Rasa’il Ikhwan as-Safa

Debate of the Animals
(from the 22nd Epistle)

3 English Translations: Manuel, Dowson & Wall

Antioch Gate
Birmingham, United Kingdom

Published by Antioch Gate 2007 © Mayeen Uddin 2007 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers.

The entire collection of Antioch Gate eBooks is available as a CDROM series, with several titles on each disc. The price per CDROM in the series is but £15 plus a reasonable delivery charge – see the website for details.









"THC RUBY'S s ~ E , "''6ACREn




h. &C. &c.


"The soul, o i origin divine.
God's glorious image, freed from ciay. In Haaven's eternd sphere shall shine A Star of Day! The sun is but a spark of fire, A transient meteor in the sky: The S&!, immortnl as its Sire, Shag never die."-JfonLgomery.







methinks. they mere fully entitled to exact servitude from those wbo were no better than their servants and slaves. who after wading through a whole volurne of testimonies (pro & con) at last decides in favor of mankind. a6d not in kind. we are beasts. are to be met with in the pages of the Ilchwm-00s-su4a. Beasts and men argue out the point of their respective superiority. it max be . the Translator dissvoms all concurrence. Rhny words not to be found in ordinary story-books. but still true beasts. We shall only diBer in degree. P. Therefore. because they excel all other animals. ." The work is eminently calculated to assist the student in familiarising himself with the Oordoo language. The work is written in a pure. or almost all. and the latter maintaining that as they were made the lords of the creation. With the moral tenets and theological (in its ii~eral sense) doctrines of his author. Lees of the Fort William college) has now come into public notice from the fact of its having been fixed us an Oordoo text-book for candidates going up for the Entrance Exaruir~acion of the Calcutta University. &l. 15th July. The disputants at last refer the matter to the king of the genii. however. F Hooghly College. it must be the possession of a soul within that makes the differenoe. the first and wisest of beasts. and this also we say from our own consciousness. E e recommends the work solely on its philological merits. the original Arabic is considered a classic. N. we are not of the same kind as beasts . How the cbief argument turns can best be elucidated by quoting the following from Coleridge :-"Either we have an immortal soul or we have not. and declaring that they were not created for man to domineer over them. ' . in being endowed with an immortal soul. W. just as the elephant differs from the slug. 1860. The in Oordoo version of the same (the best Etlition of which is the one published by Lieut.the former cl?iming equality with the latter. If we have not. simple and agreeable style: The subject is not very &tractive.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. THE Ikhwan-00s-sz~fScl. But by the concession of all the materialists of all the schools.

h spacious house maa litted out for their reception. When they beheld the monarch seated on his throne. fresh and verdant. and wear atmy their backs in conmade to o stafit service of meu. "0 just king. The merchauts and men of scienod h y i n g :diiembarked found that the land was - lawns.happend once. Every human being thought that birds and beasts were all their slaves. retired CO wildernessea . $'when we had no precious q u a i n k s u c e with each other even bg means of epistolary correspondence ? has induced YOU t o come so far I" One of the. were now t! . Fruits and vegetables supplied them with foo& and the leaves of t h e trees afforded them covering. and tha weak uuder his protection had nought t o dread from the domineering tyranny of power. the horse. :teturned unrequited from your p~v$ence.yne rich THEY that as long as the human race mere herbage on which they fed. The king. ReJe~*ence made to Beoras6 the kiqt. Assurance they had none. all feam of bensts of prey were removed f m m their uiuds. The Elephant. Wheu the beasts capx to h o w of this vain presumption. seveuty pereona.C H A P T E R I. sent d. representatives. In short thsy fixed their abode there. As they inore:lsed. the camel." The monarch req1le~t:tedhim t o sgeak more fo the Polut. aud cities to be founded. aud stood in order even ns the laws of etiquette required. returned. and be&s were compelied to own the superiority of men by working and carrying their burden for them. attracted by 'the fame of Your equity and justice. the temperature was excelleut. The prophet opened the casket of religion t o a l aud many a Gin also accepted the l. and no artifice w~xqleft untried which promised t o bring them i n their poser. that a ship laden witli men & & i p e n by adverse w b d s t o the shores of this islsnd.m& for the guitlance of ~t last rnllkiad. a8 already meutioued. they assernbled *11 the respectable members of their tribes. de- .jered of g i u ~ awho su-)nnlo)zsQ h. till 13~0.reaeio?a. a p&losopher. The bir% too mere in the same predicament. the king passed orders t o surumon men.-" We came. La winter they resorted to warm climates. and the ass hitherto exempt from Iabour aud roving the greeu fields at pleasure. who were standing before him.esentativosof mt~nkiod.. The &. that no one has s. his cont~ozev8p with the 6eask.us6.md of BitLa Saghaon through which passes the equinoctial line. Turning towards therep~. These. 0 king. Why have you come into my country:' be asked.as[. appeared in the court. Notwithstauding all their'ories and struggles men continued deaf. nor could they uuite together and engage iu any agricultulrrl pursuit. was his capitnl It.iai~o. variegated with every sort. . F e ?me as s u ~ ~ l i a n tk n o e n g tclo well. When the fatigues of travel had worn off. Thieves and robbers were characters never heard of. and laid their complaiutv before Bsol.mid to have drunls water a t the same fouutain." he began. was not only famous for his justice. induced the foreiguers not to thillk of departing.busied themselvesin preparing toils wherewith t o entrap them. XL often happened that the beasts dreading ca w t r had to fly tu dietant recious. Ages elapsad after this. but renowned likewise for his bravery and genemsity. jctvel of faith. After hearjug the circumsta~>ces of the case. i s every side. . were gsrubolliug on the say few in numbers. fl&s c. built houses and comroeuced ellsnaring the animals to force service from them. the philosopher. The bea& fatteued by . of fruits and flowers. and first consulted the will of God i n ajl his undertakings.w7ilaa philosop/be~. The poor found a patron i n him. ~. He was such a just monarch that the iior? aud the goat are . a man of age and apericucc. all remarkable for the fluency of their speech. and the hcat of summer drove them again t o seek shelter in cooler regiuns. when they found themselves incouvenienced even here. and styled by may of distinction the king of heroes. L( thc animals who are our slaves refuse dlegiauce t o W a54 those even. Thus sometirue past a w q .t h e king cited them to his presence. the tools and materiah of cultivation lvere brought in use. wko gartWlg :ouey W.~ the streams of transparent brightlless meau. 'fheu forts bgau t o rise. they bowed low and blessed him. . Not being couvsrmnt with the art of weaving knew not how t o hide the nakedness of t h e ~ rpersons. was choseil to the sovereign of the Genii. He was the staunchest votary of religion. aud the Pound. In obedience to the call. b u t men still thinkiug that they were their slaves. they always fled from the beasts and took shelter in caves or on mountains.

adapt' a ed o f d has e n limbs to ' God first creatG 0 king ! the words of the ~~. apd exciting love in the hearts of each mere more other.hat who we dark skiuned do not. I n elegant. what have you now to say?" asked the king the thick-tailed sheep with heavy horns and fat addressing the beasts. and their stature altogether unequal.o ~ c eof hIs court.a One of them . and read the K h w t b a as follows. and t. eMoses says :ench beast. were all made subservient t o them. l I CHAPTER 11. and none but thC prove himself to the task? from all this that the limbs of every creature wise are adapted to his wants. our track. ('we I have many grounds. that they might save them f ~ O r n hafm> and not tyrannLse Over and persecute them. God h m severally subjected one to that the other . above beautiful.asked " dont you kuow that propriety in In this way all the beasts whether rapagous.Also for another purpose .( king. or and riaiog is considered princely.ainS always Open OU account of his derived both their food and raiment. Some were butchered.-on whom else are conferred all projecting tusks.f %han ever eeect On another. and reach his lips to allpart@Of his body ~ naked. if J-ou are a philosopher among beasts. that he may be able to rise from the ground by the strength of his OR t h dtyerenee of featu$*esa d stalures. from them. Hence. They answered. ~ n d addicted to graaing or flying are disproportionate in shape and 6ze of their limbs:' On hearing deviation from grace denoted slavishuess!' "Heaven preserve the king from all dangers !" this. the and planets in their creatures. l - ' ] jwere . so that all may join together in promoting good. The Inales will a l w a ~ a and to be moulded according t o her viii.' In another place it is recorded 'On dry ground and on water ride on camels and sit on boats.' Again 'Horses. that YOU may derive bonefit -from them. and ~ a i ~fancy a8 the nlarks of Your quoted. he prepared to decide . whom God sent t o direct mankind. him+ because his they were mpde straight and tail.that all *he limb of man came out like the femdes of their o ~ kind." us why the neck of the camel is long " He answered. . aud clothe yourselves with their skim and hair.t~ can be coned objects and then guarded them.our constant aim was to glorify him. ears serve them ~ delicate and their skin thin. wandered about in wjldernesses. that they fleas and gnats that disturb might easily reach the trees from which they IIlouth Em. If this is not Q. What you consider oneof. but simply enumerate the good things which God has. and carry them t o their folds a t the close of -eve. elephants.living creature. who has provided man with all sorts of delicacies in this world." On hearing this the k ~ n g tu&ed towards the animals and desired them to answer the argaments of theif adversaries. Hence i t mae that them Over his month and eyes. these. B~ and said X T moment. 3 ..' Beside. 'l yes.they needs muat claim that they are our masters and. v e blame him masters. 5iorses and asses. straight iu stature. his *hape was heither too nor too short. The coturoversy b d ~ ?nej. the he-goat with a long beard and no arguments do not make good their claim.mstances connected with the of allimals. some had their sinews cut.' Once more L Ride on these. and aot those symmetrical. Turning tow&8 ha observed-u The beasts have detailed the culars connected with the persecution practised . what 3" . mules and camels. It is incumbent on you to drive them to the fields .7 What my you tothis l He ausrered : ~ htorhis wants. do not IKHRAN-00s-SUFFA. l I • show that we are his suljects and he our sbsolute master.' We deduce in a double sense. He has made every obworks bear testimony to his wisdom. CL ~~d says in the Q 11 have made men extremely well+haped and as covering in winter. some flayed alive.at the b r e d of morn. not. and sent them to people t h e worid. asses and mulea are created that YOU may ride on them.that God created Adam was an a~~spicious one.ln making man*the with man. for whom ever s o n of dehcacy has been provlded by God. grazed a t pleasurq and was each individually busy i search of food. In obeying us they to t r obey God. He also made him lord of all created beings. one of. ~h~~~was no covering on his body to when dsirous of scratching. they of the ee*h. a large and wieldy animal with long of heaven. the philosophers presentn i the ly was called upon to iaterpret the text. a?& beasts n eomz7bueU. t o aid them in the acquisition of good aud the removal of harm. W=rn the king heard all the circ. and elevated them above the earth. that the limbs of the beasts m o n ~ th& CREATOR has moulded the features of were far from being well shaped ." The king interposed. The Old and New Testaments are both concurrent in their testimonieg i n support of the proposition. " Observe Synlmetricaliu shape." The hip . I n any mse i t is prove that we are their masters."replied the other. AI1praise is due to that gracious God. the air and the clouds. as they imagine. This is the cause of the spread of generaproper houses. away the with the leaves of the trees.' now from this i t does not appear that he k our master and we his slaves.$he Quoran says 'All beasts have been created for you. <' witbwhat grace and har. and the Bapping on the fruits of the wilderness." The man said. "0king!" he continued. A member of the fam~ly Abbaas IZaz~ooEak of ascended the pulpit.$ lessly forward in the path whichleads t o future felic~ty. who obedient." cLMonarch.oh whose means religion has been promoted and faith spread. "the sentences from the Quomn which mm hw reperrtad. From him came Eve.denoted man's superiority. that we may graze the better. and thus spoke " Praised be that Holy Being. He'answered. some their pulled off and some were spitted and rossted. that on the man. some their stomachs ripped open. The ging remarked C l Asser- The king observed that symmct~-yof shape tions unsupported by proofs cannot be heard in a court of justice. and through her the. CHAPTER 111. cline €0 admit our superiority. created the first man out of a drop of water. move fear. nor us. superiority are not really so. and the to receive the stamp nature tion. thick set horns and no upper teeth . -and. these are our and we their masters . to whom power is given over laud and water. These r came forthwith. Therefore they and men were equal. the ox and buffalo haviug hear away the palm of superiority l" " And tails. aud oar stature : ears of hares are longj because their b b b ~ being therefore bent. snd dlsobying us they~set ~ e i face the Deity. and extended the hand of persecution over m. rational and traditional. now accumulated on our heads. ~h~ king obselTed. and &tigued and hungry. small in stature but l o w eared.long neck and short tail. entrusted animals to them. some had their bones broken. like the fair bodied. what answers h%ve you to make ?. He is wise and all his our limbs as they are. he mlde him entirely neck. Blessings also on his descendants thron. Blessing8 also be on Mahomed. Snares and toas were laid i n . Refv also to. I n the Elephant preserve km from heat and cold. alld remember the bounties of your sod. Wow happy they. Each organ is endowed with a plan and contrary their features were extremely odioua. Evils t o which our ancestors were strangers.He likes hie Own species* Those Creator' avoided extremes. their ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . to enable them by artifices to become onr masters. The Mule obeyed. The beauty and elegance of one species have . which are purposely made long t o shield him from the attacks Of rapaciouS animals. and were clad ears are made broader: that he may." "What are these. No one granted to each a form which he considered the understands his plan. but before that he ed the cazee l a w . pray tell best for him. but he. and doubly wretched they who giving loose reins to their folly deviate from this track." they said. that God has not made men graceful the Creator ! 'We are his creatures. i t would have been difficult for him t o have grazed on the grass of the field. and creation rose ~ u ~ t a n from sthe abyss of chaos." The king enquired what these ' them also. Hence n it was . Hence i t was . When an age had past amay thus. True beauty con~ ~ sistsin making yovrself agreeable to fellow . We. who present before the creation of a n @ . by the right we hold over them.Mankind remarked. to scan the mysteries elephant. Then look at the cover good from evil-nay.IKHWAN-OOS-SUFFA. H e renounced the word.bestowed upon man.Work. were. the contrary. that you have not understood the plan of answered one of the beasts. that r e may be who has made us. Undisturbed we passed our days in the enjoyment of domesticpeace. and named him the lord When his race increased. I n short every moment should be devoted t o the glorification of that being. both rational and the Creator had avoided extremes in making traditional. and he i t is who w l prove our il best support in the day of judgment.popnlatiou which now abides on the face of the earth.so it is anaer IcOnatruction. WIWn there neither nor space.ranny. me their slaves. the brutes answered : "What a pity me to i t is. The i the contrary.hev nur d subjects. lLWhat renson have you for saying so ? Qratuitous assetiions cannot be heard in a court justice. broad ears and small diminutive these gifts 1 and do not these aIone entitle us to eyes. blessed the camel. But on the co~~trary. The beasts urged that duce 2" He answered. The words of the text will bear Of another. "such buttocks. 'Lbecause his legs were also long. Here is my authority for what I say: ' Providence has subjected beasts to you in the same way as he has subjected the sun. over every . . we are subjected to them. far saying 80. '(a t d i creature. God made Adam from a handful of clay. and made him in his turn father of a large family. feed on grass. He has jeot adapted for some peculiar good. with a with sense and reason." inquired the king. on tusks. therefore. adaptation to perform its individual oEce. and created all other animals for his use. kiu. n On mountains and in vallep we lived together and reared our young ones: Thankful to God for what he had given us. and bed in summer. LLpermit observe. and if his neck were short. although the latter may be far better in appearance than the former . The e ~ heavens be made of fire and water. And after all they are not satisfied with m . the moon. In finding aud symmetrical that they may be called our fault with our own organization. aud removing evil. From a drop of water he developed the race of Adam. Have you any proof to ad.several other precepts of a Similar bear]% are to be on the pages of the same Holy. several mere csuoht a t last. that beasts aremade for men. ~h~~ fed the proboscis instead of the neck is long. which enable him to dis. it is proper for us. the hare. who by his wonderful power. W A God created man. w h a t could we d~ 1 If we fled to the deserts we were still pursued. Before man was born we and our parents lay undisturbed on the face of the earth. For i t is he who has formed reckoned their slaves. ~ s not k then what cruelty it was Eurs to endure.

that her young ollcs were depiived of nondshment to e u n l ~ e nian to f e d his own infaat. Xot cout e ~ l t with this. to be pullerl by his drivers. that their own daugh.. Our flcsh is tkeu divided and spitted for the salre of being roasted. The inhabitants of Room on the contrary. 9 2 T~ king turnink towards mankind." they remarked. he had no opportujty to elljoy the society of the females even. i and. his mouth bridled. themselves.'fitndob with the Sindhians. he would have oertaiul~pitied me. Tbe elephant declored that he was treated with like cruelties. notwithstandirjg a11 ouw cries. are . Shoemakers aud those who deal in stockiugs. his nose was bored and a piece of string put througiu it. The ass said that man was in the kzKt of loading him with bricks. acquired by honest labour and unremitting exett. and be driven about with mouth and eyci closed man aacting hin? with his crud lash. he has.d and truth they dcser~ethe ~ --W . You. . the Arnbs '. you e would nyt have gloried in gifts. skins in recording their charms. that - CHAPTER V. G~~~~~ aid c-.were by astrolo~<cal rules. Whence then your glory And is it not true now that your claim is guoundlesq. 'If you wish to be forgiven forgive others. hriclln .. The man who is trnelg wise glories in those qualities nlona whir.bters. and go to pa~turagein the morning. . nay. mhen one p r t y is victorious 0t7c. When the Permans prevail over the Turks. . Thus equipped he was led to the fieid of battle." When the hog had done speaking the ass looked towards the hare. h 0ved00king what is fdse and ii .' And. '. . . and unmercifully the lnah to his back alld abugd him in such a filthy rind obscene mauner. they sell their' captives to strangers and ?hen the Turks in 'their turn gain tIik day. the as *cameldesired the hog t o lay his compb~intbefare the impartial justice of the king. his back ali gored by the joltiug of the saddie. and thereby saved big. and a tied round his loins. 0 Afahomed ! to overlook the faults of unbelievers. And these wretches never remember for a moment what God and the prophet have said.mman people always bestrid him with their burden. They wjwered " There yet remain several rcasons to give weight to our assertion.' I n another place : All the auirnals that creep on the earth or. and receive sword and spear wDuudson his face and swimming instreams of blood.. Shepherds and Groom keep us in their stalls and atables. his feet fettered. are apt t o forget mother and sister. we shorn YOU great considerations erell a8 kings show their shveg. aud his feet smarting mith the wouuds which ho receives on the rocks. without your assi~tance whereas you. fixed as are i t .G& i i both aylY: ' ' 1 In short. I rea!ly do not know under these oircurnstai~ces whom to commend. .tbea to steak out-if they had aught t o eay. You are should not even in R?~iugthat your sense 1s keener than ours. Tuiks. Another said that he must be oousidered as an herbivorous auimrl. i as the length of h teeth showed.consider me as cursed. fly on the air have their community as wall as JOU~S.19'~Zj with the Periians.. and stones. Sheep aud goats hring forth hundreds of young ones in a night. Besides. whence they return in the evening . to grind iu mills. Hung-y and thirsty a s he b. Cmplai& qa. noly is the Lord." The ox represented that he was made to labour iu the field.. a1ld ou that account you yourself above US. The horse too c a ~ i henr (from a distance) the soaud of the footsteps of . to bear corupauy mith other domestic animds. and the fecuuditjf of our breed The Greek Physicians often prepare their ointments mith our lard. h o will they ride.each his own mother. the camel and t b c leopard.' As ~ o o n the mule had delivered this speech. you leave an ass or bullock iu a place where he has never been before. he cab easily retrace liiv s t e p home. their wives children." Oue of the philosophers remarked'that the hog was uot a grazing animal. and there. because they hate both Christians. eve11 as the ostrich resembles in shape both a bird aud a camel. yo11r beauty then is not a wTSCG. treatment. it is well knoiv.iong. . and exclaim. God himself says 'These proceed turn by turn through ~ges. it ofter1 hmppcns. Upon this tile hog declared. urged on by his rider who is clad in armour of steel.&i%fi--the. on account of our fatness.. After l l i s " the beasts severally aud iudioidually laid their conlplaints before the king. For iustauce tktke oimel.treating the sick with. are wd not 8 p ~ . through valleysand hilly Iwasagus.kin$ desiyed the aaimaIs to answer. which iuduces them to be considerate to us. consider my fleah as very beaeficial food.. . mere scar.ei. the same rules are' . If the k i ~ o y y listened to the liceug tions words. man klmws not what compassion is.was put in his mouth. a d the cona sequence is t. and notwithall these. Again : ' Order the Edthful. A third urged that he waa both car~livorousand herbivorous aud partook of the quslities of the OS. father and brother. he wo11ld think that all the wickedness aud ignorance of the world were to be found in them. H e has long legs and the neck. about the huying knd selling 'of animaIs.pssseogew. As regards feeding aud other treatmenm. his head talks with'the wind. That h e was over-burdened and led hungry a ~ l d thirstv in the d d n e s s of the uight. acd abuse and ourse us. because our presence proves a safeguard from dangers.-.and your edmity destitute of foulldation ?" 1 fi CHAPTER TV. ib is not kixduess but rather the fear of loosillg u s and our services. "The Uahomedanq" h e said. ?Vho ~ U O W S who are the real slaves ? Superiority and slavery in natiol~s always rotatory. he considers the vanquished longillg t the tribe of his enemy. H e near desired him t o put forth his complaint. avoid my sight.~ud~u~ l&ich you could not move with the glare of torches.mhat to speak. &d selling. The dieep oomplzincd.burdcr~ are lashed by scourges and sticks. mix i t with their medicines. Whence then your b ~ i i of tposeessiug lteenncss ~ of sense ? If you had the least ~ e u s in you. mally amongst them know this to be right. kindness. likely to Iose j . we are led to the stall of tllc butcher.ntinw3. aud found him s t a n d i ~ ~ g the camel. In truth. Lf we die. blame. including. aud never mention my name i n conversation even. The horse-asserted that 2. who has subjected such auimsls to us. "You also belong to the gr&iug tribe of animals. highly value the hair which grows 011 our back and neck. i t has often Ilupnelied thab he lies givexi notice to nis meter of the np roach of his eueruy.hat he sells them a s slaves.nttared ~~E~~~~ former our and pur&asers. The. his feet fettered and he driven on by the goad of the pacsou riding on him. as people held vtaious sorts of opiniorls about him. and offer i t as sacrifice to secure reward hmenfter." observed he.iasb m eo. and about. . You on the contrary afker n short abeuce from home. and source of glory to YOU. remember the graciousuess of God." The camel urged that wbeu captured. .dalized at hearing them .whom to complai~l. We altness all these ~ ~ u e l t i e s still r ~ m n i u nud silent. his bead in paths through st.~~ .. and whom t o . because he had cloven hoofs and ate grass. slaughtered witllout mercy. which God has hestowed without any labour on your part. forbear from eating my flesh. over whom we could ucver have prewiled. h ? . If the king had seen me in that state. is always sure aud steady.. the hare expressed himself to the efl'ect. The mule advanced that his sorrows were the keenest. iron. Upon which. I n buying. % h a t m a n says.' And once again : Whenever you ride ou camels.h. 111 one place it is written in the Koran.'a saddle laid on his back.' bethe other. in Secu%ng from the a t t a c h OS . "For." On heayin this tbtie. The Armeuians regard ua as useful as oseu and goats. Wizards and enchao: ters make use of our. that he feeds on dead bodies also. and .his i t is to pass through dust and gloom.-11b neck enchained. that he did not kuov. ~ who will my their burderls. . l'lero &re mnny b e a t s who will stand better than you iu comparison.rapaCioiia'atibials.' .0 wag.have none of these virtses iu you. in hopes that the L u g may hear hm favollrably. Jews hold us i n detestation. desired -. they behave simi: . and Romans. and yet every qother b o w s her oyn young one and the yowg. 'and. in feeding add dressin* in preserving from heat and cdld. " We a: made t o groan under n the. rhrough paths which you ~ have often frequeuted before.h like manner tkie .--enforced amongst.. release him and his race.

and our superior too. and t o escape from them. But on some h e has bestowed i CHAPTER VI. Witnkss the sun and moon." " He indccd is wise.~h~ name h o ~ good b genii. spread strifc and dissension in the world and oppressed the inha1)itant~thereof. B a t a th? beasta should ! l king's palace. ~~d has them that man and bcasts had come to him as gimn him light. all but a doctor of the race of Kywan. for the case was a there was no homing the stars. the latter sorely distressed at the cheersthe creation. tho tribe of Nuheed opined that the beasts d should be kind and generous towards the l>easts. they too are j Very important one. Why should we fear replicd. One answered of the wise men of the tribe of LESOP. on whom will they place thcir burdens. '[they will regret the loss thcy have suffered and hold the genii as their Litterest enemy. and the proposition last made if carried out modcl be fraught mith dangers." l' And then.is not putauts should appear again. whose sway estended over land and matcr: over cities and wiiderncsses.that neither one nor the other is God. who tempted Adam uud Eve. 'If cailed upon the ]ring to justice to them they are entitled to be froe. imprisor~ed several of them. lesr~>cdpersons. not for the purpose of accnmalating wealth. nor to involve thyself in the tempting vanities of the world but to hear the cry of the distressed and relieve them even as 1 do with the atheists too. An age passed away thus. and sentriesplacedover them for guard. Izraecl and Satan.2 all the wealth in the treasi~rysnffice for his eumsknce of our shadow having been cast upon { purpose ? And besides this." The king pockets. sons of ~?cc~v(Ilz. he who givcs freedom to another. and who were present md iuqLIired if they attentively heard the beasts had said declared free. answered. perior creatures are not exempt from some slight ! the for his minister BedaT. and other respschad kill& man. his minister. O ~ o d next orrlerccl the angels to admit Adan] in Paradise. who declared that the matter was a delicate one. They ans~ered.~. The latter wa5 voung at that time. that this advice was entirely opposed toreasoo and in every way impracticable. even giants. stars. " V h a t do you say ' ' answered. bccame conversant nith their arts andscicnces. is blessetl than anothel. One each. and On in lessdegree' Even soon as the business of the day was over. ' You will create one who will fill the earth with strifc and bloodshed. and passccl such orders as suited hi& best. In ancient times rncn and giants have contended with results which fill us . or w d e an attack on the "1 deem i t advisable. One of tbeph'ilosophers askedaEnt mhy should me fear their displeasure l As cnemics what can they do us I We are fiery in nature. They all approved of the proposal. even as the giants did. psrticularly favoured by ~ ~ 1 from. and I wiil reoal you b hearen. and then beasts will gain freedom. "Ix days of yorc. lHe ' murdered a4roeller. So do also the moon and f persecution practised on them by the former. and taken to moods beasts who mould pay the price ? A professor from them.*f should draw out a list of their grievances. noblemen did not approve of t h e decision. It was agun and mouotdns to bc far But still i t is impossible to avoid the evil we asked. have mistaken and prudent man. they are so mnlevolcnt. A11 but lzraeel obcyed thc dlmi:!lty. light and buoyant in body. ' I mill make one lord of the esrth who is no6 of you." added the doctor. hc I$~n~Liil. the beasts are co~isideredguiltless. V e can mine our flight to heaven. thereby to the will of a do nothing mithout advice. the climate escellent. The king. the lam 0%from being eclipsed. and -Qter thh.' The angels who mere uilwilliug to part mith the pleasores which they had enjoyed hcre.c Obedient to thc call. they will at once come to the conclusion that neither mcn nor beasts buC tIie genii themselves were in the plot. He proceeded thus.gEiilosophcrs equal n men OF the tribe of BmZer. that it was t o esperiencc confirms us in the belief that tlley the point and befitting the occasion. the and them for the Deity himself. it is in fact .is no bearer annonnced that i t was evening. The grouud fertile. last come t o a decisive point. .listcr. the ox went on thop. Upou which the sago thus began.for the court to rise. sul. the Cazee of thc race of and angels ~f any m the blessillos %herciissome slight dcfcct { Bi~gees. sothat the and he:rig ccrs. but no one has them. that very night. ancl who willserve them for the purposes of riding? Under thcse circumstances they will not be able to pursue them. and prophets to teach them right from prong. or robbed or imprisoned any one.. They say. The wise should to revolve for ever. so much so that cnse ullder discllssioh. mithheld. or cut his therefore will not obey the order. and knew nothing. . Ilc alone. and eat whatever frnit thou lilcost. while we have revered thy name and held iL sacred. that t+ere. which was appointed as the rcsidonce of Adam. 'L King" he continued 'L The %?ill reap large benefits from this kindncss . In short when God made Adam and breathed his spirit into him. mere among the pnsoners.' This Paradise. that i t is written in the Books of the prophets. ctThe king". but they lose their luscm required. They always pray for protection of selling animals for they are very servlceablc t o from the power of the wiauts . "who conciliates foes and remains himclf s a h from the effects of their malevolence. depart together on a certaln night. and yet they arenlay jI a llot advised him to send for the Cuaees. ~~d alone is w h e~f f 0 -B"Jp.o of the prophets. brit there was no diminution in their oppressious tiil at last God sent a body of angels who drovz off the giants.now then. and are not in want of money.-lLYes. was a garden bound on the east by monntains of rubies which are iaacccssible to man.all came. Accordingly the king that they are creatures ordered that all his courticrs should be sent for.The Lord replied 'I know for vhat bencfit I will create him."' FVhen the hare had done speaking. tile bratCs set up a loud homlillg submit it to the philosophers for decision.f a r ': with The kiug desired to know tha particulars of the battle.. and their rancour for you will be retloubled. They far from the abodes of man in the same way-as . made himself the captain of the band." said s philosopher. the earth was inhabited Lg giants. refer the matter to them .su~~y. but i t he enlightens and complainauts." The king again referred the matter to his couucil. 1 : rapacious mimale. creator. '. that God expressed himself thus :-'I have mjde thee a king on the face of the earth. His : gifts are general. but added that men and giants were unturslly and essentially opposed to each other. according to the degree of lustre lentto . thinl:ina it wonld derogate from his dignity b do so.'The plan proposed. he orclerell the angels to bow down before dclam.*' The nobleman again observed. Severn1 bcasts are kept confined iu their pens and stalls." said the king "they mill. when tho Almighty spoke to thc angels saying. mgillg. have given up the practice remarked that if mankind agreed to sell the of visiting popnlons places. l a y oficeis of that pf skkeed. is sure t o bo assisted by God . arid daily the propoeitiou 2 They answered. and time one on earth on whom every good quality 1s bes. and retire All these vices disgrace man himself. man is inspired with heavenly breath and is angelic in nature. from the h C t of their clarkened. largely. wise added to them. When man mill come to know of their tlight in the morning. SO thou shalt bo considered a sinner. or table people cannot manage without convep ever h a r d that a wo~mcled him. UEAPTER VII. ~~k~ the snn for instance. or broken a lock. descend on earth. They are also ) . Tears rolled avaF. woman or child is &aicted d!& gpeiv. religion t a s sent to cheer them. One of the are tlic most notorious of ". H" asked how he wi9 to dccidc the case. 0 king ! is impracticable. "Where will the kiog bring all the moucy shem. and $ 1 ~ ~ unperceiverl with 1~ mankind who arc made of dust ancl always doomed to walk bolow. but app~onchnot youcler treo. for the moment thou (last. Eot the^ deviated from tine path of rectitude. expefienced men. He is more artful than me. and apprehend all thc guards who match over them. warning they never When he had done speaking. j of religion replicd. shol. descendants of Bcch~um. God was bountiful to thern .' The king asked how t h y l i e d against mel~. The mi. for the best way that we can return thanks for his kindness is to give liberty to those who groan in captivity. actnntetl by ignorance and cnvy roEi~sedto bow dowr:. others partake of the good things conferred on The Icing opened the dicourse by inforn1ing Km." ':True.yrants . for this reason-mhen mankind mill rise in the morning and miss the auimah and come to know that thcy have a11 taken to flight.in their iagratitude all the p ~ s b services rendered { Repentance they know not. The king desirecl him to be more explicit. . the dccr and other* fly from the haunts of the 1 l 1 I 1 l 1 1 1 I i. and livcd and rulecl in their stead. and know.continualiy plot mischief against each other. Will any Ous discase. 6 No one i s blessed with all virtnes. I will kcep neither giants nor beasts on earth. the take. bcfore Bdam mns ereatecl." ass desired him to stop.live here togethcr with thy wife. but that tomorrow the diatowed. If men disobey. These or committed a burglary i n his house. Oce universnI cry of complaint rosc t o heaven. can they escape?' A liohleman suggested. the rnaceby us. or then asked. The moment this was done the Almighty spal. Though made of dust.ld render thanks to CJ. j The favour of God is not limited t o any.' The kiug again dcsired his councillors to gioe thcir opiuion."You these ?" The Kywany pl~lsophcr have misrepresented the case. ancea. and the philosophers of the genii." The genii admitted the truth of these remarks.scqnently making Eve out of him. the children of the am had said this. me consult mauy me a t where befoze the efhlgeuce of the stm. because right. and make the noblemen. or tarn his sleeves. they are surkto ascribe i t to the cir. and not release them until the beasts be beyond pursuit. is entlomcd k t h super. &c. but assoc"iatingwith angels hc adoptecl their m:mncrsantI cnstoms. The king turner1 tokards tllcphilosopht?w $0" capturing nnd selling them.e to him thus : ' 0 hclac~.' . and desired depreciation. and from whom some good thing. turned a deaf car to the preachin. many \?ill not think him or her. or deprived him of his ~ ! ~ t h e s . Hence man. The eo~~te>*tio)z tetvlrsit w e r z ujicl giccat~. aud I sxear by mpszif that after Adam and his ray. that the king should order the genii to open all the doom of the stalls. was some nations in their' ignorance. The doctor returned that they were too long for narration. the Cazee and law and free them from the ncrsccuting tyraillzp of 0f6ccr should Pass an order preventing man man. The kin@ insisted ou knowing some portion of the h~storS. andcounsel was certainly In the same way who i l l the bright and luminous. how him to give his opinion upon the of the glorious and bright they are. that whenever a from 2" Thc professor returned "From his treamm.

that the former that ae the beasts have sought shelter in the prevail . the birds' s~veettone amulets were brought into use. As the beusts i Joseph was tllrown by his brethren into the lived in safety sud traliquillity.'fiuee a d dehcendtlllts of the former imagined that hhe j do not renew dissensious. and on. will not denizens of woods. arid did i t too. not they who sue should spoil the case. to give refuge to the oppressed. which was already kindled in the their msiataace. and he trusts u. sent an army i~fter them to b r b ~ g them back. So also when heavy on their dcscendauts now.rity granted them to administer justice. They professed that they mere heart of Satan.~h~~~ =ho. L' t t the minister but meut. to speak out the cause of their grievances. when once slaves and thus obtain freedom for them. forgave them their sin.'' replied another. with which he mill ay. Charms and iucantations mcre therefore tried. frt~itsare plentiful and every sort of I and they viahed to pxrt cornpany with the latter. '1 coun. the of lneuofcannotbeasts. verdure. even as the king is the defender of the Faith. t h e i ~ n will direct daughter of deliberation and mature rdection." asked a third. said another. as they are the a4 such their and ~ e r h a p s will not show himself t0morYow. Solmtoa They therefore renonnmd their companionship. z"J&~ will never do.munioated the names of 3 1 cume into the world a second tnicc wns made. mankind also &viding them.'And if the Vueeor be nsked. and over. when once atruck out it is slficieot 1 1I 1 1 1 / t o consume a morld. "that we are tbeir . and they had nothing -left but to j ngrecd to do it.' was strong ellough to bring the throne of that Then the cursed creature swore and said. what will he say ?" quire. We shall be ruiued if me sell tbe beasts!' Those only fear is. expressed himself ready to come by temptation.and to preserve the strict maintenance of law on aecution of N. I am of opinion that that the beasts should be liberated or sold. and the rksnlt mill be endless contradictions. ds<f Bi~hhym who kngw a powt. shall then pass orders. doay a fact are to be sworn. but can you guess how the former querist. n a e d Adoos.me~~t w. aud drill k water from the streams. or God wishes to be their guide.-where will we get these from l" This " N the philosophers a d dact0~3. of fraud and artifice to mark tho fall uf man. 'God has son of David could have gone. and whewver they remembered the trick ph:yed on at pr. At tbat instant the rise from h j i seat. well." One of them said :-'l wheel they go on revolving.the giants submitted to him. r'Times alwny~chanze. but there is a Rere not our sbkves. they will not concur with the to decide their quarrels. and send them back sa." One of the counse. '' Supposc then.' A fifth f take our oaths. '' I know what men ard gifted with eloqnence. to dren of Israel did thcirs from the tyranny of help the weak.of brewing and bakit~g. tiU an Arabian observed. them in bondage. )Then their ram illcreased the for the use of inspired writers.throue stunned Solonm)a. which may be compared to 30. and showed compassion on them.became Mahomedans. they wandered through the garden. their colour changed. may even reqliiye the deed of and agreeabout us ." retorted the not yet decided. But the tbml>-Those pvho were U we noblemen. Re ans%'ered-" The has of the mals have perjured themselves. of cuttir~g tion and wcre able to travel . fcd on the ! t o the age of Abraham they remained in peace. I t was only when-God long their melodies in the leafy groves.?buc?~adnezn~ so on. they became suspicio~~s the of When the doctor hadspoken thus. such m the Arabs descend." The king said to the phiIosopher '$You see party. dence be relied " We can see the king is evidently embarrassed. so lived they.here the he approached him one day. These we can never changed. but still not relincing the angels that they (the u ~ g e l s vcrc their quishing their pride. and came t h ~ y were prevented from going to heaven. . Freely the time of the second deir~ge. but Several of the giants . grinding.000 ycars. observed a third. \Vhcn the hoopoe commaof yonder tree. if YOU will but eat tbc fruit was all false and hoilow. " The Caaee is one of the represeutaIn sooth the condition of no one remains un. flDnrcl3 va<egate aud cheer the scene. like the circumference of a ment.fore. " he will plead beasts are not.once in a ask the Cazee to decide. retired with infamy dogging their flight. B ~ i this only ael-ved to fa1 the f l m e j SoIomon had gained the throne only through t of jealousy. how are we r hie councillors. When was some days passed away. by giving the power came to kllow that their ho=t of pro~nosiiatiou of speech to you. Heaven save us. 31ankind theu glolified YOU above others. the flint. '' But if the Ccme orders the beasts t o be liberated. and lived in concord to even after that. even from ! 1 1 / - . your knowledge and exceflcuce nicated the illtelligence of the Queen of Sheha to will be incrmed. the giants knew nothing Assuming therefore the looks of a grave adviser." replied a fourth. or they wi?! order that they should not be persecuted. The and persians. that those who remarked. I answered. Thus book wt~ich published after his death." i 1 8 1 i 1 r CHAPTER VIII. fL We will adduce the between us and our slaves The ewe is testimony of our friel>ds. The sight of the cover their nakedness with the leaves of the j .but wheu Kimrod cast B b r a h ~ m eL1from the toils of cultivcrtiig. and m&~ontiuuallyfor their folly. They have rank and authowill at last gain thcir freedom. The beasts heard of them They were much ashamed of their vaunts and disgrace and their sight-becamc hateful to tbein. and they should be called next morning and desired ( the sale proceeds paid to man. The cir. are the latter to be consigned to perpe. " what then l" <'We rl. were the inhabitants of splitting in the coustruction of the law.Clbrist came and iuvited all to the true faith. and YOU will liye happy Solomon. Re determined to try by all lllealls able to read the future wh$h mankind could not. exempt.sell the animals and receive their pricea: then? recome by avarice they mill commence hair. When Moscs God had also cou. he will pasa one of these orders. I t is watered i do the deed This increased the ill-mill which by several streams. aud the tribe of David from the per. G Perhaps tomorrow he will consult the minister H. animals are harn~less. inquired one of the members. who are wiser than the rest. they failed.lers observed that . and giauts were shut up in glass cases. Then it was that the head. " You have heard what has t i o n ~ " a fifth returned. and mid. What shall we do thcn?" Another 1000 years.j lerity. fruiis. Strife is like fire.v. even as the chil..and eqt~ity earth.princess to him.tives of the prophet on earth. and Eve fired together happy." " I t is true what yoa speak. of the occurrence. Pharoah. heighten their native grace aud elegance. aud that now thereroyal Chambers. in giants had a hand In instigating the lattcr to . aud they fouud themselves in a plaoe accomplishing this o\~jectmere recorded in a where there were ueither fiviis uor Icarcs.One of I for documents and witnesses to prove our asserthe members spoke.l. aud passed their time in cordial civility .000 or 360.and of sow. thereby convirl. they may plead in f a m w of our T H ~ E was holding a coancil in the the king . 1 the plants and anlmals to him.from heaven." observed one of the me provoke the enmity of creatures like these. The conszdmlian atao. "Thnt it was emyeno@.to and come back t pnd grindiug.anhan 'l f ancient masters. The charms which he used in was done. One of them. habitable earth to Solomon the son of David. l' I would 'L We do not know what Wese 'mill advise" consay that all these papers mere drowned in the tinued a fourth.. SPhen the When God granted the kingdom of the \vhole angels mere asked to desiguatc these severally. thcm how it was possible to approach angelic and seat his angels to them." The others observed have evidence tothe contrary in our possession:' that this too could be managed.W h w Nakomed giants came aud associated with them. . When Solomou died. H e bowed down hetrees. t h a t he was afraid lest the 6 * w r . I shall nnswer. tullaht them how to cut trees nod ljuild houscs end said it is . sel you. . we s' say. but weknowthat the king'sopieneral deluge." But.000 or iu one day. .I the son of Hywan. The kin0 desired greltter ceheaveuly garments which had clothed their bo. telms with colrtil~ue be in frien[U~ them Satan. They came to served both to cover their riakeclncss and 1 h o r n what religion was. to such dishono~lruble practices. cooking mankind again suspected that the giants had and waving and a11 the other cares whlch weigh j taught them how to make a sling. into the fire. for they are sure to be held and cumstances of no one remain unnltered for a responsible for their deeds on the day of judgIf the king will length of time .8 IKIl \\'AN-00s-SUPW the pcrp2taal aboLlc of spring.f ul charm dies M 1 of.lg held IrtaqakilL& 1 1 I the time of our ancestors. and over. They of God on earth. or in 1200 or 36. a slight doureur would beasts. Either . answered. and they our slaves. how we manage ?" danger attending this!' The others enquired ~ We shallhs y that the ani~ ~ t ~ ~ whatthBt -as. A t last God had proclaimed himself their guide. hy his means betwcen them." depositions are valueless in a court of judicature. the Cazee may urge that evikiug is inclinecl towards us?" Another answered. ~ u d Thc mlgcls were ordered to drive them out from devised several schemes to coufine them in Paradise and to cast them below the hill. and if the ~azee would desire us nion is iu our favour.' hlan was deluded. several tbf the giants followed h &reci the ~ t of digging and ploughing. cc when the king mill leave this matter to these have come as complainants . who taught them ~lature.dominions of the king it is incumbent on him tual bondage 1" The Doctor answered they should to protect and aid them. They lost the waving honours of their fore God aud praised him. the giants were again til~uncd. they asstmd mankind that ) iuferiors." A nother said-"If the king tisfied with the result of our ~rbitrafion O" Right council" answered the Uoctm '' is t h e consults the Cazee and the law officers.views of each other. i t is optional for us to free them or keep selves into committees of 70 individuals each. and that me Ca~e and the lam &cer. he ginlts to& W b n Abel mm olain by Cain the towards the giants and mid. he debircd to 1:llow which of the gjauts and peaceful without knowing what death is." Suppose that the G a z e calls were consulting amongst tbemseives. a s the occasion mill re. and ivere wondering \\. to mh~ch sixth retrimeda ~~t if the caiee cluestion the for justice. the Cazee and ono of them ' l ~f we are ordered tz the law Officer could be bribed also. they weeping alld mourn. do this. Izi those days sent the prophet Esdras tllat peace was made their waving ringlets descended to the feet and . Kiugs are the captains exercise patience. The . This glass bottles. the heat of the sun beaame unbearable. o p i ~ ~ i owill be as foilows :-they I n haste there is mischief.lot known whether maukind are TLcy nlutual!y became the frieuds of each other t o be i!ljurcd. and forests. The trees are clothed witb already existed between mankind and the giauts. but man did not. and they b k e their that they easily win over the minister . a$ giants knew that rnaukind were their superiors. alenccd all. bringing information tlierefrom and dremmg. raised his handancl broke 1 undertake the task before he (Solomor~)could and ate the forbidden Fruit.

then. and aid cojzs we bring forward.see a bit of bread or meat in the hand of a man.-"When Gain i had killed Abel. For this also they connive in the apprehension of other rapacious animals. vas then asked mere thus tempted to relinquish their own tribe. h e s . they orer. X opinion was the fittest person to be honoured 16th such a post ?-He answered. and they have not been guilty of any particular crrme." answered the bear." replied the shaggy speaker. " Men and dogs are in f pains and torments o Bell. far as eating as arguments will be borne down before the overand drinking are concerned. You have never done any s ecial rirtuous deed. The these He is already somewhat in our favour. ('The brothers Coaasltation held amangst a n i d & of IGzlEiZa and Dam~~a. l' He shouid be a wise aud prudent person." The said-" If you heard our aisputes? thus opened the speech of proceed to your tilhe and solli>dtheir opinion. bread and d E . The king Mankind assert t h a t they are the greedy lust of their palates. on your return you shall certainly be remunerwhat i s to be done ?" Tomorrow morning. from the vanqnished. salted as well as unsaitcd.-'ye. and took complaint against m m in the court of the &way all the wealth.feeling with the human race. He answered-" I do not grieve at their secession : but it pains me t o remember that philosophers have declared. w5ich beoamo so 1 h ~ v e plentiful that it was thrown on the street3 and them and argue tbc point with them. the dogs pwsue them with fierce violence. The bear complied thus. i CHAPTEE L and eventually succeed in drivinw them off. Besides these. and grant that his view& sultation amongst thenrselves. proposition. one of them. ' l But what treatment do they rec&e from men 1" '' Why. He should omit nothing through fear or favour." The king enquired if there was anr other animal besides the dog who was on friendly terms with man. All these vices are to be found in men also. They revelled in domesticated. that they aided men and quenee always proves irresisbable. from tne heights of integrity and incorruptibility. This they lifb up with every sign of cringing in all haste possible. a fifth for the habltated part of a village by night to purloin reptiles.mould be preferable. me shall be deprived of all. meat and covering. on flesh forbidden conjointly aid u s by their endeavoura. could not help but ask of his mtjcstg what it was that made him sorromful at hearl?g of the separation of the canine 2nd feline tribes from their own races.hence summoned you all to go and confront gorged themselves with meat." After this he enquired from the leopard. aud better opportunity of purloining. who was the Vaseer. hence these endless strifes amongst them. a fowl. ye shall inherit t h e tion." The beasts approved of this butter. for which God has rewnrjed gon. But the dogs bear no good will to . Covetousness is their curse. j aud the most competent for such a task. a mouse or a piece of bread. I he gaics the f freedom of any city. we shall surely be able and unforbidden. and he to manage t ansmered-" king enquired who worst The dogs are our were H e is bound by duty to attend to all the p o and rs foes. Re t o aid bnd a s i d him. because they have lives too. I say unto you. None says. who i n his CIIAPTER I . and relish the food liked by man. a second for the wmged tribe. They are the best friends of men. do so. and come supported by t h e aide of declared that he was ready to offer an explanarhetoric t o me. a third for the beasts of prey. and the power of retaining secrets in his own breast. they rush at them." The king asked the reason. ( who waa the . -- 1 1/ 1 ." The Line questioned. They never allow other beasts to infor the rapacious animals. ~ h z n e v e rthey .the supreme masters of all the birds .best speaker amongst them all. and truth supported by elowhat the reason was.' Mankind too are their nature and principles. raw as wcll as cooked. including camels. If you wish t o show hilldness to them.THE leopard asked the iiou what qualities were necessary for an ambassador ? The other ansaercd. And what would be life after this 1 Death . to associate with the human race. &' You have may prove successful. and he knew not how h e may be propitiated and order our release. Perhaps several enemies of his race." The thoroughfares. and devour them : and the cats in their turn smell and puff at sight of lion expressed his repet a t healsing these vorda. I by chance a fox or a wolf cnters a f fourth for the torraceous animals." The king desired him to repcat. In company spoke thus : with the friends whom ihey invited. if you will deprive another of his right. who hear enmity against your brecould answer the question. he should not make up his residence there .in a word. but return as soon as possible. The bear answered. they do not to devise a plan which i d 1 ultimately lead leave vegetables and fruits. m l . attracting cats and dogs.them. Other animals of to rll the beasts and desire them to despatch their pleaders and o~xtors us. \Then many friends assemble. cattle. bark at-tliegn. asses. because a emissary is free to n deliver his errand without any restmint. and apprise his master of all what he had seen and heard. uutil the sons of Cain prevailed. and other sovereigu of t b feathered tribe. honey clarified from the Lord. The prophet deserted the cause of their brethren. The king desired him t o give a faithful oersiou of the story. was the signal for the beasts to repair to their '' May God reward the leopard far what he says. lest they should consume all provlsions. cities will not be mempt from these troul>les. and feel pain equally.your majesty pleases pithno@which they r e l i ~ h dso much. RThenevcrthe dogs see them. a j vade the village. and a sixth for the aquatic race.answered the jackal. ter demanded the price of blood froln those THEY second ambaesador Lad todied his bhe of the former. from ~ h o m had Our be. Of course all assistance comes ik and sweet-meats. and there is no one who can oppose His will. elldowed with eloqnence. and afflicted with the we to proceed 1" One of them returned. woman or child. t i ~ cohabit with him. oil."The lion referred the THE retirement of the king from his council. acid ol US t o liberty. property. No king should decide them in our destruction!' The king enquired any case unheard. and never allow temptation t o precipitate Mm headlong. and associate rpith man. How are slaves of covetousness. and exclaimed "Really there no help we but in God the merciful. who thren. wild as well as Cc. He should also exert his best endeavours to promote the good of those whom he represeuta. and besides the masters of declamation. and act u t o the instruction he p theu receives." returned the bear. and all the other edibles used by men. Those who live io the. the descendants of the lab CH hPTER. " Z shall appear before the K~ng servact of his majesty. in houes of shariitg the answered-" Whomever . blessed with a retentiva memory. never ente~tain the idea of releasing the beasts. They returned : We will be exposed to a great deal OF inconc veaience. but that there were and urge our complaints on him." anated. by making the animals your subjects . moued all the winged race. The seeds of strife *re thus sown. ' l have a nab r a 1 fcl10w. to present themselves before himaftluence and sacrificed other beasts t q satisfy They came iu cnuntless ntimbers. They too are cursed mith the same spirit of covetousness." own quarters. and s i x ambassadors mere nomiOther animals do not feed on these. as if determined t o tear them to pieces. and I a m afraid our latter enjoy several ad~antages. matter t o the jackal aud called for his vote. Yes. "they are bctter fed: they have easier access both to their bed and board. but the bear. the cat too is much attached to them. It appears then that HE is the Lord and master of 011. for which they are puuished in this way. who mere in favour of the proposition enqllired what. that there is nothing disasiroua to the inwest of a soverejgn a s to find his Friends and assistatlts abandonlug / I Ij over Absl. for the purpose of holding con. mules.'l The to a~poiut. Milk. m d are covcrcd with flesh as we are. The bear answered. who peacock. " Send same curse of parsimony. to Uogs feed on everything. harm m there in doing so. hence i t is that dogs have aba~ldoned their owntribe. nor even nated fur t h e purpose abovementioned : one covet them." The wolf represented that he was a swered a second. " 'Bey too. that they may the samo tribe are exempted from these vices. the Latter sumdomestic nnimal~. with what sycophancy they shake their head and wag their tail until they receive the refuse they pray for.XI.&ning and in whom we mill have our ead !" Often did he repeat these ~ ~ r duntil the bear s . lest anather may snatch the covctcd morsel. The monarch desjred him to do 80. '<the case is yet t o be decided . and never think of exceeding and abusing the authority entrusted to him. They are also the whelming torrent of their elocution.

. nor sigh for the joys of heaven ? Are you not thankful to God for all his bounties bestowed on you ? Know you not that the world will soon pass away 2 Prepsre then for eternity. that Z may once more revisit my native land. ' I grieve a t the absence of friends and long intensely to meet them. The peacock answered-"The lap-wing. who informed Solomon of the kingdom of Shebn. mere all over-zealous to do the same. who was so vaiu of his grandeur and power. sshrtlegged. the crane. gewgaws of life better than the glories of WEENthe third ambassador had laid hi8 cornHeaven? flying from a d . exalted throne.-. the sparrow. and insignifi-1 cant member of my tribe ended all his greatness and laid hi^ magnificence in the dust. the ostrich. who enlivens the bones which are laid to decompose in the grave." answered the leader of the gnats. an? exerts the powers of harmony to gloe marnlng to the thou~l~tless. Blessed is he who hag broilght the sexes together. He. all these are present. The minister returned. and with it retribution. the dove. the dnck. and descending. and inculcates with beat of wings the followiug instrudion to his neighbours :-4 Arouse ye. the partridge.' g ~ o u u d Upon this the kiuo of the birds asked '~ Yonder againis the foreteller of the secrets the Peacock whom hc couzdered thc best and of fate." Rere behold the &ridge. who like a preacher pouriug forth wholesome counscls from the pulpit. $c. aud plead its case with man. She sits on a high. '. They know not God The sun they worship. "Know then. All are well qualified by are not yet revealed to man. preserve me from the rapacious animals. calling on all idlers to wake from their dreams of rest. misconstrue the meaning of adoration. r house o God. - - a" / haunts of men. Ply from the vanities of life and forget uot your Creator for a single moment. loves cool houses in summer. and asH rule. wlio wakes to watch. who 11ves a life of abste. and wished to kuotr who was best fitted among them to represent his tribe." The king requested of him to point to him each. twice during the night. i t was.ions. Whenever he sings. who ciirnbs half the may to Heaven iu hia flight. death i s approaching fast. The Take the miming now. the swallow. ! 'Be wise. 'Pure is the Creator of heaven and earth'.' After this she adds. and not knowing Eim who has created the heaven and earth and all things visible and invisible. white-winged. . the turtle-dove. thoughts from today. and gladden my eyes with a sight of the friends I love. I t h would be me11 for you to treasure up such . The king was takeu by surprise. bow down in worship before the sun. the heron. for which purpose he placed his small in size.-. ' and remember the Lard. the rain descends in genial showers to freshen the earth. ('Instature they are much higher. How he E followers on towering elephants. passes his time in t:&. she cries. and mith t h a t aaaistance we are confident me will remove every d~fficultyand prevail over cur opponents. and has thus multipIied the races on earth. oh monarch. his stature bent by repeatedly kneeling and bowing down. the son of David.the names of all the birds. ye who plant gardens. his favor down such a shower of stones on them thnt he grudges to none. mituessi~lg of these gifts. the nightingale. and from carnivorous habits and appetites of man and wolves.' '&is again is t h e lark. possess mcre strength. the cock. have seen many l~ations and have now returned home. fleas.~ poi. This is the cock crowncd with his ruddy crest. thnt of the flies. Know yon not how God is glorious and the tongue of man acknowledges treated those who presumed to equal him in its im tence to praise him as he ouglit to be might? Their chief attempted t o destroy thc p r a i s e 6 On y o ~ ~ d rbraoch sits the bulbnl. JIorzliuy alld evening she repeats her prayers. But what happened 1 9 1 old. and lie down in the grave ~ i t the worms for your companions. the spy of solomon. why do you all offer yourselves as carididates for this onerous post ?"-"Oh king. when you will have to bid adieo to all pleasures and frivolities. and every other insaot which lives but for a year presented itself. freedom. who guides and assists travellers. the esble crow. which I have brouzht from the land of Shebq'which is now goPeFned by a womau whose grandeur and magnificence i t is impossible for the tongue to describe. Ali" miouslless and is conversant wit11 matters that returned that bird. and consider it to be the true God. He preaches virtue and prevents ill. " I will give you a piece of information. the lark. therefore. In proof of wbat I say. but with the aid of Heaven we have always overcame them.wisest to be seut to reason with man. mounts on high. and fruits from all temptat. Be thou. hornets.' The pigeon who stands yonder. 'c Without considering the matter in all its bearings. weak. Do you vtxlne thc I CHAPTER XII. whereas h e is but a particle of the immensity of His light. and if you wish to avoid hell and its penal fires.' thus he preaches. Aomercts bloomed in the parterre. that mercie~may be shows ered fourfold on u . who is the Creatur of dl. and we can adduce proofs in support of what we say"-The king was willing to hear the dctails. "The hird whn nits i a variegated dress is the boo--* . ths planets revolve. and speaking thus:--$Thank the Lord for all his mercies." he continued. At his bidding t h e shadowy exhalatlons rise from the ground to regulate the seasons . both go. wonderful is he. and warm ones in winter. alights on corn heaps and gives vent t o melody. and exclaims.' Don't give way to indolence.*uud the're brings forth and nourishes her youug. hlorn and even he says. 6 t h what does the glory of man consist?" The ambassador retdrned. ' Holy is he who has created the ocean aud the earth. his bounty descends on all. the best warblers of the grove bow down -and pay obeisance to him. who preaches every morning.~ . long-necked. where will you or can you stop ? If you sigh for. who r$ued publicly. and misled bp Satan. '' we all hope for the assistance of God.' This is the partridge mhich always moves gracefully in gardens and p-oves. populate cities and exaIt yourself in the pride of your hearts. standing on a hillock. He retuembers their powers of eloquence to undertaice thc hi God every moment. Never lose your trust in God !' And when he invokes. p r v plaints before the sovcreigu of the reptiles. and rirlgs the sikot~ldbe s e n t -----. when every dced will have its retribution. and continually blesses the Lord. remember what the world is. so that he may be able to judge of the nature and qualifications of each: and find out who was the most deserving.--n -. The king opened the council 11y explailiing the case t o thcm. be uot fkariess.(Ye who weaken the foundation of hfe. yct nimblc in motion. Bat her people have all gone astray. then you will iuherit hap iness and escape ete~unl perdition. the lightnings flash and the thunder growls." Tne leader of the hornets expressed himself ready t o go as a representative. the pigeon. contrire to lord over the byte creation. ou whose will depend life and death. .and praises God sayiug.d'aud evil. 'Holy is that God who has created every animal. this ruighty potentate passed an order directing that all his subjects should be b~mmoned. carries letters and missives to distant lands. and declared that the wonders of the earth which he had seen were never dreamt of by Solomon even. saying.Ihave trwersed every re. tbil~kof the hour of denh. aud all the good things of the world are to be found in her court. he prays thus c-: 0 Lord. to encourage procreation! Here amin is the bitteru who walks on dl-y ground and Pnhabits the woods. and flushed exercises the porvsrs of melody and singswith pride. moths.-. but 1 think the bulbill has a larger share travelling from one clime to another. Be mindful that the awft~l is drawday ing nigh. I t was then that the Almighty sent mercy! Hidden from the view of the world or r fligknt of birds over their heads." continued t h e speaker the days of yore. as well as of the guats and locusts. 0 Lord.' Sometimes he changes his they all perished like !eaves e a t w up by the straiu :-'How delightful was that season when worms. and * . At his biddiug the firmament stands on unshakable pillars. -~~ destination..-notes of slarm into thc ears of the neghgent.' thus ring his notes. Manj a tyrant has ruled ere this . grasshoppers. who has fixed the mountains and given motion to the streams . and. gion. the wag-tail. who has clothcd them mith ihe robes of being. 0 God ! and lead me srvfe to my - -G.the blessing of Heaven. acts as guide. musquitoes. who has showered his bounty so plentifully ou us. migrates iuto far distant muntries. there lived a great and mighty sovereign named Kimrod.' Here staods the Crane. my director.' After this she adds ' Preserve us. aud it is my opiuiou that he the mlrnuers and custorns of each. my friends. body variegated. have recourse to devotion and abstemiousness. They unanimously enquired. Dread you not the pains of hell. approached to carry his intent into ' Blessed is the name of the Lord of might and execution. the waterfowl: the Persian nightingale.-. Indeed he gunts. that he had no regard for any created being. and save us from uischiefs made the green branches bow t o and kiss the of ali living tribes. and who is master and sovereign of everything that esists.

and is endowed with a great deal of to fifth ambassador repaired. swift in nlnning. frogs. cattle.i t to their o m usc. attend to what he saysm-The king asked the parrot if he wm willing to proceed-"Yes. yec i t is not proper for ( bIy. and contentment.in prayq to. and crawling on m$ mouth. kings a ! nobles. with he not sxve himself"-mighty as he NThou speakest the truth: snid the Iz~ng.'' " Why will they ~ ~ ~ to projecta they think themselves unriralied. "ta plead for in bloodshed. wisdom. deand turtles to his Court-They came-The king daring that he was slow in motion.the owl if he had aught t o say in reference to clean or danpei-0~5sholrld come near. "but set. 'l The royalty and aristocracy of on us. bigb and low. copper. me." was the enquiry. and they very peace a t such a question. ." he said.j "Fo'. with theirs. They place the yoke on the shoulders of their indefatigable.. the assembly." h : said. and asked h m who was aid turns the full confidence of his mind towards i best fitted to proceed to join the di~cussion." then began a hornet :L in all the pride of strength oomes out armed lings vacated by them. d t h his atteudant. " Or" mm." 'c No" said t l ~ e menced the gnat.. The dolphin was not tlaction far and wide in their domaios. A fiah it was who saved their Prophet safety. The voazesr questsare granted. The is thuB :-I< when the human sovereign sits iu all clelightful luri~r?eswhich were theirs: these they hia glory on the throne. " remarked named the owl as the best fitted for the task. although stronger than they. All held their peace. the king of the aquatic animals the ( in his back. nntil the dolphin. they collsider and carrying a coat of armour on his back. extremely agile in coutinued after a pause. the phaaoix. and never turn their thonghis to t h e cause of my brute brethren. 'Tis r i ~ e r s anS' tanks-they are much regnrdcd by then that guided hg us they have rcgained men. alight on him i t is imposaiblc for me to go. I as meii ss in water." I' May Heaven and preparing for the day of judgrue~it"Whom then." requested my eyes on my neck. for his devotinu.light in abusing me. " bent in bacls and extremely ugly.I Mankind. so far so that they havs our tlibe. a~sistanceof art aud duplicity. all hold him dear. who in his turn expressby carryi~lg goods from one country to another. Is there an one who is expert in are respectful to them . and his sword and their fate by repealing the follo~ing Verse from shield are both cf no avail t o him. From the mountain-tops they provide them.' " The king asked and guards snrronncting him. whom they carry abtrut mith such small creature are not much cared f o r them on thei: wrists. . that globe is supporter1 on the hack of one of these !" God Almighty may remain pleased with us.. even as one vho hopeless in worldly the case t o his minister." returned the messenger. Depute the turtle. and approach. the virtuous to em~rlate bad conduct of the who has affection for men." double-necked. Troder the light protectiou of the arena of public discussion. ' Send the paro uet" he replied. G rrhe11 he lies in his pri. harn. and dripping with impilrities. aud on the mountain tops. Thirst I cannot bear. He hates expditany business. that I should not loses all forbearance.of my own innocence. we dclibentely rose and said :-"Send the fish : large in body. straight punishes in another world. They smences. wished to know horv we could pray effeetuaUy. A moment's senar~tinn . I have no legs to take me.--'l Wall then." he in form. ." The king then referred the traversing forests and hovling woods. depnte them. Him. and mourns sense and motion for time. we even are compelled t o seek safety in the woods. that nothing un.shun him. and ~ h knows what the issne will this. . consider that the whole placed him on the shore. I t would Lie better to There they look for st15ct justice and equity.anii think it nniucky t~ cast their eyes 03 me. they will become o his gauzc and curtains. . ed himself u n d i n g to undertake the task. "I canIn this may we thouuht it better to thank him \ not go. dolphins." 11 They milling. And we. B e recommended the Crab. and the night if of his pores. ~ o a the. safely deposited hiru on shore uninjureci and safe. their tongile. " ?%at is true" observed the respect and civility. popolnting oceans. and perfect adepts in all arts arid said. what becomes of him $ Iufla." he themselves endowed with reason. from water mill dcpri~e-rne my breath a:toof gether. The Crab carry away asses and eagles from the heightu. "I am prone to anger and incliuselves ~ t gems most precious. He thinks rnmatiou sets in. "replied that solemn bird. When they will see rue on vat6 apartments. his council lodged before the phmnix. and are not conversant and IKHWAN-00s-SUFFA.The monarch did as desired. and then boats has almost sunk to a mt~teryg a v e wilen.' she replied. The king statcd of heart. or his robes of state. moreover. Besides he is very strong NEXT. haunts the old and rnlnorts dwelLL &re. voluble and ." The Icing then mished to know who was frorn. who have talons and bills formed t o destroy " Pray with purity of illtention and clearness their PreYv attended the call. the tortoise begzed to be excused. long-mouthed." corltinued he. but has no power to revenge himsclf the king. .their cultivatioll~ aud all the the king. The kinp referred the matter to the fish. I am corscioua dble king. Although we are wished to know whom they considered the Lt iso powerful. who wae do not claim superiority in possessb~g brute more of a polype. Here is my brother who bra left dwelling in their regions.14 IKHWAN-00s-SUFPA.S ~ W U ~ Ha is also patient and can wait long for treme West to the farthest East. justice and fair plny. his travelling traps being ready. wherean the owl lives in their man glorying ! abode% nay.from drowning by carrying them ou his back.says is r i ~ b t ." he replied. which is crooked. " are very partial to but in the Court of the monarch of the Genii. and a r r a ~ ~ willilaugh ~ see me there. God. " hau becn almost waft. They ascend the mountainous steeps and the person most fit to be deputed. In his opinion the the most fitted both by agility and themselves stronger and braver t l ~ a nme.eloquence for the task. this ! Dolpl~in momeut I can undeceive them.. Besides he mas the ambassador said :-l'If men actually think 1 rathrrr laconic in his speech. issuing from his kitc'nen or clo. laugh at yon. and spread des. ''if the king and conncil would assist me. a n d has preferred a life of solitudo in the forest. swift. to vulture. everv one of Does not his majesty know.which his Creator. the hawk. I that they dive into the depths of the Red sea." he replied." The king falcon. slaps his face and beas he sentm--" Whom then should I send 7" asked hia head. " nor carry on a dicusfor his goodness in ha&g made us strong. fasts. whereupon his majesty forbearam and patieoce. and often saves thein the VICIOUS. our ready assistance cnme to his use. if we penetrate through my foes. the memhers of his body lose of adcicut ki~lgqdead and gone. white in color. IL'what defect have Reason and conscience esclusively belong to you?"-$'When they'll see me.'The crocodile. and by the their duty." When questioned. and could disclosed his purpose to them." retul-ned the minister. and sting him in his vaunted security. iron. 'Their gardens and their magnithen spoke bwut p~laces." said he. the owl and all other carnivorous birds. "How. summoned the fishes.IOLIS."-'(Favor me with details. and the earth j ed to make away with every thing that comes h m way. aud mayst thou return soon in should depute ?" questioned the king. no every case he i our helper!' s tongue to aid me to carry on a war iu words. men and women.. he he. He ismoreover singulnr and arrows." L'This is all right. Then his reanperiort~over the brute creation. WC hunt for tbcm. &c. who was the responded " dnren" to his pryers. till a philosopher convenie~ltlydeprive us of our prey and bring issued from the ranks of the flies. which cousiats iu worshipping God grace of God hope to succeed. the king." On hearing this the moAt last we have determined to come to a narch turned himself t o his counse!!ors. therefore.swimmina large in breed. If they j place a talisman of art on the banks of a river. blessed pritll Cisabdeclined the honor. becgnse he is sure-footed. in- - 15 i / ! 1 i j 1 $' l - asmnch as me can soar to the highat heavens." he said that Imap overcome my enemies. triumph !" In short. n he departed thence and reached the Court of learned aud unlearned. I do by the Y yields them gold. and the special gift of ingenuity is "they'il think me to be a headless animal." "This isvery t ~ e . 11) fact whatever I do. " bi1anl." ." mid the king address ' ' W h ~ so" enquired the %gi "1s there ]lone ing his conucil. silver. however. The d q he with spear. that if we mish one of us can test person to be deputed to thegeneral msemdestroy many of them. he can live on land CBAPTER SIV.ind love him . can they by any meads pos. relieves the poor and then was carried on by mankind in reference to' their pours out his sou1. him from this unwelcome guest's I am 8ure I never harmed them. them. with eight feet. the members of his tnbe. ~ccordingly the \ ali would be labor lost. at that the recommendation of the minister 'l IVhat he moment if a fly. These WC did. mnnliiod" he returned. I 1 1 1 . and the king of t h e Genii. ltPray for me to CBAPTER XIII. the royal white pray effectunlly is not pomible for all. Knowing then too well that all con. Many a ship. "you know how mankind haPO beside him equal to him 2'' <'The other birds of oppressed the beasts. recommend our case to God who remards aud fine to look at. and re." observed the king. nimble in motion. h htrild and promote the interests of commerce matter t o the crocodile.. The I am ill-formed. tentions are useless in this world. ed to destruction by nnfavorable winds. I n sion nlth men. " for. crocodiles. hut still they take a deattsntiona l. and sword and At that moment oue of us leave a 6ti:tiouin one 1 passes in fnsking a d Feeping. eloqnence and the flowers hawk." asked the king. It is advisable. and vice usma: the fulfilment of his wishes. but for t h e i ~own adthe use of such weapons Eve17 one held his vantage. Many a person after the wreck of his i Jonah: by carrying him in her belly. <(thatL may judge of their pretensions. he also summoned bere observed that if Heaven rejected the prayer." WHENthe complaint of the fourth ambassa.*Trueit the Korn7a. and public discuvsion with them. my mouth in my breast. do you thinlc it advisnble that I help thee in thy righteous wish l" responded his sovereigu. sharp nailed. force. and turning to 1 not travel to a distant place. Thus they pass their time ing the king. The owl dor soyereigll of Raptorial Kfds.-"1 go. In devising plans. .i iu preying and rousing the negligent. said.ks and falcons. "few mankind come all this distance to seek protection from. fair faced. have leb for others to enjoy. ' I am sure they'll musider me perfectly ridicu(the Sea of Clysma) and extract pearIs there. nod drive them overloaded from the er. "but they do not regnl-d U& because we of rhetoric. blankind hate me." The ambasea- I i / - \ - .

as the birds. the fish. alchough i t is not God who leads them into aaictious. that their food is immediately di1 gested and absorbed by their system. and alight in places where a banquet ia spreud out for them. which pl. and stronger is he thaoother animals. lest Solomon and his army might tramole thein under foot. and the reptiles were blessed mith the power of speech. WHEN locust perceived that the king mae the very favorably disposed towards his sui~jects and troops. Although good and evil are t o be found e v e ~ w h e r ein the world. " Oh thou". the Creator. On mother occasion. No snake would there be left in the world. as the deer. &c. Large is the size of the elephant. that they are enabled to elude all creatures that pursue to make a prer of them. but I sincerely hope that the king will pray t o God on high in my behalf. In the . To supply this dehciency. beaides he is a graceful speaker in reciting his creed. because he once behaved very ha11dsomeIy with them. scorpions. snakes. is not regardless of their deficiencies. and well-formed hands and feet." The locust questioned again " What benefit is derived to the other animals from them!" H e answcred :--"The same benefit. some he made strong aud some weak. If the king will consider the matter properly. The gnat he has made small. he has made their flesh au antidote for the same. and every reptile which is bred in impurity and crawls on leaves all obeyed t h e summons. whose mercy shields them from a l harm.' Others there are. e' . they do not feel the want of what they t have not. But he has blessed all equally. he will peroeive that those who are small and weak are the most agile in flying. Bg his almighty power and marvellous might he called forth creation from &he abyss of ch:ros." The frog then departed. so much so. and God has thus expressed himself in favoirr of the latter :-' The leader of the ants advised his tribe to hide themselves in their retreats. indecd. for havj ing created the latter. aud one tribe to give assistance to another. not entirely excluded from the bountiea of heaven. or breathing and moving in the stomach of another animal. he took the part of the latter. Some can fly from dangsr. weak and deficient in every requisite talent. whereas these are free from every trouble of this nature. and his proboscis assists him in carrying food to his mouth. "For. H e replied. who l attends to all their requirements. by means of which they escape the evil consequences of damp. for he who ha8 made. and some dive iuto the water and thus save their lives. for t n ! y thou art both eloquent and wise. by which means they are preserved from every danger. nor guts to hold digesced matter. are small and helpless. and I shall advocate the cause of my brethren with all the might that lies in me. and well formed. a l are equal. 'lhe . Those who are created extremely smell.effectud. others diminutive and illconstrocted. never forsakes his creatures." The crocodile observed that he wanted all these qualities. when a war was carried on between Pharoah and Moses. at the time when Nimrod flung Abraham into a heap of fire. and their nohla. or even crawling in mud or iilth. for they requira them not. ':there is ! an old enmity esiatiug between men xncl serj pents . ZE he Wshes me to undertake the task. /i serpent advisedinthe king cornman&~himself." Complying with his request. advantages are to be derived?" asked the locust. "who art the creator aud provider of all. spiders. and more courqeous can keep off all their j he enquired if he was ready to proceed to repra- - 17- scut his tribe the general a s e n b l ~He an." Their bodies vere entirely uncovered. some ivho are sharp-sighted soar on atrong piuions. ['I am ready in every respect to obey the king. Others can scent out their provisions. \ he does not withhold creating objects who are j locust wished to kriow why he prevented h m t o i 1 saying that he was deputed by cl~xgons. that they t d k so ignorantly.The swered: 'Yes.bves efficacious at certain times.kc. When God created those animals about whom you have been speaking. by means of which he can fly away from the pursuit of his enemies. There is a God who provides for all without any exertion on their part. for thou alone art good and compassionate. nor throat to swallow. addressing the monarch ' be not thoughtful about the helplessness of thy subjects ." aos\vered the other. with a symmetrical mouth. and blessed with the spirit of devotion. the wild am. he did not forget to provide them with offensive and defensive means. and stated his case to him.~. are exposed. the tiger. and opened his mouth in praise of h ~ Maker:-"Every praise i due t o that Qoci s s who has showered unspeakable bounties o d t h e face of the earth. the king raised his voice in prayer t o heaven. He ie amphibious and can skim on the surface of the water with as much ease as he leaps on the earth. and daily provides for them. As parents are never neglectful of their offspring. the hare. nor spleen to absorb the humours of the body. they could never have partaken of i their food . and thereby they are enaoled to swallow i t domn most easily. Others there are. aud time named. nor stomaoh to digest. When God created them. I n the ossession of members fitted for safety and seZpreservation. and hence it Is. To them the power of absorption is given.r CEdPTER XVI. I a m perfectly willing to do so. carries venom in his fangs. nor teeth. The ariakes are neither provided with stomach to digest. The snake returned:-L'Wheu God made the world: he arranged all things nccordiilg to his Ftill and wisdom.om whom nought but evil is to be derived. Deaf they are also aa well as blind. - IKHWAN-00s-SUFPA. So our tribe: who to all apl pearances. whole range of creation. so he. before the king of the reptiles. nor kidneys and biaddelu to coucentrate the urine. look down on these thy helpless creatures. The mouse and the ant ooucenl themselva in subterranean recesses. brilliant eyes. Their braiu is hot the seat of inteliectual powers. Some however fall into perits.but these aiv exempt from every atte~ilut concealmeut because they a& are born in the-safest piaces. n r n i n g himself to his minister he enquired from him. cven as the elephant. ahich is derived from other animals." The prayer of the king proved. eve11 as the ants. Iu short the king mas quite despoudent and could not suppress h ~ s team at beholding the utter worthlessness of the members of hi8 tribe. and at the same &me the most fearless . When the good results preponderate. such as the vulture sild the eagle. lizards. H e haunts the dwellings of men without entertaiuing any fear. and bade it flourish aud prosper. To each he has given the powers of offence and defence according to its indivldual requirement. Some have such warmth iu the stomach." T h e king wished to know the opinion of the frog hiaeIf oil this point. Vam the sixth ambassador presented himself j do so. and all his counsellors responded. Hence it is. He is well-formed. some l a q e in atature. but he has provided him with two dehcately formed wings. No one knows where they are." 6 he said. and in every respect were perfectly weak and helpless. he cried. these creatures are dumb and deficient iu the power of speech. sense and discretion. and wanting the powers of motion. nor veins to promote the circulation of the blood. who can hide their hcada und0. and derive uoul-ishment from whae would have proved injurious to them. he held his peace for a aooment. and came in such crowds that none but the eye of God in Heaven could enumerate t h e m Tha moment that the king beheld them." Aker this er. mbich would compel them to have recourse to a physician. He is 1 particuiarly held iu regard by the SOUS of Israel. I he provided them with members which serve ) t'neru in their hour of need." L'Why say they so?" asked the locust.@ himself in fasting and piayerS. eloqaeuce and the power of speech are what \vill be required from you. even as the turilc. X they would cousider well. and hence escape destruction. To none has he given superiority over another. and prove preservatives against all harm. whether hidden in the grass. and thus escape every harm. yet i t is not God who assists in the propagation qf either. dies.. The scdles of his equity were always equal.-- dor here interfered and said " Strength and artfulness are not needed. considering that nothing important collld be done by them. " Eecawe.r their iails. he has made one to serve as food for the other. Vhen he made the animals. He has attended to the good of all. nor are they dieted with any chronic disease. it dissolves. Before heaven aud earth were created. or enclosed in a grain. justice and equity. In short they are free from all those distresses to which animals mightier than they. nor lungs to purify the blood.defence to him. to chew. &c. liellce i t is. that the former are > not backward in fiuding Psult with God. and starvation would certainly have ensured their destruction. The 1 1 / 1 i 1 ( 1 ! I i ' . are for all that. their fsnga are charged vith venom. Holy is that God." "Oh king. him not to bctray b. who was fitted to be sent to the general assembly. round headed." When the locust had finished his perordtion. snd other aquatic animals. nud know the true f value of these venomous deposits they mould nevcr commit themselves. atrong- / CHAPTER XV. "LUight and day he repeats the name of his maker. he caxrled water in us mouth and sprinkled i t on the burning element to extinguish it. "Amen. The moment that they eelnit poison on any living flesh. not knoiving for what j purpose God has created diffirer~t ohjects.fi. by asking why God h w made such creatures? If the Maker hm filled their fangs with poison." The locust wished to be favoured with details. and morning and evening emlilo. the king said May Qod bless thy rhetorical powers. worms. H e recummended the frog for the purpose because he was a philosopher possessing a great deal of patieuce. Be freqtefits human habitations also. are at the samv time freed from many a trouble to which the others are exposed . whose &ies are hard. and w?loever comes iu contact mith him. and worthy is he to be praised. he placed himself on the elevation of a wall. enemies at a distance from them. Accordi ingly serpents. Hence i t is that God has given them no hands and feet. his majesty snmmoned at1 the members of h s tribe to attend hi court. but at the same time his tusks prove weapons of self . he was present. and then perceived that all were small. ants. who lookest down with mercg on those who invoke thy aid. There are some again. and therefore powerless to provide food for themselves. and kings are compelled t o reserve their venom in their rings. Raising his eyes towards heaven. Other animals are ohligcd to toil both for food and self-preservatio!~. such as the gorcupiueB Food too is easily provided for them ." aaid he." 'What other . Eence i t is also that h e has made them dependant 011 these." answered the othcr. and bestowed different shapes on them. by means of which. blood-suckers. they had neither billsnor claws. cLBeeause. For a time he gave way to anxieties. that if God withheld their venom from them. nor teeth to chew. and who from nothing has brought to existence those various creatures who people the globe. whereas those who are larger in stature. who can run with the greatest smiftucss. for the blessings of sovereigna never fail to beuefit their subjects. whereas some are sl\rsgs obliged to fly frori the pursuit of their euemie. if m. j The snake ausmered.

