation problem limits the pressure level. neglecting losses 197 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q×4 π × D12 = 1600 × 10 −3 × 4 = 2.96 m 0. Z1 = 6 m V22 2. can be reduced to a vary low level.81 Q 2 ∴ X = 0. This may cause ‘‘cavitation’’ if this pressure is below the vapour pressure at that temperature.3 bar. Express it as a function of exit velocity head.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2.405 bar absolute means vacuum at the inlet section of the draft tube.81 2 × 9. where the draft tube is attached. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 (bottom) and 2 (top) and considering the bottom level as datum.07 m 1.405 × 10 5 1.22 LM N OP /2 × 9.04 D2 = V = 2 = A1 0.2 ) + + 5 + losses 2 × 9.81 9810 9810 2 A2 V1 2.7 Water flows at the rate of 200 l/s upwards through a tapered vertical pipe.81 9810 = ∴ −3 2 2 7. Determine the head loss through the pipe. Z2 = 0 (datum). Problem 6.013 × 10 5 + +6= + + 0 ∴ V2 = 0.531 m/s 2 × 9. Loss of head = 0.516.24 2 ) 2 8 × 10 2 + +0 2 × 9. The pressure at the bottom is 8 bar.04 m/s π × 12 P2 = atmospheric pressure. and the pressure at the topside is 7.81 9810 Losses = 1.

8.2 2m 1 h 0.62 m/s 9810 × 0.8 Calculate the flow rate of oil (sp.6 − 1IJ OP 0.196 K QP 0.8 K Q LM1 − FG 0.25 V 2 2 2 1 6.25V1 V12 2 × 105 0. V2 = V1 A = V1 2 A1 F π × 0. h = 0.8 ×105 N/m2 .5 Solving. 0.031 m2.854 m .031IJ OP N NM H 0.6.8 × 10 5 + +0= + + 2 ∴V1 = 2. P. Applying Bernoulli equation (neglecting losses) between points 1 and 2 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2.514 m3/s = 514 l/s 4 Using equation (6.196 m2) Flow rate. 6. Q = A1 V1 = Flow rate.81 b g π × 0.514 = H 0. Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0. gravity.8 Applying continuity equation between points 1 and 2 A1V1 = A2V2.5 /4 I GH π × 0. A1 = 0.81 × hFG 13.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0.2) (with A2 = 0.81 9810 × 0. Also calculate the reading ‘‘h’’ shown by the differential manometer fitted to the pipe line which is filled with mercury of specific gravity 13.198 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.031 2 0. P2 = 0.5 0.5 2 × 2. Z2 = 2 m 2 0.5 2 bar Figure P.8 2 × 9.5 LM2 × 9.2 /4 JK = 6.6. 6.8 2 × 9.8 bar 0.62 = 0. Z1 = 0.8) in the pipe line shown in Fig.

0. The pressure value at locations 1 and 2 are given as 138 kPa and 69 kPa respectively and point 2 is 1.02 m of water column The total energy at all points should be equal if there are no losses.3 j 2 × 9.82 flows in a pipe shown Fig.2m vertically above point 1.10.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 199 Problem 6. determine the direction of flow. Mercury with S = 13. Determine the flow rate. If P1 = P2 = 2 bar absolute.2 m. 2 0.6.10 Problem Model Considering point 1 as a datum and using Bernoulli equation.10 Petrol of relative density 0. Z2 = 1.81 e j 2 + 4 = 25.352 2 × 10 5 + 9810 2 × 9.9 Water flows at the rate of 400 l/s through the pipe with inlet (1) diameter of 35 cm and (2) outlet diameter of 30 cm with 4m level difference with point 1 above point 2. P.81 2 2 + 0 = 22. This result shows that there are losses between 1 and 2 as the total energy at 2 is lower.6 is used as the manometer fluid.4 × 4/π × 0.4 × 4/π × 0. Also calculate the reading of the differential manometer connected as shown.2 m 1 h 0. + 9810 e0. Z1 = 0.38 bar Figure P. Consider datum as plane 2 Total head 1. 2 V12 P1 P2 D1 V2 A + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2. Problem 6.3 m B A 1. V2 = V1 1 = V1 2 2g A2 γ γ 2g D2 F I GH JK ∴ V22 = V12 F D I = 16 V GH D JK 4 1 4 2 2 1 as D1/D2 = 2 Chapter 6 . Hence the flow will take place from points 1 to 2.27 m water column 2 × 10 5 Total head at 2. 6.69 bar 1.15 m 0.

The velocity at point 1 is 6 m/s.74 m/s Using the relation A1 V1 = A2V2.11 Problem model ∴ d = 0.3 2 × 3.12.15 IJ OP N NM H 0.82 × 9810 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F I GH JK + 1. h = 0. indicated by point 1.82 K Q LM1 − FG 0. Problem 6.12 A siphon is shown in Fig P.15 2 /4 4 0.5 Solving. P.82 × 9810 0.2 = 15 V12 .81 × hFG 13.22 m3/s or 180 kg/s 4 The flow rate is given by equation 6.11 Water flows downwards in a pipe as shown in Fig. Point A is 1m above the water level.5 0.74 = 4 4 2 3m Figure P.22 = H 0.5 1 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.2 b138 − 69g10 0.6. determine the diameter of the pipe at point 2.6 . Assuming friction to be negligible. . determine the speed of the jet at outlet and also the pressure at A.2 LM2 ghF S Q= LM F A I OP NM GH S MN1 − GH A JK PQ A2 2 2 0.106 = 0.6. π × 0.3 m Problem 6.82 1 LM2 × 9. 6. S = 0.200 V12 V12 138 × 10 3 69 × 103 + +0= + 16 2 g 2g 0.81 + 3 = γ + 2 g + 0 as P1 = P2.475 m of mercury column v1 = 6 m/s 1 0. V2 = 9. If pressures at points 1 and 2 are to be equal.3 2 × 6 π × d 2 × 9.82 × 9810 ∴ 3 – 1.2355 m. Solving.106 m/s 2g Volume flow = π × 0.3 K QP π × 0.11. The bottom of the siphon is 8m below level A. V1 = 3. 6. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 (taking level 2 as datum) P1 P2 V22 62 γ + 2 × 9.6 − 1IJ OP 0.5 S2 13.

V1 = 0. 2 P1 PA VA +0+0= γ +1+ γ 2g Considering P1/γ = 10.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Using Bernoulli equation. Consider level 1 as datum. As flow is the same. A 1m 201 1 8m 2 Figure P.81 = 11.13 A pipe line is set up to draw water from a reservoir.53 m/s Chapter 6 . The pipe line has to go over a barrier which is above the water level. PA P V2 = 1 – 1 – 2 = 10.3 m of water column (absolute) Problem 6. 6. The velocity of water at the surface is zero.3 m. Atmospheric pressure is 10. Z1 = 8.72 m/s = VA Considering surface 1 and level A. ∴ ∴ 0+0= V2 = V22 –7 2g 7 × 2 × 9. P1 = P3 ∴ 8= V32 2g ∴ V3 = 8 × 9. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure. The outlet is 8 m below water level.12 Problem model P1 P2 V2 V2 + 1 + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 . Z3 = 0.0 m of water to avoid cavitation. Determine the maximum height of the barrier if the pressure at this point should not fall below 1. between 1 and 2.81 × 2 = 12.3 m of water. Considering outlet level 3 as datum and water level as 1 and appyling Bernoulli equation.3 – 1 – 7 γ γ 2g = 2.

Applying Bernoulli equation between point 1 in the upstream and point 2 in the downstream on both sides of the shutter. Using Bernoulli equation 2+ V12 V22 = h2 + 2g 2g (A) (B) Considering unit width from continuity 1 × 2 × V1 = 1 × h2 × V2 ∴ 3 V2 = (2/h2) V1.5V1 V12 + 5= + 2.5 m/s ∴ V2 = h 2 . P2/γ = 1 1 + Z2 = 10. Assume velocities V1 and V2 upstream and downstream of shutter and the datum as the bed level.3 m above water level. 6.3 ∴ Z2 = 9.13 Problem model Considering the barrier top as level 2 P2 P3 V22 V32 γ + 2 g + Z2 = γ + 2 g + Z3.81 2 (1) b g ∴ V1 = 3.15 Uniform flow rate is maintained at a shutter in a wide channel. Q = A1V1 = A2V2 (1 × 5) V1 = (1 × 2) V2.5 V1. Problem 6. As V2 = V3. Q = 16. 2 × 9. Assuming uniform velocity at any section if the flow rate per m length is 3m3/s/m. V12 V22 +5= +2 2g 2g Applying continuity equation. 3 V2 = 2. from flow rate V1 = 3/2 = 1. V2 = 8. Substituting in equation (1). Z3 = 0. 2.202 2 WL 1 h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8m 3 Figure P. Problem 6. flow rate.81 2 × 9.3 m. The water level in the channel upstream of shutter is 2m.742 m3/s. determine the level downstream. The width of the canal is 1m and flow is steady.14 Determine the flow rate of water across the shutter in an open canal if the water level upstream of shutter is 5m and downstream is 2m.35 m/s. Therefore the barrier can be 1. both surface pressures being atmospheric.37 m/s.

56 m/s.16 A pump with centre line 2m above the sump water level develops 50m head of water.81 h × 2 × 9. 2 + 0.54 × V2 × 1 = 2 ×1. The water is delivered through a nozzle of 75 mm dia. – 0.425 m.3125 2g 2g 16 2 g Equating the head developed to the static head. Using B.81 h23 – 2. This may be checked using the calculated velocity values. The loss of head in the suction line is given by 5 Vs2/2g.314 m/s Pressure at suction : Taking datum as the water surface and also the velocity of the water to be zero at the surface. Determine the velocity at the nozzle outlet and the pressure at the pump inlet.57 checks.54 + 1.54 m is the acceptable answer. 2m being trivial.54 m h2 = 0.109] ∴ Velocity at the nozzle Vn = 8.1147 h22 + 0. Chapter 6 . ∴ V2 = 5. The suction pipe is of 150 mm ID. The delivery is at 30m above the pump centre line.797 + 0.797 2g 2g Loss in suction pipe = 2 2 Vs2 Vn 5 Vn = = 0. The delivery line is of 100 mm dia and the loss in the line is 12 Vd2/2g.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Substituting 2+ 203 1.52 32 = h2 + 2 2 × 9.4587 = 0 Simplifying. Problem 6. Let the velocity at the nozzle be Vn Velocity in the delivery pipe = Vd = Vn × 75 2 100 2 2 = Vn 4 9 V 16 n Velocity in suction pipe Vs= Vn 2 Vn 2g FG 75 IJ H 150 K = Kinetic head at outlet = Loss in delivery pipe = 2 Vd 9 = 12 × 2g 16 FG IJ H K 2 2 2 Vn Vn = 3. 0. this reduces to Solving. The difference between the dynamic head values will equal the difference between the datum heads. h2 can be 2 m.5 = 3. 0.81 = Vn2 [5. check using A.3125] 2g 18 × 2 × 9.1147 = 0. losses and kinetic head. 50 = 30 + 2 + 2 Vn [1 + 3.

Pressure is assumed to be uniform all over the trejectory as it is exposed to atmosphere all along its travel. Z. during time t. 2 Vxo 2 Vxo g g2 2 1 Vzo V 2 sin 2 θ = 0 .314/4g I GH 2 × 9.17 Bernoulli equation shows that Zt + Vt2/2g = constant along the rejectory. loss 5V2/2g 10.204 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P1 as atmospheric. ∴ Xmas = 2 times x as Zmax.321 m below atmospheric pressure. (using the second law of Newton) Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The distance travelled along x direction X = Vxo t or t = X/Vxo Solving for t from B and substituting in A. Zmax = Vo2 sin2 θ/2g 2 g 2g = (D) The maximum height is achieved when θ = 90°. Zmax = ∴ X = VzoVxo/g 2 2 Vzo VzoVxo 1 g VzoVxo .3 – 3.17 A liquid jet at a velocity V0 is projected at angle θ.321 m = 6. Xmax = 2Vo2 sin θ cos θ /g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g (E) Maximum horizontal reach is at θ = 45° or 2θ = 90° and for this angle it will reach half the vertical height.3 m of water column. 2 dx 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in C. distance travelled. Kinetic head V2/2g. The horizontal component of the velocity of jet is Vxo = V o cos θ. Also calculate the maximum height and the horizontal distance travelled.3 = P2 +2+ γ F b8. Vt is the velocity at that location when air drag is neglected.6. P. 10. The vertical component Vzo = Vo sin θ.979 m absolute 3. – . Z= Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo gX Vzo = 2 Vxo Vxo (A) (B) (C) Z value can be maximised by taking dz/dx and equating to zero dz 1 g V = zo – 2X. Hence .81 JK × (5 + 1) 2 (as Vs = Vn/4) ∴ or P2 γ = 10. Describe the path of the free jet. Problem 6. This describes an inverted parabola as shown in Fig. In the vertical direction.

18 A jet issuing at a velocity of 20 m/s is directed at 30° to the horizontal. P. Z25 = (A) 10 1 9. where a = – g.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Zt + Vt2 /2g = constant for the jet.81 Maximum height of the jet trajectory = Corresponding horizontal distance = 17. Substituting for t as X/Vxo with X = 25 m Chapter 6 Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo Z= Height cleared. Calculate the height cleared by the jet at 25m from the discharge location? Also determine the maximum height the jet will clear and the corresponding horizontal location.215 m 17.66 m 9.097 m 2g 2 × 9.32 2 17. Vzo = Vo sin 30 = 20 sin 30 = 10 m/s.32 m It would have crossed this height also at 10.17 Jet trejectory Problem 6.32 × 10 Vxo Vzo = = 17. 6.32 m/s. becomes zero and then turns – ve) Total head = Energy grade line Vx0 2g 2 2 Jet path V0 2g 2 Vx0 V 2g Vx = Vx0 = constant Vz = Vz0 – gt Vz0 V0 sin q 0 q V0 Zmax = Vx0 = V0 cos q Vx0 Vz0 g X 2 Vz 0 2g P Z Figure P. so the velocity decreases. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2.81 × 25 – × 252 = 4.17 Vxo = Vo cos 30 = 20 cos 30 = 17. .32 2 2 Vzo 10 2 = = 5. at time t.81 g Total horizontal distance is twice the distance travelled in reaching Zmax = 35. Ref Fig. 6.43 m from the starting point (check using equations derived in Problem 6.17). 205 (Note: Velocity at time t = Vzo t = V0 sin θ + a × t. X = Vxot.

Maximum height reached = Vzo2/2g = (Vo sin 40)2/2g = (17.61 × sin 40)2 /2 × 9. By symmetry. 6= 1 g Vzo X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo X .612 cos 2 40 2 When both Z and X are specified unique solution is obtained. X = Vxo t. The jet would have cleared this height at a distance less than 15. two values of X is obtained from equation A.61 m/s.53 m The X value corresponding to this is. Vzo = Vo sin 40.81 × 20 2 × 20 − × 2 Vo cos 40 2 Vo cos 2 40 1 9. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The vertical velocity at any location/time is given by.56 m also. referring to Fig.56 m.81 × 20 2 = 310 ∴ Vo = 17.17. Vxo Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 (A) Vo sin 40 1 9. This shows that the jet clears 6m height at a distance of 20 m as it comes down.12 1 × =6 2 17. Refer Problem 6.81 = 15.56) + 15. Given Vo and Z. t = Substituting for t as X/Vxo Z= Substituting the values.20 Determine the angle at which a jet with a given velocity is to be projected for obtaining maximum horizontal reach. From basics. X = Vxo t.206 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. 11. 6.612 sin 40 cos 40/9.81 × 20 2 2 Vo 2 cos 2 40 6 = 20 tan 40 – ∴ Vo2 = (B) 2 cos 2 40(20 tan 40 − 6) 9. Problem 6. this can be calculated as – (20 – 15.12 tan 40 – 9.12 m check by substituting in equation B. Also determine the maximum height this jet will clear and the total horizontal travel.56 = 11.81 = 6.19 Determine the velocity of a jet directed at 40° to the horizontal to clear 6 m height at a distance of 20m. Vzt = dz = Vzo – gt dt . (half total horizontal travel) X = VxoVzo/g = 17. P. What will be the horizontal distance at which the jet will be again at 6m height. Vxo = Vo cos 40.81 × 11.17.

The maximum reach. Z= 2 1 gx 2 Vo sin θ 1 gx 2 x– = x tan θ – 2 (sec θ) 2 Vo 2 cos 2 θ Vo cos θ 2 Vo Z = x tan θ – 1 gx 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 Vo 2 Substituting the given values.21 Jet trejectory Refer Problem 6.155 tan θ + 4. tan2 θ – 8. P.21.3°.Bernoulli Equations and Applications The horizontal distance travelled will be half the total distance travelled when Vzt = 0 or t = Vzo/g Total X distance travelled during time 2t. In the second case it clears the height during the rise. See Fig. In the first case it clears the height during the fall. eqn.5613 This corresponds to θ = 82.5° or 29. 207 Problem 6. For maximum horizontal reach.5° 29.594 or 0.81 × 10 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 20 2 Z= Vzo 1 gx 2 x– 2 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in terms of Vo and θ. the projected angle should be 45°.21 Determined the angle at which a jet with an initial velocity of 20 m/s is to be projected to clear 4m height at a distance of 10 m. 6. Fall Rise 82. X = 2 Vxo Vzo/g = 2 Vo2 cos θ sin θ/g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g For X to be maximum sin 2θ should be maximum or 2θ = 90° or θ = 45°.6. solving tan θ = 7. X = Vo2/g as sin 2θ = 1. 4 = 10 tan θ – Hence. . C Chapter 6 1 9.3° 4m 10 m Figure P.262 = 0.17.

reaches a maximum height of 20 m. 2 gH1 g 2 gy1 = 2 gH2 g 2 gy2 ∴ H1 y1 = H2 y2 Problem 6. and simplifying. WL H1 H2 B A y1 y2 X GL Figure P. Assuming the jet remains circular determine the flow rate and area of jet at 10 m height. Referring to Problem 6. Both reach the same point at the ground level of the tank.208 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. 2g . y2 = 2 gy2 (A) (Vzo1 and Vzo2 are the Z components at point where the jet touches the ground) Xmax = Vxo1 = VzoVxo Vzo 1Vxo 1 Vzo2 Vxo2 and so = g g g 2 gH 1 . eqn. Show that H1y1 = H2y2. (D) Zmax = Vzo12 Vzo 2 . Vxo2 = 2 gH 2 (B) (C) Substituting results (A) and (C) in equation (B).22 Problem model In this case the jets issue out at A and B horizontally and so the position can be taken as the Zmax position. Bernoulli equation reduces to V2 = 20.17. 6.22 From a water tank two identical jets issue at distances H1 and H2 from the water level at the top.23 A jet of water initially 12 cm dia when directed vertically upwards. y1 = 2g 2g V 2 zo2 2g or Vzo2 = or Vzo1 = 2 gy1 Similarly. If the distance from the ground level to the jet levels are y1 and y2. As V = 0 at a height of 20 m.

Z2 = Z1 – 10 = (20 – 10) = 10 20 = 10 + ∴ V 2 20 2g ∴ V2 2 = 10.81 × 2)0.12 2 × 19.81)0. Determine the flow rate.224 m3/s 4 209 When the jet reaches 10 m height.9 l/s.24 Water is discharged through a 150 mm dia pipe fitted to the bottom of a tank.0739 m3/s = 73. Flow rate = Considering point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the orifice entrance.Bernoulli Equations and Applications ∴ V = (20 × 9. Applying Bernoulli equation between the water level.224 = π × D2 × 14 ∴ D = 0. Assume the frictional loss as 4.1427 m 4 Problem 6. the loss in kinetic energy is equal to the increase in potential energy. 1 and the bottom of the pipe. 0.5 bar. Consider this as level 2 and the maximum height as level 1 and ground as datum.18 m/s Chapter 6 h0 h d π × 0.809 = 0.18 = 0.5 = 19. V1 = 0. 4 Problem 6. 2 and this level as datum P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + losses 2g 2g γ γ 0 + 0 + 10 = Solving. 6.15 2 × 4.25 An open tank of diameter D containing water to depth ho is emptied by a smooth orifice at the bottom.5 × 10 5 V2 2 + + 0 + 4.5 = 14 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity.81 V2 = 4. P1 = P2.5 2 × 9.25 Problem model . A pressure gauge fitted at the bottom of the pipe which is 10 m below the water level shows 0. Also find the time tmax for emptying – dh the tank.81 9810 2 × 9. and point 2 as datum D V12 V2 Patm + + h = 2 + patm 2g 2g ∴ Also V2 V12 +h= 2g g 2 V12 = V22 2 LM d OP N DQ 4 Figure P. 2g V2 = (10 × 2 × 9. V2 2 0.809 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity = π × 0. Derive an expression for the time taken to reduce the height to h.5V22/2g.

The drop in level dh during time dt is given by (as dh is negative with reference to datum) V A dh d =− 2 2 =− dt A1 D 2 FG IJ H K 2 2 gh 1− FG d IJ H DK 4 Taking FG d IJ H DK inside and rearranging dh =− dt 2 gh FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK 4 4 −1 Separating variables and integrating z 2 h ho dh =− h 2g 4 . Time for emptying is calculated as h = 0.t z t 0 dt ho − h = 2g −1 (A) t = 2 ( ho − h ) / Equation (A) can be rearranged to give 2g g/2 = ho − h / FG D IJ H dK 2 o 4 −1 FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 (B) LM OP t g/2 h P h M = M1 − h MM FG DIJ − 1 PPP N H dK Q 0 4 (C) Equation (B) will be useful to find the drop in head during a given time interval.025 m.210 ∴ V2 = 2 gh 1 − ( d/ D) 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let the level at the time considered be h.5 m. d = 0. Consider a numerical problem. −1 . g/2 t= ho / FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 . Let D = 0.5 m. ho = 0.

5 K 2 . 2 × 9.26 Two identical jets issuing from a touch as shown in figure reach the ground at a distance of 10 m. Consider top jet: x distance travelled in time t is 10 m.5 IJ H 0.81/ 2 × 0. The same answer because the same diameter of the orifice is used.0471) = 0. t.025 K 4 − 1 = 127. Problem 6.71 s.7 seconds. LM OP 100 9. ∴ Vxo1t = 10 t = 10/Vxo1 The height drop is as Vzo as start is zero.5 P h M = M1 − P h MM FG 0. ∴ Vzo1t = H = (A) 1 2 gt 2 (B) .81 .025 IJ 0.5 (1 – 0. then time for employing is 1130 sec.25K N Q o 4 2 = 0.5 / FG 0. Determine the distances indicated as h and H. then V2 = 2 gh when head is h m dh AV =− 2 2 =–V d 2 dt A1 D FG IJ H K t 0 2 =− FG d IJ H DK 2 .4764 m In case d << D.5 IJ − 1 PP H 0. Say d = 0.0471 ∴ Drop in head = 0. Chapter 6 t = 127. To find the drop in level in say 100 seconds.01 m.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 9. 2 Solving F 0.5 = G H 0. 2 gh Separating variables and integrating z h dh ho 2 [ ho – FG d IJ H DK h F dI h] = G J H DK =– 2 2g .81 / 2 211 = 0. t z dt 2 In this case to empty the tank. 2g .

25 Hence this condition is also satisfied. This leads to 4+h h2 – 2. is present. (4 + h) g × 2 4+h 25 .25 m. 10 .25 × 4 = 4 × 6.25h = 0. As in the previous case Vzoc = 0 at start H–h= H–h= 1 2 gt .22.25 m. Substituting 2 50 g 1 1Vo g = 2 2 Vxo2 Vxo2 2 (D) As at start only Vxo2 is present. 8g = Vxo2 t = 10. as H = 6. H × 4 = (H – h) (4 + h).212 Z Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4m 1 h H 2 3 10 m x Figure P. or h = 2. Vxo22 = (4 + h) g × 2 Substituting in (D) H–h= 6. It may be also noted from problem 6. Substituting.25 m. 6. .25 – h = 50 g 25 = .26 Problem model Substituting for t H= 1 100 g 2 Vxo2 ∴ V2xo = 50 g H (C) (as head available in 4 m) As jet issues from the nozzle it has any x directional velocity Vxo1. V2xo1 = 2 g4 = 8g 50 g H Considering the second jet. Vxo2 The head drop in (H – h) m. t = or H = 6. 6.

4. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression – ––––––––––––––––. 11. Draft tube ––––––––––––––––– the available head in the case of reaction turbines. The kinetic energy in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression –––––––––––––––––. internal energy is rarely considered because ––––– ––––––––––––. 11. (5) Z. 6. If a pump supplies energy to the flow the energy line ––––––––––––––––– . 4.go where γ is specific weight. 9. Electrical and magnetic energy become important in the flow of –––––––––––––––––. 3. Fill in the blanks: 1. 6. . Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element is given in head of fluid by the expression ––– ––––––––––––––. Eulers equation is applicable for flow along a –––––––––––––––––. (8) increases (9) will be horizontal parallel to the flow (10) pressure and potential head (11) will increase by a step (12) dip. Hydraulic grade line represents the sum of ––––––––––––––––– along the flow.Bernoulli Equations and Applications OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. 12. Potential energy of a fluid element in head of fluid is given by –––––––––––––––––. In the analysis of incompressible fluid flow. Chapter 6 3. 8. 8. Energy line along the flow ––––––––––––––––– if there are no losses. The pressure along the diverging section of a venturi –––––––––––––––––. V2/2g. Bernoulli equation is applicable for flows which are –––––––––––––––––. 10. 7. O Q. pressure head and potential head (5) decreases (6) increases (7) goes below the vapour pressure of the fluid at that temperature. Kinetic energy of fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––.1. 6. 7. 9. Answers (1) motion (2) where V is the velocity (3) V2/2go where go is the force conversion constant having a unit of m kg/Ns2 (4) location in the gravitational field. exhibited by the temperature (10) temperature change is generally negligible (11) plasma. If there are frictional losses the energy grade line will ––––––––––––––––– . 10. 6. Answers (1) stream line (2) incompressible. (8) P/ρ (9) the microscopic activity of atoms/molecules of the matter. Potential energy of a fluid element in Nm/kg is given by –––––––––––––––––. 5. steady and irrotational (3) remains constant if there are no irreversibilities (4) dynamic head. 213 2. 5. Z being elevation (7) (P/ρ) (go/g) = p/γ. Cavitation will occur when the pressure at a point –––––––––––––––––. Fill in the blanks: 1. the elevation from datum (6) Zg/go. 2.2. The amount of kinetic energy per kg is given by the expression ––––––––––––––––– the unit used being head of fluid. Total head in a steady incompressible irrotational flow is the sum of –––––––––––––––––. Potential energy of a fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. Bernoulli equation states that the total head –––––––––––––––––. Internal energy is due to ––––––––––––––––. In steady flow along a horizontal level as the velocity increases the pressure ––––––––––––––.

3. Choose the correct answer: 1. Answers Correct – 1. 9. In a steady flow along a stream line at a location in the flow. 8. 6. the flow will be independent of the position or flow direction. If velocity increases. 12 O Q. 5. 6. In steady flow in a varying section pipe if the diameter is doubled the kinetic energy will . 4. When a pump supplies energy to a flow stream. 7. 10. the potential head is 4 m. If the differential manometer reading connected to a venturimeter is the same. 11. Bernoulli equation is applicable for (a) steady rotational flow (b) steady rotational compressible flow (c) steady irrotational incompressible flow (d) unsteady irrotational incompressible flow (b) the initial velocity only (d) the angle of projection and initial velocity. 6. 3. the pressure head is 3 m. 6. the energy line will decreases by a step. (b) increase 4 times (d) decrease to one sixteenth. as the diameter is doubled. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the total head. 11 Incorrect – 2. the flow rate will be larger if flow is downwards. the velocity will (a) be halved (c) increase four fold (a) be doubled (c) increase 8 times (b) be doubled (d) decrease four fold. 4. 10. 8. 3. Flow will take place along energy gradient. For the same reading of the differential manometer connected to a vertical venturimeter. the velocity head is 6 m.214 O Q. In a flow along a varying flow cross section. A pitot probe connected perpendicular to flow will indicate the total head. 5. 6. 12. 3. The height of hydraulic gradient line at this location will be (a) 13 m (b) 9 m (c) 10 m (d) 7 m 4. 7. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. For ideal flows the energy line will slope upward along the flow. the hydraulic grade line will dip along the flow direction. Energy line along the direction of flow will dip if there are losses. as the area decreases (a) the energy line will slope up (b) the hydraulic gradient line will slope up (c) the hydraulic gradient line will slope down (d) the energy line will slope down. 5. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the dynamic head. In a steady flow of incompressible fluid. A pitot-static tube has probes both facing the flow and perpendicular to flow. 9. Flow will take place along hydraulic gradient. For a free jet the maximum horizontal reach will depend on (a) the angle of projection only (c) the fluid flowing in the jet 2. (e) all flows. 2.4. Indicate whether the statement is correct or incorrect.

Set B (a) plasma flow (b) temperature (c) position (d) velocity.1.854 N/m2.1 m at the top over a length of 2 m. the pressure along flow direction will (a) remain constant (c) increase (b) decrease (d) increase or decrease depending on the fluid.6) is used to measure the pressure.201m) Chapter 6 . Set A 1. 2d. Bernoulli equation 2. determine the reading of the manometer difference in m of mercury. Answers (1) d (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) d (6) d (7) c (8) b (9) b.84 flows through the pipe.5. Eulers equation 4. Set A 1. neglecting losses. Continuity equation 3. Match the sets 1. O Q. 6. (36. Oil of specific gravity 0. 3b. In a vertical flow of incompressible fluid along a constant pipe section under steady conditions. If a mercury manometer (specific gravity 13. 0. Determine the pressure difference between the ends. 4a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 6. At the lower end the average velocity is 2m/s. 3b. the kinetic energy along the radius will vary (constant thickness of fluid along radius) (a) proportional to radius (b) directly proportional to the square root of radius (c) inversely proportional to the square of radius (d) proportional to the fourth power of radius 8. In a source type of flow. Answers (1) 1c. 9. electrical energy Set B (a) potential function (b) stream line (c) total head (d) conservation of mass. The flow will be (a) highest if the pipe is horizontal (b) independent of the slope of pipe and direction of flow (c) highest if flow is downwards (d) will depend on the fluid. kinetic energy 3. potential energy 2. internal energy 4. Laplace equation 2. 4a (2) 1c. The differential manometer connected to two points along a pipe line gives a reading of h m. 2d.2 m dia to 0. A pipe inclined at 45° to the horizontal converges from 0. Oil fills the limbs over mercury in the manometer.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 215 7.

A pipe line is 36 m above datum.4 E 6.15 m dia. The suction pipe of a pump slopes at 1 m vertical for 5 m length.14 bar) E 6. 6.225 = 19. is 8.33 m.13 m/s) E 6. Determine the pressure at the location.3.216 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 6. Calculate the flow rate.3%. The length is 300 m. Pfork = 13.4. (84.5.12. Neglect losses. V=? 3m 3 m/s 2.8 m) E 6.2 m to 0.15 = 16. directs a water jet vertically with a velocity of 12 m/s.15 = 8.45 m at the start. 17. (35. Neglect losses. After some distance the diameter of reduces to 0. E. The pressure and velocity at a section are 410 kN/m2 and 4.1 m/s. determine the maximum length.73 bar) E 6. Determine the total energy per kg with reference to the datum. Determine the efficiency and power that can be developed if the nozzle diameter is 75mm. The diameter reduces from 1. 5.8 m/s. 100 mm) .10.25 mm.2.2 bar and the flow rate at this section is 7. what will be the diameter? Neglect losses.15 m and 0.6. A nozzle of 25 mm dia. (47. The supply head to a water nozzle is 30 m gauge.9.225 m dia is 3. The flow rate is 0. (ii) If the drop in pressure is 5 kN/m2.4 and 0.2 m Supply 1.05 m/s. P0. If the flow velocity in the pipe is 1. At one section the diameter is 150 mm and flow velocity is 1. (0. The velocity of water leaving the nozzle is 22.8 m/s. The pressure at the upper location is 0.8 m V=? Figure E. Determine the pressure at the lower location.6 m. A Utube mercury manometer shows a head 0. (2) the loss in head due to friction. A horizontal pipe carrying water is gradually tapering. 6.104 bar at a reduced section determine the diameter at the section.2 kW) E 6.9 flows through a venturimeter of diameters 0. Oil flows through a horizontal pipe will line which has a diameter of 0.3 m and the levels rises by 3 m above the entrance. The pressure at the entry to the pipe line of 0. Calculate (1) the power of the jet.3 m at which point the flow divides into pipes of 0. (774. The velocity in the pipe line of 0.11. 6.8 bar. The velocity at the beginning is 1. Oil of specific gravity of 0.63 m.5 m3/min.5 m) E. The flow rate of water is 5500 l/min. Water flows from a reservoir 240 m above the tip of a nozzle. (8.225 m diameter. Determine the diameter of the jet and the velocity at a height of 6 m.13 m3/s.821 m. The velocity at the nozzle outlet is 66 m/s. (38. (V at fork = 4.7 Nm.6 m/s.5 m/s. If the pressure at the start is 20 m head of oil and the specific gravity of the oil is 0.2 m. P0.5 m/s.4.8. V0. (283. The pipe diameter gradually increases to 0. 25. Water flows in the middle floor tap at 3 m/s. Determine the velocities at the taps in the other two floors shown in Fig.6 mm.98 m) E 6.105 m3/s) E 6.7.8 m/s and if the pressure in the pipe should not fall by more than 7 m of water. A tapering pipe is laid at a gradient of 1 in 100 downwards.14 kW. (0.91 determine the pressure at the fork and also at the end of the two branch pipes. (i) If the drop in pressure is 1.kg) E 6.

E. E. E. (4. determine the height to which the jet will rise.17.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 217 E 6.0 430 mm Figure E. 35 mm 450 mm 600 mm 105 mm S = 0. (8 m. The arrangement is shown in Fig.18 E 6. issuing at 18. In the setup of siphon for water flow. (18 m. Determine the flow rate and also the pressure at point 2 in the siphon shown in Fig. 9 m. Calculate the flow rate and pressure at point 2. Also find the horizontal distance travelled in this case. (43 l/min. 6.15.8 m 1 1m 1 hm 3.13.5 cm.7 m/s. A siphon is used to draw water from a tank. 45. shown in Fig. The diameter of a water jet at nozzle exist is 75 mm. The frictional loss equals 40 V2/2g. Diameter of the pipe is 2.83 S = 1.13 m of water) Chapter 6 . E. Determine the issuing velocity of the jet. when the jet is directed vertically. If the diameter at a height of 12 m is 98.6 m 2 3 3 Figure E. determine the value of ‘h’ and also the pressure at point 2. 22. 6. 1. Determine the flow rate of a fluid of specific gravity 0. 6. 6.83 upward in the set up as shown in Fig.9 m/s) E 6.2 l/s.2 m of water. 6. Calculate the height to which the jet.19. 9 m) E 6. 6.7mm.8 m/s will rise when (i) The jet is directed vertically (ii) when it is directed at 45°. Atmospheric pressure is 10.17 Figure E. (18 m) E 6. if velocity at 3 was 11. (16. 6.14.16.18.18. A jet directed at 30° reaches a maximum height of 3 m at a horizontal distance of 18 m.17.19.1 kPa ab) 2 1.16 E 6.16.8 kPa ab) E 6.

E 6. determine the flow rate in the setup shown in Fig.25.5 m 2. determine the flow rate of water.24 m /s 3 150 540 mm mm 150 mm 300 mm 300 mm 45° 0.20 E 6. For the venturimeter shown in Fig.5 m 1 f 25 mm Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.20. Assume that these are no losses. 6. 70 k Pa Air 200 mm 60° 0. E.22. 6. 6.24 Figure E. y 0.3 m f 10 mm Figure E. 6.36 m /s 3 Figure E. E 6.22 E 6.25 . A horizontal pipe divides into two pipes at angles as shown in Fig. 6. E. Determine the possible values of depth of water down stream. E. The initial radius is R and the head of fluid is H. 6.23.5 m WL 1. E.75 Water 1.21.21 Determine the possible depth of water upstream.5 m 9. Neglect losses.218 2 7.5 m y1 y 3m 3 Figure E.19 Figure E. E 6. E. Derive an expression for the variation of jet radius r with distance y downwards for a jet directed downwards. Water flows through a channel as shown in Fig.22. Neglecting losses.21 Figure E.25.86 m/s 1m Oil S = 0. 6.3 m 5 m/s 1.20. Water flows up an inclined duct as shown in Fig. Determine the necessary forces along and perpendicular to the pipe to hold it in place. 6. 6.24. Assume uniform velocity of 5 m/s upstream. E 6. 6. 6.24.

Such flow is encountered with very viscous fluids. 219 . At any location the velocity varies about a mean value. modified Bernoulli equation is applicable in these flows. The basic laws involved in the study of incompressible flow are (i) Law of conservation of mass and (ii) Newton’s laws of motion. The momentum transfer and consequent shear induced is at the molecular level by pure diffusion. The losses due to wall friction in flows was not discussed. In this chapter the determination of drop in pressure in pipe flow systems due to friction is attempted. It is found necessary to design the pipe system to carry a specified quantity of fluid between specified locations with minimum pressure loss. Pressure drop for a given flow rate through a duct for a specified fluid is the main quantity to be calculated. It is also necessary to consider the initial cost of the piping system. The flow may be laminar with fluid flowing in an orderly way. The inverse-namely the quantity flow for a specified pressure drop is to be also worked out on occasions. the energy level changes along the flow was discussed.% 7. Air flow and water flow in pipes are generally turbulent. The flow turns turbulent under certain conditions with macroscopic mixing of fluid layers in the flow. Laminar condition prevails upto a certain velocity in fluids flowing in pipes. The flow is controlled by (i) pressure gradient (ii) the pipe diameter or hydraulic mean diameter (iii) the fluid properties like viscosity and density and (iv) the pipe roughness. Blood flow through the arteries and veins is generally laminar. Besides these laws. The velocity distribution in the flow and the state of the flow namely laminar or turbulent also influence the design. Fluids are conveyed (transported) through closed conduits in numerous industrial processes.0 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN THE STUDY OF FLOW THROUGH CLOSED CONDUITS In the previous chapter. with layers not mixing macroscopically.

220 7. The fluid beyond this layer is not affected by the presence of the surface. The boundary conditions are (i) at the wall surface. Use of the concept is that the main analysis can be limited to this layer. The viscous forces predominate over inertia forces.1.1. This slowing down is found limited to a thin layer near the surface. Small disturbances are damped out.1. y Uµ uµ Leading edge dt uµ u dL u Laminar X Transition Turbulent Figure 7.1 Boundary Layer Development (flat-plate) 7. The flow initially is laminar.1. The velocity of flow in this layer increases from zero at the surface to free stream velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. Velocity gradient exists only in the boundary layer. the molecules near the surface are brought to rest due to the viscosity of the fluid. The fluid layer near the surface in which there is a general slowing down is defined as boundary layer. Beyond a certain distance. The thickness of the boundary layer increases due to the continuous retardation of flow. Beyond this point. At the plane of entry (leading edge) the velocity is uniform and equals free stream velocity.1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery BOUNDARY LAYER CONCEPT IN THE STUDY OF FLUID FLOW When fluids flow over surfaces. Momentum transfer is at the molecular level. The study thus involves mainly the study of the boundary layer. 7. Pressure drop in fluid flow is to overcome the viscous shear force which depends on the velocity gradient at the surface. (zero thickness) the velocity is zero. There is no intermingling of layers. The development of the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate and the velocity distribution in the layer are shown in Fig. but to a lower and lower extent.2 BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT OVER A FLAT PLATE The situation when a uniform flow meets with a plane surface parallel to the flow is shown in Fig.1. the fluid near the surface comes to rest and adjacent layers are retarded to a larger and larger depth as the flow proceeds. (ii) at full thickness the velocity equals the free stream velocity (iii) The velocity gradient is zero at the full thickness. 7. The adjacent layers also slow down. the flow in the boundary layer becomes . mainly by diffusion.

the boundary layers merge and further changes in velocity distribution becomes impossible. The flow beyond is said to be fully developed.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 221 turbulent with macroscopic mixing of layers.1a. In the turbulent region momentum transfer and consequently the shear forces increase at a more rapid rate. This change occurs at a value of Reynolds number (given Re = ux/v.1 Boundary layer development (pipe flow) whom the dimensionless ratio of inertia to viscous forces is named. Inertia forces become predominant.3.3 DEVELOPMENT OF BOUNDARY LAYER IN CLOSED CONDUITS (PIPES) In this case the boundary layer develops all over the circumference. As long as the diameter Chapter 7 u . The Reynolds number is calculated on the basis of diameter (ud/v). where v is the kinematic viscosity) of about 5 × 105 in the case of flow over flat plates. In pipe flow it is not a function of length.04 Re × D. The distance upto this point is known as entry length. The initial development of the boundary layer is similar to that over the flat plate. The velocity profile beyond this point remains unchanged. The laminar or turbulent nature of the flow was first investigated by Osborn Reynolds in honour of Turbulent flow um u 2 um u u Laminar flow Entry region (a) Laminar flow um Fully developed flow Laminar sublayer Entrance region (b) Turbulent flow Fully developed Figure 7. At some distance from the entrance. The flow was observed to be laminar till a Reynolds number value of about 2300. 7. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia and viscous forces. It is about 0. The velocity profiles in the entry region and fully developed region are shown in Fig.3. 7.

The entry length in turbulent flow is about 10 to 60 times the diameter. The dye path is shown in Fig. Most of the air and water flow in conduits will be turbulent. Laminar flow will be maintained till the value of Reynolds number is less than of the critical value (2300 in conduits and 5 × 105 in flow over plates).4. In this case. the dye will travel along a straight line. f = 0. x. the Reynolds number depends on the velocity for a given flow. In this region the viscous forces are able to damp out any disturbance. Pipe Dye path Dye Figure 7.4. The development of boundary layer in the turbulent range is shown in Fig.2) . 7. Turbulence leads to higher frictional losses leading to higher pressure drop. the average velocity is used to calculate Reynolds number. The friction factor. there is a very short length in which the flow is laminar. The velocity profile in the fully developed flow remains constant and is generally more flat compared to laminar flow in which it is parabolic.222 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery is constant. 7.1b. f for pipe flow defined as 4τs/(ρu2/2go) is obtainable as f = 64/Re where τs is the wall shear stress. After this length the flow in the boundary layer turns turbulent. u is the average velocity and Re is the Reynolds number. The friction factor is given by the following empirical relations.25 f= 0.316/Re0.4. After some length the boundary layers merge and the flow becomes fully developed. Hence the value of velocity determines the nature of flow in pipes for a given fluid. A very thin laminar sublayer near the wall in which the velocity gradient is linear is present all through.4 FEATURES OF LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS In laminar region the flow is smooth and regular.4. This length. 7. If a dye is injected into the flow. In the case of flow through pipes.1. A dye injected into the flow will quickly mix with the fluid.186/Re0.2 for Re < 2 × 104 for Re > 2 × 104 (7.1 Reynolds Experiment In turbulent flow there is considerable mixing between layers.1) (7. can be calculated using the relation ux/v = 2000. The fluid layers do not mix macroscopically (more than a molecule at a time). The value of the flow Reynolds number is decided by the diameter and the velocity and hence it is decided at the entry itself.3.

Here the inertial forces are predominant. is given by f = 1.5 HYDRAULICALLY “ROUGH” AND “SMOOTH” PIPES In turbulent flow. So the pipe is hydraulically smooth. 7.1) If the roughness height is ε and if δ1 > 6ε. then the pipe is considered as hydraulically smooth.9}]2 (7.5. For flow in pipes the surface area is not a direct function of the flow. a thin layer near the surface is found to be laminar. The surface area is proportional to the perimeter.6.e.4. Hence the pipe is hydraulically rough.325/[ln {(ε/3. The flow is a direct function of the sectional area which is proportional to the square of a length parameter.6. the hydraulic diameter which determines the flow characteristics is defined by equation 7. the flow may turn turbulent below the critical Reynolds number itself. If δl < 6ε. the laminar nature of flow near the surface is an acceptable assumption. i. Dh = 4A/P (7. This definition is applicable for any cross section. A is the area of flow and P is the perimeter of the section. The thickness of the layer δl is estimated as δl = 32.. So the disturbance due to the roughness cannot be damped out. So for a given section.1) Chapter 7 where Dh is the hydraulic diameter. Any disturbance caused by the roughness is within the laminar layer and is smoothed out by the viscous forces. For flow through ducts the length parameter in Reynolds number is the hydraulic diameter.3) 7. similarity in flow through pipes will exist if Reynolds numbers are equal.1 In model testing. The friction factor in rough pipe of diameter D.2) Example 7.6. Re = Dh × u/v (7. For circular section Dh = D. then the pipe is said to be hydraulically rough.7D) + 5. with a roughness height of ε. as the equals (4πD2/4πD). Discuss how the factors can be adjusted to obtain equal Reynolds numbers. In rough pipes. Reynolds number is defined as Re = uDρ/µ.6 CONCEPT OF “HYDRAULIC DIAMETER”: (Dh) The frictional force is observed to depend on the area of contact between the fluid and the surface.8v/u f (7. It may be noted that the relative value of the roughness determines whether the surface is hydraulically rough or smooth. The disturbance now extends beyond the laminar layer.74/Re0.1 and is used in the calculation of Reynolds number. For two different flows u1 D1 ρ1 u D ρ u D u D = 2 2 2 or 1 1 = 2 2 µ1 µ2 v1 v2 .Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 223 These expressions apply for smooth pipes. As no fluid can flow up from the surface causing mixing.

006 × 10 − 6 Velocity of water × diameter in water flow = Velocity of air × diameter of air flow 15. Consider an annular element of fluid in the flow as shown in Fig. dr P P + dp r tr tr + dr dx umax = 2 um P + dp R Laminar dr r P R (a) (b) Turbulent Figure 7.1 . So Reynolds number in a given pipe and fluid can be increased by increasing mass velocity. For experiments generally both are altered by smaller ratios to keep u × D constant. Surface area = 2πrdx Assuming steady fully developed flow. the velocity at the wall is zero due to viscosity and the value increases as the centre is approached.7 VELOCITY VARIATION WITH RADIUS FOR FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES In pipe flow. outside radius = r + dr. length = dx. the velocity being a function of radius only. It will vary inversely with the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.7. Reynolds number can be expressed also by Re = G.D/µ where G is the mass velocity in kg /m2s. Reynolds number will increase directly as the velocity. 7. and using the relationship for force balance. If velocities should be the same.7. The variation if established will provide the flow rate as well as an average velocity. For example if flow similarity between water and air is to be achieved at 20 °C then (using v values in eqn. 7. diameter and density.1a.224 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As the kinematic viscosities v1 and v2 are fluid properties and cannot be changed easily (except by changing the temperature) the situation is achieved by manipulating u2 D2 and u1 D1 v2 u D = 2 2 v1 u1 D1 (A) this condition should be satisfied for flow similarity in ducts. the air velocity should be about 15 times the velocity of water for flow similarity. The dimensions are: inside radius = r. the diameter should be 15 times that for water. A) 1.06 × 10− 6 If diameters are the same.

2).7. at r = 0 ∴ C = 0 = dr µ dx 2 1 dp r 2 +B µ dx 4 1 dp R2 µ dx 4 r 1 dp R 2 1− µ dx 4 R Integrating again and after simplification.7. ∴ u umax =1– FG r IJ H RK 2 (7.3. we get 7. u = 0 (at the wall) ∴ B=– ∴ u= – LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 (7.7. which represents parabolic distribution.1) The velocity is maximum at r = 0.3) (A) If the average velocity is umean then the flow is given by Q = π R2 umean The flow Q is also given by the integration of small annular flow streams as in the element considered Q= z R 0 2πurdr but u = umax 1 − Substituting and integrating between the limits 0 to R.4) Chapter 7 LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 .Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Net pressure force = dp 2π rdr 225 d du µ 2πrdx dr .7. and using equation A πR 2 umax = πR2umean ∴ 2 umean = umax u The average velocity is half of the maximum velocity Q= ∴ u umean = 2 1− LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 (7.72) At a given radius.7. dividing 7. u= at r = R. ∴ umax = – 1 dp R 2 µ dx 4 (7.7.1 by (7. Equating the forces and reordering dr dr Net shear force = FG H IJ K 1 dp d du r r = µ dx dr dr FG H IJ K Integrating r du 1 dp r 2 + C .

The selection of a larger diameter leads to higher initial cost.1) 2D The proportionality constant is found to depend on other factors. Some empirical equations are given in section 7. where n varies with Reynolds number. given in the appendix. 7. But the pressure drop is lower in such a case which leads to lower operating cost. So in the process of design of piping systems it becomes necessary to investigate the pressure drop for various diameters of pipe for a given flow rate. (7.226 ( 1/ n ) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow the velocity profile is generally represented by the equation u umax = 1− FG H r R IJ K . t0 Using the definition of Darcy friction factor and conditions of equilibrium. expression for pressure 1 2 drop in pipes is derived in this section. The average velocity is 0.3) Re In the turbulent region the friction factor is found to depend on Reynolds number for smooth pipes and both on Reynolds number and L roughness for rough pipes.1 elemental length L in the pipe. f= .2) Extensive investigations have been made to determine the factors influencing the friction factor. It is established that in laminar flow f depends only on the Reynolds number and it is given by 64 (7. Another factor which affects the pressure drop is the pipe roughness.8. In the process of such determination Darcy defined or friction factor f as ∆p∝ f = 4 τ0/(ρum2/2g0) This quantity is dimensionless which may be checked.79 umax for n = 6 and 0.87 umax for n = 10. The velocity will also be a factor and in this case the pressure drop will depend in the square of the velocity (refer Bernoulli equation).8. Consider an Figure 7. It is easily seen that the pressure drop will depend directly upon the length and inversely upon the diameter.8 DARCY–WEISBACH EQUATION FOR CALCULATING PRESSURE DROP In the design of piping systems the choice falls between the selection of diameter and the pressure drop.4 and also under discussions t0 on turbulent flow.8. The value of friction factor with Reynolds number with roughness as parameter is um P1 P2 um available in Moody diagram. Hence we can say that LV 2 (7. The pressures at sections 1 and 2 are P1 and P2.8.

6) The velocity term can be replaced in terms of volume flow and the equation obtained is found useful in designs as Q is generally specified in designs.8.8.4) f ρ um 2 8 g0 Substituting and letting (P1 –P2) to be ∆P. As mentioned earlier.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) The other force involved on the element is the wall shear τ0.8. we get hf = It is found that hf ∝ Q2 8 f L Q2 π 2 g D5 (7.8. um2 = 16 Q 2 π2 D4 Substituting in (7. the value of f is to be obtained either from equations or from Moody diagram. The diameter for circular tubes will be the hydraulic diameter Dh defined earlier in the text. It is found desirable to express the pressure drop as head of the flowing fluid. f ρ um 2 π D2 = .8.7) D5 Another coefficient of friction Cf is defined as Cf = f /4 .6).5) This equation known as Darcy-Weisbach equation and is generally applicable in most of the pipe flow problems. In this case as h= P P g0 = γ ρg ∆ h = hf = f L um 2 2gD (7. Chapter 7 um = 4Q πD 2 . ∆P. Net pressure force in the element is (P1 –P2) Net shear force in the element is τ0 π DL Force balance for equilibrium yields 227 π D2 = τ0 π DL 4 From the definition friction factor (P1 – P2) f = 4 τ0 / (ρ um2/ 2 g0) τ0 = (7. π DL 8 g0 4 ∆P= This reduces to f L um 2 ρ 2 g0 D (7.

6) is applicable for all flows .3) This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation g0 is the force conversion factor having a value of unity in the SI system of unit. The equation is derived in this section. Substituting for − as 2 L dL dL R D2 ∆P = 32 µ um L D2 This can also be expressed in terms of volume flow rate Q as π D2 . Also (µ / ρ) = ν.8) Now a days equation 7.7) equation (7.1) (7. substituting ∆P = 128 µ L Q/π D4 Converting ∆P as head of fluid Q= hf = 32 vum Lg0 gD 2 (7. 7. umax = − ∴ ∴ dP 1 R2 .2) (7.228 In this case hf = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4C f L um 2 2gD (7.9.9.9.8.9.9.9 HAGEN–POISEUILLE EQUATION FOR FRICTION DROP In the case of laminar flow in pipes another equation is available for the calculation of pressure drop.2 and 7.3 are applicable for laminar flow only whereas DarcyWeisbach equation (7. 7. = 2um dL µ 4 − − 8 um µ dP = dL R2 8umµ 32um µ ∆P dP dP = = .1) u= − 1 dp R 2 r 1− µ dL 4 R LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 dP can be approximated to ∆ P/L as the pressure drop is uniform along the length L under dL steady laminar flow Using eqn (7.7.5 are more popularly used as value of f is easily available. Equations 7.7.8.1.2). um 4 ∴ um = 4Q/πD2.8. Refer to section (7.9.

Example 7.3. in terms of Reynolds number in laminar region.81 × 0.u). When velocity increases. 7. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. (same as by the other equation) Chapter 7 1 × 0. The viscous force is proportional to µ(du/dy) or µ u/D.. Lubricating Oil at a velocity of 1 m/s (average) flows through a pipe of 100 mm ID. The inertia force is proportional to the mass flow and velocity i.06882 hf = f L um2/2gD = (64/930) × 10 × 12/(2 × 9. as Re um D FG u D IJ = Re H v K m In the laminar flow region the friction factor can be determined directly in terms of Reynolds number.1 × 1 × 10 0. (ρu.9.1 Ns/m2 (as N/m2 is call Pascal.s). f = 64/Re). Dynamic viscosity µ = 0.e. Also determine the friction factor and the pressure drop over 10 m length.) ∆P ∆ = 32 × µ × um × L D2 = 32 × 0.351 m head of oil.1) = 0. Re = Friction factor. so the flow is laminar 1 × 0.1) (Hagen-Poiseuille eqn.1 × 930 uD ρ = = 930. Inertia forces tend to move the particles away from the layer. When viscous force are sufficiently high so that any disturbance is smoothed down. f = 64/930 = 0. namely f= 64 2 × 32 ν = . laminar flow prevails in pipes.351 × 0. µ can be also expressed as Pa. inertia forces increase and particles are pushed upwards out of the smoother path.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 229 Example 7.2 Using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Hagen Poiseuille equation obtain an expression for friction factor f. The friction factor in flow is also found to be a function of Reynolds number (in laminar flow. or ∆P = 0.10 SIGNIFICANCE OF REYNOLDS NUMBER IN PIPE FLOW Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force.12 = 3200 N/m2. laminar flow prevails in pipes.1 µ .300. dividing ρuuD ρuD uD inertia force = = = µu µ v viscous force Viscous force tends to keep the layers moving smoothly one over the other. What should be the velocity for the flow to turn turbulent? Density = 930 kg/m3 . The equation are hf = 32 um vL fLum 2 and hf = 2 gD gD 2 equating and simplifying a very useful relationship is obtained. As long as Reynolds number is below 2.93 × 9810 = 3200 N/m2 At transition Re = 2000 (can be taken as 2300 also) Using (7.

1) The friction factor f is a complex function of Reynolds number.75 ln ( R − r) + 8.04 f um log (R/(R – 1)) (7.75 (7. u u* = 5. u = (1 + 1.2). A new reference velocity called shear velocity is defined as below.4) For rough pipes.75 log = 5. A sample velocity variation is given in equation (7.75 log ( R − r ) u* + 7.1 ∴ um = 2. Such a relation is more complex in turbulent flow. u* = τ 0 g0 ρ Ru * + 5.12.11. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.11.5 ν (7. u * u where ε is the roughness dimension.11.33 f (7.11.75 log (7.3) Several other correlation using the reference velocity are listed below.5) The mean velocity um is obtained for smooth and rough pipes as um u and * = 5. In laminar flow the velocity profile is parabolic and the mean velocity is half of the maximum velocity.11 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION AND FRICTION FACTOR FOR TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES The velocity profile and relation between the mean and maximum velocity are different in the two types of flow.11.47 m/s.11.6 ν/u* (7.7) ε u The laminar sublayer thickness is used for defining smooth pipe.5 ν (7.8) .1 × 930/0.230 To determine velocity on critical condition 2300 = 4 m × 0.11.11. The thickness of this layer is given by * um δt = 11.33 f ) um – 2.2).6) R + 4. For example one such available relation is given by um 1 = umax 1 + 1.5 ε (7. For higher values of f the velocity variation will be well rounded at the centre compared to low values of f. = 5.

In a pipe system design.12 MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW Additional frictional losses occur at pipe entry. several correlations are available for friction factor. it is necessary to take into account all such losses.04 for this situation. (7. These correlations together with correlations for velocity profile are useful in numerical methods of solution. The frictional losses other than pipe friction are called minor losses. Chapter 7 . (a) Bell mouthed: This is a smooth entrance and turbulence is suppressed to a great extent and C = 0.221/Re0.11. 7. losses take place due to the turbulence created downstream of the entrance.14) (7. Re and ε/D are also available and can be used without appreciable error. Three types of entrances are known. f = 0.10) (7.11) (7. (i) Loss of head at entrance: At the entrance from the reservoir into the pipe.8 log Re – 1. τ0 = The friction factor for very smooth pipes can be calculated by assuming one seventh power law leading to. the value of which will depend on the situation and is called the loss coefficient.11. The expression is applicable both for laminar and turbulent flows.0032 + (0.74 ε (7.5186 For rough pipes of radius R 1 f (7.316/Re0. valves and fittings.25 for Re < 2 × 104 For all ranges either of the following relations can be used f = 0.9) 4 2 Similar to velocity profile. As in laminar flow the frictional loss of head is given by hf = f L um2/2 gDh Also (7.15) 8 fL Q 2 hf = gπ 2 D 5 The value of f is to be determined using the approximate relations or the chart. sudden decrease or increase in flow area or where direction of flow changes.13) Charts connecting f.11.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 231 In the case of turbulent show the wall shear force is given by the following equation.12) = 2 log R + 1. These losses are generally expressed as hf = C um2/2g where C is constant.11.11.11. f ρ um 2 .11.237) 1/ f = 1.

7.1. C = 0. loss coefficient depends on the diameter ratio. Such an arrangement is called reentrant inlet. Gradual expansion will reduce the losses. The discharge from reaction turbines into the tail race water is an example. Using Bernoulli equation and denoting the ideal pressure at section 2 as P2 (without losses).13.13 EXPRESSION FOR THE LOSS OF HEAD AT SUDDEN EXPANSION IN PIPE FLOW The situation is shown in Fig 7.33 for D2/D1 = 0. The loss is reduced by providing a diverging pipe to reduce the exit velocity. Square edged entrance is used more popularly.12.232 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (b) Square edged entrance: Though it is desirable to provide a bell mouthed entrance it will not be always practicable. The loss of head hf is given by Loss of head = (u1 – u2)2 / 2g. (v) Valves and fittings : Losses in flow through valves and fittings is expressed in terms of an equivalent length of straight pipe.5 in this case. For 90° bends it is about 30 D. The loss coefficient in this case is about 0. and for globe valves it is 340 D.1 Types of entrance (ii) Loss of head at submerged discharge: When a pipe with submerged outlet discharges into a liquid which is still (not moving) whole of the dynamic head u2/2g will be lost.5. Bell mouthed Square edge Reentrant Figure 7.05 to 0.08 for angles of 10° to 60°. The value is 0. For gradual contraction it varies with the angle of the transition section from 0.12. (iv) Sudden expansion: Here the sudden expansion creates pockets of eddying turbulence leading to losses. The loss coefficient is 1. (iii) Sudden contraction: When the pipe section is suddenly reduced. For gate valves L = 8D. datum remaining unaltered. The loss coefficient.0. (c) Reentrant inlet: The pipe may sometimes protrude from the wall into the liquid. The values are generally available in a tabular statement connecting D2/D1 and loss coefficient.8. Gradual contraction will reduce the loss. (7. P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = ρg 2g 2g ρg or P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = 2 2 ρ ρ (1) .1) where u1 and u2 are the velocities in the smaller and larger sections.

2g Chapter 7 . replacing A1 u1 by A2 u2 and equating the net forces on the element to the momentum change. The pressure forces are (here the pressure on the annular section of fluid at 1 is assumed as P1) (P1 A1 – P2′ A2).13.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) P1¢ = P1 1 2 A2 A1 P1 P2¢ 233 P1 ¢ = P 1 2 Figure 7. P1 A1 – P2′ A2 = ρ A2 u22 – ρ A2 u2 u1 Dividing by ρ and A2 allthrough P1 P2 ′ – = u22 – u1u2 ρ ρ or P2 ′ P1 = – (u22 – u1u2) ρ ρ Subtracting on either side of equations 1 and 2 (ideal and real) (2) P1 u12 u2 2 P1 P2 – P2 ′ – – – (u2 2 – u1u2 ) + = 2 2 ρ ρ ρ P2 – P2 ′ u12 u2 2 + (u2 2 – u1u2 ) – = ρ 2 2 Multiplying both sides by 2 ∴ 2 ( P2 – P2 ′ ) = u12 – u22 + 2u22 – 2u1 u2 = (u1 – u2)2 ρ Dividing the both sides by g and simplifying P2 – P2 ′ (u – u2 ) 2 = 2 2g ρg But ∴ P2 – P2 ′ = hf (head loss) ρg hf = (u1 – u2 ) 2 .1 Sudden Expansion Applying conservation of momentum principle to the fluid between section 1 and 2. The change in momentum is given by (ρ A2 u2 u2 – ρ A1 u1 u1) noting A1 u1 = A2 u2. and denoting the actual pressure at section 2 as P2.

7. Hydraulic grade line will be at a lower level and the difference between the ordinates will equal the dynamic head i. WL Entry loss Reservoir HGL Expansion EL V2 /2g 2 Figure 7. The loss will vary with radius of the bend. In large bends fitting curved vanes will reduce the loss. Specimen plot is given in Fig. Flow will be governed by hydraulic grade line..15 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE IN CONDUIT FLOW The plot of the sum of pressure head and dynamic head along the flow path is known as energy line. In the case of bends. This line will dip sharply if velocity increases and will slope upwards if velocity decreases.15. Introduction of a pump in the line will push up both the lines. u2/2g. This refers to the total available energy of the system at the location. There will be sudden dips if there are minor losses due to expansions. 7. Determine the head to be developed by the pump.234 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.15.4. introduce frictional losses either by obstruction or due to secondary flows. The head to be developed will equal the static head. For example in straight constant area pipe the line will slope proportional to the head drop per m length.1 Energy and Hydraulic grade lines Example 7.1 (pump is not indicated in figure). The diameter of the pipe line allthrough is 50 mm (ID). A pump takes in water from a level 5 m below its centre line and delivers it at a height of 30 m above the centre line.e.14 LOSSES IN ELBOWS. the loss is due to the variation of centrifugal force along different stream lines which causes secondary flows. The line will dip due to losses. Hydraulic grade line is the plot of pressure head along the flow path. fittings etc. the rate of flow being 3 m3/hr. BENDS AND OTHER PIPE FITTINGS Fittings like valves. The fittings introduce losses equal to 10 m length of pipe in addition to the actual length of 45 m of pipe used. elbows etc. This line will also dip due to frictional losses. Globe valves are poorer compared to gate valves with regard to pressure drop. . friction head and the dynamic head. The losses may be accounted for by a term equivalent length which will depend on the type of fitting or in terms of (u2/2g) or dynamic head.

using the value 0.252/4) × 0.25 = 0.55 m/s.17 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT PIPE OR EQUIVALENT LENGTH When pipes of different friction factors are connected in series (or in parallel) it is convenient to express the losses in terms of one of the pipes (Refer to 7. L = 45 + 10 = 55 m.316/Re0.2 m below the water reservoir level.25 = 0. or 97. From the relation knowing C.05 = 0.4244 m/s.176 um2 ∴ ∴ um = 0. expansion–contraction and at entry in terms of a length of pipe which will at that discharge rate lead to the same pressure drop. this is a convienent way to estimate minor losses.11.0092 = 35. Dynamic Head = um2/2g When long pipes are involved.2 = [(0.42442/2 × 9. 5.316/210930.4244/1.021 discharges water from a reservoir at a level 5.25)] + [um2 / (2 × 9.81)] = 17.237 = 0.265 m = um2/2g = (check f = 0.15).81 × 0. Re = um D/v = 0. 7.02622.02622 × 55 × 0. ∴ ∴ The flow is turbulent Assuming smooth pipe. f and D. Frictional Head = f L um2/2g D. The head available should equal the sum of frictional loss and the dynamic head.021 × 4000 × um2)/(2 × 9.23 m3/hr.0241).006 × 10– 6 = 21093 235 0. Flow rate = (π × 0.42442 = 0. Frictional loss of head Dynamic head ∴ Total head f = 0.2562 m.05 m.05 × 0.2562 m head of water.81 = 35 + 0.027 m3/s.55 = 0. Le um2/2g D = C um2/2g ∴ Le can be calculated As a number of fittings at various positions may be involved causing minor losses in a pipe system. 4000 m long with f = 0.81 × 0. Determine the rate of discharge.006 × 10– 6 m2 / s.16 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT LENGTH For calculation of minor losses it is more convenient to express the pressure drop in fittings.5 A pipe 250 mm dia. This length is known as equivalent length. v = 1. Le.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Static head = 30 + 5 = 35 m.0092 m 2 × 9.0032 + 0.02622 = 0. Friction head = f L um2/2g D. The friction loss hf for pipe 1 with L1 and f1 is given by Chapter 7 .052 = 0. um = (3/3600) 4/π × 0. Example 7. Head to be developed by the pump = 35.265 + 0. Assuming the temperature as 20 °C. 7. minor losses may often be neglected.221/Re0. D = 0.

Example 7.024 × 1545.6.45) Q2 = 0. Example 7.3)5 = 834.024) × (0.021 0.4/0.019/0.30 0. then 8 f1 L1 Q12 g π 2 D15 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 g π 2 D2 5 5 0. Determine the flow rate neglecting minor losses. L2e = 300 (0.4/0.2 m3/s Using equivalent length concept and choosing 0.35 Friction factor 0.021/0.1 Total length 8 f1 L1 Q 2 π g 2 D15 + 8 f2 L2 Q2 π g D2 2 5 + 8 f3 L3 Q2 π 2 g D35 Q2 = 0.021 and 0. 0.81 × Q2)/(9.04.04 ∴ Q = 0.2 m2/s.79 + 834.17.019 0. m 600 800 400 Diameter.17.81 m 12 = (8 × 0. This problem can be solved using 12 = Solving Refer 7.25 0. Hence hf2 = 8 f2L2 Q2/g π2 D25 Cancelling common terms f1 L1 D15 f2 L2 D2 5 f1 D2 5 f2 D15 = or L2 = L1 (7. Q = 0.17. 350 mm and 300 mm diameter are connected in series between two reservoirs with a difference in level of 12 m. as the pressure loss is the same.81 × π2 × 0. In parallel arrangement. The lengths are 200 m.2) The idea of using equivalent length thus helps to reduce tediusness in calculations.35)5 = 511.4 m pipe as the base. 1 2 3 Length.236 hf1 = 8 f1L1 Q2/g π2 D15 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For the same pressure loss and flow rate Q and discharge through another pipe of diameter D2 with f2.02 m = 200 + 511. Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes in parallel with the following details of pipes: Pipe No.1) If pipes are in series a common diameter can be chosen and the equivalent length concept can be used conveniently to obtain the solution.024. m 0.024 . The friction factors are 0.024) × (0.5 = ∴ Q2 f1 L1 Q1 = f2 L2 LM MN FG D IJ HD K 2 1 OP PQ (7. the equivalent pipe will have a length L2. 300 m and 250 m respectively.79 m L3e = 250(0.02 = 1545.019 respectively. Three pipes of 400 mm.7.

Let the flows be designated as Q1.0931 Q1 Q1 = 0. eqn.17.021 × 600 × 0.4 m. L1 = 2000 m.11280 m3/s Q3 = 2. Q2.4362 Q1 + 2.6569 Q1 = 5.021 × 600 × F 0. eqn 7. Q3 Then Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 24000/(60 × 1000) = 0.2.5 = 2. f2 = 0.8841 Q1 This flow goes through pipe 3. L1 = 2000 m. D2 = 0.35 = 6. hf = 8 × 0. So.25JK 5 OP PQ OP PQ = 1.024.2).6569 Q1 Total flow = 0.576 m Check with other pipes Pipe 2.6569 Q1 = 0.078542/ π2 × 9.8841 Q1 Q1 + Q2 = 1.4362 Q1 = 0. 7. The water from the common point is drawn through pipe 3 of 0.021 1500 GH 0.000 l/min.25JK L 0. Considering pipe 1 as base Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 5 0.576 m Example 7.8.35 I MN 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 237 The total flow is 24.5 OP PQ 5 0.11. f1 = 0.019 800 GH 0.35 m.021.024 × 2000 × F 0.019 × 800 × 0.17. The two reservoir levels are equal.5 = 0.4 = Q1 + 1. L2 = 1500 m. f2 = 0. Let the flow in pipe 1 be Q1 and that in pipe 2 be Q2.07854 m3/s Q2 = 1. Pipes 1 and 2 meet at a common location.5 Using equation (7.255 = 6.4001 m3/s Head loss or level difference (Ref para 7.019.4362 Q1 Q3 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 3 L1 L3 FD I GH D JK 3 1 5 0. the head drops are equal (refer para 7.11282/π2 × 9.5 .021.35I = M MN 0.81 × 0.4 JK 5 OP PQ 0.4362 ∴ Q2 = 1.55 m dia over a length of 1600 m to the supply location.024.11.4 m. D1 = 0. Then Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 OP PQ Here f1 = 0. The total head drop equals the sum of the drops in pipe 1 and in pipe 3.81 × 0. Determine the flow rate through the system. Chapter 7 5 0. D1 = 0. Water is drawn from two reservoirs at the same water level through pipe 1 and 2 which join at a common point.024 400 GH 0.4 m3/s 0.5 OP PQ L 0. D2 = 0.6569 ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Q3 = 2.20867 m3/s Total = 0. The value of f3 = 0.17. L2 = 1500 m.43 m.35 m Q2 = Q1 ∴ ∴ LM 0. The total head available is 25.15 Pipe 1 hf = 8 f L Q2/π2 g D5 8 × 0.3 I = M MN 0.021 × 600 × F 0. Determine the flow in each pipe and also the level difference between the reservoirs.

