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R>V >\m W]_, ^ V>
V, ktz ck\V B[|]
V. k_ [ g|z x[A [
k> ~>m: ""k^ c^ [[ sm_1
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(k. 12; ASV). ""[[ sm_'' [ VuV
g] >k^ 2 \E[ s> nB
sm^ [> V[ >[, \uD ""\kV
V^'' [m cs_ c^ du^ [
t|[[. V \V lu_3 E u^
> bu^>VKD, cs[ KDA
m|l_ E u^ > bu>VKD,
sD kw> VKD V>\V>[
[. cs[ uA, kw]uz
\VV E V^ | |D^ V>
D VD mz^ V|^ nB>
a |D!
""\kV V^'' [>uB m sD
>kVlD >kV>VzD. W>V_ w
{V\V \VV]_ V[ kVsV_,
>[ VVm [D, >kVF ]zD.
WkV V[, ""\kV V^'' [k K
l_ \m^ V^ [D, u B]_
|\BV g> ss Bk [D
u>[. NASBl_ ""\kV E> V'' [
264

kV>^ B[|^. o[ V\VA


B]_ ""\kV V^'' k BD F>
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. 4[ x z] \uD . 5[ >V z]
ku V[ l_, R>V 12[ ckD m
\]_ k>m. ]V^ 1 x>_ 3 xB, BVm
>kV B>5 >V\VF s>m.
]VD 4_ c]k][ x>_ AB_ TEu, gV_
V>^ > AB >V V.
glD, ]VD 5_ \kV VBV[ B
aB \kV VBV[ >m!

>kV kVD (4:3237)


][ > >z[, E VD
kl_, BVm >kV kVD \uD V>\V
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2:4347_ >VB [A, gkD \uD s|>
s[ kVu V, [ 4:3237KD >V
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c>]V_ >D\ skVEzD BVkD [V
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>V'' [ \VaB|^ kV> ""]V
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VF V>VKD, c\l_ k^
[Vl>. mz^V VmkV
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265

z VmkVl>m ... WD, T|


D cBk^ k su, su
k[ B> V|km, V
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>kBV>uz >>VF 9 m V|
m; k_ kzD [D zkV
l>]_ (k. 32g35).

kz >k[, ""Bk[ cz^


_V]zD'' [ kVz>>D F]>V,
gV_ m, ""V[ cz u _V u
[D FD'' [ W>[ >m
(cV. 15:4, 5). k^ > W>B W
ku >kV^, k \^ > kVz
>>> >kV^. EBV, gszB
kVB, >kB \^ km E>
> FB > AV|>. s>\V,
""k_ kzD [D zkVl> ]_''10
[ sB|D kV> VD kVE[VD.
u J_ > x WkV V^B
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_ ""[Bm'' [mD [VzD. kz^
k k^ ""DxBm'' kzD k
[ V>zD VmkVF B[|km [
V^. glD, k^ >^ c\
""kBm'' [ Bm tD xB\V
>VzD: kB>_VD >kBm (2:44,
266

45V zA D) [D k^
k\ cVV [D k^
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T|D cBk^ kVm k
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kVl>m [ VD Bs_. k, W]
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z, z >k^, ""V>z m VmD''!14
[ VV^ Dk >^ c\
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x mkV ]D, ""k^ [>^
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VKD, lVKD F>! k[ >VV
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267

B V[ VmD kV][, z
kVk\ \uk[ D zm
M>V_, c^j [ cVV 16
x^ A^ [ >MBV >D
s_. glD c^ >Vm[
>^ Dm su c^j l_ c^k
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c^ c]uz uF]B D >V\VF
c>D c V[ [!
m V^>_ uB sD kD 33_
gw\VF c^m: "">VB Bs[ cl>
> zm V>^ tz> \VF VE
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cVl>m.'' x>_ Vkl_, k]_ [D
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[ k >z]BVm V >V[m. glD,
BVV_ V [A \uD >VV zD
ku[ skV m cVlu [>V_ s
]_ kD >z]BV |^>[m
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l[V_ ] k> V > A
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B z, V z |mV
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268

A ykVD18 oBD V>V


g>o[ \[ [ > V^D V
[D \19 uk\VB BV [k[,
>z cVl> W> su, >[
B> 20 V| km, V>B
V>]21 k>V[ (k. 36, 37).

m \z ^ o[ xB\V ""E
V]\VB'' VkuB x[BVzD.
^ o_ z>m >m xD,
W_ \KD nm xD Vs[ B
z|^m.
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V[ \['' 22 V^|D. ""V'' [V_
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[k x ]_ >M EA u
kVl>>V_ k V [ w
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uBKz #|kVl>V. k
D F>>[ |mV| [ VD
u^VD (11:23, 24). ]_ k >M
J |mkVk VD
V[VD. k VmD \ cuVJ
V>lV_, V>^
kz V [ B [ V[
b[[. k >uV B
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V V [ >mVV? k,
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269

B[|] VVV? k kl_ V


>[V_, k V > V > >M
EA^>VuV? k sB [> V
>V ^V. y V_ g]l
W^ Vm, \F_ W^ >s k
> D sB^ s_ (gB
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>m, . 18:20, 21, 24; 35:18; BV. 21:41).
sBV > V, k k[
W> 26 tz> i k|D - >
sumD kz ] \i> V|]
k|D. Vku s\V z V
z VD mkV D, km [[
VBVm, >uz[ k[ 27 [om
xuKD x>m.