B l a n ~a prophet and pililosopher have also risen from that. Ablxham.i yet in snirit-larlci. and ~wrwthl cornpisxion . Nothing but ignorance prompts them to ~ n i out of fire. and punishes those who try t o quesdoes'and question the use of a good many ob. magic and rhetoric.5 tion his wisdom. in whose reign certain very f a m u s events happened. Before Adam. the reasons for mhich none of their wise men could urge."But you have forgotten to ~ d d that instead of . a. so this orb irradiates nature could never penetrate.tribe of Israel. and inquired from his minister who h e were these words uttered. destroyed the children of David and Solomon." When he had finished. and the Paceer gave t h e s i p . and where he lived. The heavers he has divided tructive effects of a pestilence.. than all the deputies was. and gave exlarge. shambles. as well as great and glorions kinga Buhram. to whom t h e powers of motion and speech so that the air might be thereby purified. ffe has endowed us with proficiency in Astroaomy. stones valuable a diamonds aud emeralds . these so although a t times they coudace to delngc in t. a t in. and master of the earth. Esdras. who made the Prophet Israel the most glorious of men. They know not how good.tried t o depreciate the merits of mxrlkiud in general.." Agaia the quemlous sage opened !is mouth. Thanks be t o him for rnnlcing us the disciples of such a person. i o n any proposi~iouto p w s nnqa~stioned. where the fields are j always clothed with verdure. andveiled himself ill a cloud creation.couutr.j elevated t o glory. "Thanlcs bc to God" . as mankind in general is the essence of Creation.be world agree in shape with thosexho are t h e earth. the speaker had ceased. who has blessed us with superiority 2nd crowned us v i t h never-fadin!: glory. These perish ancl are destroyed prevent infectious malaria from rising and here. t h r t the Creator given varions shapes. and stood in a a Persian. and wonderful and surwise the Lord is. . ':Re is a S ~ i a n . scorpions. and beheld a tall person. Even as the mind lights the chain. Praise be to God. He i t is. No sooner reat. The Prophets too he sent for our guidance. H e held his peace for a time . such as Fureidoon. who has taught us h ~ tolove and serve him. and every other animal derives its origin from that place. and hi6 Ioins surrouuded with a piece of red cloth. that EIe is atten. his ueck encircled mith the Brahmiuical thread. who has given s i r bonndaries t o the world Being born in impurities. the king tnrned his who presented himself to decide the case t o the eyes towards t h e representatives of men. the commoliest wood as smeet as the sugarcane. withdrew hi. who looking said t h e king." When . that m n ia praising himself had omitted t o a name certain very famous sovereigos. To t h e several animals He has proved beyond a doubt then."Ouce more the king cast his eyes 011 the crowd. for which sorrow and repentance are due. only t h e latter are more subtle. who made many a saint and philosopher rise from our tribe.litiaucr and endo6ed him with the powers of enlivening 2 self from our eight. But t h e spirits of the others survive i n spreading contagion. and I cannot more agreeable than that of any other region. God has also blessed me with power of invention. That in his tribe was born Nubuchadnezxar mho desolated the Holy Land. are afflicted by them. whereas i f they would i n different gradations of life. he brought forward these a%large.'' Ouce more turning his eyes towards the crowd of men assembled there. <'who made Christ incarnate. Some H e has consider well. and an inhabitant of Syria. kings with wisdom and forbearance. c'tha8 you had cons~~rned many a body on the funern1 pyre. that is. All admitted the truth . and sweep away the ilomble habita. swarthy personage. and all other created objects. The mourners who approch him. to che vldcs for them. the feed on the same and fitted i t t o become a comfortable abodo filth. praying and burning incense i n a censer which he held in his hand. be they high or low. crowned him mith t h e dignity of a prophet. Some are ter the animals. ITe is an inhnbitaot of Sa' rundeep. e q e i i s d t'ne Edenites from t h e fertile banks of the Euphrates to mountain w2ds and fastnesses. i n d are denied. he asked ful are we t o that. and he immediately expressed a deeire to know \vha and what these mere-': He has ornittcd to mention. Kousherwan and many others whose names will never perish. ' Be askod the Vaaee~ who this individual was.mhe i m o a h d t h e p a t e s t degree of b." "Bid him speak. snalies.: for his creatures. and that you calumniated your God. Honce i t is and exclaimed :-"Praise is due to that God. who has summoned declare that His gracs bxiends not beyond the out of chaos many a creature. Amongst them he ohservoppressions were practised were to approach ed one who was taller and handsomer than t h e t h e throne and state their cases." Once more t u r n i ~ ~ o the assembly the tg monarch saw an individual clad in woolien garments. i t would appear. and remarked.' aud hnd no wish to al. and delighted in tyranny and blood-shed"-" Born conld he have related these matters?" asked the kiug. And these bodied forms are the deprive the world of the blessings which result exact prototnes of those who are in the world 'from his vivifying rays? The same is the case of spirits. and that eventually you were scandalised and ruined. To give an example.of dazzling radiance. 1 1 l I 1 : '' I H e it is who has msisted us i n making inventions. Some. i t s s animals fat and robust even w the giant-sized elephant.assembled in the court of t h e king of the Ge~lii. I t charge of each. If then his beams prove injurious to creatures and placed thom before us. and E i s bounty provides has made nothing uselessly. moderation. and born of t h e spotless Virgin Mary. and lives i n Eran. God. 1 the fields are fertile in vegetable productions. and wished to lcnow if every word &rid in favor of man's superiority was indisputably true. That was the cradle of mankind. and mzde yourself unclean by eating their flssh. The herald proclaimed aloud found that each differedfrom t h c other both i n t h a t all seekers of justice. he beheld a thin. That many of their Kings have been tyrants. Some are s o foolish as to h prising forms. he has placed tne crown of superiorito over our brows. it would have answered all the wnrposes of jastice. The smaller { into diEerent grades and appointet1 au angel in reptiles also become the food of t h e larger. W e I but wonder at the glorious might of that Creator also owe' our gratitude t o Him.ld he has made. "that on account of the trausgressions of his tribe. and bestowed on him the power of working miracles. He answered. and those on whom features and attire." row blessing and praising t h e king. pr~ldenceand an ever-watchful conscience. Artaze~xss." said the individual referred to. Qrapt up iu a yellow sheet. Afcodiles. is that n reason why the may judge of his power and might by the objects Maker should extinguish this glorious lamp." "Bid him speak. with a s t r a ~ leather tied round his of waist. and endowed them with subtle i do this. who has placed us in him if h e beheld the multitude. general destrtlction of animal life. " H e i a a Hebrew of the . Cod mns o3ended with you and made you companions of hears and monkeys. tion. who ma3 standing wrapt up in a sheet.a climate congenial t o ua. such as Ximrod who exposed Bbraham on a pyre to be burnt. " answered the minister "and a follower of Jesus Christ. hat advantage would he derive therefrom P" ':In. r L i t i s not fair t o give a list of your good qualities and hide your fauits. I n his tribe were born Abraham and Xoses. adored and worshipped many a false god. who that these reptiles are generally bred in the has created so many-shaped beings on this Eartl). cro. He has omitted to mention that his tribe is notorious for misandcrstaurIiu9 and discords amongst themselves. who has crowned with the glory of faith and made u s head CHAPTER XFrTI. with long dishevelled beard. a general d e l ~ ~ g e came 2nd drowned the world. anirni~l agreeing with i t s living origi~~al." After s a y i ~ ~ g words he rose these .- in a slight degree noxious. v and t o be kind and merciful to our fellolv-men . in short.essential and bright thmt the former." The monarch wished him to speak. the latter move iike puppets grazing animals . and each iu in the middle rank . worsLipping God you adored the Cross. " Who ii thia?" he enquired from t h e Vazeer. He i t was who freed t h e Israe!ites from the bonds of sin. and thereby gave rnnntind from the des. Dxrius. r L bahoid all. The king's curiosity was roused. with the planets Saturn and Mars. and the climate always temperate . Yes. &'Heis who were present came forward. busy in reading a paper and moving back-mar& and forwartis in the act of doing so.y. the breeze always mild. for his having ~ who has made beings of S U O various ahapes and conferred a higher degree of superiority on us. h our tribe he chose Noah." "If yoa bad only added. he fathom Ris wisdom. r'CXorified be that Creator." " ELd him spealr" was again the eommand. who always takes care of them and prowhen G d made t h e luminaries of the skv. that we any createcl object.pressioll to the following sentiments :-“ Thanking t o a phi1osopher of his own tribe. and the Israelites iu general. and turuiug to the other philosophers remarked. As ia auspicious moments. They who canuot { for all." remsrked the s a g . and others cast down to tive t o t h e wants of all. and made u s his followera. We in short are the essence of of maukind. hut one m60 was cursed with a dogmatic spirit." was t h e order." he replied. R e showers His bounty upon all. . the lowesest abyss. by means of which onr predominance is' acknowledged over others Prom him have me received wisdom. while n . "Who is this" he asked. fishes. gracious a r ~ d and essential bodies. but to all Re holds out proportion to his m n t s paltakes of His mercies." spokc the Christian. and for bestowing innumerable favors on u . a light i n the person of his prophet t o guide them in the way of salvation. generally object to what He i ransolea. So i t is with rapacious and however . Ne find the different members of the clouds too are made for the good of manlcirld. an Indian Island.whose wires are in the hands of the former. ained i n the increase of population by your adulterous loves. that you saori6ced swine. which would end in the another world. burnt th-: old Testament. third are placed . and whose glo~-ies shine through t k e :for when Ha the Rod of all. " Whe . ':that on account of your shameful idoiatory. Bat why not add" renarked a s". md. Thousands of thanks are due t o Him. which was obeyed in t h e following words :-lL Praise be to God. where the mines almays teem with mineral mealth. who has blessed our E m m in the morning the several deputies. commenced the man. there is another orcler of Creamade t o pass their lives in 61th atld corri~ption. then turn. '' mho has placed us in the most propitious of equinoctial climes. i sizes." returned the spealcer. he created the jects."-The king's eyes next fell upon a m m of slender make. the k i r i ~ turned to the wise men of his court. and best of his ability. The pictnres. hIooses! Jesus ancl Mahommed. He it is. which thought and fancy bers of t h e body. and placed them re@ons of t h e moon. and it behoves us therefore to be grateful to God for hi3 mercies. Every \vllere we are considered greet. or in the stalls of t h e fishermen. There is oue difference tionp of the poor. your ma.-a climate which is jwt~.a place OF public discussion. round perceived that the crowd was incredibly upon which he opened his mouth. g~erulous philosopher.

and complied thus: 1 had taken their ~. Women aud children he will never sari.~cld there iu poison i u his moutll. estabiish by surface of the water. C[L4PTe% XIX. you can depart.rviI1 be able to describe him to Four APajes~y. Often he faints while in branch. and more awful to look at. &! "Stop" c' cLInthe wilderness" was the reply. " T i e lion. The seme is. for per.not a single pmsou left living to repeat the headed. " Who arc you ?" aslied \dnite-f81con.times the &her able nature of the cold. and attentively listcuing to ali what was this state." said the king " I n size aud from the forests. electrical apparatus in hand. was nest nsked. turties. God \vill judge wl When a declare. no oue." Wheu these discus. Astrology.tLat after hiahommed. whose king was thc sumption. scor. and enforce prophets. and the clouds that arise from the mid.rge animals devour thesmaller ones. the . we hops the of n portion of our property on thc poor. who was very i ~ ~ t e n t l y inrn.who has him. murderers. mellt on thus :X I am told that man.the you never introduced in the world. eat ther. in the he dies. Logic. feed on fleas and acts." " Please describe ! " " Id shape and size. that after destroying his prey. neither man nor beast. he opens his jams. m .a3dsomefen& on the former.ug rhe. LVheuce then is their superiority over tllat ?" asked the Hiuv "The frog. and has made allu. that God who has bestowed a variety of fa. All apuat~c animals f e u him m d fly from him . we would have believed said the sage aivxys ready to put a spoke to the him. the heavenly bodies. G' Who is he 1" was app~oachcs and every trrce of anger disappears the enquiry.he shaccs it out among other animals. Many the noble Arabian tribe of Qlro~aish. ~ h u s i s with all.and hummmng a tune trim devoured by the sparrow-hawk and the royal iu a low gelltle voice. " I shall give y' sacred Pages of the Koran.but when he lives on high mountains ancl hilioclrs. bright-eyed. Know they not. employed iu lqanlii~ld counting his beads aud praying. for ants eau overpower lions .nce"--was the command. F 1 1 Il ' ' 1I l 11 I ' ! I I 1 . and where does he live ?" WAS the : lt 1s with man also." of all t h e king perceived a well built ! ing himself vith just as much as is sufficient for with a long beard. one reaping benefit from the other. even as others hard of teeth and paws. when hp chance most other creatures. Natural Philosophy. " why cloes he live SO far fY0m and none ljut the wise kuoiv this.npokeu ill f~rrour his own superiority was true of if misiag Heaven to us. i n Astronomy. Virtile and vice will be known d t c r " . vours On ns. the rep:iles $c. &metimes the clouds.who are i'out~d infestin:: every house. and in their locust shaking his wing%. bade his hlajesm d others again from the Egyptians.were not cruel and idolatrous.mhis army ?" " dtlakes. includ"He is the sovereign of all animals that live in the ing amongst them dragons. he replied that he ocean somcltimes pull him'up. So expert is he in business.is larger thau other animals."U t u r n feast on him when he dies.that if the rapacious animals were to emerge auce and nature. them. shcep and birds . the last Hosein. ' l we learnt these arts and his shoulders. enquiry. "and all the interrupted the querulous sage.that he is never dependant on others for help." 6 1 tllpn tine wheels of rortlulic in firvorof Was the reply. and fishes. Thus " Who S he. loud-voiced. he is taken up so high as to enter the regions of Cog and Magog." Describe his appear.) placed him in the rank of Prophets. sumed the Greek.englc and the mltore. and Past of all when swcred "and deputed bp their souercign. Vfo~hippillg the cupy too much time. who l= made our goves on a wolf. '-he " glory in Arts which you borrowed from others 1 Is this true l" asked the king. Besides these me elljoy other OY not." "What sort of a creature is turn. and aid thc digestion of the the king observed a p r r o c sittiug 011 a treefood he has taken.' was the answer.espective posts hefore the king.PnilosDphershave said that tile death of ono O jects. rains and moisture. the fox and the beai.to the ba!lc&t of ~\uoth-r. Thus always goes the to look at . So the Israelites learnt m?. frogs aud crocodiles and scorpions. ':Who k k g ~ to become familiar with the ~~~~~se of has sent you"." was the answer. as well as birds. When asked who lie was. so that the rays of the sun reason or arguments ?" Again looking round. so they in their than what he has is this. and to boast of proficiency ) king of rapacious animals. are their slaves. goats. and cast him on W:LS the advocatc of the birds of prcy: ar~ti was dry ground." that king last The upPraise be to him for his other mercies: for Imam will appointing the night of Qadlr for us. The rules by which Persian sages. lament the on us the observance of the holy fast of and h v e avenged ourselves death -ofs on h ~ heartless Rm~zan. and where other j la. he it. though he is a h ~ d none. we disagreed amougst ourselves." thkse die. caruioolives in deep. and the refreshing <mLtthe beasts are their slaves. (on him be l<oibau in thc same may and yet p!ace study the full trust peace. deer. stronger also." <'Add." said the frog. and for pro. whereas there are others N ~ O that God v h o made 3Iahommed. as to think that all brutes. On being ordered to attack. their sovereign. for do they raises the middle part of his body above the 1 noc drge claims which they ca:lnot. and pet firmly believe in Christ and Upon which the man begau :-': Blessed be hfoses.. 1 am he wns cold that he (the frog) reprcscntcd the perfectly astonished at their ignorance ancl preanimals of the aquatic tribe. Large. \Ire of Nohammed." mns again the e n q u i ~ ~He belollgs t o lligher tiegeethere are amongst us. and bestowal Hence i is. who feast on him for days and d:~ys. tack them. nd and sciences. . '"Yes" re. He replied :-" S a h is his w a s . &C. the worms revel on his rol&rls i n the it frigid regions where there are nothing but .. contentvid. dreadful now learn from us. serpents water . his t r i k blessings.jects ?" oslred the king. cmodiles. the euumeratiotl of wluch mouid oc." "Who are credit to yourselves for arts and sciences. alld mix pith clay. k ~ n g . Pmised be God. which his assistants'l" . inhabizant of Mecca. t h e d e e ~ . whose heat k e e ! ~ ~conddcr that they are the lords of cre:\tio!l. Our country he has made more and flies men. andwished to know H is a Grecinu" was the answer. and the aliigators from the rivers to -ataqulltic animal. '&Where lives he. the monarch desired could have ever come to such an unreasouable him to describe the sca-drsgou t o him. who was standing before abouud mith the most dclicio~is fruits ..pilgrimage to Mecca. the case with obensts and birds of prey. and ld xud tall in size." be continued addresssing the behdd the frog stnndi:lg apart.even as fleas can overpower elephants and oxen.n our col~ditionis enacay the same as sentis the aquiltic a. m d the So geuerous is he. He fears . He delights in melody. T h e n he sees light from a distnnce. " With courtesy and ~W aioa to by the mouth of the prophet in the consideratiou" was the answer." the suu . rous and graminivorous." "Describe his nature and that all aniomls are eclllal alld that there is no appem. they delight in persecnt? shapes. sciences from the ancient sages. relieious precepts." began the frog. for waking wished to kr~osv if what the Khorasany had of us conversnnt mith religious truths. are all imported from Hin. wide-mouthed." he an. Often again. ho was ihe representative of the beasts. and who are his subjects?" Yedicine. for korldlj couiiderstions. from him. ue feeds on t h i flesh of . " He is nn inhabitant of Khoms. dare world. has kept them at a distance from their habitsswallows down innumerable animals of all tio~is hstead of this. The Almighty sxys : pions. if you please. he is feared by all. e he On the third day vhen all the heasts and men H e was a ~ k e d to speak. who repre. ail owc subjection t o him." old and new Testaments without auderstand~ug them.l' The leopard. SparLoosrx5 round once more. began the wolf. I n the time I rabbit. theirs. Upon which. hog-deer. tomb. " 111 bobh. why then him." death. but a small c m of ture resembling a flea.imalu.you full details by and b! ses of the holy writ have been exclusively devoted t o us. whcel. K He conclusion. approach him. fiellce animals would perish on account of the iutoier. but the ant. ':add if you pleasc. when the other animals all crowd round his remains and feed 011 if for a lollg time. Strange and formidable looking."' After this h8 troops on such an c1ev:~tiion 1 2'' " Because the fro. forgot all bis " Gentlemen i t is eveuing now . all these assist of Ptolomy you learnt some from the Israelites." " !v110 ore his Sub.?c doostan. and cannot comprehend how they sea-dragon. he Where of carnivorous mimeb. who spin fall a prey t o the black the king. tulaultuous wt~ter. fall on his stomach. he bends himself ing those haFmless animals who associate with like a bow." di&rellce betmeell them and men? Sometimes retorued the locust. and 10 ! they are punished. and N ~ fi~1. is to die Bud The common lot of The king glanced at th:: crowd assembled. When over-gorged. Oo enquiry as to who he was. Geomancy. so that several ver. he very much rcsemblcs they eat ancl arc eater. on the religiotl of the bade him read the Koran to us." T h e monarch next ! beheld a person standing with an astrolabe aud CAAPTER XV 111. use of talismans from Solomon the son of Da. bc hor11 tin OUT 1-ace. strongBroad in slender of pf arms... conferred on .no speak* he began thus:-"Grateful are we to one. Geometry. all& his whole body btiruing. has blessed us with the jewel of faith in . and mitting us io pray in coogregations. 011s the sages a~~snered. ~ i l din one gulp. and slaylltered our Imnrus re-assemblc to-rnonaw morx~ing." replied the locust.~up. he replied inhis mercy taught us t u u ~ ~ d e ~ s t athe arts that. that all the beasts arc their slaves. he excels every other moods. Prom wilat I ~ 0 0 l t l OF sthe frigid zone is c0nsequ~Llt~y ~ more have s:lid jast why don't they ullderstnnd plensaut to hiru. whose bite is sure to prove fatal to him. looking t o h r d s the sun.on this tome& tonards his coansellors. up in their the sea-dragon. to know the various properties of ! and had come to advocate their cauje. that they ~ ~ o uaU be destroyed. AS he devours them mhen living.and terrible loins . who read-the and is an others. who has made us more blest than looked round. ~ n d moon. $c. "do not take wild animals owe allegiance to hlm. In short praise is due t o that ~ o d . with many tale? Ought not they to be thankful that God teeth." "How does he treat his subP ~ P U ~than other climes. make sstronomica1 calculations. ~vhcre dies and becomes the food s e n t by the pbcenis." <'Ask him t o speak. the beasts of pray from the shape. "The plencicr of the rcptilcu.ions had come to an end the herald proclaimed aloud aud said. On enquiry. the king beheld a rows. and standing on his hcird and tail.

good and dpro. vho are designated His representatives on earth. and his wings broad. Who is your asked. for it is in. h. and improve by trade. itwould be imand possible for any one aerson to govern the whole race. the lowest is long and the uppercumbent on sovereigns t o see that the laws most round. and mountains and hills shake under him. These auch a s menial slaves. arid keep health among mankind. chancellors and clerk's. the king is often a thin. The rank o f Prophets and Angels is and biggest in slze is appointed king ." Questioning them fa. also aid u s in fetching fruits and leaves are. ?Tot so the beasts. rohbers. indispensably required by the king. how wonderthe Treasury full for the support of the army.are many. Again as each town is peopled by lam and Iacs of men. . Other animals have it not. we construct our slender being.enable us to would come to a stand-atill. All houses mith exquisite nicety. -. Unprevented by lence on his part.- one is ubiquitous. who travel about." What which are exclusively quiremore than one ruler..from what is displeasing to God. that our are ministers. his servants from our saliva is produced honey. The I h a n bears testhe city clear of thieves. (R-hich (civil and divine) are resxlected.der the burden of fruits that hang from their boughs. Bis talons and bill are hard." was he asked. to . others." returned the pnrrot. Amongst them! you will find that the largest ours. Some Creator has made us with such art.wings.several other properties besides that. Re --.. . Besides the rogues and vagabonds of the same kind. ease. The middle part is and moofties.hiszd zo enter into -details sorue ~ - -~ .ing towards the crowd. while you to tronb!e. t o look to very formation is a proof direct in faror of the t h e internal msnagernent of the state. ful and delicate our "mah" is : our body is Some are farmers and cultivators. and mho . one king could scarce suffice for the well-being of all the realms nf this earth. bv saving that his &isposition was .. As no Y easily turn our heads towards the right or the 1 l f1 CHAPTER XXI. who in reallty ra the sole sovereigu and protector of i all creation. there is violent concugsion i n the wind. It is moreover peopled with innumerable kinds of bea3ts.- WHEN Irakee had ceased speaking. Our wings are strong.' he returned. each liviug in his own kingdom come personnlly and not depntcd some one from with his subjects and troops. One of deration. he acknowledged who he was. upon king ?" They answered 'c We have many which the king wished to know why he had sovereigns. is so strong that h e lifts up elephants. a native of I r k . and t o pre. have orLe monarch. "He is larger than all other birds. wwhh in also are many. dispense stern justice in the world. Be. equity and benevo. Besides t h w there memhen. and the people form a s it were the boundary line of a hemdeviatenot from the patd of rectitude.Our neck8 are thin and slender.. and make-his people abstain." l - I. be kind and lenient to all who approach them. rhinoceroses. and other timony to the truth of what I say. who dispense laws. <<and not wish to put any one did they . bnszing sound. CHAPTER XX. you would think him to be a ship sailing overhead of you." "Others did not show this consifew though ye artre! have so mauy. in fact." Why is this 9" ! his suhjeds. and keep existence of a Maker. are these?"--"Jlany." observed the monarch "how is it that " them.we made lords of others. When he dies. rising and are merchants again. we feed on the sweets of the earth: and ation for the whole race of man . versant with mathematics. notwithstauding that the answer. over the policy of the several cities." scribe hi nature. His tail again is very long.any. which we keep in deposit in our without whom. and irnluediately plaiied against you. We have four hands and feet. There gon. w e are conamongst mankind. returned.like a square. with kindness and consider. and as the nations differ from each other in Iar~guage religion. others cazees divided into three parts. [ and tlowers.-but he simply contented himself ---.) and which aid us in sitting.-.r The king next wished to be favored with a description of the phmnix himself. was greeted with a soft. m that r e can vent harm befalling any one of them.fruits bloom and blwh for us. "and swift and strong in flight. "the beasts. Some are soldiers and bear medicinal matters conduces to the recovery of arms to defend the king from his foes. The necessities this quality is to be found only in you 1 "God they biffer from each has bestoGed i t on me. On being * mediate$ afterwards he asked.. "and of mankind are other in their several conditions. We loot not to his size. and hence re. . look to c o ~ s t r u c ~ i n g dwellings with such a d e g r ~ a our cotnmerciel matters. praising and glorifying God. Consequently ! fig. Hence it is that God Almighty has made several kings. "I felt compassion for them. enter it to harm us or our gouug ones.whereas ours. and our stings are charged with venom which mankind reqaire many rulers t o superintend preserves u s from the attacks of all our enemies. Look at us. of gracefulness and care that the winds cannot Some ag$in are exclusively given up to servitude. so that when he cuts through the air. The flowers and that we require are justice. the the king on lo@l. from the ground with the greatThe king next desired him to deest . the business of the state 5 hives. 11 1 1 . that they may protect their subjects.

The reason why your children fall sick is this: preguant women and nuram eat the food you praise s o much. the Nightingale.. bake and cook . many were taken and placed in . and many are the fruits which a bountiful ~ o has made for our use. The other denizens of the world were deprived of their habitations. Srurll t o see t h e monarch respecting the lcadcr of t h e labyrinthiue though she is. for whioh d we are deepiy thankful to Him. When moistened though yrssoob is small and diminutive of sire. cool. M W the seed. Where do the beasts cojoy this state? They live in woods and forests. l f they have acquired these by fair means. in short these are the erils they suffer to gaiu the llrxuries of life. smwthen the earth. Honey you consider to be very good both for food arid medicine . then it was that persecution began. afflict their own bodies. For a long time they wept and mourned in that scene of desolation. Xiipht and dayit was theirs to work on m~iutzrruptedIy.cs Ero~il removc. We have never togo in quest of food and drink. keep accounts with bunlaeald.with kings to shorn kindness and consideratioil summer. and the result is that it breeds humours which spoil the milk. We dress also oerg splendidly. uuapproach. plotlgh. aithougl~ mhich ou account of its weight she cannot these latter mav differ i n form aud fe:ttu~. sweetmeats. & W h i ntheir children iticreased and spread through the wilds and fastnesses of the earth. and children are either born deformed o r are continually ailing afterwards. acquire arts and sciences. It is on this account that they are always liable t o sudden deaths. Her also she coilects therein. the angels came dowu. race returned-<' Woncler not.IKBW AN-00s-SUFFA. T h e n any grain is about to germinate. weigh. where there mere no flowers or lavea.. even as vour and our ancestors did. our first pnrents were there also. she lays it out in the suushine nnv RP. and pains and torments. I h t him nest t u ~ n attention to the she still coustructs anb. to dig. and work like slams. singi~r~. and all the pleasure8 of innocent conversation. Carpets of the richest texture we spread. distar~t countries. stand with hands folded before rich men for the paltry stlrp of a pice or two . A ~ h i l o s o p h c r able from t h e giants. graze. I n short. and tempted by the enemy. house's. his voice and observed :--"It is a matter of surprise false. it is your own deeds that keep you exposed to all these sufmings from which we are exempt. from all these. the Creator took wrupassioo on them. in the next world. and sbm seeds therein. I one of them finda aught. but he does 11ot know that P1 these arc the sources of evil to him. w l ~ r o v e rwe l 1 not also attended to. subterranean bees more than any one else." The representative of the birds. possessing qualities which grace ropdiy." " Why should they be so 1" enquired the liiug-"Because. who was perching on a twiw opened his mouth and said : -c'Maa glories zmself on the articles of his food and drink. food bv the most dreadfa! of inundatioas. And after of their death.-.'' returned the speaker. ~t last they repented. to quarrel with butchers. cut &heplant. she immediately takes a slnall particle ~- CRAPTER XXII. fill water. and for the sake of gain. much less fruits. and an angel was sent to place them on earth. "to e t i n these they are constrained to toil hard. then again for meat. We are exempt.grain. travel to far. and our jewellery is magnificent i n the extreme. i t is collected by the bees and not prepared by any art of yours. On what then do you glory ? Fruits and coril? why w e partake d these in common. sharers and companious of their ease. yet in sense and discretion h e is unsurpassed by by auy chance. and cast them in such n clime. Wheu your first.'.s fit at any time t o teach otllcrs how to dry. nhich they mere to dig. A11 these circumstances prove their inferiority. pareilts Adam and Eve were i n the Garden of Eden. hence they fall unwell sometimes. * * * To amuse ourselves we have danciug. They were also taught how to grind. games. expelled them from Paradisa. i ---Jt n become like hi&elf: and i t i s c~~stonla?y she immediately dit. all their gains fall i n L0 the strangers. When your ancestors overloaked the injuuction of God. well and good : if not eternal pains are reserved for them. and sit under gorgeous canopies of every hue. several of them assemble nud go out f t o those who are their equals both in rauk all& i n quest of food. music. We feed on grass 411 that the earth produces we enjoy without care o r trouble.ides it into two parts I n . ate the fatnl . but mind. and enjoyed its fruits without ally toil or trouble on their part. and weave clothes for t!aeir use.

" When khe mithont toiling as they IIOW do. spoke thus t o mau." When the advoute had spoken Naked they rove &\. of bring a simiSach vanity is perfectly uucalled for. YOU Adam. One of thorn. silk. Cod had comwinged speaker hsd come to a conclusion. that there yet remained several qualities j Then their glory dcparted from them .. coudernued to Iabor i n syiuuiug :rnd weaving ancl ! goats. to preserve us . then maril i n punishing you." . canopies and other coverings to give ccicit t o 5 cvsn as already recounted by She philosopher our state. Eepond us to ksep them within the bounds of snbmission. They fort o nrse. on the east side of Eden. referring 1 Iu reply to .any cl-egtture. bat their own created. prow r:s to be the lords &'gou.you s : ~ .sck. you wouid find that ancestors disobeyed God. muslin. T h e Liventics of Heaver. To the beasts ail these are denied. 1s created him and Eve. waving locks served t o bide their naked." they replied. and ancl expe2. As tons ns me could you. 60 that your Living and ! 'I / 1 'I 1 / i I 1 . and you are punished the crsuelties exercised by u s are nothing in cornfor that one fault of theirs.these in the woods 2 We were compel!ed thereder t o preserve i t safe for purposes of sale. But this is Oftell it is that the hides of beasts form yonr permitted us: even as it is allowed you to feed covering.diamond. you slaughter moment that we are born. T l ~ u thsy roved about in t h e regulwlg. i u as much as you are ( we could not but kili. tbc former speaks. What. why. which are cor~fcrred us.rip open on us without any toil or trouble on our part . on a in your homes. of she genii. t o do. aud therohy es:abliih our claim of supe. You treat your broCO know something of the origitlai nature of thers eveu in a yay that we never do. but ( jure any living hoiug.d them from the Bower of Bliss. " Why 1 asked riority oier them. fiat we. cut them with knives.enmity YOU show us. rob him of the j find dead bodics mo never thought of depriving same. oxen. sable. ausmer do you now return 1" wisiling evil to eve?? created oltject you have asked the king. howeve~s. Their re. hides. sheep. fore to prey on living creatures. their stomachs. lu or. but w11r11 that faliccl. hard-heartednrss. 4n the ~ngnificeuce dress.from heat and cold. "tires who glory irl ii~tedrcss. enjoying the frnits of all the trees. that your dead even YOU ness.will you please tell us. beguiled them. and then take all the 'glory to yourseif. In a rurd. 2 / 0 ~do the same. upon another. &c. and the most valuable of Sour clothes on dead bodies when you are in a state of starare made of wool of which you vioientiy deprive vation. they became naked. How then could mg procure the flesh of Many other troubles you also undergo. for the Creator intended it for our oover.feed on their flesh and drink their ing.thns. satin ceired from God. to the last momellt of goor lives them : all these you do. a n d such is t h e .out like s l a ~ e in the wilder. ve need not perform those ' garden. T h e beasts of prey that are confined h d i n fact. an inhabitant of I~aak. Your consider the matter well." ret1:rned the advocate. got the irljunction of tile . me have carpets spread on the Yoor. they had no long. h u t in 110 case wouid they aottcck o r inown w m k o r bmd couvenienca in miuter. i n obeciience to the command re" of shawli and b-ades. camel3 aud asses were then being depeudan~ n the tsilor far its bcing all made prisolicrv by you. bonsted of our wool. no animals eso sewed and the washerman for its being washed. he illtended that they it so '! What benefit do you derive f~. We rip open the stomachs of others. Before the creation of hdaru no ~ n i you p11i on are silk and brocade. t u r e ~ of a worm uot then the ot!lers ~vouldfeast on its lifeless rei belougiu r tn your tribe. for which act of injualice God is not i.-derive you no benefit from mountain of .( long ringlets dropped off. T h e n one died are made tviti~zhi: slimg. roast and eat f whereas you. Eitl&a answered :-<C When the Lord moreov~r sag that p c never benefit others. we were pe~feectstrangers to such cruel "The ssftest and most c\eliwte of dresses that I hah~ts. this garment is placed them. and ority. If we no other animals that we l i ~ ~ w charge.IKSIWbhT-OOS-SUFP.~aptorial on a:iimals are t!ie most ~uischievon of t h e brute creatior~. " You " Every rapacious animal.rnain a i l e ~ and cease to speak. When from YOU f On the contrary i t is obvious that Y O U slaughter and devour us. flay tbe=.." L. replied. 27 s tional exercises are practised night and day heat and cold.skin. 1 by preying on others. IYOU would are perpetnally i n thoughts of cloihiug. The blood. Eeciuse~" they $id..om our should be fed aud clothed like any other animal. As reprdu the charge of cruelty and them. He prepares i t for his mains. their in manz which established his claim t o superi.I " if !tot.'This they hare been Mankind mished to 1.deila. . lilallkind desired him and his tribe to res ~t " ness. a t ~ dit is i ~ ~ c u m b e u t ous ou ei.4. descended from Heaceu. without feeling any ~ O L not violently robbed the beasts of ihe sarnc?'' I pity or compassion.. both of mhich znal preyed. Satan. it would be more reasonable . me have the angels.r:h and tll3 must ha:d hearted. You devour botli tlie living nod the dead. xvhich YOU bring against us. whose hones they gnaw where these robes were in times of old." " Horn do you prove t h j ~ the ?" presentaiive: &. disrsgardil~gall his Ixbors.which7 i t was said :. lVhsn you were born. and preserve them from the efects of h h u m e in t h e earth. acts in which you glory so much.41111i&hty arld sinned. through ~ h i c hpassed them 1 But' what advantage do others derive the Equinoctial line they both lived. b v e xrld vrliose blood they dri:~]:. caped. the 1 manded them to eat thc fruits of all trees but king asked mankind if they had aught furkhher one.nothii~." The king wished parison with your own. break their bones.11om to what time h e was ! instructed by you to do.~iciresill$ beasts.

heretics. We see it that from the time of Cai11 aud Abel." answered the sage.good rud wicked individuals t o be found. remaiu os great fools as ever. yousag that you have poets aud prea~hel. ~ h t ~ from the wicked and as3ociate with the good of The of the beasts are always watchful to another tribe. &c. tcrers.h af his assertions.us . We.she never uses. AU these prove the loving kindness of the Ualier. This art t she lcnows without being instructed by parents or tutors. without expecting a return of ser. and fly off from those who attempt to outch them. ‘c Cccause. for every tribe and individual of man and beasts is guarded over by angels. wished to know." The king wished to kuum why the angels and spirits mere invisible. You further say. because the latter although they devour tbe wicked without any protect their suf. The mother all the while knows nothing about it. The spider again. not. they are divided illto various tribes . Yes. me know eve1. by means of which they are not entirely dependant on their mothers. d I c o ~ ~ ~ ~ r r e d i n t h . The silk-worm also a small. Isfundiar. they are creatures of light. In fact. Eblees is one of them. ~h~~ nourish their and saints abjure their society. besides. a ~ l dothers. whom God has appointed to defend them from all harm. chblts. IKH WAN-00s-SUFFA. their souls are always watchful . withand reproaches. who is higher in the estimation of thc . for k i ~ ~ d tyrants. knaves. True it is: 'lords are recognized by lords. and feeds her little ones.irs. Rusturn." he replied. for their convcuience and comfort He madc the sun. rnn about thclr pnreuts ns YOOU a s they are hatched. who are even mischievous amongst us. 3Iuuoo- nut a cylinder. women never act thus. Thus they opini. who is the weakest of reptiles. even as his form and features are still preserved in his descendants. a philosopher of the houlld to be always kind ." 'l Of thove angels who are appointed to guard over mankind who is the chief?" enquired the king. and draws straight lirles with- 28 dead are equdly of no use to as. for their minds are also steeped in light. They bring . governors alld respectai>le azsistants friends. to their parents? We are not enjoined to do the same. hypocrites. '<The 81mighty has endowed them mith it" vns the reply. T h o ~ e before him are the bodily spirits. are the passions. Thcir whole life they spend in learning to read and write. and the trees were rendered fruitfill so that they may be provided with food. who are not of the same kiud s thcyl for favor and service for service. Man's love for man is not equal to the one hundred thousandth part of Cod's love for them. and still for all that. The bee. both the male and female bird do not joiu. hired n ~ v s e s bathe it. for when 1Te created them. $rants to tyrannise over tyrants.pockets. they have atheists. addressing the parrot." The crowd They feed them. and maukind held down their heads through shame and remained silent. in svhirh he glories. she digs the ground. lime and mortar. the use of a compacs. in justice and respectat1ility. CHAPTER XXIII. partridges. Externally there is no resemblance between j forth their young. yes : there are wicked ones fouod amongst . 1 b c ~ ~ m b e on them to be thankful to &m6. and those who are vicious fly promote the good of their people andamy. The prophets see them. Zohak Fureidoon. ~'Frum the time that Bdam was born s spirits that fell dow11 th13 1 with him. When w l fed. slay and destroy other animals. Afrasiab. who went on thus :-$'Tilis man s q s that there nre many skilful artists to be found in his tribe. Fowls. soalso from the companionship of the good. and communicate to manbud generally the messages they receive from Heaveu through them. and a third keeps u~lderher own wiljgs. you are always e n ~ = e d strife nnd in contention with each other. 1 ancl those of birds for graiu.arid lenient to their genii remarked: I t is true. assailed on all sides with taunts please God. Circles she describes nrithout. Nimrod and the virtues of any person. for instance. ignorance haugs not her pall over thcm.28 IKRWAN-OOS-SUFFA. blest them with power6f understanding. rs tilis acting respectably? angs thus feel the effects of their sin. Their children too are e s t r e ~ e l y foolish. decelltly expressed. d u d we are worse than these !-On the contrary but where are they not? In every trihc: there we their good qllalities.~ on. In alI these arrangements. in the woods associating with the rapacious ani. and if the beasts injure him fomlcators. The moment they gain their *hjoot. ancl wet-nurscs suckle and cast i t on a cradle t o sleep. for me have are . She leaves a small space in the middle.vice from them as mankind do. the prospedty of their subjects like the &erefore. If you xcrc couversaut . yet even then they cannot do without teachers. that the^ hold intercourse with these spirit% couverse with them. but for every good tribe.-$mighty z Night and day me pray to Him and are causequcntl~ blessed with especial favbrs. and ut 1 1 about twenty or thir$ e g F arc collected. orlo she deposits under earth. This is not to be made a subject of vaunti~ig. were obliged to hold their peace out expecting t h a n h . them 1 hut in nature they are alike. but we have lear~lt from you. alld mingle those of the ants and the birds. And the angels too have their ruler. and sleeps in i. extracts worms therehorn. It is true. she el to a tree." ordered his majesty. This is because p u understand ]lot 1 the la*lwge of beasts. consider him to be innocent . If men were not exceed. .for amongst us there are many who rival him i n those arts. and as soon as the child is boru. she dividcs them into three heaps. is more skilfizl than their architects. The swallows. she requires no assistancc . Hc gave His augels charge over them. misers. whereas their weavers do.jects to derive benefits from hesitation. made thcm with the most exquisiteperfection of art. however. weaves a circular web? makes it as strong as possible. This inatinct i given them by Cod Himself. If rnaukil~d. inasmuch'as sne constructs her house withoat such materials as bricks and earth." "How came the angels t o imbibe such love for each other 1" enquired the king. and elude our senses. as is the case with pigeous. Cqnoequently God has cudowed them vith the power of knowing good from evil. designed for the reception of fliev on which she preys. &'Thespirit that speaks in him. mere men ." " Con time thy speech. They are delivered by mid!vivcs. weak creature. who provides for his creatures. Upon this the king turning to a philosopher. When the young are hntchcd. and it is because that the indi. li. She first draws O U ~ threads from her slimy secretions. Now say. Because in s renrillg them up. aud hope nothing from them. p ~ n t t h e r e . aud quail% for instance. surpames their artists. that they may they think no more of their people and Wheu this army. there ever gOUr tyrefib kings have occasion to doubt is another most vicious and corrupt. who obey and are governed by the speaking spirit Those who worshipped him not. highm:ly robbers.y thing good and evil. which areso iudispensable to their tail~:~."' are speech had come to an end. to the present day. and more partieula~lythe bya. is more than a matoh for their weavers iu the a r t of spiuning and weaving. another exposss to the heat of the San. and then twasts them iu circular directions. however.' whose evil habits cannot be. The moment we are born. who governs their different orders under different denominations. Jumsheed. who &tend to with ~ r m t u r e ~ themselves. Not ao we. a n d bend low their heads through shame. the virtuous fly srliljects even as the ~ l ~ iis to ~i~ creatures. pickknows its kind. and go md live young also.and have no discrimination of good from evil. and impervious to rain. were 110tevil. thieva. demanding favor mals. Thread and needle. 2s the young of beasts are for milk. The Almighty says L-: I have placed them. After fiftecn or twenty years they come to reason and discretion. they expel him to Pharoah. the wilrierness. because we are never guiity of intidelity and disobedience!' When the parrot had ceased speakipg. The spirit of speech is yct to be found in the children of bdnm. s fools. It ingly ungrateful why would the Lord make it am evening now and the Court broke up. and take care of them o f ~ a o t s . But those. why would their hermits hope of r8ward from them. On the day of judgment. that they do not harm him. our r&rs do not attack those of your race who are viutuous. and mankind.~ amongst y02b only. we do . what sovereign was most liind and considerate to his subjects' and troops ? The ruler of the angelsn-answered the sage . hence it is. the giants assented to the trnt. with species into nvhioh birds were divided. ad&vidual i inuocerlt. i ovip tbrough love ond affection. moon and other heavenly const&ntions. are better t b n those of men. whereas mankind can never dispe~lse with these instruments. . eutiuchs. by mcaas of whiob they could distinguish good from o i l . Sdam in these very forms and features will rise again and euter Paradise.

whom fidence on physicians. devotional practices of the reptiles. writes down you not that these scieiices o:lly mislead you. the decrees of Fate -are never t o be alterthe rnek.( tisilrg devotious me can remove evil. the cala~nity of rooar~t. and others regard ckdos as old. never break His comraandexertioos. ~ i f the i 31 . Rence i t is proper that t h e ihxded child would &O be ono of the we ahould make a right use of astrology. ~day. \sherens. htrt foretold that i heavzuly bodies. they would -vanish earlier. Some say there are two evils existi~rg. that you understnnd not thcir j too.B e knew not. The King referred to his leugth of forests and the depths of rivers. even as his done ~ t h o u tthe will of the Almighty. for instatwe such of to Abrahnm. fro& the lectures of the nightingnle. the I lence of the infidels. crc. did uot leave their homes. &<only those who pray to God for safety or their families.t o be h:ippy herc nrld hereafccr. they never study . if Nimrod a t that moment prayed their tin!@ .The same was the case of the illsects and beasts.lot care for the forel~odings tile Astrolo. and saved his the Zodiac. you vonld have known that they too parrot. others do n o t Some put f8ith in the I others. the Atnighty would have convertd trusted t o seven planets and twelve houses of him t o t h e faith of the Israelites. what t h e astrdogem told him murdered hun. YOU boast a@in of mere destroyed . futing. for your sins. These are what Moses taught t t h e born. which to with which they weye threatened. to keep off t h e erii. They know not how the intestitles are part of the country. and then pray to God to avert t h e Nimrod. architects and farmprophets and their saying. nor observe the rites of ciron low sides. and hat duties they perform .' ments laid down in t h e Sacred W r i t i r ~ ~ s . and where brought u p they you. if Pbamah bad supplicated Cod for knew t h ~ t h e re. the eullogiuzn p m ~ ~ o ~ ~ n c c d tors ? These people can only mislead the &noby the swallow. but. even as the prophet Says : of nnoral~t gers.) YOU are proud again because ! the evil aspect of a plar~et yet still for all that. self says : 'Every created ohject repents the : "The removal of evil is possible. " i t is useless now t o study t h e At last. and wished to know horv i t was possible some puzzle their heads in cornprcheudiug the to --cape from the danger threatened. falling sickt never need the prescriptions of the Some believe i n the CO-esioter~ce l. have attrolled to the wails and pilirrs of mos. who wlfe waspreserved by God.i v i d o ~ ndiipli~gedin Ria ordinances. who. the forebod. O p i u i o ~ ~sod reli-. who are sure t o make were in the Ark with h m I saved." nonsense on a piece of PP to misleafi fools. when the astrologers foretold the hirth tfioumnds of innocent children. that i n his reign s child mould be a calamity.' weep. nod the mercy of the Lord has de. it is our duty.' From Adzm t o Mohamed." rctnrned the praises of God. Some think the world t o "e iuEuite. and electunry medimade. who 'did .if you were conversant with { like these? Here the king interrupted the all these. rho t o Rod to remove from hirn t h e danger threatbelieve not i n another world. have ensured a speedy cnre If the diseases s gions then begin to dif?er. Many have written their humble rneuts. obscw. and blest bp being made both the plenatn and t h e h o u s u of the biought the true faith. !eft relircd to a distaut part of the couutry. that every child born been t h e y t i c e of the prophets. The Almighty Hirn. and by wor3hippi::g with a clean Why then foolishly depreciate our merits a ~ i d aud pure heart. i t has always n could not satisfy him. a s me believe in one Qod." observFat& stsrn decress'are never changed b p schemes. and t h e r e b ~ alluded assertions of wtrologers .) and not place all our trust and wo. that nothing was ) hosts from being overthrown him . and Qod saved him from the malevo. supplications 011 pieces of paper which they as mankind delight to do. thinking that t h e time of distress. what ) on t t o God for safety. There they know is both simple and necessary. d c c o r d i ~ i ~ i y t h . the existence of sense and reson. the fear of God entertained by the rant. whereas those who were out ! your doctors. monarch.some these. Tliose who are free. kcoms God!. Bur tne same Bhnlghty y o r e r shielded .6ciillls. with rr~ostof his s ~ ~ l ~ j e c t sthe city. the Lord. 1 regulate our diet. from other. rvhich it appears that you are entirely eartly by t h mercy of God who has made astro!ogers i n your nature.ere shower of raiv fell. worse treated than beggars. We aye thankful t o Him for tored to health. that a child was t a public may easily believe them. while cines. . that a calamity m. God go to physicians and druggists. Pe~-petuall i' 1 I ! 1 . t b e cooings of the pigeon. by which the inh:~lrit:~nts while of that grand science.d to explain the nature of t h e catnxtrophe. or dnterulining the priests advised. high and low.So also. T h i ~ i p ~ to the Creator Himself. These will bring down the exalt your own ? As regards your vaurlte(1 p1. the city was situi~ted as they are.ting Cfod end ascribing UU t o the revolutions af . withont vaunting of ourselves.ved pie. They generally prophesy nhout are exempt ft-om the evil : for iustance. Nimrod was one of this ) faith of Abraham. who would eventually overthrov idolatry. We proand mercy. Besides first to prny to the Lord for the restoration of these there are several other kinds of false faith health. j mhat are tile nature of the henrt and b r a i ~ ~ s . when they question the . and by rally i m e + s e the malady of theil* ~ a t i e u t s by . secrets of astrology. and therefore never three." "How is this mercy t o be obtained?" language of praise. from religion.are worse than s some wander. 11 . i u spite of all the Doctor's what He hnsgiren us. the llotice to worship given try : may. whereas i changed . [ to foretell that such and such an evil mill be that women aud children only p n t faith in its i s e ~ tbbg God: why uot pray to Goci Himself revelations .{ they \vaste their liv-s in learning sciences pered by one of tllcsc people.to know the Creator. even as the tion of the Deluge. t o a distant bodies. rather than try to ?' dence in them ? The professors of this scie~lcc. giving W e are therefore higher in ra111i than you. 1' I ! i 1 1 i the planets. hfoses from all harm. Now the r i s e and ignorant are not l a t h equal.glory iti your geometricinns and mathemnticinus . : alms-deeds. what God had milled happened. Suffice i t t o know what %W run t h e details. who would eventaaily overthrow and misled -and unenlightened. l ~ ire come t t p. But you require their nssista~lce weeping and pr:~yingt o God.mho geneyou t o turn away your facp.sssistance. A certi~inKirlg wn3 inform. 'CV to h e wished t o know where he would be born. When desir.' ed t h e king. Only the sick 111 reference to this.o. know you not that this : The astrologe~s and soothsryers profess oglp scie~lceis only professed arld believed by fools . some four." "This is all very true. t h e descriptive with Phmoah? who persecuted t h e sons of ISpowers of the i o c a ~ tthe prnyers offered by t h e { rael.ed. and them j how the \ m e s are arranged .is to { fectly useless i n themselves . And all this time they was proper for the King to retire with his sub.also. &hy then glory in your astrologe~s dot. Hence their i t is foolish for you to boast of your Some believe thnt appearalrces blve aIways exist. others ~ e f ~ l toedo so. Bs~ause they iuduce The sun* is the case v i t h ph.j escape by the aid of astrolo~y' " If I>ypracj1~3tfor the purpose of misleading ignorant peo. 10211. and his troops and subjects kind . the strength is possessed Ly the ribs of the breast .' You do not know this .in the mists of doubt. The tribe of Jonas Zodiac. b weeping.. iu pnrsuance of 2 would have then been saved from destruction. cven as : only u~hen'lust intemperance breeds a malady or Noah and his family.aulatiolt of the world was en. w e l l and what happened ? Abraham not abuse it. and ings of t h e crow.rho are tyrants and deepots. Those who are be born.rins and clouds. pointing out contradictions in your sacred hooka. I n the 11ight a ' He who knoms himself. the Almighty will relieve i what family. and peopie. arcrilcing. "it appears that the mill of God can be sllch a city after ten or twerlty years .rich sad poor.in you. Say what t h e a a t r o l ~ ~ e ? ~ of the lark. sou are phi[osophers and Logicians. " How ?" enquired man.grace of Qod.\l:~ker of and former uor their mixtures. I n sickness also. when coantries far distant. . He would have made him profess the t o the decrees of fate.which was after all poweriess in reruoving evil. and lament he said. king pawed a general order. that the generality of the astrology informed Kinrod.fess one faith. it is from Cl~ese. and &strop i. sach a rnnnth. Some heileve ill i t s revo. and wished to kuorr. others deny f slaves.IHRW -43-00s-SUFFA. and Be. world as ancient. and not so. that on the day appointed. nrrying. T h ~ l s but what are these pmplsO Xight xnd day they beyond i t is necessary to accibs a\l t h starry influence are p~izzleiLdin swtrch of p~oofs. hy forgetborn. ignorn~lt all the befal his Capital. you are in distress. put faith on t h e exterminate t h e idolaters. We clo not require % ed. depend on no one. The astrologers had told will happen.for they have no power to change on what 1 said.then. Same are ent. five. and those who wretched and unfortunate congregate on the doors of tbe astrologers. " Ey oolrservil~gthe commandsays :-'Every beast Icnova how t o pr:lise God. Some cousider this were left to nature. K~~nwledge for ns :-Be is I! asked the king. and there to weep a ~ t d cry placed. er5 again.ist the night in watchfulness. which tcaches how would be exposed to great duogsr. Tile lnivs of the solar system.S1:rves only rut1 about begging assistalx:e from lutions.1 ktrow notl~ing of the physiology of their own jects. or eve11 as far R 8 S ~ V ~ I L . But knom j many a professor of that science. scended on them and they have got well. and how the j o i ~ ~ t s bepun praying for stlfety from the misfortune strengthened. they still for all thai never h i z h t in so the waters rushed in from all the words of God. again cried t o the Lord in their distress and he relieved them. the preach. was t o be destro ed. aitd preserre us from all dangers. ?aped. gant poets amongst them. ed the rest because thcy would not put faith mntters worse . some in itlvestigatiug the height o i s n c h a date of. and who are blind I ened. Then you run to them. These particnlar~. give out that such a caiamity will IjefaI 1 the kiug. others believeit finite. Thus t h e astrologers say. Sour merchants. i n whom you glo~y. and those who had remained io the town j cumcicion and true faith. expresses Bimself thus:-. When children of Israel. advising them t o abstain from thi~lgs which would shake your'faith in them." " No i t is uot. (for this is done only through his grace I and religions which mislead mankind. never asli Hirn why thisis so. When and extirpate t h e idolators from the land. as they do in the world.which th. t o counsel their peop e t o cry for help t o the Almighty i n that Year. it centre of the earth." replied the they know not what will happen t o themselves other. Warrg a person bns' fniled to bo res. Bnt others. but that the wise do not pur.physicia~tsand nstrologcrs. H e of Moses. ficiency i n astrology. You also ques. they grossed it1 calculating the distances of remote esDreasad themselves uriable . upon . why i t was that had eloqt~eetspeakers aud preachera. and never believe what ! cornprehension thev pretend to elucidate.. and number. Phwoah amther. and eler nstrologera took the trouhie of learnitrgn science. s i r . who are ouen to error like we continu:illy worship. "not by the skill of t h e astrologer. Those who confide i n the mercies of besides d i c h the religions exercises of i a Providence never beliese the assertions of meu the nuts and hees .our supeliority. from the uulvers:rl derstruc. some iu n~easuriap the would befill the city.


Alexandria. In the habitable world. the g ~ u superiority. Those who are virtuous. to render a strict account on the day of judgment. and the former tops of mountains." On hearing these words. porpoise.willing. to of them. in believe in the unity of God . The worst. And if ye do not R b r . From Him nothing is hidden. I n the same way the Era." answered the ous kinds of people. Each wishes that the rest should that mank'ind are better than the other ohjects follow his own religion. a all more towards God. and that they are very wise ." The per. "but more for the sake of politics. * * * all sacrificed for God's mke and nevcr prol?& Each regards tho other as an atheist. numerous be compared with angels. and temperate. and said:-The beasts have answer. 'God has pur. especially of 3lahomed. whom you hare praised so much 1' in praying to and praising Ilim. that among them is a raceof beings. prepare yourselves for death aud the crites. who frced from ail earthly alloy Hedjazec still persisted. In the Koran i t is said. and made them inheritors of Reaveu . "Then why have you so many sects amongst however. The latter requires 1 able other cities and countries. The Lord has promised blessi~lgsto us: who are always near God. but Religion is primacy and Jiqan Neeshapore." The glorious spirits. calls down curses on his head. who believe not in 2 day of you ? l J asked the king : " Religion and Faith.~ r l n r ~ r a and besides these several more. even as the Prophet says: ' S o t a i Paradise mith the horries and gl~iilmans. and no trace. and too.sake of religio~~ gion are one. ye beasts! enjoy not this that if you beheld these. that there are seven hundred species of aquatic animals.- " ~ l ." "It is evident. Thcy are always desirous of pleasthese spirits inhabit. and many more.seu-sa~rifice the surest meatls of avoiding "We also think God to be the Creator Hdl and gaining EIcaven. Hence pour arguments are auof pour Maker. E we have vens. We the genii. All are the creatures of God. me will gain salvation through the interlower. tn burn in the Bres of Hell." The frog here brokc in and crifices him~elf. wit11 S Heligio~~ have co~lsider~d therr beads. as long s s our e t ~ dia I the unity of Gocl. holy and great world . "this too is appear not many after all. that they are superior to the beasts. Cyon which he remarlied:-' If ye are creeds. hnhit the colder regous are giallts or devils. I n these are to be found. in whatever direction we Pause in his sl~ecch. nor in a day of Account .' t h o ~ ~ s a ncities 111 the world.'?Wheu the Persinn had coore to s a in gaining it Go. to go over the bridge of Surat . without the other. are nothing . Greece." T h e n Christ to mankind are just the reverse. are they. t o w a r rags . be. but whoae enter Paradise and thcrc to rove through Eden. they were those of worldly philosophers do. Idolators. believing a11 the nrhile. Jeelan. honey and trovertibly established. < wise. but for Religion how thirt his own tribes are comparatively few.j may peace be on him !-Then me will inherit occupied. and it is ' alone. We mill live to everlasting ages. abstemious. addressing maulcind. so that you can go to heaven mith me and live with your brethren there. The one is necessary for ! Ferghaua.watches over.I R A WAN-00s-SUFFA. saying: s race of -%dam is more uurnerom than like. whose opinions differ from each other. > ~ h o s eexistence and numbers are unknown to ali but God. fear no one but Rim. Politics they always make saib: This man apealis 'highly of the multii t a rule to sacrifice others." A Persian remark. opened his ed d your arguments. ckuse this is pleassnt to bin^. and keeps them aafe from ail harm." ) plicity of his tribes. "that kings are to be different kinds of aquatic animals. whcn thc repentant sinner ~ncri5ces himpure and clean in heart. 35 yet there is uniformity in our spirits whereas . and five hundred rivers chased t h e souls and property of the faithful. end you are not highcr than we." "Politics and Religion. and provides for all. naFor this reason many n Professor of Tlzeology ture. Oh race of men ! j here always I' you. he continued.' Several other passages rivulets in 0 t h parts of the earth too numerous ~ prove the same.and that they are the lords. all his friends ansmered that they mere prove this 1" By referring to t h e variety of their ready. "Explain this fuIly.lways employed i n Eounting j away from commu~~ion God. I n n word. that there should be one king. so that each from two hundred to two thousand miles they ~acriiiceall they possess. that they are so pure. and each and all are inhabited by heaven. "aud that they should henceforth beasts will enjoy none of these. Evon on the of that mankind should be honbst. ten patiently I shall recite an instance. mhatever reand that thus there were no demonstrations of mains of SOU. and five h~indredof those. In doing good none thongh they he.hem. The moment ye die ye are your own numbers mere comparatively nothing. so t o be ~ r o v i d e n t : think of Ilim nixht and that not a single deaire remains to draw them day. "Oh race of men j derlve no benefit frorn any action. Besides these there are several lakes. ing to the spirit of the New Testament :-"If fishes. provides for t. who should look thuusands of men are to be fo~md. for the regions i excel8 them. We are free mins of India destroy themselves. Not a spau of space is left un." returned the other. diately answered him and ~ n i d . Hedjnz." asked the king. and the brute crenI U ~ S S ~ O Uwas readily given. Those who are angels." '' Horn do you asked. to be near God:-all these blessing has ) beasts should be their subjects. Xho~assan. &c. entirely destroyed. intelligent. and span of space is to be fonnd on any of the i the angels will say to us :-' Blest and happy seven heavens. he would find sacrificed for theireountries. Our Faith and Seli. and wickedness are. the Nile. At last. to be questioued by Jloonkir and Nukeer. Cross.of saints and prophets. in islands and in fawsts. will medan Religion. populated bp d "Not for religious purposes." there . but those who in. from all curses too. YOU h o r n nothing of those j smired. In a word. 1 I The Persixn nightingale imme-. they self to obtain parclon of his sins. and the heavenly regions ten times themselves in H s service. and whose nature is To rise from the dead. Eesides these." ! Judgment. even as assist me.big oceans in the wodd. there are other passious is always commendcd in every religion. on from these diversities. representatives of the animals and all the genii r and form his subjects and army. and themselves 1 long. Biooltan." If each wishes -''The t o go to the same God. can Refore these. established. 1 were satisfied with the decision and all returned Besides these we have other merits which I hnve contented to their respzctive homes. These show cal tenets. a description of which ie given also in the Komw. Budukshan. Besides these there are innumert h e ~ecurity the other. Politics secondary. Syria.aud a thousand other species of aquatic animals. hawe their own 1 lived virtuously me mill yet be the companions especial appointmcrlts there . Bindoo contiuued. Atheists. t o render an account on the day of r that the tongue fails to give a right description judgment ..cities and b w n s too of which he talks.-in the same way the on I s m . But mankiod are not acquainted all the P ~ O ~ ~ Sof O ~ S with our mode of prying. no blessi~lg promised us . sacrifice yourself for God. the devotee sa. 'I To sacrifice the ) tion their slaves. and faithless to Christ. howThus every higher degree is midcr than the over. with devils for your companions :-all those are for you. commune with and hope in Rim.each tribe to the spread of Religion amongsh his people. The can one sacrifice his passions l" " I n the Naho." !1 1 - 5l 1 ' '! 1 < : m' i I --- . said. Fire-worshippers. The following again ia accord. cessions of t h e Prophets. crocodiles. cclor. the Euphrates. to drink yellow j water. . nor sustain and beasts! YOU are nnacquainted with the might anv evil thereby. '' How are Fe equal 1 now reside on t h e several degrees of the Hea. Bypo. Nazarines. and sacrifice their property and i the earth. place all their trust widcr than this again . Ent in cvel-p religion and Provider of all. it matters not what means we employ are bant. thinking for x moment . Irak. How. Some indeed exclaimed :-U Now you hnve spoken to the are sulI>jectcd to others. dispositio:~. But do Iet us know what ~ o r t of beings s incumbent on us continuaUy t n occnpy ourselcea are those. that ye have entered Heaven . Yerncu. subdue the lusts of the flesh. you mould thiuk that $ glorious privilege. They are split up into thousands of sects such as J e m . are ten times wider than . to live in high fahies in the society of Majesty pass in fnvor of man ?"-That the Aouries. If mankind mould hut refer to the number of the beasts they would find that they are n o t their slaves.bat none could explain the nature of the beiugs ed mankind. religion and ingenuity. to live . who live on dry ground. wlio were d l l i r ~ g assist in the service of God. a sage. T h e . One cannot live I Aaerbijan. In a word all the animals are piles of fire. the king address. People should glory on such blessings wisdom has formed and arranged all.of creation. t o feed on thonly ashy fruits . India." returned the the Almighty promised us i n the Ko~alz. " are twins. Some say. that God is pleased. lon and tedious. near the king of Hell . who has made them. If he would but see the interposed the sovereign. who dread returned the other. and when it is also are yet other qualities in us which prove us . lords. "are means by which me i not the recl~utalof crimes. Punjaub. A God has slaughtered several people for their politi. We are content. For there are fifteen plain. They know not what hypocrisy. and indecd THENfrog had done speaking onc of the grateful to God for what Be has given us. wisdom no one has been ever able to fathom .are China. and lunar degree is ten times wider than all the rest. t o sit under the shade of the toohr-tree on the j mheu all these facts are satisfactorily and inconbanks of streams filled with wine. but angels are there worshipping 1 are ye. Gucbres.~ ~ AGod has s promised you blessings. t ~ ~ vhomdall sour hopes ~ the same. Cebul. his perfect point. to spread through the c angelic. so are curses also entailed on you. other. We are free from these." When the %fankind remained silent. E g p t . differing from the other in langnage. h'om have you aught ! mouth and said :-[l 0 just king ! when the l else to say 1" A Hedjnzee returned There i claim of mankind is proved. Devotees. and believe in HIS Unity. all the beasts put together. turtles. ye are not mine. 1. There are nineteen why do they kill and slaughter each other 1. If the king mould lis. ncknomledge Him this maner. fact I obey him in all things:' The brnte creation Proves that we are lords and they our slaves. TlSue i t is. zlli~ators you are God's. and who doubt in attain certain ends. in the way of God.' At last. ing the Lord.i above referred to.to be recounted here. and are a. crime. what order mill your water. manlilnd and heasis." I there arc good and bad individoaLs. Constxntinople. sage had come to a conclusion. To suffer in the tomb .. All these are the creatures and sul?jects of God. j qualities i n u s a recital of which would be too and in sacrificing the pnssions. remain and adoring God? Heilce it is. I not recounted. ly spirits. I f nre are inners. &c." Ylgrit~a. such as the Jihoo. The i monarch. milk. and for the burn themselves living. . but we are exempt is CEAPTER XXV. I 1 I 1 1 I i.

&S3. A span. a Piebald. + J Tranquillity. tion. i. black white. 1 9 S. wrong.(: lowest: depthhence Belt. S . the iron with which ele- 1 U?!!!. reat I aJ + J Stile. Eloquent. Bastion . of- s . Nights' lodging. S. An owl. Dress. copious. party-colored.1l J ~ JS. J\qJ y%L-l 1 1 I +j& clad tidiags. . ~1/3f ~ ' j j . ~ ~ prop. S . arrangement. Coldnes~. . Beasts. rotfen. phants are driven. Praises. . Demanding justice. . A . a . content. S. concealing. t!.) Incantation. aiimals (PI. n hawk. a sign of the Zodiac. a hawk. gmodees. a. d !&. e. L* %& a S. & d r. sc+JI J ! S. Violence. a j l d l 8. S. purgiog. htaxerxes.. S. A female falcon. mods. opening. 8. Brother. +34-1 . S. prmrota .&&~ll &f 1j Lj$ f 1 U:j2d S. do~sers. y ~ L lr Manner. complaining. 1 Assistance. asking aid. Equals (in age and rank. causei s Loosening. 1I Pack. S. covering. Goad.-IbJ 641 1 S. An insect. t'J l 1 I i r ~ p o r t u n i t yurgency. Exciting. A swallow. birday mm& time of retiring. 001 a bright red @or. L. con~uRation. oppression. fluent. S. protec- &JC. 1 S.l S. 1 *+? An Astrolabe. 8. commendations. ujL Lq [. chilinesx. A kind of falcon.VOCABULARY: J. Lightning. & l 3 . \+ . I ~ 1 l Approving. ddhg!) Eyes. A( :! s . p! Bodies.

lit: limit md r i m S WJ J S . pleasank ~ood sign.A kind of cloth in which the flowers are wove in and not worked. An owl. A kind of erneraid. violence. l h= S. S. Thunder. Consumption. . . Continence. counterfeiting. Acknowledging the t m e God by repeatiog the sentence-" there is S. The four oontinenti.strife. ii I i d . +S . *p?a. A royal white falcon. S . [ ? a. ! . n. An ostrich. 4 L f I. li (9) J s . A leopard. A 33 S. Inflection. ! J? S S. Imitation. deprarity. S. a subtle question. of p*) Lions. 33+" . -. j -i J r S. Clever. essential. The Red Sea or Arabian gulf. contortion . aAterity. F . 1 ! I [oiluj ' Skill. S. J. A falcon. The interior cavity of a thirlg. to 1 &=c" 3a& S. Mending (a garment. a. topaz. 3 rl> 3 A fierce rapacious animal. no God but &d. & p JIJJI G . Eqnity. G S. wild beasts. &A $!='I . a chrysolite. ph 3 ~10th &roan m e r the sit on. Betiremenb. & .&l?. S . a & f c ~ . A desert. n i e equator. . j &j J S. A crucifix.J & JaJ 6. A shedder of blood. An b a g . a. gripes. Reptiles. s . reracious. Wickedness.) repniring J Chequered cloth. ~3 Abstinence.h. eb (pl. a robbit. Excelling deserving.l 1 +!I . 8. S. intelligence. v. A porcnpine. S~RI'J d O of r B de . The song of a bird. k e . li +(iY ya* '' The n m e of e bird.' S. r W[? pmp. . 1 7 J * firr * present S.. i Vesetation. 5r~3. A hare. 1 1 1 u. Mulberry. To cry aloud.. roads.[. ~ S. devotion. a plain. forgiving. The cypress tree. wrong. ingenuity. - / JJL l allsa31Jl a. L % porpoise. d-2 S . lib em lit^. travelling. 8 Act of leading or guiding." 3 5 5 S. L "s + cf&" commtioo. A tnio. movement. S . A sea-dragon. s Extortion. . s . innate. S. S. Observations of the A bole made in the wall by bnrglars. S.Jl +4 L r. S. A moment . cioset- J=-j The planet Saturn. d CICAI~ 8. revenge. The third j umpire. 1 JLir / S.~ l 8. moist. a. ~ (a house. s . f ~ l9 . ~ 6 j V b y S. ~~~mr(irj( . Partridge.8. . . Striped muslin. Enmity. Sire. Departing. p. bi L v l j v. A a m e l driver. cmninp. pleasant. tyranny.. ! i w2r J Ingenuity. Syria. I dd - 9. 8- Natural. u ' A b a 4 &J1 +l! J b S. j 1 51~ I h S. prop. a.) The li~:ingof iron arnlonr. ! jS . a clad in armour. A small tambourine. S. growth of a plant. arbitratog mediator. 2 6. justice. s. solitude. S. Verdant.

-. U. 1 1 /I f. associate. p. . 36 4 J & S . S- a. A ao. jndiciom. 4 ~6ya. s chameleon. 0 9 4 S. corruption. pl. Jealous in point of honor & of love. enmity. measure. S. Detriment. eL@ g. J+ 3 S . . b &&L !j a . l [4 a severe. d. Security. 3a1+!? To hew. Waking. &rI . S. a. Perceived. Food . &id[( 2 " 1 Digging. also denotes the early h a m a t of the year. L 1 1 A sparrow. S. fraud. a crocodile. a. authority. Light of the Eyes. virtue. The place or state to which one returns. Speech. Possibilities. the milt. '~mqnered. s . I ij ~ ~ J~ Taken. a. i J9*'i# S . power. damage. commenced. TO be changed into an inferior S. lig A drum. ha S .ic S.W mons. Bound. a. The Phimix. S . Slaughter-how. a t$9& (Lit. referring to. Mortar. c r * _ J ~ . Unworthy. Insufficient. Initiated. S. a. A village or parish. S. S . friend. sbambii. Familiar. The planet Veuus. 1 ~ 2 besn. rational. ! S . subdued. Banghtiness. ' / cr2&fl I. e9- 8. Spleen. - . h 4 a. [ I~ l f o s. S . J G . J v. S. the other world. S . 8. to attend. diving. a. (549 S. Pcederast. plsa9ui-a. euntention. 8. A companion. heavy.bG Sudden death. a. sport. m e whole of t h creation. &jtjkaj' over of attraction. S. A waterfowl. UD34 felt. Infection. A &htiniale. 1 ~2 1 Q . I! 3-6( part.& d9L L s . diction. Lunar heaven. fastened. mirth. A rhinoceros. scorn. Traditional. " Be and it was. p1 3b a. r Vidorious.o a watch . 1 i Play. subdued. ransomer. filthy. Men of wisdom or holiness. r. the srotic re. &&. 0 8. libidinous. Canai. . shape. A Peacock. S . 8. plays. a. gambols. 0 (AS(. transmuted. Changed. Besieged. The.) The season of spiing . Magog. An Epithet of the Deity. Reasonable. known. frigid zone. (a) f y n A bird. promises. quantity. detained. Power or ail1 .'l. tr & $ @ A . S. a. defective. visiting the sick. r. 2nd thet of God. space. an aquatic bird. a Return. Disagreement. Returning. 5J h&r A camel*^ &addle. 8 . I he a. Distance. 5 . Perfidy. S A. f & . ' cfFirr k c cc. 4'b J S L ' s . a tambourine. Glibness of tongue. An apostate. Name of a bird of the partridge kind. ad+-+U& 1 S.. S. Eloquent. S. surrounded. Dipping. S One who delays doing what ." Epi- &1kJa s. s Fire of Hell. a. surety. V. Naked. d196*d-Jl S . Rare.g . prop. 1 I rJJi+4 +jfJ S. Satire. Substance. unclad. 8. Pore. Disputation. abuse. A jackd. recourse. The ring-dove. S . ordinary. of the body. The law of retaliation. r S.d b : I a.i% The d e d . 7 1 &c All things existing. i I &Gr I A lizard. glorious. 1 1 s . 8. The planet Nars. uL~J S . &+l .

Leisure. .) q3b &uu) s. h punther. S. CALCCTTA:--PRIRTZD BY D'RoZarclo AND CO. i *("If "!J j j W+4 > 8. j3i Yh Jb S. manner. Xu'arne of a bird (hoopoe. prop. ~4 > . Path.A. . low growd. 6 TASF-SQUARE. 6 Valley. 3 j S . way. bpatter. a lyux. (3%. $ F[? 3 bJb S . amplitude.




but there are at ieast tlircc diiferent 1-s:-sions. Those v:ho havc t o pripnri.~ Safi" is n stai~dzlrd I-Iindustani work. and for ail pr:. lYllc11 I cuill~r~c~icccl work I was not . tlic.as strict as the r. theil~sclrcs far csa. but it is imperfect. uii! daubrless prove a grcnt hclp 2nd zdvanragc to him.ing the English clear anrl inrcI!i:ible The vcrsion. and rcprintccl in vol.rcic:re. Such beizg thc ol:ject of rhis translation. a ciosc adherence co rhc text has been thl. A trarislation. a t t r i b ~ t e d 3lr Jalnes Atl~insan.c 110 co~r.lc aod manner of t l ~ c original.>ctenc inslructioa c a n bc ob. ! S translation has been i1:nde to sr:pply a want U hi& often been repraio:li~d to me.l~!i which thc studciit inay compare and correct his owii ~voi-k. at ~ n c c accuratc anc!.cilghnrt main:ained. T!lis translation is accurate nncl fi~r spirited. of thc 4sint2r. are oltrn ljlaccd ili situariorl~ w11er. esact. BI)!SU:'XGH : rn:KTBO E\-l < I L L h S T Y F X A S D CO>:Y. The I k h w i i ~ ~ . wilich is usecl e s a teatboolc both in 1:ldin and England..\hS..::iiicci.ill givc to rile 1<1:glish reader a cle.T R A N S L A T O R ' S PliEFACE.ir idca of the st.ctica! purposes it TH:2s . o i 111al. is n a t sa smooth as it n i g h t 11zvc 11ccn made.ecessisy would aliow. to the translator of parts of the " ShBh-njma. b:it it \\. One. 1r1." was publisher! in a n I~tdiancwjpaccr. ( ur3Ra. \\. . 70n~jzrtl 1829. thcrcfori.\%-arethat any this previous trandarion cxis:cd .nination i i l it. ssvili.

CO:6ITLhlNTS L '. I Ilctd nearly coinpleticl the work rv!lcl? 3 rranjlation by L l r ?'. CCN CHAP.l. T1x. CCX7rEYl'r<. .T. riii.'BB6. CREA'C1<)3' 01: M. XI-. bp a .ncrall:. . .ome:hing o the gl-cat : \veil. 11. 1.4X -ITIS Z~>:I. hI3llucl c a n e t o my notice. h o ~ x v e r is :he genci-a1 f x d t of these rrandztions.'i)lElIS .~c/mjY. J t givcj 2 very fair idsa of the t\. . DXLISE. TYE P0URTI. 111. p ~ b l . U S THE [)l. TI. . .\CE.l(.\CCOI:ST 01' TIIE lI~~l<?iT'.l T l I i::S 1 .S5 S I T I I E 5BC0XL1 DIESjES(:CR. PBBl?. . COX3L1L'l'hl'IOS 0 : 9'171~: IClSG I t . 01: b hli?SSTIZ<.t versiofi was publishecl a: Calcutra in IS&! a n d is no1 very gc. in his Prcf:~cc. T h e narnre of the subject renclered thz iniroduction of many Arabic scientific terms a marter of necessity. T h e st)-lc of rllc I-Iinlustani translation is cocsiderecl very purc all& elegant.: O f T I I Z KLXG O F T I l S $195. T:iE X:..ork. XIV.\TIO?. TV.\.iIIS3EsGEF. and the chapters and paragraphs follow the arrangement there obscrl-ed. FLBS'L' YESSEL'CBI<. Noticcs of the work have l x e a pubitshed b y Professor Fliigel in vo!.\L<T. C@S5LiCI'A'1'IDX O F TIIE AIICN.SGBR. but stillthcsc forcign ~vords often employed ~\-l-lirn are pure vernacular ~vordsr~lighthave bceu used wit11 advantage.jS \!. and the language is generzl!~clear a n d perspicuous. Tkis.L1:on. ' .by Profcsjor 1)idcrici o i Ecrlin. .n:ay be cu~ljiiIerccl buriecl. ' O F 'I I ? .<. ?\XI3 ' 2 i I I < ~ l lA P P I .\I. Iti?.S.. 'l'[:! 'I'IIE KIX:. .\XI) 1'10!. ANI\I..ri{ Trlx l. V I I I .\LR. from rv!lich i: is clcrivcd.l.ISTEI:. SIIT. P. l i j h ~ ~ Icdin. XIr.S T!TC h ! X S :\S> JISb.. . The origi:lal Arabic \vo!-k has bccrl rranslaced into Germ:i. but I 1lai. but the tranj!ation :S not sufficientiy close to allsmer the purpose :or \viiich this 1~0t-k iiltended. ancl by I ' r ~ i l s s o r UicterLci in vols. I.. PXUCF:I:!ilXC. .~ s c ~ ! c ~~~ ~?cI'~L~ The present translation h ~ l sbeen made from the excellent edition of t1lc Test published by Drs Forbei ard Ricu. of thc ZL-if~c!w$f dt2:L'Sn~?lf>~~/i~tf~ D J ~ ~ ~G~~e. . but i c contains a very large proportion of Arabic words. I t is a kincl of Encyclopx:dia of considerable extent. TBIS T!liRD 2. .lxor.n. S. \ l . I a?:~:old there is is anorher translation. TI'E rIr. .I AI':sSI. . Or?r Hindustani t?a.\S [L! . .c not lnet wit11 it. COSSCL1'ATITJ'S 01: Y I I E I?. O F T I I T : JiX9. I > I S S K \ S l O S S EEl'\T I2T. tclls us .TI-! 1IESSESCBI<.and xviii.lullarnmain l d a n ~ent1ema:l.T. VII.


3lr Ab1-aham Lochtt (may his prosperity continue !)-and upon the invitation of his brothcr and teacher. havc bccn retained. but somc spcccl~cs. He ir is who makes intercession for sinners. ancl as the scientific phrases and spcec!les of thc original test are not free frorn cliflicnlty. in obedience to the kind suggestion of thzc renowned gentleman. v. Ilcrkm 'Ali. and the chief of the tilost accomplished scholars. Through this we havc received the distinction over all nations. lean1 only about the subject in dispute . into the Urd6 language the worli callcd " Ilch~vhnu-S which is (a n-orl<) upon the contcntions bctween ~nankind and the beasts . and by whom the road of salvation has been shown to US. S d r ~ iii. H e 112s c:ipungcd somc specchcs. (may his fortune cnd:ul-e!) tllc mriter Ikrhn 'illi. After this (exordium). came to Calcutta. t . after receiving much consideration. esccliing all the doctors of thc tii~lein learning. 106. the Professor of Hindi. \vas directed to translate SafL. caused thc w ~ i t cto be apr 1 pointed on thc cstal>lis!lment of the Company TlallBdur in a position subordinatc to himself After a sho1. . \v110 look into particulars: espcricncc plcasusc in discovcrin~ from the eract meaning of the phrases. the Scal of the Prophets. Ordinary people attending only to the surfacc of the work. but lcarncd men. in the kindness natural to him. and he has olnittcd se\-era1 scientific tcchnicaliries. represents that.intelligence to approach Thee as he ought ? Still man has sufficientpower to surrouncl Him with praisc Blessings unbounded are due to the Chief of SIessengers. upon thc recommsndation of that distinguishcd gcntle~nan. But? in fact. Muhammad thc Pure. which bear upon thc subject under discussion. Captain John William Taylm. that mosc hunlblc of individuals. ' l Ye are the best people. \v110 having brought sinllers oot from the vallcy of perdition. hc was so highly favoured and patronised that the aforenamed gcntlcman (Mr Locl~ett). C O ~ I panions. so that no abstrusc words might appear thercin. which were not gcrmane to thc point in dispute .t timc. has led thcm to a placc of rest in rhe road of sal~ation. and of every passagc n store of brilliant espression. and under the guidznce of fortune.and some mathcmatic~land other technicalities.''' Mullammad is the chief of the universe. in accordance %iththe gracious test. of Eigh dignity and grcat authority. through whom the religio~l of Isl5m obtaincc1 strength. if thc style and polish cf this coluposition arc duly considered.'. KurBn. Ma\vlawi Turkb 'Ali (may his shadolv cr~dure !)-he. he was directed to run his pen through such pzssagcs.the cream of the learned of the age. but his instructions wcre to make the translation very easy. Muhanlmad is the guide of rnnn and of life. H e is our defc~dcr the day of judgment. and in wisdoi~l surpassing the intelligence of the eleven ( i d t n s ) . and to reproduce only the gist of tile dispute I n complinncc with this instruction: t l ~ c writer has writtcn in t1:c Urclii idiom merely the pith of the matter. Ikrkrn 'Ni. every spccch is a ~ n i n c eloquence. in Blessings and peace be on hi. postericy md on hi. little points and fzcts rcla:ii~g to God.

1\b6-l Hasan. they used to eat whatever fruits ancl vegetables of the jungle they could obtain. and during the heats they used to choose a dwelling in cool districts.f their co?rte7~lioit with the A ?zizzals--Oilztheir s r e k i ~ ~ g j ~ ~ s t i c e in the presence of thz wise A7i9g B f ~ t w .hn. nafili. dcscripri~~e illustrative. i i CHAPTER I. by seeing this: might have a desire to attain to thosc perfections. S a ~ e ' s ~ r r n ? ~ t o ~ z i 7 ~ ~ drfo~r Li7:t.ll. and religious matters. They wrote fift)~-onc chiefly upon the lnarvellous and occult sciences. I V ~ O dwelt in communion at Dasra. rational and descriptive. carry on agriculture. of their weaving clothes and covering their bodies ? In fine. Nawab Governor-General Lord Minto. May his prosperity endure ! 1 'dkli. s the Afmz RITERS have thus recorded the circumsrances of the first appearance of tile 11uman race :-SO long as men were fcw in number. the HLtim of thz age and the Plato of the time. In thc end. then.' are well stated. so that heedless people. and used t o cover their bodies with leaves of the trees. or 1810 A D .-intdlecr~al or ration. BahAdur. In this book the object was to set forth the various truths and dogmas by the mouths of animals. is one of them. a d s p e ~ ~ t their days in the i n v c ~ i i ~ t i oof a11 n works.and so at the end of the work it is stated that those points in which men prevailed over the mimnls were in those theological sciences and dogmas which the writers have treated of in their fiftyone works. and this book. the cream of powet-ful princes. Thc arguments. the men prevaiL The ainl of the worb is simply to show from this contention thc (superior) perfections of man . and from fear and dread of wild beasts they used to t~. chicf of chiefs and hero of hcroes.h s b mid or! tht:t . 011 the bcgi?zxi~zg the Crentiojt of the H?-r?)iirnrz of Racz l-O.in the time of thc government of that noblest of digni. trcating of the contention between mcn and the beasts. A .lcerefuge in the hills and mountains. after mud1 discussion. through fear of the animals the!. used to run away and hide rhemselves in caves . or historical or tradrtional. and their 1 Soils of Adam.The alJtlloru of this work were Abd Salnl. This translation was made in the ycar 1Sz5 I-lijri. nhmad. and take their food. What mention can there be. fied nobles. In the cold weather they dwelt in warm places.. When in that condition a short period had passed. and others-ten men. There was not eve11 so much feeling of security as that three or four men could join together.

2nd be. a t t a d c d in the Hall of Justjcc.less and rapacious hcasrs. th/i~' 7 and every man in his own occupation. sia.the animals grazing and brousiilg on Lhc vcrclant hCrl~age were fat and s ~ L ' and.ighfin. H e was so just that in his r c i g ~thc tigcr a l ~ d ~ t!lr goat used to drinli water at oilc 'yhrEt. I t happencd thzt a s l ~ i p cai-qing mcn. \wrc gaml~dingtogahcr. and let thcm bring thc me:. fled into re. 1 iTaklli'~~ili". havinz forsaken their roosting-places. when did these lords af men crer give ear to tllern? Many beasts. .: gctring to dl:. 'The c~ climate of thar. ant! t h e I. Catching anilnals in snares. ? rvhicli is siruatetl near the ecluctor. v n! offspring had multiplied. BiwarGb. tbrongh fear of capture. tllcy bcgan ro dw!L in t i n t island. and \ 5 1 what 1t1 Frauds and wiles did they make snares and nets and pursue them ! In this state of conflict a long time passed. IVhen bccanle I.1g?'ic1~iture 1 They - Thc A7ilrz0 1 j i i l ~ . and flew away fram the country of clle men. entirely disappeared Aftenvards they founded many furls a ~ cities. n-itl~o~!: any one to i n t h e r e with thcn~.now had their shoulders @led with their labours by nigilt and by day : holes were famed in their backs. and related in detail beforc King Eiwardsb all the story of the oppression \\yliich they had su#a-ed at the hands of man. They perccired tliat it rrlas a place of rvondrous beauty: Aolvcrs ancl fruits of all kinds were hangin.indler.?. also.Ig fine." c:ip'~::. animals in snares. ancl the nLllncrOUs animals were al~vjys roaming about thc wcods and wilds like unbridled cnnlels. I n fin% h ~ r i n gbuilt habitations of various kinds.-\~l~atpossibiIitycouId there be then of al:y tAar. the gicce of rmod i the nose n by which he is guided and controlled.~nti abundaixiy ferrilc .r 111e). place was esci." 1 * Shvlut. hc inst7:nrly issucd s command. refractoq. and so. The mcn still had rbe same idea thnt all these were thcir slaves. until God Almighty sent hluhainmad Muaafa.azu/l#ir-a camel v/ithour cvhosc cognomcn was "T. Ddnz o dad-llarn'.rsjom rf t/rc i l ui~~rnls. thief. saying: Good ! let messengers be sent quickly. Many Jins also obtained the blessing of the true faith and the honour of Islam.scrcan~cd and cried still. caillcls and asses. accordlilx to their c~lstonr. the sage of the Jins. and ca~chingt h ~ . When the animals pcrccived that thcrc v>-as no safety f ~ r the~n cvcn there.LI. and alt11ougl. Every man had the fancy thar the anirnds were their slaves. ihcy took tile rozd to the drtscrt. according to their old coursc." bccnnlc tile monarcl: of the Jias. so no olie desired in I~is hi. The true Prophet made known to all sinners the way of righteousness. the implements for carrying o~ . the ansict.. (the peace of God and rest be upon him !) for the guidance of mankind. the last of the Prophets.cil in his dorni~lions Thc island called Ealds. this vain issumption of ~hcirs they assembIcd their chiefs. The elephants and horses.thcy ci1gagc. When the King had l~eard tllc detai!s of the aniall mals. took their young ones with them.note deserts and forests.t: in their respective clnploymen~s. d dr. tocc!lcd the short of that island.cdin. about animals a: \vild beasts> which had filled the heart of every onc. they wcre intent upon capturi~lgthem. or ro.no~\:o to the a~~ima!s.. ~vitlds. The pliis used in the sellse of " independent.G 0jp-t. being ir! clistrcss tjrougl~ contia.? and wherever their hearts desired as \yere picking the fine gr:en herl~agc they found it. uncon~rolled. was t!:e I-ova! resiclcocel of th3t just lcii-rg.: on chc trces. s t ~ c x n swere flau~lrtg crery on sidc . The birds.~-ave King.art to clcpart fro111 tlie!~ce. When after this also an age had passed.inages and tourn$. d .~naking snares of va~ious sorts and kinds. All the me]-chants ancl leal-llcd mell that were in the ship Lincled and began to csplorc the coulltry. tlxey too!< to using them for riding and bearing burdensl for ag~cultureand cul~ivation.--"rllronc placc.an to dwell thcrcia in comfort.