88412 Q12 + π 2 × 9.019 × 1600 × 0.019 × 1600 × 1.81 × 0.021 × 1500 × 0.1877 m3/s Q3 = Q1 + Q2 = 0.1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission Consider that the head available is h and the frictional loss is hf (neglecting minor losses) left the pipe diameter be D and the flow velocity be u.46 m hf2 = 8 × 0.81 × 0. checks. check for pressure at common point hf1 = 8 × 0.45 π 2 × 9.2123 m3/s. Quantity flow = π D2 u/4 hf = f L u2/2gD. It is desirable to maximise the power transmitted as compared to an attempt to increase efficiency. Check for drop in the third pipe hf3 = 8 × 0. The choices of the pipe diameter depends on the expected efficiency of transmission and also on the economical aspect of the cost of pipe.355 = 17.48 Q12 ∴ Q1 = 0.67%. for maximum power.4 m3/s. Power = mass flow × net head Power.46 m both are equal as required.18.42 = 7. Net head available = h – hf. If the available rate of flow is known the velocity and then the diameter can be determined or if the diameter is fixed the flow rate can be obtained. 7.81 × 0.99 + 17.43 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8 × 0. The friction factor for the pipe can be fixed as this is nearly constant above a . dP π D2 ρ π D2 ρ = [h – 3(fLu2/2gD)] = [h – 3hf ] du 4 4 Equating to zero hf = h/3 (7.238 25.18. Applications are also there in hydraulic drives and control equipments.555 Total head = 7.4 5 = 17.21232 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.99 m π2 × 9. 7.46 = 25. Q2 = 0. P= π D2 f L u3 π D2 ρ uh – uρ [h – (fLu2/2gD)] = 4 2g D 4 LM N OP Q Differetiating P with respect to u.1) For maximum power generation frictional loss will equal one third of available head and the corresponding transmission efficiency is 66. Higher efficiencies can be obtained by the use of larger diameter pipes. but this will prove to be costly.1877 2 π 2 × 9.024 × 2000 × 0.17 Q12 = 564.31 Q12 + 177.45 m .81 × 0.555 = 387.18 FLUID POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH PIPES High head and medium head hydal plants convey water from a high level to the power house through pressure pipe called penstock pipes.024 × 2000 Q12 8 × 0.

18755 × 1000 × 9.014 × 3000 × 16 × 12)/(2π2 × 9.25) = 208. and also calculate the velocity and power transmitted.01735. flow rate = (π D2/4) × u = 0.014 × 3600 × u2)/(2 × 9. The frictional drop is equal to one third of available head.9 the power transmitted for u = 4.014 is used. D = 0.52)/(2 × 9. hf = (0.48) = 516493 W = 516.81 × 0.81 × 400 = 3.014.81 × 0.81 × 0. Example 7.07) = 524246 W = 524.11 In a hydrosystem the flow availability was estimated as 86.48 m Power = (π × 0. The length of the pipe line is 3600 m. Some of these are discussed in the para. Velocity = 4 × 1/(π × 0.1. Example 7.252/4) × 4.81 (450 – 208.18.81 (450 – 92.9 In a hydroelectric plant the head available is 450 m of water. The distance from the dam to the power house considering the topography was estimated as 3000 m.444 m/s Power = 1000 × 9.4445 m .1.924 MW Check for frictional loss hf = (0.014 × 3600 × 32)/(2 × 9.25) solving.81) D5. The head of fall was estimated as 600 m. (i) u = 4. Q = area × velocity u = 4Q/π D2 ∴ u2 = 16 Q2 /π2 D4 hf = fL 16 Q2 = 200.18755 m3 /s Power developed = Qρg × (h – hf ) = 0.252/4) × 3 × 1000 × 9.10.25 kW (ii) u = 3 m/s. The available pipes have friction factor 0.5 × 1000 × 9.5 m/s. Refer Eqn 7.4445) = 200 m (checks) 7.81 (450 – 150) = 551963 W = 551. hf = (0.19 NETWORK OF PIPES Complex connections of pipes are used in city water supply as well as in industrial systems.18.014 × 3000 × 6. For maximum power when flow rate is specified. Chapter 7 D5 = 0.82 m/s.014 × 3600 × 4. Here both u and D are not specified. pipe diameter is fixed and when diameter is specified the flow rate will be fixed.5 m/s and u = 3 m/s.963 kW Example 7. Using equation 7.924 × 106 W or 3. 25 cm penstock pipe with friction factor of 0.44452) = 6.4 × 103 m3/day.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 239 certain value of Reynolds number.4442)/(2 × 9.4 × 103/(24 × 3600) = 1 m3/s 2π2 gD5 200 = (0.81 × 0. Determine for the data in example 7. ∴ But ∴ ∴ hf = 600/3 = 200 m hf = fLu2/2g D.07 m Power = (π × 0. Q = 86.49 kW This brings out clearly that the maximum power for a given diameter and head is when the frictional drop equals one third of available head. hf = h/3 = 450/3 = 150 m 150 = (0. Determine the pipe diameter for transmitting maximum power.25) = 92. Determine the maximum power that can be developed. u = 3.

12.61 + 17. R1 = R3 = π 2 × 9.62) Q2 = 355..15.81 × 0.015 The resistance values are calculated using Eqn.15 Pipe 1.45 0. f1 L2.02 × 220 = 149. D2.. f3 Figure 7. For given pipe specification the equation can be simplified as hf = 8 f L Q2/π2g D5 = R Q2 Note: The dimension for R is s2/m5. 1 2 3 4 Diameter.013 0.1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Series flow problem can also be solved by use of resistance network. m 220 410 300 600 f 0. No..013 × 300 8 × 0.35 0.463.. Pipe 4. D3.. For flow in series Q is the same through all pipes.30 0.81 × 0. hfn = hf = (R1 + R2 + R3 + . f2 Q R1 h1 R2 R3 h2 R = 8fL/p gD 2 5 L3. Consider equation 7. D1. As the total head is also known Q can be evaluated.. m 0..19..018 0.015 × 600 8 × 0.1 Pipe 3.018 × 410 = 116. R2 = π 2 × 9. The circuit is shown in Fig.62 h = [R1 + R2 + R3 + R4] Q2 (16 – 4) = (149. Due to constraints pipes of different diameters were to be used. R4 = = 72. The length L should include minor losses in terms of equivalent lengths. + Rn) Q2 The R values for the pipe can be calculated. A reservoir at a level with respect to datum of 16 m supplies water to a ground level reservoir at a level of 4 m..11.45 8 × 0.19. 7.1.81 × 0.35 π 2 × 9. Pipe 2.19. = 17.463 + 72.1 Equivalent circuit for series flow Example 7... WL L1.61.793 Q2 . 7.11.40 Length including minor losses.455 8 × 0. Determine the flow rate.355 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.02 0. This leads to the relation hf1 + hf2 + hf3 + .240 7.

m 0. No.19. 7. Case (iii) Electrical analogy is illustrated or in problem Ex.022 0.19. 3. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 The process can be extended to any number of connections. f2 P3 L3. 7. Using the value find Q2 and Q3. these flow rates can be determined. 7. f3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 R1 h1 R2 R3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 Figure 7.2 0. D3. Q2 and Q3 are specified.916 + 0. 2.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ∴ Q = 0.3 0.2 Pipes in Parallel Such a system is shown in Fig. Divide the total Q in the proportion Q1 : Q2 : Q3 to obtain the actual flow rates.2 Case (i) The head drop between locations 1 and 2 are specified: The total flow can be determined using hf = 8 f1 L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 π 2 g D2 5 = 8 f3 L3 Q3 2 π 2 g D3 5 As hf and all other details except flow rates Q1.4 Friction factor 0.13 The details of a parallel pipe system for water flow are given below. Assume by proper judgement the flow rate in pipe 1 as Q1. Determine the frictional loss.2 WL h1 P1 L1.589 + 2. m 800 1200 900 Diameter.02 0.449 = 12 m 241 7.046 + 3. . D2.18365 m3/s Check Σ h = Σ (R1 Q12) = 5. D1. One of the methods uses the following steps: 1.19. Example 7. f1 P2 L2.019 Chapter 7 4.13 and Ex. 1 2 3 length.14. Case (ii) Total flow and pipe details specified.

f = 0.91 m π 2 × 9. Adopting method 2 the total flow is divided in the ratio of Q1 : Q2 : Q3 as calculated above. Already for 15 m head individual flows are available.13.019 × 900 × Q32 π 2 × 9.07254 m3/s.05745 m3/s π2 × 9. Q = ? Case 2.32971 = 0.52274 0.11.81 × 0.52274 8 × 0.1355 m3/s π2 × 9.81 × 0.4 m f.2 5 8 × 0.81 × 0. 15 = 8 f1L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 × 0. 7. h1 – h2 = 15 m. 0.15 800 m.02 × 1200 × 0.66 × 0. Case (i) Let the flows be Q1. If the total flow rate is 0.522 m3/s Case (ii) Total flow is 0.35 8 × 0.02 900 m.242 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. f = 0.41629 m3/s 0. determine the total flow rate 2. 0.35 Pipe 2 hf = = 23.66 m3/s .66 m /s.66 × 0.019 Case 1. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3.81 × 0.25 8 × 0.3 m f.022 × 800 × 0.81 × 0.02 × 1200 × Q22 solving Q2 = 0. Pipe 1 hf = 0. 7.13558 = 0.45 15 = 8 f2 L2Q22 π 2 g D25 = 15 = 8 f3 L3Q32 π g 2 D35 = solving Q3 = 0. Ex.05745 = 0.66 × 0. h = ? 2 WL 2 Figure Ex.66 m3/s. f = 0.91 m .2 m f. Q = 0.171172 π 2 × 9.32971 m3/s Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0. using equation 7.13 The flow rates are calculated individually with hf = 15 m and totalled. 0. If the frictional drop between the junctions is 15 m of water. 0.17117 m3/s 0. Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Calculation for frictional loss. The system is shown in Fig.07254 2 = 23.022 WL 1 1200 m. Q2 and Q3.022 × 800 × Q12 solving Q1 = 0.52274 0. determine the individual flow and the friction drop.

91/816.2733 Q = 0.. The hydraulic grade line controls the situation.81 × 0.893 ∴ Q2 = 15/54. The flow may be from the higher reservoir to the others or it may be from both high level reservoirs to the low level one. If the head Chapter 7 7.522742 = 23. Total flow equals Q1 + Q2 + Q3 . and Q2 = hf /R Example 7.... hf LM MN + 1 R1 + 1 R2 + .... Work out problem 7. 8 × 0.. 1 R = 1 4544.91 m π2 × 9..2 R3 = 8 × 0.52274 (checks with the previous case) Q = 0.3)..45 Electrical analogy : For parallel pipe network also electrical analogy can be used..35 π × 9. trial solution becomes necessary.07 2 5 π × 9.4 2 5 = 137.. R2 = 2 = 816.416292 = 23...07254 m3/s Q22 = hf /R2 = 23.66.48 + 1 816..019 × 900 π × 9.13 by analogy method. If the head at the junction is above both the lower reservoirs. Q3 = 0.41629 m3/s Note: Checks in all cases. If flows are Q1.91 m Q12 = hf /R1 = 23.91/4544.893 × 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Pipe 3 hf = 243 8 × 0.98. Q2 = 0..893 hf = R Q2 = 54.. then the algebraic sum of Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0. R = 54.91/137.. Q3 . (ii) The Darcy-Weisbach equation should be satisfied for each pipe.07. Q2. OP PQ An equivalent resistance R can be obtained by 1 R = 1 R1 1 R2 + . If one of the flow rate is specified the solution is direct..81 × 0..81 × 0.81 × 0......19.019 × 900 × 0. Q1 = 0.....02 × 1200 R1 = 8 × 0.. 7.14. ∴ R= FG 1 IJ H 0. Case 1..893 = 0... The conditions to be satisfied are (i) The net flow at any junction should be zero due to continuity principle... If none are specified... both of these will receive the flow.3 Branching Pipes .. Fig. or Q1 = Q= hf / R1 . In the case of parallel flow as the pressure drop is the same hf = R1 Q12 = R2 Q22 = R3 Q32 ..07 + 1 137... The simplest case is a three reservoir system interconnected by three pipes (Ref.98 ∴ ∴ Case 2..19...17117 m3/s Q32 = hf /R3 = 23.48.13497 K 2 = 54..48..022 × 800 = 4544.98.

(i) A value for the head at the junction is assumed and the flow rates are calculated from pipe details.6 m diameter with f = 0.013 draws water from A. 1 2 Q1 Q3 Q2 t 3 Figure 7.3 The method of solution requires iteration. Similarly for flow from B and C.5196 = QC2 .19.15 Three reservoirs A. Using the equation 7.65 8 × 0.55 = 41.244 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery at the junction is below the middle one. Such iteration can be also programmed for P.011.5 m and f = 0. and writing this hf = R Q2 RA = RB = RC = 8 × 0.015 draws water from B and joins the pipe end from A.11. So reduce the value of head assumed. Example 7. 1200 m length pipe of diameter 0. where ZJ level at junction J. So increase the value of head assumed at the junction. This is shown in Fig 7.81 × 0.0354 = QB2.81 × 0.015 × 1000 π 2 × 9.4 m and f = 0. the sum may have a positive value or negative value. (iii) If it is positive. The reservoir C is connected to this junction by 900 m length of pipe 0.2473.013 × 1200 π 2 × 9.3. the outflow is more. (iv) If it is negative. (ii) The sum of these (algebraic) should be zero. inflow to the junction is more. the total flow will be received by the lowest level reservoir. But at the first attempt.81 × 0. (12 – ZJ)/121. (8 – ZJ)/10.5196 Considering flow from A.011 × 900 = 10. B and C at water levels of 25 m.19.C. (25 – ZJ)/41. 12 m and 8 m are connected by a pipe network. Determine the flow from/to each reservoir.45 = 121. 1000 m length pipe of diameter 0. 8 × 0.2473 = QA2.15 hf = 8 fLQ 2 π 2 g D5 .0354 π 2 × 9.

7.5 11.0909 0.603 m3/s 7.0406 QC – 0.5657 QB 0.1286 – 0.4 × 0. Use of the above conditions leads to a set of simultaneous equations.0 11. ZJ = 11. 2. Also calculate the velocity at the centre line and the velocity at a radius of 2.0596 0. 7.6010 QA + QB + QC 0. The flow rates in the last column can be used. 3. The flow into the junction should equal the flow out of the junction.06423 0.082 = 0. Considering the value.4360 – 0. A sample is shown in Fig. Q1 Q3 Q2 Q4 Figure 7.825 m gives a residue of 0.4 Pipe Network More complex network of pipes exist in practice.56517 m3/s.5721 0.8 QA 0.6894 – 0.5 cm.5394 0.2556 – 0.08 = = 2000 v 16 × 10 −6 Chapter 7 .002/π × 0. it is now possible to solve any number of simultaneous equations rather easily.6030 0. An oil of specific gravity 0. For each pipe the proper relation between head loss and discharge should be maintained.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Assumed value of ZJ 10 13.4 Pipe network SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem. 1.1.82 and kinematic viscosity 16 × 10–6 m2/s flows in a smooth pipe of 8 cm diameter at a rate of 2l/s. What will be the entry length? Also determine the wall shear. The algebraic sum of the pressure drop around each circuit must be zero.0053 245 This is sufficient for the trial. Average flow velocity = volume flow/area = 4 × 0.00019.4 m/s Re = uD 0. What is head loss for a length of 10 m. This set can be solved using computers. Analytical solution to such a problem is more involved.19. the flows are QA = 0.19. QB = 0.5768 – 0.03802 m3/s and QC = – 0. With the use of computers. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.12 For analysis of the system the following conditions are used.2409 0. Methods of successive approximation are used.

246

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This value is very close to transition value. However for smooth pipes the flow may be taken as laminar. Centre line velocity = 2 × average velocity = 0.8 m/s For velocity at 2.5 cm radius
2

u umax

=1–

FG r IJ H RK

∴ u = 0.8 1 −

LM F 2.5 I OP = 0.4875 m/s MN GH 4 JK PQ
2

f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = fLu2/2gd = (0.032 × 10 × 0.44)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.08) = 0.03262 m of oil as ∆p = hfγ = 0.03262 × 9810 × 0.82 = 262.4 N/m2 Entry length = 0.058 Re.D. = 0.058 × 2000 × 0.08 = 9.28 m For highly viscous fluid entry length will be long. Wall shear is found from the definition of f. τo =

f ρ um 2 0.032 820 0.4 2 = × × = 0.5248 N/m2 4 go 2 4 1 2 du dr

Wall shear can also be found using, τo = – ρ v u = umax 1 − Substituting,

LM N

r 2 du U max 2r du 2 , =− , at r = R, = – umax 2 R2 dr dr R R

OP Q

τo = 820 × 16 × 10–6 × 0.8 × 2/0.04 = 0.5248 N/m2.

Problem 7.2. A circular and a square pipe are of equal sectional area. For the same flow rate, determine which section will lead to a higher value of Reynolds number. Re = uDh/v, For the same section and same flow rate of a specified fluid, Re ∝ Dh hydraulic Diameter. Circular Pipe : as areas are equal, Dh = D a2 = πD2/4, ∴ a = 0.886 D Square Pipe of side a : Dh = 4a2/4a = a The hydraulic diameter of a square section of the same area is lower by about 11.4%. So the Reynolds number in this case will be lower by about 11.4% and hence for the same flow rate f will be higher for the square section. Problem 7.3. The kinematic viscosity of water at 30°C is 0.832 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate through a 10 cm dia pipe for the flow to be laminar. Assume smooth pipe. Also determine the head loss/m at this flow condition. The condition is that Reynolds number should be about 2000. 2000 = (0.1 × u)/(0.832 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.01664 m/s.

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
The flow rate will be Head of water, = (π × 0.12/4) × 0.01664 = 1.307 × 10–4 m3/s = 0.1307 l/s. f = 64/2000 = 0.032

247

hf = 0.032 × 1 × 0.016642/(2 × 9.81 × 0.1) = 4.516 × 10–6 m/m.

Note: The flow turns turbulent even at a low flow velocity as the kinematic viscosity is low.

Problem 7.4. Air at 1 atm and 30 °C flows through a pipe of 30 cm dia. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. The density is 1.165 kg/m3. Determine the maximum average velocity for the flow to remain laminar. What will be the volume and mass flow rates at this condition? Also determine the head loss/m due to friction. The condition is that Reynolds number should equal 2000. ∴ 2000 = (um × 0.3)/16 × 10–6 ∴ um = 0.107 m/s = u A = 0.107 × π × 0.32/4 = 7.54 × 10–3 m3/s or 7.54 l/s = 8.784 × 10–3 kg/s f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = (0.032 × 0.1072 × 1)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3) = 62.2 × 10–6 m/m (head of air) Problem 7.5. Oil with a kinematic viscosity of 241 × 10–6 m2/s and density of 945 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 5 cm dia. and 300 m length with a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the pump power, assuming an overall pump efficiency of 45%, to overcome friction. Re = uD/v = 2 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 415. So the flow is laminar. hf = (64/415) × [(22 × 300)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05)] = 188.67 m head of oil Mass flow = (π × 0.052/4) 2 × 945 kg/s = 3.711 kg/s Power required = mg H/η = 3.711 × 9.81 × 188.67/0.45 W = 15,263 W or 15.263 kW. Problem 7.6. If, in problem P.7.5. the power available was 10 kW, what will be the pumping rate? Power available to overcome friction P = power × pump efficiency = 10 × 0.45 = 4.5 kW or 4500 W Mass flow = (πD2/4) uρ = (64v/uD) × (u2L/2gD) ∴ Power = mass flow × g × frictional head = (πD2/4) u ρ g (64vu2 L/u D 2g D) = 8 π ρ v Lu2 4500 = 8 × π × 945 × 241 × 10–6 × 300 u2 ∴ Flow rate u = 1.619 m/s = (π × 0.052/4) × 1.619 × 945 = 3kg/s
Chapter 7

Volume flow rate

Mass flow = volume flow × density = 7.54 × 10–3 × 1.165

Frictional loss in head of fluid= (64/Re) × (u2L/2gD)

Note: Check for the flow to be laminar. Re = 1.619 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 336

248

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.7. Oil of specific gravity 0.92 flows at a rate of 4.5 litres/s through a pipe of 5 cm dia, the pressure drop over 100 m horizontal length being 15 N/cm2. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the oil. Using the equation 7.9.2 – Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. ∆p = 128 µLQ/πD4 µ = ∆p . π.D4/128LQ = 15 × 104 × π × 0.054/128 × 100 × 0.0045 = 0.05113 Ns/m2 (Pa.s)
(Note: N/cm2 → 104 N/m2, litre = 0.001 m3)

Reynolds number ∴

= uD ρ/µ, u = Q × 4/πD2 Re = (4Q/π D2) × (D ρ/µ) = (0.0045 × 920 × 4)/(π × 0.05 × 0.05113) = 2061.6

∴ Flow is laminar but just on the verge of turning turbulent
(Note: Re = 4Q/π Dv) π

Problem 7.8. In a capillary viscometer the tube is of 2 mm dia and 0.5 m length. If 60 of liquid is collected during 10 min with a constant pressure difference of 5000 N/m2, determine the viscosity of the oil. cm3 Using ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 (Hagen Poiseuille equation 7.9.2) µ = ∆p.πD4/128 L Q where Q is the discharge in m3 per second. Discharge = 60 × 10–6 m3/600 sec = 10–7 m3/s ∴ µ = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.5 × 10–7 = 0.0393 Ns/m2 (or Pa.s) Problem 7.9. If an oil of viscosity of 0.05 Ns/m2 is used in the experiment of problem P.7.8 calculate how long it will take to collect 60 cc. Assume that the other conditions remain unaltered. ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 ∴ or 7.854 × 10–2 cc/s ∴ Time for 60 cc = 60/7.854 × 10–2 s = 763.94 s or 12.73 min Q = ∆p × πD4/128 µL where Q is in m3/s Q = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 7.854 × 10–8 m3/s

Problem 7.10. Oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m2 is to flow through an inclined pipe by gravity. The pipe diameter is 25 mm and the density of the oil is 930 kg/m3. If the flow rate is to be 0.25 l/s determine the pipe inclination with horizontal. The inclination of the pipe should be such that the drop in head should equal the friction drop along the length or hf = L sin θ, ∆h = fLu2/2gD, f = 64/Re, h = ∆p/γ Using Darcy–Weisbach equation and substituting for f in terms of Re hf =

64 u2 L 64u2 = L sin θ or sin θ = Re 2 gD 2 Re gD uDρ = 0.5093 × 0.025 × 930/0.1 = 118.41 µ

u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 0.25/(π × 0.0252) 1000 = 0.5093 m/s ∴ Re =

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
∴ Flow is laminar sin θ = (64 × 0.50932)/(2 × 118.41 × 9.81 × 0.025) = 0.28582 ∴ θ = 16.6° with horizontal

249

Problem 7.11. In a double pipe heat exchanger (to obtain chilled water) water at 10° C flows in the annular area between 30 mm OD inside pipe and the 50 mm ID outer pipe. The kinematic viscosity at this temperature is 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate if the flow should be laminar. The sectional area for flow = (π/4) (D2 – d2) where D = out side dia, d = inside dia. of the annular area. Wetted perimeter = π (D + d) ∴ Dh = 4 × (π/4) (D2 – d2)/π(D + d) = D – d = 0.05 – 0.03 = 0.02 m Re = 2000 = (0.02 × u)/(1.4 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.14 m/s ∴ flow rate = (π/4) (0.052 – 0.032) 0.14 = 1.76 × 10–4 m3/s or 0.176 l/s or 633.3 l/hr. The friction factor and friction drop in head and power required for a flow rate etc can be determined as in problem P. 7.5. taking care to use Dh in place of D. Problem 7.12. Water flows in an experimental 50 mm square pipe at a temperature of 10°C. The flow velocity is 0.012 m/s. Determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Compare the same with circular section of the same area, v = 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. As the section is square, the hydraulic diameter is to be used. Dh = 4 area/perimeter = 4a2/4a = a = 0.05 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.05 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 428.6 ∴ The flow is laminar. f = 64/Re = 64/428.6 hf = fLu2/2g Dh = (64/428.6) × 10 × 0.0122/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05) = 2.19 × 10–4 m head of water. Circular section: πD2/4 = 0.052 ∴ D = 0.05642 m Re = 0.05642 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 483.6, laminar, f = 64/483.6 = 0.1323 = 1.722 × 10–4 m ∴ Lower by: 21.4% Problem 7.13. If in the place of square a rectangular section of 100 mm × 25 mm is used for the data of P. 7.12 determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Hydraulic diameter = 4A/P = 4 × 0.025 × 0.1/2(0.1 + 0.025) = 0.04 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.4 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 342.86 Frictional drop in head = f.L.u2/2g Dh = (64/342.86) × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.04 = 3.425 × 10–4 m head of water For the same flow area as compared to 1.722 × 10–4 m head of water for the circular section there is an increase of 100% in friction drop for the rectangular section.
Chapter 7

For laminar conditions Re should be less than 2000.

hf = 0.1323 × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.05642

250

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.14. Water flows out from a storage tank through a pipe of 50 mm dia. at a rate of 9.82 l/s. Determine the loss of head at entrance if it is (i) bell mounted (ii) square edged and (iii) reentrant. Refer section 7.12 (i) In this case the loss coefficient is 0.04 u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 9.82/(1000 × π × 0.052) = 5 m/s ∴ hf = 0.04 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.051 m. ∴ hf = 0.5 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.637 m ∴ hf = 0.8 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 1.019 m (ii) In this case loss coeffcient is 0.5. (iii) The loss coefficient in this case = 0.8

Problem 7.15. Water flowing in a pipe of 500 mm dia suddenly passes into a pipe of 750 mm dia. Determine the loss of head if the initial velocity was 2 m/s. Ref. eqn 7.12.1. In this case, hf = (u2 – u1)2/2g, u1 = 2 m/s, u2 = 2 × (0.5/0.75)2 = 0.889 m/s. ∴ hf = (2 – 0.889)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.0629 m. Problem 7.16. A 30 cm pipe with friction factor f = 0.024 carries water to a turbine at the rate of 0.25 m3/s over a distance of 160 m. The difference in levels between the water inlet and turbine inlet is 36 m. Determine the efficiency of transmission. The turbine outlet delivery is submerged into the tailrace and the velocity at the exit is 0.4 times the velocity in the pipe. The efficiency of transmission =

Available head for conversion to work Difference in datum

The losses in this case are the friction head and the dynamic head at exit. Flow rate = 0.25 m3/s, ∴ Friction head ∴ Dynamic head Total losses um = 0.25 × 4/π × 0.32 = 3.54 m/s. = fLu2/2gD = [0.024 × 160 × 3.542/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3)] = 8.176 m = (0.4 × 3.54)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.102 m = 8.176 + 0.102 = 8.28 m

Dynamic head: Exit velocity = 0.4 × 3.54 m/s.

Efficiency is high but the power delivered is not maximum. ∴ Efficiency of transmission = (36 – 8.28)/36 = 0.77 or 77% Problem 7.17. The flow in a pipe of 100 mm dia with Reynolds number value of 105 is found to have a friction factor f = 0.032. Determine the thickness of laminar sublayer. Also indicate whether the pipe is hyraulicaly smooth or not if the roughness height is 0.4 mm. Ref. section 7.5. δl = 32.8 v/um ∴ ∴
f , Re = um D/v = 105 f ) = 32.8 × 0.1/105

v/um = D/105, substituting for v/um δl = (32.8 × D)/(105 ×

0.032

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
= 1.83 × 10–4 m = 0.183 mm ε = 0.4 mm 0.3 ε = 0.12 mm, 6ε = 1.098 mm The sublayer thickness is larger than 0.3ε but less than 6ε. The pipe cannot be classified definitely as smooth or rough.

251

Problem 7.18. Petrol of sp. gravity 0.7 and kinematic viscosity of 0.417 × 10–6 m2/s flows through a smooth pipe of 250 mm ID. The pipe is 800 m long. The pressure difference between the ends is 0.95 bar. Determine the flow rate. In this case the determination off involves the velocity as the Reynolds number depends on velocity. The flow rate depends on velocity. A trial solution is necessary. So a value of f = 0.02 is first assumed. Pressure difference = 0.95 bar or 0.95 × 105 N/m2. Converting the same to head of fluid, 0.95 × 105/700 × 9.81 = 13.834 m of petrol column. 13.834 = (fLu2/2gD) + (u2/2g) = [(0.02 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + u2/2 × 9.81 = (3.26 + 0.051)u2 ∴ Now or u = 2.045 m/s. Re = uD/v = 2.045 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.226 × 106 1/ f = 1.8. log Re – 1.5186 ∴ f = 0.01122

Ref. section 7.11, eqn 7.11.12, f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.237) = 0.01117

so the value 0.02 is on the higher side. Now using the value 0.01117, 13.834 = [0.01117 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + [u2/(2 × 9.81)] = 1.8727 u2 ∴ u = 2.7185 m/s, f = 0.1065. This is nearer the assumed value and further refinements can be made by repeating the procedure. Flow rate = 2.7185 × π × 0.252/4 = 0.1334 m3/s = 93.4 kg/s Problem 7.19. Determine the diameter of the pipe (smooth) required to convey 150 l of kerosene over a length 1000 m with the loss of head by friction limited to 10 m of kerosene. Density = 810 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 2.37 × 10–6 m2/s In this problem also as in P. 7.18, trial is necessary. Assume f = 0.012 Neglecting dynamic head, As u = Q/A, 10 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/(πD2)]2 ∴ u = (4 × 0.15)/πD2, Simplifying D5 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × 10)] × [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.231 × 10–3 ∴ D = 0.295 m and u = 2.195 m/s Re = 2.7185 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.63 × 106

Chapter 7

252
Refer eqn. 7.11.11,

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
Re = 0.295 × 2.195/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.273 × 106 f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.0237) = 0.0146 10 = [(0.014 × 10000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/πD2]2 ∴ D5 = [(0.014 × 1000)/(2 × 9.82 × 10)] [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.6 × 10–3 D = 0.304 m, u = 0.15 × 4/π × 0.3042 = 2.065 m/s Re = 2.065 × 0.304/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.265 × 106 f = 0.0032 + 0.221/(0.265 × 106)0.237 = 0.01466 The answer can be refined further using this value of f and reworking on the same lines. Assuming f = 0.014, to repeat the procedure

Problem 7.20. Two pipes of 0.35 m and 0.25 m dia and length 2000 m and 1500 m with f values 0.021 and 0.018 connected is series carry water from a reservoir to a supply system, the head available being 8 m. Determine the flow quantity neglecting minor losses. The head available should be equal to the sum of the frictional losses in the two pipes. Neglecting loss at sudden contraction δ = [(0.021 × 2000 × u12)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × u22)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] From continuity equation, we get [(π × 0.352)/4] × u1 = [(π × 0.252)/4]u2 ∴ u2 = (0.35/0.25)2 u1 or u22 = (0.35/0.25)4 u12 Substituting, and simplifying and solving, u1 = 0.542 m/s, u2 = 1.062 m/s flow rate check the frictional drop: hf = [(0.021 × 2000 × 0.5422)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × 1.0622)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] hf = 1.8 + 6.2 = 8 m. Problem 7.21. A 300 mm dia pipe carries kerosene at a rate of 200 l/s. The roughness is 0.2 mm. Determine the frictional drop over 100 m length of pipe. using equation (7.11.13). ∴
1 f

= (0.542 × π × 0.352)/4 = 0.0521 m3/s or 187.7 m3/hr

= 2 log

0.15 R + 1.74 = 2 log + 1.74 = 7.49 0.2 × 10 −3 ε
u = 4 × 0.2/π × 0.32 = 2.829 m/s

f = 0.01782 m hf =

u2 0.01782 × 1000 × u 2 + = 3.0785u2 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.81 × 0.3

substituting the value of u, hf = 24.65 m (head of kerosene) Problem 7.22. Water is drawn from a reservoir through a pipe of diameter D and a constant friction factor f. Along the length water is drawn off at the rate of Km3/s per unit length and the length is L. There is no flow at the end. Derive an expression for the loss of head.

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
Pipe K (L – X) X dx K (L – X) – Kdx

253

Figure P. 7.22

Consider a length dx at location x, using the equation, the drop dh over length dx is hf =

fLu 2 2 gD

∴ dh =

fdx u2 D 2g

(1)

At this location, the flow rate Q can be obtained as Q = K(L – x), as total flow is KL and draw off upto x is Kx. u= Substituting in eqn. (1) dh =
4Q πD
2

, u2 =

16Q 2 π 2 D4

=

16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 π2 D4

8 fK 2 fdx 16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 = (L – x)2 dx 2 5 2g gπ 2 D 5 π D
L

Integrating from x = 0 to L

8 fK 2 h2 – h1 = hf = gπ 2 D 5
∴ for the following data, hf =

z

fK 2 L3 [ L2 − 2 Lx + x 2 ]dx = 8 L3 − L3 + 2 5 3 gπ D 0

LM N

OP Q

8 fL3 K 2 ( Note: K has a unit m3/sm) 3 gπ 2 D 5

f = 0.024, K = 7.5 l/hr/m = 2.085 × 10–6 m3/s/m, D = 0.1 m, L = 4.8 × 103 m, hf =

8 × 0.024 × (4.8 × 10 3 ) 3 (2.085 × 10 −6 ) 2 = 31.73 m 3 × 9.81 × π 2 × 0.15
Chapter 7

The head drop between lengths L1 and L2 can be determined by difference i.e., (hf2 – hf1) Problem 7.23. A pipe line 200 mm dia. and 4000 m long connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 60 m. Water is drawn at 1500 m point at a rate of 50 l/s. Friction coefficient f = 0.024. Determine the flow rates in the two sections. Neglect minor losses
4Q fLu 2 8 fLQ 2 16Q 2 2 hf = ,u= 2 ,u = 2 2 , hf = 2 gD πD π 2 gD 5 π D

Considering the two sections, (total drop) 60 =

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × Q12 8 × 0.024 × 2500 × Q2 2 + π 2 g × 0.25 π 2 g × 0.25

= 9295.5 Q12 + 15492.54 Q22

254
but or

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
Q22 = (Q1 – 0.05)2, Substituting and simplifying 60 = 9295.52 Q12 + 1549.25(Q12 + 0.052 – 2Q1 × 0.05) 24788.05 Q12 – 1549 .25 Q1 – 21.268 = 0 Q1 = =

1549.25 ± [( − 1549.25) 2 + 4 × 21.268 × 24788.05]0.5 2 × 24788.05

1549.25 ± 2123.45 = 0.074082 m3/s, 2 × 24788.05 ∴ Q2 = 0.024082 m3/s The other solution is negative.
Check: For the first section hf = For the second section

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × 0.074082 2 = 51.015 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

8 × 0.024 × 2500 × 0.024082 2 hf = = 8.985 m, π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

Total head = 60 m

Problem 7.24. Two adjacent city centres B and D receive water from separate sources A and C. The water level in A is 4 m above that in C. Reservoir A supplies city centre B by 0.4 m diameter pipe of 3000 m length with a level difference of 10 m. City centre D’s is supplied by reservoir C through a 4000 m long pipe of 0.45 m diameter, with a level difference of 15 m. After sometime it is found that centre B has excess water while centre D is staraved. So it is proposed to interconnect these lines and draw 100 l/s from the line A to B. The junction on AB is at a distance of 2000 m from A. The junction CD is at 3000 m from C. Determine the original supply rates and supply rates with interconnection to centres B and D. Also determine the diameter of the interconnecting pipe, if the length is 1500 m Friction factor, f = 0.01 in all cases. The arrangement is shown in Fig. P. 7.24
A 4m 2000 m 0.4 m f R 1000 m 1500 m S C

10 m

3000 m 0.45 m f

15 m

1000 m B E D

Figure P. 7.24

(i) Without interconnection : using equation 7.11.15 hf =

8 fLQ 2 π 2 gD 5

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
Drop in Line AB is 10 m 10 = ∴

255
8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

QAB = 0.20325 m3/s or 203.25 l/s

Drop in line CD is 15 m

8 × 0.01 × 4000 × Q 2 15 = π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455
∴ QCD = 0.2894 m3/s or 289.4 l/s After interconnection: line AB: Let the flow up to R be Q and then in RB (Q – 0.1) Total frictional loss = 10 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q − 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5
231 l/s

This reduces to 3Q2 – 0.2Q – 0.11393 = 0. Solving Q = 0.231 m3/s or Now the centre B will receive 131 l/s (previous 203 l/s) Line CD: Let the flow upto S be Q and then (Q + 0.1) upto D Total head loss = 15 =

8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q + 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.45 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455
261 l/s

This reduces to 4Q2 + 0.2Q – 0.32499 = 0 Solving Q = 0.261 m3/s or Now the city center C will receive 361 l/s (previous 289.4 l/s) To determine the diameter of the connecting pipe RS: Head drop from A to R hf1 = Head drop from S to E hf2 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × 0.2312 = 8.61 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5 8 × 0.01 × 1000 × 0.3612 = 5.84 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

Head drop from A to E = 4 + 15 = 19 m ∴ Head available between RS = 19 – 8.61 – 5.84 = 4.55 m Considering Pipe RS 4.55 =

8 × 0.01 × 1500 × 0.12 Solving D = 0.307 m. π 2 × 9.81 × D 5

Chapter 7

256 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
O Q. 7.1. Fill in the blanks:

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the velocity distribution with radius is –––––––––––. 2. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the shear stress variation with radius is –––––––––––. 3. A dye injected into laminar stream will travel –––––––––––. 4. Momentum transfer in laminar flow is at ––––––––––– level. 5. For laminar flow to prevail in a duct the value of Reynolds number should be –––––––––––. 6. The friction factor is defined as –––––––––––. 7. The friction factor in laminar flow is pipes in given by –––––––––––. 8. In laminar flow in a pipe the shear stress is maximum at –––––––––––. 9. Reynolds number is the ratio between ––––––––––– and ––––––––––– forces. 10. 11. The energy line represents –––––––––––. The hydraulic line represents –––––––––––.

Answers
(1) Parabolic (2) Linear (3) along a line without mixing (4) Microscopic, molecular (5) less than 2000. (6) 4 τ0 g0/(ρum2/2), (7) 64/Re (8) The wall (9) inertia, viscous (10) Total energy at each location (11) The pressure energy at the location. O Q. 7.2. Fill in the blanks 1. In laminar flow is through a pipe the average velocity is ––––––––––– of the maximum velocity. 2. In flow through pipes, the flow ––––––––––– change from laminar to turbulent condition. 3. Hydraulic diameter is defined as ––––––––––– 4. Hydraulic radius is defined as ––––––––––– 5. Entrance length is defined as ––––––––––– 6. In laminar flow the entrance length is approximately ––––––––––– 7. A pipe is hydraulically smooth when 6 ε is ––––––––––– 8. A pipe is hydraulically rough when ––––––––––– 9. Chart relating friction factor, Reynolds number and pipe roughness is known as ––––––––––– 10. 11. 12. For flow in non circular pipes, the length parameter used in Reynolds number calculation is –– ––––––––– In a network of pipes the algebraic sum of the frictional losses around any circuit will be ––––– –––––– In a network of pipes at any node the algebraic sum of flows will be –––––––––––

Answers
(1) One half of (2) does not (3) 4A/P, A-Area P-Perimeter (4) A/P (5) the length above which the velocity profile becomes constant (6) 0.58 Re D (7) less than δi (8) δ1 < 6 ε, (9) Moody diagram (10) Hydraulic diameter (11) zero (12) zero O. Q. 7.3. Fill in the blanks 1. The entrance head loss for square edged entrance is –––––––––––. 2. The head loss due to sudden expansion is –––––––––––. 3. The frictional loss in globe valve is ––––––––––– compared to that in gate valve. 4. To reduce losses in large bends ––––––––––– can be used.

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
5. Minor losses are losses due to –––––––––––. 6. The very thin layer adjacent to the wall in turbulent flow is callecl –––––––––––. 7. The velocity variation is ––––––––––– in laminar sublayer. 8. Equivalent length of pipe fitting is –––––––––––. 9. Equivalent length of a pipe as referred to another pipe is –––––––––––. 10. 11.

257

For the same flow area and flow rate, a square section will give a ––––––––––– pressure drop. For a given available head, maximum power will be transmitted when the frictional loss of head equals ––––––––––– of the total head.

Answers
(1) (2) (u1 – u2 (3) larger (4) vanes (5) changes in section and fittings (6) laminar sublayer (7) linear (8) pipe length with the same frictional drop (9) the length to produce the same frictional drop for the same flow (10) higher (11) 1/3 O Q. 7.4. Choose the correct answer 1. Reynolds number is given by (a) ρuµ/D, (b) µDρ/u, (c) ρu/µD (d) ρuD/µ. 2. Reynolds number signifies the ratio of (a) gravity forces top viscous forces (c) inertia forces to gravity forces (a) 640 (a) highly viscous fluids (c) high velocity of flow (b) 5 × 105 (b) inertial forces to viscous forces (d) buoyant forces to inertia forces. (c) 2000 (b) low viscosity fluid (d) small diameters (d) 64000 0.5u2/2g )2/2g

3. In pipe flow the critical Reynolds number is about 4. The entry length in pipe flow will be higher for

5. A pipe is said to be hydraulically rough if the laminar sublayer thickness δL as compared to physical roughness ε is (a) δL > ε (b) δL < ε (c) δL > 6ε (d) δL < 6ε. 6. With constant flow rate if the diameter is doubled in laminar flow in pipes, the frictional drop will change by a factor of (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 0.5 (b) 0.5 (c) 1/32 (c) (d) 1/16. (d) 1/ 2 . 7. In laminar fully developed flow in a pipe the ratio, average velocity/maximum velocity is

2

(a) 32 times

(b) 16 times

(c) 8 times

(d) 4 times.

9. In laminar pipe flow for a given flow rate Q, the power required to overcome friction will be proportional to (a) Q 10. (b) Q2 (c)

Q

(d) Q3/2.

In turbulent flow in a pipe with flow rate Q the power required to overcome frictional losses is proportional to (a) Q (b) Q2 (c) Q3 (d) Q4 The shear stress at the wall of a 16 cm dia pipe in laminar flow is 36 N/m2. The shear stress at a radius of 4 cm in N/m2 is (a) 9 (b) 18 (c) 6 (d) 72

11.

Chapter 7

8. In fully developed turbulent flow, if the diameter is halved without changing the flow rate, the frictional drop will change by the factor

If velocity is doubled the pressure drop will reduce to half the value. 1.) (a) 0. 16. (a) 9. (i. 7. (c) 4. For the same sectional area and flow rate square section will lead to lower frictional drop. 5.. (b) 10. A bell mouthed inlet is desirable. 6. An oil with a density of 800 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 8 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows through a smooth pipe of 100 mm dia.5 (b) 0. (d) 13. (b) 3. square section will have a lower Reynolds Number. (b) O Q. 8. Incorrect: 2. (d) 2. Pipes of equal diameter and equal roughness will have the same friction factor. (d) 4. 14.5. For the same total sectional area two equal diameter pipes will deliver more than a single pipe for the same pressure drop. (b) 16. 15. 4. Friction factor will be higher in laminar flow. (d) 14.414 (c) 0. after the entry length the velocity profile ––––––––––. 3. 12 O Q. 6. In flow over a flat plate.0 (b) logarithmic (d) 4th degree polynomial. 10. (b) 12.64 (d) 1/1. 2. 6. 5. The velocity profile after the entry section in a pipe will remain the same. In flow through pipes. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity along the centre line in laminar flow through a pipe of 8 cm dia is 2 m/s. 10. 3.0. .258 12. (d) 0. (a) 5.025 (c) 1. For the same flow rate and friction factor. 4. The maximum velocity for laminar flow to prevail will be (in m/s. For a specified flow of fluid in a pipe. (b). The velocity at a radius of 2 cm in m/s is (a) 1 (b) 1.414. the boundary layer thickness –––––––––– with distance. 11. 7. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect 1. 8. Blood flow in blood vessels is turbulent.e. As Reynolds number decreases in laminar flow in pipes. Fill in the blanks with ‘‘increases’’.05. Answers 1.2 (c) 1. The friction factor in pipe flow at near critical conditions is around (a) 0. 2.6. In turbulent flow for the same diameter and friction factor the pressure drop for a given length will vary as the square of flow rate. Answers Correct 1. ‘‘decreases’’ for ‘‘remains constant’’. 11. The velocity profile in turbulent flow is (a) parabolic (c) 2nd degree polynomial 13. The development of flow over a flat plate and entry section of a pipe will be similar. the friction factor ––––––––––. (c) 11. In the household pipe system the flow of water is laminar. 9. 5. 12. (b) 8. 4. 7. (a) (15). 9. (d) 7. 3. with fixed mass velocity) the Reynolds number will – ––––––––– as the dynamic viscosity of the fluid increases.4 (b) 0. For the same sectional area and flow rate.032. The Reynolds number should be around (a) 1280 (b) 1000 (c) 640 (d) 2000.7.064 The friction factor in laminar flow in a pipe was measured as 0. the pressure drop in turbulent flow will –––––––––– as the diameter increases.

127 m/s. B – 4. (Re = 54. C – 2. (e) head loss/m. Minor losses will –––––––––– as velocity increases. the length –––––––––– 10. 4 2g (b) velocity at r = 2 cm. 7. 3.5. Match the pairs: (1) (A) Laminar flow (B) Turbulent flow (C) Laminar pipe flow (D) Turbulent pipe flow (2) In pipe flow.7. f ρu2 . Find the average velocity in terms of maximum velocity.2. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 1. Show that the wall shear in laminar flow through a pipe τ0 = E 7.85 flows in a pipe of 100 mm dia. 6 O Q. (d) wall shear and (0. Show that in laminar flow through a pipe f = 64/Re. 7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 7. 0. the length –––––––––– 9. 9 Remains constant: 2. Determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent. 0.5 l/s. When two pipes in parallel flow are replaced by a single pipe with its area equal to the sum of the areas of the two pipes.37 × 10–3 m/m) Chapter 7 E 7. 8. Show that the velocity profile in laminar flow through a circular pipe is parabolic. For the data in problem E 7. the flow rate being 0. For a specified roughness.. 5. 0. 0. An oil with specific gravity of 0. determine (a) centre line velocity.8 × 10–5 m2/s.4. When a pipe with a lower friction factor is converted to an equivalent pipe with higher friction factor. 259 6.1.3.18.1. C – 2.077 N/m2. When a pipe of smaller diameter is converted to an equivalent pipe of larger diameter. the flow rate will –––––––––– Answers Increases: 1. D – 1 (2) A – 4. 10 Decreases : 4. E 7. (c) friction factor.107 m/s. Laminar) E 7. D – 1 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 7. (A) Sudden expansion (B) u/umax (C) Square entrance (D) Globe valve (1) 10u2/2g (2) 0. beyond a certain Reynolds number the friction factor –––––––––– 8. B – 3. .5u2/2g (3) 1 – (r/R)2 (4) ∆u2/2g (1) Logarithmic velocity profile (2) Parabolic velocity profile (3) Molecular level mixing (4) Macroscopic mixing Answers (1) A – 3.

034. The friction factors are 0. (ii) Contraction from 0.02 60 m B 480 m 0.9. Oil of specific gravity 0.021 and 0.15 m f.42 m3/s) gradient (hf/L) is 0.042. Three pipes in series connect two water reservoirs with a level difference of 10 m. 150 m and 250 m respectively. Neglecting minor losses. The head loss over a length of 120 m was found to be 16 m. Is the flow laminar or turbulent? (0. A riveted steel pipe of 300 mm dia.5 m.006. determine the flow rate.10. Show from basics that in sudden contraction.14.2 m to 0. and 720 m length having a friction factor of 0. 0.1 m f f = 0. Determine the flow rate if the roughness height is 3 mm.06 m3/s.124 m3/s) E 7. Determine the diameter of the pipe to convey 250 l/s of oil over 3000 m length with a loss of 25 (413 mm) m.6. the head available being 6 m.15 m.04 connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m. Determine in the following cases the loss of head (Hint. Re = 11475.13. Calculate the pressure difference between sections. The pipe line rises to a level of 3 m above the level of the upper reservoir at a distance of 240 m.45 m to 0. E.6 cm of water) E 7. (0. Pipe lines as shown in Fig.032 1200 m. 0. turbulent) E 7. If the energy (0. E.083 m3/s) E 7.024 C 36 m 15 m Datum Figure E.8.260 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 7.699 m) .15 m. Show using the expression in E 7. (iii) Contraction from 0.54 m. the loss of head equals (V2 – V1)2/2g. v = 1 × 10–5 m2/s.3 m to 0. determine the flow rate v = 1 × 10–6 m2/s. where Cc = Ac/A2. The pipe diameters are 30 cm. (0.2 m f. 7. 0. (i) Contraction from 0. 0. the coefficient of contraction has a value of 0. Water at 20 °C flows through a 50 cm dia. A and B.673 m. 20 cm and 25 cm. 0. E 7.7. – 5. f = 0.9 E 7. Determine the value of friction factor.13. 7.12.15. | |Q T W 2 2 2 c E 7. at a rate of 0.51 m3/s. the pressure difference across a sudden contraction is V22 (P1 – P2)/γ = 2 g 1 + given by LM MN RF 1 I − 1U OP − V |G J | SH C K V P 2 g . E 7. 7. In the case of formation of vena contracta show that the loss equals [(1/Cc) – 1]2/2g. see problem E 9.9 and dynamic viscosity 5. A pipeline 1.13 and 14). pipe with roughness ε/R = 0. 0.02 respectively.62. A pipe carries 56 l/s of water and there is a sudden change in diameter. (2.019.2 m dia. f = 0. the lengths being 300 m.192 m in all cases. 0.013 m3/s) A 600 m.055 m3/s.00018.11. Determine the flow rate and the pressure at the highest point.992 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows in a pipe of 15 cm dia. Determine the flow rates in lines C.9 provide water supply from a reservoir. carries water over a length of 300 m. (0. (0. 0.

6 m dia.65 l/s) E 7.51 m3/s. Assuming f = 0.3 m f 15 m 30 m 1500 m 0. Determine the maximum length of the run so that the pressure at this point does not go more than 3 m below atmosphere. f = 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 261 E 7. The first run ends at a level 1.0232 for the pipes.20.22.24.17.24 E 7.19.852 m) E 7. The enlargement is sudden. (0. and 1500 m length to a common junction from where a pipe of 1200 mm diameter and 2400 m length carries it to the lower reservoir. 200 mm for the first run and 150 mm for the second run. Water is drawn from a reservoir through two pipes of 900 mm dia.3 m f 1500 m 0. neglect other losses. Derive the following expression the loss of head due to sudden expansion.5 m below the level of the higher reservoir and the total difference in levels is 13.024. (2034 m.973 m3/s) Chapter 7 . f = 0. Discharge is to atmosphere.3 l/s) E 7. Water is conveyed by a pipe line of 1.76 l/s) E 7. the first of 50 mm dia. Supply is drawn uniformly at the rate of 7. Also calculate the flow rate. The friction coefficient for both sections is 0. and 720 m length from a reservoir whose level is 6 m above the level of down stream reservoir. A pipe line of two sections. If the flow rate through the first pipe is 60 l/s.1 m) E 7.5 l/hr per m length along the length of 4800 m pipe.3 m dia. Determine the flow to reservoirs B and C.25. two pipes of 0.04. determine the flow rate. Water is transported from reservoir A to reservoirs B and C by pipe line system shown in Fig.02 m.02 and the other pipe is 4000 m long and its diameter is 120 mm. Determine the pressure at this point and also the flow rate.7 l/s) A 1500 m 0. If the difference in water levels is 10 m. Qc = 90. of 3000 m length takes off from the higher reservoir and feeds to a junction from which. Show that it can be reduced to the form k V12/2g where k = [1 – (A1/A2)]2. f1 = 0.02. (37. (72. and 3000 m length each feed the water in parallel to the lower reservoir.5 m. hf = (V1 – V22)/2g. A single pipe of 0.16.04.2 m dia. (0. 7.24. f = 0.04 (2. f = 0.6 m of water) E 7. (0. 7. Determine the discharge through a pipe system described below connecting two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m.3 m f B C Figure E.3 l/s. E. one of the pipes downstream is closed for maintenance.0207 m3/s) E 7. The friction factor is 0. The pipe line due to the terrain has to be laid such that its level is 3 m above that of the first reservoir level at a distance of 240 m from the entry. The entry is sharp edged. E 7. Determine the difference in height between the reservoir level and the discharge point. 0. determine the flow rate through the second pipe.21. (QB = 28. connects two reservoirs. determine the flow rate.0192 and 0. If in the problem E 7. 5.23. One pipe is 5000 m long and the diameter is 100 mm.025. For a head loss of m 31 m determine the diameter of the pipe to provide the flow. The values of friction factor are 0. A pipe line of total length 3000 m is made up of two diameters.22. (94.18. Neglect minor losses. Two reservoirs are connected in parallel by two pipes. and 15 m length and the second of 75 mm dia and 24 m length connected in series empties a reservoir at the rate of 168 l/min.

(2.28. Determine the maximum height of the ridge that the line can cross if the pressure at this point should not go below 3 m of water (absolute). The tip of the nozzle is 9 m above pump outlet. f = 0. pipe with friction factor f = 0.008 m3/s. one inlet branch is shut off for maintenance.347 m3/s) .9 m dia.25.16 l/s) E 7. (72.5 m is 40 m long.30. 0. Also determine the flow rate.44 m. 3000 m length of 0.13m3/s.94. determine the flow rate. calculate the flow rate. Determine the flow rate in the first branch. At this point 36 l/s water is drawn off and the diameter is reduced to 0. The pipe diameter is 600 mm. If one of the pipes in the middle section is blocked.048. The discharge coefficient of the nozzle is 0.3 m for the next 3000 m.307 m3/s) E 7. The distance upto the ridge is 300 m.64 m dia.04.425 m) E 7.29. Express the head loss as slope.02. pipe takes off from the reservoir. 0. (0. Determine the head loss required for a flow rate of 9 m3/s. A smooth concrete duct of square section of side 1.26. A ridge interposes between two reservoirs whose level difference is 30 m.27.56 m3/s) E 7.1/100) E 7. E 7. 1.262 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (1. f = 0. Calculate the head to be developed by the pump for a flow rate of 480 l/min. and 180 m length ends in a nozzle of 25 mm dia. (5 m.31. f= 0. 1. Two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m are connected by a pipe system.021. If the middle 1 km pipe is replaced by two pipes of 0. If in the problem E 7. calculate the flow rate. The total length of the pipe is 3000 m. Determine the flow rate. (43. Two reservoirs with a level difference of 40 m are connected by a 3 km long.6 m dia. A fire hose of 75 mm dia. f = 0. 2.03.

The topic is discussed in the next chapter.& 8. The mathematical method of dimensional analysis comes to our help in this situation. If the effect of each of these parameters on flow is separately studied the number of experiments will be large. Viscosity. flow velocity and diameter are found to influence the flow. In addition these groups facilitate the presentation of the results of the experiments effectively and also to generalize the results so that these can be applied to similar situations. Depending either solely on analytical methods or experiments for the design of systems is found to lead to inadequate performance and high cost. Dimensional analysis is found to be a very useful tool in achieving this objective. for example velocity u. fluid properties and fluid velocity. The use of the results of dimensional analysis is the basis for similitude and modal studies.0 INTRODUCTION Dimensional Analysis Fluid flow is influenced by several parameters like. the geometry. Experimental methods and results have contributed heavily for the development of fluid mechanics. Flow through pipes can be considered as an example. 263 . The results will be applicable for various combinations of these parameters and so the results can be generalized and extended to new situations. Also these results cannot be generalized and its usefulness will be limited.1 illustrates the advantage dimensional analysis in experiment planning. This parameter can be varied by varying one of the variables which will be the easier one to vary. The solution of realistic problems usually involves both anlytical and experimental studies. Experimental work is rather costly and time consuming. When the number of these variables are combined to form a dimensionless group like (u D ρ/µ) few experiments will be sufficient to obtain useful information. Experiments are used to validate analytical results as well as generalize and extend their applications. particularly when more than three parameters are involved. Hence it is necessary to plan the experiments so that most information is obtained from fewest experiments. In the study of flow of real fluids analytical methods alone are found insufficient. density. The results will be applicable also for different fluids and different diameters provided the value of the group remains the same. In the previous chapters analytical methods used in fluid flow studies were discussed. The number of parameters can be reduced generally to three by grouping relevant variables to form dimensionless parameters. Example 8.

F ρu D 2 2 =f FG ρ uD IJ H µ K (The method to obtain such grouping is the main aim of this chapter) Now only 10 experiments are needed to obtain a comprehensive information about the effect of these five parameters. fluid density ρ and viscosity µ. For example in the problem in example 1 one can write (π1. being zero as π terms are dimensionless. Some examples are: Viscous force vs inertia force. π2) = F a ρbDcµdUe The values of a. Note : It will be almost impossible to find fluids with 10 different densities and 10 different viscosities. c.264 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8. These parameters can be combined to obtain two dimensionless parameters. µ and D.1 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS 1. for fixed values of ρ. To study the effect of ρ these 10 experiments should be repeated 10 times with 10 values of ρ the total now being 102. . Indicate how the number of experiments can be reduced. To obtain a curve F vs u. Buckingham Pi theorem method: The application of this theorem provides a fairly easy method to identify dimensionless parameters (numbers). velocity u. Total experiments for u. 3. This is a difficult exercise and considerable experience is required in this case.1. Rayleigh method: A functional power relation is assumed between the parameters and then the values of indices are solved for to obtain the grouping. Hence total experiments required = 104. Assuming that to study the influence of a parameter 10 experimental points are necessary.H. and e are obtained by comparing the dimensions on both sides the dimensions on the L. The drag force F on a stationary sphere in flow is found to depend on diameter D. To study the effect of variation of diameter all the experiments have to be repeated 10 times each. and obtaining ratios of similar quantities. This is also tedious and considerable expertise is needed to form these groups as the number of unknowns will be more than the number of available equations. 8. This method is also called ‘‘indicial” method. b. experiments needed = 10. Experiments can be conducted for obtaining this information by varying the parameter (uDρ/µ) and determining the values for F/ρu2D2. ρ and µ = 103.S. 2. This method is illustrated extensively throughout this chapter. The 102 experiments have to repeated 10 times each for different values of µ. d. Intuitive method: This method relies on basic understanding of the phenomenon and then identifying competing quantities like types of forces or lengths etc. However identification of the influencing parameters is the job of an expert rather than that of a novice. viscous force vs gravity force or roughness dimension vs diameter. estimate the total experimental points needed to obtain complete information.

.. . It is also possible to form new dimensionless π parameters as a discrete function of the (n – m) parameters. 8. For example if there are four dimensionless parameters π1. 8. q2. The value of the constants in such equations will vary with the system of units used.3 BUCKINGHAM PI THEOREM The statement of the theorem is as follows : If a relation among n parameters exists in the form f(q1. Later experiments will show that the π term with the doubtful Chapter 8 Irrespective of the method used the following steps will systematise the procedure.... π6 etc. . It states ‘‘If an equation truly expresses a proper relationship between variables in a physical phenomenon.1 Determination of π Groups Step 1.3.. . π2 . then each of the additive terms will have the same dimensions or these should be dimensionally homogeneous. if an equation of the following form expresses a relationship between variables in a process.3.. In such cases. q1.. In the expression..1 cannot be obtained from the analysis. B and (C/D) each should have the same dimension. A + B = C/D. This principle is used in dimensional analysis to form dimensionless groups.5 The limitation of this exercise is that the exact functional relationship in equation 8.1) where m is the number of dimensions required to specify the dimensions of all the parameters...’’ For example.2 THE PRINCIPLE OF DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY 265 The principle is basic for the correctness of any equation..Dimensional Analysis 8. π terms may be formed but experiments then will indicate these as inadequate to describe the phenomenon. Another application of this principle is the checking of the equations derived. Note : Some empirical equations used in fluid mechanics may appear to be non homogeneous... A... as π5 = π1 π3π4 or π6 = π 22/ 3 π 10. q2.. Equations which are dimensionally homogeneous can be used without restrictions about the units adopted. π3 .. πn–m) = 0 or π1 = g1 (π2. πn–m) (8. the numeric constants are dimensional. The functional relationship is generally arrived at through the use of experimental results. This has to be very carefully done. If unsure the parameter can be added. List all the parameters that influence the phenomenon concerned. qn. expressed in the form g(π1. π3 and π4 it is possible to obtain π5. qn) = 0 then the n parameters can be grouped into n – m independent dimensionless ratios or π parameters. π2. If some parameters are left out.. then each of the additive term should have the same dimensions..3...

3. Energy Power Density Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Surface tension Specific heat Thermal conductivity Convective heat transfer coefficient Expansion coefficient W/m2 K (m/m)/K M/T3 θ 1/T F/LTθ 1/T Nm J. Lists the dimensions of various parameters involved. Units and Dimensions of Variables Variable Mass Length Time Force Temperature Area Volume Volume flow rate Mass flow rate Velocity Angular velocity Force Pressure. List the dimensions of all parameters in terms of the chosen set of primary dimensions. J/s kg/m3 kg/ms.1. Hence a careful choice of the parameters will help in solving the problem with least effort.3. Nm W. Ns/m2 m2/s N/m J/kg K W/mK ML2/T2 ML2/T2 ML2/T3 M/L3 M/LT L2/T M/T2 L2/T2 θ ML/T3 θ FL FL FL/T FT2/L4 FT/L2 L2/T F/L L2/T 2θ F/Tθ Unit (SI) kg m s N deg C or K m2 m3 m3/s kg/s m/s Rad/s N N/m2 Dimension MLT θ system M L T ML/T2 θ L2 L3 L3/T M/T L/T 1/T ML/T2 M/LT2 FLT θ system FT2/L L T F θ L2 L3 L3/T FT/L L/T 1/T F F/L2 . (force.266 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery parameters as useful or otherwise. Table 8. Select a set of primary dimensions. stress. length and time). (mass. (mass. Usually three type of parameters may be identified in fluid flow namely fluid properties. time and temperature) are some of the sets used popularly. Table 8. Bulk modulus Moment Work. length and time).1. Step 2. Step 3. length. geometry and flow parameters like velocity and pressure.

to determine π terms numbering n – m. L3. d can be obtained. and in turn comparing indices of mass. b. Example 8. Set up a dimensional equation with the repeating set and one of the remaining parameters. evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the flow. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameter Pressure drop/m. (iii) the dependent parameter to be determined should not be chosen. Thus the π term will be defined. Choosing the set mass. S. Substituting dimensions. Hence a = 1.No. c and d. q3c . b. qmd As the LHS term is dimensionless. (b) Using Rayleigh method (power index) evaluate the dimensionless parameters. ∆P Diameter. Hence two π terms can be obtained. (a) Using π theorem method..2. The pressure drop ∆P per unit length in flow through a smooth circular pipe is found to depend on (i) the flow velocity. c. Substituting the value of indices we obtain Chapter 8 Using the principle of dimensional homogeneity. – 2 + a – 3b + c = 0 ∴ a + c = – 1 ∴ c = – 2.. The solution of these set of equations will give the values of a. q2b . Step 5. As ∆P is the dependent variable D.. say L. π1 = qm+1 . This step is essential before proceeding with experiments to determine the functional relationship between the π terms. D (iii) density of the fluid ρ. Some guidelines are necessary for the choice. ρ and µ are chosen as repeating variables.. and (iv) the dynamic viscosity µ. time and length as primary dimensions. Select from the list of parameters a set of repeating parameters equal to the number of primary dimensions. Check whether π terms obtained are dimensionless. µ Unit used (N/m2/m (N = kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimension M/L2T 2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. Step 6.Dimensional Analysis 267 Step 4. The form of the equation is. length and time. u Density. Let π1 = ∆P Daρbuc. an equation for each dimension in terms of a. u (ii) diameter of the pipe. L2. (i) the chosen set should contain all the dimensions (ii) two parameters with same dimensions should not be chosen. in turn to obtain n – m such equations. M0L0T0 = M L2 T 2 La M b Lc L3b T c 1+b=0 –2–c=0 ∴ b = – 1. D Velocity. q1a . ρ Dynamic viscosity. . the dimensions of the parameters are tabulated.

Rayleigh method: (Also called method of Indices). variables.3. b = 0. – 2a + d – e = 0 There are five unknowns and three equations. The parameter π1/π2 will give the dimensionless term. – 2a + b – 3c – d + e = 0. DPaDbrcmdue = (p1 p2). ρ. (p1 p2) = DPm/r2 u3. In case D. This method requires more expertise and understanding of the basics of the phenomenon. substituting dimensions and considering the indices of M. c = – 2. We can assume a = 1. Example 8. Ma L2 a T 2 a Lb Mc Md Le L3 c Ld T d T e = L0 M0 T0 Considering indices of M. Same as was obtained by p theorem method. a + c = – 2. Similarly. diameter D and average roughness height e. The significance of this π term is that it is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. M0L0T0 = 1 + b = 0 or ∴ check. average velocity u. In this case π1 represents the ratio pressure force/viscous force. c=–1 a=–1 Substituting the value of indices. L and T. Multiply and divide by D. Hence some assumptions are necessary based on the nature of the phenomenon. . b = – 1. m appears only in the viscous force. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This represents the ratio of pressure force and inertia force. studying the forces. There can be two p terms as there are five variables and three dimensions. the dependent variable can be considered to appear only once. e = – 3. So π2 can be modified as π2 = ρuD/µ also π2 = (uD/v). dynamic viscosity µ. π2 = µ/uρD M T L3 1 = M0L0T 0 LT L M L This term may be recognised as inverse of Reynolds number. The pressure drop ∆P in flow of incompressible fluid through rough pipes is found to depend on the length l. Solving a = 1. As DP. d = 1. Determine the dimensionless groups to correlate the flow parameters. π1 = ∆PD2/u µ and π2 = ρDu/µ. L and T. M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. u and µ had been choosen as the repeating. then p1 = DPD/ru2 and p2 = m/ruD. So we can assume d = 1. fluid density. ∆P D/ρu2. three equations are obtained as below a + c + d = 0. This flow phenomenon is influenced by the three forces namely pressure force. The following functional relationship is formed first. Substituting dimensions. – 1 – c = 0.268 ∴ Check the dimension : π1 = ∆PD/ρu2. M L2 T 2 L L3 T 2 = M0L0T 0 M L2 Let π2 = µ Da ρbuc. viscous force and inertia force.

b and c in all cases). a = – 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable ∆P l u ρ µ D e Unit N/m2 L m/s kg/m3 kg/ms L L Dimension M/LT2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT L L 269 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. π2 = L uaDb ρc.Dimensional Analysis The variables with units and dimensions are listed below. D and ρ as repeating variables. ∴ b = – 1. b = 0. e . Selecting u. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. ρuD OP ND D µ Q Chapter 8 ∴ π4 = e/D . Consider π3 M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L ∴ π2 = L/D Comparing the indices of µm. π4 = e uaDbρc M0L0T0 = M LT 2 La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating the indices of M. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. ρ π1 = ∆P/ρu2 M0L0T0 = L La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating indices of M. – 2 – a = 0. gives 1 + c = 0 or ∴ Consider π4. – a = 0. L and T. S. So four π terms can be identified. c = – 1. L and T. π3 = µ ua Db ρc. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. b = – 1 These π terms may be checked for dimensionless nature. a = 0. L and T. c = – 1. c = 0. c = 0. ρ π3 = µ/ρDu M0L0T0 = L La Ta Lb ∴ b=–1 or ρuD/µ µ Mc L3c This gives. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. The relationship can be expressed as ∆P ρu 2 =f LM L . Let Consider π1. no problem will arise in using indices a. Substituting the value of indices we get ∴ Consider π2.No. 1 + c = 0. π1 = ∆P uaDbρc. (as these sets are separate equations. – 1 – a = 0 or a = – 1.

4 IMPORTANT DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Some of the important dimensionless groups used in fluid mechanics are listed in Table 8. ω–Frequency of oscillation P/ρu2 u/(gl)0. .5 CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA Dimensional analysis can only lead to the identification of relevant dimensionless groups. Re Froude Number Fr Euler Number Eu Cauchy Number Ca Mach Number M Strouhal Number St Weber Number We Lift coefficient CL ρu2l/σ. indicating significance and area of application of each. c–Velocity of sound ωl/u.4.1 Important Dimensionless Parameters Name Reynolds Number. The exact functional relations between them can be established only by experiments. σ = Surface tension L/(1/2 ρAu2) L = lift force ρu2/Ev (Ev– bulk modulous) u/c.4. The degree of difficulty involved in experimentation will depend on the number of π terms.1.5 or u2/gl Pressure force/ Inertia force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Local inertia Force/ Convective inertia force Inertia force/ Surface tension force Lift force/ Dynamic force Problems influenced by surface tension free surface flow Aerodynamics Unsteady flow with frequency of oscillation Compressible flow Description ρuD/µ or uD/v Significance Inertia force/ Viscous force Inertia force/ Gravity force Applications All types of fluid dynamics problems Flow with free surface (open channel and ships) Flow driven by pressure compressible flow 8. Table 8.270 8.

If the dimensional analysis is valid then a single universal relationship can be obtained. 8. Equating indices of M. The valid range should be between the two extreme values used in the experiment. diameter and viscosity. 1 2 3 4 Parameter Drag Force Diameter Velocity Viscosity Symbol F D u µ Unit N or kgm/s2 m m/s kg/ms Dimension ML/T2 L L/T M/LT There are four parameters and three dimensions. c = – 1. to obtain a reliable value for c. In this case an approximate solution was obtained theoretically for c as 3π.1 Problems with One Pi Term 271 In this case a direct functional relationship will be obtained but a constant c has to be determined by experiments. The drag force acting on a spherical particle of diameter D falling slowly through a viscous fluid at velocity u is found to be influenced by the diameter D. A single test will provide the value of the constant.5. Example 8. Chapter 8 . Hence drag force F in free fall is given by F = 3πµuD. 1 + a + b – c = 0. Substituting dimensions.4. namely density will lead to another π term. L. Extrapolation may lead to erroneous conclusions. The parameters are listed below using M.5.5. S. Linear semilog or log/log plots may have to be used to obtain such a relationship. Inclusion of additional variable. This can be established by experiments. velocity of fall u. b = – 1. the experiments may have to be repeated changing the values of the parameters. However.4.No. The relationship will be of the form π1 = c. T dimension set. Experiments should be conducted by varying one of the group say π1 and from the measurement the values of the other group π2 is calculated. L and T 0 = 1 + c. A suitable graph (or a computer program) can lead to the functional relationship between the π terms. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a relationship between the variables. This relation is known as Stokes law valid for small values of Reynolds Number (Re << 1). 2 + b + c = 0.2 Problems with Two Pi Terms In example 8.Dimensional Analysis 8. This is illusration by example 8. and the viscosity µ. This can be used to study the settling of dust in still air. M0L0T0 = ML T 2 La Lb T b Mc Lc T c . This is illustrated in example 8.2 two π terms were identified. Hence only one π term will result. π1 = F Da ub µc. c = – 1 µ π1 = F/uDµ ∴ F/uDµ = constant = c µ or F = cuDµ or drag force varies directly with velocity.