\kV V^ (5:111)
\V|Mm, VV u,
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V^ xBV]>m! > m, T|],
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W. kB s]om >km.) k[
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xBuE F>V[. V>V c^m kD
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MBV [D ^ kD,28 k
B \sBVB VD >^ V
BVEB29 suV^. >[ \s B k[
B] kEmkm,
V|km V>B V>]
k>V[ (k. 1, 2).

l[ x>_ Vk\V ] FB|^m


MBV V[ Vk\VzD. m x>_ Vk\_
270

_VD VkD F[ (V\ 3:23) - gV_ m


x>Vkm ] FB>VzD.
D\M>[ BV MBV [>uz ""BVkV
^k'' [ V^. >kB B
u k V]>V; ss_ k >k
B ]BD u V^kVl>V. km
\sl[ BVB V^ [m \Vl
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cBkVF k^ ]s_.
k[ Vk> AmV^km xB\V
>V^m. c\B k]>>V _m >
c\B su>V (_m kV_ x]>V_
> V]uV su>V) k[ Vk\V
s_. su B]_ k^
>[ kmVm Vk\_.
kD 4 > > |m[m. \VV, su
B]_ \|D V| km, m>V[ x
suBD [ Bm>V[ k[ Vk\Vl>m
(k. 3, 8).
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[ kV> V_ B[|>m.
V_ ^ x JB>: EzD
xJ^ [sBKzD, m xJ^ m[sB
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m V_ Vk FkD, c\
B_ ""xJ'' BV_ \kD z
B[|>m (\VF\VVu >
[ WV [m \. 23_ |^m).
>VD l k|D []om k
>kkm \|D \VF\V\V sVm; Dt_ BVD VD
l k|\V l]_. \VF
\VD [m m\V kBVzD. MBVD
VD >^ kB ]t. >
271

]]_ k^ ""\'' (k. 9). \VF\VD


[m \k\V Vk\VzD (. 10:2629).
kEzDBV k[ y\V> #
Bm m [mu V [D s_, gV_
VD u> RD FB xD.31 V >m
VlV_ s u>V
(k > VlV_ ""V'' [
|B kz u]VD). MBVD,
VD > DAEB >zD
uV^ sDlV^. o
k^, ""\]_ cVzD _V sBV]KD B
\Vm _m ak u|mkm >uAEB
sDAk>VzD'' [ zV.
skD W> su x F>Vm,
k[ AE g k[ gBV|
(1 y\V. 6:10) kKkVF \V]u. > WD _ sz
su k|D, k[ V >[
x B>D VBV V|ms|Dz
k \]s_. [kD ^sB
k^ gm E]>: Vk V[ ]BVD
FBV\_, Vk V[ AE km
? W][ B>u VF V_K>_
[> kz sBVlu. gok k[_
V_D k^ x, ""Vk]uz s^
c|, gV_ VF [m s^
BVkuzD Vm[ BVzD'' [
V [ kB sBV.
s>\V MBV >m D > [32
[ Vl_ gD>V[ ([V VB
zsB_ k[ T_ m BVzD >BVm!).
k[ [ VB V|DVm D
[ E > u Fl_
kz^ A[ Vu. k^ kz
k ""]BV][ \['' [V _m "">[
\l[ \['' [V BVD!
272

k[ >m [ sBV [z ]
t|, V> >V[.33 k[ [
V[V[ _m F>V[ [> BV VD
Bs_, gV_ [kD kV>^ km
Bo_ ] k|D: "" kV
VD, VD >kV_ gk]
VD. z^ \m V> V>[ >
gkV> mV^km z tz>
\EB >[m. kV V^
sB> W> V>\V k]>VD (u
Vm) u V^ > suVD.'' \>, \uD
x^ xm[, k[ > V>
VB ms[ V>]_ km, "">V >[
suBD'' [ V[. z >D k
[ sm, \[ ""m [t_,
c\l_ [t_'' [ ]_ >BVV
W[V[. gV_, km \VF\VD k|D
]EB k[ uV[!
m k V: ""MBVk, W][ B]_
kEmkm, > gslM]_
VFV_KD, V>V[ c[ >B>
W>[? > suzx[ m c[B>V
ls_BV? > su[AD ][ BD c[
k]_ s_BV? c[ >B]
V>[? \
]_ _, >kM]_ VFV[VF''
[V[ (k. 3, 4).

kD 1:24_ >k[ ""_VB >BD


]k'' [ sV (.k. . 4:13).
B >\m V> aB]_, \B >B
[ E>B ]>V (\Vu. 2:8). Vm
>k[ \uD msB gslV_ m,
MBVs[ gm\Vs_34 c^ y\B k|]
m B JzD \kV VBVl
273

> VV.
ms[ uom \z c\^
A|[. x>Vkm, V>V[35 >m >B>
""W'' MBV \]>>V m V>k[
_m > gsBVk k[ >B> W
k|D [> zV m >k[ _m
> gsBVk[ ""|V[ '' k
zD WB zm. >k[ \M>[
>B> WAkm V[ V>VD W xD.
VuV, ""|V[ '' [ VB
>k>V c^m. MBV >m ^ \uD
B_ V>V[ ||mD \]>V[.
glD MBVs[ s]u]V V>V[
> FBs_. m MBVsD "" c[
>B] V>[?''
[ V. V>V[ MBVk #l
VD, gV_ xs_ MBVk >m V>
Fz VVBVV[! 36 V>V[,
MBVs[ Vm_, ""Vk Vk cm
BD kVkB c>|KD c
V_ [Vlz\_kV? > B_
|mk>[ cz [V_ xD'' [
>> [V_ u FB xm. MBV
>uz ]V, >m[ ""kVD, ]_ z
gkt_'' [ l>V_ V>V[ {
VlV[ (BV. 4:7). \VV, MBV >m >B
][ >k ]m, gBm[ ""[D ]D
V_K'' [V[! z V>V[ km >B>
xkmD WV[. c^ >B]_ V>V[ >[
V kmsV>z BVl^!37
W> suzx[D, su [AD MBVz
> s >kVm, ms[ u_ A|D
Vkm c\BVzD. > c\BVm
Vm\ km ""|V[ >V[''
>m; MBV >V[ sDB> VkD m
274