A very fine house was assigned for Lhern to stay In. by rvhosc nleans religion and the worid mere regulated. " 0 just King ! these animals are our slaves ." currrccy. the meaning of which is) c All anil:lals have been created for you. saying. and gave man rank above all crcated things. 1Vhat shall he said of those peoplc who. "What is your desire?" H e humbly said. Muhammad the Chosen. holy. Za'i/u-l du7zydn-u-eak in constitution.azrat 'Abbfs. he had them called beforc him. a Ail -pur?. when the fatigue of thc journey had passed away. He alonc is king of all Jins and men. saying. having heard of the justice and equity of the Kink arc cone into his presence. Happy is the state of them . began to speak." Accordingly. still they are averse to our authority. ancl by His o~nnipotenccmade him the father of children. Those things which arc forbidden in the Law were entirely ~~nknowill his reign. of them some are recalcitrant. in liberality and generosity he bore the pre-elnneiice over all his equals and compeers. Our hope is.'' . H e macle hiin ruler oLrer all theland and sea. * Aiw~!j pdyc-obtained I 'Arsn-area. 5 Lit. upon this c l a ~ m there are many rcasonable and traditional proofs. and others.have unrighteously turncd away from him? And blessings without limit are doe 10 rhe True Prophet. " Is there any proof of this claim ? for a claim without evidence is not listened to in a court of justice. whom God Almigl~tysent after sll the (other) prophets for the sake of the guidance of man. The poor and needy of the time coming to him obtainecl nourishment. Up to this day no seeker of justic: h:is evcr turned away disappointed from this seat of prosperity. t!lnnlis are at all times dne to that incomparable Creator who made Adam froin a single clrop of rvzter. and having forllled Eve from him. who was of the race of H. what cause has there been then that you have come rhus far ?" One person anzong them who was experienced2 and eloquent. . .inhabirants of different cities. Benedictions and peace be upon his holy8 offspring. they offered their bencdictions. perfonuillg his obeisance. This Icing was exceedingly just and righteous. and making them bows and obeisanccs. seventy of ~ h c m .giving satisfaction to him. g:LL W11y have you come into my kingdom ? there has never been any correspondence between you and me . peopled the face of the earth with thousands of human beings. Accordingly He himself has said in the IiurBn (hmbic.-" rose c?. although they are perforce submissive.-We. Wllen they beheld the King upon his throne. and the support ancl refuge of every one in the Day of Judgment.iase. and beg-zn to spcak this oration with eloqucnce and fluency :' L Praise is due to that true Creator. and for the sake of frail2 man has cl-czted such various animals. . In no part of his dominions was any overbearing tyrant able to practise tyranny upon any poor underling. take yocr p l ~ i ncsp. Kothing was ever in dear to his heart except the (giving of) pleasure and satisfaction to GocL H e with great politeness questioned the men. who for thc sustcnnncc of the world has prepared so much and has made so many things upon thc iacel of t h c earl11 . exceedingly cloquent and fluent. showing disobed~cncc. attended instantly upon the summons of the King." il H e said.irlto my presence." H e saicl. and fed hinl rvith a11 kinds of pure food. State them. that the King wl come to our redress." The King inquired.4 " In iinc.wen! mv:~y. are pursuing the road to futurity. and xvhorn he made chief of all.X person among them. they took their p l x e s in t h e ~ r respective ranks. (may the approval of God be upon him I) thcn mounted thc rostrum." I H e said.u. Afier two or t h e e days. and through rvhom the Muhammadan faith was sprend. " 0 Icing." ' " Seen thc U-orld.ho.

and dctriil~cntb e averted-but not as they have supposed.: advantage from tl~eill. Sdrat "uzir..5 Having fashioned the sky froin water and fire. they strerchec! out over us poor creatures the hand of oppression. he with delivered this spccch : '' Praise is due to the majrst!. and mountzifis. they took to roaming the &?h. ' U n d in another placc be has said thus (Arcbic)-' Hol. mules. c X:..'God Almighty has made all the :~nlinalssubjecc to you-just as H e has made subject the sun and moon.. and this verse of the I<UI-~!I conclus~vc is upo:~ the point. In eveiy way we are thcir I?iaStC1-5. woods. 'We . ancl made him riler over the whole face of As nlcn became numerous.' 3 and again he were cl-caicd t h . sfira. who existed before the foundation nor of tbc worlcl. In fine.they 21-C our ~ 1 2 ~ ~ s . ' Kurin. not to n ~ i n Protecting the animals in a befitting manner. Thanl. sn. Then. an age had passed. ] v. (Aranic)--L Ride upon their backs. no: to tyrannise ovcr them and oppress them. they began tc~ csact service from t h e n 1 and by force and tyranny they l~roughtto pass (all) tilosc eoiis which had never come to . a:ld it is to be uildcrscoo& also from the Bible and the Testan~ent that animals wcrc nlaclc for our sakes. we their slaves . (Arabic. " 'I'he King then :cnicd rotvards the animals ancl said-"This man has brought fortrard verses of the ICurBn about his claim : in reply to this: speak whatever conles into your minds. ailcl nourished our young ones. xri. we zccl our parcnts were dwelling upon rbe face of the earth without obst~uction-wc grazed in every clirection. after this. for ~ncntionis lvlade in those God verses of thosc blessings ~ v l ~ i c h Almighty has bestowed upon them.Cn hnvc been revcalcd upon this subject. .derive benefit and keep off evil from cach other. and with fraud and calumny cantcnd. they are our slaves. we spent our nights and days in His praise-we kncw no other than Him. might engage i i ~ c~iltivation. the ~ n ~ ~ l e . ~ has said.:' After this he proceeded to say-"It is not to be understood 5. and make warm clotl~ing . so that they r=niglltall toyctl1e1.eat them. for you they ai-e a beaury acd ~ r n a m c n t . ~ n a d e one thing subject to enother.e. By the ottclancc of a single ' BE' He made manifest all creatures fi-om (bchindj thc veil of obscurity. He gave to it the dignity of loftiness. they wcre to benefit by thcni. a ready tongue. but rathcr. 8 h . asses.. caught horses. 6. K~&.c are theilslaves and they our masters. in the mnrl~ing 5cnd tliern to the pasturage. arc rhc masters. 12.:cc hc has tbm said (Arabic)-' On thc d r y land and 011 thc sca ride upun camels and in s h i p s . and remember the bounrics of Gotl. Consequentlj~ Gocl Blmighty made u s subject to them silnply for this purpose. 4 Kuran. too. tllcre was no one to interfere with us.. v." liesides this. holy.' " Ucfore these mex wcre created.) i.i:.L\daq fi-orn clay. and camels. from the vcrscs ~vhichthis man has cited that \\. . Simt xxiii.scs. and each of us was eiigi'gcd in search ofllis means of subsistence. wandering whcrever our hearts desil-ed . 8. mules. v. ancl asses you might ride on them . 2nd in the evening bring them back again to their houses. that God Allnighty having created all things in the earth and in the sky. not jconhncd) to d ~ n e to place. God Almighty formed .ful for whatever God hacl orclained. we consoncd together among the hills. Haviu. that benefit might accrue to them.. I-laying broug-hr:forth the race of Adam from a drop of water: He scnt t h a ? ~ hither aild thither in the world." H a v i ~ ~ g x d tllis. of that One.. stating. :he air and the clouds. ancient of days.' From this it is no: to be understood that they arc our masters. many other verses of the I<n:-. bulls. r " Chaos. v. "CVllen. and fi-ec fl-0111 wants. dwelling in our lionles in coi~~fort. ' ~ And in one pl.'that they its but it. about in the woods and deserts.~om their skins and hair .

He said-': What are these proofs ? " Then he prowhat perfection] has God Almighty ceeded to say-"With formed our persons." He ~hed said. ir is their practice to slaughter (the animals). turned away from God. "-4 claim without evidence is not listened to in z court of justice-mention some title-deed or proof. became intent in his heart upon the settlement of the dispute. On the contrary.l and having roasted them. as it were." The King said. for. to break their bones: tenr out their sinews. "purity." . L L O u r c l a i n ~ i s e s t a l ~ l ibymany rationaland traditional proofs. anywhere fell into their hands. they were carricd off.the T i f f s ihc k r go f for fhc stk~rz e t t ~ o oJt/~e c i l t t d f l t hzl'wecw the 11fc1zaitd f . shoulcl attend. Then he said to the men-"The animals have fully set forth their account and complaint of your tgran~yrvllat answer have you non. and all the grandees and nobles of the Jins. -4nd wjth all this even they are not satisfied. do not inquire as to their treatment. fatigued and weary. cook tlxem. rip up their bellies.the knowIedgc of our fathers and grandfathers. Evcn then these persons in no \%-aygave up rhc pursuit.to give to i t ? " A person from among them made his obeisance. ancl what various ills were inflicted upon them ! Besicles this. they are the slaves. io accordance with the order. What could lve do ? Being helpless. It is proper for us to exercise lorclly authority over them. 4 Aili~taZs. bound and fettercd. fix them on spits. and gave orders that the judges and lawyers. and WC arc thcir masters. to flay them. Whoevcr among them has consented to obey u s is accepted by God. and thus began to make his statement-" 0 Asylum of the world ! These all are our slaves. they all attended the royal court." Dzsc~i6i~zg $nbls tafien 6y fh:ls k i 1 . and made every member (thereof) in 1 W HEN he Lit. and whoever has turned atmy from our authority. pluclc out their featlicrs. With what various stratagems did they pursue us with their snares and nets! If three orfour animals. There is neither proof nor argument in (support of) this claim. to eat them. and to exact from thcm whatever service we may require. Immediately. for they make this assertion-: We are the masters. i ~ the Ring had heard this account of the animals. it is sheer tyranny and oppression. has. ale fled to the wood^ and deserts.' Whoever fled From them was (deemed) a culprit.

l > . and with this carriage. no worli of His is devoid of a!isdoill . 4. "Wllat have you now t:) say to tllis?" They humbly represented that :he claim wasnot cstnbIie11ed by this evidence.'' TVhat rcply do you give to ! this ?'' I-Ie hun)l)ly s:iicl-': Asylum of the ~vorld In acldition to the manifest mcar~ingsof the Divine Word. set forth the meaning of this verse as fo!loxs :-i: When God Almighty created Adam. and presenre him from the da~igers thc w01. ail upl-ight stature-sense and wisdom? by means of which we can distinguish between good and bad. tfiere are nuinerous interpretations which arc knoivn only to nlen of from the science. v. did not lnalre men after this form and fashion tvitl~ intent the that they shouid call themselves our masters . and the matter of the elements was ready and prepared for the production of agrecabla forms. consequently We made our stature bowcd. '\Ye halve nlade Inan excceclingiy gracef~~l. and cover their bodies with lcaves of tllc trees. I-Ic is wise . of them. and by u~hic11 even we lealn 2nd declare the Iacts of the skies. and take possessior-. neither did He create us after this shape. Consequently He made their stature upright and tall. and eat thcm at their case. consequent!^ man's person a a s '' 'TH1. He bestowed upon every one that form ~ ~ l ~ i c l ~ Fle decncbrl suitaI>Ie. and feel no kind of inconvenience!' The King anstvercd-': God Alnligty says.l My state~ncnt that the Creator of is.i1-at sciii. 9. -1- 1 KuAn. that we migl~t graze at ease.': -4ccordingl:ly a vise doctor. it was a stars rxVcre happy hour ancl an auspicious mornent-the shining in their respective glorious constellations. and :hat ugliness and a crouching carriage al-e the marl<s of slaves ? " Then one of them replied-" May God -4lrnighty grant unto the King His divine favour. Who besides u." n c ~ ~ i . jo that they might gather the fruits and leavcs of :lie trees. they the slaves. The esplanatioa of this must be sougl~t leanlec2. ti: is this : I\-llcn God illmighty cleared of mcn. saying. that we shouid be their slaves.I. Our food is grass . were starlc nal~ed--there was nothing on their bodies through which tiliicy might live in security horn the colcl ancl hcac They uscd to eat the iruits of the forest.1d. He said-" Do you not k:101v that propriety of deportment is a property of kings. tile\. possesses these excclicnt gifts? From this it is provecl that we are the masters. . in obedience to the King's co:nmancl.exact confannit? to what was needed-a graccftll form.'' The Icing askcc! the animals.

gn. and (He has lnaclej his ears large that he may drive away the flies and mosquitoes. it would have been difficult for him to graze the grass. his stature erect. and be able to carry his lips over his whole body and 1ub himself. v. God Ahnigllty gave u s every one of our incmbers in the happy proporrions that were suitable . and Lirds whose form and stature are clumsy. In the same way He has made the elsphant's trunk long instcad of his neck. and after that He prescribed their I-cspectivecourses. his mouth always reinains open. The horns of the drtmba (sheep) are heavy and its buttoclcs fat. however. and no upper teeth." Upon hearing this speech one animal began to say.f i r i n . saying. is that which rnalies (its members) agreeable to their fellows. The hare is small in size. And his tusks are long in order that he may defend himself against thc ferocity of rapacious ani~nals. and (all) of the lnost pelfect elegance. and (when) in your vanity. S a l e s ' rranslatior?of rbe Arabic is. and raise himself zlp from the ground by the strcngth of that necl:. And thus H e has spoken by the mouth of the holy Moses. F. individuality. " Whar you consider heauty. and spread them out in warm.made fair. then do thou make known what advantage there is in ma1. his earl are very broad 2nd his eyes v c v small. In this way there are many carnivorous alld graminivorous beasts." H e said. (Arabic)--" God Almighty created man in the happy mediuml-He did not make hinnl very tall nor very s h ~ r t . " ~ The King said this amount of symmetry and suitability of the mcmbers suffices (to establish) pre-ernineice. Bulls and buffaloes have large tails. Dost thou not knolv that God Almighty in His wisdom created each individual thing for solne special good ! No one. And the hare's ears are long because his body is very tender and his skin fine-he can wrap round him those ears in cold lveatber. 7. and therriore if his neck had been short.' 2 Thc meaning of which is. Iong neck. with the exception of Himself and men of science. God Almighty has bcstowed upon every anirnd such menlbers as H e deemed suitable. and small tail. the beauty and perfection of our menlbers comes from Hinl. us here rendered. In fine. for in consequellce of his tusks. your stature clumsy. two long tusks sticlr out f r o a his mouth." Thc men replied. knows this mystery. Hence he niadc his ~leck long that he might graze at ease. " cremion. We are (His) creatures. so that none may be able to get into his cyes or mouth . "Where is this suitability of nleml~ers among you? Your figures are exceedingly disgusting. you consider ' We are the masters. your hands and feet ugly. whose form is very large and heavy. " Alas thou hast not at all comprehended the Divine art. but has great ears. . thick horns. Slirar ss. therefore ro find faults in u s is in fact to set forth His deficiencies. that H e gavc to evcry one such members as were approp r i ~ e and showed them the pat11 of rectitude. form. they are the slavcs '-this is (allj a mistake. ' Iiur6r!. "If thou art a sage anlong the animals. -4nd there is the elephant. The animals represented.ing the camel's neck long. ." Yet one more signification is apparent in this verse. 'God besto:r. "This is thc case with us also. who has a grcat bewd and no buttocks. ancl :Khi1kaf-li:."or. There is the goat." That man said. Bcauty. in every specics." . Sdrat lsssii. f i p r e . and through which they show affection to each other.ed an individuality1 upon every thing. "Our Lord is He who giveth all He i t h i n ~ s : hath created thein ard directeth them (by Hs providence). one member having no conforlnity to the others. and does not shut. in this pre-crninence ure and they are equal. and boast about. ' Hadd i itidil. Tbere is belonging to you the ciunel. '! B e c a ~ s e legs wcre his long. of lalge fonn. his hands and feet excellent.

But if you have passed along a road several tinlcs. If a person takes an ox or an ass once along any (previously) unscen road. and turns him loose. "And whcn you say that you have great acuteness of sense. you would nut boast about rbose things wllich God Ahnighty has givcn you without a n y labour or [rouble (of your own). he has aroused his rider. or accluil-c great ~ ~ ~ ~ a l i f i c a tions by their o ~ %effo~ts and exertions.oar claim is . fathcf and brother. Evcry ani~llal fixes its benrt only upon a female of its own species. Thus there is the camcl. . .nu have ~n not even one of these things to boast of over r!s . . your beauty is no ground of superiority that you should consider yourselves to excel us. Thosc people who are black do not like p ~ o p i e white bodies. Tllerefore. ancl does not dcsire the female of any other animal. and whose head conte~ds 114th the air . For the beauty of one species is not agreeable to another species. he does not at atiforget it. hlany animals havc b ~ t t e r ing and scnse than you. still: ~vhenever there is occasion for you to pass along that road (again). and in thc morniag proceed to the pasturage. Thcn where is the jndgment and ac:~tenessof sense of which you havc made such great boast i . he escapes from that place. and comes back safe to his orqn homc. and it has ohen happened that having heard the steps of thcadversary. howe\cr much better she may be than its own. and passes along roads of ~vhich passage seems impossible.vithout evidence. understandit is also a mist~ke. who has long legs and a long neck. " If you had any scnsc at all. you are bewildered and forget i:. but notwiths~andingthis. while you require torches the and lamps. For thc srise and pruclrnt collsider that to be a (ground of) boas^ which rl~eghave acquired by thcir own industry and labour. and the mothers their young ones. the young oncs severally recognise their mothers. descries the place on which to set his fcet. and then return homc. Eut ). But if one of you remain for some time abroad. In the samcwny also. and those who are white c10 IIOL set their hearts upon the black. the tramp of the traveller from afar. ). he. Sheep and goats zive birth in one night to hundreds of young ones. your animosity ivithout meaning. as xvhen thcy master the theological sciences. in dark nights. men have affection for thelr oxvn particular of species. he forgets mothcr and sister. and savcd him from his foe. And the horse hcar." .this is the cause of procreation and propapcion of ofispring. and when they I-eturn from thence in the evening.

these are some of them :-13uying and selling (the animals). and sells them. " When we fa11 into their bonds. bricks. shutting one's eyes to (their) faults. for so God Almighty says. (Arabic. "You have h e a d his answer . and injury happen to their property.CHAPTER IV. they deal out the same treat~nellt the Persians. of keeping an eye of compassion and mercy upon their slaves. '' When we fall into their boncls. they bind us to the plough. whenever one overcomes and gains a victor> over the other. from one vicissitude to another." After that." After this the sheep said. feeding and giving (them) drink. prevail among men. said. Turkey. carry them off to the shamI! .&-lit. when they gain s victory over Turkey. " When we fall in-to captivity with men: they lade upon our backs." The King hzving heard this. THE Sindians. they beat us over our buttocl<sand faces. and binding them band and foot. P Ba-~aar-with the view or intent. These kindnesses l we show them out of "ompassion and mercy.and the Turcomans towards thc Arabs. 3 sell the Turks. Eolding in their hands ~vllipsand sticks.hips in their hands. lading. and beat us ovcr cur buttocks. as here. and l~arness to mills and ail-presses. the Xrnbs towards the Turcom~ns. iron. he considers the family of his (defeated) foe to be his slaves. To supply their children with milk they take away our little young ones from their mothers. T h c same practice prevails among all masters. and great burdens." They replied-" There are still many proofs remaining by which our claim is established . for Lirrd frrofmat. With what lnbour and toil do m e get along. according to the behests of the stars. 'Rh-Rome. every animal individually made complaint of their tyranny before the King. Asia Minor. " treatment. pl-eserving (them) from cold and heat. How can one know for certain who is s!ave and who is master? These are changes and vicissitudes which. ordered the animal to give him an answer. E n g . tenderly giving (them) medicine when they are sick. but this does not arise from their colnpassion and kindness? bilt rather from fear lest thc animals should perish. saving them from the ferocity of wild beasts. They have always got sticks and u. Where are compassion and kindness to be found among them such as this man has supposed?" Then the bull said. "And he says that they feed and provide drink for the animnIs. how many evils do we suffer. us put muzzies on our mouths aad bandages over our eyes. tcrning towards the men. stones. and in other ways show kind treatment to them. wood.' Wise men know this fact. and the Sindians towards the Hindus . and when the Turks prevail over Persia. for thus interruption xvould happen to tllcir riding. and he said-" This man maintains that they buy and sell animals. " hut frequently used. and other advantages. putting garments on them. but this practice prevails also among rnen . now say whatever else rhere remains for you to say. In fine. The ass said. The to inhabitants of India observe the same practice towards the L Sulzt. If the King were to see us at such a time he would feel regret and pity. t l n s the inhabitants of Persia.) c 1 make the times to change among men.

1 L~~~[E7rim. and we shall return to God.Sdrt s:iii. The gi-ooms and szdclle-men put pac!<-saddles on our backs and ride us. Slirat xsiv. the camel said to thc pig Do you also tell the oppression which your race has suffered a t the hands of men. v. '' Tile pi2 does not belong to . our backs arc p i l e d by the jolring of the saddles. tl~cy bawl o~lt. 39. short.'a (Arabic. "When we become subject in slavery to them." . and then lacling very heavy loads up011 backs. "When we bccon~etheir captives. I-. Ir. and say. perhaps lie. "When me are in bondage with them thep put bits1 in our mouths.-\rabic." The mule said. VICurdii. " We are rctu!-nn. that they often utter al~usc and euiploy ol. xvithout (giving thcmj grain or mter.'7. Sdra: sl\-.) 1 Kur. Si~rar v. girths upon our loins .lur:~n. rz.5 to Cocl. sbusc or 01~sce11it. for your species also belongs t o the herbivorous ciass. l. Lit. they slaughter them.in." The horse said. 12. and cut them up with knives. and on the head. and billce tllcm in ovens. We. Ktillin. he \vould perceive that they arc filled and with the mickedness. and set it forth in the prcscnce of so just a Icing. They do not release us for one instant. put bridles and bits into oar mouths. ig~~orxncc. sIzotving coliipassio~l and kindnns. coln~nnndthe faichf~~l pardon the sins of to unbelievers. tear ofi their skins. and they. :. tl~ieis our state. and w-e swim in a sea of blood. and chaios upon our ieet. hungry and thirsty. i.reak open their sl::llls.bles . and Ivi~atcvcl. .collxes info their mouths. But still they take no heed of these villainies. xve go into the battle.-.) % \'h 'e n you ride upon camels think up011 the bounties of God. and never a11ow the preccpts and admonitions of God a n d the Prop3ct to enter into their cars. All this nbuse is beaped sisters. stupidity of the ivholc world. When we become captives in their hantls. :'If the Icing ~xwuldconsider this ignorance. ?'h: measure of rheir folIy rcachcs even to :his. and thc soles o i ocr leet wounded by the stones . H e is holy rvho made snl~jccrto us an animal like this. seeing al these evils: l remain silent and say nothing. will give delicerance from their hands to suc!~ of us as are captives. stick them on spits. and (there) we receive sword-cuts on our faces. over \vhon~ shoulc! ncver have beon able rve to prevail . nottvlthstanding thzt they themselves read thcse vcrscs of the I. bi!."'A Whcil thc inula ceased from the spcech. Iiuuri!~. never do they gix~e to the cries and wails of these ear injured ones.. thep drive us wherever their heart desires. Hungry ancl thirsty: our eyes stuficd with dirt and dust. so that we may go to ocr liintes and satisfy our natural longings. 0:) tltrm and tllcir masters : but it is true dlcy descrvc it. vi. v. folly." Tile elephant said. an2 obscene talk of thcirs.': (Jlr:~i)ic. the air. the camel-drivers pull t h e ~ n . There. bridle. ive endure the most astounding hardships. Le.~nc! 11e1-bivorous animals and birds ivalk t:pon t!ic earth or fly ir. they beat us on the righr side and on the lefc. e) ' LYhntcver cnr~livorotis i . They fasten ropes to our feet. and taking the goad of iron in their hands. and their dnughters. they bcat us over our buttocks and faces. they put ropes upon our necks. Taking sticks and whips in their hands. 13. carry them to tile butcherspsllops. the condition of all thcse is like your o~vn.) do you also pass over the oKcnccs of orhcr-S." A sage said. javelins and arrou-s in our breasts. Havinx put ropes in our noscs." ~h~ camel said. tear out their livers.submit to them.'? (Aral~ic.sccne expressions against themsclves~their . vice. ' 0 Muhammad. wearing their mail and annour. and xvc poor wretcl~csbeing l~clpless. thcn is. or both togcthcr. k e y :ake us in dark nights along hilly and mountainous roacls. rip up their bellies. ride us in battle-fields. the nlezning of wllicl~ ' If you desire parclon froin God. saddles cjn our hacks.

and he is Iike the ostrich.nay." The hare said. but on the contrary are carnivorous animals. They ought to help them. Rut the horse belongs to the graminivorous animals. the herbivorous but to the carnivorous animals. and said The Hare. and does not eat our flesh . He is herbivorous. The Greek physicians employ our fat in many of their rerncdies . Dost thou not kn& that his teeth protrude. why should he assist them.Ldri-jd~iwa. will grant deliverance from their hands to us captives." Then the hare said. and herbivorous animals of our fraternity who have taken refuge in the hills. they even put it in their medicines. and tbe abundance of our offspring. who was standing near the camel. with the object of catching us. " W e live far away from them . and such iike. and the making sacrifices of it they deem very meritorious. Perhaps the King." A rhird said he is both carnivorous and herbivorous. and they do not belong to our species. The Turkish Greeks eat our flesh with avidity. nay.hunring animals : falcons. who render assistance to men. whom shall we blame ?" When the hog had finished saying all this. and lead them towards us. and they abstain from mentioning us. in whose forin those of the bird and the camel are blended. camel. The pig said to the camel. Musulmans consider us deformed and accursed . they consider it as holy. what can I say. in the same way as the can~elopard allied to the bull. L L D ~ rehearse in thc presence of the King all the you tyranny which your species has endured from men. the ass looked towards the hare. we can say nothing. Enchanters and magicians cover their books and magical instruments with our skins. " I know nothing about it.The P&. unless it be entirely from his stupidity and folly ?" ' S/ri. we have chosento takeupour abodc in valleysand jungles. and he also eats grass. The Armenians esteem us even as oxen and goats . Saddlers and shoemakers pull out the bristles of our necks and whiskers with great avidity and eagerness. they even prize us more in consequence of the fatness and thickness of our flesh. and is allied to the cattle.. 25 to him. Herdsmen and grooms keep us in their stables and pastures near to their animals and horses. for they also are very fond of eating our Aesh. hnwks. for these are very serviceable to them. and that he also eats carrion ? " The other replied. Tile Jews have great aversion and hatred of us . taking pity. and is leopard . having left off dwelling in their country. because by our staying there the horses and animals are preserved from many evils. . goats. They make over as captives into the hands of men all the deer. they abuse and curse us inoffensive animals because they are at enmity with the Nazarenes and Greeks. or of whom shall I complain ? There is much variety in their way of treating me. We are bewildered. But we are terribly troubled by dogs and birds of prey. andthrough this we are saved from their oppression. whom shaIl we praise. camels. for he Ilas hoofs. oxen. 'The hunting dogs are excusable in this.they deem our figures detestable and our flesh unclean.

it severs his heac! from his bocly without hesitation." The King asked thc man what the horse's superiority was. and he is so well trained that whilst his rider is seated on his back. His speed is such that the wind cannot overtake the dust of his-heels. and that he is obedient to man. and told h i ~ n esplain. so also when it faCs upon the ncck of its owner or maker. T h a t trciltment which ought to be practised against enemies they employ against their f~-icnds. and yet remains quiet.hadstsilentthese words afh etheis hare. and is una!>le s . a i d make them taste the flavour of fire." ~r-hic!~nearer. His strength is like an elephant's. If he passes under the thighs of an e~-ie~lly. "The samc trait of character is found in men. and by whom he has Been notrrished all his days. charge and Ile attack the nlan in wllose l~ouse was born. and he answered. ' 1 hearcl all he WI-IEN " Enough. though &o above t!le mark i s proud walk he is like a stnteiy bull: his jumping is like a leopard's. but that is inanimate. bridle. or Hc does not flinch from galloping. as well as his own saddle. rip up their bellies. and are benefited by rnakin: garmcnts of their ski:^ and hair. This trait of his is lilce the nature of the sword. he is obedient to his rider. so grcat condem:zaticn . he becomcs submissive to him . he docs not shake it. his instincts sound. to He is very stupid and ignorant. he excels in intelligence. then he runs cp~iclily! and brings hi." TheKing asked what it was. of a[ animals. the good qualities and excellences of the horse are numerous. Bis new master. strip o f their f skins. for he quickly turns right or left. forwards or backu~ards. and knows no difference hetvc7een friends and strangers. and does not knnm friend from foc. and bring into operation all kinds of 'Iriclcs ancl stratagems. and armour. Thc hare saicl. I n his 1 Some r1fi1il "seers. In m-horn esccpr the horse are all rhese merits to be found ?" The hare said.CHAPTER . mail and armour. to distinguish betareen friend and rut. wherever his rider may direct him. bl-others.best said. but in early tna:illood thcy bccoil~ctheir enen~ics. In illfancy they drink thc milk of their parents. wvho war against their parents. . In the same way thcy drick the milk of mimals. the ass said to him. his appearance is handsome. altogether a load of five hundred maunds. but after all thcy slauglltcr those same animals. rider in first. Enough . be thou has1 rcproachcd the horse enough if thou but known that the thc man . In their barbarity and cruelty they altagethcr forget the obligations and benefits received from them. his colour is fine. he is swift in running. for he trots along taming his rider with his helmet. he neither stales nor dungs . "With all these ~ncrirjthere is also one l great fault under which a! thesc 111eritsare hiclclcn. sisicrs. His for111 is good. "Your Majesty. just 2 it cuts its enemy and opponent. and in the battle-field hc rvill: at the direction of this enemy. aild re!ations. If his rider lays a wager.' Hc is so patient and enduring that on the battlefield he receives \vounds from spears and arrou9sin his breast and in his vitals. and if his tail ever gets wet in mud or water." When the here ceased from his censure of the man and horse. thou wouldst ! not have ballbled so stupidly. every limb is appropriate.. lest his rider should be sprinltled. and a r c nourished in their bosoms.

foolish. or make any one captive. and rivers. " W e have heard. that they are lost in the effulgence of the sun.Sptcch o the A ss. that if any child. The sarne duty is incumbent on men. for if any one of them possesses very great talents. and that all day and night they remain in revolution. and it by its light carries comfort to all creation. They replied. s o that the marks of the creature may be manifest in them. t h a t some people.e~. pick pockets. and angels. tear sleeves. The condition of the Jins. but a t the same time He has also made rhis provision. and does not make an obligation of it to any one. which they should in~partto the animals. slay a traveller. and it is all true. diffuse light over the tvorld. for if they were gods they would never beconle dark nor wane. all the animals gnashed their teeth." Whcll r'ne ass finished this speech. So also the moon and all the stars. or shadow of a Jin. Their tyranny is not hidden from any intelligent or sensible person. or sick. and are praying for protection against the malice of the Jins. What dignity H e has 1. So suspicious and mistrustful are they of us. rebel against a king. there is still some little defect. . But with all rhis even we get no deliverance from their malignity. In the same way He has given light and brightness to all the stars . Through their bad collduct and evil ckhracter the Jins have entirely given up visiril~ginhabited places. wept. and g a n t u s deliverance from the tyranny of these oppressors !" When the King heard this. or man is stupid. Thus God Almighty has given light to the Sun. all these habits are to be found among them. greatness. and began to say. but to one much. is just the same . the bull said. f is not seemly. and yet has not debarred him from some one favour which exceeds them all ? Or who is the person that H e has debarred from all these blessings. to no other. has fallen on him. indeed. altitude-all these excellences and distinctio~lsH e has bestowed upon them. " 0 just King. and upon whom H e has not bestowed some one blessing nchich He has given to no other ? There is no ts one in the warld on whom all t a l c ~ ~ and blessings are hestowed. mountains. and hold it no obligation upon any one." When the bull finished speaking. it behoves that perso11to shorv his gratitude for them-that is. W e see it by night and by day. he looked towards all the doctors and sages of the Jins who were present. but on that same one also He has affixed the stigma of sul~jection. have mercy on us. plunder any one. cruelty. and have fled into the woods and wilds. and have hidden themselves i n hills. Still He has not preserved them from the inftrmitp of eclipses. and asked if they had heard the statement made by the animals of the tyranny. and violence of men. to another little. They have always got mistrust in their hearts. But still no one has ever scen a Jin kill a man. For the same reason tile Jins also have left their (the men's) country. break open the lock of any one's shop. rob him of his clothes or coininit a theft. The bounties of the great disintcrested Giver are not confined io any one species. To one H e has granted the rank of lordship. woman. have deemed them gods. each in their respective degrees. to such a degree. they say dircctly that the evil eye. for Cod Aln~iglxtyhas conferred many blessings upon them. break into any one's house. Perfection belongs to God only. His mercy is over all His worbs. and they remain intent upon one or other of them night and day. or wound him. in their ignorance. \Vhat person is that whom God Almighty has blessed ~ r i t h.owed on the sun and moon-hglrt. men. conspicuiry. he ought to let others share in those bIessings. On the other hand.aver so many virtues and favours. When God has imparted to some one person &Teat blessings Qrhich He has given to no other. in order that this mixht be conclusive to men of intelligence . and make no favour thereof.

Besides this: they never show remorse, nor do they %\ratch against their faults." When he had done speaking, the nlacc-bearcr cried aloud, '' Gentlemen, it is now- evening. T h e Cozrt has risen ; you are dismissed. Go to your homes; and attcnd azain tomorrow morning."


H E N the Icing arcsc from his assc~ilbly, spokc to hc BedAl-, his ~ a z h in private, saying, " You have heard , all the statelnents and rcjoinders of themen and the animals ; what advice have you now to offer? How ocght the matter to Le settled ? What course jeems best in your opinion I" The wazfr was a very wise and prucicnt man. Afccr milking his obeisance, and invoiiin: 'ules~ings~ proceeded to sly, he " I t seeins to 1nc prefer;rblc thn: the Ring should call to his presence ail the judges, lawyers, and sages of the Jins, and consult with them a b o u t the case. The quarrel is a serious one, and it is not clear to which side the right inclines. In such matters consult~~tion necessnry, for in the counsels of is three or four some plan is dccidcd upon. Wise men and farseeing n l c n should be careful ncrer to enter upon such difficuit matters \rithout advice and counsel." In accordancc with this spccch, the King gave orclers that all the chiefs and noble3 of the Jins should attend. S o they al assembled according to the following specification : l judges of the race of Jupitcr, lnwycrs of the race of Venus, wise men of the cbi!clren of I>irBn, sages of the race of Lukmin, experienced persons of the children of Hamin, intelligcnt persons of the children of KaiwPn, and persons of common sense of the cllildren of Bahriin. The king a& dressed them, saying, "These men and bcasts have conlr

The Royal Cozlncil.
con-,plaining to usl and have taken refuge in our country. The animals all colnplain of the tyranny and violence of men. r\iow do yau advise me what ougllt to be done with them, and how their business should be decided." A learned sage of the race of Venlis who was present, said, " I n my opinion the proper course is for the animals to write out a statement of their circumstances, and of the oppression they have endured at the hands of mcn, and to take a legal opinion thereon from the learned. If any means of deliverance can be settled for them, r11e judges and lawyers will give a decree whether the men are to sell them, set them free, or show some kindness and mitigation of their harsh treatment. If the men do not obey this decision of the judges, and the animals flee from their tyranny, then ic will be no fault or sin of theirs." When the King heard this, he asked them what they had to say to it. They all replied that it was an exceedingly good proposition, and suitable for the occasion. But thc Sdib-i ' a m ' not approve of it, and observed, " If these men eit did agree to sell the animals, who vqU pay the price of them The lawyer said, "The Icing:' Upon this, he asked from wllence the King could get so much money. The lawyer said it would be paid from the public treasury. The Sihib-j ' f l z h a t then said, " I S there so much wealth in the treasury as to sufficefor the price of them ? Some men, too, mzy refuse to sell them. They have great need of the animals, and do not care for the price of them. Thus there we kings and ministers and many gentlemen who cannot move about without an equipage. They will never consent to sell them, and will oppose this decree." --The Kiilg then asked him what seemed good in his opinion,




1 A resolure or prac:ical person. 1 have retained the original title. because i t 1s dimcult t o find an equivalent word sufficient!y definite, without using the word rzan, %-hilt the bearer of the name is a j j z .

and he said, " It seems to me advisable that the King should direct all the animals to act in concert, so that in one and the same night they might flee from captivity, and go far from the dominions of men-just a s deer, hog-dccr, ancl many other harmless and rapacious beasts have lefr their dominions and have fled. I n the morning, when the men do not find them, on whom will they lade their goods, and on whom will they ride? Being helpless from their being so far away, they will not be able to go after them, so they will sit down in silence. In this way the deliverance of the animals will be effected." The King approved of this proposition, and asked them all for their opinion upon it. There was present a wise man of the descendants of LukmAn, and he saicl-" This proposition is not a t all a good one, and this course is very much opposed to sense. It is by no means possible, because many of the animals are fastened up in durance all night, the doors of their prisons are closed, and sentinels are placed on guard: how can they all run away?" The'SLhi6-i'nzimat said, "Let the King give his commands for all the Jins to go this night to open the doors of the prisonhouses, to untie the heel-ropes of the animals, to make prisoners of all the guards, and not to release them until all those (animals) are far away from their territory. There will be very great merit to the King in doing this. Feeling pity for the conditianof those(animals), I have offered myse~~timents byway of advice to his Majesty. If, with benevolent intentions, the King shall resolve upon this work of kindness, the Lord Almighty will render him aid and assistance. Gratitude for the favours of God is shown in giving help and deliverance to the oppressed. People say that it is written in the books of several prophets that God Almighty says-' 0 king, I have not made thee ruler over the face of the earth in order that thou nlayest amass wealth anddevote thyself to the greed and lusts of this world, but rather that thou shouldst give redress to the op-

pressed, for I indeed arengc them, c v c ~ though rhey be infidels.' " The King again asked them al what thcy ]lad to say to ii. l They all approved? 2nd said it was r-cry propel-. But a certain K a i d n i sage was not sarisfcd with it, and after offering his blessings and reverences, he representecl that if was a very difficult matter, and could not in a n y way be accomplkhed ; must be attended with many e v i k and clangers whichafter. warcl5 will in no way b- capalde of rectification. The King asked him \%-hat had. to fcar in :he matter, m d he told hiln to explain so that he himsclf also lnight know. He said, "Your h'f:ljcsly,he who proposed this \\-ay of deli\rwance for the animals made a great mistal~e. \I:hen rhc men rise in the morning thcy will not find the beasts, ancl n-(-;ll become apprised of their flight. They will then think for a certainty that it is not the work of any man, and that it cannor: have been effected by any scheme of the animals, but tuust rather be attributed t o the cufining and trickery of the Jins." The King said, "Tllat is Uue-there is no douht &o\rt it ; t h q will suspect US." The sage continued, "Asylum of the rl-or]d ! \\.hen the ha1.e escaped from their hands, and the services dered are interrupted, then the men will be vcrysorro\fil a n d anxious, 2nd will lXc0me enemies of the Jins. From of old, been Our foes, but no-.v nlorethan everthey will show their nlalicc and animosity." ~h~ sages observed that he indeed must be a wise lnan \h, making peace be", tween enemies, urould preserve his Majesty from the.r AU the Jills: when they heard this, said he spoke the truth. After that another sage encluired, ':Why feartheir enmity, for it will not avail against us. ourbodies are fiery, and are vcrv subtil and light, so that we fly up to theskybut the bodies of men arc of dirt ; they remain belour, and


We wancler and look about among thern sichout ceremony, but they cnntmt see us ; 50 what have we to fear ?" T h e ~ ~ is a ~ ansmereZ him saying, "-Alas! thou s k ~ i not kilow anlqhing al,out it. ~ l t h o u g l n1crl are ea*I1y: =till l sacls ancl angelic spirits, throxlgh have in them over us I and 12esicles, which they hold tile arith many wiles and stratagems- In 'ges are past there llavc l,ccn many battle^ between men andthe Jins, hearing of .,yhichjl,ould be a warning to u . The ICi1'x s" desired the sage to inform hiin of those matters, and how dlc truth stood, so that he also might understand it. The sage replied thar a natural hatret! and a n innate animosit~ come down from of old time, the narmen and the jins ration of t!,llich would be very prolix. Ijut the Ripg ordcrcd hi:n to recoul,-t little of it from the beginning, so fat as Could l-~e recounted.


obedience to tbc orders of the King, rhe sage thus set forth the facts of the (matter) :the earliest age, before God had created Adam, the Jins were dwelling over the whole face of the earth-wood, field, and wnter were all under their rule. When many days had passed, prophecy and law, religion and dominion, and numerous blessings were received. But they began to exhibit disobedience and error-they heeded not the testaments and p~ecepts the prophets, and set wickedness on foot over all of the face of the earth. Through their tyranny, the earth, and all the dwellers on the earth, went complaining to the court of God, and began to make their plaints and lamentations. When another age had passed, and their animosity and tyranny day by day increased, then God Almigllty sent an army of angels on to the earth. They accordingly came here, and having beaten the Jins, expelled them, making many of them prisoners and captives. They then began to liveupon the earth. It so happened that 'AziLzfi, the accursed devil by whom the patriarchs Adam and Eve .ereredeceived, i U-asamong those captives. Hs age was but little, and he knew nothing- He was nurtured among those angels, and he adopted all their rules and customs. W11m he had acquired their science, and had come to maturity, he was made head and chief of the tribe, and used to issue his edicts of command and prohibition.


When yet another age after this had passed, God Almighty said to the angels xvho wcre dwelling on the earth-l' I will make one, who is not one of you, ruler of the earth, and I will caii you up to heaven." The angels, who had been living berc for a long period, through having to dzpart, deemed this a most disagreeal~lecommand, ancl thus replied to God'' WilI our Lord create a person who will work evil and bloodshed upon the enrth; as the Jins were doing, xvl~iist praise we Thee, and considcr Thee ho;g."' God AIlnighty said, "That advantage which I know of, you know nothing about,' and I have sx~orn oath to myself of not keeping any angel, Jin, an or animal upon the earth after Adam nnci his offsprin~." I n tine, when God, having created Adarn, brearhed a soul into his body, and when from him he fornied Eve, he commanded all the angels 10 meet and pay him 11oma::c. In obedience to thc divine command, they paid hom~ge, and bec a n e subject to Xdarn. Eut2.Az5zildid not boxvdow:~ through ; his obstimcy and enty he was ol~posedto the colnmands of God. He rc.Aected, saying, ' l Former!y I was chief and master ; shall I nonr become his subject ? " So, through envy and malice he became the enemy of Adam. God Almighty then directed the angels to bring Adam into the - a r d e of Eden. Whcn Adail1 came into paradise a com~ n mand was given by :he divine Majcsry (Arabic verse, of ~vhich the meaning is)-" 0 Adam, do you dwell with your wife in this garden, and eat at your pleasure wl~ateveryour heart desires, only do not go ncar this trec, for lf l-ou do go near it, you will be a sinner."3 This pxadisc, which God _A.lmighty bestowed upon the patriarcl~ Adarn for a clxvclling-place, is a garden towards the Easr, on the Ruby mountain. No one has the stren$h to ascend it. The land of that place isgood, the air temperate, the days of spring are there perperuzl ;

K W ,Slirat ii. v. 15.

Kurin, Sdm: ii. v. 53

in the way as at the present time their descendants arc involvcd in thcsc evils. Taking leaves of trees. eating ail kinds of fluits. ancl Fled in disgust. Whet1 Adam was asked. and cast them do~vnfrom the mountain. In fine. The hair of their heads was very long. and cwre greatly nsllnmed of their conduct. The wholc of thcir bodies \\. Through the heat of the sun their complexion changed and became black. and. and drinking water fro111the streams. they all defects of et-ery one. God -4lmighty took co~npassion on them. When a long period had been passed in rhis sorrow and remorsc. ancl set forth the uses and fact. he went to them and said. and you will live here for ever in perfect ease and comfort . then your knowledge and excellence will be greatly increased. They f ~ linto l a mosr abject condition.s of t l ~ c streams they used to stroll about at their plcnsure. The animals there do not hurt any one. nlnlte 1eaver.nt!y fell off from thcir bodies. in tlln same way did these t w o pass their days in full security and comfori. When the anim. and to sew and n~alce garn?cnts. cultisrrting. Among rhc flowel--beds upon thc banl. Somello~vor o t h ~ rt h q came upon t h e earth. buiid houses. Everything \{:as attainable wi~liout toil or lahour.11~saw them i n this plight. his malicc and envy some still morc incrcascd. they urcrc ruined. " I advise you xvcI1:"l they f d l into his snare. ancl you will always enjoy happiness. &:caving clothes.l garments which to thev were wearing inst?. and of all kinds. So one day pretending to be a fricndly counsellor. If you eat a little from this tree. When Cain murdcrcd Xbcl. Tile angcls placcd tkem in a spot \vhcrc therc wcre no fruits nor lcavcs at all. a blessing which he has never yet given to any one. spinning. death will . sit upon the branches. Friendships sprung up between rhcnl. When the angels saw t h ~ s themselves. they began to cover their persons. With greecliuess thcy tl-ansgressed and ate of that trce of which God h!mighty had forbidclen thc1~1 eat. baking. he instantly told the namcs of all. held their peace. and beautiful birds of sweer song. who came hcrc and taught them to clig t i ~ cearth.so fell ofi. ancl hc meditated how he ~niglltin way by fraud and tricker). Thc Lord Almighty made known to Adan1 tlte names of all the plants and animals which were there When the angels mere askecl thcir names. Adam and Eve went there and began to lir c in comfort. grind. and knew Adam to be better ~ h a n When'AzLzil saw this dignitpof Adam.l and bake brc:ld. acccpting their repentance.ii to them. tlicy felt an aversion for thcir persons. forgave tl1c. axd keep up a continual warbling. the trees are v e n green. and washing. Inan felt a misgiving of malice and envy on tllc pnrt of tlic Jins. grinding. Plouglling.i~ sin. having sworn an oath. H e scnt an angel down to the ernr:li. Just as other animals were living therc.many streams flow there . There was no sorrow. The long hair upon their hcads a.as cove]-ed wit11 hair. to weave clothes. to plough and sew. and (to practise) many useful arts. The angeIs thcn receivecl an order to expel thcni from paradisc. : God : Almigkity has bestowed upon you the great distinction of eloquence and spcec1-1. no: one of these troubles was knon. and hung down to their feet. said. fruits in abundance ripen. The ce1esti:. they did not kno~v. and for a 1011: time they thus pasjcd their lives. and hence their beauty and loveliness werevery grcat. ta reap. became subject. i ievery . a suspicio~lsprung u p . and they becarnc laked d. never cone. and all kinds of flowers bloom. and they taught t11em to plant trees. and for a long time thcy wept incessantly in grief and sorrow. ruin him." In that hour when that accursed one. Gat w!iene%-cr mention was made of thc fraud and tl-czcltcry of thc zccurstd d ~ \ . but bcing confounded. When ihclr denccndants bccamc numerous the Jins also came and associated with :l?cn:.

he was amazed.degraded. was made kin: of the ~rllole son over all the kings world by Almighty God. asking X I .. and many Jins became followers bf his reliqon. incantations.ay. Then the Jir. a!ld becoming devout and tc!npcrate. he of p:. they were all in perplexity. all the jiils and men became his subjects. son of X i ~ i n vauntingly soid tliat he would bring . up to .hen thonght thst this also was attributable to the :ui1e of the Jins. The men then felt sure that if :h. and paid adoration to God. thcy began to go to heaven. They were dtvays making pretensions to a knorvledge of tlie mysteries (of fate). and in tlieir hatrcd they practised and Tvsrc always intent npo:1 magic.ly. \\'hen Solomot~. the Jins were pret-ented from going to henveil. it so quickly that his M.rts1 by up which annoyance might cor?leto t l ~ c ]ins.I L . Reing great!). whose name vms Astlis. or whether God desired to provide a nrap cf saIvation for those (terrestrial beings). And vcri!y he brought it. and were exciting apprehensions among men. they would not llat~e been so bewildered. which becainc public afrcr his death. Hearing tlie intelligence of hcavcn. T%'hen the Lord Jesus cxnc into the TVOI':~. and became rebellious. until thc time of :he patriarch Abraliarn. . and zave insti-uccions as to the way of shutting the Jins up in bottles.amon. v.jias were seers. !\'hen the intcllige~lce a?>out Cilkij (Queen of Slie!~a) reached Solomon. Ir now became mznifcs: to the Jins that men held .y against the lins illcrcasecl still nlore. of David. in a boasting way said that Solonon had aainecl his anpire with thcir assisiancc. Ashxn~cdand downcast.x: then tile suspicion sprung u p in :he minds of men tl-]at thc Jins had taught Nimrod to make the Joseph's brethren put him into i5e pi^ they sling. he wrote a book on those mystic practices.~h x l become of Sol~mon. they came clowt-11here (to the earth). \%*henSolo~non saw the throne.o the cllil&-en of the h::er il12t the Jins h ~ d incited him. 1 e taught to c v c one the way of salvation. Eellcc dlei. tl~cy 1c dwelr togcrhcr. When Gorl Alnlighty sent the prophet Enoct: he came herc. ivho knew thc name of pun8cr. I-Ic taught many occt~lr arts formaking thein prisoners. When the Airnighty created the last of h e prophets. the Jins flcd.ledge thereor. they turned aV. Zn this wxy luatters \vent on well. ro. Indecd.he sclperioricy overtl~em. and shoxved the way to ~ hcarc-n ancl the mode of ol~taining association with the zngels.11 was given to him.aid that Ile wanted his place (behre it was clone). \i7hen the pl-op11et Yoses came into the world hc also caused peace to be made between them. for if t i c Jins llad not helped him. And ~vr. son of 13arl. canliry and n11imosir.. When Ximrod cast Al~rahaminto thc 6.and all tlie men fcllov-ed them hooting. ancl having made pcncc between men 2nd ji!ls.?jesiy should not be :tble to rise from .. They said that (Brabic) they "did no: know ~vhetlicrthat calamity had befallen them for the good of the dwellers on thc earth. and supericr~tp of the ~3rt. Solon~on it clone more c1uicl. A Jin.lie second deluge. and associating with them. Lsaf.hiyB. thc friend of God.. Thc Jins came into sho~vecl all of them the to the terri:ori-s of 1 1 mcn. and made it known to thc m~gicians. Solomon sent an army after them to capture them. Sdrat lssii. imprecntions.nce.said that he nould bring iL in one iilstanr. ancl mnoy other l k l c k 2. When his highness Solomon died. charms. and even after ~ilat. the J ins had no kno\i. by ihc mouth of :he hocpoc: hc i!iclui:ild of evcry one if tberc :yere any such person as would bring the throne of Bilkis bciorc her arrival."l X a n y Jins approved the ?iluhaminadan 1 Kurdn. shuttii~g in bottles. hlany Jins then camc into his religion. and offsred ro 1 all thc Jins and mcn thc in~ira:ion to Isibm. he mould have beell just like othcr kinzs.

from the tyranny of Kebuchadnezzar to the children of David. When they showeE their eninity against us. If they we beaten by the pIausibility of the men.cnch one bowed his head and bccan~e pcnsive. and must be resigned and cjuiet. bu! the a~limalsare dcficicnt in that respcct. The King then asked this doctor. In vain you cshibit youroid hatred . changes once. when it makcs its appearance it sets a world on fire." The SrZi6-i 'mi?mzisaid. arid cannot answer. Or i" fiirry-sin thocsrnd years. as he granted deliverance from the tornlents of Pharaoh to the children af Israel. l TVhen the doctor had iifiished speai.religion. "They are in bondage... e > or in twelve thousand years. nothing can be done b y rashness. which maJ1 be equal to fiftyfive thourand s~a'5. like does nor over r. God will a t icngrh give them deliverance. n. or i n three hundred and sixty thourand yeas. 2nd make no disturbancc among yourselves. d o no: annoy them. an6 becarne Rlusnlm5ns. so between t11c. it turns perpct~~ally illis world of sreaed i. ': Oh Jins. so that they may be kept for ever su!?jcct to annoyance and torture ?" The doctor replied. or in one day. " The men are very fluent and eloquent. the end of it will not he pleasant. and calling then1 all forn7a1-d.n~ the and Musuimins peace continues up to the prcsent time. " \i?hat secms to you advisable ? All these h a ~ e come complaining to iny rcsidence.recks and t l ~ c Bmily of h r d a s h h Fortune in one nniform ~ v a y wit11 any One .hat misery and ignominy foilowed " Whcll they all had heard this ~ ~ o n d e r f u l s~ol-y.o~u~ioll of the sphere. This hxred is fire from a flint . : Time does not alnays pass in the same way. True it is that the it magic of this variable fortune never keeps anybody in one st~te ." The ~ o c t o replied. will you then surrellder them illto the charge of men. May Gocl keep (you) in his protection. ancl prevai!ed ovcr us. It seems to me advisable that the King should sir to-morrow morning in public courr. "The r proper course wiil be found out after (careful) consideration .should hear their evidence and ~r_=uments. they cannot say anything.~ng a l this. to the Sarsanims and the race of 'Adnin from the [he race tyra. c r that he must give his decree in accorda~~ce M with what seems to him right and suitable for t h e occasion. I-IOWcan I settle their quarrel?and send them away satisfied from my countly.ny of the C. 2nd have taken refuge with me.cings in accordance with the divine commandsonct in a tllousand y. to the tribe of Himyar from the torments of the tribe of TubbA. he a g ~ i n said.

"You have all heard the discussion which has passed to-day bctween us and our slaves. t o dispense jostice and equity to their subjects. One wil! spcalr in opposition to another. I n no ~ .'' Another said. " I have found out that he rill hold a consultatioo in with his ~vazirto-morrobv about our cast." One szid.ur hands. and has a s o d opinioll of u5. Give them like\rise some bribes. ministcn.now what advice he will girt" Anothcr repllcc). o event of t l ~ c Ring consulting him. and noblcs . cCYon speak tile truth . In the CHAPTER VIII. or tlmt vbre must sell them and accept a price for them. inhabitants of different cities. ancl it is incumbeni: on t h e King to assist tbem. and satisfy tl~em. must then be done?" They all snid. 'These aninals have come and taken refuge in our countqr. and the Lord Almighty has give11 t h c ~ nrulc over the earth. and he replied that lhere IVUS $reat fear about the opinion of the judges a d lauyers H ERE ConszcIZatio~zf tlzc Men. their opinions will differ. the Kin." ~ said.They said. they are oppressed. to drive oppressors from their dorninioxs. assemb!ed in their own house. and to 6 v e assistance and succour to the weak . that the Ring is inclined towards us. and take counsel. L'Ajudge is the deputy of the prophet. He will say. they wii! invent some l c g d quibble. " I know. a112 to cnforce the commands of the law among the people. and the guardian of religion. Each one said what came into his mind. Thcy will be esamined about these c h ~ ~ matters in the d a y of judgmcnt." Another observed. x7e do not 1. but if the Icing consults wirh tlie doctors." Anothcr said. '' H e n7illassemble the doctors and learned mca. Still there is one dangersn They all inquired what that was . 'LTheopinion of the learned cannot fail of falling ynder one ~f these three categories : either they will decide that we must set thc animals free. " Lb'e do not know what advice the dottors will give about our rights . and dclivcr them out of o. "This is also an easy mattcr. But the S&%$-l n s i ~ ~ r n d nise and ' is honest. that the ICmg is much perplexed a b o u ~ maitm. but this we ]. what will they s. Whar. The minirtn is to be feared. and do injury to our rights. " Tbis is an easy m a t t n Give the v a ~ i SO. He will not sl~owpartiality to any one. One of them said. this mgch has. If the King speaks to the jildge about deciding our case. and nothing will be decided.'" One said. r presents.bccauseliings are czllcd the vicegerents of God. These are the only t h e e courses provided for in the law. Have you found out at all what the King has dccided in our regard?" All said. was consxlting in private with his \vazir. and the dispute is not yet settlccl. in accordance citb our desires. then the juclge \will give onc of three decrees. there also thc mcn." One of them said. it is to be feared lest he should evert hinlself with the Ring on behali of our slaves. and oive their opinion.y about our rights?" The other seplied. If the King consults with the rvazir. seventy individuals. ':If the King consults the judges and lawyers. or that we must sllow some alleviation and kindness to them. I hope he ~ not turn agaibst us. '' J<ouv should we know? StiU.! Anotllo said. the an6 probably will not come our to-morrow.n Another said. and bring him over to our side.. and held deliberations together.nolv. Then.

the . then we will olsject that the oath ought to be taken the defendants." A prrson asked. th'm further." T3ose \v110 were dispcsed to sell :ls:. these animals are living bei~rgs they bare flesh 2nd sicin like b y troubling. What device can then be adouted 7 When they heard ~his. saying L ' t V will ~ bring forward orrr friencls. Nor bare they committed any such great crime as till God should llavc inflicted this punishnlent because of it.1 act cpon it we shall mu!~tiol~ ir.' But those who i .\.c sell the aninrals \VC eating sinll srscy incOnrenimre.Vhat if thc judge directs us to prove tliat they are our hcieditar). fall upon them YOUhave not xvurlcd so much righreousness a j that this reward should accrue to you i l l consequence.h." One said. and they have come down to u s in blnd'qe from the times of our ancestors. what MP YOLI then do ? l 9 Then those who were inhabitants of the sttded coulrtry said.ral~le to s life like this.hichsubstantiate our claim. and take zhc money. H e is Master. The choice is orll-S. what course m u g lye then pursue ?" Another replied. said.11~~ making gilrlccl. acid tender tllem as ~~itnesses!' H e replied. x17e can relezse and set them free . 1)riuking their nY. gave no and reply. and they sn7ear that the). '' Tbc judge may say that the lesrimany of nlell is not trustworthy. and no onc can no dudlers in the woods aad was:es. Tlvi muit not IIC. ey And if the judge directs us to swear that they are our own slaves. who arc just. Another observed.ioil of selling them. 'l If ". At Icnzth an ." like. do not even let the idea of it enter into Your minds.id what harm theri' xr'as 111 !C. the Arabs. ccri5l1. the apt~cir nljcationof thrm t~ o d ~ e r I ~ C S ::esidcs--all L these advantages hill loiI. torture ill and 1 have . nay."\lie will sell them. '' 1. slaves by same legal document. because they are ail enemies of he animals. Similar iaconuenience will 2150 befall the inhabitanm of the settled have great need of these mimals. and thc evidence of enemies is not attended to in the la~v.e y . " I i the judge decrees that we are to retease and set frec rhe animals. ':We will say tllat the aninlals have sworn f:llsely. Twk5. but that t ~ ~ were all lost in rile storm. Death is pyef. are not our slaves. d and rha. or by witnesses l" One ansx~~cred him. artd if WC lilcel we can refuse to release them.way can we disregard his decision. "We will reply that we are their hereditary masters. there is no objec~ion ?-Our doing sor for to . If you are conrent to give rhcm relief. Wharcver He wishes HC does.they were all sile~>t. and tell US to produce it if we a r t honest. "If the judge takes an oath from the animals. and that w e have many proofs . If we Iike. and fo show kindness to thenl. If. what will you do ? " Then another one said. We will reply thzt W had the legal documents. or he may ask where the detd of sale and contract is..4rab said. for h e y propoii. but we are thep1aintifikY Then one said.ts of their skin and hair. ~ o should hxve nlndc these animals your subjects. e . . '' If the jadge decrees that we are to sell them7 and accept the price. and that rl~cy should have been subjected to rhis ~ f f c r i n g . l n anslvrr to tllis tllcy replicd. or settil'~ sever entertain them free .

411 He il" the animals said. I decicle in his favour. he ought not to take it. a ~ c l complain of the tyranny of the men. KOW. " Enough . King arosc from his council. re1 and come to me. snz?<rs. N711atin your opinion is the best plan Prophet has said. sul~portcrs. d some nicnns of deliverance 1r.en$erj to a l anirxais to reprCSCnt Our position. :lien some good pl" 'ill turn up!' individual said. If he doer talCe it I rppoint hell-fire for him. the e failfib for the insects: suclr as the easth~vorm. The beasts having also assemblccl. they may despatch their lCprcsentafiv~~ rod orators to L I ~ . Therefo~e. and the contention i s not yet settled. r the for ~ h birds . snch as meggots. . but it is not right i n a king to give a decree w i t b u ~ thearing proof md =pmerit. and a c t a ~ . pas&s grcltei eloquence and fluency of language than WC 60. indeed. '' You have 2lcard all the disputation which hns gone on to-day between u s and the men.d snfcty will be found. ants. Perhaps his Majesty may take compassion upon us. the fifth for tlx rcptlks. so :It. the sixth for the acluatic animals. were chosen : O be sent in eve? direction : one of them f ~ the wild beasts . and a? clnque~~ce .t l ~ c scxlet fly. the third for the birds of prey.4 ~ cor&in"Jlysix n:cssengers. For in evcry species there our isa talent. and one (man) is more clever wirh his proofs and arguments than the other. very tru. When mcny fric~lcls ' n hclpcrs s!~all assemble. began to advise and tzke counsel together. i.' The men. Co?/s?tltizt..tworth~. &C. and proof and arguments are made effec:i\~e by e!oquence of statement and fluency of Iansage. and that they will prevail over us. semble. a wisdom. These having been a ~ p o i n r c d were se2t in every directioc. Hc aids ~vl~on~soevcr ml. what seems to you advisable ?" One of tlleln replied. and release us from bondqe. Thus the WHEN the If \V? all asmust be given to this point. which signifies) 'When quar- careful . kc. . who will then all come here.. G In m y opitlion the best course is for i us send mcs. this is the right course. Help 21S0 tome5 from &d.e shall be discomfited in our evidence and arguments by their plaasibility. and reflect and conside:.'' .o~~ nj At~?n/nlr. he has been somewhat kind to us .if unwittingly the right of one sllouid fall to other. and all n-ere dirmirict. To-day. and tell rlhcm (all). One of them said. "We rill go in the morning and weep before the King. (Arabic. indeed.. scorpions. d e y wcnr to their several ho~~ies.CEXPTER !X. u-hich no other passcsses. and we are afraid that 1r.

'l'he king related 10 t!lcn. Thou art our king ancl chief. strength. " They do indeed boast =bout many of tliesc qualities. ~ l a ~ ~ 1 l t . 13ut before rlle King of the J i n s there is no mcniiurl of rhese charactc. gave his orders.11o:~cs t!lc ling tbat in every marLcr be sbould consult carefully 2nd clclibcratcly with the -rvlsc.orocs and lacefi~iing nniml. They make nets and ~nzri-S. saying.irc-li!. canlir.i-~ri. It lic.r/." When the Icing heard (thisj from the mouth ofthe messcngzr. \. calling upon theln to come and render t l ~ e ~ n assistance. (f W H E Y the iirst lncssenger went to rlie kill: or thc xiild beasts. all beasts are our slaves and we are their jnasters? The lion inquired.lIcsscn~er.:hether any one was fit for the business was minisrer.g wit11 nlc. Theyhave sent me also to ~vait upol. let !iim conrend wich the men. ancl superiority of intellect and judgment.ii-ic." I11 accordance with l this command. (in fine).ct . leaping.s of ever). courage. Abji-L flffi. ~rcaseis. . arroivs and boiu. bring forward proois and argumcrits for eloquence of statement.\v-strikers. ant! I wil! conFel.." . you. many varieties of wild beasts-iions. and knives. ~volvcs. thcy corer their bodies uith armour m s l 1 double armour: felt a n d Ilel~ncts. as to \.clutching? fighting. different sorts of monkcys.?. and said.CHAPTER X. Deign to send a gcncral with your army aIo~. " A dispute is going on between m m and beasts i l l tlie presence of the Ring ofthc Jins. to the lion-he said. The lcopard.'nzi-h. for all thcse things. fraudr and grabgems." " " . an6 when his turn shall come. :' Yes. in finc. Havin: r q a r d t o the claws and teeth of wild beasts. dagge-. when the aniill~ilsunwittingly walk upon them. activity of tongue. evelything r:l~ich lie had hearcl from the tongue of the rncssenger. The beasts hnvc sent messengers to all animals. '' What thillg do the nien boas: of? i f they boast about vigour. " They ~naintain. Otz the i ~ r ~ z t t < ! r s ihr Fir. sort and kind-came io wait l upon him.' U'lm is such a one? 1 Chni?.. after pondering for an ho~:r. niid holes.alovr. alld (other) weapons. and we arc your depc~idants and subjects.llorvs . then I will instantly despatch my army that it may g0 there. hlet al the wild beasts of my army come. they C O ~ C the 1igl:cly with dirt and grass . and then it is impossible for them to get out. ~ digging ditches: pits. they fall in. And it behoves rhr: sul~jccts hilt they should listen to the orders of the king e i t h the ear of ' C/~at:~ul-aza'rt~Z' striking with claws. and in one 0nslaug)it scatter and disperse them. '' Who is tlxere arnolxg you wlto wi!i go tilcrc and be the coacljutor of the aoimals? Whencver a l one procetds thither ancl prrly vails with evidence and rensoni!?g. jl~mping." The king asked the messenger what claim the 111en xvel-c setting L up against the beasts. and. that hc n a y go there and bcco~neCO-partnerwith his fc." When the wild bcns~s I~earcl this iii~ymcditated n thougl~t i for an hour. They practise many wiles and stratagems in craer to catch the savage and other wild animals. close combat? or i faet n any onc of these." The messenger said. therc the). a javelins. w l ~ o kins.gi-eatntss upon hiin.risrics . cl:. > 'Lit. and Ilc replied. then saicl t o the or not. 0 ~ . and besides this they are with n u n y praciicer ancl n t s .thcn\\~harsoeverhesl~sll clcsire of rile I mill grant. and thcn issue his orclcrs.so that tile claws and teeth the beasts mxy never take cfi-~cr upon tllcir bodics. they kno~vhow L make shields and rxxrorcls.

and they indeed are fit for these matters.. Who. 1 will pror7iclefor it. because although in outward appearance their shapes and figures are like unto those of the angels. '' hlay the star of prosperity ever continue bright and respleildent. It is true . If there be any nced there of strength and vigour. but cf such of thcln as src learned tl~eologians~ and discreet. Because the king srarlds in the exalted position of [he head and the subjects in [be places of the!imbs (oiihe animal frame). (and) he should occupy himself in \vl>otever may be for the welfare ancl comfort of his subjects. and n~imicr). and d e ~ : ~ s t a t iIn ~ will provide for it. all &ai~s =C acljus:cd. Then who is the one whom me ought to send. If there bc any nced thcre of watching. jumping.hich they call ' angelic morality. but now. the subjects each keep to their respective positions and courses." The king snid. then. in every transaction h e si~ouldcarsfully deliberate. he should seck from him aicl and assistaiice." Thc dog said. " l f there be need therc of burning. I am the one for it." The weasel said. . courage andambition. The leopard said. but now the learned and thc theologians among men. still their dispositiolls are like unto those of wild beasts and bru:es .their hearts. then I am bail for it. and keeping concealed. and wise ." The wolf said. " If there be any need chere of flattery. just 2 parents show aii'cction and 1. stealinz. and may the king be always victorious and triulnph~ni. from his duty he shouid not deviate. plundering." The rat said. "Therc is no one there for these requirements. and due order prevails in thc kingcorn. and whatever ski1i and art he may possess he should make !<no~vn t o the king. " You speak truly . "If there be any need there of craft a3d trickery. And it is irLcumbenton the subject that in cvcry way he should be ready in obedience. and devotioil to the Icing . I am bail for ir" The monkey said. " You speak ~ r u l y . 5 their otispspring. For tl>ese matters there is indeed no one there!' The ounce ~f there be any nced there of leaping. is necessary that the king's messenger should bc v i r t u o ~ s and noble . Night and day thcg continuc in strife and contention. and in evcry point should show obedience to him. I am ready for it. the morals and virtues are like those of the angels. then Geign to give me permission that I slay 20 there and effectuaily provide for it." The cat said. When the king and. I am the one for it. and damaging. and in slandering and maligning each other. in ml?om all the cl~~a!ificztions of a messenger may be iound ? I s thcrc any one in this assembly who may be worthy to go ?here? " . and begging.'' Afterwards turning tnwards the leopard. ' and tail-wagging. brave. kindling. and told K m t o derail them." The lion said. I am the one for it. having cast off this course u." The fox said. making his wants known to the king. the duties of his service he should discharge in a befiaing manner. and." The king asked the leopard what sort of qualities those are which are mcct for the king and for the subject. fanning. In the same way rulers and kings also having turned aside fiom the practice of justice and equity." The king said. havc cl~oscnthe way of tyranny still it and oppression.i~dnessto . l' If there be any use there for fel-rcting. liceping and seizing . he said.' ha\-e adopted devilish clispositions. barking. I It behoves a icing to be ' just. wlla? zdvice do you give in this mactcrl" The leopard said. lie should show liirldrless and affection ta his subjects. " If there be any need thrre of attacking. l' I i there be any need there of clancing." Thc king said. is the one to send that hc may go there and contend on the side of the animals?" The leopard said. jumping. '' All these clualificatio~~s \vhich thesc animals have mentioned are nccessmy for the armies of the kings and nables of m e n . and infornl him of its defects and merics. service.

inay God give him a good rcwarci. and comnlunicate to his lord whatcvcr he may have seen or heard.nquired who they were. and 1 c said.-" Cic:ionmics. like as in men-this is a strOnjiC7 reason for rbeir intimacy.iy rnatter should he go too far ior his own side. having left their ow:~ ~ l l i j \ ~liave thcy become the CO. " ILis neccssa~ythat a messenger sl~ouldbe a wise man' and a good spea1:cr.verc .out this nlattcr except the bear. " I ~ ! I O T Vthe 1 The reason of this. ~ thi: obedient servant of rhe king. Salted or Ull-I ~ ~ l i D ~ nn. and assist the111 in catching wild beasts?" The king said. "There is no onc better fitted for this norl. The dogs havc struck u p n friendship with meil in co!lsecluence of a similarity of clisposition and asfinity o i to taste. ]awful ancl nnla~vful. Hc should not tell the secret of his hcart to any one. fre3h or dried. and m ~ k e attacks upon wild heascs? \T%y. nor npon a. hs in t13e seilder. If in a strange city he shoold in any way find gratification. "Days have a 1 invetcrate animosity azainst me. He should not for fear of anythinc 1 Tf %n?tcrhere forgt:ts his xpolcg~e." fail a jot in the duties of a mcssc~. He should rendcr to hii lnaster whatever the responsibilities of counsel-giving and tnistiness requlrc. Dclilt~mtio7rc n a s s e r ~ p l : f T H E Yopard inquire2 of the lion what sort of qualifications arc in a rnesscngcr? Tilc Icing said. raw and cooked. from desire for it." l The lion said t o the jackzl." 'The king dircctcil hiin to state it. "The leopnl-cl speaks the truth . bear said. The jackal saicl. atld besides this. " 111your opinion is therc any one in this asscmblagc xul~omay posicss ability for this business?" The leopard said. he shoald not remain there for the sake of it. And in their nnturcs here is greediness and avarice alzd iuclil:arions.it.CHAPTER XI. And tile ivild beasrj abstiain from these vices. The duties of his tmst and covenant he should fulfil as they ought to be fulfilled. when you return you shall be The jackal in dignity. FIe should forget nothing that he hears.o~ ~ jrckab crlclmkd ill StOt?'. still there arc said." After this he said to the leopard.in~ aware that thcy %revcry fricnclly and fkmiliar wit11 men. crafty . 6: J many foes or my spacies there-rrrhat plan can I devise against this?" The king i. e T i signification c{ k 7 n c an& tznzd dgsa is not ' I.-cr. Whlrt has been told him. He should not be n grczt talker.becatis: it is incurnbent upon a mcssenTer to dcliver all his mcssagc. "You have heard ~vllat thc leopard has declared in respect of you? what do you salr to it ? " The jackal said. If you go :here and contend on the sick of your fel:ows.~ l ~ ~ . they get m a n y nice thi~lgs eat and &in].. -. but retain i~ carefully in meinosy. than the brother of Raliln and Damna." The king said. Is 1 not tllc 1.1u. and fall headlong into the pit of treachery and perdition. he SILOLII~ waver from the course of trustworthiness and fighteousness.and s h d l rcceivc r e i ~ a r d . The reason of this is. and bring him to the object of his hopes. f s. but be should return (home) quic!dy. that alone should he speak He s h o ~ ~ l d stritre a:~d exhibit devotion for whatever may turn to the uelfwe of his principal. If the opposite side sllould offer him m y bribq1 he should not he such a person that. tllere. adju:ors of a diferent species ? " Xo one knew znyrhina al. rhat dogs eat flesh. "What is the yeason that they have become so attached to men.

" A t the time mhen Cain murdcrecl his brother.son. and with great. how quickly do they mn and pick it up. them. fL The bear =aid. and t h e benr replied. lloney. " Is there any other anill~albcsidcs rhese who goes into their llauses 5" bc~r said. and besides they devour fruits. at length c1rir.e him atvay. dine she sits upon the dinnerclorb. and render then1 &lp and aid in catching wilc! anirnzls. that the dispositions of theln and of men are co2formable. \Vhatsoerer they eat themselvesthcy give unto her also.ho has fcnned a connection and friendsllip with man?" The bear said.'Rats also go into their houses and sl~ops." The kin5 asked what was the reason of their going (to men's dwellings). \v]lose name was Ajei. or cat. The cat also." Again the king inquired." The icing said. . " What is the reason of that connexion ? B The bear said. like men. Having . milk. and ham go:le a116 joilled themselves to men. but these do not g0 there willingly-)' T h e l ~ n asked from what period cats and dogs had been g frienay with men. " The cat is also very iricndly nrjcll them. womzn. ct~rds. sour or sweet butter. but the men violently seize leopards and monke!. But the wild beasts do not eat these things. and in consequence of tllis affinity> the dogs have ~ u i t t e dtheir own fellows. good or bacl.vith what avidity 20 they xvag their tails and s h a h their heads 1 If lie in pity thrcrvs d o x n a little morsel before them. " Weasds also sometimes go therc stedthiiy and secretly for the purpose of thieving and caWil.salted. 'and a]] the various sorts of human food-they lcave n ~ t h i n g . "For this also there is this one re>. and \vhenever she gets a chance she steals some of their food and drink." The king asked. bread. This is the reason why she is their enemy. E L I thcy do not allow the dogs to gct ~ an entrance into their houses . or I. If ercr a fox or jackal enter a rillage silddenly a t night to steal a fowl. 4 t lenrrth rhe children of Cain proved victorious. asd when the). or a mcrsel of bread. The king said." The king asked. they do not even notice them. the children of Ahel sought retaliation upon the children of Cain.. and the bcar said. " NO other one goes . s~ee:ments. " Sincc the d q s *. that if thev catch her thcy tear her in pieces and eat her up. The cat also. consequently envy and malice prevail between the dog and cat. whcnever she sees a dog. oil.g off something.s and take them there. scratches his face and tears his tail and hair. pulse. " Whzt is the caps position tvith men?" The bear said. \v. just as they get it. And the greeclir~ecss a v ~ r i c e dogs and of reach to such a pitch that it i5 irnpossiblc for t h a n to allow any aninlal to enter a village. or child. The bear said. on the contrary they are afraid of them and nin away. has a desire and lol1ging-for food of various sorts. so that he may come and get something to eat. and so artack her. and warred with them. parched $rail:. or rather.hen the descendans of Gain prevailed over those of Abd." did this matter happen? narrate it. but there is no intimacy1 between. Whenever the dogs see her they spring from their place." The lion inqnirccl if there was any other animal besides these two vil~owas also familiar with men.?. Through this avidity and greed how abject and vile tl~cy 1 If they are see a piece of bread or anything eix to cat i n tilc band of any man. * IS there any otl>a beasi bnider the dog M. \!lit11 what violence do :he dogs b z r l ~ and attacking (the intruder).-e froln a lilcing of various kinds of food and drink" The king then askcd if there was yet ally other animal who thcrc. vegctablcs." ~. The bear said. so that no other lnay get it! All these vices are found also in man.rage and f u ~ y she swelIs ancl puffs herself out. "She is somewhat better ofi than the dog>because she goes into their houscr r l ~ d a!eeps upon carpets . "They also go the. or a carcasc of carrion.

'' There is 1 x 1 power ncr strength buz in God the great and glorious. young onCS in a whole year. and the p r a w of the king has been heard : having takeier. that the allies of their a m ~ y h o ~ ~ l d s . and to!d him to relate it." When the lion heard this story he bcca~mevery pensive. hating abandcned their own species. ' l NOWdo YOU depart-go there d o the presence of the King of the Jins. and tlvovgh their own vice and the crudty of nicn the lives of themsr~vesand of o ~ s p are g ~ short . Slaughtering animals. notrithatandi~~g no one ever slrughcers~ that them. H e has bestowed it upon thc goats. asses. and had many kinds of food cooked. Tile bear said. '' I !lave no sorrow for their departure. :'What ground of sorrow is thcrero your majesty (in the fact of] the alienation of the cats and dogs from their own species. floci<s npon flocks of them are t o be secn in the towns: s and forests. but I zm brooding over this ~vord which has been s p o h ~ l th'e wise. because uphen they go they make him acquainted with times of negligence. they make known the secret ways. and all his various contrivances. they ldi~nderedail their wealth. thys they are xbject andr"lched." The Kng zsked how this llappencd. and carrying off all their cattle. from xhom w e czme. and said.:' and several times be reitcrated this formula. Up to the present time they continue in alliance. get her in pup. ten.and "CComplisb that matter for which you have been app0inteL7' 1 i(lnfih. camels.e must return.from their race his favour and hlesling. When the cats and dogs saw this abundance of flesh." After that lion said to the jackal. they became very rich. and ro whom tvc. wit11 all tI>jn~r good and bad. she riith great affliction and labour gives birth to eight. The bear asked the king." The lion said. still no one h s ever a sec. But the ~ o t snotwithstanding that they bring forth only one or W O .inflicted defeat (upon their opponents). The r e s o n of it is this :very many evils come upon the wuDg of dogs and cats through their faod Through the mfimess of thtir food they are subject to dive= diseases from . Infor~ninghin~ofalltl:in~~.bfn~ ~!ai~ghter sacrifice or foodfor .l1j& beasts are exempt. bullocks. God has already done to those dogs. Thcy gave cntcrtai12n:ents to each other. There is no @eater by sad mischief or detriment to kings in their govcrnme~~t administration than this.-h. and sometimes to even more young ones .and with zll secrets. secede and g to join the enemy. and this plenty of viciuals a~:cldrinli. and mules. thcy caused their hcacls and feet to be thrown everywhere raund about their ci:ies and ri:iaqa. so that the computation thereof i impossible. L'i All that which the king has desired. May God ncver grant a blessirg to those cats and dogs ! " The bear raicl. and arc always being slaugl1tered. All tbk is m exceedingly great evil for kings . and when she brings forth. in the town or in the forest a very large pack of dogs. " I n this way many dogs having consorted with one bitch. thcy entered w i t h avidity iota their viliages and beca~netheir bclper~and coacijutors.md armies.

. they pay acloration4 to the sun. Ict him go wham thou pleasest to command.ird. cnllle and assembled in such exceeding great abundallce that n o one but God could know their number.those people. on tllis account many anilnals are disputing with the men before the King of the lins. '' Who among the birds is most fluent m d doq~lent who is . is stailiiing on the wall. in colnpliance with his command.crane. ' T h c wonders and miracles of the world \vbich I have seen. the very essence of dcvotioi>. ~ i The ShA-lllurg?. \vag. of the mountains. partridge. said to the peaeoclc. ancl so 1have brouglli a piece of intelligence from tlie city of Sal). T U ~ & ~ & . and stated the facts. and asertain the 1 2nd qualities of each. so that he may go and contend ~ i : h the men )" The peacock raid.¶. lle inculcates virtue and prohibits vice. ~ Stone-eater. " Tbelloopoe. and they are their masters . his wings outspread. cnlxpanion of Solomon. whetbcr open or concealecl. an Haslmnz-rerinue. tail' gms. Accordingly birds of every sort and kind: of rheforests. who is b ~ r a particle of His lighr. tllc spy.&. gave orders that all birds should come and present themselves. 171 rz"z~~~i$ion Seroxd A C e q e r : o the f W H E N the second messenger irei~tt o the Shih-m. ortricll. " l'he men have set up a pretension that all animals are slaves.CHAPTER XTt. 2nd o&crs . in which no falsehood at all is minglcd. and is always engaged in rnagnifyinghnd praising God. J croup. The Shih-n1ueb said. He l i n o ~ s the time of prayer. " Royal ?. sn7ic~-fihmcs'~a) sparrow.. j ' T:TCzr-oo t / ~ r x i x . homage. your Majcsty has not seen . he is exceedingly proud and generous. 111 the 1 R~. When he speaks he bends in the same way as if he were ~ n a k i ~ g borvsl and proscratiolls .large throne upon which she sits. suite. bulbul.&o6akp a p r r d g e . " God is great. ivhe~herany one is fit for this duty. all the good things a l the world arc to bc found at her abode . His eyes are red." fie. and who knov-S everything. there is no \vant of anything. heron. they consider vice to be. d n ~ cazicrrcsr. wild-duck. these al are hcrc p r e ~ e n t . and reminds ancl admonishes his neighbours. sky. and there is a very." . the son of Dmici. his tail cocked up. H e brought the news of the city of Sabd to Solomon. " The cock. lnasmuch as Satan has prrvertcd. wbcreas thcrc is no one worthy of n-orskip hesides that true and only God. In fine." Arter this he said to the peacock. Thc peacoclc said. and said this. Havii~gcast off that beneficent Creator who made earth. 6' The hoopoe.n u r d l said.lrgh) the king of t i e birds. But she and the peoplc of her tribe are terrib!~perrrcrts . 3 Sijda-prostrztion. Show them to me One by o:w. rralloxcr. is Present ." Tile S h i h . 30 that 1may h l o ~ v fllem. do. nightingale. and of the waters. is 1 1 who is sitting (here) 12 wearing garments of Inany colonrs. is with a crown placed upon his head.:' 4 IS 1 bending the body fonvard." The peacock said. fit to be sent there. they aclnowIed~e t as their god the sun. he who. Therc is a l\ronlan there in the description of whose dignity and splendour? the tongue is dehcient. the so11 of David. that I may behold them. " Tell me the names of all of them. pigeon.turtle-dove. " The whole society of bid. Takdfr-repeating the doxology. The sovcrcignty of that country is in her power. and heaven. he having heard the posErion of the animals. they do not ac1:nowlcdge God. his minister. the crier of the s:lmmons to pn~yer. and resting a l~nnd each knee.