N 0.0 11189 3 22748 5 55614 Determine the functional relationship between the dimensionless parameters (D ∆P/ρu2) and (ρuD/ µ). Viscosity = 1.5 (b).014 0. Velocity. A log log plot results in a straight line.5 0.5 6763 2.2508 0.745 0.92 2.000 80.78) = – 0. This corresponds to the value of 0. m/s Pressure drop.3 404 0.25 – 1.745)}/(4.01366 17894 4. 8.01011 59642 4.012 0.997 – 2.01512 11928 4.01202 29821 4.The density of water = 1000 kg/ m3.018 D DP ru 4 2 D DP ru 2 0. 8.997 – 3.2508 This gives x = – 0.6 – 1.5 (a).010 0.051 – (x)/(5 – 0) = – 0. To fit an equation the following procedure is used.865 1.3 0. In order to determine the pressure drop in pipe flow per m length an experiment was conducted using flow of water at 20°C through a 20 mm smooth pipe of length 5 m.272 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8. Ex.051 – (– 1.9 0.9 2766 1.0 0. fitting an equation can not be done from the graph.5. D∆P ρu2 = 0. Scatter may indicate either experimental error or omission of an influencing parameter.78 – 1.821 0.008 0 20. Hence we can write.022 0.16 × Re–0..797.2508 = 0.16 FG PuD IJ H µ K −0.00890 99400 4.6 0.78 – 1.020 0. the slope using the same – 2. As the direct plot is a curve.08 – 1.01119 39761 4.2508 When extrapolating we can write.000 60. The variation of pressure drop observed with variation of velocity is tabulated below.5 .006 × 10–3 kg/ms.01798 5964 3.000 10. as shown in the Fig. 8. The slope is obtained by taking the last values: = {– 2.16.000 40. Using the data the two π parameters together with log values are calculated and tabulated below. The correlation appears to be good. u D∆P/ρu 2 ρuD/µ logRe log(D∆P/ρu) 0.6 1361 0.995 5 0.48 – 1.016 0.0000 4 × 10 2 10 –2 8 6 –3 10 3 2 4 ruD m (a) 6 8 10 ruD m (b) 4 2 4 6 8 10 5 Figure Ex.951 3 0.051 A plot of the data is shown in Fig.

varying π1 and calculating the corresponding values of π2.No. The procedure as described above can then be used to obtain the functional relationship. µ Unit (N/m2)/m m m/s kg/m3 Ns/m2 Dimensions F/L3 L L/T FT/L2 Chapter 8 FT2/L4 .5. Such a set of experiments will result in curves of the form shown in Fig. These curves can also be converted to show the variation of π1 with π3 at constant values of π2 by taking sections at various values of π2. Using FLT set of dimensions evaluate the dimensionless parameters correlating this phenomenon. 8. S.Dimensional Analysis 8. n n π2 = cπ 1 1 π 2 2 When there are more than three π terms. density of the fluid ρ.5. p2 p3 = C1 (Constant) p3 = C2 p3 = C3 p3 = C4 p1 Figure 8. ρ Viscosity. The pressure drop ∆P in flow through pipes per unit length is found to depend on the average velocity µ. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Pressure drop per unit length. ∆P/l Diameter. diameter D. The dimensions of the influencing parameters are tabulated below choosing FLT set.3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters 273 In this case experiments should be conducted for different constant values of π3. By suitable mathematical techniques correlation of the form below can be obtained.1 SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 8. D Velocity. u Density. two of these should be combined and the numbers reduced to three.5.1. and viscosity µ.3.

c = – 1 substituting the values of a. So two π terms can be obtained. a = 1 ∆ ρ π1 = D∆P/ρu2 π2 = µDa ub ρc. c = – 1. two π terms can be obtained. b and c. The drag force on a smooth sphere is found to be affected by the velocity of flow. or M0L0T0 = ML T2 La Lb M c T b L3c . b. – b + 2c = 0 ∴ ∴ Let. D Velocity.2. Problem 8. (kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five variables and three dimensions. F Diameter.2. – 3 + a + b – 4c = 0. u and ρ as repeating parameters. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 + c = 0. ρ Viscosity. u and ρ as repeating variables. b = – 2. 1 – b + 2c = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ Solving. S. µ Unit N. The dimension set choosen should not affect the final correlation. Choosing D. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Drag force. u Density. d ρuD D∆P =f 2 µ ρu LM N OP Q The result is the same as in example 8. c. or F0 L0 T0 = F L2 La Lb F c T 2c Tb L4 c Substituting the value of indices Comparing the value of indices for M. The dimensions of the influencing variables are listed below. b = – 1. L. Let Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As there are five variables and three dimensions.274 Using D. F Lb F c T 2 c L4 c L3 Tb Comparing the indices of M. – 2 + a + b – 4c = 0. u. using M. Let π1 = F Da ub ρc. L and T solving for a. the dimaeter D of the sphere and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ. a = – 1. T set.No. π1 = ∆Pdaubρc or F0L0T0 = La 1 + c = 0. Using dimensional analysis obtain the dimensionless groups to correlate the parameters.

1 + a + b – 3c = 0. So three π terms can be obtained. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. density ρ. u and ρ as repeating variables. b. viscosity µ and rotational speed N. F generated by a propeller is found to depend on the folllowing parameters: diameter D. µ Rotational speed. F/ρu2D2 → F/ρu Du → F/mu → Drag force/inertia Problem 8. Choosing D. . a = – 2 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 D2 π2 = µDaub ρc or M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 275 Substituting the values of a.Dimensional Analysis Comparing the values of indices for M. forward velocity u. The thrust force. b. L and T 1 + c = 1. ∴ c = – 1. Note: the significance of the π term. – 2 – b = 0 ∴ ∴ Let b = – 2. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 2 1 + c = 0. N Unit N m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms 1/s Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT 1/T Let π1 = F uaDbρc. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Thrust force. Check for dimensions of π1 and π2. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below using MLT set. F Diameter.No. Determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the phenomenon. u Density. c. D Forward velocity. µ ρu D 2 π1 = ML L3 T 2 1 = M0L0T0 T 2 M L2 L2 LM N OP Q or π2 = M L LT L = M0L0T0 M L3 T force. S. – 1 – b = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ ∴ c = – 1. ρ Viscosity. F ρ uD =f .3. c Comparing the values of indices of M. or M0L0T0 = ML La T 2 T a Lb Mc L3c Chapter 8 There are 6 variables and three dimensions. a = – 1 Susbtituting the values of a. b = – 1.

b = 1 Susbtituting the values of a. forward speed. b. L and T c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Force. a + b – 3c = 0. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. b = – 1. b and c π3 = N ua Db ρc. µ Bulk Modulus. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. Evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the system. b and c ∴ ∴ π3 = ND/u (Rotational speed/Forward speed) F/u2D2 ρ = f LM uDρ . c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/ρuD or ρuD/µ (Inertia force/Viscous force) µ 1 La b M c L 3c T Ta L Substituting the values of a. and c π1 = F/u2D2 ρ. T set. L. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. N Density.No. b = – 2. E Unit N/m2 m m/s l/s kg/m3 kg/ms (m3/m3)N/m 2 Dimensions M/LT2 L L/T 1/T M/L3 M/LT M/LT2 . or M0L0T0 = Comparing the indices of M. ND OP Nµ uQ Problem 8. D Forward velocity. viscosity and bulk modulus of the fluid. At higher speeds where compressibility effects are to be taken into account the performance of a propeller in terms of force exerted is influenced by the diameter. u Rotational speed.4. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. using M. S.276 Comparing indices of M. The influencing parameters and dimensions are tabulated below. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. ρ Viscosity. c = – 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Substituting the values of a. F Diameter. – 2 – a = 0 a = – 2. ∴ a = – 1. – 1 – a = 0. (Thrust force/Inertia force) π2 = µ uaDbρc or M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L Comparing the indices M. density. rotational speed.

or M0L0T0 = a = 0. using M. So four π terms are possible. – 3a + b + c = 0.No. D Rotational speed. a = – 1 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 → (force exerted/inertia force)/m2 π2 = NρaubDc. b = – 2. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. The parameters influencing the torque can be identified as the diameter. obtain a correlation for the frictional torque due to rotation of a disc in a viscous fluid. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1.Dimensional Analysis 277 There are seven variables and three dimensions. S. – 2 – b = 0 π4 = EρaubDc. L and T on both sides and from equations. E OP N u µ ρu Q Problem 8. L. Lc LT L3 a T b The general procedure is to compare the indices of M.5. Selecting D. viscosity and density of the fluid. b = – 1. π2 = ND/u (or rotational speed/forward speed) M M a Lb c L LT L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. ρ uD . b = – 2. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. rotational speed. – 2 – b = 0 Let 2 π1 = F ρaubdc. µ/ρuD π3 = µ/ρ or ρuD/µ (Reynolds number) µ M M a Lb LT 2 L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. T set. – 1 – b = 0 1 M a Lb c L T L3 a T b a = 0. µ Unit Nm m l/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/T M/L3 M/LT Chapter 8 L . Using dimensional analysis. c = 1. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameters Torque. b = – 2. τ Diameter. u and ρ as repeating parameters. or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ c = 0. c = – 1. N Density. 1 + a = 0. – 1 – b = 0 Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π3 = µρa ubDc. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. c = 0 Lc π4 = E/ρu2 ρ ∴ F ρu 2 (Compressibility force/inertia force) 2 =f LM ND . ρ Viscosity.

– 1 + a – 3c = 0. A rectangular plate of height. Considering D. – 2 – b = 0 π1 = F baubρc or M0L0T0 = ML La Lb M c T b L3c c = – 1. 2 + a – 3c = 0. a Velocity. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Drag force. (Another form of Reynolds number. Problem 8. N and ρ as repeating variables. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. π1 = τ/ρN2D5 ρ 1 Mc T2 T b L3 c – 2 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. ω. a = – 5. b = – 2. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ τ ρN D 2 π1 = τ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = 1 + c = 0. a and width. and the fluid properties. L. the velocity u.278 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are five variables and three dimensions. density ρ and viscosity µ. as DN → u) ρ 5 =f LM µ OP N ρD N Q Check for the dimensions of π 2 1 and π2 Note: Rotational speed can also be expressed as angular velocity. u and ρ as repeating variables. F Width. T set of dimensions. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ T2 1 + c = 0. La ML2 M a 1 Mc L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. Hence three π terms can be obtained. a = – 2 π2 = µ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = π2 = µ/ρD2 N.No. µ Unit N m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are 6 parameters and three dimensions. In that case N will be replaced by ω as the dimension of both these variables is 1/T. u density. Selecting b. a = – 2 π1 = F/ρu2b2 ρ . So two π parameters can be identified. b is held perpendicular to the flow of a fluid. b Height. S. The parameters with dimensions are listed adopting M. – 1 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. b = – 1. ρ Viscosity. b = – 2. Obtain a correlation for the drag force in terms of dimensionless parameters. The drag force on the plate is influenced by the dimensions a and b.6.

1 2 3 4 5 Variable Frictional Torque. ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = a/b M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0.Dimensional Analysis Let π2 = a baubρc or a=–1 M0L0T0 = LLa Lb M c T b L3c 279 c = 0. D Viscosity. π1 is (drag force/unit area)/inertia force. Chapter 8 . – 2 – a – c = 0 ∴ c = – 1.7. b = 0 π2 = P/Nµ. 2 + b – c = 0. S. b = – 3 (τ–Torque) M Let ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 b Mc L c c LT 2 T a LT 1 + c = 0. a = – 1. the load on the projected area and the diameter. π3 = µbaubρc or b = – 1. Evaluate dimensionless parameters for application to such bearings in general. In film lubricated journal bearings. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. – 1 – b = 0. Hence two π parameters can be found. a = – 1. The variables with dimensions are listed below. D and µ as repeating variables. τ Speed. c = – 1. viscosity of the oil. Considering N. Problem 8. =f 2 2 b µ ρu b LM N OP Q π3 is Reynolds number based on length b. ∴ µ τ P =f Nµ NµD 3 LM OP N Q Note : P/Nµ is also Reynolds number. – b = 0. – 2. b = – 1 π3 = µ/ρub or π3 = ρub/µ ρ µ F a ρ ub . try to verify. µ Unit Nm 1/s N/m2 m kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/L M/LT 2 L M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. Let ∴ ∴ π1 = τ NaDbµc or M0L0T0 = π 1 = τ /NµD3 Also π = τ/µuD ML2 T 2 1 b Mc L c c Ta LT 1 + c = 0. the frictional torque is found to depend on the speed of rotation. N Load per unit area. – 1 + b – c = 0. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. P Diameter. adopting MLT set.No. – a – c = 0 π2 = PNaDbµc or M0L0T0 = c = – 1.

R Forward velocity.No. b = – 1 and c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/uρl. l Density of the fluid. g Bulk modulus. ρ Viscosity. b = – 1 and c = 0 π1 = R/ρu2. S. µ Gravity. u Length of the body. – 2 – a = 0 2 M La M b π2 = µ ua ρb lc or M0L0T0 = a = – 1.280 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. So four π. buoyant forces and compressibility of the fluid. Obtain a relation using dimensional analysis.8. b = 0 π3 = gl/u2 T 2 T a L3b b = 0. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. for the resistance to uniform motion of a partially submerged body (like a ship) in a viscous compressible fluid.) Lc LT 2 T a L3b 1 + b = 0. The variables identified as affecting the situation are listed below using MLT set. b = – 1 and c = 0 π4 = Ev/ρu2 ρ . – 2 – a = 0 L La M b M0L0T0 = Lc and c = 1 M La M b → can also be expressed as u/(gL)0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = Ruaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. terms are possible. Ev Unit N/m2 m/s m kg/ms kg/ms m/s2 N/m2 Dimensions M/LT2 L/T L M/L3 M/LT L/T2 M/LT2 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Resistance to motion. Euler number. density and length as repeating variables. – 2 – a = 0 Lc LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. Considering velocity. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.5 (Froude number. of the fluid. π3 = guaρblc or a = – 2. – 2 – a = 0 π4 = Evuaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. ρ M La M b c L LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. The resistance can be considered to be influenced by skin friction forces. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.

Ev) Let. using the method of dimensional analysis. a = 0.5 ρ Problem 8. k Surface tension. ρ Roughness height. c through a fluid is assumed to depend on the fluid density ρ and bulk modulus of the fluid Ev. Fr) 0.No.5. – 1 – 2b = 0. The following list of parameters can be identified as affecting the coefficient of discharge S. So four π terms can be identified. Froude number and Mach number) In the case of incompressible flow. D Head. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Diameter. Writing c = f(ρ. The velocity of propagation of pressure wave. 1 – 3a – b = 0. Note: The definition of the bulk modulus is dp/(dv/v). 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. or c = const × (Ev/ρ)0.5 π1 = c(ρ/Ev)0.Dimensional Analysis R ρu 2 281 =f LM µ . g and H as repeating variables . Lc H/D Chapter 8 There are seven variables and three dimensions. E OP N ulρ u ρu Q 2 v 2 or Euler number = f (Reynolds number. Considering ρ. g Density of the fluid. u OP N µ ( gl) Q = f(Re. gl .5.10.5 Problem 8. Using dimensional analysis obtain an expression for c in terms of ρ and Ev. ∴ b = – 0. σ Viscosity.9. µ Unit m m m/s2 kg/m3 m N/m kg/ms2 Dimensions L L L/T2 M/L3 L M/T2 M/LT Let ∴ ∴ π1 = D ρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L c = – 1 ∴ π1 = D/H or M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. This is a case were there will be a direct relationship between the variables or one π term. the dimension being that of pressure. H Gravity. ∴ ∴ π1 = c ρaEvb or M0L0T0 L Ma Mb = T La Lb T 2b a + b = 0. this will reduce to R ρu 2 =f LM ulρ . Obtain a correlation for the coefficient of discharge through a small orifice. – 2b = 0. M/LT2.

Choosing ∆P. 3 – a + b – 3c = 0. – 2b = 0. a = – 1. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. µ (ρH OP gH ) P Q Check the dimensions of these π terms. So two π terms can be obtained. D and ρ as repeating variables. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0.282 Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = kρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. c = – 2 σ/ρgH2 π3 = σ/ρ π4 = µρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb L LT L3 a T 2b c a + 1 = 0. v Unit m3/s N/m2 m kg/m3 m2/s Dimensions L3/T M/LT2 L M/L3 L2/T There are five parameters and three dimensions. – 3a + b + c = 0. The volume flow rate of a gas through a sharp edged orifice is found to be influenced by the pressure drop. orifice diameter and density and kinematic viscosity of the gas. k . Problem 8. adopting MLT system S. – 2 – 2b = 0. π4 = µ/(ρH gH ). b = – 1. c = – 1. ρ Kinematic viscosity. Let ∴ ∴ L3 M a Mc Lb 3c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. ∆P Diameter.5. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Volume flow rate. Lc a = 0. (σ/ρ gH MN H H 2 ). b = – 2 π1 = Q ∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = π1 = (Q/D2) (ρ/∆P)1/2 ρ∆ . b = 0. c = 1/2. a = – 1. As Cd is dimensionless ρ Cd = f LM D . – 1 – 2a = 0. The variables and dimensions are listed below. Q Pressure drop.No.11. c = – 1 ∴ π2 = k/H π3 = σρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb T 2 L3 a T 2b Lc a + 1 = 0. ∴ a = – (1/2). D Density. – 1 – 2b = 0. b = – 1/2. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain an expression for the flow rate.

g Unit m m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms m/s2 Dimensions L L L L/T M/L3 M/LT L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions.No. c = – 1. 2 – a + b – 3c = 0.Dimensional Analysis Let ∴ ∴ ∴ L2 M a Mc Lb 3 c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. ρ and u as repeating variables. h Inlet diameter. In flow through a sudden contraction in a circular duct the head loss h is found to depend on the inlet velocity u. c = (1/2). µ Gravitational acceleration. c = 0 ∴ π2 = d Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa M b Lc L3b T c a = – 1 ∴ π1 = h/D M b Lc L3b T c b = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.12. D Outlet diameter. b = – 1 π2 = (v/D) (ρ/∆P)1/2 or ρ∆ Q D2 FG ρ IJ H ∆P K 1/ 2 =f LM v F ρ I MN D GH ∆P JK 1/ 2 OP PQ Note : π2 can be also identified as Reynolds number. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Loss of head. a = – 1 ∴ π2 = d/D b = – 1. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Hence four π parameters can be found. c = 0. diameters D and d and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ and gravitational acceleration. S. π3 = µ Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = . d Velocity. – 1 – c = 0. Problem 8. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. ρ Viscosity. a = – 1 π3 = µ/Dρu or ρDu/µ ρ µ π4 = g Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = L T2 La M b Lc L3b T c Chapter 8 M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c b + 1 = 0. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. 283 π2 = v∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = a = – (1/2). Considering D. Let ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = h Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. – 1 – 2a = 0. The influencing variables with dimensions are tabulated below with MLT set. u Density. g. Try to verify.

– 3a + b + c = 0. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. σ Head of fluid.θ 3/2 h ρ gh 2 OP Q Note : In case surface tension is not considered. π3 will not exist. 2 D D µ u LM N OP Q Note : gD/u2 is the ratio of Potential energy to Kinetic energy. Problem 8. . So three π terms can be identified.13. g Flow rate. adopting MLT set. the other parameters are listed below with dimensions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Density. c = (– 1. the notch angle is a dimensionless parameter. As θ.5.5. c = – 2 π3 = σ/ρ 2 ∴ Q = g1/2 h5/2 f σ/ρgh π3 = σ ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb LM Ng 1/ 2 v σ . Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = Q ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L3 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. b = – 1. ρ kinematic vicosity. and acceleration due to gravity. Q over a V-notch depends on fluid properties namely density ρ. . It is also influenced by the angle of the notch. – 2 – c = 0 c = – 2. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. h Gravitational acceleration. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0.284 ∴ ∴ ∴ b = 0. head of fluid over the vertex. Q Unit kg/m3 m2/s N/m m m/s2 m3/s Dimension M/L3 L2/T M/T2 L L/T2 L3/T There are six parameters and three dimensions. – 2 – 2b = 0 ∴ a = – 1. Determine the dimensionless parameters which can correlate the variables. c = 2. kinematic viscosity v. a = 1 ∴ π4 = gD/u2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h d ρDu gD =f . 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.No. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0.5 ∴ π1 = Q/g1/2 h5/2 π2 = vρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L2 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. S. The volume flow rate. . Considering ρ. g and h as repeating variables. and surface tension σ. v Surface tension.5) ∴ π2 = v/g1/2 h3/2 Lc T 2 L3 a T 2b 1 + a = 0. π2 can be identified as Reynolds number.

Determine the dimensionless parameters for the correlation of experimental results. – 2c = 0 a = – 1. h Unit m kg/m3 m/s2 N/m m Dimension L M/L3 L/T2 M/T2 L There are five parameters and three dimensions and so two π parameters can be identified. gρ can also be considered as specific weight γ ρ h =f D LM σ OP ND γ Q . density ρ.Dimensional Analysis 285 Problem 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Power. h is the head and g is acceleration due to gravity. Show that the power P.No. developed by a hydraulic turbine can be correlated by the dimensionless parameters P/ρ N3D5 and N2D2/gh. D is the runner diameter. Problems 8. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. c = – 1. ρ Speed. D Head. S. ρ Gravitational acceleration. – 2 – 2c = 0 ∴ b = – 1. The parameters with dimensions are tabulated below using MLT set. b = 0.15. The variables are listed below adopting MLT set of dimensions. P Density. The capillary rise h is found to be influenced by the tube diameter D. ρ and g as repeating variables. 2 Note : π2 can be identified as 1/Weber number. h Gravitational acceleration. σ Capillary rise. N Diameter. g Surface tension. gravitational acceleration g and surface tension σ. g Unit W kg/m3 1/s m m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 1/T L L L/T2 Chapter 8 M/L3 . and a = – 2 π2 = σ/D2 gρ.14. D Density. a – 3b + c = 0. S. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = h Da ρb gc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. Considering D. where ρ is the density of water and N is the rotational speed.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Diameter. c = 0 ∴ π1 = h/D π2 = σ Daρb gc or M0L0T0 = M T2 La M b Lc L3b T 2 c M b Lc L3b T 2 c 1 + b = 0.

– 3 – c = 0 ∴ a = – 1. P Head. Choosing ρ. speed N. N Diameter. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Power. g Unit W m m3/s kg/m3 1/s m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 L L3/T M/L3 1/T L L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions and hence four π terms can be formed. ρ Speed.No. and acceleration due to gravity. g. 2 – 3a + b = 0.286 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are six parameters and three dimensions. D Acceleration due to gravity. Obtain suitable dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. These are used in model testing of turbo machines. 1 – 3a + b = 0. So three π terms can be found. density ρ. – 2 – c = 0 L 3a Lb 1 Tc c = – 2. D and g as repeating variables. c = 0. 1 Lb c L3a T ∴ b = – 1 ∴ π2 = h/D. adopting MLT set of dimensions. D and N as repeating variables. L Ma 2 Ma π3 = g ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = T a = 0.16. b = – 5 M0L0T0 = ML2 M a 3 3a Lb π1 = P/ρN3 D5 (Power coefficient) ρ π2 = h ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. runner diameter D. The parameters with dimensions are listed below. The power developed by hydraulic machines is found to depend on the head h. c = – 3. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ P ρN D 3 5 π1 = P ρa Db Nc or 1 T L Tc 1 + a = 0. Q Density. Let π1 = P ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = ML2 M a T3 L3 a Lb Lc T 2c . Taking ρ. S. 1 – 3a + b = 0. b = – 1 ∴ π3 = g/DN2 π2 × π3 = gh/D2N2 (Head coefficient) ∴ =f LM gh OP ND N Q 2 2 In this expression the first term is called power coefficient and the second one is called head coefficient. Problem 8. flow rate Q. h Flow rate.

c = 0 ∴ π2 = h/D π3 = Q ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = a = 0. b = – 1.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ 1 + a = 0. Specific speed based on Q. Head coefficient 2. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. Flow coefficient gh N 2 D2 Q ND 3 = π42 π2 = hg DN 2 D = gh N 2 D2 = π3 Qg 1/ 2 Q = 1/ 2 5 / 2 = 1/ 2 π4 g D ND N D3 = π1 π4 3 3. . – 2c = 0 a = 0. c = – 3/2 π1 = ρ P/ρD7/2 ρ g3/2 Ma L3 a Lb Lc T 2c 287 ∴ b = – 7/2 π2 = h ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. c = – 1/2. b = – 5/2 π3 = Q/g1/2 D5/2 π4 = N ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = π4 = ND1/2/g1/2 1 M a b Lc L T L3a T 2c a = 0. – 1 – 2c = 0 The coefficients popularly used in model testing are given below. for Turbines Chapter 8 Nst = N P (power coefficient) 1/ 2 P 1/ 2 ( ND) 5 / 2 N P = 1/ 2 3 / 2 5 / 2 = 5/ 4 5 / 4 = 1/ 2 1/ 2 5/4 ρ ( gh)5 / 4 (head coefficient) D ( gh) ρ N ρ ( gh) P 5/4 F Dimensional Specific speed N GH h is commonly used as water is used in most cases I JK These are the popularly used dimensionally numbers in hydraulic turbo machinery. Specific speed based on power. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. for pumps. These can be obtained from the above four π terms. c = – 1/2. 1. – 3a + b + c = 0. b = 1/2 L3 M a b Lc L T L3 a T 2c a = 0. – 3 – 2c = 0 a = – 1. Power coefficient P ρN 3 D 5 = ρD 7 / 2 Pg 3 / 2 P = 3/ 2 3 3/ 2 ρ N 3 D5 g N D N 3 / 2 D3 / 2 ( gh)3 / 4 N Q ( gh)3 / 4 4. Nsp N Q ( gh) used) 3/4 = (flow coeff )1/ 2 (head coeff ) 3/ 4 = Q 1/ 2 N 1/ 2 D 3/ 2 = (dimensional specific speed N Q /h3/4 is commonly used as mostly water is the fluid 5. – 1 – 2c = 0 ∴ a = 0.

d = 1 π2 = uρD/µ (Reynolds number) ρ µ T 2 θ T 3 a θ a LbT b L3 c a + b + c = 0. – 2 – 3a – b = 0. 2 + a – b – 3c + d = 0.18. u Unit W/m2K m W/mK kg/m3 kg/ms Nm/kgK m/s Dimension M/T3 θ L ML/T3 θ M/L3 M/LT L2/T2 θ L/T Three π terms are possible as there are seven variables and four dimensions. µ Specific heat. b = – 1. – 1 – a = 0. In forced convection in pipes heat transfer coefficient h is found to depend on thermal conductivity. . d = 1 π1 = hD/k (Nusselt number) π2 = u ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = L M a La M b M c d L T T 3a θ a LbT b L3c a + b + c = 0. Using dimensional analysis determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the situation. Choosing k. thermal conductivity k and convection coefficient h. 1 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. b = 1.17.288 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. µ. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Convection coefficient. where θ is temperature. flow velocity and the diameter. ρ and D as repeating variables. d = 0 µ π3 = cµ/k (Prandtl number). specific heat. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = h ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0= M M a La Mb Mc T 3θ T 3 a θ a Lb T b L3c Ld 1 + a + b + c = 0. =f k k µ LM N OP Q These are popular dimensionless numbers in convective heat transfer. viscosity. – 1 – 3a – b = 0. L2 M a La Mb Mc Ld hD uDρ cµ . c = 0. c Flow velocity. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. h Diameter D Thermal conductivity. c = 0. k Density. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. – 3 – 3a – b = 0. ρ Viscosity. π3 = cka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = a = – 1. density. c = 1. b = 0. a – b – 3c + d = 0. The variables with dimensions are listed below using MLT θ set of dimensions.No. – a = 0. a = 0. The temperature difference θ at a location x at time τ in a slab of thickness L originally at a temperature difference θ0 with outside is found to depend on the thermal diffusivity α. Problem 8. S.

Choosing θ0. a – d = 0. b = 0. 1 – c – 3d = 0. L. choosing MLT θ set. b + 2c + d = 0. b + 2c + d = 0. L Location distance. b = – 1. α and k as repeating variables. k Convection coefficient. x Initial temperature difference. α Thermal conductivity. b + 2c + d = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = θ θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d d = 0. d = 0. h Unit m m deg K deg K s m2/s W/mK W/m2 K Dimension L L θ0 θ T L2/T ML/T 3θ M/T3θ There are eight variables and four dimensions. – 1 + a – d = 0. d = – 1 π3 = hL/k (Biot number) π4 = τ θ0 a d = 0. 1 + b + 2c + d = 0. b = 1. a = 0. c = 0. S. c = 0. a = 0. – 3 – c – 3d = 0. d = 0 π4 = α τ 2 τ/L (Fourier number) Chapter 8 Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 =T θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d . d = 0 π2 = x/L π3 = h θ0 a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 M a b L2 c M d Ld = 3 θ L T θ T c T 3d θ d ∴ 1 + d = 0. θ0 Temperature difference at time τ. c = 1. – c – 3d = 0. θ Time. Hence four π terms can be identified. 1 + a – d = 0. – c – 3d = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Parameter Slab thickness.Dimensional Analysis 289 The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. c = 0. a = – 1 π1 = θ/θ0 θ π2 = x θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = LθaLb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d a – d = 0. τ Thermal diffusivity.No. d = 0. b = – 2. ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a = 0.

π1 = ∆T ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ a = 2. This problem shows that the method is not limited to fluid flow or convection Problem 8. ∆T Coefficient of cubical expansion. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable Height.No. d = 1 Ma Mb Lc M d Ld π1 = ∆Tρ2 x2 k/µ3 ρ µ 1 Ma Mb M d Ld Lc 3 d d 3a b b θ L LT T θ a + b + d = 0. c = 2. Convective heat transfer coefficient in free convection over a surface is found to be influenced by the density. ρ Viscosity. π2 = β ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = – 2. c = – 2. b = – 3. specific heat. ατ OP NL k L Q 2 only. d = – 1 ρ π2 = β µ3/ρ2x2k π3 = g ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = L Ma Mb T 2 L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3d θ d . x Temperature difference. 1 – d = 0. ρ. k Convective heat transfer coefficient.290 ∴ θ =f θ0 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM x . – 3a – b + c + d = 0. µ. µ Specific heat. g Density. determine the dimensionless parameters that will correlate the phenomenon. b – 3d = 0. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. – 1 – d = 0. The variables with dimensions in the MLT θ set is tabulated below. hL . gravitational acceleration. viscosity. thermal conductivity. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let L3a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0.19. x and k are chosen as repeating variables. – b – 3d = 0. Using dimensional analysis. temperature difference. Hence five π terms can be identified. b = 3. There are the popular dimensionless numbers is conduction heat transfer. the height of surface and the flow velocity. S. h Unit m deg K (m3/m3)/deg K m/s2 kg/m3 kg/ms J/kgK W/mK W/m2K Dimension L θ 1/θ L/T2 M/L3 M/LT L2/T2θ ML/T3θ M/T3θ There are nine variables and four dimensions. c Thermal conductivity. coefficient of cubical expansion. β Acceleration due to gravity.

d = – 1 Lc π4 = c µ/k (Prandtl number) M Ma Mb T 3θ L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3dθd π5 = h ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. – 3a – b + c + d = 0.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a + b + d = 0. One of the methods to check the correctness of an equation is to check for each of the additive terms. has to be determined by 8. 5. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Fill in the blanks: 1. π6 = ∴ ∆Tρ2 x 2 k βµ 3 gρ2 x 3 ∆Tβgx 3ρ2 ∆Tgβx 3 × 2 2 × = = µ3 ρ x k µ2 µ2 v2 hx cµ ∆Tgβρ2 x 3 =f . The approximate number of experiments to evaluate the influence of 5 parameters separately is assuming that 10 experiments are needed for each variable. dimensionless and in FLT θ 3. The dimension for mass in the FLT set is . The dimension for thermal conductivity in the MLT θ system is system is . d = – 1 π5 = hx/k (Nusselt number) 1 + a + b + d = 0. . c = 1. π-theorem states that parameters can be obtained. 4. For an expression to be dimensionally homogeneous. Chapter 8 6. 8. d = 0. 2 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. c = 0. b = – 2. 1 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. d = 0 µ π3 = g ρ2 x3/µ2 T 2 θ L3 a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. c = 3. b = 0. As the π terms are too many π1. b = 1. – 1 – d = 0. π2 and π3 are combined as π1 × π2 × π3 to form the group known as Grashof number. If there are n variables and m dimensions. have 7. a = 2. k k µ2 LM N OP Q Note : When there are more than three π parameters the set should be reduced to three by judicial combination. – 1 – d = 0. The dimension for force in the MLT set is 2. each additive term in the equations should . L2 M a Mb M d Ld 291 π4 = c ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. The limitation of dimensional analysis is that the experiments.1. for . – 3 – b – 3d = 0. – 2 – b – 3d = 0.

5. 7. flow. 4. flow. Dimensional analysis can provide an exact functional relationship between variables affecting a phenomenon. 6. is important. The ratio of pressure force to inertia force is called 6. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery on the final dimensionless numbers deter- When there are more than 3 Pi terms determined for a phenomenon. Fluid dynamics problems can be completely solved by dimensional analysis. Surface tension effects (5) Compressibility (6) Strouhal number (7) dynamic force (8) dynamic force (9) Reynolds numbers (10) Euler number. 3. Cauchy number is used when 7. . Drag coefficient is the ratio of drag force to 9. Weber number is used to study oscillating flow. 7. 8. The number used in the study of oscillating flows is . 5. Lift coefficient is the ratio of lift force to 8. for experimentation the . Dimensional analysis by clubbing variables into groups facilitates presentation of results of experiments in a compact form. Weber number is used in the study of 5.3.2. 4. 6. The choice of dimension set has mined for a phenomenon. Dimensional analysis can be used to reduce the number of variables for investigation of a phenomenon. Fill in the blanks: 1. 8. State correct or incorrect: 1.292 9. The ratio of inertia to viscous force is called 10. Reynolds number is the ratio between gravitational force and the viscous force. number. set must be reduced to 3 by Answers (1) (2) (3) n – m (4) ML/T3 θ. Answers (1) Correct : 1. flow. 8 Incorrect : 2. 9. 2. Euler number is used in the study of 4. Reynolds number is used in the study of 2. Froude number is the ratio between inertia force and gravitational force. Grouping of variables into dimensionless parameters reduces number of experiments. 8. ML/T2 FT2/L Answers (1) All types of flow (2) Free surface flow (3) Pressure driven flow (4) Free surface flow. O Q. 9. . 3. Froude number is used in the study of 3. Euler number is the ratio between Inertia force and viscous force. 10 . O Q. F/Tθ (5) the same dimensions (6) the sameness of dimensions (homogeneous) (7) the exact functional relation (8) 105 (9) no effect (10) Combining terms in excess of two into a single π term. number. flow. 10. It is easier to investigate a problem varying the value of a group as a whole rather than individual variables. 10.

7. (δ/x) = f(ux ρ/µ δ E 8. depends on the pressure P and density ρ of the gas. fluid density and viscosity and the distance x from the leading edge. density ρ and acceleration due to gravity. [ar = f(rω2)] E 8. (Q/uδ2) = f δ F m .8.3.11. (τw/ρu2) = f(µ/ρux) µρ τ ρ E 8. In flow over a smooth flat plate.10. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a correlation in terms of dimensionless numbers. Obtain the dimensionless parameters to correlate the flow. depends on the speed u of the rope. The velocity of sound. Determine the π terms to correlate the flow. The centripetal acceleration of a particle in circular motion is dependent on velocity u and ω radius r. the layer thickness δ.9. (Qρ/d µ) = f ρ F D . using dimensional analysis. wave length λ. ρ-density. P = P0 – (1/2) ρu2 – ρgz (P-pressure. Determine the dimensionless parameters to express the relation between the variables. u gI GH rud d JK 2 E 8. density of the gas ρ. the width of the weir b. with clearance h. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. (Note : Used in the determination of viscosity) (τµ 2 ρ) = f τµ/h τµ F D . the wall shear τw in the boundary layer depends on the free stream velocity. z-height above datum) (g0 = kgm/Ns2) E 8. The time τ to drain a circular tank of diameter D by an orifice of diameter d is found to depend on the initial head h. the density and viscosity of the liquid and gravitational acceleration. (P/(ρ D5N3)) = f(Q/D3 N) ρ E 8.5. u-velocity. (τ/D3 µω = f(h/D) E 8. (Q/h2 (gh)1/2) = f(b/h) E 8. (u/(gD)1/2 = f(λ/D) E 8.12. volume flow rate Q. density and viscosity of the fluid and the distance from the leading edge. The speed u of free surface gravity wave in deep water depends on the depth D. h . The volume flow Q over a weir depends on the upstream height h. c in a gaseous medium. Determine. In flow over a smooth flat plate.1. gh r I GH h h m JK 3 2 2 E 8. Find the unit conversion factor to make it dimensionally homogeneous. Obtain a relationship between the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. a functional relationship between the varaibles. Exρ/µ) press the correlation in the form of dimensionless groups.4. Obtain a relationship for the torque τ to rotate a disk of diameter D in a fluid of viscosity µ at τ µω) an angular speed ω over a plate.6. Oil is moved up in a lubricating system by a rope dipping in the sump containing oil and moving up. Using dimensional analysis determine the functional relation. when the head is h depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid and acceleration due to gravity. gh r I GH d d m JK 3 2 2 Chapter 8 . the density and viscosity of the oil and acceleration due to gravity. Find using dimensional analysis a functional relation. Check whether the equation is dimensionally homogeneous. and the speed N. (c P / ρ = constant) E 8. The instantaneous volume Q drained by an orifice of diameter d from a circular tank of diameter D. The power P to drive a fan is found to depend on the diameter D. d . and acceleration due to gravity.2. the boundary layer thickness δ is found to depend on the free stream velocity u. The quantity of oil pumped Q.Dimensional Analysis EXERCISE PROBLEMS 293 E 8.

viscosity and flow velocity u of the fluid. s I GH m rDu JK 2 E 8. viscosity and surface tension of the lqiuid. the heat transfer rate Q (W) is believed to depend on the specific heat of air. In the atomization of a fluid by passing it through an orifice under pressure. the velocity u of the jet.294 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 8. diffuser diameter D. c OP N u ruD u Q E 8. Determine the π parameters for the situation. temperature difference ∆θ (between gas and heated body) a length parameter L.14. . If the other parameters are the liquid density and viscos- LM h . the droplet size d is believed to depend on the jet diameter D. angular velocity of spin. LM P NM ru 2 = f(E v /ru 2 ) OP QP E 8. LM Q MN ud ity. m . (d/D) = f F ruD . If the aerodynamic torque τ on the ball in flight depends on the forward speed u. jet velocity u. . The high pressure generated due to sudden closing of a valve in a pipeline (known as water hammer) is found to depend on the velocity of flow. find the π terms that can be used to characterize the phenomenon. and the density. d elastic modulus of the wire. diameter of the wire. P rD u 2 2 =f LM ND . density and viscosity of the gas and the speed of sound c in the medium. A spherical ball of diameter D and weight w is balanced at the tip of a jet of diameter d at a height h. density. ruD u D OP QP E 8. The deflection δ at the center due to fluid flow at velocity u. developed in a jet pump is found to depend on the jet diameter d. m ruL OP QP E 8. the rotational speed N. m d P . Determine dimensionless parameters for the phenomenon. the volume flow Q and the density and viscosity of the fluid. the density of fluid and the bulk modulous Ev. golf etc. D . The power required to drive a propeller in a gas medium depends upon the forward speed u. Determine the dimensionless parameters to organize experimental results. the ball diameter D. . LM Q NM ru L 3 2 . In an oven where materials are heated by convection. density and viscosity of air. c∆q u2 .17.16. The velocity of the jet is u. As the ball moves the spin rate will decrease. determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate situation. E and fluid properties density and viscosity and the velocity u. diameter D. over a thin wire held between rigid supports is found to depend on length of the wire L. 2 . Determine the functional relationship among the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters.13. m wD e .19. ruD D ru 2 OP PQ E 8. Players use spin in ball plays like tennis. ω and the roughness height e on the ball surface.20. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. LM t NM ru D 2 3 . The pressure P. ruD OP Nd d m Q E 8.18.15.

h rg . Determine π terms to correlate the variables. the density of air outside ρa and acceleration due to gravity. The volume of flue gas Q flowing through a chimney of height h and diameter d is influenced by the density of the gas inside ρg. d ra OP PQ Chapter 8 .Dimensional Analysis Determine the π terms for the problem. Erd OP Also E/ρu ρ NM d d m m QP 2 2 E 8.21. rud . LM MN d Q 2 gD . d and µ as repeating variables) 2 295 LM d . L . (use ρ.

The estimates may vary by as much as ± 20%. Experimental validation of the design is thus found necessary. 296 . As models are generally smaller than the prototype. The effect of the changes on the performance of the system can be predicted by model testing before attempting the modifications. 9. It will be a very costly failure if the design performance and the actual performance differ. velocities etc. Because of this it is not possible to rely solely on design calculations and performance predictions. If we can predict its performance before manufacturing the unit it will be very useful. Similarity of features enable the prediction of the performance of the full size unit from the test results of the smaller unit. turbines.0 INTRODUCTION Similitude and Model Testing Fluid flow analysis is involved in the design of aircrafts. The system whose behavior is to be predicted by the model is called the prototype. Consider the case of a hydraulic turbine of 50 MW size. The application of dimensional analysis is helpful in planning of the experiments as well as prediction of the performance of the larger unit from the test results of the model. ships.1 MODEL AND PROTOTYPE In the engineering point of view model can be defined as the representation of physical system that may be used to predict the behavior of the system in the desired aspect. Model testing is also used for evaluating proposed modifications to existing systems. these are cheaper to build and test. at different pressures. For many practical situations exact soluations are not available. Models should be carefully designed for reliable prediction of the prototype performance. Fluid flow is influenced by several factors and because of this the analysis is more complex. harbours and tall buildings and structures. submarines. Model testing comes to our aid in this situation. pumps. The discussion in this chapter is about physical models that resemble the prototype but are generally smaller in size.' 9. These may also operate with different fluids. Constructing and testing small versions of the unit is called model testing.

.3 provides the model design conditions.. Froude number. In these cases the depth scale is different from length scale. This is called geometric similarity. The PI theorem shows that the performance of any system (prototype) can be described by a functional relationship of the form given in equation 9. Roughness is one such case.πnp) .. be equal for the model and prototype..(9. In such situations.πnm) . energy etc. lengths..2.2. π3m. (eqn..2.2...(9. π2m = π2p. If model and prototype are dynamically similar then the performance of the prototype can be predicted from the measurements on the model. Interpretation of the results of the tests on distorted models should be very carefully done...... viscous gravity and surface tension forces.. then the PI terms for the model should also have the same value as that of the prototype or the same functional relationship as the prototype. These numbers are ratios of inertia.Similitude and Model Testing 9.(9. The ratio is generally denoted by the scale or scale factor. One tenth scale model means that the similar linear dimensions of the model is 1/10 th of that of the prototype. All the similar linear dimension of the model and prototype should have the same ratio. This is a basic requirement in model design.1) The PI terms include all the parameters influencing the system and are generally ratios of forces. the model should be constructed and operated such that simultaneously πlm = πlp.2 Dynamic Similarity Similitude requires that π terms like Reynolds number.. For complete similarity all the linear dimensions of the model should bear the same ratio to those of the prototype.3) Equation 9.... There are some situations where it is difficult to obtain such similarity.1 Geometric Similarity Some of the PI terms involve the ratio of length parameters. In some cases it may be difficult to hold simultaneously equality of two dimensionless numbers. 9. π1p = f (π2p .. Chapter 9 9.1) πlm = f (π2m..2.πnm = πnp . It is also called similarity requirements or modelling laws. Both Reynolds number and Froude number should be simultaneously . Weber number etc... In cases like ship. This happens for example in the case of model tasting of ships.2) For such a condition to be satisfied.. 9.2 CONDITIONS FOR SIMILARITY BETWEEN MODELS AND PROTOTYPE 297 Dimensional analysis provides a good basis for laying down the conditions for similarity.2. This requirement is called dynamic similarity.2. For example the choice of the scale when applied to the Reynolds number may dictate a very high velocity which may be difficult to achieve at a reasonable cost.. harbour or dams distorted models only are possible. Geometric scale cannot be chosen without reference to other parameters. This condition implies that the ratio of forces on fluid elements at corresponding points (homologous) in the model and prototype should be the same.1.....2. π3p.. the parameter having a larger influence on the performance may have to be chosen. If a model is to be similar to the prototype and also function similarly as the prototype.

..geometric.298 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery held equal between the model and prototype. These are (1) Flow through closed conduits (2) Flow around immersed bodies (3) Flow with free surface and (4) Flow through turbomachinery 9.3 Kinematic Similarity When both geometric and dynamic similarities exist. This is illustrated in problem 9.2) If the fluid used for the model and prototype are the same. (M<0.(9. ε . This requires Lm εm Dm = = = λ.. Lp εp Dp u pρ p L p umρ m Lm = µp µm um µ m ρ p Lp = up µ p ρ m Lm Reynolds number similarity leads to the condition for velocity ratio as ∴ .2. D IJ H µ L LK . As the wall shear is an important force. Compressibility effect is negligible at low mach numbers.1 Flow through Closed Conduits Flow through pipes. then Lp um = or um = up / λ.3. 9. The pressure drop along the flow is more often the required parameter to be evaluated. valves. Lm up As λ is less than one.3 TYPES OF MODEL STUDIES Model testing can be broadly classified on the basis of the general nature of flow into four types. This is called kinematic similarly.3). The conduits are generally circular. but there may be changes along the flow direction.. 9.3. scale = Lm/Lp.1) The geometric scale is given by the ratio. To achieve complete similarity between model and prototype all the three similarities . Reynolds number is the most important parameter.(9. This is not possible as this would require either fluids with a very large difference in their viscosities or the use of very large velocities with the model. dynamic and kinematic should be maintained. then velocity ratios and acceleration ratios will be the same throughout the flow field. fittings and measuring devices are dealt under this category. This will mean that the streamline patterns will be the same in both cases of model and prototype.3. From dimensional analysis the pressure drop can be established as ∆P/ ρu2 = f FG ρuL . the velocity to be used with the model has to be higher compared to the .14.

In such cases. Another condition is the onset of cavitation at some locations in the flow. such condition should be avoided. Unless cavitation effects are the aim of the study. 2 2 l l µ (1 / 2)ρu l LM N OP Q (9. In the sports area golf and tennis balls are examples for this type of study. When Reynolds numbers are large the inertia forces are predominant and viscous forces will be small in comparison.3) From equality of. particularly in testing components where at some points the local velocity may become high and pressure may drop to a level where cavitation may set in. However. the model should be tested at various Reynolds numbers to determine the range at which its effect on pressure drop becomes negligible. (pr – pv)/(ρu2/2). Gravity and surface tension forces are not involved in this case and hence Froude and Weber numbers need not be considered. Using the similitude.Similitude and Model Testing 299 prototype.e. Chapter 9 When the flow speed increases beyond Mach number 0. Generally the following relationship holds in this case.4) where l is a characteristic length of the system and l1 represents the other length parameter affecting the flow and ε is the roughness of the surface.3. . As viscous forces over the surface and inertia forces on fluid elements are involved in this case also. Submarine.5) From Reynolds number similitude um = µ m ρ p lp v lp up = m up µ p ρm lm vp lm (9. then similarity of cavitation number should be established. ∆PP = ρp ρm Fu I GH u JK p m 2 ∆Pm (9. Reynolds number of the model and prototype should be equal. CD = D l ε ρul = f 1. After this is established the model test results can be applied without regard to Reynolds number similarity.3. Dp = Dm ρp ρm FG u Hu p m × lp lm IJ K 2 (9.3. In case cavitation effects are to be studied. i.3. cars and trucks and recently buildings are examples for this type of study.3. ∆P / ρu2. Drag coefficient. Models are usually tested in wind tunnels. using the model. 9. Where pr is the reference pressure and pv is the vapour pressure at that temperature. defined by [Drag force /(1/2) ρu2 l2)] is the desired quantity to be predicted. The pressure drop in the prototype is calculated as in equation (9.3 compressibility effect on similarity should be considered.3. in this range. measured values of drag on model is used to estimate the drag on the prototype. Otherwise a different fluid with higher viscosity should be chosen to satisfy the requirements. the pressure drop in the prototype can be predicted.3) As ∆Pm is measured.2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies Aircraft. the Reynolds number similarity becomes unimportant.6) .

This may be overcome by using different fluids say water in place of air. In this case the use of Mach number similitude requires equal velocities while the Reynolds number similarity requires increased velocity for the model as per geometric scale. thus increasing the density. then Reynolds number equality will not be insisted for model testing.1 Variation of drag with Reynolds number for flow over cylinder Another situation arises in testing of models of high speed aircraft. In such cases distorted model is used to predict prototype performance..3.6.1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 9. the Reynolds number is found to have little influence on drag. In these cases gravity and inertia forces are found to be governing the situation and hence Froude number becomes the main similarity parameter. 10 1. Where expense is of no consideration due to the requirement of utmost reliability as in space applications and development of new aircraft. the velocity will now be at a reasonable level.1. then the model should operate at 1000 kmph. The prototype however will be operating at low Mach numbers where compressibility effect is negligible.3. Using equation 9.7) The model velocity should be higher by the geometric scale.0 CD 1 0. Strict Reynolds similarity need not be used in such situations. Another method is to pressurise the air in the wind tunnel. It may be seen that above Re = 104 the curve is flat. full scale models are also used..300 When same fluid is used for both prototype and model um = (lp/lm) up Fluid Mechanics and Machinery . which will mean a high Mach number. 9. .(9.3. rivers as well as flow around ships come under this category. In some cases at higher ranges. Hence the performance prediction will be in error.3. 9. If the operation of the prototype will be at such a range. If the prototype is to operate at 100 kmph and if the scale is 1:10.3 Flow with Free Surface Flow in canals. The model will be influenced by compressibility effect due to the operation at high Mach numbers. The variation of drag due to variation in Reynolds number for cylinder and sphere is shown as plotted in Fig. and reducing the required velocity of the model. as kinematic viscosity of air is about 10 times that of water.3.

3. But the use of distorted model. The total drag on the model is first measured by experiment.3. it is impossible to satisfy the condition of equations 9. Considering Froude number. The operating variables of the machines are the flow rate Q. Hence generally models are designed on the basis of Froude number similarity. the power P and the speed N. The machine parameters are the diameter and a characteristic length and the roughness of the flow surface.10 simultaneously. (2) Pressure induced drag due to wave motion and influenced by the shape of the hull.9 and 9. If surface tension also influences the flow.4 Models for Turbomachinery Pumps as well as turbines are included in the general term turbomachines. Turbines are power generating machines which reduce the head of the fluid passing through them.11 (refer problem 9. Power. The fluid properties are the density and viscosity.10) As these situations involve use of water in both model and prototype. As it is not possible to build and operate a model satisfying simultaneously the Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity ingenious methods have to be adopted to calculate the total drag.8) um = up (9. the velocity of the model is calculated as below. Chapter 9 . substituting this value of velocity ratio. The total drag on the ship as it moves is made up of two components: (1) The viscous shearing stress along the hull.9) In case Reynolds number similarity has to be also considered. it is still more difficult to choose a fully similar model. 9.3. The drag on the prototype is determined using Froude number similarity.Similitude and Model Testing 301 In some cases Weber number as well as Reynolds number may also influence the design of the model.21). um glm ∴ = up gl p lm = up lp scale (9.3.3.3. head and efficiency can be expressed as functions of π terms as in equation 9. The calculated value of viscous drag is then added to obtain the total drag. In case of design of river model. the ratio of kinematic viscosities is given as vm 3/2 vp = (scale) (9. the depth will be low for the model and surface tension effects should be considered. Pumps are power absorbing machines which increase the head of the fluid passing though them. (vertical scaling smaller than horizontal scaling) overcomes this problem. if the same vertical and horizontal scales are used.3. In many practical applications in this type of situation the influence of Weber and Reynolds number is rather small. In such a case distorted model may have to be selected. The shear drag is analytically determined and the pressure drag on the model is calculated by subtracting this value. A special situation arises in the case of ships.

∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y . Combining flow and head coefficients in the case of pumps will give the dimensionless specific speed of the pump. 9..4 NONDIMENSIONALISING GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS When differential equations describing the phenomenon is not available. The head coefficient is defined as Ch = gh/N2 D2 . The term Q/N D3 is called flow coefficient.3. the flow rate at various delivery heads can be measured.. HD D N D 1 . Consider the continuity and x directional momentum equations for two dimensional flow.13) . the power and head coefficients will also be equal for the machines. Nsp = N Q ( gh) 3 / 4 (9. The procedure for turbines will also be similar. defined as Cp = P/ρ N3 D3. similarity parameters can be deduced by non dimensionalising the equations. The performance of the prototype can be predicted from the results of the tests on the geometrically similar model. If two similar machines are operated with the same flow coefficient. the power and flow rate can be measured.302 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fl ε Q Power = f G . combining power and flow coefficients.3. the method of dimensional analysis is used to obtain similarity conditions.3.12) Popularly used dimensional specific speed for pumps is defined as Nsp = N Q (9.11) The term ε / D is not important due to the various sharp corners in the machine.3. The model can be run at a constant speed when the head is varied. When differential equations describing the system are available.12a) h3 / 4 In the case of turbines. This will then lead to the same efficiency.(9. The dimensionless term involving power is defined as power coefficient. the specific speed is obtained as N P ρ1/ 2 ( gh)5 / 4 Popularly used dimensional speed for turbines is Nst = Nst = N P (9. This can be used to predict the performance of the pump at other speeds using the various coefficients defined.3. 3 ρND 2 µ I JK (9. .13a) h5 / 4 In model testing at a particular speed.

If equations for compressible flow is used. t* = P0 U V L L τ ∂ 2 u U ∂ 2 u* ∂u U ∂u * = . a model of scale 1/10 is used.1 To study the pressure drop in flow of water through a pipe. These are forms of Strouhal. Mach number can be obtained by a similar method. = 2 ∂x 2 L2 ∂x* ∂x L ∂x * Similar method is used in the case of other terms. Chapter 9 In all the problems in this chapter on model testing the π terms identified in chapter 8 are used.5 CONCLUSION SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 9. τU ρU 2 ρUL In case gravity force is added. 9. The discussions in this chapter is limited to basics. In case air is used determine the ratio of pressure drops. Weber number can be identified. . as given below u* = Then p u * v x y t . x* = . Case (i) Water flow in both model and prototype.v = . Euler. In actual model making and testing as well as interpretation of results many other finer details have to be considered for obtaining accurate predictions about the performance of the prototype. Reference may be made to the problems in chapter 8. Reynolds and Froude numbers. . As the equation describes the general unsteady flow all the numbers are involved. Substituting. Determine the ratio of pressure drops between model and prototype if water is used in the model. P* = . Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained. y* = . the momentum equation reduces to the form LM L OP ∂u N τ U Q ∂t * * + u* ∂u * ∂t * + v* ∂u * ∂t * =− LM P OP ∂P + LM µ OP FG ∂ u N ρU Q ∂x N ρUL Q H ∂x 0 * 2 2 * * * 2 + ∂ 2 u* ∂y* 2 I JK It may be noted that the non dimensionalised equation is similar to the general equation except for the terms in square brackets. gL/U2 will be identified. If other forms of forces like surface tension is added. µ L P .Similitude and Model Testing ρ 303 2 2 FG ∂u + u ∂u + v ∂uIJ = − ∂P + µ FG ∂ u + ∂ u IJ H ∂t ∂x ∂y K ∂x H ∂ x ∂ y K 2 2 The various quantities can be made dimensionless by dividing by reference quantities. These are the similarity parameters thus identified.

304 um dmρ m u p d p ρ p µm µp ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery um µ m d p ρ p = × × up µ p dm ρ m As viscosity and density values are the same.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. Fair ρ air uair 2 Fw ρ wuw 2 . ∆Pm/∆PP = 102 = 100. For square section hydraulic mean diameter = 4 A/P = 4a2/4a = a (side itself) Re = uD/v = 3. dp um = = 10. ρw = 1000 kg/m3.05/1.205 1. As ρm = ρp and um/up = 10. Determine the corresponding flow velocity of air in the larger duct and also the pressure drop over 90 m length.18 × 10–6 m2/s For pipe flow.6 × 0. µair = 18. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1.58 × 10 −6 1× u ∴ u = 2. Problem 9.006 × 10 −3 F GH I JK 2 = 26. Reynolds number analogy should be used.205 kg/m3.6 m/s. Also the drag coefficients will be equal. µw = 1. = u p µ p dm ρm ∆p p ρ p ρp ρm Fµ GH µ m p × dp dm × ρp ρm I JK 2 = 100 Fµ I GH µ JK m p 2 From data tables at 200 C. The pressure drop over a length of 3 m was measured as 940 mm water column.98 This illustrates that it may be necessary to use a different fluid in the model as compared to the prototype. dm up The pressure drop is obtained using pressure coefficient [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]m = [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]p ∴ ∆p m ρ m u m 2 = . ρair = 1.23 kg/m3.006 × 10–3 kg/ms ∴ ∆Pm 1000 18. then um µ m d p ρ p ∆pm ρ m = × × . a square pipe of 50 mm side was used with water flowing at 3.14 × 10 −6 = 100 × × ∆Pp 1.18 × 10–6 = 152542 For air 152542 = 14.58 × 10–6 m2/s. Kinematic viscosity of air = 14. ∆p p ρp u p2 Case (ii) If air is used in the model.2 To determine the pressure drop in a square pipe of 1 m side for air flow. Density = 1.224 m/s Drag coefficient F/ρu2 should be the same for both pipes.

Qm = The pressure drop can also be predicted from the model measurements using F ∆p I = F ∆p I GH ρu JK GH ρu JK 2 2 p m Chapter 9 ∴ 0.521 × 10–5 = 0. As roughness etc are similar.956 × 10–6 = 2.4 A model of 1/8 geometric scale of a valve is to be designed. What will be the critical velocity of air at 100C in a similar pipe of 40 mm diameter. For square section. for pipe flow.521 × 10–5 ∆Pair = 940 × 3. perimeter = 4a ∴ ∆P = 4 Fw Lw 4 Fair Lair 4FL . area = a2. The valve is to be used with brine in a cooling system at –100C.23kg/m3.1085 m/s 4 um = 3.64 2 up ∴ up = 3.02 × 1000 112 × 10 −3 = uair × 0.732 m/s Problem 9.04 × 1. um dm u p d p = . u p dm v p Qp = πD p 2 4 up dm = dp/8 = 0.9726 m/s. Density of water = 1000 kg/m3.64/8 = 0.8315 × 10–6/6.Similitude and Model Testing 305 The pressure drop equals the shear force over the area.7 × 10–6 kg/ms. Kinematic viscosity is 0.1085 m/s.224 = 1 × 3 × 1000 3. Determine the flow required for model testing. then the model velocity has to be 8 × 3. Density of air = 1. Reynolds number similarity is required.e.956 × 10–6 m2/s.1085 × 8 × 0. i.05 2 × 1.23 2.082 × 2. vm vp 1=π× ∴ um d p vm = × . 114 × 0.6 FG H IJ K 2 = 3. ∴ uair = 0. The diameter of the prototype is 64 cm and it should control flow rates upto 1m3/s. reynolds number similarity is to be used.8315 × 10–6 m2/s This is a situation of flow through closed conduits.08 m πdm 2 π um = × 0.114 m/s.0149 m3/s 4 4 If the valve is to be used with water.9726 = 0. ∆Pair = . .23 127 × 10 −6 . which is rather high.033 mm of water column Problem 9. Dynamic viscosity of water = 1.87 m/s. The kinematic viscosity of brine at the saturated condition is 6. Dynamic viscosity of air = 17.12 × 10–3 kg/ms.3 Water at 15°C flowing in a 20 mm pipe becomes turbulent at a velocity of 0. For model testing water at 300C is used. 24. ∆Pw = aw aair a Dividing and substituting for Fair/Fw ∆Pair Lair a F L a ρ × w × air = air × w × air = ∆Pw Lw aair Fw Lw aair ρw Fu I GH u JK air w 2 90 × 0.

Problem 9. the force ratio is high. pressure ratio will be the same as density ratio.252 × × Lp um ρ m µ p 140.22 × 10–5 Ns/m2 and 290 m/s. u p L pρ p um Lmρ m = µm µp A viscosity is not affected by pressure and as velocities are equal.32 7. A model of 1/10 size is decided on.347 × 2 2 = Fp ρ pu p L p 1.8 × 10–5 Ns/m2.322 = × (0.5 kg/m3.2 kg/m3 and 1. ∴ Pm = Lp Lm Pp = 10 × Pp or 10 times the operating pressure of the aircraft. Assume full dynamic similarity should be maintained. viscosity and local sonic velocity at tunnel condition are 7. In order to reduce the effect of compressibility.252)2 = 0. 1. Hence Reynolds number similarity is required.22 × 10 −5 or about 1/4th scale.5 To predict the drag on an aircraft at a flight speed of 150 m/s. the model is proposed to be tested at the same speed in a pressurized tunnel. For Mach number similarity. up cp = um cm ∴ um = 150 × 290/310 = 140.5 1. This is fully immersed flow. where the condition of air is such that the local speed of sound is 310 m/s. In addition to Reynolds number similarity compressibility effect should be considered. To estimate power requirements the drag is to be determined.2 150 2 As the model size is larger.32 m/s For Reynolds number similarity umρ m Lm u p ρ p L p = µm µp up ρ p µ m Lm 150 1.8 × 10 −5 × × = = = 0.6 An aircraft fuselage has been designed for speeds of 380 kmph. Mp = Mm. When both Match number similarity and Reynolds number similarity should be maintained. generally the size of the model has to be on the higher side Drag force similarity is given by (F/ρu2L2)m = (F/ρu2L2)p Fm ρ mum 2 Lm 2 7. a pressurised low temperature tunnel is used. Density and viscosity at the operating conditions are 1. Lm ρm = Lp ρp ∴ ρm/ρm = Lp/Lm = 10 At constant temperature. . Estimate the pressure required.2 1.5 140. Determine the flow velocity and the scale of the model. If the drag on the model was measured as 100 N. Density. predict the drag on the prototype.306 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9.

8 In a test in a wind tunnel on 1:16 scale model of a bus. the drag on the model was measured as 10. Also determine the power required.195 FG H IJ K 2 × 82 = 24.1 × 10–6 kg/ms. Re = 15.56 × 0.78 × 24.8 m2. at an air speed of 35m/s.1 × 10 This is also low subsonic.006 ×10–6 m2/s.01 kg/m3 = 75 × 103/(287 × 272) = 0. Assume that coefficient of drag remains constant above Reynolds number 105.6N.4 × 287 × 272 = 330 m/s = 1190 kmph = 290/1190 = 0. v = 1.165 By interpolation using equality of F/u2.961 kg/m3 = 290000/3600 = 80.44 m and 7.165 = 212 N Problem 9. Determine the drag on the prototype.961 −6 g0 kRT = 1 × 1.78 N.195 m/s model speed is obtained as 8. The width of the model = 2. and 150C.3 = 2150 × 103/(287 × 288) = 26. pressure = 75 kN/m2. Drag can be obtained using drag coefficient F/ρ Au2 ρ m Amum 2 Fm = Fp ρ p A pu p 2 ∴ Fp Fm = ρp ρm F u IJ ×G Hu K p m 2 × Ap Am = 26.7N and 9.7 The performance of an aeroplane to fly at 2400 m height at a speed of 290 kmph is to be evaluated by a 1/8 scale model tested in a pressurised wind tunnel maintaining similarity.7N.1525 × 35 = 3. This condition is above 105.01 L ∴ u = 25. assuming length L. Chapter 9 .24 < 0. Equating Reynolds numbers. estimate the aerodynamic drag force on the bus at 100 kmph.1 × 10 −6 17.06 × 10 −6 0. The test conditions are 2150 kN/m2.Similitude and Model Testing The π parameter for drag force.56 m/s =u× Hence Reynolds number similarity only need be considered.1525 m. D. 26. The conditions at the flight altitude are temperature = – 10C. gives Dp Dm as um = up 2 2 = (1 / 2)ρ p u p 2 L p 2 (1 / 2)ρ mum Lm 307 ∴ Dp = Dm (ρpLp2/ρmLm2) = 100 × (1/10) 102 = 1000 or 1 kN Problem 9. µ = 17. Velocity of sound is C= Mach number Density at test conditions Density at flight conditions Velocity at flight condition 80. ∴ Drag on prototype = 8. At the given flight conditions.5 × 105. The drag resistance on the model measured at 18 m/s and 27 m/s. µ = 18.195 m/s × 8 18.1 × 10–6 kg/ms. Conditions of air in the wind tunnel are the same as at the operating conditions of the bus. are 4.56 × L × 0. If the width and frontal area of the prototype was 2.961 25. drag at 25.44/16 = 0.01 80.

e.95 1.10 The performance of a torpedo. The ratio of density between sea water and fresh water is 1.25 kg/m3.4758 = Power required F (1 / 2)1.205 × 7. Re = Dm um ρm/µm = .78 W = 47927 W Problem 9.8 Drag force on the prototype at 100 kmph. vw = 1. ua = v = = 38.832 × 10 −6 For values of Re > 105 the coefficient of drag remains constant.9 A water tunnel operates with a velocity of 3m/s at the test section and power required was 3. 1 242. va = 14. Hence strict Reynolds number similarity need not be insisted on beyond such value.832 × 10–6 m2/s.67 × 106 × 25 1000 × 0.75 kW.308 Area of the model = 7.7 × 2 × 16 2 = = 0.05. = . Also determine the value of Reynolds number. 1 m diameter and 4 m long is to be predicted for speeds of 10 m/s. ua uw = va vw uw 3 × 14.725 kN = 1725 × 27. i.85 × 1000 = 11.927 kW.5 kW Problem 9. Pair = Pw 38.78) 2 ∴ F = 1725 N or or 47. If the tunnel is to operate with air. determine the flow velocity required.02/1. If a scale model of 1/25 size is used to predict the performance using a water tunnel.95 m/s vw a 1.8/162 CD = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F 10. if the density of water was 1000 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity was 0. 1. µp µm um = up × Dp Dm × ρp ρm × µm = 10 × 25 × 1. Hence Reynolds number similarity should be maintained D p u p ρ p Dmumρ m in the test.8 × 10 −6 ∴ Velocity of air. This is a fully submerged flow.205 × 35 2 × 7. determine for similitude the flow velocity and the power required.02 and the viscosity ratio is 1.78 m/s) 0.75 × × 3 ρ w uw 1000 3 FG H IJ K 3 = 10.14 × 10 −6 Power can be determined from drag coefficient. by multiplying and dividing by u as F × u power F ×u ρAu u 2 = P ρAu 3 As A is the same.28 ρ air uair 3 = 3. ( 27.8 × 10–6 m2/s.85 m/s µp This is a very high speed generally not achievable in water tunnel.14 × 10–6 m2/s In this case Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained.8 × (27.4758 (1 / 2)ρu 2 A 1. ρa = 1.05 = 242. The length dimension is the same.

a model of 1/75 scale is proposed.5 kg/m3 and viscosity 18. velocity around 2. Problem 9.11 A 1/6 scale model of a submarine is tested in a wind tunnel using air of density 28. Reynolds number similarity should be maintained. The drag force is measured as 15 N.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρw = 1000 kg/m3. As A ∝ D2 ρ mum Dm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 D p 2 ∴ Fp = 15 × 1000 2.6 FG H IJ K 2 (6)2 = 14961 N Problem 9.006 × 10 −6 Dm vp Mach number will be about 0.6 m/s in water at 20oC.54 N Problem 9. u p × L × 1025 36.Similitude and Model Testing 309 In this case for example. Calculate the corresponding speed and drag of the prototype when submerged in sea water with density 1025 kg/m3 and viscosity 1.637 × 10 −3 Using drag coefficient Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 ∴ up = 15.205 77.2 × 105.5 36.6 × = 77.06 × 10 −6 × = 2.006 × 10–6 m2/s um Dm u p D p = vm vp um = up D p vm 200 15.205 kg/m3.39 × 10 1. Let L be the length of the prototype. Determine the flow rate required. Hence compressibility effect will be negligible. the air being at 20o C. To determine the drag on the transducer a model of 100 mm diameter is tested in a wind tunnel. . vair = 15. Determine the speed of air for the test.6 m/s.2 m/s = Fp ρ pu p2 L p2 2 2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m = 67 × 1025 15. Hence Froude number similarity is to be maintained. Estimate the drag on the prototype.637 × 10–3 kg/ms if the model resistance was 67 N. Reynolds number similarity should be considered in this case. The coefficient of drag should be same for this condition.85 m/s 100 1.25.6 × L × 28.12 A sonar transducer in the shape of a sphere of 200 mm diameter is used in a boat to be towed at 2. vw = 1.85 × 100 LM N OP Q 2 = 55.39 × 10 –6 kg/ms at a speed of 36. As it is fully immersed type of flow.5 = −6 6 × 18.6 × 200 × 1.13 In order to predict the flow conditions after the turbine outlet (tail race) of a hydroelectric plant delivering 2400 m3/s.2 28.5 m/s may be used for the test which corresponds to Re = 1. This is a free surface flow. Frm = Frp or um lm = up lp or um = up lm lp Chapter 9 Fm Fp . The density and kinematic viscosity values are : ρair = 1.