t[B F] |D. k[ > su


kB]_, su [A _V >D V|
]D >kl_. MBVD VD W
][ B]_ z]B km Vm VkD
_, gV_ z] B> x BD [
VF V[> k[ VkD [ \D
z kom[[.
J[Vk>V, MBV VF B>V m
zuD VV. V>V[ ""VFBD, VFz
>V\VlV['' (BVkV. 8:44). V>V[ k[
>B> WADVm, VFBVm BuBVF {
km. glD, z MBV >kM]_ VF
V[V[ [m s\V z >>VF
c^m. kD 3_ m, MBV ""> gslD''
VF B>V zV, \uD kD 4_ "" \
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ko]V. z kVB V_ D38 VD
_m _V\oVD \D \|\_,
>kM]KD VF V[VF [m V[m
gV_ MBV >kM]_ VF V[V[39 [
c\B z ko>|m. ""VF'' [
V_ MBVs[ >B]_ Az>Vm, k[
V>]KD ... lM]KD VF
V_Kk>B lV[. glD, V
>^ >kB gsBVkV_ WB u
k^ >kB gB\VzD k k
]_ MBV VF V[Vm, >kM
]B VF V[>V[m!
l_ _V VkD >k]V
kB. m \ V]>VKD V]VsVKD;
Vk][ J> Vl_ m kk_
kz 40 ]V xV\Vk c^m! >
c^ E>l_ km V^^. MBV
V[ Vk][ sk V]zD |>
]_ m c>D.
275

MBVsMD m Bmu [D
sD > k|D: m, MBVs[\_
V> s_. MBVs[ Vk> zm
m BV EV, gV_ \>uB
kV> mD ]_ s_. |> [
zD [>u, \uk^ Vk mD
gB]_ >V.
MBV > kV> k, sm
k sV[. k ^s
BVkzD tz> BxVlu. kVo
m, k l_ u, kB
|mV|VF D V^
(k. 5, 6).

sBV^ kz kl_,
>^ u >Vz[. >^
c am V^[ \uD >^
xB Fm V^[. 41 E, ""m
VmD s_! [V_ c
> k>uV > | m!'' [
[. \uk^, "">V E ]zD, gV_
[V_ >uz uA> zD >
Vm'' [ s[. \u E,
ms[ BV u[ k_\BV_ ""MBV
s]_ \VA u| sm \]VD''
[ A V^[. zB _V\
mk s\E[. k, ""k [xD
> gsBVkV_ xuKD gV
s_'' [ zuD V|[V. [Vk,
mz VV (?) ""\FA z k A]Bk
[> VD W k|D. > WEBVm
\>B [D V>\VF > k|D [
kz V]>m'' [ [V.
MBVz [ >m [mu
m^ Am V^ k|D:
276

(1) V ^B BV m >m!
_B[V_, V D >z> VEB_
[D, VD o_ k ^ k >D D
xBVm [D gm!
(2) m >VD F>]_, >kB >
gsBVkV_ ka >V! (E \B_
m >k^ F>V [V. 2:1113], gV_ gsBV
k[ BV |V_ l_ k
kV FBs_.) 5:111[ \B V]D
MBVkV _m VV _m mkV
_, gV_ m > gsBVk!
(3) >kB ]W]BV m m EV.
>kB gsBVk, mz, MBVD
VD F>> k|]V. MBVs[
VkD V>]V>_, gV_
>k]Vm [> m >kVV.
(4) z >m >kM]om k> WBVB
yVzD.42 ""k sV['' [ VuVVm
""gm\V'' [ kV>[ ""kB'' 43 [
x[M V_ > | kV>
lom \VaBm. kw]uz \VV
kV> A]B uV_ [V >k 12:23_44
\|\ V|m. s]_ Vmz k>
WBVByA u |m: ""k[ >kz
\\B K>V>lV_ c >B
#>[ k >V[; k[ AAm >V[.''
"">V['' [ kV> 5:5_ c^ ""k sV[''
[m Vk c^ kV>BVzD. MBV
\> z, ""k ^s BVkzD
BxVlu'' [> kM^. kVkD
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_. MBVs[ \D, k >kz
B|D F>m45! (> >kz ""ADV
A'' [ bk^, sBV\D 10_ V>V
\uD zD, 2 Vxk_ 6_ VzD >k[
277

F>> \m s|[, [V_ ^ 12_


Vmz k F>> z kEBt_!)
[ >m [mu V[ ]\V B
s_. MBV \]D kVFA >>V
_BV46 [D V[ Bs_. MBVkD,
k[ \s VD >k[ s>D >V
[D V[ Bs_. 47 D > V[
][: [ >> >k[ [B
>kzD, [B >kzD (D
VD c) V\V szD sDV.
\M>V| BVuD s>]_ V^ >VD
>k[, Vk> zm >VD tD sB\Vl>
ko]V. km \^ kV cs_
A]B Wl_ Owl_ m Wm^m.
s>\V, gVBmkD u|>|l_ k
V>V \uD R gBV >V (s. 10),
>VT][ >\l_ k^, >kV
c[B Amm V^l_ k
Vk >V (2 Vx. 6).
^ 5_ > Dk]uz E>
DkD, k^, kVz>>D
Vuz^ Owl_ gV[ [kz >
WEl_ V|m. 5:2_ c^ ""kEm km''
[>uzD, BV. 7:1[ \VaB_ gV[
F>> D kV>zD \Val_
s>\V kV> B[|>|^m.
ko[ ^^ x>[x>o_ V [
> >. sB> cV^ BVD
>B VVz k|D [
BVkV, Tz V. > k^
l_, gV[, wB s\]A^
V V[. k[ k
V| kB D k>Vm, VV
k uVm, k ""Eku'' k[
km V|, _VkuD V|ms>V
278

>V[. a >V>m. gVB k,


k_ \V >kB ]> a
z^Vu. gVD kz^ BVkuD48
a[ VE[ DkD xk>m. >k
B \^ kVz>>D FB V[
OwkVlo_ l_, >VD Vk> zm
sB\Vl> k^ B k|\[ >k[
sDV! ]V[z uV|z z, >k
B A]B \^ >k ][ OwkVlo_
zDVm, k^ > ]B> u
V^D k sDV!
^ 5_ c^ m[sB_ VEBVm [kD
k[ xk[m: ""kVo 49 m,
k l_ u,50 kB |mV|
VF, DV^'' (k. 6). z^ 51
_V\ \uD ][ >m \z, V>V \uD
R gBV >B W]l_ MBV_
E [A >> W|[m:
""\V V[ k^ km, k
k^ c|]l> V|D |m
VBmz AD V| VV^'' (s.
10:5). 52 E, MBVs[ k ]_ kD
V>uz VD, D\D D _
>m, z k D \\> VB
m s k|D [ BVE[ gVKD,
k D cBV > k|\[VKD,
k kD >kl_. k D >
xBVm V][ z]BVzD. z^ m
t[ k D k>[m t>
A>m V[>VzD (. 22:19).
m[sB_ m[ xBs_ II k
kB>Vl>m. > ]BVVl_
VD VBVF >V^. ""zB J[
\ mz [A, kB \s >>
BV\_, c^ k>V^'' (k. 7). V^, MBV
279