0 ~ ~ show m e the Wry to my native cotintry. At the time of invitntipn to prarrr he reminds the heedless and gives glad tidings -5.for you will there co~llcinto a pleasant &eliing-pL?ce . and you show no gratkude for the favours of God Call to remembrance that person who will annihilate ail p1easurc.stcrs. Lit. and show kindness and bencvolcnce to his crcatLrres. Think upon that day when God. so does he also at noan rise in rhe rir.'Before y ~ u rdeceare discharge the duty of worshipping him. If you desire to be preserved fi-on1 the fires of hell. is she who is sitting on a branch of a tTee. m y mr. g Lir.' "And this is :he srcrkh-n'b Libc as a preacher rnoutlts into his pulpit. that I lnay find happiness in reunion with m y friends. in the fear of God take warning . who By the mercy of God derive very large profir from the of a single grair. From the frequency of his bows and pmitrations. you are m n d f i ~ of this. shall find the benefit of it in the life to come. sitters in high places. Where are thoje lords of commerce and mcn of agricultmc. Ziril'uf-cultivation. you at? not dcsirous of paradise. jackals. ' 0 dcstroycrs of liie and conslitution. you d o not thir. you will fall into perclition. ' "The bulbui. Yoil have been sic-1ling ' for a very long time . ' There is horror in separation from one's brethren. Hcr body is very small. and z.' " And the &daL:l is he who is aliua). If any burn lilce dry litter in one s h d l pursue a n eui! course. wit11 great pathos. With 1 d . ngricu!ture. and men .. If fro111 this time foril*n!-d. the story-tel!er. l before learing your native llome. and will dcsce~ldillto rile grave 2nlo. is he 1vho is standing on the hillock with a pale face and variegated 'vings. is he who. remember God." . and longing for meeting with friends. and show no mis~rustof God. do not for an inutaot forget God . for in this there is no saietyl for me. in his sumnlons to prayer. lie si11gs various strains m*.' "The pigcon." for whoever now plants the tree of kindness will to-morroxv realise the fruit and relish of it.th 0 exceedingly sweet voice.lcb of cam. 1 am alwa)l thinking upon GM : in the morning I the proper invitation t o prayeq that all men may hear and act upon the good counsel. and ever xrhen he flier l far a. buiiders of houses in roxvns. plalltcl-s of trees in gardens. t ~ v e to ~ distant cities. so that his blessings may increase .vay he says.est-field of f ~ r u ~ i twl~osoever y. in flight she is swift.' mom. who declare that benefit arises to rick people from eating m y flesh. ancl preserve me also from p h p sicians. then pr~ctisc dcvotion and temperance. >lake provision for )-onr journey ta thC next world. he ~vill the fire of hell.s walking gacefully about among the flowers and the trees in the garclen. and she is constantly looking t o the 1 A kind of partridge or quail. And in his discourse h e says. This norld is the hrtl-. if not. he scys this." " And the parcriclgc. her face is white. "liie. tl~il?dcupon tint day when you will leave this Inxnv at borne.lg mal. you fee! no terror of the fire of hell . why are you regardless of the peri! or rhe rintc ? Be telnperate . the guide oftheway. crop. will cast these into hell-fire. then so mucl1 tbe bc~ter.:' p r e s q t and counrel be cries continurily.k upon death slid destruction . thifiking upon your dying dag~.s. be is bent in form.cj and scorpions. Through stinginess do not take this idea into pour mind-" TO-day no poor or needy person will come to my house .' And frequently in his prayeTs he offers up this peti"0% '060" place mein safety from the ~ndignity birds of of prey.lng ' the 5t. and is engaged in singing with exceedingly sweet voice. Oh. having separated the infidcls from the faithful. shall przcrise in it the cultivation of good ~vosks. alld after that he says. ' B e tlwnkful for the mercies of Gad. " dcath. ' 0 dwellers in my vicinity. the i:ivieer to prayer. but will bring the faithful into paradise. taxnp letten.

who reveals hidden matters. In her and p r a ~ f she repeats this formula. and rays.' After that she exdaims.eaven. and formed alrrcnts of the stre~t~ns-1~h0 according t o onis dfiens sustenance and cleatb. with admonition she and c o ~ ~ n s e l exclaims. unmindful of tilought about God. With exceeding eloquence 2nd sweet voice she c o n l p o ~ her srmiils.:!gat? a& beget ofiprinp. sought. to raze the house of God. The birds. the~lnigllt proi. taking vp pebbles. and betvare of J l Le.. Praise is due to Him W~:O is the crcaror of all creaturzs.. In in places. nourishcc1 to n~ouldcr alt-ay. ( s ~ c c i c s of) animal. c.engage in s:~pplicationand player . by stratagem and craft. to-morrow. Going into country.~ p p oset:orer: in e~.norl~that of Ye r e r e 111 born 10 die. and her rings layc. who established the mountains. engage in pleasure and dissipation. he gets inforlnation about ancient annals. COW hack to my own country. dufiirg the cold in warn1 p k t c ~ i .right hand and to the left. clothed ibem wirh garmellts of esisicnce. the wa.S tllc s\lrallow. he sent\mmns upon iiivarml of birds against them. i s Herc . \LTby are ve not ab 0~ sorbed in the ren~embrance him ? Do ye not i. Havir~gfled from thc conlmands of Cod. H e is the llelpcr of traveliers in their journeys.hav. -nspired. having brou:1lt them out from the corner of nonentity.brought t ~ .kin will be tornoff. Observe temperance. Twice in the night hc keeps vinila. and with admonition and counsel he cries. and in flight hc reaches half way to 1.' ye must die and be buried in the eafih. ye ~ 1 1 negligence in thinking xpon God. her Pet are small. the rover in the air.' H e is holy i . ruler.' The crane. very soon. He threatens the heedless with the evils of neglect. were riddled lile worm-ertcn leaves. so that. govtmor. Now through delusioll you givc the prefcrencc to the life in this world over . -qounting many men upon eiephanti. 11i5 feet short.chman?is he alio stnnds upan the fidd His nc& is long.' .r of this world. he ad\-anced towards the temple of God. and thcrc inulp UPh' L Always at jai~ii and at ere she utters prayeys and sJpplicarion~ m e r e . She dwells for Lhe mosl palt in rllc hmses of men. .hat of the nesr. But in the end God made vain his cunning and craft. consorting togethcr. an$. ~ e t htorperish ? Ye are building this house that it may e fa11 10 ruin.' After this praise alld prayer have travelled illto every country. deceired by the deligi1t. and in piaile of ~ o offers his thanksgiving.. If you xish for s2Alvation. have scen all the 5el-vautS (of ~ ~ a ) . s for there i m resting-place or delivera~~ce you. '0 God. How long. 2nd the besrower of all blessings. and. In flight she is l i g t .ho was cllief of that band. 111 har journcys sbc proceeds to for d ~ yof heat she C ~ O O S ~ S abode j her p a t dist~nca3. is Lord of all the face of the eaYtii and says? L I of all creatures. Be wise even now . preserve me from the hankering of boys. He giver information al~oureverything which has not as yet trH e is a t all rimes occupied in meditation upan GO^. podred down such a shower of stones that a11 of them. llasing brought inale and female togcthcr. 'Gracious God ! how hcedkss ye are : cliceit-ed by this existence of a feltr dayi' length. do ye not knorv xv~lat GO^ i\irnigI~ty d d ?" t o the "lord of the eiepbai~ts Abrah. and mi:L ren~eml>cr their Crcnior.rho the sea alld land. He is hob. perhaps ~vill preserve you from llarm! Cod. ' Holy is d that God who of his power crcated a pcir of erer). together &h their elephants. and s ~ l -ill the gardenn s 5 in close intimacy with nlen-she even goes into their houses and talks with them When they.. H e is black in cdour. tBGng com~passion. '~ ~ f ~ ~ & Z i ~ z f . from which rllerc is never any deviation. hrtoived them abundant oifrpriti: . tbar day ahen you will rot in the grave. and against danger from all alin1a5 1 'L TIT' ' XIS1s the crow7the soothsayer. tvl~cn from the disrrrace of your dccdi your . unll Ye conti~~ue occupied in p1enso1-e a d &ssipltian ? In the end. and temperate. and ever i Passes his ( 1 1 ~n~travel and wayfaring.

." Tlle~ 11 2 inquired upon what point thc men were boasting Orer thelll. Gracious God ! \vhat a Creator He is i The tocgueof 111an is incompetent for His praise and eulogy. ': They boast upon this poinl ar. but the i~ightingale the most eloquent and melodious of is dimcted him (the nightihdngde) them all.' of And sonlciimei with deep sorrow she speakn in li1is way' How happy was that rime when I roamed about along the fl0ll7ers0-f the garden. a u d act as the deputy of m tribe. k i n g the ally of my own species. A xonderful Creator is H e rvho a f t u death gives iife (again) to old rotten bol~ts.ill the O informetion he had heard from the t c n q c of the messenger: and *=id.gs. " 1r i l l So rherc.gnats: to~s.dflies. 1~110 your opinion is the most fitting person to scnd in there. and these a11 revolve by His command.d say.in motion iivifr. chief of :he d i the fliest 2nd recounted to him n!l the affairs ." The Sh. as soon as hc heard it. In body he is ~111211. and be the ally of his own species. He is thc Maker of thc heavens. I i d 1 discuss (the nmtrer) \Vith rhcnlen. that h e may go ?ad contend with the men.~ttinghis trust in God. In consequel~ceof. all creatures r h o snil in body end fly ~ $ 1 1wir. Lilia unto the sea. i n o ~ ~ ( ~ i ~:. He. c ive aTe larger in size ancl staiurr. the kitlg ot all insects.'' In this wxy every one was rezdy tor the business. I will go there. all is His worlr..i. the movemenr of the air. who is a help and support 1n evcry elnetxency. because they are poetical and eloqtlenf. p. and in every point we are superior to the mimls.'cAnd this is the sang-lih~vira(stone-eater).' The chief of the x a q l said. " "jho i n t h n e nnxmg you \rho vi!l 0 there. flits. r c hare greater strensh.senger said. .-ill po t b r : m d diiputc ~ L i ltl h men. ~ l d dispute with the men on.of all blessings. &Tom ing and evening he repeats this forln (of puaycr)-C Holy is He urho created the SIT and the ea-th. " I y go &re. the bes:ower of boons. ~ h 1Ile. the inhabitant of dry land.vent to the king-bee. x ~ all the trees d ladcn arith fruits of many kinds.--me 2nd rtrcndcd The king set fOZl1 t thml. ~ c t com~nnnd. He alol~eis (God). 0 king. 'c How is this that ye all. virsps. After this fashion he meIodious!y poorsionh his strain in praise of God-' Praise be to that Crearor ~ h o is the Lord of pokvm and benrficance. behalf of the ani~nalr. 2nd do not live more OlX . . ~OITLI the project of going thn-r ? " upon csngregation of g m t s said.L Of all these. for He has no equal . fieas. ':All tbesc have abilify for the duty. s and. the manifestation of the thunder and lightning.' " Hereupon tllc Shjh-murgh said to the pencocl." The c h i d of the 1 0 ~ u a said. gave orCera for a11 the insects to coias before him. private and public." The peacock said. .h-n~urgl~ to take his depal?ure.'' The chief of the moiyuitoes said. the give:." ~ The cllief of the flies said.n Snc. L: 1 . H e alone upraises from theearth the vapoul-S by means of which tllc economy of the world is (maintainc-cl). wirhout considcrzT11c tion and thought. there i s . H e always dwells in woods and deserts. no:bs. how is it possible that the unc\e~-standing should arrive at (a Iaiowlcdge of) His nature ?' "The nightingale of sweet voice is 11c that is scatcd on a branch of a tree.n~lj. The falling of the rain. hc ullgmdgingly digllifies every man with the bo~~nties His favour.ld. of the constelhtions and of the stars. T H E third mrranger -. and in voice sweet. brig said. m d go there.

or with the mosquito-curtains hung up. jave:m. with its body all covered wit11 filtIlh. " lk'llen a king of men sits upon his throne in great polnp and splendour.of and manners. and pierces him wirh a sting (only) ecpal t o the point of a needle. and in his pomp ancl dignity and splendour took thought of no man." The king said.e. 1 .e out from the conthe ~f~~~ the gregation. '' Statc the ci~. and lvhat a rage he gets into ! But he can do nothing to us . "If any man is seated in society or (in private) behir:d his screen. "Among men X i m o d was a king of the highcst dignity.. This sage having d e ~ a m d fl.s. standing before tlu king. actin: liclp of ~ $ d I. but by the lic!p of God u7e have always prevailed over then. . his power ciid not avail him anything. " upon this business. 'l You all speak t n ~ l y .scr~lion." The chief of the mosquitoes said. ': It . Notwithstanding his dignity and might. . and his doorlreepers allcl guards are standing all around him with the utmost devotion and l!-illingnesl." The king said. the di.mim&r. "You speak tnrly.hut in the presence the an$ the Jins there is no mention. or his necessary. ' l 1 is true.e slaps to his own cheel. v ~k~~ dispu:e is about jus. spear." d : The fly said. snd any one amollg you xvlx lhas ability in these n~atlers " ? of the king. then how restless does he beconle. with sword. on heurillp hCnging do\\-n their he&. SO that no pain or a1mo)ranct may l-esch him--if zt thzt time a fly comes out of his bitchcn.ice and equi'. and there. because i former times thew have been very tyznnical kings. nor does he cver? rake any h ~ of his shield and sword. he dismissed him. and.the help of God. The mosclr?ico said. who was very sniai! ancl frril of body. and one of our tribe goes and gets into his clothes and bites him. then how wrctched does his state beeome. and make yotl victorious oi'cr the fincl haring given tohim nil proviliolls for :he journe)l. and. they r e r e nil siicnt.he can only thump his onrn head. an-d arrow in hand. his hands and feet grow languid . But a gnat of our racc. knife." The wasp said. u. he cannot move. and certain it is that by His aid rvc shall a gain the victory over them. and.lcc. His body swells up.ill as ally of tile . a sage zm~ong flies ca1r." Thc king said. I will clisp~te with rhe n l e n x h e king 3 1the ~ i r e r n b l y 1 said. "At thc tinie when a man Fully furnished with snns. destroyed this king so great. Ofttimes thel-e has been proof of this. true. n . goes alld sits upon his person or clothes and teases him.if a t that time a wasp bclonging to us goes ancl srings him." The king replied. i the presence of the King of tllc !ins. he can never Gnd the power t o escape fro111 it. and gi-. " May God aid you in the have onJerfal:m. of these things. is accoutred (for bat~ie)-." He was csceeding!? arrogant and perverse.and eloquencl and fluency." .vllere of sorts and kinds were present. said notllin:." The king said. raid.cumstances.

who among the animals (prcx sent) was best fittedfor the business . and bes~des. Those matters on tvhich God has made incumbe~~t them.-27. indeed. and they cast abuse upon poor innocent me. the king of the birds of prey. and now other people have become the possessors of them. " The shunldr speaks truth . the shunkrir. and consider the sight against of me unluclcy. phccnices. It is better chat you should not send me there. The said. ('Tl~ere no is One b u t the owl who has ability for this business. On tlre rjzatfL.--for these matters they never show any inclination" said to him. In accordance with the order. sl~." The p h ~ n i then asl. " Because all birds of przy are akaid of men. By day he fasts and weeps in fear of God. " Kings and al-nong men are very fond of ha~vlcs. They show a !!king for u s merely for their own benefit. that the parrot Gould be sent thcre. 2 Chara&-.mofthe Foul?il J h t g . such as to perfor111 their devotions. . all carnivorous birds having claws and beaics instantly presented themse!vea The phenix related to them the facts of the anin&' dispute -4f~er that he said to his waii. that he may go and confront the men. and at night also he is absorbed in devotion and in arousing the heedless.) '' 1s there any one of these birds who is bt for this business." The king askedwl~at reason was that no one besides him was the fit for the business. sitrsr v.' " 1 The phcgnix said to the owl. they do not understand their language. But the owl dweUs nearth&rvil[. in hne.l~omis it The p h ~ n i s advisable to send!" He said. Hc laments over former kings are dead. If they shoulcl see me there at the rime of rhe argument they will become still 111ore illjmicd. he also gave orclers for all the birds of his species to attend. and. '' My opinion is.and he replied. But men do not distinpish us hcause w e haveany a s n i t y with them. and dJldTflt~. and apply it t o their own use.CHAPTER XIV. owls.igas. appropriate to their =ondition.ecl the owl.Z and with great fondness seat them on their hands. and fly from them . 2. (Arabic. because among men. vultures. and often. (black-eyed falcon. parrots. owl speaks truth. iookinp towards the asseillblagc of hawks.e r . If the king should scnd one of them rhcre. "What is advisable in your opinion ?" The hawk said. His continence and contclltment are such as G o other animal possesses. the houses and cultivzted lands. Night and day they are engagecl in zrnusernent and pleasure. because all men nourish a n i ~ ~ ~ o s i t y me. said. \ V H P N the fourth messenger went into the prescnce of he phcenis. kites. whom we may send there.a bird off i e hawk kind. nor because thereis any great lImo\v!edge or gcorle mxnnners in u s throtrgh which they sl~ouldhave a-iicc~isnfor us. for they tear away our prey from us. kin@ and I K~~&-. ~'Xcons. and through this animosity the day of battle will again arrive. " In your opinion u. it would be better?' The king. andto have a dread of the account and boolts of the day of judgment. " What d o you say about this which the shunkiir has settled for you i" He replied.) 'Ure have left behind the gardens and faun- tains. and all the good things through which we lived in pleasure. but still I cannot go thcre. henlks. never did them any harm. and made known the circumstances. and be m ally of his own race in this conff ict ?' The wz-fr said. in their old houses which have become ruinous. and repezts this verse. falcons.

s gone to dwell in the forests.it. Our brother the . still it is not befitting for the good to do such e5~il: regard to their wicked conduct. " H e speaks the truth . prayed to God for help. so that God Almighty might be satisfied in and fleasea with us. take up several men." Thc king. but I hope that the kiag." The pllwnix inquired what he wished. small or great. will unite and render mc assistance. in conlpliance wit11 his request." )Zfter t1r:hai he said. whatever our state of g i e f and sol. the time for a struggle has arrived. " My object is that the king should pray to God r'or mc. so should one fix the mind upon God at the time of prayer. for in this world there is no good in fighting and contendil~g. " For thc acceptance of prayer.ght. n~trvithstandin~ we that have greatcr strength and vigour than man. And before offering our (special) prayers. and w h a .trouble and labour are in vain. WC should represent it to the Divine Majesty!' All said. they havc come to seek refuge with us.row may be. 8 . everybody.. I will go there. giving up his abode in his own country. ALthoug11 we arc so strong that any individual of . and have colne t o hide ourselves in the hills and rivcrs. that I may prevail over the enen~y. still we have f i ~ d from their tyranny. they attend and listen to. and that we migl~t this way shorn Our orati:u& for Iqis mercies! For He has made US porverful bestowed upon us vigour and s t r e n g h md body. notwithstanding our being so far away. n u t with all this even. ': How Inany ships are there which b v e been in distress through adverse winds. learned or ignorant. and taI!cs with him. is our aider and helper. The orvl said." Thc king aslced the parrot what he thought was 'advisable." I l. The o~vlsaid. no rcsult foIJaws. and He. and soar to the skies. and unless prayer is attended with a11 the requisites. They will 011tain the fruit and results of it in the world to come. And we ourselves. to such a degree. we cannot get deliverance from their tynnny. indeed. \VC have brought to the shore. Like as a person prays to God w h e ~ lin the decpest distress. the regular form o f prayer should be repeated. then . in prayer these things are requisite. abstinence shoxld be observed: and we should show some bindnesi to the poor and needy: and then. Having no remedy. " Ye know that men that those poor wretches have at their hands bcen rendered shunkir also having fled from their oppression. Amen. male or female. sincerity of purpose and p ~ r i t y heart rue necesof sary." have so practised violence and oppression over animals ~sceedingiy miserable ." Tire killg asiced what the conditions were for the acceptance of prayer. He replied. '' 0 king I if prayer is not accepted. and all the congl-egation said. under every circmstmce. and told him to state them. and make spoil or of them. H e replica. on the siclc of the animals. when they begnn to sink and to drown. ('1 am ready. a r d all this congregation. ha. will contend with the men ." The king said to all the congregation. W e dciiberto p y slew keep aloof and remit tLem to God. is fond of him. h:r'iingseen and known a!!. and we have helped them upon their course ? and how inany poor fello%'s are there whose ships have been broken by fierce winds. if he liked. that.nobles. and. \Irhatever he says.

senger said. and know crafts Zmd plans. BC. and embarking goods. they lade heavy goods upon their backs. But before the King of the Jins the discussion is about justice and equity. that they possas rhe greatest sense and wjrdom. i l a more i-esllrted sense. and placing it upon the shoulders of oxen. he can by the force of his kno~vledgebind such a charm that if a thousand crocodiles or dragons should afterwards go to t l u t place. And she holds a high position also in the opinion of men. " Set forth in detail the facts of their science and art.u The king said. He represented. maintaining that these is no equal to them in sense and judgnlcnt. silver. stratagem and artifice. gold.the ~~d . he also asse~nbled his dependall e l ~ t sa d adherents. Or. Accordii)~ly. in accordancc vri& the command. and if there . \v110 dwells in the salt sea. and in swimming surpasses eveqthing . t l ~ efrog. ' l Among aquatic animals the fish is best fitted for this work. all aquatic a n i m l r of eZ'Y variety. and conduct them from east to west. and catcl~ing vultures and eagles. e After that he raid to the messenga. If a man goes to the bank of any rivulet.they climb up the mountains. and in one instant I will spun out fire on t h e q and then dragging them down by the iorce of my breath. or stream. coUected together. white colour. that we also may know them. by their science and wisdom thcy construct a yake of poles." The messenger repiied. he Ocean. and asked what in their opinion was the best course. and snaigllt body . from west to east. * what ! does not the k n p b o w that by their science and wisdom they go down into the ocean1 m d bring up jewels froor its bed? By their stratagems m d mifiCes lih?~h *lilil?11. boast of no one of these things. convey them about from sea to sea. By thought 2nd wisdom they build ships. The king set forth. and is exceedingly friendly with men .the fish. and a great variety of things. iron. 1 will immediately go. I will slvallow them. and aftenvards brought h ~ m his W H E N the 6R11lncssenger went into the pruence ofthe king of the acgaatic aniinals. the turtle. the dolphiil. it would no: be possible for them to enter there." f When the Icing heard all this from the mouth of the messenger.was a n y one who go and contend with the men. and her off5pr. but they consider themselves rtlperior i n this respect. there is n o mention whatex73 o power and strength. traversinz every forest and desert. because on one occasion she gave refuge in to her belly to their prophet. (c If d ~ men consida themselves superior to us in strength u l d courage. she has a fair face. in numbers she exceeds all aquatic creamus. for when a person is drowning he drags him from the water and places him on the shore. to them all that he had heard fiom the tongue of the messenger. and conveyed to him the infelligence of the dispute. river. they dig and extract from the earth jewels of every kind. argument and proof . and of every for111 and shape. that they are icquai~itedwith every science and a*. The). because she is l a c e in body and good in f i w e . Going on to the mountains and hills. K O one gave any answer except the dolphin. sea and s lake are filled. he looked intently all round upon those who were sitting around and befol-e him. b r i n ~ them do!vil to the ground. copper.'' ~l~~ me. is swift in motion.g i SO abundant that every river and stream. the crocodile.. In the same way.

his eyes bright. There is no one of these qualities The 2nd merits ill me . A11 men bold the belief that all the a r c h rests upon her back. " I am not at all fitted for this work. at He said. nor can I either contend with the men. The dolphin c 1. 2nd he said. if for one instant I am p i f e d from the water. is swift in walking and runnin his talons are sharp. in movement he. "The crab is best fitted for this business. jumpillL " d running away with whatever 1 can ~et. " Who then is better fitted to go there - Tile crab raid. elaquence and fluency are the things required. so that the fire was exringuiihcd. In tlie estimation of the children of l s r a d his worth and honour are great. mY f i ~ r exceediugly bad. HZ r o m s about b o ~ h the on land and in the water. into the fire. he took water in 11is mouth and squined it on the fire. I am also a poor ~ ~ Iand w . and took no i f i ~ upon his body. ''This work is impossible for me also. my back ~ r o o k d . pr. i swift. I should not like for tilere to be e a against me. in fine. 'L HOW can I go there ? my body is ugly. his face go?d. he is exceedingly patient and enduring under trouble and pain. 1 Cannot endure thirst . And h e is eloquent also : he vtterp words. speeches are impossible for me. a d he goes into the houses of men and show's no fear:' .nporous in his movements. who is this headless animal ? he has eyes ill his neck. Leapine.. 0 is better suited for this." said. this he knows. his claws hard. trickev. he assistcd Moses." The king said. he has got cipIlt legs and they are crooked. All when they see me will c r a c ~ joker upon me:" . his s hands and feet large. he is very patient. hecause once upon a time hc showed them this lundness that . The king said. and rl. and is ever e n g ~ ~ ind e praising1 m%nifying. " For going on this business tllel-e is 110 need of strength. . When 1wall< 1nY feet become heavy." The king asked the dolphin ~ v l ~ he thought advisable. his cheelcs are split open on both sides. his body is hard." The king spoke to the crab. " I n my opinion the crocodile is very well fited for this business. and the way is hr. a mouth in his breast. and has great powers of speech. He is swift in running his his t o n p c long. and g-odiying ( ~ o d ) . and his back nrong as if cove& with armour. . I am a thorougll cheat and impostor' When r6e messenger heard this he said. b u t in my opinion the frog is the best person for this buiinei.'' The Icing asked the uocodile. nor have I any tongue wherewith to talk to them. moving on the land and swimming in His nlenlbers atso are aPPr0the water . because he is very . justice and equity. and she replied.--these are all derects of mine . and lie replied. because tilere is great passion in me. because he is mild and patient and devout . . Wily should t!. vigour. i On the is all one t o him. because ile goer out of the 1vater stays also 011 dry land . his head is round. and he goes alone face downwards as if made of lead. t Andat time. right and lie utters praises in commen~omi0'J of cod. h e n Nimrod Abraham.ere h derision of you ? what fault is t h e n in you ? " The crab ''When they See me they will ail say. and. because he has many feet." The king asked the turtle what he thought advisable. " I cannot in any uray go tilere. and hc replied. He goer also into fbe houses of men. And besides this-. the friend of Gad.Tlze Crocodilehome in safety. to gain his object he waits a long while. his teeth numerous. because his legs are strone he has plenty of actian. Tile Ling asIxxi the fish what she Iiad to say about it. d~vdlingl l the sea 0.oiui no rashncsr l11 anything." . my statc becomes miserable.but sense andgrarity. n hen there was a conflict between Moses and Pharaoh. morn and e r e be is engaged in praYer and faning. his bady is s:rOfir and his back Lard . I n my opinion the turtle is betier fitted for the business. because I have no feet wherewith to g e t tllere.

and crawl upon the leaves of trees. all came and attended before the king. whatever order he may agreeable to me.T h e king said to the frog. licc. green lizards. When the king beheld their wonderful and extraordinary forms and shapes. he was amazed. i s there any one among them suficicntlg clever to send there on the business of the dispute. spiders. " I am ready. Afterwards. He became serious (and aslccd). Instantly all snakes. too~c leave procecding thither. ar6 in a m the king's subject . "What can be done with these ?" He said to his minister. and deficient in instinct and intelligence. will contend w i d the me% 01 1 hope that . is quire agreeable to me. I having tllere tab the pn of it my Own fellows. in fine. Amen. chameleons. In such multitudes did they assemble that no one but God could have the power to c o u . lizards. chief WHENthethe sixth mejsenger of all theworrnsl andants-of to and told him all the circu~nstances the animals. he perceived that there =ere very many creatures small and feeble in body. small ants." 1 Kira-a worm. and. " I n Your opinion. ~ them. heafi ai1d soul. hil~g reptiles-ic. he as soon of as he heard it. . of the king.hansc to the Prayers of on behalf of their $ubjec-s are In compliance with his request. ('What is the best opinion ? " He said. and blind. and remained silent for a moment. and for the most part they are weak and feeble. he pres*nted himself before the King of the Jins. they have no hands or feet at all. earthworms. king ivill Pray to God for aid and n s s i r ~ n c c me. they have no beaks or claws. p b . all worms which are produced in filth. If it is decided that 1 am to go there. directed that all the worms should attend. insect. deaf. YOU' wcnt the dragon. Then the fmg ~ ~andd . when having attentively considered and loo1:ed upon them. scorpions. the scrpent. so that he may confront the men ? for these creatures are for the most part dumb. the king pray& to alI Congregatioll said. there is neither hair nor feather visible on their bodies.


b u t in His generosity and beneficence He has kep them all eqval To every one of them he has given suinble means for securing zdvantage. bodies and great strength. He also made for him two long tusks. and some in dirt and filth . He bestowed strength upon some. &C. and by his trunlc he obtains benefit If R e gave to tile gnat a lirtle body. and for every one there is provided its food in that verJ place. like the the hare. that S O ~ O ~ I O llis army may not a s 1 1 YOU u n d u foot. they by means of their strength and courage keep off injcry from themselves. Some are found in the . but kepi others weak. When God created these animals which are very Small a d feeble. like the vulture and e@e. some are placed in the bellies of animals. by hiding their heads under their tails. All. the wild ass. pain or toil. like the &phant and l i o ~and other animals berider theur who have large . ~ Other animals are subject to t ! labour and trouble of running away and biding . reinaln safe from every injury. When God created them in this state H e provided for them all the means by which they might secure knefit and remain safe from violence. and wherever they see anytl~inuogCO eat. exceedingly fine and light. "Among animals in general those w110 are lays in body and have great strength. some by smelling seek their food.g . thither they proceed.and some b diving in the preserve themselves from peril. The power of suction has been given to them. ad says. by means of which they are prerewrved from every evil. no one has any s"priority over anofhex When H e gave to the elephant a bully forq and bestowed upon him enormous strength. by means of which he flies and escapes from his enemies. small and great. eu- . are Iight and fearless in flight. and some by means of flying nrnain m in securityfrom all horrors. without (rile necessity of) sense or motion. he has not deprived of this blessing men this species which out~vardly appear to have 170 hair or feathers. ivould look upon the facts respecting them. then it wolI1d be seen that those among them who are small in body and are feeble. and did not give them the instinct and means for pining their daily food. like the aquatic animals. fish. by means of which he is prrarved from the ferocity of rapacious beasts . and by power of wing fly. Keep concealed in your ~ s p e c t + e dwellings. T h u s God Almighty speaks in the story of the a t . " I n like manner. but there (insect4 are w e d from thzt work. " I n this blessing all are equal. for they do not are)? And there are some who* skin and know (. such as rhe porcupine.. t l l a as a substitute He granted ta him two wings. because they arc produced in sucll dweilinp and hidden places a s are known to no one. by means of ~ v h i c h tl~ey. like the anti. hike the birds . If the king. Some by keenness of vision see. "And there are some which lie concealed in holes. having reflected..them. likc the turtle.' "And there are very many ways d s o by which those szi& obtain their subsistence. and v!eapoos for-tl~c repl!ing of injury. to some H e gave bulky forms and to others bodies .here hide God has made very hard. And there are some who. and those animals which are aquatic. He of His kindness relieved them from that labour and trouble. ' Thc chicf of the ants said to all the ants. so that they rcmain safe from every injury and are not disturbed about obtaining what is beneficial. like rats and ants. Some by Reet mnninm and by Right remain secure from every danger. are equal in that blessing by means of wl~ic11 they secure advantage and remain preserved from violence. some are hidden in grain.

thou are exceedingly eloquent anci flumt. say that there is poison in our months. nor entrails and guts in which the ordure ntay be collecied. nor ha\-e they any need or 1 ~ h y s i c . aud say there is no good in them . and upon it thishot venom. and would l e x n what is the use of this p o i s o ~U-hich is in ~ their mouths. ancl in gave to every species of animal the means and implements by the aid of which they might attain to what is beneficial and be secure from danget. then they mould never ask why God made them. they all have need of these (snak?~). nor a stonznch in wllicll to digest." W I x n the locust closed this speech." The snake said. C rlBecause the). In short. but instead rhere is formed in his mouth a hot venom by means of which snakes eat and digest. nor would they cast absurd censure upon God." After that he said. In reality. nor folds in the brain by which to give sou~~dness insticct. " Eecause there exists froln of old a n unbounded animosity and enmity between men and snakes . they are from besinning to end injurious and hurtful'" 85 The locust said. " May God bestow a blessing on thy elocluencc and elocution . that the food. nor a throat through which to srvnllow. how would they have been able ro eat anything? Kourishn~entwould not have been 111 an?. " Other animals wander abouc i n search of food and run away iron1 danger . such a rlegrce that kings and to n s noblcs keep the poison of these animals i their r i n ~ that i t may be aseful on occasion. conveyed thcm to the object of their need. nor a spleen to suck up the gall of bIack n~clanchoIy:nor 1:idncys or bladder to dram off thc urine. If they would carefully consider. then the fleshinstal~tly he swallows it. "When God created those animals of which you have made mentio~l your discourse. the dragon said. nor any teeth by whose strength he can chew. learned and intelligent. consequently God has ~lg distressed them with tortures. t h a t some men even cast censure upon God. make them the food of their bodies . after being masticated might be digeted and becon~e part of their bodies. of His omnipotence. Gut they babble thus stupidly through their ignorance and sillilless . and through the effect of thosejuices strength remainsin theirbodies. heart and soul.TLc Suahc." The snalie said to him.e subject to of 1 0 one of the chronic diseases. to some H e gave awarm stomach. ': kT'h4. to such a degree indeed. 'Why did He create them? there is no good at all in them : on the contrary. F . But the snake has no stamach a in whiclx to digest. "Art thou able to go there and contend with the men ?" and he replied. Praise and thanks are due to Him who besto\ved such bIessings. on the other band. nor veins for the bloocl to run in." The locust said. and preserved them from every annoyance and pain. F o r when the snalie takes the flesh of any animal into its mouth.do they say this ? " I ~ rcplicd." The locust asked the reason of that. At the colnlnand of the king I I V ~ U there go and be the helper of my brethren. saying. ho\vcver. " 0 sage ! set f o ~ t l ~ some other (of their) benefits. nor a liver to purify the blood. " I am ready. anti that use 2re of no use except (to cause) the desirr~ction and dedh of animals. They a1. and he said. they arc exempt from all thosc evils to which great and powerful animals are subject. because God has not provided then1 with hands an6 feet to xvalk about ancl p i n their daily food. nor has He given them a mouth ox teerh to eat with. but these are saved from t h ~ : labour and pain. tracting the juices. "You must nor say there that you have been sent by the dragon and the snake. made their flesh the mcans of counteracting that poison. So if God Almighty had not macle this venom in their mouths. He has. and would ascertain the facts ancl the uses of thcsc animals. he casts dissolves. they know nothing about the true nature and valluc of a n y ~ l ~ i . Althougl~God has made the poison of these (snakes) the cause of the death of animals. Eoly is that God who.

fish. When these creatures are engendered in impurity. God Almighty created nothing which is useless. It is not right for the Creator to set aside the sun. Those who do not perceive the use (of a thing) cast reflections n upon ~ o dand say. Oh. fro111 some cause or other. and deprive the world in general of an universal blessing and consumm~te benefit. althougll to His 1 wisdom the harm and evil of everything is manifest a d open : but it is rather that it is not the habit a ~ l d custom of the Creator to refrain from making anything whic11 may tend to the colnfort and happiness of the generality of the world I3ecanse of its being injurious to a few. "The same is the case of Saturn. through an excess of heat or cold. In fine.they would learn that His favour andkindness is cornman to every one. scorpions. H e did whate-r he kneiv to be for thc welfare of the world. '' The explanation of it is this-When God Almigllty fonned all the stars. whatever was the essence of that impurity they malfood . among their number he made tlle sun to be a lamp for the world.' If they wodd consider and reflect upon the circumstances of iiU existing things. they \vou!d have perishcd from bunger. I n the wholeunivene the sun occupies a similar position to that of rhe heart in the body." . but ever and anon. and that cholera should come into the world. Does not ueviatC from the orbit of the moon. spreading through rile whole body. Mars. If ever through the sun injury and damage in any may occur to a few beings. I t is not that God Almigl~tyinvolves them in this mischief. small and great-for from His most bounteous source gracious favours proceed for all creatures Every one." Tile locrrst asked him to explain - alrhough in a fe\v inauspicious hours. according t u his capacity. may it never happen that the air should be poisoned b y the exhalation of noxious vapours. H e perfected e v e p individual thing according to His own pleasure. and no snake \voulcl be seen in the world. w h a t good arises from their ancl being upon the earth?" H e said.and people arc saved from cholera. mischief or injury happens to some. It is for this reason that all maggots and insects are generally produced in the shops of butchers and fishongers.the airbecomes pcre. throug-11 whom there comes prosperity and happiness to the Er. and all the stars. for ' ~ h these devour them. and according to His wisdom H c furnished them with (necessary) instruments. and caused its warmth to be the cause of the life of all creatures. "The same is the case of all carnivorous and graminivororls animals-~f snakes. injuly hlppens to some (beings)." 1 t h i s m a t t e r fully.' ~ u int truth this is all stupidity and ignorance.wny procurable . Just a s the natural heat is produced in the heart. Some of these he has formcd in hlth and corruption. and insects. and that all creatures should perish at once. and thar they live in filth.ldvanoge gained from these also. it. or the houses of the poor are destroyed by excessive inunclations. for those who throw unmerited aspersions on the works of God. " Explain this i What benefit reaches aniinals from these (s~~akes). L Why did He create it? there is no use i . althougll at divers times falls npon animals in consequence qf them. is the cause of its life. ~ ~ dlittle maggots~are the food of the big maggots. accepts His bounty. In the salne way God Alnlighty sends the clouds in every direction for the benefit of His creatures. e their . Throughout the creation H e madc some creatures for the sake of others. God Almighty l c r c ~ t e dal the rol-id. and. so from the heat of the sun also there is benefit to (all) creation. "Just as bellefit arises from the creation of other animals so there is . I hiwe heard that same foolish people hold the opinion that the kindness of God is in accordance with the position of the moon. that the air mry remain pure from pollution. know nothing of His art and power." -. and he replied. crocodiles. The locust said.

who having brought into existence aU those created things to (the comprehension of) which the intelligence of no created being can attain. " 0 King." a the God Almighty concealed Hiinself f r o i ~ of discernment behind the veil of His splendour. Do KC this wonderful and extraordmary assemblage of beings ? D H e said. a11 d e animls. and giras them sustenance. Active and passive.' Those creatures which are lower in degree than these are without instinct. Eut the forms which are in that world are bright and transparent. fell into rani. the reprcscntatives of turning towards a sage of the Jins he %id. and the King of the Jins came and sat in the public hal! to decide the quarrel. L I as in pictures.S who had assembled from e v e q side. motion. having seen them. hut I am wondering over the wisdom and power of that an-wise Creator who created tlie111. and perceived that r multitude1 of every sort and kind. but these are mortal and perisllable.is amared. they began to offer their benedictions. I see and behold them with the eye of my heart. i great numbers. . and formed for them shape of so many varieties and Idnds. for the King has talcen his seat to pass a decis.CHAPTER XVIII. Havil~ghounded the expanse of thc world on six sides. H e made time and lace for the comfort of (His) creatures.and stood before the King-making their obeisances and payii~gtheir respects. while these are set in motion. having come from every country. The attendants. and these are dark and dense. in obedience to orders. he remained silent for a nloment. H e always nourishes them. and the judges and lawyers al-ein attendzncc" As soon a s this notice was heard all the animals and men. of xvhere the imaginations of thought and fancy cannot reach. H e displayed to the eye of every man of discernment the splendour of the light of His miraculous art. but those forms are motive polvers. and tongue. ~ f t e tint. ' creation.on in the case. His incomparability. in the same way these fotms aIso bear a likeness to those forms which exist i n the world of spirits . He made manifest those miracles that exW-y person of intellig. r 1N the morning. might acknolvledgc His miraculous art." -4fter that he stood up and delivered this speech-" Praise is due to that Creator who by His oinnipotence made all creatures manifest. Having formed many degrees in the heavens. asse1nbIed together. The King. comc forward and attend. moreover. he appointed angels to each. there is a resemblance in every limb to ~ the animals of which they are portraits. m might behold then1 . they are (ever) present to His omnipresent knowQ KhiIRaf-lit. and unity: and should not be in want of pmofs and arguments. made proclamation-" Let all the con~plainants and seekers of redress. and whatever there was behind hij veil of mystery he brought forth into the field of visibility: that men of perception. and produced in this world s creation of so m n y varieties and kinds . having sec11 it. upon whom tyranny has been exercised. He preserves than fmm every danger . On animals hc - for - IiktJi-oneness. ':And the fornls which are visible in the corporeal world are the similitudes and counterparts of those forms which exist in the xvorld of spirits.. . Those forms which are in the eternal world live eternally. The King regarded every side. whilst these have instincts. was in attendance Lost in n astonishment. might.

H e gave them surprising and transparent form3 . ~ those cities and villages whose dimate is ~ p a i o to that r of fhe whole world.f' When the sage had finished the delivery of this discourse. delivered a speech.r to all those statements. and all the wise men were bewildered. Praise 2nd thank be to Him who dignified us with the grandeur of the me faith and Islam. and has nnde no mention of several great kings!' The Kin: told him to state them.bestowed forms and shapes of many varieties. Among Nimrod. and some H e placed between these two degrees.a T1-h 'Ir&i has on~itted to Say in his s ~ e c h . but those who allow their finite intellects to pry into His nature he has h u l d amazed and stupified into the valley of perdition.J - e. " Ulis m d e r r o ~ the ~ ~ e n . of man has omitted many matters in his speech. all different in person. Ardashb. and allotted to our kings the blessings of howledge and c1emencv. the t ) . pliorto A d m . and men are the quintcsience of aIIimd5.FA say. bnd P ~ L I dcnce . some H e cast down into the lowest depths. Hebestawed upon them divers qualities and different n ranks.rhrm of ~i~ rewants. who cast *br. Briefly. Jesus. of the whole world we are the essence of the essence Praise is due to him F ~ O hestowed upon us the most perfect blessings? gave US taletits surpassing a11 living When lllis man had ended tile delivery of his oration. nlent. whose whole body was qmmetrical.o give to this man ah0 h~ Set forth his own ancl bar made his boast of them ?" They -id. He gave to us and prophecy . Darius. . " Having. army andpeople. €iAmour race all these prophets were born. Farfa1CdJn. mmed towards the man. erect in stature. " He is an inhabitant of Ifin. T o some He gave a dwelling-place i the highest of the highest heavens.g Praise and laudation be to Him wllo inicucct m d intelligence.~ g ~ c ~us l. "Tell him to say something. of which this is the epitome :" Praise be to God. Noail. their intellects r e r e deranged. wisdom.lch (to Iiimself) . . and clothed i many sorts of garments. . under w~luhuseguihnce re esublisl~ed rare arts and wonderful sciences. Seventy men were standing there. Among them there was visible n a handsome person. tvbo regulated the k n i. those \-ailous talents. Abraham. (the peace of God be upon him. !raving paid his respects. and wanted to give an aaiwe.IOC~. and lives in the territory of 'I&" T h e King said. He thraugn the Deluge came upon the war14 and as mrnY m i n d s y were on the face of the earth were all drowned-of our race excited great discord. and ~ 1 1 0bestowed on us superiority over . the King looked towards all the sages of the ]ins. n. And every one in this bed-chamba of the world H e has led by the lamp of prophecy into the royal r o d of saivation. E. Moses. He (the King) asked the aadr avho this person was. and made 11srulers on the face of the earth. and sxid. . f a m e d the ]ins from burning fire. and rest !) In Our tf. Have you m y afinvcr . avas born.and brbging forth all creatures from the hidden chambers of nonentity." But the Skhibul ' t d who did not allow any one to speak before (lie had said) hir OV. He r p & q rhc truth. the Icing loolced towards the congregation of the men." The wadi.r a m i ~ lking. and from the bountiful house of (His) munificence He granted them blesr ings of every sort and End. Bahdm. and he replied. We are the quintessence of all men. and Muhammad the pure. t h o u ~ h t .be many kings of great dignity have been born. S n u i h ~ w ~and several kings of rrdovn and governthe Sassanian line. To those who pray and ~ ~ ~ p p l i cate with tears H e has of His boundless favour granted the honour of near appro.made a sign to him He. who for our d ~ e l I i n g . and to detail the ignominy Addressing the sag% he said.

A . . looking at it. Tllji is a Hindu. L God in his anger having transfomnlea us. '' Tefl him also to relate something about his affairs. and a censer in his hand. he also spaLe :L'Thfinksare due to Him who for us granted an extensive and superior coulltry. the ipeilkerwith God? praise and thanks be to Him who made U. in I which he kept burning incense.2 'fmi??~ai replied. and lv2. lem. (these facts) also into his speech." Accordinglh in Compliance with the Kings command. He asked the warir who the person was ? and he This is a H ~ b r t ofv tribe of the children of Israel. " TeN him to SAY something? and the wazir gave him the sign (to speak:." The King said. the mines of jewek endless. and making smoke.eilce fornication .. the herbage edible vegetables. and a waist-~10thfastened by a red srring round hk Loin% asked the wazir who it was? and he replied. children rere born (among US)froin the Prevl." P ~ ~ S E due to is that Creator who bestowed on the cliildren of Ijraci adegree of excellence above ail the progeny of Adam. made us monlteys and bears.hi& is this : . ~ the aninhabitant of Syt-iC-The Icing said. who destroyed the Holy Tenlplc of ]emsa. the foll~i~seri such a prophet. the wood sugar-cane.s aluay3 engaged i n bloodshed.iddrl' The Sdiribu-Z 'azhzai said. and among them there appeared a person of wheatcoloured complexion. He spoke in modulated tones. dwells in the island of Cevlon.orshihippcd idols. merit. rather it 6 ail a conclc~nnationor himself'. and drove out the race of 'AdnSn fronl into the banks of the E ~ p h ~ a t c s the woods and nlourta(na H e was very tyrannical and bIoodthirsty. and granted for us blessof ings of many sorts and ki. tall in stature. with a long &al-d. From our race Yebuchadnezzar appeared. he makes gestures. where there is never excess of cold or heat. belt farrcned round his waist.. and in like manner ~ 0 mimds-for the source of all is under the equator In our citieinlany llas to lnm-ty wonderful and extraordinary arts : magic.assembly of men. thin." After this the King again looked towards th. " It is far from justice and equity that at 'he time of 1 dispute one should set fonh all oness otvn cr. slender. ~ 1 Who spoke with God. why does he not say this. Gocl Almighty r.xards and forwards. ing . and diril~arion-all these sciences he gave f i e men of ollr country superior to all in art us. and sages have appeared. and the children of Israel." The Icing said. and we have ail become depraved and it tuould have been consanallt with equitfl dirpced: *(er mat fie King beheld a mm. " Urhg should this mail have steed matters? There was no benefit to him from speak. the pith and essence ofu. maliing neither ~penrance nor apology. committed the OId Testament to the flames. the trees fine and green. He in ascordancc with the direction delivered a long speecll. and in a loud voice-' ~ l i(ing e asked the warfr who he was? and he replied. ' We burnt our bodies. ." 5 Intoning.holdiug in his hand a written paper . md moving bacl. iiaugh. the pebbles rubies and topazes. where the telnperahlre is agreeable.y&ih . tered the descendants of Solomon the son of David. v r a p ~ e d in a . he So-~ibrr-Z'n~i>~zat " I f he bad introdticed said.110~~rhet. The .the friend of God into the fire. In their race &o he bestowed the propheticd o f h e upon Moses.3 with .J ~ ~ all ~ 1 draws his origin from thence. There appeared a man in woollen g-ent. and on account of our idolatry =it US into ignominy and wretchedness ?"' King again looked towards the asscmblagc After t i ~ a t of men. where the nights ancl days are al\vays equal. cdlefices and conceal one%faults. the animals fat and sleek. such as the elepbanq which is fatter and bigger in body t h a ~ beastr. the medicina1.

the science of astronomy. the papimage (to Mecca and Medina).wearing a waist-cloth. having given them currency After in your countq. and he gave '0 U S laiZat~~'Z-Xadr. y d ~ ~ i ~ t ~ $ ~ that. and rest !) and brought us into his religion. and love of devotion. kiadtless. Praise b e to the him rho bc"oYved upan us such blessings Besides these ihoe are many orher excellences in US. . the fast of the Ram&. . and h u planted in our hearts mercy. The Syrian. . because YOU did not found these sciences by your 0~ wisdom. we *have become infidels .' public prayer." ' ISIS The King directed that be should be told to say so1nething. Speech o the Greekf to of bringing us into paradise. P~~~oW"' and many other sciences besides these. and for love of this --world slew the Imims ?' U looked towards the assembkage of men? The King and he Fceived a man of fair complexion holding an arrdlbe and astronomical instruments in his hand. such as the night of power.fl! in c ~ E ~ R L ofothe nirht *lIen the Xuri. "U%Y be v u y prolix. arithmetic. and through him cleansed the children of Israe] from their sins.The Kingdirected that he should be told to narrate some of his circumstances : and accordingly. . (may the peace of God be upon him. 'l Praise is due to that God who sent for our sakes the delegated prophet Muhmmad the Pure. " It is true we have acquired many sciences began to descend. in consequence of this cornman4 he said. a Syrian. who having produced the Lord Jesus froin the womb of Mary witl~outafather. delivered a speech : of which this is the si~bstmce " Praise be to that Creator. Besides these there are many other excellences in us of which I have made no mention." The SdhBwZ'mimat said." The Sdhib~-l don he not also ray. but you learnt them from t h e learned men of the of l5rae1 in the days of Ptolemy. physic." The king the G r ~ rage.h. thin. cl Praise is due t o Him who gave US pe~fections beyond nlo* of Hi5 creatures. He ordained the reading of ~e K ~ r d nthe five-fold order of prayer. Praise be to Him who hzs given us such blessings. logic. He produced in our race many sages and saints. The King directed that he also should . wheatcolo~red.. r ss ~ ~ Greek: inhabitant of t h e 1. geomancy.-do& religion. and wrapped in sheet. but he has forgotten to say this : " LITe havc not discharged the duty of serving Him. 1~eca. i c l t is tme. we eat the flesh of swine &er offering them in sacrifice. and an inr habitant of Mecca. and was told the Person a . the detail of which 'm*xfit said. I t is vain that YOU boast about these sciencs.nd of Ionia. slender. in accordancewith the order. The King asked who it was and the ~ a z j %id he Was a man of the tribe of Kumiih. ' After the (time o f the) Prophet we . astrology. . i our kixd He M produced fluifs and n good ~ n g s all kinds and varieties. and you acquired several sciences from the learned men of E inthe m days of . T h ~ o ~ His fayour ph beneficence he has imparted to US v.~onderfulsciences aeaoTdinaq arts.mehypocrites. He h= taught us to discover the v u e of e v e ~ h i n g to make astronomical instruments. YOU now attribute them to yourselves. What is this which he says ?l' k and he replied. and theologicai sciences . and made us his followers and adlp=-rnts. and we have used deceit and calumny against God! v After him the King beheld a man. gave to him the rniracuiour gifi of prophecy. who is of the religion of the Lard Jesus. and d m * gave many excdiences and blessings. learn the economy of the leavens. standing before him. rue pay worship to the cmcifix .L7." The Skharz Ifi&n~ntraid. be told to con~municate some paniculvr of his aff~ii-5 a d in accordance with the order be said. H e asked the wadr who it was.

but still they acknowledge in their h e ~ r t s the religion of the prophet of the latter days. the son of David. and we exacted the requital of blood from those who caused him to be slain. and by the mouth of His prophet He has introduced our praise into the 1)ivine L ~ o r d . KChas made our country to excel all countries in the extent of its prosperity.?~-dsthe sun.. again in . the evening the court attendants .d m m n . I3ecanse among us there are many ~vho read the Bible and Gospel. you are dismissed . they consider the prophetic power of the Lords Moses and Jesus to be a verity.'> The King looked towards the sages and said. althoogh they do not understand the meaning of them. . and from His grace we are hopeful that the appearance of the Im&n of the latter daj~s%ilI be in our country.~ and astronomy from the sages of India. Verily. just as many peoplc now learn from us.yhea cried Gentlemen. he said._ come . wearing a long beard. who has vaunted 1 said.. We pnt on mourning garments in sorrow for Im5m Husain.. ' l Praise be to God. "What reply have you to make to this man. workshop. T h e ImBm JI&d(.from ancient sages. and had not been fornicators. The King dirccted that he should be told to nlention some few facts about himself. robust in form. Thus the learned of Persia acquired the sciences of astrolo. who has given us many kinds of blessings and distinctions.morning-" Ki~-Kfidna-Iit. and C Y U ~ inell. If t h q h d not his glov and d g i i ?" inc adu~iel-ers. Tlxe King a s h d ii~liohe was ... And some read the K u r b although they do not understand its import. and in thc same way the chilciren of Israel got the sciences of magic and enchantment from Solomon. T h u s there are many verses of the ICurin which bear testimony to our eminence and virtues. l h. . and besides. and the wazir said he was a Rhurrisinf. in obcdience to the command. the11 t h c r e matters XVhen all the men 1" the 5 1 a have been a gmllnd of boa*-" tlleir respectivc &!Pities and . and looking with earnest faith totv. Accordingly." After that a person appeared in the last rank. praise is due to Him who has given to us a faculty of religion greater than to any other men. T h e course of operation in this world' is that benefit accrues to one person from another.

in awe and dignity he surpasses all. 1 will set forth at l e n S h his PecU- ~ CHAPTER XIX. his fetlocks strong. for this insect prevails over him and the third day. ali are his fl-iends and allies. his waist fine. "Who are his allies?" The jackal said. No man or animal is able." The king said. . W h e n he sees a light from a distance he goes and stands near it. the hare. the fox. and then his rage abates.it towards his subjects l'' He said. H e is upright in every matter. He is afraid of nothing except the ant. like as the gnat prevails over e ~ h a n t s and man. H e has a great liking and love of music." He asked. through fear. H e asked." The King said. I am the representative of the animals." The king said. He rends neither woman nor child. " Who sent thee?" and he said. and his form terrific. to go in front of him. his teeth and claws hard. H e dwells in the woods and wilds. his head large. and has no want of friends and allies for any business. "The hunting leopard. and superior in strength. his voiceloud.c ibo. l' Describe his figure and character." The jackal said. " He is bigger in form than all animals. this he Said.o~spring. and a11 beasts and cattIe are his subjects. "What Son of and fie fly maimenntdoes he exhi\. "U7hat country does he dwell in ? and who are his subjects ?" The jackal said. the hogdeer. and the jackal appeared in the front. and he himself eats according to his necessity. the stag. He is so zenerous that when he has taken prey he divides it among all animals. " Who art thou ?" and he replied. all. his bosom is broad. and the wolf. a s all the men allimals were 0N ing in ranks before the Kink andlooked towardsstandhe them .vs great hnd.less and attcntian to his S L ~ ~ ~ C C ii' d . a The Lion Al~li'lHaris sent me." He said.

9 Kadd-lit. he falls tvithin the confines of Gog and Magop. All m a t e h scorpions. and flee from him . But often. and a t length he dies." The King aslted xvho were his arm). He answered. All the water animals he catches he swallows in countless numbers. all the animals of the sca are afraid of him. by the heat of the sun. deign to inquire of him. and his teeth numerous. and he said. . and all the aquatic animals assemble. where there are n o clouds or rain. His name is ' Sea-Serpent . and where hc dwelt." The giq looked towads him. In bulk he is bigger than all aquatic animals. u-hen sudclcnly a voice Bii upon his ear. when in that state." The King told him to describe his appearance and character. C. and crocodiles. about the size of a gnat.1 Tile frog said. bis eyes bright. H e perceived the locust imparting motion to his tneo wings. A7dm o nishdn-name and address. is in attendance in the presence . sign : seat. a11 the animals of the sea are afraid of him . its poison affects the whole of his body." The King told hrnl to describe his form and appearance. and he answered. of which he is greatly in dread. and thus protruding the middle of his body from the \vater. and had gone to live upon sucll an acclivity. so do they all conNishdx-mark." The King then commanded him to colnnlunicatc his Eame and abode. and subjects and lie said.. He asked him who he was. The King asked him ~ 1 he rvas. from over-feeding. address. H e was swnding on a llilllock by the *ide of the sea. are his army and ru!iects.' hedwells in the salt sea . The frog. Animals perish there from the severity of the cold. " I am the 0 of the king of the aquatic animals. but he is afraid of no. and was engagcd in praycr and praise. and supports 1 himself by the strength of his head and tail." He asked him who he (the king) was. he elevates it in the air. he faints. his body2 is long . and feed upon his Aesl~for a long time. He answered. and then the clouds which rise from the sea rake him up. H e then dies. s!ature." The King asked why he had sepal-ated from his anny 2nd subjects. Then. In sl~ort. the food in his belly becomes digested. his head is large. he dwells upon high hius andmountains near the region of cold. and cast him 011 the d ~ land. and s e m them as food for several days. from the heat of which ail his body burns. &C.clls there in c0111fort. frogs. and bey comes the food of wild beasts. and no vegetation at all. a11 the aquatic animals. 1 e bends his body like a bow. his mouth broad. except a small animal. who is the ambassador of the aq~laticanimals.F T E R that tllc King cast his regards on the riglit hand and an the M. Just as he devours other animals that are small. '' I am the represcmative of all the wonns and ants. Through the coldness of the icy region he dr\. His appenrance is txtraordinal-y. and his figure terrific . and he tepiied. When. 'l Because there is a poison in Ifis mouth. one. " Does any one h o w the qualities of the 1 % sea-serpent so as to describe them ?'l The locust said. are his subjects. and they live in every place upon the face of the earth. he gets indigestion. fish. and singing with an exceedingly soft voice. " His name is Dragon . IIHis appearance and character are exactly like those of the ~ea-re-pent!~ The King said. But sometimes being raised aloft with the clouds. turtles. and he said. and tlleir king sent me hither. For when this creacure bites him.

crocodiles. his tail is long. and birds . (Arabic." The King directed him to describe his character.' And so God Almighty has said. hog-deer. are their slaves. and 0 t h -large animals from the earth." The Ring told him to describe the form and appearance of the p h e n i . " I am the representative of the birds of prey-their ling the phenix ('Ankd) has sent me. the good and evil will become manifest after death. his claws and be& are hard. was listenin. all will mingle in the dust. The parrot. for their position is just the same as ours. " His character is . "The land of that place is v e q good. the climate temperate. rhinoceroses. seated upon a branch of a tree. goats. not one man yould be left remaining? (These creatures) would come into their countly 2nd destroy them all-not one man mould cscape with life.gregate and eat him. 2nd when he flies the mountains are moved by the force of i t 5 motion. and he replied. and devour them. The same is the practice of birds prey and other birds. and no one knows this fact but the wise. ' l He resides upon the loft): mountains in the islands of the salt sea. The King asked him. after the account which I have given of the state of the animals. KrOn. Hence the wise have said. and he said.0 to the words of every one. sheep. this trickery and false assertion of theirs give rise to great astonishment. and animals of all sorts innumerable. Siirat iii. Sometimes the big animals eat the liztle ones. and sparrow-hawks and falcons make prey of them." He replied. Sonletimes they fecd. and do they not render tha11ks that God has placed all these animals far away from thcir country ? But those wretched aninwls whom they keep a t their abodes in captivity they subject to torture night and day. the fountains sweet-tasted . or the crocodiles from the sea. " The same is the case with men. ' L Who art thou?" and hereplied.I t is the same case with the whole world. and in the end they will return to God" After that he said to the King. grazing.' " After that he said. v.) ' We make the times to change from vicissirude to vicissitude among men. " In size he is bigger than all birds. and he replied. ' L When the men advance l their claim to be the masters. Sparrorvs and others eat gnats and ants." The King asked him where the pilenix lived. and when they die little worms devour their bodies in the grave. and sometimes they become the food of others. for they all eat the flesh of deer. Do they not know that if the wild beasts were to come from the forest. nor can any ship even ~ r o c e e d far as tllat. "I have heard that a11 thc men suppose that they are the masters. Do they not d e a n it a mercy. there ate many sons of fruit-bearing trees. and that all the animals are their slaves. and vithout proof or argument advance such a senseless claim. all the worms and ants and small creatures devour them. They are exceedingly stupid to utter a statement so contrary to sense. when they die. I cannot understand what the men have to boast about over the animals. Hence (these men) are filled with conceit. No man can pass so to that place. i. 134. and sometimes the little ones use their teeth upon them. Then the great hawks and eagles and vulturcs prey upon the sparrow-hawks a n d falcoi>s. L The death of one is the p i n of another. and were to n ~ a k c n attack a upon them. in flight he is strong. and when he moves them i the n air they seem like the sails of a ship . the birds of prey from the mounta~ns. Tell me the particulars of that isla~d. He takes up and carries off elephants. I am surprised I~ow they can {venture to) declare that A1 rapacious. serpents." He said. and to have al the animals as their slaves. and hunt1 ing animals.e. his wings are exceedingly broad. dragons. After that the King looked to the fi-ont. and scorpions. How is it that they do not perceive. that all animals are equal?-there is no difference between them. And finally.

seventy persons of every variety of fonn. But this is not the case among animals . consequentl~ man to ad Almighty has set up nmny kings over them. in consequence of these (soldiers). without whom business lt~ouldbe interrupted.'' The11he asked them. 2nd provide effectually far protection of his servants. and the funds are colIected for the a m y . for religion and law are necessary evcn far kings. and one. Some are ministers. their positions are diverse . and thin. is the guardian of every one. were standing there. Who is your king? " and they replied. knaves. so that they may bus!' themselves &out the of their kingdom. 'l Men have many wants . For the same reason men require m y chiefs. and that no kind of mischief may spring up. like slaves and dome~tics. Some are soldiers bearing arms. because what is required from kings is that they should be just. while among you. a h o repeI every enemy of the king. Others are they who produce grain by cultivation and husbandv. Tlueves. Th" they should have compa~ioo and show kindness for the condition of evely mankind. are there many kings ?" A11 'Tdki (Arab) beIanging to the party of men answered.sters of their slaves." After that the King Iooked towards the congregation 0: men. Some are merchants and tradesmen. notwithstanding your paucity. These. and among them he is king who is biggest in form. and benignant. Verilv. All these monarchs call themselves the vicegerents of God. Some are judges and l a ~ + ~ e r s . said to them. gives food to ail. for God has made them the possessors of their countries and the m. For in the whole world there many countries. In l i b manner there are many other classes who necessary for liins. equitable. t mnii "Among mankind there are great diversities also in the royal servants. " Reflect and ponder over your answer ro all this that the animals have spoken. delicate. and wearing garments of divers kinds. and cutpurses are unable. who enforce the mzndates of the law among mankind . Among men the reverse of this often happens. Tbey o u ~ hto have consideration and kindness for the lot of ever). and at some time or other I wiII espatiatc upan it.14 0 V~zr'iEticsf l T ! l . !\hat is the reason of this ? Thereis only one king among the animals. coilsequentlg many kings are required for them. and secretaries. romes.. %rho g . and fie government of ail countries. enforce the mandates of the law amon. selling in every country. . by whose means the administration of the country is careec? on. that their subjects may . in which lms of people live-each one's Language various. for their kings arc freqllently weak. o ga astray. notwithstanding d ~ e igreat r numbers.-my on i business of buying a ~ i d and some are destined for service only. 1L And it is not possible tlmt one king should carry on the govement of all mankind. I t is impossibie for One different. to create uproar and disturbances in the cities. so that these in every city may applytllemselves to the Pvernment and regulation of their respective peoples. restrain them from everything which God has prohibited. He creates and . and in each c o ~ ~ n t there are thousands ry of cities. "We have man)m kings." The King asl~ccl." excellent. and each one dweUs in his own k i ~ ~ g d oHIB his a m y and people. financiers.

T h e n~iddic joint he has made square. and the mrtver Was. that by them the blood is transnluted. 2nd our appearance is exceedingly wonderful." The Icing then inquired why he had a m e . flying before him. God Almighty has taught us the ' "yd$d6.' tile monarch of the flies. and becomes . . Our appearance and character arc proofs to the heedless . %&g then that tli. " God Almigl~ty gi. and in our stings H e h= placed some poison. +he King observed. through which we are raved from the wrongs of our ene~aies. so that we constrnct our habitations with great excellence. fie d f a i ~ ~ qf&e Il'fitg qfZ/lr W H E N the man ceased speaking.. He has made the fruits and flowers of the whole earth l m f u l for us. 2nd suitable to onr size. by ihe aid of which we collect g. and why he had not. materials of auifood. tile King fllrned hir thoughts to the animals. the lighr of which we see everythmng. ~ ~trees. Presently a gentle voice fell YPOn his ear.-es that he also might know them. "This virtue is nor (found) i any other animal . the skill and power of the hlmigl~ty-for Our forms are $ very delicate.h e* directed him to detail some little of his exccllca. that on both sides of our head He has given us two bright eyes.. so that we eat ficm without a ~ x i e t y . in same as H e has given to the teats of quadrupeds such p m . of His great favour and . H e asked who he was.'' supposed to he a male. do any mischief to ourselves or our young onesof our hands and feet we collect the fmit. by means of which we alight and rise UP. H e has also made for us four hands and feet resembling the ribs of L s e ~ n g u l a f i ~ r ewith W r . Sent some one of his subjem or of his army as his messenger and representative. He has also made mouth by which we know the plearuns of eat% and lips also he has given us." He replied that he felt soIicituda and com~assion fortheir state. He said. ha5 to me and to my ancestors many blessings. b a u y . not a qurcn-bcc have ir . "God Almighty.f the KurAn which arc explicit upon this our exaltation. and has "t ay to participate i t h e m Thus He has bestowed upon us the n honour of sovereignty and the prophetic o&ce. and the l~ead round. a d besides this he haspiven e r ~ to me many ather distinctions and e ~ ~ e ~ l e n c e r . He has made our neck5 slende" 0 . gimce of geolnctry and many arts. '' I am the king of the insecn. like the ot 11th animAs. H e perceived the king-bee.U. On our stomach H e has besto~ved . H e has not given these two blessing. bestowed this ~ i n u upon me. heads with ease to the right and to the left.by means of which we Ay. and llas ca-nied down this inheritance to n)y ancestors from generation to generation. a d of store than in our dweJlings. so that no tmuble migllt reach any M e of them.41mi~htyhas bestowed all these a CHAPTER X X I . and whatever else we find. " the adf l o t . Besides this. why then have you got it ? X n He said.+ powers of digestioi~ that it makes the juices into honey. the louver part of the body long. and from that comes healing to all ~rrankind There are texts . We construct out houses Upon such an exuuent plan that the wind can never enter them. which honey is food for oorse~ves and 0. and engaged in singing bepraise and of God. On our slioulders He has made favr %6ngs..The BLX.. other animal.Young ones.c. The Lord has placed in our bodies three joints. From our saliva he har made honey.

and they n e r o transgress 'heir as. Vellus is consort. Of what cllaracte~ .' The ICm: inquired how they found secufiry from the hands of men. They rend us all kinds of presents. &orr o b e ~ c n c e and sybmirsion to their chiefs in. "They show their obedience and S U ~ I ~ ~ toS h iO chief. and have selected their hauses far their abodes. Bravo ! a hundred times bravo ! You are very ffuuetmd eloquent. (' Where are your people and your troops ? " He repIied. u~herevcr they find convenience there they dwell. and all the stars stand i the n position soldiers and subjectS... to make peace with us. destroy their young ones. bring forward mrny devices.. Among these the t sun lloldl the dignity of kinq. The King said. I bare taken all this trouble upon myre& and have not sent any one of than. to what extent shall we ahoxv our gratitude? It is for this that. tllai the king-bce asked the King how the jins their roverein and chiefs. it)-of rases. S t ~ r ~ and whatever commaad he issues they obc~. blessings upon us. are obedience to Him. we make peace with them and rctum to their abodes. but sametimes we are SO distressed that r e depart iron. Those who are P o d . " Upon the hills and mountains. without pmof or reason they assce that they are masters." CHAPTER XXII. because they to the sun.. his terntow Then men.and. and move according to his motion i when he aire~red.'' The X%-bee =ked him to enter into details The King said. believers and U*b e h v e r ~just a s there are amollg men.a degree t t is impossible for mall. But for all this they are not satisfied . and take away the honey and eat it among them.owcd beg& him to sate particulars. and he saicl. having consideration and kindness for my subjects. " M a y hi& themselves from them. we are slaves.TAe Bee. For the obedie~~ce d s u b s a viency of Jins is like ~ d a of the stars." The King asied why they submitted patiently to man's tyranny. He said. but u~leneverthe men get an opportunity they annoy them. ulhis d e n c c has becn obtained by them from the render ~vho all the heoldierr of the Almilht~. "In the fmily of Jinr there are good and bad." When the bee ceased from speaking thc King cried. "We b e u all tYs tyranny. per &c-: they beat dntms and tan~baurincn." ~h~ ing-bee inquired where the s t a a had acquired this pefiecti~n of obedience and regulality The King raid. often even they breait their bonep combs.. M ~ C U is Y ~ minister. T r u e it is that God has bestowed these bIeningi on no animal besides you.. Saturn is treastlrer. a d s~. ancl so escape .. S all - to. the moon is heir-appareni subare and like solldicsi and subjects. they satisfy us giuiag to 11s all sorts of presents and rarities. Solne hax?e g m e into fie countries of the men. and upon the trees . h our nature there is no mallgnity or evil . he king-bee said. Jupiter in judge. . in fine. znd limits." After this he asked. T b ~ d h l r S comma11deis iechief.

m fine. still bey a n better than villainous men.n n'hi~ll speak upon this subject. and communicrre (the to the mind. i h e man of R h said. although they may differ in form and appearam. and an exorciser performs incantations and exorcisms to the chief of the Jinn. and although in they pay no obedience to their king. G oar b e at this.ftEe flier.he chief of the insects shauld hold a position near the which no &er animal has attained. witlioul hesitation or delay. and going back to their tribe. they instantly fiee. " we 1 l' The Grzek. Oft" to gain some advantase they ap path of righLeousness and become infidels side from apostptes . "It i s V U Y extraordinary that t. In this same way tbe ang& shoi7 Uieir obedience and subjection to God-tvharevcr order js gi. will show partiality or indulgence to them. they said. h e is still ve1-y intelligent and wise . they inflict no kind? of injury upon him so long as he remains in that place. Whenever a man. There are severzl texts of the Kur5. sai4 ''%*batthe m i n ~ a l s have made of Your tYrmny has erer been au heard by gm. cornPare this with some ather thing. And it is the rule among kings to converse with such persons of their own race a s share with them in royalty and rule." ' . If perchance a Jin obtains the mart e r i aver 2 W o w or a man. repcats a prayer or formula through fear of the b s . Their disposirions inhddity and ~vickedners the)' are a1to:dha puffed ." The bee said. they. Among tjK Jins there are villains and infidels. and be is the chief and Orator of au the insects. all of them became Musulman5.is the obedience shown by the angels l'' H e said.*id and erring they do not mderstand an@ina. t h a they are masters. ' I Men are the V e V reverse of this. W are s l a v e c e that the King continued talking with mn men tile ~i~ chief . the King. they Pay no obcdience m their own prophets. there is this proof of the excelfence of their obedience. for many Jinr. NOW then c0m1unimte all that tllere remains for you to say. If they in qpearance sho\v obedience. they require no regulating or directing. they a n always cnsaged in murder and strife on the face d the eartl~. " T h e five sensfi need no command or prohibition in bringing to the notice and Imowiedge of the reason such things as are perceptible by them. for the king-bee in chief ofthe flies. When the mind directs its attention to the inverti. by the forcc of his occult 2 % brought many suffcrings and hardships upon them. still their hearts are not firehorn infidel if^ and wickednesg and inasmuch as they are . and caused them to share in the blessings of the true faith. for his deliverance.'' The King said." Thereeresenrative of the men said. (or any object or desire. and noturithstandi~lgmiracles and wonders they are became rank heretics.en they instantly execute. Although he. 2nd they have a150 Sven their answer to the which you have made. m a h no failure in their obcrJjence f O King Solomon. He tezches t@ all animals rules hjl of qowament and sovereignty. And berid%. looking toivzrds t11e men. There are m y ercellencu and talents in us uhich iestify to the honesty of our chin>: The directed him to a t e them. PIeasC to describe this fully. But for d1 this thur pretension is. Tile hophet (may the peace of God znd rest be with him !) was oncereading the Kurdn in a certain piace where some Jins passed by. i any n or jungle. still they stood 6rm in their obediom. nofrvitbstanding their infidelity and error. they called many to the Mullammadan 1-cligion. AS Soon as they heard it. Fu~ther. Do not take the idea into Ymr head that the 6 n g . such obedience as the five senses pay to tbe reasonable soul . m o u g h he is sma8 and thin in body." A rage of the Jins raid. gation of anything.

and ~ t great foil h labour carry it OK If any one ant is l a w his u~rl. P thcir ~S L ~ ~ muas on rhc trees. they beat bin.. but more e s p e c i ~ ~ ~ y mulberryfie. no water can ever enter therein i how he Lollect5 and stores grain for his food.I and then in the Wular big. and no one gave any answer . which for the most Part live nPon 0" the the eees of the hills. bur if which ihey these men ivauld think alld consider. 1t is nOf the practice for kings to eat the arts of slaves. t a b l y i n houses and eat if with our young o n e . then why do they eat our leavings. or she perisi~esfrom excess of heat or . 1 thisway " gear gear the young ones are produced.n T h e King said to the animals. ~f m a l t discovers anything which horn its reizhr he is ~~1abl. this claim without proof cannot be gain& by them.Sfiill of the Atat. it . if any of it rakes it out and dries it in the sun i ever let5 tao the s d breaks in two pieces a11 the grains iihich arc 1iILeIyto germinate. and tri. afterrardr they 211 conF%Tate. goes and digs a hole in some ~ f~ o u n and lays her eggs. o v d their heads. In the hot season lnMY ants ulemb~E large carayanr and go about 0 evers side in in . % n' h e the time of her death a r v e s . the affairs of this world and of the next ~ e f u l l provide for. he conStn~ct5 di ~ all t_uous dIvellingr under the ground.th ea. There are many matters in which men have need of us. if he would find out ~11. 'g ~ i ~ . of food.. proficiency in the science of geometv that without or compass we draw circles of a11 sorts. m the same \MY. . =e acquainted with many sciences and arts. This man opines that men of arc Wjuainted with many sciences and afijfices. W-hen its wing. wllen they grow fat h the days of S P ease. for we station porters and guards at Our abode$ 50 that no one can approach our king 7v. and drive him off Thus. SO that without the fmchers we are versed in so many a r t s If the and aid of men have the conceit to think that they are masters a d tile animalr are their slaves. but there is not one in which we have m y necessity for tl1un. but &er an hour the repre~cntativc the dies said. Men have learned the ruler of sovereignty and government from U S . are developed. hblv7n o ~ p i t h r ~ ~ n hisntiny form.thout letmission. in virtue of masters and the animals their slaves . . i l sik-\vorm.mgular md 4Uadranp~lar $ures : i our dwellings we connmct nu rafis n of angles.ving when the spang reason returns.e lift. he takes a little of it 2nd goes to to i s Then the ono ivho marches at their head t h s 2 slnail portion it as r sjin~ple which tlu r e c o g ~ s e by C and goes to the place . W h a have about t120~e merits which he has described ? to say gation of animals having heard these words. it eats and denks till it gm~v.. when she gets fat. ~ ~ l ~ . and sleep therein in up they lay their eggs in that same ~ o . the lomrt. and weather becomes mild. all these men pick out and tdce for their oJvnuse " "0 one has taught US these arts. Therefore. year. From tllis it is obvious y that we arc the masters and the aninlals are our slaves. What&verremains Our leaving. but they are to US from the Almighty. nve sit down m f o . She then Covers thern t d . l In the fo~~o-. and we excel all animals in wisdom and counsel. and hoiv. SO that how great Soei'er m2t. eating and drinking d ~ i n g the spring harvest. . a little young one is produced horn egg like maggot. which creeps on the ground and the feeds upon the grass. l~h~ COngre.-th flies a\my. '' If this man would only look upon the doings of the mt .We extract honey from the leaves of tree% and when we have coIlected it. lays ifi and hider them in the ground.irs e a t science this ivavld and intelligence the ant possesses. they ivould ]. be the inundation.-am after what fashion We order and settle our dam and counsel we are s~~pel-ior them and that insucll to LVe haue &C. the birds ear her up.

which are characteristics of the great> never m be found in are them . and how greatly they excel him in &e. nourish them entirely out of tenderness a d kindness. they in the s a c wry lay eggs and produce youl~g ones. they are slaves. cakes. V ~ is boasting about thevarieties of his ~ O food and drink does not that all these are in red it^ woubler and torments him. cOns@Ucling bridges. kindling fires in Ovens." ~h~ nighonpl+ the representative of the birGs.) felt. and deposit forrn therein their eggs and young ones. and many different all these artides? so* of carpets. and they. of e\lery kind and Sort. life again Comes into them. "you h?-ve heard to the of all that he hu .as many men deny that there is a resurrenion and day of jud€Pent.h a w YOU any m r r e r l e t ?" Then one penon of'them. by the power of t o d . and Praised him. these do not under any ~ i r c u m s t a n ~ ~ ~ deny them. b y which our claim is established. "' tmnsLubic into English. If man could but understad these facts about the animals. i i e said-'' Our life parsCS by virilF e a t pleasure. he said. and told him to exphinin..and then they depart. . ae promrable for cmr food and. and build houses. but that after their death other insects may come and find comfort. and when the days of mar.pestly.a. or they die of themselves from heat or cold. and thus addressed the ~i~~:a T G man. -ploughing. ''Thus 211 insects. \Ve eat thc pulp and kernel of the fruit . IQ-~sPs their colnbs upon walls and trees. are complete. and other insects which Iay eggsJfeed their young ones. and confectionst in VCat variety. . Good things. eat $Weetmeat. flies~ gnats7 mosqujtoes. day by d r y they seek their sustenance. build their drvellings.' The god king directed bilrxto mention them. and having the animals for slaves. and these crawl about upan the tress When they become plump m d strong. t.thentvhat thing have they to boast about over US? Again. " In this these endurc many hardships m d troubles for the sake comforts. keeping accounts with shopare 1 7bclixt gives t j ) ~~~~S ~ of S Y ~ but . Then ~ " m i n ~ a s s e ~ n b l a p men.For the "of our can5riiution~ Call h ~ dal~cil% WC e and music. Sowln-. tales and stories. The cocoons remdn in safety all the year. said-u There arc man7 virtues and in us. He said. lupbrer and merriment. drugges. having brougl~r forth their young.where can r11e animals They cat the grass of the forest.hey s. All these things are proofs that we are masters. irrigating with water . different indeal from men who always entertain the hope of kindness and benefit from their children. drink. c0oki47 wL"gling rith bufchers about moat." when the ieprerntativc of the fie5 closed his speech the King of the j i a a was nluch pleased. m A d . do not do so merely for their benefit.r plans for this life and the next. in their usual manner. and in r b time of winter they hide in holes and crewces and die. God in His power reproduce. he would not boast of being master. weighing and reapbg. and in the next year the young oner are produced from them. But &y do nor amus any food . TIleir skins relnain there all the winter. Was sitting in front a branch of a tree. which are not even by animals. Gcnemsity and liberdity. we wear beautiful garments and jewel.-aIlor d n d and stone. v e r z ~ Him. and do not decay or melt away. with resignation and cheerfulness it p a s e r away in the following y a r ." The King asked howdat that *S. Because e v e v one of them h% a full assurrnce of his own death. Besides this. and bein% quite naked brr night and by day.In the spring season. cloth. and produce their young ones. of all kinds. they are sub~ectlike siaves toil and labour. m d T e lai. down (for v our US. g-inding . not the expectation of services to be rendered by them . The birds then devour them.Digging the ground.

saye ing. g_. cast them into a placneither leaves nor fruit : what mention can there be then of (deed) fruits ? Fol. a l e milk is vitiated. being deluded by their e n e m ~ . and feeling no kind of anxiety (0' need 00 mrkion. they are subjecf '0 discascs of all Sons. from which foul humours a0 prodLlced. There is also this reason for your children being diseased. h d as they consume many different kindr of food. So do they. and there is no deficiency or excess in thegum- tits. wherever 1 go. But those animals who are captives to you cannot P I S S thor &ay. . then what have YOU to boast about ? equal (partners) in eating the remaining and you f&is and grains. 1f it has been a account can be given gained in a lawiul u7a>7.~ifi impudence declare. giving pain to their bodies. h e y arc ourthey ~ ~ : r r ~ f The man repiied. do not obtain their natural food and drink . 'We are masters . everything (we need) is e . We eat the or various fruits rllich God Almighty. jaundice. but we are preserved from the111 i r o f all the kinds of food to be found in )lour houses.keepers. ague. eat that uns$trblefood of which YOU boast. fever. vapours. but tlleie (men) are ever writhing in anxiety about their food. cholera. cndurirlg toil for the salic of gctiin: moncyj rtudriol science and art. To u? there diseases they ire rubject to sudden death.they were expelled from thence. hectic [ever. and consequently from time to time they fall sick.but i t is the nwxS of ~ ~ S ~ . o d ~ animals who are in bondage to you.. by the grace of God. for of but this ~ l .a long period they kept weeping "their gjef. fic-doiOreux. and P ~ T ~ O P their sin. CS boils.. lvith all this iaholv and effort they amass tvealth and property. ele~llantja~i~. to beasts d s o are subject to most d i ~ a s e s . ancestors.. honey h &c choicest and best. I' m' e arc sealred from 7111 thcie priss and torturer. For medicine and physic they run and r=on to [he ~ O L I S E S docto~s. it does not arise from any art of yours . You eat it and emplog it in your C I S medicines . ~ 'H re(orted. our ancestors d s o there shared with them those comforts and blessings. headache. because Our food is merely regctablcr .scrofula.not keep their bodies under control. diarrhea Wnonhaa. pigeons. in their natural manner .j . ~ h ~ s e animals r h o roam about at rill in the jungles pl-eserved from every disease. and frorn of Old Our anCeStOr5 and your mce. palsy. cough. of His power. ~ 'When the munsel f GO^. The angels. consequently tI:ey fall sick. Dogs. they eat food a t UnSeasonaa~e ~IOUTS. cats. and showed theu greed for a certain . gripes. to the agonies diaolution. . ire. ' Sicl~nessis not a t ail p e r u l i ~ us . ~ O W I ~ . p~lypus-in fire.d scareh for meat and drink never enters into oar n1ind. having a where there were brau& them down. p n p a n t women and nurses. vhicll after their death Llls to the lot of others. Care al. through hunger they eat t~ excess i they no. it is entireh through asrociation and intimacy with you. pmcurable . without b l ~ o n r troublq mrlie use of. "When animals fall sicl. mntinued to be on an equality O this matter). it is torture and tcmcnt.. and tllrougb its effects lr i ' r o? cKldren are born ugly and always liable to diseases. a a t i s i a c t o ~ of it. and for two farthings standing n-ith t h r r hands clasped in the presence of noblemerl. Adam a d Eve¶ \vcredWellingin parsdisc. through greediness. xihatever springs from the earth. and to sorrow and anger in fine. and to Hiin we nl~vayspay our thallk. ha".At l e q t h God accepted their repentance. travelling into distant countries. but if it has not. In fine. eating t l ~ fruits of that place withe out foil i a b m . and are subject to chronic dirmses. YOU are in\rolved in these evils from the effect of Your own works. H sent an m g d to them.surer many pains and torlnella. n In those dry$ when your great ancestors. because their times of eating and drinking are fired. P ~ ~ P ~ itch. who Calne and t a u ~ h t e H . bar crated for us. nngl~orm.

ed ~t has . distinctions afford evidence to this. Making all solis of snares and nets. wherever our hearts l. you weep and feel pain . fasting.'' The King inquired. and pass your days in luxury and enjoyment . Having made known to us what is lawful and unlawful. In fine. <. but ycu havefor every one of these things its opposite of pain 2nd toEnent. "Instead of your cities and houses. At length. and these began to live in every place. we have this boundless plain for our use. for every joy you feel a corresponding sorrow. pfi. he liar restricted this (kno\vledge) to us. 116. Ablution. . and that you have many things besides these which we cannot get-this is aU true. we eat our suitable food and drink pure water . and to make garments. purification. some were made prisoners. and sell (the water). they the slaves? The representative of the birds then said. You are ever liable to labour and trouble . preaching i n pulpiu. We are Pure from and have no need of the devotion of which they boast. sxying prayers in the mosques. because these are the troubles and pains which befit slaves and miserable creatures. fetters on your hands. we f y We pick and eat the green v e r d ~ ~ r e the banks of the rivers without let or hindrance . w h a t k n d of trouble. Thus. and instead of praise. ' Good deeds prevent ~f they do not act upon the rules of the gu. then it would be found that these things are troubles and hardships to you. these are all distinctive marks of slaves : how then is it proved that you are the masters. f i y d d . we have no need of ropes or buclic-ts. you endure grief. v. on desire. COO?<. you are subjected to derision. SJrat xi. " Gad Airnighty has established all there modes of worship in order that their sins maybe forgiven. A Persi. expatiating on your dignity.-dl these biersings He has given to us. " If you Were to and conrider. whether wood or field. prayer. instead of fine houses. althaugl' 1 m . sacrifice. and the revealed Word. instead of happiness. and that they may not be able to go asway. that we are masters. you wear a collar on your neck. ~ e b r mbut it is obdo= that the . bottles or pitchers-all these t h i n g are required for p. that you are occupied in music and dancing. probably an l n f x i Or P e ~ i m .them how to till the ground. In this fear they continue occupied in devotion. they pursued them in order to capture and confine them. in order to bring US into paradise. instead of music and laughter. that you wear fine clothes and jewels of all sorts. and some fled. day and night they were subject to these troubles and labours. He replied. you sit in the house of mourning . instead of parties of pleasure. and many other acts of devotion H e has taught us.rhat you may take tl~em your shoulders. and chains upon your legs . instead of jewels. And God m i g h t y has sent prophets to those people.God Airnighty h= bestowed upon us distinctions of many bds-religioh prophecy.ml runong them said.. a b s g l m Z . from which we are exempt. then evil doings began against the (animals) dwelling on the earth.'7 He said. \ve the slaves ? " The King then asked the representative of the men if he had any other answer left. good and evil. you sleep in the dark grave . to SOW. q&er is a Muhammadan. matters have arrived a t such a pitch that now you stand there boasting. and rmdy for contending and quarrclIing '<And when you say that you have parties of pleasure. evil ones:' b e n they a n disgraced in the estimation of God. bus He rays in the KurPn. In fine. But we are exempt from all these evils. c m y thcm on &out from place to place. free from toil and labour. grind. From earth to sky. When many children were born to them. 2 K&". " W e have many erce11ences and distinctions which testify to our ddlrn!' The told hihim to state them. there is no one to forbid us . these . Their abodes were seized.