The ship is to travel at 30 kmph.84 × 1025 12 (40) 2 1000 1.38 × 103 N Problem 9.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Qm Amum Lm 2 = = Qp A pu p Lp 2 Qm = 2400 Lm = Lp FL I GH L JK m p ∴ FG 1 IJ H 75 K 2. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.5 = 0.7 × 1.41 MN FG L IJ FG u IJ H L K Hu K p p 2 2 = 11.15 A scale model of a ship of 1/30 size is to be towed through water. The total resistance to ships movement is made up of (i) wave resistance and (ii) frictional drag.897 FG H IJ K 2 = 774. A model 1/40 scale when tested at corresponding speed gave a total resistance of 32 N. Fsm = 3.7 × 1. For the prototype the law is estimated to follow Fsp = 2. um = up lm = 12/400.9 × 121. Frictional drag is estimated by separate tests. The ship is to travel at a speed of 12 m/s.8 × Ap = 2.41 × 106 N or 1. For wave resistance study Froude number similarity should be maintained. The ship is 135 m long. For frictional resistance Reynolds number similarity should be maintained. um gLm = up gL p ∴ um = up Lm 30 × 1000 1 = × = 1.8 × 2500 = 635. From the Froude number similarity. In the case of ships the wave resistance is more difficult to predict.897 m/s lp The skin friction drag for the model is calculated using this velocity.310 As flow (Q = Au) depends on area which varies as L2 ∴ 2. From other tests the frictional resistance to the model was found to follow the law Fsm = 3.9 u1.8971.13 × 103 N ∴ Total resistance = 1.7 u1.8 N/m2 of wetted area Determine the expected total resistance.16 N Wave drag on the model = 32 – 20. Hence Froude number similarity is used to estimate wave resistance.04927 m3/s Problem 9.9 up1.52 m/s Lp 3600 30 .84 N The wave drag is calculated using (F/ρ u2L2)m = (F/ρ u2L2)p Noting that sea water is denser with ρ = 1025 kg/m3 Fwp = Fwm ρp ρm m m Skin friction drag for the prototype Fsp = 2. For similarity determine the speed with which the model should be towed.95 N/m2 of wetted area.95 × Am as Am = 2500/402 = 3.14 The total drag on a ship having a wetted hull area of 2500 m2 is to be estimated.16 = 11.8971. But it is not possible to maintain these similarities simultaneously.95 × 2500/402 = 20.5 = 1.

The dimension of the structure are diameter = 0.43 m/s 1000 19. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.12 m.5 Fp 1 = 1. = H 0.06 m Chapter 9 The model dimension can be determined as Dm = 1/6 Dp ∴ D 0.5 1000 1. a smaller model is to be tested in a water tunnel.006 × 10 −3 6 × = 6.16 The wave resistance of a ship when travelling at 12.128 1.976 FG H IJ K 2 (40)2 = 1049. ∴ um = up Lm L p = 12. ρp = 1. The density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3. ρ.02 m.12/0. To predict the shedding frequency.976 m/s 40 The wave resistance is found to vary as given below. The air speed is expected to be about 65 kmph.06 3 ρ mum Dm ρ pu p D p = µm µp Reynolds similarity requires ∴ um = up ρ p µ m Dp ρ m µ p Dm The property values of air and water at the given temperatures are. The frequency of vortex shedding can be related by the equation ω = F (d. µp = 19. Hm = 1/6 Hp = 0.5 m/s is estimated by test on 1/40 scale model.Similitude and Model Testing 311 Problem 9. µp = 1.056 m/s ∴ um = 18.6 = 0. Consider air temperature as 40o C.36/0.36 m. If the geometric scale is 1:6 and if the water temperature is 20o C determine the speed to be used in the tunnel.17 Vortex shedding at the rear of a structure of a given section can create harmful periodic vibration. (refer Chapter 8) ωD =f u FG D . µ) Dimensional analysis leads to the π terms relation.6 × 103 N or 1050 kN Problem 9.02 1 = . u. If the shedding frequency of the model was 60 Hz determine the shedding frequency of the prototype. Determine the speed of the model and the wave resistance of the prototype in sea water.056 × 1. Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 L p2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m 2 2 = 16 × 1025 12. h. ρuD IJ HH µ K = 0. The resistance measured in fresh water was 16 N.12 × 10 −6 1 .006 × 10–6 kg/ms up = 65 × 1000/3600 = 18.6 = 0. height = 0.12 × 10–6 kg/ms ρm = 1000 kg/m3.128 kg/m3 .

31 × 10–6 m2/s.312 ω m Dm ω p D p = um up ∴ ωp = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vortex shedding frequency is determined.19 To ascertain the flow characteristics of the spillway of a dam. here A = 1 × D ∴ The parameter in this case for force is F Fw Fa = ρDu2 ρw Dwuw 2 ρ a Da ua 2 or 2 Fw F ρ I F D IJ FG u IJ =F G JG Hρ K H D K Hu K a w a w a w a 1000 0.06 1 × × 60 = 28.23 0.028 × 0. The drag for unit length can be expressed in the dimensionless from as D/dρu2 where D is the drag and d is the diameter. Viscous and surface tension effects may be neglected.23 kg/m3 Similarity requires equal Reynolds numbers Velocity of flow of water = 14. ua = 54. um = up ( gL p ) 0. under similar conditions of flow.5 u Lm or ∴ m = up Lp F I GH JK As 2 2 Q = uA = uL2.48 × 10–5 m2/s.3 m diameter. Determine the force on the bridge column per m length. The spillway is 40 m long and carries 300 m3/s at flood condition. a column of 0.61 m/s The force can be obtained by the dimensional parameter (drag coefficient) F/ρAu2 . Using the third π parameter.028 m/s u × 0.18 In order to determine the drag on supporting columns (of a bridge) of 0. Qp = upLp .61 FG H IJ K 2 = 1205 N Problem 9. Qm um L2 m = Qp u p L2 p .43 6 The drag also can be predicted from the model. ρp .028 × × = 227 × 1. Thus Dp d pρ p u p 2 = Dm dmρ m um 2 ∴ Dp = Dm.5 ( gLm ) 0. 1/20 geometric scale model is to be used.3 4.5 × 1000/3600 = 4.3 = a −6 1. u p Dp um Dm ωm = 18.5 0. up2 Problem 9. Determine the flow rate required to test the model. due to water flowing at a speed of 14.25 m diameter was tested with air flow.25 4.ρa= 1.25 54. dp dm ρm um 2 . Also determine the time scale for the model.5 km/hr. Froude number similarity is required. vw = 1.08 Hz. vair = 1.48 × 10 −5 ∴ Velocity of air. The resistance was measured as 227 N/m. Qm = um Lm.31 × 10 1. This situation is open surface flow. 6.

41 m3/s at a pressure of 141 N/m2.44 m Using power coefficient : P/rN3D5. the speed being 1400 rpm.81 × 70000 × 6. P2 L N OP =P × M NN Q 2 3 1 1 = 1316 × LM 1750 OP N 1170 Q 3 = 4404 W Specific speed for the model Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1750 104.20 A fan when tested at ground level with air density of 1.7 /(15. For similarity condition the flow coefficient Q/ND3 should be equal.41 × = 2 m3/s 990 N1 The head coefficient H/ρN2D2 is used to determine the pressure rise. (At 1170 rpm). as velocity = length/time. This is to work at a place where the air density is 0.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 313 u L 2 Qm = Qp m m2 = Qp u p Lp = 300 FL I FL I GH L JK GH L JK m p m p 0. Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 or Q2 = Q1 N2 1400 = 1.92 kg/m3.3 kg/m3.5 = FG 1 IJ H 20 K 0.168 m3/s Time scale can be determined from velocities.2 m.44)3/4 = 2300 Note: Specfic speeds are the same. Determine the volume delivered and the pressure rise.5 FL I =G H L JK m p 0.21 A centrifugal pump with dimensional specific speed (SI) of 2300 running at 1170 rpm delivers 70 m3/hr.5 2 = Qp FL I GH L JK m p 2.9/3600 = 1316 W When operating at 1750 rpm.9 m Power = mg H = 9. using flow coefficient Q/ND3.55 N/m2 Problem 9.5 = 0. H2 = H1 (N1/N2)2 = 6. The impeller diameter is 0.5 FG 1 IJ H 20 K 2.3 990 FG H IJ K 2 = 199. The head developed and the power at test conditions are determined first. H/N2D2. head and power if the pump runs at 1750 rpm . Chapter 9 FG 1750 IJ = 104.9 × (1750/1170)2 = 15.5 = 0. running at 990 rpm was found to deliver 1. as D is the same Q2 = 70 3 Using head coefficient. Determine the flow. Also calculate the specific speed at this condition. um Lm t p = up L p tm ∴ t m Lm u p Lm = = L p um Lp tp FL I GH L JK p m 0. As D is the same.2236 Problem 9. ∆P2 = ∆P1 ρ2 N22 ρ1 N 1 2 = 141 × 0. Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1170 70 /H3/4 = 2300 ∴ H = 6.92 1400 × 1.7 m /hr H 1170 K .

Q1 ρ1 h1 = Q2 ρ2 h2 .00 (checks) Specific speed =N Q /H3/4 = 1450 0. power coefficient scale and called flow coefficient (ω ∝ N) (Refer chapter 8.22 A pump running at 1450 rpm with impeller diameter of 20 cm is geometrically similar to a pump with 30 cm impeller diameter running at 950 rpm. Q/ωD3 Considering flow coefficient. Problem 9. Dimensional analysis shows (Neglecting surface tension effects).23 A V notch is to be used with utectic calcium chloride solution at 30oC. Problem 8. Density = 1000 kg/m3. ve = 2.θ v OP Q hw 3 / 2 hc 3 / 2 = vw vc .45 l/s Considering head coefficient. Q g ∴ 1/ 2 h 5/ 2 =f LM g N 1/ 2 h3 / 2 . determine the ratio of corresponding heads and mass flow rates of water and the solution at the corresponding heads.885 m . vw = 1. (g being common) gh1 = gh2 ω 12 D12 ω 2 2 D2 2 ∴ h2 = h1 2 FG ω IJ FG D IJ Hω K H D K 2 1 1 2 ∴ h2 = 25 × LM 1450 OP FG 20 IJ N 950 Q H 30 K P1 3 2 = 25.09045 × 25.16). Density = 1282 kg/m3.006 × 10–6 m2/s. The discharge of the larger pump at the maximum efficiency was 200 litres/s at a total head of 25m. The PI terms of interest are the head coefficient. Also determine the ratio of power required.885/0.13). 5.09045 / 25. Q being volume flow rate that for similarity the following parameters should be equal.267 × 10–6 m2/s.468. checks. The flow rate has to be found for various heads.200 × 25 = 0. 5 P2 ω2 P1 = ω 1 FG IJ FG D IJ = FG 1450 IJ FG 20 IJ H K H D K H 950 K H 30 K 1 = 0.468 As efficiencies should be the same. Water was used for the test at 20oC. Neglecting the effect of surface tension.00 = 5.2 /253/4 = 38. ω 1 D13 Q1 = Q2 ω 2 D2 3 ∴ Q2 = Q1 ω 2 D2 3 1450 20 = 200 × 3 950 30 ω 1 D1 2 FG IJ H K 2 3 = 90. (suffix c refers to the solution properties) (Refer chapter 8. Determine the discharge and head of the smaller pump at the maximum efficiency conditions. with ρ1 = ρ2 0.314 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. 3 Consider power coefficient ρ 1ω 13 D15 2 = ρ 1ω 13 D15 5 P1 as ρ1 = ρ2 . specific speed = 950 0. Problem 8. denoting the larger machines as 1 and the smaller as 2.8853/4 = 38 (dimensional) For larger pump.

For dynamic similarity ratio of 10. when surface tension effect is neglected. 5. in size compared to prototype. For geometric similarity ratio of 8. What should be the ratio of heads for the same flow rate.44 × Qw ρw µ w 1000 2.827 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. The representation of a physical system used to predict the behaviour of the system is called . Qw ∝ ρw D gH /µw and QR ∝ ρR D gH /µr. should be equal.24 The discharge Q through an orifice is found to depend on the parameter ρD gH /µ. µw = 1.7 × 10–4 kg/ms.1 Fill in the blanks. Determine the ratio of flow rates of water and refrigerant 12 at 20oC under the same head.97 Problem 9. Dimensionless parameters provide 7.71884 hc 5 / 2 ∴ Qc = h Qc = c hw Qw F I GH JK 5/ 2 = (1. 2.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. model is used.006 × 10 K GH 2.873 × (1282/1000) = 4.873 Ratio of mass flow rates = 3. conditions for model testing. 1. When the prototype is very small 6. Models are generally 4. will exist. to an existing system.006 × 10 Q −6 −6 2 / 3 = 1.006 × 10 −3 = R × R = = 3.7 × 10 2 −3 −4 × 923 1000 I JK 2 = 11. If stream lines are similar between model and prototype it is called When geometric and dynamic similarities exist then automatically Chapter 9 . similarity. Models may also be used to predict the effect of 9. should be equal. 9.7 × 10 −4 For the same flow rate ρ w D gH w µw = ρ R D gH R µR ∴ Hw µw ρR × = HR µ R ρw FG H IJ = F 1. . The system whose behaviour is predicted by the model is called 3.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 315 v hc = c vw hw FG IJ H K hw 5 / 2 Qw 2/ 3 = LM 2.267 × 10 OP N 1.. µR = 2. Dividing ρ µ QR 923 1.71884)5/2 = 3. Density of refrigerent = 923 kg/m3.

Pressurised 7. to have Reynolds and Mach analogy simultane- Wind tunnels are used to have simultaneously Reynlods and Mach analogy. Weber. When gravity and inertia forces are important models are used. kinematic 10. For flow around immersed bodies 4. harbours etc.4 State correct or incorrect. For rivers. Mach 4. Froude 9. Froude and Reynolds similarities and similarity is used. 4. Mach 11. For flow with free surface 10. Reynolds 5. 6. Froude 8.316 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. Enlarged/larger 5. 3. 7. 5. 9. Froude 10. 11. Forces at corresponding locations of model and prototype 9. 2. number similarity is used. Reynolds. Very small flow height for model 3. . Froude 9. then 8. 4. Geometric similarity will automatically lead to kinematic similarity. . number similarity is used. For compressible flow through closed ducts 3. Distorted 2. cannot O Q. For flow around immersed bodies of compressible flow. Froude 6. Modifications 6. In case of same fluid properties it is ously. . Reason for distorted models for rivers etc. similarity is used. number similarity is used. 9. Reynolds 4. For complete similarity in general the be the same. Linear dimensions of model and prototype 8. O Q. vary 10. is because of 6. Prototype 3. For incompressible flow through closed ducts 2. Answers 1. 1. 1. Strouhal O Q. Smaller 4. To consider compressible flow effects When periodic motion is to be considered similarity is used. 9. be maintained simultaneously. Webr number similarity is used to study wave drag. Similarity 7. 1. Geometric similarity will lead to dynamic similarity. Weber 8. When gravity and surface tension are important. Impossible 6. Reynolds 2. Dynamic 7. For studying wave drag 10. In flow with free surface 8. 2. and similarity are used. Froude.3 Fill in the blanks. number similarity is used.2 Fill in the blanks. similarity is used. Reynolds. kinematic similarity. When wave resistance is important 9. number for the model and prototype should number similarity should be used. Reynolds and Mach 3. Mach 5. and prototype it is called 7. When the ratio of velocities and accelerations are equal at corresponding locations in the model similarity. similarities are used in the case similarity is used in case of incompressible flow. When viscous and inertia forces are important 5. Under kinematic similarity conditions dynamic similarity will result automatically. Model 2. 3. 9. number similarity is used. At high Reynolds numbers the coefficient of drag does not significantly Answers 1.

The prototype has a chord length of 2 m and it is to fly at 15oC and 1 atm.2. Calculate the test speed and estimate the drag on the balloon. A model of an automobile of scale 1/5 is tested in water tunnel for obtaining the performance of the prototype. Under dynamically similar conditions the drag on the model was measured as 3. 317 7. If at a point the pressure coefficient was –1. Determine the speed in the wind tunnel and the prototype speed.4. For obtaining simultaneously Reynolds number and Mach number similarity pressurised tunnels are used. Determine the pressure of the tunnel for dynamic similarity. When surface tension forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. Air speed in the tunnel should not exceed 110 m/s to avoid compressibility effect.21 m/s. These should be obtained from tables of properties. the test speed being 75 m/s. 0. One fifth scale model of an automobile is tested in a towing water tank. For fluctuating flow Strouhal number similarity should be used.5 m/s. 10. A model of 1/5 scale is to be tested in a wind tunnel.5 × 106 (based on chord length). determine the static pressure at the point. At high Reynolds numbers viscous drag coefficient remains constant. 9.6. When gravity forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. 5. It is found that the coefficient of drag remains constant for the model after speeds of 4 m/s and the drag at this speed was 182 N. 4. If the prototype is to travel at 27. A torpedo 533 mm dia and 6700 mm long is to travel in water at 28 m/s. An airship is to operate in air at 20oC and 1 bar at 20 m/s speed. The temperature and pressure in the wind tunnel are 15oC and 10 atm absolute. 12 Incorrect : 1.978 N) E 9.Similitude and Model Testing 5. Chapter 9 . Mach number similarity need not be considered for low velocities.4. 8. (6. If the drag force on the model was 250 N. E 9. To determine the drag a model of dia 50 mm is to be tested in a water tunnel. (1. 1340 N) E 9. (both 39. A 3 m dia weather balloon of spherical shape is to travel at 1. ( (um/up) = 0. 219 N) E 9. Distorted models are used to study river flow. 8 EXERCISE PROBLEMS Note: Property values are not specified.78 N.78 m/s in air at 15oC. 7. Dynamic viscosity is not affected by pressure. Determine the drag on the prototype.5.2 m/s) E 9. Also determine the ratio of drag forces. 7 kN) E 9. Estimate the drag on the prototype when operating at 90 kmph. determine the speed in the tunnel. A model of scale 1/20 is used for tests in a wind tunnel. 3.3.1. Determine the drag on the prototype (539 kPa. If the drag force at this condition on the model was 618N.93 Mpa. 12. Answers Correct : 2. If air can be pressurised with temperature remaining at 20oC determine the minimum pressure required. 11. 10. Froude number similarity is used to study wave drag. The air temperatures are equal. 6. 43. 11. Determine the ratio of speeds of the model and prototype.345. 6. 9. Assume 20oC in both cases. A dynamically similar model of an airfoil of 1/10 scale was tested in a wind tunnel at zero angle of attack at a Reynoles number of 5.

Water flows at the rate of 40 m3/s through a spillway of a dam. Assume both model and prototype operate at the same efficiency.10.45 × 10–5 m2/s. A 1/50 scale model of a ship is tested in a towing tank to determine the wave drag on the ships hull. E 9. Also determine the drag force and the power required for cruising the boat. (3.318 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. surface tension and viscous effects are important determine the viscosity and surface tension scales.5 N. Determine the velocity of operation of the boat for similarity.9. If drag force on the model is 3. If the pressure drop in the model was measured as 15 kpa. The model is to be tested with water at 20oC and the velocity is limited to 10 m/s. The drag on a solid body having a characteristic length of 2.31m/s. (i) In case a water tunnel is used determine the velocity.1 m/s. 2500 N. Neglect viscous drag. Kin(0. The diameter of the impeller is to be 1 m.12. A model 1/50 scale of a boat when tested at 1 m/s in water gave a wave resistance of 0. In case a pressurised tunnel with a pressure of 8 atm is used. E 9. If a model of 1. The width of the spillway is 65 m. 0. 55.46 kN. The ship is to designed to cruise at 18 knots (knot = 1852 m). F = 2666 N) ematic viscosity of water = 1. moving with a velocity of 15 m/s through water is to be estimated by a study on a model having 50 times this characteristic length. Assume same temperature in all cases. Determine the velocity with which the model is to be towed. If inertial gravitational. predict the drag force on the prototype. A model to have Froude number similarity is to be designed.15. The property values for oil are: kinematic viscosity = 3. (ii) Repeat the above in case a wind tunnel is used. Also determine the ratio of drag values on model and prototype. A model of 1. It is proposed to design a centrifugal pump to deliver 4. A laboratory model of 1/5 th scale is proposed for testing. E 9. In this case the model size is to be 0. An enlarged model is used with 8:1 scale in a water towing tank.11. The scale for the model is 1/4. Determine the drag on the prototype and the power required. (2.1 m3/s of water at 200 m head when running at 1200 rpm.14.0328 m3/s) E 9. Determine the pressure drop in the prototype.13. The discharge scale is 1/1000. When tested at 1 atm and 15oC at a speed of 89. 1. 17. An open channel of rectangular section of width 7 m carries water to a depth of 1 m and a flow rate of 2 m3/s. The model is to run at the same speed.75 kW) .6 m/s.14 × 10–6 m2/s.02 N. (7. Determine the depth of flow in the model.5 mm.2 m is to be used in an atmospheric pressure wind tunnel. Determine the flow rate of the model.1 kW) E 9.17. Determine the operating head and discharge of the model. determine the velocity required. density = 833 kg/m3. Assume a temperature 20oC in all cases. The flow velocity is 5 m/s.625 m2 when travelling at 22. Determine the velocity of the model to achieve dynamic similarity. speeds are to be estimated.7. Also determine the ratio between model and prototype drag. The pressure drop through an elbow of 150 mm diameter is to be determined by test on a model. the drag on the model was measured as 2.46 kN.5 m width is proposed for laboratory test.8. The flow through the elbow is water at 20oC. E 9.062 m/s.4 m/s is to be estimated by a model to be tested in a wind tunnel. The characteristic length of the unit is 7 m.25 × 105) E 9. Oil flows over a submerged body horizontally at a velocity 15 m/s. In a flow the geometric scale is 1/4. E 9. determine the air velocity required.16. E 9. The power requirement of a tractor tailor with a frontal area of 0. (1. The density scale is 1. (8 m.24 × 10–3 m3/s) E 9. Determine the dimeter of the model.6 m. The drag characteristics of a new design of an automobile at 32 kmph and 144 kmph.

If the temperatures are the same. ∂u ∂u ∂h +u =– g .5 MN/m2 and temperature of 20oC. Assume dynamic similarity conditions.5 kg/ms. u +v =– +v 2 . The scale ratio between model and prototype of a spillway is 1/25.19. =– . Density of air = 17.22. An enlarged model of 3:1 scale was tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at a pressure of 1. If the prototype discharges 3000 m3/s. E 9. If the force at a certain point on the model was measured as 5 N. Determine the velocity for dynamic similarity.23.Similitude and Model Testing 319 E 9.8 atm.27. Kinematic viscosity of water = 0. (1/10) E 9.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. A model of an aeroplane of 1/20 size is to be tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at the same speed as that of the prototype to get over compressibility effects. E 9. A large veturimeter is calibrated using 1/10 scale model. ∂h u ∂u . The flow rate over a spillway of a dam was 150 m3/s. E 9. g ∂x ∂x E 9. The aeroplane is to be operated at 0.83 kg/m3. Determine the condition for dimensional similarity. ρw = 998 kg/m3. 1/3125. Steady incompressible two dimensional flow. 0. A small insect of about 1 mm dia moves slowly in sea water.31 × 10–7 N) E 9.20. E 9.24.001 kg/ms. The slope of the free surface of a steady wave in one dimensional flow in a shallow liquid layer is described by the equation below. µw = 1.26. neglecting gravity is described by the equations below.2 cp and specfic weight is 10 kN/m3.25. Comment on the results. (1/5.96 m3/s) Chapter 9 . If a model 3 m length is to satisfy both Reynolds number and Froude number similarity calculate the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to be used with the model. Dynamic viscosity of air = 20.24 kg/m3. ρg =1263 kg/m3 (2. Determine the ratio of velocities and discharges. Calculate the model discharges. tested in glycerin at a velocity of 30 cm/s measured a drag of 1. 1 ∂P ∂ 2u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u = 0.3 N. 7. One dimensional unsteady flow in a thin liquid layer is described by the equation below.53 cm/s. E 9.21.35 m3/s. Density = 4. Viscosity of air = 18. ∂τ ∂x ∂x E 9. If the flow rate over the model was 1. Non dimensionless the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characterise the flow.18.478 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the speed of travel of the insect and also the drag force on it. Determine the flow rate of air at 80oC in a 50 mm diameter pipe that will give dynamic similarity for flow of 50 l/s of water at 60oC in a 400 mm diameter pipe if the pressure of air is 4 bar. + ρ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x E 9. Also determine the drag force on the model. If the same fluid conditions are used for the model and prototype determine the discharge ratio. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1. To determine the drag an enlarged model of 100:1 scale.5 m/s was measured as 10 N. Determine the linear scale. when moved at 1.006 × 10–6 m2/s. A ship 180 m long is to cruise at a speed of 40 kmph in sea water whose viscosity is 1. µw = 0.28. Non dimensionlise the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characetrise the flow. determine the force at the corresponding point on the prototype. Non dimensioalise the equation and obtain the diminsionless groups that characterise the flow. determine the pressure in the wind tunnel in atm. The drag force on a sphere submerged in water at 20oC.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.

75 m3/s. Volume delivered : 2.2 m.205 kg/m3vw = 1.9.2015 × 10–6 m2/s (42. The diameter of the model is 1 m and when dragged at 1. Density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3. Determine the prototype wave resistance. Determine the ratio of drag coefficients of prototype to model when tested at 1/3 rd density of air. For the prototype the skin resistance is given by 4.95 up1.32. [vm/vp = (geometric scale)1. measured a total resistance of 46.06 × 10–6 m2/s.c. Determine the total resistance of the ship in sea water at speeds corresponding to that of the model. The model of 1/20 scale with wetted area of 4 m2 when towed in fresh water at 1. Determine the corresponding speed of the ship and the (7. The prototype weir is to discharge under a head of 1. but at the same Mach number. Assuming same conditions for the air determine the volume delivered.29.37. Determine the expected drag on the prototype if the water temperature was 15oC. The prototype turbine has to work with a (16. 3. The skin resistance of a ship model is given by 5.95 N/m2. A scale model of 1/10 size is proposed and the available flow is 42.75 kW. The drag on a ship 122 m long and with 2135 towed at 1.5 ] E 9. (2. m2 .2 N.44 m3/s) E 9. A turbine model of 1/5 scale uses 2 m3/s of water. 1. the skin resistance was 14.33.9 N/m2.36. Determine the speed ratio and power ratio.2 m/s. When tested at 3 m/s. total pressure and power absorbed.35. Total pressure 63.2 N) E 9.12 m.2 kW) wetted area is to be estimated. A geometrically similar fan of 1/4 size is to be used running at twice the speed of the operating fan. Density of the sea water is 1025 kg/m3 E 9. Power absorbed : 1. 13. (0.51 m/s. E 9.85 and has a value of 43 N/m2. The performance of a spherical balloon to be used in air at 20oC is to be obtained by a test in a water tank using 1/3 scale model.2 m/s measured a drag of 200 N. The skin resistance was separately analyzed and found to follow the law F = c um1.67.5 l/s. A ship model of scale 1/50 showed a wave resistance of 30 N at its design speed. ρa= 1.5 mm of wate column. In model testing if both Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity should be simultaneously maintained. A centrifugal fan in operation when tested gave the following data.30. determine the ratio of kinematic viscosity of fluids to be used with the model and prototype. the geometric scale being 1/5.22 um1. va = 15.32 m3/s.3 m/s through fresh water had a total drag resistance at 15.3 N. E 9. (25:1) E 9. A model E 9.33 Nm2 and the ships skin resistance is estimated to follow the law F = c us1.8 mm w.31.34.48) flow rate of 15 m3/s.320 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. Determine the heads necessary and the corresponding discharge of the prototype weir. 142. 6530 kW) power needed to propel it.

 Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 10. The velocity gradient is steepest at the interface and the shear is also highest at the interface. The layer near the surface has to have the same velocity as the surface. one boundary is provided by the solid surface.0 INTRODUCTION Ideal inviscid fluids do not exert any force on the surfaces over which they flow. In the study of flow over immersed bodies like aircraft wings the analysis can be limited to the boundary layer. The equations for the analysis of the complete flow field has been formulated by Navier and Stokes. But solutions for these equations for practical boundary conditions were not available. This layer was named as boundary layer. For a long time empirical equations based on experimental results were used in designs. 10. then this layer comes to rest. Work is to be done to overcome the force.1 BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS In the solution of the basic equations describing the flow namely continuity and momentum equations of the boundary layer. When these fluids flow over surfaces. The theory was proposed by Ludwig Prandtl in 1904. He observed that in the case of real fluids velocity gradient existed only in a thin layer near the surface. instead of the field extending to long distances for the determination of forces exerted on the surface by the fluid flowing over it. The need for the other boundary is met by edge of the boundary layer determined by the thickness. “no slip condition” prevails. The development of boundary layer theory enabled the analysis of such flows to be fairly easy. A velocity gradient forms leading to shear force being exerted over the layers. The flow field now can be divided into two regions. Real fluids have viscosity. one in which velocity gradient and shear existed and another where viscous effects are negligible. This was supported by measurement of velocity. The determination of the velocity variation along the layer enables the determination 321 . The adjacent layer is retarded to a lesser extent and this proceeds to layers more removed from the surface at rest. Beyond this layer the effect of viscosity was found negligible. This region can be dealt with as flow of inviscid fluid or ideal fluid. If the surface is at rest.

Exact method : Solution of the differential equations describing the flow using the boundary conditions. At present several computer softwares are available to solve almost any type of boundary.1.1. and the learner should become familiar with such softwares if he is to be current. Approximate method : Formulation of integral equations describing the flow and solving them using an assumed velocity variation satisfying the boundary conditions. It is found that this method can be easily applied only to simple geometries.1. The difference between the results obtained by the exact method and by the integral method is found to be within acceptable limits.99 times the free stream velocity. 1. As the distance for this condition is difficult to determine.1. The flow over the top surface alone is shown in the figure. Momentum transfer resulting in the retarding force is by molecular diffusion . velocity. The layer near the surface is retarded to rest or zero. This is because the viscosity effect is felt at layers more and more removed from the surface. the shear stress can be determined using the equation τ=µ du dy (10. uµ uµ uµ Laminar Transition Turbulent Figure 10. There are two approaches for the analysis of the problem.1 Flow Over Flat Plate The simplest situation that can be analyzed is the flow over a flat plate placed parallel to uniform flow velocity in a large flow field.1. 10. the boundary layer thickness is arbitrarily defined as the distance from the surface where the velocity is 0. At the earlier stages the flow is regular and layers keep their position and there is no macroscopic mixing between layers.322 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of velocity gradient. The next layer is retarded to a lower extent. This is made possible by these two boundary conditions. 2.1 Formation of boundary layer over flat plate The velocity is uniform in the flow field having a value of u∞.1) This leads to the determination of resistance due to the flow. 10.1. This method is more versatile and results in easier solution of problems. 10. Once the velocity gradient at the surface is determined. Boundary layer begins to form from the leading edge and increases in thickness as the flow proceeds. This proceeds farther till the velocity equals the free stream velocity.2 Continuity Equation The flow of fluid over a flat plate in a large flow field is shown in Fig.

ρudy × 1 = ρudy Flow out across face BB. If u decreases. This type of flow is called laminar flow and analysis of such flow is somewhat simpler. As flow proceeds farther.1. Viscous effects prevail over inertial effects in such a layer.1. Under unsteady conditions. 10. Time is not indicated in the equations. Under steady flow conditions the net mass flow across the element should be zero.2 Enlarged view of element in the boundary layer The assumptions are (i) flow is incompressible or density remains constant. ρudy + Net flow in the x direction = ∂ (ρudy) dx ∂x ∂ ρu ∂x b g dxdy ∂ ρv Similarly the net flow in the y direction is given by Hence ∂x Under steady conditions the sum is zero. The algebraic sum of x and y directional flows is zero. the net mass flow should equal the change of mass in the elemental volume considered. rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y A r u dy r v dx A dx B rudy + dy ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x B Figure 10. Viscous forces maintain orderly flow. is – ve and so ∂v should be positive.1. The values of velocities are indicated in the figure.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 323 between layers. The density of the fluid is ρ. (iii) there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer. This type of flow is called turbulent flow. (ii) flow is steady. inertial effects begin to prevail over viscous forces resulting in macroscopic mixing between layers. An enlarged sectional view of the element is shown in Fig. Flow in across face AA.2) This is known as continuity equation for steady incompressible flow. ∂y ∂u ∂x Chapter 10 .2. Unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. Continuity equation is obtained using the principle of conservation of mass. Higher rates of momentum transfer takes place in such a flow. Also for incompressible flow density is constant. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y b g dxdy (10. For the formulation of the differential equations an element of size dx × dy × 1 is considered.

3 Momentum analysis Consider the momentum flow in the x direction : Across AA momentum flow = u (ρu) dy Across BB momentum flow = u (ρu) dy + ∂ {u(ρu) dy} dx ∂x Taking the difference.324 10. Hence net x directional momentum flow is LMu ∂u + v ∂u OP ρ dxdy N ∂x ∂y Q .3. The flows are indicated on the figure unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. The net force on the surface of the element should equal the rate of change of momentum of the fluid flowing through the element. the second set in the above equation is zero. 10. Here x directional forces are considered with reference to the element shown in Fig.1.3 Momentum Equation Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The equation is based on Newton’s second law of motion.1. the net flow is (as ρ is constant) (u2 is written as u × u) ∂u ∂u ∂ +u [u(ρu)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u ∂x ∂x ∂x Considering the flow in the y direction. the net x directional momentum flow is ∂ ∂u ∂u [u(ρv)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u +v ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q LM N OP Q Summing up.1. the net momentum flow is ρ dxdy u LM MN ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v +v + u + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y R L S MN T OPUOP QVPQ W From continuity equation. The density of the fluid is ρ ¶u ¶ ¶u dx + m dydx ¶y ¶y ¶x A r dx ¶u dy ¶y ¶v dy ¶y m u+ v+ B r dy u+ ¶u dx ¶x u+ ¶u dx ¶x u (ru) dy dy A u (rv) dx dx m ¶u dx ¶x B Figure 10.

noting v = µ/ρ ∂y 2 (10. at y = ∞. ∂u =0 ∂y The solution for these equations was obtained by Blasius in 1908 first by converting the partial differential equation into a third order ordinary differential equation and then using numerical method. (ii) at y = δ.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 325 It was assumed that no body forces or pressure forces are present.3) ∂2u ∂u ∂u +v = v 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x This is known as momentum equation for the boundary layer. u = 0. and simplifying. The boundary conditions are (i) at y = 0. At the bottom surface shear At the top surface shear = dx µ = dx µ ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂ µ dx dy + ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The net shear on the element is µ Εquating. η = 0 and Chapter 10 The two new vaiables introduced were .4 Solution for Velocity Profile The continuity and momentum equations should be simultaneously solved to obtain the velocity profile. v is also called as momentum diffusivity.4) where ψ is the stream function giving ∂ψ ∂x The resulting ordinary differential equation is u= and v = – 2 ∂ψ ∂y (10. u ∂2u dxdy . 1 ∂P has to added on the ρ ∂x 10.1.1. In case of pressure gradient along the flow – RHS. u = u∞.5) d3 f d2 f +f =0 dη3 dη2 ∂f = 0. Only surface forces due to viscosity is considered.6) the boundary conditions with the new variables are at y = 0. u∞ and f (η) = ψ/ vxu∞ xv η=y (10. η = ∞ and ∂η ∂f =1 ∂η (10.1.1.1.

99 1. we obtain The average value over length L can be obtained by using 1 Cf = C fx dx = 1. at η = 0 u∞ / vx dη 2 d2 f From the solution. the value of .1.10) Not that these results are obtained for laminar flow over flat plate for Re < 5 × 105.8) (10.332 ρu∞ 2 Cfx = 0.e.5 L Rex (10. δ u∞ / vx = 5.326 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The results where plotted with u/u∞ as the dependent vairable and y u∞ or (η) as the vx independent variable resulting in a plot as shown in Fig. u/uµ = 0.0 Slope 0. is obtained as 0.0 2.0 (y/x) Rx Figure 10. or δ = 5 u∞ / vx = 5x u∞ x / v 5x = 5x Rex–0.4.1.332 dη2 Substituting this value and replacing v by µ/ρ and simplifying τw = 0.7) Rex This equation was more precisely solved in 1983 by Howarth.1.664 Rex–0. The value of y i. at η = 0.1. The significance of Reynolds number has already been explained under dimensional analysis as the ratio of inertia force to viscous force.5 4. Cfx.1.5 L z 0 (10.0 5.9) Defining skin friction coefficient. Velocity gradient at the surface is of greater importance because it decides the shear on the surface at y = 0 ∂u τw = µ equals the value of µu∞ ∂y d2 f .0 3.328 ReL–0.5 (10. This y value is taken as the vx boundary layer thickness δ as per the definition of thickness of boundary layer.332 u/uµ 1.4 Velocity distribution in boundary layer u∞ where u/u∞ = 0. 10. .1.0 0. as τw/(1/2)ρu∞2.99 is found to be 5.

2 0.68 × 10–3 1. 10.59 × 105 δ. ∴ Rex = 5 × 0.5 0. µ = 18.56 × 105 2. δ = 5x Rex–0.5 Consider 0.5 × 105 δ. 0.006 × 10–6 m2/s.21 × 10–3 3.93 10.5. at these locations. Cfx = 0.7.5 m and 0. Water at 20° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 0.11× 10–3 1. momentum etc. (consider unit plate width) H Flow through face ab = z 0 ρudy Chapter 10 .66 × 10–3 4.5.328 ReL–0.664 Rex–0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 327 Example 10.5 and 0. both local and average.8 m.5625 × 105 < 5 × 105 ∴ Laminar v 16 × 10−6 δ = 6. The values calculated using equation 10. 0. mm 5.66 × 10–3 Note that as distance increases the local skin friction factor decreases and the average value is higher than the local value.99 × 105 1. v = 16 × 10–6 m2/s.5.33 × 10–3 CfL 5. Air at 30° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 5m/s. The property values for air at 30 °C are obtained from tables. CfL = 1. Determine the boundary layer thickness and friction factors at lengths 0. Determine the boundary layer thickness at distances 0.66 × 10–3 1. Cfx = 1. CfL = 3.32 × 10–3 3.36 × 10–3 2.67 × 10–3 CfL 6.325 mm.2 0. m 0.325 8. There is no flow through the face ad.8 Re 0.63 × 10–6 kg/ms. µ = 1. The control volume chosen is shown in Fig. 10.1. Also note that the boundary layer thickness increases along the flow direction.33 × 10–3 Note the same trends as in Example 1. Example 10. The value of kinematic viscosity = 1.006 × 10–3 kg/ms.1.36 × 10–3 The values for other distances are tabulated below.2.2 m.5 Integral Method In this case flow rate.03 Cfx 3. m 0.5 m.40 × 105 0.5 ux = = 1. in the boundary layer are determined using integration over the thickness of the boundary layer. 9 and 10 are tabulated below: Length. ρ = 1.000 6. Also note that because of higher viscosity the friction values are higher.8 Re 0.68 × 10–3.000 Cfx 2.8 m from leading edge.02 7.165 kg/m3.5 0.33 × 10–3 2.2.1.63 × 105 1.2 m/s.1. Distance. mm 4. Also determine the skin friction coefficients.

(1) As (u – u∞) is zero beyond δ.1. the integration limit can be taken as δ instead of H.. Equating dy (10. Momentum flow through ab = d Momentum flow through cd = uρ udy + dx 0 H z z 0 H uρ udy LM MN H z 0 uρ udy dx OP PQ The mass crossing the boundary bc has a velocity of u∞ d Momentum flow through bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 u∞ ρ udy dx OP PQ Summing up.5 Boundary layer element for integral analysis The difference should flow through bc as no flow is possible across ad. The velocity gradient at face bc is zero. d ∴ Flow through face bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ This is the result of continuity principle. the net momentum flow through the control volume = d dx LM MN H z 0 (u − u∞ ) ρ udy dx OP PQ . Considering x directional momentum. So the only force on the control volume surface is – τw dx = – µ du dx.11) y=0 d dx LM MN z 0 δ (u∞ − u) ρ udy = µ OP PQ du dy ..1. It is assumed that there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer.328 H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow through face cd = z 0 d ρudy + dx b H LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ c dy d y a dx d Figure 10.

u = 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces or 329 d u2 dx ∞ LM MN z 0 δ du u u dy = v 1− dy u∞ u∞ du =0 dy FG H IJ K OP PQ (10.1.64 x v u∞ x = 4.64 × x ρu∞ µ 3 Re 0. N Q 3 ∴ du dy y=0 = u∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q ∴ τw = µu∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q Cf = τw /{(1/2) ρ u∞2} = ∴ Cfx = Cfx = 3µu∞ 2 1/2 2 2δ ρu∞ As δ = 4.64.64 ρu∞ x (10.1.12) y=0 This is called momentum integral equation. gives d 39 2 3 u u∞ δ = v ∞ dx 280 2 δ LM N OP Q (10. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP N Q 3 (10. This leads to .13) Substituting in equation 10.1.12 d u∞ 2 dx R | S | T z 0 δ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ OP × LM1 − 3 NM 2 δ 2 H δ K QP NM 2 3 y 1 y + δ 2 δ FG H | IJ OP dyU = v du K QP V dy y = 0 | W 3 Carrying out the integration.14) or 39 2 dδ 3 u∞ = v u∞ . 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP . The boundary conditions are at y = 0.1.16) Chapter 10 z z δ dδ = x x 140 v dx 13 u∞ at x = 0. δ = 0. u = u∞ and Also d 2u = 0 at y = 0 (constant pressure gradient) dy2 Equation 10. The value of Cfx can be determined using the assumed velocity profile.12 can be solved if a velocity profile satisfying the boundary conditions is assumed.15) This solution is closer to the exact solution where the constant is 5 instead of 4.64x/Re 3µu∞ 2 Re 0.1.5 = 0.5 x 2 2 × 4.1.64x/Rex0. at y = δ. Separating variables and integrating dx 2 δ 280 0 0 δ = 4.5 (10.1.646/Re 1/2 x x 4. Out of the popularly used profiles the results obtained from a cubic profile given below is in closer agreement with the exact solution.

17) Displacing the boundary by a distance δd would pass the flow in the boundary layer at free stream velocity. The idea is illustrated in Fig. In the absence of the boundary layer the flow rate that would pass through the thickness δ will be higher.330 Compared to 0.6 Displacement thickness The reduction in volume flow is given by (for unit width) = z 0 δ ρ (u∞ − u) dy If viscous forces were absent the velocity all through the thickness δ will be equal to u∞. The can be shown by assuming polynomial variation for velocity u in the boundary layer.6 Displacement Thickness Compared to the thickness δ in free stream.1. Boundary layer u¥ u¥ d u dd Figure 10. Analysis using linear and sine function profiles illustrated under solved problems. 10. The displacement thickness will equal δ/3. 10.6. u = a + by + cy2.1.1. Assuming (as there are three boundary conditions) the distribution. with boundary conditions. Displacement thickness δd is the distance by which the solid boundary would have to be displaced in a frictionless flow to give the same mass flow rate as with the boundary layer.1. (i) u = 0 at y = 0. A thickness δd can be defined by equating the reduction in flow to a uniform flow with velocity u∞ or ρu∞δd δd = z 0 δ (u∞ − u) dy = u∞ z FGH 0 δ 1− u dy u∞ I JK (10. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Due to flexibility this method becomes more versatile as compared to the exact method. the flow in the boundary layer is reduced due to the reduction in velocity which is the result of viscous forces. (ii) u = u∞ at y = δ and (du/dy) = 0 at y = δ The first condition gives a = 0 and from the other two conditions c = – u∞ /δ2 and b = 2u∞ /δ .664/Rex1/2 by exact solution.

17) and integrating. The average velocity.2 m2.2 flow is 1. Area = 1 × 0. mm 5.84 × 10–3 10.333 × 5 × 10–3 2.333 × 5 × 10–3/0.0 6. m/s 1.1.5 0. m3/s 1.35 × 10–4 5. water flow the values are given below. m 0.0211 0.1.02 7.00 δd.0167 The volume flow out (deficit flow) equals δd u∞ × width. m3/s 3.2 0. From example 10.03 δd.93 10.67 × 10–3 1..333 2.1. mm 1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Hence the profile is u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ 331 (10. Substituting in (10.8 δ. V = volume/area.1 and 10. m/s 0. But this is the value nearer the Blasius solution.673 2. Example 10.333 × 5 × 10–3 m3/s.2. ∴ V = 1.643 3.666 × 5 × 10–3 V(0–x). assuming 1 m width ∴ between x = 0 and x = 0. Also determine the flow out of the boundary layer in the y direction and the average values of velocity v in these sections. δd = δ/3 or displacement thickness equals one third of hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness.5 0. In case other profiles are adopted. For other lengths values are tabulated above. this constant will be different.6) for displacement thickness. In the case of example 10. The deficit flow at any thin layer at y of thickness dy is (for unit width) ρ (u∞ – u) dy Chapter 10 .69 × 10–4 V(0–x).e. Using data of problems Examples 10. mm 1. The thickness which at free stream velocity will have the same momentum flow as the dificit flow is called momentum thickness.1.343 flow rate. mm 4.8 δ. The deficit flow should go out of the top of the boundary layer.0333 m/s. Distance. there is a reduction in momentum flow through the boundary layer as compared to the momentum flow in a thickness δ at free stream velocity.7 Momentum Thickness Similar to the conditions discussed in section (10.108 × 5 × 10–3 2.18) LM OP N Q 2 Note that this is different from the profile previously assumed for the solution of momentum integral equation. δd = z 0 δ F 1 − u I dy = R1 − 2 y + FG y IJ U dy = LM y − y S δ H δKV N δ GH u JK T W ∞ z 0 δ 2 1 y3 − 3 δ2 OP Q δ = (1/3)δ 0 i.3.2 determine the displacement thickness at the various locations.0333 0.2 = 0. (unit width is assumed) Distance 0.29 × 10–4 6.666 Volume flow.1 air flow at 30 °C with free stream velocity 5 m/s.2 0.108 2.325 8.06 × 10–3 0.

then u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ LM OP N Q 2 substituting in 10.2 TURBULENT FLOW As flow preceeds farther along the flat plate.7 Momentum thickness The value of momentum thickness is generally taken as 1/7th of boundary layer thickness in laminar flow. As inertia force increases Reynolds number increases and the flow becomes turbulent. 10. . Boundary layer u0 u Deficit momentum A dm Figure 10.5 K 3 5 15 z 0 δ LM2 y − 5 L y O NM δ MN δ PQ +4 10.1.1.332 Momentum for this flow is ρu (u∞ – u) dy Hence the deficit momentum = δ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z 0 ρu (u∞ − u) dy Considering δm as momentum thickness. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force.19 and simplyifying 2 3 4 δm = LM y OP − LM y OP OP dy N δ Q N δ Q QP 5 1 2 F 1 IJ δ δ=G = δ− δ+δ− δ= H 7.1. inertia forces begin to prevail and viscous forces are unable to keep the flow in an orderly way.1. The value will vary with the assumption about velocity distribution. For example if the velocity profiles as in the previous article is used.19) The concept of reduction in momentum is shown in Fig. Generally the limiting Reynolds number for laminar flow over flat plate is taken as 5 × 105 (for internal flow the critical Reynolds number is 2000). δm ρu∞ u∞ = δm = z LM z MN 0 δ 0 δ ρu (u∞ − u) dy u u − u∞ u∞ FG IJ OP dy = H K PQ 2 z 0 δ u u dy 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q (10.7.

However it is too cmplex for use with integral method at our level of discussion.2.2 – 1742ReL–1 Displacement thickness is obtained as δd = δ/8 Example 10. Compare the values with values calculated using laminar flow correlations.2 m/s over a flat plate 1.074Re–0.2.006 × 10–6 m2/s. having different distributions at different heights is available. (10.5 = 5.37 mm.1. Cf = 0.5 × 1000 × 1.2 m long.0594/Re0. The velocity at any location at any time.381x/ReL0.9 mm δd = z δ 0 FG 1 − u IJ dy = H uK ∞ 2 z δ 0 F 1 − F y I I dy = LM y − 7 y GH GH δ JK JK MM 8 δ NM 1/7 1+ 1 ∂ 7 1/ 7 OP PP QP = 1 δ 8 0 δdL = 26.9/8 = 3. u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 (10.2 = 0.0269 m or 26.55 × 10–4 × 0.2 × 1.4) Re = δL = 0.382x/ReL0.1) Substituting in the integral momentum equation 10. Water flows at a velocity of 1.382 x/Rex0.2 = = 1.40 N/m2 The boundary layer is thicker and shear stress is higher in turbulent flow.43 × 106 > 5 × 105 So the flow is turbulent v 1006 × 10−6 . Assume 1/7th power law and determine the boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness.72 mm.0594/Rex0.2) – (10256/ReL) The friction coefficient is obtianed as Cfx = 0. u is the average over time and u′ is the fluctuating component.2.5 = 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 333 Turbulent flow is characterized by the variation of velocity with time at any location. . The flow is steady as u′ is constant at any location. can be represented by u = u + u′ where u is the instantaneous velocity. δL = (0. An accurate velocity profile known as universal velocity profile.0 mm (about 1/5th) δd = δ/7 = 0.3) (10.2 For combined laminar and turbulent flow.2 for combined laminar turbulent flow CfL = 0.664/Re0.2.003488/2) × 1000 × 1.2) (10.4.55 × 10–4 τ = 5.22 = 0. Cf = In case laminar flow correlations were used: δ = 5x/Re0.22 = 2.2.2 a) (10.003488 τw = Cf (1/2) ρ u∞ = (0. One seventh power law has been adopted as a suitable velocity distribution for turbulent flow.005 m or 0.2 = 0. boundary layer thickness is obtained as δ = 0. ux 1. Chapter 10 v = 1.2.51 N/m2 5.

In the case of a flat plate positioned parallel to the direction of the flow. . An example is subsonic diffuser. Such a situation does not arise when there is no pressure gradient opposed to the flow direction. Separation of flow is said to occur when the direction of the flow velocity near the surface is opposed to the direction of the free stream velocity. In the case of diverging section of a diffuser. This is shown in Fig. which means (du/dy) ≤ 0. This means that the velocity gradient at the wall cannot be zero. cylinders. Hence at y = 0. Viscous forces exist in such flows. The body will experience a force in such a situation. du dy y=0 cannot be zero. then separation will occur. The increase in area along the flow causes a pressure rise. the pressure downstream of flow is higher compared to the pressure upstream. In the case of incompressible flow in a nozzle a favorable pressure gradient exists. Hence turbulent layer is able to resist separation better than laminar layer. Simple analytical solutions are not available to determine exactly at what conditions separation will occur. the force is parallel to the surface.3..3. airfoils etc. 10. Stage I ¶P <0 ¶x II ¶P =0 ¶x ¶P >0 ¶x Diverging section III d Separation point Figure 10. there is a change in flow area due to the obstruction and hence an adverse pressure gradient may be produced. the momentum near the surface is high compared to laminar flow. Separation will not occur in such flows. Experimental results are used to predict such conditions.334 10. The wall shear cannot be zero.1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift When fluid flows around a body or the body moves in a fluid there is a relative motion between the fluid and the body. blunt bodies. In the case of flow over spheres. The shear stress at the wall is given by τw = µ du dy .. Such a pressure gradient is called adverse pressure gradient.3 FLOW SEPARATION IN BOUNDARY LAYERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Boundary layer is formed in the case of flow of real fluids.3. In turbulent flow.1. separation can occur if the rate of area increase is large. ie.1 Flow separation If (dp/dx) increases to the extent that it can overcome the shear near the surface. 10. In the direction of flow the pressure increases.

3.2 For ReL up to 109.002 to 0. the force will neither be paraller nor perpendicular to the surface. In case wave drag is encountered. it is seen that CD = f (Re). Determination of these forces is very important in many applications. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag force FD and the component perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift force. The force can be resolved into two components one parallel to the flow and the other perpendicular to the flow. then CD = f (Re. Using the method of dimensional analysis the drage force can be related to flow Reynolds number by FD = f (Re) ρ AV 2 For generality velocity is indicated as V (10. an empirical correlation due to Schlichting is CD = 0.7) (10.455/(log ReL)2. .004.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 335 But generally in the case of blunt bodies. CD = (1 / 2) ρ AV 2 FD (10.3.3. The former may be called shear force and the other.2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag Drag is the component of force acting parallel to the direction of motion.455 (log Re L ) 2.3. Fr) If compressibility effect is to be considered CD = f (Re.58 − (10. at a location was defined by Cfx = τw /(1/2) ρ A V2 = 0.6) (10. So experimentally measured coefficients are used to compute drag and lift.3.3.5) (10. For a flat plate of length L.58 For combined laminar and turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0. Simple analytical methods are found to be insufficient for the determination of such forces.4) Chapter 10 (10. the pressure force. FL. 10. Over a given length the average value is obtained as twice this value.1) Defining coefficient of drag as the ratio of drag to dynamic pressure.074/ ReL0.2 L − 1740 Re L 1610 Re L (10. in laminar flow CD = 1.328/ReL0.5.3.664/Rex0. M) (10.074 Re 0.8) For the range 5 × 105 > Re < 109 CD = 0. an obvious example being aircraft wings.3.2) This applies to viscous drag only.3) Friction coefficient over flat plate in laminar flow.3.9) The values of CD for laminar flow is in the range 0.5 In turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0.3.

1 below.17 1.20 0. The chute is of 1.18 1. A ship having a wetted perimeter of 50 m and length of 140 m is to travel at 5 m/s. The total drag force at any instant for the car and the chute is given by (subscript C refers to car and P refers to parachute) FD = 1 ρu2 [CDC AC + CDP AP] and this force acts to decelerate the car. 2 .77 × 106 W = 0.7179 × 10–3) (1/2) × 140 × 50 × 1025 × 52 N = 0.42 1.1 m2.3. Table 10. The drag is then mainly due to pressure difference between the faces.4 × 10–6 = 0.154 × 106 N ∴ Power = FD u = 0.455 (log 0.2 Density of air = 1.6. Assume kinematic viscosity v = 1.5 × 109 = 1. shear does not contribute to drag force.2 kg/m3.1 Drag coefficients for various shapes Shape Square plate Rectangle 1:5 Cube Disk Hemisphere facing flow Parachute Hemisphere facing downstream CD 1.5. A drag chute is used to slowdown a car with a mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 m/s.3. like a plate or a disk.154 × 106 × 5 = 0.3.58 − 1610 0. Example 10.9 CD = 0.20 1.719 × 10–3 FD = CD A(1/2) ρu2 = (1. Also determine the time for the speed to reach 20 m/s.3 Pressure Drag When flow is perpendicular to blunt objects.5 × 109.32 and frontal area is 1. The value of coefficient of drag for the car is 0. These are applicable for Re > 103. The drag coefficient is based on the frontal area (or projected area) of the object. Determine the power required to overcome the skin friction.05 1.8 m diameter and drag coefficient is 1.77 MW 10. The drag coefficient for same geometries are shown in Table 10. Determine the speed after 50 secs.5 × 109 ) 2. So the equation applicable is 10.4 × 10–6 m2/s. In the case of airfoils the plan area is the basis for drag coefficient.38 It may be seen that the coefficient of pressure drag is independent of Reynolds number. Density 1025 kg/m3 Re = 5 × 140/1. So it is called pressure drag.3.336 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10.

.0433 .0433 10. (A) k= ∴ 1.36 seconds ∴ (i) After 50 seconds.0433 2 (k/m)u0 = (2.06811 × 50) = 13. (ii) For The distance travelled can be obtained by integrating u dt.4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders In these cases both pressure and friction drag contribute to the total drag. The flow separation at the rear and formation of wake contributes to the pressure drag.2 [( 0.06811 u = 60/(1 + 0. 10.36) = 968 m 2..2.06811 × 50) = 1306 m 2. z ∴ ∴ u du u2 u0 =− k m z t 0 dt 1 1 k − =− t u0 u m u= F kI 1+ G J u t H mK 0 u0 .0433 × 60)/1800 = 0.3.3.32 × 1.36 sec s = 1800 In (1 + 0.62 m/s u = 20. ∴ s= z z 0 t udt = t 0 u0 u0 dt ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = (m/k) ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = ( k / m)u0 1 + ( k / m)u0t At t = 50 sec s = At t = 29. Separation is found to occur at about mid section and a wide wake is found to exist with pressure in the wake below that at the front.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Force = mass × Acceleration = m(du/dt) ∴ (du/dt) = force/mass ∴ 337 du FD k 2 ρ = =− u where k = [CDC AC + CDP AP] dt m m 2 Separating variables and integrating.82/4)] = 2.2 ×π × 1.06811 × t) ∴ t = 29. 20 = 60/(1 + 0. From experiments the boundary layer in the forward portion is found to be laminar in this range.1) + (1.06811 ×29. The flow pattern and the variation of drag coefficient is shown in Fig. It may be noted that the coefficient of drag is nearly constant from Re = 103 to 5 × 105. Chapter 10 1800 ln (1 + 0.

The component along the flow direction is called drag. The coefficient of lift is defined by CL = (1 / 2) ρ Au 2 FL (10.3. An optimum streamlined shape is the one which gives minimum total drag.006 × 10–6 = 4.2 Flow separation in flow over cylinder/sphere There is a sharp drop in the value of CD after the critical Reynolds number.2) CD is read as 0.338 Laminar boundary layer Fluid Mechanics and Machinery S S Wake 10 Cylinder 10 £ Re £ 2 × 10 Turbulent boundary layer S S 3 5 1 CD Sphere –1 10 Effect of roughness –2 10 Re > 2 × 10 5 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 10. The flow in the forward side is found to turn turbulent and separation moves downstream and wake is now narrow. This generally increases the area thus increasing friction drag.3. A model of a bathysphere 50 mm diameter is towed under water at a speed of 1 m/s.7.97 × 104 From graph (Fig. The component perpendicular to the flow direction is called lift.10) . reducing the net pressure drag leading to the abrupt decrease in the drag coefficient.3.45 π × 0.45 ∴ FD = CD (1/2) ρ Au2 = 0. Determine the tension in the towline.006 × 10–6 m2/s Re = uD/v = 1 × 0. The lift on airfoil is an example.052 × 1020 × × 12 = 0. 10.3.05/1. Turbulent layer has a higher momentum near the surface resisting separation. Kinematic viscosity = 1.45 N 2 4 10. Stream lining is now adopted not only for aircrafts but almost for all transport vehicles.5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift The force on an immersed body moving in a fluid can be resolved into two components. Density of water = 1020 kg/m3. Separation can be reduced by streamlining the body shape. Example 10. reducing the pressure drag.

golf.5 0.3. The lift to drag ratio varies from 20 to 40 with the lower value applicable for small planes.01 CD CD 339 0 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 Incident angle 6 8 0 10 Figure 10. These data are for long spans and corrections should be made as per the aspect ratio defined by b2/Ap. The chord of an airfoil is the line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge. For each airfoil section such plots are available. Chapter 10 10. The planform area (the maximum projected area) is used in the definition of lift and drag coefficients. known as stall. particularly curved surfaces boundary layer control is used. Spin can also be used to obtain a curved path of travel for the ball. Spin also provides significant aerodynamic lift to increase the distance travelled by the ball. The angle between the airfoil chord and the flow direction is called angle of attack.02 CL CL 0. cricket and tennis where spin is applied to control the trajectory of the ball.6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder In order to reduce skin friction in flow over surfaces.3. 10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 1. One method of boundary layer control is by the use of moving surfaces at locations where separation may start. Presently computer softwares are available for the design of airfoil sections with a very high ratio of lift to drag. separation is delayed on the upper surface and it occurs earlier in the lower surface. Ap = bc.3. For spin along the flow direction. A typical plot of the variation of lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack for a specified Reynolds number is shown in Fig.3 Variation of Lift and Drag on an airfoil Lift is of interest mainly in the design of airfoil sections. This is difficult to apply due to mechanical restrictions. The coefficients of lift and drag are found to be a function of ω D/2u called spin . This will equal the ratio (span/chord) as. Pressure is reduced on the upper surface and is increased on the lower surface and the wake is deflected downwards. ratio. However this principle is used in sports like baseball. The lift and drag coefficients depend on the Reynolds number and angle of attack.3.0 0. where b is the span length and Ap is the planform area. Airfoil blade shapes are also used in turbomachines. Flow separation will result in sudden drop in the lift. Spin alters the pressure distribution and also the location of boundary layer separation.

uD OP N 2u v Q The variation of CL and CD are found to be influenced more by spin ratio than Reynolds number.340 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. called spin ratio. 10. –1 – a = 0 T Ta π1 = ω R/u = ω R/2u.4 CL 0. these are not listed. No 1 2 3 4 Variable Linear Velocity. u Radius. Choosing linear velocity and radius as repeating variables Let ∴ π1 = ω uaRb or L0T 0 = a + b = 0.8 Variation of Lift and Drag with spin ratio A force perpendicular to both direction of motion and the spin axis is created during the flight.6 Lift force.2 V w Wake 1 2 3 4 Spin ratio w D/2 u 5 Figure Ex. This can cause drift in the flight path. v LM w D . v Unit m/s m Radians/s m2/s Dimension L/T L 1/T L2/T There are four variables and two dimensions.8. Reynolds number. namely L and T. Hence two π terms can be identified. R Angular velocity. ω Kinematic viscosity. Let π2 = vuaRb or L0T0 = ∴ Hence a = – 1 b = –1 π2 = CL = f v uR D or uD . uD OP and C N 2u v Q =f LM w D .8. Ex. The variables affecting the phenomenon are listed below. – 1 – a = 0 1 La b L T Ta ∴ a=–1 ∴ b=1 L2 La b L . This is known as MAGNUS effect. Show using dimensional analysis that the lift and drag coefficients are functions of spin ratio and Reynolds number. ∴ 2 + a + b = 0. 10. In the case of cylinders the area for definition of CL and CD is L×D CD 0. . The trend is shown in Fig. As CL and CD are dimensionless. FL CL and CD 0.

As against δ/3 δ The displacement thickness δd = Chapter 10 z LMN δ 0 1− u dy = u∞ OP Q z LMN δ 0 1− OP Q Momentum thickness is given by δm = z δ 0 u u dy = 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q z δ 0 LM y − y OP dy = 1 δ − 1 δ = 1 δ Nδ δ Q 2 3 6 2 2 By the exact solution. As y =0 u y = u∞ δ ∴ u= u∞ y .5. Let u = a + by + cy2. This gives dy δ δ u∞ FG IJ H K 2 (Refer 10. displacement and momentum thicknesses. δ dδ = (6v/u∞) dx δ = 3.18) Substituting in the integral momentum equation. determine the thickness of the boundary layer.464 x y dy = (1/2)δ or δ/2. Considering the integral part δ z ∴ δ 0 LM u MN δ 2 ∞ 2 2 2 u∞ δ u∞ δ 1 2 u∞ 2 − u δ y − 2 y dy = 2 3 = 6 ∞ δ OP PQ LM NM OP QP ∴ 2 u u∞ d u∞ u 2 dδ δ = v ∞ or ∞ =v dx 6 δ δ 6 dx LM NM OP QP Separating variables and integrating.2 Assuming second degree velocity distribution in the boundary layer determine using the integral momentum equation. . τ δ2 = (12vx)/u∞ = 12x2/(v/u∞x) = 12x2/Rex The constant is 3.5 x = 0. and u = u∞. the thickness of boundary layer friction coefficient. At y = δ.577/Rex0.464x/Rex0. Momentum integral equation is d dx LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v du u∞ = δ dy OP Q du dy .1 Assuming linear velocity variation in the boundary layer and using linear momentum integral equation. δm = (1/7)δ Problem 10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces SOLVED PROBLEMS 341 Problem 10. The boundary conditions are u = 0 at y = 0.5 u∞ 3.464 instead of 5 in the exact solution Cfx = 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ = 2µu∞ 2 ρu∞ δ = 2v Re 0.1. Also determine the friction coefficient and the displacement and momentum thicknesses. δ ∴τ= µu∞ . du u y y =2 − = 0.

477 as against 5 by exact solution. dy 2 y=0 = 2u∞/δ. = cos dy u∞ 2δ dy 2δ 2δ FG IJ H K .12).5 2 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ ρu∞ δ u∞ δ 5.477x/Rex0. (A) 2 = u∞ δ − LM N 5 1 2 2 δ+δ− δ = u∞ δ 3 5 15 Substituting d 2 2 u∞ δ = 2vu /δ or ∞ dx 15 ∴ LM N OP Q 2 2 dδ = 2 vu∞ / δ u∞ = dx 15 δdδ = 15(v/u∞)dx Integrating v 2 δ2 = 30vx/u∞.5 τ 4µ u∞ 4v x = = = = 0. 2 u∞ LM MN y y − δ δ FG H IJ K 2 OP du PQ . du u π y du π πy = u∞ (π/2δ) at y = 0. 30 u x x = 30x2/Rex.1. As τ = 2µu∞/δ and δ = 5..5 Cfx = instead of 0.. using integral momentum method (Refer equation 10. δ = 5. = sin .644/Rex0. τ = 2µu∞/δ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP u PQ dy = OP Q 2 ∞ 2 = u∞ z z δ 0 δ 0 LM2 F y I − F y I − 4 F y I + 4 F y I MN GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK LM2 FG y IJ − 5 FG y IJ + 4 FG y IJ − FG y IJ MN H δ K H δ K H δ K H δ K 2 2 3 3 − 4 FG y IJ H δK 4 OP dy PQ OP dy PQ .477 x/Rex0.3 Assuming the velocity distribution in the boundary layer as πy u = sin u∞ 2δ FG IJ H K (in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ δ.5 δd = 4v Re 0.73/Rex0.477 xu∞ δm = z z 0 δ 0 δ LM1 − u OP dy = LM1 − 2 FG y IJ + FG y IJ OP dy = δ MN H δ K H δ K PQ 3 N uQ LM u F u I OP 2 MN u − GH u JK PQ dy = 15 δ (see equation A) ∞ z δ 2 0 2 ∞ ∞ Problem 10. y= 0 u = u∞ 2 Considering the integral part.342 d dx Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q du dy .5 ∞ FG IJ H K Note that the constant is 5. and u/u∞ = 1 beyond δ ) determine the thickness of the boundary layer.

[u∞ × 0.1366 × u N 2 Q N π Q 0 δ ∞ 2× δ .3625 δ = δ/2.5 = 0. (A) π π d dδ 2 2 [u∞ × 0. τw = µ u∞ π/2δ 2µ u∞ π 2 2δ ρu∞ ∴ Cfx = δd = = π v π v Re 0. at y = 0. u = u∞ Mass flow through the boundary layer = LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K 3 OP PQ 3 z δ 0 ρ udy = z δ 0 ρ u∞ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K OP dy = ρ u LM 3 y PQ N2 δ ∞ 2 − 1 y4 8 δ3 OP Q δ = 0 5 ρ u∞ δ 8 .1366] u v dx 2δ ∞ dx 2δ ∞ ∴ Integrating δ dδ = v π dx 2 × 0.1366 δ] = = u v..76.1366 u∞ Cfx = τw/(1/2)ρ u∞2. instead of δ/3 δm = 0. 2 uδ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP LMsin π y − sin dy = u PQ N 2δ 2 δ z δ 2 0 πy dy 2δ OP Q Noting z sin 2 ax = x sin 2 ax − 2 4a 2 = u∞ − 2 = u∞ LM 2δ cos π y − y + δ sin π y OP N π 2δ 2 2π 2π Q LM0 − δ + 0OP − LM− 2δ − 0 + 0OP = 0. Assuming cubic velocity profile..Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces d dx 343 du dy y =0 LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q Considering the integral part and substituting the velocity distribution.1366 δ.32 (refer result A) Problem 10.655/Rex0.5 = 2 2 × 0.8x/Rex0.4 Using the cubic velocity profile determine upto a length L the flow out of the boundary layer in terms of the boundary layer thicknes.8 u∞ x Chapter 10 z δ 0 LM1 − u OP dy = L1 − sin FG π y IJ O dy = Lδ + 2δ cos π y O MN H 2δ K PQ MN π δ PQ N uQ ∞ z δ δ 0 0 = [δ + 0] – [0 + (2δ/π)] = 0. The free stream flow for thickness of δ is ρ u∞ δ. or δ/7.5 = x δ u∞ 4. τw = µ (du/dy).1366 u∞ vx δ2 π or δ = 4.

5 Using the continuity and momentum equations show that at y = 0. ∂ y ∂x ∂ x∂ y ∂ y ∂ y ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂3 u + +u +v 2 =v 3 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x∂ y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The first term is zero due to continuity equation.e. [Refer Problem 10. Hence the second and third terms are also zero. at a distance 0. Integrating the same between 0 and δ the same result will be obtained. (Nota : δd = (3/8) δ for cubic profile) The average velocity in the y direction can be obtained by dividing the volume flow by area i. ∂ y3 ∂u ∂u ∂2 u +v = v 2 .6].022 m/s This can also be calculated in a round about way using the continuity equation ∂u ∂u ∂v + = 0 .1) Air flow.56 × 105)0. u∞ = 5 m/s.5 L L This will be low as Reynolds number will be high.. Consider the x directional momentum equation. ∂ y3 3 u 3 y 1 y = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ ∴ FG IJ H K 3 1 3 y2 ∂u − = u∞ 2 δ 2 δ3 ∂y LM N OP Q and ∂2 u 6 y = u∞ − ∂ y2 2 δ3 LM N OP ∂ u = – 3u /δ Q ∂y 2 3 ∞ 3 This is not zero. At y = 0. u = 0 and v = 0. ∂y Problem 10. Simplifying. Differentiating with ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂2 u ∂v ∂u ∂2 u ∂3 u +u + + v 2 = v 3 .74 × 5)/(1.344 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∴ Mass flow out of the boundary layer = (1–(5/8)) ρ u∞ δ = 3/8 ρ u∞ δ or displacement thickness times the free stream flow.5 x Re 0.56 × 105 ∴ v = (1.74u∞ = u∞ 8 Re 0. ∂3 u = 0. . Consider the data from example (10. u resect to y. So Consider the cubic profile: ∂3 u should be zero. 1 × x for unit width. velocity = 3 4. Re = 1. The value of can be obtained from the assumed profile and then equated to ∂x ∂x ∂y − ∂v . − Deduce from the above that the cubic profile is approximate.5 = 0. Hence profile assume is approximate. Volume flow out of the boundary v = (3/8) u∞ δ.64 x 1 1.5 m.

3) Cfx = 0. y.7 The shear at a location 2 m from the leading edge of a flat plate was measured as 2. velocity expression ∂v ∂u =− reduces to u = c1 y x–1/2 – c2 y3 x–3/2.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 345 Problem 10.2. Indicate at what y location this will be maximum. Assuming the flow to be turbulent from the start determine if air at 20°C was flowing over the plate (i) the velocity of air (ii) the boundary layer thickness and (iii) the velocity at 15 mm above the plate. Substituting for c 8c x 3 / 2 16 c 3 x 5 / 2 3 u∞ y 4 3 × u∞/ 2 3 u∞ u∞ 1/ 2 y 2 – 16 × 125v3 / 2 x 5 / 2 8 5v1/ 2 x 3 / 2 =δ 3 u∞ 2 1 y 4 y2 y4 3 3 y − u∞ 3 = − v = u∞ 8 δx 2 δ2 8 δ x 16 δ x LM N OP Q Chapter 10 (Check for dimensional consistency : dimensions of y2/δ x and y4/δ3 x cancel and v has the same unit as u∞) Maximum value occurs when ∂v = 0.205 kg/m3. δ = 5x/Re 3 x 1/2 = 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 = cx1/2 where c = [5v1/2/u∞1/2] substituting and putting c1 = 3u∞/2 δ and c2 = u∞/2 δ3. Velocity at y = δ is vδx = u∞ 3 u∞ δ = 0. Equating to zero and solving y = δ ∂y 2δ 2δ This is physically explainable as the total flow in y direction should occur at y = δ. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u + =0 =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x u = u∞ LM 3 y − 1 F y I OP G J NM 2 δ 2 H δ K PQ .6 Derive a general expression for the y directional velocity at a location x in the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate. .t.1 N/m2. = – [c1 × (–1/2) × y x–3/2 + (3/2) c2 y3 x–5/2] ∂y ∂x Integrating w.0594/Rex0. v = 15. Consider continuity equation. τw = Cfx (1/2) ρ u2. ρ = 1. and substituting for c1 and c2 v= v= Substituting 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 3 u∞ 2 3u∞ y 4 y – .r.87 Re 0. Problem 10.06 × 10–6 m2/s Using equation (10.2.4). Assume cubic velocity variation.5 16 x x LM N OP Q Total mass flow when integrated over the length will equal (3/8) ρ u∞ δL (Refer Problem 10. ∂y 1 ∂ 1 y 2 − 2 y 4 = 2 y − 2 4 y 3 .