[ k]V>m [? \V, z|D >k[ [


xl_ MBV > V| km V|m,
z z zD ck\V WE,
>m \slD T| ]D m V^VD
[ ]tVD. k[ cBV ]D
kV>Vm, k km VlV_ cV
VVD zD [ k^
lVD. glD D > Vm k^ (\sB
Fkm Vk) k gD>V^m
k >V\] F>m53 [ V>uV k^
k>V^.
k^ k[ m sV[ [ BV\_ J[
\ D ] xD? m
>kD >u kzD V_
kVD [ l |D54 z
]>m k^ >B]_ gw\VF ]]>
>V_, k BB55 F>! k >
>k 56 Fm V^ kz kVFV>
z, m z^ kVkD W
EB VD V>z > F]VD.
lD, >m kz [ >m [
k^ gB| V>VKD, >z [
zD [>u mD _V\B k^
z^ k>V^.
|D ]uz k>[ k^ [ V^?
k [kD k_ c^m V[ k^
ElVD: ""m k BVD VyV?
MBV Ts| km J[ \ \Vlu,
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m km z > ] VKD
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k57 V: W>58 kz>VV59 suS
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280

VlzD! k^ >m k V k>V^,


z k[ VBu k^ V
^s V^! k^ >BD kzkVF
m> [V_ u FB xm. "">V [
l_!'' [ k^ l k|D. [
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uxuD V]V^, gV_ kMm V
>k[ x_ m k^ [D B
xBs_. \]DD, >m VF
lD k^ kVFA uV^ (8:22;
1 BVkV. 1:9), gV_ \\BVm km Vk>
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>\V k^, ""gD, kz>V[ [V^'' (k. 8g).
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k>m[ >m >B ] k|D.
MBVD VD > gsBVk ""V]
>uz'' sD V>]_ []_ V[
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km, xm_ > V||km gBkB
k[ V\VF >m. glD, "">B
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>k V]m [>[ V^ [ [
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>kB V\B \, \ V]>>
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l_, >m s][ uV[ V\B
V]zD zw>B Wm V^!
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k #D [ k V]m Vm [
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281

k >kVBm clom w z]zD


D, >k #>^ WB\VF k >^ _
] V^kV^ [D V>V[ kz gV
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[ \uV^ VV. >kB kVz>>
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m k|>|, > kBm [
k xB\V>[D ko]. l
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_V]>V_, kBVm B|l_63
skVEl_ >[ s \V\VlzD.
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x >VD. >k[ s> \VF\VD \uD
kD gBku V\VV [>
s> >xt[ u V^k>uz s>
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tD xB\VF >m.

MBV \uD V[ VFBVm, zw>


k]o> BVm, s]B
z c\lB \kV B
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282

>V^. m k[ kD: "">V, c[


A D kB V_^ kVu
l64 k]m, c[D kB V|
VkV^'' [V[ (k. 9g). ]Ez \_ ]E
>V>m! km k[ \m, uk D
m \|\_; kD > B\V
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gV_ V[ \D mkV_ #
>_, >kVB #m [> V[
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c k^ kB V>]_ sm k
sV^.67 kVo c^ km, k^ \m
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VF, kB Al D
V^. BV_VzD, k
^s \u BVkzD tz> Bx
Vlu (k. 10, 11).

""k ^s \u BVkzD tz>


BxVlu'' [ V ko]V. kF\
k[ \VaB_ k^ ""B]V_
'' [ |m. k[
\VaBV]_ m k^ ""B\>'' [
|m. c\l_, V | _
(k. 5, 11) k[ B>kV^ >ks|
sV>z - z|^V! >k[ Vk> zm
tD sB\VlV \M>^ > c
k|D! ""\VD VV]^, >k[ >D\
BVD kVV'' [ _ V
(V. 6:7). s>D Fk>uz ||D >
xBuED ] >V|D!
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283

V, VD >uzx[ o_ 68 VV>
xB\V kV>B >kw s|^V: ""'' 69 [
kV>. ""'' [m ""wk^'' 70 [
V^|D | kV>BV ekklesia
[]om \VaB>VzD. Ekklesia [
kV>, V_, > z
B[|>m (\^ [V |D w
> >D kV> z|D;
19:32, 39, 41n VD). glD, >k]_, ekklesia
[m EV V u^m: >k
B s> \^ > s| kB
w|, B m[ A]B c
V^D wk^. _
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\D z B[|>|m (20:28), \uD
E \BD {]_ k> w \
z|m (>Vkm c^j BV, 8:1; 11:22;
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> WEBVm z AD >k
z \|\_, z^ zD \zD
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\u _ ]o[ V x\V? >k[
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s_B. VD > klKD, k^
V, ]|, kE>D, zk _m V>
V >kV B[|m>_ V[ zu^
mD FBs_. k^ l_ 72 VF
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VKD >V^ E>k^ [ VD. VD
V>Vkm ^V\V? V>Vkm
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284