11 . These people find the need of physicians when they are sick and ill. UAblution and pnrification have been made duties for you. mixed fabrics of silk and colton. but are occupied nigl~t that idolatry and sin . There are still many superior qualities 2nd excellences in us by which it is establisl1d that we are the masters and the a n i ~ n d are our slaves. fine Mahmbdi rnus~in. "When you say that God Almighty has revealed to texts of t h e Kurfin relating to things la$dul and to penal laws and the laws of retaliation.' Indeed he felt . for we are always engaged night and in prayer and fasting. V. all thin for your instruction." When the messenger of the birds had thus finished speaking. and do not bestow it upon deserving people. and that not for lust and gratification. build your house upon the hills. and b u y of his brother. for the sole object of the perpetuation of our species we do ' the deed. . Prayer and fasting are duties with you an this accocnt. SSlrat xri. " If you have anything &p left to say. prz-badan. b c a c s e your hearts are dut Tbmllgh smpidiry and ignorance you do not know what is bene&iai. get many other fine things. great regret on this matter. and . for where can the animals net all these things ? They wander about stark naked in the a K" & .vithouf the intervention of prophets. . fun. . W e are free f r a n ~ we know God to be one and vithotlt putner.' And in another place he s y . and show Cain that he also. 1K& u . f a~ V~&ndl ~YOU talk about YOLK going into the mosques religious houses for the purpoK of ~ u b l i pra>-er. during the whole year we apprrn& each other only once. ' God NmightY rent a crow to go and dig the ground. 70. 41. ery and wickedness. goid embroidery. chequered ~ 1 0 t . they the slaves. all those things you boast about we do not aU require. that I mi&t similarly inter my brother's bier.-giving be made a duty for You ? We take compassion and pity upon our fellows. silks. . and felts . and besides all these. We y do not comnit sin. In fine. \lTr abstain from these things. then speak. muslini. 3 Rurin. because you are always snciean.ough them your sins may he pardoned. hence Uie command of purification for you. Night and day you pass year time in adultery and . engaged in His worship. and never accumukte anything through avarice. and they entreat the astiolo~err tell them) d things inaus(to picious and 111-fatcd. that thl. Sfirat xxic. consequentIy you require teachers and masters. flowered muslin. Sli-at V v ++ . jurious .animal kno~vsits n as' praise. brocader." An li&f out of the assemblage of men answered. because YOU mulate late great wealth by lawful and unlawlul means. . lace.they are infidels. v. Thus we s have various garments to adorn and beautify us-shawls.. A altars are the mountains and the bil~s. If J-ou expended it On the poor and needy. and your bodies are of foul odour. in the same way. Hence it is a s c e ~ i n e d fhat we are the masters.' -4nd ~~d slid to PnYer i one place he says." When Cain saw ir he said. ' What a pity it is that 1 have not got as much sense as the crow. Neither have we any need of prayers on Sabbaths and festivals. and sianem. But God Aln~ighty makes all things h o w n h us ."~&'~*n: ~. then ~ h should these be duties for us l Sacrifices and duxgiving are incumbent upon you. 'Ever). The prophets and messengers 2 God) are like the physicians and astrologers. might dig the c a d . as He himself says inthe K ~ ~ L ~ . v ~ i o * kinds h~ of carpets. the IGng looked to the men and said. to us every place i s a mosque t m d temple. who do not per(orm and day in debauchworship to Him. but for this c we have no necessity at all . then why would alm. idolaters. ay. dnggets.s f l h satin.' wherever we c ~ s our eyes we perceive the divine presence. what in.

" arked.Then the)r lost their superiority .are all our slaves. h e y underwent l now forced kind of toil or labour like as these people undeqro he divine command Was. of God are . and then to get it sewed by tailors. and your finest garments are genemade fron1the wool of animals. x e involved in trouble about it. conrcqucoily d y God made you subject to this punishment. i n the W 3 Y that the doctor of fins the circvmrtances length i a fOnner n chapter!' of the rapacious beasts had thus w h e n the a man said. and this rvorm does nor bdong f O the race of Adam. The jacW. tion. and of His kindness it ail withiil our power. so that it may be sheltered from the evils of cold and heat. that we might be protected from cold and heat. . that we might malce it . " B e r n S e the h m a bthere is no one more wicked and vieious than you. ~ u you aixvays. He. beginning of the race rf Adam. the hair of their heads fell off.ll like as he did far the animals. Y 0 M~U. fiat you carefully keep it and sell it--you are always writhing in aniietynbaut i t " So there arc other garmenu which you weave fmm the fur 2nd hair of many animals.jungles like slaves. ~fwewere ~S. your ancefors l'cbelled againn ~ o d and in requital thereof YOU arc subjected to . All taese gifts and blessing. of His compassion and kindness.ll Relate to US the facts about 11.yjo]e. ing a d dress. Where Were ail &ere d$fcrel~tguments in the first age? perllap~you to& them by tyranny and riolei~ce fram the animals. and then appropriate t h m to Y O ~ ~ S ~ I V3'0 make such boar of this is improper. and that comes from the mucus of a worn . and by means of this same hair they u7ere protected from the cold and heat. no more hard-heam& pnd none '0 greedy to good for nothing but to wO*N anidevour cadon you . ~t the time He created thon they Were quite d e d . of satao they &isregarded the direction of Cod. because God Allnighty produced it on our bodies. and became quite naked. God Almighty brings forth this dress upon Our bodies at the time afben we are born. the ambassador of the rapacious beast$ 0 said to the man. it is not fit and right for before us. the= two li* i the East upon the Ruby mount*l~%under the n equator. ' npforre m t w ~ YOU have torn it from these insects. proofs of our domination. it would become us. The angel+ by divine expelled t h m from thence. Indeed you suffer SO much trouble and kbour about it. and do with the~n we as they. Ofall the garments that you possess. the finest and the softest are the bracades and silks. without any labour or t tmuble of ours. and washed by rashermen. They used to stroll about in the and eat the fruit of a l the trees .time he was spcaking about ? He raid. Accordingly." H e replied. with force aad. '' when God 1 created dam and Eve 1 e provided food and covering for the. with the exception of one tree the fruit of \"hiCh they not to approach T h m u d l the hg~il"." he m m asked wht. that the7 were to eat the garden. it is right that we should E lordly authority over tbem. it is better for YOU to be silent:' The jackd asked for orhat reason ? He said. stowed this dress upon us." The King said to the jacl. tell me this. whicll for its 0% Protection spins (aweb)with its mucus on &trees.ce rnll~ You tear them from the animals. HOW i-) fiis And the man replied. that you have to it. to boast thereof. be.nure ih bmt upon their death and destruc- . with labour spin and weave it. t<is trouble. but is a species of insect. "As you are boasting SO lnuch about your fine and soft dress. these are made of raw silk. but &ir emire bodies r e r e covered with the hair of their heads." The King asked the aninzls if they had any answer to give ' this. till your dying breath. mals.-over.

just as it is alloaable for you to catand this is lawful for earerne carrion in time of necessity. SOlong as in i n y place they found flesh lying on rhe groulld. for without that we knew nothing rv]1aterer about it* Becore the time of Adam no rapacious b e s t preyed upon aninmib. and unfh fraud and fake pmenrions to YOU' authority orer t h e m Have you ever the engaged in War and *rife. it is all through you.-h ~ other. and towards your kindreed.Qu from Our sw hr. we do not find any animal complaining of us lilce as they complain of you And you my dro. that benint comes t o all of ). rip open their bellies.Because .If you ~ ~ 0 consider and reflect. and eat their flesll. Even now YOU are i disn . COWS. you did not allow any animal remain in the jungle . Dbr& Islcandar. instruction. present time. and 90 Out into the mOuntGns devout md jungle. this is dear. Isfnndiyhr. Tbexfore~ if your the wild be=u were not better than YOU. and were d. From the days of Gain and Abel d1'w5 3'0' "ie ta the continues to h seen . ' When You say that the hearts of rapacious beash aye bard and mercilas. roast them. where the wild beasts have their abode. their blood. z u ~~k~ f i dAfr&jiyib. The birds of prey XISOv110 are in bonds with and p u . ~ u r h bones.vay-i occupied i n massacre and slaughter. o they used t ezt its flesh. is rucll that YOU buP/ Your dead . But t d l US what ad. then t'h~ flee holy ma devout men resort to them ? Far pious perate pmple do not resort to the wicked. slaughter them. to preying upon living animals . h . and eat t b m their -all these practices oure their origin to you. ~ l d deTstand that the tyranny of the rapacious beasts is not equal t o your o m .rs be obtained in the jungle? Having no rcsouxe. Jamengaged in war ihfd. as the animdr h o w nothing about. own. so that are cannot get to eat them" you ray. and other like as YOU 60? if YOU to i n j w of the wild animals wit11 considerainquire into the tion and c a q you would learn that they are far better yourselves" ~h~ d r r s a d o r of the men inquired if there was any poofof this. You cut them with hives.. acquJnfance night and up day. we tool. ~f do inflict this treatment on the animals. then you would un. \liodchihr. flay thenl. that . they crush their bones and drink tl~eirblood. but in the time ofwant and extremity they were compeUed to do j:m ! h 'Vere created. This is a proof that the wad beasts than you. but they did no injury to living beasts." The representatire of the carnivorous beasts raid. they did not tearauy animal. for you slaugi~terthem. sheep. nor do the wild beasts te-?T them.and he replied. Thus. 2 . and you began t o catch and confine g o a ~ . 1 rapacious beasts prey upon a11d devour ani1I mals. in the earth. when any animal died in the woods and d d s . and in it passed amy. .gj11e~~towards US. the representativeof the cattle has stated t h e first chapter YOUalso pursue such a course t o b ~ a r d=. and a r m . hunt tl~eir prey and feed you with it. " Those of you who are your dominions. Rustam. rather do better t_ horn them. camels. but you do just the fbiEg. then h o l ~ their flesh to u. WC do not do W.-amivorous beasts ear open the bellies of animals. but the rapacious beasts having seen YOU the usage. m d never take any compassion upon their condition. that tile rapacious beasts kill a d ravagehave " SO.~anta. 6. but far 111 this YOU boast turbance and a b u e the rapacious beasts. The injury is a p parent. and eat their flesh. But p sti. and kep A warn. the animals derive from you. " w h e n you 611 us that no goad comas to any one from us.

a philono~herbelonging to the company ofIins said. virtuous abstinent people. SJrat. lawye"& . yid he 51 . went to thek own dwellings.. Were greatly ashamed. ~crretmcs. n o ~ ~ t b r t a n dthat~they belong to a distinct in these and those there is no appveot dmispecies Get~vcen Lrity . but is tbjs ? nlE there not good acd bad in ever)-spedn' Even the beasts which ere bad do not tear to i w e s rile good ancl riCteous. learned rnell.mals our slaves. the varieties of men . . he 11 he would undastrnd that. judges. Kudn. that they m y obtain the recompense oftheir rills:JJI ivhen the anbassador of the rapacious b e a t s finished this speech. as opposed tO these. scientific me" holy poets. Of all thew classes each one has i t s distinn mords laudable q"Liitie5. while evening came on. grammarians. magiu." him to set tlhem forth. &ov drive him out into the jungle. m w the varieties of the birds. weavers. and its distinct and apppprovrdinstimtes and arts An these "e'lences and and the aniqudiues are peculiar . because every species recognises its otvn fellowJ and the wild beasts k n o r i i ~ g him to be righteous do not molut h i m True it is ' One u i n t hors anofier* VeiilY there are bad a!~dvicious ones among the wild beasts."Anotller proof is this : when ). the sovn rose. d . this . financiers. Thus cod AImighty declares. men of trade. "He $pc& the h t h there no doubt O ~i'I~ertai&y r about iL" The nlen on every side. they we" to state to go and associate with fi There are many laudable qualities in The King directed us 4 \\. He the truth . the animals do not share m thecm to rqnm it is evident that W e are the manerr. . dreams. and those who are bad flee from fie good the ~vicked if were nor evil and sllould heir devout and holy nun go and dwell in the wiids and mountains. and hung down their heads. humane men. preachers. a s ~ ~ i o g e rSO0 s. If tlie wiid beasts do not tear him to pieces. logicims1 physia thsayers. still in good qualities they surely mu* be ~ ~ f i ~ ~ r J J All the congegation of Jins said.. vi. interpreters of cians. those people who are good d u n the bad associate l*itIl the good. This man is boasting about hi. but tlleyclevour the evil men. mab and many other dasser besides these i devotees. and other m~ s." ha& ended his statement. and there conceive affection for the wild beasts. ' 1 make tyrants to prevail over tjr'm~s. they understand fmm that fact that he is righteous devout . revenue Offlmgyate.4 In 0 1 race there are 1' fings. geometricians. the parrot said When the to the E(mg.hich our claim is established. rag. mace-barerg ~en~allt'. V~C~OUYS why he IY of justice. buildus~ and any it A Persian raid. proof L all the men and animals attended the King told the men that if had of their ciaims to adduce. and all taking leave. dchemir~~.ministersl not. although these belong to a diffmnt species . mrhcl~ they heard this condemnation 1 censure.our t y r a ~ ~ n i c d kings haire any doubt about the probity a11d purity of zi)y man. arsiaa~\u. cers.- 6' .m . cottansar~ei~ h o e r n a k ~tailors. merouE chssri. Mean. v.les.


i ~ this ski11 they have acquired 1 (he t e d ? n g of parents or mastern . a the divine command. The s w a ~ ~ o also build their ar hanging in tile air under the cave+ and require neitha ladders nor al1fihing of the kind t o get up to t h e m constructs her house i t h o u t mud Or watm. tWba it ' 0 al~ove. they are watchful against the slumber of h e e ~ e ~ ~ n e s s . they ?in some fine kind of lines from their saliva . in the same Way aS the Corporeal form of A d a m rtifi survives. behold them. $hy reward Then he looked towards the p m t . and make it firm and suong.. reasoll2ble Soul StiU remains among the descendants of Adam. '' The reasonable SOU] for since the tinle of Adamps crea.irninlag . whiih 7. their senses are similar those of and the angels Hence they see them . He said. and are not perceptible by the nlO*al senses. All this is a proof of His kindness and mercy.' for it buildr itr house without eaRh or bricks.c. are born. these they afiewards at16LCh (0 Overhend. because their s e a r s a e free the gloom of folly. Then. For instance. h o w i . she divides them into three lots: she SeCUres in the &h.t-e verl feble. because among us also are many animals who share with them in those fly (bee) possesses greater ability in building and repairing ~h~~ than their architecrs and engineen. Those who. This man mainwins that there are many worlcmcn and mechanics jn his race . The %ge replied. but t h e i irrriiors and damers can b nothins "thout them. and told hill1 to finish his qeech. 1 (he drawing . They caU this also rblfs (devil). Y ln fiLle.' and they are subject to the reasonable soul. . or lime or mortar. and keep5 Open a smdl IPaCe in fie centye. and in the day of judgment the sons of ~ d will fire jn that m form. he firmly at.neither do they ~ or thread .ese (men) is t h e wvcakcrt of all insects.vca. thmugh purity of heart. but which pmsess g"*et. The s p replied. and h 4 accordin? their cllstom." The King asked how it was that L e angels m d the senses a were not visible. so that *. and some she keeps under her ""3w h ~ I Lit. there is the ostrich.J7 ~~d The King having heard these detlilr.hE1 em_ oa to or thirty. vhereas their r e a v e r s cannot weave anything without stuff:< So . bs and grexter &iil than a l their wealrersl fintplace.. dlineP circles it ha. and supPO* their offspring. they come to their dwclling-p~ace. paid homage to ~ d they ~ are 'Animd Life.ither nor water can get iioo it. The prophets and saints.ans. It is because fiey are erhered and &ansparent. and they continue in that form. for the p~rporeofcapturing %er.iog. no need of r u k or cOn~P~"Cs marciialr and t o o k So JSO tilere is the it. thg. tion this ha5 been the partner of man's body. he draws act a thread from his sdix-a i aftc' wardn. They have greater intelligence and skill mm. but this is no proof of his superiority. in this of h e has no need of materials . h e white requiring nothing for the work beas= and bird5 make houses and neds. and enter into paradise.simp. but V'hich.'30 Thc SoztL! and kind." Tile King asked who \%as chief of ti~ore the angels r h o had been appointed for the protection of m n . L ~ . in %." ~h~ ter( rqrnscnts tke male 3s doing thisis. they communicate them to their felious. some she exposes the beat of therun. is allled both to bird and beast. " geometr. Tlley who did not pay bomzge are the pasdon of and the sensual lusts. with what When the care does for the ~ w i s b m e nof her Young t .gain there are silk-WOrmS. having formed it into a kind of ladder. i n the first place.s & n e and skill than fit+' irorlaenwhen have and are satisfied. s ~ i d . and hearing fheir words.

but to Us He has given a turn far k~~oxxledpe.hat maltcr have you to boast about. They do not need to be supplied d t h milk.a g o o d many Young ones are hatched.Elirvd?r.of the C ~ O \ the. 0d" '0 delude fo01s7 s declare t b t i o n x prrtict~luincident will happen in such in ten or twenty yead t i n e . you you do not underr&their praises . you knew the Farlicularr of the devotion paid by the anti. and hen unite in feeding their Young It is for this that God has bestowed on young that they do not depend upon their fowls such int~uigence Parents for support. the laudations of 111~ C ~ S Sre~ the . and consequa~tly h s taken a11 this compassion upon our he state. 41. Thus the young of fowk. and with frmd and ulvmny to say. t l l e ~ slaves ?' the have made a Statement about astrologers. 51udrnts and rmenlI>ranccr~ 1 bxt if you undentood the language of birds.ot anequ$ity. they h o i v at . and mxy haire faith in them. in o d e r to sustain them she digs up the ground. besides these. tl~erefore. 49. a s soon as they come out of the egg. But among mankind no roman nowjshcS her children in this nay. remembm. &c-. After "0th'"' the). they bathe and mash them. has said. ' Every animal knows and ifs form of pRise. 'main the biggest fools in existence 6 u t \!.This knowledge and inteliigence has hem cornmunicated to them on the part of Grd Alnlight). paeedges. % L . '' You say that in your race you hare poets and preachers. the predicurn. N ~ o has. they der they Pass their d r r s in reading and writing. ~h~~ . the cooing of he pigeon. C Everything pays its devotion i praise n of G ~ J lIut gall do nor L ~ O it:l . s )+ 3 I(urjn.. what injurious. ~~d then but asvology is practised only among ignorant peoplewomen . for DOnng there latter the cocl. the11P* .the Sumlnons (. d given inclination towards ignorance-that is to SzY. the motIler of the d1. or fed with grain. nothing about their own affairs. the p r a ~ c r s :he frog.-hadren believe in it. eulogies of the sraiiow. Then. and feedr her !oua. child takes n o heed of it. Thus God Almighty says. citdsd the IOCLIS~. . soon as they are taken from the womb and are born. flies. we hare the superiority over Ym.l 0 then. what will happen to them. but of t1lernselves peck and feed. Shrat d i . but it is held in no eslecnl and wise. The reason of this is. or fhc iarl1ing to ~~ fear by the owl-if. fiat their may knowwllat good and what is bad. w110 f e3 gratitude. the s:llnonJ of of fie ~ f ~ f b i r the lecturer of the sait~-. Nurses and midvviucn attend m them. run peckiing ab*uq and if any one tries to catch them.l11 of what is beneficial. ~ r e s s c ii k d.hen our W n g Ones are born they are from the first instant aware of what is good and what is bad.. and teachers . The only people who place reliance on the of astrologeri are those who have erred and are I L&+. '' Their children also are excessively stnpid . We are the masters. so that people may think they speak tmlj'.a ones. arrive a t fifteen or twenty years of age they get to years of discretion. they run away from him. p i c k out tile ivorlns. that among those birds the n1a1e and female do not assist other in feeding then% as pigeons and orher birdr d o .notv that amens them also there are fluent and e h qnenf poets preachers. I . studeots and rnemori&sts. and quails. Still they require mast. to of the cock. or xvill be the condition of their chiMrf he7 nremenrn about some distant countli some time -beforehad. like the Young of other animals and birds. as the ignorant and the learned are l. \\-et nurses feed and 1~11 m in cndlcs-they do everything . Some a ~ t r o l ~ g e rin. is the hishest in the estimation of God Almigilty? Bight and are employed in prayer and praise to Him.iroo~d l. the praises of the reptiles. CXP~CSS~Q" d faith of tile insects. whereas they such a kn.

110 ivauld throiv all his subjects and m y into co~~fu5ion. who made the constellations and the planets. b tionl of astrologers are all fables . ended. it follo~vs necessity that what is predestined of by ~dis set aside.~ould the opponent of the religion of idols.upon the statements of the astrologers. the friend of God. rather t11a11 to act upon the rules of a~trolo?ZY(' of The King said. but is it not Ocmatter to pray to the Lord to prevent better in cu~rcnce. Whell the parnot had reached this point of his speech. and ~vho do not believe in destiny-Nimrod and Pharaoh. They did not know that nothing happens without the command of the Lord. b y making offerings and giving alms. but whcn people make their supplications to ~ o for its pevention. then why do astrologers study them and s establish (the fact: wit11 proofs Z and why do they fear them i' : He said. they could not tell Xiin. The l%istory this matter is. b y fasting. but here also God Aln~igl~ty kept tile patriarch Moses safe from his malice In fine. brought i low rind dcstmved Nimrod al. I t is (to be effected) b y secking the help of God. This u n l e kind of treatment Pharaoh dealt out KO the children of Israel. in the ssiine manner as the *ilnight5' gave to his !vice. birth af M o s s . 14henrver any one implores God t o prevent (the inampiciour influences of the stars). had hundreds. and by worshipping with sincerity of heart-this is (tl~e way of) setin. 'Give orders that all children born during this year r h l l be slain .rebels (against God) . the predie. help of God. and SaJr Gob Almigllty will Mng this event to pass. there is any future state. that the astrologers had inof formed Ni~nrod that a child would be born in iiir reign. acting o n the commlnds of the law. and . even thousands of children put to death. " The divine predestination does not change. d m those who put their hurt in God pay no heed to tlieir words. and bestowed upon her blessing . is certainly possible. The astrologers and soothsayers givf information before the occurrence of events. H e replied. who deny. Gad would hatre brought him also into his religion. True it is that ' 'Gninst fa:@ no plans prevaiL' After all. by weepil~gand lamentation. tile King asked him. and preserved him from the malevolence of the infidels.uri Allraham~% friend of God." He raid. by prayer. But if at that time 2. " The prevention of the evil influencer of the rtu. so they said to the king. These kings.d his army by H s hands. fate is never to .then the m h t y in f i r mercy would have brought hinl into the relidon of Abrah.' tbeir idea being. They usedto believe that the regulation of the world rested upon the seven planets and the twelve signs of the zodiac. He preserves them from the event d so the astrobgcrs informed Nimrod that a child ~ o ~ l be be who . " If the prevention of evil through the itus i impossible. These men are only fit to delude sil~ners.. but not in the way the astrologers maintain. assuredlr God does preserve him.imrod had prayed to God for safety." The Kingaslced how the help far this was to be sougilt of God. "B). When he asked them a t what place and in what family the child rould be born. that ilre child would be killed among them At length God Almighty created Abraham.lm. if he to ~ ~ llad his supplications to Cod for safety. such as the tyrannical and violent kings anlong men. ivl~o. after being brought up. If by acting on the com~nands the law evil is averted. for instance. and Gad Almighty having created him. who was thus it the indiclted . m d he and his anny would have been raved from dishonovr and d e s t r u c t i o ~ SO d s o when the astrologers ~ I I O U D ~ Pharaoh the. and yet you boast and say that you have astrologers and Eager in your race. and have pruerved him from di=hallour . what God willed came to pass. and overthrow the religion of the idolaters. would attain r hi$> pontion. who is the Creator of the stars. and where he would be brought up.

for them to give this direction to their follorvers ~ v l ~ e n accident befell them. ' When you are in dread of any calamity. The kixg inquired how. and filled it. "Because they divert men from the xay of the lax. All the men who remained in the city perished. while nil the rest were drowned. should go out of the town into the fields. and not a s astrologers in these days delude people to forsake God." l <'The philosophers and logicians whom you make your boast but rather lead you astray" V-ben the of. then pray to God with earnest supplicatio~l and mourning because He. that the best thing in was that on that day the king and all the dwellers in the city.then. the prediction of events before they happen. and kept watching all night. It is not right that we should turn away from the court of the true Healer." The King said. but they could give no explanatlon . but those who were engaged in prayer and lamentation outside the city were saved. ar the beginning of their illness. Thus. for the averting of the evil . In conformity with thcir declaration. and God grants them a cure. and they who were Ieari~ed the law replied. and many people also went forth with him. & SJnr vii. through the sincerity of your przyers. and not to act upon the delusions of astrologers. "So it behoves us to resort to God against the influences of the stars. Sundry men felt no alarm at the predictions of the astrolo. but receiving no benefit from their remedies.S. apply to physicians. and He gave thcm a refuge from their ills. hey write out statements of their cases in petitions. full of danger to the inhabitants. and (coming down) to the time of Muhammad the Pure. For this reason hloses gave this admonition to the children of Isracl. prayed to the Lord. and fly (for direction) to the revoiutions of the skies. and hang these up on the malls or pillars of the mosques. just as Koah and those people who had faith were preienred from tile deluge. they in thcir despair bctake themselves to God.. and asked him t 0 explain. " I t is true-the study of the stars. any Tlterefore it is proper for us to act in this way as regards rhe behests of the stars. and through the many. The king inquired of his people what ccurse ought to be pursued to avelt this calamity. and the t o m being situated on low grom& the waters drew towards it from all sides. perhaps. S o a e men.of the true faith. "For restoration to health of the sick also. he replied. (may the blcssing and peace of God be on him !) this practice has always prevailed. . Then they began to pray to God to preserve them from the evil. when they were beset with troubles. on that day the king left the city. do you no m m inquired how. God says. Frequently even. there was a certain Icing to whom the astrolagers had given information that an event rvould liappen to his city. that the event rvould befall on such and such a date of such and such amonttl.~ +em maintain that the world ir p r i r n o ~ d some maintain the I K.' Begincing from Adanl. but We overwllelmcd those ~ 1 1 0 deemed My words false. with great importunity and lamentation. saying. small and great. some of . During the night it rained with great violence. m d stayed in the city. God might save them from that calamity. and prayer to God fur prevention of thase evils-these all are things of which the adwntagc has been understood. for a perfect recovergmay be obtained from His grace and kindness. v 42. will preserve you from that occurrence. still they a c r e able to tcll this much. ['We gave deliverance to Noah and to those people who embarked in tbc ark with him . and there make supplication-and weeping before God. The opinions and religions of them all are antaaonistic . ? ICadint-ancient- . because were a perverse eeneration. The tdbe of Jonas zlso. and resort to physicians.inconsistencies (occurdng in the holy book) they set aside the commmclments of religion. one should first turn to God.

knows God. Soine believe in prophecy and inspiration. His will.and pursve those vain trifles which are quite unnecessary. and others are convinced that all is deli~sion. The course of the free is to have no need of any One. others are co~~vinced that there are four. nor hav-e any need of draughu and electuaiesi.what the shape of the bones. fake Paper and write rubbish upon ir. They do not know how many cntrails and intestines they have. as the prophet says. The man who goes to the door of s the physician or druggist is sick. though rhey do not h o w it. many aitrologers and necromancers. because our diet is of one sort. Physicians. then the sick man would soon well. they puzzle themselves night and day in thinking about demonstrations. We do not reject His authority. They never know anything about those things which are easy to understand. So. "Then as to the mathematicians and geometricians w11om you boast abaut. of some maintain that there are three. " He who L C O ~ himself. "But our religion and way is one (only). in order to delude their dupes. and others adduce evidence of its being finite. whatever is ordained in our lot we are thankful for. just a the crowd rvho wait ypon artrologcrr are ill-starred and unfortunatr after d. some go abaut surveying rivers and farests. some are distracted in ascertaining the heights of mountains and of clouds . and some ponder and study to find out the system of the heavens and the centre of the earth. and they recommend abstinence from those things by which sick people are frequently cured. Somc are satisfied o i the CO-existenceof the Creator and the creature. We do n o t make our boasts over any creature of His . Some acknotvledpe a resumcction.pte-existence1 of matter. But it is from these things that the art and power of the Almighty are discovered. Somc arc bewlclsrid and dizzy with doubf others reject all reason and evidence. what the state of the heart and brain is: what the natureof the stomach is . nor what the fashion of the joints." And. they rarely read the Divine Word. as men (do whm tl~ey) carp at His behests. then you go and wait at their doors with your uriile botrles. resorting thitl~er makes them more unfortunate. what space there is in the cavity of the chest. They make pretensions to those things which are beyond conceptioli or imagination. Besides these also there nre many ather diverse beliefs to which they are all fettered. thdr only because the astrologers have no power in anticipating or delaying favourable or unfavourable momenti B notxvith" standing this. S o ~ n e say that the world is infinite. or tbeordinancer of the Prophet. with all this st~~pidi$ i p o r and awe. and others increase them to six or even seven. and do not heed the dccreos of the Divine law. others L n y it. boasting about your astrologers and physicians is sheer f0W We bavs no need of them.md gluttony . and His skilI. We acknowledge God to be One. but the of slaves is to run about to the houses of eve~bod>'. . "The phyjicians whom you boast about are not required until you fall sick through eating unsuitabk food in by greed . re do not go to the hauses of physicians with our complaints. but others object. for S ~ C ~ is only S S aggnvated by resorting to them with your complaints. They take no heed about the physiology or measurement of rheir o u n bodies. while some say that thew are five. for. and right to investigate. nor d o we ask the why or wherefore of anything. and because of this (simplicity of our diet) we do not fa11 sick. Xight and day we arc engaged in His worship and praise. same adduce proofs of the priorityl of form S o ~ n e them say that there ale t x o pnme causes. if people would leave it all to nature. The same is the case with the physicians. and without equd. They show no inclination for those sciences which are suitabIe for the. Some dircct their attention to the me2surement of bodies and of distances.

or some tyrannical king seixs it. Uleir wearing of the recluse's gument. that they should sit a t home h1 ease and take their pleasure. your boast about this seeming advantage. naked and hungry. For this public ioorship of the*.rihants. The merchants also are always intent u p n alnassing dishonest wealth. while they themselves always lead a life aT stan-ation. Do they call this humanity. and their hearts are filled " h sin~iiar Satanic notions. Why do YOU boast about them? they are a disgrace and shame to You- .They are constalxtly enga* in thc endeavour to supplant their rivals by cunning. and in the days of famine they sell it for a high price . and keep it. their instructing men in morals and teaching them the mandates of the inn. and f m e r s whom you boast ' abour. that they have sold the next world for this.< The mr. Openly they write friendly letters in a vcry florid. Day ancl night they are bent upon their schemes of dismissing onc man from his office. tlleir remaining silent and speaking to no one. and neighbours of these people go about poor and needy. T o your eyes they Seem good. the right of God there are none worse. iheir satisfaction with coarse clothes.~tcni upon their designs of digging up the root and basis of (their competitors). and of securing a dovrricr for the appoilltment of another. and cannot take a moment's rest. their dried-up brain$ their emaciated bodies. but stilt it is v e v ill-judged of you to boast about them. and so by fraud and deception they get him dismissed. craft. Night and day thry are inx~oloed in toil and labour. but in. or thieves cm-ry it off. begging from street to street. "YOUsay that you have kind-hearted people in your race. Then. in the hope of its becoming dear. are worse than slaves. They are always building houses although they themselves do not dwell in thein. and all the remnanr of their lives is lost in vagrmcy. that they have thrown religion to the minds. and pbau5ibilify. but t h y do not eat the fruit of them. and neighbours pursue a life of mendicancy? YOUsay also that you have writers and revenue accountants among your people. their laying patch upon patch. architects. relations. Their to hearts are m full of malice and rancour that they do not recognise the existence of any one (but thmselva). and saying. and these take no heed of their condition. Why did He create the devil and Satan ? why were i~horemongersand adulterers brought into exi&ncc? and why does H e give them Sustef nance Such talk is improper. There are no p a t e r fools than these. which they leave to their heirs. ancl are more wretched even than the poor and needy. for in the \vl~oIeworld there are no men more villaillous and rascaU~~. for they ~ccumulatewealth and propeny. They think that they have gained some advalrrage. and do not perceive that they have thrown away for nothing that valuable weaIth. their precious life . their removing the hair round their lips. For the friends. their eating but little food so that their lips hang (flaccid). rhat they are divided by doubts. then we curse it. and have found d e l ~ d o nbut no rest. They buy grain. their making of long prayers so that their foreheads become indented (fm prostration on the ground). IZll a t once the wealth which they have amassed during a long period is destroyed . is fraud and falsity. but in their hearts tlrey are ever i. *hey are always censuring God. relations. it s i n b in the sea. If you m a i e .while their friends. and whose prayers and interccssions YOU think to be acccp:able in the right ofGod : these have deceived YOU by (outwardly) exhibiting their e V n a pity. they go begging from door to door. They dig the ground and plant trees. and have not even got what they purchrred. . they give notl~ingto the p m r and needy. from begi~~ning end. their faded CompleGonsr all this. ':As to the devotees and worshippers whom in your cornpla-cy you consider righteous. but this is a n~istalce. being wretched and abject. their cultivation of their beards. ornate stylc.

and t11c iaw-ful. The claims of his service are antirely banished from the mind.. ." CHAPTER XXIV. the King looked towards the congregation of Jins and men. what possibility is there of devotion and piety (in them) ? Hell (is prepared) for ihese very people whom you boast about." A person out of the Hebrew party said-" The Jins raise the ealth for this inred. and have not the least fear of God. TabarL. Your khalifas and kings you have mentioned as being heirs of the Prophet.'' Thcn as to youl.*ed him. thsy make the wrong right? ancl the right wrong. m d collvey it will1 flattery to tyrannical Itings. and consider theinselves better than aIl d e n . unlawful. they take away the p:operty of the poor and of orphans. They prefer this et world to the n x . but a5 the wood m Veq " it for a When it rr( =ten through. mey replied. and \>. and obtained release from their troubles and hardships. eau m labour. Whjtd tL'A.. is from end to end trickery and deceit.and for the sake of gaill pervert its original meaning. He fell d a r n . they have slain the children of the prophets. They constantly drink wine. prayingin his private ceil in the Temple.n : pli5i. he died. scvii. Rllwres exPLrmtion.doctors and iatvyers : they also. fled from thence. and hir dab was discn~ered but the Jins had accomo.hi\e. When any one of them becomes ruler. nlies up e<arthand builck his vaulted habitation hb body? Erplain the facts of this t o me. meiy the Ternpie was finished. chap. these people are terrible rascals . And your jurists and lawyers. they silence hiin with threatening and broiv-beatil~g. e jes perceiving he was dead. Abandoning the coursc of the Prophet. and How is ir that the white a1lty altllough he has no hands or feet. by his supemat& POxver. . for the sake of mammon. a How can we say t h i t the Jins t a l e UP the esth md ~ ~ ~ t edrgive them to this insect? For wen if a .. but when they becolllc mngistratcs and law-oficers. bemuse tbcse (insects) did for them the ser- vice of eating up the staff of Solomon.hich. and fien .me=The white rnpp. and to assert a claim of lordship over us without evidence or reason. They put senseless interpretations on the word of God.Inning a d for upon \. S ~ i o m o n ' ~ hod. These are not the characteristics of great men. A staff u u miramlousb p r ~ % i d r d k=. afrer his deslll. Solomon. To boast about those kings and lords is injurious to yourselves.ed lvo&.. he p n y d that h s decese might be Coni e l horn them. 1 ford ee 10 labour in the c o ~ s t ~ c t i oof the TempL Ad\"er1 jjns n of his n p T m & i n ~ dissolution. They exact service from the people of God. kept devouring the staff . They ukc bril~es and pervert the right..-&rdn. * . &is insect did s h ~ i the Jins that kindness which this person r . fell d \ . HER the parrot had iiished his speech.t the Jins wmld. xuv. the first thing he does is to imprison the lnan who from of old has served his ancestors. before they get i3to office they g~ morning ancl evening to the mosques. say their praycrs and preach to md admo:lish the people . but their blamewol-thy qualities are manifest.. and if any (suitor) is dissatisfied. In their greed of this worldythey their frie~ldsand brothers. and the Jins u m t on working."' ~h~ King inquired of the jin sages whether h e y knew anything a b o a the m a t t n which this person had spoken of. In b r r . Tortures and punishments are in reserve for them.! t. make the unlawful to be IacvfuI. and aware th3.

and m t h e e a sagacious illtdligence. even a rnoase n~ight drive him if it liked. thus the a but excess and deficiency of one side or the other was rectided. this exudes on the surface of its body.T ~Ant. Then there is the scorpion." A Grcek sage said to the Kin5 "One reason for this is known to inc.V&. leaves. for the exact Way in which she builds her house has never been disclosed. a d wood. LIOWS she does it. In fine. whose rnetllod of ' no one has discovered. they are still liable to that work and labour. He made their intelligence acureand wise. Its two lips are very sharp. this art of hers must have been disclosed. still it is VeQ' sil-ong-ivi]\ed. this it is very diminutive in size and very feeble. but he has not given a complete description o f the ant ." The locust replied-" He has spoken the truth. although . and the dirt which falls on its body being formed into mud.it builds t l ~ e house over its body for its protection. God Alncghty has made the art of the bee a proof (in refutation) 1 Lit. is yet such a fool that he follows the lead of W ~ C s o e m seizes his Gse-cord . there is the elephant. T o others H e gave forms small and h . and the little creatures sharp. who is small in size. or from %+hence how she and brings the war and honey. who mounts upon his shoulders and drives him whither he will. Tbm. The King asked the reason why all the large-bodied aninmls were stupid. And there is the camel." The King directed him to explain this more full}'. so that it may be safe from every danger. "is the divine wisdom in this?" The locust re?lied -lL The Creator. and bestobved H s Wcssinp upon each one of them. and if the little creatures had not been acute and wise. tliere is the bee: r h o in her house constructs all kin& of angles and circles without luler or compasses." The The King said to the 10curt--~~ white ant belongs to the insects. and you are the representative of the insects . bLlt gill \\-hen he stings the elephant. lial-ing coilected tl~is. they would never have submitted to any one . and so if a high spirit bzd been given to them. E has stated. the articulations and pores of its w!~olc body arz constantly open. with which it bites fruit. Doctors ofp11ilosoph~ that . who. in H s wisdom and i i justice H e kept them all equal To some He gave a body and figure large and heavy. For instance. in spite of his huge form. nor is it even known how a lifts the dirt and works. he kills hiin In the which they call the ivhiic ant." The Ring told him to eqlain. there is the silk-worm. Therefore H e gave to the f ~ r m e r an abject spirit. deny the =irtence of tile world is posiil~le oitlaut matter. they nrould always have been in trollble and difficulry. The air which enters into its body is condensed by the great degree of cold. "l¶}'. all those insects which are small are acute and wise. again.' The King desired him to explain it fully. its temperament is very cold. by Ris omniscience. is 30 mean-spirited that he is obedient to a child. 1 is the Same spinning and C S e with the white ant. coagulates. who. and bo1-es holes into bricks and stones. but H e made their spirit v c ~ y mean and despicable. althougb his neck and f i g r e arc l r q 7 long. alld have not been delivered from i t . perceived that animals of large body were capable of (inflicting) pain nnd uouble. for Solornon used to make them raise earth and water and buSd houses. and he then said" When God Almighty made all His creatures. and he said" The structure of the white ant is wonderful and marvellou~ . explain then what this Greek doctor has said. 2nd he replied -Lc The (chiefl excellence of every a t is th& that the art of r the artist and his mode of procedun should not be known to my Thus. there is something yet left. Where:' said he. and did not trouble them in a n y other way." . and becomes itrater . . If her body had been large.

and brought great clistress on h i m So wl~ellGod bestowcc1 on SoIomon the royal and the PI-ophetic office. excellent qualities in us by which it is proved that \ware the masters and tlleyour slaves:' The King dlrecled thun to rf them forth. although thc gnat is the smallest of all insects. in His grace and bounty. The= are wt m. their forms and shapes are diverse. and boast about those kings rvho are powerless against the smallest of our xvot. Although Solomon told them that God. "cooked." . and they show no grati~ude His biessinp. Tl1ey replied. and for a period lcecps the two drops of rain shut up until the water is decomposed: and becomes a peal% Well.ms. Shc has two large ears which she opens out. But although they behold all His powers md all His a*. and diversity is indicative of &~vcry. For dthough they see ail His arts and all I-Iis powers. and 5vhm a drop of rain Fails into one. but neithcr Inan nor Jin had the hardil~ood face him. builds her house of wax and collects her food froln honey. there were solne cvil persons who doubted his prophetic dignity.of this. still the doubt was not banished from thcir hearts. whicll went (to his) country. and a certain maa said. then why do not they also collect some. bul in wisdom and kno~1ecIge is wiser and more sensible she than they all. who went and ate up the staff of Solomon . uehydo they not find out how she collects it. and make something? If slle gathers it from the midst of rhe water or the air. atid this is prodnced by the skill of that little Creature of \vhom a descripti~n has just beell given. his poor and helpless servants!' T\?en the locust bad finislxed this speech. They considcr honey a most delicious food. a gnat kilIed Ximrod. In their assemblies they illuminate with wax candles . Our forms are identical. and rebcUed against the patriarch Moses. slie dtr. they still r&garc~ic~r . all remaLnedfor an hour pensibe and downcast. '' The shell (pearl-oyster) in which pearls are produced is smaller in bull: and more feeble than any aquatic creature. without matter. God has produced from those creatures such excellent things illat men might see then1 and acknowled:e His art and poiver. she Afterwarc'~~ goes back to the bottom of the sea. 4. bec a u a (identity of figure) a proper for rule and master/. and that is produced by bees. and made all the Jins and all mankind subject to him. and declared that 1le had obtained his sovereiguty by fraud and artifice. to This (exercise of the) divine power was exhibited as a warning :o thosc persons xho glory in their size alld dignity. ~ 1 1most exquisite of all their decorations is the e pearl.'' The King asked the anii<7haf answer they could give to this? and tlie). still they take no warning from them. so that the salt waier may not mix with the rain-drop. If it is their opinion that she gathers it from the flowers and leaves.for tllcse also they are indebted to the bEEI. because she. but for violence and o p p ~ n s i o n toward. 1 it. rhen if they are sharp-sighted.lm. she instantly C~OSES it. and thin proves us to he masters and tlienl t o h slaves .ells t11e1-e. to serve as proofs of his power and skill to tyrannical kingS who h a w relxlled and turned ax~ay from H i n ~ For instance. where is 5~ch science to be found in inan ? Gad has inlplanted in the hearts of man1:ind a love for brocades and silks? and these are produced from the ~ n U c u s of those litile worms. the King asked the men i( they llad anything else left i0 Say. had co~lferredon him this distinction. Obtaining her food and sustenance in the depths of the sea. When Pharaoh chose a wickcd course. they waste their days in rickedness and inhdelity. At length God sellt the white ant. ancl places ilelself upon the surfacc of the water. he the11 fell down in his cell. God Allnighty sent an army of locusts. and build d\~ellings tIlcnlselves ? for " In the s a n e way God has made creatures of little bodies. but on rainy days she comes up fro111 the bottom.

and listen. Eutychians. their minds are very different. p ~ o m i s i n f ~ h t . and religion requires a kins who. for among men thcrc are thousands of sects -Jews. star-worshippers. Hc said. they know Him to be the true Creator and Provider. one and without equal. and faithfuL They kno\v nothing of idohtry or wickedness. and he said-" The variety of reljgions and crecds substantiates this statement.our creed and fzith is one. it is rzther for rule. that ail men may adopt his creed and and the oldinances of his law. Hannis. and cursing them. the rrpresentative ofthe the birds. Aftera little ~vh-hile nightingale. but religion is First. ' God ALnighty has purcllased conllnand. and praise. Sunnis. idolaters. translation is-" Verily God hafh purchased of true believers their souls and their substance. ainocg the hlusulmhs there are Shias. that (through its influence) all men may be honest . He said. and be slain themsdvcs? There are many other texts of the i K ~ ~Shyat ix." He $=id. prayer.ligon Stae their own passions?-ten me this. but although the f i ~ i r e s of anilnals are various. " T11e killing of Linz5 in g. m d h= provided pas"ons for them. and althougl~the forms of men ate identical. and night and day they devote themselves to meditation. and others. and rule is secondary. iice llilnsclf. which is an institution of religion. in each religion thcre arc many sects. and folIo\vcrs of hIalk5. fire-worshippers. of 1 49 by wliatevcr road they reach it. Kadaris. that in the service of Gad they may slay. Whatever direction we go. among C h r i s t i ~ n ~ there are Nc-storians. Provider.dion nszd Politics. and h l i n m i s . said-" The man speaks truly. we proceed only towards God" The King asked. then why does one (party) kill the other ? " He replied." Upon which the King asked hiin how it was that there was such s e a t diversity in the religion and creeds of man. and mortification of the aion should sacrirecpircs that the aspirant for reli. "We also bdieve God to be the Creator.'' K . Sa~es' L ~ ~ . r n . Rifizis. "If the sole object of all is to reach God. pursuir of &minion is obvious . fhat 1 . "The mortification of the passions is an ordinance in all religions and creeds. for properties of true believers." The King asked for the proof of this.!dti .Rcl. Khdrijis. one cannot exist without €he other. Ijcsicles this. Every minister of religion desires only this. Magians. Jahamis.. Christians.just as in oldcn times the opinions of the philosophers were diverse. ' The I<inq said. among the Magians are ZarBdushtis. infidcIs. (those of) one religion thinking the others infidels. the 'Ab2li and the J. ~ ~ h jo!mont of p a m d i r m ~ a n d i f i o ~ z ay fight for 11 ~~ of . Llazakfs." The King directed him to proceed. the anirnals are all uniform in their belief. In of Islam this is certainly the clearer says. For this reason some ministers of religion liill other persons for the ends of rule and government. Murjis." The King directed hinl to explain this fully. whether they slay or be shin. I n fine. Rule and religion are twins . do professon of . and he replied. Nbsibis. fornication or adulter): They have not the leas: doubt or scepticism about the porvcr and unity of God . w t authority." An inhabitant of Persia said. Gahrdmis. ih can enforcethe commandments of religion mlong the people. Religion is necessary for rulc. 50 in rule. W e are free Iron1 dl diversity . still the instincts of all are alike . But these men are not zcquaintcd with our prayers. If tilt Kingwill attend to me. I will adduce a clcar proof upon this point. Anlong the Jews there are the Samaritans. polytheists. but uhr. Ash'aris. Zal-wPnis. "This is not for the sake of rcligion. God. for there is no hatred in that . What a great variety of sects there are ! All their rclipions a l ~ d creeds differ. MGtazilis. " Reli$on and belief are the way and means by wllicl~ ol~jects lifemay the of be obtained The aim and ol~ject all is one and the same. it is the practice to slay ally other f 1 .

and two hurdred l x g e ones. Jilin. such as Him.' Finally. the detail of xvhicl~ would be very tedious. Jurjbn. ' If ye will turn unto God.the people of lndia. variety of circunlstames. ~batevclother . he cities and countries also which he has mmcioned would also look still less. greatly exceed the beasts. FrrgliAna. ihzy hold superiority over it. Besides this. Because in the habitable quarter of the arorld there are fifteen la%e seaS: the &lediterranean. a Hindu s p o k . mortify yourselves.the B n h m n s adorhers. the SS. Naishapur. that man is by far the worst who denies that there is a day of resurrection. according to the c o m m a ~ ~ ofsthe Old Testament. looting upon this a s the h i g h s t a a of devotion. Thus there arc COina. creeds. Besides these cities. prove that the humall race jn better than any other species. Rbbul. until their passions are subdued. Multan. then be ready for death E and the scaffold. and individualities. and keeps them under his protection. " The children of M a n l . and take upon themselves tlie burden of devotion. then you are not of my flock. but of all t11e wickd." When the Persian stopped. Hijjk~. the Caspian. Red sea. and not the least desirc or lust of this world is left. It is their belief that the 11ighest of ail in the sight of God is that repentant shners should denroy themselves. and live with yoar brethren. and islands. Karm&n. and burn their bodies. althougl~all men retun to ~ 6 be? of their species. India. in the =urn- . Alexandria." to the King. 'Azarbaijdn. through which they find deliverance from the fires of hell. KiiurAsbn. great nunlbei of men (as an argument). rhausandn of citin and countries wllich il: is impossible to enumerate. Abyssinia. mountains. aod the Eastern S e a And there are five lluo&ed small rivers. and all the animals are their jlavcr. and lusts. the Persian Gulf. Yemen. d God says. all differiop in language. SO that you may go to heaven with me. no f e z of the punishment of sin. a d behold their mulfifarm sl~rper and figures. colour. Constantinople. This vastness of number. for this is best for you in the sight of God. after making this statement. Armenia. and did not forsake the religion of Jesus 1" t h same way.oufl-&rn Sea. the Sea of Hind. Miwar Au-n Nabr. the Sea of Sind. 'IrAk. of Ab~ssini" . who has no hope of the reward of virtue. and others. If you will ! my assistants. and varieties. ~ kill themselves. God Almighty supplies them all with food. Sind. F m m this if is clear that men are the masters. '' Thus men l a m e d in theology reskain their pasdon% appetites. ail religious men i~nmolatc their passions. There are still fu-rther exceliences in US. and differmce of pursuits and objects. Weltern S a . and attain unto heaven. a d in one place. the Northcm Sea. assista ~ l t s the service of God ?' a11 His friends repIied. I n fine. consritution. and but if he \"ere to see the aquatic animals. sea of china. they were a l slain in l the seiwice of God. the Indian ocean. Cyrene. because in all the habitable quarters of the world there are nineteen thousand countries in which a great variety of races dwcll. manners. and said. so that their sins may be forgiven.'l "And when the Lord Jesus said. and svho does not acknorvledge the unity of God. then in comparison with them men would seem very few. Badalihshbn. i b d d u s i a .-of allimalr a i s t . the Lake of Giian.KurCln besides this which are explicit upon the point.$. Syria.. But there are good m d bad to bc faund in ail religions and creeds . This man has adduced the ~h~ Frog about it . 'We in rill be your helpers in God's service' Then the Lard 1 ~ ~eplied. and arts. And if you will not be my asistanis. Greece. 'Who will be m). Xajd! Egypt. thousands of men live and make their abodes i n forests. and in pursuit of their religion burn themselves dive. I<hw+rirm. the Sea d Ydjuj.

the Euphrates. And in addition to these there are the small and larger streams :und rivers. and of anirnals which dive11 on dry ]. pools. tllc Kile. " 011 ye partier of men and bcasts..&c. &C. turtles.and. cattle. ye men. lakes. or lying prostrate in the worship of God.. then it m. porpoises. and that your num- . men and beasts hare no (appreciable) esistence. You do not know those beings which are spiritual and ethereal.o . you ~vouldknolv that. as the Prophet (may t l ~ cpeace of God and rest be upon hiin 1) has declared : In the seven heavens not one span is empty in which the angcls are not either standing.Ij Z Knsi L ' V ~ I ~ D Z ~ C . beasts of prey. is of no account. as compared with them. and which it is impossible to enumerate. aud those who dwell in the broxd espansc of the cold sphere are the Jins and thc tribe of devils. whom I-Ie suppons and continually protects from evcrp ill. " Sonle say that there arc seven handrecl species of aquatic animals. a sage from aman5 the Jios said.' Therefore. ye are cjrcurnscribed in your knowledge of the great variety of creatures. If the men would consider this. alligators. without reclconing x~ariet i e s an(! specialities.%. Because the extent of thc cold sphere is t e n times greater than h e (terrestrial) sea and land 1 and in the same way the lunar sphere is ten times larger than both these spheres . There is nothing which is hidden from Him. there arc fivc hundred spccies. and no one can estimate. the Tigris.S A 7 i 1 L 1 . without reckoning the varieties and specialities . whom by His power he has crentccl. the lengiil of cacli of 11111ich is from a hulldrcd to a thousand kos. and each superior sphere bears the same relation in its extent to the one beneath it. All the incorporeal souls dwell there. All these are the sermrlts and slaves of God. and other aquatic aninlals of thousands o kinds. crocodiles.ould be clcar that the number and concourse of men afford no proof of their being [he masters and we the sIzves. On the World o S$irif5. which dwell in the regions of the sky. They are incorporeal souls and elerne~ltary spirits. ~ f 17z7s the Oxus. Some of them tvl~ich belong to the angelic class are placed in the highest zone of the heavens. " So if you could bnt conceive the full amplitude of creatcd beings. and have no affinity with corporeal forms." CHAPTER XXV.: which are to be found in the woods and wilds. which no : one but God knows of. f HEN the frog ceased from spealting. as opposed to them. ye would know that your race. and could comprehend the (nunhers of the) swarms of ani~nals. if ye could but see their hosts. In these there are fishcs. bend. &C. All rhcse spheres are filled with spiritual beings-not one span of space is left.

the hdls called Yalrinz. the representative of the birds. the interrogations of the two recordi~igangels. the garden of refuge. for they take the lead in good works. the.%tehl for the commands of God. and you have no superiority over us. Thus. but some are subject and suborclinate to others." Tile King directed him to speak. N Z L ~ and Hri?uzya. and eminent. And. the glorious abode. elevated dwellings . which are mentioned in the KurPn. '' In the same way as God has made you many excellent promises. lixbility to tortures in d ~ companionship of e devils . and holy.wearing the gaiments of liquid pitch. judgment. These beings are like unto the angelic chembims. the chief of messengers and seal of the prophets.' But all ye tribes of beasts are deba~~ecl from these blessings. If we are sinners and do nor obey him." When the ]in sage finished his specch. entrance into paradise . and learned. they devote their lives and wealth to God. the garden of Eden. the terrors of the account. there to durel1 for ever. more especially will our sins be forgiven through the mediation of the true prophet. Praise and glory are due to him under all circumstances. ~IZ~. " God Almighty has pro~nisedus many blessings : resurrection from the grave . and good. the dread of the day of . c the passage over the bridge of Sirht . they address their prayers to him . 'Blessing on you. streams running with wine. the going into hell. the Tu'ba tree. they our slavcs. We are satisfied with and are . from which we are exempt. their hopes are in him. and the angels will say to us. " There are yet many esccllei~cesin us by ivhich i t is proved that we are masters. they slavcs. heaven . These and many other bIessings. the garden of delights . Can the animals anywhere attain to these things? This i s a proof that we are the masters. -U1 the servants of God are his soldiers and subjects. the society of the 11Grfs. honey. speak. ':Ho\v are you equal to us ? For \ve at all events shall exist for ever. and they fear his wrath. No benefit o r injury accrues t o us from any of our works or actions. on whom be the blessing and peace of God ! After that we shall all dwell in paradise in the society of the nymphs and youths.and excellences there are many othcr great qualities in us which I have not mentioned. and there are many more punish~nents tortures mentioned in the Iiurkn." An orator of Hijjdz then said. the mansion of permanence. the fountain of Salsabil. In fine. and enter into paradise. Sakar. tortures of helI. God has prepared for us." The Hijjhzl replied. L a x . there is the suffering of the gravc. be happy. milk. eating of the snkklisn: tree (the fruit of which is the heads of devils). God has made us no pron~ise reward. be and just. "The animals have given an answer to the thing you were boasting about : if you have anything left to say. for after your departure from this world ber and aggregate affol-d no proof of your being the master. w e shall dwell with the prophets and saint% and sl~all associated with the great. the home of rest. and pious. If we show obedience to God. and so he has madeus no threat of punishof ment.still our salvation will be effected tl~rough the intercession of the prophets . and pure. and put their trust in him . Muhammad the Pure. besides these. Besides these blessings.154 God's PI-omisiscst o :PTLZZ. they long for the Divine presence. the mansion of peace.the garden of eternity. and he said. said." The nightingale. and dcvout. nearness to God. the drinking of foul matter. and water. he has issued the orders for their regulation among them according as he in his supreme wisdonl deemed right. and all others your slaves. spl-eadjng over the whole face of ~ h earth . these are all prepared for you. the King turned towards the men and said. Sa'ir. the reclconing in the day of judgment . n so has he passed upon you many denunciations c f punishment. Thus we are equal to you in evidence. dwelling near the ruler of hell.

and virtues. and all the Jiu sages said. whose graces are laudable. and all the preachers and orators are engaged during their whole lives in follorving out the description of their excellences.ye wiII cntircly pcrish. The mind fails to understand the nature of their qualities. and kept silence . and whose nature is wonderful and miraculouj~so that no tongue can describe them. " 0 just King! the truth of the men's clairn has been established in the royal presence . and no name or trace mill remail1 ot you.\vhose tempers are angelic." &he animals consented. Now. of those beings who have been the objects of your praise and eulogy . and have adduced a conclusive proof. if you know. " Now you have advanced an effective argument. . . After a little while a holy person said. and excellences. what order do you give in the matter of these foreign men whose slaves the animals are I" The Icing said. and let none depart fro111their allegiance. " Let all animals be submissive and obedient to man. and being satisfied. they all rciurnzd in security and peace CO their honlcs. tell us fully. whose characteristics are pleasing. " The men all reflected for 2 while. whose virtaes arz estimable." On hearing these words all the representatives of the animals. whose habits are holy. no one could tell. and yet do not in reality arrive at a true Icnowledge.l- TIIE Em. . and it has also appeared that there is among them a class who are near to God. just Icing. But now tell us what is the nature of the attributes. Boastcrs inay boast of such things.


.o preserve the memory of the departed.he translation had become rare.per. June 1880. encouraged the pubIiwher to take u p the second edition of this popular story of the Controversy between Mau and the Beasts. and to allow to the public an opportunity of enjoying the fruits of his valuable labour. the publisher begs to present this edition to them.PREFACE. TRE patronage with which the first edition of the " Translation of Ikhwan-us-S~xffa'' received was by the public. The original with t. The corresponding original pagea in the Nastalik character" have been omit. in order to make the book moi8e handy and chea. Mr. during . as all 'the copies printed ior the first time had been exhausted. LUCKNOW : Z7!ie 5th. Joseph Wall. the author's life-time. J'ti a lif view t.ted.

and wh. What power has frail Inan to give thanks for His blessings .PRAISE Beyond iin. has colnposed Man of body and spirit and to ever. above all creatures. liiwcilhj. A . and adorned him with the gift of speech and clothed him with the robe of lcnowledge. 13oiindless praise is due to the Creator who. notwithstanding their bein.aginat. and mhat power has 1r. how shall I fillfil His. having bro right ma~llriild from hidden non-existenct into the ~vorldof existence. individ an1 has given different talents. Couplets :Well.y poor pen* to pcrfornl the salnc duty. has given various shapes. broken writing. of one origin. praise when the efforts of prophets fail ? -- + Ehikastn rnknu.ioa to that God is du. gave hitn a position. \v110 to existing bodies.

'Shrongh him sinners are pardoned I'raisc and blessings be to his race ail4 to his oompaoions.he receiver of lrindness from him. the invitation of my brother and tutor. my respected brother. at the suggestion of Captain John Willinm Taylor Saliib Rahadur. . through him we have obtained superiority to all other races. We do not understand Him. throog5 who~n faith was confirmed the and who showed us the light way.* the giver of blessings. greatest of this world's philosophers. tbe essence of the learned men of his age. Nnn nnd Animals. the higher than the highest among the wise. without any difficult ~ o r d . Abraham Lockett the renowned. after the honor of visiting him [Yr. I I k r h Ali.heln in the right m7ay . who am n sinner. After a few days. Lockett] I became t. literally. when shall this poor creature attain to such wisdom ns to gain access to the Creator ? What power has man to express His praise ? Roulldless praise is due to the highest. e t and at." In Again. (whose rnnk is high. Professqr of Hindi) he ordered me to translate the book fi~bzru?z-ru-. Since the said gentleman desired t o do me some good. When I came to Calcutta at the kind suggestion of Mr.r. As it says in tbe sacred text.ny. may he ever be f o r t ~ ~ n a.. Ilh~intum khairn zinlufin-" conpletms :race is superior to Jl. in a very easy style. who havillg taken sinneri out of the crooked paths of rrickedncss put t. After this.) by means of my good fortune. the eleventh. Mnhomed Diustnfa. the cbief of the highest of the wise. the Inrt pmphet. and s * Hadi asbr. and secured my service under him. he got ille employment under the Honorable (':ompa." Your Ynhomed is the I . [yes] a1together sinful. 1 I~Iiiirhoinedis the guide of tnnn and of genii. holy men say nought but tbis. the worthy Moulvi T ~ l r a b Sahib (may Ali his shadow never grow less. honori~ble.6Sn : oy The Controversy betwee. now write.Him. o d of the world arid of every p ace.

I hnoe that vere closely con.) His Excellency the Governor Clellera1 Lord Minto. 'He only rvisbed to have the substance and meaning of the cont. t h e h r n e d 1'l.t.md A2~~imals. and Bindi expressions. and have colnpilecl fifty -one books. d s i t is myitten in thc end of this. and at last after ~iluch discussion nian is declared sictor. and sometimes the scientific words t. This hook.ople: from what a. In accordance witlu this wish I only a r o t e the substance in Urdu. . " Those qnalitieh by which Inall overcame the :ulimxis mere [sinq?ly] a Xnozctedye o j the Cveiltor.j In fact. wise Inell. They fisequently mrote on ~ o n d e r f u l and excellent subjects in them. Ahls Salnznn.bject of this volume is to describe the pttrtiulars and give a brief account of the faith of the Luimals and their l < i i o ~ r l e ~of gGod: that the wise ~ e from seeing this inay bc inclined to acquire simi1:lr $ood hrtbits.ppenrs to be vritten.kbu Ahmed. They J ~ v a y s spent their time in the investigation of' science and religion. the gellcrous Ilatiln of that age. Though common pe. f11e bravest of the brave. I). . d. which is m e of thrm. E:ttional and traditional arguments both sides are nicely narrated.s drift will ge+ a tzste : of the mysteries and lieowledge of God. subt. 31 1 The translation of this work. Their s object in t h ~ work is silllply to describe the perfections of man. the figures and elegallce of the texts.le-~ninded. froin understanding it. 9.en rnt:n joined together il-i Uoasorah and wrote this work. the best of the best co~nlnnndersof tell thousand. the chief of chiefs..-every one is iI ' a inille of eloq~~ence. Abul Husan. &C.to leave out the scientific terms aud prayers that are put in for ornment. 1225.js about the coutroversy between Yall 1 ' 1 .htit mere not nccessnry to the narrative Biit certain texts. leaving out t*he p r y e r s . 1810.lto of his time. ~vill only the see narrative of the controversy . every sentence : treasury sad L of beautiful co~nposition. was completed in the timc of (the cssellce of the highest standard of nobility." and the .roversy. book.. H. if you look illto nected with the story. rvhicb we have described in 5 volumes.

m nuountilinr from dread of rnvenoos bans te. While they mere yet fen?. entirely disappeared. Further they built Inally forts.nrrels with the Animals and a their d~mandin~ justice br the presencr! o Bezuai. whatever fruits and herbs of the forest they could get.bfaan and o f their pt. The birds also !eft their homes. i here was not secndty enough for two or t'hrea to join :ogether to cnltivate. noble mail rever gave ear to them. Every maii had the idea i that all animals were llis slaves. Historial~s h8ve written of the probable state of Ynn in the begiimi:~g. Of the bgbwiny of the Crrntion of . The e l e p h a ~ ~ t . t. In cold meat. and having taken nnirnais captive in snares.. horse. and began t o live comfoortably. began to use them for riding.gricultural purposes. bearing burdens. had filled every oone's heart. and taking their voung with them flecl from . their sho~~ldcrs skinned tbcir backs g:illed by inceasnnt labor. Literally.nd for a.iys )lid the]-nselves ia car7es from fear or the animals . f Hakeon.q of t Genii. and in the slrmrner cool p1:iccs. j the dwellings of man. ass and many other anilllals that had always wandered unrestrained' in the forests and wilils mheresoever tliey wished.rjungle.. nild took shelter in the hilts o ~ l d . cities.CHAPTER 1.. ICi?. When tbis stnte of things had lasted some time.asb. the earth for their support : weaving cloths to cover their bodies was out of the question.' . camel. I n short. c 'as a calnel without a nose string. Xotnit.hcy $rv..hstnnding they sl1011ted and cried ant esceedingly. and of the JUCLJC L sum?)zo?~i?zg tlzenb.hey found them-no one ~lioleating them-had. the family of man i~~creafiedthen the fear of wild bensta which j Having made agricultural implements each engaged himself in his own work.. cunning they made snares and neta and pnrsued .. t h g lived upon.her they chose rrasm spots to live in. feeding on freslr pnstnres wherever t. towns and villages. a. l o s t of the wild animals from fear of being captured fled illto the 6a. and covered t]lcir bodies with the lewes of trees. With much .

igs. . ?Then the ~ i l beasts saw that there was d 1 0 rest there also. the riglit way to those who had go^:^: :~strnj-.mals fe. becnrne Icing of tile Genii. In this conflict Eome time passed until the Great God sent Ifahoinecl Mustaftt the prophet o f latter clays (on whom be peacej to guide God's r creatures aright. n a ~ n e d Shah Murdan. race. the &eat Genius snr. each other. nnd assembled in the jnstice hall.ed t.lnr<s. the nni. they took the road to. I t happen. attended . was mreclied off the coa. and ill the presence of Eewarasb Halrim: gave a detail of the vhole tyranilical treatment they h a d rcccived at their (man's) hand.them. He was SO just that throughout his dominiona the goat and the lion dmnk at the same stream. Iiow could tI~z.thieves.honscs of differcilt kinds." Therefore 70 mcn from aniongst them. very fat and pl~ulzp. No one wished in his heart to leave the place. They mn(2e all kinds of s.let messengers be quickly sent and nlan be brought illto my presence. he there and then said. water-co~zrses flowing in all direct. they Luilt . 1 Men had the idea thzt these r e r e all his slaves.were ga~:~bolling vith.the desert. fruits and flowers of every kind lg on all the trees. Several o f the Genii 3150 obtxii.nd.111of pcople. '.ors of Islam.ed the blessil~gsof the faith arid the ho~. time had elapsed l3emar:~sb. JThen soli^:.st of this isla.he ship landed a i d began to mallc about the place. Fiaall y . nild engagecl themselves in the captnre of mirnds as before. a n d snrindlers fir:tl n place in his dominiolls I The islnnd of Balnsagon: situated lieas the Equator.hat a ship f1. They snw that it was w o a d u ~ f ~ ~ l beautiful . took al> their abode in the island.ediilg in green pnstures.21 of this just SSonsrch. TYIze11 the animals perceived tliesc bad ii~tentions they collected their elders. 7 The clinlate was very pleasant asd thc land e s txemely fertile. Directly the ! < i ~ > ~ heard the whole of the staten~elitof the animnlq. n-as the capit.ions . Yes. and ha\-ing taken the animals captive in snwes engaged thernsclves in their different ernploynlents according to custom.he good prophet pointed out. All the merchants and wise men that were in t. rwidents of differe~ztcities. through c o a t ~ a r y \rinds. eloque~lt men n11d fluent. ].

i accordance r i t h the Icing's summons. A nice n house was set apart for thcrn to live in. After two or three days rn1.1en the fatigue of the journey had gone off, he c:tlled them before him. They saw the ICi11g on hia throne, and asked blessings, then paying their respects took places accordii~gto their rank. This Iiing m2s very j ~ ~ and upright. He st had taken a ~ ~ thea p2lm for courage and genero~ y sity from his conteinpo~aries. The poor of that age came to hiin and foonrl support. Throughout his dominiollv no despotic tpranr; wzs able to tyrmnjze ove:. the poor a i d helpless. Those things which ape ibrbi6den in t?ie 13~\*,altogether disappea~:.cdjiz his reign. Esc2yting the mill and pler.surc of God: no rct wcs tbvught of. He very kindly s ~ k e d thew. " '?;Ly did you come into my eountry ? Thcre has never been any correspondhwe you ence b e t m e n us. For what encro:lched so fi~s " One man arnongst them, ? who was experienced and eloqnent. made obeisance and began to wy, '' ?FTc heal~cl of the justice and rxprightness of your nlqjcsty a d have come into your prcscnce, Aud i o this day no petitioner haa

gone ltmsy from this blessed threshold without obtaining mercy, and m e hope that your n~nje~sty mill give us justice." He said, What is your petition ? " IIe replied, " 0 j 11st King, these animals arc our slaves. Amongst them some are an abhorrence, and others though forced t o serve us, dispute our right of posses~ion." The Ring asked, '' Is there any support to this case ? For a case without evidence ifi not heard i a the justice hall." He replied, " 0 Icing, in this case there arc many prooSs both rational and tni,ditioaa.l." fIc ordered him to reiate ihetn. One of them, who was of thc race of H ~ r z r ~Abbas (may God be pleased with lt him) ascended the pulpit 2nd began eloquently and clearly to deliver this sermon, " Praise is due .: :) the God*: of truth, nrho for tbe support of His creat,ures has prepared all things on the surface of the e n r t l ~and made eveyy convenicnco, and created all kinds of anitnnls for the nse of frail man. Happy is the coildition of those wbo by walking in His ~ v a y s sec.ure sa?.vntio~-L the' last day. What in &hallme say of t1:ose r h o disobey G.od and rebe%. ---.

* MahLakd, lite~ully> adored God, tbc

sga,inst Hirn ~'itho'ilt a ca,xse ? And boundless blessings are due to the true prophet. Mahomec! Must&, whom the Great God sent last of all t . l e proiihet,s to show the right vay to His creatures ;-~ncl made him Lord of all. He i s the Icing of a1i genii and men, aild will be the salvntion of %Ill in the last day. Blessings be upoil his holy de~cendant~s whoill the worlci aa1c3 rhe far tll were by arranged [or diuposed] and Islamism sp~.c;ttl. And thanks be ever to the our unrivalled Creator who made A d m from a drop of water and by His perfect Omnipotence made hi111 fiather of children, and from him, having made Eve: penpled the fcce of the earth with thonsands of men, mzlrinp; them giving thew ci~rilinion s:lpcrior to all creatures over land and sen.. IIe gave Eiiln good food of variotls sorts as he himself says in the I<orni~ JYala-. : 1-1 Ama I; hnlnlcaha laic i11n fiL& ciifnn ITa munafeo r a rninh& taku!ill~a lnlci~rnfiha jan~$,lun hina, tar; r ' hfinn we h i m tasrah6na. 1he meailins of n~hicll is this : " All ailin~:ils were creatsd fey you, use them, eat t,hem, mnlie Karm clothes fkom their skivs and hair. Sending tLcma out iato the pas.L-.

tures in the mornilzg and bringing them again to their homes in the evening, shall be evidence of your grandeur." And in another place he says, FVst ala,ih& alalfulke yohmhlun,' i. e., Ride upoll. wn camels and boats by land and sea. And in another place he says, ' Jn'alkhda wabigdla walhanlirn letarkab~ihii,'which means, The horse, the nlule and the ass were created for you to ride upon. -4nd in another place he says, ' Litastau ala zuhfirehi surnm:t tnzkurh ilelnats rabek6m i z a s t a w e t h alaihe,' which is, Ride upon their backs and be mindful of the blessings of God. A l ~ dbesides these there are many texts of the Iiorail in support of this case, and in the Old and New Testan~ellts this fact is understood, ' l Animals were created for us, me are in every sense their masters and they ;Ire our servants." The11 th.e King turning townrds the animals said-"'rhis man has brought iorwnrd texts o the Iiorail to. support his case ; f you call now reply as you think fit." On hearing this the Mule began" to say, "Praise be t o the. * Zabaa-i-hnl, literally, spenking by signs. Zibm-i-lral, l i t t ~ r r l 4 ,
speaking with the ruoulh.

holy Being Eternal, who =ants for nothing, who existed before the creation of the world, Infinite and Omnipresent, who with a word brought forth the universe from His secret treasury. Having naade the Heavens from fire and water and raised them to their position ; He with a drop of water created the family of man and sent them into the world generation after generation to inhabit it, not to ab~lse 2nd to protect the animals as n ~ u c h it, as they could, and benefit by them, not to oppress nor hurt them." After this he resumed, ii 0 King, it is not shown from the texts this man has repeated that we are their slasres and they our masters, for the subject of these sentences i s ' t h e blessings which the Grcat God has given them, which is supported by the following texts of the Koran : " Salthkharahd l a l i h n kama sal;hkharast~ shan~samal kamara rwry&hwassa216ba ; i. e., God has made the uniinals subject t.o you the same as He has the sun, moon, wind, and clouds. ; from this it is not uilderstood that they arc our owners and we: their slaves, bu: the Great God made all things in heaven and earth, one dependent on the other, that

they may benefit by one another and save one another fi-oin harm. Hence the Great God has made us dependents on them, only on this account, that they Inay benefit by us and save us from 11mm ; not as they imagine, alld. deceitfully and calumniously say, that they are masters and we slaves. Previous to this when man was not created, we and our parents lived on the earth unmolested, grazing every where, wandering wherever we wished, and every one was employed seeking his own livelihood. In fact, we lived socially together in the jungles, hills, and wilds, and supposted our young ones. l\rhatever God ordained we were thankful for ; spendink day and night in His praise, we thozrght of nought but Him. Each lived comfortnbly in his own dwelling-place, no one l~lolcsted us. When n period had thus passed, the Grcat God cre:it,ed hdain out of earth and made him sovereign of the world. \'hen lnen increased, t.hey begm to epyead over the eart,h and outsbretched the ha.nd of tyranny over us weak ones. They seized the horse, ass, nlulc and camel, m d began t o make t;hern serve ; and those troubles which our

ancestors had never seen- mere brought to pass bv force and oppression. What could me do ? We were obliged to Ay into the jungles and deserts. Further, these men desisted not from pursuing us. With many artifices they made snares and nets and pursued us. If they laid hands on t v o or three tired and weary ones, do not enquire their fate, how they were bound and taken and in every way ill-used ? bloi~cover their [consta~~t] employment is cutting our throats, skinning us, breaking our bones, taking out our sinews. ripping up our bellies, plucking our feathers, spitting us, cooking us in the fire, roosting and eating us, and more than ail this they are not satisfied, they claim that they are our masters-me their slaves, and that those that escape from then1 commit a crime. There is no proof nor evidence in this case, it is a1toget:etLer tyranny alld oppression.