2 mm If the velocity profile is assumed as u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 ∴ u = 35.382 × 2/(4.2 0.5 ∴ La = 2. Rear surface : CP = – 0.2 = 0.1677/(5 ×105)0.7 1. Solving.1).2 u∞ 2 0. The force on the area = ∆P × 2π rdr FD = z 0 ∆P × 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 C p 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 LM1 − F r IJ OP 2π rdr G NM H R K PQ 6 .5 Problem 10.0012 m = 5 × 150.5 = 1. Temperature of the fluid = 20°C. R oriented perpendicular to a fluid stream was measured and the pressure coefficient has been correlated as below.808 × 106)0. kg/m3 1.42 Determine the drag coefficient for the disk.8 Determine the length at which the flow over a flat plate will turn turbulent for air.06 × 10–6 Lcv.346 Equating 2. The kinematic viscosity and density of the fluids are : S.2 1061 1.623 m/s Re = 35.006 × 10–6 0. CP = ∆P/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴ R r ∆P = CP(1/2) ρ AV2 = CP 2π rdr (ρ V2/2) Consider a small strip of width dr at a radius r. No Air Water Engine oil Density.1677 m ∴ Lo = 150.061 m dr 5 × 105 = 3 × Lw/1.51/(5 ×105)0.623 × 2/15.5 5 × 105 = 3 × Lo/901 × 10–6 0. 2 u∞ = 621. Using equation (10.382x/Rex0.5 = 0. mm 17.51 m ∴ Lw = 0.0177 m = 5 × 0.17 150 δ.9 The pressure distribution on the front and back surfaces of a thin disk of radius. Turbulent hence the use of equation (10. Also determine the boundary layer thickness at the location. Front side : CP = 1 – (r/R)6.06 × 10–6 = 4.1 = 1.05 m/s Problem 10.808 × 106.006 × 10–6 901 × 10–6 The flow turns turbulent at Re = 5 × 105 (1) Air : (2) Water : (3) Engine oil : 5 × 105 = 3 × La/15.205 u∞2. δ = 0. m 2.2)1/7 = 32.623 (15/35.2 × 1 × 1.51 0.06 × 10 −6 ) 0.17 m = 5 × 2. water and engine oil if the flow velocity is 3 m/s.205 1000 888 Kinematic viscosity 15.04 or u∞ = 35.0594 × (15.0352 m or δ = 35.8 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.2 = 0.17/(5 ×105)0.2.3) is justified.2.5 = 0.06 × 10–6 δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex 0.

94 × 10–3 Here L = 0.5x–1/2 = 4.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2 r8 1 2 r − = 2π × ρV 2 2 8 R6 347 LM N OP Q R = 0 R2 R 2 1 2π × ρV 2 − 2 2 8 LM N OP Q 1 ρV 2 π R 2 3 / 4 = (1/8) ρ AV2 2 CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴CD = 3/4 = 0.5 m. and assuming the length of base as 2L.5 m τx = 0.5 OP Q L = 9.68 × LM Lx N 0.205 × 21.17 ∴ CD = Cp and it is in the Problem 10.5/15.10 Air flows along a triagular plate as shown in Fig.66 × 105 ∴ flow is laminar L−x × 2L × dx = 2(L – x)dx.97 × 10–3 × 2(L – x)x–1/2dx Integrating between x = 0 to x = L F = 9.5 N 1/ 2 x 1.5 − 1. the pressure is independent of radius opposite direction ∴ Cp = 0.5v1/2x–1/2 = 0. 10.332 × 1.332 ρ u2v1/2/u1/2x1/2 = 0. Plate Flow 2m/s X dx 1m 45° x L Figure P.10.5 3 10–3 . ρ = 1.205 kg/m3. dA = Chapter 10 Re = 2 × 0.06 × 10–6 m2/s. kinematic viscosity is 15. height will be L. ∴ F = 4.10.97 × 10–3x1/2 Considering a strip of width dx at a distance x from base. P.332 ρ u1.332 ρ u2/Re0.75 = On the otherside.10 Problem model Considering the maximum length of 0.94 × 10–3 × 0 4 × L1. Determine the shear force on both sides of the plate. Assume air temperature.42 = 1.5 = 0.5 × (15.06 × 10–6)0.75 + 0.06 × 10–6 = 0. Force on the strip L dF = τx dA = 4. as 20°C.

Determine the moment at the base caused by the aerodynamic force due to cyclonic wind of speed 100 kmph. Drag = CfL (1/2)ρ u2∆ Drag = (1/2) 1000 × 102 × 1.2 – 1742ReL–1 = 2.12 In a power plant located near the sea a chimney of 1. ρ = 1000 kg/m3.11 A water ski is 1.6 × 103 Nm . For the spherical portion M = (30 + 6) × 0.6 × 10–6 = 1. Problem 10.2 m diameter and 35 m height has been installed.2 × 0. CfL = 0.2 × 16. For the spherical portion : Re = 12 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 2.21 × 107 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0.19 × (1/2) × 1.2/17. As this is a uniform force. N = const Hence checks. V = 100 × 1000/3600 = 27.5v1/2L1. ρ = 1.5.662/2 = 5022.2 m long and 0.40 from graph by extrapolation.689 × 106 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0. Assume density of air as 1.93 × 106 ∴ The flow is turbulent considering combined laminar and turbulent flows.2 m wide and moves in water at 10 m/s. Determine the moment at the base of the chimney.006 × 10–6 = 11. FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2.5 = kgm/s2 = N. During a cyclone the wind reaches velocity in the range of 60 kmph.99 × 10–3.5 s 0.67 × 1.6 × 10–6 m2/s. P = 2 × 35.205 × (π ×122/4) × 27.006 × 10–6 m2/s. it can be taken to act at the mid point. v = 1.35 ∴ ∴ FD = CD ρ Au2/2 = 0.893 kNm. Determine the viscous drag approximating it as a flat plate.2 × 10/1. u = 600000/3600 = 16. kg m 1. the water temperature is 20°C. F = const ρ u1.23 × 35 × 1.99 × 10–3 = 35.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery m1. v = 17. Re = 1.06 × 10–6 m2/s.782 = 359.5 N Moment = 5022.35 × 1.2 × 2.78 m/s.5 × 35/2 = 87893 Nm or 87. M = FD × distance.67 m/s Re = 16.348 Check for dimensional homogeneity.2 kg/m3.5 m m 3 s 1.074ReL–0.14 × 106 From graph for circular cylinder CD is read as 0. Problem 10.88 × 10 = 717.88 N Power required considering 2 skis. For the cylindrical portion : Re = 2 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 3.205 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity as 15.13 A overhead water tank is in the shape of a sphere of 12 m diameter and is supported by a 30 m tall tower of circular section of diameter 2 m.19 from graph by extrapolation.6 W Problem 10.

52 m/s or 138.7 kmph.81 N 120 × 9. Equating and substituting the values.0 × 103 Nm Problem 10.4 × 103 Nm Total moment = (359. 10.7364 kg/m3 and 1. Density of the fluid is 1025 kg/m3.04/1.6 + 167. 10.3.16 A stirrer is constructed as shown in Fig.85 CD depends on Reynolds number which cannot be calculated without the value of velocity.022 u2 = (4/3) × π × 0. Determine the minimum diameter of the chute. Looking at the graph for CD for spheres.52 × 0. . At the limiting condition thses can be taken as equal. P. V being the volume.51 m Problem 10. The drag force should be just less than the gravity force when the hailstone begins to fall.15 m 0.23 kg/m3.4) × 103 = 527. The density and dynamic viscosity of air at the altitude of 5000 m where the stones are formed are 0. Determine the torque on the shaft and also the power required. Hence the assumed value of CD is acceptable. Gravity force = ρ Vg.1) Net force = 120 × 9.16 Stirrer details Chapter 10 Re = 38. For parachute CD = 1.628 × 10–5 kg/ms. u = 38. Drag force = CD (1/2) ρ Au2.14 A parachute moves down at a speed of 6 m/s. Density of air = 1. Hailstone is assumed to be in the shape of a sphere with a density of 940 kg/m3. Other body forces like buoyancy forces are negligible.94 ×105.2 × (1/2) × 1.4 × (1/2) × 1.16.2.81 = 1.628 ×10–5 = 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces For the cylindrical portion 349 M = 15 × 0. The stirrer speed is 90 rpm. Estimate the velocity upwards so that hailstones begin to fall when the diameter reaches a value of 40 mm. 90 rpm 0.81 × 940 ∴ CD u2 = 667.5 m Figure P. The dimensions are indicated in the figure.45 for Re = 103 to 5 × 105. Substituting this value. Neglect the drag on the rod and the shaft.023 × 9.7364 × π × 0.205 × 2 × 30 × 27. the value is about 0. Problem 10. Assume the vessel is large. (Refer table 10.15 Hail stones that are formed in thunder clouds are sopported by the drag due to the air draft upwards and will begin to fall when the size reaches a critical value.23 × (π D2/4) × 62 Solving D = 7. CD = (1/2) × 0.782 = 167. The mass of the chute and the jumper is 120 kg.

02) + (4 × 0.02 m f × 1. 0.42 – 0.5 m 4 × 0.205 kg/m3.04 × π × 0. the cups starts rotating at a wind speed of 3 m/s. The coefficient of drag on the back = 0.04) + (1.06 × 10–6 = 7.65)/60 = 1109 W Problem 10.7124 m/s 60 60 Linear speed of the disk = CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2.23 kg/m3.01)] 2 = 175.17 × (1/2) × 1025 × (π × 0. If due ot fiction.38 × 104 for 40 mm rod and 1. 10.5 × 0. The coefficient of drag when the cup faces the wind is 1. ρ = 1.04/15.04 Force = CDAρ V2/2.782 [(5 × 0.65 Nm. ∴ ∴ Starting torque Net coefficient = 1.38.76 × 10–3 Nm × 4 2 Problem 10.4 for both cases.71242 = 235.18 Determine the wind force on the antenna shown in Figure P.08 2 1.152/4 ∴ FD = 1.01 m f ×1m 0.17 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π DN π × 0. Determine the starting torque. Consider density of air as 1. Substituting = 1.38 = 1. A = π × 0.31 N Torque = Force × torque arm = 235.152/4) × 4.30 × 0.78 × 0.84 × 104 for 10 mm rod. At this value CD is about 1. kinematic viscosity is 15.04 m f ×5m Figure P.17 An anemometer has hemispherical cups of 80 mm dia with an arm distance from the post to center of 130 mm. Torque = Force × torque arm.4 × 1.13 = 3.42.18.78 m/s The value of Reynolds number is given by Re = 27.18 Antenna details Velocity of wind = 100000/3600 = 27.5 × 90 = = 4.7 N .205 × 27.23 × 32 × 0. 10.350 For circular plate CD = 1.06 × 10–6 m2/s.5 = 117. FD = 1. All the components face the wind blowing at 100 kmph. Power = 2π NT/60 = (2π × 90 × 117.

ω = 8000 × 2π/60 = 837.4216 N.5592 = 91. The lift force depends on the spin ratio and Reynolds number. mg = CL(1/2) ρ u2A Chapter 10 In case only gravity force acts. flight speed.25 × π × 1 0. 10.85 × 166. not dropping due to gravity. Top spin causes downward force. Spin ratio = ω D/2u.3635.165 × 302 = 0. Determine the value of back spin for the ball to travel in a horizontal path. The lift force should be equal the weight at steady flight.21 A table tennis ball of mass 2.7 m/s 70000 × 9. determine the lift coefficient..81 = 0.3 m The ball comes down sharply due to the top spin. For air density = 1. 2 4 This force acts downwards due to top spin.25 ∴ Lift force = 0. u = 108000/3600 = 30 m/s. Problem 10.165 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. then R = 0.3.064 2 × × 1. 10.057 × 9. ∴ ω = 574.057 × 302/0.91 ωD = 0.2 × 105 By interpolation in Fig.057 kg. Problem 10. page 341 CL is read as 0.057 × 302/0.165 × 122 × π × 1000 2 4 ∴CL = 0.81 = CL × × 1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 351 Problem 10. (Fig.81 = CL × 160 × (1/2) × 0.165 kg/m3 and 16 × 10–6 m2/s.064 m and mass is 0. Air density at the flight conditions is 0.2578 From the graph for CL vs spin ratio. Neglect the compressibility effect. gravity force = 0.85 kg/m3.19 The total mass of an aircraft is 70000 kg.72 ∴ CL = 0.5 1 0.76 radians/s ∴ Spin ratio = (837. balls are hit at speeds exceeding 100 kmph and good amount of spin. For this situation.064/2 × 30) = 0. R = 0. with a back spin ω.038 2 × 9.76 × 0.4) the value of spin ratio is read as 0. Calculate the aerodynamic lift on ball and radius of curvature of path in the vertical plane.20 In championship tennis.e. when the ball is hit at a speed of 108 kmph and a top spin of 8000 rpm. The wing area is 160 m2. Density and kinematic viscosity of air are 1.91. i.3. the force due to gravity should equal the lift force.9808 N Equating it to the z directional acceleration F = mu2/R where R is the radius of the path in the vertical plane.7 m 2.5592 N ∴ Total force = 0.8936 Re = 30 × 0. If the craft travels at 600 kmph. V = 600000/3600 = 166. Lift force FL is given by FL = CL A(1/2) ρ V2.5 grams and a diameter of 38 mm is hit with a velocity of 12 m/s.7 rad/s or 5488 rpm 2u .064/16 × 10–6 = 1.9808 = 52. The ball diameter is 0.4.

06 × 10 −6 Reynolds number = For this value CD = 0.21 is tied on the bed of a river.02136 m . Problem 10.0039 × 300. 10.2 Corresponding V = 5.45 for sphere 189.22. At 30 m. If the velocity is less then the ball will travel in an arc.2 kg/m3.45 m/s 2 4 3.88 N. The flow with boundary layer can be taken as flow at the free stream velocity with the boundary moved by a distance equal to the displacement thickness.3 = 0. Solving V = 3. The components perpendicular to this line should balance.88/cos 60 = 189.0039 x0. The forces on the cork ball are shown in Fig.5 where x is the distance along the flow.98 × 106 1. ∴ FD = 94. The displacement thickness in meter is given by δd = 0. displacement thickness is δd = 0.66 = 0.3 2 2 × 1000 × π × V .56 N 3 Fb cos 30 = 94.6 m with a velocity of 3 m/s.66 N FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2. for this spin the ball will rise. ∴ FD cos 60 = Fb cos 30 Fb = Buoyant force = difference in density × volume × g = 790 × ∴ 4 π × 0.5 = 0.18 m/s Further iteration is necessary as the new value of Re = 1. Determine the velocity of flow.3 m diameter with specific gravity 0.22 A cork ball 0.45 × 0.22 Force diagram At equilibrium the components along the rope (at 30° to the horizontal) is taken up by the rope.352 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If the velocity is more. 10.47 × 106 and CD = 0. P.153 × 9. Density of air = 1. At a certain time it rests at 30° to the horizontal due to the flow. CD = 0. Buoyant force FD V Drag force 30° Figure P.35.45 0.81 N = 109. Determine the velocity outside the boundary layer at a distance of 30 m. Problem 10.23 Air flows in a square duct of side 0.

5. 5.482 – 32] = 1. The two methods of analysis of boundary layer flow are _______________. Drag is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. Lift is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. Turbulent flow over a flat plate is generally taken to start at a Reynolds number of ______________.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. 4. The flow outside the boundary layer can be treated as _______________ flow. 3.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces The side of the square is reduced by twice this thickness. Mass and momentum flow in laminar boundary layer is only at the_______________ level. .5573 m Equating the volume flow rate 0. The study of non viscous fluid flow is called _______________.6 × 3 = 0.02136) = 0. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force is called _______________ number.55732 × V2 ∴ V2 = 3. 9. The effect of viscosity is important only in a thin layer adjacant to the surface called _______________. Equations describing the complete flow field are know as _______________ equations. ∴ Length of side considering displacement thickness is Ld = (0. 9.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. (3) Navier-Stokes (4) boundary layer (5) Ideal fluid (6) boundary layer (7) Inertia and viscous forces (8) pressure and inertia (9) shear stress (10) Laminar O Q. In flow over surfaces. 8.48 m/s ∆P = (1/2) ρ (V22 – V12) = (1/2) × 1. 7. 10. Initially _______________ flow prevails in the boundary layer.6 × 0. 2. The pressure gradient at the surface causes _______________ on the surface. 3. fluid at the surface takes on the velocity of the body as a result of _______________ condition. 7. In laminar flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia forces. 10. Answers Chapter 10 (1) no slip (2) Theoretical hydrodynamics.87 N/m2 The pressure drop can be calculated for the flow outside the boundary layer as 353 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. 6. 8. 4. The forces which are important in the boundary layer are _______________. In turbulent flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia force.6 – 2 × 0. 10. 6. Boundary layer separation occurs when there is an _______________ pressure gradient.2 [3. 2. Macroscopic mixing between layers occurs in _______________. Velocity gradient exists only in the _______________. In ideal flwo the forces that are important are _______________. 10.

microscopic 2.354 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. V being the forward velocity. 10. The drag due to boundary layer sparation is called _______________ drag. Drag force. Coefficient of lift on an airfoil decreases when _______________ occurs. The coefficient of lift is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. Top spin _______________ the length of travel of a ball. 1. The coefficient of lift on an airfoil _______________ with angle of incidence upto a limit and then _______________. The drift of a shell fired is due to _______________. The lift and drag coefficient on a spinning sphere is dependent on _______________ defined as ωD/2V. Flow O Q. dynamic force 6. Separation 8. One seventh O Q. 5. Shortens O Q. The pressure gradient which will delay boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. 4. Cubic 10. 4. 9. Angle of incidence 7. Favourable 5. the drag coefficient on a cylinder or sphere is _______________. Adverse 6. 8. 3. 9. 3. 2. Reynolds 5.4 Fill in the blanks: 1. Spin ratio 8. exact differential. The coefficcient of drag is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. Nearly constant 9. Momentum thickness 3. The distance from the wall where the velocity is 99% of its asymptotic limit is known as _______________ of a boundary layer. 7. Increases. 8. .5 Fill in the blanks: 1. 10. Turbulent flow. The layer thickness which will have the same flow rate as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. approximate integral.3 Fill in the blanks: 1. The layer thickness which will have the same flow momentum as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. decreases 7. Displacement thickness 2. Coefficient of drag has values in the range _______________. The pressure gradient which will induce boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. dynamic force 5. 10. 2. Answers 1. Lift force. 5 × 105 6. The force perpendicular to both the flow direction and the axis of rotation of an object in flow is known as _______________ effect. The coefficient of lift has values about _______________. Adverse 9. Larger 7. Perpendicular 10. 0. 7. 9. The velocity profile in turbulent flow can be represented by _______________ power law. 6. Answers 1. 5. The angle between the flow direction and the chord of an airfoil is called _______________. Rotating cylinders were proposed to propel ships by the use of _______________. The velocity profile in laminar flow follows nearly a _______________ polynomial. 10. 2. Pressure 4.1 10. 6. 4. In the range of Reynolds numbers 103 to 105. 3 Magnus effect 4. 10. 3. Smaller 8.0.

Turbulent boundary layer 4. The velocity gradient in turbulent boundary layer will be _______________ than in the laminar boundary layer. 8. 5. 8. 8. At the separation point of boundary layer. Rate of momentum transfers will be higher in turbulent flow. 3. The disturbed region downstream of boundary layer separation is known as _______________. In flow of real fluids the viscous effects can be considered to be confined to the _______________. 7. Momentum thickness is given by z FGH δ 0 u dy . 9 Decreases : 2. 7. The velocity gradient will be zero at the top plane of the boundary layer. The flow above the boundary layer can be treated as invicid flow. Answers 1. 8. 6. Turbulence _______________ in the direction of flow. 5.6 Fill in the blanks with increases or decreases: 1. Displacement thickness is defined by 1 2 u∞ 1− z δ 0 (uu∞ − u 2 )dy . Thickness 2. 6. 9. Local shear stress coefficient _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. so that the flow equals the flow at free stream velocity. Increases : 1. 4. 6.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2. 10. Wake 10. Boundary layer thickness will be smaller compared to displacement thickness. Molecular diffusion 3. 6. Zero O Q. Reynolds number _______________ in the direction of flow over flat plate. 5. Laminar sub layer 8. greater 7. 5 × 105 6. 5. 10. 10. 3. 10 O Q. Drag coefficient on a plate _______________ with increase in Reynolds number.7 State True to False: 1. 4. Momentum thickness will be larger compared to displacement thickness. 4. 2. In flow over a flat plate the boundary layer undergoes transition when the value of Reynolds number is about _______________. the momentum transfer is by _______________. 7. Displacement thickness is the thickness by which the plane is to be moved up. 9. In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth plate. The phenomenon of boundary layer separation takes place at adverse _______________ gradient. the velocity gradient will be _______________. 355 4. Drag force _______________ with increase in free stream velocity. A boundary layer in which there is macroscopic mixing is called_______________. Boundary layer thickness _______________ along the flow direction. Boundary layer thickness _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. Local velocity within a boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. 10. Pressure 9. 9. The velocity gradient in the boundary layer is maximum at the top edge of the layer. u∞ IJ K Chapter 10 Answers . 3. 3. there exits a thin layer in which velocity variation is linear is called as _______________. Shear stress within the boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. 7. Boundary layer 5. Reynolds number _______________ with increase in kinematic viscosity of a fluid. 2. In laminar boundary layer.

4 Assuming momentum thickness to be constant at the transition point whether laminar or turbulent flow correlation is used. Displacement thickness 4. 7. . Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x1/2. (δm/δd = 0.2 Derive an expression for the displacement thickness and Momentum thickness in flow over a flat plate assuming u u∞ = sin FG π y IJ . Laminar flow 6.2. In case flow is turbulent use 1/7th power law. 16 False : 1.9 mm.5. 15. 14 O Q. 3. 11. E 10. δm = 0. 12.8 m at a distance of 6 mm from plate surface (i) Assuming cubic profile and (ii) linear profile. v = 15. find the ratio of laminar boundary layer thickness to turbulent boundary layer thickness.6 m for (i) air (ii) water and (iii) engine oil.8.356 10. Also determine the displaceδ (δd = 1. If the velocity profile is given as u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 + C. Pressure drag 9. 12. H 2 δK E 10. 8. 13. 11.76 mm) ment and momentum thicknesses at this section. In laminar flow Cf ∝ Re–0. E 10.205 kg/m3. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re0. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x. Drag coefficient 13. calculate the value of C. Flow separation 10.5 m and 0. Answers True : 2. Friction coefficient Cf = τw/ρ u∞2. Assume parabolic profile for laminar correlation u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 and 1/7th power law variation for turbulent correlation. EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 10. assuming 1/7th δ δ power law.6 In a flow of air over a flat plate at a distance 20 cm from leading edge. Chord.5 Determine the ratio of δm/δd in the turbulent region of flow over a flat plate. 4. all at 20 °C. Angle of incidence 14. 6. Magnus effect. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re–0.1 Assuming that air at 20 °C flows over a flat with a free stream velocity of 6 m/s. Coefficient of friction 5.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρ = 1. 9. 5. the boundary layer thickness was measured as 5. Drag coefficient 8.7 mm the free stream velocity being 25 m/s. (δt/δL = 144/105) δ δ E 10.2. 13. 14. Boundary layer thickness 2. 10. Spin ratio 15. Lift coefficient 12.3 Compare the velocities for flow over a flat plate to turn turbulent at a distance of 0. Turbulent flow 7. 15. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow boundary layer thickness is proportional to x0.10. 16. 11.0972) E 10.8 Define 1. determine the velocity at 0. Momentum thickness 3. wing span of an airfoil.

3 travelling at 100 m/s is to be decelerated using a drag chute of 2 m dia with CD = 1. Also determine the change in static pressure. For u∞ = 2 m/s. . and L = 0. Determine the angle of slant between 2 m and 4 m distances from entry.7 mm.12 Asuming (u/u∞) = FG y IJ H δK 1/ 9 .2. Determine the total viscous force on the plate. Derive an expression for the drag on the plate.6 kN) E 10.5 mm to 12.7 In a wind tunnel of square section of side 80 mm.76 kN) E 10. In order to maintain the velocity constant. The wind flows at 20 kmph.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 357 E 10. (1. E 10.3 m along flow).15 Describe the types of drag when a disc is held parallel to flow direction and perpendicular to flow direction. u∞ free stream velocity and δmL momentum thickness.13 Determine the friction drag on an airship 100 m long and 20 m diameter when it travels at 130 kmph. Use the results of cubic velocity profile assumption. derive an expression for boundary layer thickness at a distance x (δ = 0.287 x/R1/6) δ from leading edge. the walls are to be slightly slanted outward. The condition of air is 25 °C and 0. This is to compensate for the growth of the displacement thickness.21 A thin circular plate is held parallel to a flow with velocity u∞. E 10. Determine the change in pressure between the sections.3 m/s. drag force upto a length L on one side is given by FD = ρ u∞2 δmL b. b = 1 m. (0. (30 m) E 10. the boundary layer thickness increases from 9.2 kg/m3.11 Determine the velocity of water if the drag on a sphere of 12 cm dia is 5 N. Determine the angle of inclination of the cable.3 m long and 1 m wide is placed parallel to the flow. E 10. determine the velocity at the second section. At the first location.4 m/s.3 m.9 mm of water column (gauge). (59 N/m2) E 10.19 A high speed car with a frontal area of 1 m2 and drag coefficient CD = 0. (ii) Assume cubic profile and (iii) Assume 1/7th power law.16 An open C section of 30 cm dia and 8 m length is held with concave side facing the flow at 1 m/s of water. the inlet velocity is 30 m/s.22 A flat plate of lenght L and width equal to the boundary layer thickness is held parallel to the flow direction.9 In a water tunnel the freestream velocity is 1. the value of CD being 1. Density of air = 1. determine the total drag. Assuming turbulent flow conditions and 1/7th power law velocity profile. (3.305 m. The pressures and temperatures on the inside and outside are 1 bar and 20 °C.81 N) E 10.19 N/m2) E 10. (i) Assume linear velocity profile. (8370 N) E 10. the velocity of air is 18. E 10. At 0. determine the diameter of the chute.3 m from inlet the displacement thickness is 1 mm. Chapter 10 E 10. (18. ∆P = 2. E 10. Derive an expression for the drag assuming the flow to be similar to that on a flat plate. where b is the width.18 An advertisement board 3 m dia is exposed to a 100 kmph normal wind.6 m/s. (V = 1. The static pressure is – 22.62 N) E 10. (0. Determine the speed 10 (45 m/s) seconds after the chute is deployed.9 bar. (2.29 m/s) E 10. Air at 20 °C flows at 30 m/s.14 A large truck weighing 45000 N is be air dropped using a large parachute.20 A wind tunnel of 1 m square section is 6 m long. Determine the total force on the board.17 A spherical balloon of helium of diameter 3 m is held tied to a rope. A plate 0.2.10 Show that for flow over a flat plate. The water is at 10 °C. If the terminal speed is 10 m/s in air at 1 bar and 20 °C. Determine the drag on the section.8 In a wind tunnel square section of side 0.

Estimate the terminal velocity. E 10.2 × 10–3 Ns/m2.26 A spherical ballon of 1. (CL = 0. Determine the density of helium in the balloon.8 falls in oil of relative density 0.23 A ship 150 m long has a rough wetted area of 5000 m2. at a wind speed of 30 m/s.149 mm) viscosity = 1.24 Determine the frequency of vortex shedding by a wire 5 mm dia.2 kg/m3. Use stokes law.9.2 kg/m3.27 A chute carrying a bomb totally weighs 1 kN.µ = 0. when fg = gravity force and f is bouyant force N/m3. d = 0.53) E 10.358 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 10. Determine the reduction in power required if the surface was smooth. Calculate the lift and drag coeficients. E 10.5 m dia filled with helium when let go ascended at 6. and weights 5 N. The wind speed is 4 kmph. (1. If CD = 1.30 A small stone of dia 5 mm and relative density 2. Dynamic (V = 8. (8.27 m/s in air.29 Derive the expression for terminal velocity of a particle V = D2(fg– f)/18µ. The angle made by the kite is 10° with horizontal. To overcome friction the power required was 5152 kW at a speed of 15 kmph.63 × 10–2m/s) .25 The tension of the rope holding a kite is 20 N.22 kg/m3 E 10. E 10.2 kg/m3 and µ = 18 × 10–6 kg/ms. Air density is 1.28 Determine the terminal velocity and the maximum diameter of a spherical particle with a relative density of 1.3 Pas. The kite is a square of side 6 m . E 10. Density (0.2 kHz) The density of air 1. Take properties of water at 20 °C. The weight of the empty ballon was 50 N.72. Density of air = 1. CD = 0. E 10.2 kg/m3) of air = 1.2 and rate of descent is 6 m/s determine (7 m) the diameter of chute. When the rope is at 45° to the horizontal.8 that will settle in water with a density of 1000 kg/m3.1 × 10–3 m/s.

359 . In this chapter the methods and instruments for the measurement of flow velocity and flow rate are described. since any sensing device has a finite dimension. fans and blowers are typical cases. Velocity is usually measured indirectly by measuring the difference between the stagnation and static pressures (pitot tube) or by the rotational speed of wheels (vane anemometer) or by the temperature drop on a thin cylindrical wire in cross flow (hot wire anemometer) and also by optical systems. chemical process control and research work in fluid mechanics. Other areas requiring measurement of flow parameters are irrigation systems. Performance tsting of pumps.1 INTRODUCTION Flow Measurements The performance of engineering equipments and systems should be validated by tests and experiments before these could be commissioned. then it may be considered that the velocity measured is the velocity at a point. Tests and experiments involve various measuring instruments. 11. teurbines. Out of the many parameters to be measured. by determining the distance travelled by a group of fluid particles during a measured time interval. It is essential that the presence of the sensing device in the flow stream does not afffect the flow being measured. Velocity is also measured directly. if the area of flow occupied by the sensing device is relatively small compared to the total area of flow stream. Measurement of velocity at a point is almost impossible. flow velocity and flow rate are involved in almost all cases. However. in some instances. Measurement of pressure and pressure difference between locations are discussed in chapter 2. 11.2 VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS The measurement of velocity at a point or a number of points throughout a section in a flow stream is often needed to establish the velocity profile.

2.2.1) ∴ V1 = 2 gh (11. fluid will rise in the vertical side of the tube as shown in Fig 11. A typical method is illustrated in Fig. Substituting for (P0 – P1) from equation 11.1) ( P0 − P1 ) ρg[( y1 + h) − y1 ] V12 = = =h.2) Note that h is the head expressed as the column of flowing fluid.2. For velocity measurement in ducts a different arrangement of pick ups is necessary. h h y1 V1 1 0 (a) (b) A y1 V1 1 0 y1 B V1 1 A 0 rf B hm rm (c) Figure 11.2. ρg ρg 2g (11. 11. at point 1.2. Equating the pressure at the left and right side limbs of the manometer. This method is used as pick-up in velocity measurment. then leaving out Patm on both sides P1 V12 P0 + = ρg 2 g ρg Since stagnation condition exists within the tube P0 = ρg(y + h). The static tube A and pitot tube B are connected to a U tube manometer as shown in Fig. P1 + ρgy1 + ρmg hm = P0 + ρgy1 hmg(ρm – ρ) = P0 – P1 (11.1.2.2.360 11. The pitot probe held facing upstream measures the total pressure. the static pressure is P1 = ρgy1 Substituting and rearranging equation (11.1 (c) for measurement of velocity in a pipe. .1 Pitot Tube Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If a small bore hollow tube bent at 90° is placed in a flow stream with its end facing upstream. 0 at the other end of the tube. 11.2.1 (b). The tube connection at this point is called static tube/probe.2.3) where ρ and ρm are the densities of flowing and manometric fluids. 1 upstream at the submerged end of the tube and a point.1 (a). A tapping perpendicular to the flow gives the static pressure.1 Pitot tube arrangements If Bernoulli equation is applied between a point.

2. 11. 11.4 is modified as V1 = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11.2. In the case of subsonic gas flow. Turbulent flows with more fluctuations at the tip may show a higher reading compared to the time averaged velocity at that location. Hence equation 11.2.5) where Cv is a coefficient and its value has to be determined by calibrating the device. 11. considering compressibility as V1 = Cv 2 kRT1 k−1 LMF P I − 1OP NMGH P JK QP 0 1 (11.4) ρm/ρ is to be replaced by sm/s in terms of specific gravities. The accuracy of the measurement is found to depend on the shape of the tip of the pitot tube. Static pressure holes Flow direction (a) Static pressure holes Flow direction (b) Figure 11.6) where k = CP/Cv the ratio of specific heats. indicating the details of construction.2.2(a)) is due to Prandtl and it is more accurate over the design of Brabbee as shown in Fig. it is not a practical arrangement. the inner tube measures the stagnation pessure and the tube with opening on the surface measures the static pressure.2 (b).2 (a) and (b). Standards are available for these instruments. In practice the two tubes are combined together to be used as a single instrument called pitot static tube as shown in Fig.2 Prandtl and Brabbee pitot tubes In both these cases. Though the set up illustrates the basic principle involved in the measurement.2. This instrument is extensively used for velocity measurements in gas flow.2. the equation for the velocity should be modified. Chapter 11 . This set up (Fig.Flow Measurements ρV12 2 The velocity of fluid near the tip of the pitot at section 1 is 361 hmg (ρm – ρ) = ∴ V1 = 2 ghm (ρ m − ρ)/ρ = 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11.2.2.

The current flow though the wire is kept constant and the change in wire resistance from convection cooling is measured in terms of the voltage drop across it. Impeller type wheels are also used for the measurement of gas flow velocity. The wire resistance is kept constant by adjusting the current flow through it and the velocity is determined by measuring the current and calibrating the instrument accordingly. Power/unit length I2R = = A + B ρV Tw − Ta Temperature difference where I is the instantaneous current. Drag force on the vanes and cones when fluid moves over them causes the rotary movement of the rotor. V is the free stream velocity and ρ is the density of the fluid with constants A and B to be determined by calibration. Fluctuations in velocity may be detected and recorded by suitable circuitry. Atmospheric wind speed measurement is generally done using such devices. R is the resistance of wire per unit length. The pick ups are shown in Fig.3 (b) and cones are fitted on the current meter as shown in the Fig 11. The speed of rotation is generally indicated by means of electrical contacts made once in each revolution and the number of contacts made per unit time interval is a direct measure of the average speed of the fluid in the region traversed by the meters. Constant resistance method.3 Hot Wire Anemometer In hot-wire anemometers.2. Tw is the temperature of the wire.2. The following relationship is used to determine the velocity. 2. . 11. The heat transfer depends on the flow velocity. B B US US A (a) (b) A Figure 11.2. Two methods of measuring flow rate are: 1. Hemispherical vanes are fitted on the radial arms of vane anemometer as shown in Fig.3(a).2.3 Vane anemometer 11. radiation and conduction being negligible.2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vane anemometers and current meters are used to measure the velocity of air and water in larger flow fields.2. 11. Constant current method. Calibration is done by towing the meters through stagnant water or air at known speeds. Ta is the ambient temperature.2. heat will be transferred from the wire mainly by convection. When the hot wire is placed in a flowing stream. an electrically heated thin wire is placed across a flowing stream.4.362 11.

This size of particle can generally follow all motions in the fluid in which it is carried.5 Laser Doppler anemometer . A laser of fixed wavelength serves as a source of light and optical components split the laser beam into a reference beam and a secondary beam which are made to intersect at the measurement volume in the flow field. It is often used to measure turbulent velocity and also low volume flow rates.2.2. The light scattered off a moving particle has its frequency shifted by an amount that is proportional to the particle speed.5 is one of the technique used for velocity measurement. A continuous velocity signal is possible with this type of measurement system from which turbulence characteristics can be analysed. The doppler frequency will vary with time in unsteady laminar or turbulent flow.Flow Measurements Inconel wire Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic Inconel cement tubing Ceramic tubing 363 Position of fine wire Position of fine wire (a) Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic cement Inconel tubing Ceramic tubing Inconel wire (b) Figure 11. The reference beam mode with frequency tracking shown in Fig. Frequency shifted light that is scattered off particles passing through the measurement volume and the unshifted beam is collected at a photodetector.2. Chapter 11 Beam splitter Laser Photodetector Lens Frequency tracker Reference beam Fluid flow Measurement volume Figure 11.4 Laser Doppler Anemometer Laser Doppler anemometer is used to measure the velocity of a flow without disturbing the flow. A frequency tracking filter locks onto the modulation frequency in the photodetector output to obtain the Doppler frequency which is linearly related to the velocity component through the optical system geometry. There is an amplitude variation due to the frequency modification between the two beams. 11. It measures the velocity of small particles that are either naturally present in most liquid flows or are seeded with 1 µm size particles in gas flows.2.4 Hot wire anemometer 11.

The number of turns of the rotor per unit time is counted and used as a . 11. The major disadvantage of this system is its high cost and the requirement of optical access to the flow field. For a given flow rate.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter Turbine type flow meter is used to measure flow in closed conduits. 11. The following forces act on the float (i) downward gravity force (ii) upward buoyant force (iii) pressure and (iv) viscous drag force. A Flow area A Glass Float Flow Pipe AA Flow Figure 11. 11. In the case of constriction meters Bernoulli equation and continuity equation are applied between the upstream and downstream sections of the constriction to obtain an expression for the flow rate. the effects of changes in viscosity or density may be minimized. Hence the position of the float indicates the flow rate. The advantage is that its capacity to measure the flow rate can be easily changed by changing the float or the tube. Flow meters (watermeter or rotameter) may be calibrated either by the manufacturer or by the user before installation. In this device a flot moves freely inside a tapered tube as shown in Fig.1 The flow takes place upward through the tube.3.3. This device is also called as variable area meter or float meter.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) The rotameter is a device whose indication is essentially linear with flow rate.3. leaving only the pressure forces as the main variable. Propeller rotors are used in this meter. Also it cannot be used with liquids containing large number of solid particles and at high pressure conditions. the float assumes a position inside the tube where the forces acting on it are in equilibrium. The same fluid and same range of flows as in the actual installation should be used for the calibration.1 Rotameter 11. A major limitation in using rotameters is that these have to be installed in vertical position only. Through careful design. It is also expensive.3.364 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Multicomponent measuring systems can be developed by using laser with different wave lengths or other frequency shifting techniques. Pressure force depends on flow rate and area available for flow.3 VOLUME FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT Volume flow rate in pipes can be measured either using direct measuring devices such as watermeter or rotameters (float meters) or using a constriction or elbow meters which produce a measurable pressure difference that can be used to determine the flow rate.

2. 11. Nozzle and Orifice meters are the three obstruction type meters commonly used for the measurement of flow through pipes. Applying Bernoulli and continuity equations between sections 11.Flow Measurements 365 measure of the flow rate. The arrangement is shown in Fig. The major problem inherent in this type of meter is the reduced accuracy at low flow rates. The rotor movement is sensed by a reluctance pickup coil.3 and 11. In each case the meter acts as an obstacle placed in the path of the flowing fluid causing local changes in pressure and velocity as shown in Fig.2. The pulse rate may be indicated by a frequency meter or displayed on a CRO screen or counted by some type of meter which converts the pulses to a proportional DC output.1 and 11.3 Venturi.2 the difference in pressure levels ∴ ∴ Flow rate LMF P + Z I − F P + Z I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 1 1 2 2 can be measured by the manometer reading.3.3. C A – Turbine rotor B – Bearing support and straightening vanes C – Variable reluctance pickup B B A Figure 11. V2 = 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 2 g[( p1 /ρg + Z1 ) − ( P2 /ρg + Z2 )] By connecting a manometer to the tappings at sections 11.3.2. Nozzle and Orifice Meters Chapter 11 Venturi. 11. . 2 g∆h 2 g∆h V2 = Q= 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 A2 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 Refer equations 11.3. ∆h.1 and 11. As there is no intrusion in to the flow this type can be used to measure flow of chemicals also.2 P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 and V1A1 = V2A2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g Solving these equations. A permanent magnet in the rotor body produces a voltage pulse everytime the rotor blade passes the pole of the coil.2 Turbine flowmeter 11.2.3.

98. Higher the value D2/D1 lower the value of the coefficient.9 depending on diameter ratio and Reynolds number to some extent.7 to 0. The value depends on the diameter ratio. .3 Pressure variation in obstruction type meters This equation needs a modifying coefficient as viscous effects and boundary roughness as well as the velocity of approach factor that depend on the diameter ratio have been neglected. The approach curve in the nozzle flow meter must be proportioned to prevent separation between the flow and the well. Cd for flow nozzle is in the range 0. The coefficient is defined by. Cd for venturi meters is in the range 0.95 to 0. A parallel section is used to ensure that flow fills the throat. The range for coefficient of discharge is 0. Orificemeter is the simple and cheap device compared to the other two. But sudden area of contraction in this device leads to higher pressure loss. In both the above cases for Re > 105 the effect of Re on Cd is marginal. Venturimeter is a highly accurate device with discharge coefficient falling within a narrow range depending on the finish of the entrance cone.366 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Dp 1 2 (a) Venturi meter Dp 1 2 (b) Nozzle meter Dp 2 1 (c) Orifice meter Figure 11.6 to 0.3.65. ∴ Qactual = Qtheoretical × Cd where Cd is the coefficient of discharge.

Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 1 P2 V2 2 P1 V12 + + + Z1 = + Z2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g The velocity a point 1 is zero and the pressures at 1 and 2 are both atmospheric.1 Orifice meter Chapter 11 .4 Elbow Meter 367 Elbow meter is used to measure the flow through a pipe. Venacontracta h 2 Figure 11. Pipe bend Q U Pi Po Flexible tubing Manometer yi h yo Datum Figure 11. NOTCHES AND WEIRS Flow out of open tanks are measured using orifices.4. The difference in pressure at the outer and inner wall is a function of the flow rate. 11. The pressure difference is measured using a manometer as shown in Fig.3. higher pressure results at the outer wall surface than at the innerwall surface.1 shows an orifice in an open tank through which the flow takes place.3.4.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices Fig. When the fluid flows through the elbow fitted in a pipe line. The elbow meter is inexpensive and accurate if it is calibrated carefully.4 Elbow meter 11.4 FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ORIFICES.Flow Measurements 11.3.4. 11. Flow from open channels and tanks is due to gravity and the change in velocity produced is due to the change in head.4. Flow out of open channels is measured using weirs. ∴ Z1 – Z2 = V22/2g V2 = 2 g ( Z1 − Z2 ) = 2 gh 2. 11.

The coefficient of contraction Cc is defined as follows Cc = Area of the jet at vena contracta ac = Area of orifice a The value of coefficient of contraction varies from 0.368 The theoretical flow rate is given by Qt = A2 2 gh Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where A2 is the area of cross-section at section 11. Due to these effects. This section is called as vena contracta. Coefficient of contraction Cc.2.62.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels Rectangular and triangular weirs are used to measure the flow in an open channel. There is alsways some loss of energy due to viscous effects in real fluid flows. 11. 11. A rectangular notch is shown in Fig.62. the stream lines converge and the area just outside the orifice is lower compared to the area of the orifice. Cofficient of velocity (Cv). A weir extends to the full width of the channel while a notch occupies a smaller width. The velocity coefficients Cv is defined as follows.95 to 0.61 to 0. Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical The values of Cd depends upon the contraction of the jet fromt the orifice to section 2 and on nonideal flow effects such as head losses which depend upon the roughness of the inside surface of the tank near the orifice and the flow rate. The actual flow rate is given by Qactual = Cd A0 2 gh where A0 is the area of orifice and Cd is the coefficient of discharge. the actual flow velocity through the orifice will always be less than the theoretical possible velocity.99 for different orifices depending on their shape and size. Area of jet at the vena contracta is less than the area of the orifice itself due to convergence of stream lines. As water leaves an open tank through an orifice.4. . Coefficient of discharge (Cd) Coefficient of discharge is defined as Cd = Actual area Actual velocity Actual discharge × = = Cc × Cv Theoretical area Theoretical velocity Theoretical discharge Average value of Cd for orifices is 0.2.4. Cv = Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta = Theoritical velocity V 2 gh The value of Cv varies from 0. Typical value for Cd is 0.69 depending on the shape and size of the orifice.

Consider a rectangular strip as shown in figure. the discharge through the elemental strip dh is dq = Cd 2 H − h tan Total discharge Q= z H 0 FG b g θ dhIJ 2 gh H 2 K θ I F C G 2b H − hg tan dhJ 2 gh H 2 K d = 2 Cd 2 g tan θ 2 z H 0 ( H − h) h1/ 2 dh Chapter 11 Q = CdB 2 g LM h OP N3 / 2Q Q= 2 C B 2 g H 3/ 2 3 d (11. 11.4. The value of Cd will however be different.Flow Measurements 2 ha = va /2g 2 ha = va /2g 369 h dh Crest b Z H Figure 11.4. The value of Cd is given by Cd = 0. It is called Cipolletti weir. Bernoulli equation is applied between upstream and drown stream of the weir.1) . Flow rate through the elemental strip = dq = Cd (B dh) Integrating between the weir tip and the water level Total discharge Q= 2 gh z H 0 Cd Bdh 3/ 2 2 gh = Cd B H 2g z H 0 h1/2 dh 0 The value of Cd depends the approach velocity which in turn depends on the ratio of head H and crest height z.4. with height dh and width B at a height h above the strip.075 H z (11.4. A triangular notch is called V notch as shown in Fig.3.611 + 0. Consider an elemental strip dh. The flow equation is the same with B as bottom width. Discharge over a triangular notch.2 Rectangular weir Rectangular weir.2) A trapezoidal weir with side slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical is used to compensate for flow reduction due to end contraction at the corners.

3) Table 11.4. dirty and viscous liquids and some slurries Clean and dirty liquids Clean liquids Clean and dirty liquids and some slurries Clean and viscous liquids Dirty.3 Triangular notch Q = 2Cd 2 g tan θ Hh 3 / 2 h5 / 2 θ 5/2 8 − = Cd 2 g tan H 2 3/2 5/2 15 2 LM N OP Q (11.25% of flow rate ± 5% of meter range ± 2 to 5% of meter range Medium Very low Very low Medium Low Low Turbine meter Laser Doppler High Nil High High Rectangle and V notch Very low Medium .370 b Fluid Mechanics and Machinery U h q q dh h H Stream tube Crest Weir Crest Figure 11. dirty liquids and some slurry Clean.1 A comparison of various flow measuring devices Flow meter Orifice Application Clean. viscous liquids and slurries Clean and dirty liquids Accuracy ± 2 to 4% of the meter range ± 1% of meter range Pressure loss Medium Relative cost Low Venturi meter Low Medium Flow nozzle Pitot tube Elbow meter ± 1 to 2% of meter range ± 3 to 5% of meter range ± 5 to 10% of meter range ± 0.4.4.

33 m/s. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0.98. V = Cv 2 gh 88. The manometer shows a difference in head of 5 cm of water.4 The flow velocity of water in a pipe is measured by a pitot static tube. Assume Cv = 0. determine the velocity of water in the pipe.13 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 determine the velocity of air.7 times the centre line velocity. 3600 20 × 1000 = 5. The tube is placed at the centre of a 30 cm diameter pipe.86 m/s H 1. Flow velocity. compute the discharge of water through the pipe.33 + 5. The difference between the stagnation and static pressures measured as head of mercury and converted to head of water is 10 cm.2 The difference in mercury level of a pitot static tube connected to a submarine is 20 cm.3 A pitot static tube is mounted on an aircraft travelling at a speed 300 kmph against a wind velocity of 20 kmph.98. h which is head of air.32 m.98 2 × 9. H 1019 K 100 Chapter 11 Problem 11.1 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air flowing through a duct. Aircraft velocity Wind velocity = = 300 × 1000 = 83. Solving for. Assume the coefficient of the pitot tube as 0. If the density of air and water are 1. If the specific weight of air is 12 N/m3 determine the pressure difference the instrument will register.98 2 × 9. hair = 419. The head causing the flow is given as head of the flowing fluid.98 2 × 9.821 m/s or 25.81 × h .89 m/s Velocity recorded by pitot tube. Determine the speed of the submarine.32 × 12 = 5032 N/m2.6 kmph. If the coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.98 Speed of the submarine. If the mean velocity is 0. Problem 11. The density of sea water is 1019 kg/m3.56 m/s 3600 Relative velocity of plane V = 83.81 × b g FG 13600 − 1IJ 20 = 6.56 = 88. Hence the equation used is . V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0.Flow Measurements SOLVED PROBLEMS 371 Problem 11.81 × FG 1000 − 1IJ 5 = 28.89 = 0.13 K 100 Problem 11. ∆P = 419.

00442 m2 4 = (1.373 = 0. ρ= P 107. Atmospheric pressure = ρgh = (13.81 × (10 / 100) = 1.98 2 × 9.961 = 0. Assume the gas constant for air as 287 J/kg K. Substituting .961 m/s Discharge through the pipe.2 = 35.0752 = 0.6. The water manometer shows a reading of 8 cm.81) FG 740 IJ = 98.0283 m3/s.068 m3/s or 68 l/s 4 Problem 11. Calculate the air velocity if Cv = 0.73 kN/m H 1000 K 2 ∴ Static pressure in the duct = 98.73 × 10 3 = = 1.7 × 1.73 kN/m2 (absolute pressure) Density of air inside the duct.2 m of air 100 1.32 × 0. The reading shown by the U tube manometer connected to the venturimeter is 150 mm of mercury column.373 m/s Mean velocity in pipe = 0.173 Differential pressure head = 8 cm of water = Air velocity V = Cv 2 ghair = 0.152 = 0.2) Velocity V2 = Cd A1 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ and Q = V × A Hρ K m 2 2 Flow rate Q= Cd A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m Inlet area Throat area Flow rate A1 = π × 0. The static pressure in the duct is 9 kN/m2 and the air temperature is 320 K. 4 A2 = π × 0.173 kg/m3 RT 287 × 320 8 1000 × = 68. Calculate the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter if the flow rate is 1.372 Centre line velocity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = Cv 2 gh = 0.81 × 68.7 m3/min.5 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air in a duct.6 A venturimeter of 150 mm × 75 mm size is used to measure the flow rate of oil having specific gravity of 0.6 × 103) (9.85 m/s Problem 11.73 + 9 = 107. Q = Area of cross section × Mean velocity Q= π × 0.98.9. The local barometer reads 740 mm of mercury.7/60) = 0.0177 m2.98 2 × 9. (Note : The size of venturimeter generally specified in terms of inlet and throat diameters) Refer equation (6.

8 A venturimeter is fitted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter inclined at 40° to the horizontal to measure the flow rate of petrol having a specific gravity of 0. Solving A2 = 0.96 × 0. Q = Cd A1 = A1 A2 2 gh 2 2 A1 – A2 .81 × 0.192 = 0.0098 = 9.15 FG 13. Calculate the throat diameter of the venturimeter.9 cm π Problem 11.0284 A2 = 2 60 0.8.963 Problem 11.0284 m2 4 2 × 9. The ratio of areas of main pipe and throat is 5 and the throat is at 1 m from the inlet along its length.7 A venturimeter is used to measure liquid flow rate of 7500 litres per minute. Calculate the discharge through the venturimeter and the pressure difference between the throat and the entry point of the venturimeter. 11.0098 m2 7500 × 10 −3 0.6 − 1IJ H 0.0177 × 0. 1 m X 40° B Hg Y A 40 mm Figure P. The difference in manometer head is 40 mm of mercury. π × 0.00442 0.0283 = ∴ 373 Cd × 0. The difference in pressure across the venturimeter is equivalent to 8 m of the flowing liquid.0284 2 − A2 Let the diameter be d.9 K Cd = 0.Flow Measurements 0. The pipe diameter is 19 cm.96.81 × 8 .0098 4 Chapter 11 d= 4 × 0.96.00442 2 2 × 9.0177 2 − 0. ∴ π × d2 = 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge as 0.8 . Assume the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter as 0.

Substituting.81 × 0.6.39 . A = 1 π × 0.1875/2 = 0.04 × 9.81 × 0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 10067.6 × 15 2 × 9.0486 m3/s Considering points A and B and level at A as datum PA + ρgy + ρg(0.0707 − 0.96 × 0.187 m is maintained over the notch with a coefficient of discharge 0.04) = PB + ρgx + ρgy + ρmg (0.0214 = Cd Cd = 0.04 × 9.04 × FG 13. the difference of head between he entrance and throat section of the Venturimeter is found to be 39 cm head of the fluid measured using notch as actual flow.0707 m2 4 A2 = 0. Q= 0.6 − 1IJ H 0.374 Refer equation 6.0141 × 0.2 applicable for all orientations Q = Cd A1/A2 = 5 ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ .04 × g × (ρm – ρ) = ρg (1 × sin 40) + 0.04) PA – PB = ρgx + 0. Discharge over a triangular notch Q = θ 8 CD 2 g tan h5/2 2 15 For right angled triangular notch. A Hρ K m 1 = π × 0. When a steady head of 0.6.96 2 × 9.02143 m3/s / 2 A2 ) −1 2 gh .12 = 0.0707/5 = 0.0141 2 2 2 × 9.0141 m2.0707 0. tan (θ/2) = tan 45° = 1 ∴ For the venturimeter Q = Cd A2 = A1 2 ( A1 Q= 8 × 0. determine the discharge coefficient of venturimeter.81 × 0.0314 m2 4 π × 0.32 N/m2 or 10.8 K = 0.32 = 0.0314 / 0.81 (1 × sin 40) + 0.07 kN/m2 Problem 11. 4 0.0785 m2.81 × (13600 – 800) = 800 × 9.22 = 0.9 A venturimeter of 20 cm × 10 cm size is calibrated in a laboratory using a right angled V notch.0314 (0.00785 2 ) − 1 2 0.

Flow Measurements 375 Problem 11.81 . Calculate the flow rate through the pipe and the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.0095 (0.0095 m2. V = 4 × 0.10 A venturimeter with throat diameter 0. The pressure difference across the venturimeter is 12 N/m2.95 is used to calibrate a pitot static tube.81K Chapter 11 . If an orifice meter with 5 cm diameter is futted in the same pipe line.007 ∴ Cv = 0.0652 = 0.96 A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 × 9. The difference in water level in the manometer attached to the venturimeter is 50 mm.81 × FG 12 IJ H 1000 × 9. Q = 0. if the pressure difference across it is 28 N/m2.0095 / 0. Flow rate through the venturimeter Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = π π × 0.44 m/s Mean velocity measured by pitot static tube V = Cv 2 ghm FG ρ Hρ m −1 IJ K FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1. Flow rate in venturimeter Qv = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 2 gh P 12 h = ρg = 1000 × 9.0992 m3/s ∴ Mean velocity down stream.95 Problem 11.44 = Cv 2 × 9.00332 ) − 1 2 2 Q = Cd 2 × 9. Air flows through a 110 mm diameter horizontal pipe in which the venturimeter is fitted.13 K = 0.05 FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.96 is fitted in a pipeline which carries water in it. A2 = × 0.95 × 0.81 × 0.065 m and coefficient of discharge 0.112 = 10.13 K 10.81 × 0. Assume the density of air as 1. The pitot static tube is placed downstream of the venturimeter and the water manometer attached to the pitot static tube shows a reading of 7 mm.112 = 0. determine the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter.13 kg/m3 and that of water as 1000 kg/m3.00332 m2 4 4 0.0992/π × 0.11 A venturimeter with throat diameter 5 cm and coefficient of discharge 0.

149 = Cd × 0.81 × 28 1000 × 9. The pressure loss in elbowmeter is (suffices i and o indicate inside and outside) P0 Pi ∆P = ρg + y0 − ρg + yi FG H IJ FG K H IJ K Flow 150 Also pressure loss can be expressed in terms of the flow velocity in the bend as ∆P = k 50 V2 2g 10 kN/m2 ∴ P0 P V2 + y0 − i + yi k 2 = g ρg ρg 2g k 0 FG H IJ FG K H IJ K i i Figure P. 11.237 Simplifying 0.12 Water flows in an elbowmeter creating a pressure difference of 10 kN/m2 between its outer and inner wall. If the tapping point at the outer wall of the elbowmeter is 5 cm higher than the tapping point at the innerwall.237 ∴ Cd = Problem 11.81 0. Calculate the flow rate through the elbowmeter.376 Flow rate through the orifice Q0 = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2 gh Since the throat diameter of venturi and orifice are the same cancelling common terms 0.81 Q = 0.81 LM 10 × 10 + 0. The elbowmeter is fitted in a vertical pipe of 15 cm diameter.96 2× 12 = Cd 1000 2 × 9.149 = 0.0486 m /s 3 .6 × π 0.63 0.152 4 2 × 9.12 V= LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 0 ∴ Discharge through the elbowmeter Q=A×V=A Assuming k = 1 Q = CdA 2g k LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP NMGH ρg JK GH ρg JK QP 0 0 i i i 0 2g LMF P − P + b y MNGH ρg 0 − yi gIJK OPP Q 3 = 0.05OP N 1000 × 9.

81 × 3 Coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.5 m ∴ Cv = 52 = 0.913 4 × 0. Water stands 15 m above the centerline of the orifice. ∴ π × 0.14 . 4 yh X Jet y Here x = 5 m.9124 2 gh π 7 × 4 100 FG IJ H K 2 × 2 × 9.627 Let the jet travel during time t horizontally through a distance x and the jet fall by distance x = V × t = Cv 2 gh t or x2 = Cv2 2ght2 y = (1/2)gt2 ∴ x2 = 4Cv2h y Cv = Orifice ∴ x2 .9124 ∴ Actual discharge Q = Cd 0.6774 = = 0.Flow Measurements 377 Problem 11.81 × 15 .81 × 3 Problem 11.020 m3/s. If the discharge measured in a collecting tank is 0.13 The actual velocity of a liquid issuing through a 7 cm diameter orifice fitted in an open tank is 6 m/s under a head of 3 m. 6 = Cv 2 × 9. 11. and y = 0.6774 Coefficient of contraction = Cc = Cd 0.152 × 4 2 × 9. Chapter 11 Actual discharge Q = Cd A 2gh 190 × 10–3 = Cd × y during this time. Cc and Cd of the orifice.020 = Cd Coefficient of discharge Cd = 0.5 m vertical. coefficient of contraction and the theoretical discharge through the orifice. Cd = 0. A point on the jet measured from the vena contracta has co-ordinates 5 m horizontal and 0.7424 Cv 0. Flow velocity in orifice = V = Cv 2 gh .14 Water is discharged through a 15 cm diameter orifice in the vertical side of an open tank at the rate of 190 litres per second. calculate the coefficient of velocity.5 × 15 Figure P. Find the hydraulic coefficients Cv.

81 × 0.626 Problem 11. Cc = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. A2 = × 0. and tan (θ/2) = 1.5 m3/s in an open channel.6.914 m 0.15 m.6 × B 2 × 9.155/2 = 0.913 Cv Problem 11. Calculate the oil flow rate throught the pipe.0134 m3/s 8 × 0. Discharge Q= B5/2 = B 2 2 Cd B 2 g H3/2 or 0.5 = × 0.3 reduces to Discharge.627 Cd = = 0.18 Water flow rate in an open channel is measured using a right angled V notch. The head of water over V notch is 0. Flow rate Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A1 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = Q= π π × 0.4. The head causing the flow should not exceed half the notch width.75 m.5 m.81 tan 45 × 0. As θ/2 = 45°.53/2 = 1.22 = 0. Q= = 8 C 15 d 2 g H5/2 2 × 9. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the rectangular notch as 0.81 × 0.88 m3/s 3 Problem 11.00503 m2 4 4 0. Discharge (Refer eqn 11.0314 (0.81 3 3 2 FG IJ H K 3/ 2 0.1) Q= = 2 C B 2 g H3/2 3 d 2 × 0. the flow equation 11. B = 0.17 What should be the width of a rectangular notch that should be used to measure the water flow rate of 0. The width of the rectangular notch is 3 m and the head of water causing the flow is 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.65.15 An orifice of 8 cm diameter is fitted in a 20 cm diameter pipe that carries oil of specific gravity 0.082 = 0.6 × 3 2 × 9.5 = 0.75 FG 13600 − 1IJ H 800 K = 0.687 0.378 Coefficient of contraction.6. The mercury manometer attached to the orifice shows a reading of 0.16 A rectangular notch is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel.047 m3/s = 47 l/s Problem 11. Calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.799.00503 ) − 1 2 2 2 × 9.6 × 0.65 × 15 .8.6. calculate the discharge in the channel.4.0314 m2. Assume coefficient of discharge for orifice as 0.0314 / 0.

59 Notch 8 × 0.5 m and the head causing the flow over it is 0.045 m3/min maintaining a head of 0.1)3/2 = 0. 2.1 m. Sketch and describe the construction details of a hot wire anemometer.81 tan 45 × H5/2 ∴ H = 0.59 m Problem 11.41 = 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge as 0.Flow Measurements 379 Problem 11. 1m Discharge θ 8 Q= C tan H5/2 2 15 d 2 g 0.202 m REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.045 8 = C 60 15 d Problem 11. find the position of the apex of the notch from the bed of the channel.6.6 15 2 × 9. Chapter 11 .6 × 0.81 tan 45 × H5/2 Figure P.21 An open channel is fitted with a rectangular and right angled V notch with coefficient of discharge 0. Explain the method of velocity measurement using Laser Doppler anemometers.6 and 0.81 tan 45 × 0. Determine the head of water over the V notch. The width of rectangular notch is 0.41 m The distance of apex of V notch from the bed of channel = Maximum depth of water – H = 1 – 0. Q= 2 C B 3 d 2 g H3/2 = 2 × 0.048 m. Explain the principle involved in measuring velocity of flow using a pitot static tube.63 0. 4.028 = θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 8 × 0. Discharge through the rectangular notch. 11.65 respectively. Describe the methods of velocity measurement using it. Solving Cd = 0. Q= 0.0485/2.81 (0. 3.19 Water flows over a right angled V notch at the rate of 0.65 15 2 × 9.20 A right angled V notch is used to measure the flow rate in an open channel which carries water at the rate of 0. Discuss the method of velocity measurement using (i) Vane anemometer and (ii) Turbine meter.028 m3/s Discharge through the V notch.15 m3/s.5 3 2 × 9. Discharge Q= θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 2 × 9. If the maximum depth of water is not to exceed 1 m. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch.15 = 0.20 ∴ H = 0.

Define venacontracta.380 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of ________________ 7. In turbine meter the rotor movement is sensed by a ________________ 10. Derive an expression for the flow measurement using a triangular notch in an open channel. 8. 5. Coefficient of velocity of orifice is the ratio of ________________ 5. Anemometer is used to measure (a) Velocity (b) Pressure (c) Viscosity (d) Density. 10. Outerwall 8. Derive an expression for the flow measurement in an open channel using rectangular notch. Area of the jet at venacontracta to the area of orifice 6.85 to 0. Electrically heated wire. 6.11. 4. Pitot static tube is used to measure ________________ 2. Drag force on vanes and cones 9. Rotameter is used to measure (a) Viscosity (b) Flow (c) Density (d) Pressure. Velocity of flow 2. Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta to theoretical velocity 5. Reluctance pickup coil 10. In pitot static tube the opening facing the flow direction measures ________________ 4. 2.11. When a fluid flows though an elbow.1 Fill in the blanks 1. In pitot static tube the opening perpendicular to the flow direction measures ________________ 3.6 to 0. A V notch is used to measure (a) Velocity in a pipe (b) Wind velocity (c) Discharge of liquid in an open channel (d) Viscosity. The more accurate flow measuring instrument is (a) Orificemeter (b) Venturimeter (c) Flowmeter (d) Elbow meter. an ________________ is placed in a flowing stream. 6.92 to 0. The range of coefficient of discharge for orifice meter is (a) 0. Coefficient of contraction is the ratio of ________________ 6. higher pressure results at the ________________ 8.7 (b) 0. Compare the flow measuring devices with respect to their accuracy. Orificemeter and nozzlemeter. O Q.92 (d) 0. A pitot static tube is used to measure (a) Stagnation pressure (b) Static pressure (c) Dynamic pressure (d) Difference between the static pressure and dynamic pressure. Actual flow/theoretical flow 7.7 to 0. 9. Derive the expression for computing discharge through a Venturimeter. Static pressure 3. Compare the merits and demerits of flow measurement using Venturimeter. In a hot-wire anemometer. Stagnation pressure 4.2 Select the correct answer 1. . 3. Derive the expression for flow measurement through an orifice in an open tank. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. 7.85 (c) 0. The rotary movement in vane anemometer and current meter is created by the ________________ 9.98. Answers 1.

3 A pitot static tube fitted in a pipe of 0.08 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow in a pipe line of 0. Assuming the ecoefficient of velocity as 0.25 m diameter records the difference in stagnation and static pressure as 0. b 8.3 m/s) .085 m of water. determine the oil flow rate. (1. A venturimeter having throat of 100 mm diameter is fitted to the pipe line for measuring the flow rate of oil. calculate the water velocity in the pipe. is equivalent to 6 m of water. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0.17 m. A mercury manometer attached to it shows deflection of 0. Fluid velocity can be measured without disturbing the flow using (c) Density (d) Viscosity. a 4. Assume coefficient of velocity as 0. a 10. calculate the coefficient of discharge of the Venturimeter. calculate the water velocity in the pipe line.12 m) Chapter 11 E 11. (6.29 m.0064 m3/s) E 11.7 A venturimeter with 0.2 kg/m3. b 5. b 3.98 and the density of air as 1. b EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 11. (39.3 kg/m3. (0. d 9.2 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipeline.98) E 11.6 Oil of density 900 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 150 mm diameter.2 m3/s. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0.The pressure head at the entry of the venturimeter.8 A pipe of 0. (b) Theoretical flow/Actual flow (d) Theoretical velocity/Actual velocity.3 m/s) E 11.98. c 7. (b) Hot wire anemometer (d) Laser Doppler anemometer.06 m3/s. If the pressure difference recorded by the pitot static tube is 0.1 m of water.1 A water manometer attached to a pitot static tube used to measure air velocity shows a reading of 0. calculate the throat diameter of the venturi.98. a 6. A mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 200 mm.2 m/s by a pitot tube.99) E 11. If the pressure head at the throat is zero. calculate the flow rate in the pipe.18 m. Assuming coefficient of discharge as 1.2 m diameter at the rate of 0. (0. Flow rate in an open channel is more accurately measured using (a) Rectangular notch (c) Venturi (a) Pitot tube (c) Turbine meter 9. (0.5 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge for Venturimeter as 0.1 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow rate of oil in the pipe.4 Air velocity in a duct is measured as 38.Flow Measurements 7.1 m. used to measure the flow rate in the pipe. (0. Density of flowing air 1.05 m3/s) E 11. calculate the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.3 m/s) E 11. 381 8. calculate the air velocity. Assume the velocity coefficient as unity. c 2. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of (a) Actual flow/Theoretical flow (c) Actual velocity/Theoretical velocity 10.25 m diameter carries water at the rate of 7. A venturimeter with 0. Answers 1. (0. Current meter is used to measure (a) Pressure (b) Velocity (b) Triangular notch (d) Orifice.16 m diameter.

14 A rectangular notch of 250 cm width is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel. 0.082 m3/s) E 11. Under a head of 4 m.12 An orificemeter with 5 cm diameter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid. (0.9 Water flows in a pipe of 0. (0. 0. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice shows a reading of 0. determine the flow rate.4 m.46.4 m of water. If the actual discharge through the pipe is 8 l/s. If the pressure difference across the orifice is 10 m of water head.8 m. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter as 0.382 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 11.10 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0. If the pressure difference recorded is 19. 0.54) E 11.5 m/s.8 m width used to measure the flow rate in an open channel.2 m. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch if the actual flow rate measured is 26.1 m diameter fitted in the pipe to measure the flow rate.6.62) E 11. If the V notches is right angled calculate the coefficients of discharge of both rectangular and V notches. A venturimeter with throat diameter 0. An orifice meter of 0.2 l/s.11 An orifice meter of 0. calculate the discharge in the pipe.358 m3/s) E 11.13 Oil of specific gravity 0. discharge and contraction.85.62.3 m diameter pipe to measure the flow rate of water through it.15 m3/s) E 11.25 m diameter. (0.65) rate measured by it is 0.59) .16 m3/s.15 m3/s) E 11.15 m diameter is fitted in a 0.17 Water flows at the rate of 106 l/ sec in a open channel in which rectangular and V notches are fitted. calculate the coefficients of velocity.8 flows through a pipe of 0. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter if the flow (0. The width of the rectangular notch is 100 cm and the head of water over it is 0. (0.082 m3/s.253 m determine the coefficient of discharge of the notch. (0. the velocity of liquid at vena contracta is 7.3 m diameter. Calculate the discharge through the pipe. E 11.16 Water flows over a right angled V notch to a height of 0. If the actual flow rate is 1.25 m diameter.59. The head causing flow is 0. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice records a reading of 0.15 m. under a head of 0.1 m diameter is fitted to the pipe to measure the flow rate. (0.8 m.15 Determine the coefficient of discharge of a rectangular notch of 0. If the coefficient of discharge is 0. An orifice of 0. calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of the discharge as unity. (0. (0.65.1 m is fitted in the pipe line. Assume the coefficient of discharge of orifice as 0.62) E 11.