[>V_ _ gV_ m VD c\l_ zD


WB VKD ]\V gszBk^ [m
V V|k>V_lV\V? \mk\l
o] kD V>Vkm VD, ""^
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\[ V[ ]t>['' [ V
c\BVk VD ]t>VD [>V_ _,
gV_ VD > VKD ]\V _k
V_ V k|D [>uV BmV?
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>o[ sB]_ B VF>V[ k[ z
Vk\Vl>m. VD kVkD \m ""kz
>>V'' kV][ x>_ V^ >VD cuV>V|D,
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[ >k[ WBtm^ W>\V VV
>V uVV c^m (1 V. 16:2; 2 V. 9:613). VD
\m VB KmD Vm, ""VD
V| k|\V V|m^VD; \m
k\V]uz >>V V c^m'' [
\x\V z|k]_BV? _B[V_
[kVzD? Dt_ BVD \m V|>o_
VF >_ [ zu]_ V\V?73
m \z t >kV ^sB V|
km: ^ 5_ Vm Vk [D
l_ Vk> zm >k[ B_V_
lzD? \|D z\[V_,
][ w VD kB k]
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kD k|D, aB]u[ E
c>sV VD WBt klzD! >
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>km.
MBV V[ sB]_ F>mV >k[
[ Vk> zm B_ ABV\_ VD.74
gV_ m, >k[ Vk> zm k sB\V
285

l]_ [ D \]|]
sVm!
a kVz>_ zBm, V ]u Fk[
[ V_KV [D, > >DxB
WBVByV [D V[k
[V[ kVD. k^ >kB
_ sm B\Vlz\ (. 10:30,
31).
g>V_, ... VD B>V|D ]BV|D >kz
B\VF gV> FD ... DxB >k[
E MBVlV (. 12:28, 29).

xkm[ x[ _K>_
(5:1214)
MBV V[ WEB s| zx[,
zu kV>BVkm kBm
>kBV^m. *]B g|_75 >V
[> kwz^ E, x[V B
l z k | >B
F[. MBV \uD V[ WEBVm
z xB xBmk|] V|
[m.
^ 5, z kz x[
\V]BV DkD _ [ V[ c[[.
^ 5_ >k[ B_V; z
kl_, c^j BV B_ k|D
(\. 18:1517; 1 V. 5:4, 5). ^ 5_ MBVD
VD > kVsom ;
z kl_, z|>kBk
\m nB]om (1 V. 5:5, 7, 9, 11, 13; 2 >. 3:6)
k|D. glD, ^ 5zD,
z kzD B E
VD V xD: BVD c^ Vk\Vm
286

Bs[ V E>[m. Vk\Vm


c V sV_ k gDm s|m
(s|D!). \>VV>k^ >V \|
t[, x BV[ [\VD z
|> kBm >kBVF c^m.
> E E>B ko> [
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V|kkm>V[ (1 V. 5:5), gV_ m
s_B[V_ [kVzD? MBV \uD
V[ sB]_ m s_. z
kz [xD \]A cV? gD, m \m
Z]om Vk> km V|, VD z
WWuVD [> D D Fm
(1 V. 5:1, 6, 7)!
z kB >Vm,
c>, kEB> sD >|^m >V
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BVD uA>D z^76
FBm. _VD \| V
\VB \]_77 >V^. \uk
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x^kV >\V ]\]\VF
V^ (k. 1214).

z kl[ s kM^:
(1) V>[ D>[\ z V]
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287

D'' FB x>m. (2) l_ nB\Vm


>Vm \uV^m. k^ ""_VD
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V>VB ]D >V_sB>m z
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z ak V|kkm Vk c^m!
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\V>V, \[\|>>V, kk>V
>m! glD |> V]_ VD V
V[ V>V[ m[ >m xBuE
W] V^s_.

x
\z, 4:325:14_ m V^ c^: VD
B\ukVF zD >k[ sDA[V.
\m kVlV_ uF] aB]uz c>D
>k[ sDA[V. l[ >k (x[V
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VkD D\ sw83 V\VzD [ VD
288

V]_ V[VD; VD VmD D\


u BVF k|D (1 V. 10:12).
glD, t gw\V ]BB V_ [,
[ Eku FVD [m, [ FVD
[> V[ xB\Vm [>VzD. MBV
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l_ _>VzD: k^, z, z>
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k|D [>uV > F> k
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>V[k|D [>uV VF .
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>z [ AV|m BVm [>V_
V[ kz aBD FV? _m ""\
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bk>V_ V[ kz aBD F[V?
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z >mV ] \D \zD uVD
\D kl_ D\ cVk ]
gB>|km [m tD >V\>\Vs|D. c^
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gB>\Vls_B[V_, ""k^ >k
B _ sm B\Vlz\'' (. 10:31)!

y zA^ z
g k^ ""V|mD |mD'' [
w >, ^ 4:3237 om
289

V|>V. ]_ V]z], >k^


>VV\VF V|kVF \|\_Vm, >VV
\VF kVF D uV^km
[ >kl[V_ >m. V\Vm,
to> c^ kVk ]> \m[
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V> [> c]BVF z|m.
mz^ V> V>Vl]_
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BVk sDA[ V>tm c>sB
\m \\ ckVm D\ > Fm
sVm.
^ o_ c^ xB V]^u
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]_ c^ cuV\V kaBVzD.
s]s >s (V. 2:13), V k\VkV
^V, k Vm\ x[\V]BV A
D, BVD k cuV|mD AD
V|V (15:3639_ kV _m V BV
F>m B[ ^ W>VKD, V >m
Bu s>]_, ""|mD \Vk''
W]>V). ^ B[|> sDAD E k
z]^: . 9:2628; 11:22, 2426, 30; 12:25; 14:4, 14; 15:2,
5, 12, 3641; 1 V. 9:6; V. 2:1, 9, 13; VV. 4:10.
MBV \uD V[ kVuom,
""Vk>u gw\V E] u V^>_''
[ k_\^ V> s|> xD
(kz][ \u V^ x[ \uD
x [ \V zVD). gVM[
kVuD (BVkV 7), MBV \uD V[
kVuD BV >km [ kal_ >
bVD. ^ F>V_, gVz >
>uz BV ^ BV. 1:14, 15n V| k
290

sDVD. VsB_ sD c>V_, >


]uz ^ ""\D z _K[m''
[ > V|VD. gV> kl_
\V_ W z>kD, zD
Vm \lB \> BD
V[ |^[; gV_ (V[ > kl_)
>kV_ m T> kD V[
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zA^
1
""[[ sm^'' [m agapais []om \Va
B|^m, m agape [>[ [\ kV>BVzD,
kV> A]B uV_ ""[A'' [>uzB s>
kV>BVzD. Agapais [m ""[A^'' (B V_) [
V^VKD, kV> g] >kV_ \[
s nB smB (V_ nB
sm ""nBD'' [ wmV) z
k>>VF c^m. 2. 2:46. >V^ 1 V. 11_
sk|^ sm [m [[ s][ >kV
B[VVzD [ b[, M_ V]B^
>m [[ s> >B ][ >>V_,
kl|D m zzD s>Vlu. 3V[ E
^BVll_ [V A \zD x[
k "">|zD'' z >m, E
\B_ l_ V[ V>BVF s_! 4^
_ [_ kVkVl>V_, c^ cB k
z w\V {| s m ^
sDVD. 5kV> sBV ^ EmVV_,
Ship (""_'') [ kV> >km[
m [> kM xD: Fellowship, partnership, worship, leadership, stewardship x>oB. 6m]ik\V, g] [
V > > nBD >Vm s_ (1 V.
1:1013). 7. 2:46_ k^ ""\>>V'' |m.
> _V VuVD, k[ nBD ADV>VF
\|t[, c^][ gw]om k>m [> z|m.
Vs[ u^ B x\BV kVl>
VD \VF kM k|D. \u >k[ \
V> k (MBV, V^ ]VD 5) VD VD.
8
Plethos [ kV>B \VaB >V [ kV>

291

B[|>|^m. \VaBA_ (KJV, NKJV, ASV)


"">V'' [ kV>B V|m. RSVl_ "">Vw\''
[^m. NASBl_ plethos [ kV> s>D \VaB
>uz, \V, ""m EV ck u^m ...
(R>^ \uD >k^ \]l_) c^ \V J]_
kV \]m'' [m V\VlVD. (F.F. A,
[ A>D, A]B uV| uB A]B c
s, rev. ed. [V[ , t.: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Co., 1988], 100). 9g]_ s]_ they [^m (>ta_ m
_) su B z[m. 10t_ VmD
m c\BVls_ (V\ 15:26), gV_ u VD
c\BVl>m.
11
m | kBm ]lD skV>> >V
k|\VV_, kB V^ >D [ V
[Bm [V_ VmD: ""m [B t]B'' [m
V >Vkm V_ VmD. c k^ A Vk
[ TE, >m E_ km >, ""[B t]B!''
[ sV^! 12 . 12_ BVkV[ \Vuzs[ >VBVB
\BVz t_ T| [xD >m, kBVD
> (k. 12, 13). 13g] >k[ B\u >[\B
k]_ c\ A [m Vs[ V V>
kl_ >uBV>VzD. 14m c[ V>
|k>uz B[|> \k\V Vz
(.k. BV. 36:57) >>V >m. 15 VmkV "" W]''
[>uz A]B uV_ V|D E zA_ m
[VzD. 16>kl_ c^ cz c>s Fk>
V[ |^[, gV_ m xBV Vom
FB|> >s, ^ 2 \uD 4_ sk|[m
V[ ]BVx^ kV_ FB|k]_.
17
"">B'' (grace) [ kV> charis []om km. m
>kB >BkBV _m \B >BkBV z
|D (. 2:52_ s klKD kV> B[|>
|^m). (>ta_ >k , \ >B [^m.) >k
B BB V zV [ \Va
BV^ c]BV W>V^. glD m \]_,
^ 2[ xzD ^ 4[ xzD l_ c^
W[ l_ VzDVm >B,
[m \B >BkB z|m [ >V[[m.
18
V \]B >o[ kwz z]l_ c^ (
k> VD) A ys_ >k. V|\BV
c]kD \uD VV>V >k gBkuV_ R>^
E>>. 19KJVl_, B \Val[ ""BVA''
[][ ckV ""BV'' [^m. KJVl_, wB
uV| B[ kk kw\V >

292

|^m, m t >kV>V D zwxVz


k>VD c^m. k^ zw\k> >s>uV
\VaBA^ wB uV| mB
B[|m[. 20z k >VD su >V xk>D
V| k>V [m ko>|mm, > >Vm
kD WEz xVV>VzD.
21
""V>[ V>]_'' [ m WE xk]KD
V^m: VD MBVD >^ > V
>[ V>]_ k> (4:37; 5:2); V^, ms[ V>]_
sm k sV^ (5:10). ""V>]_'' [m > \|D
z>_, (\Vk^ >^ gEB[ ""V>]_'' \km
[m V >D zzD). 22""\['' () [m ""
B_ D'' [ V^ >[ B s\VzD.
23
NKJV, RSV, NASB. ""J|D \['' [m ""V'' [>[
BV \VaBV\V _B[>V_ \ValB_ Q^
B[, gV_ V > B[ V^
[>[>V[ V. 24 g]_ A]B uV|.
25
ASV, NEB. ""\>_'' [ \VaB|^
kV>, ""g>_ >_'', ""[D >_'' _m ""A]
V_K>_'' [D V^|D. > kV>^ BVD
[[ [ >VABk^ gzD. 26 sB V>
\V WD k] x\V [ sBV^
[, gV_ gVB kz_ k> tBV
W> V>\V k]>V (. 1:1; 32:615). 27cBkV
kV sB]uzD ]\BV sBD [ c|. 28But
(>ta_ >uz ]_ ""kD'' [^m) [m, MBVD
VD F> B, E^ BV[ BV|
VmkVD, Vs[ BV| zVD s]BV
|]V|m. 29kD 3_ k^ W> su>
[ \z |m. 30 ""\VF\VV['' [m ""
sB][ am ]_ >k[ _m B_ Ak['' [
V^|D kV>l[ V_Kz V_V \Va
BVzD. "" sB][ '' [m B x>
xJBV_ J kzD kw> zm.
31
c[ aBV, s VF| k^, >^ su
lom k^ V^ V> ]VlVD [
bV: >z^ BVkuD sus>V >][
JD, ""cVD kV Bo_'' D u, lom
c>s k^ ]V]VD. 32> W][ >VVB\V
\]A B> MBV V| k]>V_ \|\ k
B \Vu k ku u xD [ Dt g_[
k^ > >sm^V, gk > V
WBD ] \]A^>Vk ]zD (Jimmy Allen, Survey of Acts,
vol. 1 [Searcy, Ark.: By the Author, 1986], 58). 33V\V[ \]om

293

VB kl_ c^>V,>kVBm ^ [_
k^ ]VD (. 5:12). m > \V ]
D, >uz > [>m (k. 9). 34MBVs[ >B]_
c^> VbDz m, > gsBVk[
k> u>VV [V _m MBVs[ Vk>
k|mD > gsBVk, ms[ JD EVV
[V VD Bs_. 35V>V[ [V_ ""]'' [ V^
|D, m A]B uV_ VVkz BV
B[|>|^m. 36E \B_, E (E k_ V]
k[), ""V>V[ > FD [ #
V[!'' [ V_km|. V_, VD sDV>>
FD V>V[ D\ # xBVm [> Am
V^ k|D. 37>k^ ""sBV|V'' VEBD,
V V|, _m c z Vu k V[
k >BVkm \uV^km z kBm. g]
BV >^ \]l_ > gsBVk >kV >>
A]>. 38m kV>V_ V_s_B[VKD,
s V^ B> zm. 39kD 3_, MBV
> gslD VF V[V[ [D, kD 4_, k[
>kM]_ VF V[V[ [D m V[>
kMD. > gsB k^ \]l_ >kVl>V [
g] BV s V>V^. 40E, B_
\uk m[|>V> kl_ > Fkm _> [
]]Bm V^[. >k[ [ FB kVD
[ ll_, > F>V_, kz BV>>V_,
(k BVD VD m[|>VsVKD) >k VD
m[|m[VD.
41
m \V cEB z>uV wV \uD
*]B s[ >VzVzD. 42MBV \uD V[
\]uz m _, >k VD [> kVkD
A]>; _B[V_ ms[*m zuV|
V| k]|D (J.W. McGarvey, New Commentary on Acts of Apostles,
vol. 1 [Delight, Ark.: Gospel Light Publishing Co., n.d.], 86). 43KJVl_ m ""k
sV['' [ \VaB|^m (>Vkm gsB
sV[). 44 A]B uV_ ""k sV['' ( KJV l[
VuV) [ |l_, \Val_ ""gsB
A V|>_'' [>uz kV>^ c^.
45
V>^\_ k^ V> \BV>l[
D cB>m! (. 5:13[ V_ mD V\VzD.)
46
m \uD/_m >k[ s]_ WBVB\u >>V
zuD V|kV, MBV >V[ |k>uz x[A
\]D kVFA V]>V[ [ b[. >m
[ [>uz \V skB (m Vs[
kwD) VD u^m c], z _m >

294

BVkuD VD Bs_. MBV \]D kVFA


s_B[ ]V_, kB >B> >
>k[, k[ \]DAD Wl_ >VV _BV
[ Bs_ [ VD bVD (. 6:46). ""VD
s\D Fkm [ ]> VKD ]\Vk
>k[ >\m c> ] _km [ ]V''
(Anthony Lee Ash, The Acts of the Apostles, Part 1, The Living Word Commentary
[Austin, Tex.: Sweet Publishing Co., 1979], 84). 47>k[ sDl>V_,

""BuBV'' sB B[|]l xD.>k[


V> V_k>uz A B[|]l>V_,
MBVkD VD > k \V
B[|]lD xD. 48Vk][ | k
tm zk>uz D \Vu sszD k
E >kBVl>m [m c]. (B k El_
V] z] \|\_ x AuVD u
>[> c] FmV^ AuVF B u^
]D u|km|.) 49> kVo BV[ VD
Bs_. glD k^ >V^ [m, >
sB^ BVD V>^ \|D l_
s_ [> V|[m; {su m ""k
BVk'' um. ""kVo'' [ kV>BVm ko>
|k>[m, x]Bk VKD [V E B_
(> \ \m, \ >V|km x>oB)
kVoV_ FB xD [> \z W|m[m.
kV V]KD \^ FB kB E B_ >k[
km^V. 50V_Kz V_, m ""k u'' _m
""k J'' [ V^|D, m k\V > >
zVD, k ( KJV l_ c^) km Z>
mV_ (BV_) u lVD. _m,
Z> |zx[ > mBV_ J|D kw>
zVD V_ VD Z> mlV_ J|km
_m > |zx[ [_ V|km V[
w\Vl]VD. > EB\VF k>uV [>
> JB>[ V][ z]BV V^VD m,
V sVzDk \uk^ km \>
BV]>uV F]VD.
51
V_ > VKD ]\Vk V_
gV> z^ ] D >. 52V>V \uD
R gBV[ \][Vm, k[ >VB gV[
kV mkV _m ]_ m V^kV
\]s_! 53 \u VED V]B\VkV
l[. x>Vkm k[ km, x>_ AEl[
uV^kmD, [A k^ km E^ AEB
kmD ]\Vl]VD. glD WE >VVm