This Chapter gives tin account qf th.e King o j the Genii Eistewilag t o the qzccc~..~-cl befzoeen Jdilen ci7zd A?zii?zal,sin 0 1 ' d ~ ~ decide bbetzaec,iz thenb. to \Then the King heard t.hese statements, having given his mind to do justice to this dispute, he said, "Let the judges, priests, and a11 the nobles of t.be Genii be present." They immediately, in accordance with the order, presented themsel~~as before the King, Re then sa.id t o Man, " The znimals have given me a full account and complaiat of your t p n n y , what reply dn you now ms,ke ? '' One of them made obeisance and began to say, " 0 shel~er the world, these are our slaves and rt.e of their rnnsters ; we sl10~1ld have a ~liaster'sauthority over them, and nza,lce them do whatever we miah. 'Those anlong t.hem who have su!)mitted to 1 :we : s acceptal~le with G,od, a i d those who have turned q a i n s t us have as it were turned against God." 'I'he King said, " -4 claitn wirhout proof is not heard in a court of justice ; give us some documents or p~oofs." He sniil, ;' There are manj7 proofs traclitioqal and ratiofial to establish oar claim.'; Be

) the C'reat. d they ought to be.3iin .zdkh~zlE~a?mi. He a. L. .'l sb0uld a& rrise men to point them ov. I bnve given L\1:111 a n e s c e l l e ~ ~ t n e.niags of Go cl's ~ 0 1 . our sense such as can ~ o ~ ~ ~ our stat. do you say -fruits of the forest: and covered his body v i t h the .te the The King asked the Animals: '' TTrh:lt. be was d t o besides us has these adva~~rages From t ..l in." protect him from t.Lap ? Be replied.theri.said. [zceli upright. Our bodies are graceful. CHAPTER TTI. a o m ? '' They ~ e s p e c t f ~replied: :' The cl aim is dl~ ieares of trees.t o this rrhicii tions upon your Sfajesty.. ~ istic of a superior! and ill shape and c~*ookedliess for This reason our sliape is bent that me mnathe stiglna of slaves T " One of them replied. ':L)c.f. given to as as u ~ shape. h i ~ ? it gether naked . and nndersta~~c? all about the heavens and describe the same.he heat and cold..t. . they ere our slaver.o be called our mas. There is no morl. On tbis account he was mnclcnot est. c ~ l ~ l l i i t i of the morld." He said. The graze ensilr and experience e o kind of imnoynnc~. :6\TThatare the proofs ? " The Man then re. '' The Great G. nlaks es ohsalLe f ~ k t ~ i %.~k(.~cui l i st.l nmea. d .or dicl not.good breeding is the characte:-to eat and tlie leayes to use. 1 ~ ~ 1 ~ ~When the Great God made Man.j s ~f His that does not show His wisdom. every limb is proportionabie." T ~ C S C l' . and protect yo. He is Omniscient. nre many i ~ t e r ~ r c t a t i o n[or hidden n1ea:llnp. that he may easily pluck the fruits y011 not lmow t. erect and tall. ~ Ifan c:^ :his for111 and ststnre t.hat.od has mncte us of a comely Ckqpfer is about t 6 2 d<fes-e. their slaves. ': TYbnt do ?or1 ex\.ablishecl by these proofs. is as follows :-distinguish betwecn good and evil. there was nothing on his body to follows : v c are their n~asters." fact is! (may the Great God bestow good intenb e I said.~~re ned] Ic. 'l 0 shelter of tbc world : tcr.: fron~ tlip the Great God 11a::l said. create us with these ways and habits to be I :esides the litera. plied. O L Zfood is grass .lirr~~ farm . JThatever ~ h i c hare kllornn ollly t o leamecl u:en : 'yni: s!lnpes He considered best? He ha^ given to nll.

h.fore wise sage. .cc IIis secre~s.s. odious...O 7 is large.nog legs are long thei-eforc if his neck had been shor:. > X. t. then ospln:in ~ ~ ! i a t the advantage of the cnmel's neck is He replied..His f ~ ~ u l.and the elephant.:.fi cniys szu. 1 ~ 2 . Ci-ori t has given every limb proportinnable t o us.eatus.-since one nf SOLI.s of c.:re yonr linlbs in propordon ? Yonr fcmms nl-c.'that is. The correctness ancl bear~ty of OUT limbs are 5oxn I-Iim. and the cl~aos of elements was x.and that h2 m?. his I.:re is fi:<i:i!l. His necl." 'I'he Man said.f P\ .: his c. long necked. this reason. do you not krron. eyes his .~: so long. . '' If you tu.' l Le i nuimala said.st ready sild xilling to assume definizc forlns . We are 11. and there is the goat with a !ong lrenrd no I:l:ttsclis. t o graze. 0f r ~ x x tLe yro~lnd. ' Fa ccda7nka .l.pe. alld by the strength of his heck get ~ 1 ." .e e. neither too small r.~not. siiort tailed . ' i It is a pity that you think ~.. r h o is of a greg.~ i i a t God ui' ts His wisdom created every thing for some g o d pxrpose. 111 a mpaner these are mauy wild aiid domestic nnilnnls <:. i t mould have been difficult for hi:. in accordance with an oscle~ the of espounded the drift of the tests thus: JYhe~l God created Adain: i~ ~ 3 as propitious Inmncnt : the stars shone forth in their most favoraI)le posiiions. l l i e rl.lr.izbin ~ i / . This is the case ~ ~ i us halso.v.hermeaning. kr..reach . ?. lu rllis l ) a r t i ~ ~ lwe ~ equal. '' Flom l a are . the camel.G one besides aHimself sztl ~ i a eme:. was made long that he may graze in comfort. his ears are large and spread oi~t. stature not suitable.:~thilig the slrill of tLc C'wntor. linlbs ugly... therefol-c onr fi:!~lt~are of a hnrcty. is great in stature.es. the Great (Cod created 3Ian proportionable." The King said. has two long teeth sticking ont of his :lmut.im:~Js begal t o arty. The tail of iJle ox and of the b ~ f f .hr horns thick? a ~ l d they have I>O upper The fat-tailed sheep has heavy horns wit.. i sh/ilr&~akkccbaku.h fit buttocks . . r h e ~ e f o ~ e received erect sts2~1re blan ancl vel'J fonned limbs! and ' the propitions moment ' also has .l) smdl.hi: ~vh~ll. Fo:.e :." Mall replied.-.nclBirds: whose fonns :tre ~ ~ proportio~~rtble. i ' This proportion of tbcir limbs is enongb to show their superiority.-In hearing this! one of the o t ztl. e:?d has iara:. heavy slln.or :c0 large.ue of the philosophers of the animals.o.

the Great God 1 has given every being such limbs as I-le thil:$s suitable.h always remains open on account of his tneks.~ith Tomen c10 not thinlc of boys.nd lamps. And certain men who cohabit with boys have no desire for the most beautiful women . there is the camel. eve11 shoald they I. OP more fully. t I l n t in r!te i~ winter he may cover himself? and in rlle s ~ u u u l ~ r i:.body with hi3 lips and scratch lii~il~cli'. .\is0 a mistate. This is the sourc.for him.!and in yonr own opinion you are masters and we slaves. is made long in the Place of a long neck.3. +%ndthis vhieL oou sny. For the elegance of one is riot appreciated by any other . hlan also in this may is indined rowards his own species. 'fhose persons that are ]. i i l L'LI~ same way the elephant's trunl..d:rice.hat rile y Inay not get illto his eyes and mouth. They uerer lore the females of aliother race. God gave every creature existence and afterwards gave the% his gc. who from afar hears the somd of any one coming. Beauty every aaimal is that L in adaired bj. t.the flies and moscluitoes.) and get is able to see places (i. ' Ratbanal lctzi dtd k~i!l!z.11an us. with its large feet and Iong neck. You %.e lllucll superior. The ears of tile hare m e iar*.j. where you reqnire torches a.o for himself and shown him the right W). whose head talks with the vin1. is . He has given evely olle limbs fjt- ii:.lack do n o t wish for those vho are white.li(. tall. Certain animals har-c n3ore accie sense than you. of vild beasts. For ]:is :no~zt. Ecnst of things which you think superior. ancl those that live -. that your undtrataniliilg is superior.hose that are vhite love black people. For instance.. 11 short. its own species. and his ears Inrge that I:e Inay dtive away.xead them (to lie upon). Then there is the horse also. every anima! is attached GO the female of its kiad.' rrhich means. S s he has said ill the n-ords of 31oses the prophet. which is wrong.e r:f continued population.alr~i srinznla Badci. through which they ijecolne attached t o one a-i~other.9 for his feet in dark nights.iiz i~bnl1. Therefore yo:ir beauty is no proof of superiori~y. and cannot be closed. !'or Lis b ~ d y delicate 2nd his skill t!liz>. His tusks are lone that he lnxy protect hili~seiffrom the attack. nor . and to travel roads ~ h i c hare difficult to pass.tbni g o ~ isho?ild rhillk you~selves better t.

. If \.. or of :he religious knorrlzclge a d good h ~ b i t sthey l-arn by their onn e::er~ioioas. Then n h e e is your &scerllment :W:.. ed~ have heard their kLrv-o?..." D$ .oenee--oZd.sister. Slieep iuld goats r h o byir:g fcrth liundrec!s oi' rolIng in one .o ioirr.ttacks of wild aaimn!.return.?. >-on are perplesed tu:d forget.om his enemy.a i i ~ ~ ~ '' There. he $7. ciothing the=. This L r o i she case with you 2 3 *.ves vith mercy 2nd kindness (at all times ncd:) The Ring henring this. ~ ~ i ! t y ic Jiis o v : ~ rct!:l'u h.!one a road se.eaed his lnaster nl:d saved bin1 fl...me.!fie\. yon would ~. - -.3 ngfiin.lotboast -.hrr ::A brother.".iais merely case airhoot eir.." They ~eplied. glrmg them food find drink. in n-hich yon dornlneer o ~ e ?1 .. i\lemthem.lg h w?lich oor claim : c m be er.lr.' . ' Buying .c..2~:.~ ~ ~ ~ L.*' . It is the custonz of a11 masters to watch over their s!s. CLCLIE sense o f d i c h ~ O L boast SO I ? T " -. t h e you~1g ones i-noiv h e i r lnotllern a i d the). hrgia.t.ccilrre home.rds IIen snid.t.a10113v a strungc roncl m d let hi12 . ."If ~1.. t o the past~~ree the ifil>rlli~g. i h e from coid 2nd heal.r e m ~ i n array for : short t i m p L mc!. the Great God has giwn you. The l<jEo.b. ' l P o a *. . jf r n y une of ~ L J .. 1s l. he has awi~l. arises from kindness and mercy.U!: go :. zre yet mall? proofs i-crno?n!. which w i t h o ~ tl a l or Cxer. If ally one take ail 3 5 3 or a ~uUOCI.tsbli~hed--thcse WC some of' them.' This our treat1:lcnt of then. d in in m t h e ereaii~? vhcn the.w i t h o t ~ t ~ l i f i .: go UN.LL :. yon fo~get~xother. .C)ftentimes it has happened that on hearing th2 slpprosch of an enemy. "Give a reply.~era\ti~iles :~udI1a~>~)2li L:~ve to 10 p.I A .I. fat.. ~ a any sense a t all. For vise rind cJaser a r n boast only of those things they by their W !cbor. ~ ~ shutting our eyes t o their faults: pmtccting thcm horn the a..st mhen sick treating tEexIl kindly and cruring them. he does liot in axy n-ny fb:. : had oE tliase t h i ~ ~ g s . said to ill tlle animals. strife ri-itIiout a cause.their young uller.

e borne much nfiiction. race his slaves a d sells them. mittloni food or drink they slaughter us-tear off our skins. the whip and e n 2 a . In their hands are sticks and . As God has written. open our skulls.omeg inother a.1have yoked to the p i o r ~ ~or.ent I a n s taken by Jlan. nsd art w nith b n i ~ ~ 5.sians the salilc. If ~ .. W .m n 62s. And that which they say. q~]lo -are in tri1t. : ~ic . i here.ikr t h t .~ r e s athe i l l ~ ~ z z lin ZNY . G Since I became rnbjeci is >liul. take i l s .he laws of astrology.t the 1'er. This fact' is well knolrn to the wiae among men.&r-hc~se. The inhaI~itant.mt.sof India ~ i t h those of Sindh mid the people of Siildh with the Hindoos. bat from fear that if we died they would lose Their prosperity and be inconvenienced fop dding. . TLi ii~s . tear out our livers. they trea.t.hb. when the inlaliiai~tsof l'ersir ecn. with which they belabour my bnck. tillcat aiydnz izuduuilohd bai~zannds ' . made I s~pwatc eolnplaint of &I:LII's tyranny. you woldd have on me. After .n i. which me11 are according to t. they loaded me vith bricks and stones. iron. which this 31.Toided. Q Ela. that they feed us and do other things for us is not from kindness.?g.. yieillrcd ? " T&n the bullocl: said.Ileir hands beating me 0 1the face nnd bnck . the Turks with the Arabs and the Arabs nitb the Tnrls brirlg the same into practice. " From the honr X lvas take11by &Iali. hs i this custom a. each animal in the presence of the King. wood w d fi:a. &at is. they n separate my little p o u ~ ~ g fls01Il their liloike~-. o i ~ r )l\ldcsty could see me a t t. Who tell.. . for instaace.h slaves nnd \vllo masters ? These are t h e vicisssitudes of life. rip up onr belllei.loer TurkeJ-.lly other burdens. lu short. m d nhen the Turks coirquer Persia. I give every one prosperity and d v e r d t y in his turn. e : ill our^: my erer $&llc!.1.f ~bou!ld h t ZnJ! or the ~ . i Afau says that they buy aliinlals a i d ~ drhen~. they sell the Turks ..he slaughter-konse-xiever listening ro their crier 2nd.nd gets a ~ i c t w yhe considers the .rbips.hat h e . +hen one overc.tions.'' A ~ X Y 1 &is the rut-t&J sheep said.lso prevails among !nen . transporting burdens and many other thinga. Yqi'Lere is the fondness xi~d kindness i them. the moo. orlea and binding their lands and feet t. !. 1 D2i. I older t o drink the milk of my children. l .7 I .

hsbridles llllii hard bit.c. stupidi t.ire in onr he:~rt.$ . 3 d chn.the s ~ l u ~ . ..F1-omthe time F e were take:: c n .L :. y o ~ ~ r onmess' snc! b:lyersl n ~ ~ i l sellers7 ~ i v e s .: i. roast 11s in rile ovens.ns ronnt-l onr feet: : d : t::iiirlg the driver's iron sp'lke in ihe lia~lds. s~ :..d \VC s m i ~ n xve1.her. L:~i:!.hrtni scid...s.::I. Q I ' ... hemy loads a1. this as l >c.::::cl ride io T:lr n-rRringel~nianrmocr m p u l l : . arld ne r. l hey never give ear to the i n s t r ~ ~ c t i o n the C r e a t o ~or the last. .+ .:jrse 5 5 4 .be eIe!.. p t j ~ by them mc have snfTered monclriius troubles 3 on c?:!. "&c.f their mnsters. and hungry ant1 thirsty they tnlie :I> r. 1 iiF: rn !nule mid.s .:?ui US rigfit and left i\ll('f 011. 1 titcn as on the spit. one inoluent that we r n a y r.cl:I=. dml.nd oisr necks 2 ..v.. .the stones. d :. l r c f tLe saddie .a or i ~ i ~ c c . you will ~ulderstaxrl rhat they are fill1 of the whole of this world's TFi~filiness and ignorance.s.. ~iloutbsis abuse and obscenity.-#r. + : * *. 1 ' the breast.g a n d obscenitv.~ ~ d .'D. .t.. 'l'hcg attain to S ~ I X degree of st-upidity C ~ that at tirrles they give obscel~e abuse t o their o w n ~ e l v e their sisters.thcy are unconscin x s of these evil tendencies. .~ ~ .s!igec-! to serve them:" . '. an.. . ~ .i. *? -411 t'his:abuse is of them.heir igl~sr r:mce. ::lid s p e ~ y ~ ~ y C. . and . s:rddlcs on our bxk?. they leave us not.tht. 'l'he grooms and others p11~ saddles on anr bncl. our bncks rire galled h\.2C.h:.. Noteoi~hstnndir?g they thernseives ..-.. tlley p n t ro1. .hink of t.es .. advice of ~ S of the prophets.hep hare fastetled brjdlcs in otlr mouths. bel!y-hnr:d on our m:aiets:-.rnm tlla t.zr:tiy we becnme subject to t112112.adergoixg these aflict. \.1: t.c)n f.we are taken over hil!s nnd nlol!tit:~i~!sdnrlng r!!i . feet they have bouilcl ropes?in ourmout.. and all tLat comes inro their.." The camel soiil. the hen.. .e ~vonnclcd1 2 ~ .jons seluaj:~ r!iiie t anil say r~thing..taken captive by then!.:ite :is . L.e pu:. lyal.7 .s and ritle 11s: and takins sticks a d whips in their hanrls beat u s before and bebincl. night.the soles of n:ir &et 2r.our cpes filled tvirb c ] .cn.-l.ut rherever they wish. 123pcs are p ~ through our noses: the cni~:e!-driver ~ t l i d i s them. :i. . True it ist thcy are clesel-ving cf : I f y o ~ J[a+iestpmill only t.C ~ : (l.( 29 j * m .E-e ljoor tl~lrlgsaye :." .o to our ~lltltesa11J remove the longings I\-kich . . on our.i\ae Tre Lccallic slil~ject:S + -. and i1:tnghters.LL ~ ~ .k i d they say.s :)!it! .. I rtloll. 'iT<e go into battle field hunzuv a:ld thirsta-.Prom the honr I w:s . : i ~ t~1ii1 i ~ t . d 1ct.

'lhose x ~ h o bIussul~nans are t. and that they eat carrion ? " Another said. King.aslihrri nemata rabet Gm." T h e n the n~lile had finish rd this speech. merc changed into those shapes. do yon not Bnow that their teeth are projectilig. ' Iditastau nlh zl:hlt1rehi siimma. XfiUSt tell of the tyranny yoor race has reeeiv "d the handof RI&.hink us metamoryhosed2 and accursed. and leopard and the oa~rich. IYhile in Turliev t. they t.y. ~cllich the shape of a bird and Las a camel combiaed." A third said.now nothiilg (about.adition among the kIussulrnans that monkrrs allcl swine were origi~lallp ulel).hini.-If you wish forgiveness from God. 0 Mahoomrned I t o look over the crimes of the unbelievem. inr?Qi l i rabena larnhkalebimna . in the same way as the camel-leopard a is t. hands. " They are a compound of n mild beast. from their. and birds. our fbrni disgusting and ollr flesh unclean . -. tbai wander on the faee of the earth or fly m iLr &.i lmin dbbbatin Rlarze nald taerin yutiro bijanAyati1 omam ams&lnkum'.and detail :Le s.remarked.l~ofor offending sorrie p q h e t .' The meaning GP mhicl~is. A t the time you mount [your] camels: think of tile ?~lcssing.jr:st. a grazing aniplal a i ~ d brnte. probably Lot.'are sociable like yourselves. " A learned one . G-od is pure r h o ha8 put such tin anillin1 nndey ns.nd mercy wilI probably release those of us who sre slaves. Mye 211 depend upon God .!' The boar said to the camel. m-e rhouid never have been able to subdue him. All cattle' vild beasts.he cor:~pnund of the ox: camel. wa ID& kunna lahii mGkrebna . and they abstain from mentioning us.wad t&se texts : ' f a iagdfil rrb 1ayasfaLli di. .zL . iznstnn-ehini alaih . lhey are grazi~ganimals. brit. Fcr your race are also beasts of the field ( g m z e ~ ) . for they are ciovenfooted and eat grass also. iohilbhna anyagfira dllaho lnk6m. Order the believers.it). m-llom shall I complain? There is great flit-ersity of opinion amongst nien concerning 11s. "Pigs are not gmzers. ' that is.ame before - this very . they are beasts of prey. [ o r he?U$t8] God has given you and en. the eanlel said t o the boar. and he of his kindness a. "1 1. \vr. let the crimes of others pass-' Kcl liilazinah rnallfi yngfini lilazina layarjims rijim allihe.hey eat our flesh L i r 7 *. wa. what can I say ? and against. wa t a k i l 6 subhdnnaliazi sak hk hnrn lans h4. There isda t~.' rrhich means.' That is. V7a m.

whom shall I p k s e .pc S .t.he oppreasio~~ yacr species has that ~iiffered from 3Im. ~ 1 1 was standing aeay the canleI. The A::1.1:i?ni. Boot and shoe-mafiers very e a p l y pluck and preserve the l~ristlesof our r m k a!. a i d who does not ear o u r flesh.'' CWX]'TE!: I-.he boar bed Snished all this. a. 3lzgicians and exorcists keep our skin in their boo1. vo:.d face .~:l>i(. for they are of great use to them.m:& relish alld think it a Biesseti :~~lorsd: nzJ us 2 very eirectaal sacrifice. curse us. But the horsc r h o is of our species. ~ ~r ~ p \Then mail heard all t h e ~vorr. '. in the presence of the I<ing. h a r e 11111r:h s1andei:ed the horse. he said :-'' Enougl1. (logs a115 beasts of prey who as-jist. causing 11s all to fail into the Lnncls of man." The hare again said.s of the h:. they t. m3n lsy leading him towards oa t o take us. 13ecause their cattle and horses! fi.uld perhaps the Ring nil1 bc kin:] enoi~g-11to 1 1're^ e I - rhose of us who are prisoners.re at enmity mitli the Nczarenes and T~uyks. live in ~ I ~ Y P O T and jr~ngles. for t'hey ~ n u s assist mar!.ii1~ col~sider t s the sa. goat and other animals: who have taken shelter in t h e hills.0111 orlr lising there. because tlicg a. why does Le assist man ? So. Herdsinen and grooms keep s s in the pastures and stables with the c a ~ t l eand horses. I an] per~ l e x e d I am not able to speak. 3 ~ i G prolificness. The Grecian physicians often use o::r . ltTe choose ti:. and my brethren the deer.Iif~.hink better cf us on account of our fitttness. be silent . The Jevs (ifspise ELTld -us. ox. 1 t :s they also have a longing ro eat our flesh. therefore we escs.i. from their hands.re protected horn many evils.~~. They i :ire not of OLIP speci. -' The bounds itre excus:~bie11 this athir.es:they are of t!le beasts of prey." The hare sxid.. We live far from them. . ~nedicineain it. having left the country where they live. it is altogether.me as oxex and goats. extra flesl-1.n t. they preserve tlieir 0 1 ~ 1 1 . alld said to him. 0 " Relate all t. the ass looked towards the hare. his igool-ailcc aucl st. they give. fat for lnedicj~les further.s and charms. us a $ i i ~ e hate when innocel. . camel. or whom shall I blame ? " V'he. .j:~~aat~ but we aTe extrenlel y harassed !ly 111s y.rc.. IF you bad !izoc-n thar the C . C / L C Lis i~i L ~c* i y zo/' the Uiir. r.

iellt and forbenrillg that in battle he receives wounds from spears and . . '' What is t..-* h1unll morna ." The King asked. there is also :I areat defect. to him. (or proportionable). armour (or cuirass. With these good qualities..-in form and shape pleasing. iitet." The King said to man. t o t u r n away the facc. and his own saddle. and never turns his back* on nrort : he is so respectful that when his rider is on his back he never attends to either call of nature. every limb is correct. his senses acute. With t. the noble horse has many good! excellent qndities .he strength of a. he is like the Chetah in bounding (~. you would not have (given) so much absurd chatter. that a drop map not fall ou his rider. " Sire.zctt?ristic of the horse is like that of the s ~ o r dnrhich lies lifeless and cannot distii~guish between friends 2nd foes.If his rider make a bet he wallops fast. Ile goes along. and all his good points are hidden in L3 this. If he get beneat. if it falls upon their necks.) when galloping that the wind cannot keep up with the dust." He replied. obedient to his rider . (he raises) he is as stately as the holy bull.l these q~ialities any one besides t.here superior in him ? " I-Ie said. "He is altogether foolish and ignorant. lle t. at the directioil of his enemy. f and with rhis load of 40:001) lbs. right or left. He is so (swift. and taking his own rider in front. "TTThat is that defect. are nny of a1. p p arrows in his breast and heart and remains silent.he horse 3" The hare in replied. This chnr. wherever he is guided.n elephant he takes his master: with his helmet. he quickly turns.hen becomes subject. and subject to man. he has a good ap?earance.h the stride of his enemy. He is so ptlt. If his tail gets wet in the mud or water he never shakes it. his color clear. It k n o ~ n o s t P i k o r . And in war. O quickly arrives (at the goal) . front or rear. he never knoms his friends from his enemies. so tloes it un11esitatingl~separate the head from the body of his n1asi. bridle and armour.cr o r maker. Like as it wonucls irs enemies.) his coat of mail. t h e ci~aili arluonr won1 on the hind quarters of the Ilorse. superior in intelligence.unnin*q).ally. fleet of foot. he rushes and attacks those of the house where he was born and supported all his life. describe it.horse is the best of animals.

.. clothes of their sl~ia. the ass said to him.~. q. brothel.rivell ri-ie s ~ m mooil \. their enemies. rriodily .y ~ u i a. and in the tilne of ril"me.slloald treat. and rip up their bellies.oils r i a j . ~ e r n . ' I youth they hecoine their ( p r r e ~ ~ t scilemies.:a7: C U .om t.md allurements.. tlrey treat iileir acijanirLiallces. benut!-.e edilisc--that the wiac mav ayrise at illis {:kit: : if thev are (. silcli one does not p r i j i ill file r ~ c r l d God bus g i r m ~ eiai. .sfi . h ') m n r way they get milk from tile n:iim:tl.+. and in the end cot Qe throats of there anilnds. filther. mllch g o that certai:~ fi~tiaiisin L ~ ~ C I?~P.4 night. sister: illld r1eii. to the p. TT.r relaills ?ions.: hrifitnpss. 2nd nllo is he LG rrhom He hag denied C[i< .iril>riip . ar.ened u j l (or the IIKXI: increase) or dccrexse : ('tl)i. To their infancy! they receive milk f. rijast them nit.s and biessings.ion) also.. that ic r.1 -v : . by o ' and fur.i a ~ i j :o u'liiindlp. 211 ~ L c i t ..itp of si6 . skin them. . and has not reterusome p a ~ t i c u l n rr72c rrhicb Be has not ~ e s t a "i)ou him .kxsea ?is ilie nlooll. from one defect_ t1.augerr. :: E~jor:~h! you 7 X.gthem the f l ~ z ~lli. mother.cry high P O S ~ an!! ti0i7 (r2r. . id .hcir parents ""-.~ ~not S ~nilcll to tbeir diaparag-e~ncl~t. .2nd to mhorn tIe ~ I R Snot given smile pwe1iay benefit vhicb He 112s nor bestoned on an. d perfcctiolls s:d r i r r u e s Iic 52s givcli . o blessjiiirr of ibe (1is:fit~rebtd nlid beuc&t. . j In this ~ 2 God has giren light and 9 brightness to all the stnre! but with this (provi~ .( t h n s ) d::rl.l are nourished iu their arms. r i. 'mefi: tl~emseiues m a k i ~ . the mnnuer the). e. unmercifuily forget entinlir the oljligzand benefits rhey receiy-ed from the hare had finished r ~ ~ i ~ nilono rnel: ing k1ll-l the horse.riifference bcimeen its friends nnil stl. ld " 1s there such a person to whom God hhs given slli~erior tnlent. . yet $rill tliev nrc uc>-i. they disapper.O?:~I:CC P tllelxi t o be tileis God . pl. he is ar e~irr. 2 ~ . This is also a ~Larwtoristic rnan .k).z l o v nereri 1. givi?2.~ tbe Mghrness of t h i in alnlthep d g a:.d causes (them) to &l into many snares ! .r$i.~. .einpt.ni?iilrcc: sill.

he has also sorne little defect. man. man rtlld n angels. which the anilnals have described? They replied." \?Then the ass had finished this speech the OS said.against the king.-share those blessings vith otbera-thus as God has given brightness to the sun. "He to whom God has given many talents that to others He has not given. Perfection is God's done.* p " E u r u j . and considers no one u~tderoblig-a:inn. and he with his splendour sends blessings to all creation.be evident they were created. broke the lock of any one's shop. egress. o r stole any thiag. irruption. ':We bave beard. They altogether left off p i n g t o populous places through man's bad ways. and no at}iers. \Ve see it day and night .nner the mocn and stars. ii~telligent person. wounded one. gives light t o netare thinking no one under ohligatiol~ :-in t. 3fan to whom God has given so many bless- . and seek shelter frotn the niischief of the Genii. The Icing having heard this. rebelled . Jf olle has many superior qualities. ings." \Then the o r had fiirislied saying this: d the animals weeping and l clm:tshing their teerh hegm to say : "Just Kin$ . that should any child. and their ill-usage (of the Genii. man. becorne sick. mountains and rivers hid themselves. (and not creato~s.he same 'in?-.hive mercy upon us and deliver us from the xgrsnny of this oppressor.) Yet they (the Genii) are not free from their suspicions. snatcled awajr his clothes. should bestow them on the animals not :hi!& them indebted to him. picked any one's pocket. beat any traveller. each according to his ability. and it is a11 correct. and entering the hills. should be thankful in this manner. broke into any one's house.heir country and fled illto jungles and wilds. ) rlhis is the case with genii.-saily. they say this. . On this account the Genii also left t.This is the influence or shadow of the Genii. They are so far suspicious and without or faith in us. their tyrnlzily is not hidden fl-on1 any wise. :. end in the same ma. looked torards as many of the Philosoijhera and learned Genii as were present and ::Have you heard the tyranny: cruelty and oppres&on of man. ~voinaa. 'They Jmaj-s suspect us. Yet no one ever saw that any Genius ever killed a man. whether ignorant or insane. or tore my one's sleeves.

:Eyfi" sclloo! of .he animalls to ( a detail of) the e i r c u m s t ~ ~ c e s nlld of oppressio~~ theyhave receix-c-ed at thi.he opinion' of the Lenrned f ~ ~ r i l i ~ t . and entcrcd oi:r cooniry and tclicn s21elte~.I .... go t o .. the best 7'' . T T -- <. d ..l*t illilsr cloic.~ . tile ministers c):' the Genll he p ~ seilr. or ~ o i ~ f i l ~U~ C ~ d oile.lolV their c 152 shoilld h+: be do.LI~~~ETS the @fthe r8L. d l.:. . 5aEiiIr%. handa of man.t.i!lljFs "f lace ei. and rake :. fro cbi!(lmil of l h i i c n n ~ and ~ ! L C eilrerlxlg1ag men of Brhmii~.o\Ts : Th? .i:.?." l n compiianec with iyhat be soid.. xhc 1 G . 1s Directly the Court nmse. he l!idstell was ?L ve?y nrise and intelligent. I. ~ ] . h ~ e or foxr a tbirlg 1)econzes clear. mid asking blersinss.all nfz:cr paying h i s respect.. . t jTcrji)!z..ad sabl -.ho e ~ ~ ~ c r i c n c e d tl.'' (rliosc Nile cklna yen:) ?LS Fo~I. in p r h a t e : "EnPe yoil llenrd hi. v i a e e nlen o~rght not to enter into s ~ c h .:j. 1 these are all practices of theirs. niinlster Bedar. TLer.!E p ' ~ r7i. taiie iesve.. All the auimds complain of the tyranny o p p ~ s sof ~ ~ i mm. lnen of the tribz of B n i d ~philoso.LnJ importiLl1~ aEtiu.~n!s hn. ~ : ~ S ~ ~ O I I Sanswers of these me3 2uld and 7:f-j do p i g now advise ? ? -'at this bp (i-ci<?ed7 What course do YOU thhl1.cess8l-i-.t. .. Advise 113 rrhat sLon!ri them: ancl I.'hp.. be w i i .side is in the rigl.-o:lr OLI-n home_ and Go liclse in tllc liijnlln.'. ?.ilrrcr repcfit nr tdie wztmillg-'' LPII t l i i ~ filiishsd. : j .coullsel .are day and night piotiing against each other. Icing s ~ i dto theln: "'l'hcse ilnd nr-. g ~ ordered tllnP: 4: let.s mi:llouL co~msol and deiil~emtion. i.y_ t... TheJ. .. 111 the C o i i n se] of t .!<. ienrr-~cd .." X !c?nrncclm n l ? of Tsce of ?tTnhid the 1msent : he said?L : In my opinion it ~ o u l be best f01. A ~ nii.c sons iig ~ g c . .?.Get) kl?lilell: it is :%naerening : the Coi.. 'l I think it is hest t o stuntnon and fake 3 coulisei in this ease wit11 tlio jtidrres: priests n d l W scphers of the Genii! for this is a reig-htY nqmnect : ~ > it i s :lot knosrn n-!lnse . ti:e ging sni(j .ve come C C ~ i~!:tinillg to us.ie decided ..*nbhed any O I I ~ .~ . . the lliacc boiirrr cried ont :.

it. a. ed kindly. or freed. From the p~tblie Treasury." Hearing this. liings. Tllus the release of these animals will be eEecter3. once ? " He answered. " if rhese rnen aye n i l l i q to sell the aaimda. it c211 in no V C L ~ ~ be: because a t night many animals are in close confinement and their stable doors closed. the bufialo." The other said. " This is not at all advisable? and this p1811 is verv co11trnr.0 the L( decision. hut will remain q ~ i e t . Is ndvisable that t. For instance. or to have their sufferings lessened and to be treat.. would never agree to their being sold : they would dlject t.he King order the animals to agree together. and ci~quired Cram all if they thought what he had said was best. the King asked all of rliern what they said in t>his (matter. who will give the money for them? " The religious man replied: Tbe King. " W heere will thc Tiing get such n s u m of money at. C: T h e r e is them such a sum in the public Treasury that v! aaffice for their purchase ? Some lnen will i! never sell them.y to reason . 'C my opinioo." Again the other replied. n ~ r l he said. Animals are very essentid to them. and said. and on some .) They all said it was excellellt and befitting the occasion.light escape from confinement and retire to a distance from man's abode. and many gentlemen who cnnn ot n o r e about without a conveyance. In t.If an jr thing be decided for their release. on what will he load his goods or mo1111t ? He will not be able by reason of the great distance to go in pursuit of them. .how then ill they be able t o escape ? " He of the men of l i e h a m said.he morning when man does not find them. i t shall he no crime or sin of theirs. the J u d g m and the Bench $hall order h e m to be sold." The Icing was pleased with this proposal. and many animals have left man's abode aiid fled. But one of the men of Behram did not npprove of the advice." The Killg sairi. A philosopher of the descendants of Xsop was thei-e.nd watchmen placed on goard . In this way the deer. If man obey not thc orclel*of the judgesv and the animals fly from their oppression. "What do YOU then h thil& best ? " He replied. while lnoney is not cared for. minis ters. The King may give order to the whole of the Genii to go there on that night and open the doors ~f the U J .

and keeps himself clenr of their quarrels.nd tlrz cattie tind l~ecomes t awarBt: .:.'' He replied.hem gc until the miilnals had esr:~peii t n R i.: .. . -:.y t!icir cnnilirioit. cnJ ther.t. and seize all the x~ateilnrei~? lror sr<I let :. he ~ i 1 1 know tii. " 0 shelter of rEe univcrse ! When rhese snimds escape from t.u~gl~t mllch sbj& with : ! ' danger which it will be il~l)ossitJ!eto aroip~ rk&lrs. God has s ~ i d : 0 l. . he who has devlseri I . Onr - J . Aftcl.. n Cod wili r.i mid.S.rutl~.i. blessing nlld the i h S " This is n very difieolt flbffa.i... People say that in solnc tile l)ooj.rt it is nor man‘^ i wss impossible fix minxils t o t work. %~l.i~:gs ! I hare no.'' I he King said.p.lr the > a rcry great nc. the :.iley will sns. ': 11-1 have yoo no confidence 7 Tell ns. of the Genii. he:ird as I rnysc:lC give t o tllem. . . Tile i i i t . They were ar. Why shoulrl we be afraid of their erulity ? Their enrnixy cannot d e c t us.nd i~ccomplish same tirc~uielres. :: IIe speaks the t. blessings.hcir hands. no\r t I ~ e y viil e n t c r t ~ n extm hnt.c. all. tBa. 3 D cS1. . the oliprcjsc-J m a r c." T1:e E:in% agaill :'lerr. Ili]p aiid reiicnt .and untie the heel-ropes of !hc nlrinrnls . F all picxsed r::.zdrhc l i i n r .rcEt this plan for thz xiease of r. alsoknow.rcd. . that Fe may . are deprived of the henelts (derived froiii .. theye is no doubt that t.ject n s 01kl.f til~ prophets.s!lorl]d th..: -?:ls m attempr to . vi&nce bchre. rnil ~ic?eforehovethosnilvi. . P~ThOllgi: i:rey lniv be heathen. Tfhec lilari gets up in t.. What d o yen ray this ? ~h~~ L . I' .. ' -7. :' Jrle alone is W j l e that mrires p e x e bct:ireen foes. Sn g mnke act.l o l r j i l rh.srin: bin1 : .s (.bn nni~nnlshns mnde 2 g-refit mistake.' opp~csszdare oar best t j ~ z ! : ! ~ ~ h'.but fcr this. s)i:i y become the ellemy of thc G$nii. :. abode of' m:i?l.iid.. :::ice fr0111.?-.r of their flight. it is fi.but that this rrick the .sy this cannot be." Iiearing this all the Genii s.i.llJij I-t iheln out. U part of this (propoeiiior:) T h King said.hc morni nc7 and doe3 n ~ 6.clit you 011 earth tlint p i 1 2zay :LccnmllILi~eiTeal:b Jr i~lvoire youweiver in rl?r arn!$rio~ aud arfirici: SE t'uc =orid .ifair : any . Si1. tllem) t-he vill grieve and lament excessively.'' 'The philosopher said. and m21icc. i' TJlis is tile i g l E:it 0 : of t h phi!osol>hers of :: did xct ngree rnirh ii. ~ t L:. God for liis ." After this a philosopher remnrked.." The learned have sr. I pit. '' Trne i t is.

bodies are (made) of fire, and are subtle md airy : we fly.up to heaven, vhile man's body is of earth, and he lives below : he cannot ascend on Mgh. M7e go them unrestrained and see tbem, they are not able to see us ; then what is zhere to fear?" The sage of Kaiirran gave answer to the above :
L ; K is a pity you understand nothing at all. t 31rn a?.tlxough of earth, has heavenly breath, and a!; a.ngelic spirit, 'nd is superior to us? and iinoi~x many stratagems and arts. I11 former times bet~veeli men and the Genii there vns much contention, from



the rdation of which every one trembles." The Billg said, " Tell us the particulars also ; what was it. all about 1 let us know it." The philosopher said. ': Innate and natural bntred have existed between m m and Genii for ages, the na~ration hi eh vould of he very tedious " Tbe King said, Give us a little the commel~cementso far as you are
The Co~~tention detueen ,Wan and the Genii The philosopher in compliance with the Ring's order, thus related the particulars : "In a1leient

timer when God had not creat,ed Adurn, the Genii i~lbabitedthe whole of the face of the earth ; all forests, inhabited places, and rivers were under their way. Aft.er a long time had passed. and they received prophecy, lam; and the faith mcl many other blessings. they then began to be disobedient and t o go astray, and not to heed the teacbing of the Iwophets, and raised strife throughout the vhole enrth. On account of their oppression, the earth and its inbabitauts complained at the throne of God, groaning and lamenting. When some rime more had elapsed, and their dissensioll and oppression day by day increased, God sent an army of ansels on the earth. They came, aud h:tving beaten the Cienii turned them out, nnd confined many of them ; und thcy themselves took up their abode on earth. And hraail, Qe nccussed Satan, who deceived Adaln and Eve, was among those a h n were contined. Be ~ 2 vary young and line^ nothing ; he was s b r o ~ ~up lamong l u e angds, and he adopted a n ~ r~ their habits ar~d costoms. When he had learnt a11 t,heir ways and had grown up, he W ~ made the hhend S md chief of that race (nngdsj. He continually

issued hvs (to obey) and proLibitio11s (to ohservc]. 2nd mhen another age had passed, the Great Go< $aid to these angels. who were living on the earth; dzni Jdihn $l nrnt i;hul<Jirtira ?,i i i,i.rrir-t?k:7r,' i m . f i k ~ i ? ~ snmcir;' that is, I n-i!! rnnke !rim &S ai' the earth, who is nor Loin ntnong yell, and wcail YOU t o heeven. The a11ge1s that had iirefl here so long, a t the idea of being aepar~ted il-orn the earth, thinking rills oniel. disno.rce:tblc, b ihis answer to God : dtojri2o -filin yi~,~il/+#ii(.Lin. ,fih~a loft ymfe fsknildiiisihd, ?mnorm,?,izt~,gaM~ho &/:n,j~&! ""h~%k~ '. Thoil wilt crcntr a persoil nllo kzkka: ill bring war and bioods!leti on the earth like ;:S the Genii did ; while me adore Thee, find think Thsp holy.'' The Great God eommnnded---;. h2rj, <i!ct,,i;; j '?~cild fdl6nz!ln, i. e., y o u he,ve no idea o f what 1 consider best, a ~ l d1 smear hy myself, that .,!dam and his race? I mill place neither dlls-p;, (;enina, nor beast upon the earth." In short, rile hour the Great Creator forined ACTuln and byeatbed into his body a soni; anri otlt of hilli nlade j:ve, he ~ommanded rhe :\ngels. nil Gnther :,her all Fe; and borr do-ix-n to AdalU,'. ~ ~ c c o r d i n g

ta the Divine order, they boved d o e n and became subject to Adam. Bnt dzazil did not how dovn. Through obstinacy and envy, he refused the order of the Lord. Re thought; I n r s formerly lord and master, and shall I now become subject to them ? ' Therefore through hatred and malice, he became Adam's enemy. Then God commanded the .h~gels to put Addam into Paradise ; and mhen he was in Paradise, this order came from the Divine Being : Y&ddhi~6skLin nsta toa Zn~+~kn2 jna~,.ntcbn a kuhi minhd rugad~xn ~ i s o h Shetdmb, z Zdtcik.~~tbc~ m hlileish hnjaratu fatakzina rninot strlimk. The purport of tbis text is this : " 0 Adam, lire in this Paradise with Your wife, and eat with joy whatever your heart desires, but go not near that tree ; if you go near it, you mill become a sinner." This Farm, disc which the Great God gave nnto .idam' to live in is a in rhe East, on mounPains of rubies ;no man has power to go and gain access M tbi~i. place. The lai~d there is fertile. the climate healthy, the season of spring continually abides. many vater-conrses flow there?the various kinds of * Eazt.ut, noble. D

fruit trees are extremely prolific, bearing all sorts of flowers and fruits. The animals there molest no one, beautiful sweet-singing birds of all color3 sit marbling or, the branches. Xdam and Eve went there and lived happily. Very long hair to hung from the Head of both of them d o m ~ ~ their fect. The vhole of their bodies was covered bv [their] hair ; this added greatly t o their grace and elegance. On the banks of %he stl-ean~letsand amor.g the parterres they wandered fi-eely, eatin? 2.11 kinds of fruit, and drinking of the water of the "reams. For them, emry thing wirhout labour and exertion, was provided. Ploughing. tilling. grinding, cooking. spinning, weaving cloth: wash-

be zt once told their names ond described the adrantages and disadvantages derived from each. TJ7hen the Angels saw this they all became subject to him, and thought Adaln superior to themselves. Azazil, when he saw Xdam's position, his malice and envy increasing, began to consider how he could in any T a y by finud a d deceit effect his diaorace. Therefore olie any assuming the disguise of an adviser, hement to him ancl said, " TheGreilt God who has given you the ucco~n~ilishnlentr of eloquence and reason, to this day has given soch advantages to n o one else. If yon eat of this t ~ e e ;

ing-not one even of these taslis Lad they. In this age their descendants are subject to these cares :

you will obtain knodedge a,nd gifts supedor t o these, 2nd you vill live here conticudly in I I C ~ fect happiness and peace ; death mill never come,
you miI,l always eu,jo>7yonrself. llTl!en the nccorsed one svore and said, I n r ~Z iU ~ Z L L$~ ~ t i i n n j~lcLsehi)lct, I i 'I give you good advice,' he fell into the snare ; t,hro.ougl kb covetousness he went beyond all bounds and ate of that tree. of wbich the Great God forbidden him to eat. The hearellly robes in ~Oich they were clotlled inulledi.ate?y fell from off their bodies. They tocl; leaves of trees and begas

Lilie as other animals lived there, so these t w o ill perfect safety and trni~qoillit~ pass their time. They had no care ;a11d all the names of the trees and animals wldch mere there the Great Gocl told to Adam ; and when he asked tlle h1,oels their names they knew them not, and b e i q pel-plesed remained silent. ]Then he oslced Adanl,

The very long hair that was on their heads a110 fell off. They became naked. and from the heat of the sun their complexion changed and became black, and they became disgraced. When the a~linials saw them in this state their appearance became hatef~zl them, and they to Bed with disOaust. Man became very much degmded. The Angels were ordered to cast them out of Paradire and throw them out at the foot of the n~ount,ain. The Angels threro them into a. lace where there was neither fruit nor leafThan on the earth for a long time in grief and sorrom thev - made lamentation, and became extremely ashamed of vhat they had done. When some tilne bad been spent in this grief and sorrom, the Great God of His mercy accepted their repentance alld forgave fieir h d t , and sent an angel to the earth. tie ba\~ing nrrived here [ t a ~ ~ g them] to dig the ground, to ht ~ l o ~ ~t o h , to reap, to grind. t o brev, to bake g SOW, b r e d , to weave cloth, to sew, to make clothe&; all these he taught them. When their race had iiucrensed, the Genii came and mixed with them, and t-ogbi them how to plant trees, and build houses

to cover their bodies.

and rnany other arts. Friendships arose betveen them, and for a long time in this way they passed their time. Gnt \vlxenever mention of the treachery of the accursed Satan was made, through a-ery inads -lnind passed 3. suspicion of the malice and envy ot the Genii. When Cain slew Abel, Abel's fimily From had the idea that the Genii prompted him. this their v ~ i a n c ewith the Genii was increased, alld they begm to devise stratagelns to get rid of them. Through hatred they nsed magic, spells, curses, charms, confineme~ltin vessels, and many ---other means to annoy the G-enii, and xere alrrays fuil of this speculation. When God sent the pmphet Enoch, he calxe, and made peace between I t a -n- a116 . th Genii, and shemed them the mays of relipon and piety. The Genii also came into the kingdoms of iilan. and they lived together on good terms. In this way until the second deluge, and even afterwards up to the time of Abraham, the friend of God, they lived happily. When Kinlrod cart Abraham into the fire, man again rras of the opinion that ttL Genii had Ximrcd



. -

if these had been omnis c i e ~ t . Thcy redmd abashed m r i vith drooping herds.t. sovereign of t L 2 ahole world.the Genii that Xan was superior to thetx. And when the news of the (coming of the) Queen af S h b a W ~ given by the Hoopoe to King Solo.her rise to differences [between ihem]. B r 55 m. . with presi:nlptionl . lie also reconciled them to one another." I will bring it SO q ~ ~ i c k that your %Iajesty ly mill not have time to rise from ?cur senx. 311 Genii and m m bzceme his ubjecii. Thell rnen beczme positive tha.they would not have been thus at fault.." nnll they -ere a l r r g s speaking of their pre-science. and this book after & s death was i published. he aslred all.hese arts. and the Genii got no news of it: all of them 5 e c m e puzzled to know where Solornon was. whose name mas Bastooz. the son of David. sqing. son of Hainan. Thel: h c \ i .h dcgraded fled thence." King Solornon &aid. aild mnnv Genii embraced the religion of Moses. bonstingly ~ : i i d . and borred to God.. This g w e fur." h d Le compiled a book of t. telling them how . ihese do~nil~io~ls to che hnnd of Solon:ori came 197 our help . they thought tBia also x ~ a s a trick of the Genii.] and the Genii being very n3uc. showed every one the right vay. [ridicule." and he did so. r".n a c e he vould be like other kings are . if the Genii had not given h l assist. 'iThe~~ Ring sa-iv the the throne he was stunned.( rc innLe the sling. 1 :nzile Solomon. teaching his men many arts by vhich they could confiilz them. said. " I ~ i s h to be brought more it quickly than that. Icing Sololnori sent an army after them to seize them. " The Genii can in &is way be confined in glass vessels. Every man follomed thern clapping Lia hands. [or* knozlccZge qi m y r t e ~ i e s ]throwing man into a perplexed state of mind." Asif Unrhhya: the possessor of n powerful charm.nen said the Genii to IIlan. lZlld J T ~ ~ Ithe brethren of I Joseph put him into the mell. IYiTIjcn ( h t . ':I brisg it ill a second. When Solorno11 departed 5c-nce. l : TTTho is strong enongh to bring her throne before she C O U ~ ~ arrive ? " A Genius. and became rebels. When Christ came into the world and invited all Genii and men to the t r ~ ~ e and faith. T C h e ~ ~ the great prophet Xoses came into the n-orld. putting all the kings of the eartll ~mder him.

This hatred is Eke the spark of the flint. they mid. God will in the end release them .nothing is accomplished in a hurry. May God defend us ! * I mill be ours ! " Wheli all heard this mollderfd story. i. I n my opinon it is for fhe King to sit in ine public Court in hmorning7and calling ihenl all. . Times are always changing . Eke as He gave the children of Israel freedom fro111 Jnen they oppose and eonclaer us. Being told of the thillgs of Iiearen. several Genii embraced the of Christ and hecame devout and temperate. 2nd their (the Genii's) goilig t n Heaven was stopped. r. or whether God himself wishes to be their guide. The King asked the philosopher. hear the pr*os and cons of every one's ease. he [turned and] said. Iie of the sons of Eehra~n remul<ed. " Gentlemen. After this whatever adrisable ~ n d befitting the occasion. And harmony has existed betrreen theln and 31ussulmans to this dav. "11an has much eloquence and fluency.you are reviving old enmity for no purpose.. "In your opinon what i s advisable ? How shall I settle the disputes of those who have come to me t o complain and aslied protection from me.:Good advice is obtained ayter deliberation . rrill you consig~l them to the111 that ther may keep them in pain and torment ?" The philosopher said. advantage of the dwellers upon earth. do not Yan." Some of tLe Genii accepted the true faith and became IfKssulmans. :he consequences will be ill. they cannot t a l k If they are defeated by the glibness of Non and unable to reply to him. and do not raise strife arnollg yourselves .ro go to Heaven m d gain access to the Angels. each held domn his head and was absorbed in thought. " They should be patient and quiet (when) in subjection t o them. and got the pl*ivi1ege of visiting Heaven. and the animals in &se are deficient . A s h a ~ r u ntij. hat Ioss and . they continually corn~nunicated them t o the inspired vritcrs. and let them leave my country sstisfied ? The philosopher said. When God created clie lair Prophet [hIohamed]. which when struck sets fire to a whole world. SOU so do.icZa limnn2 jliarze am ariidri 6ihi)?z ra(iboBsan ~~asdafiJo. When the philosopher 11ad finished this narretyon. " I t is not evrdent whether this is to the dis.

the men also in their residence (the 70 men. or in 12.ed. It is true that the revolutian of change%Mefate never keeps any one in one condition.b'S vorld : in aeeorda~~ce the orders of the Creator. which is equal to 50." L$nother observed.o-da:~. and consulting arcon.. 137hilethe Iiing mns consultii~g with his miniaie:a in private. May it not' be that be turn against ns. and the disagreerneut has not yet been arranged.gsre relief to the race of Ba~neer fi. fear of the vizier.. There is a. themselves.000 yye~~s." t o ollr what it.om the cruelties of the tribe of Tubah . thxt rbe Icing i n rnr~cch puzzled iil i s aifair . :' Ton have all heard the ~ ~ ~ ~ g u r b e n t ne t r e e n us and our slaves t." One remar. He said.-the children of D a ~ i d release from the tyranny of Nebuchaclnezzar-alld . iected together.000 years or in 36.hiog valusble.000 years. In n =it6 t'ucosaad years one revolution. that he r i l l the riaier in private t0-mor.000 years. or hi 336. time you any idea what the King will decide in our behalf ? " shoold r e know ? Hovever They all said. HOIV rre bnav this.olV P ~ O L O l~Y I l Some one else s~icl. y an lawyers. the King Artaxerxes. IIe is going to collcci the plliloaophers rind learned men to--morro to T T eonsl. CHAPTER ~ 1 1 1 . one revolution is made. perhaps he may not come out to-morrnrp. but like the circle of the heavens continunlIy revolves round t." all They i .the oppression of Pharao11. ancl freed the Lonscs of Sasnn and Adnarn from the tyranny of the Greeks and of Fate nel-er treats any one [ a l ~ a y s ]in thc some way. v-e should bring him But there is another danger. " That is a n easy nffnb .lltthelp. in one or day. expressing whatever passed r h r o ~ ~ gtheir minds. inhabitants of different cities) were col. h " - One snid. did x-e give him samet. " T lino" this. b z ' knom that the 1<iog is fa.ri." Another said. " There is ~h~~ all great cause t o fear the decision of the jodges and C " TMs is ~ I S C e r . and be severe in our cnre. 8x3 that he has implicit trost in us. c l i n ~ m who% not the l"nilosophers i$dl adrise on our nccount." Arother szid.vornble iorrar6s XIS. wns.

hilt if the King consult the philosophers. The Great God for this reason. [only of deciding.we cannot in sly vny deviate from their orders. If the King take the a d ~ i c e the minister. what will they say in our favor ?'* One of them replied.-to assist them is incr~~nbent tbe on Icing. " The decision of the learned vill be in one of these three shapes. In law also there nre three rays. " l f the King take counsel with the jitdeer z:ld Iawyers. one will contradict the other : nothing mill be decided. either they order the animals to be liberated. of will he say? " A second said. d U . " If tlie Icing ask the iudae as to a dicision [in our case] the judge will decide in one of the three [above] aal-s. for in the last day. or if me rrish. for k i q s are called God's lieut. 7Ye will ansver. assist tbc . I know he s l y that the animals have coiue into the . If the Jltdoe order the animals to he let go and left alone.enants. '." One of them said. aged. and will not be partial to nny one." Then snid another. \Tc a r e their original masters . me have the option t o release them and let them go. and then what should be done? " They all said. B L I Azilnat [of the sons of Behram] is a vise and ~ EonorJle man. or they wiii ' Sell them and take their value' . expel che oppressors from their doulinions." Ailother asked. oc tell us z o t to give them unnecessary annoy'urce. but lcaeeE t'.xntter . Yoa spe-6. and finally they also will make some iegal pretence in our favor and give a decision. not to let them go. that they r11ay do jnsiice.try and claimed pmtection n:ld they 3 ~ c oppressed. " If the JJuge say. kings will be a r ~ s ~ e r a b lfor all e these things.truly.e same and be kind to them." One asked. what shall me then do?" Another replied. and uphold the l a v amonp the people . there is fear lest he colxlnand our slaves to the Icing and release then1 from our hands. " The Judge is the propher's representative. give them too a hrihe. l'rove by legal doc~lmentsor vitncsses that .] Then id one.&. and they mill lean torards us." One aairl. Should the King collsult him. gnve then1 authority in the earth. from the time of our ancestors they ha-ce alvays lived in slavery . and the Kinrr the defender of the faith . they dieer i~ ophion among themselves.

For these brutes hare life. If they ilre rvilfin~ th. but they were all lost in the flood. we shall incrlr great inconvenience. rre are claimants. the evidence and of enemy is not taken in lav . Tlie same inconvenience upon the dwellers in cities also. " If t. 'hen we mill say. " TVe will say they have taken fike oa. it does not matter.lt we should lessen their labour a d be kind to them. all these l mill be lost." Those ~ h nere milling to o sell tjlem said. that an oath should Be required of those that deny the claim.they are your origind slsves. they are not our slaves. " T17hnt harm is there in this ? " They replied. &C. for which you received such n reward as God's giving you dominion orer the animals. said. and besides these puxring the= to other uses. then what &ha11 done? '' be Another replied. not one of them gave anamer. do not mention it. hat should we then do ? " The inhabitnnis of Thev vould sell thein and receive tlieir value. the h m b ~ . . bring them and present them. making clothes of their hide and far. E\'or did said. and are of the senle flesh 2nd blood as ourselves. and feel pdn from excessive labour. Allcl if the Judge wishes us to swenr that they arc our slaves. J17e will fetch our friends who are honest. !%'bat will the11 be deoised ? " On hearing this they all remained silent. x e ~ .he rigbt. '' If the Judge should order us t o sell them and take the price of thei:?.ths. do no' entertain the thought in )-our minds. if we act tl~os we shall be ruined. '' If the Judge put ihe animals on their oath.r." He replied. Drinking m*. and they swear nlld s:. and that.TLV~E." who were the denizens of the Gut those viids and jungles.. c * This cannot be . " If me sell the animds." One interrupted. if you are in t." Another said. ' l We will t l ~ s reply : We had legn! documents. me have many proofs that strengthen this claim. YOUIleT-er Jld SO good act. till an Arabian observed.he Judge sag that the testimony of mankind is not reliable for that they are all enemies of the ailin~als.e r the beget the intention of selling them and letting them fiee . eating flesh. or say: Where are your deeds of sale and agreements . They derive many f~-ori~ anii1:nls. further. and make them witnesses." One sdd. Death ~ o ~ l bedbetter than such an existence.

n evade His orders. but the Icing should not decide without hearing the arguments and proofs. 'c To-morrom morning a e will go in front of the I i k and make lamentations.c.. they xi11 be victors ancl ~ ~in your ~ t should then be done ? JTe h cpil~ion shollld delibcy.q oence.' mom eloquelloe. he should not tnlre it . Therefore.n nh~*e that is.they (ever) commit a crime for which God gave them such a punishment as their lieiug cast into this misery. for that." CHAPTER IX. For the and prophet says.inan kiliaito b 6 d bishuiyin n i i hakke c~khihe yd.rtp?~( niin hizi71 $t dhbfia bhli fa. the in argunlent is more proficient than 0 e . for him will I deci. .ijl.kilntar2 rnin.. and let them our condition. some iiitdil. and ingenuity of speech than we f 1fear that through Illis glibness of tongue Vf shall lore in the arsurne~~t.o lihij j. One said. . ihe brutes also collected together and began t o take counsel among themselves." S& he a thonghi this advisable : Send messengers M all tile animals. If Be meet nlt. some gift of eloquence irhieh is not in E (: l . For in . perhaps the King will be merciful and release us f r o n ~ bondage. I will. No one ca. should one ~~nklio~inoly obtain that which is the right of allother.oact.0 iahll .bey and deliberate alld think. species thcrc is some excellence.ite well in th. b&z~lkdmalA0n. and the quarrel has not ended yet. " Yo~on have heard the controversy between us and our enemies to-day. Sow what is your advice ? " Another said. and all had taken leave and gone to their respective homes.&c-tnnn rfiinho shainri fainn: i ~ ~ n i h d aktct. if h does.ind tell them to selCi represent.s affair. On the Consti?tc~tion apilony dz A4r.ntsiires and orators to ns. To-day he did shew us some kindness.&. that thev may all come hcre and assi:-L us. Proofs and argun~ents are strengthened by ~loqueuae fluency. He is Lord of all. (act) east him into hell fire. h2~oLzZrn hlhtaaen2lino ilaiyk K lanNn . and doeth rbnterer He chooseth. ' Of y o ~ r*ho are . l at variance nnmng yoursekes nlld come t o me.de. and complain of their tyranny . When the Icing got up from the Court. then solne one aood idea *ill certsinl~:come out.

. ecparnm nrid illsmessenger anid. ilisllllte lrith ~ 8 9 . '' .lilr) tliiilg do men boest l If of I>OTT(:~. il.d: ic ! l?lejaellger.l e so.+ of them to tlie mvenons animals: a second to ille :r ~ t ~ d s . beetles. c o n r a o . . : n-hit r. o s ~ ~ I ..herf. I$e plen~cd scnd one of the to eener.s!s: t h n ~ 81. the fo~lrtliro a A." All the whnals said.icl:. One . lyiien the f rst ~ ~ ~ ~ p ci.~ I I ~ of thew they Lonst.nd tllcy om. third to the Leasta of prey. of holmcling. t h a t is norms. When a ni?l-nl>er of friends and a s s i s t p ~ ~ i ~ thcre mii1 certainly be some means liberation and improl-ement. lion.mngth. for our - ihe fifth to the poisonous reptiles: tile sua1<el lizard.olrersy goillg on before t.ir t:. '' 1 ::m n..ino. ~ L P Y L0iisI 0 ' prre them.& of your army mith me. s.. Rely is of the Lord only vl:o assistcth those vholn he c?iooxtl-. ' .1 spccics.ule t o pthe kiE~gof s ~ n ~ r l-pyenoua allin.hiin t. njlet lilnn cl:~ilneri of the animals ? He 6 : TIicy thil: illlilx~d~ their s'tzlres. b e .ne of tll.th:ii i r Inn: go t.e snd joill liis op. or t i ~ o s c thet Ilnri: n o reason. &C.r:ns apl. this is the (best) ndilice. " Euoogh .Y~S.he I<. . he )?laygo thal. ! o Sent i!ito your collie a:ld hip them. lu.-Ti~e d i r i s ~ u ~ ~tile i<ingdam of Barllrs:an. 1 a . .ri in s i t g r e i t . slid in 9:. is: the he rolJ.LLe:'~. q'poiilted and desimiched in ereyJ: )-direction. : the sixth to the inhabitants of the ~ a t e r srpeyc .! ~ e a4-il are collected.hat hbettrccfi mzn 2nd ncilrinls there r a s a colltl. 1 ..d<i. tbht t h c ~ ill^^ .e ~ i i i i ~ k .. Tljens .)licd to qnadropecis:- !%ahaem.i~igI the C ~ that the animals had sinc merse:lgera in directions to the other n n i r u d i . brutes. n ierrnccous animals.1nnsrersA7? (par. and ichell his turn eolae. ljOCU~i~:! n fipiltili" o ~ ~ ~ . mGeslg's presence. ' ' TIIC Icing ~. ISorr.re Tlie j:oll Z S I < C ~ '' 0 ' . I Tyill start my :irmr i!keC!ri>. brilrer)-." i t iras arroligecl to selld i a11 : directions six very tri~stxrorthymessenmra. leai. of daili. .ind." - L.iil F!Z.



EFlne of hose qualities even. In addition to these, they h a r e mueh practice and skill. cllnning and device, and are versed in the manufacture of shields, swords! spears, lances, dagprs, knives, b w s ancl :urows, a d many other weapons. They cover themselves mith mail nrnioLw, with its lining, voollen clothes and helmets, against the claws and teeth of the beasts, that their teeth and c l z t ~ may not h a m s their bodies. They are very wary and cuilnillg in catching the rapacious and mild animals ; they m&e nets and traps : they dig pits, wells and calves, and cover the mouths with earthand grass, so that whe3 the animals unxittingly go and fall into them it is impossible for them to get out again. But they do not mdie any mention of these practices before the King of the Genii. There they bring Forward argnments and proofs i n favour of rllelr eloquence, clearness of style, s~~periority,s vi doin 2nd prudence." Directly the king heard the mosds of the messenger, he remained in thought for half an hour and ordered (saying), " Yes, let r~ll the beasts in my 21-111come !" I n accordance 7 with she orcler, different kinds of beasts, lions and

WOIPCS, kinds of monkeq 3 vlrious

-- and

rensels ; iri

,, f that eats flesh or pounc,es short e\TC1> itself before l i ' ~ ~ The (upon its prey), Y the king bad heard? OE the messen, asked t h e m Is there any be told to them i vi\l 80 there nnd liccome One 3 one a.mong YOU ChrlYillgon t,Lis case) of the (that are ill he bar been there and ore-conle lvbntteT.~er nskr of llle I will g<vc ha u p m e u t ? the11 and I bestow (upon him) rallk-" him, ; o- tGs , ix thought AU the mimals on heall-la was 3ny one fit for for some time, T h e w The ~ h Vns the vizier, o this task or not~b~~ art king and head, to the lion, and ~rtkjects; it behoves allcl mc are order j after colln~el, the king ill every act, to a t,alGng the adrice of wise loen-a ~~n it baoT.-esthe subject to obey the';l1.a ,; T, I to him in every hi6 heart, be sum1su for the kslg is like the head (of the body),


thin:: ; d the n&ject like the limbs i and so long as , his o m duty. eyer) nl,' i: i t king m~iu~,,, do ,ill ren-dll the hmgin go "Id order


TO j
men:. The there is not even one [ ~ I I I O ~ ~ said, '[If jtlmping, leaping . ~d seizing . of I:se there. I a m the one tb.zt will msver." The fi, Silid! if zttncjci~i~i ., pl~ulcieni~g, , destroyin?; rretliliredtiie~e, c211 nccompllsh 1". nre I The t;,z rajd. If' there be : l l l ~use of tricks OF deceit for it." 'She weasel mid, " If t,berc, 1 a " ; these be mar.ted searc!ring, stealing, or hidifig, I 5~la~l zlny,qmey for it.." 'I. Le monkey said. " SbonId dancing, &ipping, mimicing be of use: I Nn Cie o n 1 'Ihe said, " i f there be rranied flattery, nttschl12ellt or h&lity, 1call perform t l ~ ~ ~ e The .l' dog said, If ~ a t c h f i ~ l n ebarking; o r "r~eging ss~ of the tail be of any use? 1 irn tile one." The moose said, G If setting (things) on 6re: b l o ~ i n g , The dnlnaging be of any us?, I am the oae. king ~ j , d ,l. C)f these acco~xplishnr~nts: is lrot there eve11 one reqrlired there." After t.his he tnrned towards tile and said, " M1 these pniiries the aninnls have mentioned are necesnfly for the kings of and the armies of the nobless These qualificacons are j n s t suitable for tl:zm, far although in appearance their form and sh??e are
7 a 3,

del-a." The king aslied t,lle chee'nh, '' What, the quaLificntions req~~ired a king and in a in m+ject ? Detail them." The cheetah raid, The king should be just, h a v e and wise, deliberate in every t L i ~ q and act with such lcindlless a,nd love ? towards his subjects as parents do t,oiranla ;heir always be el~gagcriin nililroFslwing ; he s b o ~ ~ l c l ever may tend to thc tranquillity nlld 1,rosperjq of :he subject. And the subject should in every way consider hiinself the iiing'b illferior, his scrvilnt m:d devoted slave ; and explain t o the !<ing lrlint ~ l i i l lor art hc lnny know hilnself; tell li:m of his ikolrs and of his good actions,; d n l ~ rpm'ibnn Iiis service t o the fullest ; tnalie Icnovn his n-;,l;ts to t h e king m ~ d ask assistance of hinl." Tile ]ion said, '' YOUspeak the truth, now nhat sd\rice do J-o:: give in t h i s case ? " The cheetah said, c: Yay the s t m of your lxospcrit,~be always bright ni:d lmiinous, and your majesty ever be successful 1-ictorions. If there be strength, masteyy: bravery. or ainbition required there; I am the one, let your majesty give me leave to go there, and effectoa]ly p e ~ f o r m all these." The king said, ( ( O f there



like that of nngels, yet


their nature they aR

The cheetsk asked the l'on, ''I'fbat are the oo&6eationa necessary in an amnborsado~ Detail ? them'' The king said, :'An ambassador should be a wise man, an elenant speaker, one thnt forgets llot but well remembers anything he hems ; not. tolling tlie secrets of his heart to ally one ; preserving confidence, aild keeping hhs word t o the utmost ; ii he s ~ o ~notl be 8 great t ~ l k e ; he shodd 110t add l ~ r to mything of h's o r n X C O Y ~ ; he should say 110 more than be is told. In whatever the sood of the persol1 who sends him appears, he shot~ld strive and exert himself. If his opponents should ten@ him; he not break out of the paxhs of fidelity and integrity for the rake of siding with thein, fall badlong into t l ~ cveil of bad fait11 pall illfidelity In the city [to which he is sent], if by any means he find ease, he should not 011 that account remain there, bat come arsay unhlesitatiilgly, W11ateye.r he bears or sees. he shot~ldgo a n d tell t o h p master. Re should, to the extent of his i

similar to the beasts and brutes. But those who are learned, versed in religion and l'mdent, have manners and aceom~)lishmenits,are like the angels. Who is there fit to be sellt there to go and plead on behalf of the animals ?" The cheetah raid, '' True b ~ the learned and versed in rsligion anlong mei., t have left the ways thnt are called the ways of -4tlgels, and have now taken to the m q s of Satzl. They live night and day in contention and fighting,
ili slandering aud i ~ ~ j u r i none another. 11 this g 1 way the governors and kings have forsaken the paths of justice and equity, and taken to t ~ ~ a n r and oppre~siol~." The king said, " You peak the truth, but the king's representative should he a man of parts and of rank ; he should not deviate from the truth. Then who is there that me send who has all the qualifications ofall ambassador ? I n this multitude there is no one colnpetent to go there."

Of the Quol~ficnfionsd mi B ~ L ~ s . ~ c L Y

ability. carry out the vis'fies and i n e t r ~ ~ z t i oof his l~a master. He should not onlit any item of the dn&.. of an emissary tEror;gh fear of anyrhing. For it is the duty of an emissary to conrep his messnges iil their entirety." a f t e r this he said to the cheetah. -' 111 your opinion, who is there in this nsaembly like tlxis, that hns the ability for this r o r f i ? " h :e clieetah said. Besides the brothers of I<alela/~ ' and Da~inz(rh, o one is fit for this tasli." The lion n said to the jackn!, "What do you say to the proposition the cheetah has made on your B C C O E ~ I ? " ~ The jackal said, ': The cheetah speaks thc truth ; mny the Lord recompense him well, and grant him his desires ! " The lring said, " If 3-ou go there m d plead on behnlf of your fellow creatures,
m *

h beasis ? .' The Iiillg ~ s l < r d e rerson, w:ly ht beasts, so femiliar with ~ n a n t o attack cs and leave h i s species t o join different one ? X m e but t h e h s r ine er^ anything abont it, so . he :L 1 the rroaon." The lring s ~ i d , L. Detail it,'' The bear said, " On aecoant of sin?!IXriryof disposition mid m t i i r d i~ttachmcnt; dog the llas secured the frien6ship of man. Bebides this,

when you retux-n you shall be promoted anrl re-

warded." The jzckal sdd, ': l am your majesty's .;abject, but there are many of my species there n.ho are my worst ciicniies ; how shall I monsge ? "

The bi11g aslted, f ho they were ? The jaclral replied, " The dog Sears bitter enmity againat me. Does the king not know tthat he has love arid aflEection for i-uan, n3d helps him to catch r i i d

tllem they obtain an nb~mrlmce delicacies to eat of 311a drink. And ill their dis~:ositioi~ covetousare and bad ifialmess like ss in il:alis. ness, These are the princitrd rcasolls for their friendship and t,Le beasts keep a t a distance from their vices. . The renjon is this : dogs eat f i c ~ h ~ Z LOS c~o~iec-l, , K lnrrfd h b i d d e n , sodden or dry, salt OS fresh; or or bad, as they get it. Desides these, fruits, t5 hrestl, pnlse, milk, curds, acids, and Saeetmests, ,q/>ee' sficl oil, honey nncLl i z ~ l t c : r~ ~ ~ ~ c J G ~u alld every Lilld of food tizken by m:tn;--they eat all and refuse none. Other beasts eat none of these
.- p

* Ghee, clarified buttcr.



f Suttoo,

a swectxrleat reseutLlillg t o r e . parched grain groan&

end in furious anger puffs herself out as large as she con. when she sees the dog. therefom there is envy and hatred between tbe cat and the dog. and they assist men to catch the other animals. and sets up her tail and fur. The cat is also greedy.." The lring asked. " On what footing is she Kith them? " The bear answered. " The cat also is very mueh . The bear said. woliiail or child. or anything dead. 1l11d in the dog are covetousness and parsimony to ~ u e h a degree that they v111 not by ally mc. goes to the dining table at dinner time: and they give her of ~ h s they cat themselves.ans a1lo-r auother animal to enter man's habitation lest he sl:ou!d get something to ent. and attncking them they eventaally turn them oat. to steal array a fowl or a moose." The king said. horn they shake their t." The king said. The bear said. Rut the dog never likes her to gs into the house.- khings. or a 3:inrsel of bread. and has B fondness for different kinds of food. sleeps upon the carpets. like as man has. because she goes into their house. swells out her face. how fi~rioasly they harIi.i\ p. she is his enemy.niis and heads through greediness ! If through modestv n morsel or so is thrown before them. they do not even k n o r of them. " Are there any other animals besides the dog thnt are familiar or friendly wit!: m m ? " The bear said. ascl on aceoul~tof this simil~rititp dog has Iek the his owl1 species and gone and m i ~ e d vith them .ttached t o him. he jumps up from his place and rushes at her in a way that if he could catch her Le would make mincemoat of her and devour her. bow cbnte~ptible and degrzded are they ? If they see tread or anything else eatable in the hmcl of man. t and vhenever she gets an o p ~ c ~ t u n ishe pul*loins ty their eatables. The cat also." He asked the reason of her sociableness. The reason for this is. When the dog sees her. " She is a little better than the dog. if there were my more besides these t n o who rrere familiar [ ~ i t hnm]. I hrough this stil~~giness sud coretcusness. " This d s o is for the same reason. her disposition and man's are the same. r4U these bad qudities are in men also . If erer I)y any chance a fox or jackal goes ilzto a village a t night. " The mouse a150 . Low fast they do run and pick it up tllat another may not be to g e t it.

" From the time the chilclren of l l of their property.goes into their houses and shops. but he has no coz:fidence in man .and we expect t o retorn t o (iod. " How does the story go ? Tell it. w h y shauld you regret that the cat and dog h:ivc kept aloof From their fellow species ?" Tile lion said. ' For p t IG~lsal capscity.ain. 6 : Ld JLilqJa ua Id bivnta illit billaiiil aiul I) * aihLe iJ1nn/il[a]ie urr inea ilctihee r~tjetina. if there were 2. \JTc cannot avoidsin 001 11~1. The b e n mid to repented this tllc lcinp. enntds. r b o ir great of a r e God's crc'atl~rcs. v q the cheetah and monlreyj though they do not colirent to their going there. " The weasel also someti~nesgoer i!we.cwe pover t o do mytbing punerful.r e that the rvise have said. bnt man forcibly seizes ancl takes a . " There are no others.ny more still who fi." The king asked.h 111a11 ? " r " ice bear said. TOthis day they hsve lived mined vith them. asses. the children of AbeI desired t o be revenged oo the children of C. and thr0~1gh [for these things] re11t into their habitations Rlid became their fyiendi and aasista~lts. and prepared kinds of food . . " Since what time llave t h ~ dog 2nd the cat been familiar wit. \'P but 4 the as~istance God. and said. i who mas named Abel. f~lrtherBe fears him and flees fro111 him. When the dog and cat s a v illis abunclnllce of flesh a ~ i d much' eating and so dfinking. they left their orrn species. becnme very mealthy." The king aslied agnin! " Are &ere ally n c r e besides these mho frequent their houses ? " The bear said. they plundered the v -* JT-hell the ]inn lenrd this story be was grieved." 0-ae bear said." The king asked. space. '' He also goes through fondness for di." The king said. and mules. 7 and many timcs. In the end the family of Cain was Vietorious. ~ Gain pre~niledover the children of dbel." . They feasted among themselves. they slaughtered the animals and scattered the hands and feet all round their cities and villages. I do not regret their going.fferent kinds of food. " \Then Cain murdered his brotBer. and taking d their cattle. giving them a defear . oxen." t . but it is a source of ~ . irxrkiug about to step1 or r u n away with anything. the cause of his going there e? He said." The king aslced.equentec1 his abode ? The bear said. ond foughr wish them.

eight or ten young ones. and or&red. Therefore they are despised and d e p d e d . For they mill go and accjxaint thein with [the king's] ungnarded moments.irnl. " As your majesty has wished so has God dealt roith the dogs. of rhe rivers. of the hilit. nnd is nlsays being killed. n u his good snd bad points. either in civilized places orjungles. Different diseases that other animals are not snbject to they are s~~bject and throogh their had rvays to. and man's persecution their lives and those of their offspringase shortened. alnrge herd of dogs.kings there is not a more serious disar~m?ngement or cnIamity ill their administration and governnlennt &an for the supporters of their army to desert and go and join the enemy. that the young of the cat and the dog are subject to mnch suffering on account of their food. go now. -4nd the goat. and informing them of every thing. The 'eason of this is. the liilig listened to the story of the animals. But no olle ever saw. and sometimes more! she brings forth. The d d u e ~ a t u iof~ ~ recoltd 2i')iii. and that r h i e h you are nppointed to do. the time of delivery." c - CHXPTElE SII." The bear said. will tell rhe~n of secret entrances and of many stratagems. notwithstanding that in t. Ne has taken away the advantages and blessings from their race end bestowed them upon the goat. of the jrmglee. Go there into the presence of you &heKing of the Genii. . and his erery secret.he whole year it only brings forth cne or two yonng ones.y. the When the second messenger went to S h a h n ~ ~ g h . do it effeetudly . in p e a t abund~nce. and accepted the prayers of the king. "Let a11 the birds be present. the king of birds?and macle linonn the state of things. =3 S + e S With great pain and laboor at." Therefore all the different kinds of birds. vhoie . " After tbis the lion said t o i ' i ~ k l n . although no one ever kills them. yet flocks upon flocks are seen in towns and in jmgles that cannot be nnmbeucd. -411 this will throw the king ancl his nrlny into great confusion ?' %fay God never prosper these cats and dogs.." The king said: " How is this P Tell me all about it." The bear said.

a~a. and a the throne is extremely large on vhich she sits. the pad' 1 ~bird. and r ~ h o fit for this is task 1" The peacock said. all are present.t. There is a lady there.L That is the spy hoopoe. informtion respecting the city of Sheba. in deseribiug d o s e splendour and magnificence the tongue is at fault. . the cock. the dove. who is sitting there. and protests against an that is bad. and they their masters . the Persian nightingale. " Show each of them to me that I "ay see them." bfter this be said to his ministe~." The peacock said. the crane. the eron. the kabk*" the inrfi. the duck. the son of David.. The oovernment of that country is in her hands. But the people of ille bowing d o v n of the &11l~s1llmfills pl-g?pr3 in t Jso the form of wol-ds they ropea. probably . 7 sangkhara . 'The wonders and curiosities of nature that I saw there."amber no one but God could know in accordance with the order. the nightingale. and understand the characteristics * Kabk qualifications of each. even your majesty never S To show this Z have brought facts connected ~ i t the city of Sheba for your majesty. fit to be sent there to go and dispute mith man ? " The pefieoclr said. ~ h o m s o e v e r your majesty orders vill go there. ~ ~ i ~ . the ostrich. &C. He exhorts [all] to do good. all the good things of the world are to be n had there. the who is the best speaker and the most eloquent. a small kind of partridge. wearing n variegated suit. the pigeon. " Among the bids. " TcP me all their naruer. Shahrnurgh said to the peacock. notling is wanted. the wild dock. "Men claim that all animals are their slaves. peacock. The king said to them. t ~ i l ~ iu aliichifalaeliood never has adniirsion. At the tlme he should speak be warbles in gueh a way. that I may know them. the aangkii. and said. came and collected together. the snallor." The king said. " Here is the whole assembly of birds. . I short. in whicl~ h there is not the sligbte st particle of fdsehood 7.f the spnrrorv. t h e ima. the wagtsil. therefore many of the animals are disputing with man in the pmence of the King of the Genii. the ri-ngdove. that it appears like praying md bowing" dawn. He it is ~ h conveyed to Solomon o the son of David. There are the hoopoe. the cowtier of Solomon. the partridge.

thillk of the Being who can deprive you of all (your) luxuries.-.es her petitioll t o God h her hyillui (thus) . :0 God. ~ t lyi~e011R-110 3cts as a guide. and is standing on tbe ~ 2 1 1 . that ail men may benr and practise good pre. They have left the Benea volent Creator who creaked earth. ' Thnnlc God for l3is giit.my.' h1ld often she mel. he is nlsnys repeating God's praise and name. l have a horror of separation from & . and from the doctors who tell the heHicted the benefirl be derived from eatillg my flesh. they bov down t o the sun. her c o ~ i ~ t e l ~ . He knorrs the time of prayer and reminds his neiglrboors find admonishes them. he Jays. my Kindred. 0 YOU that liw in this .Afterllrnrds she says.e. they consider idolai. heaven and sky.her nation are thorough infidels . 2nd r h o is acq~lab~ted4 t h that is visible and ~ a11 invisible. his r i n g s spread.llmlc not God for His blessings . ~ O L have no desire for heaven .! . vho t&es letters and goes to the lfiost distant .ry to be the true worship. C) God. by much b e n ~ l n .her wings piebald.and think llot ill of God. :]link of God ! y u have slept long enough . As Satan has led those-people as t. his tail raised . the crowing cock who has n croirn on his head. is c ~ m 1' cr and 130 Wfair . I ever tlG~ik of the Creator. yv'heil she cries she arouses the careless.neighbourhood.you I t. with great regret . direcr nlc to my n a t i ~ epi:lcc tlat 1 hay obtain comfort by visiting ray friends ! ( . if you lvisL to be &red from the fire of hell.-. That is. snve I earnot exist under all these . is the pertridge . extremely high-spirited and generous. that they mny increase .prs. and have imagined the sun who is olllg n particle of His splendour to be God. His eyes are red. and pleases th111.you o think not of death and destruction . ing her form llas become croolied. be p~nver1 circum~pect. notwithstanding that no one but the true God is worthy of doration.' And Le who is aitung 0 1 ful that lilllocl. alld dosometinles \vliile flying. Aiafie preparation for the road eternity . ancl from the depravity of man .they echomledge not God. slS. you fear not the fire of hex. have a strong desire to mix with mJ7friends. I t morning-time when Le cmms. defend me from the bexsts of p ~ ? j auld from jack&.' ~ h is. and a t morning time 1 i i l ~ i t e1 8: God.

This ~ o r l i is the [hanest] field of the last day.he destroyer of life and -rank. she also at midday mounts high in the air.is sitting upon the branch of that tree. in fdshe enters his dwelling and converses with ~ln. Think of your sali&ction thereof to-mor~-ow~ [he)-eajfer] . what . And in the groves she intimately associates vith man. always on the lool. the builder o houses in cities. it will be better for you . vili gain the fruit and a p . and alighting on the corn heaps mirh n sweet voice warbles all kinds of songs. that sittest in hi oh f places. and convey the fuithful to heaven. wbile preaching and teaching? 0 thou who art t.' The nightingale. he burn in hell fire like grass and veeds. j and not fail in+P?* t o perdition ? ' This ia the lark-likc'as the priest ascends the pulpit. 7 latter end .. why art thou indifferent to the tyrannyCof the age ? . when he to remember his Crestor and gives his mind t o pleasures. from the sowing of one grain.nd with a very melodious voice continually siogr sweet songs-' He ever says. she says by of precept and exhortation. Res tr'ain thyself ! forget not thy Creator a moment ! Think of the day when thou wilt lose rhis pleasure and this dkelling place: and fall i r m the midst of snilkes and lizards in the grave. the story telles. gained many benefits ? 0 man.me to my home to-day ! For be who plants the of ri~hteousnessto-day. and up to the time of your derth render t o Km the worship that is IIis due. If before you leave this world you now become esreful. Think of the day ~ h p God will aeyarate the ~~nbelierers n from the fsithfd and cast them into hell. n31d do good to oblige hs slaves. If any one practises wickedness. fair iu appeal-ante.--' Let no poor beggm . have a fear of the vengeance of God. ' 0 Great God. -4nd the small partridge (ka8k) is be who in always moves gracefully over Aowers and t x e s .-out right and lcft. i let this wish into your minds. with excessive eloquence she warbles exquisite melody. He l who sows good works therein. snlnll in foirn. that you may find I cornfortnble home there [in iaear.. by the blessing of God. Where are those rnereha. in %ghz. Do not through onkindness.nts or farmer who. thou who m-t the planter of trees in gardens. a. And in her song she says. will reap the benefit in the end.

v U . and vitL addmonisbing voice L Reetrdn yonneIres.h the c$amities of t h e ungodly st~ikesterror illto the cnye.. file sivallOw. ipislled by some pTeor excuse to demolish the temple of God. l o w long -rill j-oil engage yourselves in t. vhii ans t h e head of their tribe. and sent flocks and flocks of birds who took stones and rained them down h such a m y that they were all kiiled. enwurselves in praise and prayer ..' That the soothsayer t. g h for. ' 0 God.inim$s. possib1ly the a = ereat -gill be mcvciful and save you from &siructioil !' And there is the troreller in the air.emplntion of Ninl ! Do you not He is of sable hrel and is abstemius . ancl God in the end rendered theil* stratagems futile.s. Now throngh yOar b:indness ~ O L I prefer existence in this world to that which is t.g in the houses of man. For your acts your sliiil vill be torn off. She goes a great distance in . been aIld continonlly passes his time wandering about trax:elling. swift of flight. keep me from the eagerness o f lads and from the cruelty of all . -$haha. If YOU desire C O ~ B ~ O ~ . -LO lei:ea!S Ldden makes us amare of eveq~fhingrvhich has not yet I3e is honrig mindful of his Oreator.hese plei~sures be attraetand ed by t. putting a maltitr~deof men on elephants tunled toirards Mecca . you are collected together to LE dispersed.ves ? ' After this she says. of . Ewr.le. bfinging illf0lformrii~n the remains of antiqlliv. and be afraid of that daj.he luxuries of t 6 i ~ world ? You are liable to die on the morrow.o come.ire:wsh. He. alld. . there nouri8hing her young.he E ~ O I V . often 1irir. elephants included.tlioughtless~lessto be enamoured of these fen dgs of existence and neglect to thinlr of God ! Why not enter into cont. Do yoo not know vbai the Great God did with Ashab-fil. be k i l o i ~that you mere all made to die ? You are nourished that 9011 may decay.. and made like worm-eaten 1eax. If you evade the Divine yan ~ i l have neither place nor i delircmce ally'here.\vhell you will ba rotien ill the grave. m o l d g and cvcning slle is prqing and .. h a ~ i n large lvinas. you make this a home that it might be destroyed . and be buried in the dustbe warned now at once. He goes into every couutry. snldl of foot.

took man out of the hidden recess of non-esjstence and clothed him with the robe of life. is He who after death $ves life to decayed and rotten bones. anij in the winter in warm places. the bringing forth of thunder and lightning. He determines life and death as is most f i . and gives motion to the streams. and when he flies he gets way to heaven. who lives . The raining of the waters. and come back to my oxrn llatiye place. through WLt a ~ i s e =hich the world is ordered. This is ever the ~ubjectof her rosary and prayers : 'Be is pure who created sea and laud. He always resides in the jungles and deserts. and nothing ever ~ differs from His will. During the night he keeps watch at two [different] times.' After this formulary and prayer. she has a small body. takes up her abode in cool places. saying. . Re uplifts the vapours from the earth.~r!&e of God. and of pleasant voice . she says. literally. and she * Hazardastan . He is Lord of the hole earth end creatures. made a m t for every creature. the bloning of the wind. Ele is Creator of the heaven's constellations and stars. might. is h swift in motion.' Ancl this is sungkhava (stone-eater ). and counts a rosary in .and magnify whom the tongue of man is a t a fault.' And the melodious hazardastan' is sitting OE the branch of tt tree . estnblished the bills. are His work alone. aud be mindful of their Creator. 0 the earth. 'Pure is that God who . They all revolve at His command. LO prai~e. his feet small.her travels . that ae U ihmugh rheir meeting each other they nmay be fruitful and multiply. He is holy who brought male and female together and gave them numerous progeny. Holy is He who m ~ d e heaven and earth. His neck is long. ' I have been into every region. possessing D tbou~audsongs OI tales : the Persian Nightingde. And He is the help in his journeys. .. Praise be to Him only who is the Author of all creatures and the Giver of blessings. of Hi. 91orn and night this is his task. H o w is it possible for wisdom to penetrete His hidden mysteries. Great God ! what a Creator. and seen every creature.' And the watchful crane is standing in the plain.