0 1. and is proportional to the bed slope. The surface actually represents the hydraulic grade line.5 2.5 1.5 1. As most of the flow are large in scale and as viscosity of water is lower.5 1.5 2.1 Characteristics of Open Channels 2. In most cases water is the fluid encountered in open channel flow.5 Trapezoidal channel Triangular channel 0. drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow.1.0 0.0 1. the driving force in open channel flow is due to gravity.1. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure over the surface is atmospheric. As seen in chapter 8 and 9.0 Circular channel Shallow ditch Figure 12.5 0. While in closed conduits the flow is sustained by pressure difference. 12. 12. irrigation canals. Changes in channel cross-section and changes in the slope cause changes and readjustments in the flow depth which may or not propagate upstream.0 0. The depth of flow is not restrained and this makes the analysis more complex.0 1. Hence the flow is generally turbulent.0 INTRODUCTION Flow in Open Channels Flow in rivers. Reynolds number are high. Froude number is the improtant parameter in the general study of open channel flow which is free surface flow.0 1.5 1.1 Velocity distribution in open channel sections 383 .0 2. The balance of gravity forces and surface friction forces controls the flow.5 2.

12. low near the wetted surface and increasing towards the free surface. it is considered as wide flat. The value of Froude number characterises the nature of the flow in such situations. 12. Rectangular and Circular sections.2 times the depth from top. When the width is large. The ratio of flow area to the perimeter is defined as hydraulic radius.1 Flow at normal depth . The average velocity occurs between 0. When the depth and velocity remain constant along the length of flow it is called uniform flow. For steady uniform incompressible flow the height of the water level and area are constant. Consider the control volume between sections 1 and 2 shown in Fig.1. But actually the flow velocity varies with the depth almost logarithmically. For analysis. A and the wetted perimeter P.4 and 0. Some examples of velocity distribution is shown in Fig. it is defined as gradually varying flow. the hence velocity is constant. due to area or slope changes. If the slope change rapidly or suddenly. the average velocity is used.2. The maximum velocity occurs below the free surface.8 times the depth from top. volume flow rate/area.384 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Open channels may have different cross-sections. With this definition laminar flow is limited to Reynolds number up to 500.2.1. Hydraulic depth is another term defined as the ratio of flow area to top width. For analysis purposes the average velocity of flow is used and this equals. Some of the simpler ones are Trapezoidal. L 1 y x Y1 mg 1 Z1 2 q Z2 mg sin q Y2 q d sin q 2 Figure 12. as mentioned earlier. For such flow the slope and area should be uniform. However the velocity is not maximum at the surface.1.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow The common classification is based on the rate of change of free surface depth. Rh (alternately m) and is used in all analysis to take care of all types of sections.2 UNIFORM FLOW: (ALSO CALLED FLOW AT NORMAL DEPTH) This is the simplest and common type of flow and occurs when conditions are steady and slope is not steep. This is different from hydraulic mean diameter used in the analysis of flow through conduits which is four times this value. This is also non accelerating flow. The two main physical dimensions used in the analysis are the flow area. When the depth changes gradually. The slope of the free surface is governed by the way in which the slope and the area change. This represents the average depth of the section. then such flow is called rapidly varying flow.1 by the dotted line. 12. The maximum velocity occurs at about 0. 12. Natural channels have very irregular sections and suitable approximations should be used for analysis. Triangular.

As there is no change in the depth of flow or velocity (no acceleration). act on the control volume. Bed slope is defined as the ratio of change in elevation over a length with the length. at a section by the sum (V2/2g) + y. V1 = V2 or the velocity remains constant along the flow (ii) Momentum equation. Gravity force component = mg A L sin θ Frictional force = τw PL (tan θ = sin θ = θ in radians for small angles) Equating the forces τw PL = ρg AL sin θ or (12. y1 = y2 and for a length L. Hence τw = K ρ V2/2 go where K is a constant of proportionality.1) ∴ Ff = mg sin θ = mg Sb mg sin θ is the component of gravity force parallel to the flow and Ff is the friction force on the wetted surface. 12. For the steady flow ∴ V1 = V2.Flow in Open Channels 385 (i) Continuity equation. As the pressure distribution is hydrostatic the net pressure force on the control volume is zero. hydraulic grade line and the channel bed are all parallel. Only body force due to gravity and friction forces/ on the wetted surfaces. Ff. 12.3 CHEZY’S EQUATION FOR DISCHARGE Considering the control volume shown in Fig. ρ1 A1V1 = ρ2 A2V2 as ρ1 = ρ2 and A1 = A2.2. Assuming a loss of head of hL.2. the specific energy is constant along this type of flow.2. – Ff + mg sin θ = 0 (12.3. the momentum flux through the control surface is zero. E. The bed slope Sb( = sin θ) is small and pressure distribution is hydrostatic. hL = z1 – z2 = L Sb (12. the force balance yields frictional resistance over the wetted surface equals the component of the gravity forces along the surface. Substituting in equation 12.1) τw = ρg (A/P) sin θ = ρ g Rh Sb (12. For large values of Reynolds number the friction factor is independent of Reynolds number and wall shear stress is proportional to the dynamic pressure ρ V2/2g and is independent of viscosity. (iii) Energy equation. K ρV2 = ρ g Rh Sb 2 go Chapter 12 V12 V22 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g .3.2) This is the reason for defining hydraulic radius as A/P. on the volume.2) The head loss due to friction in steady flow between two sections equals the change in elevation of the bed. The energy grade line.2.3. Defining specific energy. The sum of potential and kinetic heads between sections 1 and 2 should be the same if there are no losses.

Kutters and Mannings.5 = FG 8 × 9. three are more popular namely Bazins.11 for smooth cement surfaces to 3.4.445 (0.5 (12. C = 86.038 K 0.704 = 2.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant The equation suggested by Bazin is given below. Flow rate Q = ρ A V = C ρ A (Rh Sb)0.5. The bed slope is 1 in 2500.6 m.5 = 0.5 Example 12.5 (12. C = FG 8 g IJ HfK 0. i etc are also used). wetted perimeter.81IJ H 0.112 m3/s 12. Out of these. Several correlations have been suggested from experimental measurements for obtaining the value of Chezy’s constant C.4.455 V = 45.6) C = (8g/f)0. Substituting D = 4Rh. It has a dimension of (length1/2/ time) and hence will have different numerical values in different systems of units.5) (12. Area = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 Rh = 3/5 = 0. the friction head loss is given by hL = f L V2/ 2 gD. As the first two correlations are more complex.3. ∴ ∴ ∴ Flow rate P = 3 + (2 × 1) = 5 m.4 DETERMINATION OF CHEZY’S CONSTANT The Chezy’s equation is simple but the determination of the constant C is rather involved. (for Rh and Sb other symbols like m.1 Determine the flow rate of water through a rectangular channel 3 m wide with a flow depth of 1 m. For Brick lined channel the value is about 0. Mannings correlation is generally used in designs. 12.5 = 45. 0.3.3) This equation published in 1775 is known as Chezy’s equation and the constant C is known as Chezy’s constant. This correlation is independent of bed slope. f = 0.6 × 1/2500)0.704 m/s.5 F 8gI V=G J HfK Denoting constant V=C (RhSb)0.3.9/(1 + k/ Rh ) (12.5 (RhSb)0. . The value varies from 0.3. Another method of deriving the equation is as below.4) It may be noted that Chezy coefficient C is not dimensionless. V = C Rh Sb Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12. Sb = 1/2500.386 Denoting 2ggo/K by constant C.038. As in the case of closed duct flow. and hL = L Sb.17 for earthen channel in rough condition. = 3 × 1 × 0.1) where k is known as Bazins constant.

5 ) 23 + (0.75 12.2) Where N is Kutter’s constant. The results are also tabulated.750 Chezy’s Constant 80.116 0.303 1.6) is used to calculate V .460 1.2 Calculate the value of the Chezy’s constants using Bazins equation in the case of a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep for the following conditions. Example 12. Sb = 1/2500 Chapter 12 .250 1.16 0.4.75 3. k. m3/s 3. 1 2 3 4 5 Nature of Surface Smooth cement lining Smooth brick Rubble masonry Earthen channel in ordinary condition Earthen channel in rough condition Bazins Constant 0. V = C 0.502 0. The value of Bazins constant.413 Q.6 ).Flow in Open Channels 387 Example 12.6 / 2500 These values of Bazins constant k can be taken as typical values S.3 Determine the flow rate for a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1/2500.46 1. A = 3 m2. Using the above values.40 26. Rh = 0.00155 / Sb )( N + Rh 0. (i) Smooth cement lining (ii) Smooth brick (iii) Rubble masonry (iv) Earthen channel is ordinary condition (v) Earthen channel in rough condition Rh = 3/5 = 0.00155 / Sb ) + (1 / N ) (12.35 2.4.53 1.847 0.51 1.52 32.303 1.08 for poorly maintained earthen channels.160 0. No.06 0.011 for smooth cement surface to 0.3.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C C= 1 + (23 + 0.66 V. For a bed slope of 1/2500 find the flow rate.2) is used for the determination of C. Using the values of Kutters constant and conditions of surface given in the tabulation.02 54. the value of which varies from 0.06 m. Equation (12. the constant C is calculated by the equations below: C = 86. Equation (12.6.060 0.24 : : : : : 0.4. m/s 1.65 72. are given below.9/(1 + k/ 0.

6 m.3) and (12.018 0.32 2. this leads to V = (1/N) Rh2/3 Sb1/2 (12. Example 12.85 . When combined with Chezy’s equation (12. C = (8g/f)1/2 that C = (1/N) Rh1/6 (12.37 V (m/s) 1.95 0.050 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Chezy’s Constant 85.4. Due to simplicity and availability of extensive experimental support Mannings correlation is more popularly used.022 0. No.050 C 83.017 0.018 0.013 0.388 S. m3/s 3.5).02 41.94 0.85 2.91 0.23 54.96 3. The types of surface with Mannings constant are tabulated. 12.4) and are presented in the tabulation. A = 3 m2.84 0.64 61.02 1714 V.4.74 41.79 0.29 1.25 71.6).017 0.32 1.2 and 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of surface Smooth cement lining Smooth concrete Rough brick Rubble masonry/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Earthen channel rough with bush Kutters const. The results are obtained using equation (12.51 2.02 51.4.09 0.3) where N is Mannings constant established by experiments for various types of surfaces.29 Q (m3/s) 3. Rh = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Surface type Smooth cement lined surface Smooth concrete Rough Brick Rubble masonary/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Rough earthen channel with weeds N 0.64 0.4.88 3.90 50. In this case the value will be in the range 16 to 90.06.3.86 2. Sometimes the reciprocal of N is also referred to as Mannings constant.37 1.3 there is good agreement between the results.013 0. Sb = 1/2500 S.79 0.4.28 2.3 Manning’s Equation for C In 1890 Robert Manning proposed in place of the relation given in equation (12.011 0.110 0.52 53.48 70.80 It can be seen that as N increases the flow decreases for the same slope.4) The values of N is generally a small fraction varying from 0. m/s 1. particularly for earthen channels and natural streams.95 0.65 0. Note that in examples 2.74 18.015 0.84 0. No.022 0.015 0.51 2.36 1.53 61.4 For a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1 to 2500 determine the values of Chezy’s constant and also the flow rate.27 Q.11 0. The values of N are available for a few more conditions.011 to 0.3. N 0.

010 0.030 ± 0.004 0.010 ± 0.003 0. cobbles 4 Lined channels Glass Brass Steel.014 ± 0.011 ± 0.1 Values of Manning’s coefficient.150 ± 0. farm land Light brush Heavy brush Trees 3 Excavated eathen channels Clean Gravelly Weedy Stoney.075 ± 0.010 N Example 12.2 and 12.Flow in Open Channels 389 Comparing with the result of example 12.035 ± 0.005 0.015 ± 0.002 0.035 ± 0.050 0.025 0.3 it may be noted that there is close agreement between the results except in the case of earthen channels.002 0.012 ± 0. ∴ Rh = D/4 = 2/4 = 0.035 ± 0. Perimeter = π D/2.5 Determine the slope required for a flow of 1500 litre of water per second for a pipe of 2 m diameter flowing half full.5 m Chapter 12 . Table 12.010 0. Use Mannings equation.040 ± 0.005 0. riveted Cast iron Concrete.005 0.012 ± 0. 1 Surface Type Natural channels Clean and straight Sluggish with deep pools Major rivers 2 Flood plains Pasture.014 ± 0.002 0.015 for the rough concrete lining used.003 0.002 0. Values for some more types of surfaces are given in table 12.016 ± 0.025 ± 0.020 0.002 0.013 ± 0.002 0. Rough Planed wood Clay tile Asphalt Corrugated metal Rubble masonry Brick work 0.003 0. Area = π D2/(4 × 2). The value of Mannings constant is 0. painted Steel.015 ± 0.030 ± 0.003 0. smooth Steel.022 ± 0. N S.050 ± 0.002 0.005 0. finished Concrete.025 ± 0.002 0.005 0. No.1.012 ± 0.014 ± 0.010 0.022 ± 0.

various alternatives are possible. m 5. width b.6920 Rh. m3/s 5. assuming different ratios of depth to width determine the flow rates.7331 5.25 1 : 2.7723 5.955 m/s.9552/(59. and flow rates are tabulated below. d:b 1 : 1.7484 It is seen that the flow rate is maximum at d/b = 0.4409 1.7155 5.8782 Rh2/3 Q = A × V = 4 × 1.4431 1.4495 2. by a trial process. Derivations are given in example 12. V= 1 1 1 .5 × (4 × 2/π × 2 × 2) = 0.0000 3.6999 0.7027 V.5119 1. After a particular type of section.2728 Rh2/3 The results using equations (A) and (B) are tabulated below. .51/6 = 59.5) = 517 × 10–6 1 : 1934. circular etc.6330 1. Sb1/2 Rh2/3 = N 0.7636 5.55 m3/s.6.7071 0. 12.5 . A wider shallow section or a narrower deeper section may carry the same flow under the same slope.75 1:2 1 : 2. For a total area of 4 m2. Example 12. Sb = 1/1934 12. say rectangular.011 2500 Rh2/3 FG H IJ K 0.9 and solved problem Problem 12. For the square section the perimeter is maximum at bm when the flow rate is minimum at 5.4142 1. m 1. Mannings coefficient for the surface is 0. This is illustrated in the problem Example 12. m/s 1. The assumed depth to width ratios and corresponding values of depth d. Velocity = Volume flow/area V = 1.6569 5.8182 = 7.6 A smooth cement lined rectangular channel is proposed with a slope of 1/2500. hydraulic radius Rh.6695 5.7059 0. velocity V. lining etc.6667 5.3333 1.1622 P.42 × 0.6458 2.4333 1. It is to be noted that perimeter is minimum at this value.7. m 0. perimeter P. m 2.5 ECONOMICAL CROSS-SECTION FOR OPEN CHANNELS For a given flow rate and slope (determined by the ground slope) any one of several types of sections can be chosen. Hence there can exist a section which will involve minimum section in terms of cost of excavation.390 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C = (1/N)Rh1/6 = (1/0.4414 1.8 and 12.7055 0. Rh2/3 (A) (B) = 1.011.7.8284 3.5 m3) V2 = C2 Rh Sb ∴ or Sb = V2/C2 Rh = 0.2649 b.5 d.7658 5.4. (1500l = 1. .0015) × 0. is chosen.5 1 : 1.4371 Q. assuming depth and width.5 or b = 2d for rectangular channel.

using equation A dd A dP = – 2 + 2 = 0 (also d dd ∴ d2 P dd2 is – ve) The depth should be one half of the width for economical rectangular section. Let a = cot θ.5 Figure Ex. dp A = – 2 – a + 2(1 + a2)1/2 = 0 Solving for A dy y A = y2 [2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a]. Example 12. it appears that the economical section for a given area is the 1 : 2 section. Or dP should be zero for such a condition.5/P0. 12.5 A0. 12. Also for a given channel θ is fixed and hence a is fixed.8 Derive an expression for the hydraulic radius for a trapezoidal channel section for maximum flow conditions. Using equation (3) and equating (dp/dy) to zero.4. only variable is P in this case and so Q ∝ P–0. From equation (3). y being the independent variables.8 for variable names..C and Sb are specified. In this case Rh = d/2 (see example 12. Area A = by + ay2 = y(b + ay) P = b + 2w = b + 2y(1 + Eliminating b using equation 1 a2)1/2 ay (1) (2) A b= – ay y ∴ As P= y q b A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 y (3) Q = C Rh Sb = C Sb0.8 and as A..5) Example 12.(A) A Sb P As A. Q is maximum when P is minimum. This is achieved when the flow is maximum for a given area or the perimeter is minimum.6 also) Using Mannings equation the flow rate for the economical rectangular section is given in terms of the depth d as Q= 21/ 3 8/3 1/2 1. and P is to be minimized. Chapter 12 A = 2d2 = d × b ∴ b = 2d .Flow in Open Channels 391 Thus in the case of rectangular channels. C and Sb are constants and as Rh = A/P.26 d Sb = (depth)8/3 (slope)1/2 N N (12. Consider a width b and depth d perimeter P = 2d + b = 2d + (A/d) Q = AC .7 Derive an expression for the ratio of depth to width for open channel flow in the case of a rectangular section of a given area for economical conditions. Q will be maximum when P is minimum and depth d is the independent variable. Ex.e. Assume uniform flow conditions. Refer Fig.5 i. Also determine the optimum side slope.

A = d2 tan θ ∴ d = FG A IJ H tan θ K 0.5774 W2 = 1. Refer Fig. P should be minimized. using equation (3) 1 dP =–y+ × 2a × 2y(1 + a2)–1/2 Rearranging 2a/(1 + a2)1/2 = 1 2 da Squaring both sides.333 y2 = (4/3) y2 ∴ W = (2/ 3 )y b= A – ay. A = y2 [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y 2 3 ∴ b = 2y[(1 + a2)1/2 – a].5 0. In the case of a rectangle a = 0 In order to determine the optimum value of a (cot θ) for a given section of area A and depth y. as a = cot 60 = 0.5 Figure Ex.9 Area.392 P= Substituting for A. P = 2d sec θ. ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 = + y [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y y P = y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] + y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] = 2y[2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a] Rh = A y = P 2 ∴ A = 2y2. and solving a= 1 3 = cot θ ∴ θ = 60° Hence the optimum condition for economical section for a given area and depth is θ = 60° This shows that the section is half of a regular hexagon. and from equation 1.9 F A sec θ I = 2G H tan θ JK =2 F A(1 + tan θ) I GH tan θ JK 2 0. ∴ b = y ∴ b=W Example 12.5 d sec q q d Perimeter. Substituting for d P = 2 sec θ FG A IJ H tan θ K 2 0. 12. 12.5 As Q = AV = AC ∴ For maximum of Q. P = 4y. A Sb P .9 Derive an expression for the optimum angle for a triangular channel section of given d tan q area. as it can be shown that base b = side length W W2 = y2 + a2y2 = y2(1 + a2).5 = 2{A(tan θ + cot θ)}0. b = 2y. Ex.

diameter. and minimizing P2.622 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b = 2d/ 3 D = 2d L QN OP 1.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 --- Chapter 12 Table 12.917 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. d b = 2d L QN OP 0. The optimum half angle is 45° A = d2 d = (A/tan 45)0. d Circular.828 d Rh = A/P = d/23/2 = 0. . width b. normal depth and area when flow rate and bed slope are fixed. width.2.583 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b>>d L qN OP 1.5 = A0.6 to 12.1 Examples 12. b depth.353 d 12. b depth. D depth.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. (Q/A) = Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N.Flow in Open Channels Considering θ as independent variable. d Wide flat. and Rh = A/P.682 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 Trapezoidal width.968 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. Mannings coefficient and bed slope. Optimum geometry.9 provide the optimum geometry for some sections. Table 12. depth d q.2 gives the conditions for optimum geometry for various sections together with normal depth d and cross sectional area in terms of flow rate. flow/m θ = 60° L QN OP 0. ∴ A = LM QN OP MN S PQ 1/ 2 b 3/5 P2/5 Section Optimum Geometry Normal depth Cross sectional area Rectangular.5. 393 dP d = [tan θ + cot θ] = sec2 θ – cosec2 θ = 0 dθ dθ ∴ cos2 θ = sin2 θ ∴ θ = 45°.5 or ∴ ∴ P = 2d sec 45 = 2 2 d = 2.

75 = 3.3166 1.688 m A = π 2.93 3.10 For a given slope of 1/2500 and flow rate of 4m3/s.743 = 3. the values are calculated as below.86 m2 Note that the minimum area is in the case of the circular section.84 0.75 = 3.917 (2.011.301 = 2. check: 1.2)3/8 = 1.682 (2.344/2) 3.2347/2 (d/2) = 1.394 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12.011 OP NM (1 / 2500) QP 1/ 2 3/ 8 = 0.32 1.2)3/8 = 1.743/2 2 ) (d/2) = (1.32 1.41 Velocity using Manning’s m/s 1.04 2.502 m ∴ (iii) Triangular: (iv) Circular: A = 1.2)0.2 from previous calculation is used in the following calculations) d = 0.37 1.38 0.04 2.301 m.344 = 2.04 m2 d = 1.6882/(2 × 4) = 2.44 .3168 1.2)3/8 = 1.917 G H S JK 1/ 2 b 3/ 8 = 0. b = 2 × 1.10. ∴ b = 2.42 0.5 Rh2/3 = 1.622(2. Using equations in table 12.93 m2 1 1 1 × R 2/3Sb1/2 = N h 0.344 m.4649 m A = d × b = 3.45 0.502 + 1.2347 m. Mannings coefficient.93 m2 d = 1.968 (2.039 m2.75 = 2.682(2.2.04 m2. determine the depth of flow and area of cross-section at optimum conditions for (i) Rectangular. (ii) Trapezoidal.468 m A = 3.301 cot 60) 1. The velocity will be maximum in the circular section.8182 × Rh2/3 The result are tabulated below: Flow rate = 4 m3/s Section Rh Area m2 Velocity using Area m/s 1.3950 Fr Rectangular Tapezoidal Triangular Circular (d/2) = 1. Example 12.301/2 (d/2 2 ) = (1. (i) Rectangular: Normal depth F QN I d = 0. The triangular and rectangular sections need the same areas.3650 1.2)3/8 = 1. but the depth is more for the triangular section. N = 0.84 m2. determine the flow velocity in each case and check the same using Mannings equation. Also A = 1. Next comes trapezoidal one. top width = 2 × 1.583 (2.2)0. Diameter D = 2 × 1.2)0.743 m.297 (2. (iii) Triangular and (iv) Circular sections.0(2. check: 1.301/ 3 = 1. V= check (1.917 LM 4 × 0.2)3/4 = 2.04 m2 (ii) Trapezoidal (Note: QN/Sb1/2 = 2.11 Using the results of Example 12.011 2500 FG H IJ K 0.

Trapezoidal y= 395 A d(b + d sin 30) 1.4545 × d × G H 3 + 2d K 2/ 3 Fd I GH 3 + 2d JK = 0.502 + 1. Solving by trial d = 1. slope etc.021 m Check: Rh = (3 × 1. Consider well finished concrete surface The value of Mannings coefficient for well finished concrete surface is 0.021)) = 0.743 Triangular y= Note : Velocity is maximum in the case of circular section. Q = AV = V × 3d.9991 Topwidth b + 2d sin 30 1.12 Determine the height of flow in the case of a rectangular channel of 3 m width and slope of 1/2500 for a flow rate of 4 m3/s.2093.6 FLOW WITH VARYING SLOPES AND AREAS It is found almost impossible to have open channels of uniform slope and or uniform area all over the length of the channel. involves polynomials of more than degree 2. Certain situations like in spillways the energy in the flow has to be dissipated without damage to the surfaces.5 × (0. P = b + 2d = 3 + 2d.6033 m Q = [(3 × 1. Hence iterative working is necessary. and hence the flow area also should change.057 m 2.976 m3/s Note: Determination of depth or width for specified values of flow rate. In stagnant surface any disturbance will spread uniformly around the point of disturbance. the disturbance will travel upstream at a Chapter 12 . 12. circular y = = 1.011 2500 5/ 2 FG H IJ FG 3d IJ K H 3 + 2d K 0. sometimes gradually and sometimes steeply.Flow in Open Channels Froude number is calculated on the basis of hydraulic depth = Area/top width Fr = V/ yg where y is the average depth given by.301 2.011)] × (1/2500) 0. An example is dropping of a small stone in a stagnant pool.84 3. 12. Example 12. In such conditions the flow depth readjusts in some cases gradually and in some cases.502 + 0.872 m.6033)2/3 = 3. Rh = 3d/(3 + 2d) V= 1 R 2/3Sb1/2.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow The nature of readjustment of flow level due to slope change or sudden drop in bed level is found to depend on the velocity of propagation of any disturbance or wave velocity in the flow. The study of such flows is an important and practical aspect of open channel flow.021)/(3 + (2 × 1. N h 1 1 4= × 0. Area/top width.021)/(0. Substituting the values. When the terrain changes the slope has to change. suddenly.65) = = = 0.688 2 × 1.04 = 0.5 2/3 F 3d IJ × 3d = 5.011. Assume that the depth is d as p = 3 m ∴ A = b × d = 3d.6. In case water is flowing with a velocity V and if the wave velocity is c then if V < c.301(1.

12. The change is mainly in the form of change in height of flow. the wave can be brought to rest by imposing a velocity c in the opposite direction to the wave movement. incompressible and the section is constant across the x direction with a width b.1 Wave celerity The flow is assumed steady. net force equals ρg y ∆y The rate of change of momentum is dV × flow rate ∴ dV ρcy Subsituting for dV from equation (A) and equating the force and change of momentum. as the pressure is hydrostatic at any section. Force = ρ g (y + ∆y)2/2 At section 2.e. Considering sections 1 and 2 and applying continuity conditions i.1) .1. the pressure force is given by (for unit width) ρ g y2/2 At section 1. In case V ≥ c then disturbance cannot travel upstream and only the down steam flow will change. ρ gy ∆y = c2 ρ ∆y c2 = gy or c = gy (12. In order to facilitate analysis. Plate dv C Dy y y C – DV x C y 1 2 Dy x Wave moving Dx x Wave at rest Figure 12.6.6. let a disturbance be created by moving the vertical plate slightly along the x direction. ρgy ∆y + g ∆y 2 2 Neglecting the second order term. flow is equal at sections 1 and 2 ρ b(y + ∆y) (c – ∆V) – ρ byc = 0 Solving ∆V = c ∆y . Referring to Fig. Force = ρg y2/2 Net pressure force between the sections equals the difference between these two. This will cause a small ripple or wave and let its velocity or propagation be c.6. y + ∆y ∆y y (A) as ∆y is small this can be approximately as ∆V = c Applying momentum equation to the sections.396 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery lower speed.

100.6.09 The depth of deep ocean is about 4 km.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy Assumptions in the case are (i) steady incompressible and uniform flow (ii) pressure distribution is hydrostatic (iii) small bed slope. the wave height is small compared to the depth.91 100 31.05 4000 198. Such a flow is called subcritical or tranquil flow. c = depth. Using equation (12.32 1000 99. As already indicated. then V < c and any disturbance can travel upstream. m/s 0. where c is the sonic speed or velocity of propagation of small disturbance in the fluid. Case (iii) Fr > 1. Note that the velocity calculated is that of surface wave and not that of propagation at depths. Flow velocity/wave velocity. m velocity.5 2. there are three possible flow situations namely (V/c) < 1. Disturbances cannot travel upstream. Disturbances cannot travel upstream. the characteristic length. z1 z2 y1 V1 y2 V2 1 2 Figure 12. Only gradual changes occur in such a situation. 1000 and 4000 m. These are similar to subsonic.2 Chapter 12 12. The downstream conditions can change the flow conditions upstream.99 gy . Hence Froude number can be represented by the ratio.6. Downstream conditions cannot be felt upstream. This causes accumulation of water in the crest and as the wave travels further the height increases.13 10 9.1. such flows are called supercritical or rapid or shooting flows. The resulting tidal waves may travel at this speed and cause heavy damage.21 1 3. The local depth at the crest of the wave is more compared to the trailing edge. is the depth y and V is the flow velocity.6. (sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ) (iv) Shear work term negligible. The flow is called critical flow. which is seen near beaches.5.6. For this depth the disturbance will travel at 198 m/s which is about 713 km/hr.1). 12. the results obtained are tabulated below : 0. Case (i) If Fr < 1.e.1 0. Case (ii) Fr = 1. Changes occur only in the downstream flow. Example 12. 397 The main assumption is that ∆y << y i. Froude number in connection with open surface flow is defined as V/ gl . A standing wave may generally result. In the case of open channel flow.2 Froude Number . 0. (V/c) = 1 and (V/c) > 1 or the Froude number for the flow is less than or equal to or greater than 1.13 Compare the celerity of waves for depths of 0. l. sonic and supersonic flows in the case of flow of compressible fluids where Match number is the governing factor also defined as V/c.Flow in Open Channels The wave velocity c is also called wave celerity. Such a disturbance can be produced by earthquake or volcanic activity. finally leading to the breaking of the waves.

Bernoulli equation is written including head loss due friction hL. To illustrate the idea the case of a rectangular section is analysed in the following sections. V2 Q2 = .4(a)) .6.2) q2 2 gy 2 (12.6. ∴ q = Q/b E=y+ Q2 2 g b2 y2 (12.6. ∴ yc Fq I =G J H gK (12. For a flow rate Q and sectional area A. we get dE q2 = − 3 + 1 = 0. The variation of depth and velocity for a given specific energy provides an idea about the type of flow. V= ∴ Q A and A = b × y where b is the width and y is the depth. This quantity is defined as specific energy or specific head. V12 V2 2 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g (12. The symbol used is E. dy gy ∴ y3 = Fq I GH g JK 2 2 1/ 3 or y= Fq I GH g JK 2 1/ 3 (12.1) As in pipe flow the pressure loss in due to friction in the open channel flow. Differentiating the equation (12.6.3) and equating the result to zero.6.6.398 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering sections 1 and 2 in the flow as shown in Figure 12.2. The head due to change in level namely ( z1 – z2) equals the friction head hL. The term V2 + y is found 2g to be an important parameter is open channel flow.3) It will be useful to investigate the variation of depth and velocity for a given flow rate.4) The value of y for the minimum every for a given flow rate is formed as critical depty yc.6. 2 g 2 g b2 y2 The specific energy can now be expressed as below E=y+ For unit width. In this process the value of minimum energy for a given flow is found as follows.

To investigate the complete variation the general equation (12. This is shown in Figure 12.6. Fq I y =G J H gK 2 1/ 3 c . c gy Chapter 12 The flow rate at this condition is given by (for unit width) qmax = Vcyc = gyc 3 (12.6. Emin = yc + or yc= 2 yc 2 yc 3 399 = 3/2 yc. This means that For a given value of E and q two combinations of depth and velocity exist.6) From the expression of wave velocity. Ec = 3 y. yc 3 q2 = = gy yc 2 yc 2 or Vc = gy (12.3). 3 min (12.3 The other is for constant flow rate and head variation with energy.Flow in Open Channels Substituting the value in the general equation (12.6. These are called alternate depths and velocities.7) At this critical depth condition the following relations hold. 12.6.q = 2 c c gyc 3 and 2 Ac = byc = b q g F I GH JK 1/ 3 These relations specify only a single condition in the flow. The third solution is negative and has no significance.6.5a) From the definition of velocity. .6.8) This equation leads to two positive values of y for a given E and q. Vc = gyc .6.4.6.4a for unit width at the critical condition. Vc2 = g .6.5) 2 E . (12.6.3) is modified and written as y3 – Ey2 + q2 = 0. ∴ Vc = c. and eqn. This is shown in Figure 12. 2g (12. One plot is for a constant energy and the head variation with flow rate. As two quantities are involved with depth of flow two separate plots are used to illustrate the flow variation. and gy = c Vc V = c = 1 or Froude number is unity.

The condition yc divides the flow into two regions namely tranuil and rapid flows. At the critical condition a standing wave will be generated. At q = 0.4 Variation of discharge with depth for a given specific energy In figure 12. For a given flow rate at any energy greater than E min. the depth is AB and the dynamic head is BD. the Froude number is less than 1 and any disturbance downstream will be felt upstream and the flow upstream will be readjusted by the disturbing wave. one greater than yc and the other smaller than yc. the kinetic energy is CD.4 is a plot of depth against specific energy for a given flow rate.6.6. For different values of flow rate different curves will result. Here also very similar conditions are seen. the Froude number is greater than one and down stream disturbances like changed slope will not be felt upstream. When the depth is yT (AC).3 Variation of depth with specific energy for a given flow rate Figure 12.3) by qmax. 12. this reduces to .3 the variation of depth with flow rate is shown plotted for a constant value of E.6. In the tranquil flow region. The resulting curve shows that at any flow less than qmax. This is represented by the line at 45°. For example for the tranquil flow of the given q at A. Figure 12. the kinetic energy is given by BD. The specific energy curve can be presented in a non dimensional form by dividing the terms of equation (12. In the rapid flow region. and V > Vc. A curve for a given flow rate is shown ploted. y = E. In the tranquil flow the depth is larger and the velocity is smaller. The flow velocity V will be less than Vc. the flow can exist at two different combinations of depth and velocity. In the rapid flow the depth is smaller and the velocity is more. This is shown by the line ABCD. E qmax 2 = y qmax 2 1 + 2 gy 2 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 As qmax = (g yc3)1/2.400 y D E = constant C Tranquil H yT yCr B r A uR q Qmax O y Fluid Mechanics and Machinery q = constant D C Tranquil Rapid yT yCr 4.5 Emin H B yR A Rapid E Figure 12.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve By one dimensional representation a single curve will result for all values of specific energy.6. When the depth is equal to yR = AB.6. At qmax or the critical condition there is only one solution for the depth. In the rapid flow region. the depth is AC and the dynamic head is CD. Similar curves will result for other value of specific energy E. there are two possible depths of flow. This is in the rapid flow region.6.

Determine whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical. The flow is subcritical yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0. The flow is supercritical check V2 4.81 × 0.6643 = 1.4575 m.5 = 0. Similarly for given values of q. the depth being 1. Vc = (g × yc)1/2 = 3.Flow in Open Channels 1 E y = + 3 3 2 gy 2 gyc gyc 401 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 or FG q IJ Hq K max 2 = 2E yc FG y IJ Hy K c 3 2 −2 FG y IJ Hy K c 3 3 For a rectangular channel Emin = (3/2) yc ∴ FG q IJ Hq K max 2 =3 FG y IJ Hy K c −2 FG y IJ Hy K c (12.6) This will result in a single curve for all values of E when q is plotted against y.6643 = 1. Considering 1 m width Velocity = 3/(1.7) . 2g 2 × 9.9717 = 1. This is obtained by dividing the general eqaution by yc and then simplifying This will result in a single curve for all values of q when E is plotted against y.5162 +y= + 0.6.6. Example 12.81 × 1.0874 m/s 3.5 m.7039 m.516 9.0 The alternate depth is obtained using equation (12. Fr = ∴ V = 4.7038 m.0874 × 0.9717 = 3 m3/s/m Fr = Emin = (3/2) × yc = 1.5 × 1) = 2 m/s.81 Chapter 12 E y 1 yc = + yc yc 2 y FG IJ H K 2 (12. Specific energy = (V2/2g) + y = 1. yal = 0.9717 m q = Vc × yc = 3. solving by trial.7961.6643 m.14 Water flows in a rectangular channel at the rate of 3 m3/s per m width.81 × 0.5214.0874 9.6. Also determine the alternate depth and Froude numbers in both cases. Fr = Critical height is given by check: V gy = 2 9.3).516 m/s 4. y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0 As q and E are known. the equation below will result in a single curve.

yc = (2/3) E.3 when Q dy y b + ny 2( E − y) ∴ 1 n 1 =0 + − yc b + nyc 2( E − yc ) dQ = 0. y = yc dy Rearranging after summing up and considering the numerator to be zero. ln Q = ln y + ln (b + ny) + (1/2) ln (2g) + (1/2) ln (E – y) differentiating with respect to y.(A) y b Volume flow. Substituting . 1 dQ 1 n 1 = + − .15 Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity of a trapezoidal channel in terms of specific energy E. Critical velocity is obtained by substituting yc in the equation Vc = {2g[E – yc]}0. Q is maximum when (dQ/dy) = 0 Taking natural log on both sides of equation (A). A/top width From section 12.5 Example 12. as was established earlier. Assume a bottom width b and side slope 1 : n.. Area of section.6. In this case for critical flow.3. Chart solutions are available for various values of b and n. 5nyc2 + (3b – 4nE) yc – 2bE = 0 Solving for yc yc = − (3b − 4 nE) ± 9b2 − 24bnE + 16 n2 E 2 + 40bnE 10 n (B) = (4nE − 3b) ± 16n 2 E 2 + 16 nEb + 9b2 10n (C) This is a general solution. The base width is 0. ny V2 +y ∴ V= 2g 2 g( E − y) . Ac = Fb GH 2 1/ 3 topQ g I JK . Q = A V = y(b + ny) 2 g ( E − y) For constant value of E. and the side slope is 45° In the case of sections other than rectangles..6 m.6 + 2yc) Q = (1/3) m3/s. b = 0 and yc = (4/5) E (D) From equation (B) for a rectangular section as n = 0.e. specific energy is given by E= A = (b + ny) y. the hydraulic depth is given by Area/top width. In the case of triangle. i. btop = 2yc + b. Hydraulic depth = yc .16 Determine the critical depth of a channel with trapezoidal cross-section with a flow of (1/3) m3/s. from section 12.402 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12. also Ac = yc (b +2yc) = yc (0.6.

265) = 0.Flow in Open Channels 403 F (b + 2 y ) × Q I y (b + 2y ) = G JK g H c 2 c c 1/ 3 ∴ yc3 (0.4a) (for rectangular section) FQ I y =G H gb JK 2 c 1/ 3 2 F 22. For a depth of 0.252/(2 × 9.7167 = 0. the equation used is (12.6 + 2yc )2/3 F 1 IJ = G H 9 × 9.6 + 2yc)2 = Q2 1 = g 9 × 9.5 = (9.5/(6 × 0.81 × 0.6.53 m V = 22. q = (22.0796. Chapter 12 .6 = 2. the Manning flow equation is used.265 (0.81K 1/ 3 = 0.6) = 0.5)2/3 Sb1/2.8) y3 – Ey2 + (q2/2g) = 0 Substituting values for E = 3.81 = 0.81)} + 3 = 3.2244 m Area = (y + b) y = (b + 2yc) yc.5 Fr = 22.5 = (6 × 0.6 m depth.5/6) m3/s/m y3 = 3.4837 × 0.6) × (1/0.6/(6 + 2 × 0. Q = A × Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N.52 / 3 S 1/2.1 Specific energy calculated using this velocity is 3.081 m (check) Case (2) 0. solving by trial the alternate value of y = 0.81 × 0.265 m Vc = (gyc)0.5 I = G H 9.34 m3/s Example 12.012. solving 0.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/3 = 1.58. solving Sb = 1/70.075/ 0. Substituting the values.5 m 22.0796 m Froude number: 1.81 FG H IJ K ∴ yc (0. Let it be equal to y check flow rate: 1.17 A rectangular channel 6 m wide is to carry a flow of 22. Critical depth is given by the equation (12. Also determine the Froude number and alternate depth for the specific energy conditions.012) (0.012 b Sb = 1/7631 Velocity = 22. Fr = 7.2244)0.25/ 3 × 9. Calculate the critical depth also. the flow is subcritical.6 1 9.53 × 9.6 m determine the slope required. 22.2246 m Solving by trial yc = 0.5/6 × 3 = 1.5 = 1.81 = 3. Solving y = 0. Rh = 6 × 3/(6 + 2 × 3) = 1.4867 m/s The actual depth is different from hydraulic depth.5 = (6 × 3) × 1.6 + 0. Case (1) depth = 3 m. Take Mannings coefficient as 0. Rh = 6 × 0.5 m To determine the slope.53) = 7.25 m/s ∴ E = (V2/2g) + y = {1.5 × 6 × 0.6.07 m/s. the flow is supercritical.5 m3/s.2304 To determine alternate depth.6 m. For depth of 3 m and 0.0796 y2 + 0.1275 m Hence for a depth of 3 m.

6 + Fluid Mechanics and Machinery FG 22.7 EFFECT OF AREA CHANGE When changes in flow area occurs over short distances like over a short bump or flow under a sluice gate. 2 × 9.5 IJ H 6 × 0.1275 + G H 6 × 1. which is 1. these cases can be analysed. The flow is assumed to be uniform at each section.137 m/s.7. Fr = 0. the effect of area change is more compared to frictional effects. b Water surface 2 V1 Y1 y V y x h Figure 12. b. is considered.1.513 At the critical flow condition. checks. and the water depth is y measured from the bed level at the location 2.1 Flow Over a Bump The flow along a horizontal rectangular channel of constant width. As friction is neglected Bernoulli equation applies for steady flow conditions.691 m.7.404 Alternate depth is obtained using y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0. alternate depth is 1. As the pressure on the free surface is the same at all locations. 2g 2g Q = V1y1 = V2y2.1275 K 2 × 1 = 1.6 K 2 × 1 = 1.1275 m F 22.991 m 2 × 9. as calculated yc = 1.7595 m. 12. V = 2. The height of the bump at location x is h.1) .7.5 × yc. Substituting for V1 and V2.5 IJ E = 1. E = 0. Bernoulli equation reduces to (taking bed level as datum) V2 2 V12 + y1 = + y2 + h = constant over the bump.81 Substituting and solving by trial. Assuming channel bed to be horizontal. 12.1 Flow over a bump Q2 2 gb2 y12 + y1 = Q2 + y + h = constant 2 gb2 y 2 (12. There is a bump in the channel bed as shown in Fig.7.81 12.

2 3 2 gb y dx dx dx ( dh / dx) ( dh / dx) dy (dh / dx) = = dx [(Q 2 / gb2 y 3 ) − 1] = [(V 2 / gy) − 1) Fr 2 − 1 (12. (similar to subsonic diffuser M < 1) 3. − Q2 dy dy dh + + = 0.H.6 m/s. V2 = (V1y1/ y2) 2g 2g Chapter 12 . (2) There are two possible regimes of flow namely subcritical and supercritical.Flow in Open Channels 405 In order to determine the variation of y along the flow. namely a positive bump and a negative bump or depression.2) As dh/dx is specified. (similar to subsonic nozzle M < 1) 2. For supercritical flow + ve bump increases the flow height.7.S. A smooth bump with a peak height of 0. For subcritical flow + ve bump decreases the flow height.6 m and the flow velocity is 0. It is seen that the variation depends on the flow Froude number. Refer Fig. The type of surface variations are listed below: 1.06 m Figure Ex. Example 12. Bernoulli equation reduces to Continuity equation is ∴ V1y1 = V2y2 V2 V12 + y1 = 2 + y2 + h. Ex. Supercritical flow – ve bump decreases the flow height. 12. (similar to supersonic diffuser M > 1) The case of Fr = 1 is more complex and other factors have to considered to determine the flow downstream.18 In a rectangular channel. Consider sections 1 and 2 1 2 0. 12.18.6 m 6 m/s y2 h = 0. is differentiated with respect to x. Solving for (dy/dx).06 m exists on the bed surface. the flow height is 0.18 Under steady flow conditions. dy/dx can be determined. Determine the flow velocity and depth over the peak of the bump. the expression on the R. For subcritical flow – ve bump increases the flow height. (1) There are two possible variations in the bed level. (similar to supersonic nozzle M > 1) 4.

. The size of the bump corresponding to this can be worked out by the above procedure.6 9. 12.6 = 0. One will be in the subcritical flow and the other in supercritical flow region. solving by trial. change in surface level or 4.4) The flow rate Q fixes the value of y1 and as the equation is a quadratic. ∴ V2 = 0.81 2g specific energy at section (1).6 = 0.3323 m.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate.6 V12 + y1 = + 0.06 = 0.5353 – 0.61835 m 2 × 9. substituting for V2 . decrease in level.61835 – 0.406 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. E2 = V22 + y2 = E1 – h 2g = 0. The flow depth at section 2 should be 0. there can be two solutions.81 × 0.5583 m.3 Flow through sluice gate Rearranging y12 (y0 – y1) = Q2/2gb2 (12.2473 In case Fr = 1 to occur at the bump. y0 = + y1 (12.7. 2g y2 y2 = 0.7.06 = – 0. then yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0. 2g Q2 2 gb2 y12 Since V = Q/A and A = by. V12 + y1.7 mm.7.5583 m.3) Y0 Y1 V1 0 1 Figure 12. E1 = specific energy at section 2.0047 m 0. Fr = = (V1 y1)2 1 × 2 + y2 = 0. from Stagnant Condition The reservoir is assumed to be large or y0 = constant.5353 m.3323 m.7. V0 Applying Bernoulli equation between section 0 and 1 y0 = 0.6725 m/s = 0.6 + 0.

1. V12 E1 = + y1 Replacing V by q.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel In this case water flows with velocity V1 at section 1 and the level before the gate is y1.Flow in Open Channels The same is shown plotted in non dimensional form in Fig.4.7. 2g E1 = q2 + y2 2 gy2 2 Chapter 12 Taking the derivative of equation (12.6) OP Q Also Q/b = q.0 Q /2g b y0 2 2 3 0. 12. Fr2 = Vmax = qmax = 8 y 3 = 0 8 3 A 1 × y1 2 y0 27 gy1 gy1 FG IJ H K 3 =1 Maximum flow corresponds to Fr = 1 There is no correlation available relating y1 and the gate opening. 12. Also specific energy at section 1 equals specific energy at section 2.4) with respect to y1 .2 Figure 12.e. At maximum flow rate there is a single value for y1.4 d Q2 dy1 2 gb2 ∴ LM N OP Q =0 i. then qmax2/g = (8/27) y03 Vmax 2 2 qmax q 3 = max .666 Fr = 1 407 Fr > 1 1.7.0 Fr < 1 Y1 Y0 0.5) y1 = (2/3) y0 Substituting this value in flow rate term. The velocity at section 2 is V2 and depth is y2. incompressible uniform flow is assumed.7.7. Steady. 2y1y0 – 3y12 = 0 (12. Qmax 2 gb 2 =2 LM 2 y OP LM y N3 Q N 0 2 0 − 8 2 y0 = y3 27 0 3 (12.7. (flow/unit width)..7.

8 = 0.81 × 2 = 0.2039 q = 2 × 2 = 4 m3/s/m This depth will be the alternate depth for the flow. Case (i) ∴ ∴ y1 = 0.4) × 2 × 9.408 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The depth y2 should be the alternative depth. In case velocity V1 = 0. Maximum flow rate can be obtained by the condition that y2 = (2/3) y0.4 = 8.2039 m 2g 2g 9. Determine the depth at the downstream side.45 q = 23. the condition at section 1 will change.4 m. V2 = V1y1/y2 and so V2 can be determined.8) × 2 × 9.81 × 4 = 1 Example 12.81 × 2.19 Water is let off from a large reservoir through a sluice gate.3. Example 12. Specific energy upstream = V12 22 + y1 = + 2 = 2.4 = 2.7071. (subcritical) Case (ii) y1/y0 = 0. y0 = q2 2 gy12 + y1 q2 = 2g y12 (y0 – y1) = 4.2039 y22 + 42 = 0. and 12.20 Water flows at the upstream of a channel at 2m/s and the depth is 2 m.7485 m 2 × 9.6.4 ∴ y1 = 6 × 0. y0 = 6 m.06 m3/s/m V = 25.81 × 4.2039 m As the downstream flow is the same. (supercritical) Maximum flow occurs at y1 = (2/3) y0 = 4 m ∴ q2 = 42(6 – 4) × 2 × 9. Solving by trial y2 = 0. y0 = 2. From equation 12.404/ 9. V = 20.e.264/ 9.264.81 = 542 .852/ 9. Fr = 6.8 and 0. specific energy remains constant.7.452 (subcritical) Fr = 2/ In case the velocity upstream is negligible.732.8 × 6 = 4. q = 25. As y1 and V1 are specified.06/4 = 6.8 m.4 (y1 is the flow depth downstream).29 m3/s/m.29/4. When the sluice is opened to obtain this maximum flow. Also determine the maximum flow rate and the minimum depth of flow down stream. Also determine the maximum flow rate conditions i. V1 = 23. then the condition will give y0. Considering unit width. But y0 will remain the same. The water level in the dam above the level of the sluice is 6 m. when the sluice is opened and flow is steady.42 (6 – 2. m/s.852 m/s Fr = V/ gy = 4.81 . Expressing it in terms of q q2/(2gy22) + y2 = 2.82 (6 – 4. Calculate the flow rate for values of y1/y0 = 0.84 q = 20.17/2.84. depth velocity and flow rate downstream.17 m3/s/m. Steady. this will be the value of y0 i.e. incompressible uniform flow is assumed to prevail. q2 = 2.404 m/s Fr = 8. y2 is determined by trial using specific energy value.3. y23 – 2.81 = 406.8 = 4.81 = 627.4 = 1.

The change in bed elevation can be expressed in terms of bed slope as – Sb dx.8.8. The slope of the energy grade line is S.dhL= Sdx where S is the slope of the energy grade line.1) Chapter 12 . As the change is continuous.1.4692 As Fr = 1 Vmax = gymax = 1.2039 × (2/3) = 1. flow depth changes gradually. the analysis should take into consideration a differential control volume instead of sections upstream and downstream. 2g V2 V2 +d 2g 2g LM OP N Q + y + dy + z + dz + dh L where dhL is the head loss. d LM V OP N 2 g Q + dy = ( S 2 b – S) dx (12. Taking the net flow and equating to the gravity drap.8 FLOW WITH GRADUALLY VARYING DEPTH When open channel flow encounters a change in bed slope or is approaching normal depth.8. Refer Fig.344 m/s (supercritical) Maximum flow will occur when y2 = (2/3) y0 ∴ ymax = 2. 12.796 m/s 409 qmax = 7. Slope S dx y y + dy Slope Sb Z q z + dz Figure 12. Water depth and channel bed height are assumed to change slowly. The velocity at any section is assumed to be uniform. 12.469 = 5. In this case the energy grade line and free surface are not parallel. The slope of the bed is Sb.Flow in Open Channels V2 = 4/0.81 = 3.58 m3/s/m When the sluice position corresponds to this flow rate.1 Flow with gradually varying depth The specific energy flowing in at location x is The energy flow out at location x + dx is V2 + y + z.7485 = 5. the upstream condition at section 1 will change.796 × 1.4692 × 9.

5) Using equation (12.4) Substituting for S in equation (12.8. [ 1 − ( yn / y) 10 / 3 ] dy = Sb dx [1 − ( yc / y) 3 ] (12.8. critical slope and steep slope types. . S −S dy = b dx 1 − Fr 2 (12.8.2.4) we can show that.3) can be applied to this situation. when Rh = y. The equation (12. Sb [1 − ( S / Sb ] S −S dy = b 2 = dx 1 − Fr 1 − Fr 2 (12.8.8. results in a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation that describes the variation of water surface profile.8. where yn is the depth for normal flow Also FG IJ H K Fy I Fr = G J H yK y S = n Sb y c 10 / 3 (12. This is obtained from Manning’s equation S= N2V 2 R h 4/3 (12. yc and yn for these types there can be three types of profiles.5).2) d V2 dx 2 g LM OP = d L q O = – 2 q 2 gy N Q dx MN 2 gy PQ 2 2 2 3 dy V 2 dy dy =− = − Fr 2 dx gy dx dx Substituting in 12.8.7) Also On the basis of relative values of yn and yc the flow can be classified as mild slope.8.3) The change in bed level dy along the flow direction for length dx is given by this equation.410 d V2 dy + = Sb − S dx 2 g dx expressing V in terms of flow q Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM OP N Q (12.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations The study is somewhat simplified when applied to a wide rectangular channel of depth y.8.8.3). The gradient of the energy grade line can be obtained by assuming that loss is equal to the loss in steady uniform flow at normal depth.8. The sign of dy depends on the value of Froude number and the relative magnitudes of S and Sb 12.6) 3/ 2 Substituting in (12. Then on the basis relative values of y.

The adjustment is sudden and can be only in the downstream side.1 Hydraulic jump . The flow upstream will remain unchanged.1) (12. Change from supercritical to subcritical conditions thus cannot be smooth. 12. Net momentum flow = ρ Q (V2 – V1) = ρ V1y1b(V2 – V1) F1 = ρ gb y12/2. Such a change occurs by increase of flow depth downstream. The abrupt change involves loss of mechanical energy due to turbulent mixing. horizontal bed slope and adverse bed slope type of flows will also lead to different shapes. Chapter 12 Hydraulic jump is used to dissipate mechanical energy into heat in various hydraulic structures. F2 = ρ gb y22/2 (12.9.2) The pressure distribution in the flow depth is hydrostatic and acts at the centroids Control volume F2 Y1 Q V1 F1 V2 Y2 Y Jump Loss E Figure 12. Now computer software’s are also available to show the profiles graphically. the disturbance produced will move upstream and downstream resulting in smooth adjustment of the flow depth. Fig. the net momentum flow is equal to the net force (b = width).9.1 shows a typical hydraulic jump.9.Flow in Open Channels 411 In addition. the surface profiles are to be calculated by numerical methods. More often.9. In supercritical or shooting flow such a disturbance cannot move upstream. 12. This is called Hydraulic jump. Considering the control volume.9 THE HYDRAULIC JUMP (RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW) In subcritical flow due to any change in bed slope or cross-section. The heat produced does not significantly affect the temperature of the stream. Horizontal bed condition is assumed.

9.59 10 13.4) Wall shear is neglected. This leads to increase in specific energy which is not possible see Fig.77 3.37 2. to eliminate V2 (y12 – y22)/2 = or (1/2) (y1 + y2) (y1 – y2) = V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 (12.9.9.5) Cancelling (y1 – y2) and multiplying by (y2/y12) and nothing Fr1 = V1 gy1 FG y IJ + FG y IJ – 2Fr Hy K Hy K 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 =0 (12. Using momentum and continuity equations.5 3. Depth upstream should be smaller than critical depth.5). Depth down stream will be higher than critical depth.3) V1 y1 (V2 – V1) g Continiuity equation is y1 b V1 = y2bV2 = Q Energy equation is (y12 – y22)/2 = y1 + V12 V2 2 = y2 + + hL 2g 2g (12. 12. Fr > 1 alone is considered.7) The depth ratio is tabulated below for various values of upstream Froude number. Bed is assumed to be horizontal.9. As hydraulic jump is possible only in supercritical flow conditions.48 4 5.9.18 4.9.412 ∴ F1 – F2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fy = ρ gb G 2 H 1 1 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK Equating ρ gb Fy GH 2 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK = ρ bV y (V2 – V1) Rearranging (12. from the quadratic equation above and nothing that – ve sign for the root is not possible y2 y 1 = (1/2) LM N 1 + 8Fr12 − 1 OP Q (12.5 4.67 2 2.0 1.1.7 The depth downstream is always higher than that at the upstream.6) Solving for (y2/y1). y Vs E diagram.88 5 6. Fr y2/y1 1 1. loss of head can be directly determined as hL = (y1 – y2) + (V12 – V22)/2g .5 1. The loss is due of violent mixing. From Equation (12.07 3 3. Note that if Fr1 < 1 then y2 < y1.9.5 5.

the velocity downstream is 5.33 = 0.5 2. Calculate the energy dissipated by eddies in the jump.9) As hL is positive (y2/y1) should be greater than one.1 5 49. There is head increase in hydraulic jump.7 It can be seen that for streaming flows with Fr > 5. the loss can be expressed as a fraction of specific energy at section 1. Hydraulic jump is similar to normal shock in compressible flow.33 m/s while the flow depth is 0.1 6 56.8) (y2/y1) is obtained from Equation (12.10) The ratio hL/E1 is shown tabulated below as a percentage for various values of Froude number.655 × 0.7 4 39. By proper design.81 × 0. back pressure changes will not pass the supersonic region.21 In the flow through a sluice in a large reservoir.5436 hL y = 1 y1 4 y2 LM y Ny 2 1 −1 OP Q 3 = 1 1 × [9. a larger fraction of the mechanical energy is dissipated by eddies.239 0. Pressure adjustment is automatic with normal shock and so also in hydraulic jump. Hydraulic jump occurs in supercritical flow.9.5436 m V2 = 0.9.655 Chapter 12 .4 10 72. This idea is used to dissipate the energy of water flowing over spillways.655 I K ∴ ∴ y2 = 9.0563 = 7. This equation can be also simplified (using a rather long algebraic work) as hL y1 y 1 = 4y 2 LM y Ny 2 1 O − 1P Q 3 (12.655 – 1]3 = 16. energy may be dissipated without damage to the structure. Example 12.33/ 9.0563 m.78 4 9.552 m/s Fr2 = 0. In hydraulic jump also the disturbance downstream does not pass upstream. Expressing (y2/y1) in terms Froude number.172 y2 y1 = (1/2) F H 1 + 8 Fr12 − 1 = (1/2) I K F H 1 + 8 × 7.4 8 66.2 2 9. In flow through supersonic nozzles. hL ( a − 3) 3 where a = = E1 [8( a − 1)(2 + Fr12 )] 1 + 8 Fr12 (12.Flow in Open Channels hL Fr12 2 y1 = [1 – (y2/y1)] + 2 [1 − ( y1 / y2 ) ] 413 (12.1722 − 1 = 9.9. There is a pressure rise across normal shock.0563 = 0. Fr = V/ gy = 5. Fr hL/E1 1.7).1 3 25.0563 × 5. Determine the downstream conditions if a hydraulic jump takes place downstream. Normal shock occurs in supersonic flow.9.

78 × 0.332 + y1 = + 0. Fr = 7.945/1. Q = b {g × (8/27) E3} = 1.10 FLOW OVER BROAD CRESTED WEIR A broad crested weir consists of an obstruction in the form of raised portion of bed extending across the full width of the channel with a flat upper surface sufficiently broad in the direction of flow. rather it jumps from 1 to 2 directly. The upstream edge is well rounded to avoid losses.705 bE3/2 (12. check using hL = E1 Substituting 8 LMF NH LM N 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 3 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 1 ( Fr2 + 2) I K OP Q 3 OP Q . The flow upstream will be subcritical and the downstream allows free fall.414 ∴ Specific energy at inlet hL= 16.9. the flow surface becomes parallel to the crest.0563 = 1. This can be shown on the specific energy diagram in Figure 12. The solutions for hydraulic jumps in other than rectangular channels is similar to that of rectangular channel.10.6283 About 63% of mechanical energy is dissipated by the hydraulic jump. Considering rectangular channel. expression for flow rate is derived Y1 /2g 2 Ye Y1 E Figure 12.172.504) × 100 = 62. Froude number should be calculated using hydraulic depth. hL E1 = 0.1.053 = 0. The jump does not proceed along the specific energy curve. Fig. 12.82 %.1 shows a broad crested weir with free fall.504 m 2 × 9. The phenomenon is similar.10.1) .5 or q = (gyc3)0.81 2g ∴ % dissipation = (0. As the crest is broad. 12.10.1 Broad crested weir ∴ As yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 = (q2/g)1/3 Q = b(gyc3)0.945 m = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V12 5. As there is no restraint downstream the flow will be maximum or the depth above the weir surface will be the critical depth yc.5 yc = (2/3)E.

it may not fall to the critical value yc. The height of the weir will not affect the flow over the crest. where E is the specific energy and b is the channel width.705 × b × y3/2 415 The measurement of h (over the crest of the weir) would be sufficient to determine the discharge. it can be shown that L 2 gh OP V = M NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 2 1 1 2 0.1 b1 b2 Energy line 2 V1 /2g V2 /2g 2 Free surface Y1 Y2 Critical depth x Figure 12. In case the bed level downstream is equal to the bed level upstream. then.95 to 0. The details are shown in Fig. Flumes with lateral contraction followed by expansion can be used for flow measurement. If the free surface in the section does not pass through critical depth. the depth in the reduced section will decrease. In case the upstream flow is subcritical. In that case Q = 1. Chapter 12 .5 (12. 12.1) The flow rate Q = Cd A2 V2 where Cd is the coefficient of discharge having values in the range 0. and if critical conditions occur at the throat.11.11. If the upstream flow is subcritical. If the upstream flow is supercritical the level in the reduced section will increase. the arrangement is called Venturi Flume.5 and Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0. The rate of flow is calculated using Bernoulli equation and continuity equation.1 Lateral contraction Using continuity and energy relations. The upstream level will adjust as per the height of the weir. 12. the level downstream will rise. In this case though the level over the crest will decrease. the flow rate is given by.11.Flow in Open Channels E = y1 + (V12/2g) In the tranquil flow upstream V1 is small.99.11 EFFECT OF LATERAL CONTRACTION The channel width may be reduced keeping the bed horizontal. similar to venturimeter.

038. b2 = 0.6 m. the flow will revert to subcritical condition downstream by means of a hydraulic jump. Example 12. y2 = 0.375 m.038]0. C= 8 g / f = [8 × 9.1 Determine the flow rate of water in a rectangular channel of 3 m width when the depth of flow is 1 m.011 m.6 m. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 12.5 = 0.8% and hence may be neglected. The bed slope is 1 in 2500.6 – 0.025 = 0. In this case if the bed slope down stream is the same as in upstream.3 m and raising floor level in the constricted section by 0.025 OP Q = 1.2 – 0.3736 m3/s When standing wave forms consider the equation (12.705 b2 E3/2 In case the flow velocity upstream is small. ∴ Rh = 3/5 = 0.2) Q = 1.11. In the case the downstream conditions are changed such that a standing wave forms after the throat.705 b2 H3/2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12.6) = 0.705 × 1.4 m ∴ Q = 1.6 – 0.3 × 0. A = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 .81/0. Q = 1.22 A venture flume is formed in a horizontal channel of 2 m width by constructing the width to 1. then.2 = 0.705 b2 E3/2.5 b1 = 2 m.025 m. Compared to 0. As friction factor is given Chezy’ constant can be determined. Friction factor f = 0.2 m above that of the channel.3 × 0.2) (12.3) where H is the difference between the level at the throat and upstream water level. determine the rate of flow.9 m. The velocity upstream. V1 = 0. L 2 × 9.416 Q = 1. calculate the flow assuming upstream depth is still 0.11.45 To determine the hydraulic depth.81 × 0.4673 m/s ∴ V12/2g = 0. bed slope = 1/2500 .6) QP 2 0. Such a flume is known as standing wave flume.5607/(2 × 0. The flow rate is given by the equation [Refer equation 12. Chezy’s constant.375 / 2 × 0. P = 3 + 1 + 1 = 5 m.375 M NM 1 − (1.5 = 45. If the difference in level between the throat and downstream is 25 mm and both upstream and downstream depths are 0.4 m.50607 m3/s The velocity head portion of energy upstream is neglected in this case. h = 0. E = the total head at construction which is 0.6. this is 2.3 × 0.11.1] Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.43 = 0.11.

57 1.76 1.0 2.2 0. but not in direct proportion.38 0.81 × 1 = 0.0 1.9 0.9 0.5 V 0.0 1/2000 Q 0.8 V 0.42 0.72 7.4 4. 417 Flow rate = VA = 0.60 0. Velocity V.60 7. 1/1000.46 0.75 0. As depth increases the flow increases more rapidly because both velocity and area increase with depth.87 4.2 determine the Froude number in each of the cases.5 Rh 0.2 V 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.9 1.34 5.9 Q 2. As slope becomes steeper Froude number increases for the same depth due to velocity increase.8 0.2 0. Slope Depth 0.88 1.3 0.38 0.57 1.9 2.76 1.86 0. 1.94 V 1. Chapter 12 0.3 In problem 12. 2.0 1.9 1.1 1/1500 Fr 0. Depth and Rh are given in m.4 1/2500 V 0.6 0.7 0.5 m with bed slopes of 1/500.60 0. m/s. m3/s. 1.2 0.40 0.32 3.5 1.1 1/1500 Q 1.2 0.24 1.6 0.11 1.704 m/s.8 0.24 1.30 0.7 4. Considering combination of depths of 0.2 Analyse the flow in the channel of problem 12. Depth and Rh are given in m.2 0.8 0.40 V 0.4 V 0.1 2.1 1.6 7. 2 and 2.7 0. Fr = V/ gy .5 2. Problem 12.9 Fr 0.11 1.7 0.24 1.6 0. Problem 12.0 1.Flow in Open Channels Using Chezy‘s equation.3 0. V V = C Rh Sb = 45.97 1/500 Q 1.35 0.11 m3/s Froude number = V/ gy = 0.39 1/1000 Q 1.28 V 0.32 0.24 1.1 3.1.0 5.94 V 1.5. velocity increases but Froude number decreases and flow is subcritical.5 2.88 1.98 10.8 0.50 0.33 1.6 / 2500 = 0.5 Rh 0.5 8.704 × 3 = 2.6 Note. As slope becomes less steep the velocity and flow rates decrease.88 1.6 6.8 0. indicating velocity by. Flow rate Q. The values calculated using Chezy’s equation are tabulated below.3 0.2 1/2500 V 0.8 0.3 14.75 0.5 5.0 1/2000 Fr 0.6 0.9 1.33 1.86 0. Slope Depth 0.0 1.39 1/1000 Fr 0.45 0.3 0.3 0.8 .225 So the flow is in the subcritical region.9 1.1 1.704/ 9.2 As depth increases for a given slope.92 11.97 1/500 Fr 0. 1/2000 and 1/ 2500.5 1.88 1.1 6.0 2. 1/1500.56 0.

9443y Rh = A/P = 2. Sb = 1/2000 3/ 2 ∴ 10 = y 1 × 2.6 Determine the economical cross-section for an open channel of trapezoidal section with side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal. b + 2ny = y n 2 + 1 .022. to carry 10 m3/s.11 m3/s-very near the optimum value but is still less. A = (b + 2y) y = 2. P = π D/2 = π m Rh2/3 Sb1/2. 1. called normal depth. the bed slope being 1/2000.4721 y2/4.13 m3/s This is maximum can be verified by calculating the flows for different depths like 1.4721 y.9443 y = y/2 Q = 10 m3/s.8.4721 y2 Hydraulic mean depth (A/P) for economical section: P = b + 2y ∴ n 2 + 1 = b + 2 y 5 = 4.022.5 Determine the maximum discharge through a rectangular open channel of area 8 m 2 with a bed slope of 1/2000.015 Rh = (π/2)/π = 0.4 Determine the slope with which a waste water pipe of 2 m diameter is to be laid for carrying water at the rate of 1500 l/s. Here n = 2 and b + 4y = 2y 5 .4721y2 0.5 = 8.5 m.2 for which the flows are 8. N = 0. The condition for the same is (n-side slope) Refer example 12. For rectangular section the optimum depth equals half the width and maximum discharge occurs for this condition. 8. Manning equation for discharge is Q= ∴ ∴ π×2×2 π 2 A = m . The depth of flow is to be half the diameter.8.022 2 FG IJ H K (Sb)1/2 .11. 2 b = y ( 20 − 4) = 0. A = 4×2 2 N π 1 (0. 8.5 m3/s 1.5) 2 / 3 (Sb ) 1/ 2 × 2 0.9. A = y × b = y × 2y = 2y2 = 8 ∴ y = 2. Assume Mannings constant as 0. Assume CI pipe with Manning constant N = 0. For economical section perimeter should be minimum.022. b = 4.05. 2. Q = 1500l/s = 1. Assume Manning coefficient as 0. Problem 12.418 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. ∴ Rh = 8/8 = 1 m Q= A 8 1 Rh2/3 Sb1/2 = (1)2/3 N 0. Similarity flow rate and slope uniquely define the depth.12 and 8. Problem 12.022 2000 FG H IJ K 0.12.5 = ∴ Sb = 1/1934 The flow rate and depth uniquely define the slope.1 and 2.

(check using radian mode in the calculator) The area for flow Perimeter = R2 θ – R2 sin 2θ = 3.e. Substituting = dθ 2 3 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2 – 2 sin 2θ) 2R 2 2 q R y 3θ(1 – cos 2θ) = [θ – (sin 2θ/2)] 2θ – 3θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ =0 2 Figure P. 12. ∴ dP = 2 R. Q = AV = AC A3 A Sb Sb = C P P LM N OP Q 0.0818 R2 2 = 2Rθ = 5. Let the flow depth be y.9971 m. using LM d( A / P) OP N dθ Q = 0 3 i.7 This is a transcendental equation to be solved by trial.. Wetted perimeter P = 2 R θ Flow area = (2 θ/2 π) πR2 – R sin θ R cos θ = R2θ – (R2/2) sin 2θ = (R2/2) (2θ – sin 2θ) Using Chezy’s equation.9429 m (check for flow) Problem 12.5733 R Chapter 12 . The condition is determined. and Let the angle subtended be θ.4721y 2 × (y)3/2 3/ 2 2000 0.5 Q will be maximum if A3/P is maximum. P × 3 × A2 dA dP − A3 dθ dθ = 0 P2 or 3P dA dP =A dθ dθ P = 2 R θ. Refer figure.8884 y7/2 y = 1.022 2 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.3756 R ∴ Rh = 0. b = 0.Flow in Open Channels 10 = ∴ 419 1 1 2.7 Derive the expression for depth of flow in a channel of circular section for maximum flow. θ = 2. dθ A = (R2/2) [2θ – sin 2θ] dA R 2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ).69 radian or about 154°.

5007 radian or 4θ – 10θ cos 2θ + 3 sin 2θ = 0 143. dθ dθ 5P dA dP – 3A =0 dθ dθ and Substituting for dA dP and dθ dθ 5 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = 3 (2θ – sin 2θ) × 2R 2 2 5θ(2 – 2 cos 2θ) – 3(2θ – sin 2θ) = 0. V = C Rh Sb . A/P should be maximized.626 R or 0.802 R or 0. dθ 2 dθ 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2θ – 2 cos 2θ) 2R 2 2 2θ(1 – cos 2θ) = 2θ – sin 2θ or tan 2θ = 2θ – 2θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ = 0 ∴ Solving G = 2. Substituting = (2 – 2 cos 2θ).75° Depth for maximum velocity y = R(1 – cos θ) = 1.9494 D A N FG A IJ H PK 3/ 2 Sb1/2 = 1 A 5/ 2 S 1/2 N P 3/ 2 b or A 5 should be maximized with θ as independent variable P3 P3 × 5 × A4 dA dP – A5 3P2 = 0. Substituting. the same result is obtained as in equation A.28° In this case depth R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. θ = 2. Q= A5/ 2 P 3/ 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. P = 2Rθ. A= A R2 (2 θ – 2 sin 2θ). Refer problem Problem 12.8988 R or 0.247 radians.420 Depth of flow Note: This uses Chezy equation: In case Manning equation is used.901 D Problem 12. . In case Manning equation is used.8 Derive the condition for maximum velocity of flow in a channel of circular section.7. d ( A / P) dθ FG P dA − A dP IJ /P H dθ dθ K 2 =0 ∴ P dA dP =A dθ dθ (A) dP dA R2 = 2 R .813 D Note: This is using Chezy equation. or 128. or Solving. then the flow. Rh = P 2 For V to be maximum.

494 m Rh = A/P = 2.81 × 1 = 0.7351/4. Determine the critical depth and the alternate depth.7351 m2 P = 2Rθ = 2 × 1 × 2. Also determine the depth for maximum velocity and the corresponding discharge Chezy’s constant C = 60 Adopting Chezy equation (Refer problem 12. R = 1. maximum velocity and full flow) Problem 12.69 = 5.6086 × 1 = 4.6086 m Q = 2.64 Flow is in the subcritical region. Specific energy = Q2 10 2 + 1 = 1.083 × 60 0.81 × 5 2 2 1/ 3 At critical condition.9 Determine the maximum discharge through a circular pipe of 2 m diameter with a bed slope of 1/1000. 2 P = 2 × 1 × 2.5 ∴ Q = π × 60 0.0 m. yc FQ I = G H gb JK 2 F =G H5 10 2 2 × 9.Flow in Open Channels 421 Problem 12. Froude number = V/ gy = 2/ 9.5 = 4.69 – sin (2 × 2.573 × FG 1 IJ = 4.81 I JK 1/3 = 0.69)] = 3.69 radians 2 1 [2 × 2.2039 m 2 + y= 2 gA 2 × 9.7415 m .573 m Q = AC Rh Sb = 3.083 m2.494 = 0.247 = 4.083/5.247)) 2 2 = 2. Flow velocity.43 m /s H 1000 K 3 For maximum velocity: θ = 2.38 m Rh = A/P = 3.38 = 0.049 m3/s 1000 (Note: Compare the flows for maximum discharge. Q = 2.7) A= ∴ A= R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ).215 m3/s 1000 0.10 In a rectangular open channel of 5 m width the flow rate is 10 m3/s and depth of flow is 1.247 radians A= Chapter 12 1 R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ) = ( 2 × 2.7351 × 60 × In case of full area flow: A = π × 12 = πm2 P = πD ∴ Rh = π/π D = 1/2 = 0. P = 2Rθ.247 – sin (2 × 2. V = 10/5 × 1 = 2 m/s.

Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 2 × [6 + (2/3)] = 13.2039.7123 = 0.5036.3051 m 10 = 13.5 + 0.3333 × 50 1.2039 y22 or y23 – 1.81 × 0.81 × 5 2 y2 2 + y2 = 1.11 Calculate the bed slope of a trapezoidal channel of bed width 6 m and horizontal to vertical side slope of 1:3. Solving.3333 m2. Problem 12.2039.2164 = 1.2039 + y23 = 1. V2 2 + y2 = 1. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb .6971 m/s Froude number Minimum energy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 2.5) = 5.745) = 2.6971/ 9.5 2 2 = 5. Sb = 1/5800 3m Problem 12.3051 × Sb .5398 m/s.0343 m2 P = 0.5 + (π × 1.341 m3/s To determine Mannings constant 1. ∴ Supercritical region.5 m Figure P.2039 = 0 Solving by trail y2 = 0.2039 0.565 m and V2 = 3. A = (3 × 0.8813/2000]0. Check for energy : ∴ (V2/2g) + y = 1.5 m π × 1.11225 m 2 To determine the alternate depth. 10 2 2 × 9.7415 = 1. V22 = 2g Q2 2 gb y2 2 2 FG Q IJ HA K 2 = Q2 b2 y 2 1 + y2 = 1. Assume Chezy’s constant as 50. Rh = 5.3333/10.5 = 6.12 . Water flows at the rate of 10 m3/s at a depth of 2 m.7123 m.0343/5. 12.0 (checks) = (3/2) yc = 1.2036 (checks).0343 × 60 [0.2039 y22 + 0.12 Calculate the water discharge through an open channel shown in figure. Fr = 1.2164 m Rh = A/P = 13. Also calculate the Mannings constant for the flow. P=6+ FH 2 2 + (2 / 3) 2 IK 2 = 10.422 Velocity at this condition = 10/(5 × 0. Assume Chezy’s constant as 60 and bed slope as 1 in 2000.5) + 0.8813 m Q = 5.

Q= 1 1 (0. determine the discharge through a rectangular ordinary earthen channel 2 m wide and 0.0005 = 90. Use Kutter’s formula and calculate the discharge through it.0343 0.682 ∴ Q = 1 × 26. Rh = 2 m.012)22/3 (0.303.0005))(0.0163 Problem 12. Sb = 1/2000 = 0.00155 / 0. Assume Bazins constant k = 1.303 / 0. P = 16 m.333 × = 26.025 2500 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.9 Rh Sb .14 A rectangular open channel having 4 m depth and 8 m width is concrete lined with a bed slope of 1 in 2000. P = 0. Rh = A/P = 1/3 = 0. determine and compare the flow.59 1 + (23 + (0.012 Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 32 m2. Kutters constant = 0.Flow in Open Channels 1 5.65 m3/s Chapter 12 .5 m deep with a slope of l in 2500.0005) + (1 / 0.00155 / 0.59 2 × 0.385 m3/s Problem 12.00155 / Sb )) Rh 23 + (0.00155 / Sb ) + = 23 + (0.012 / 2 Q = 32 × 89.682 FG 1 IJ = 0.0005)1/5 = 94.5 = 1 m2.3081 m /s H 2500 K 3 By Mannings equation.012) = 89.5 = 3 m.13 Using Bazins formula.333)2/3 0. If Manning constant for this type is 0.333 C= 86.341 = 2000 N 423 LM NM FG H IJ OP K QP 1/ 2 ∴ N = 0.66 m3/s. For concrete.3333 0.0005 1 N C= N 1 + (23 + (0.012 Q = (32/0.5 + 2 + 0.025. Discharge Q = AC 86.8813 2 / 3 6. taking Manning constant as 0. C = 1 + k / R h A = 2 × 0.9 1 + 1.

7 m3/s.5519 (0.25 m. N = 0.022 Area = A = b × y For most economical cross-section b = 2y.8324 m Hydraulic mean depth = Rh = A/P = 7.012 Calculating the corresponding Chezy constant. width b = 1.5519 × C 0. A = 2y2. y = 0. Use Manning formula with constant N = 0.15 Determine the slope for a V-shaped concrete lined channel with total included angle of 80° and a depth of 3 m if the discharge is 10.17 Determine the most economical cross-section of a rectangular channel of width b and depth y to carry 1000 litres of water per second with a bed slope of 1 in 500.25 / 1000 = 3. A = {(1 + 3)/2} × 1 = 2 m2 .5 m.9642 × FG H 1 3295 IJ K 1/ 2 ∴ C = 82. The bed slope is 1 in 2000. For most economical cross-section of the trapezoidal channel Rh = y/2 = 0. C 10.83 = 0.7028 m. flow rate = 1000 l/s or 1 m3/s N h 2 y2 y 0.5224)2/3 × (1/2000)1/2 = 0.18 The most economical cross-section of a trapezoidal open channel is 5 m2.95 m3/s . Discharge.5/2 = 0.022 2 1= Solving depth FG IJ FG 1 IJ H K H 500 K 2 /3 1/ 2 .58 m3/s = 580 l/s Problem 12.552/7. Find the discharge in the channel for a depth of flow of 0.5224 m ∴ Q = (2/0.4056 m Problem 12.05) × (0.7 = 7.05 Discharge Q= A × Rh2/3 × Sb1/2.83 m.8324 = 0. Q = AC Rh Sb = 5 × 50 0.5519 m2. 2 = 2 × 3/cos 40 = 7.012 Area = Wetted perimeter 2 × 3 tan 40 × 3 = 7.7 = 7.83 Problem 12. Rh = A/P = 2/3. Assume the Chezy constant C = 50 and bed slope as 1 in 1000.9642)2/3 Sb1/2 ∴ Sb = 1/3295 0.424 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12.16 Estimate the discharge of water in an open channel of trapezoidal section with bottom width of 1 m and side slope of 1:1 with a flow depth of 1 m.9642 m Q = 10. assume Mannings constant. N P = 1 + 2 12 + 12 = 3. Manning constant N = 0. Rh = y /2 Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2.

4638 m V2 = V1 y1 5 × 0. Depth of water on the downstream side of jump y2 = – y1 + 2 0. Substituting y = 1.Flow in Open Channels 425 Problem 12.06 = = 0.81 × 0.5238 – 0.472 y2 = 2.06 2 2 × 0.19 Design the bed slope for the most economical cross-section for a trapezoidal earthen open channel with a flow velocity of 2 m/s and discharge of 5 m3/s. Depth of water on the upstream side of the jump.81 Height of hydraulic jump = y2 – y1 = 0. 2.472 (2) Velocity.52.006 b = 2.5757 m/s 0.06 = 0.5 Q = = 0. y= 1. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and energy loss.5 – 2 × (1.006)2 b = 0.5.5 = 1.006 × Sb 2 ∴ Slope.5 m2.006 m 2.5 into a 5 m wide apron with 1/3000 slope at a velocity of 5 m/s.06 m V1 × b 5 × 5 5 9.06 + 2 2 y1 + 2 y1V12 / g 4 =− 0.5238 y2 Chapter 12 1. Hence flow is supercritical.06 ∴ Fr = = 6.5/(b + 2y 5 ) b × y + 4. 2 = 50 1.5 – 2y Also Perimeter Rh = y/2 P = b + 2y n 2 + 1 = b + 2y 5 . b × y = 2.5 = b × y + 2y2.06 × 5 2 + = 0. Sb = 1/316 m3/s Problem 12. Rh = y/2 = A/P = 2.5238 m 4 9.006 in equation (1) y= 2. Hence hydraulic jump is possible.472 y2 = 5 Substituting equation (1) in equation (2) 2. V = C Rh Sb i.472y2 = 5.5 – 2y2 + 4.e.20 A rectangular channel of 5 m width discharges water at the rate of 1. The side slope vertical to horizontal may be taken as 1 in 2 and Chezy constant C = 50 A= Q 5 = = 2.473 m . For most economical cross-section V 2 (1) A = y(b + ny) = y(b + 2y). 2.

69 + 2.7 m in a horizontal rectangular open channel of constant width when the sluice gate is opened upwards. Suddenly the slope changes to 1/1420. The Manning constant is 0.06 + 2 × 9.81 J K H K H 2 F GH = 0.69 y2 Energy loss = E1 – E2 V12 V22 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g F GH I F JK GH I F 0. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and the loss of energy.7937 m head of water. Substituting the values Q= 1/ Sb 2 5/3 y N ∴ 3.69 m 4 9.7 + 8 I − F 2.75/0.5727 I F 5 = G 0.05 m head of water. Supercritical flow For slope 1/1420.013 V1 = 3. Problem 12.6399.5238 + 0. Show that a hydraulic jump has to occur and calculate the downstream flow height.75 m3/s/m. Fr1 = 2.81JK GH 2 × 9. A Wide channel of uniform rectangular section with a slope of 1/95 has a flow rate of 3. The normal depth is obtained from the Manning equation Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2 N h Here A = 1 × y. 0.7 = = 2. Depth of water on the downstream of the jump (modified equation 12.7) y2 = − V2 = y1 + 2 2 y1 2 y1 V12 0. Solving y1 = 0.082 I JK = GH 2 × 9.81J G 2 × 9.21 Water is discharged at a velocity of 8 m/s with a depth of 0.81 V1 h1 8 × 0.013. Normal depth is . Problem 12. Sb = 1/95.082 m/s 2. As the channel is said to be wide the hydraulic mean depth will be equal to the depth of flow.86 m/s.6399 = 5.9.75 = (1 / 95) 1/ 2 5/3 y1 .22.7 2 2 × 0.426 V12 V22 Energy loss = E1 – E2 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery I F I JK GH JK I − F 0. Rh = y. Determine the normal depths for each case.7 + = − + 4 g 2 0.81J K 2 2 = 1.7 × 8 2 + = 2.339.

A = (b + y) y = y2 + 0.1907 m.013 427 V2 = 3.0796y2 + 0.82y = 3.6035/ 9.4404 m 0.9863 m Problem 12.5 y 3.8284 y2 P = b + 2 ( y 2 + y 2 ) = 0.25 m/s.81 × 1. (equation 12.8284 y 2 = 0. Expressing V2 in terms of flow.5/(6 × 3) = 1.6035 m/s Fr2 = 2. The conditions for the most optimum section are b = 2y [ 2 − 1] = 0.8284y + 2. Chezy’ constant = 50 m1/2 s–1.81 = 0.5 y)(1 / 2500) = 1. b = 0.75 = (1 / 1420) 1/ 2 y25/3.23 V22 1.5 – n] and n = 1 As slope 1:1 ∴ 1. Solving by trial.8208 m 2 LM N Problem 12.6399 − 1 + 1 + 8 / 2.23 A trapezoidal channel has a bed slope of 1/2500. hydraulic jump should occur.7) y2 = = y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q 0.4404 = 2.0796. Determine the alternate depth and the critical depth. or y2 – 3. Solving y2 = 1. Determine the optimum dimensions.339 2 = 1.81 The specific energy is the same at the alternate depth.8284y.726 = 0. V2 + y2 = 3. 2g Q2 2 2 gb 2 y2 3 + y2 = 3.4404 = 0.24 A rectangular channel of 6 m width has a flow rate of 22.6568 y Q = 2 = 18284 y2 × 50 (0. The channel is to carry 2 m3/s.25/ 3 × 9.5 m3/s when the depth is 3 m.Flow in Open Channels 3.9. Fr = 1.0796 m 2g 2 × 9.0796.9 Velocity Flow is subcritical.75/1.8284 y2 = 1. . Side slope is 1:1.6926 ∴ Subcritical As flow is from supercritical to subcritical flow. Refer section 12.6568y Rh = Chapter 12 b = 2y [(n2 + 1)0.29287y5/2 Solving y = 1.252 +y= + 3 = 3. Specific energy = V = 22.

5 I =G H 9. Assume Cd = 0.33 Hence supercritical To find the critical depth.32/ 9.666 m3/s = 17.4 m. Assume negligible velocity of approach. where H the upstream level above the crest in the channel.53/2 = 17. V2 = 7.10.1).5302 = 3.428 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y2 = 0.26 A venturi flume with level bed is 12 m wide and the depth of flow upstream is 1. Vc = Fr = 3.4 m wide.691 m.1275 m Emin = (3/2) yc = 1.98142/(2 × 9.32 m/s.5493/2 = 18. Q = 1.1275 = 1 22.5 = 3.981 m/s E = 1. The discharge is given by the equation (12.07 m.5 m.02 = 0. Refer section 12.666/12 × 1. ∴ Velocity upstream ∴ Q = 0.705 × 6 × 1. correcting for the velocity of approach.5302 m. 6 × 1.705 × 6 × 1.54 × 10 I J = MG NH 0. As there is free fall over the weir. yc FQ I =G H gb JK 2 2 1/ 3 F 22.54 × 10–3 m3/s As the flow is maximum the level above the crest should equal critical depth.4 K −3 2 1 9.5 = 0. yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 ∴ drop in depth LMF 3.11 For venturi flume with standing wave downstream Q = Cd1. In this case the first assumption is E = y upstream.033/2 = 3.4 × 0.81 × 1.07 m and the crest of the weir is 40 mm above the channel bed.5 + 0. Fr = 7.020 m = 0.81) = 1.1275 Problem 12. H = 0.705 × 0. calculate the rate of flow of water. In case a standing wave forms downstream. The throat is 6 m wide. Given b = 0.03 – 0.94 × 1. The depth of water upstream is 0.03 m ∴ Q = 1. the flow will be maximum.81 × 0.07/ 9.01 m or 10 mm Problem 12.705 b2 E3/2 where b2 is the throat area and E is the specific energy.705 b H3/2.81 OP PQ 1/ 3 = 0. Now using the corrected value of E .54 m3/s Further iteration can be made using this flow.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/ 3 = 1. Determine the fall in the surface level and the discharge over the weir.94.25 Water flows across a broad crested weir in a rectangular channel 0.549 m Q = 0.94 × 1.

Flow in Open Channels 429 Problem 12.5 = 1. Calculate the depth of flow after the jump.797 m3/s In case standing wave forms. Fr = V/ gy .28 Water enters a channel at a velocity of 4 m/s.663 m/s.8321 − 1 + 1 + 8 × 1.9) = 1.2832 y2 LM N Loss = y1 + F V I −Fy + V I GH 2 g JK GH 2 g JK I − F 1.8321 m Substituting in equation (A).27 A venturi flume is placed in a rectangular channel of 2 m width in which the throat width is 1.9 / 2 × 1) Q 2 0.5 = 2. y = 0. y2 = 0.81 × 0.9.705 × 1.797/(1.17 m3/s In case upstream velocity is neglected. E = 1.2 × 1.2 × 0.11. Specific energy E = 0. Problem 12.81 y .705 × 1.7) y2 = Chapter 12 y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q (A) To determine. Determine the flow rate.041 m. In the first case the flow Q is given by equation (12.4 2 2 y1V1 0.8321 + 2 × 9.9 M N 1 − (1.021 m head.81J G 2 × 9.2832 m. 1. . Also calculate the loss of specific energy. Q = 1.6261 = 0.2832 + 2.705 b2 E3/2 = 1.5939 m/s 1. As V = 1.1) Q = b 2 y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0. If a standing wave forms downstream of throat determine the flow.81 J K H K H 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 = 1. V2 = = = 2.6476 – 1.4 = 4/ 9. The depth of water after the jump is given by equation (12. The Froude number is 1.2 × 0. Assume the bed to be horizontal.8321 × 4 = 1.1 OP Q = 1.2 × 0. then Q = 1.2 m.5 where h is the difference in levels between upstream and throat L 2 × 9.4. Solving for y.9 m.0411. considering upstream velocity.046 m3/s.9 + (V2/2g).5939 I F 4 = G 0.2 × 13/2 = 2. The upstream flow depth is 1 m and the depth at the throat is 0.

Explain the terms (i) specific energy (ii) critical depth and (iii) Critical velocity. Surface roughness (8) Hydraulic jump (9) Specific energies (10) 95% . 12. 5. O Q. Kutter and Manning formula for uniform flow through an open channel. State Chezy. Derive an expression for wave celerity. critical and supercritical flow (6) Specific energy (7) Alternate depths (8) Normal depth (9) Energy grade line (10) Hydraulic grade line (11) Manning roughness coefficient (12) Optimum cross section of channels (13) Critical depth (14) Hydraulic jump (15) Venturi flume (16) Broad crested weir (17) Standing wave (18) Bed slope. Derive an expression for the downstream depth of hydraulic jump. Show that in a rectangular open channel the critical depth is two thirds of specific energy. Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity. 4. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. Derive the condition for the most economical section of a rectangular channel. Explain the term hydraulic jump. Derive the condition for the best side slope of the most economical trapezoidal channel.1 Define the following terms (1) Froude number (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Hydraulic radius (4) Wave celerity (5) Subcritical. 10. 3. 7. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. (10) A strong hydraulic jump causes about __________ of energy dissipation. 11. 9. Distinguish between uniform and non uniform open channel flow. Answers (1) Lowest point of the channel section (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Wetted perimeter (4) Energy gradient (5) 500 (6) 2000 (7) Reynolds. Prove that for a channel of circular section for flow to be maximum. Define open channel flow. 12. the depth of flow. 6.2 Fill in the blanks (1) Depth of flow is the vertical distance between the free liquid surface to the __________ (2) The channel lining (side and base of the channel) which comes in direct contact with the liquid stream is called __________ (3) The hydraulic mean depth represents the ratio of the flow area to the __________ (4) The slope of the total energy line is referred to as __________ (5) The flow is laminar in an open channel if the Reynolds number is less than __________ (6) The flow is certainly turbulent in an open channel if the Reynolds number is greater than __________ (7) The Chezy coefficient C is a variable with its value depending on the flow __________ number and the __________ (8) The phenomenon of sudden increase in depth of flow in a channel is referred to as __________ (9) The energy loss through a hydraulic jump equals the difference between the __________ at the upstream and downstream sections.95 × diameter of circular section.430 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 8. h = 0.

When there is a change in slope in supercritical flow __________ will form. 7. 9. Higher 8. Hydraulic depth is the average depth (Area/Topwidth). Across a hydraulic jump specific energy will __________ 5. The slope is unique for a given flow rate and depth of flow in a given rectangular channel. 5. 8. 2. Decrease 6. As roughness increases. the level at that point will decrease. 6. Hydraulic radius is the ratio of wetted perimeter to area or (P/A). The flow depth in subcritical flow will be __________ compared to the flow depth a critical flow. Semicircular 11. 11. For a given specific energy if one flow depth is supercritical the other will be __________ 431 7. As roughness increases Mannings coefficient will __________ 10. Flow rate through open channels is inversely proportional to square root of bed slope (Sb1/2). If one depth of flow for a given specific energy is at supercritical condition the alternate depth also should be at supercritical condition. Bazin formula does not relate chezy coefficient C to bed slope Sb. 4. For a supercritical flow Froude number should be __________ 2. Chapter 12 .4 State Correct or Incorrect 1. For a given specific energy the two possible depths of flow are called __________ 9. For a given specific energy as flow depth increases Froude number will __________ 6. specific energy remains constant. Higher than one 2. Across the hydraulic jump.Flow in Open Channels O Q. 9. Hydraulic gradient line represents the depth of flow. At critical depth of flow Froude number should be equal to one. Chezy’s constant is a dimensional constant. Alternate depths 9. For a given area __________ section gives the maximum flow. Manning proposed that C varied as Rh1/3. 10. Specific energy is the sum of kinetic head and flow depth. 12. 2. the specific energy is minimum. 4. the depth is called __________ 3. 5. 8. 12. Disturbance in supercritical flow will not be communicated upstream. 13. Hydraulic jump helps to dissipate energy without damage to surfaces/structures. Subcritical 7. As Mannings constant increases the flow will increases. Increase 10. Answers 1. The flow depth __________ across hydraulic jump. L / T. 4. 12. 12. Mannings constant will decrease. 11. As depth increases the wave velocity decreases.5 State Correct or Incorrect : 1. 6. 12 Incorrect : 1. Answers Correct : 2. 3. 8. At critical flow. 11. Normal depth 3. 7. The dimension of Chezy constant is 6. 10. Kutters formula considers bed slope. 4. Hydraulic jump 4. Decrease 5. 5. 8. When supercritical flow meets a bump in the bed. 3. For a given slope and flow rate in a channel. 3. Increases O Q. 7.3 Fill in the blanks : 1. 13 O Q.

(h = 4. fine the Chezy constant. w = 4. E12. 3.5 times the flow depth. If the bed slope is 1:137 and Chezy constant C = 52. (2. In the case of circular section. If the slope of the bed is 1:950. Assuming Manning’s constant N = 1/50. 4. Energy gradient line represents specific energy. 7. 12. Side slope is 1 vertical 2 horizontal. the kinetic head will be 0. 9.972 m. 5. 6 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E12. Calculate the critical depth and velocity. 8. Vc = 3.8 × 1. determine the flow rate.25 m depth and 60° angle conveys water.69 m/s) m2.138 m) E12.5 m depth. At minimum specific energy condition for flow through a rectangular channel. Answers Correct : 3. Pipe diameter is 256 cm. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The distance between energy gradient line and hydraulic line represents velocity head. Assuming Chezy constant C = 50. the flow height for maximum flow is the same as per maximum velocity.3 A semicircular open channel of diameter 1 m conveys water at the rate of 1. 12 O Q. The included angle at optimum flow in a triangular channel is 45°. For maximum flow through a sluice gate the downstream depth should be 2/3 of upstream depth. 4. For optimum area in a rectangular channel.4 Determine the bed slope of a circular pipe that should carry 2.6 The area of cross-section of a trapezoidal channel is 30 depth for most economical design if the slope of the bed is 1 in 1500. 11. 10. (h = 3. (1:736) E12. calculate the slope required to maintain a depth of 2 m.432 9. 12.86 m. Answers Correct 1.83 m3/s.16 m. If Chezy constant is 65. (1:2500) E12. 6.459 m) E12. (40 liters/s) E12.7 Determine the dimensions of a trapezoidal section for a discharge of 40 m3/s with a bed slope of 1:2500 and Manning’s constant N = 1/50. w = 5. In subcritical flow level will increase for negative bump.4 m. 10.8 Water flows at the rate of 5 m3/s in a rectangular open channel of 3 m width. 2.9 A rectangular channel of 5 m width carries water at the rate of 15 m3/s. The bed slope is 1:1000. 6.6 State Correct or Incorrect 1. Assume Chezy constant as 60. 1:746) Find the base width and flow E12.2 A triangular open channel with 0. 11 Incorrect : 2. Optimum circular section for a given flow is a semicircle. maximum value for hydraulic mean depth will be for semi circular shape. determine it’s cross-section and slope. 5. determine the flow rate. 2. As velocity drops hydraulic gradient line will rise. 3.1 A rectangular open channel has 5 m width and 1. 7 Incorrect : 1. the depth should be twice the width. 4.47 m3/s of water at half full condition. For a given area. 7. (hc = 0.48 m3/s) E12. 5.5 A rectangular channel with most economical cross-section carries 8000 l/s of water with an average velocity of 2 m/s. (11. .

(0. (23.34) E12.5 m3/s per m width.15 Determine the percentage reduction in flow in a rectangular channel if a thin partition in the middle divides it into two equal widths along the flow. 0. (12 m) E12. 0.71) E12. (7. Determine the average shear stress on the wetted perimeter of the channel.44 m) m3/s.5 m/s. the Froude numbers upstream and downstream are related by Fr2 = 2 [(1 + 8 Fr2 )1/ 2 − 1]3 1 8 Fr2 1 . 3.3395 m3/s. determine the two depths of flow possible. (23. Considering same slope and Manning coefficient. If the specific energy is 2.563 m/s) Chapter 12 .97. It is observed that the waves created do not travel upstream.14 N/m2) E12. 0.11 In a pensive mood a boy throws a stone in a mountain stream 1. If the free surface well upstream is at 0.571 m/s) E12. E12.467 m. E12. what would be the rise in water level.7%) E12.20 Determine the critical depth in a rectangular channel 10 m wide when the flow rate is 200 (3. determine the diameter of a circular channel that will carry the same flow when (i) half full (ii) Maximum flow condition and (iii) Maximum velocity condition. Determine the height of flow above the bump and the flow speed at this section.18 Water flows in a rectangular channel of width b and depth b/3. Calculate the minimum velocity of the stream. determine the flow rate per m width of the spillway. Also determine the minimum depth above the weir.2 m .17 Compare the perimeter length for a (i) 90° triangle and (ii) square section to carry water at 2 m3/s with a slope of 1/80. E12.29 m3/s.16 A trapezoidal channel with side slopes of 45° and bottom width of 8 m is to carry a flow of 20 m3/s.333 m) E12.10 Water flows through a rectangular open channel at the rate of 2 m3/s. what would be the critical depth of the channel ? If a standing wave is to be formed at a point where the upstream depth is 0.Flow in Open Channels 433 E12.7 m and 3. (hc = 0. P = 16 m and Sb = 1/3100.426 m) E12.21 Show that for a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel. 0. (2.3 m deep. (5. (0.23 Water flows over a broad crested weir with a height of 1.3 m and velocity is 0. The slope is 1/1796.12 Water flows in a wide rectangular channel with a flow rate of 2. show that the slope of the water surface dy/dx = – (dh/dx)/[1 – (u2/gy)] where u is the velocity and y is the depth at location x where the height of the bump is h. Considering Mannings coefficient as 0.6 m. 0.22 In a hydraulic jump in a spillway the upstream and downstream depths are 0. flowing full if the top is closed.267 m. At upstream the depth is 0. E12. Also calculate the Froude numbers.5 m above the weir surface.5 m above the bed. Determine the flow rate.19 Determine the percentage reduction flow in an equilateral triangular section.13 Water flows over a smooth bump in a wide rectangular channel.12 m.2 m. (3.03. If the width of the channel is 2 m.715 m) E12. The height of the bump at any location is h(x).14 The measurement of the parameters of a small stream shows that A = 26 m2.24 In a horizontal rectangular channel there is a small bump of height 30 mm on the bed. determine the width at the water line. E12. Neglecting energy losses. with water wetting the surface.

18 m/s.9%) .0563 m.3 m. E12.30 In the above problem with the same conditions as mentioned if the flow rate is increases to 15 (1.14 m3/s/m) rate is 0.942 m) E12.93/1000) E12.09 m3/s) E12.0883 m3/s) E12.1 m3/s. Upstream the depth is 1.31 A hydraulic jump occurs on a horizontal apron downstream from a spillway at a location where the depth is 0.25 Water flows under a sluice gate. Also calculate the maximum flow rate. 2.2 m/s. determine the normal depth.015. Determine the flow rate. (0.79 m) m3/s.28 In a venturi flume the bed is horizontal.543 m. Also calculate the percentage loss of head. Assuming that specific energy remains constant determine the depth downstream.33 m/s. Calculate the downstream depth and head loss across the jump.26 Compare the flow rates of square and semicircular channels of 2 m water surface.27 At the exit flow under a sluice gate the depth of flow was 56.4 m bottom width and 45° side slope the flow rate is 7. (6. (0. E12. (10.3 m3/s/m. Determine the bed slope.2 m.5 m and the velocity is 0. 0. The width reduces from 600 mm to 300 mm at the throat while the flow depth changes from 300 mm to 225 mm at the throat. 2. N = 0. if the flow (0. 3. Estimate the depth and velocity downstream.29 In a trapezoidal channel of 2.44.022 (1. with normal depth of flow of 1. 67. when slope is 1/1000 and Manning coefficient N = 0.3 mm and the velocity was 5.9 m and speed is 25 m/s.434 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E12.

1) This can also be written as ΣF dt = d (mV) (13.1 a) where m is the mass of the body and V is the velocity of the body and t is the time. In this chapter the forces exerted by fluid particles on the surfaces over which they flow. When applied to control volume. In case the surfaces cause a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid particles. Dynamic force always involves a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid. the fluid particles exert a force on the surface.1. the principle can be stated as “The sum of forces on the fluid equals the difference between the momentum flowing in and momentum flowing out and the change in momentum of the fluid inside the control volume under steady flow condition the last term vanishes.1 IMPULSE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE When applied to a single body Newtons second law can be started as “The sum of forces on the body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body in the direction of the force.1. 13. So the forces in the fluid is given by 435 . is discussed. In equation from (F and V are in the same direction) ΣF = d (mV ) dt (13. Forces due to viscous resistance is excluded in the discussions in this chapter to reduce complexity in the analysis. The force exerted by moving fluid particles on the surface is called dynamic force. This also means the impulse Fdt equals the change in momentum of the body during the time dt.! 13.0 INTRODUCTION Dynamics of Fluid Flow In chapter 3 the forces exerted by static fluid on the containment surfaces was discussed. In turn the surfaces exert an equal and opposite force on the fluid particles. through which the fluid is flowing.

3a) In this case ∆V should be taken as the vectorial addition of V1 and V2 and the force will be in the direction of the resultant of V1 and V2 .1. (13. This can also be written as ΣF = ρ2 Q2V2 – ρ1Q1V1 If the fluid is in compressible.1.1.1. When calculating the momentum flowing in or out.1.1.1.1. v and w are the components of velocity in the x. then ΣF = ρQ (∆V) (13.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits Consider the reducer section shown in Figure 13.436 ΣF = d ( mV ) out d (mV ) in – dt dt Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (13. The force exerted by the fluid (13.1.3) 1 AV 2 z u 2 dA (13. The numerical value will show the actual sign.6a) This force is the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid in the x direction. ΣFx = P1A1 – P2A2 – Fx = ρQ (u2 – u1) or the force on the fluid is given by Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – ρQ (u2 – u1) (13.4a) (13.1 Assuming ideal fluid flow.6) .4b) (13.1. The free body diagram is given in Figure 13. y and z directions.1 (b) : 1 u1 2 u2 P1A1 (b) Fx P2A2 (a) Figure 13. if the velocity over the section is not uniform a correction has to applied.1.2) In other words. This force acts towards the left as assumed in the figure. the net force on the fluid mass is equal to the net rate of out flow of momentum across the control surface. The correction factor β is given by β= where V is the average velocity.1. the equation in scalar form is written as ΣFx = ρQ ∆u ΣFy = ρQ ∆v ΣFz = ρQ ∆w where u.4) (13. In case the forces in the cartesian co-ordinate directions is required.1.1 (a).1.5) A 13.6 is due to this assumption. The negative sign in the LHS of 13.

2 m2 and the outlet area is 0.2 For convenience the control volume should be chosen such that the inlet and outlet areas are normal to the velocities at these sections.2 × 1000 = 14. In this case the force on the bend is required. P2 = 30 kPa 0.02 – 10 × 103 × 0. .1 A reducer in the horizontal plane has an inlet area of 0.1.8) Chapter 13 Example 13. (13. 13.02 m2 and the outlet area is 0. Refer Figure 13.6a) 45° Figure Ex.4 × 103 kg/s  Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1)  Fy = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ Using equations (13. Determine the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid.1. The velocity of water at inlet is 12 m/s. the turning angle being θ. On the reducer 540 N along positive x direction.1. It is convenient to calculate the forces in the x and y directions separately.7) (13.1. The pressures are 40 kPa at inlet and 10 kPa of outlet.1. The pressures at inlet and cutlet are 40 and 30 kPa respectively. The plus and minus signs used in the equations depend in the + ve or – ve directions of the co-ordinate system along which the force is assumed to act. The inlet area is 1.6 m2. The velocity at the inlet is 4 m/s. In case both the magnitude and direction of the velocity is changed by a reducer bend then the force exerted by the bend on the fluid.01 × 1000 = 40 kg/s Fx = 40 × 103 × 0.01 m2. Example 13. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend.1 As A1/A2 = 2. (suffix F indicates as on the fluid)  FxF = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1)  FyF = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ The forces on the bend will be equal and opposite to these forces. V2 = 2V1 = 8 m/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – m (u2 – u1) m = 4 × 0.7) and (13.01 – 40 (8 – 4) = 540 N on the fluid towards left.2 m 2 2 Using equation (13.2 A 45° bend in the horizontal plane is shown in figure.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 437 on the reducer will be equal and opposite to this force Fx.6 m 40 kPa V1 = 12 m/s P1 1.8) As the flow is in the horizental plane body forces are neglected.1. u1 = 12 m/s ∴ u2 = 24 m/s Mass flow = 12 × 1.

1 + (− 36. The resultant is The direction is with the negative y direction q 257.04° 257. There is negligible change in the magnitude.032 × 20 × 1000 = 14. the force on a vane due to the fluid flowing over it is discussed. with the assumed direction : Assuming V2 = V1 as no other energy transfer occurs.2 – 30 × 103 × 0.2 13.2 Force along x direction by the blade on fluid.3) 2 2 = 259.6 × cos 45 – 14. in the –ve x direction Fy = 30 × 103 × 0.    – Fx = m (V2u – V1) = m (V2 cos θ – V1) = m (V1 cos θ – V1) (13.2 FORCE EXERTED ON A STATIONARY VANE OR BLADE In the case of turbomachines fluid passes over blades and in this context.1.1 kN in the +ve y direction. θ = tan–1 36.9)   Fy = m (V2y – V1y) = m V1 sin θ Example 13. Determine the force exerted by the blade on the fluid. V2 Free body diagram Jet V1 q Fy (Blade on water) Blade Fx (Blade on water) Figure 13.438 Substituting the values.3 A blade turns the jet of diameter 3 cm at a velocity of 20 m/s by 60°.3 = 8. In the case considered pressure forces are equal both at inlet and outlet.3 kN. The flow is assumed to occur in the horizental plane.8) (13.4 N .1 kN downwards.1 y Figure Ex.4 × 103 × 24 × sin 25 = 257.3 x 257. To start the analysis force on stationary vane is considered. The forces on the bend will be 36.65 N.3 kN along x and 257.14 (20 cos 60 – 20) = – 141.1.1 36. Rate of flow  m= π × 0. 13.14 kg/s 4 – Fx = 14.6 × sin 45 + 14. Here the direction of the velocity is changed.1. Force m the fluid is Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fx = 40 × 103 × 1.4 × 103 (24 cos 45 – 12) = – 36.1. In turbomachines the blades are in motion.

Dynamics of Fluid Flow
or Fx = 141.4 N. in the assumed direction Fy = 14.14 (20 × sin 60) = 244.9 N The forces on the blade are 141.4 N along x direction and 244.9 in the –ve y direction. Resultant = (244.92 + 141.42)0.5 = 282.8 N
244.9 q 141.4

439
x

θ = tan–1

141.4 = 30° 244.9
y

30° with the negative y direction as in figure.

Figure Ex. 13.3

In order to determine the force on moving blades and the energy transfer between the blades and the fluid the relative velocity between the fluid and the blade becomes an important factor. The blade may move in a direction at an angle to the velocity of the fluid. The relative velocity of a body is its velocity relative to a second body which may in turn be in motion relative to the earth. The absolute velocity V of the first body, is the vector sum of its velocity relative to the second body v, and the absolute velocity of the latter, u Vectorially V=u+v This is easily determined by vector diagram called as velocity triangle. Some possible diagrams are shown in Figure 13.2.1.
V a u Vu V a u Vu

u b

v

v b V Vu a u b

Figure 13.2.1 Sample Velocity diagrams

Some of the general relations are V sin α = v sin β Vu = V cos α = u + v cos β (13.2.1) (13.2.2)

Vu is the component of the absolute velocity of the first body in the direction of the velocity u of the second body.

13.3 FORCE ON A MOVING VANE OR BLADE
The force on a single moving vane is rarely met with. But this forms the basis for the calculation of force and torque on a series of moving vanes fixed on a rotor. There are two main differences between the action of the fluid on a stationary vane and a moving vane in the direction of the

Chapter 13

13.2 ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE VELOCITY RELATIONS

440

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

fluid motion. In the case of the moving vane it is necessary to consider both the absolute and relative velocities. The other difference is that the amount of fluid that strikes a moving vane at any time interval is different from that which strikes the stationary vane. If a jet of area A with a velocity V1 strikes a stationary vane, the mass impinging per unit time on the vane equals 8AV1 kg/s. But when the vane moves away from the direction of the jet with a velocity u, then the mass of water striking the vane equals ρA(V1 – u) kg/s. (V – u) is the relative velocity between the jet and the vane. This can be realised when the consider the velocity of the vane to be equal to that of the jet. In this case no water will strike the vane, obviously. Consider the flow as shown in figure 13.3.1.
Blade V1 Inlet Jet b2 u u Vr = V – u u V2 V2 b2 Outlet V1

Vr2

Figure 13.3.1

The velocity diagram with as inlet and outlet are shown in the figure. Considering the force on the fluid in the direction of blade velocity (can be considered as x direction) Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vu2 − Vu1 ) Vu2 = (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) , denoting Vr as relative velocity ∴ In the case shown, Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vr2 cos β 2 − u − Vu1 )
Vu1 = V itself

(13.3.1)

(13.3.2)

It is possible that (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) or Vu is negative depending upon the relative values 2 of u and Vr i.e. u > Vr2 cos β2. It is to be noted that the vane angle at the inlet should be in the direction of the relative velocity of the water when it touches the vane. Otherwise loss will occur due to the jet hitting the vane at an angle and then turning the follow on the vane surface. It was assumed that the relative velocity at inlet and at outlet are equal as no work was done by the vane on the fluid. In case of friction, Vr2 = cVr1 where c is a fraction. In case the vane moves at a direction different from that of the jet velocity say at an angle α, then force on the fluid on the vane will be at an angle. In such a case, Fx = ρA (V1 cos α1i – Vr cos β2 – u) (V1 cos α1 – u) 2 = ρA (V1 cos α1 – V2 cos α2)

Dynamics of Fluid Flow

441

As it was already mentioned, a single moving vane is not of practical importance when a series of vanes fixed on the periphery of a well is struck by the jet, then the mass of fluid striking the when will be ρAV itself. Work or energy transfer between the fluid and the water will be F × u .
Example 13.5 A 4 cm diameter water jet with a velocity of 35 m/s impinges on a single vane moving in the same direction at a velocity of 20 m/s. The jet enters the vane tangentially along the x direction. The vane deflects the jet by 150°. Calculate the force exerted by the water on the vane.
35 m/s 4 cm f 150° 20 m/s Inlet V1 = 35 m/s u = 20 m/s u = 20 m/s 15 m/s V2 7 m/s 30° Vr2 Outlet

15 m/s

Figure Ex. 13.5 The relative velocity is given by Vr = 35 – 20 = 15 m/s.

Vu1 = 30 m/s itself in the direction of blade velocity.
From exit velocity triangle

Vu2 = u – Vr cos 30 = 20 – 15 cos 30 = 7 m/s 2
This is in the same direction as Vu1 ∴ ∆Vu= 35 – 7 = 28 m/s. Fu = Energy transfer rate
1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) (28) = 527.8 N. 4

= F × u = 527.8 × 20 = 10556 Nm/s or W. Fy =
1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) × (15 sin 30 – 0) = 141.37 N 4

(Note V2 sin α2 = Vr sin β2). 2 In case series of vanes have been used, Fx = Energy transfer
1000 × 0.04 2 × π × 35 × 28 = 1231.5 N 4

= 1231.5 × 20 = 24630 W

In case there is friction for the flow over the blade, Vr2 = k Vr1 In case the water jet direction and blade velocity direction are at an angle α1,then at the inlet Vu ≠ V1 but will be Vu = V1 cos α1. This is illustated by the following example.

Chapter 13

442

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Example 13.6 A water jet 20 mm in diameter and having a velocity of 90 m/s strikes series of moving blades in a wheel. The direction of the jet makes 20° with the direction of movement of the blade. The blade angle at inlet is 35°. If the jet should enter the blade without striking, what should be the blade velocity. If the outlet angle of the blade is 30°, determine the force on the blade. Assume that there is no friction involved in the flow over the blade. This problem has to be solved using the velocity diagram.
V = 1 90 m

V

r1

/s

b1

d1 = 20° u1 35°

40.61 u 30° V2 Vr1 53.67

Figure Ex. 13.6 u = V1 cos α1– Vr cos β1 1 V1 sin α1 = Vr sin β1 1


Vr1 =

V1 sin α 1 90 × sin 20 = 53.67 m/s sin β1 = sin 35

u = 90 cos 20 – 53.67 cos 35 = 40.61 m/s

Vu1 = V1 cos α1 = 90 × cos 20 = 84.57 m/s Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = 53.67 × cos 30 – 40.61
= 5.87 m/s (opposite direction to Vu1 ) ∴ ∆Vu = 84.57 + 5.87 = 90.44 m/s =
π × 0.022 × 1000 × 90 = 28.274 kg/s 4

Series of blades : Mass flow ∴

Force Fx = 28.274 × 90.44 = 2557 N = 2557 × 40.61 = 103845 Nm/s or W =
2 mV1 28.274 × 902 = = 1145097 W 2 2

Energy transfer rate Energy in the jet

Fy = (90 sin 20 – 53.67 sin 30) 28.274 = 111.6 N

Dynamics of Fluid Flow 13.4 TORQUE ON ROTATING WHEEL

443

Blades or vanes may be fixed at the periphery of the wheel in which case the radius at which fluid enters will be the same as at fluid exit. There are cases where the blades are fixed at the sides of a disc such that the radius at which the fluid enters the vane will be different from the radius at which it exits. The former type is known axial blading and the later is known as radial blading. In the former case the blade Entry velocity will be constant and in the latter case the blade velocity will very with radius. Thus the force on the blade Blades will very with the radius and the previous method cannot Exit be used to find the fluid force on the blade. In this case the moment of momentum theorem is used to determine the torque on the wheel. The theorem states that torque on the wheel equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it flows over the blades. Thus it is necessary to determine the moment of momentum at the inlet and Figure 13.4.1 Radial blading outlet to determine the torque. Torque can be produced only by the velocity component along the periphery. The components of the velocity in the tangential direction are Vu1 and Vu2 equal to V1 

 cos α1 and V2 cos α2. Momentum at entry = m V1 cos α1. Moment of momentum of entry = m V1 cos α1 × r1 

Similarly moment of momentum at exit = m V2 cos α2 × r2  T = m (r1V1 cos α1 – r2V2 cos α2)
Power = ωT. ω = Substituting :

2πN 60

2πr1 N = u1 tangential velocity at entry 60 2πr2 N = u2 tangential at exit 60

∴ 

P = m ( Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2 ).

where Vu1 and Vu2 are the components of the absolute velocities of the fluid in the tangential direction. In this case the direction of blade velocity is the tangential direction to the wheel on which the blades are fixed.
Example 13.7 Blades are fixed in a disc with outer and inner diameters of 0.8 m and 0.4 m. The disc rotates at 390 rpm. The flow rate through blades is 4000 kg/s. The inlet angle of the blade is 80°. The blade width is 0.25 m. If the flow at outlet is radial, determine the blade outlet angle. Determine the angle at which the water should flow for smooth entry. Determine the torque exerted and the power resulting

therefrom.

Chapter 13

444
u1 = ∴ From continuity

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
πDN π × 0.8 × 390 = = 16.34 m/s 60 60 16.34 × 0.4 D2 = = 8.17 m/s 0.8 D1
Vu1 u1 a1 V1 Vr1 80° VF

u2 = u1 ×

Q = πDbVf

where Vf is the flow velocity along the radius.

4000 = π × 0.8 × 0.25 × Vf 1000
∴ Vf = 6.37 m/s.
Vu1 = u1 + Vf /tan 80

Figure Ex. 13.7a

= 16.34 +

6.37 = 16.52 m/s tan 80 6.37 = tan α1, α1 = 21.09° 16.52

Vf1 Vu1

= tan α1,

The jet should be inclined at this angle to the periphery of the wheel ∴ V1 tan α1 = Vf1 ∴ V1 =

6.37 = 16.51 m/s. tan 21.09
u2 8.17 B2 Vf2 = 12.73 Vr 2 Exit triangle

As the blade width is constant, the flow velocity at exit is 4 = π × 0.4 × 0.25 × Vf2 ∴ ∴ ∴ As exit is radial,

Vf2 = 12.73 m/s
12.13 tan β2 = 8.17
β2 = 57.3°
Vw2 = 0 as Vf2 = V2

Figure Ex. 13.7b

T = m (r1 Vw – 0) = 4000 ×  1 P = ωT =

0.8 × 16.52 = 26432 mN. 2

2 πN 26432 × 60 1000 

= 1079.5 kW. Also equal to m Vw1 Vu1 (check)

We can also determine Vr1 and Vr2 if required.

Dynamics of Fluid Flow SOLVED PROBLEMS

445

Problem 13.1 A pipe line of 150 mm ID branches into two pipes which delivers the water at atmospheric pressure. The diameter of the branch 1 which is at 30° anti clockwise to the pipe axis is 75 mm. and the velocity at outlet is 12 m/s. The branch 2 is at 15° with the pipe centre line in the clockwise direction has a diameter of 100 mm. The outlet velocity is 12 m/s. The pipes lie in a horizental plane. Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces on the pipes.
0.075 m 12 m/s Fx 0.15 m 30° 15° 0.01 m 12 m/s x y

Figure P. 13.1

The flow rates in the pipes are Branch 1 :

π × 0.075 2 × 12 × 1000 = 53 kg/s 4
2=
π × 0.12 × 12 × 1000 = 94 kg/s 4

Branch Flow in the pipe

= 94 + 53 = 147 kg/s

Velocity in the pipe : V1 = 0.147 /

π 0.152 = 8.333 m/s 4

To determine the pressure in the pipe
V22 P P1 V2 = 0 + – 1 , 2 S p 2

Assuming zero gauge pressure at exit. P1 = ρ

LM V MN

2 2

− V12 2

OP = 1000 LM 12 N PQ

2

− 8.332 2

OP Q

= 37.3 × 103 N/m2 The x directional force assuming it to act in the – ve x direction Fx = 37.3 × 103 × = 242 N
π × 0.15 2 – 94 × 12 cos 15 – 53 × 12 cos 30 + 147 × 8.333 4

Chapter 13

446
To determine Fy : Assuming to act in the + ve y direction Fy = 53 × 12 sin 30 – 94 × 12 sin 15 = 26 N

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 13.2 A jet 30 mm diameter with velocity of 10 m/s strikes a vertical plate in the normal direction. Determine the force on the plate if (i) The plate is stationary (ii) If it moves with a velocity of 4 m/s towards the jet and (iii) If the plate moves away from the plate at a velocity of 4 m/s. Case (i) The total x directional velocity is lost. ∴ ∴ Case (ii) ∴ Case (iii) 

F = m V,
F= 

m = ρAV

π × 0.032 × 10 × 10 × 1000 = 70.7 N 4 

m = ρA(Vr), Vr = V + u = 14
F=

π × 0.032 × 14 × 1000 × 10 = 99 N 4

F Vr = V – u = 6 m/s F=
π × 0.032 × 6 × 1000 × 10 = 42.4 N 4

Problem 13.3 A jet of water at a velocity of 100 m/s strikes a series of moving vanes fixed at the periphery of a wheel, 5 at the rate of kg/s. The jet is inclined at 20° to the direction of motion of the vane. The blade speed is 50 m/s. The water leaves the blades at an angle of 130° to the direction of motion. Calculate the blade angles at the forces on the wheel in the axial and tangential direction.
Inlet u2 = 50
V
V
1

Vf1

100

Exit a2 20° 50 u1

Vu2 50 V2 B2 55.7 130°

A1

b1

Vu1 u1

Figure P. 13.3

tan β1 =

100 × sin 20 V1 sin α 1 = 100 cos 20 − 50 V1 cos α 1 − u

Blade angle at inlet ∴ β1 = 37 .88°

Dynamics of Fluid Flow
sin β1 =

447
V1 sin α 1 Vr1 100 sin 20 = 55.7 m/s sin 37.88
and u2 = u1

Vr1 =

In this type of blade fixing
Vr2 = Vr1

Referring to the exit triangle
Vr2 cos 50 < u = 50

Vr2 cos 50 = 35.8.

∴ Vu2 = 50 – 35.8

= 14 .2 m/s in the same direction as V u 1 ∴ Tangential force = 500 × (Vu1 − Vu2 )

Vu 1 = 100 cos 20 = 93.97 m/s
∴ Tangential force = 5 (93.97 – 14.2) = 3488 N Axial force 

F = m [V1 sin α – Vr1 sin β2]
= 5 [100 sin 20 – 55.7 . sin 50] = – 8.5 N

Problem 13.4 Water jet at the rate of 10 kg/s strikes the series of moving blades at a velocity of 50 m/s. The blade angles with respect to the direction of motion are 35° and 140°. If the peripheral speed is 25 m/s, determine the inclination of the jet so that water enters the blades without shock. Also calculate the power developed and the efficiency of the system. Assume blades an mounting on the periphery of the wheel. In this type of mounting u remains the same so also relative velocity. β1, V1 and u are known : Refer figure
A

u2 = 25
q Vr1 b1

4.04
V
1

4.0
C a1 B u1 Vu1 u1

V2 Vr2 = Vr1

Figure P. 13.4

Chapter 13

Hence this shape

448
u V1 = sin θ sin (180 − β 1 )
∴ Solving

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

25 50 = sin θ sin (180 – 35)
θ = 16.7°. ∴ α1 = 180 – (180 – 35) – 16.7 = 18.3°

Direction of the jet is 18.3° to the direction of motion.

Vu1 = 50 × cos 18.3 = 47.47 m/s,
Vr1 =

50 sin 18.3 = 27.37 m/s sin 35 Vr2 cos 40 = 20.96 < 25 (u)

β2= (180 – 140) = 40°,

∴ The shape of the exit triangle will be as in figure
Vu2 = u – V cos β2 = 25 – 20.96 = 4.04 m/s r2

Tangential force Power Energy in jet

= m (Vu1 − Vu2 ) = 10 (47.47 – 4.04) = 434.3 N = F × u = 434.3 × 25 = 10.86 × 103 W
10 × 50 2 = = 12.5 × 103 W 2

η=

10.86 × 10 3 = 0.8686 or 86.86 % 12.5 × 10 3

Problem 13.5 Curved vanes fixed on a wheel on the surface receive water at angle of 20° to the tangent of the wheel. The inner and outer diameter of the wheel are 0.9 and 1.6 m respectively. The speed of rotation of the wheel is 7 revolutions per second. The velocity of water at entry is 75 m/s. The water leaves the blades with an absolute velocity of 21 m/s at an angle of 120° with the wheel tangent at outlet. The flow rate is 400 kg/s. Determine the blade angles for shockless entry and exit. Determine the torque and power. A also determine the radial force.
Inlet Vu2
V
1

uc 19.8 b2 120

Vf1

Vr1 b1

=7

5

2q u1 = 35.19 Vu1 u1

Vf2

21 Vr2 Exit

Figure P. 13.5

Dynamics of Fluid Flow
Blade velocity u1 = πdN = π × 1.6 × 7 = 35.19 m/s u2 =

449

9 × 35.19 = 19.8 m/s 16

V1 sin α 1 75 × sin 20 tan β1 = V cos α − u = 75 × cos 20 – 35.19 1 1
Solving β1 = 36° tan β2 = Solving

21 sin 60 19.8 + 21 cos 60
Chapter 13

β2 = 30.97° 

T = m [ Vu1 r1 + Vu2 r2 ] (in this case, Vu2 is in the opposite direction)
∴ ∆ Vw = Vu + Vu2 1 = 400 [0.8 × 75 cos 20 + 0.45 × 21 cos 60] = 24443 Nm Power = 24443 × ω = 24443 × 2π × 7 = 1075042 W or Power in the jet Ω 1075 kW. = η= Radial force
75 2 × 400 = 1125000 W or 1125 kW 2

1075 = 0.955 or 95.5% 1125

= 400 (75 sin 20 – 21 sin 60) = 2986 N.

Problem 13.6 A jet of water with a velocity of 30 m/s impinges on a series of vanes moving at 12 m/s at 30 to the direction of motion. The vane angle at outlet is 162° to the direction of motion. Complete (i) the vane angle at inlet for shockless entry and (ii) the efficiency of power transmission.
Inlet 19.5 u 18°

V

1

=3

0

V2 Vr2 Outlet

b1

30 12

Figure P. 13.6

V1 sin α 1 30 sin 30 tan β1 = V cos α − u = = 1.073 30 cos 30 – 12 1 1

β1 = 47°

450
sin β1 =

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
30 sin 30 Vr1 30 sin 30 sin β 1 = 20.5 m/s = Vr2

Vr1 =

Vr2 cos β2 > u1 ∴ hence the shape of the triangle. Vu1 = 30 cos 30 = 25.98 m/s
Vu2 = 20.5 cos 18 – 12 = 7.5 m/s

Assuming unit mass flow rate : P = u [ Vw1 + Vw2 ] = 12 [25.98 + 7.5] = 401.76 W/kg/s Energy in the jet ∴ = η=
30 2 = 450 W. 2

401.76 = 0.893 or 89.3% 450

EXERCISE QUESTIONS
E 13.1 Derive the linear momentum equation using the control volume approach and determine the force exerted by the fluid flowing through a pipe bend. E 13.2 Derive the expression for the force exerted by a water jet on a plate moving in the same direction of the jet with a velocity less than that of the jet. E 13.3 A horizontal Y is shown in figure. Determine the x and y components of the force exerted in the pipe.
60° 18.33 m/s

0
1.6 m f

.5 m

1m
60°

f
18.33 m/s

Figure E. 13.3 E 13.4 A nozzle of 5 cm diameter is fixed at the end of a pipe of 15 cm diameter with water flowing in the pipe at a velocity of 3 m/s. The jet discharges into the air. Determine the force exerted in the nozzle. E 13.5 Water flows through a right angled reducer bend with inlet diameter of 60 cm and exit diameter of 40 cm. The entrance velocity is 6 m/s. If the bend lies on a horizontal plane, determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the bend.

13. What is the power transmitted? Also determine the blade speed and blade inlet angle. E 13. If at the exit the component of absolute velocity along the direction of motion is zero.9 A 5 cm2 area water jet impinges on a series of vanes as shown in figure. determine the forces in the x and y directions. If it impinges on a curved vane which turns the jet by 90° determine forces on the vane if the vane moves in the direction of the jet at a velocity of 14 m/s. If the force acting on the vane in the direction of the jet is 900 N determine the angle by which the jet is turned by the vane.6 A jet of 5 cm diameter enters a blade in the x direction with a velocity of 60 m/s.8 A series of vanes is acted upon by a 7. The blade angle at inlet is 0°. α1 = β1 = 0°.7 A jet of water 6 cm dia has a velocity of 30 m/s. Assume shockless enters and exit.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 451 E 13. The vane velocity is 15 m/s.10 A water jet with a velocity of 60 m/s enters a series of curved vanes at an angle of 20° to the direction of blade movement. determine the outlet blade angle.5 cm water jet having a velocity of 30 m/s. The absolute velocities and their directions are indicated on the figure. Chapter 13 . The peripheral speed of the disc on which the blades are mounted is 25 m/s. Calculate the vane inlet angle. The outlet angle is 120° with x direction.9 E 13. E 13. Also determine the energy transfer rate. If the blade moves with a velocity of 25 m/s along the x direction. V 1 =6 0m 30° /s u V 60° = 45 m /s 2 Figure E. E 13.

channels and steel pipes called penstocks. (ii) Conveying system (iii) Hydraulic turbine with control system and (iv) Electrical generator The storage system consists of a reservoir with a dam structure and the water flow control in terms of sluices and gates etc.0 INTRODUCTION Hydraulic Turbines Most of the electrical generators are powered by turbines. Dams in river beds provide larger quantities of water but with a lower potential energy. In some cases the nozzles may be replaced by guide vanes which partially convert potential energy to kinetic energy and then direct the stream to the turbine wheel. About 20% of power is generated by hydraulic turbines and hence thier importance. Rest of 5% only is by other means of generation. It is also non polluting in terms of non generation of carbon dioxide. 452 . These jets by dynamic action turn the turbine wheels. where the remaining expansion takes place. Steam and Gas turbines share in the electrical power generation is about 75%. Hydraulic power depends on renewable source and hence is ever lasting. Turbines are the primemovers of civilisation. causing a reaction on the turbine runner. The penstock pipes end at the flow control system and are connected to nozzles at the end. Tunnels and channels are used for surface conveyance." 14. The reservoir may be at a high level in the case of availability of such a location.1 HYDRAULIC POWER PLANT The main components of hydraulic power plant are (i) The storage system. Penstocks are pressure pipes conveying the water from a higher level to a lower level under pressure. In this chapter we shall concentrate on the details and operation of hydraulic turbines. The conveying system may consist of tunnels. The reader is referred to books on power plants for details of the components and types of plants and their relative merits. 14. In such cases the potential energy in the water will be large but the quantity of water available will be small. The nozzles convert the potential energy to kinetic energy in free water jets.

for solving this problem.3) 4. In chapter 8 the important dimension less parameters in the case of turbomachines have been derived (problem 8. In spite of sophisticated design methodology.2) 3D5 3. The idea of similitude and model testing comes to the aid of the manufacturer. The specific sheed. (speed. Chapter 14 The main classification depends upon the type of action of the water on the turbine. P/ρ N (14. In the case of impulse turbine all the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in the nozzles.Hydraulic Turbines 14.3.1) 2. It is rather difficult to test each parameter’s influence separately. It is found almost impossible to test a full size unit under laboratory conditions. With this terminology plants are designated as “high head”. It has been established partly by experimentation and partly by analysis that the specific speed to some extent indicates the possible type of machine to provide the maximum efficiency under the given conditions. All the four dimensionless numbers are used in model testing.1 illustrates this idea.). 14. the specific speed increases. N p /ρ1/2(gH)5/4 (14. The pressure inside the turbine is atmospheric. The relevant parameters in the case of hydraulic machines have been identified in that chapter.3.3. This type is found suitable when the available potential energy is high and the flow available is comparatively low. In addition to the operation at the design conditions. The axial machines are suitable for low levels of potential energy and large flow rates. In case of variation of the operation from design conditions. The operating conditions in terms of available head and load fluctuation vary considerably. mixed flow and axial flow machines. gH/N2D2 (14. These are (i) Impulse turbine (ii) Reaction Turbine.3. In the case of these machines more than three variables affect the characteristics of the machine. The representation is qualitative only. the characteristics of operation under varying in put output conditions should be established. These are again divided into radial flow. The imulse provided by the jets is used to turn the turbine wheel. The potential energy available is generally denoted as “head available”.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES 453 (ii) In reaction turbines the available potential energy is progressively converted in the turbines rotors and the reaction of the accelerating water causes the turning of the wheel.3 SIMILITUDE AND MODEL TESTING Hydraulic turbines are mainly used for power generation and because of this these are large and heavy. .16). The power coefficient. Some people call this type as tangential flow units. These are 1. The flow coefficient. Later discussion will show under what conditions this type is chosen for operation. The head coefficient. power. it is found the designs have to be validated by actual testing. Dimensional analysis comes to our aid. Q/ND3 (14. head available etc. flow rate. Note that as head decreases for the same power and speed. The last parameter has particular value when it comes to choosing a particular type under given available inputs and outputs. It is also not easy to vary some of the parameters.4) Consistant sets of units should be used to obtain numerical values. “medium head” and “low head” plants. Figure 14. Radial flow machines are found suitable for moderate levels of potential energy and medium quantities of flow. large units cannot be modified or scrapped easily.

Figure 14.2 Variation of efficiency and flow passage with specific speed. there is an increase in efficiency with specific speed.90 Axial flow turbines 0.3.3.454 0. 100 90 5000 to 1 00 50 5000 to 0 00 00 20 to 00 0 00 50 10 low Be in l/m 80 Efficiency % Over 5 1500 0000 0 to 50 00 0 70 50 40 2500 5000 10000 20000 30000 50000 80000 50 0 60 to 10 2 Specific speed Very narrow radial Wider radial cshortor Axial Figure 14. h Francis turbines 0.94 Efficiency. As flow rate increases for the same specific speed efficiency is found also to increase.86 0.98 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Pelton wheel 0.1 Variation of efficiency with specific speed. . For the same flow rate.2 gives another information provided by the specific speed.82 0 1 2 3 4 Dimensionless specific speed (radian) Figure 14.3.

This Substituting for Newton N can be checked N p → NS → 1 kg 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1. This is also shown in Table 14.015—0. speed should be in rps and power should be in W. . Power is estimated by the product of head and flow rate. (H < 60m) There is considerable variation in the specific speeds indicated by various authors. the best shape is chosen for the maximum efficiency at that flow. larger will be the size of the machine for the same power.66 Dimensional specific speed in SI system 8—29 26—40 40—67 67—450 364—910 Type of turbine having the best efficiency at these values Single jet Pelton turbine Twin jet Pelton turbine Multiple jet Pelton turbine Radial flow turbine Francis type (H < 350m) Axial flow Kaplan turbine.1 to 4 are dimensionless and will give the same numerical value irrespective of the system of units adopted.5 .122—0. 1/ 2 .047—0.053 0. Flow rate is estimated from hydrological data. P in W and H in m.1. These data lead to the calculation of the specific speed for the plant. Then only the value becomes dimensionless.819 0. In practice dimensional specific speed is popularly used H where N is in rps. Worked examples will illustrate the idea more clearly. Consider the following 1 N 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m 3 / 2 s 10 / 4 .5 → M° L° T° s s 1/ 2 h s kg m 1 k1/ 2 m11/ 2 m1/ 2 m1. Such use is dimensionly complex and will vary with values given in table 14. The speed is specified by the frequency of AC supply and the size. The value of the specific speed gives a guidance about the choice of the type of machine.122 0.5 → M°L°T° s s s kg m Chapter 14 The type of flow passage also varies with specific speed as shown in the figure. Ns = N p 5/ 4 Table 14. 5 / 4 .3.1.072 0. Head is estimated from the topography. As the flow rate increases.5 .5 . 1/ 2 .1 Best specific Speed Range for Different Type of Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionles specific speed range 0.1 provides some guidance about the type of turbine suitable at various ranges of specific speeds. Table 14. 1/ 2 . Speed N is used as rpm and power in kW by some authors. m5/4 S ρ1/ 2 ( gH ) 5 / 4 S 1/ 2 kg m 1/2 as kg1/2 m1/2/s the expression will be dimensionless. . In the non dimensional form. 2.5 s 2.663—1.72—0. s 2. 1/ 2 2. .Hydraulic Turbines 455 The expressions given in the equation 14. Lower the speed chosen. The specific speed is obtained from the data available at the location where the plant is to be installed.

24 as in the tabulation. As the head decreases still further and the flow increases. Non dimensional specific speed. Example 14.000 kW.5 (40. Determine the specific speed for the data available at a location as given below (Both dimensionless and dimensional). × 60 9005 / 4 . Specific speed does not indicate the speed of the machine. Single jet impulse turbine will be suitable. Speed required : 417. Keeping the power constant. Hence the best suited will be the impulse turbine.2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As a check for the dimensional value listed. The power potential was 50. 417. At a location the head available was estimated as 200 m. As the head drops further for the same power. This can be easily seen from the values listed in table 14.2. P → W or Nm/s. wider rotors with mixed flow are found suitable. Head available : 900 m. still the area required will be unsuitable for a reaction turbine.1. ρ → kg/m3. 1/ 2 60 × 9. The sheed chosen is 600 rpm.815 / 4 × 9005 / 4 1000 Hence single jet pelton turbine is suitable. Even with same actual installation data.5 40. It can be considered to indicate the flow area and shape of the runner. In the discussions the specific speed values in best efficiency is as given in table 14. Indicate what type of turbine is suitable. the specific speed increases with N and decreases with head. When the flow increases.000000)1/ 2 × = 0. Example 14. these conditions are generally not satisfied.1. So multi jet unit is chosen in such a case. Determine the specific speed.0000001/2 = 8. The speed variation is not as high as the head variation. As the head reduces and flow increases purely radial flow reaction turbines of smaller diameter can be chosen. But in the solved problems and examples.456 g1.5 rpm. The diameter can be reduced further and the speed increased up to the limit set by mechanical design. the specific speed is found to vary from the listed best values for the type. Ns = Agrees with the former value. The flow area required will be just the nozzle diameter. When the head is large.H→m ∴ Ns = 417.92. This cannot be arranged in a fully flowing type of turbine. the flow rate has to be higher. Power estimated 40000 kW.015 × 549 = 8. Hence specific speed value increases with the drop in available head. Also indicate the suitable type of turbine Dimensionless specific speed : units to be used : N → rps. Significance of specific speed.1.0163. Hence axial flow units are found suitable in this situation. g → m s2 . the omitted quantities in this case are ρ1/2 = 549 ∴ 0. the velocity when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy will be high.

25 14. Determine the speed and dynamo meter capacity to test the model. For kinematic and dynamic similarity the flow directions and the blade angles should be equal. Also determine the flow rate required in terms of the prototype flow rate. Chapter 14 Hence Francis type of turbine is suitable.000. head coefficients flow coefficient and power coefficient will be identical between the model and the large machine called prototype.3. Ns = 600 40. power available = 40. A model study was proposed. g → 457 m m3 .H→m kg s = 0. Equal ratios of geometric dimensions leads to geometric similarity. The power estimated is 40.000000 60 × (200 × 9. The speed chosen is 600 rpm.000 600 . Ns = 600 (40. In the laboratory head available was 20 m. It is also possible from these experiments to predict part load performance and operation at different head speed and flow conditions. N → rps. .81 × 50)5 / 4 Hence axial flow Kaplan turbine is suitable.000000)1/ 2 × = 84.3. it can be shown that specific speeds. For example an one eight scale model means that the linear dimensions of the model is 1/8 of the linear dimensions of the larger machine or the prototype. Similarity conditions are three fold namely geometric similarity.09.0001/ 2 × = 475. It was proposed to construct a 1/6 scale model. Head available = 200 m. The speed chosen was 500 rpm. A model satisfying these conditions is called “Homologous” model.g→ 2. Dimensionless Ns = 40. At a location.153.1 Model and Prototype It is found not desirable to rely completely on design calculations before manufacturing a large turbine unit. P → W.866 60 1000 1/ 2 (9.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless.4. Dimensional Ns = 600 40.000 kW. At a location investigations yielded the following data for the installation of a hydro plant.000. leads to dynamic similarity. = 0. kinematic similarity and dynamic similarity.000 kW. It is necessary to obtain test results which will indicate the performance of the large unit. forces etc. the head available was 50 m.81)5 / 4 × 1000 1/ 2 Dimensional. 60 501. Similar dynamic conditions in terms of velocity. 60 2005 / 4 Hence agrees with the previous value. The ratio between linear dimensions is called scale. Similar flow pattern leads to kinematic similarity. acceleration. Example 14. Example 14. This is done by testing a “homologous” or similar model of smaller size and predicting from the results the performance of large unit. Determine the specific speed and indicate the suitable type of turbine. In such case.

4.062 kW ∴ The model is to have a capacity of 35.458 The dimensional specific speed of the proposed turbine Ns = N P H 5/ 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 500 60 40.0747 The specific speed of the model should be the same. head.08777 = m m3 = Qp 500 N p Dp 6 Qm is or 1 of Qp. Determine the speed and head required for the model. The test facility has a limited dynamometer capacity of 40 kW only whereas the speed and head have no limitations. the data in the proposed plant is given. As two unknowns are involved another parameter has to be used to solve the problem. A one sixth scale model is proposed. The flow rate ratio can be obtained using flow coefficient Qp N p D p3 Qm Nm Dm ∴ 3 = Qm N D 3 948.000. N p2 Hp FD I GH D JK p m 2 Nm = LM 20 × 500 N 200 984.0747.5.4 as 70. In this case it is preferable to choose the power coefficient Pm Nm Dm 3 5 = Pp N p Dp 3 5 ∴ Nm3 = Dp Pm × N p3 × Pp Dm 1/ 3 F I GH JK 5 ∴ Nm L 40 × 500 = M N 40. The value of dimensional specific speed of the proposed plant is taken from example 14. 70.0747 = Solving Pm = 35062 W = 35.062 kW and run at 948. 40000 kW power and 500 rpm.000 2005 / 4 = 70.7 rpm. 113 Example 14. In example 14. Choosing head coefficient.7 1 × 3 = 0. These are 200 m.6 rpm .7 rpm Substituting in the specific speed expression.5 = 948.7 60 × 205 / 4 Pm 2 (6 2 ) OP Q 0.000 3 × 65 OP Q = 990. (as both heads are known) Nm2 Dm 2 ∴ Hm = Hp N p 2 Dp 2 ∴ Nm2 = Hm .

9 Example 14.2 Unit Quantities The dimensionless constants can also be used to predict the performance of a given machine under different operating conditions. In this case the head coefficient is more convenient for solving the problem. 60 × 22. 108 14.6. As the linear dimension will be the same.0916 or = m m3 = times the flow in prototype.000 × or Hm5/4 = 60 H m5 / 4 60 × 70. Hm = Hp Nm 2 N p2 FD I .8 m.000 990. 500 6 Qp N p Dp 109.Hydraulic Turbines Using the specific speed value (for the model) 70.0747 = 1000 P .0747 Solving Hm = 21.6 1 Qm N D 3 1 × 3 = 0. The test facility has only a constant speed dynamometer running at 1000 rpm.22 m Substituting in the specific speed expression. Use the data for the proposed hydro plant given in example 14. Thus Head coefficient will now be N 12 H1 D 2 = H2 N2 D 2 2 or H2 N 2 = 22 H1 N1 The head will vary as the square of the speed.4. The flow coefficient will lead to N1 D 3 Q1 Q2 Q2 N2 = Q1 N1 = N2 D 3 or Chapter 14 The flow rate can be obtained using the flow coefficient .6 990.6 rpm.146 kW The flow ratio N D 3 Qm 1000 1 × 3 = 0. Test head required is 21. the same will not be taken into account in the calculation. m3 = N p Dp Qp 500 6 or 1 times the prototype flow. In this case determine power of the model and the test head required.6 40.0747 = 459 40. 990.00926 = m .G H D JK m p 2 = 200 × FG 1000 IJ FG 1 IJ H 500 K H 6 K 2 2 = 22.0747 and the models should have the same value of specific speed.225 / 4 Solving P = 41146 W or 40. 70. The specific speed of the proposed plant is 70.8 m and test speed is 990.3.

A turbine is operating with a head of 400 m and speed of 500 rpm and flow rate of 5 m3/s producing the power of 17. The head available changed to 350 m. This constant is called unit power.4 TURBINE EFFICIENCIES The head available for hydroelectric plant depends on the site conditions. This constant is called unit speed.460 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow will be proportional to N and using the previous relation Q2 = Q1 H2 H1 or Q H = constant for a machine. N12 H1 = N2 2 H2 ∴ N2 350 = N1 400 Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 LM OP N Q 0.5 Q2 = 5 × 0.5 0. Hence when H is varied in a machine the other quantities can be predicted by the use of unit quantities.5 = 0. It can be measured . During the conveyance of water there are losses involved.93541 = 467. Example 14.93531 = 4. or FG IJ H K 0.677 m3/s P2 = P1 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 ∴ P2 = 17.7 rpm Q2 N = 2 = Q1 N1 H2 350 = H1 400 2.66 × FG 350 IJ H 400 K = 14. Similarly N2 = N1 H2 H1 or N H = constant. ∴ 3. Using the power coefficient : N 3 D5 P1 P2 N 3 or = 23 = P1 N1 = N 3 D5 P2 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 or P H3/2 = constant.7.66 MW. The difference between the gross head and head loss is called the net head or effective head. flow and power ? Assume efficiency is maintained.93541 or N2 = 500 × 0.45 MW 14. 1. It no other corrective action was taken what would be the speed. The constant is called unit discharge. Gross head is defined as the difference in level between the reservoir water level (called head race) and the level of water in the stream into which the water is let out (called tail race). both levels to be observed at the same time.

4. 3. ηH = Power produced by the runner ρQ g H (14. Power produced by the runner is calculated by the Euler turbine equation P = Qρ [u1 Vu1 – u2 Vu2]. Out of these the tangential force only can cause the rotation of the runner and produce work. This reflects the runner design effectiveness.4.3) 4.4. Overall efficiency : This is the ratio of power output at the shaft and power input by the water at the turbine inlet.4) Also the overall efficiency is the product of the other three efficiencies defind η0 = NH Nm Nv (14. ηv = Q–∆Q Q (14. The following efficiencies are generally used. 1. Volumetric efficiency : It is possible some water flows out through the clearance between the runner and casing without passing through the runner.4.2) To some extent this depends on manufacturing tolerances. which is taken by suitable thrust bearings. Hydraulic efficiency : It is defined as the ratio of the power produced by the turbine runner and the power supplied by the water at the turbine inlet. Mechanical efficiency : The power produced by the runner is always greater than the power available at the turbine shaft. The axial component produces a thrust in the axial direction. 2.1) Chapter 14 where Q is the volume flow rate and H is the net or effective head. axial and radial directions of the rotor.4. η0 = Power available at the turbine shaft ρ QgH (14. Indicating Q as the volume flow and ∆Q as the volume of water passing out without flowing through the runner. . This is due to mechanical losses at the bearings. Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio between the volume of water flowing through the runner and the total volume of water supplied to the turbine.Hydraulic Turbines 461 by the difference in pressure between the turbine entry and tailrace level.5 EULER TURBINE EQUATION The fluid velocity at the turbine entry and exit can have three components in the tangential. ηm = Power available at the turbine shaft Power produced by the runner (14. This also means that the force exerted on the runner can have three components. windage losses and other frictional losses. The radial component produces a bending of the shaft which is taken by the journal bearings.5) 14. This means that the fluid momentum can have three components at the entry and exit.

Let r1 and r2 be the radii at inlet and exit. 14. ∴ But ∴ 2π N 60 2π N (Vw1 r1 – Vw2 r2) 60 (14.4)  Power = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Equation (14. The tangential momentum of the fluid at inlet The tangential momentum of the fluid at exit The moment of momentum at inlet The moment of momentum at exit ∴ Torque. As the tangential velocity varies with the radius.5. Power = ωτ and ω = where N is rpm.5.5. It states that the torque on the rotor equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it passes through the runner.5.1 Components of Power Produced The power produced can be expressed as due to three effects. shown in figure 14.5.1. τ = m (Vu1 r1 – Vu2 r2)  = m Vu1   = m Vu2  = m Vu1 r1 = m Vu2 r2  (14. the – sign will become + ve sign.1) Depending on the direction of Vu2 with reference to Vu1. The work done or power produced by the tangential force equals the product of the mass flow. Let Vu1 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at inlet and let Vu2 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at exit. tangential force and the tangential velocity.462 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Thus it is necessary to consider the tangential component for the determination of work done and power produced.3) 2π N r2 = u2 60 (14. Let u1 be the tangental velocity at entry and u2 be the tangential velocity at exit.5.1 Velocity triangles . centrifugal and acceleration effects.5. Consider the general velocity triangles at inlet and exit of turbine runner. These are the dynamic. The help of moment of momentum theorem is used for this purpose.5. Inlet Vu2 Vr1 b1 Vu1 V1 a1 u1 V2 a2 Vr2 u2 b2 Exit Figure 14. the work done also will be vary with the radius.2)  Power = m 2π N r1 = u1 and 60 (14.4) is known as Euler Turbine equation. It is not easy to sum up this work.

Vu1. Vr2 Relative velocities at inlet and outlet. Power per unit flow rate (here the Vu2 is in the opposite to Vu1) (B)   m (u1 Vu1 + u2 Vu2) = m 1 [(V12 – V22) + (u12 – u22) + (Vr22 – Vr12)] 2 V12 − V2 2 is the dynamic component of work done 2 u12 − u2 2 is the centrifugal component of work and this will be present only in the 2 radial flow machines ur 2 2 − Vr12 is the accelerating component and this will be present only in the reaction 2 turbines. V2 Absolute velocities at inlet and outlet.5. R= (V12 – V2 2 ) + ( u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (14. Vr1. all the terms will be present. Chapter 14 Vr12 = V12 + u12 – 2u1 V1 cos α1 .Hydraulic Turbines V1. From inlet velocity triangle. (Francis turbines is of this type). In pure reaction turbines. In impulse reaction turbines of radial flow type. the last two terms only will be present. Vu2 Tangential component of absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. In impulse reaction turbines. u2 Tangential velocities at inlet and outlet. the degree of reaction is defined by the ratio of energy converted in the rotor and total energy converted. Hydraulic turbines are generally operate of lower speeds and hence degree of reaction is not generally considered in the discussion of hydraulic turbines.5) The degree of reaction is considered in detail in the case of steam turbines where speed reduction is necessary. u1. The first term only will be present in Pelton or impulse turbine of tangential flow type. (Vu1 = V1 cos α1) V12 + u12 − vr 12 2 463 or u1 V1 cos α1 = Vu1 u1 = (A) From outlet velocity triangle (Vu2 = V2 cos α2) Vr22 = V22 + u22 – 2 u2 V2 cos α2 or u2 V2 cos α2 = u2 Vu2 = (V22 – u22 + Vr22)/2 Substituting in Euler equation.

These buckets in small sizes may be cast integral with the runner. made of cast or forged steel. This avoids interference of the incoming bucket on the jet impinging on the previous bucket.6. The buckets are also made of special materials and the surfaces are well polished.6. Originally spherical buckets were used and pelton modified the buckets to the present shape. Z = (D/2d) + 15 where D is the runner diameter and d is the jet diameter. The main components are (1) The runner with the (vanes) buckets fixed on the periphery of the same. Z. The number of buckets. Equations are available to calculate the number of buckets on a wheel.464 14. Brake nozzle Casing To main pipe Horizontal shaft Pitch circle of runner bucket Spear Jet Deflector Nozzle Bend Tail race Figure 14. Pelton in 1889 and all the type of turbines are called by his name to honour him. It is formed in the shape of two half ellipsoids with a splilter connecting the two. A sectional view of a horizontal axis Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14.1. A cut is made in the lip to facilitate all the water in the jet to usefully impinge on the buckets. A view of a bucket is shown in figure 14. . (2) The nozzle assembly with control spear and deflector (3) Brake nozzle and (4) The casing. Buckets are fixed on the periphery of the disc. The spacing of the buckets is decided by the runner diameter and jet diameter and is generally more than 15 in number.6. In larger sizes it is bolted to the runner disc.1 Pelton turbine The rotor or runner consists of a circular disc.A. fixed on suitable shaft.2 with relative dimensions indicated in the figure. This type of turbine was developed and patented by L.6 PELTON TURBINE Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This is the only type used in high head power plants.

Such a sudden action will cause a high pressure wave in the penstock pipes that may cause damage to the system.5 – 2. The deflector will than move to the initial position. It mainly serves the purpose of providing a cover and deflecting the water downwards. the water flow should not be stopped suddenly. The jets in this case should not interfere with each other. When the condition is such that the specific speed indicates more than one jet. The velocity of the jet should not be changed to meet the load fluctuation due to frequency requirements.8 T/d 0. Meanwhile the spear will move at the safe rate and close the nozzle and stop the flow.3 is used to suddenly play out and deflect the jet so that the jet bypasses the buckets.1 d + 5 mm The nozzle and controlling spear and deflector assembly The head is generally constant and the jet velocity is thus constant.Hydraulic Turbines T 465 Jet diameter. When load drops suddenly.6. A fixed ratio between the jet velocity and runner peripheral velocity is to be maintained for best efficiency.2 Pelton turbine bucket Bucket and wheel dimensions D/d 14 – 16 B/d 2. it will take a long time for the runner to come to rest due to the high inertia.95 Notch width 1. d 10 to 15° d Spillter C2 e E d B U I L Figure 14. In this case the shaft is vertical and a horizontal nozzle ring with several nozzle is used. a vertical shaft system will be adopted. The first wastes water and the second is mechanically complex.3. The nozzle is designed to satisfy the need. Even when the flow is cut off. Chapter 14 .6.8 – 4 L/d 2. A governor moves to and fro a suitably shaped spear placed inside the nozzle assembly in order to change the flow rate at the same time maintaining a compact circular jet. To avoid this a deflector as shown in figure 14. The casing also supports the bearing and as such should be sturdy enough to take up the load. The quantity of water flow only should be changed to meet the load fluctuation. To avoid this a braking jet is used which directs a jet in the opposite direction and stops the rotation. But the load on the turbine will often fluctuate and some times sudden changes in load can take place due to electrical circuit tripping. In side the casing the pressure is atmospheric and hence no need to design the casing for pressure. The spear assembly with the deflector is shown in figure 14. Some other methods like auxiliary waste nozzle and tilting nozzle are also used for speed regulation.6. The casing is cast in two halves for case of assembly.

466 Spear Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (a) Deflector in normal position (b) Figure 14.  Hydraulic efficiency ηh = (14. and V2 cos α2 is in the opposite direction to Vu1 and hence ∆ Vu1 is additive.4.6.6.6. Hence and Vu1 = V1 Vr1 = V1 – u In the ideal case Vr2 = Vr1. The speed of the turbine is governed by the frequency of AC.1 Power Development The bucket splits the jet into equal parts and changes the direction of the jet by about 165°. The diagram shown is for the conditions Vr2 cos β > u. In this case the jet direction is parallel to the blade velocity or the tangential velocity of the runner. Hydraulic turbines handle heavier fluid and hence cannot run at such speeds. In many cases the speed in the range to 500 rpm. Steam turbines operate at 3000 rpm or 50 rps in the areas where the AC frequency is 50 cycles per second. Power used in the region. F = m (Vu1 ± Vu2)  τ = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) r  P = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) u  where m is given by ρ AV at entry.1) (14. But due to friction Vr2 = k Vr1 and u2 = u1.3) (A) (B)  m (Vu1 ± Vu 2 ) u 2u (Vu 1 ± Vu 2 ) u =  V12 / 2 V12 m (14.6.6. 14.2) (14.3 Nozzle assembly Generally the turbine directly drives the generator. As the water flows out on both sides equally axial thrust is minimal and heavy thrust bearing is not required.6.4) .6. The velocity diagram for Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. The product of the pairs of poles used in the generator and the speed in rps gives the number of cycles per second.

For various values of u.6.6. In this case Vu2 will be in the same direction as Vu1 and hence the equation (14.6. dη H = 2(1 + k cos β2) (1 – 2 φ) dφ ∴ φ= u 1 = V1 2 or u = 0. Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = kVr1 cos β2 – u = k(V1 – u) cos β2 – u ∴ Vu1 + Vu2 = V1 + k V1 cos β2 – u cos β2 – u = V1 (1 + k cos β2) – u(1 + k cos β2) = (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) Substituting in equation (14.6. the power developed and the hydraulic efficiency will be different. V1 ∴ ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [φ – φ2] (14.6.3) will read as P = m (Vu1 – Vu2) u  Chapter 14 It is desirable to arrive at the optimum value of u for a given value of V1.6) In practice the value is some what lower at u = 0.Hydraulic Turbines Once the effective head of turbine entry is known V1 is fixed given by V1 = Cv 467 2 gH .6.4) ηH = 2u V12 × (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) (14.6.46 V1 Substituting equation (14.4a) we get ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [0. Equation 14.52] .6.5) To arrive at the optimum value of φ.6.5 – 0.4 can be modified by using the following relations. this expression is differentiated with respect to φ and equated to zero. V1 = Vu1 u Vu2 Vu2 V2 a2 Vr1 u V2 Vr2 u b2 Alternate exit triangle Vu2 u b2 Vr2 V2 u > Vr2 cos b2 Figure 14.5 V1 (14. In fact the out let triangle will be different from the one shown it u > Vr2 cos β.4a) = 2(1 + k cos β2) LM u – u OP NM V V PQ 2 1 2 1 u is called speed ratio and denoted as φ.4 Velocity triangles Pelton turbine Vu1 = V1.6) in (14.

The head available at a plant location is 500 m.8 m/s = Vr2 Vw2 = (76.3.8 W = (96 + 7.8 Nm/kg/s 3. Assume β2 = 165° and Cv = 0.5 W = (96 – 20. φ = 0.4 = 4348.3) × 76.97. u = 43. Vr1 = Vr2 = 52.8.98) × 19.45. Vj = 0.2.64 W = (96 – 1.2 = 3804.4. Vr1 = 67.5.2.2.8 = 3804.8 cos 15 – 43.2) = – 39.8.6) = – 20.8 cos 15 – 67. For various values of φ determine the work done 1 kg. u = 19. u = 67. u = 38.24 W = (96 + 17.8 Nm/kg/s 8.11) × 28.5) × 57. Vr1 = Vr2 = 38.97 1.2.6.4) × 67. 2 × 9.8) = – 58.4 Vw2 = (38.2 = 4484 Nm/kg/s 5. Vr1 = Vr2 = 57.6 m/s Vw2 = (57. φ = 0.468 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1 + k cos β 2 2 100 percent. ηH = 1 or But the actual efficiency in well designed units lies between 85 and 90%.8) × 43.4.81 × 500 = 96 m/s φ = 0. It may be seen that in the case k = 1 and β = 180°.2 Vw2 = (19.8 Nm/kg/s 2.8.2) = 7.3 Nm/kg/s 4. φ = 0. φ = 0.3 W = (96 – 58. u = 28. Vr1 = Vr2 = 48 Vw2 = (48 cos 15 – 48) = – 1.8 Vw2 = (52. φ = 0.98 W = (96 + 54. u = 76.8 Vw2 = (28.64) × 48 = 4529 Nm/kg/s 6. u = 48.8 Nm/kg/s . Vr2 = Vr1.2 cos 15 – 76.4 W = (96 – 39. u = 57.4) = 17.24) × 38.8 = 2898.8 × cos 15 – 19.6 = 4348. φ = 0.11 m/s W = (96 + 36.2 = Vπ2 Vw2 = (67.8. Example 14.2 × cos 15 – 28.6 cos 15 – 38.2 = 2898. Vr1 = Vr2 = 19. φ = 0.4 cos 15 – 57.3 Nm/kg/s 7. Vr1 = Vr2 = 28.7.2) = 54. Vr1 = 76.8) = 36.6.

5 Variation of power with variation of φ for constant jet velocity The shape of the velocity diagram at exit up to φ = 0.1 0. 14.6 Exit velocity diagrams for pelton turbine Chapter 14 .4 0.6.6.5.2 0.5 f 0.6 (a) and beyond φ = 10.6.3 0.45 is given by Fig.9 Figure 14.Hydraulic Turbines The result is shown plotted in Figure 14.7 0.4 by Fig 14. 5000 469 4000 3000 W 2000 1000 0.6 0.6 (b) u Vw2 u b2 V2 V2 Vr2 Vw2 Vr2 (a) (b) Figure 14.6.8 0.6.

It is noted that the maximum efficiency lies in all cases between φ = 0.8. N.4 8 tu rn s tur 6 tu rns ns -i de al to rq ue . Efficiency is some what higher in larger sizes as compared to small sizes homologous units.3 0.470 12 11 10 9 Depends on position of buckets Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 60 cm pelton wheel Net brake torque reduced to values under 30 cm head Ne ed Ne ed le le op Torque. In the actual case power is zero even at φ is between 0.6 Values of f (= u/ 2gh) 0.7 and 0. As the torque versus φ is not a straight line.m under 30 cm head en 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. op en 48 8.4 0. the actual power curve is not a parabola.6.b 2= ns 18 0° . In the ideal case the torque will be maximum at u = 0 or φ = 0 and zero at φ = 1.9). It can be shown that the specific speed of impulse turbine is dependent on the jet diameter. This is done to friction and exit loss (V22/2) variation with various values of u.5.5 0. Also torque is found to be zero at values less than φ = 1. Most units operate at a constant speed but at varying loads.6.8 0. At higher heads any unit will operate at a slightly higher efficiency.6.8.7 0.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio It is useful to study the variation torque with speed. The curve is rather flat and hence impulse turbine can be operated at lower loads with reduced losses. or u = V1.6. It is interesting to observe the variation of efficiency with load at a constant speed (Figure 14. Instead of speed the dimensionless speed ratio φ can be used for generality.9 1. The power can be calculated from the torque curves. 14.7.6.0 Figure 14. The power variation for constant value of V1with φ is shown in figure 14.a 1= 4 tu r ns 3 tur 2 turn 0° . k = s 0 1 turns Points of maximum efficiency along this line 0. The actual variation of torque with speed ratio is shown in figure 14.2 0. In the ideal case power is zero both at φ = 0 and φ = 1. .4 and 0. But this does not increase in the same proportion as the size.7 Relation between torque and speed ratio at constant head for various nozzle openings.1 8. (d) wheel diameter (D) ratio or called jet ratio in short. The efficiency variation with speed ratio is similar to power versus speed ratio curve as the input V12/2 is the same irrespective of u/V1.

8 Speed ratio Vs power developed by pelton turbine Ns ∝ N∝ N H P 5/4 u φ φ H ∝ V1 ∝ D D D P ∝ Q H ∝ d2 V1 H ∝ d2 H H ∝ d2 H3/2 P ∝ d H3/4 H where d is the jet diameter. φ H 1/ 2 d .8 0.5 0.9 1.6. there is a specific value of jet speed wheel speed ratio.2 Actual power with needle valve wide open Actual power with partly opened needle valve friction and windage 0. Hence specific speed of an impulse turbine is mainly dependent on the jet diameter wheel diameter ratio. φ does not vary much and the constant made up of efficiency and Cv also does not vary much.6.7 0. For single nozzle unit.3 Figure 14. Inversely at the specific speed at which efficiency is maximum. This is shown in figure 17.4 0.6 Values of f 0.0 0.1 0.Hydraulic Turbines Power delivered to nozzle 24 Power in jet 21 18 Watts under 30 cm head 471 Ideal power (case 1) with needle valve wide open 60 cm pelton wheel power reduced to values under 30 cm head 15 12 9 6 3 0 Mechanical 0 0. the best value of diamensional specific speed is about 17 and at that condition the wheel diameter is about 12 times the jet diameter. H 3 / 4 5/4 ∴ Ns ∝ ∝φ d d = constant φ D D Chapter 14 .10.

44 0.6. In the case of reaction turbine the potential energy is partly converted to kinetic energy in the stater guide blades.48 0.50 0. . % 24 22 20 18 d D fe 0.10 Variation of efficiency at the D ratio for single jet inpulse turbine d 14.46 fe 14 D 0. 100 98 96 94 Maximum efficiency. The pressure inside the runner varies along the flow. The remaining potential energy is gradually converted to kinetic energy and absorbed by the runner.472 90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Efficiency.9 Variation of efficiency with load of constant speed for an impulse turbine. % 85 Single-nozzle impulse turbine under constant head 80 75 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Power output as a percentage of power output at maximum efficiency Figure 14.49 0.42 Single-nozzle impulse turbines 20 24 28 ne bpe h 5/4 32 36 40 Normal specific speed. ns = Figure 14.6.43 0. In the impulse turbine the potential energy available is completely converted to kinetic energy by the nozzles before the water enters the runner.47 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 0 4 8 12 16 h 16 d 0.45 12 10 8 6 0.7 REACTION TURBINES The functioning of reaction turbines differs from impulse turbines in two aspects. The pressure in the runner is constant at atmospheric level. 1.

In the case of reaction turbine the flow area between two blades changes gradually to accomodate the change in static pressure.5 to 3D3 05 to 1D3 Guide wheel D3 Draft tube Tail race Runner From pen stock Guide blades Rotor blades Figure 14. Shaft Guide blades Spiral casing 2.7.7. Francis turbine was first developed as a purly radial flow turbine by James B. The main components are (i) The spiral casing (ii) Guide vanes (iii) Runner (iv) Draft tube and (v) Governor mechanism. 14. But the design has gradually changed into a mixed flow turbine of today. Most of the machines are of vertical shaft arrangement while some smaller units are of horizontal shaft type. In the case of impulse turbine the speed ratio for best efficiency is fixed as about 0. The other differences are that reaction turbines are well suited for low and medium heads (300 m to below) while impulse turbines are well suited for high heads above this value.Hydraulic Turbines 2.1.46. Francis.1 Francis Turbines Francis turbine is a radial inward flow turbine and is the most popularly used one in the medium head range of 60 to 300 m.1 Typical sectional and front view of a modern Francis turbine. In the impulse turbine only a few buckets are engaged by the jet at a time. A sectional view of a typical Francis turbine of today is shown in figure 14. an American engineer in 1849. In the case of impulse turbine there is no drop in pressure in the bucket passage and the relative velocity either decreases due to surface friction or remains constant. 473 In the reaction turbine as it is fully flowing all blades or vanes are engaged by water at all the time.7. As there is no such limitation. Chapter 14 . Also due to the drop in pressure in the vane passages in the reaction turbine the relative velocity at outlet is higher compared to the value at inlet. reaction turbines can be run at higher speeds.

The casing should be strong enough to withstand the high pressure. The development of mixed flow runners was necessitated by the limited power capacity of the purely radial flow runner.474 14.7.2.3 The Runner The runner is circular disc and has the blades fixed on one side. The guide blades in addition to guiding the water at the proper direction serves two important functions. Guide vane Pivot More area of flow Less area of flow Figure 14. . It is seen from the velocity triangles that the blade inlet angle β1 changes from acute to obtuse as the speed increases. These should also be not simple multiples of the runner blades. The control mechanism will be discussed in a later section. The guide blades rest on pivoted on a ring and can be rotated by the rotation of the ring.1.7.1.7.7.2 Guide Blades Water enters the runner through the guide blades along the circumference. The shape of the runner depends on the specific speed of the unit.7. Water from the penstock pipes enters the spiral casing and is distributed uniformly to the guide blades placed on the periphery of a circle.1. Guide vanee and giude wheel 14. The blade passages act as a nozzle in this aspect.3. A larger exit flow area is made possible by the change of shape from radial to axial flow shape. The guide vane outlet angle α1 also increases from about 15° to higher values as speed increases. 14. This leads to uniform distribution of water all along the circumference of the runner. The shape of the runner and the corresponding velocity triangles are shown in figure 14.2. The water entering the guide blades are imparted a tangential velocity by the drop in pressure in the passage of the water through the blades. This reduces the outlet velocity and thus increases efficiency. These are classified as (a) slow runner (b) medium speed runner (c) high speed runner and (d) very high speed runner.7. The variation of area between guide blades is illustrated in Figure 14. In this way the area of blade passage is changed to vary the flow rate of water according to the load so that the speed can be maintained constant. whose movement is controlled by the governor. Its area of cross section decreases gradually around the circumference.1 Spiral Casing Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The spiral casing surrounds the runner completely. In high speed runners in which the blades are longer a circular band may be used around the blades to keep them in position. As seen in the figure the velocity triangles are of different shape for different runners. The number of guide blades are generally fewer than the number of blades in the runner.

70 Dd = Dt (a) B D Dt ns = 304.Hydraulic Turbines D1 u1 a1 V1 (a) Slow runner u1 70 < Ns < 120 b1 V1 vr1 15° £ a1 £ 25° b1 < 90° Vr1 475 (b) Medium speed runner u1 a1 V1 120 < Ns < 220 b1 < 90° vr1 180 – b1 (c) High speed runner u1 a1 V1 180 – 220 < Ns < 350 b1 vr1 (d) Very high speed runner 300 < Ns < 430 Figure 14. fe = 0. the outlet angle of the blades are so designed that there is no whirl component of velocity at exit (Vu2 = 0) or absolute velocity at exit is minimum.7.8 Dd (b) Figure 14. B D ns = 81 fe = 0. Chapter 14 a1 b1 < 90° .4 Slow speed and highspeed runner shapes.3 Variation of runner shapes and inlet velocity triangles with specific speed In all cases.7.

1. In the case of impulse turbines this does not lead to significant loss of head. Two such shapes are shown in figure 7. The runners change the direction and magnitute of the fluid velocity and in this process absorb the momentum from the fluid.7.4 Draft Tube The turbines have to be installed a few meters above the flood water level to avoid innundation. The loss in effective head is reduced by this arrangement.7. Different shapes of draft tubes is shown in figure 14.1. In the case of reaction turbines.476 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The runner blades are of doubly curved and are complex in shape. A draft tube arrangement is shown in Figure 14. The draft tube thus helps (1) to regain the lost static head due to higher level installation of the turbine and (2) helps to recover part of the kinetic energy that otherwise may be lost at the turbine outlet. the loss due to the installation at a higher level from the tailrace will be significant. Also because of the diverging section of the tube the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy which adds to the effective head. The height of the runner along the axial direction (may be called width also) depends upon the flow rate which depends on the head and power which are related to specific speed.7.1 (as also in figure 14.6. This loss is reduced by connecting a fully flowing diverging tube from the turbine outlet to be immersed in the tailrace at the tube outlet. 14.5).5 Draft tube Figure 14.6 Various shapes of draft tubes .7.7. D2 4° Rotor Stator Straight divergent tube Moody’s bell mouthed tube HS Tail race Draft tube Patm Simple elbow Elbow having square outlet and circular inlet Figure 14. As specific speed increases the width also increase accordingly.7.4. These may be made separately using suitable dies and then welded to the rotor. This reduces the pressure loss as the pressure at the turbine outlet will be below atmospheric due to the arrangement.

The efficiency of the draft tube in terms of recovery of the kinetic energy is defined us η= Chapter 14 V12 – V2 2 V12 where V1 is the velocity at tube inlet and V2 is the velocity at tube outlet.7 Velocity diagram for Francis runner Generally as flow rate is specified and the flow areas are known.7. Hd = H + (V12 – V22)/2g – hf where Hd is the gain in head. H is the height of turbine outlet above tail water level and hf is the frictional loss of head. The divergence angle in the tubes should be less than 10° to reduce separation loss. . These are (i) Straight diverging tube (ii) Bell mouthed tube and (iii) Elbow shaped tubes of circular exit or rectangular exit. This is discussed in a later section.7. Hence these may be used as the basis in calculations. it is directly possible to calculate Vf1 and Vf2. Elbow types are used when the height of the turbine outlet from tailrace is small. The height of the draft tube will be decided on the basis of cavitation. Vu1 u1 a1 V1 b1 V1 u2 Vf2 = V2 a2 Vr2 b2 Figure 14. Bell mouthed type gives better recovery. 14.Hydraulic Turbines 477 The head recovered by the draft tube will equal the sum of the height of the turbine exit above the tail water level and the difference between the kinetic head at the inlet and outlet of the tube less frictional loss in head.5 Energy Transfer and Efficiency A typical velocity diagrams at inlet and outlet are shown in Figure 14.1.7. By varying the widths at inlet and outlet suitably the flow velocity may be kept constant also. Different types of draft tubes are used as the location demands.7.

e. power P = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2)  Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where m is the mass rate of flow equal to Q ρ where Q is the volume flow rate. gH 2 gH The values of other efficiencies are as in the impulse turbine i. Q ρ is used by many authors in placed m . In all the turbines to minimise energy loss in the outlet the absolute velocity at outlet is minimised. volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency and over all efficiency. As Q is more   easily calculated from the areas and velocities. From velocity triangle : Vu1 = Vf1 cot α1 . Vf1 = Q / π (D1 – zt) b1 Ω Q / π D1b1 (neglecting blade thickness) Vu1 = u1 + Vf1 / tan β1 = u1 + Vf1 cot β1 = u1 = π D1 N + Vf1 cot β1 60 π D1 N 60 ∴ Vu1 u1 can be obtained from Q1 . the + sign will change to – sign as β2 will become obtuse. D1 . This is possible only if V2 = Vf2 and then Vu2 = 0. ∴ P = m Vu1 u1  E1 = Vu1 u1 The energy available in the flow per kg is Ea = g H where H is the effective head available. the energy transfered from fluid to rotor is given by Vu1 u1 gH It friction and expansion losses are neglected W=gH– V2 2 2g ∴ It may be written in this case gH – η= V2 2 2g V2 =1– 2 . Hence the hydraulic efficiency is given by ηH = For unit flow rate. Runner efficiency or Blade efficiency This efficiency is calculated not considering the loss in the guide blades.478 From Euler equation. b1 and N1 For other shapes of triangles.

600 50 100 Head 500 Value of h (m) 40 80 400 30 60 Eff ic cy ien t npu er i w 300 Po 20 40 200 n = 600 rpm 100 10 20 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 Brake Power = Power output (kW) Figure 14.8 The efficiency curve is not as flat as that of impulse turbine.7. Water Power = Power Input (kW) Chapter 14 .7.8. There is a drop in efficiency after 100% load.Hydraulic Turbines u1 = Vf [cot α1 + cot β1] ∴ u1Vu1 = Vf12 cot α1 [cot α1 + cot β1] Vf 2 2 Vf 1 2 V2 2 = u1 Vu1 + = u1 Vu1 + 2 2 2 479 Energy supplied to the runner is u1 Vu1 + (Assume Vf2 = Vf1) ∴ ηb= Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Vf 12 2 + Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Multiply by 2 and add and subtract Vf12 in the numerator to get ηb= 1 – In case β1 = 90° ηb= 1 – 1 1 + 2 cot α 1 (cot α 1 + cot β 1 ) 1 2 1+ tan 2 α 1 = 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 In this case Vu1 = u1 The characteristics of Francis turbine is shown in Figure 14. At part loads the efficiency is relatively low.

3 0.9. In such situations axial flow turbines are gainfully employed. A sectional view of a kaplan turbines in shown in figure 14. In propeller turbine the blades are fixed.6 0. These turbines are suited for head in the range 5 – 80 m and specific speeds in the range 350 to 900. In the discussions on Francis turbines. This trend when continued.9 Francis turbine characteristics at variable speed and constant head 14.3 1.8 AXIAL FLOW TURBINES The popular axial flow turbines are the Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine.8.1 0. The water from supply pipes enters the spiral casing as in the case of Francis turbine.7. In this way a constant efficiency is achieved in these turbines.2 0 1000 1100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 rpm 600 700 800 900 Figure 14.1.8 0. the runner becomes purely axial flow type.7.0 1.480 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The characteristics of Francis turbine at various speeds but at constant head is shown in figure 14. it was pointed out that as specific speed increases (more due to increased flow) the shape of the runner changes so that the flow tends towards axial direction.7 Q = Rate of discharge 12 10 600 500 0. There are many locations where large flows are available at low head.9 1. KN. the simpler propeller turbines are installed.6 0. The water directed by the guide blades enters the runner which has much fewer blades (3 to 10) than the Francis turbine. % Power (kW) 3 .2 1.4 0.5 0.4 1.1 1. The system is costly and where constant load conditions prevail.0 100 8 6 4 2 0 400 300 200 100 0 Water power = Power input Tor que exe rted by w hee l t u tp u o er Efficiency ow P = r we po e ak Br Full gate opening Discharge.2 1. Guide blades direct the water into the chamber above the blades at the proper direction. so Efficiency.8 0.4 0.m 0. Value of φ 0. The flow rate is changed without any change in head.2 0. In such a case the specific speed increases to a higher value. The speed governor in this case acts on the guide blades and rotates them as per load requirements. In the Kaplan turbines the blades are mounted in the boss in bearings and the blades are rotated according to the flow conditions by a servomechanism maintaining constant speed. m /s Torque. The blades are also rotated by the governor to change the inlet blade angle as per the flow direction from the guide blades.

75. The important dimensions are the diameter and the boss diameter which will vary with the chosen speed.2. The diagram is in the axial and tangential plane instead of radial and tangential plane as in the other turbines. many times the draft tube may have to be elbow type.4. The flow ratio lies in the range 0.35 to 0.8. Typical velocity diagrams at the tip and at the hub are shown in Figure 14. The speed ratio is calculated on the basis of the tip speed as φ = u/ 2 gH and varies from 1.8. Shaft Guide blades Tail race Rotor blade Rotor Draft tube Figure 14.8.2 Typical velocity diagrams for Kaplan turbine Chapter 14 Volute casing . As the peripheral speed varies along the radius (proportional to the radius) the blade inlet angle should also vary with the radius. At lower specific speeds the boss diameter may be higher. u1 vu1 u1 a1 Vf1 V1 b1 a1 V1 u1 b1 Vf1 vu1 u1 u2 Vf2 = V2 b2 Vr2 Vf2 = V2 u2 b2 Vr2 (a) At Tip (b) At Hub Figure 14. Hence twisted type or Airfoil blade section has to be used.1 Sectional view of kaplan furbine The number of blades depends on the head available and varies from 3 to 10 for heads from 5 to 70 m.Hydraulic Turbines 481 that entry is without shock.5 to 2. As the head is low.

Kaplan turbine has a flat characteristics for variation of efficiency with load. Fi xe d bl ad e ax ia lf lo w an cis . The load efficiency characteristic of the four types of turbines is shown in figure 14. In order to avoid cavitation. In the case of propeller turbine the part load efficiency suffers as the blade angle at these loads are such that entry is with shock.3.8. Thus the part load efficiency is higher in this case. This action produces very high dynamic pressure upon the adjacent solid walls and since the action is continuous and has a high frequency the material in that zone will be damaged.8. the absolute pressure at all points should be above the vapour pressure. Turbine runners and pump impellers are often severely damaged by such action.482 Work done = u1 Vu1 (Taken at the mean diameter) ηH = u1 Vu 1 gH Fluid Mechanics and Machinery All other relations defined for other turbines hold for this type also.3 Load efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbines 14. As the fluid flows into a region of higher pressure the bubbles of vapour will suddenly condense or collapse. 100 Kaplan 90 Impulse 80 Fr Efficiency. As the hydraulic efficiency is constant all along the length of the blades. % 70 60 50 Constant rpm under constant pressure 40 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of rated power 90 100 110 Figure 14. the liquid will then will boil at that point and bubbles of vapour will form.9 CAVITATION IN HYDRAULIC MACHINES If at any point in the flow the pressure in the liquid is reduced to its vapour pressure. u1 Vu1 = Constant along the length of the blades or Vu1 decreases with redius. The process is called cavitation and the damage is called cavitation damage. The flow velocity remains constant with radius.

For high specific speed propeller units it may be desirable to place the runner at a level lower than the tailrace level. The total head on a Francis turbine is 20 m.625 s s c (14.8.1) where ha is the atmospheric head hr is the vapour pressure head. z is the height of the runner outlet above tail race and h is the total operating head. σ. The minimum value of σ at which cavitation occurs is defined as critical cavitation factor σe. The critical factor in the installation of reaction turbines is the vertical distance from the runner to the tailrace level.43 m above the tailrace level.3.7) Example 14.5) Other empirical corrlations are Francis runner For Kaplan runner LM N OP N 380.308 + G J 6. In the range of specific speeds for Francis turbine σc varies from 0.17 – 0.6 – 0. where the absolute pressure is generally below atmospheric level.1 to 0.8.8.64 and in the range of specific speeds for Kaplan turbine σc varies from 0.9.6) 2 (14. The pressure corresponding to the water temperature of 15° C is 0. It critical cavitation factor is 0.3 [Ns /444.4) (14.3) There are a number of correlations available for the value of σc in terms of specific speed.6]2. obtained from experiments by Moody and Zowski. is used. In addition to the damage to the runner cavitation results in undesirable vibration noise and loss of efficiency. The machine is at an elevation where the atmosphic pressure is 8. h0 can be obtained as h0 = ha – z – σc H (14. Chapter 14 . The flow will be disturbed from the design conditions.8.78 K σc = 0. For Francis runners For Kaplan runners σc = 0.4 to 1. In reaction turbines the most likely place for cavitation damage is the back sides of the runner blades near their trailing edge.8.55 (Ns/444. determine the level of the turbine outlet above the tail race. z = Pa – Pv – σc h = 8.3 × 20 = 2.8 σc = 0.43 m.1 + 0. Knowing σc the maximum value of z can be obtained as z = ha – hv – σe h (14. The minimum pressure at the turbine outlet. The constants in the equations depends on the system used to calculate specific speed.5 2 (14.2) σc is found to be a function of specific speed.8.6 m.78 Q 1 F N I σ = 0.8. It is defined as σ= ha − hr − z h (14.Hydraulic Turbines 483 Cavitation can occur in the case of reaction turbines at the turbine exit or draft tube inlet where the pressure may be below atmospheric level.6)1.5.17 m. The turbine outlet can be set at 2.006 + 0. In the case of pumps such damage may occur at the suction side of the pump.82 H 380. To compare cavitation characteristics a cavitation parameter known as Thoma cavitation coefficient.

9. Similarly when suddenly load comes on the unit the speed will decrease. It is also possible that due to electrical tripping the turbine has to be stopped suddenly. This means that the turbines should run at constant speed irrespective of the load or power output. which means that there should be no ups and downs in the speed and stable condition should be maintained after the restoration of the speed to the rated value. Hydraulic system is used to move the spear in the nozzle or to change the positions of the guide blades because the force required is rather high.1 Governing system for Pelton turbine . So governing can be achieved only by changing the quantity of water that flows into the turbine runner. As already discussed the water flow in pelton turbines is controlled by the spear needle placed in the nozzle assembly. The frequency of generation has to be strictly maintained at a constant value.9 GOVERNING OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hydraulic turbines drive electrical generators in power plants. In hydraulic power plants the available head does not vary suddenly and is almost constant over a period of time. In reaction turbines the guide vanes are moved such that the flow area is changed as per the load requirements. The governor should be sensitive which means that it should be able to act rapidly even when the change in speed is small. The movement of the spear is actuated by the governor to control the speed. When the load decreases the speed will tend to rise if the water supply is not reduced. It should not suddenly cut down the flow completely to avoid damage to penstock pipes.484 14. At the same time it should not hunt. The governor should step in and restore the speed to the specified value without any loss of time. The components of governing system are Pendulum of actuator Flyball Sleeve Attached to turbine main shaft Oil pump P2 P1 P3 c Relay or control valve a b P4 P5 Fulcrum Main lever Bell crank lever Roller Fulcrum Cam Nozzle Spear Oil sump Servomotor Spear rod Deflector From penstock Figure 14. The governing system takes care of maintaining the turbine speed constant irrespective of the load and also cutting off the water supply completely when electrical circuits trip.

The rotation of the ring is actuated by the power cylinder when the load changes. The guide vanes are mounted on a ring and so mounted that these rotate when the ring rotates. a deflector is actuated by suitable mechanism to deflect the flow when sudden and rapid increase in speed takes place.2 Reaction turbine governor linkage Chapter 14 . The reverse happens when load increase on the turbine. In the modern system electronic means of frequency detection is used to actuate the system. When the load decreases the turbine speeds up and the governor weights fly apart moving the sleeve up. As sudden cut off is not desirable. The weights carry a sleeve which can move up and down the drive spindle.9. The top and bottom are connected on one side to the power cylinder and to the sump on the other side. This part of the system is shown in figure 14. The opposite movement takes place when the turbine speed reduces. (iii) Distributing valve also called relay valve (iv) Power cylinder which provides the force required.9. In the case of reaction turbines. Under steady load conditions the value rod closes both inlets to the power cylinder and the spear remains at a constant position. The sleeve carries a lever which moves the control value in the relay cylinder.1. the power cylinder and the sensing system are the same. Oil under pressure is maintained at the central position of the realy cylinder. The older type of system used in the case of pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. Connected to oil pressure governor piping Servomotor Spiral casing Regulating rod Regulating lever Regulating ring Turbine inlet Figure 14. The piston in the power cylinder mover to reduce the flow. At the some time the right side of the power cylinder is connected to the sump so that the oil in the right side can flow out.Hydraulic Turbines 485 (i) The speed sensing element which actuates the system (ii) Hydraulic power pack with suitable pump and valves. the valve rod moves down connecting the oil supply to the left side of the power cylinder.2.9. The mechanical centrifugal governor is driven by the turbine shaft. When the turbine speeds up. In the older systems a centrifugal governor was used as the sensing element.

22 – 10 × 0. As arm A is longer the sprinkler will rotate in the clockwise direction.1 A lawn sprinkler is shown in figure.02 × V p 2 2 g × 0.05 Vj2 0.2 2g 2g 600 × 0. Problem 14.24 = 625 Vj2 Dj4 1765. Vp2 = Vj2 Dj4 / 0.22.2 Vp = Vj Dj2 / 0. The friction loss in the nozzle is 0.22 ω) 0.12 Solving ω = 15. Calculate the angular speed of rotation and the torque required to hold it stationary.12) = 1 Nm. Substituting and solving for N 60 N = 152 rpm Torque when stationary : (as mass) flow is equal = 1 kg/s = 1(Va ra – VB rb) = 1(10 × 0.02 90 × 2 × 9.22 = (10 + 0. The absolute velocity of jet B = 10 + 0.81 – Vp2 = 1.12 ω) 0.923 radions/second ω= 2π N . Neglect friction.22 ω).12 ω As no external torque is applied and as there is no friction. the resultant torque is zero. ∴ (10 – 0. 14.05 V j 2 = Vj2 600 × 625 × 0. The sectional area at outlet is 1 cm2. B A 12 cm 22 cm Figure P.05 Vs2/ 2g.2 A 20 cm pipe 600 m long with friction factor of 0.02 .8 – – 0. The jets A and B exert forces in the opposite direction. The energy equation is 90 – 600 × 0. The flow rate is 1ls on each side.2 . Vj2 Dj4 = 1. Let it rotate at an angular velocity ω.486 WORKED EXAMPLES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14.05 Vj2 0. The absolute velocity of Jet A = (10 – 0.02 carries water from a reservoir to a turbine with a difference in head of 90 m.1 The flow velocity is 10–3/10–4 = 10 m/s. Determine the diameter of the jet which will result in maximum power.

8 Solving by trial by assuming Dj .7 Maximum power is around Dj = 0. Let us try impulse turbine : operating at 125 rpm.40 kg/s 95.81 × 115 = 15230 × 103 W. Problem 14. A single nozzle unit can be selected. Assume Cv = 0.85 132. the head will suggest two Francis turbines. This is a problem for which there could be a number of solutions. Power = η m gH = η .08 0. For convenience of maintenance it is desired to select two units for the plant. 12 pairs of pole generator) Ns = 250 60 15230 × 10 3 / 2 115 1.Hydraulic Turbines or Vj2 (1. In order to calculate the specific speed.05 kW . Power = 15 × 103 × 9.64 Power in jet = 487  m V12 / 1000 kW 2 50.46 u = 0. Diameter : Assuming speed ratio of 0. m/s 40. Select turbines. If φ = 0. A jet of 20 cm is used.46 determine the pitch diameter of the runner. A higher speed of operation say 500 rpm will give Ns Ω 60.06 0.3 At a location selected for installation of a hydro electric plant. At first sight.07 46. m 0. power in the jet is determined as m Vj2 / 2  Dj.90 26.26.  π Dj2 4 × Vj g H × ρ Chapter 14 43.92 33.05 + 37500 Dj4) = 1765. the working speed of the turbine is required.06 m or 60 mm.19 27.81 × 115 = 21.46 ∴ D= 2 × 9.18 π  m = (π Dj2/4) Vj × 1000 51. Problem 14. Ns = 15. Let us try 250 rpm (for 50 cycle operation.60 150.97 and efficiency is 88%.10 Vj.25 = 30. the head available was estimated as 115 m and water flow rate was estimated as 15 m3/s. Determine the specific speed of the machine.04 0.4 A turbine operates at 500 rpm at a head of 550 m. which may not be suitable.85 m/s 21. Which is for a narrow rotor.53 This is not a suitable range for Francis turbine.39 19.34 m π × 125 Doubling the speed will reduce the diameter but Ns also will be doubled and twin nozzle unit may have to be chosen.85 × 60 = 3.

98.81 × 335 = 79.81 × 550 = 46. D = 9.81 × 550 .81 × 335 Jet velocity is next calculated Vj = 0.46 Vj u = 0.296 Assume 4 jets.296 m D 1.45 K 0.97 2 × 9. then F 5.518 × 106 W Ns = 500 60 145178 × 10 6 550 5 / 4 = 11.2 2 × 1000 × 0.98 2 × 9. d 0.35 .97 2 × 9. The unit is proposed to run at 500 rpm.85 × 2g H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π × 0. The power availability with an overall efficiency of 86% was 15500 kW.5 At a location for a hydroelectric plant.77 m 60 πN π × 500 Problem 14.D= = = 1.35 m/s u= π DN 60 u 60 × 46.9 kW = 14.55 m/s D= 36.022 A single jet pelton turbine is suitable Vj = 0.5 F 5.484 × 4 IJ d= G H 4 × π × 79.92 Dimensionless specific speed is = 0. not suitable should be at least 10. If the bucket outlet angle proposed is 165° check for the validity of the assumed efficiency First flow rate is calculated Q= 15500000 = 5.1482 m. F Q × 4I d= G H π V JK j 0.488 Vj = 0.5 d .97 ∴ Power = 0.46 × 0.484 × 4 IJ =G H π × 79.46 × 79.81 × 550/1000 4 = 14517.97 2 × 9.45 K 0.45 m/s Blade velocity Runner diameter u = 0.5 = 0.5 =0.46.484 m3/s 0.4 m π × 500 Jet diameter assuming single jet.55 × 60 = 1. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.4 = = 4.81 × 550 × 9.86 × 1000 × 9.72.45 = 36. Assume Cv = 0. φ = 0.9. u = 0. the head available (net) was 335 m.

61 m/s ∴ W/kg = 36.8 m/s Vr2 = 0.6 = 40.81 × 425 = 88.6 Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.6 – 40.55(79.46. Assume Cv = 0.8 Vr1 = 47.45 + 1.16 Inlet V1 = Vu1 = 79. Vu2 = 38. 38. A Pleton turbine running at 720 rmp uses 300 kg of water per second.81 × 335) = 0.51 Figure P. Ns = 500 60 15500000 / 4 3355 / 4 489 = 11.45.9 × 47.9 (9.8 15° 43 Figure P.6 m/s u = 0.6 = Vu1 u = 40. If the head available is 425 m determine the hydraulic efficiency.9 36. 14.97 and φ = 0.44 Dimensionless Ns = 0. The bucket deflect the jet by 165°.9 or 90% Assumed value is lower as it should be because.8 = 43 m/s Chapter 14 .97 2 × 9.9 × Vr1 = 39.55 Outlet Vr2 = 0.5 The velocity diagrams are given above Vu1 = 79. 14. Also find the diameter of the runner and jet.45 15° ur = 36.16 – 36. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.46 × 88.8 0.9 Nm/kg ηH = 2962.8 = 47.Hydraulic Turbines may be suggested Per jet.61) = 2962.8 m/s Vr1 = 88. The velocity diagram is shown in figure V1 = 88.0208 ∴ acceptable Such units are in operation in Himachal Pradesh.55 Vr1 = 43.6.74 Vu2 40.9.55 = 1. Problem 14. overall efficiency < hydraulic efficiency.

60 4255 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.9 m3/s.8 (88.6 2 u × 60 40.9 × Vr1 = 36 m/s As 36 cos 20 = 33.9286 = 92.7 The jet velocity in a pelton turbine is 65 m/s. The peripheral velocity of the runner is 25 m/s.5 kW Hydraulic efficiency = 1093.8743 or 87.661 × 106 W Figure P. Determine the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine for a flow rate of 0.6 m/s Vu2 = 43 cos 15 – 40.3 Vr1 = 40 m/s 25 20° V2 36 1 u1 1.6 K 0.082 m π × 720 πN 0.5 D= F 4Q IJ d=G HπV K 1 = FG 4 × 0.81 × 425 1093.5 = 0. Vu2 = 36 cos 20 – 25 = 33.5 d 0.3 IJ H π × 88.74 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Power = 300 × 40.83 12.661 × 106 × 2 = 87.43% 300 × 9.5 × 10 3 720 = 3.83) = 1.8 × 60 = = 1.83 m/s In the opposite direction of Vu1 hence addition P = 900 × 25 (65 + 8.06565 m D 1.490 Vu1 = 88.6 + 0.5 × 10 3 = 0.79 .9.06565 Overall efficiency = 1093.83 – 25 = 8.8 = 0.82 < 25 the shape of the exit triangle is as in figure. 14.86% 300 × 88.082 = = 16. The blade friction coefficient is 0. V = V = 65 m/s V1 = Vu1 = 65 m/s u = 25 m/s Vr1 = 65 – 25 = 40 m/s Vr2 = 0.7 u = 25 m/s Exit Vu2 8. The jet is defleted by 160° by the bucket.5 × 10 3 × 2 = 0.37% ηH = 900 × 65 2 Exit loss =m V2 2 2 .74)/1000 = 1093.

13 m/s u = 0.1593 m Ns = 15 × 10 6 500 = 14. π × 500 d = 0. Ns = 750 60 20.56225 m3/s .01 m3/s 4 Total required = 3.165 m Volume flow in a jet = π × 0.13 = 43.Hydraulic Turbines V22 = 362 + 252 – 2 × 36 × 25 × cos 20 = 229.000. The specific speed is calculated to determine the number of jets. Cv = 0.75 m3/s 0. 60 480 5 / 4 Problem 14.35 = 103.5 The new diameter of the jets d′= FG 4 × 3. 0. Investigate whether a single jet unit will be suitable.13 K = 0. A Pelton turbine is to produce 15 MW under a head of 480 m when running at 500 rpm.75.46 15 × 10 6 Q= = 3. If D/d = 10.165 2 × 94.3 m/s D= ∴ 43. The head available at a location was 1500 m.000 1500 5 / 4 = 5. ∴ Two jets will be sufficient.000 = 0.81 × 480 = 94.87 × Q × 1000 × 9.99 So a single jet unit will be suitable.8.55 ∴ Exit loss of power = 491 900 × 229.37 .87 20. φ = 0.000.3 × 60 = 1.65 m. Chapter 14 Assume η0 = 85%. flow rate is to be calculated.81 × 480 Vj = 0. Estimate the number of jets and their diameter.81 × 1500 ∴ Q = 1. In order to determine the jet diameter. The power available is estimated at 20.13 = 2.97 2 × 9.75 IJ H 2 × π × 94. determine the number of jets required. It is assumed as 0.000 kW.9. Determine the mean diameter of the runner and the number of buckets.97.85 × 1000 × 9.3 × 103 W 2 Problem 14.46 × 94. The value of overall efficiency is necessary for the determination. It is proposed to use a generator to run at 750 rpm.

1093 2d 24 numbers.4 × 0.28 m Power = η × Q × ρ × g × H = 0.46 m/s π DN = u. At a location selected to install a hydro electric plant.72 = 531.97 2 × 9.4. 60 ∴ 166. It is assumed as 0.56225 = π d2 × 166. the value of Cv is required. determine how many single jet unit running at 300 rpm will be required.10. Additional losses amount to about 1/4th of frictional loss. the head is estimated as 550 m.72 m 4 Net head = 550 – 18. The flow rate was determined as 20 m3/s. Assuming an overall efficiency of 87%.029 × 2000 × 3. Frictional loss = f L Vp2/ 2g D. The plant is located at a distance of 2 m from the entry to the penstock pipes along the pipes.97 V = 0. Two pipes of 2 m diameter are proposed with a friction factor of 0.95 m π × 750 1.1093 m 4 In order to determine the runner diameter.8 = 18.1832 / 2 × 9.81 × 1500 = 166. Net head = Head available – loss in head. = 5 × 14. = 8. The value of φ is assumed as 0.492 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the jet velocity. d = 0. the blade velocity is to be calculated.98 m.28 = 90.46 × 60 = D ∴ D = 1.6863 × 10 6 300 = 18.285 / 4 .87 × 20 × 1000 × 9.81 × 531.4 × 0.029 ∴ Total loss of head ∴ hf = 0. ∴ u = 166.029. 60 531.183 m/s I JK L = 2000 m.9 + 15 Problem 14. The number of buckets = Z . Vp × Ap × number of pipes = Q = 20 m3/s ∴ Vp = 20 Fπ2 GH 4 2 × 2 = 3.46.4 m/s ∴ 1.95 D + 15 = + 15 2 × 0.6863 × 106 W Ns = 90.667 . Solving. The specific speed is to be determined first. f = 0.81 × 2 = 14. D = 2 m.

93 m 300 π 60 Jet speed ratio = 2.5 0.0372 m3/s 0.86 × 1000 × 9.5 m (farily high) 0.5 F 4 × 20 IJ Jet diameter. low side.81 × 531.46.05 × 60 π DN = 0. d = G H π × 100. The speed ratio is 0. Problem 14. Jet ratio is 12. From the power and efficiencies the flow rate is determined ηT ηg Qρ gH = 15 × 106 15 × 106 = 6. Determine the jet and runner diameters.5 Consider a twin jet unit in which case.46 × 76. If three jets are suggested.77. The effective head is 310 m.3.46 × 100. the speed and specific speed of the runner.05.95 = 6 too low. then.018 Hence a three jet unit can be suggested.16 m/s Chapter 14 . Alternate will be three single jet units.6863 × 10 6 / 3 300 . 60 531.81 × 310 The velocity of the jet is determined from the head and Cv ∴ Q= Vj = 0. Nozzle velocity coefficient is 0. d = 0. The generator and turbine efficiencies are 95% and 86% respectively. 0.05 m/s π d2 × Vj = Q ∴ 4 F 4Q I d= G H π V JK j 0. Dimensionless value = 0. ∴ D = = 2. Discussion of other consideration follow.43 m/s Runner tangential velocity is u = 0. Discussions about suitability of single jet unit.29 Jet speed ratio is about 10.81 × 310 = 76.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless specific speed = 0. Suitable In this case Ns = 90.43 = 35.98 2 × 9.034 493 This is within the range for a single jet unit. Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.35 m and Jet speed ratio : 8. d = 0.28 = 100.95 × 0.05 K = 0.46 × 100.28 5 / 4 = 10.98. It drives a 15 MW generator.11. The following data refers to a Pelton turbine.98 × 2 × 9.

5 = 0. Cv = 0.98 2 g H1/2 = 2.12.48 × 0. Also find the absolute velocity at entrance.13. with a flow rate of 12 m3/s. φ = 0.5]1/2 / 10001/2 g1. The flow velocity at inlet is 9. d = 4 π × 76.2096 d . The absolute velocity at the exit is 7 m/s.61 15 × 10 .98 [2g H]1/2 4 4 = 3.5 N= ∴ ∴ u .25 / 549 H1.068 d dH 1. the dimensionless specific speed is 0.4093 d2 H1/2 × H = 30100. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery πd 2 6.494 Jet diameter is found from flow rate and jet velocity.0836 H1/2 πd –1 N = 0.6632 H1/2 D Ns = 0.4093 d2 H1/2 P = ηo × ρ g Q H = 0. The power developed is 12.25 = 0.4 m. ρ ( gH )5 / 4 1/ 2 Q= π d2 π d2 × Vj = × 0. Show that for the following constants. 60 N= ∴ D = 12 × 0. d π DN = u. where N is rps.73 d2 H1.5 m/s. = 8.2096 D D Problem 14.25 D = 115.98 D Ns = N P .25 MW. For shockless entry determine the angle of the inlet guide vane.48.73 d2H1.764 60 3105 / 4 Ns = Problem 14. The speed of operation is 430 rpm.3171 m Jet speed ratio is D = 12.0372 × 4 × Vj = Q.9 × 1000 × 9.3171 = 3.25 H1.48 Vj = 0.16 × 60 / π × 3. ηo = 90%.71 rpm πD 6 176.8 = 176.6632 H 1/ 2 [30100.43 LM N OP Q 0. the . The outer diameter of a Francis runner is 1. Total head is 115 m.8 m The turbine rotor speed is determined from the tangential velocity u × 60 = 35.81 × 3. u = 0.

392]0.43 m Ns = 12.5 m 2 × 9.Hydraulic Turbines 495 runner blade angle at inlet and the loss of head in the unit.77° Total head = 115 m.81 Head loss in the absolute velocity at exit = ∴ 72 = 2. A Francis turbine developing 16120 kW under an a head of 260 m runs at 600 rpm.07 m 9.39 × 3152 .75 m/s 32.5 = [9. Assuming zero whirl velocity at exit and neglecting blade thickness determine the overall and hydraulic efficiency and rotor blade angle at inlet.12 60 115 1. = 104. Also find the guide vane outlet angle : Power developed 16120 × 10 3 Overall efficiency = = Hydraulic power 7 × 1000 × 9.25 As the inner diameter is not known blade angle at outlet cannot be determined.25 × 10 6 430 .51 a1 b1 Vf1 = 9.35° V1 = (Vf12 + Vu12)0.52 + 32. The runner outside diameter is 1500 mm and the width is 135 mm. The runner speed As Power developed 12. 14. Problem 14.14.81 × 260 ηo = 0.29% Chapter 14 .4 = = 31. The flow rate is 7 m3/s .39 – 31. The exit velocity at the draft tube outlet is 16 m/s. = 223.13 9. head equal for Euler work = m Vu1 u1/g  = Figure P. Assume zero whirl at exit.52) ∴ β1 = 84.9029 or 90.5 / (32.07 – 2.5 = 8.52 Vu1 = 32.81 Loss of head = 115 – 104.52 m/s 60 60 Vu1 = 32.39 m/s Vu1 > u1 ∴ The shape of the inlet Velocity triangle is as given. = m Vu1 u1  = 12 × 103 × Vu1 × 31.5 32.39 ∴ α1 = 16.39 m/s u1 = 31.5 m/s Vu2 = 0.25 × Solving 106 u1 = πDN π × 430 × 1. Also fluid the specific speed. Guide blade angle αr tan α1 = Blade inlet angle β1 tan β1 = 9.5 = 33.

Assume ηv = 0. The overall efficiency is 0. Hydraulic efficiency Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V2 2 = H − 2g / H F GH I JK where V2 is the exit velocity into the tailrace ηH = (260 – (162/2×9.9.9 / 0.12 m/s 60 Vu1 = 0.81 × 25 = 11. At the outlet these are 1100 mm and 730 mm. Vf1 = 94. Vu1 = ηH (gH)/u1 u1 = π DN / 60 = ∴ Vu1 > u ∴ The shape of the velocity triangle is as given. The runner blade angle at inlet is 135° along the direction of the blade velocity.2 m . A small Francis turbine develops 2555 kW working under a head of 25 m.58 m3/s Hydraulic efficiency = Overall efficiency/(Mechanical efficiency × Volumetric efficiency) ∴ ∴ ηH = 0.9498 × 9.4 m/s 7 Q = = 11 m/s π × 15 × 0.496 Assuming no friction and other losses.46 Figure P. = 38.5 × 600 = 47.12 = 51. ηm = 0.4 u1 = 47.25 The specific speed of the unit = It is on the lower side. β is the angle taken with the direction of blade velocity.15.4 ∴ ∴ α1 = 12.98% π × 1.9 × 9.97.97 = 0.14 Problem 14.08° tan β1 = 11/(51. π D1b1 Vw1 = 51. The flow rate Q = P / ηo gH = 2555 × 103 / 0.98 × 0. whirl velocity at inlet.98.9468 × 9.81) / 260 = 0.81 × 260 / 847.4 – 47. The whirl is zero at exit. 14.9468 = u1 Vu1 / gH u1 Vu1 = 0. The diameter and width at inlet are 1310 mm and 380 mm.12) β1 = 68.9498 or As Vu2 is assumed to be zero.12 a1 Vr1 V1 b1 Vf1 = 11 tan α1 = 11 / 51.74° 600 60 16120000 260 1. Determine the runner speed.135 .81 × 25 = 232. the guide blade outlet angle and the flow velocity at outlet.

27 m.4 rpm 60 tan α1 = 7.385 × tan (180 – 135) = 7.4 2555000 = 134. 14. A Francis turbine works under a head of 120 m.385 / 11.16 Chapter 14 . The outlet velocity diagram is a right angled triangle as shown Vf2 = Vf1 × D1 b1 / D2b2 = 8.385) = 232.37 Vu 1 = 11.37 × 60 / π × 1.73 = 4.58.16.2 × N = u2.385 u1 (u1 – 7.26 The exit triangle is right angled tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Specific speed 180 – β2 = 15. The whirl velocity at outlet is zero.63° Vf 2 = 11. N = 4 × 60/π D = 19.9 m/s Vr2 16° u2 V2 = Vf2 π D2 N π × 1.58/π × 1.27 = 8 m/s ∴ u2 = 8/tan 16 = 27. = 27.16 m.99 a1 Vf1 7.2 u1 – 7.99 m/s u1 = 2 497 u1 = 19.55/π × 1.385 u1 – 232.37 m/s.9 ∴ α1 = 31.24° = N H P 5/4 Ns = 282.76°. 14.385 V1 Vr 135° Figure P.31 = 282.38 = 7.2 m and 0. power.25 Problem 14.15 π DN . 60 × 25 1. The outer diameter and width are 2 m and 0.Hydraulic Turbines The flow velocity at inlet Vf1 = 11.385 m/s tan (180 – 135) = Vf1 / (u1 – Vu1) ∴ u1 – Vu1 = 7.1 × 0.1 × 282. The inner diameter and width are 1.26 m/s 60 60 4. Assume ηH = 90%.59 16.2 = 0 ∴ u1 = 19. speed and blade angle at inlet and guide blade angle.2 × 0. The outlet blade angle is 16°.31 × 0. 60 60 Solving N = 444 rpm Figure P.9.1 m/s.1 × 2 × 0.16 / 1.59 m/s = V2 Blade velocity at outlet u2 = π D2 N π × 1. Vu1 = 11. Determine.4 = = 16. The flow velocity at inlet is 8. β2 = 164.

9 × 9. The flow ratio is 0.04 = u1 (u1 – 4. The available head is 81 m. Vu1 = = 22. 14. The blade inlet angle is 120 with the direction of wheel velocity.6 = 24.8 m/s gH 46.92 × 81 × 9. β1 > 90° Vu1 = u1 – 7.143 m3/s Power = 0.81 × 8.5 u1 Vu a1 Vf1 V1 Vr1 b1 u1 > Vu1 .8 × 103/1.6 u1 – 731. Determine runner diameter.16 × 8.8 α1 = 19.2 2 × 9.6) or ∴ Speed ratio u12 – 4.09 m/s 1 .04 = 0.842 + 7. V1 = (24.6 tan 60 u1 Vu1 = 731.8 Figure P. ∴ Vf1 = 0.1 22.2.44 – 4.72 Problem.973 = u1 – 4.8 KW u1 Vu1 = 1220.4 = = 46.81 × 1.84 m/s u1 φ = V .1 46. tan α1 = ∴ Vf 1 Vu1 = 8. Solving.5 − 22.17 An inward flow reaction turbine of the Francis type operates with a flow rate of 1.67 m3/s runs at 416 rpm.5 m/s 60 60 u1 Vu1 0.16 ∴ β1 = 161° Flow rate = π D1 b1 Vf1 = π × 2 × 0.498 u1 = ηH = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π D1 N π × 2 × 266.04 m2/s2 Flow ratio = 0.55° tan (180 – β1) = Vf 1 u1 − Vu 1 = 8.44 m/s Vu1 = 29. The shape of the inlet triangle is shown.67 × 103/103 P = 1220.67 × 103 = 731.81 × 120 .9 × 120 × 9.2 = Vf 1 2g H .973 m/s The shape of the velocity triangle is as shown.9732)1/2 = 26.14. u1 = 29.1 = 8.143 × 103 / 103 = 8627 kW Ns = 444 60 8627 × 10 2 1205 / 4 = 54. Hydraulic efficiency is 92%. the power developed and the speed ratio Power developed = 0.81 × 81 = 7.

b1 = 0.18 Determine the diameters and blade angles of a Francis turbine running at 500 rpm under a head of 120 m and delivering 3 MW.53 Problem 14.18 The outlet triangle is as shown as Vu2 = 0.9 = u1 Vu1 gH Chapter 14 .5°) To solve inlet angles.193 m. Vu is required 1 0.5° (23.14 2 × 9.034 m3/s 10 3 × 9.1 D1 × 6.79 Solving D1 = 1.35 m Ns = 1220 × 10 3 416 .615 β2 = 156.14 and D2 = 0. The hydraulic efficiency is 90% and the overall efficiency is 84%. assuming Vf2 = Vf1 tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Solving 6.14 2 g H = 0.25 Figure P. Vf1 = 0.2386 m u1 = ∴ π D1 N π × 1. 14.09 a1 Vf V1 Vr 1 u Vu 120° π D1 N = 29. 14.1 D1.44 60 ∴ D = 1.128 26.193 × 500 = = 31.81 × 120 × 0.79 m/s From the overall efficiency and power delivered Q= 3 × 10 6 = 3.5 D1 and b1 = 0.Hydraulic Turbines ∴ φ= 499 29.615 m/s u2 b2 Vr2 Vu1 u1 a1 b1 Vf2 = V2 Vr Figure P. b2 = 0.79 15.84 Q = π D1b1 Vf1 = π D1 × 0.81 × 120 = 6. D2 = 0.17 = 31.1193 m. Assume flow ratio as 0.44 = 1.23 m/s 60 60 u2 = 15. 60 811.5965 m.

9 × 9. Determine the hydraulic efficiency assuming zero whirl at exit and constant flow velocity.79 33.93 − 31.33 = 8.342 V1 = 1. 14.33 m/s u = 1.23 Vf 1 Vu1 Vu1 > u1.81 × 120 = 33.1372 V1 1732 . The velocity diagram is as shown in figure. As no velocity value Vu = V1 cos 20 = 0. ∴ The triangle is as shown tan α1 = = 6.10893 V12 + 0.00596 Q 0.3° Problem 14. u = Vu + Vf tan 60 (1) (2) = 0.32° tan β2 = 6.18 = 9.81 × 10 Problem 14.9397 . when running at 350 rpm under a head of 100 m.81 0. V12 = 10 – 2 × 9.9397 V1 + 0. and blade angles. Assume ID = 0.767 m/s ηH = 10.81 9.1093 + 0.10 D.00596 V12 = 10 ∴ ∴ V1 V12 V1 60° Vf 120° L OP 10 =M N 0.93 ∴ α1 = 11.9482 or 94. The flow ratio is 0.1372 × 9.61 × 8. Assume constant flow velocity and zero whirl at exit.9397 V1 Vf = V1 sin 20 = 0. .20 A Francis turbine delivers 16 MW with an overall efficiency of 85 percent and a hydraulic efficiency of 91 percent.61 m/s Vu1 = 0.23 ∴ β1 = 68.82% 9. Vu =H– g 2g 20° u Vu 2 0. (3) Work done = headlosses (all expressed as head) Vf 2 u .767 = 0.9397 × 9.93 m/s 31.79 33.500 ∴ Vu1 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.342 1.5 Figure P.2 and blade blockage is 8 percent of flow area at inlet.33 = 10. Assume no losses other than at exit. The guide vane outlet angle is 20°.3420 V1 is avaivable. the method adoped is as below. The blade inlet angle is 120°.6 OD and width as 0.19 In an inward flow reaction turbine the working head is 10 m.1372 × 0. Determine the runner diameter.

4° (as in figure) or 163.13 m/s 60 60 50.274 m ID = 1.78 m/s Vu1 < u1 ∴ The velocity diagram is as in figure Inlet 50.1881 = π D × 0.5° tan α1 = tan β1 = ∴ 8. 14.7° (along + ve u) 8.20 8.21 17.86 × 0.1881 m3/s 1000 × 0.13 b2 Exit Figure P.1881 π × 0.08) D2 = 19.81 × 100 2g H Chapter 14 Q = π D b Vf (1 – 0.86 17.81 × 100 = 8.81 × 100 gH ∴ Vu1 = 17.21 m/s. 0.74 m.78 β1 = 15.13 Outlet angle β2 = 16.86 50.86 30.78 a1 8.91 = 9.1 D × 8. Flow ratio = ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Vf Vf = flow ratio × 2 g H = 0.1 × 8.74 × 350 = = 50.Hydraulic Turbines Overall efficiency = = 501 Power delivered ρQ g H ∴ Q= Power delivered ρη0 gH 16 × 10 6 = 19.2 2 × 9.12 − 17. u2 = 30.85 × 9.86 b1 8.78 ∴ Guide blade outlet angle is 26. b =