295

>uVk V|m. 54 > s]V]>V_


kV> Vz kV]>m [m u FB
\V>VzD. 55 V>VKD, m ]B>!
Bu k]_ \M>z^ s> >
Wl_, kzl_ V[ kBV, ""^ A>]_
c^]B \VD uA>D m>V[!'' [ km|.
k>V\ s\^, WEl[ z]B ""xBV> B_''
[ w[, gV_ VlD g|z [V_
kVD km VEB VKD, [ kV]> k[
VEB> V[ ]\Vk DA[[! >> V>
k^, uV| D \], M_ kD 5_
""k ^s BVkzD'' [^m. 56 m
s>\V > F]>V_, WB\Vk km VD t
E>>Vk ]zD. k [z BAk]B
\m [A k|m (1 V. 13:7). ""m k[
k s>V'' [ BV Fk>[m mzD, >
kz BVBV BkzD uAB>_. 57""m
k V'' [m V \D gsBVkV_ \V
sk^ >[V [>B \z B Fm VD B
kB s \|\ km. 58V[ uA \uD
""W> ^ suS^'' [ kV>^ gBk E,
WD MBV_, V V>\Vl>m [
RD FB km. 59 MBV W> su >VBV
B>B m s]_ V [> VD B
k|D. E, m W][ c\BV suB >VB
sm, > B[ k^ A V^ kVF>>V
k gV_ m k^ \]D l>
V|k>VlzD. kV ]>>[V_, |> k]_
ms[ kV>_ > |\z s\m
\VzD. 60""V]>_'' [ \VaB|^
kV> ""#|>_'' [D V^|D ( KJV l_ V).
D ""#|>_'' [>uzB g kV> (tempt) "">k
FB #|>_'' [ V >k>VKD, BVVA, "">k[
V_VV_ V] |k_ [> kV>]''
(BV. 1:13) [ komk>VKD, ""V]'' [ kV>B
k]_ B[|>|^m.
61
m >kV klV nB]uz |mVV
m. k^ m [ (g\V 3:3n kMD;
KJV), gV_ >kB E>]uz xVV Bo_
k^ m [. nBD tD xB\V>VzD (BVkV.
17:2023), gV_ >kz >_ >s xB\V>VzD
(.k. \. 10:34). 62 k[ >m \sB ""V]m'' V
sDV_, m k^ \_ k[ V|^ DBV_ _,
k DV>]VB FV[. 63s> \Vu^

296

BVD VmkV ]kVl] k|\[ [


V\[ k^ DAV (V\[, 103). l>VKD
_VsVKD, >k[ c\^ Ws_ kBVB
yD (. 32:23). 64[> VBVB k VD,
_m k^ > [> > gsBVk
kz lVD. k > x>uz zB
J[ \ \Vlu [m c]. 65V^ s]_
"" ]E''B uV^, m kz \V
u|> Vm\V>Vl>m [ sBV^
[. lD MBVD, VD E \
s]BV]_ \V uV^ [>uz ]V
sB^ [D _. k\ ""\VV_'' m[Au
k|D, gV_ ]_ >kB D >m. 66k [xD
> gslV_ W>kV >\m s klV.
67
kD 5_ c^ > s\ zD c^mm Vz
> >FT WBVByVzD [ \D kom[m
(kD 5uV z VD). 68KJVl_, ^ 2:47_ ""''
[^m, gV_ E> ]_, k]_ ekklesia [
_ (. 2:47V zA VD). ""'' [ kV>
B[|> x>_ D 5:11 [m s> kwzzD
Vu>VzD. 69_ kV> m J[
_ B[|^m. 70Ek (kB) + kaleo (w|>_).
][\[ (Septuagint) \VaB_ kV> >V_
>[ V^u E k_ s|[.
glD mk kV>l[ J V^ [ V[
DA[[.
71
""kV>]_ k> [k_] >'' z>uzD
kV> x B[|>|^m (. 7:38). 72""''
[ kV> ""D'' [ VKD B[|>VD,
s]_ m >k[ >B zm (1 V.
14:23n kMD). 73y>EBV \_BV > "">k
kE>_'' [V (\_. 3:8). 74E Vk^ (V, VoB_
Vk^ x>oB) Z]uzB \> V|k xD,
gV_ [B V[ Vk[ x s^
WBVBy[ V^ kzD V xBV>kV^.
75
Vo[s_ [ ]_ ({V\V) c^ >B
l[ J]V kwz >Vm, >uz _
c>V\VzD D\M> V[ k[. 76V
>[ VB BVD uA>D >
[> kz] >Vm kom[m. [xD >
k_\ k BVzD >s_. ""V>[
]V\Vm ... k[ V_ \|\ > >
uA>V_ B s_ |>m'' [ A.C. s
k^ BV ^V (A.C. Hervey, Pulpit Commentary, vol. 18

297

[V[ , t.: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1950], 158). 77m

to> >k^ VmkVF B \Vl


k|D [m c] (. 3:11KD V). 78x>_ Vkl_
k^ xV|^k V V|[.
""\uk^'' [m BV zm []_ sBV^
m Vk]_, gV_ kz]l[ m >kVF
V|m: MBV \uD Vz W>m E
B|]lD, VmkV zD >[ V]uzD
m c>sBVF >m. 79 ^ >kVl [
x>[x>_ z>V[ zVF V_|m glD
uk ^ > [ VD DAVD (nB
sm z BV >BV]V^?). uk
c z|^> VD VVD (m _
|mVV _VsD): V^. 80m #|>_
gzD, M_ c kVk[ >kD
]m; >_ c^k_ >k|k
V> VbDVm, E l_ D #
|[.
81
"">_'' [>[ V_Kz V_V sD "">_''
[>VzD. \ nB V|_ ""\V kl_ >Vs
V^>_'' [ VuVVm > szD.
""At B]_ >[ m V^>_''
[ V^ >k>uz c^ z]l_ >D ck
Vu^ VD. 82""\uk^'' [m l_ > \u
c z>V E b[, k^
V>tm u sl> [D b
[. \uD E, ""\uk^'' [m E VD Bs|
>MBV s [ ms[ ] zm [
b[. glD V| s>B V[ >
F[. ""'' [ s V_Vm ""m V^''
[ V^|m (KJVlKD m V|m).
[m ""m'' V^km [ xBkzD,
[m ""|D'' \VzD (k. 14) [ xB
kzD l_ xV| Wm [ V[
DA[. (^ 2:47[ zA VD.) 83""MBVD
VD c\lB >kVl>VV?'' \uD
""k^ wmVVV _m EV
V?'' [mu sBV^ V| [.
MBVD VD >k^ _, l[ c^
_ [ bk>uz VD mD _B[ V[
DA[. zx [m l[ c
z>V >s c_V>k_ (1 V. 5:911).
\KD, k^ \]DB>uV V[ mD VD V
s_, k \ kVl_ kx| [>uV

298

g>VD mD k]_ Vs_. glD, WEl_


m xB >_, \B_ V, ]KD VD
"">k WBVBV]]BV c^V'' [ VD.

299