"Among these iu yol-~r opinion who is the best qualified to be sent there to dispute with man. .7 9 ~h~ head of the m o s q ~ i t 0 emid 3 ~ of the pass-hoppers go there. the Benevolent ! the Giver of' all see11 and unseen G!zssings ! Like nlito a river? He freely nlld bountifilllp ~howers blessings on tdl mankind.IPTEI: SII!.) C C.. rind to have confidence in God. every tree 1o:irIetl with rnrio1:a ki~ldsof fruit.eady to -mde~-taIce the he'f~rlc(4 7y )) :L . with man does man boast biinrelf s n p ~ r i t o~us ? o 'rhe messenger said. jyhen he hna heard all. the anirntls OX. and has 110 rival. All these are competent fbr the wo~l. :: 11~ a s i ~ this. $ T ~ the insects. Yssub.ttrr is the most eloquent and ~neloclious.!' On this the k i q said to tht: peacock.e m the anjlual~ everyill and that he is supeyio~ Let as g0 The chief of 'Xai\w D mall." The elders of the there and dispute fies said. he gave an oyder? let all the insects be p"sent-7' c Llitoes grass-bo~~In co~npliance with the the flies. \vho srnollg 90" from the messenger. *"--'l in factall the a n i m a l p r s . :L n:e will so there and representL .~ 2 3 lnot113. .( 9-3 ) . f When the third messenger arrived before the chkf of the insects. and join his fellon..e~ " The pel~cock ? etid-.'' The king ordered him to take leave and go there. And at times with great regret she speaks in this '' IYhat happy days were those 1~11enthe gnrdefis: were full of fiomers.I-Z. for Re is in every may tthe 3ssistmce and support [of nil. Y CS. ~h~ go there md join our fellon?-cressaid. fleens~. fdr they are all poet and eloquent. gl13t5. s1:eci.t*Lll. and 5aic1? t&iling the side of & is there that can S O there. \$re with In this va'j every t ~ ~ r e s dispute and Tbe king Gne was l.Zssse7zge?. but the hazarclil.s. heard ~h~ king ret&&d he h e ~ e m qhe ~elves.7 ~ ~ fly wizb nin:r and do not ill body can* pesented thenemlonger than one year.--that his bo of form are large: his strength greater.c5Laarbles forth tlie praise of the bmnipotcnt : the Beneficent ! He is naequalled. Tice Bdventures o the tIli7. he gave a f~tll descrip- qns the king of all insectstion of the an\tnd~.d ii. ? They all said.

s gnat." kind in all his pomp and glory sits npon the throne. be sitting. they (the Cotart) have no power to free him f l . a very magnificent.What is this. he fly said. that every one decides to g o there without reflecting or thinking ? " The armp of gnats said. he strikes hs own head. covered with impurity and alight upon h* body or clothes and tenze him. with said." The mosquito then said. this we have often experienced." The king said. f! (' a spear in his band. and furnished [himself] with swords. his limbs become languid. he never regarded man. or covered with B veil. and further he foygets about his shield and sword. daggers. and any one of our race go and get into his clothes and bite him. " There the clebate will be mith regard to justice. how he is annoyed and made angry. etiquette. and it is certain that with His help we shall get the victory. that notwithstanding his rank and power his strength was of no avail. what a state he get into !-his flesh swells. Is there any one of yob that . extremely proud: and rricked king. 2nd his doorkeepers and watchmen a i t h devotedness and loyalty are standing around him. we depend upon the help of God. " If a man in any company behind a curtain. l' This is correct." The king asid. discrimation. who was extremely small and insignificant." The chief of the gnats went on. that no annoyance or pain may in m y vny reach himi should a fly then come but of his kitchen or closet. be is nnable to move. Rut in the presence of the King of the Genii there is no occasion for all this." The wasp said. but he cannot contend wit11 us . if one of us wasps go and bite him and insert his sting which is only like the point of a needle." The king said. for in ancient days there wen many kings who were great tyi-ants. and arrows." The king mid. " YOUare right. L'When the king of man('True. " mThenever any man has completely armed himself. " 0 king. and gives his i oan face blows. impartiality. One of our tribe. tormented this p e a t king so.o n ~the$p). and with the assistance of God we always prevailed against them . Among men rras King Nimrod. I n his pomp and splendour and rank. morals." The king said. " What you say is true. " Tell us all about it. eloquence and rhetoric.

This Disc By vent thence into the presence of $he King of the Genii. not having a word t o say. he fasts by day anlid weeps from fear of God at night . The roc told tl.. and arouses the negligent. they gave him all necessaries for the journey-: itnd let him go. roc. There I will mix rritll the animals and contend with men." The king asked. the hawk." The king and all that were collected then said. ~ ~ e n ~ ~ ~ . 2nd said. immediately came and presented themselves. 2nd made his statement.y t ~ a G . he also ordered. also be is engaged in prayer. " Xay God help you in the undert. neither understand they his lang u y e ." In accordnilce with the orcler h the v~llti~re. C _ _ .a!iing you are upon.He has devotion and contentntment such as not other agimal has .~~un zuadiiiyun woindkclntia kdri777. He remembers ancient kings have died. the parrot. andlaments [over them] and appropriately repeats the folloaing text : K i ~ n turakii minjanndtyas waoyd. "By the help of Gad I am going on thii errand. '(Let ail the animals of my " be present. "What is the reason that no one besides the owl is fitted for the worl. "No one besides the owl has the ability for this undertak-ins. in fact in old dwellings that have gone to ruin. '' Who amongst these birds is competent for this task. CHAPTER XIV. and give you victory over your enemies. ' T o r this reason : all birds of prey are afraid of Inan and flee from him.1e. and held down their h e a d . ? " The minister said.rn. the owl.rnp silent. the Roe. the white falcon: the the kite.( 97 j bna an insight into these things ?" When 'hep heard these words of the king they all beca. T e Tale of h the f b u ~ t h I f e ." In short. in short all flesh-eating birds that have talons and hooked bills. After this n philosopher from among the ffy tribe came forward in fmct of the king. and after this he said to the falcon the prime minister. where all the other nnimds o diffemt f kinds mere and presented himself. . to be sent there that he may go and confront man and join in the defence of his species ? " The minister said. but the owl lives near his habitation. i When the fourth messenger K e n t to the king of the birds of prey.m the story of the controversy with man.

they at. hut I am unable to go there. Others have nom become the possessors therecf. the falcon and the chc~. For tlfi-: ronsou.a kiud of b n ~ ~ l i . 1 will go there. They ." The kinq looked U .tentirely listen to. " In your opinion.ruth. and taU: vitb him. they mill become lzore opposed [to us] and from their ill-felli~g quarrellitlg will come rouud again. " 1 ' 1 1 your opinion. for inen are at enmity wit11 me.. It is better not to send me there. t h e parrot should be sent. n-onlm and man: foolish and wise. The meaning of which is. '' What do 3.hcir o v n ndvaliltage they cherish 11s. i Their gardens. fountains.11 clan. it advisable to send ? " He said. or that u e have extra forbearance and manners filch them consider us their faroritea. and night they indulge irr pleasures.* with great fondness alld carry them 011 their haads . t ' The r o c said to tllc h s ~ f i " Then ~bo111 .ily. n on liehalf of the s n i m n ! ~ d contend ~it. t-hey hare lost." The . and every one. ~ o cfurther nslrecl the owl. ~ d 6 r kawinnn akhnrin. mho is best for this nndertaking 1 " He said. and have never offended them. ~ l d the noMes. their snd every blessing through rhich they lived hapl. haye a fondness for him. do you tbinl.+gh. . Eot I trust that ~ L c I~illa?.' . " d ~ n o n gthese animals.nlr. In my opinion. " The f ~ l c o i ~ speaks the t.ac said to the o d . s m J l and great.-the liings of mankind. torrards h i s audience and sdd. ~ . and they abuse me v h o am faultless. ':The kings alld no'J1es of man have great nfFecrimi for the h a ~ l i ." The .a.. but man does n o t respect 11s for the remon that we hare any collnection rrith therr.( 2uzrileka wa a u ~ ~ p . and palaces.011 sajT to the proposition the fiilcon lias made regarding you ? " He said.ld (' . It is ollly for t. if the king would seild olie of these it woald he better.'' The king s:Gd to &c pasrot. L 99 ) aailch~ at-ti?zkhnd $Jld fcikehina " Cha?y. If they see me there at the time of discussion. xvhat ndvisnbie 5 " He ""4 ':' I n m is yeaay. what is advisable ? " The h a d said. and think it ominous to see me. Whaterer he says. " The owl speaks the truth.eves give their attention to tl~osetilbgs vhich God has required of tliein-to p 1 and live m7 in few of the eonscclilencss of the day of judg. They rob us of our lxey and use it t b e ~ ~ ~ s e l r e s .

. no good -mg. implicit trust and sincerity of mind are required. and annihilate them.that F e have led aright . and the whole assembly said.anding their being so fir renloved from us. tell us ? " The o\vl " To obtain blessings. agreeing with what was said. a n d mount up to heaven.-that I may overcome the enemy. We knowingly allow them t o escape us. r e are so ~owerfulthat? if one of us wished be could seize 1 . offered a prayer for God's as. Altbongh . and bow m5ny mm m t h r e t11nt have had their boats wreclced throllg. and do good to the poor and destitute.tliough we possess greater power and strengLb than man. " How many are lapt day." The king. and fast.^ The roc said.: of them.b bad winds that have golie donn and nearly . come so extremely he:pless through them! that notairhst. Like as a io bouble implore God's help. " I should like the king to ask God this fnvor. " Ry what means are blesaiugs obtained. The king said to the whole assembly. that in prayer these things were necessary.re not exempt from their atinclis. The fruit and result they After this he saicl. mill give me assist an^. ru~dal. this crisis n discussion is inevitable. md then petition God regarding your grief and sorroa." the ships that by contrary winds b a ~ e becn nearly . d n d before asking a favor you s h o ~ l d give praise to God. "Do YOU know that men have eserciaed tyranny and oppression over the animals ? These afflicted ones hare be- "id. they have sought relief here." The king said. because from fighting and quurelling nothing is get at the zained. At. and IcEr off living in their neigi~bo~~rhood. or bear in mind d their ill-treatment. For if prayer be not in conjunction with every nlldertn1. " What do you desire ? " He said. result will appear." They all said that was correct. yet on cccoout of their I > e r a e u t i ~we havl Red: and hid in tile rivers and l~ And our bro:her the falcon has fled fwm them and gone and lived in the jungles. so s h o ~ ~ be give ld his mind to God when he offers his usual prayers. sistance.dl his company assembled. yet tbe $9013 r h o ~ ~ lnot do such viclcedness. " If your prayers are not heard: your trouble and exertion are in vain. and leave them to God in tliis world. still r e and . 'Amen: The owl said.

itution.har. and they cross all deserts and jungles. t.t. \Then the iifih messenger went and prescnred 1:imselE to the king of the inhnbirnnts of the SF. If me11 consider themselves superior to us in st. but consider thel~~selvcs superior in these part. "They do not boast of any of these things. of various forms and shapes.hcin." The king stlid. and we have b l ' o u ~ ~ it th e n to the shore ? For the Great God is satisfied and please(. I wl go directly and in n molllent conil sume them. I rrill drav them in by the pover uf my breath md devour -hem.y also knolv of . md hake them over seas and rivers. the frog. By invention and skill they make boats and put goods thereon. the turtle. wit8h us. ~vieijorn and prodence iilie theirs is not in any one.:)? mid told 6i1n the news of the dispnte with %an. and in this way we r e t ~ w n thanks for His blessings. he also collected the whole of his subjects slid adherents." The luessenger sdd.rength and courage. that they are acquainted with every science ruld art.e and help in every why. Therefore the fish.'' P CEIAPTEIi S V . for that I-Ie has given us a strong const. ancl give11 =S power 02~1 strengtl~ t-jt: : irj onr assistanr. of After this he said to the messenger.inds of jewels and . the dolphin. by means of tLe.r knomledge they lnalre n wooden yoke and put it on the shoulders of the bullock: and loading heavy goods upon his back take him from east to mesi and from west to east. and dig out of the earth all 11.been drowned. the crcsodiie. that. They go over mountains and hills. " %:hat 1 does not the king know that by their skill they descend into the Red Sea and take out jerels from the bot. The king told t-heln what he had learnt at the ~llouth the rncssenpr.nge~ns ascend mountains a ~ d seize the v~lltnreand the eagle. i~nmecliatcly upon the order attended.. all the anilnnlp of the sea." The messenger said. &c. and know many invenrions and contrivances. and take te n !s : below ? Tn the same may.tolxl. they have great wisdom and knowledge.iculars. ': Give us a detzilcd account of their knomledge ancl skill that we nia. and by different strat.

g asked the f& ~ L 5 he said to this ? He i. his appear~~~c~ canle1j7. so very prolific that ek-. o~ desert. in number more than all the creatures of the vater. " This task c m never be done by ine.( old. for I have n o feet thnt I may p0 there.ot one g a w an answer. silver. in swimming "" 0 than perfect. " w h a t do you think advisable ?" We said." Mhea the kinl heard these words of the messoilger. Eves? lman believes thnt -the whole earth x s t s on his (a ~irlr's)back. and can enduye pain sld grief. iu any river or sea. or stlmatngem will have 110 weight. because he at one time gave shelter to their prophet in his belly. Besides this his body is strong and back hard . and has p-'eat affection for manur. neither b a r e T s~eceh that 1may conyerse Thirst to me is unbearable.x1 i1 not be able to approach it.n--y 6 l05 ) stream. neither can I eo~xtendwith man.noes to the edge and by neans of his great. " Of the creatures of the vaters the fish is fit for this work. iron and copper. A h y person that is drovning be talres out of the water and thmrrs on the shore. If I remain . swift in motion. he is very forhearing. and aftervmds conveyed him in safety to his own place. "In your opinion. . If one man." The Icing asked tile tortoise.]l bnild talisman (of art). m-ater-course. away from the vater a moment. He said. for he is a U ." The tir. except the dolphin who lives in the salt sea. his color clear. for he lenves the voter and h e s 011 the land. I am also one of a few words. and g said. he turned towasds thoae who were s i t t i ~ ~round him. his face pretty. But before the King of the Genii it is n question about justice md equity. ~ n much talking cannot be done d by me. stre~~gh. and many orhey things. Vhen I rralk my feet become heavy. In my opiaio~i tortoise is better for the this business. his bo* proportionable.iih hinl. I cannot in allp way go there. &. In man's estiruation also his rank is high. To him living in sea or land is the same. what pian should Le adopted ? What person will go t h e e and disp~. my condition is Ildpless. for his body is large. co~ltentiou and argument:-power. the). and the vey is long . river and pond is filled [with them]. then if a thousand el-oco. diles and dragons go t o v u d s that place.ute with man ?" ?. For this the doilrhin is best. t said.

\vhnt 1. r u n n i n ~ with any thing &at I canget.11~ king said.ice. s i g h t day thinking of God he coonrs his rosary. YOLl 111aj. in my opinioll. ing-" The king then aslied the doil. nnil lie is 1 eeypersevering iil striving to gain his ends . and morni~lg a ~ l devening Ell$ages hintself ill prayer and fustiag.e Open On either side.. he his cla~vs ~ h i ~ rhis~ naila Lard. In r w L l g g is swifl. re.. 1 the eyes of the cbil~s " dxn of Isrze1 his noyih and esteem are gred . the friend of God. " be h ~ l m ~ eJ ~ Dd ' his teeth nuner.this business the frog is t!:e bent.his task. be goes headlong on his face . hi.I. telnples al. slldl I go tht1.e ? My fornl is 1n. He also f r e q l l ~men's ho~ises." ~ b . PO. equity." l. ~1. L l . I m 3lt0geL-er a &stiirber and all io~postor. sl~ipping. king mentioned this to the IIe How 5.SZY 6r. adstratagem are 1102required. I~oLI~:~? ia liirae in your opinion is ~dviszbie " i-Ie 8 :r this affair the crab is most fir. of them on seeing me make me n laughing stoc]. me my defects.hin. hk i6 "OLI!~ yell l- ." nolle of these qualities and acquirement S arc . but wisdc:~. .igity.debcts arc tllcre in you ? " The cl-ab 011seeing mo they This animal i Lea&ess. for I nrn very pnssionnte.is eyes eye s his necic) his lnouth in Lio chest. because on One oecnsion he served them thus :ll-heu xinlrod oast A b n h m . : his body firm. . e n ~ yE 111 fi~ S 'ihe crocodile said. hin back p Strong. ?3eenuse his fea a y m a n y . so as if m d e of lead. his tongue long. jumping. be is.jCi~~Ilce. nears :rrmonr.equired there. "h my opinion.bacIr shape w r y eoilterupiiblc .r he is hasty over nothing. md they also are cro'Jiced. In jmlking and r ~ m l i n g is sFift . Tn short. feetare strong.for be is 3 physicia: is patient." The messenger go there. ': 111 . jnst. yet. he has eight feet." Ti" king ciuestioned the crocodile He replied. laughed a t ? l:?hnt. mid h36 more of the power of Bas~n. ~ n d &his stewious." The Ling said> " The11 Whom it ~ i be best to send there ?" u The crab $aid. ]. he can bear a great deal.good malkfl'. the crocodile is most 'or t. olld b e hye'g much. 7. p e ~ l ~ Ia ~ s ' 9 13ogLed at tlitre. o ponyer. '' I am in no %ayfir ror this ulldert&iag. f01.-. strength: heailup &is said.


" The Sellnzotz qf the Locust. and to repeat this sermon with eloquence and duency : " Praise and thanks are due to that true Benefactor who has provided so many blessings in this rrorid . Ac. ('In your oPinioii. and loolcing iox~ards heaven he offeyed this p a y e r : " 0 Thou the Creator and Benefactor. Look dovu 0fThy goodness and favor on their cimomrtauces. He produced the first eascneeii in pure briglltness vithout convection with matteT 01shape. He existed before time and place-earth and Len~~en.em is ever mindful of d asked his minister the dragon. \ S W ~ s e n c e or principle of action. and dispute with man. ~ ~ i n ~ a l s dumb.110 > troops.He shines forth with unec4~~alled glory.t h e first r is represented by the angel Gabriel. is theye any one of these fit to be sent the. Tho~iart most merciful. has givcn rbem rvtrious shapes. There are no "igns of hair or feathers on t i ~ r i rbodies.ording to % I I I ~ s u ~ God cre:rted before Ise fiid lllans tllerc r e r e ten of these essences or pritleiples S U C C C S S ~ ~ ~ ~ ji~odueedent of the l n t . When the locllst saw that the king *as inclined to he kind and considerate towards his subjects -- Aic\-i-fil~.infirm and weak. Further. and confront him ? For most of theee a . are They have neither hands nor feet. by the ~periiing of' one word he brought them from bellind the veil of nonesistencc into the x o ~ l d bemg. and blind.." And tLrougL the king'r pmjer all the anin~alswho were collected thsrc b~ga11 converse mith great eloquence and fluency. " Do not grieve over the frailty and inal~ilitv of this assembly. and of His perfect p o ~ c having bcongl~tauilnels out of the depths r of non-existence into the field of life. T l l q n also perio~libcd. Thou alone takest con. ~111alloyed mith anythillg created. W . and feeling regret in his heart lie began anres trainedl~t o cry irith sol*ronr. ditiw.passion on the condition of the weak. vhich L ~ ~ e world. to C___ CHAPTER XVII. he staod np by the wall: and having cleared his voice began to sing melodiously in the of God. I n short. Beaki and talons also they have none. for the Creator who made them and supports tl. the bing became mueh grieved and sorro~vfiilover their cm. and they are geuerally." After this hc of slirl. deaf.

delicate and light.her weakness. saved from every harm . sn~alland great. If he has given the gnat n small body. that they may be safe from all harm. Be gwe them. they are all alike. and to some he small bodies. and strength great.heir strength 8nd intrepidity . like 3s the mouse and the mt. like as the animals of the waters. All the animals that are large in stature. and not be disturbed in the enjoyment of their privileges. and are protected from harm.them. made their forms and shapes of different kinds. by which he flies and is saved from his enemies. And some. Be gave one strength: and anot. the deer. ererg means bp which they could enjoy their gifts. n7hen God placed them in this condition. and weapons of defence suitable to every one. He also made his two tusks long that through them be may be saved from the attacks of ~ i l beasts and use his d trunk. and have extraordinay Strength. Some live free from care through their ability t o fly. the wild ass. but in His blessings He is impartial to all. as also other animals vhose bodies are large. If your majesty wait a little and loolc into their condition. or be caved from harm.l-tin. Some he gave large foi-ms. In the means by which they enjoy their (particular) privileges. For when God created the animals. And the Great God says in the story of the ant : 1<dlat namlafujz ya ayohan namlcldhdld arasdlrinaklr* lnynetemanakun~Suleima?to wa 2cahum iciyas1tau. In these advantages a11 are equal .s said unto all the i his ovn honse: n tints. I n this "ay this assembly also. save tkemselvss from harm by means of t. for inare stance. &. And r n q there are who hide in holes. \&'hen He gave the elephant a tremendous body and excessive strength.like as the elephant and lion. like as the birds . 21-e swift and fearless in flying. Let each one hide himself K . He has bestowed means to acquire cornforte. no one has inore than the other. the hare. That is. yon see &at tbose mhose bodies are small and frxil. he has ou the other band given him two wings. the chief of the ant. by swift ~ U I ning and flightht. are not exceptions to the rule. that apparently haye neither hair nor plumes. and Illany by diving into the rivers save themaelvea from danger.

llly in n m i n . They r ~ l i t110 medicine. \JTben God has given mute sense and means of obtain. without t h o ~ ~ g l l t or exertion. tlor 11 bloocl o~ayROW .and ?&&hthe spots hi lrhich they diseoVel' ) food: like as the ~ ~ i l t ~rind ethe eagle. onimnh :'"depgo trouble of Beeinrt. to fly at the nphave to proacb danger: f o t h e i r food. for a. nor spleen to absorb ill-humours . 0 t h . to D . ~~d &J. Pi""$ tllkt i'bgr~ ancl t~onble. those are exempt froin this labor. And God sends the food of -and one to tL& rsrp place. i:2g fo3d to those anirnnlr that are extyem2elysludl ""{l feeble.kept in order.hey are unannre of (yooip~rsei2ee). nud these are ~ esemlted fiaom toil and t ~ ~ u b l e Therefore . d u d the nleons of obt. u l a ~ ~ l i ' e.:ost Solomon nad his army trainpie yoa under foot. They have the power of absorllti~n g-ivcn to them. the fish. nor liver to purify the blood . Solxe of 3 them that see with piercing sight. nor intestines or entriiils which E R digested n. by vhich they draw in moistore and support their bodies.s "rander about. trouble or toil. the tortoise. aq~latic animals. not make them hands and feet. For justallce. 1" short. ~ ~ " ~ "Y L J .lrddrrs to h 3 the urine .~ht forth in such. by etl-ength wing 8.th teeth by nhieb ta eat augthicg ) nor a llalate by rrhich to sm. Some are broilgLt forth in grassl some in the bellies of animnIs. R of His liindness has lessened their e 61 2 ' in mLici fil~h.:iy Food .limj. r d biding them. nor nerves in vlJicb thmugh v"h& the senses in the brain are . the)y exempt from the calamities that l f l"1~ ' ihollg .O ~ fol. ncd are safe from danger: 3s the porcupine. their d. killc~lllneys. no' a somacL with which t o digest .r. places and llidden that no one is amare [of them].ajninu. food these animals have: are vgriaos. And there are severni vhose skin and hides God bns made jlBY.nlimdh are subject to. ~~~d some ir seek their food by scent.j 'Y lnenns of nhich they me safe fimn ewey inj 2 " ' instmce.nor b]. neirher give 'them rnou. And there nye lnnnp hide b e d s llnder their tails.arter may collect .llom . p br0~1.. like ss the ant. and hidden ere found m. alld his moistllre bodies %ye srrengthencd. Of chronic diaenses they never get one.

Jiny ~~d bless thy eloquence and fluency. If they a 3 tbink e . and has kept them free from every grief and torment. For this reason God has .!' The snake said to him. .yet Be has made their fiesh XI antidote for the The locust said. nod extremely learn. . thou art er. cessive?v eloquent m l floent. For the snake there is no stomach." The snake said. md means by which they gniu comforts and from annoyance. why do they say so?" He replied.' M C ~ '0 sill not impertincnti~ blan~e God." The locust a. " For this reason betwen snakes and men excessive enmity and opposiiioll I1"e been for ages. Do not sap there thst yoli "re come sent by dragons and snakes.. "Aw you able to go there 60 dispute with man: " He said. . to some He gave ponerare fill stomachs (or co?vlitutio?v)tbat after mastication their food may be digested and strengthen the body. so much so that kings and nol>iea the poison of these animels in their rings.'' and added. . nor teeth with vhose strength to mns- . Saln?z add.who of His omnipotence has provided them a11 they want. I will go there and mix with my brethren. but altogether hurtfr~i m d injurious.e these? tbey are of 1 1 use.no benefit is [derived] from them.bieCted them to afiictioo. and perceive the u s e of this ppoision is in their mouths. Saying.Excepting the r u i ~ land death of m u .. But it is throu% their ignorance and stupidity thqv hlk the. %Then God created those animnls you mentionecl t o every clcss of aninlals ill your sernlon. . that it may digest. To Him be praise and thanks who has given such blessings.m every may at your service: At the order of the king. c ed and wise. Although God has t k i r l'oison for the purpose of kiKiug animslr..sked why He said." The locust said. to when required. '' Because there ia poison jn their mouths. ' J T ~ ~ J did God creat." ?Vhw the locust had finished his sermon. the37 will not say. y e t they all Csnskesl of use to them.bile understand the condition aud U ~ of S these animals. They are of no use. rudely. SO much so that certain men have blamed God for creating them.. " O DOC~OP l describe me other advantage. They know nothing of the nature and use of anything.

in h e same r i r & j ~ fro1ri he good is gained. llealtb and p ~ O s y e ~ :iyet 3i cert'ain u i l l ~ r o ~ ~ t i o u i g 111 h a t or cold mnug sll$er.. ' ' He said? :.dcccrdiu~gt o thir wisdolll.Jlerrol-ld mny tilld ber:~fit or ad~3.t $Iasr. j i jn. a ~~d throws them into tl-eshca1amit. he . . not to c r e n t e anything in which the mediately dissolves. and E T T B ~ ~ O W S Then if *he it.Id 13e did. It is nor that the Great times from .i r7 .reat~i.cjj henrt the body. By them the vol'lrld gains all the i sO1netines from certain causes this ]jeeolnes ecfi. of the esistnlce of %S cseman gets from them.11D k e a t God had not created this polmii iTl his looolb rfi. mJ stars.ge. ~ blade the sun the light of the rrod2.icts are these : ' r. IThen the AllllightJF no y oue should bp any means ercr irclsr miy hwin created the W ~ ! S \ r ~ l d and nn:lilgcd eme. so from t]jpln also solne is the cause of life. lilny aceroe fro111 i ~ l ~ y ~ i lare open and C ~ C S t o il~g his 1nour..~~ benefited If therefore is this c k a r l ~ .. he r c a7i d God created all the stnre. i~ would not be correct ~ ~ ~ ~ p dto l l y $'ill: of the ofiimn]a He created i for tile C. that ahst coamon ndoantzp T h i is the case with Saturn.h and puts thereon stro~rg poi8oLi.ticate. out of then1 HC i bi~npr. XTlien the snake t.akes the flesh of ally animal inh. ft'sion and hurt t o s3rne.thOoghR few m27 be i n c o n ~ ~ ~ e n thereby: ced lionr wnauld be be Ale to ear f i ~ ~ y t b i n o His ? is R~~ belo\r the Creator. as in the heart nstturnl '' In the same may 3s benefits arise hill t ] 2 e exlieat is l-l*oduced and spread t h ~ * o u g ? lthe ~ t ~ ~ bodg istence of other ailimals. slid made h Ilie 10ccst said.e b a t of the sun ereatic. Tbc f.i~~ AlthougL poison is pmdoccd..ind "me for the Llse of others: lnnking thein rIieir depriye tile nol:lC\ this nniversd blessing and of ~ l ' o P e r t ~ . fo. or igjuyy from this beat. Him. His rr-isdm the Lnd resuite and mischief that .t o stop it on their account . by ~ L i c h eats and digerr. ~ He thought best for the wor.culd never be pi-oenrtble . n ~ildie ~vould: scrn ill the s ~ ~i ~ ~4 d ." The iocrirt szid7 cij)egCyit. '' Describe to us ~rllft nGvmtcges MS heat the supporr. Rl. alefirer p u t of t. N ~ C I 011 L) ~ n ~ i q-liet belle?? !l nturea.ything . but instead of these in Lis liio~lth ~t~. To the vhole world the suil is like thii Bis h::ve come froin their exisrelice ? '' ~1~ sct.

5 chaptel. and of justice who are 0 ~ ~ r e 9 s e d y 'Ome these were made. i ~ ~ IT . are generally produced jn butchersv and of houses. or from excessive floods the houses of opinion that the goodness Of Iprsons the Poor are destroyed. ~ ~ and think of the condition ofel'' eroendiJes insectp. and all the aJlimals sudto hi3 desert receives of Ifis bounty.lague tion ia e a c e s s i r ~ ~ ~ blessed. they uncalled-for objection to direction for the good of K. I have heard that certain ignorant them . This is the case beyond the region of the doM not 'l ' of Prey.creatures. they mill v n d e r s t ~ n .The Iiing no use.that His ~ and stench. . they are no way acquainted with His 1s at times the animals are inconlTenienced skill pow. Great has made nothing uaeleJs. a descyi~tio?i the gatheriflg togethe'. j ( 121 ) the same God sends forth clonas in and stupid. Therefore 311 these aorrus and ~1~~I"J"lt XT7III. C L they J are formaTd and present yourse~ve~. they make the morning when all the representatives the eshalations of the filth their food. And these small worms . grazers. ~ c o ~fish. snakes. l. the macembearer as he ordered shouted and saidaid. [saying.( 1 0 . yet works ." Although they are dso ignorant . and people are saved from disleoted together.re also food for the larger himself in the P L I ~ ~ C for the PurPoSe Court for they are their food. perish. and live in 61th. Every one according come upon the earth. that the air may be mercy estend to every one srnail goodlless its and t h t from the rieillg of bad pOr the Jolldancc of His grace l ' mpODysthe air may uot Be offensive. the ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~of ~ ~ Aniinals. and T ~ C ! Icing of the Genii had ease.ar.l f&. and the air the animllsfrom exrerp country had Come and Pme. rho of deciding the& dispute.jt\-hen all Thi. Of them some wholeof nature. ye com~lainnnts " Au is not aware OFthis utility criticises the almighty . t ? k e the n t ~ these are produced from this inlpuritp.

nolice d all monnd.7: power and matchlcssncsa. end the judgei and l a w ~ e r s are present. hod." and observing them.ble. ~ n t tk-oje forms given vitality io others while these receive vitality fpom tl.atiofi may see. up repente. iil the visible vorld r. ut After this be turlletl towards a pl. > ~ N . Be nlxnifested EIir skill [h His vwksj Q a i every sensible man may perceive it.seated in order t o decide disputes. i c ~ [ m mj nl. rjnArtcr nud coilected together. ancl not be in nant l~mofsand 21-glunent. ~ ~ . The King tool.ion t o thfo l> Ernlns that found in t l ~ e spiritual I T O . and these aye .o-it. that men of obsern . They are perc&yed by us. aud having piid their l*espeefr begm to Mess [Llm]. 411d those who cre b . si-~:ingeed tilell~selvesmd stood hfore the Icing.? rg tkese forms clso cre h prol>ort. who nlnnpn supports the111 mid gives then).hougl-~t ncy could nesrcr -. i ~ l i l ! ~ m h a t Z X I ~d211se.he anilnnls which they 2 . :' 0 hiiig: I am looking a t theem enmestly.2 .re copies and sbxies of forills that arc fcn. i u the snr:?. 13OJVE1' 226 pci'- . Those i > .nzc. or speech. they ore [ever] within [the panel.s::~.e. ~d Like 2s in i>ictures oT?crylimb ia in prcportion TCJ . " Do you see these n~oilderfiila d excellcat.. 2nd s n r t h t rnrious killda of c.i this address : '' 12r:fise 13 h e t.e ill that ricrld are 1~1:llinonk tllnt And subtle. 7 ~pictures. And these f o r ~ n i?bat G . . For when the Great C40d became Bidden from the view of man b r the curtitlll of brightness: here fa] and t.iiosopl!cr of the Genii ~ i l d snid. Be irss fov a l ~ ~ o m e astonished and remained motionless. who protects them from every harm.7'Aftcr -t5is 1-C .'' Hen~i:ip this the sniillals and men tLnt had come from ever). ' Toor majesty is arnazed looking at ~lrela. Further.za.ld i : ~ spiritunl vorld.tilr(<rb d presented themselrea in great nmnbors.' wlcb. . or motious.o that adcreil oile xho of Bit. the Those fopllls 2i. creatoms ? " He replied.m and gave them different kinds of shapes. of] his ornnisehnce.h tile eyes of my heart. I a 1 11 nstonisiled at the sliill iind power of the s i r e Authoi mho 111ade t11. And ~vhatsoeverwas in His hiddeo treasury He made i the vorld of mture. 2nd adiiioriledge His skill! supl.houtbelizg. 224 these 8 ~ 2 lllortnl and i~a~isha. t c ~ + i ~ t]l3t in t:le world of eternity live for ever.

He h : ~ i made many storeys of the lieavenn and ~ppointed the angels in every place. gwe them different na1 tures and made them different in rank. good looking. perplexity and uzlcertdi~ty. He made the Genii before the time of Adam out of the burning fire and gave them wonderful forms and very subtle bodies..pparel mere standing there. of which this is an extract: :' Thanks be to that . To Bone He has given a. others H e has cast into the bottomless pit of the lokest Hell.. "He is an inhsbitant of Persia. G ~ i ~ E . And 011 the fttce of the e a ~ t h ot-ested a11 the various binds of and having provided every thing mhi& is created far beyond the understanding of a~lp created beiqg. Many He has placed between these two positions. resting place in the first Heaven. well pyoportioned in every part of his body. From His treasury of benevolence He hns given every kind of comfort. And having brought forth the rrhole of the creatures frm His hidden treasury.fection b ~ o q h t forth all creaiilres." The Icing said.region of Irak. ing different kinds of a. was noticed. the King looked towards the multitude of men. F-ie has bounded tile e u t h i11 s x directions. and he made obeisance and began to repeat a sermon. ar. " %There does t." The minister beckoned to him.i-eiayrational creature t o s l i o ~ rcrc. Those seventy men of different forms mea4r-. Upon those who pray and lilmeni. " Speak to him that he may say something. placed the ssme within the view of " c.d haa give3 our kings a share of the blessings. I-Ie lives in the ." When the philosopher had finished this sermon. He has given the animals different kiuds of shapes and forms. who has exalted us by means of the true faith and worship. upright. Praise and thanks be to Him. Bud He has set every one in this world by ths light o Hs prophets on the highway f i of salvation. and made rulers on earth.hstt person live ? " He said. Ancl those who use their OWE imperfect abilities in judging of His mysteries He has placed in a plain of ddnrkuess. a:~dfor the eol~renienceof i H e creatu~eshas created time and place.'::i. ~ g ~ i ~f His-glorious haadivorli. One person from amongst them. The King aslied the minister. TPisdom m d forbearance. of' His infinite goodness He has bestowed places round about Himself. t i . .r! t.

reason. and many sultans of the race of the Snssanides. the son of David. we are the crenln of t l ~ c whole w0~1. and killed Solomon." When the man had finished this sernion.nhat reply can yonmnlre ? " They all said. 3Iahoined. s t wcrd before his.h. From our tribe many noble l.d.he subjects. knowledge: perceptioiz. the army and 1.Lc earth.rrIs thc man he desirccl to reply to the ~rhole his speech.raidoon: Dmius. pr~rdicace. burnt the Old Teat. a s man is superior to animals. the tyrant was born.nment.211 these prophets have de. nild [learnt] ~ o n d e r f ~ sciences.scended. Brtaxel-ses. Kourshirman. md all the children of Israel." The king said.( 127 &. It is Hc :l rrho has given us authority ailcl the g i f ~ prophecy.s. ) pbers ofthe Genii : '' TOthis man who has detailed his privileges and boasted of t<hem. 2nd given ns s ~ q ~ e r i ority over all nature. the provinces." Rnt Azimst allowed no one to p ~ ir. " 0 philosophers.EL&rarn. who threw Abrt~ham.he rnaa in his speech omitted 11ia11:v' f::ct. lTTe are the esseuce of mankind. who me11 nlannged ihe government. friend of God. and by whose assiatxnce v e have made excellei~tinventions. ancl of describe the vices and bad cond:lct of man. 03 rvhom b p blessings and peace-. t h a t among them 1113%simrod. mere on the earth mere all c1rorl:cd: that in ' his tribe mnn has done much xvrnilg.va.eared Nebnchacla nezzay who destroyed the Temple. all their wise lnen mere in error. Describe you them. that their reason hnd deteriorated. that all thc enimnis that. t-he into the fire.il?gs have descended :Fa. and did not 111cntion many great kings." He procecdcd : '! The Persitin in his address did not say that on the'Ir a c c o u ~ t the fiood came upon t." To Him be t h a n l i ~-rho Lns gir7u1 u s the most perfect Isleesinge. the King said to all the philosom o s t creatares. the chosen one. In fact.. of From our race %onhi Knoch. '' FIe speaks the irnt. and clrove out the mce of Sdam from the l ~ l l l i ~ the Euphrates of -7.arni~ig to. . .-oil -rho fos our dmellillg place has given those cities and villages whose climate is the best in the whole world. t. that in their 1-2ce spl~.%brallamy Xoses: Jesns. and has given up superiority over Praise and hoi~orbe u n t o E-Iim r h o has bestowed upon 11s a11 these gifts-wisdom. ancl t. Addressing tlie philosophers Ile said.

divination-a11 these sciences has He given us. in compliance with the King's order said. who is the largest of animals. swaying baekw a d s and forwards. the animals fat and plump . and he asked the ministel. "This is a Hindoo of the island of Ceylon. the trees flourishing. olive colored.!' The King said. He has made the people of our country most proficient in every art and accomplishment. the green grasses of that place are all medicines. Further. "How could the man relate these things . the stones of that place are r ~ ~ b j ~ and emeralds. arid moving about . lookhg at a written paper in his hand. that he also may relate something about himself. and in adultery bring forth n numelons race. the jewel mines w e innumerablej tthe herbs are eatable. not repenting of or apolo gizing for them." After this the Kingloolred towards the crowd of men. " If you had .he time of disat pute. " It is far from justice and equity to describe adl ad~antages t." After this the lG11g saw a man. xhat person t h a t was. magic." Azima replied. his holy thread round his body. " Speak to him. Day and night there are equal. Astrology. having an enormous body. that you burn bodies. tsll of stature. thzt y011 are r~~inecl and disgraced. i t would have been in accordance with justice. no benefits would accrue to him from mentioning them. for every thing originated on the other side of the equiiloctial line. IIe add. the reeds fire sngarcane. " This person is a Hcbrem of the tribe of 1 . slightly made. and he asked the minister. The Great God has endued us with many wonderful and excellent gifts. this is all to his disparagement. The climate is temperate. and to hide a11 faults.into the wilds and mountains . The creation of niaakind also took place these. as also of the whole of the animals. he nas a great tyrant. with n Iong beard. From our cities many prophets and wise men have sprung.'! The King said. There is never excessive cold or heat." Accordingly he also. " Thanks be to Him who has given us an extensive and good country. and one who continually deIighted in blood. worship idols. and he saw one of them. covered with a yellow shawl." Azirnat said. the elephant. ?That person is that ?l' He said. and bound with a red a&dIe. for instance. given dmiseion to this also in your speech.

Accordingly he commenced: ' l Trdse be to the . in his hand was a censer full of b u n t incense which he was aaring.Le ::':XI" :---'. repeated 11:) [:S. The minister said. you have adored t h e crucifix. Wit11 8 lollcl voice he a s s repeating something in a dironting tone." Bfter this the Ring %ail1 loolted towards the assembly of men. the rank of prophet. Thanks be to 13im has given us such blessings. He according t o the order to pented a l o ~ l g nddress.. and noticed 8 1 ~ 3 . He is of I<oreish. " I:& race of'. and made us His dqendents and children. and on account of idolatrg disgraced and ruined you. wea~inga' narrow slip of cloth." He ordered him to tdl him to speak. He has put into our heart. Prise nlld gratitude be to Him who made us subject to E I ? " ~ a pl>opbetand gave such a variety of blessings Azimat said." B. olive colored.s compassion. a dseller in Syria. Pron~our race He hna brought forth many wise and pio~xsmen. a resident of %fecca." Azimat said. and a desire to worship Him. you have become illht fidels. deceived and mronged God.ldarn to the children of Israel gave +:[pcriority." Tell him t o state his case also. The mhisieP ljcckol~d him. and through Eh prified the children of Israel from sin.** God an address of which this is the substance : '' T b n ~ k s be to that Crestor who brought forth the 91essiah illcar. a follower of Christ. and fi-om among whose race gave MO~eb. The sylian.wearing woollell clothes : round his loins was n bound a lenthern strap. Thanks be to the Creator who orer t. ': Tme ." -4fteter this the King s s r~ man who was slight. Besides these a have many more privileges which I have not e nlentioned. covered wirb s sheet. IIe said. have eaten of their flesh. in compliance with the order.maa from the rrolub of hlary and gave Him prophet's miraculous power. wllo tallied with God. kindness. (irclered him to tell him to speak. of rrbiefi this is the sub.the cLiidren of Irmcl.hy do you not say that his w ~ a t h changed you and made you into and monkeys. have you forwtten that you have not fulfilled your dtities a towards Him as you o ~ ~ g . standilig there: and asked who he Was. M. He asked the minister what persol1 that aas. and having sawificed swine." Kingsaid. 'L He is a Syrian.

for ~ 0 1 .~ilmighty who sem the prophet m ~ d apostle Nabo. i ~ m i 11 Ramazau. PLJosophy. The minister said. and tedious. for instance.ac@ into heaven. and he saw a mall of f2ir colnplelion wirh an and astl~ouom apparatus in his ban d. for us.nd learn the p8rticulars of the heavens.d the I(oran.hst does he say? " He said. the night of Iiad). our country various kinds of fruits and zood things are produced. r n d besides these many other sciences. ia . " It is trite. and certain arts in the days of psmmeticbus you took from the wise men of Egypt.O ~ O ~ I P . Thanks he to Him who ha? besto~@a such favors upon us. :L t\. i. to make obsesrations a. But in them of your onill ability. 3Iathernatics. A S ~ . '' YOU are to "S.. made 11s to understand the use of e p e y thing. and com~uandedLIS to rea.. and now you take the credit to your. Geomaney . This 'nan is of Rome. Astrology. the dsvs ~ f f ~ ~ t . we many sciences from the ancient sages. Also He has prolnised us elltl. a dweller in 'he p r o ~ c e Z) {iTeece. (:Sq also that you renounced the faith after [ Q e of] the prophet. making piigdmacges aid crivino b b prilrilcges and blessillgs He givenus. relL. ITe has revealed to us the ohtnlse sciences and bemtiful arts." d z i ~ n a tremarked. " Tell him t o descC!c 1Ga case also. the detailillg of which would be long.es. Lo$c.ver * P r ~ ~ i t inight. &feclicine.' pra57er asselnblier pld lcnomledge of the faith..%i n tho month of EarnaZan ~ u ~ when God zever refuses a request. x e d the chosen one." The King said. . ical He asked who it was. and disngreed.ime ptolemy you learned them from the of Israel. I . Afterwards you introduced them into your ovn country. Illany moye advantages we." The King looked tomards the assembly of men. Of His favor and gooclnes. - the t." has He vain boasting of these sciences.q~est he also began:-(' Praise is due t o FIim who has give11 us superiority over most creatures. md entered us into [the list of] his hilowers. on whom be blessLiga and peace. Arimat said." Therefore in compliance with the . and for worldly ~ ' j j e c t s Pllt to death the patriarch."The King asked the Grecian philosopher. observe the five times ofsprayer.

the ! s i t Jmam will first appear in our country. -. then certainly these things would be worth boasting of." CHAYTEM XIX. '' To this man who has described his pretensions and p o s i t i o ~ ~ what mply do you malre? '' L philosopher said. Pany texts of the Koran prove our superiority and rank. ! * ': If they were not adulterers. one derives benefits from another: the wise men of Persia took the sciences of astrology and astronomy from the s a p s of India. looking towards heaven with great confidence. In short.le >$o~es and Jesils they aclcnowledge the tmi?l. '' Gentlemen." Wheu every man had finished relating his podtion and superiority7 the macebearer shouted and said. present other people learn fro111 S . Sollle read the Koran .same may as at. the son of David. stout in body." And he in complirsce n i t h the order v e n t on : " Thanks be to God who has given us t'. Description o the Lion. The Icing asked who that was. In this way magic and the talismanic art went to the children of Israel throzgll Solomon. with a largish bead. vhen dl the animals and men in the presence of the King w r e stand- .Tell him also to relate his own circumstances. and cruel. said. '' This man is of Rhorasan. yet they acknorrledge in their hearts the religion of the last prophet [ H a l o m e d ] We through grief for Ilnnm Hoosain wear moor::ing appasel. f On the third day. it is nonr evening. and have revenged his blood on his murderers." He said. but of the prophecy o f looked towards the sages and said. For some of us read the Old and New Testaments. and although they know not its meaning. though they do not understand its meaiog. fornicators. and by the mouths of His prophets 4as inserted our praise in the UTord of God. depart and be present again in the mol~ing. who has given us stronger fsith than the rest of mankind. and worshipped not the sun and moon." The King -rarioas blessings and privileges. This is the way of the world .. Ke hope that of his grace. In the number of population he Has made our country to exceed ail countries ." dfter this a man appeared from tlie last row. The ~r~inister . thanks be Xis.

He saw that rbe locust was shaking both its wings and in a very t o v mice singing a. and nLere dues he lire ? " He repkd." He esked. '' The chetah. ?Le other animals. Haris.( 136 . the wolf-all are ]:is friends and ofieera." He asked irho rrere his officers. . his voice lond. " Who art thou ? " He repli1 am the representative of the beasts. He asked. The I<ing sJd. their king has sent me. and is not dependent upoil my fiend or assistant in anything." The King said. . eats j u d what is When from e distance be sees a light. for he can o\-ercome him ancl his sce. :-1Io-i~ dues he treat his subjects i'" IIe replied. sent B e enquired in what colintry he lived. corns the elephant and ox. " I am the representative of 211 the norms. his loins slight. hi8 bead Inrge. il: strength beyond them. ~t +some ti~:!a L xi11 give n detniied apcoant of the same. j i n a runr_ the King t ~ r n e d towards :Lem and looked [at tben1. song. end who rvel-e his subjects. the st. no man or aniniimal is able to approach him through fear .ag. " V%o art thou ?" He said. his appearance terrible. his teeth and claws hcrd. Tlre other said. He lives in the forests and wilds.j The jackal was aec:l in the front." C8BAPTER XX. He fears no one but the ant. and mosi dignified. Re replied. " Describe h i s appearance and chzrac h i s ties.the fox. suddenly a noise reached his ear. he goes nesr md stands. IIe has n great desire and fondness for i . f and Afteter this as the King v a s looking right and left. " In size he is greater than all anima!~. ': treats them vith nlac'u hindneaj aild regard. EIe asked. Aa account o the Seipe?~t D~sagon. " Who sent thee ? " Be said. aid Le himself neoessar?. the hr~re. and then MS anger iri tppeased. the king of the beast6 of prey. He does not molest any womnu or child." The jackal said. inan. he is correct in everything. and the gy. He is so generous that when be has taken his prey he divides it with ed. as the n~orquito over-." The King said. MS limbs strong. the bogdeer. most terrible. his chest broad. and ail the mild anjmnls 2nd br~ltesare his sobjects. ': Who is he.

erects him-. all the creatures of the sea a r e nfrnid of b." He said." The King said. the frog. When he beco~nes gorged through excessive eating." He said. near the region of iniense cold. take him up a d cast him on the land. he lines in the salt sea . He said." He snid. his lengthgreat . he then bends himself like a bon-.'' He asked. the the crocodile are his subjects. his face is in large. where clouds and rain and vegetation are not." IIe add. '(7Vhy has he separated himself from his army md gone to live at such a height ? " He said. thus in the regions of cold he lives comfortably. &c.his head am his bright. " Give an rccount of his appearance nzld qua1ificstio:ls. ' I am the representdre of the king of the ceeatixres of the sea. ask be was on the bsnlis of a river standine on a hillock engaged in repeating his rosary.Aia name is Salan. all the inh y t s n t s of the waters. him. " Describe his form and shape. " The representative of the inhabitants of the waters-the frog-. fish. The King aaslceil who Le was. " His is Tanin." He said. and for some days he is food for ibn. rcor-411 pions. by the strength of his head and tail. And sometimes he rises the clouds. " ITho 1. Of the inhabitants of the sea he devours ns man' as he cm. form is wonderful. " His shape and qualities are like those of the sea dragon. beyond all calculation. Animals die there from the intense cold. is present in front of your ~najeaty." The King asked who a ere his arluy and subjects. " In size hc is greater than all the inhabitants of the m a t e ~ ahis . He said. on high hills and nlounrains he lives.eeth. At that time the clouda which rise from the ocean. then L dies and becomes the foodof the beasts of p e y . " Becnuse in his mouth is a poison." The King looked towards him. Often times in this &ate he becomes seosaless.noros the nature of the sea dragon and can describe the same ? .- Describe his name and residence. U ." The King said. are his soldiers and subjects. and. eyes. and from its heat the whole of his body bums. and by the heat oftthe suil the food in his stomach is digested. 'L snakes.. and thmwing the middle of his body out o tka f vatey raises it in the air. his appearance is terrible. he has Inany t.' The locust snid. . the ti~rtle. and goes into the regioll o f God and Yagq. and they lire in every place on the face of the earth.

aninds are equal-di s tlinction tbere is none. At last when tbey di2 all the volms and sn~stll animnlg eat them. For the fate that is ours is his dso." -4ftec this he said. For after death oidy are the good and evil to be distinguished. sheep birds.nay2c 2MYILttd~~o n~lnkunzshohdddd raalaho Zrcytolribbiiz z. enpIe 2nd mlture chase the SPIL~'WFFhank.hem. but a small clyature like a rt~osquitoof which h e is very much R&aid. All will be 11Gxedin the dust.-they ail eat the flesh of the deer. That Inan should make this aesertiox that be is master and all animals his slaves--t-he and aspersion is very astonishing. pot the Great God has said TiZa2 . they f ~ the same way collect and erit him. hog-deer. Like as he devours ather snlall animals." .rows? &C. " From the death of oiie comes the befie. God is c o t friend with a tyrant.fraid 2:. The spn. d m turn towards God in the end. of and mhy do they not perceive -therefrom that a!.t of.d flee frolu him. For when this animd bites him. He ~vesumption is very stupid t o say such an nnreaaonable thing. and sometimes small ones put their teet-h into large animals.Tl1 sl:ort: all the creatures of the sea are a. Then all the inhabitants of the seas collect together and for a long time feast on his iiedl. kind. and take ~vitnesses from amongst: .&dh ailohn barnandse zculegdalnzulE6 hzZI lnzinn ci. 2nd i n the end be dies.. "I have heard that :l11 men are of opinion that they are mneters a ~ i d animals their slaves. Sometimes they devour [others] and sometimes they beconle the food of others. .. all I have described the co~~dition a11 the anitnds. This is the t cxse with beasts and birds of prep. sometimes large animals eat small ones. h a n ] ~ falcon hunt them 3 q a i a the hawk. I cannot understaxk! in what instance inan thinks himself superior to the animals. He fears no oae.j!e71z"nthat is. c-. amidst mankind. and falco:~ de\-anp t.l. This is the case vith man-. This is the case witIL the mhole of the ~~orl'ld. the effect t11e poison penetrates the mLc!e of his body. that He may know those people whotrust in Him. goat. feed on gnats and ants: alld tlze sparrom.another.f c i ~ a m ofi. and when they die very small -ii-orms dei7ou-r their bodies. God regulai-ly circulates fortuni: . Therefore philosophers have said. 5." After this he said to the king.

" Again he asked. cl_. Those seventy men." Re said. his tdons and bill are strong." I-Te said.wy h i p go so far. They do not consider that if the mild beast froln tire forest." After this the King looked tovrards the assembly of men. and a single man mould not be saved alive..hem. "Where does he live ? " He replied. His tail is long. ~ King snid." The King snid. they persecute tllose helpless animals that are in subjection to then1 day and night.y good. the climate temperate. who was listening to every word . No one can enter there: neither 1 I He said.why he should imagine that all 1 am beasts of prey. ''I am the representative of the birds of prey. serpents. rhinoceros. and the crocodiles from the waters were to come forth and attack them..i ~ ~ g s very broad and thick. Ile takes uy~the elephant. L'Desn The tribe the appearance and form of the Eioc. '' In the islands of the salt sea. hmting animals. the Roc their king bas sent me." After this the King saw before him a parrot sitting on the branch of a tree. snalces mzd scorpions are his slaves." . earth. various kinds of trees h i t f u l . and for this reason they have become inflated and ~ i t h o u tproof or argument have made such an unreasonable complaint. I-le said to them.. I mill detail them some otlzer time. When he gircs nlotion to them in the wind. . " Think and reflect on an answer to what the animals have advanced." The King said. and other lnrse animals from the . they are like the sails of' :I ship... cattle." He replied. strong in flight. No. different the kill& of ai~irnrtls u m e r o ~ s . " Give partic~ilars of &at island. " Describe his qualifications. the beast of prey from the hills.ocodiles.nu they not see the ad~antngeand be thankful that God has kept a11 these animals at a distance from their dwellings. llis n . Re is in size larger than all birds. ': His abilities are very many. &C. t'hat they could go into their country and annihilate t. and every one in his own country has his own army and sub- . not s man mould be left . C. and when he flies t l ~ e hills tremble a t his strength as he moves. " The land there is . . " Who is your king ? " They replied. " Who art thou ? " He said. of different forms wearing various kinLsJ of clothes vere standing [there]. on high mountains he lives. the fountains pleleaaing. " \Ire have many kings. he asked.

" you From amongst the assembly of men the h k i gave answer. and pick-pockets are prerented raising strife or disturbance in the city. a stand-still. For in the whole worlds are :nnny countries. that the subject luight not err. hut eastern ideas of Geography are so iinlited the moat absurd coi~fusion occnrs a t limes sit11 regard to the position cf pinccs. vithout whom their affairs would be . mho among men enforce the commc~nds the iav. and mith you are few there are many kings.to w11icJ the vcrld ia divitlad accordiug to eastern Geogrnphy. at. often with for hei in the 1ri. Some are imnisters.n climes. to have mercy and compassi. By them thieves. that among animals. some soldiers rrho mrry a m s . For religion of and the laws are necessary t.d corn. who carry on buying and selling in every country. or t h e seyen divisicns i!. It is not possible for one man to manage * Hnft Akliln . and of the subjects.zre various. In every country thousaiids of cities are built in vhich rnillioils of people live. th2-t in every city t. YLeg nlnp be defirred as 7 zones of about 1 2 degrees each from the Equator to t h e Xorth Pole. This is not the way or castom with the animals: among them bc is king that is greatest in size. And it is not possible for one 1.: iects. 3fany ape lxerchants and men basiness. swindlers. that in no way may disorder be admitted. dthough they are so numerous there is one king. therefore they require many kings. - . who keep those who are Icing's enemies at a distance. In this way there 2ye many more classes thst are very necessary 1 0 kings. Among men the servants of the Iring are of all Iiinds.on on every one's condition. Men have many wants.ra~y. protectors . slight: and weak. Every one's language is di%creut 2nd religion distinct. the serc. and there lives.hey may remain engaged in the government and management of his own race. and tribute collected for an army. their conditions . 3 n d certain ones are only for service like as slaves and attendants. Some are judges and lawyers. Therefore me11 require rulers. honsebreakers." The King asked. For kings zre oilly required t o be j ~ s ti~npartid. l7rrith man it is &ell the coat. by whom the kingdom is managed.iag to govern the mliole of mankind.gis thin. secretaries and clerks. Sonle there are who by a g r i c u l t ~ ~ ~ ehusbandry produce ar.n.o kings. " What Is the reason of this.

This cluality is in no other animal. Thcse t ~ o lririleges He has not given to any other creature Besides these. From oilr e a l i ~: : . *411d reore than this.he King inclined towa. 13e is the Protector of a11 : He creates all and gives theill sxpport. " I took compassion upon their condition. -. 2nd he saw t h e chief 01the f ies E. and siilging the praises of God na he counts his rosary and repeats His name.hou come thyself ? As other slnimsls haw sent their messengers and representatives.rg. " Who art t h o ~ l ? He said. have compassion a. He has given ns many privileges and comforts. The f r ~ ~ i t b in sud flowers of the hole world arc concecird to U>. and enforce just laws amoilg the people . S ~ t d d e n l ~ a l o v sound met. A descriptio~a the Chief o r l ~ d R i e s . why didst thou not send some one of thy subjects er soldiers ? " He said. Describe thy privileges that 1 may also kl:om them." The King said. Ke nslced." He enqnired. The Great God has given nle and 1ny fathers an4 grand-fatathers many a blessing. ': The Great God of His kindliess and mercy has bestowed [upon us] this quality. that they nlny restrain the creatures from those things God has forbidden.~. And all these kings or! the earth are called God's lieutenants for God has made them r~xlers the count. qf f X'lzen man obtained relief from his speech. how is it that it is in tbce?" He said. for ire make our dmelli~~gs a very excellent btyle. t'he governor of of His slaves~that they may employ themselves in colonizing countries and dr11y protect His ject.szr6 flying in front.s." IIe replied.rds the animals.'' The King said. I am " the king of the insects.nd mercy in every one's condition. CHAPTER S S I . his ear. the Great God has tnugllt us thc science of BCnthemntics aild many arts.?after tion this iiiheritx~lce has descendecl. In truth. 'l T h y hast t.Therefore the Great God has for all :hem appointed many kings. participator in these. that trouble might n o t be given t o of them. For instance. f1e has innde no uuimal a. has given us the privileges of roydty a ~ prophecy. d hid from our forefzihcr's ge~~erutioa genes. t. m(i r e eat them unmolested.

Ey ihe strength of our limbs the fruits of the twcs. af c l u a d r ~ ~ ~ ~ e i given t1:e poicer 1. Our neck Iie has made thin that we n ~ a y easily turn our heads to the right or Ieft." \$-hen J'usub rras relieved from his sl.o-q The King asked. v h e r e ~ ~ ethey r fir. True. to TVhere are thy subjects 311d soldiers? " i-Te said. the Grent God has not given these odrantnge~ any anilunl ? AEcer tkls he asked. OIIT shape wonder. by rrhose vision vre see every thing.d rest they live .lcney is produced by which all men are Le&& Ailldthis position of onrs is supported by texts of the Koran. the Tour hands and feet like the sides of n heaagol~. And our form and qualities are proofs of the slcill znd polver of G. leases and flowers.ful. And in ozr sroll?nchs ZTe has given such p u r c r ~ digestion of that it tnvlls the juices [of o:tr bodies] into homy. ct~bical].od to the ignorant. o n Iirlls. In short. the same may that in t. by which r e fly. that we may happen to get. by whose help we sit or rise.1)~ v'i~ichthe blood is lie ehaiiged allcl be con:^. And in our sting is a poison produced.he Lrensi. through which we remain safe from the mischief of oni. nrlth great taste in proportion to orzr ~ i z e Ile has made.-seifnncl did i10t send one them. For God has dividecl our bodies into thi~ee p a ~ t s . and take up their residerce in their dweli. Our honscs n-e build vith such exactlless that the ~ i a c z n d ?lever enter then1 to disturb us or our yonng. azd took the ti-onble rrpo:l ~n.. '' D:~Yo ! : ii~urdred i hurrahs ! a. " I!or is ii t h y are -? . R P collect and store in our houses. The centre part IIe has made square [ni.eech. Two iips has H e also given? rrLicL a e collect things t. mou~ltainsand trees.id.. TIi:m E~uc'LI CHli we thanl. the Grezt (. the Icing sr.o eat. He has a. :nil!<. some go i i ~ t o liirgdoms of the m m .. dlld this honey is fooJ tbr 1:s and our cLilc1ren. enemies. hinder rnernbw long. Our strncture is extremely delicate.-the head roucd.lso made Th01-r art extremely fluent imd eio:iuent. Upon our shoulders He has made four -rings. moutll by wiiich nre perceixpc the flavor of our food. E-Iil~l 11. \r:~s thro:igh this I took ! eolnpnsjioll upon the contlition of the sul~ject. And on both sides thereof He has giren t w o bright eyes. besides thee.od has ns 111nl:~:blcssiilg~.

." The Iiiug said. For they are all dependenta ld of the Sun. an account of the same.~ryis the prime minister.tolerated at their hands? " E e said.vs like subjects i:soldiers. 2 upit-ec is the . pect of the Genii is like that of the stars. they c o m p l ~ a h agoinst ep ri. the Genii are good an3 bad. they sead us many rarities.4ccount o the Obedience qf the G'etiii to tliei~n l f . " Then rrhy (. " IT)Tc cndu1.l. an:l all the stars are satisfied ~ i t us.judge. they all stay also. - ." '-""S' . but when fCiqrg ancb Rule." l'ci. If'he stays. ever they get opportunity they [nlen] annoy them. they never exceed . '' These pei.bclli. In or:r dirposIt. L' said How (10 the young ones.b said: ': Re pleased t o give I'hz king ssid. for the sake of peace? they esen:iio L ~ S the details. to giv." The King aslted. oir(x. For we g o baci to them. eveu nlnu could not. ) L : his sol. save 'L .ly bezr this oppression?" He eai.imec s r to perfectioii. For tlre obedience and resinischief or strife. o.Ierc. Whatever the Icing orders nre so persecuted that ~e !ome theii.!el-s :uld s~~ijjeccs. the Ezooil is the heiy-impweut. ihey bent dri::ns and cyrnl~ais: sii-l at i:lsL all like as tliere are amcng nlen.3 vitb t.rc-3fi.d \ ~ e l ! i ~ ~ .." er. Saturn is the tseasurslnves. ~ ~ they carry out.'hen. we even lilake pec. ~ 2 ~ b to the King.Vorm their duties to their you pstient.=us is queen.. then taltirig out the honey ear ir the -Genii obey their king and governor ? Be themselves.s.lr seeing these difTem:it kinds of food a c d tjiiilea olwy and rcspect their chiefs in such a way that i r e nre reconciled.c. hithful and infidels: C .they often break up their hives and kill -1fter this 3 ' ~ .e all this ty~anny. iirctagems. .reason or canse-that they 3re masters a~ll:?we: general. J.. .. and eveli the11 they arz ilot she San ij Icing nli~oi?g them. and the st:.' They themselves by hiding from ~ i . JTe.ion tllem i .su.iici. an6 move according t o his niovenlents. In the race of :I. F~rrther.Thus Mars is the ~ . Those that are good.yet sciilet.

.. >?ett h e j ~ bet. are and hypocrisy : they are altogether haughty ant1 proud. S:!r:~~l. They live on the face of %Le . ~ ascertai~~ the spirit ideas of ol?jects: reyniriq for 1. " What is t. ': G-iye 11s .. the details.. of oBedie~~ce the angels? '' The Icing saicl.!' I'i:. For rnally of the Genii. woman! and ail? n?ngician sunmlons or invokes one of the elders of' the G-cnii they immediately depart. A!thongh he by the .han the \vicI<rd amoug men..ot orders or prohibitions.he it: sensts) without rzflection or hesitation comijnre it with some other thing and give the spirit the Tdea. 13esides this: lze1-e is a proof of this pei-fect s u b l i : i s s i ~ e ~ ~ e s-4 t ORF: time the last pi-ophet ~. Him. implicitly obey the king. obedience and order' " I he Iring said.nd trouble. Their dispositiol~s full of infidel it:.'' r asked.mighty and oher.he n n t n ~ e the . they are all the army of the Al. And many texts of the IIorr7r1 wive evidence of these facts." The king s d : -. Ai~damong the Genii those who are ill-disposed and unbelies7ers. L Jfuhonlcd] or! whom l a blessings and peace. invited .tcr arc t. Whatever order is giveii: they E mrnediately ful61. y e t the.d spirit nothe tice a thing and wish t~ ~?i:ricr~tand they (.is. In this vay the angels live engagecl in obeyil7: i i ~ i i l serving God. notwithstanding their infidelity and erro? in their allegiallce t o Solomon.l he fice s e 3 .lower of hi6 spells gave them much grief a. never committed e . alcllough. If it happ911 that any Geni'c?~ has any influelice over malz or. ~ ~ themselves. Mankind are the reC \Terse of th. c : These graces they obtained from thc angels .the routine or 1imit. Ofteildrnes for the sake ofgetting audsainicg they break out of the road of honesty and becorninsde'is m d apostates. JTThere dic3_ the stars ahtnin these acquirem ment. And if evzr any jl13n i 1 any desert or jungle from f e z ~of the 1 Genii repeats a prayer or text they give him no trouljle while he remains in that place.." Y a s z ~ said. and ox listening they a11 becZlni? liussnli~~aas going to their own tribe. mas the Kori~n s c. theJ? do not.and lllelly t o Talanlism and gave them the privileges and blessillp of the faitb.ch.q. Like of t h a t of the sccses obeying the spirit: not requiring lllstruction or correction.v~tb snicl.s [laid out f ~them 1.-iz his ses-vice remained staan.ertain place and the Genii i11 ectered there.

i.nor l~rinyscicaces and arts. :: it. tlley begun to say. l. In learning. nloreover they respect llot their own prophets : not.z~bthe head of the files.iG to the aaimals.!'he representative of man said. and alimdtls his slaves. nud mrith this there is this clainl.he King f>om . A I I ~ with kings it is a custom to collsTeraewith those of their fellow creatures who are equal to them in ra. Every aniuai of that exists he instructs in the rules of rank and gover:imznt." '." Th2 Icing s:l. 17'0 him thnt has mentioned his superior privileges. which prove ours to bc a just claim'' The Icing snid.rlk and power.c chief of the iiisects should hst-e this p r i ~ i lege vich the fii~lg above a11 other afitmals. Frcm &is if. We t h o r o ~ ~ 7 l . &at they are masters 2nd all at-e their slaves. i L: . y~~resentatit :the 2ies said.my selfish motive is partial to him or pays him such attention. bijired their heads [in thought]. though srunll in body and dirnil111:i. fix I'a.. '' ! is v c ~ y t strange that tl. i that he k a o r s c l a l l y sciellccs and devices. nnii the chief and mouthpiece of tlie ~ h o l c the insects." When the men saw that the King remained talking vith the chief of the flies. do you give ? " The nsserubiy of mifilals hearing this. and fw t h ~ rezson he is master. Although in shape and appear3nce he is different. ~ c : ansmc. l ~ fillfil the ciuties cf this wcrid 2nd the next." Oae of tb. W e ]. ] S In us cre nlany esccllent (1:lalities and privileges. they are open : if they do at any time appear to respect them in their hearts.~~ithstanciing their mirnclea and wonders. U a t after half'an hour the thas . is k l ~ o ~ n K. Th011gh they are i g n o r a ~ ~ t in errsor and understand nothing." -4 Grecian said. Xow: whatever you Lave to say.e. " I h an opinior.s. R . race of the Genii.aaTthslaying allcl quarrellizig c~lItir~nally." A t last the Ring turned towards man and said. a philosopher mid. they are never free from unbelief s:irl mistrust. " Do not be surprised at this act.and invention we excc! all the animals. js very r i s e and leanled.os one gave any reply. " Have you heard the conlplaint of che animals against your oppression mhich ]IfLs been related ? They have given a reply to t h e claim ~ L i c h you made.? zre lnasters an& anilrl& thzt our slaves. :(Describe thenz. do not lei the thought illto your minds that t.

it gives t'he news. underneath the earth. i t will be seen mhat ing that mhich is left by slares. that they are masters and labor and pains take it amay. makes various minding prtssa. ail men take o u t and prlt t o takes a little of it allcl goes t o her company and their o v n use.lso learlit fro111 for x e appaint ir. In wisdom arid tL~ugl. guides those who are in front is an inspirat. gulzr and square. and ~f . she takes off t'he peel and cuts them mithout permissioll may BC nllo. But T ruali makes this Boast. hax-e such accluaintance t.. Then why do they eat worlc acts lazily. J5-ith the science af lnathrmatics we is small in body.iti?out rule or cc.leavingrs ? Kings are not in the h b i t of eatIf m:ln will reflect oil this.:any She gatllers and stores grain for food. and if there be pzss me &scribe many ci.?~gles. V'i'ihout the help allcl to the place. it. troops upon troops toll-ect and go off in every . many a m Icing.lt are ~ ~ ~ p e r i ~them look at the condition of tlre ant . And they ir.oyl.inde of z. . trees and collect it: m d st r::s:ire WC ssi ti_a opr direction for food. Tlien they all collect and with great assistmce of a mnster . she takes it out and dries it out in the ycnk. The 1-111esof govei-~-rment~ .ltmethod we aild manage our unproved claim does not extend to them. Similarly tllc many thing6 are under obligation to us j aud we locust in the spring seasoil feasts and drinks..s.e ~ I ~ O FSO lfialijT arts. I11 the hot season many. I any ant in the f 211 animals their slaves. wiil appear atie in no v a y dependent on them. they heat her and turn her out.~-ecI to go I>efore into two pieces.cles: and f i g ~ i ~ ~ s . horn she. although she ~ to them. She vho takes the piece of the thing to recognize it.nd vatchmen that no olle germinating. wisdom and prudence the ant has.1 I. If any of 1.hrtt ii.p. n d it gets met. the water never enters them.:~~.. Let n. one ever taught as. oul...ion from God. Alld what2nd by reason of its weight is not able to lift it: she eT7ey refuse remains. mnn a. Therefore this \\-\th \~h. 'FVe obtain honey fro~l2 tLe leaves of ants. If any ant gets sight of a thing houses. Of those grains which she suspects to he osr hogses doorkeepers a. trianever such ZL flood. This art nc. sun.ges. and in cur owil houses Lrn.mnll M-illbut think and ccnsider. and eat wit11 O u r >?OLiIig 011es.

but they nothing to eat. I duced. when they beconle plump and strong.re pro* Luab-liternllg. and t. the mosquito. which is the rcverse of nlanlrind who live in hopes of benfits aiid advnntage from their descendants. The eggs during the whole year safely remain in them [the cocoons].. The next year again j t.* Their bodies tllroughout the winter remain there.iid hides it in the earth. Likewise the s:ll.ps also in the mails and trees make nests. I n the like manner again they make their own houses and bring forth eggs and yonng. r l l e n they beconle quite large. do * That is. The next gear the young n. ?Vhen the time of her deat. the birds eat her. she also in the same way lays her egg a.. in those days vhen the weather is mild.wl about on the trees. Day by day they seek for hod. In short. At t. in the days of spring. from that egg a snlall young one like a p u b is producedl m d it creeps upon the earth and feeds on grass. again in the spring reason bp the pojver of God life comes into tbeln. aliva..he n spring season. digs a hole and lavs her egg. &C. in this nlanner year after year the yo1111g aye produced. t.' .he time her vings come out and she has eaten and drank and become large. I n short. t.hey in tile s a a e nay lay e g g and bring forth young. and in t. the gnat. K h e n they awake they lay %heir eggs in their cocoons.hey thelnselves go ayny.becomes stout and goes to some soft earth.winter d:~ys in holes or pits they llide and die. and in them produce eggs and young ones.-worms that live on many of the hill trees. or from extreme heat or cold she perishes.-: become dor~nmlt. especinlly upon the mulberry. Generosity and liberty that are the graces of the virkuous are never in t. Then in ~ h nthing do they think themselves superior to t us. The . or they of themselves die fronz heat or cold.he . The b i d s eat them. i n this way all the insects produce their j-oung and noilrish them. then covering it with flies away herself.from them and cra.hem.b comes. they weave their \rcbs* on the trees and repose in them with every co~nfort. The fly.bey never decay or hither . T t is not that they expect any return fronl them . simply from love and kindness. who In)eggs md nourish their youllg and make houses.

al*.yrh2. rice .ofee.vcof the files finished this speech. like tlje co~v'stor:guc. "Hare you henrcl all '.cliL-lu. like as mauy deny the resnrrection and the judgment.not so. CBAPTER. for their own benefit.lc-lo. '' In us are many tnlents and good cl~~alities. Various kinds of delicacies to eat and drink are provided for us. ! : p Y i . smcet pil!. and l n u z i ~ a il:c saolc: niih t c atidition of al~~:onl'. different sorts of hod.? a i . w i t h a srnzll q ~ i a n t i of rice and snpar.?. all kinds of sweetmeats. The kernels and ~ llllp of fi'llits Ri'e food fbr US : the skin and stolic 1 they eat.--the sjliccs. . i s i a r I ~ i onnts and raisins. biscuits :. ji. bni for this.zus..hi. the thircl sllapcd lilie enkc .-coarse* S)lir-m&l.l. roast. " Relate hen^. f lliliau nhicll is brownec?. :' In grc:it enioj.vailable. b:iq*ci?~i.s.ind o f bread ~ ~ ~ awitli nrilk. ISSIII. zi~-bi. uclyus. aaEron pillans.jnlahis: 2taci7~kls. Besides these. laughing. t l ~ o fonrt11..gao-dicls ailrl pao-zsban.K h d i ~ ~ . fluit cjf tile egg-plant cooked in ci~rtfs. lihi . I n $act. Rich robes and iroollen jerrellerg of rnnuy Iiinds we rear.-is like toffee . that after :heir death Inore insects may Be prodnced and be comfortable. 6 ~ 7 i ? . arc 211 a qrcet ]. milk.ind milk. t (If the swcctmcats only two out of the seven have znytlli~:gf i p p r o n c l i i ~ lt1:cn: in England.re of his death. stew.mel~t our lives pass. illc lilt eye of a (:OTT . t o nllluse ourselves we have dancing. Zir-birran .n-irh Firni . Lill:fis.~ri~ing sembly of men said. At the time the represenir~ti.i. baker-kl~kuc. the Great God of Iiis power rex-i~ifies them the next year. ' The by ' Icing said.$hil. he would not make boast that he is master and animals his slaves. which the a i G m ~ lnever get a sight of.iuti c . ht: has said ? Now is there in your opinion any answer remaining ? " One of them. amarti: lc~uziyclt!$c. joking. n man of Arabia. the King of the Genii being much towards the aspleased praised him and ti. they never ill m y vay deny that they will die. Eurani . stories and f2b!es :. with willillgness and plezsurc they expire of themselves . For of them every one has a po<ti. mhich oar clr?iin is p r o ~ ~ d . T!~isfirst is a flat rnallii aic 111c snnie o11lp lal-gcr . curds. ~ B a l m n sohull .--rre eat. t. gao-za~~tll. If mall vould nnderstand the coilstitution of these animals aud that they in worldly and spiritual afiaira are acquainted with more facts than he. ." Iie said. !. And . said.. . 7IThen their day to die comes.-a 1.-l)oileC nliil.

sowing corn! reaping.n with folded hands for a couple of pence. These are continually wandering and flo~mdeling. Iighting fires in ovens in cooking. standing before a noble--* Parash-o-farosh . lear~liag. go. Whatever things are produced from the earth we put to our own use without labour or exertion. toiling to collect wealth . The different kinds of fruit.11 these exertions they acquire and property. lye live exempted from this orief and punishment. pimples. the Persian nightingale. weighing. "For this reason." The representative of t. quarrelliilg with the butcher over the meat. coughs. consumption. that me are masters and theS slaves. distorfioll of the face." The King said. ague. science and art. Wherever F e go by the providence of God every thing is povided. They rush to tl:f .clothes.he birds. like slaTres thev labour and work. gripes.*Y" elephantiasis: 1 and diseases of the nose. was sitting before thein on the branch of a tree. because our food is simply 5 gnss and leaves.. all kinds of diseases are they s ~ h j e c tto. jaundice.-digging the earth: golring the plough.-in a short. ringvoi-ins. They are s~bject to chronic diseases. 1 1 short. delirium. . All these tlzin. itch. boils. grinding. lteeping accounts and books with the grocers. it is with a. epilepsy. to fevers. do not remember that in reality these are [a source of] great grief and trouble to thern.-on account of this ease they undergo much toil and trouble. If they have accuillulated wealth 1 7 fair means they hare its reward. " These m 1 e1 rho boast of their different kinds of food and drinks. cholera.-a general term for carpets.gs are proof of this. ing to distant countries.Eed. and they also experience grief and trouble. ciriving bullocks. afflicting the body. He said t o the king. carpets. Thought or al~xiety for food never enters our minds.. After death it frills t o the &re of others. if not they 3 have its punishment. dr8. that the Great God of His power c~eatedfor us Ke eat: and we continually thank Him." She said. rugs and mally other things* we Where are the animals provided with these things ? They always eat the grass of the foRst. And day and night entirely unclot. " T h y is this ? Describe it. headache.ving water. by eatjag certain kinds of fooci. sheets.

get food ancl drink 111lfit for them and thcl-efore fa11 sic]<. tlie ai~gels took them bclorr and threw the111 into a place rrhere them . IIom could f~*nii. livecl in the GnrJen of Eden nr:.ancl v-c arc cscttlptcd f i o i l .{mn :uncI Eve. es al-e llot eases. vnr f ~ ' ~ : ' e f : l t l i ~ ~\vel.gh the gnilc of tlreir Enemy forgot thc conilllnlld of the Loilcl.comp sick :--pr.s tl:<! s:!li\. li: f:lct. &C.: t!~cin. . Tlley rc.:.rongj-h . the mi!k is spoilt..ites .t:rai!l cot.th also ~ tLe1.hJ7 sicifins for medicines.1~ tti:ctt(:)rs l ~ n v e ::ln. pigeons! cocks.n of bcca. nlc 2nd you arc cclni~l!:11lc.. aninlitls tllnt are confined bp you.om the effects of &ese tL-incs the child is -. zald tilosc xuiaals r h o ivnlzder of their own free r i i l in the forest gyp fl-ee from every disease because their tin~evf ~ r eating ancl drinking are fisecl. or throagh h~ulgcr cle~ournlors then their usual cjuant. czts. T h i s it. and after all this tile s~lallleles~!~ assert that they are masters and every ttnima1 their slaves. bo~n ugly and lives continual!y ~nl!ject to diseases.ppt. Of the diZep:. these nuii.lt it ..o~~gl~ 1 greedimss eat: improper food. There is uo irregnIarity in it [the t i ~ ~ z e ] . tllm r : : !.l \\-itllout Iilbo~r esertion ate of' the f?t!it of thi\t or -l. affliction ancl anger. . I7 Xnn gave flnsver : '' Diseae.y or toil.oll \-!jli ]. thc rensnn your chi1dri. esti-elm agon.llosecomfosts n~idblessings. t1.ilnrl it.e sllnrers ~\-\-.. snch ns you bonst of. throl~ghthe ill effects of yoxr ~ m n acts j.n bc.>ys Leen an all eqnai t . i. They eat their fooi! 81 in~l~rolxr timcs.." H e replied: " h ~ i m ~ l lhccolne sick onb s from ll~isillg and becoming fidini:iar wilh you.t in 3-OUP medicil-!~~. rl:i~-i: v:Le11 3r0111' g1-. to us : azlilnnls often catch dis. Thcls the humours nre pY~ilucet3 gvoas.hro[.i?als that ape ancl c o ~ ~ f i ~ lbyd you are not nllo~retl to spcnil t:icir e time i n their own m y .y lvl-rnt tllii~g o yofi bozat ? Ecsitlt:~i:i catillg Crni? d :!li% z crr:ll~>. In tlic .ifid Llse i. oild begot a desire f o n grili!t ~ :lniP r e r e t~imecl out thence.his they s o : ~ i e t i ~~ ~ r 1 ~I s sick.. YoL1 t. The dogs.n in t.$t.ity. Tlkrough these disenses they live li&le to sudJel: denrli. Jl71:en your elclew t. .s. IL is rrot i:-~v~nted ycjil.vns not eve11 vegetation or icaf.as-e: honey is the purest :LT:dtile ~ J C S ~ .~!nt3ncestor-.laceT\-l~en there T a u n o Iiind CC xl1tl7siet. - 7 .i>:I ljecijn~esni!ject to these cal:lit~ities. their n.nt kinds af li.. and fi.l for ilgcfi m:?:llIC1y~11.e!gnaat :rorneu n 1 ~nurses i-!~r.

buckets. He sent an angel.J they hnd begun to settle in erery spot. instead of your cit:es and houses. El1t you have also a corresponding suffering for every- one of them. 2nd this that you s q that 7011hold pleasant meetiogs. in the forests and cities.aLer. At last their repentance was accepted.tHic. pleasure and mirth. but you weep ancl suffer grief. Tyater-skinsand r. God forgave t5e offence.i. All these things ere necessary for you. y o u have music. and [drinl. We.e them upon your sioulders and go from place to place with t h e 3 and sell them.enter there I For a period they wept in this i:. For these exertions and troubles are only for slaves and unfortn. and to nla!ie clothes. with this estetisive plain. seize and confinc them. you suffer a c o y responding grief for every pleasure. is true. tEcy made various kinds of snares and nets . T h e n their race was greatly increnszd ar. and pursued they them. 017 ropes. wear rich ro!>es and digere)lt kinds ofjcmellei*y. From the earth to tlx heavens wherever our heart wishes we fly. In short. who came there an2 taught them to dig the earth. '\Yithout labonr b *P exertion me eat our i a ~ f food. there is no one to pye\-ent us.zttacked with irony. oLtaina1:ie by us. fetters on your hands. engage in the plensurz of dancing.from mhich we are exempt. and chains on your feet. rion. then begun they to oppress tlie inhahitmts of the earth. you have arrived a t this pitch-1-ou now stand and detail your pretensions to supe~ioritjr. and you sleep in the dark gra\. And a t lasi. These live . spend your tilne in delightful pleasures. on the banks of rivers. In fresh vei-dme. we do noc depend. In short. You ai. They seized their houses caught many acd conlined t h e ~ n many fled. youtnl.e. you live in your elegant house. t o e a r to gind. And me are exempt from these calamities. I n the place of praise you are . (:orresponding to yoxr jewellery you Tear iroll colIiirs 011 your necks. [As a set off] to your pleasant parties. to cook. you sit in the honse of mouluing. . YOU drFayS in rhe midst of toil and &tress. day and night they lived ellgaged in this xoil a ~ l d l abonr. we @razeand eat mithour. and Isesides these many other things that are nor. restraint.Ler vessels.e for coutrorers~and quarrelling.] ~ l pare lr.late ones.

