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By Vijay.N Vishak.M 5th Sem C.S.E
History of Nanotechnology. Introduction of Nanotechnology. Applications of Nanotechnology. Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Nanochip Designing. Carbon Nanotubes. Practical applications of Nanotechnology.
Feynman explored the possibility of manipulating the materials at a scale of individual atoms and molecules. carving and molding. as opposed to the top-down approach that we are accustomed to. which are held together by covalent forces that are far stronger than the forces that hold together macro-scale components. He described how the laws of physics do not limit our ability to manipulate single atoms and molecules.On the other hand. Bottom-up manufacturing :. As first described in a lecture titled. Further more. Top-down Manufacturing :. would provide components made of single molecules. Feynman described such atomic scale fabrication as a bottom-up approach. it was not possible for us to manipulate single atoms or molecules because they were far too small for our tools. the amount of information that could be stored in devices build from the bottom up would be enormous . there is nothing besides our clumsy size that keeps us from using this space.It involves the construction of parts through methods such as cutting. imagining the whole of the encyclopedia Britannica written on the head of the pin. we have been able to fabricate a remarkable variety of machinery and electronics devices. Using these methods. 'There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom' in 1959 by Richard P. Feynman. In his time. Prof.History of Nanotechnology The amount of space available to us for information storage (or other uses) is enormous.
The original definition is technology that is built from single atoms and which depends on individual atoms for function. and systems through the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules. where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale. Current manufacturing processes use lithography to imprint circuits on semiconductor materials. The goal of nanotechnology is to control individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit. molecular and macro-molecule scales. .Introduction to Nanotechnology Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic. devices. Nanotechnology is the branch of science and engineering which deals with creation of materials.
A nanometer-sized particle is also smaller than living cell and can be seen only with the most powerful microscope available today. If we rearrange atoms of sand we can make computer chips etc.000nm wide. Click here to see the Nano-sized particle . Nanotechnology is the technology of preference to make things small. The prefix ‘nano’ is derived from the Greek word for dwarf. The original definition this technology that is built from single atoms and which depends on individual atoms for function. One nanometer (nm) is equal to one-billionth of a meter.if we rearrange the atoms in coal. 10-9 m. A human hair is approximately 80. and a red blood cell approximately 7000nm wide. we can get diamond. Atoms are below a nanometer in size. nanotechnology based manufacturing is a method conceived for processing and rearranging of atoms to fabricate custom products . light and cheap.
Applications of Nanotechnology Nanotechnology Applications Categories Nanosystems Nanomaterials Nanoelectronics .
. scientists have combined genetically engineered proteins with other chemically structured components.Nanosystems It is small systems can be seen as an extension of biotechnology. to create a molecular motor about the size of a virus. For example.
Nanomaterials It is possible to create new kinds of materials by working at the nanolevel. One of the first nanomaterials was the “carbon nanotube”. which conducts electricity better than copper yet is stronger and lighter than steel. .
will inevitably enter the realm of nanotechnology. . which soon will have minimum feature sizes below 100 nanometers.Nanoelectronics Standard computer chips.
with a clock speed of 0. The increase in number of transistors on a chip coupled with increased speed have fuelled the economics of IT industry.Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • In IT industry the computer chips is formed by charting number of transistors. • Nanotech and computer chips . their first computer chip.000 million cycles per second. over the past 30 years. • In 1971 there were just 2300 transistors on Intel’s 4004.8 million cycles per second. the building blocks of computer chips. • But because of nanotechnology by 2003 the Intel Xeon processor had 108 million transistors operating at clock speeds in excess of 3.
000nm technology. In the optical communications industry there is already a commercially available device (wavelength selective switch) which consists of some 100'000 individually moveable mirrors mounted on the surface of a silicon chip about one cm square where each mirrors is few microns across. Computer chips consist of "field-effect transistors" (FETs) that form the active circuits on most chips become smaller and smaller they begin to come up with certain problems. the chips of 2007 and 2013 will require 65nm and 32nm technology. respectively. In 1971 Intel 4004 chip used 10.The first integrated circuit in 1970 chips have become smaller. In the computer-chip world. The current 130nm technology node that produces the Intel Xeon processor defines the size of the DRAM (Dynamic random access memory) half-pitch (half the distance between two adjacent metal wires in a memory cell). . nanotech will be characterized by new types of transistor (such as the "single-electron transistor" or SET) and new types of semiconductor device (such as quantum-well and quantum-dot lasers) to operate in the nanotech environment. then. faster and more capable.
INTEL AND INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP FOR SEMICONDUCTORS . These devices are found in the average desktop computer today Reducing the size of features boosts speed and improves the economics of manufacture by allowing more transistors (often more than 50 million) to be put on a single chip.Nanochip Designing In 2000 the semiconductor industry quietly began producing "Nanochips"--chips with features measuring less than 100 nanometers (roughly one thousandth the thickness of a human hair). In just a few years. a typical microprocessor will contain about 10 times that number.
Basic Chip making Process • The basic chip making process involves three stages:SILICON-ON-INSULATOR technology ATOMIC LAYER DECOMPOSITION EXTREME ULTRAVOILET LITHOGRAPHY .
Silicon-on-insulator Technology .
Atomic Layer Decomposition .
Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) .
. copper interconnect and low-k dielectrics. The chips use a second generation version of Intel's strained silicon. They are expected to go into production in 2005.57µ2 in size which means that 10 million chips could fit inside the tip of a ball point pen.Intel’s 65 Nanometer SRAM chips Intel has claimed to have produced fully functional 65 nanometer SRAM chips using 12-inch (300mm) silicon wafers. The 4Mbit SRAM cells are only .
Fig :. Carbon Nanotubes can route signals in microprocessor chips faster than traditional copper or aluminum wires at speeds of up to 10 GHz.Multi – walled carbon nanotube . These tiny straw-like cylinders of pure carbon have useful electrical properties. They have already been used to make tiny transistors and one-dimensional copper wire.Carbon Nanotubes Carbon Nanotubes are hexagonally shaped arrangements of carbon atoms that have been rolled into tubes.
microwave generators. and high intensity lamps. such as the replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) technology by electron-producing carbon Nanotubes. devices for electric surge protection. Structure of Carbon nanotubes. Carbon Nanotubes are also likely to be used in IT. These tubes can be either conducting or semi conducting and have the potential for memory and storage as well. Fig :-Single-walled carbon Nanotube . Nanotechnology also has prospective applications for display devices. Carbon Nanotubes also have great significance for use in flat-panel displays.
Practical Applications of Nanotechnology Monitoring Patience Electronics Automobile Optical transmission properties Modern Telecommunications .