'LDescribe t h o ~ .. Xnil thc Crcat &cl sent C x tI1o3(5l)eople ~vlir..heir propllets 1. rending serinons in t11e1)t?lPi:. ." The representntii-c of the hirrjs cni. lligljt ill Trlli!e frc~lnthis \ ~ i c l i e ( l l a ~ ~sin v . K O ~are these a trotiI~ie:''' 0 TT He replied.time in ad~~lterjr beastlineis." The Icing said.i:lg llt. )rho da.rivll~~g2~-rellg1~11~ pl'ciphcc3-: of' (>ocJ-:t.::m~. a h s .ey o i ~ continnally polluted. \>ecau. And t. .:nlly rnil viLrious 1. . ancl sicl!ers. 1:s . Prom lrhat gt.: Tf you v i l l pause and refieet.ostlc-s are like pl!yaicians and astrologc~s. arc Ixcretics. ! ' tjlle of t.. it will Ile scel.efore ! h d . and And youy bodies arc generally filthy.'c ape free from sin: we ha\-i: 1:o necessity for tlie ~ ~ o r s hof npllich these bwAss ip so ~nucli.hese things are [a source of] grief n ~ l d t suEeri~lg: poll.5:tYS: ' h 2 ? 2 d ? l d . tllex n ~ a j not 'oe allomed to go astrnj-. eseel~~llt and silperior qi~xliiiesihnt go ro I)Tol'e oilr claim.nt . In the whole year we go net:] ..pointed.. ~ i ' ~ i:l1 d frji. alld.' If they act not accord! ing to this r ~ ~ofe religion.elieve God to lje ~~npnrn!leiedand uueqi.ll rhese blceaings L:ls i i e tile ' Tie llas jnforll:ed ca of ~v!. R e lice. are exempt.Ln\3 n1. " X11 these services the Great Goc! a. lal'ly lenlaining of thine ? " He ~ d d " In US J n l n j . l:.^. polytheist.a~-e:l.ei. '.jcln. For in the !io~:~n - h d g r s of slarer~-..incl tlley .~:lleci? nlrd live eagagcd in Ilis 1~raisc. 5 Bebyerr..itiectiou." The Iiing raid. 11 is good and !. prayer.) holn these things. From this fenr they relnnill eugagc~t in devctiuns. tit.An!: by IJr?thiy and purificntioa for you is made n dn!j-. I\.it pro~ed thnt you are masters and n-e sl:~rrs? " The I<$$ iLskedthe delegat. ~ & ? ~yt~:idyla~s ~ l ! j d t e that dfe .-:>x.eof mankind.1 t ! ~ t. IJ]lYsici. Ohat their sins may be forgiven. ~~ d r s \ye 1. 110 :~i'1(? fo~nicitti~n izmain cngnged. * .ld nlfiny kinds of ~rurship! has ti~:~glts . and for ~fih repson you got orders to purify yonrselves. exid. is: . Night a!!d are day J-OLI pms you. h ~ tlot His services. Good acts hide crimes. p c r b r l i ~ i u ~ s(:rv i c e s in the llzosclncs. " IS there non.S I t . set 11s :~p:~rth r l:jict biilJell! pl?i. they ill be disgracciL l I:.hes.)ad. '' God I ~ L ~ s gi. Xnrl bntlliilgl l>lu.1j3se of cfit. fasting.il!s to tliose 1 ~ 0 1 ~ l r n w enecessary who have disorders n:~d siclcness : and the astrologers are only ~01!~llt the unfortlmate nnd be~itchecl. ti..A!! IIe u these privileges go to prove tllut rre nre 111nste~~ci . =i:l those \ r .slaves.

cicallg. make your house on the i 1 s And in one place He d:recta thus : ~ ~ l l z j n &ad u l h a salalahi wa tasbihey. Etgmolo.~: incident he was i ~ u c h h~milint~ed. Tllrongh ignorance and stnpi2iq jron mdrrstaod noL [your] advantages or disadvantages .-izasau atn ak)li fasbohn rninnnnocJi?~lb~ . we see evidences of God. ' T a audd rcb boku ilannal~le anit t a k ~ z minn jibale b d y d t ~ n t h z i .t.x eqad to this crow ill wisdom.' v..-e is.jl.lour matea] once .y fi. JJTe never hoa1. And me arc not obliged to read the uravers f c . day end nig?. For your m b d s are ia ilarlincss.' that is.. therefore yell rec.ao~ ~ Iaifa y t ~ h snu aten aklz~hekdln yd ronilat& l amkhdna nzisia HdzaJgCiihe .-the Easter of the Nusmlman.cenling is] Inwf~l! and fm-bidden.uire teachers and masters. is not at a. L J E& . honestly m d dishonestly.d Z I R ~ ~ ~ th?o:augh X nvaricce..'.4~rns and tithes arc cece.--Friday and Eed.om tl.' In short..fi~od. Prayer aid fasting j$ your duty. then why should iq~. not from liist desire . If YOU snpported the C why silould giving alms be made pooy Rnd are io:*iny and kind to~rnrds our duty-? I~~II speci2s. ri~~xeh nealth and wive zot to the deservirig.And this that they aa?.ey be a duty to us ? . the Great God acquaints a s with every thing. And &is.e k sacrifice of Isace. olliy for the puqlose of propagating the sJEeier Ferform tbis act. rend congregstional prayers.' the meaning nhich is this : Every animal b ncqua. And again it occurs : Fabcr nsaUaaiio gurVban . ' The Great sent a crow t. and then erell.i~tedwith prayers and formulalies..zy go to the mosques and monasteries t i . --- . . vb:3i you sv. to know how to bury +. that the Great ha4 sent dow:~directions coli.ll xpuired of us.r this reason :--you coilcat and keep.k2 corpse of my brother.. X-e commit no crime.o go and dig the earth and teach that he may also in the asme may dig a hole and b o y the corpse of llis brother. Whichever way me turn.. ~ ~ b n bPo Z le. that tl. A t that time saw him and said: ' U a s I that I am r. God said to the Ay.. and about comecticn and 1.. or a&nz!. To us every home is a mosque and a &sine. ~ .. And ~vithout the i-~terventi~n of prophets.* We continual!~. fi. it means recurring. that through them pour crimes may be forgivell. For He FIimself *hns said. rommc"laratinq t -. S -.et&~ion: these are fc-r your iustrnction.

szttins.'' The Tmb man fi-0111alnnng :lie nss. chcqne. silk. snid.illl! the said. are all our slitves. " Of $1 your clothes the most delicate and soft are silks. 2nd hesides thesc mmy other boons..lis. .rs nlici animals c.sntins. Yor adorning and benuti. ~ l~rocade.. I here are sti. the King 100fd. It is the same with all the other clothes.--in short. ixar! superior rjunlities rcm:lin:ng :u us: from n:hicli ! i~is proved that n7e are :uastc. . pol. ansver tl. who for her own safety weaves her web on the trees. you have so much trouble and labor that you k 6p c. f i o ~ e r c d line::.to~:lrds nlen .. saj:." !~ 'IT-: the ~.~o. st.ileges ." The lnnn snid. -xe . the representative of the beasts of prep.l-ipei: sill.\That reply do you now give hi111 3'' lialelah.fying. A11 those gifts of God and blessings are proofs of our authority [over t.-you take it from her ancl stretch and weave it! then yon get it sewn by tile tailor: and wasbecl by the washerman.-where were these various garments in ancient times ? Why you have oppressed and tyrnnllizcd over the anirndi and st.lIiis." The King said to the aniinals. that she may be protected fro~ll serefities the of vinter and summer. fill.::. different kinds of things to spre:td. m l l e ~ ehave the animals ssch things procnmble : i Entirely naked they wander about in the jnng1es like slaves. perp!execl ~ n d uncertain. :nen gave nnsver. Therefore God has put FGri to this inconvenience. sable skins. ? ' What time do you refer to ? " KuZrlnlr. 7TTeare entitled to exe~wckethe authority of masters over them: arid to treat them ill sny may we wish. they are generdly . and this grub is not in Adam's $amily brit is a species of insect. rugs: sheets. s h :wls. silk.~!: slnres.olen them.--" If you boi\..-c cngnged iil prayer and fi:~irng. Prom this ir is finown that n e are masters and these slaves .st of this rich and soil clothing..scss mmy and various kinds of n:-!l~::rel. " K o w whaterer yon h%.e:nbIy of : . ITou by force and oppreaaion steal it from her.eprese~>tative ~ i l c i ~ d shncl ijl?islleti t . said to this nian.11 many pris. :.-erelnniiling t o S!-:. Thcll for those things of ~ h i c you boast Ire hnve no nccessitT. coarse woollen cloth. carpets. .leii of b sajing this. muslin: fine muslin: calico. and strong silks: itnd they are the saliva af a grub. drill.llew]. Thcgc. You continually live this ansietg. it carefully and sell it.

-' Eat a11 this heavenly fruit. the man said. For what reason?" He said. He provided food and clothing for them like as He did for the animals. for God created them on our bodies.he whble of their bodies was covered. present these people are ~ubject to.11the3 forgot the instructio~~s the Lord. that me may corer and clothe ourselves. that me may be protected from cold and heat. When they were created they were entirely naked. " Relate t o us the be. '' For this. And you ever to your la. south of the equator. By His kindness. thep both lived. but go not near that tree.he hair of their heads t.&ning of the creation of Adam.-that among animals there is none more mischievous or wiclced tlmn yotl. To boast so much of this is out of place. You. and you have this punishment in cansequence. it is all prepared for us without labor or exertion. it would be better for you iu remain silent. If we boasted of these things it would be to our credit. And in the east. they underwent no kind o f labor or esertion vhatever snch as at. They walked about the garden and ate of the fruit of every tree . Your ancestors disobeyed God.' " Through the gnile of Sata. and than all of their dignity was lost . And in no a11hcl is there such hardness of heart as in you. " A t the time God created Adam and Eve. turned them out of the place and put them outside .of the skin and hair of animals . like as the philosopher of the Genii has fully detailed the facts in the first chapter." When the representative of the wild beasts had related these things. The order of the Allnighty was this. and by means of the same hair they mwe protected froin cold and heat. especially your rich robes are offen made of the fur of animals." A-aleluh said. and by t. From the molllent me are born. God provides this clothing upon our bodies. st the order of the Lord.test breath remain wlbjeot to anxiety. . '' 0 wild beast ! it is not fit or proper for you to a8rguein our presence ." He said. with severity and oppression: steal them from them and take credit to yourselves." The King said to XuleZah. all the hair of their heads fell OF : they became naked. The angels. He of His love and kindness gave us this clothing. and 110 one has such a longing to feast on dead bodies.. on the mountsins of rubies.

sheep. like as you in exl. nTe never do such.Except injuring the animals there is no good qndiry in you . hunts fir y o and~feeds you. that the nnirno!~ are not even nvare of. killing and sl-inning. They gave no trouble to living animals. ~ O L I$so do the same. $C.nd c o m n ~ c ~ ~ cconfiiling them. v e never find any animal a m plaining against ns like as they complain against con. so long as they found :he flesh that fell here and these t1:ey molested not any living being . but were collatrajlled to (10 so I\-hen they reqr~iredfood. nnd seized the goat. and left no-. ~ e continually killing and miningthem. lJyhcn gou r e r e cmnted. In short. they a. And ercry animal that llunts that is subject to you." He repliecl: '' f-Iov is this ? Describe it.md eat their flesh.koogh you say.1-erne cases are alloreil to eat .] flesh. Cutting aith knives. brenk their boiles n. that from ns no one gains any beocfit. from you vhnt benefits ncelve t o the animals? The evils are manifest-)'on slaughter the animals and eat their flesh. the xild aoimale hunted not any animal.-" We who act t h ~ r sv i t h mimals only dc so from your esa~npIe." The representati r7ea of the wilcl beastss said. lies. nr. like as the representative of the animals has described in the first chapter. cow. roastins ancl eating-all these nets are pracbised by you. And you among yoiirselves do such things to your brothers and relations. that the cruelty of the mild beast is not eqttal to yours . dition.'' Re said.nd drink %heirblood. then where could we get ihcir [goats. it is evident that frcim our sliin and hair every one of you is benefited. For before the timc of Adam. And although you say. And t. mhich is lawful f o us to ~ I~nntiag do. you a . And r h e n you say that the wild beasts t. that the disposition of the wild beasts are hard hearteh~ess and unmercifulaess. ~ Bow tell u s this. n~hermise rre shonld not lcnom aught aboxt it. dend bodies. We %ere obliged to commeilce living anilnals.te the flesh of ally animal that died in the forest or desert. And you are SO L . cd nnimal in the forests. ripping up bet. ox: camel and ass: s. "Because all the beasts of prey h u r t the animals and eat them. breaking bones.ar rmK the bzllies of the nuimda and drink their blood -. They never have pity on their con. if you mill think and pause you r i l l understmd.

And from the tine of Cain and Abel to the present time. and yet you s?ralnelessIy boast and ipenli evil of the animals. you will understnnrl that they are much superios to you.a(l.. This is a p ~ o f fiat the hea.. Parnidi~n. that the beasts of' prey liill : I I ~destrry the anirnnis~nlrile it n n i fi-0111 yonr exat~ll. ~ h do I . L " man said. For every class recogl~ines i:c o v n cliLir Lencc the lieasts of prey knowing tl:c . tbosc . mnilltli!l a a a r m friendship with the^^ continually.. nna this is allother proof. girinc.srs of prey me better tha11 you. Zohok. do not interfere vith them. ---- Kings of Persia. Alexander. a. I-es. i s there any proof of tliii ? " The other Those of your race rrho are acstere and derout. h the rrny tL:lr ~ O L coilatantly live in war and disaensioo.ild bca.deadin the earth that n e Inay not get thein to eat. For Xustmn..irtilous and * . Davius. V> derive no bellefit from you.mong the beasts of prey there arc also ~'icliecl and low jcxnmplesj . 5 . ille bcnsts of prey: also lnolcst them not : therefore if rhe Lcasts of prey vere not hetter than you. fmests. dfrasinb! 3lanaeLbrr. tro~zble to cnch otbir among thotiirelves ? If you will mq~:ir~+ illto the condition of the anirnals with due delibcrntion and thought. Yet. t l ~ e y n v e constzntly witnessed that y o ! ~continu:lllp !ive at rrar with them. Asfundynr." &C.le 12-e beasts of prey took t~ tbc same. Aacl a t present also yoa are e l l ~ g e d strife ancl dissenin sion. but keep them at n distance.sts living. living or dc. ll1nls do ~ o molcsi Li1nl rlicy 1.now tlint the man t is virtuous nlld . m ~ with deceit a i d pretension roll d desire to assert poor si~periority. have you I ever seen the ~:.-If your t]7m11nical liillg~ C" a .O L ~hermiti n~lddcvout nien go to them? v the yirtoolls and abstemioar $0 "Ot llear tile rriclied. rrl?eTe are the). .?' The representative of.not ? I n erery class there are good and bsd. Jarnabid.mood. leave your dn-eilings and go into the hills resi:jcnce of beasts of prey. zlmays lived ill liiood and war end ended [tllcir career] therein. An? you silj-.

matherr. And those who are wicked. taxa rili~lcmrE F c~oilfri:!s.!\.L1L> 1 r The Kil:$ Isr " U i our race arc kin. doKn their bends. . I:~:~. .n. . If man h d not been -wicked mrl vicious.." The p e r ~ i n ~ 1 1 21.- Cfl-4PTXK.* br a-llich o . they also floe from the gooil and go and Inis with the wiclced. ..~ n ~ t against tyran te.les rich.ie tllcrn.edly they am on n level in their good qualities . the learned.j7feel the eKects of their omn sin. d ? x ! l.c IllSnY i ) ~ a i ~ e w ~ iql?i~liS~a~ . If' yo:i I~ii~-c Innre proofs C)[ any T. L.tile moraiug all the m e n and :mimsl* in p s m tin the court of j n s t h : ~ . I e ~ .. X .crrlda. all of then^ took leare 2nd wen: each t. . millistars.bst dccour wicked men. natwitllstanding the difference of species ? For bcimeen t. [']L~Il~!PI. serma~~ts.( who are viched among the beasts of prey da ]lot molest the good and ~Crtuoua.ii!. ) ." The wLole of the assemL!? of t h e Genii said: '' This is true.heln there is no limilarity cpparent. mheu they heard these reproaches and sarcasm. '' This is tl.aries." The lnon on zll sides. the .ssocia. n o ~ .. asi~oiogers. stewards.' " When the delegate of the beasts had finished his speech. ancl besides this there :we wriv. :?>cn.2ce. devout.. to Rdi~. that isi ' We have p ~ tyrznt. It was now erening .. a pbilosop!~er from among the race of the Genii said. the h 1:13IlJ a h e beri. i. G 288 r)isj?rr!a b e r l c r n ~?Ia!z. !i .0 I l l s onli house.te with the good though thev may be of a different species. seerei. there is no doubt of this. God has said.!! e ]'ar:." . macebenrers. those who are good pereons flee from the rcicked and a. that t h o ~rn?. the generous.heorators.iII.th~ tj-.. why should tl-eir derrout and ~t~?stere men go and live in the forests and mor~nteinsand cnltivate a friendship for the beasts of prey. the cocrt was dismissed.di. But undoubt. S S I V . gmmnln~-inn S. t. etymologists. Jili:ll is proved.L. rel:l. Ntircali Basnxn'Zim.aticinna. interpreters of dreams: chenlists 2r:6 aoot~sayera. ---.. t h ~ kSn8 gainbihi8 . the temperthe of ate.i~lpsaid. the poets. doetors.. logieims. :e noble. fris1:. became extremely abashed and all of them held 181 ) .iirit~. The I<l:ig ~ &: 19 .u'n bdzan . the accomplished jud F l a ~ e ~ s . ailcl2bsdsmnte..

' I. And they expect no Geoefit in r e t ~ l m for nourishillg tllcir o'fspriilg. iThile r a provider n? I T . These are j not the duties of ~ ~ t nobles. robbers. niid tile lllilnal o!lr slaves.s. tsilors.12d the subjects.e :( desires are obtaiiied. mlbelicrrrr. class hns its orrn ( : ? l 2 rate good 1raq-s &IICI chnraeter. hc will perccive t h t compfired wit).. t p u r s e ~ ~ ~ fooipaddr.( 182 j generzlly equal t o r h m in goad quali-ies manners.lals have not a share in tLem. -4ild rre are above these. $Then their ~ IVhen msn had fi~>iabed this. For. misers. In t h e same -nay as the Great God d v a y s meroifr~ll~ t. . friends: and gefieuous persms. In this Kaj. and in the place of every Yirt~oLls One lnentiOn n vicious one. iin [..inship require G a t the icing SIIOE~~? dway~ treat his zrmg md subjects with love and kindness. thieves. linrs.. so should erer)king similarly look with. For in our race also ore chiefs. and besides these mnny classes SO whose ~ o r d s and nets re not fit to be mentiol~ed. si~ocmakers.. tller:i they are very few. L O ~ j -\nd the chief of the nniluds i ~ l r r g s love nnd hiie +ielldsbip for the army nlld subjects. Froln rhie it k!. polTibeiste. noblcs. and among tradesmen tl~ere bG!dcrs..! of many ?ii~d. chief of the w t s and d the birds lire engagecl in the discipline find crder of their si~bjects. eunuchs: adulterers: prderastp. And if they act ever so kindly or obligingly tomnrdt h i r t m o p or suSjeits. ? i i l a ~ ec n. This man bonstr of tile ~ ~ of their ~ classes. tile 1. t?icliccers.m] take cnre of the subjects and troops s i m ~ l y for their oivll objects and benefit. -4od ere:*:. at. kii~dnesr I ~ his SUIJ~e c l ~ .$.rents his slaves. highlmr.. Bnt . ignorant. i h e duties of governrnent and cllic?fta.zil t h a t F e are master. bm 2l. it11 these good rjufijiries w d charecterisiies are pecuiiar to us. its religion aidpeculiar accomplishments.nyTot to tjlr King. If he enquire abo:it the difirrllt kiiidv birds. are rreniTers. moglwans . 1llc nair. they give not a t h o ~ ~ g tot the h condition of the army a.dmiuistratioilto the kings of mankind. t .heist. they desire n o h i n g in return. swiildlsrs. fornicatora. But I csn point out for e. Pharaoh. hnd a trait. the)7 .erJgood trait of xbich he J~oasts coyyespondhg. hweeticr. fools. . For of their races are Ernrod. cortoil dressers. L!. faithiess tymnts. ci:!efs are gnporiar in the art of gorernmellt kfid n.

"Whence dicl '( -7 L : ?l1 fi ..1~ bring forth yaung. i e p~ovidel l trees for food.:~ir i r y ~ i i ~ . i Tlair ~rilape olld f ~ mKC 3 esci. 2 ~j.?. i ~ tad t hFor ~ b c n th p n not iFOE? ~ 2 " 1 : ~ . T1xsmre dl proofs of His $1 bindn with such lore 2nd kindness. ~ l .h nllich He acts tovwde Iiis pa. md then desire nothing from them : simply Goln love and kindiiess.:or cr:?s.nr.cn irj.-nourish them.s :llc slrhjects-the kindness of aii.3 h-came nb:iahcd c:ld b2jr! qilhintedn.. ' :<C l p ~ c. ) this kindness and friendliness arise among the :ingels ? " He replied. coaim2:ici:-' c:. ! ~ i c t to filly m.le Gesii? "Tiie kijlgs v?~ihoscabiiitiFs FOII hIITFe s t c ~ l n t i o l ~and stars.~~ ~ t .'' The King asked. l i e gave t h e e the lll:iiosophi::.." Tile King ns!ied.I!. Ee speaks ~ ~ . down their hezclu. the~ ~ t ~ of each.lh u a s good Lad. " ?'lie is.-::~s t o IY!~?asd tc. r h o ifi The angels me appointed by the Great God for the the ? The philosopher said... species or individual cni..c~j~c.' 1ill60 s~..~e regard for thm.. has dwelt in body. of thii G. mat their s o ~ f c t Dlld a!Tl?y ~. C ~ S If tjlerc had kindnaas m4.. of life .-pK e.ig s::id to n?ii!osoii3er . $Ic.~t !12d ~ . And in c o m p ~ r i r o i ~ ~ X ~ E ncr erail thmicr f~2111thcnl.so:.what liings are they lore 2nd kindlless.ctices Ilnd not k e n il: man. " The breat.Lem up and iced 'hem .ha coilIn tb? rnsnrirrh!ie t h i Ki. '' Ofthe The sage ~ e p l i e d . h fruits 3 1 s ~ 1d In ~ilol't. i ~ ~ ~ ---a . We sent t h e m t .i.. HE oppainted ~ l ~ p fors d for mz do nokil. from the Pery moment Adn~nv a s created md: for the!. i powers of obsaratiou.t.11 Wrvice of every genius.. they hring i.( 184 > 1s.9ttl l i l ~fflP in his apreeli.ilent ~zfiued. He ii~ade of them acall 'be t ~ l t h . they aye strict followers of God's mrij-g-. Those R I I ~ ~ who E 4 :fo~ his children and then requires them to se1.. who act lcindlg and friendly each towards his oen tribe.i one in the world is Grent. I or thak ..: Pils.r~ hi1ilil.id.p~cteetand hn. not one con16 gil~.the ailimci.. t.o!llfort He the sull and t h ~ moon. •i ' i ailc l~ul~-(liyd ~ ~ ~ . By these kings angels are meant.. When the p::r. $]. angelawho are nppoiided to pmtect man. s luxuries. ienree of been d i s c n i s i ~ v:h. " They by the grace of God hare obtained this good quality. created His creatures.tcs His slarcs m d scllds them food and in the r x e of angels there al*e nobles and chiefs.

11 to Adnln LR ealied the second grade of angels. ' L Sccnore t. they arc subject to t.'' The iiing asked.he has Inox proficiency bfiilding tha~l b~ilclers and engineers nmoilg men.orr i-. eil. nud these [[e~un] require tools 2nd instl-1:meilta.0 their fellow creatures. In t.Ire ca~efid not to fall into the sleep of forget.use their soulij sl.h. For nirhoct enrt. After that s l ~ a stretches it in lines. and receiving their words communicate them t.sare not seen ? " T]le save b rcpiicd.s1m1~e. which is the rrea\iest of i n x e t s .lle firat grade.c leaves a space open to catch tile ilics. lime.2s tile bodily of the cf A d a n n!so riinni~. while D wearer wjthant his tools can?lor rresve at 211. and in this form :lt . but they I i n o ~ more s ~ i e i l e e and art than n r t i i t ~ . '' This man bocarn tl~y speee'l.e~ they draw lines mid . t. therefore they e e them . " May God reward thee ! " And afreraards looking torrards the pqrrot said. ~h~~ .nd are full the).e!es and are not dependent OR chalk-line. inst CL^ "ill the chiiJrcn of Adam rise and entey j~eavcn.2 unsollied n7i th the darkness of igllorance. to the sage.according to God's 0~de1." The King heard this.es.a with mnn. bricks. First she d r a m cut the &rend fr." that of his race 2r. a Pinigh -J $ v He replied. becal~. certaill are in these arts their equals. Al. l$'l~e" rliey have fed 8:l. X ~ Sthe sill<O irorms very feeble.e nleiiy ~kilfiilmen nhd tradesthis is nothing to boast :of for zlii02g 1:s men.i*dI: ~1c-1 in ~leiicsie :ir. grit - . T b r e is something in common bctmeen rhern and the angels. and then completes i t from Ill the. S I:e is a!ao enj]ed Satan.6ey are essential and They are llol perceived by the senses of the bady : but prophets and holy lnen by reasoll of their pureness of heart ssc them.rl. but it1 q i n n i q and ~ e m i n g Inore Skilful t. \TTLat js the that acgeis n. T h ~ y :h.d d~i.hij fnrlii they ere ~ O Y U itad lire . a i ~ x 3 this ~t she is dependent in no ivJtrillllellts whatever .fGiness. For instance.y)rn ber sdirs.hnn their ivdnvcrs. midrllc sl.-:.12 sllirit. ! .-!L did ille spirit of anye:. So it is vitb the spider. or jinir they build their 1a1ir. or :olllpass. go the where they da^l!_:. The 'Lrcnth of lib' still remains in the IJOCI~ childreii of Ad.X.d he ~vlio not 1.~nl.

..And their cbildrell also are excessively stupid.yl:cii r e ~f their parents or tutor&... o Q 7. This knowledge and intelligellce is an inspirnt..3 ~ dL O I : ~ all:!~ i2t art ~: tdeii.ing and readillg : thus they spend their time. They can a11 distingui. the mother of the child has not the least care."& make the.. g . or quail. tl A'1 sl'ilI q ~ ~ i it^:^^^!^ *h2 irisT.-I rcpnireTs "-'O rritLout "ern call (10 ~ ~ t l : i Arjd the sTn!~ . SLe Over them. S i r u i ~ a d$lJc nLito nrlt -. '"'" . rrLi:t b r i i l ~ s lie' rounp ! x?hrn thrrty eabra me aecumalnted.. They hare no ic-ea of good or harm.. For instance. ' 7. p:krtridge.. &C.again and .* 1 t. rf!qL!J "0t6il>g n-hctever..great fools as ever. "' li ~ l n c e . jj!. l oils... 85.ion from God. . +lle&il. the J'oLUlg p of tile hel1...* d ~ LL.. the \Then they ht3\7e fed it with milk.l# ""{ss her holise i l l O : l t C.!>: T12:: f~. P .:c: ?.)...~ .jii!:> .-.. . 'O 1 ~ ~ 1 !R I : o u ~ill f j l l ~ '?lY ~ii. TLcy !:s-.. morn. they pat i t o t sleep in the cradle. gcnce ' a ' ' 'rikc I D y iilstapc: o s f ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l .es care of her children like this : nurses and midwives take care of them.nI.:~ I~lore j. ?hot <lel. they take out the child from nlld bathe and wash it and give it milk. lutliis ~ ~ e o r d i nto-*heir h s ~ i t s . . if h.. Ornn Young. Tliey do e17ery t h b g . .( 188 ) i 189 them coprect and and the mind and rain do not tilere.Among mankind there is no woman who taI.::. . ~ d i ea~!d thread..!:olil aily thing s'T2i'01*t imdey the eai-.. At the time of birth. >a .. . about without any instruction f i O r n their From any One who tries to c3tch them they flee. .... . And still they remain as . 011 \\. . . tlley come to the age of d i s c r e t l a ~ ~ 'rhen they reynire teachers of science and l ~ l o r a l ~ ~ The of theiy lives they are mrit.s~ between :rood or evil.-. peel.. On coming oni of the egg.. 1" an!.. OUP j7GUCg Gnea they are borl1 are ac~naintedwith at Once every..!-ho " a W'"pound of a bird ~ 9 d be.. 1 1fiLCt. 5 4 a]. ~ 1 .. The reason of . ~ . 4 f t ~fifteen or twenty years.hingo d or bad. divides them three lotsy she P J ~ C illS ~ eartllj the "lt of son~cr l ~ e Yudrm.:..s md feed her young.cai~eiji " I n l l .rtL wygs whell a good niirnber of Ones she rakes sp the earth md geg J ""~~s..e.

they have no place...ihlago is. The yooilg of othcr animals aliil birds depend upon being fed with iniiii a ~ l dcorn. In the opinion the r i s e . and 0 and 6 s r$d. tLr warnings of the COCL.are of t. as other b i ~ d s pigeon. the revelation of secrets bp the crow. And it is on this account He has bee11 so i. the cooing of the pigeo:l. their acts nfhct 0111~ the ignorant. the eennons of the emu. tlle plaises of the swallorr.u~mals slnvcs ? hnCl regarding the aatrolosel-. that rrith these birds the n. of the o v l instilling the fear ~~d :into o'ihC~s].'~O?S> divotees allcl iEdivii:r.g their :-onfig eq~~ali. ancl besides t h e 1 dercription of the devotion of the ant and bee and athers-you Ko$:d l ~ e r c c i v e that alllong them also eloc~Llcni spcnlieys.r.. but you do not kno" til at :' so G. \Voruen and children only beliew them. Therefore t h e Great God gmnttd those yorlag ones such sngocit.Some astrologers M deceitre &c foolish: say that in sucll a city a ccrtai!~ event after ten or t ~ e n t j years will happen. and godly men. r.isslLak~l y ~ ~ ~ ' 6 b d n ~ b c ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ . ' Every anilnfil 4 ]iliore his pr. OYP. F e "re ~ i l ~ e r i o r To".i:ld to us. they know nothing of . are not to ~h~~ of thing do you boast and dcceitf~~ll)and cnlumnionsly say. ICziLhi?~ LUC~UHe hna eaiied us hi. rrhq like the male and female.& alld femnie do i ~ o tshnre the duiy of silpportir. devotees. you lllention.tlict is. rnsCeiin7i i i . 7 z~~bCiJLilli~ Jks. that they reqiiirr not the atrention of their parents . psyei-s of the frog.ala for God L~LS said.iJTcrs roray . exhortations of the nightingales. 1lie rnemling of which is : ' Every thing . together attend t o tbc young ond. c o ~ ~ t e m p l n t i ~ i l ~ of the locnsts. ilk tdfbcL2ir2. Then in thc opinion of the -IlmightY. but they do not.timally . ilnd though yoo say that of your race there are ports.they can graze and peel: for than:selves. rhoae rank is s ~ ~ p e ~?i orr e day 2nd iiiglit remail: engcged in His prayer and praise. 2nd 3 5 ' ignorallt alld wiseeriL1fil. the praises uf the rronns. i f you llnderstood the tongue of the birds.*d has given you the ehn~ncter bein: of iunorzl1ti &y you unclersta~ld not IIis pmiie. orators. &C. that soii are ~ilastfrs find .lie rosaries of the insects. and were nn. the confessions of the beasts.~:.. lioets. rhetoricians. Chd.

" XTben the ?N'"t I'"d sa. They understood not that.lisL it ? And why persons 8fr~lia tilere:' CeTt-ail~lo. is p ~ ~ ~ i ba . or what mill be the condition of their. They thought that the regulation of the world depended upon the 7 planets and 12 signs of the Zodiac. For instalice.olnmon people think it t. The facts are these : the astrologer gave intitmatio~l to Ximrod that n.' They had the idea that this child also ivould be hilied with them. and the c. And yox~ boast of then1 [the astrolopraI rind say that in yam race are ~st~rologers phiand losophers.id this muell.illcd. Hence the m-ords of the ~ t r o l o g ~ .me and trust in them. Destiny nelres are changi. They s:Gd ~ht to the King.their own fate. %'hen he asked tkem. know nothing of destination .s.P'Cit l lg ? " He hot not so ~ I I U CBS tile a ~ t ~ o l c g e r ~ rcnj-nt. witloot the order of God who created the Zodiac and stars. Those nrthe people who depend upon the words of the astrologers who have gone asstray and rebel.iveof sav.:st. as Kimrod and Pharaoh at the morcls of the astrologers caused hundreds of children. child woiild be horn in Lir r e i p . 3fany years previously they describe [what vill be the condition of] distant countries. the friend of God. " If a s t r o k Y is una to prescrlre Person] 601" doing harm: T do l v y l j t d y it and bring proofs t o . yea. 2nd of what race Le would be boril. nothillg c m take place. means of aS for !4' 1$ . lkt last God Abmhnm. 'Give nn order for all the children born in this yenr to Be 1. they exist only to deceive tlla iglloThose follra who have faith in the A1tnighty believe not tlieir n~osds. There also God sheltered the prophet y o g e s from their wickedness. ~ u up?-they TYCE not aWe t o tell. thousands of fizmilies ta be murdered. I I . e r s an idle tale.-m&her is it so I3j. tyrannical and o1~p~essive kings of men deny the resurrection. whatever God has mished He has done. as to what will happen to tberfiselves. n." After all. TLia is true : " Opposed to Fate no project -will succeerl. Where.lld preserved him from the hatred of the a i c i ~ e d 'plinraoh did the s s x c thing nit11 the children of Ism&). who after being brought up and attaining n hipll position should overthrow the religion of the idolators. and rrliere he would La b ~ .lb. the i<ing aslied him.

lcl such ail evcnt.lles. EIence the ~ s t ~ o l o y iand uzngi-3 clails girc out b a f ~ r ethe occnr:. who is the Creztor of astrologer^. 'It ~ro:rld bc better t o pray directly to God to be protestecl 2nd not to practise astrology.t the decrees of Fate have been I!e replied: "His decrces: never fail. v~orship. E11t those people who to avoid calamities 11zal.eiicc of tlic crent that God vil! manifest srich s.zstro!ogcrs told Xiinrod that a boy o p ~ o s ed to the faith of the idol:itors would be born and thsov his s~lhjects RI~CI m-:l~yinto coafi~sion.^' The King said: " Row c10 they obtain the nid of God in this ? " Re sn.e 11~tlticns ~ ) t God n:.>ing with a sincere 11eai. L By pract.&s by r n s meant Abrahain the friei~d of God.ishlg the lau-S ' of religion. Tl'hen are they ask God to nrcrt [any c a l n ~ ~ i t y ] doubt FIit no accedcs to tllem. ~1-:1e11 t h e ." The Icing srid? When the l a m of religion 2rc o b s e ~ v c ~ zutl by that means ca1:t. it follov-S of asitle.n 1>1-otectcd from thesc things. t.t~ their r a y s ofottainiilg assistance. 11111:1iI. and God Lra~ing created him hnml~ledz i ~ dspoiled Xirnrod S . For instance. glv:ag s!ms nnd tit.nity is averted.of the All~ligbty.i~y ail6 -irceping: p x y e r ? 51si:q: .id.'' corwse tha.

. .el.. and ofte~~timos muell In with tears and grief they write their condition i e pctitiu~is and hang tlrem on the ~ ~ 1 and piliars of tile 1 s T6e Kiag asked. them m d tom to God. U .ctJ1+?c . frx*:I. ) . &! ixtz .tion.il ti.b. Worr it ~01112 t.-. 'ur. c. to ijreiTw. ~ : . y h e r a t e r oil sides in and c v v e ~ dthe the persans n-110 remained in their . C : : 2nd all djy :li. \ 7 .L. . . j d K ~ ! I . ! J y s ].:i!. . l : .s.< %y1(. 1 11% f ~ i ' n i d i i a e..eren c i nble to give rite pnrticL. f i ~. For the rccoccry of the ~ i c l i ! e sho~llclfirst pray to God : F for perbct health is obbdtled by I i i a 1ne::cy o13ncI kindness.i it ? ljFSr ~ ! 9.ii even: c .?.: been obsermJ.Fez\.lisined ardr!ii~:p. l ( . ilot tlie p r p d i c t i ~ s die nstroloI of Fers p...:\e ~ ~ ~ l . <l. . 'I!icy bCf3. niosqtzes.:!." 1: 1 GII t?~::: 2 c c d T ~ . L<- .::i zr. 7 -77 ? . tl.~ a a i ~~ h . Therefore natro.~. that in his city ~n event ~ o u l c l happen.zl i. l j ~ i tcertain lnen.-ji.:i!.~ r t:lcjs.2: i. and God grmlts them recorerr. .!:~) r a y pir.1 to petition .. . .is f i T. z steps o.:~ w.liry.a of their sickccsk apply to doc. and dnrellings perished. cTod c~ from 1 . . xii.ig. 'Those pe.: L L . l i:eg c.:>i> . which would be rery fdtal to the iinhahi- niii r!riy said tl!ai. ""6 t : x ~ xS\. rvrut 3 .1r.LIE:: .liu. aIite.fix. i . tslie place. Iogy s h o ~ ~ bs practiacd tlii~s.fiecity: aild mnzl3.>r thore be~lectq clarirerl from ast~uiogy.. '. I I I ~ 111 f h e pii..nt :I!SC.s'!l LL:e .i l o " Tr. mid not trust to the tricks of the ~strologers.. They fox& God and trnsl i the rei~uivi'il~g n heavens. A . ! ~ j : ~ ~ .ople who ncre outside he engaged in ilrarel* aad ismentr. Lid\-ic. ..: God t o l><!%:\Y!d pi:*apJ cii.t:in mmlrb 01-c .<. j i l a cci. e..T-yll o:!-c. The ~e t ]~ilq syka.IT&.innin.:glit l0 be takeil rcy.on him nnd his race) this ptlactice ha.nZrs ~] as of this age to inislend the pcoplc.inained ia the night i b rained in the city was situated in a holion-. md if from thsir treatment no b~ilefit accrlres t.... L l l ~~ .t t!. ~ : ! ! j : n e .nersg~~-e wnord. i : .. Q-. Th::s one should apply to God i. :<:fi:i]l 5:ye:ik: $Ix3!!1~! : .t d:! t r t z king ~ l l d ~ ~ ~ :.i. '. One shonld not crlrn fro111 the threahald of the true Pl~picim apply to the physicians and [of tLis vr~~l~!]. Somt persons in the bc.!nts of the llsppen .toir. For there was R B to ~ h o m i n the astrolo.bey lose all conEidel:ez ... earig!ll . every ono [of the pmpllets] orrlemd his foIloTera to do t611s i~nder every n1isfo~t1111e. aiiid.!:~ n:. 1..lii2iT~ . c o n j w c t i o ~ ~ ld [in xith p ~ q e ant1 not U S C ~ 5 lllenlls for the astrolo. i.

.L."ill' .\i.. .: T.! t ~ k l . c : baye c.i]z ..er:. -.. \Ire bcliere in ?:m Cuiij.egent our bani:!:.in uv. ?):. -. .j . said..{lL2Tl<. 3 .ir2 .-. . .:A2i... n? 'g .~t!.-~. 1. ' 1 ' ... L L ~~rh?iiifi20 cL~o ii2LIf0 jv~llb~ . .c-. 1 a \> .... .:i:..! !:.>. z o ? ? . some depend up311 seme ~ i l d L-.~ ~~~p zbin i ~ n r x l d ..9oi..iL. it" knnn-!.? . : : hare esisted 2s 1011~?L. 0 1 ' '2 7 7 .hy L I ~ S C ~ rill23of tlie i. 'i..s the <liciesb.. .hrterr:.. .ne Sclicve in the resrri-rection7nnd some deny it solne zc~i~o~I&eilge prop!~ew and inspiration.1~~ l i g i o i %lid i " clie form of Tvor&ip. illiij .A . a o.r <:. .~:j\.l. :'.ofil. sz~v:i:. ' htsifi2s tllls illere . Kiglii e!ld .:-jib hiE1 izi j tlrnsc ~ i i t!i(iityhf 1T. 0.:. like a s Sroah a i d those persons xho held t h e faith wcse mved from t h e flood. y a~.:~:-i9 . <... +::.?~. ieo. . Lye.Y.. j. nitd .-:icd b?.:.-0 . : 1 ..h--.$tr12c'"-.:.02 ~ ~ : f i l .-.bina'i that . T 7. arc thn~kf!i! i c y v. l r 1..e r ~ n t . : a!:<] J 2 ? G .ve110 ine~in.~.-.c:ic.~.. ~ m disbelieve in them . .:jc t'...s:. occ. -.2 -. .nt is the r e s o n for th2t> . I . tbi.). >..::.tc.-<y .. . '. ar.::T k is everlasting. . y..7 I y..c311 t3 to those tknt rnnai:l?d .- ~2 &--A..I.r7c . L - 2 '. : y .?:opreiicn3lon -. -/.. .-. .. .l r ~ 7 e y o ~ ~ ~ L G . U 1 .j~ Llye s .Ltio2 to~'":. bcdiyatenn itz ~ L G ] L ~ rcaj.l::snt . ori~ci-s.itenass .. Pox God has saii!. tllre: c.?(..? fir.I. same I)??. nctioy)..7!:C1:! i.. IL e -- s.? ".! ii?3kheri>z:..i r-S sf .rcl?Sb kno. - ?. .y n-Orcjso Lu!:c-. ~:I A.. . i.. >.tllcy ha.... c2niinnal. i ~ t J . some Lrilg proofs oi its fii..:j .-<:11.i from . t o $2 drai-.ljZ 7 2 ( l ~ l .. . 1 1 ~s i.?l~eestora ~ l l d . ivLile all the others were drawned.i. -..zEgs whicll come no red ienafi:. t.:cl..-a yil)ii ?. .:!":? t. a T:~:.. . .!+& .~~ ~ --i k r e in S j ~ raom<.. iomc ibrictiy eq'y th&r .ii-!L-.-: L : .- -. 8 0 ! t C say the T . .l i ~ i l C f : > ~solilc i!L!2yQ c : ~ ~ &).~~o:.< $>$-.gs t.c ni:J7 : .:3 LA^ i!. 2 c d ~ c -~ Thoro i-. i. to i. ~ h i i e t-ey r. ellgnged in pr:\lsl?ig .:>:. L. acln..ii. EJ L. iIimlrillntion t i l ~ v pp$e~:. ..a1 . .LL.. a: . nlarifj7ii1r: 'rrc \vc do llor T.i:.-. rind flyat He in 02rqu:i?':c<>. . .i-iithey ~ i ~ ~ knor theln not.ch pc sllbizer.: fi..eJ: -i. v-:. :<.-. i! P t:Z':W:?'3 i7. !:~voil~l . . ..( 198 ) { 199 ) remained safe ..a .-..r7 . 7 .A. b::il:$:ie t?:::t crc>ti:yes .r. So:ne say ihc E . .....7. many diflernnt rcligiciis t o rr. ..this i:.. ...i.::gc I> 25 *. .c do not gr\i Iiij ol..'..*. ii .. ~ ~ y \\ C .I..L C.. -'ri. ( -3..- L2 LAX.i)ji.:.. IS of piety. :."L \. 2 o.:r-.of (>i7c. .-. ~r allotted in our f.~. d.--L.-t2ociri>i . >- J l i .. c ~ ? ~ c .:. 'C-. : ~ ~ q g]c12ct/1iL. 2s 5 s c ~cve:1. some are perillexed s ~ l d c lral:der in dolfit.: ~-!).clms.. 110 V>. : of CO : i ? l : ~ > ..>..I... .. .a t!xt is? 1 barre gi-~ci.. of' :li2 . f < < ~ ! .. 1]loee scic!lfis t1.t. 7 -. .. jyA. dldcrent oi>lri:.

' IIe who understood his own body God.~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ blessings cud gmcc of God be upon him. They kiloir lloi hair ill.. for oor food llever i. ~ ~ ~ ~ If t h y left Ilim to nntnw.?:/C . and know llot 13is orders reapeotil?g duty and ceremonies.. .: ni:l . :lic the sic?: m m .-hns lyritbt.ro!ogers n!l ull] and a!id &vioerr ta:.ii.1 h. tli. 0 Solac are puzzled over ascer~iiningthe height o r mallu. . Xany go meaaorjng tllc yiyen nnil fomsis. I:orv the st<unn& is fo:-lsc(. therefore v e do not become ill.31071 a l n h nafisojizi fnlfdd n r ~ l a 7-a&joA2b .:-. . C ~ is iixn-c~.lfi>. . . . c> . fnrti:lr. JTTe vlld is fiat dependent on them.aySiLi~sO U Laast of J~OLI rely only when t h r o ~ ~ g h kreoaioess 2nd lust you hare eaten many kinds of food suE ~ z c o r n aaiclc..: ... their t r o ~ i b l e ~ increased for are ..l?. the free that they dependent on 110 0 " " ..(!:'h...~i' . tluki is. D iil:es!.. i t'L n:iJ bniinr .i!>:~.i p from these the aliill alld rt G. - 7 I < ~ r ~. cort:~innst. becly :LW ~ i t ~ a t ~I l t ~ ~ g thine-S 1 t o ic. ~ l this is d ~t h e ? llonxnse phS-aiuniis. %re take 110~ the advice of physicians base no for draughts or codections.2L.lie cxf2!i[ hs!low i ~ the cili?sr ..]-J arc :unde mnnifest. . k . nut in ilk&.:iI u p c e a s q .:rn Ri:icii 3 ' is easy and to uilderstn. 17!lnL is the n i l t x . It is a characteristic of . and taking a urinal xith v. and yet f:":'01~ going tllerc.i!:li i j the ctiidition of t h L O C C . Some study and pcndcy arii* .j r. linsfcii a lucky o r arrest 1 1s oofi-cr i:losLliot.lie colllpositicn of the Hcasaiis ul discovering of i:le :d x:::. t d n s rltd c!ouds.. Jlcllce y o : ~ boasting ~ fYOU' pbl' sicianLns astro~oge~segregious folly. tbyoilg!l iakillg their ~ d i ' i ~ e erse Fy"ln those tlliugs T V ~ . &d 4 . .iioi5~]cdge ihi: . Bo\\r tlrcjciiiri oc ~ ~ r d . jich no to the doors of the yhysicinu or ailotheo-q. Also tile imlocl<y and imfortunate cravd round doors of tlre astrologer. . T z is . J-ON go tc their doors and w a i t Oldy those are. Y i.tb'~ c c n t ~ ? . ~ ~ .U .ased.2 tl:e f o ~ l i i ... . a.Lra 119 i. As tiie ~ ~ o p h e :llr!.arias.f : i .incS t i w r am .' In addition t o this stupidity thBy read cot the word of God. the GC~C man lroLlld yecover. L.e piece of p s p ~ r n7&e SOKlc JjCeii~. fhcy tell him t o &ho .( 200 ) 7 Some of tbcm are absx~rbsdn :llfasnrinri t h e heavenly budies and their dista~ic?~. >L c .2r c siuEy. f i i f 1 1:.

-. x i : 0:::: S~C)::I:::?.fioie.:..?: F> bonrs go bci(?iiiz? i L ~\i. L L :.ic .#>. noilher nos lieoran..z(1 r .:] L..n rourid. 7 7 < - L - L .:. q . . .f s!nr:~c :I:: insi! rcs.I .?:iglit a3.: .:. 1 1 1 1 ~2 .:!l. DO:) l :his biinrlTalcnccto "lljoy ~ .-...i%.:.7 . fancy they :we gainers.jid ~ m~ ':L...!cy get . t is ..d d2J' iG toil . TLro$d..~6 & l l c i g ~ ~ o v .\-lint c h u a are boncroleut men of zl~t":iz Tbe!:l.X. a hop2 of 2 f ~ i ~ i i i &clr -::m!..-r rscc.e iroy.o k i ~ e r k h g dm".g . ' of' ..-~ v ! .. 2.. r C l : l ~!!.clli.?? >..' If YOU boast of tIlrr yen a:ib.?. .1 c ..l ryeS.. For sh~iv.i "i in +h.. L ' . 1 L- J . ic..h&. fi.c. & . \::: ::. they '. ilil!..:.l tll1s I L L . L ~ J L IhV ~ them of it.!li cf . 1 h i . =. ' ~L . filcll~ls.yS ~ .?.55 of sCpLYCit'..kjlzl d. rrhile FOLIY fiiellds. t ~ e r sare iiot ir. T[!IJ.i:..-cs ho..+.hcnrts &CJ.:: i -.~ :t " :-.-%"--* I. ?!l:. 7jjcii. )tiii:c t.!> l12. yoL. .s 2*. ~ : 3 . &: C S ~llot of the f'. L%* :: L- . -c to L 1 :::..1:1~ ~ e c o l l ~ 3 :.. ~ ~ ~ . d . . Those maychantF.. > r g c y etid :Ilod ~ ~ i. c..<. ..-. + ? ' .'"p tL>:{ t o deceive t.:--.:.the lot of aizves to con! i ~ l c a ! l :*:1nuinn froin one ~ i)lnce to anothm...OLi~ion.ia nsoing (ill ~ m t . f i d ~.. i ~ t ..ir::bc!.L!?if .?:-<...+ :!:c c::y!h:.-..?ill l l a s f i ~ t ~ ~ y c:::... : alld plcza.*: < ** > ..li7of fi..i:a.inCd an.?. ~s ~ ~ i j d .. i L l .bd .L i'j(!t '""&$C? C..:i :.G.:l -. TheJ. neither do they enjoy the vOrld-heave~~ is lost to them.llz.e Cfjil. 1 . ]ri:iirjcwl liusb~eZ~:~'ulli: which y.iesd&ip.. .9 thair c<~~.??'.L.p . They have sold their sdvation for this vorlld. .. are of even worse OR : ! .m 2 :i:a!!~?s: yet t l ! ~ ?l-JICITSe!. c. they v:ite tl1?1:1 !?:: . degi*aded.J7.Y t h h ~*. .:\. 7 7 ':!d.:ir:.'C .... rel~tions.?if.-1 1 .j riakl I.. h r U L-t . . L I n t.i l:!.: r c!~i'l<..-.. They X T Z . .I-..q-ith C.1 ' a:e-&2ries..~ 2 1 12....iends..\ ~ .l.4 9 d then 1::1.:>pr tLrv nw J I'':.= ~ br :Ll.:i .-.:- .-Og G . n y .. ..a t:.~ e a l t b Was nor grJi-Led.) -:::.d !:oar: I n GTIllo r:5iiia>i i..-QFc jii:Sdrie\-c~s X ~ C K ~ ! ~ ' 0 1~:'~:~ Tyi~11 their CC:I~:: : :. temptiblc i l r ..'~e:i.al you s3.'.is the soul.:. . ~ : tl:c ? .p .ltdiiio~~. j7cf...07-!. colrp?.. j:T~ccsa ancl give i:s%i~ig 10 t1:2 s. L ~) a nilrl they lilrcr :ooli illt. ? ~ their xhoie lircs in v. ' ..i:? tile rice . ' In oI two things bofi were l ~ s t . . relations .L .' J L ? ~at~yo::? s ?':z 2 < $ s ~ w l. .yk $ic:... they aanL'cr Ijcgging fmm dijr fa door...." er!.:.l 2. bi:t 4 Cl. and do not understal~c~ that they have given array for nothing the veal treasure.c:. . boaic!i2 o~ 3. . .~i:d l:il. . which.?:!. ~ f i . . ..(A::.~ S ta!ce it ZK::~: or some I ..r. :.:.. J- : 1 .. ~ ' ~ l C S?.-.

ltlu.i ""C? g2tti11g a ! i Y ? ~ e l l t ni?piiilrt silot!lor ill ]-.d 1 ' a ~ 10 -.h p l ~ ~ c e A ~ i lat last by 6O. 3-cm lnnyers so lol~g they are not ifi as Pour jiidges situatioll [bdl.vicirad. 3 c . \Vllat c. U L) They are continualIy complaiing of God.-these are dio. d L- C 7 . ** L -2 .. Kiairt alld dny they Law the idea of stop.)irlq t o elliplor o f iile p-i. but before God none are so . i g b t ~ ~ i lts .l itye nccc.t?~ I . give vroug explanations of the T F O ~ of God.. l-cLll= jLcrli2ifs 2nd desatees thzt )-a:: ~ L i f i Lill laiii.. right.:ll their foreheads a m3rked.:. si' t i ~ e i r eharzater. twist the real t-hey I .. being teaching the 1 ~ 1 ~ s i'e:ioiml. taliiu. j i idep L :: ti~oir prayaw inre>--. them t o be riyliteous. Their harts are &IICdwith such-like diabolical ideas. these . and deceived sop. ~ .i2 of their ' a d s : takjng lie hair 6. .t n disgrace to 5-0~1. w] ing and evening and say prayers.: little to eat. letting their brains wither. They take bribes do jnsliee. Their bearts are so full of nldiae % ~hatred. [saying] did God cycste the accursed Satan? '??by nere adulterer^ and fornicators created 1 Why doer He give thenl food? These we improper words. tha ~ j .~siic~:.yether 2 3 deceit and lies. Tlleq. In sh@l%.roar'ixo lolls ' E robes. tngc!ji? oi* . and gixreii to oppreFsivekings t o pIense them. TT?hy you bosst of them ? These do people a sb:~nle1 1 . mal<ing to f. .fng bonr to i-mdormioe he r o ~ tend foundation . L 1''. L s ~ I L ~ . be 0 tlil lenqt!wni.ijgiolls also for the sake of tile v-odil hnve m. Inaful which is unlrm~ ~aIld aometi:nes inde that unlawful which is ~ 1 . patch npon pltch: rernainii. 1Jy God. YQ" arc 1 1d l vise re. long pmq-let-jnDn lilj hallg t l l r o ~ g h eating so little f90d. they think no o11e created cquni tothelll..lil"Ilet. For tT':at n?licL aI3PXX . Those wllo are not contefiied: tlley make so by f e n and threatening.lif EI:. t . e]jc&iog to lie one.ijs! of m" t.sa. poIp11cc: they sA. YOII tLin1. hnve shen-n )-G(: their s]f-desiai nl!rl nbsiineoce. To ativa~~tnges.%ureligion and piety do ? IIel] is prepal*edespacialliyfor those of ~ h o l n host. their bodies become thiu their color becori~eche.nged. and preach $0 and teach peollh.!ct 1li-i disiiiiiaiij.!s ' 0 l:? ~ . being satisfiei wiiL coi:-sc c l o i ~ j 1 2 y ill!fLiDg . go t o the mosque rn6i-n01. When they kt posts they seize the rnredth of the poor and the orphan. rC.

He cspcls fwm liir iiiind reare tho. I kllo. the fiet. i l cOO1 the pores of her nrhole body ever : remaiAdape11 . They yrefbr this \rur!d to {Jlel~cxi.Goilght lie \Taa &ad Rc3 thence. and built houses 2nd gave the111 0 sort c~ r. finy that tha Genii.g So!osmn and 1 r fell. On thcir account are p u ~ i i a b ~ n e n t ~ and ji~dprnel~t [lodai~lcdj.and rrrollg right They ferr cot God in tire least. ': T h o ~ y h white a n t Lns no liaild~. and they \I-Lrcfl*2e<JfrOStl tl)il nlrl! ~roul~lc.Do Y O I L 1~1103anyThey tliis pfrhon n ~ e n t i o ~ ~ s ?" r!. i. dild your claim of omnersLip rritl-oot proof or i~enson altogether false aiid unfo~mtled." Ol. y. r . for if she a c i d thoi tolr-nrds Gullii this man hns d e r e r i b ~ dsl~oifid . The GeSi 1 t..d wnrcr.ongi:$i mciljllbrmce nf past se~*~-ices.lject to tll. nov iri.ason. : Bi.Lmn dlis scrrice-she ate the wand of !<ii. hcv does she ml.ncc. &lilte its7' fie re131ied.llnoyn. ? Give me an exp!nuP. To boast of of these kings and nobles is injurious to Toor case. U'hsn m y p ~ r s o nnliloxg the111 ~ C C U I I I C B B rulel.'' 'The Icing id r:. the nbi& goes into her hod)L . freed ? xinS Solo~ilnnmade tile Genii bring earth nll. '.y one reason for tlds.fa:.( 206 S ) ( 207 ) wicked .ril her imllcl. '' l'h 6 c m j<illg rnro of tile *bite riit is rronderfi~l her body . he first irnl~dsonlslhim T Y ~ O has sprrcd ]:is nllcestoyr n-ell for years. y .x A Grwkphilosopher mid " The tile King. Tile bad pr~:ctices of c:iliphr ~11d kings that J. .c of the men of the IIcliuew nsseulbly ~ ~ i .lle .t slit did i. ~ . These he m e not the chai~cte~isticr s~q>criora.e up esrth and over h r bad:: build Ler arc?:cd horse. P ~ VLen the parrot had finished this speech. A?2 ~ C C O U o j~ the TT'hife A~zt.tion of ~Lis. the King looked towards the aseemb1~.OU m e n t i ~ n b e i ~ ~ g s::ccercorr as the C:' the pmpheis i r ? re11 I<iionn.lt toil DIUI t r ~ ~ b l ~ \re 1. of . thn.illi. file t~llcs tllz Gw-lii. For this 1.T h i o ~ l ~morldly b no~bition kiUs his friends and Bmthcrs.Genii and men of and said. '' . is CHAPTER SXT7. they leavethe ~T::YS of the pYoph~ts and jrnt to daitb the of t h e prophet^ Th?)? tiriolc themrc~ires better t h a n all men. TIla Giilii xive hey tile earth.. they msIce right ~~:rong.

This forms in drops on the surface of jler body. and tbe dust which falls npon Ler bodv becorneh mud and sticks to it. ]lad be given them c9pacious minds they ~ o u l d never have subo~ittedto any one.oe ~ i z enild hczry. The camel. has a very capacious mind. I n the same way this grub. Ancl had the jmall-bodied ones not been wise and ell-info~med. but made their spirits extremely vise and intelligent. though his body is very small weal<. and makes her h ~ l ~ over her body for p ~ . lcnvcs mid vood. " What is the reason that large-bodied animals are dull.aid. though be has a large body. the elephant.( 208 1 to balance For instance. the excessive cold and becorn:r water. and makes passsages. they could ncrer bare existed uirder grief and trouble Therefore He gave those inferior spiritq N is congealed 114." ITe &l. which is ed1&1 the xhite ant. " The white n n t in a sort of grilb y0-a are representative of the grubs. " He speaks the truth. he is governed by a child. rrLich she cuts through fruit. and . 2nd gave each of them his biesiing. is mild tempered . but ga~-e the111 grovelling and gross spirit. To some Ile glL:rrre bodies of a i. And she has two teeth which nre very strong.. And the scorpion." The locust . " Finish about them. This she collects. when he stings the elephant 1." Tlie King said. If a mouse wished he could lead him a b o ~ t . To others IFe small and tender bodies. every Form that is s~ilall body is altogein tber wise and il~telligent. In short. thew are some others." The King said. Thc ?ednndnncy rind the deficiency on one aide aud the o t h r arc made . He in His porer and justice made all eqnnl. though small in body. though he bas a long neck and body: is yet w c h a fool that he folloms my one who seizes his nose string.qmall-b0died wise ? What skill of the Creator is in this ? " 'I e said. b ~ i he has not dcseribed the t whole of her talents. ~~\T]lell the Great God ercnted the whoie of tile :min.ills him even." The Ring said to the locust.in bricks and stoilcs. explain what this Greek pliilosophcr snjs.nI. \JThen the Creator of His perfect power perceived that those animals whose bodies rrrere large were able t o bear grief 'and pain. who mounts his shoulders and tnkes him where he chooses.ir.o t c c t i ~ ~ ~ se that from every harm she may Le sared.

lld~leaves." The hing sad.her. even then the doubt neut ~ d tileir minda.wealt. This power of the Aimigtty to the nicked who boast is a A41thougb see dl His ill .ize and .lot coliect it ~ ~ ~ use it? And if she gets it fiom-air Tater_ "'ld man carl see: why does he not watch her.Sin'i'al'ly ~~d gwa solomon authority. For without mnteri"Is she . art is not t o let the secrets of the inventor be knon. ~ " d o sent the white %'ltrrllo the wand of solomo~'.this art have been discovered.. tile bee without rule or compass makes in her house different kinds of angles and circles. This is the care raitb vbita 1y a""t) nothing can solve the secret of the formation of bcr house. a"d in the mosque. or 1yhenCe she brings Wax and Had her body been large. and nlnde all Genii 2nd men bject to to solne of $he rricl<ed b d a doubt Obtained being propllet.atmdillg this that he is the s m ~ l l e s of insecte t and pharaoh beca~ne disobedient and Rrn'y of . Z U ~ s ~ ~ a~l''~~~' "lm . -4lthough said that ~~d had Of E-iskindness rind grace given from him fiztrnnlr.i 210 ) ( 211 ) and these in triligen t spirits. gni.. I t is not k n o i n how talcer up enrth and builds. .beye lvitll the ability uhitd ant]. honey food I they are of opinion that she collects it f f l o r a. So is the Lthe secret of] her $pimina alld is not h o r r n to 3 1 . alld it is not lrnomn she does it.h. .ils. are rebellious m d disobedient. thank Him not far His blessinf. . The phi]osopbers dellv t.inn] that he his do.md subdue him. the bodied animalsare nn e~idence His Power and of skjllm insbllce.gainat voses7 the Great God sent ~ocults to go there .to any one. why do they .ionre11 boose.ninions by fraud nnd deceit.hat it is l'ossib1e t o form anything rritllout matter. horv to she collects it rind makes her home ? tyrsnnical kings. the knat killed Ximrorl *lotnit. [thinl. m d the 6ft of prophecy." The other replied. The ever?. And Great God has proved by the s~cill of it [p~saibie]. or how he makes [any thing-] For instance. " Give the data..

aiid keeps those tiro shells closed fbr sometime till that I n t e r hardens and becomes a pearlsl.cna find ~ m s t e their lives in error. a. For s ~ m e t r y belon~sto r3:1k a sprenlacy. S o t .. she is solaller in body and wea1cer than all the anjma. sillcs. th21:: id. aild here the).[hcy t .. 7 7 a? .ongiit forth such excellent i:?ing~ frolll these auimnis. i. they do not take iranlling.l r.o~nof the sea and there lir?ea. give not t h a ~ l t r His blessings.rcl. Prolzl&is it i p l m o ~ ltl h ~ rt e are maSte.ri&stnniiing 1 1 1 see ?.d~ form and appearance arc . 1. s~nF!.in. f!mt mull may observe thcln and ncknorlcdge Ris skill m d pon-er.and might. in which the pearl is produced . where is sucl.tves. ~ o e~lss~ers they T ~ e and . . t:.Is of the sea : but in knowledge and wisdom. .c Have lrou i ! ~ o rttc SAJ? ? ~ T h e ~R ? n:~)' L Ladvalltagest by O ~~ i'ljed. most proficient and intelligent. Better than the best is the pearl for their adornment. There is the oyster.rp cp<r. that the water of t h a salt sea rnny not be mixed with it. boast of those kings who are inferior to T h e J ~ OUY small insects. and mu1iiiormity is pec~~lilia~ to slavery.i']esa m. " What to tLia S " All the snimJ r . Of their articles of food they think honey the most ~ - .v ~h~King said to the animals. 2nd silk cord..o said unto the men. for opprission tin': tymun? m" His .. e p ~d o you Tile xi:. In the rainv season. .-- are also got from it. She gets her food and n~nintenancea t t&e bott. p-n. . which is produced by an insect. 'Ehe Great God bi.hrc-a. DPOT" tt!~*t .z. Their assemblies they light up mith n. 7I .il. After this she goes again to the bottom of the sea. ht. ~~ the). which. Well. God has placed great fond~less the minds of mm1 in for brocades.. .nomledge in man?. '' Eeinte them.er. which are oroduced from the saliva of thene small worms." \ Y b n the l r ~ ~ ~ 5 t ~ ~ ~ haG gnis3ed this speech. rvLich is produced by the ei.iGuFj.is pover and ingenuit>-.lx candles. ': Onr shapes l. fio2n rmangi.nd tkey g.7p ola L delicious.ill of sinall fish rriiic?l I haye just now descrihea. she comes from the bottonl and stnys----J on the susf'ace of the water. T v o shells of hers are very large? and she opens them-when the min water goes inside them: she immediately closes them.nifoym.

For instance. Bre. Deists.s of ama aster. Kasibis. . Abdbekr md Omar. Why is there so much difference in y o u faith and 1-eligion?" He said. and. Our religion is one and also our faith. s a ~ i b i s e yery nearly a . .they a sort of QOLkers among Mnhomedans. Hirmees. and rernain engaged with their ro. Son-ft'~talisis. they believe' only in Ali 8s a Cslipb. i n fact. For among them are some thousands of sectel-Je~vs. Asharis. and though the forms of mankind are all dike. curses him.nimals are various. yet the spirif. among the Jerrs are Sztmnritane. Behrahis. Nazarenes. . hypocrisy or sin of any h i n d 'fhey have riot the least donbt or uncertinty of the polver and unity of God. " Difference in religion sr. Galilenns.d faith prove it. said. Jh3inis do not believe in revelation . We all are from schism.among the l l ~ s s u l m ~ n ~ . Btheists.. d in praise. And in additioll to this.ie.Man must gab that the same ss gannis. the one God and the une~uaued. AlanuLi . Nestorians. like as the ancient philoscpllers ditfered in opinion. Jacobites. in one religion there are many dirisionr.. n ITe dS0 belieye & to be the &-eator. They think of Him night and d g . They belieso Him to be Creator and Ba~efactor. Galiieans and Jaluteee . Lrwallees. They know not plytheism.r o r shippers and star-wordippers. Karijees. the representative of the birds. f0110ive1. Among the Gu=bers.hainis.* Rafizis. . '' This man speaks the truth . yet their spirits differ.bent their heads and remained for a while in thought. Sbils and Sunaees.s of all of us are alike . Ashflis are sect of the Sannia. and haye no public prayera-Rn6zis means saeadrrs . Nuzkis. Each thinks the other a heretic. the Benel factor. polytheists." The King sairl. all animals are Unitarians and believers. among Christians.* The Ral+ijisbelieve only in two Calipils." The King aslred them. . but although the forms of the a. heretics. '* What proofs are there of this? " HS replied. After amoment the Persian nightingale. &c. '' Faith religion are only ways and mesns by which And the object and end of each object is is one and the same. Anglicans. h n d there are many more sects. But the lnen know not of our payers-" They that dvell i Persia said. who all vary in their belief aad reli~ion.

is aiizthority t l ~ crri':es of re:lgion xraor~gt21e pcoplc. 1.niscd ther!..:domil~lonancl r::ak." The King said.. the meaning of wllic3 . An? for the faith . ' I j-o:l m.sr.q::s .ncl the world scconr1. rr I S : 1 he Great God has purchaser1 from the fzitl!fill their passions ancl tvenlclr and pro.tn $~abiliZin?LP Jnyz/nkfdEtinzd 7. :' Slaughter by kixgs t. be p~epc.o acquire territory is very colnmon .red . I will give a clear pros.sonle means .. tnru to God the11 sacrifice j~ourself.v C n - .l.ii?~ b(lreki~.--::. ~ ~ God's service. sight of it is acceptable.hai.: t!let:lseires and are st~crificed. " In the fait.he service of God ? ' A!i His friends szid. inrportance. 7 1 may nlount up to I-:eni*i. " L~~sD He olpdercd him to do so. it i s $:. " It is not on account of r e l i g i ~ l ~ .ct : .cek. " The 'FTOL'I~~ a:1d faith are twins.. like ns it is mitten in the Bib!e.. :7Ire nil1 be feyor ~ o r f i ii:.i:..?!-~ 3 1 3 ! e to .nni.ilznazfo:.ii. "If this be tlle object of evel*j7 oce to reacb Heaves.I~. Imaltntta'hu is:shtcir. H rc..' Blld the11 Jesus said.. 0:xc pIi:ce. sac~ific.)zd~c E .bli i u bBr. that. ." The King said.fit..~ .::th. . F o r erory re~.' Besides these t l c r a a x r~rnnnymolbe t e s t s to prnre this point. I> . but how do religious nlen kill their pi~ssions.om of the world is to ~~..-~ l y8!il.:.li." He said.!i)?r l.lia . it is on account c cosqucst: which ' ic a duty of the religious.ohzit~zzua arltcn!~l2l7 FJZQ'IZTLC~. and to subdue the passions is this. sires that nl! 1:1~:1 may folloc. L 1. a. lifiten 2..$ --. B:lt the hith is of. . ! : : . and the Cross.fcr iil thr. in whatever may he aallis he must keep tllmed towards God." 11s replied.tr.\--:: . th..5ncrX:.' And when Jesus sniil.. why does one peraoll kill anot'her ? " He replied. P"zls. enfc?:ce bj-L. o'. 1hi7 luh ~ii?~ulzilja~zn~11c~ yzikcitiiu. sla~ighter an? other that opposes one. that is. .Iiis n.-tentively.rt'il. I[f t.I i.-t?a. one is not ahle t o esist without the other. L?..cribe :'To d u e the passions is .t sl! ~ i ~ e l l Le hou::st. i1:::a d.-to sscrificr: ~ O I I S Smhik the cust. tell us.tr~-." The XCng said: :: Tell us znoi-e f:lll y .:l:??ieil. :'\ITl:o ill join me in t. Fuktrid a?~f~j. Rut.? kill2 is requi.!. you must.id.z duty in ever> weed 532 religjon.n miqial n?o. Wcau:ln: a d tllej-. . in religion i s for 110 hatred. fIence many religious I l l C i l SIIII:.I.3 1 1d p~zctise r:lles of religion.h of 1 ~ 1 x 1 2 this practice is Irnovn. Tlre f i ~tl: is !lecceserji for the world.ed for deail. .::.ca yBktalum. For God says. fo: the sa?x of Gcd.!:Ii:?:-:.~r 03 7 . "If yn!t vould serve me..

C. ricked who being nmare of a day of judgment clesil-es not the reward of goad aets and fears not the punishment of sin. ancl variety of employmeats and pnrsuits go to prove that lncn are superior to the other races." When the man of Persia had finished his speech and paused. Armenia. Icharism. religion. Kir~ran. Mooltan.ven.hey are saved from the fire of hell and obtain hen. Khomsan. .nlld live there with your brethren. Cabnl.Iiirman. thausands of men have settled and live. Their belief is that of all devotion this is t. that acknowledges not unity of God to whom every one wilt return. There are thousands of cities and towns which cannot be numbered. that person is most. a Hindoo remarked : '. and think it accey table service. Kajad. &c. Irak.The children of Adam are greatest in numbers and [most varied] in races. vary.' F'in. religion of Christ. Ethiopia.--for a. In short. Stambonl. There are China. Ferghana. Greece. then you are not of my followers. and never tcri~cd from the. And besides these cities in the jungles. Syria. Jeelan. Hedjaz. Yemen.r the burden of devotions. 'C hurl1 thelrlselves fcr the sake of religion. color. The Almighty sends food to 211 of them and keeps them under His protection. For in the whole four qcarters [of the ~ o ~ l d ] there are nineteen thousand cities. They mortify their passions till they have none of the love of the world remaini~g. and while living. mountains.zishal>orzr. Trmaoxlania. and arts.be created animals which are not of their raw. sacrifice tllea~sclves. in species and in individuality. Jirj an. that theyeby t. But of every creed there are good and bad.hc most accept:t5!e to Gocl. Th's excess in nutnbcrs. alid bea. Azerbijan. in t5ia may all religious people practise self-denial. N. If you mill not work with me. Thus the leariled on religious matters keep their souls from avarice and lust. and that they all are in advance of t. the Bralln~ius. In 3 sirnilzr manner the people of India. difference in co:~dition. Sindh. penitent to put hinlself to death slld b ~ w n body t h a t all his sins may be his thus forgiven. manncrs. and in them live various Binds of people. a i d islands. theg were all mnrtyrs in the service of God. Every one's language.tlly. Egyptr Alexandria. India.Indiis. disposition. and of the wicked. Badak shan.

Some say there are 700 divisions of the aqtmtic animals. croco. <he Eastern and t l l ~ ~five hru~dredsinali. the '. and classes. :' 0 ye.. of aquatic animals live. Resides these there aye i. tllc Incli:-ln Oceau. porpoises.other pr'irileges . of v$ich the length of ench is from 200 to 2. the sea of Gog. Qcea?:. alligators.. sea." The frog said be t o the Icing.. You are not acquainted with those beings [compos-. &C. they are masters ancl ali~nsls CHAPrI'EIl S X V I . '' T l ~ i s mail has n. And of the inhabitants of the land the wild animals.r e hare... n recital of vhiclt ~ o 1 7 l d Trery long nild teclious. A Description o tthe Spiritual World. KO act of theirs from Him is hidden: If this man wiU reflect. &C. turtles.Cigris. the brutes. t:hc F-. and many other sub-. the facts of the numerousness of created beings..ind. the Arnbi:. you are mcaware of. If lle could S ~ P the jnhabitants of rLe sea and cjbscrve their rarious forn~sand bodies.he Kile. for example? the Jihoon.nd t o ~ n s bus he described would d s o appear f c ~ Frjr in the n-ho?e .Fromthis it is ~ulderstood that man is master 2nd all animals his slaves. the yellow sea... thousailds of kinds. for He of His power created them all. d h i m sea: the Chinese S:::. and comprehend the mnl-. 21ell: Ocesn.the Cc?. divisions and classes. the sea of J i ~ j n n.+ c . mnnkiad W O U ? ~:IppPXT t o hi!n very fev. -- - . Kithout number.iany.enti~aed the numerC I I S ~ C S Sof n~nnkind and boasts thereof.>i:msea: t h e Red . rircrs CTC ~ tw3 Lul~drcd Iwgcr ones . and the cities n.. &C. the $.000 miles. l the Africm sea: the Snatbers. cf the f ~ n qi~artet-s fifteen I f i r ~ seas-the G!?r aye c cian sea.. titude of the animals it will appear that the num. smdl a11d large ponds. one of the philosophers of t._ a dUcs. in the forest and wilderness. t'anks. bcnsts of prey. f When the frog was relieved from this speech. And these a11 are God's slaves x ~ ~ d ' property.n sez. and gives them food and al~vayskeeps them from every harm. tbe Euphrates! t. .he Genii said. and in then1 fisli. God only knows of thcm or can count them.. . '!C. bers and crowds of mankind do not prove that slaves. the f'ersian Gulf. there are 500 divisions besides sub-divisions. multitnde of men and animals. The remainder: streams and broolcs.

t your race has no place co~nparedwith them.~ ~ : x r d s~isil:g fro11 the.hinge of fvilich you boast. And the heaven of the region of tbe moon is ten times larger than any of the worlds. If you h a r e a~~ytliing more t o say: say on.ed] of spirit and light that have naitght to do with shape. hey are single sl3irits and have no distinction of sex .of the Genii mns reiiercd fro111 this oration. Some of them who $re of angelic race. T11 fact.ers and they slaves. T2len 0 men ! if you SRT their uumbers you vorxld understand'thn. and those who live i n the colder regions are the Geuii and the compnili~ns Lucifer. The animals have given a reply to the i. the second . Gocl shol~ltl alrrays be praised and tla~lfied. you would kuom. that a.]. In shy'. grzvc? : spreading over the trbole earth.t blbiclge: entet-iag heaven ~i of] Firdos the first hcavcn. n trial in the jrtdgl n e ~43ity. To some l i e has made others subject. These single spirits live there.z 1-eplied? '' We Lr~venlore good qualities. " Tell us of them.he Sira. aye statiolled in the highest heavens." He went on-" The Great Godhas proi~~isec? many t .f Aag3.-4xd all these worlds are 611ed with spiritual beings. which means: Xn the seven hczvens there is not a ' spsn of space c m p t s but there allgels stand alld bon and kneel before Eiin in worship. like as the prophet (on whom be blessings and peace) hns said. jr:st 33 I-Ie chose of His perfect wisdom He sent forth His Inws for the govelnment [of all $hings].nd snilllals coaxpared wit. A d that your nun~bersand assemblies do not pluve tEnc you aye masters and a11 are your slaves. cmssjng t.' When the philosophel. they are uncompounded spirits. For the [sitid] cold regions me ten times as exiensive 3s the land and mater. For d are God's ~iaves ! and His army and subjects. which prove that we are rnnst.n kdeminz au rcikedn an skj'edun . the King said to the men. Then of if you thought of t h e numbers of these beings. and they live in the heavens. Ma ylissamci~dtisabe bezuaze shi6l8in illa w a hzinuku naaluk?j." An orl:>torc.h them are as notliir~g." The King snid. and the highest heavens in extent are ten tinles larger than the iomer regions. every vosld as you ascend is in that proportion to the one below [fen times gt*eate>-. The space of a span is not left yacant..

the company of houvies .:.-i::l-i.-. I .:.. fear of the last (lay..the everlasting heavens. and the seventh hell . cD:-. the heaven of repose.ll. enil n.ocl war$.:-i(l .e ~ ~ ? ~ fvjt. .i! live :i.irll t!~. that depend upon Him..i '.cly.nfi: ..~...:: t.~:. iil~s~. Besides a11 these privileges and blessings Ke have other distinctions which we have not related.. ~ n d %L%-..~eis. . . tan C .erii-:!. for mder an:? c:rcr:mst~. o ~ e . the water of charity. ::. afflictions.st judgment being sent t o hell. the severity of the l:. and those that have t%e fear of the Lord.Lza. Eurfenng jn c3.I . the heaven life.:W::.T-! -j:.r i. -4nd if F e be n7ieke:I an< obey Hini n G r ! 7 .. said. has the Great God provided for us.!l:c~] . pizase God.. . For instance. $2Eides .. i>.. thpEtened us -:.-:3fG:.. :!::a .-!2'.:: and neniih t:. . Where are these things procurable by the animals? These are a proof that we are masters and mimals our slaves.-led! L:):--. the fourth hell.e~~:. . r3 S 5y.6 . p ..:.s:. t. the heaven of holy men. . angels of purgatory.. . ~ s i . EZorar.Lsz:. T:-irii i?avia--. " Like ns God has promised you good things. the 6ich hell: the sixth hell.ne~'iorto 11s.~i:.:??ce~ i:-z11 aln~:ys Te exist ? If 73'2 sb. so also has 'I-Te threatened yen with punishment. and m? arz 2:.c. T T C ' ' .Riitpvitb you. drinking of the naters of hell : living iq.8e 3 mile reseix519 the a:g~i!s of GO^. l i! 51.2 v.c>!.J --t o you in z:g~..$z.pnny wilh 3:: . of Iife. .lkii.ly . d..eyiye : 1 prom 2. * . . . paradise... the heaven of peace.... v 1 t (i . tbe secontl hell. that prny t. yaGre p~-~::-z~:l... honey a.ill. r . the third hell. fFr c 3<':.ljoTT on 21. 5.tIlzre ~ lllr.::i: ~ f ~ a.!ise are -. ?.... .-2 ~ .1i z .t: !:at si.. -.elt::e?: t i-t: . ey&rs. npl:s\uted for ~ 7 9 2 . thut -:... ~ o proi~l.. i.upan. crji. ~rophatsand holy :x:I.s ::.he:.. the tree .&-c2 or -:l<--i.us.p"u!>!e TVLDnre ." The representative of the birds.e.h tX : ?.. streams filled wit11 mine. h s e tiL:hL excel all others i l l p(.sa.er. -irLq. v : y h i .ci..A ne. -.. . .besides these that are mentioned in the IIorm. .~' A:. a heaven to live in.. milk.z. ailcl rely upon Him. V ) e 2l. drinking poisons. Him.. c-22 . that devote their live. al~stem:Lous.:ulis ~~~i~. splendid drrellings.1 Hedje3. beillg cast into burning pitch . e 2 -< . the first hell fire. there is the punishment of the grave . the nightingale.. devout. . L si.nearness to God and many more blessings ..aa n r 11..o ITiin.nd water . the esalnination of ilJ.'red11s s11..xvantzgz.:~l::< it: these .-. .

" . l o ~ happy m d enter heaven. 'l THE ESD." A 1 the men reflecting a mo1 ment. Now vhat does the just King decide on behalf of poor mankind whose slaves the animds are ? The I i i n ~ ordered thus :'." On hearing this all the representa. elegant and angelic WZJ~S. &l. KO one v a s able to answer. who have such privileges. intelligent mall said.{'ad lihziliha kdledina . give us a detailed accoant. and never disobey him.Let all the Aniinals reinail1 subject t o and nlider the authority of Mail. and every oue &l took his departure in peace. but is never able to do so completely. " Xom y o ! ~ have come to the point and advanced a substantial prooi: Thcse who boast should boast of such things as those. " 0 just King ! When in your presence the validity of man's claims is established. and it is also fonud tllere is a race among them who are attendants on God. Every speaker and orator is attempting to speak their praise throughout the whole of his life.la!. an. Then the angels mill say to us. such astonishing and high positions that the tongue is at a h u l t to describe-and wisdom itself at a loss t o pe~letrate the secrets of. you mill altogether dissppear. 'Peace be to yon. .just and virtnous qualities. good qualities and virtues of those people who are thus qnalified. But tell us now of the mcnners. ! the animals assented. After the diss~lutioti in this vorld.3 live there for ever. Salcil~ztc alt. And afterwards we shall alwzys live in the company of irou~.' And not a class of animals are there part'akers of these privileges.c. that is. If you can.ies and ghilv?ua. Your name and trace mill be blotted out. But after a nloment a learned.then by the intercession of the prophets our salvaticn mill be nccoi~~~lished : especially through the intercession of the true prophet-the real apostle -t$c chiefof the pr-ophets-the seal of the prophets .kl/:i?z tibLzhn . pleasing manners. kept silent.hc Genii said.tives of the aninzals ail3 philosophers of t.omed Muatah (on whom be blessii~gs and peace)-all our sins will be forgiven.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful