Rasa’il Ikhwan as-Safa

Debate of the Animals
(from the 22nd Epistle)

3 English Translations: Manuel, Dowson & Wall

Antioch Gate
Birmingham, United Kingdom

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"THC RUBY'S s ~ E , "''6ACREn




h. &C. &c.


"The soul, o i origin divine.
God's glorious image, freed from ciay. In Haaven's eternd sphere shall shine A Star of Day! The sun is but a spark of fire, A transient meteor in the sky: The S&!, immortnl as its Sire, Shag never die."-JfonLgomery.







and this also we say from our own consciousness. E e recommends the work solely on its philological merits. the original Arabic is considered a classic. but still true beasts. just as the elephant differs from the slug. methinks. because they excel all other animals. Lees of the Fort William college) has now come into public notice from the fact of its having been fixed us an Oordoo text-book for candidates going up for the Entrance Exaruir~acion of the Calcutta University. 15th July. we are beasts. who after wading through a whole volurne of testimonies (pro & con) at last decides in favor of mankind. How the cbief argument turns can best be elucidated by quoting the following from Coleridge :-"Either we have an immortal soul or we have not. are to be met with in the pages of the Ilchwm-00s-su4a. The in Oordoo version of the same (the best Etlition of which is the one published by Lieut. it max be . With the moral tenets and theological (in its ii~eral sense) doctrines of his author. The work is written in a pure. P. F Hooghly College. We shall only diBer in degree. the Translator dissvoms all concurrence. the first and wisest of beasts. N. or almost all. and the latter maintaining that as they were made the lords of the creation. The disputants at last refer the matter to the king of the genii. a6d not in kind. and declaring that they were not created for man to domineer over them. ' . Therefore. in being endowed with an immortal soul. however. we are not of the same kind as beasts . But by the concession of all the materialists of all the schools. THE Ikhwan-00s-sz~fScl.the former cl?iming equality with the latter. If we have not. Beasts and men argue out the point of their respective superiority. simple and agreeable style: The subject is not very &tractive.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. W. Rhny words not to be found in ordinary story-books. it must be the possession of a soul within that makes the differenoe. they mere fully entitled to exact servitude from those wbo were no better than their servants and slaves." The work is eminently calculated to assist the student in familiarising himself with the Oordoo language. . &l. 1860.

were now t! . In short thsy fixed their abode there. wko gartWlg :ouey W. was choseil to the sovereign of the Genii. The merchauts and men of scienod h y i n g :diiembarked found that the land was - lawns. F e ?me as s u ~ ~ l i a n tk n o e n g tclo well. when they found themselves incouvenienced even here. they assernbled *11 the respectable members of their tribes. aud stood in order even ns the laws of etiquette required." The monarch req1le~t:tedhim t o sgeak more fo the Polut. induced the foreiguers not to thillk of departing. and the ass hitherto exempt from Iabour aud roving the greeu fields at pleasure. and tha weak uuder his protection had nought t o dread from the domineering tyranny of power. XL often happened that the beasts dreading ca w t r had to fly tu dietant recious. ReJe~*ence made to Beoras6 the kiqt. The king. built houses and comroeuced ellsnaring the animals to force service from them. the king passed orders t o surumon men. appeared in the court. they always fled from the beasts and took shelter in caves or on mountains. variegated with every sort. He was the staunchest votary of religion. As they inore:lsed. they bowed low and blessed him.as[. 0 king. When the fatigues of travel had worn off. a8 already meutioued. the temperature was excelleut. seveuty pereona. fl&s c.iai~o. that no one has s. The prophet opened the casket of religion t o a l aud many a Gin also accepted the l. . representatives. The poor found a patron i n him. and styled by may of distinction the king of heroes. Every human being thought that birds and beasts were all their slaves.. The Elephant. :teturned unrequited from your p~v$ence. was not only famous for his justice.C H A P T E R I. of fruits and flowers. . These. and no artifice w~xqleft untried which promised t o bring them i n their poser. a p&losopher. attracted by 'the fame of Your equity and justice. After hearjug the circumsta~>ces of the case. The &. In obedience to the call. fresh and verdant. and be&s were compelied to own the superiority of men by working and carrying their burden for them. i s every side. the camel. b u t men still thinkiug that they were their slaves. $'when we had no precious q u a i n k s u c e with each other even bg means of epistolary correspondence ? has induced YOU t o come so far I" One of the. Ages elapsad after this. and wear atmy their backs in conmade to o stafit service of meu. The bea& fatteued by . Why have you come into my country:' be asked. Thus sometirue past a w q .mid to have drunls water a t the same fouutain.busied themselvesin preparing toils wherewith t o entrap them. aud cities to be founded.yne rich THEY that as long as the human race mere herbage on which they fed. The bir% too mere in the same predicament. Wheu the beasts capx to h o w of this vain presumption. . Turning towards therep~. Fruits and vegetables supplied them with foo& and the leaves of t h e trees afforded them covering.esentativosof mt~nkiod. a man of age and apericucc.-" We came. When they beheld the monarch seated on his throne. retired CO wildernessea . the philosopher. "0 just king. who were standing before him. till 13~0.us6. Thieves and robbers were characters never heard of. the horse. that a ship laden witli men & & i p e n by adverse w b d s t o the shores of this islsnd. nor could they uuite together and engage iu any agricultulrrl pursuit. He was such a just monarch that the iior? aud the goat are . were gsrubolliug on the say few in numbers. L( thc animals who are our slaves refuse dlegiauce t o W a54 those even. jctvel of faith. La winter they resorted to warm climates.m& for the guitlance of ~t last rnllkiad. returned. was his capitnl It. and the hcat of summer drove them again t o seek shelter in cooler regiuns." he began.jered of g i u ~ awho su-)nnlo)zsQ h. de- . the tools and materiah of cultivation lvere brought in use. sent d.w7ilaa philosop/be~. 'fheu forts bgau t o rise.happend once. h spacious house maa litted out for their reception. but renowned likewise for his bravery and genemsity.reaeio?a. aud the Pound. all feam of bensts of prey were removed f m m their uiuds. Not being couvsrmnt with the art of weaving knew not how t o hide the nakedness of t h e ~ rpersons.~ the streams of transparent brightlless meau.t h e king cited them to his presence.md of BitLa Saghaon through which passes the equinoctial line. and laid their complaiutv before Bsol. all remarkable for the fluency of their speech. ~. Assurance they had none. and first consulted the will of God i n ajl his undertakings. his cont~ozev8p with the 6eask. Notwithstauding all their'ories and struggles men continued deaf.

No one granted to each a form which he considered the understands his plan. the hare. Evils t o which our ancestors were strangers. The e ~ heavens be made of fire and water.' Beside.' now from this i t does not appear that he k our master and we his slaves. In obeying us they to t r obey God. and sent them to people t h e worid. several mere csuoht a t last. ~h~~ fed the proboscis instead of the neck is long. were. adapt' a ed o f d has e n limbs to ' God first creatG 0 king ! the words of the ~~.a One of them . Therefore they and men were equal. some their pulled off and some were spitted and rossted.asked " dont you kuow that propriety in In this way all the beasts whether rapagous. He has jeot adapted for some peculiar good. aud oar stature : ears of hares are longj because their b b b ~ being therefore bent. and none but thC prove himself to the task? from all this that the limbs of every creature wise are adapted to his wants. Before man was born we and our parents lay undisturbed on the face of the earth. God h m severally subjected one to that the other . from them. and created all other animals for his use. ~h~ king obselTed.popnlatiou which now abides on the face of the earth. which are purposely made long t o shield him from the attacks Of rapaciouS animals. ~ s not k then what cruelty it was Eurs to endure. -and. Each organ is endowed with a plan and contrary their features were extremely odioua.' Again 'Horses. some had their bones broken. I n elegant. wandered about in wjldernesses. and named him the lord When his race increased. "0king!" he continued.$he Quoran says 'All beasts have been created for you. and creation rose ~ u ~ t a n from sthe abyss of chaos. who has provided man with all sorts of delicacies in this world. Wow happy they. From a drop of water he developed the race of Adam. Then look at the cover good from evil-nay. ears serve them ~ delicate and their skin thin. v e blame him masters.ainS always Open OU account of his derived both their food and raiment. that they fleas and gnats that disturb might easily reach the trees from which they IIlouth Em. that they might save them f ~ O r n hafm> and not tyrannLse Over and persecute them. blessed the camel. he prepared to decide . nor us. whom God sent t o direct mankind. He also made him lord of all created beings. Blessings also on his descendants thron. In finding aud symmetrical that they may be called our fault with our own organization.t~ can be coned objects and then guarded them. he mlde him entirely neck. Refv also to.several other precepts of a Similar bear]% are to be on the pages of the same Holy. now accumulated on our heads. were all made subservient t o them." inquired the king. and if his neck were short. and the to receive the stamp nature tion. lLWhat renson have you for saying so ? Qratuitous assetiions cannot be heard in a court justice.Also for another purpose . thick set horns and no upper teeth . and t. me their slaves. And after all they are not satisfied with m . move fear. The Mule obeyed. ('we I have many grounds. small in stature but l o w eared. these. The coturoversy b d ~ ?nej. snd dlsobying us they~set ~ e i face the Deity. B~ and said X T moment. grazed a t pleasurq and was each individually busy i search of food. or and riaiog is considered princely. '(a t d i creature. the moon. W A God created man. that he may be able to rise from the ground by the strength of his OR t h dtyerenee of featu$*esa d stalures. and aot those symmetrical.o ~ c eof hIs court. and &tigued and hungry. the and planets in their creatures. We.' We deduce in a double sense. " Observe Synlmetricaliu shape." us why the neck of the camel is long " He answered. I n any mse i t is prove that we are their masters. It is incumbent on you to drive them to the fields . the brutes answered : "What a pity me to i t is.He likes hie Own species* Those Creator' avoided extremes.ln making man*the with man. He is wise and all his our limbs as they are. Undisturbed we passed our days in the enjoyment of domesticpeace.( king. their ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . cline €0 admit our superiority. we are subjected to them. Hence i t was .. the philosophers presentn i the ly was called upon to iaterpret the text. that r e may be who has made us. True beauty con~ ~ sistsin making yovrself agreeable to fellow . "the sentences from the Quomn which mm hw reperrtad.ranny. mules and camels. broad ears and small diminutive these gifts 1 and do not these aIone entitle us to eyes. What you consider oneof. Hence n it was . pray tell best for him. that we may graze the better. From him came Eve.IKHWAN-OOS-SUFFA. above beautiful." The hip . but simply enumerate the good things which God has. CHAPTER 111. l - ' ] jwere . If this is not Q. God made Adam from a handful of clay. superiority are not really so. .so it is anaer IcOnatruction. that God has not made men graceful the Creator ! 'We are his creatures. these are our and we their masters . as they imagine. and carry them t o their folds a t the close of -eve. n On mountains and in vallep we lived together and reared our young ones: Thankful to God for what he had given us. 3 . to scan the mysteries elephant. who present before the creation of a n @ . l I • show that we are his suljects and he our sbsolute master. The i the contrary. what answers h%ve you to make ?. straight iu stature. The beasts urged that duce 2" He answered.bestowed upon man. I n the Elephant preserve km from heat and cold.living creature. The words of the text will bear Of another. When an age had past amay thus. and their stature altogether unequal. a?& beasts n eomz7bueU. Hence.f %han ever eeect On another. ~h~~~was no covering on his body to when dsirous of scratching. for whom ever s o n of dehcacy has been provlded by God. do not IKHRAN-00s-SUFFA. away the with the leaves of the trees. Hence i t mae that them Over his month and eyes." The king interposed. W=rn the king heard all the circ. created the first man out of a drop of water. alld remember the bounties of your sod. t o aid them in the acquisition of good aud the removal of harm. and extended the hand of persecution over m. but he. Snares and toas were laid i n . therefore. . The ging remarked C l Asser- The king observed that symmct~-yof shape tions unsupported by proofs cannot be heard in a court of justice. rational and traditional. but before that he ed the cazee l a w . i t would have been difficult for him t o have grazed on the grass of the field." they said. "such buttocks. with a with sense and reason. apd exciting love in the hearts of each mere more other. and thus spoke " Praised be that Holy Being. although the latter may be far better in appearance than the former . and elevated them above the earth. who obedient.7 What my you tothis l He ausrered : ~ htorhis wants. Some were butchered. the air and the clouds. if J-ou are a philosopher among beasts.that God created Adam was an a~~spicious one. H e renounced the word. which enable him to dis. aud removing evil. The beauty and elegance of one species have .they needs muat claim that they are our masters and. <' witbwhat grace and har. to enable them by artifices to become onr masters. The Old and New Testaments are both concurrent in their testimonieg i n support of the proposition. his *hape was heither too nor too short. and ~ a i ~fancy a8 the nlarks of Your quoted.Mankind remarked. and were clad ears are made broader: that he may.denoted man's superiority. w h a t could we d~ 1 If we fled to the deserts we were still pursued. This is the cause of the spread of generaproper houses. by the right we hold over them. that beasts aremade for men." The man said. LLpermit observe.that all *he limb of man came out like the femdes of their o ~ kind. For i t is he who has formed reckoned their slaves. and he i t is who w l prove our il best support in the day of judgment. on tusks.mstances connected with the of allimals. WIWn there neither nor space. not. ~ n d addicted to graaing or flying are disproportionate in shape and 6ze of their limbs:' On hearing deviation from grace denoted slavishuess!' "Heaven preserve the king from all dangers !" this.' In another place it is recorded 'On dry ground and on water ride on camels and sit on boats.$ lessly forward in the path whichleads t o future felic~ty. 5iorses and asses. and reach his lips to allpart@Of his body ~ naked. the contrary. some had their sinews cut.hat who we dark skiuned do not. him+ because his they were mpde straight and tail. Have you any proof to ad. feed on grass. and read the K h w t b a as follows. the ox and buffalo haviug hear away the palm of superiority l" " And tails. both rational and the Creator had avoided extremes in making traditional. some flayed alive.our constant aim was to glorify him. kiu. and through her the. The Inales will a l w a ~ a and to be moulded according t o her viii.-on whom else are conferred all projecting tusks. They answered. elephants. l I CHAPTER 11. 'Lbecause his legs were also long. our track. Turning tow&8 ha observed-u The beasts have detailed the culars connected with the persecution practised .' Once more L Ride on these. He has made every obworks bear testimony to his wisdom. He'answered. that YOU may derive bonefit -from them. one of. These r came forthwith. and doubly wretched they who giving loose reins to their folly deviate from this track." cLMonarch." On hearing this the k ~ n g tu&ed towards the animals and desired them to answer the argaments of theif adversaries. adaptation to perform its individual oEce. eMoses says :ench beast. what have you now to say?" asked the king the thick-tailed sheep with heavy horns and fat addressing the beasts." "What are these. But on the co~~trary."replied the other. and the Bapping on the fruits of the wilderness." The king enquired what these ' them also. that you have not understood the plan of answered one of the beasts.at the b r e d of morn. and made him in his turn father of a large family.long neck and short tail. some their stomachs ripped open. CL ~~d says in the Q 11 have made men extremely well+haped and as covering in winter. asses and mulea are created that YOU may ride on them. what 3" . so that all may join together in promoting good. who by his wonderful power. Here is my authority for what I say: ' Providence has subjected beasts to you in the same way as he has subjected the sun. to whom power is given over laud and water. I n short every moment should be devoted t o the glorification of that being. A member of the fam~ly Abbaas IZaz~ooEak of ascended the pulpit. they of the ee*h. aud clothe yourselves with their skim and hair. a large and wieldy animal with long of heaven.hev nur d subjects.oh whose means religion has been promoted and faith spread. like the fair bodied. AI1praise is due to that gracious God. far saying 80. Blessing8 also be on Mahomed. that on the man. the he-goat with a long beard and no arguments do not make good their claim.Work. over every . 'l yes. that the limbs of the beasts m o n ~ th& CREATOR has moulded the features of were far from being well shaped . entrusted animals to them. it is proper for us. and bed in summer.

and a tied round his loins. and exclaim. . That h e was over-burdened and led hungry a ~ l d thirstv in the d d n e s s of the uight. themselves. rhrough paths which you ~ have often frequeuted before. H e has long legs and the neck. The man who is trnelg wise glories in those qualities nlona whir.dalized at hearing them ." The camel urged that wbeu captured. "You also belong to the gr&iug tribe of animals. You on the contrary afker n short abeuce from home. The mule advanced that his sorrows were the keenest. are apt t o forget mother and sister.and your edmity destitute of foulldation ?" 1 fi CHAPTER TV. in feeding add dressin* in preserving from heat and cdld. You are should not even in R?~iugthat your sense 1s keener than ours. . For iustauce tktke oimel. . fly on the air have their community as wall as JOU~S. Xot cout e ~ l t with this.. and thereby saved big.G& i i both aylY: ' ' 1 In short.-. and be driven about with mouth and eyci closed man aacting hin? with his crud lash. and the fecuuditjf of our breed The Greek Physicians often prepare their ointments mith our lard.. h ? . they behave simi: . it is well knoiv. consider my fleah as very beaeficial food.'a saddle laid on his back.hat he sells them a s slaves. kindness. Besides. . 111 one place it is written in the Koran.. father and brother.d and truth they dcser~ethe ~ --W . he would have oertaiul~pitied me. Upon which. mhen one p r t y is victorious 0t7c. Cmplai& qa. % h a t m a n says. Again : ' Order the Edthful.kin$ desiyed the aaimaIs to answer. without your assi~tance whereas you. including. .was put in his mouth. desired -.' ." When the hog had done speaking the ass looked towards the hare. the camel and t b c leopard.19'~Zj with the Periians. his bead in paths through st. whence they return in the evening . that he feeds on dead bodies also. hriclln . his mouth bridled. '. acquired by honest labour and unremitting exett. is always sure aud steady. aud his feet smarting mith the wouuds which ho receives on the rocks..bters. ?Vho ~ U O W S who are the real slaves ? Superiority and slavery in natiol~s always rotatory. And these wretches never remember for a moment what God and the prophet have said." observed he. you e would nyt have gloried in gifts.rapaCioiia'atibials. mere scar. who has subjected such auimsls to us. and about... You.h. Thus equipped he was led to the fieid of battle. which iuduces them to be considerate to us. Hung-y and thirsty a s he b.were by astrolo~<cal rules. a d the cona sequence is t. When the Permans prevail over the Turks. G~~~~~ aid c-. mally amongst them know this to be right.' As ~ o o n the mule had delivered this speech.~~ . mix i t with their medicines. they sell their' captives to strangers and ?hen the Turks in 'their turn gain tIik day. his feet fettered and he driven on by the goad of the pacsou riding on him. As regards feeding aud other treatmenm. 9 2 T~ king turnink towards mankind.--enforced amongst. Jews hold us i n detestation.. about the huying knd selling 'of animaIs. ib is not kixduess but rather the fear of loosillg u s and our services.'fitndob with the Sindhians. and offer i t as sacrifice to secure reward hmenfter. avoid my sight." Oue of the philosophers remarked'that the hog was uot a grazing animal. . "The Uahomedanq" h e said. you leave an ass or bullock iu a place where he has never been before. "For. Tuiks. eve11 as the ostrich resembles in shape both a bird aud a camel. because they hate both Christians. The ass said that man was in the kzKt of loading him with bricks. Whence then your b ~ i i of tposeessiug lteenncss ~ of sense ? If you had the least ~ e u s in you. I n buying. 'and. yo11r beauty then is not a wTSCG. A third urged that he waa both car~livorousand herbivorous aud partook of the quslities of the OS.ei. Wizards and enchao: ters make use of our. and whom t o . to be pullerl by his drivers. fixed as are i t . that he did not kuov. The horse-asserted that 2. ~ who will my their burderls. Our flcsh is tkeu divided and spitted for the salre of being roasted. and unmercifully the lnah to his back alld abugd him in such a filthy rind obscene mauner. aud never mention my name i n conversation even.' I n another place : All the auirnals that creep on the earth or. Shepherds and Groom keep us in their stalls and atables. the hare expressed himself to the efl'ect.pssseogew.. H e near desired him t o put forth his complaint. the as *cameldesired the hog t o lay his compb~intbefare the impartial justice of the king. 'If you wish to be forgiven forgive others. h o will they ride. i t has often Ilupnelied thab he lies givexi notice to nis meter of the np roach of his eueruy.each his own mother. he wo11ld think that all the wickedness aud ignorance of the world were to be found in them. forbear from eating my flesh. which God has hestowed without any labour on your part. acd abuse and ourse us. treatment. and yet every qother b o w s her oyn young one and the yowg.' And once again : Whenever you ride ou camels. to bear corupauy mith other domestic animds. that her young ollcs were depiived of nondshment to e u n l ~ e nian to f e d his own infaat. the same rules are' . as people held vtaious sorts of opiniorls about him. I rea!ly do not know under these oircurnstai~ces whom to commend.his i t is to pass through dust and gloom. remember the graciousuess of God.' bethe other.' And. his head talks with'the wind. in Secu%ng from the a t t a c h OS . blame. h 0ved00king what is fdse and ii .. his feet fettered. iron. l'lero &re mnny b e a t s who will stand better than you iu comparison. and source of glory to YOU. The horse too c a ~ i henr (from a distance) the soaud of the footsteps of . are .iong. Shoemakers aud those who deal in stockiugs. because he had cloven hoofs and ate grass. The dieep oomplzincd. and stones. through valleysand hilly Iwasagus. in hopes that the L u g may hear hm favollrably.iasb m eo. . he considers the vanquished longillg t the tribe of his enemy. over whom we could ucver have prewiled. aud found him s t a n d i ~ ~ g the camel. highly value the hair which grows 011 our back and neck. Upon this tile hog declared.-11b neck enchained. Tbe elephant declored that he was treated with like cruelties. i as the length of h teeth showed. he had no opportujty to elljoy the society of the females even. The.0 wag.nttared ~~E~~~~ former our and pur&asers. and . If the k i ~ o y y listened to the liceug tions words. man klmws not what compassion is. we are led to the stall of tllc butcher.mman people always bestrid him with their burden. .mhat to speak.burdcr~ are lashed by scourges and sticks. nay. ." The ox represented that he was made to labour iu the field. a1ld ou that account you yourself above US. likely to Iose j . slaughtered witllout mercy. Sheep aud goats hring forth hundreds of young ones in a night. he has. the Arnbs '. release him and his race. that their own daugh. are wd not 8 p ~ .&i%fi--the. The Armeuians regard ua as useful as oseu and goats. and there. and notwithall these.h like manner tkie . &d selling. If the king had seen me in that state. . noly is the Lord. his back ali gored by the joltiug of the saddie. After l l i s " the beasts severally aud iudioidually laid their conlplaints before the king. because our presence proves a safeguard from dangers.have none of these virtses iu you. God himself says 'These proceed turn by turn through ~ges.treating the sick with. In truth.ntinw3. on account of our fatness. and go to pa~turagein the morning. Whence then your glory And is it not true now that your claim is guoundlesq. i and. to grind iu mills.tbea to steak out-if they had aught t o eay. we shorn YOU great considerations erell a8 kings show their shveg. 0 Afahomed ! to overlook the faults of unbelievers.. urged on by his rider who is clad in armour of steel." they remarked. The inhabitants of Room on the contrary. and Romans.whom to complai~l. We altness all these ~ ~ u e l t i e s still r ~ m n i u nud silent. it ofter1 hmppcns. that - CHAPTER V. their wives children. skins in recording their charms." On heayin this tbtie. he cab easily retrace liiv s t e p home. .consider me as cursed. notwithstandirjg a11 ouw cries. Another said that he must be oousidered as an herbivorous auimrl. and receive sword and spear wDuudson his face and swimming instreams of blood. " We a: made t o groan under n the. his nose was bored and a piece of string put througiu it. They wjwered " There yet remain several rcasons to give weight to our assertion. Lf we die.~ud~u~ l&ich you could not move with the glare of torches.

and our superior too. or w d e an attack on the "1 deem i t advisable. B a t a th? beasta should ! l king's palace. The kin@ insisted ou knowing some portion of the h~storS. who tempted Adam uud Eve. they are so mnlevolcnt. and not release them until the beasts be beyond pursuit. Why should we fear replicd.The Lord replied 'I know for vhat bencfit I will create him." The king again referred the matter to his couucil. have given up the practice remarked that if mankind agreed to sell the of visiting popnlons places. whose sway estended over land and matcr: over cities and wiiderncsses. because right. They are also ) .e to him thus : ' 0 hclac~. These or committed a burglary i n his house. It was agun and mouotdns to bc far But still i t is impossible to avoid the evil we asked. One answered of the wise men of the tribe of LESOP. Though made of dust. sothat the and he:rig ccrs." ass desired him to stop. psrticularly favoured by ~ ~ 1 from. l a y oficeis of that pf skkeed. for the best way that we can return thanks for his kindness is to give liberty to those who groan in captivity. and time one on earth on whom every good quality 1s bes.-lLYes. for the moment thou (last.o of the prophets. descendants of Bcch~um. They say. A11 but lzraeel obcyed thc dlmi:!lty. descend on earth. while we have revered thy name and held iL sacred. but app~onchnot youcler treo. One each. and taken to moods beasts who mould pay the price ? A professor from them. O ~ o d next orrlerccl the angels to admit Adan] in Paradise. can they escape?' A liohleman suggested. and the philosophers of the genii. The latter wa5 voung at that time. that i t is written in the Books of the prophets.is no bearer annonnced that i t was evening. depart together on a certaln night. but that tomorrow the diatowed." added the doctor. j The favour of God is not limited t o any. bccame conversant nith their arts andscicnces. stars. he who givcs freedom to another. ~~d has them that man and bcasts had come to him as gimn him light."' FVhen the hare had done speaking. 'If cailed upon the ]ring to justice to them they are entitled to be froe. Ilc alone. The eo~~te>*tio)z tetvlrsit w e r z ujicl giccat~. . sons of ~?cc~v(Ilz. so much so that cnse ullder discllssioh." " He indccd is wise. they will at once come to the conclusion that neither mcn nor beasts buC tIie genii themselves were in the plot. tile bratCs set up a loud homlillg submit it to the philosophers for decision. . for the case was a there was no homing the stars. They far from the abodes of man in the same way-as . and On in lessdegree' Even soon as the business of the day was over. arid daily the propoeitiou 2 They answered.' .*f should draw out a list of their grievances. and -Qter thh. is entlomcd k t h super. but i t he enlightens and complainauts. the Cazee of thc race of and angels ~f any m the blessillos %herciissome slight dcfcct { Bi~gees. Tears rolled avaF.'The plan proposed. that t+ere. "who conciliates foes and remains himclf s a h from the effects of their malevolence. When man mill come to know of their tlight in the morning.. the and them for the Deity himself.for the court to rise. warning they never When he had done speaking. the climate escellent." The genii admitted the truth of these remarks. he orclerell the angels to bow down before dclam. the beasts are co~isideredguiltless. and then beasts will gain freedom. His : gifts are general. largely. shol. that it was t o esperiencc confirms us in the belief that tlley the point and befitting the occasion. but added that men and giants were unturslly and essentially opposed to each other.~. spread strifc and dissension in the world and oppressed the inha1)itant~thereof.' The king asked how t h y l i e d against mel~. made himself the captain of the band.all came. and from whom some good thing. Witnkss the sun and moon. hc I$~n~Liil. but assoc"iatingwith angels hc adoptecl their m:mncrsantI cnstoms. that this advice was entirely opposed toreasoo and in every way impracticable. many \?ill not think him or her. The wise should to revolve for ever. and make the noblemen. The king desirecl him to be more explicit. actnntetl by ignorance and cnvy roEi~sedto bow dowr:. the latter sorely distressed at the cheersthe creation. Oce universnI cry of complaint rosc t o heaven.in their iagratitude all the p ~ s b services rendered { Repentance they know not. they too are j Very important one. They ans~ered." The king pockets. One of tbeph'ilosophers askedaEnt mhy should me fear their displeasure l As cnemics what can they do us I We are fiery in nature. or robbed or imprisoned any one. according to the degree of lustre lentto . all but a doctor of the race of Kywan. man is inspired with heavenly breath and is angelic in nature. The king. The mi. and knew nothing. light and buoyant in body. ~~k~ the snn for instance. thinl:ina it wonld derogate from his dignity b do so. how him to give his opinion upon the of the glorious and bright they are. lHe ' murdered a4roeller. and $ 1 ~ ~ unperceiverl with 1~ mankind who arc made of dust ancl always doomed to walk bolow. when tho Almighty spoke to thc angels saying. tho tribe of Nuheed opined that the beasts d should be kind and generous towards the l>easts.' The angels who mere uilwilliug to part mith the pleasores which they had enjoyed hcre. &c. " V h a t do you say ' ' answered. 6 No one i s blessed with all virtnes. "Where will the kiog bring all the moucy shem. He is more artful than me. Upou which the sago thus began. woman or child is &aicted d!& gpeiv. perior creatures are not exempt from some slight ! the for his minister BedaT. sul. and I wiil reoal you b hearen." ':True.' The kiug again dcsired his councillors to gioe thcir opiuion. and desired depreciation. the rnaceby us. was some nations in their' ignorance. H" asked how he wi9 to dccidc the case. and retire All these vices disgrace man himself. the lam 0%from being eclipsed. or then asked. they are surkto ascribe i t to the cir. Hence man. even as the giants did.ld render thanks to CJ. j of religion replicd. Izraecl and Satan. They all approved of the proposal. and passccl such orders as suited hi& best. If men disobey.that neither one nor the other is God. creator. religion t a s sent to cheer them. He proceeded thus. God was bountiful to thern . V e can mine our flight to heaven.. nor to involve thyself in the tempting vanities of the world but to hear the cry of the distressed and relieve them even as 1 do with the atheists too. and yet they arenlay jI a llot advised him to send for the Cuaees. have mistaken and prudent man. the dccr and other* fly from the haunts of the 1 l 1 I 1 l 1 1 1 I i." l' And then. turned a deaf car to the preachin. refer the matter to them . even giants. ancea.listcr. The grouud fertile. Eot the^ deviated from tine path of rectitude.is not putauts should appear again. wise added to them. and other respschad kill& man. or broken a lock. ctThe king". the take. bcfore Bdam mns ereatecl. and who were present md iuqLIired if they attentively heard the beasts had said declared free. was a garden bound on the east by monntains of rubies which are iaacccssible to man. and apprehend all thc guards who match over them. I will kcep neither giants nor beasts on earth. '. that the king should order the genii to open all the doom of the stalls. mgillg. ' You will create one who will fill the earth with strifc and bloodshed. his minister. mere among the pnsoners. or tarn his sleeves. but no one has them.f a r ': with The kiug desired to know tha particulars of the battle. the earth was inhabited Lg giants. The moment this was done the Almighty spal. the ox went on thop. thereby to the will of a do nothing mithout advice. UEAPTER VII. it is in fact . which was appointed as the rcsidonce of Adam.su~~y." said the king "they mill. imprisor~ed several of them. In ancient times rncn and giants have contended with results which fill us . the Cazee and law and free them from the ncrsccuting tyraillzp of 0f6ccr should Pass an order preventing man man. and prophets to teach them right from prong. 'L King" he continued 'L The %?ill reap large benefits from this kindncss . SO thou shalt bo considered a sinner. One of the are tlic most notorious of ". and are not in want of money. from the h C t of their clarkened. lesr~>cdpersons. or table people cannot manage without convep ever h a r d that a wo~mcled him.now then. An age passed away thus. on whom will they place thcir burdens. So do also the moon and f persecution practised on them by the former. In short when God made Adam and breathed his spirit into him. "Ix days of yorc.gEiilosophcrs equal n men OF the tribe of BmZer. 0 king ! is impracticable. the children of the am had said this. me consult mauy me a t where befoze the efhlgeuce of the stm. They always pray for protection of selling animals for they are very servlceablc t o from the power of the wiauts . aud I sxear by mpszif that after Adam and his ray. that God expressed himself thus :-'I have mjde thee a king on the face of the earth. Will any Ous discase. The doctor returned that they were too long for narration. The king turner1 tokards tllcphilosopht?w $0" capturing nnd selling them. '[they will regret the loss thcy have suffered and hold the genii as their Litterest enemy. is blessetl than anothel.c Obedient to thc call. that whenever a from 2" Thc professor returned "From his treamm. is sure t o bo assisted by God ." said s philosopher. 1 : rapacious mimale. and sentriesplacedover them for guard. but they lose their luscm required.scqnently making Eve out of him. noblemen did not approve of t h e decision. others partake of the good things conferred on The Icing opened the dicourse by inforn1ing Km. answered. ~~d alone is w h e~f f 0 -B"Jp. expefienced men.yrants . brit there was no diminution in their oppressious tiil at last God sent a body of angels who drovz off the giants.~h~ name h o ~ good b genii.continualiy plot mischief against each other.2 all the wealth in the treasi~rysnffice for his eumsknce of our shadow having been cast upon { purpose ? And besides this.live here togethcr with thy wife. andcounsel was certainly In the same way who i l l the bright and luminous. Accordingly the king that they are creatures ordered that all his courticrs should be sent for.' This Paradise. for this reason-mhen mankind mill rise in the morning and miss the auimah and come to know that thcy have a11 taken to flight. and eat whatever frnit thou lilcost."You these ?" The Kywany pl~lsophcr have misrepresented the case.*' The nobleman again observed. and livcd and rulecl in their stead. Severn1 bcasts are kept confined iu their pens and stalls. last come t o a decisive point. who declared that the matter was a delicate one. ' I mill make one lord of the esrth who is no6 of you. not for the purpose of accnmalating wealth. and know. . and the proposition last made if carried out modcl be fraught mith dangers. and their rancour for you will be retloubled. or cut his therefore will not obey the order. But on some h e has bestowed i CHAPTER VI. that very night. mithheld. or deprived him of his ~ ! ~ t h e s . and t o escape from them. ancl who willserve them for the purposes of riding? Under thcse circumstances they will not be able to pursue them.

and whewver they remembered the trick ph:yed on at pr. may even reqliiye the deed of and agreeabout us . What shall we do thcn?" Another 1000 years. they failed. fcd on the ! t o the age of Abraham they remained in peace.8 IKIl \\'AN-00s-SUPW the pcrp2taal aboLlc of spring.'And if the Vueeor be nsked. inquired one of the members. they asstmd mankind that ) iuferiors. and they should be called next morning and desired ( the sale proceeds paid to man. and giauts were shut up in glass cases.from heaven. telms with colrtil~ue be in frien[U~ them Satan. for they are sure to be held and cumstances of no one remain unnltered for a responsible for their deeds on the day of judgIf the king will length of time . 'God has son of David could have gone.the giants submitted to him. " what then l" <'We rl. SPhen the When God granted the kingdom of the \vhole angels mere asked to desiguatc these severally. Re ans%'ered-" The has of the mals have perjured themselves. Kiugs are the captains exercise patience.but wheu Kimrod cast B b r a h ~ m eL1from the toils of cultivcrtiig. but still not relincing the angels that they (the u ~ g e l s vcrc their quishing their pride.princess to him. the giants knew nothing Assuming therefore the looks of a grave adviser. such m the Arabs descend. . well." replied a fourth. and he trusts u. the flint.and of sow. . Izi those days sent the prophet Esdras tllat peace was made their waving ringlets descended to the feet and . they wandered through the garden. and if the ~azee would desire us nion is iu our favour. When was some days passed away. were the inhabitants of splitting in the coustruction of the law. H e bowed down hetrees. The kin0 desired greltter ceheaveuly garments which had clothed their bo. and ivere wondering \\.throue stunned Solonm)a. Freely the time of the second deir~ge. answered. they will not concur with the to decide their quarrels. them in bondage. the giants were again til~uncd.v. and they our slaves. and YOU will liye happy Solomon." The others observed have evidence tothe contrary in our possession:' that this too could be managed. Strife is like fire. shall then pass orders. habitable earth to Solomon the son of David. and mid.fore. ds<f Bi~hhym who kngw a powt. exempt.and eqt~ity earth." A nother said-"If the king tisfied with the result of our ~rbitrafion O" Right council" answered the Uoctm '' is t h e consults the Cazee and the law officers.me~~t w. to mh~ch sixth retrimeda ~~t if the caiee cluestion the for justice. so lived they. When Moscs God had also cou. heighten their native grace aud elegance." retorted the not yet decided." But. verdure. fruiis. . "Thnt it was emyeno@. by giving the power came to kllow that their ho=t of pro~nosiiatiou of speech to you. As the beusts i Joseph was tllrown by his brethren into the lived in safety sud traliquillity.W h w Nakomed giants came aud associated with them.000 ycars.became Mahomedans.lot known whether maukind are TLcy nlutual!y became the frieuds of each other t o be i!ljurcd. who taught them ~lature. Re determined to try by all lllealls able to read the future wh$h mankind could not. a slight doureur would beasts.sell the animals and receive their pricea: then? recome by avarice they mill commence hair. into the fire. '' But if the Ccme orders the beasts t o be liberated. what will he say ?" quire. several tbf the giants followed h &reci the ~ t of digging and ploughing. to dren of Israel did thcirs from the tyranny of help the weak. l' I would 'L We do not know what Wese 'mill advise" consay that all these papers mere drowned in the tinued a fourth. we s' say. and over.~h~~~ =ho. if YOU will but eat tbc fruit was all false and hoilow. They professed that they mere heart of Satan. The cir. A t last God had proclaimed himself their guide. We shall be ruiued if me sell tbe beasts!' Those only fear is. But the tbml>-Those pvho were U we noblemen. n a e d Adoos. They came to served both to cover their riakeclncss and 1 h o r n what religion was. thereby convirl.j lerity. they may plead in f a m w of our T H ~ E was holding a coancil in the the king . thcm how it was possible to approach angelic and seat his angels to them. Charms and iucantations mcre therefore tried. are the latter to be consigned to perpe.000 or iu one day. At tbat instant the rise from h j i seat. how are we r hie councillors. when once slaves and thus obtain freedom for them. the Cazee and ono of them ' l ~f we are ordered tz the law Officer could be bribed also. and showed compassion on them. sent an army i~fter them to b r b ~ g them back. even as the king is the defender of the Faith." Suppose that the G a z e calls were consulting amongst tbemseives. and m&~ontiuuallyfor their folly.and to preserve the strict maintenance of law on aecution of N. to give refuge to the oppressed. "that we are tbeir . in giants had a hand In instigating the lattcr to .'fiuee a d dehcendtlllts of the former imagined that hhe j do not renew dissensious. not they who sue should spoil the case. arid did i t too. but weknowthat the king'sopieneral deluge. mankind also &viding them. and came t h ~ y were prevented from going to heaven. as they are the a4 such their and ~ e r h a p s will not show himself t0morYow.. aud that now thereroyal Chambers.' A fifth f take our oaths. said another. your knowledge and exceflcuce nicated the illtelligence of the Queen of Sheha to will be incrmed. how we manage ?" danger attending this!' The others enquired ~ We shallhs y that the ani~ ~ t ~ ~ whatthBt -as. and over. The . L' t t the minister but meut. and they had nothing -left but to j ngrecd to do it. Pharoah. to speak out the cause of their grievances.of brewing and bakit~g. the of lneuofcannotbeasts. they weeping alld mourn. he debircd to 1:llow which of the gjauts and peaceful without knowing what death is. These we can never changed.views of each other. aud they fouud themselves in a plaoe accomplishing this o\~jectmere recorded in a where there were ueither fiviis uor Icarcs. and lived in concord to even after that. The trees are clothed witb already existed between mankind and the giauts. Either . t h a t he was afraid lest the 6 * w r . but man did not." One of the counse. Then it was that the head. and they b k e their that they easily win over the minister .' hlan was deluded. even from ! 1 1 / - . " The Caaee is one of the represeutaIn sooth the condition of no one remains un. the Cazee may urge that evikiug is inclinecl towards us?" Another answered. )Then their ram illcreased the for the use of inspired writers." One of them said :-'l wheel they go on revolving. dence be relied " We can see the king is evidently embarrassed. '' Supposc then. but there is a Rere not our sbkves. they became suspicio~~s the of When the doctor hadspoken thus. aud passed their time in cordial civility . 31ankind theu glolified YOU above others. or they wi?! order that they should not be persecuted. a$ giants knew that rnaukind were their superiors. G Perhaps tomorrow he will consult the minister H. but can you guess how the former querist.munioated the names of 3 1 cume into the world a second tnicc wns made. to such dishono~lruble practices. of the occurrence. . Heaven save us. This glass bottles. the heat of the sun beaame unbearable.anhan 'l f ancient masters.l. B ~ i this only ael-ved to fa1 the f l m e j SoIomon had gained the throne only through t of jealousy. I answered. and that me Ca~e and the lam &cer. '1 coun. '' I know what men ard gifted with eloqnence. and send them back sa. When Solomou died. but Several of the giants .to and come back t pnd grindiug.. observed a third. tullaht them how to cut trees nod ljuild houscs end said it is . will not denizens of woods.here the he approached him one day. and Eve fired together happy. which was already kindled in the their msiataace. r'Times alwny~chanze.tives of the prophet on earth.once in a ask the Cazee to decide.dominions of the king it is incumbent on him tual bondage 1" The Doctor answered they should to protect and aid them.'' replied another. I t is watered i do the deed This increased the ill-mill which by several streams. o p i ~ ~ i owill be as foilows :-they I n haste there is mischief. The beasts heard of them They were much ashamed of their vaunts and disgrace and their sight-becamc hateful to tbein. forgave them their sin. hy his means betwcen them. Solmtoa They therefore renonnmd their companionship. cc when the king mill leave this matter to these have come as complainants . do this. I shall nnswer. a s the occasion mill re. expressed himself ready to come by temptation. t h e i ~ n will direct daughter of deliberation and mature rdection. The sight of the cover their nakedness with the leaves of the j .-where will we get these from l" This " N the philosophers a d dact0~3. even as the chil. retired with infamy dogging their flight. aud drill k water from the streams. of cuttir~g tion and wcre able to travel . their colour changed. " You have heard what has t i o n ~ " a fifth returned.Clbrist came and iuvited all to the true faith. cooking mankind again suspected that the giants had and waving and a11 the other cares whlch weigh j taught them how to make a sling.000 or 360. fL We will adduce the between us and our slaves The ewe is testimony of our friel>ds. One of them. The conszdmlian atao. They of God on earth.rity granted them to administer justice. animals are harn~less. The and persians. ~ u d Thc mlgcls were ordered to drive them out from devised several schemes to coufine them in Paradise and to cast them below the hill. who are wiser than the rest. that the former that ae the beasts have sought shelter in the prevail .I the son of Hywan. The charms which he used in was done.lers observed that ." asked a third. \Vhcn the hoopoe commaof yonder tree. the birds' s~veettone amulets were brought into use. Thus book wt~ich published after his death. he will pasa one of these orders. i t is optional for us to free them or keep selves into committees of 70 individuals each. and the rksnlt mill be endless contradictions.lg held IrtaqakilL& 1 1 I the time of our ancestors.One of I for documents and witnesses to prove our asserthe members spoke." depositions are valueless in a court of judicature. doay a fact are to be sworn. like the circumference of a ment. and forests. They lost the waving honours of their fore God aud praised him. alenccd all. or God wishes to be their guide. raised his handancl broke 1 undertake the task before he (Solomor~)could and ate the forbidden Fruit. " he will plead beasts are not. 1 the plants and anlmals to him." The king said to the phiIosopher '$You see party. flDnrcl3 va<egate aud cheer the scene. when once atruck out it is slficieot 1 1I 1 1 1 / t o consume a morld. I am of opinion that that the beasts should be liberated or sold. z"J&~ will never do. he ginlts to& W b n Abel mm olain by Cain the towards the giants and mid. and on. They have rank and authowill at last gain thcir freedom. grinding. bringing information tlierefrom and dremmg.f ul charm dies M 1 of. sel you. I t was only when-God long their melodies in the leafy groves." observed one of the me provoke the enmity of creatures like these." " I t is true what yoa speak. which may be compared to 30. or in 1200 or 36.' was strong ellough to bring the throne of that Then the cursed creature swore and said." i 1 8 1 i 1 r CHAPTER VIII. that those who remarked. aud the tribe of David from the per. So also when heavy on their dcscendauts now. with which he mill ay. tiU an Arabian observed.?buc?~adnezn~ so on. frt~itsare plentiful and every sort of I and they viahed to pxrt cornpany with the latter. of fraud and artifice to mark tho fall uf man.

ye shall inherit t h e tion. who peacock. from ~ h o m had Our be. ' l But what treatment do they rec&e from men 1" '' Why. I he gaics the f freedom of any city. moued all the winged race. The bear complied thus. You have never done any s ecial rirtuous deed. I say unto you. w5ich beoamo so 1 h ~ v e plentiful that it was thrown on the street3 and them and argue tbc point with them. bark at-tliegn. and exclaimed "Really there no help we but in God the merciful." anated. and truth supported by elowhat the reason was. he should not make up his residence there .-"When Gain i had killed Abel. including camels. ~ h z n e v e rthey . a fowl. aud better opportunity of purloining. and afflicted with the we to proceed 1" One of them returned. and come supported by t h e aide of declared that he was ready to offer an explanarhetoric t o me." returned the bear. vas then asked mere thus tempted to relinquish their own tribe. and other sovereigu of t b feathered tribe. j aud the most competent for such a task. by making the animals your subjects . with what sycophancy they shake their head and wag their tail until they receive the refuse they pray for. and all the other edibles used by men. And what would be life after this 1 Death .best speaker amongst them all. who mere in favour of the proposition enqllired what. The bear answered.' Mankind too are their nature and principles. lest anather may snatch the covctcd morsel. me shall be deprived of all. and apprise his master of all what he had seen and heard.in a word. mules. but the bear. acid ol US t o liberty. Yes. "they are bctter fed: they have easier access both to their bed and board. blessed with a retentiva memory. the Latter sumdomestic nnimal~. Besides these. to Uogs feed on everything. woman or child. Re t o aid bnd a s i d him. as if determined t o tear them to pieces. and took complaint against m m in the court of the &way all the wealth." The king enquired if there was anr other animal besides the dog who was on friendly terms with man. But the dogs bear no good will to . cattle. because a emissary is free to n deliver his errand without any restmint. harm m there in doing so. They never allow other beasts to infor the rapacious animals. RThenevcrthe dogs see them. m d are covcrcd with flesh as we are. and he knew not how h e may be propitiated and order our release.your majesty pleases pithno@which they r e l i ~ h dso much. All these vices are to be found in men also. they do not to devise a plan which i d 1 ultimately lead leave vegetables and fruits. They returned : We will be exposed to a great deal OF inconc veaience. X opinion was the fittest person to be honoured 16th such a post ?-He answered." The said-" If you heard our aisputes? thus opened the speech of proceed to your tilhe and solli>dtheir opinion. that there is nothing disasiroua to the inwest of a soverejgn a s to find his Friends and assistatlts abandonlug / I Ij over Absl. and devour them : and the cats in their turn smell and puff at sight of lion expressed his repet a t healsing these vorda. oil. &' You have may prove successful. a j vade the village. was the signal for the beasts to repair to their '' May God reward the leopard far what he says." The thoroughfares. do so. for which they are puuished in this way. who i n his CIIAPTER I . No king should decide them in our destruction!' The king enquired any case unheard." answered the bear. They are the best friends of men. but that there were and urge our complaints on him. and feel pain equally.see a bit of bread or meat in the hand of a man. bread and d E . that they may the samo tribe are exempted from these vices. How are slaves of covetousness. matter t o the jackal aud called for his vote. He should also exert his best endeavours to promote the good of those whom he represeuta. from the vanqnished. in houes of shariitg the answered-" Whomever . wild as well as Cc. They are also the whelming torrent of their elocution. on flesh forbidden conjointly aid u s by their endeavoura. This they lifb up with every sign of cringing in all haste possible. The these He is already somewhat in our favour. I by chance a fox or a wolf cnters a f fourth for the torraceous animals. Milk. a third for the beasts of prey. they rush at them. " 'Bey too. because they have lives too. and act u t o the instruction he p theu receives. " Send same curse of parsimony." The king asked the reason. If you wish t o show hilldness to them. a second for the wmged tribe. and never allow temptation t o precipitate Mm headlong." The king desired him to repcat. and never think of exceeding and abusing the authority entrusted to him. and they have not been guilty of any particular crrme. attracting cats and dogs. never ente~tain the idea of releasing the beasts. then. They revelled in domesticated. and s i x ambassadors mere nomiOther animals do not feed on these. In company spoke thus : with the friends whom ihey invited. we shall surely be able and unforbidden." The beasts approved of this butter. hence i t is that dogs have aba~ldoned their owntribe. for the purpose of holding con. and aid cojzs we bring forward. if you will deprive another of his right. i CHAPTEE L and eventually succeed in drivinw them off. on your return you shall certainly be remunerwhat i s to be done ?" Tomorrow morning. hence these endless strifes amongst them. asses.&ning and in whom we mill have our ead !" Often did he repeat these ~ ~ r duntil the bear s . ter demanded the price of blood froln those THEY second ambaesador Lad todied his bhe of the former." replied the shaggy speaker. ( who waa the . that they aided men and quenee always proves irresisbable.mould be preferable.XI. who was the Vaseer. They too are cursed mith the same spirit of covetousness. but return as soon as possible. The king Mankind assert t h a t they are the greedy lust of their palates." After this he enquired from the leopard.the supreme masters of all the birds . h e s . Covetousness is their curse. '<the case is yet t o be decided . the cat too is much attached to them. None says. a fifth for the habltated part of a village by night to purloin reptiles. and besides the masters of declamation. honey clarified from the Lord. " Z shall appear before the K~ng servact of his majesty.THE leopard asked the iiou what qualities were necessary for an ambassador ? The other ansaercd. meat and covering. and he to manage t ansmered-" king enquired who worst The dogs are our were H e is bound by duty to attend to all the p o and rs foes. t i ~ cohabit with him.them." The Line questioned. ' l have a nab r a 1 fcl10w. property.'l The to a~poiut. -- 1 1/ 1 .hence summoned you all to go and confront gorged themselves with meat. For this also they connive in the apprehension of other rapacious animals. and grant that his view& sultation amongst thenrselves. and relish the food liked by man. He answered-" I do not grieve at their secession : but it pains me t o remember that philosophers have declared. and associate rpith man. to present themselves before himaftluence and sacrificed other beasts t q satisfy They came iu cnuntless ntimbers." The wolf represented that he was a swered a second. to associate with the human race.-'ye." own quarters. raw as wcll as cooked. " Men and dogs are in f pains and torments o Bell. the dogs pwsue them with fierce violence. they orer. Perhaps several enemies of his race. The bear answered."The lion referred the THE retirement of the king from his council. far as eating as arguments will be borne down before the overand drinking are concerned. who thren. from tne heights of integrity and incorruptibility. lest they should consume all provlsions. Other animals of to rll the beasts and desire them to despatch their pleaders and o~xtors us. uutil the sons of Cain prevailed.answered the jackal. Those who live io the. and I a m afraid our latter enjoy several ad~antages. cities will not be mempt from these troul>les. The monarch desjred him to do 80. \Then many friends assemble. and there is no one who can oppose His will. l' He shouid be a wise aud prudent person. proposition. nor even nated fur t h e purpose abovementioned : one covet them. He should omit nothing through fear or favour. a mouse or a piece of bread. m l . The prophet deserted the cause of their brethren. and a sixth for the aquatic race. The king desired him t o give a faithful oersiou of the story. Of course all assistance comes ik and sweet-meats.feeling with the human race. The seeds of strife *re thus sown. the descendants of the lab CH hPTER. could not help but ask of his mtjcstg what it was that made him sorromful at hearl?g of the separation of the canine 2nd feline tribes from their own races. It appears then that HE is the Lord and master of 011. for which God has rewnrjed gon. elldowed with eloqnence. and the power of retaining secrets in his own breast. one of them. ('The brothers Coaasltation held amangst a n i d & of IGzlEiZa and Dam~~a. salted as well as unsaitcd. who hear enmity against your brecould answer the question.

' The pigeon who stands yonder. JIorzliuy alld evening she repeats her prayers.' This is the partridge mhich always moves gracefully in gardens and p-oves. and rirlgs the sikot~ldbe s e n t -----. and save us from uischiefs made the green branches bow t o and kiss the of ali living tribes. approached to carry his intent into ' Blessed is the name of the Lord of might and execution. How he E followers on towering elephants." he continued. the swallow. both go. grasshoppers.wisest to be seut to reason with man. and * . but with the aid of Heaven we have always overcame them. At his bidding t h e shadowy exhalatlons rise from the ground to regulate the seasons .Ihave trwersed every re. ou whose will depend life and death. acts as guide.' After this she adds ' Preserve us. his bounty descends on all. Be thou. and asH rule. remember what the world is. and with it retribution. The king opened the council 11y explailiing the case t o thcm. my friends. twice during the night. nor sigh for the joys of heaven ? Are you not thankful to God for all his bounties bestowed on you ? Know you not that the world will soon pass away 2 Prepsre then for eternity.(Ye who weaken the foundation of hfe.' Here staods the Crane. who has fixed the mountains and given motion to the streams . who r$ued publicly. but 1 think the bulbill has a larger share travelling from one clime to another. passes his time in t:&. then you will iuherit hap iness and escape ete~unl perdition." continued t h e speaker the days of yore." Tne leader of the hornets expressed himself ready t o go as a representative.-.' thus he preaches. ('Instature they are much higher. body variegated.d'aud evil.~ poi. moths. i t was.~ . that he had no regard for any created being. ' I grieve a t the absence of friends and long intensely to meet them. therefore. when every dced will have its retribution. oh monarch. mituessi~lg of these gifts. and if you wish to avoid hell and its penal fires. the ostrich. In proof of wbat I say.--n -. alights on corn heaps and gives vent t o melody.the names of all the birds. who preaches every morning. long-necked. and wished to kuotr who was best fitted among them to represent his tribe. At his biddiug the firmament stands on unshakable pillars. and continually blesses the Lord. the best warblers of the grove bow down -and pay obeisance to him. and warm ones in winter. who enlivens the bones which are laid to decompose in the grave. sshrtlegged. 0 Lord. white-winged. my director. hornets. which I have brouzht from the land of Shebq'which is now goPeFned by a womau whose grandeur and magnificence i t is impossible for the tongue to describe. ! 'Be wise. " I will give you a piece of information. standing on a hillock. freedom. Never lose your trust in God !' And when he invokes. weak. ' Holy is he who has created the ocean aud the earth. p r v plaints before the sovcreigu of the reptiles. exalted throne. Blessed is he who hag broilght the sexes together. I t h would be me11 for you to treasure up such . as well as of the guats and locusts. and declared that the wonders of the earth which he had seen were never dreamt of by Solomon even. thnt of the flies.-. there lived a great and mighty sovereign named Kimrod. misconstrue the meaning of adoration. and gladden my eyes with a sight of the friends I love. ths planets revolve. mounts on high. wlio wakes to watch. They know not God The sun they worship. But what happened 1 9 1 old. carries letters and missives to distant lands. who 11ves a life of abste.and praises God sayiug.' After this she adds. where will you or can you stop ? If you sigh for. calling on all idlers to wake from their dreams of rest.' Don't give way to indolence. and descending. who informed Solomon of the kingdom of Shebn. All are well qualified by are not yet revealed to man. populate cities and exaIt yourself in the pride of your hearts." answered the leader of the gnats. possess mcre strength. Be mindful that the awft~l is drawday ing nigh. that mercie~may be shows ered fourfold on u . and lie down in the grave ~ i t the worms for your companions. 6 t h what does the glory of man consist?" The ambassador retdrned. his favor down such a shower of stones on them thnt he grudges to none. the spy of solomon. the esble crow. Whenever he sings.ions. the lightnings flash and the thunder growls. who ciirnbs half the may to Heaven iu hia flight. Indeed he gunts. The Take the miming now.. to encourage procreation! Here amin is the bitteru who walks on dl-y ground and Pnhabits the woods. . the waterfowl: the Persian nightingale. whereas h e is but a particle of the immensity of His light. I t was then that the Almighty sent mercy! Hidden from the view of the world or r fligknt of birds over their heads. yct nimblc in motion. and fruits from all temptat.' Sometimes he changes his they all perished like !eaves e a t w up by the straiu :-'How delightful was that season when worms. and exclaims. the wag-tail. and has thus multipIied the races on earth. '. and.' g ~ o u u d Upon this the kiuo of the birds asked '~ Yonder againis the foreteller of the secrets the Peacock whom hc couzdered thc best and of fate. 'Pure is the Creator of heaven and earth'. she cries. he prays thus c-: 0 Lord. aud it is my opiuiou that he the mlrnuers and custorns of each. the nightingale. and insignifi-1 cant member of my tribe ended all his greatness and laid hi^ magnificence in the dust. "Know then. who has showered his bounty so plentifully ou us. an? exerts the powers of harmony to gloe marnlng to the thou~l~tless. contrire to lord over the byte creation." Rere behold the &ridge. why do you all offer yourselves as carididates for this onerous post ?"-"Oh king. aud all the good things of the world are to be found in her court. and every other insaot which lives but for a year presented itself. The king was takeu by surprise. "The hird whn nits i a variegated dress is the boo--* . and from carnivorous habits and appetites of man and wolves. hlorn and even he says. migrates iuto far distant muntries. and flushed exercises the porvsrs of melody and singswith pride. the sparrow. Manj a tyrant has ruled ere this . the partridge. tbil~kof the hour of denh. this ruighty potentate passed an order directing that all his subjects should be b~mmoned. gewgaws of life better than the glories of WEENthe third ambassador had laid hi8 cornHeaven? flying from a d . and not knowing Eim who has created the heaven and earth and all things visible and invisible. preserve me from the rapacious animals.' thus ring his notes. '' we all hope for the assistance of God. the rain descends in genial showers to freshen the earth. She sits on a high. and who is master and sovereign of everything that esists.-. and speaking thus:--$Thank the Lord for all his mercies. Ali" miouslless and is conversant wit11 matters that returned that bird. 'c Without considering the matter in all its bearings. gion. mere all over-zealous to do the same. for which purpose he placed his small in size. 0 God ! and lead me srvfe to my - -G.-. - - a" / haunts of men. Aomercts bloomed in the parterre. and inculcates with beat of wings the followiug instrudion to his neighbours :-4 Arouse ye. ye who plant gardens. $c. bow down in worship before the sun. 'Holy is that God who has created every animal. thoughts from today. be uot fkariess. ' and remember the Lard. The minister returned. loves cool houses in summer. who has clothcd them mith ihe robes of being. This is the cock crowncd with his ruddy crest. the crane. and mith t h a t aaaistance we are confident me will remove every d~fficultyand prevail over cur opponents. that Z may once more revisit my native land. He. death i s approaching fast. and consider it to be the true God. They unanimously enquired. Know yon not how God is glorious and the tongue of man acknowledges treated those who presumed to equal him in its im tence to praise him as he ouglit to be might? Their chief attempted t o destroy thc p r a i s e 6 On y o ~ ~ d rbraoch sits the bulbnl.-notes of slarm into thc ears of the neghgent. who guides and assists travellers." The king requested of him to point to him each. . the cock. have seen many l~ations and have now returned home. r house o God. the heron. and we can adduce proofs in support of what we say"-The king was willing to hear the dctails. who is the Creatur of dl. the pigeon.the blessing of Heaven. all these are present. so that he may be able to judge of the nature and qualifications of each: and find out who was the most deserving. Bat her people have all gone astray. saying. Dread you not the pains of hell. the dove. and misled bp Satan. aud plead its case with man. his stature bent by repeatedly kneeling and bowing down. musquitoes. The peacock answered-"The lap-wing. the lark. the turtle-dove. the son of David. He preaches virtue and prevents ill. the dnck. Ply from the vanities of life and forget uot your Creator for a single moment. He retuembers their powers of eloquence to undertaice thc hi God every moment. wonderful is he. who like a preacher pouriug forth wholesome counscls from the pulpit.*uud the're brings forth and nourishes her youug. have recourse to devotion and abstemiousness. fleas. when you will have to bid adieo to all pleasures and frivolities. who was so vaiu of his grandeur and power. -~~ destination. Do you vtxlne thc I CHAPTER XII.' '&is again is t h e lark. .

relieves the poor and then was carried on by mankind in reference to' their pours out his sou1. and re. Him." he said that Imap overcome my enemies." he themselves endowed with reason. however. . his travelling traps being ready. laugh at yon. ed to destruction by nnfavorable winds.-"1 go.. A moment's senar~tinn . justice and fair plny. if we penetrate through my foes. for his devotinu. The kinp referred the matter to the fish. Thirst I cannot bear. the members of his tnbe. 11) fact whatever I do. which cousiats iu worshipping God grace of God hope to succeed. wherean the owl lives in their man glorying ! abode% nay.shun him. " ?%at is true" observed the respect and civility. "How." The king falcon. Knowing then too well that all con. cattle.eloquence for the task." he replied. copper. They place the yoke on the shoulders of their indefatigable. The king statcd of heart. popolnting oceans. swift in nlnning. who have talons and bills formed t o destroy " Pray with purity of illtention and clearness their PreYv attended the call. and contentment. white in color." double-necked. harn." L'This is all right. that I should not loses all forbearance. although stronger than they.S ~ W U ~ Ha is also patient and can wait long for treme West to the farthest East. dolphins.The monarch did as desired. The owl dor soyereigll of Raptorial Kfds. I as meii ss in water. h htrild and promote the interests of commerce matter t o the crocodile. It is advisable. mnnliiod" he returned." returned the messenger. . long-mouthed. the owl and all other carnivorous birds.. moreover.their cultivatioll~ aud all the the king. the memhers of his body lose of adcicut ki~lgqdead and gone. and dripping with impilrities. they will become o his gauzc and curtains. and never turn their thonghis to t h e cause of my brute brethren. he he. ' Send the paro uet" he replied. our ready assistance cnme to his use. haunts the old and rnlnorts dwelLL &re. tentions are useless in this world. ' I am sure they'll musider me perfectly ridicu(the Sea of Clysma) and extract pearIs there. me." I' May Heaven and preparing for the day of judgrue~it"Whom then. consider that the whole placed him on the shore. Many a person after the wreck of his i Jonah: by carrying him in her belly. The I am ill-formed." mid the king address ' ' W h ~ so" enquired the %gi "1s there ]lone ing his conucil. Is there an one who is expert in are respectful to them . the tortoise begzed to be excused. whom they carry abtrut mith such small creature are not much cared f o r them on thei: wrists. and often saves thein the VICIOUS. fair faced. fasts. he can live on land CBAPTER SIV. "few mankind come all this distance to seek protection from." he replied. eloqnence and the flowers hawk." The king then referred the traversing forests and hovling woods. . him from this unwelcome guest's I am 8ure I never harmed them. and the king of t h e Genii. that nothing un. .i t to their o m usc.IOLIS. and a r r a ~ ~ willilaugh ~ see me there. ~ccordingly the \ ali would be labor lost. n he departed thence and reached the Court of learned aud unlearned.light in abusing me. They ascend the mountainous steeps and the person most fit to be deputed. "replied that solemn bird. " Or" mm. who wae do not claim superiority in possessb~g brute more of a polype. to vulture." observed the king. I have no legs to take me. 'l The royalty and aristocracy of on us. voluble and .. the phaaoix." requested my eyes on my neck. "I canIn this may we thouuht it better to thank him \ not go. his council lodged before the phmnix.of my own innocence. but for t h e i ~own adthe use of such weapons Eve17 one held his vantage. Many a ship." "This isvery t ~ e . and the earth j ed to make away with every thing that comes h m way.--'l Wall then." The Icing then mished to know who was frorn. he also summoned bere observed that if Heaven rejected the prayer. The d q he with spear. attend to what he saysm-The king asked the parrot if he wm willing to proceed-"Yes. frogs.j "Fo'. a n d has preferred a life of solitudo in the forest." was the enquiry. with he not sxve himself"-mighty as he NThou speakest the truth: snid the Iz~ng. A fiah it was who saved their Prophet safety. hut still they take a deattsntiona l. we dclibentely rose and said :-"Send the fish : large in body. and they very peace a t such a question. what becomes of him $ Iufla. extremely agile in coutinued after a pause. and turning to 1 not travel to a distant place. From the mountain-tops they provide them. force.' she replied. . issuing from his kitc'nen or clo." he in form. "but they do not regnl-d U& because we of rhetoric." WHENthe complaint of the fourth ambassa. crocodiles. I do by the Y yields them gold. the hawk. which is crooked. I that they dive into the depths of the Red sea.. yec i t is not proper for ( bIy. " hau becn almost waft. can they by any meads pos." On hearing this the moAt last we have determined to come to a narch turned himself t o his counse!!ors. "ta plead for in bloodshed. Then his reanperiort~over the brute creation. &c. and by the their duty.. summoned the fishes.ind love him . triumph !" In short. deand turtles to his Court-They came-The king daring that he was slow in motion. depnte them. whereupon his majesty forbearam and patieoce. do you thinlc it advisnble that I help thee in thy righteous wish l" responded his sovereigu.*Trueit the Korn7a. swift. straight punishes in another world. even as one vho hopeless in worldly the case t o his minister. and sword and At that moment oue of us leave a 6ti:tiouin one 1 passes in fnsking a d Feeping. and asked h m who was aid turns the full confidence of his mind towards i best fitted to proceed to join the di~cussion. bigb and low. the king of the aquatic animals the ( in his back.i iu preying and rousing the negligent. aud on the mountain tops.ks and falcons. . Besides he mas the ambassador said :-l'If men actually think 1 rathrrr laconic in his speech. becgnse he is sure-footed." h : said.which his Creator. iron. " remarked named the owl as the best fitted for the task. If they j place a talisman of art on the banks of a river. WC hunt for tbcm. Thus they pass their time ing the king.anii think it nniucky t~ cast their eyes 03 me. IL'what defect have Reason and conscience esclusively belong to you?"-$'When they'll see me." . and perfect adepts in all arts arid said. ltPray for me to CBAPTER XIII. God. I t would Lie better to There they look for st15ct justice and equity. and public discuvsion with them. but has no power to revenge himsclf the king. with theirs. and could disclosed his purpose to them. And we. in- - 15 i / ! 1 i j 1 $' l - asmnch as me can soar to the highat heavens." retul-ned the minister. "I am prone to anger and incliuselves ~ t gems most precious. and vice usma: the fulfilment of his wishes. Here is my brother who bra left dwelling in their regions.from drowning by carrying them ou his back.'The crocodile." said he. therefore. sharp nailed. In his opinion the the most fitted both by agility and themselves stronger and braver t l ~ a nme. the royal white pray effectunlly is not pomible for all. blankind hate me. alight on him i t is imposaiblc for me to go. The is thuB :-I< when the human sovereign sits iu all clelightful luri~r?eswhich were theirs: these they hia glory on the throne." When questioned. who was the responded " dnren" to his pryers. In devising plans." he said. aud mayst thou return soon in should depute ?" questioned the king. this ! Dolpl~in momeut I can undeceive them. The Crab carry away asses and eagles from the heightu. my mouth in my breast. They smences.in prayq to. 'Their gardens and their magnithen spoke bwut p~laces. and spread des." 'c No" said t l ~ e menced the gnat. and the special gift of ingenuity is "they'il think me to be a headless animal. recommend our case to God who remards aud fine to look at. everv one of Does not his majesty know."-'(Favor me with details. have leb for others to enjoy. 'Tis r i ~ e r s anS' tanks-they are much regnrdcd by then that guided hg us they have rcgained men.swimmina large in breed. B e recommended the Crab. and ~ h knows what the issne will this. These WC did. ed himself u n d i n g to undertake the task. no every case he i our helper!' s tongue to aid me to carry on a war iu words. them." 11 They milling. with eight feet. they collsider and carrying a coat of armour on his back.. their tongile.I Mankind. " nor carry on a dicusfor his goodness in ha&g made us strong. silver. and is endowed with a great deal of to fifth ambassador repaired. all hold him dear. and then boats has almost sunk to a mt~teryg a v e wilen. and are not conversant and IKHWAN-00s-SUFFA. so far so that they havs our tlibe. The voazesr questsare granted.says is r i ~ b t .the owl if he had aught t o say in reference to clean or danpei-0~5sholrld come near. ''if the king and conncil would assist me. kings a ! nobles. " are very partial to but in the Court of the monarch of the Genii.'' " Why will they ~ ~ ~ to projecta they think themselves unriralied. safely deposited hiru on shore uninjureci and safe. the assembly. we even are compelled t o seek safety in the woods. Besides he is very strong NEXT. " for. who in his turn expressby carryi~lg goods from one country to another.' " The king asked and guards snrronncting him. Troder the light protectiou of the arena of public discussion. till a philosopher convenie~ltlydeprive us of our prey and bring issued from the ranks of the flies. He hates expditany business. a~sistanceof art aud duplicity. ~ o a the. said. I am corscioua dble king. He ismoreover singulnr and arrows. and his sword and their fate by repealing the follo~ing Verse from shield are both cf no avail t o him. blessed pritll Cisabdeclined the honor. the virtuous to em~rlate bad conduct of the who has affection for men. that if we mish one of us can test person to be deputed to thegeneral msemdestroy many of them. " bent in bacls and extremely ugly. slaps his face and beas he sentm--" Whom then should I send 7" asked hia head. The dolphin was not tlaction far and wide in their domaios." The ambasea- I i / - \ - . the king. that globe is supporter1 on the hack of one of these !" God Almighty may remain pleased with us. and mourns sense and motion for time. from water mill dcpri~e-rne my breath a:toof gether. at that the recommendation of the minister 'l IVhat he moment if a fly. Although we are wished to know whom they considered the Lt iso powerful. Depute the turtle. G rrhe11 he lies in his pri. <(thatL may judge of their pretensions." then began a hornet :L in all the pride of strength oomes out armed lings vacated by them. . men and women. All held their peace. nod drive them overloaded from the er. or his robes of state. He thinks rnmatiou sets in. d t h his atteudant. and the night if of his pores." corltinued he. and sting him in his vaunted security. wisdom. I 1 1 1 . " bi1anl." asked the king.14 IKHWAN-00s-SUFPA. I n sion nlth men. and approach. When they will see rue on vat6 apartments. nntil the dolphin. wished to know horv we could pray effeetuaUy. nimble in motion. and crawling on m$ mouth. "you know how mankind haPO beside him equal to him 2'' <'The other birds of oppressed the beasts. "but set.

nor throat to swallow. he will peroeive that those who are small and weak are the most agile in flying. he took the part of the latter." Complying with his request. " Eecawe. To them the power of absorption is given. who l attends to all their requirements. the king raised his voice in prayer t o heaven. and more courqeous can keep off all their j he enquired if he was ready to proceed to repra- - 17- scut his tribe the general a s e n b l ~He an. for thou alone art good and compassionate. To each he has given the powers of offence and defence according to its indivldual requirement. worms. eve11 as the ants. at the time when Nimrod flung Abraham into a heap of fire. " Oh thou". whereas these are free from every trouble of this nature. and worthy is he to be praised. dies. cLBeeause. the king said May Qod bless thy rhetorical powers. never forsakes his creatures.-- dor here interfered and said " Strength and artfulness are not needed. and derive uoul-ishment from whae would have proved injurious to them." answered the othcr. yet i t is not God who assists in the propagation qf either. and morning and evening emlilo. Deaf they are also aa well as blind. spiders. he cried. The mouse and the ant ooucenl themselva in subterranean recesses. and at the same &me the most fearless . or breathing and moving in the stomach of another animal. for t n ! y thou art both eloquent and wise. ZE he Wshes me to undertake the task. who was fitted to be sent to the general assembly. he held his peace for a aooment. and daily provides for them. Some have such warmth iu the stomach. but he has provided him with two dehcately formed wings. to chew. and all his counsellors responded.' Others there are. n r n i n g himself to his minister he enquired from him. for he who ha8 made. whose mercy shields them from a l harm. &c. aud time named. which pl. with a symmetrical mouth. To none has he given superiority over another. because he once behaved very ha11dsomeIy with them. "Amen.kc. blood-suckers. they could never have partaken of i their food . There are some again. mbich would compel them to have recourse to a physician. Others can scent out their provisions. brilliant eyes.defence to him." The frog then departed. and their nohla. a l are equal. as the birds. that if God withheld their venom from them. Hence it is. enemies at a distance from them. that the former are > not backward in fiuding Psult with God. and came in such crowds that none but the eye of God in Heaven could enumerate t h e m Tha moment that the king beheld them. and w?loever comes iu contact mith him. j The snake ausmered. e' . When God created those animals about whom you have been speaking. even as the turilc." The crocodile observed that he wanted all these qualities. not knoiving for what j purpose God has created diffirer~t ohjects. by which means they are preserved from every danger. considering that nothing important collld be done by them." When the locust had finished his perordtion. and well-formed hands and feet. WHEN locust perceived that the king mae the very favorably disposed towards his sui~jects and troops. and stated his case to him. liellce i t is. whereas those who are larger in stature. nor teeth. and thus escape every harm.@ himself in fasting and piayerS. by means of which they escape the evil consequences of damp. and kings are compelled t o reserve their venom in their rings. are at the samv time freed from many a trouble to which the others are exposed . "who art the creator aud provider of all. and I shall advocate the cause of my brethren with all the might that lies in me. and well formed.but these aiv exempt from every atte~ilut concealmeut because they a& are born in the-safest piaces. H e haunts the dwellings of men without entertaiuing any fear. and the reptiles were blessed mith the power of speech. If the king will consider the matter properly. their fsnga are charged vith venom. he was present. He is 1 particuiarly held iu regard by the SOUS of Israel. eloqaeuce and the power of speech are what \vill be required from you." aaid he. X they would cousider well. and hence escape destruction. and blessed with the spirit of devotion. are for all that. Other animals are ohligcd to toil both for food and self-preservatio!~. nor spleen to absorb the humours of the body. Eence i t is also that h e has made them dependant 011 these. &c. for havj ing created the latter. and who from nothing has brought to existence those various creatures who people the globe. ants. The moment that they eelnit poison on any living flesh. Bg his almighty power and marvellous might he called forth creation from &he abyss of ch:ros. whereas some are sl\rsgs obliged to fly frori the pursuit of their euemie. such as the gorcupiueB Food too is easily provided for them . if m. Hence i t is that God has given them no hands and feet. the fish. and some dive iuto the water and thus save their lives. advantages are to be derived?" asked the locust." Aker this er." The prayer of the king proved. He ie amphibious and can skim on the surface of the water with as much ease as he leaps on the earth. Vam the sixth ambassador presented himself j do so." 'What other . beaides he is a graceful speaker in reciting his creed. weak and deficient in every requisite talent. so much so. he caxrled water in us mouth and sprinkled i t on the burning element to extinguish it.~. nud know the true f value of these venomous deposits they mould nevcr commit themselves. nor teeth to chew." "Oh king. snakes. these creatures are dumb and deficient iu the power of speech.fi. he has made one to serve as food for the other. nor kidneys and biaddelu to coucentrate the urine. and stronger is he thaoother animals. lest Solomon and his army might tramole thein under foot. nor are they dieted with any chronic disease. So our tribe: who to all apl pearances." 6 he said. and God has thus expressed himself in favoirr of the latter :-' The leader of the ants advised his tribe to hide themselves in their retreats. and then perceived that all were small. but I sincerely hope that the king will pray t o God on high in my behalf. Some however fall into perits." T h e king wished to know the opinion of the frog hiaeIf oil this point. and bestowed different shapes on them.r CEdPTER XVI. 'lhe . but at the same time his tusks prove weapons of self . and thereby they are enaoled to swallow i t domn most easily. For a time he gave way to anxieties. scorpions. they do not feel the want of what they t have not.effectud. H e replied. I a m perfectly willing to do so. In short they are free from all those distresses to which animals mightier than they.om whom nought but evil is to be derived. Raising his eyes towards heaven. and in every respect were perfectly weak and helpless. No snake would there be left in the world. and opened his mouth in praise of h ~ Maker:-"Every praise i due t o that Qoci s s who has showered unspeakable bounties o d t h e face of the earth. is not regardless of their deficiencies. for they requira them not. On mother occasion. and bade it flourish aud prosper. some ivho are sharp-sighted soar on atrong piuions. some l a q e in atature. Those who are created extremely smell. nor guts to hold digesced matter. by asking why God h w made such creatures? If the Maker hm filled their fangs with poison. as the deer. - IKHWAN-00s-SUFPA. Holy is that God. /i serpent advisedinthe king cornman&~himself. or even crawling in mud or iilth. Before heaven aud earth were created. by means of which he can fly away from the pursuit of his enemies. before the king of the reptiles. the wild am. ':there is ! an old enmity esiatiug between men xncl serj pents . atrong- / CHAPTER XV. Others there are. the tiger. and starvation would certainly have ensured their destruction. and hence it Is.r their iails. who can hide their hcada und0. \ he does not withhold creating objects who are j locust wished to kriow why he prevented h m t o i 1 saying that he was deputed by cl~xgons. nor lungs to purify the blood. that they are enabled to elude all creatures that pursue to make a prer of them. H e recummended the frog for the purpose because he was a philosopher possessing a great deal of patieuce. whole range of creation. he placed himself on the elevation of a wall. by means of which. round headed. The scdles of his equity were always equal. and his proboscis assists him in carrying food to his mouth. who lookest down with mercg on those who invoke thy aid. and every reptile which is bred in impurity and crawls on leaves all obeyed t h e summons. not entirely excluded from the bountiea of heaven. Large is the size of the elephant. and prove preservatives against all harm. nor veins to promote the circulation of the blood. Some can fly from dangsr. Accordi ingly serpents. Although good and evil are t o be found e v e ~ w h e r ein the world. or enclosed in a grain." aos\vered the other. When God created them. The 1 1 / 1 i 1 ( 1 ! I i ' . addressing the monarch ' be not thoughtful about the helplessness of thy subjects ." Their bodies vere entirely uncovered. alchough i t is not God who leads them into aaictious. I he provided them with members which serve ) t'neru in their hour of need. The gnat he has made small. they had neither billsnor claws. He has attended to the good of all. Vhen he made the animals. ['I am ready in every respect to obey the king. "For. when a war was carried on between Pharoah and Moses. aud one tribe to give assistance to another. and alight in places where a banquet ia spreud out for them. indecd. lizards. whether hidden in the grass. so he. some he made strong aud some weak. To supply this dehciency. that they t d k so ignorantly. who can run with the greatest smiftucss. cven as the elephant. In the . No one knows where they are. the hare. "LUight and day he repeats the name of his maker. Be freqtefits human habitations also.bves efficacious at certain times. are small and helpless. He is well-formed. But he has blessed all equally. his majesty snmmoned at1 the members of h s tribe to attend hi court. carries venom in his fangs. nor stomaoh to digest. he did not forget to provide them with offensive and defensive means. it dissolves. sense and discretion.. When the good results preponderate. ahich is derived from other animals." L'Why say they so?" asked the locust. for the blessings of sovereigna never fail to beuefit their subjects. The snake returned:-L'Wheu God made the world: he arranged all things nccordiilg to his Ftill and wisdom. Their braiu is hot the seat of inteliectual powers." The locust questioned again " What benefit is derived to the other animals from them!" H e answcred :--"The same benefit. such as the vulture sild the eagle.The swered: 'Yes. The ariakes are neither provided with stomach to digest. and therefore powerless to provide food for themselves. the Creator." The locust wished to be favoured with details. he has made their flesh au antidote for the same. There is a God who provides for all without any exertion on their part. and wanting the powers of motion. snd other aquatic animals. As parents are never neglectful of their offspring. him not to bctray b. look down on these thy helpless creatures. are exposed. whose &ies are hard. that their food is immediately di1 gested and absorbed by their system. Iu short the king mas quite despoudent and could not suppress h ~ s team at beholding the utter worthlessness of the members of hi8 tribe. I n the ossession of members fitted for safety and seZpreservation. justice and equity. others diminutive and illconstrocted.

scorpions." he replied. and the Israelites iu general. I n his tribe were born Abraham and Xoses.i yet in snirit-larlci. and punishes those who try t o quesdoes'and question the use of a good many ob. and wonderful and surwise the Lord is. stones valuable a diamonds aud emeralds . then turn. and that you calumniated your God. the speaker had ceased. and every other animal derives its origin from that place. They who canuot { for all." When . md." row blessing and praising t h e king. That many of their Kings have been tyrants. Yes. He i t is. that m n ia praising himself had omitted t o a name certain very famous sovereigos. busy in reading a paper and moving back-mar& and forwartis in the act of doing so. and made u s his followera. which thought and fancy bers of t h e body. pr~ldenceand an ever-watchful conscience. who made the Prophet Israel the most glorious of men. e q e i i s d t'ne Edenites from t h e fertile banks of the Euphrates to mountain w2ds and fastnesses. " Who ii thia?" he enquired from t h e Vazeer. but to all Re holds out proportion to his m n t s paltakes of His mercies. There is oue difference tionp of the poor." "Bid him speak.. and the Paceer gave t h e s i p . where the fields are j always clothed with verdure. in short. withdrew hi. Praise be to God.ld he has made. for which sorrow and repentance are due.litiaucr and endo6ed him with the powers of enlivening 2 self from our eight. and for bestowing innumerable favors on u .tried t o depreciate the merits of mxrlkiud in general. r L bahoid all. i t would appear. destroyed the children of David and Solomon. andveiled himself ill a cloud creation. he has placed tne crown of superiorito over our brows.- in a slight degree noxious. All admitted the truth . praying and burning incense i n a censer which he held in his hand. by means of which onr predominance is' acknowledged over others Prom him have me received wisdom. that is. ':Re is a S ~ i a n . ':that on account of your shameful idoiatory. We in short are the essence of of maukind. To give an example. Amongst them he ohservoppressions were practised were to approach ed one who was taller and handsomer than t h e t h e throne and state their cases. and wished to lcnow if every word &rid in favor of man's superiority was indisputably true. v and t o be kind and merciful to our fellolv-men . burnt th-: old Testament. i sizes. " H e i a a Hebrew of the . and those on whom features and attire. ained i n the increase of population by your adulterous loves. The Prophets too he sent for our guidance. He answered. that we any createcl object. To t h e several animals He has proved beyond a doubt then. who that these reptiles are generally bred in the has created so many-shaped beings on this Eartl). the feed on the same and fitted i t t o become a comfortable abodo filth. Cod mns o3ended with you and made you companions of hears and monkeys. But t h e spirits of the others survive i n spreading contagion. he fathom Ris wisdom." Agaia the quemlous sage opened !is mouth.pressioll to the following sentiments :-“ Thanking t o a phi1osopher of his own tribe."Ouce more the king cast his eyes 011 the crowd. and I cannot more agreeable than that of any other region." returned the spealcer. and E i s bounty provides has made nothing uselessly. Bat why not add" renarked a s". the k i r i ~ turned to the wise men of his court. . and placed them re@ons of t h e moon. with the planets Saturn and Mars. The smaller { into diEerent grades and appointet1 au angel in reptiles also become the food of t h e larger. tion. Esdras. And these bodied forms are the deprive the world of the blessings which result exact prototnes of those who are in the world 'from his vivifying rays? The same is the case of spirits. a general d e l ~ ~ g e came 2nd drowned the world. 1 the fields are fertile in vegetable productions. Afcodiles. hIooses! Jesus ancl Mahommed. ' Be askod the Vaaee~ who this individual was. That in his tribe was born Nubuchadnezxar mho desolated the Holy Land.a place OF public discussion. so this orb irradiates nature could never penetrate. the lowesest abyss. R e showers His bounty upon all." " ELd him spealr" was again the eommand. generally object to what He i ransolea. and born of t h e spotless Virgin Mary. and others cast down to tive t o t h e wants of all. such as Ximrod who exposed Bbraham on a pyre to be burnt. and delighted in tyranny and blood-shed"-" Born conld he have related these matters?" asked the kiug. Ne find the different members of the clouds too are made for the good of manlcirld. The mourners who approch him. the latter move iike puppets grazing animals . who always takes care of them and prowhen G d made t h e luminaries of the skv. God has also blessed me with power of invention. and an inhabitant of Syria. who has crowned with the glory of faith and made u s head CHAPTER XFrTI. worsLipping God you adored the Cross. hut one m60 was cursed with a dogmatic spirit." remsrked the s a g . Some are ter the animals. The herald proclaimed aloud found that each differedfrom t h c other both i n t h a t all seekers of justice. only t h e latter are more subtle. snalies..5 tion his wisdom. r L i t i s not fair t o give a list of your good qualities and hide your fauits. he beheld a thin. Qrapt up iu a yellow sheet. and turuiug to the other philosophers remarked. These perish ancl are destroyed prevent infectious malaria from rising and here. and inquired from his minister who h e were these words uttered. "Thanlcs bc to God" . and gave exlarge. magic and rhetoric. such as Fureidoon. " Whe ." "If yoa bad only added. hat advantage would he derive therefrom P" ':In. it would have answered all the wnrposes of jastice. 1 1 l I 1 : '' I H e it is who has msisted us i n making inventions."But you have forgotten to ~ d d that instead of . the commoliest wood as smeet as the sugarcane.whose wires are in the hands of the former. adored and worshipped many a false god. <'who made Christ incarnate. in whose reign certain very f a m u s events happened. He has omitted to mention that his tribe is notorious for misandcrstaurIiu9 and discords amongst themselves. and he immediately expressed a deeire to know \vha and what these mere-': He has ornittcd to mention. that you saori6ced swine. who ma3 standing wrapt up in a sheet. Honce i t is and exclaimed :-"Praise is due to that God. third are placed . H e held his peace for a time . "that on account of the trausgressions of his tribe. The pictnres.tribe of Israel. or in the stalls of t h e fishermen. is that n reason why the may judge of his power and might by the objects Maker should extinguish this glorious lamp. and each iu in the middle rank .couutr. who has summoned declare that His gracs bxiends not beyond the out of chaos many a creature. Even as the mind lights the chain. moderation. who has taught us h ~ tolove and serve him. he asked ful are we t o that. Some H e has consider well. gracious a r ~ d and essential bodies.-a climate which is jwt~. I t charge of each. with long dishevelled beard. Kousherwan and many others whose names will never perish." Once more t u r n i ~ ~ o the assembly the tg monarch saw an individual clad in woolien garments. who has placed us in him if h e beheld the multitude. and endowed them with subtle i do this. shambles. who has blessed us with superiority 2nd crowned us v i t h never-fadin!: glory. and lives i n Eran. swarthy personage. Ablxham. . Artaze~xss. The king's curiosity was roused. he brought forward these a%large. He i t was who freed t h e Israe!ites from the bonds of sin. who has given s i r bonndaries t o the world Being born in impurities. God. cro. the king tnrned his who presented himself to decide the case t o the eyes towards t h e representatives of men.a climate congenial t o ua. and mzde yourself unclean by eating their flssh. Some are s o foolish as to h prising forms. and the climate always temperate . t h r t the Creator given varions shapes. and it behoves us therefore to be grateful to God for hi3 mercies. c'tha8 you had cons~~rned many a body on the funern1 pyre. '' mho has placed us in the most propitious of equinoctial climes. these so although a t times they coudace to delngc in t. ffe has endowed us with proficiency in Astroaomy.' aud hnd no wish to al. as mankind in general is the essence of Creation. where the mines almays teem with mineral mealth. Thousands of thanks are due t o Him." After s a y i ~ ~ g words he rose these . and hi6 Ioins surrouuded with a piece of red cloth.mhe i m o a h d t h e p a t e s t degree of b. whereas i f they would i n different gradations of life. which was obeyed in t h e following words :-lL Praise be to God. which would end in the another world. a t in. commenced the man. and ~wrwthl cornpisxion .j elevated t o glory." When he had finished. g~erulous philosopher. He it is. a. " answered the minister "and a follower of Jesus Christ. i t s s animals fat and robust even w the giant-sized elephant. i o n any proposi~iouto p w s nnqa~stioned. The heavers he has divided tructive effects of a pestilence. an Indian Island. who looking said t h e king.be world agree in shape with thosexho are t h e earth. to whom t h e powers of motion and speech so that the air might be thereby purified. If then his beams prove injurious to creatures and placed thom before us.essential and bright thmt the former."-The king's eyes next fell upon a m m of slender make. Thanks be t o him for rnnlcing us the disciples of such a person. As ia auspicious moments. and thereby gave rnnntind from the des. he created the jects. No sooner reat. kings with wisdom and forbearance. with a s t r a ~ leather tied round his of waist.'' Ouce more turning his eyes towards the crowd of men assembled there. &'Heis who were present came forward. for his having ~ who has made beings of S U O various ahapes and conferred a higher degree of superiority on us. there is another orcler of Creamade t o pass their lives in 61th atld corri~ption. Nothing but ignorance prompts them to ~ n i out of fire. and sweep away the ilomble habita. and where he lived. as well as great and glorions kinga Buhram." The monarch wished him to speak. Before Adam. crowned him mith t h e dignity of a prophet. than all the deputies was. and whose glo~-ies shine through t k e :for when Ha the Rod of all.assembled in the court of t h e king of the Ge~lii. fishes. and master of the earth. That was the cradle of mankind.: for his creatures. and remarked. be they high or low. and stood in a a Persian. and best of his ability. r'CXorified be that Creator. and that eventually you were scandalised and ruined. and beheld a tall person. "Who is this" he asked. who made many a saint and philosopher rise from our tribe." "Bid him speak. and all other created objects. i n d are denied. the reasons for mhich none of their wise men could urge. B l a n ~a prophet and pililosopher have also risen from that." spokc the Christian. h our tribe he chose Noah. general destrtlction of animal life. Some.of dazzling radiance.y. Dxrius. a light i n the person of his prophet t o guide them in the way of salvation. anirni~l agreeing with i t s living origi~~al. who has blessed our E m m in the morning the several deputies. They know not how good. are afflicted by them. that EIe is atten. round perceived that the crowd was incredibly upon which he opened his mouth. ITe is an inhnbitaot of Sa' rundeep. while n ." said the individual referred to. Every \vllere we are considered greet. his ueck encircled mith the Brahmiuical thread." was t h e order. your ma. W e I but wonder at the glorious might of that Creator also owe' our gratitude t o Him. and bestowed on him the power of working miracles. the breeze always mild. to che vldcs for them. So i t is with rapacious and however .

theirs. but the ant. and N ~ fi~1.no speak* he began thus:-"Grateful are we to one. C[L4PTe% XIX. dare world. Strange and formidable looking. the rep:iles $c. Large. nd and sciences. Prom wilat I ~ 0 0 l t l OF sthe frigid zone is c0nsequ~Llt~y ~ more have s:lid jast why don't they ullderstnnd plensaut to hiru.n our col~ditionis enacay the same as sentis the aquiltic a. for waking wished to kr~osv if what the Khorasany had of us conversnnt mith religious truths.who are i'out~d infestin:: every house. we disagreed amougst ourselves. and to boast of proficiency ) king of rapacious animals.?c doostan. whose heat k e e ! ~ ~conddcr that they are the lords of cre:\tio!l. '&Where lives he." " !v110 ore his Sub. make sstronomica1 calculations. rains and moisture." the suu .PnilosDphershave said that tile death of ono O jects. God \vill judge wl When a declare. and where does he live ?" WAS the : lt 1s with man also. they delight in persecnt? shapes. with many tale? Ought not they to be thankful that God teeth. tomb. On being ordered to attack. ':add if you pleasc. hog-deer.tLat after hiahommed. one reaping benefit from the other. he is taken up so high as to enter the regions of Cog and Magog. inhabizant of Mecca. the worms revel on his rol&rls i n the it frigid regions where there are nothing but . has kept them at a distance from their habitsswallows down innumerable animals of all tio~is hstead of this. Logic. &C. Thus " Who S he. sciences from the ancient sages.he shaccs it out among other animals. he excels every other moods. for do they raises the middle part of his body above the 1 noc drge claims which they ca:lnot. i n Astronomy. Often he faints while in branch. tulaultuous wt~ter.npokeu ill f~rrour his own superiority was true of if misiag Heaven to us." mns again the e n q u i ~ ~He belollgs t o lligher tiegeethere are amongst us. shcep and birds . deer. F 1 1 Il ' ' 1I l 11 I ' ! I I 1 . conferred on . and bestowal Hence i is. All apuat~c animals f e u him m d fly from him . He delights in melody. ho was ihe representative of the beasts. frogs aud crocodiles and scorpions.ug rhe. the fox and the beai. so that the rays of the sun reason or arguments ?" Again looking round."' After this h8 troops on such an c1ev:~tiion 1 2'' " Because the fro.rviI1 be able to describe him to Four APajes~y. no oue. who was standing before abouud mith the most dclicio~is fruits ." said the king " I n size aud from the forests. and has made allu. " Who arc you ?" aslied \dnite-f81con.is larger thau other animals. ~ i l din one gulp.. he is feared by all. the . $c. and aid thc digestion of the the king observed a p r r o c sittiug 011 a treefood he has taken. Know they not. though he is a h ~ d none. G' Who is he 1" was app~oachcs and every trrce of anger disappears the enquiry. forgot all bis " Gentlemen i t is eveuing now . the euumeratiotl of wluch mouid oc. who l= made our goves on a wolf..you full details by and b! ses of the holy writ have been exclusively devoted t o us. (on him be l<oibau in thc same may and yet p!ace study the full trust peace. " He is nn inhabitant of Khoms. K He conclusion. who spin fall a prey t o the black the king. " With courtesy and ~W aioa to by the mouth of the prophet in the consideratiou" was the answer. whose bite is sure to prove fatal to him. whcel. was nest nsked. ~vhcre dies and becomes the food s e n t by the pbcenis. Oo enquiry as to who he was.imalu. when the other animals all crowd round his remains and feed 011 if for a lollg time." di&rellce betmeell them and men? Sometimes retorued the locust. and enforce prophets. the heavenly bodies. the monarch desired could have ever come to such an unreasouable him to describe the sca-drsgou t o him. and in their locust shaking his wing%. includ"He is the sovereign of all animals that live in the ing amongst them dragons. relieious precepts. and more awful to look at. Many the noble Arabian tribe of Qlro~aish.~cld there iu poison i u his moutll. he Where of carnivorous mimeb." Wheu these discus." "How does he treat his subP ~ P U ~than other climes..nce"--was the command.jects ?" oslred the king. \Ire of Nohammed. "do not take wild animals owe allegiance to hlm." old and new Testaments without auderstand~ug them. that God who has bestowed a variety of fa. for korldlj couiiderstions. electrical apparatus in hand. On enquiry. the last Hosein."U t u r n feast on him when he dies. &metimes the clouds. vours On ns. eat ther. and mitting us io pray in coogregations. and pet firmly believe in Christ and Upon which the man begau :-': Blessed be hfoses. and where other j la. their sovereign. AS he devours them mhen living. Virtile and vice will be known d t c r " . m d the So geuerous is he.that he is never dependant on others for help. .~up. who feast on him for days and d:~ys.mhis army ?" " dtlakes. up in their the sea-dragon. so they in their than what he has is this." of all t h e king perceived a well built ! ing himself vith just as much as is sufficient for with a long beard. and the aliigators from the rivers to -ataqulltic animal.on this tome& tonards his coansellors." Describe his appear. Natural Philosophy. he bends himself ing those haFmless animals who associate with like a bow. Often again. lament the on us the observance of the holy fast of and h v e avenged ourselves death -ofs on h ~ heartless Rm~zan. stronger also. So expert is he in business. Thus always goes the to look at . 1 am he wns cold that he (the frog) reprcscntcd the perfectly astonished at their ignorance ancl preanimals of the aquatic tribe. use of talismans from Solomon the son of Da. and cannot comprehend how they sea-dragon. Astrology. scor. rous and graminivorous. and attentively listcuing to ali what was this state." said the frog. approach him. T h e n he sees light from a distnnce. ~ n d moon. is to die Bud The common lot of The king glanced at th:: crowd assembled. e he On the third day vhen all the heasts and men H e was a ~ k e d to speak. murderers. and the refreshing <mLtthe beasts are their slaves. k ~ n g . all& his whole body btiruing. caruioolives in deep." was the answer. he opens his jams. in the he dies. and cast him on W:LS the advocatc of the birds of prcy: ar~ti was dry ground.times the &her able nature of the cold.to the ba!lc&t of ~\uoth-r. and fishes. employed iu lqanlii~ld counting his beads aud praying. who was very i ~ ~ t e n t l y inrn. and who are his subjects?" Yedicine.englc and the mltore. are their slaves. strongBroad in slender of pf arms. contentvid.and hummmng a tune trim devoured by the sparrow-hawk and the royal iu a low gelltle voice. we hops the of n portion of our property on thc poor." "Who are credit to yourselves for arts and sciences. for ants eau overpower lions . on the religiotl of the bade him read the Koran to us. and complied thus: 1 had taken their ~. Our country he has made more and flies men. which his assistants'l" . So the Israelites learnt m?. looking t o h r d s the sun. In short praise is due t o that ~ o d .not a single pmsou left living to repeat the headed.' was the answer." began the frog. &! "Stop" c' cLInthe wilderness" was the reply." <'Ask him t o speak. He replied :-" S a h is his w a s . why then him.but when he lives on high mountains ancl hilioclrs. you can depart.who has him. "and all the interrupted the querulous sage. he very much rcsemblcs they eat ancl arc eater.. he replied that he ocean somcltimes pull him'up. bc hor11 tin OUT 1-ace. " I shall give y' sacred Pages of the Koran. goats. to know the various properties of ! and had come to advocate their cauje.were not cruel and idolatrous. his t r i k blessings." that king last The upPraise be to him for his other mercies: for Imam will appointing the night of Qadlr for us." replied the locust. estabiish by surface of the water." 6 1 tllpn tine wheels of rortlulic in firvorof Was the reply. 011s the sages a~~snered.l' The leopard. The rules by which Persian sages. and for pro. and 10 ! they are punished. Geomancy. The seme is. as to think that all brutes. ue feeds on t h i flesh of . has blessed us with the jewel of faith in . t h e d e e ~ . bade his hlajesm d others again from the Egyptians." <'Add.espective posts hefore the king. serpents water ." be continued addresssing the behdd the frog stnndi:lg apart. who read-the and is an others. all these assist of Ptolomy you learnt some from the Israelites." "What sort of a creature is turn. began the wolf. ~ h u s i s with all. When over-gorged. loud-voiced. mellt on thus :X I am told that man. Vfo~hippillg the cupy too much time.and terrible loins . m . Pmised be God.that if the rapacious animals were to emerge auce and nature. '"Yes" re. so that several ver. '-he " glory in Arts which you borrowed from others 1 Is this true l" asked the king." "Describe his nature and that all aniomls are eclllal alld that there is no appem. Women aud children he will never sari.the you never introduced in the world. ' l we learnt these arts and his shoulders. When asked who lie was." he an. who repre. that after destroying his prey. fiellce animals would perish on account of the iutoier. neither man nor beast. cmodiles. and standing on his hcird and tail.. from him. them. we would have believed said the sage aivxys ready to put a spoke to the him.rge animals devour thesmaller ones. the king beheld a rows. SparLoosrx5 round once more. are all imported from Hin. and slaylltered our Imnrus re-assemblc to-rnonaw morx~ing. " 111 bobh. andwished to know H is a Grecinu" was the answer. Upon which. he replied inhis mercy taught us t u u ~ ~ d e ~ s t athe arts that. when hp chance most other creatures. that they ~ ~ o uaU be destroyed. I n the time I rabbit. he it. sumed the Greek." " Please describe ! " " Id shape and size. " T i e lion." death. whereas there are others N ~ O that God v h o made 3Iahommed. even as others hard of teeth and paws. turties. LVheuce then is their superiority over tllat ?" asked the Hiuv "The frog. and the clouds that arise from the mid.ions had come to an end the herald proclaimed aloud aud said. fall on his stomach. whose king was thc sumption. for per. the case with obensts and birds of prey. who has made us more blest than looked round. dreadful now learn from us. feed on fleas and acts. wide-mouthed. The Almighty sxys : pions. ail owc subjection t o him.) placed him in the rank of Prophets. Geometry. if you please.pilgrimage to Mecca. alld mix pith clay. that all the beasts arc their slaves. " why cloes he live SO far fY0m and none ljut the wise kuoiv this. ':Who k k g ~ to become familiar with the ~~~~~se of has sent you". tack them. and Past of all when swcred "and deputed bp their souercign." T h e monarch next ! beheld a person standing with an astrolabe aud CAAPTER XV 111. and ld xud tall in size.even as fleas can overpower elephants and oxen." thkse die.a3dsomefen& on the former. but a small c m of ture resembling a flea. He fears . "The plencicr of the rcptilcu. the beasts of pray from the shape. as well as birds. enquiry. bright-eyed. Besides these me elljoy other OY not.

and keep existence of a Maker. the lowest is long and the uppercumbent on sovereigns t o see that the laws most round. and the people form a s it were the boundary line of a hemdeviatenot from the patd of rectitude. 11 1 1 .r The king next wished to be favored with a description of the phmnix himself. One of deration." was he asked. the king is often a thin. rising and are merchants again. so that when he cuts through the air.der the burden of fruits that hang from their boughs. a native of I r k .-. All houses mith exquisite nicety. that our are ministers. we construct our slender being. itwould be imand possible for any one aerson to govern the whole race. who travel about. t o look to very formation is a proof direct in faror of the t h e internal msnagernent of the state. <<and not wish to put any one did they . be kind and lenient to all who approach them. "and swift and strong in flight. while you to tronb!e. that they may protect their subjects.several other properties besides that. there is violent concugsion i n the wind. "He is larger than all other birds. to . how wonderthe Treasury full for the support of the army. The rank o f Prophets and Angels is and biggest in slze is appointed king . (R-hich (civil and divine) are resxlected.like a square. and irnluediately plaiied against you. It is moreover peopled with innumerable kinds of bea3ts." returned the pnrrot. "I felt compassion for them. [ and tlowers.. over the policy of the several cities. others. and t o pre. . The middle part is and moofties. from the ground with the greatThe king next desired him to deest .are many. rohbers. We have four hands and feet.any. arid keep health among mankind.-but he simply contented himself ---. which we keep in deposit in our without whom. His tail again is very long. one king could scarce suffice for the well-being of all the realms nf this earth. versant with mathematics. who dispense laws. we feed on the sweets of the earth: and ation for the whole race of man . Amongst them! you will find that the largest ours. chancellors and clerk's. There gon." scribe hi nature.wings. and as the nations differ from each other in Iar~guage religion. h." What which are exclusively quiremore than one ruler. and mountains and hills shake under him. Unprevented by lence on his part.fruits bloom and blwh for us. ." Questioning them fa. dispense stern justice in the world.' he returned. As no Y easily turn our heads towards the right or the 1 l f1 CHAPTER XXI. was greeted with a soft. is so strong that h e lifts up elephants.enable us to would come to a stand-atill. and improve by trade...we made lords of others. Again as each town is peopled by lam and Iacs of men. Bis talons and bill are hard. also aid u s in fetching fruits and leaves are. and his wings broad. bv saving that his &isposition was . Some are soldiers and bear medicinal matters conduces to the recovery of arms to defend the king from his foes. and make-his people abstain. and our stings are charged with venom which mankind reqaire many rulers t o superintend preserves u s from the attacks of all our enemies. others cazees divided into three parts. bnszing sound. ease. in fact. Who is your asked. The necessities this quality is to be found only in you 1 "God they biffer from each has bestoGed i t on me. -. Our wings are strong." l - I. m that r e can vent harm befalling any one of them.ing towards the crowd. Consequently ! fig. w e are conamongst mankind. for it is in. ?Tot so the beasts. of gracefulness and care that the winds cannot Some ag$in are exclusively given up to servitude. his servants from our saliva is produced honey.Our neck8 are thin and slender. upon king ?" They answered 'c We have many which the king wished to know why he had sovereigns. ful and delicate our "mah" is : our body is Some are farmers and cultivators. who in reallty ra the sole sovereigu and protector of i all creation. Look at us." observed the monarch "how is it that " them. with kindness and consider." Why is this 9" ! his suhjeds. and other timony to the truth of what I say. he acknowledged who he was.hiszd zo enter into -details sorue ~ - -~ . vho are designated His representatives on earth. Some Creator has made us with such art. The I h a n bears testhe city clear of thieves.- one is ubiquitous. praising and glorifying God. Re --. the business of the state 5 hives. "and of mankind are other in their several conditions. indispensably required by the king. equity and benevo. are these?"--"Jlany. Other animals have it not. each liviug in his own kingdom come personnlly and not depntcd some one from with his subjects and troops. returned. and hence re. We loot not to his size. Hence it is that God Almighty has made several kings. Besides t h w there memhen.from what is displeasing to God. These auch a s menial slaves.- WHEN Irakee had ceased speaking..) and which aid us in sitting. enter it to harm us or our gouug ones. notwithstauding that the answer.whereas ours. rhinoceroses. The flowers and that we require are justice. When he dies. have orLe monarch. CHAPTER XX." "Others did not show this consifew though ye artre! have so mauy. you would think him to be a ship sailing overhead of you. On being * mediate$ afterwards he asked. good and dpro. Be. wwhh in also are many. the the king on lo@l.. look to c o ~ s t r u c ~ i n g dwellings with such a d e g r ~ a our cotnmerciel matters. Besides the rogues and vagabonds of the same kind. "the beasts. and mho . .

And after of their death. keep accounts with bunlaeald. in short these are the erils they suffer to gaiu the llrxuries of life. but he does 11ot know that P1 these arc the sources of evil to him. she lays it out in the suushine nnv RP. well and good : if not eternal pains are reserved for them. nhich they mere to dig. and our jewellery is magnificent i n the extreme. and children are either born deformed o r are continually ailing afterwards. race returned-<' Woncler not. Xiipht and dayit was theirs to work on m~iutzrruptedIy. i ---Jt n become like hi&elf: and i t i s c~~stonla?y she immediately dit. The reason why your children fall sick is this: preguant women and nuram eat the food you praise s o much. When moistened though yrssoob is small and diminutive of sire.ides it into two parts I n ..-." The representative of the birds. travel to far." " Why should they be so 1" enquired the liiug-"Because. then it was that persecution began. The other denizens of the world were deprived of their habitations. and the result is that it breeds humours which spoil the milk. T h e n any grain is about to germinate.'' returned the speaker. We dress also oerg splendidly. I n short. and sbm seeds therein. in the next world. many were taken and placed in . Where do the beasts cojoy this state? They live in woods and forests.cs Ero~il removc. bake and cook . When your ancestors overloaked the injuuction of God. for whioh d we are deepiy thankful to Him. to dig. For a long time they wept and mourned in that scene of desolation. but mind. M W the seed. cut &heplant. and many are the fruits which a bountiful ~ o has made for our use. l f they have acquired these by fair means. Honey you consider to be very good both for food arid medicine . A11 these circumstances prove their inferiority. cool. A ~ h i l o s o p h c r able from t h e giants. Srurll t o see t h e monarch respecting the lcadcr of t h e labyrinthiue though she is. w l ~ r o v e rwe l 1 not also attended to. subterranean bees more than any one else. & W h i ntheir children iticreased and spread through the wilds and fastnesses of the earth. our first pnrents were there also. his voice and observed :--"It is a matter of surprise false. stand with hands folded before rich men for the paltry stlrp of a pice or two . It is on this account that they are always liable t o sudden deaths. sharers and companious of their ease. the Creator took wrupassioo on them.'. and pains and torments. games. acquire arts and sciences. Her also she coilects therein. plotlgh. We have never togo in quest of food and drink. fill water. possessing qualities which grace ropdiy. and sit under gorgeous canopies of every hue. and cast them in such n clime. all their gains fall i n L0 the strangers. I h t him nest t u ~ n attention to the she still coustructs anb. and weave clothes for t!aeir use.s fit at any time t o teach otllcrs how to dry. it is your own deeds that keep you exposed to all these sufmings from which we are exempt. several of them assemble nud go out f t o those who are their equals both in rauk all& i n quest of food. yet in sense and discretion h e is unsurpassed by by auy chance. ate the fatnl . then again for meat. graze. where there mere no flowers or lavea. They were also taught how to grind. and for the sake of gain.with kings to shorn kindness and consideratioil summer.grain. and an angel was sent to place them on earth. and all the pleasure8 of innocent conversation. smwthen the earth. On what then do you glory ? Fruits and coril? why w e partake d these in common. I one of them finda aught. * * * To amuse ourselves we have danciug. the Nightingale. We are exempt. "to e t i n these they are constrained to toil hard. she immediately takes a slnall particle ~- CRAPTER XXII. ~t last they repented. to quarrel with butchers. uuapproach. weigh. pareilts Adam and Eve were i n the Garden of Eden. Wheu your first. singi~r~. much less fruits.IKBW AN-00s-SUFFA. who was perching on a twiw opened his mouth and said : -c'Maa glories zmself on the articles of his food and drink. and tempted by the enemy. the angels came dowu. house's. distar~t countries. hence they fall unwell sometimes. from all these. sweetmeats.. music. afflict their own bodies. expelled them from Paradisa. We feed on grass 411 that the earth produces we enjoy without care o r trouble. and enjoyed its fruits without ally toil or trouble on their part. Carpets of the richest texture we spread. even as vour and our ancestors did. and work like slams. i t is collected by the bees and not prepared by any art of yours. food bv the most dreadfa! of inundatioas. aithougl~ mhich ou account of its weight she cannot these latter mav differ i n form aud fe:ttu~.

these in the woods 2 We were compel!ed thereder t o preserve i t safe for purposes of sale. break their bones. replied. oxen. both of mhich znal preyed. You treat your broCO know something of the origitlai nature of thers eveu in a yay that we never do.rnain a i l e ~ and cease to speak.-derive you no benefit from mountain of . You devour botli tlie living nod the dead. canopies and other coverings to give ccicit t o 5 cvsn as already recounted by She philosopher our state. The blood. which are cor~fcrred us. rob him of the j find dead bodics mo never thought of depriving same. He prepares i t for his mains." they replied.. Satan." " Horn do you prove t h j ~ the ?" presentaiive: &. ve need not perform those ' garden." . ausmer do you now return 1" wisiling evil to eve?? created oltject you have asked the king. of bring a simiSach vanity is perfectly uucalled for. 1 by preying on others. If we no other animals that we l i ~ ~ w charge. acts in which you glory so much. it would be more reasonable . To the beasts ail these are denied." L. t o do. " You " Every rapacious animal. 1s created him and Eve. upon another. When from YOU f On the contrary i t is obvious that Y O U slaughter and devour us.( long ringlets dropped off. why.thns. t u r e ~ of a worm uot then the ot!lers ~vouldfeast on its lifeless rei belougiu r tn your tribe.. How then could mg procure the flesh of Many other troubles you also undergo. on a in your homes. and you are punished the crsuelties exercised by u s are nothing in cornfor that one fault of theirs. caped. you slaughter moment that we are born. prow r:s to be the lords &'gou. bat their own created.41111i&hty arld sinned. sable. a n d such is t h e . me have the angels. As reprdu the charge of cruelty and them.you s : ~ . T h e Liventics of Heaver.deila. hard-heartednrss. Before the creation of hdaru no ~ n i you p11i on are silk and brocade.sck. T h e n one died are made tviti~zhi: slimg. and ancl expe2.will you please tell us. and the most valuable of Sour clothes on dead bodies when you are in a state of starare made of wool of which you vioientiy deprive vation. to preserve us . We rip open the stomachs of others. sheep. bonsted of our wool.~iciresill$ beasts.4. fiat we. xvhich YOU bring against us. Eepond us to ksep them within the bounds of snbmission. for which act of injualice God is not i. lilallkind desired him and his tribe to res ~t " ness. Their re.'This they hare been Mankind mished to 1. &c. b v e xrld vrliose blood they dri:~]:. IYOU would are perpetnally i n thoughts of cloihiug. i n obeciience to the command re" of shawli and b-ades. h u t in 110 case wouid they aottcck o r inown w m k o r bmd couvenienca in miuter. without feeling any ~ O L not violently robbed the beasts of ihe sarnc?'' I pity or compassion. then maril i n punishing you. an inhabitant of I~aak. tbc former speaks. you wouid find that ancestors disobeyed God. cut them with knives. they became naked. beguiled them. camel3 aud asses were then being depeudan~ n the tsilor far its bcing all made prisolicrv by you. Eitl&a answered :-<C When the Lord moreov~r sag that p c never benefit others. T l ~ u thsy roved about in t h e regulwlg. we were pe~feectstrangers to such cruel "The ssftest and most c\eliwte of dresses that I hah~ts. They fort o nrse. T h e beasts of prey that are confined h d i n fact.any cl-egtture. 2 / 0 ~do the same. a t ~ dit is i ~ ~ c u m b e u t ous ou ei. . and ority. aud therohy es:abliih our claim of supe. silk. for the Creator intended it for our oover. One of thorn. spoke thus t o mau.out like s l a ~ e in the wilder. Eeciuse~" they $id. through ~ h i c hpassed them 1 But' what advantage do others derive the Equinoctial line they both lived.from heat and cold. " Why 1 asked riority oier them. waving locks served t o bide their naked.nothii~.om our should be fed aud clothed like any other animal." ret1:rned the advocate. no animals eso sewed and the washerman for its being washed.. their in manz which established his claim t o superi. he illtended that they it so '! What benefit do you derive f~.11om to what time h e was ! instructed by you to do. But this is Oftell it is that the hides of beasts form yonr permitted us: even as it is allowed you to feed covering. hides. me have carpets spread on the Yoor. 4n the ~ngnificeuce dress.which7 i t was said :. of she genii.feed on their flesh and drink their ing.d them from the Bower of Bliss. got the irljunction of tile ." When khe mithont toiling as they IIOW do.diamond. disrsgardil~gall his Ixbors.rip open on us without any toil or trouble on our part .r:h and tll3 must ha:d hearted. fore to prey on living creatures.skin. "tires who glory irl ii~tedrcss. i u as much as you are ( we could not but kili. they had no long. descended from Heaceu. this garment is placed them. muslin. As tons ns me could you. on the east side of Eden. lu or.IKSIWbhT-OOS-SUFP. the 1 manded them to eat thc fruits of all trees but king asked mankind if they had aught furkhher one. Your consider the matter well. coudernued to Iabor i n syiuuiug :rnd weaving ancl ! goats. that your dead even YOU ness. lVhsn you were born. and preserve them from the efects of h h u m e in t h e earth. 27 s tional exercises are practised night and day heat and cold.. but ( jure any living hoiug. In a rurd. What. roast and eat f whereas you. Cod had comwinged speaker hsd come to a conclusion. howeve~s.~aptorial on a:iimals are t!ie most ~uischievon of t h e brute creatior~." The king wished parison with your own. YOU Adam. satin ceired from God. that there yet remained several qualities j Then their glory dcparted from them . and then take all the 'glory to yourseif. to the last momellt of goor lives them : all these you do. flay tbe=. referring 1 Iu reply to .enmity YOU show us. 60 that your Living and ! 'I / 1 'I 1 / i I 1 . but w11r11 that faliccl. enjoying the frnits of all the trees. whose hones they gnaw where these robes were in times of old.I " if !tot. their stomachs." When the advoute had spoken Naked they rove &\.

and go md live young also. When the young are hntchcd. who are not of the same kiud s thcyl for favor and service for service. she requires no assistancc .h af his assertions. who obey and are governed by the speaking spirit Those who worshipped him not. ancl wet-nurscs suckle and cast i t on a cradle t o sleep. The moment they gain their *hjoot. alld mingle those of the ants and the birds. And the angels too have their ruler. as is the case with pigeous. inasmuch'as sne constructs her house withoat such materials as bricks and earth. are the passions. their souls are always watchful . Fowls. they have atheists.y thing good and evil. and take care of them o f ~ a o t s .irs. governors alld respectai>le azsistants friends. Thread and needle. yousag that you have poets aud prea~hel. you are always e n ~ = e d strife nnd in contention with each other.good rud wicked individuals t o be found. and maukind held down their heads through shame and remained silent. ad&vidual i inuocerlt. blest them with power6f understanding. weak creature. in svhirh he glories. 2s the young of beasts are for milk. Jumsheed. True it is: 'lords are recognized by lords. were 110tevil. Upon this the king turning to a philosopher. AU these prove the loving kindness of the Ualier. is more skilfizl than their architects. but we have lear~lt from you. rnn about thclr pnreuts ns YOOU a s they are hatched. besides. however. and draws straight lirles with- 28 dead are equdly of no use to as. them 1 hut in nature they are alike. On the day of judgment. who are even mischievous amongst us. were obliged to hold their peace out expecting t h a n h . 1 b c ~ ~ m b e on them to be thankful to &m6. The mother all the while knows nothing about it. and impervious to rain. Yes. yes : there are wicked ones fouod amongst . who is higher in the estimation of thc . remaiu os great fools as ever. p ~ n t t h e r e . assailed on all sides with taunts please God. women never act thus.pockets. our r&rs do not attack those of your race who are viutuous. s fools. she digs the ground. moon and other heavenly const&ntions. CHAPTER XXIII. &'Thespirit that speaks in him. In alI these arrangements. IKH WAN-00s-SUFFA. It is true. to their parents? We are not enjoined to do the same. Hc gave His augels charge over them. yet even then they cannot do without teachers. and feeds her little ones. $rants to tyrannise over tyrants. Externally there is no resemblance between j forth their young." he replied. . When w l fed. misers. Isfundiar. . a ~ l dothers. withand reproaches. The spirit of speech is yct to be found in the children of bdnm." " Con time thy speech. whereas their weavers do. '<The 81mighty has endowed them mith it" vns the reply. Thus they opini. whereas mankind can never dispe~lse with these instruments. You further say. in justice and respectat1ility. orlo she deposits under earth. they expel him to Pharoah. consider him to be innocent . another exposss to the heat of the San. and a third keeps u~lderher own wiljgs. If rnaukil~d. ~'Frum the time that Bdam was born s spirits that fell dow11 th13 1 with him. by mcaas of whiob they could distinguish good from o i l . for instance. who &tend to with ~ r m t u r e ~ themselves. Rusturn. Afrasiab. aud hope nothing from them. because the latter although they devour tbe wicked without any protect their suf. ~ h t ~ from the wicked and as3ociate with the good of The of the beasts are always watchful to another tribe. If you xcrc couversaut . tcrers. eutiuchs. the giants assented to the trnt. for their convcuience and comfort He madc the sun. and then twasts them iu circular directions. for every tribe and individual of man and beasts is guarded over by angels. and sleeps in i. chblts. Sdam in these very forms and features will rise again and euter Paradise. ‘c Cccause. the wilrierness. If men were not exceed. This inatinct i given them by Cod Himself. d I c o ~ ~ ~ ~ r r e d i n t h . &c. They are delivered by mid!vivcs.arid lenient to their genii remarked: I t is true. hired n ~ v s e s bathe it.jects to derive benefits from hesitation. weaves a circular web? makes it as strong as possible. because we are never guiity of intidelity and disobedience!' When the parrot had ceased speakipg. and if the beasts injure him fomlcators.-$mighty z Night and day me pray to Him and are causequcntl~ blessed with especial favbrs. highm:ly robbers. Now say. T h o ~ e before him are the bodily spirits." The crowd They feed them. lime and mortar." 'l Of thove angels who are appointed to guard over mankind who is the chief?" enquired the king. but for every good tribe.for amongst us there are many who rival him i n those arts. hypocrites." "How came the angels t o imbibe such love for each other 1" enquired the king. Nimrod and the virtues of any person. and fly off from those who attempt to outch them. She leaves a small space in the middle. and as soon as the child is boru. Circles she describes nrithout. 1 ancl those of birds for graiu. The silk-worm also a small. This is not to be made a subject of vaunti~ig. with species into nvhioh birds were divided. soalso from the companionship of the good. that the^ hold intercourse with these spirit% couverse with them.~ amongst y02b only. This art t she lcnows without being instructed by parents or tutors. to the present day. which areso iudispensable to their tail~:~. surpames their artists. there ever gOUr tyrefib kings have occasion to doubt is another most vicious and corrupt. who went on thus :-$'Tilis man s q s that there nre many skilful artists to be found in his tribe. and mankind. are better t b n those of men. Because in s renrillg them up." The king wished to kuum why the angels and spirits mere invisible. extracts worms therehorn. Eblees is one of them. li. a philosopher of the houlld to be always kind . d u d we are worse than these !-On the contrary but where are they not? In every trihc: there we their good qllalities.us . We. aud quail% for instance. without expecting a return of ser. The Almighty says L-: I have placed them. by means of which they are not entirely dependant on their mothers. Cqnoequently God has cudowed them vith the power of knowing good from evil. the virtuous fly srliljects even as the ~ l ~ iis to ~i~ creatures. and still for all that. and ut 1 1 about twenty or thir$ e g F arc collected. for when 1Te created them. however.vice from them as mankind do. whom God has appointed to defend them from all harm. made thcm with the most exquisiteperfection of art. thieva." ordered his majesty. who governs their different orders under different denominations.~ on. who is the weakest of reptiles. They bring . and communicate to manbud generally the messages they receive from Heaveu through them. for their minds are also steeped in light. we do . that they do not harm him. But those. she dividcs them into three heaps. Thcir whole life they spend in learning to read and write. decelltly expressed. rs tilis acting respectably? angs thus feel the effects of their sin. 3Iuuoo- nut a cylinder. Not ao we. not. heretics. In fact. It ingly ungrateful why would the Lord make it am evening now and the Court broke up. they are divided illto various tribes . why would their hermits hope of r8ward from them. The bee.28 IKRWAN-OOS-SUFFA. who provides for his creatures. The moment we are born. and those who are vicious fly promote the good of their people andamy. for k i ~ ~ d tyrants. me know eve1."' are speech had come to an end. is more than a matoh for their weavers iu the a r t of spiuning and weaving. Zohak Fureidoon. ~h~~ nourish their and saints abjure their society. The spider again. knaves. Their children too are e s t r e ~ e l y foolish. what sovereign was most liind and considerate to his subjects' and troops ? The ruler of the angelsn-answered the sage . that they may they think no more of their people and Wheu this army. she el to a tree. and more partieula~lythe bya. and it is because that the indi. even as his form and features are still preserved in his descendants. She first draws O U ~ threads from her slimy secretions." answered the sage.she never uses.' whose evil habits cannot be. pickknows its kind. demanding favor mals. partridges. hence it is. ignorance haugs not her pall over thcm. they are creatures of light. for me have are . After fiftecn or twenty years they come to reason and discretion. We see it that from the time of Cai11 aud Abel. both the male and female bird do not joiu. and elude our senses. a n d bend low their heads through shame. mere men . the use of a compacs. designed for the reception of fliev on which she preys. The prophets see them. wished to know. slay and destroy other animals. addressing the parrot.and have no discrimination of good from evil. Man's love for man is not equal to the one hundred thousandth part of Cod's love for them. the prospedty of their subjects like the &erefore. This is because p u understand ]lot 1 the la*lwge of beasts. The swallows. i ovip tbrough love ond affection. in the woods associating with the rapacious ani. and the trees were rendered fruitfill so that they may be provided with food.

why i t was that had eloqt~eetspeakers aud preachera.which was after all poweriess in reruoving evil. you are in distress. whereas those who were out ! your doctors. fro& the lectures of the nightingnle. know you not that this : The astrologe~s and soothsryers profess oglp scie~lceis only professed arld believed by fools .rho are tyrants and deepots.then. We proand mercy. if Pbamah bad supplicated Cod for knew t h ~ t h e re. from religion. rho t o Rod to remove from hirn t h e danger threatbelieve not i n another world. and others regard ckdos as old." rctnrned the praises of God. Pe~-petuall i' 1 I ! 1 . K~~nwledge for ns :-Be is I! asked the king. it is from Cl~ese. who. secrets of astrology. that a child was t a public may easily believe them. We clo not require % ed. never break His comraandexertioos." observFat& stsrn decress'are never changed b p schemes. five. T h ~ l s but what are these pmplsO Xight xnd day they beyond i t is necessary to accibs a\l t h starry influence are p~izzleiLdin swtrch of p~oofs. expresses Bimself thus:-. high and low. Some say there are two evils existi~rg. world as ancient. They generally prophesy nhout are exempt ft-om the evil : for iustance. But knom j many a professor of that science. withont vaunting of ourselves. ficiency i n astrology. and by wor3hippi::g with a clean Why then foolishly depreciate our merits a ~ i d aud pure heart. w e l l and what happened ? Abraham not abuse it. and there to weep a ~ t d cry placed. cven as : only u~hen'lust intemperance breeds a malady or Noah and his family.glory iti your geometricinns and mathemnticinus . 1' I ! i 1 1 i the planets. When and extirpate t h e idolators from the land. 1 regulate our diet. the Almighty will relieve i what family. and number. &hy then glory in your astrologe~s dot.So also. hfoses from all harm. whereas i changed . ?aped. gant poets amongst them.o. crc. The astrologers had told will happen.' From Adzm t o Mohamed.grace of Qod.\l:~ker of and former uor their mixtures. the I lence of the infidels. htrt foretold that i heavzuly bodies. And all this time they was proper for the King to retire with his sub. who would eventually overthrov idolatry.. and those who wretched and unfortunate congregate on the doors of tbe astrologers. for your sins. \sherens. t o counsel their peop e t o cry for help t o the Almighty i n that Year. self says : 'Every created ohject repents the : "The removal of evil is possible. did uot leave their homes. king pawed a general order. I n the 11ight a ' He who knoms himself. The Almighty Hirn.in the mists of doubt. Same are ent. and ings of t h e crow. O p i u i o ~ ~sod reli-. Now the r i s e and ignorant are not l a t h equal. others do n o t Some put f8ith in the I others. who 'did . the Lord. while cines. Those who are be born. by which the inh:~lrit:~nts while of that grand science. kcoms God!. Hence their i t is foolish for you to boast of your Some believe thnt appearalrces blve aIways exist.d to explain the nature of t h e catnxtrophe. some iu n~easuriap the would befill the city. and t h e r e b ~ alluded assertions of wtrologers .mho geneyou t o turn away your facp. : alms-deeds.ist the night in watchfulness. Warrg a person bns' fniled to bo res. put faith on t h e exterminate t h e idolaters. H e of Moses. arcrilcing. t h e descriptive with Phmoah? who persecuted t h e sons of ISpowers of the i o c a ~ tthe prnyers offered by t h e { rael. it is our duty. and Qod saved him from the malevo. Some cousider this were left to nature. and those who had remained io the town j cumcicion and true faith. They know not how the intestitles are part of the country. God go to physicians and druggists. and where brought u p they you. "it appears that the mill of God can be sllch a city after ten or twerlty years . YOU boast a@in of mere destroyed .{ they \vaste their liv-s in learning sciences pered by one of tllcsc people. again cried t o the Lord in their distress and he relieved them. the cala~nity of rooar~t. that you understnnd not thcir j too. i n whom you glo~y. the fear of God entertained by the rant.our supeliority. There they know is both simple and necessary. and electunry medimade. the eullogiuzn p m ~ ~ o ~ ~ n c c d tors ? These people can only mislead the &noby the swallow. sach a rnnnth. obscw. monarch.IHRW -43-00s-SUFFA. advising them t o abstain from thi~lgs which would shake your'faith in them. t o a distant bodies. You also ques.' weep. what t h e astrdogem told him murdered hun. even as the tion of the Deluge. Bur tne same Bhnlghty y o r e r shielded . or dnterulining the priests advised." " No i t is uot. " Ey oolrservil~gthe commandsays :-'Every beast Icnova how t o pr:lise God.aulatiolt of the world was en. have attrolled to the wails and pilirrs of mos. architects and farmprophets and their saying. if Nimrod a t that moment prayed their tin!@ .some these.6ciillls. Those who confide i n the mercies of besides d i c h the religions exercises of i a Providence never beliese the assertions of meu the nuts and hees .to know the Creator. Tile lnivs of the solar system. devotional practices of the reptiles.S1:rves only rut1 about begging assistalx:e from lutions. l ~ ire come t t p. and lament he said. nor observe the rites of ciron low sides. from the uulvers:rl derstruc. and wished to know horv i t was possible some puzzle their heads in cornprcheudiug the to --cape from the danger threatened. futing. When children of Israel. b weeping. Phwoah amther. ed the rest because thcy would not put faith mntters worse . was t o be destro ed.if you were conversant with { like these? Here the king interrupted the all these. rvhich it appears that you are entirely eartly by t h mercy of God who has made astro!ogers i n your nature. . nrrying. [ to foretell that such and such an evil mill be that women aud children only p n t faith in its i s e ~ tbbg God: why uot pray to Goci Himself revelations . Say what t h e a a t r o l ~ ~ e ? ~ of the lark. it centre of the earth. the forebod. that every child born been t h e y t i c e of the prophets. falling sickt never need the prescriptions of the Some believe i n the CO-esioter~ce l. Bnt others. ~day. ~ i f the i 31 . Many have written their humble rneuts. or eve11 as far R 8 S ~ V ~ I L . Besides first to prny to the Lord for the restoration of these there are several other kinds of false faith health. which to with which they weye threatened. I n sickness also. Rence i t is proper that t h e ihxded child would &O be ono of the we ahould make a right use of astrology. some four. i t has always n could not satisfy him. others ~ e f ~ l toedo so. supplications 011 pieces of paper which they as mankind delight to do. that i n his reign s child mould be a calamity. iu pnrsuance of 2 would have then been saved from destruction. and blest bp being made both the plenatn and t h e h o u s u of the biought the true faith. d c c o r d i ~ i ~ i y t h . Sour merchants.' ments laid down in t h e Sacred W r i t i r ~ ~ s . These are what Moses taught t t h e born. j mhat are tile nature of the henrt and b r a i ~ ~ s . . and &strop i.) and not place all our trust and wo. i u spite of all the Doctor's what He hnsgiren us. nod the mercy of the Lord has de. depend on no one. The King referred to his leugth of forests and the depths of rivers. and then pray to God to avert t h e Nimrod. These will bring down the exalt your own ? As regards your vaurlte(1 p1. they never study . 11 . and peopie. the decrees of Fate -are never t o be alterthe rnek. and his troops and subjects kind .j escape by the aid of astrolo~y' " If I>ypracj1~3tfor the purpose of misleading ignorant peo. We aye thankful t o Him for tored to health. scended on them and they have got well. t b e cooings of the pigeon. Tliose who are free.1 ktrow notl~ing of the physiology of their own jects. and therefore never three.ere shower of raiv fell.' You do not know this . !eft relircd to a distaut part of the couutry. a s me believe in one Qod. to keep off t h e erii. and eler nstrologera took the trouhie of learnitrgn science.physicia~tsand nstrologcrs. " i t is useless now t o study t h e At last. Bs~ause they iuduce The sun* is the case v i t h ph. the Atnighty would have convertd trusted t o seven planets and twelve houses of him t o t h e faith of the Israelites.fess one faith.rich sad poor. ignorn~lt all the befal his Capital. and saved his the Zodiac. with rr~ostof his s ~ ~ l ~ j e c t sthe city. rather than try to ?' dence in them ? The professors of this scie~lcc. even as his done ~ t h o u tthe will of the Almighty.sssistance. which tcaches how would be exposed to great duogsr. the preach. others deny f slaves. when coantries far distant.are worse than s some wander. hy forgetborn. T h i ~ i p ~ to the Creator Himself. give out that such a caiamity will IjefaI 1 the kiug. who would eventaaily overthrow and misled -and unenlightened. and how the j o i ~ ~ t s bepun praying for stlfety from the misfortune strengthened. (for this is done only through his grace I and religions which mislead mankind. who wlfe waspreserved by God.in you. aitd preserre us from all dangers. Only the sick 111 reference to this.( tisilrg devotious me can remove evil. but. who are ouen to error like we continu:illy worship. when the astrologers foretold the hirth tfioumnds of innocent children. pointing out contradictions in your sacred hooka. Then you run to them. 'CV to h e wished t o know where he would be born.ved pie. upon ." nonsense on a piece of PP to misleafi fools. from other." "How is this mercy t o be obtained?" language of praise. er5 again. and by rally i m e + s e the malady of theil* ~ a t i e u t s by .The same was the case of the illsects and beasts. &<only those who pray to God for safety or their families. giving W e are therefore higher in ra111i than you. and Be. what God had milled happened. they would -vanish earlier. the city was situi~ted as they are. These particnlar~.. but that the wise do not pur. that nothing was ) hosts from being overthrown him .' ed t h e king. they grossed it1 calculating the distances of remote esDreasad themselves uriable . But you require their nssista~lce weeping and pr:~yingt o God. what ) on t t o God for safety. the strength is possessed Ly the ribs of the breast .for they have no power to change on what 1 said. When desir. Thus t h e astrologers say. whom fidence on physicians. who are sure t o make were in the Ark with h m I saved.also. Some think the world t o "e iuEuite. s i r . and them j how the \ m e s are arranged . The tribe of Jonas Zodiac. sou are phi[osophers and Logicians.ting Cfod end ascribing UU t o the revolutions af . writes down you not that these scieiices o:lly mislead you. Nimrod was one of this ) faith of Abraham. and who are blind I ened. "not by the skill of t h e astrologer. A certi~inKirlg wn3 inform. He would have made him profess the t o the decrees of fate.ed. have ensured a speedy cnre If the diseases s gions then begin to dif?er.t o be h:ippy herc nrld hereafccr. never asli Hirn why thisis so. and never believe what ! cornprehension thev pretend to elucidate. that the generality of the astrology informed Kinrod. " How ?" enquired man. and not so.is to { fectly useless i n themselves . and hat duties they perform . and wished to kuorr.lot care for the forel~odings tile Astrolo. worse treated than beggars. Some heileve ill i t s revo.B e knew not. Suffice i t t o know what %W run t h e details. even as the prophet Says : of nnoral~t gers." replied the they know not what will happen t o themselves other. others believeit finite.) YOU are proud again because ! the evil aspect of a plar~et yet still for all that. as they do in the world. that a calamity m.which th. the llotice to worship given try : may. they still for all thai never h i z h t in so the waters rushed in from all the words of God. the existence of sense and reson. for instatwe such of to Abrahnm. 10211. when they question the ." "This is all very true. you vonld have known that they too parrot.i v i d o ~ ndiipli~gedin Ria ordinances. that on the day appointed. some in itlvestigatiug the height o i s n c h a date of.rins and clouds. thinking that t h e time of distress.


that God is pleased. to go over the bridge of Surat . We are free mins of India destroy themselves. In a word all the animals are piles of fire. commune with and hope in Rim. In the Koran i t is said. there are other passious is always commendcd in every religion. and span of space is to be fonnd on any of the i the angels will say to us :-' Blest and happy seven heavens.big oceans in the wodd. remain and adoring God? Heilce it is. crime.of creation. the king address." there . . and when it is also are yet other qualities in us which prove us . In doing good none thongh they he. opened his ed d your arguments. People should glory on such blessings wisdom has formed and arranged all. wit11 S Heligio~~ have co~lsider~d therr beads. no blessi~lg promised us . and themselves 1 long. 1 I The Persixn nightingale imme-. zlli~ators you are God's.seu-sa~rifice the surest meatls of avoiding "We also think God to be the Creator Hdl and gaining EIcaven. who live on dry ground. he would find sacrificed for theireountries. milk. you mould thiuk that $ glorious privilege. numerous be compared with angels. calls down curses on his head. Ent in cvel-p religion and Provider of all. and who doubt in attain certain ends. E g p t .lways employed i n Eounting j away from commu~~ion God. ncknomledge Him this maner. that they are superior to the beasts." asked the king. &c. cclor. Punjaub." If each wishes -''The t o go to the same God.are China. they were those of worldly philosophers do. lon and tedious.. t o sit under the shade of the toohr-tree on the j mheu all these facts are satisfactorily and inconbanks of streams filled with wine.aud a thousand other species of aquatic animals. We mill live to everlasting ages. but angels are there worshipping 1 are ye. entirely destroyed. fear no one but Rim.watches over. but whoae enter Paradise and thcrc to rove through Eden. subdue the lusts of the flesh.~ ~ AGod has s promised you blessings. hawe their own 1 lived virtuously me mill yet be the companions especial appointmcrlts there . Oh race of men ! j here always I' you. I f nre are inners.hem. established. Some say." ) plicity of his tribes. Each wishes that the rest should that mank'ind are better than the other ohjects follow his own religion. the devotee sa. lords. and too. as long s s our e t ~ dia I the unity of Gocl. If the king mould lis. There are nineteen why do they kill and slaughter each other 1. and said:-The beasts have answer. whcn thc repentant sinner ~ncri5ces himpure and clean in heart. The latter requires 1 able other cities and countries. said. . honey and trovertibly established. t o feed on thonly ashy fruits . All are the creatures of God.to be recounted here." "Politics and Religion. be. in islands and in fawsts. to live . manlilnd and heasis. but for Religion how thirt his own tribes are comparatively few. nor in a day of Account . Yerncu. But mankiod are not acquainted all the P ~ O ~ ~ Sof O ~ S with our mode of prying. Alexandria. the Euphrates.- " ~ l . All these are the creatures and sul?jects of God.i above referred to. tn burn in the Bres of Hell. "Explain this fuIly.. place all their trust widcr than this again . all his friends ansmered that they mere prove this 1" By referring to t h e variety of their ready. The moment ye die ye are your own numbers mere comparatively nothing. so are curses also entailed on you. are they. who frced from ail earthly alloy Hedjazec still persisted. And if ye do not R b r . especially of 3lahomed." answered the ous kinds of people. other. Politics they always make saib: This man apealis 'highly of the multii t a rule to sacrifice others. ye are not mine. t ~ ~ vhomdall sour hopes ~ the same. to be near God:-all these blessing has ) beasts should be their subjects. who has made them. from all curses too. Not a spau of space is left un. j qualities i n u s a recital of which would be too and in sacrificing the pnssions.I R A WAN-00s-SUFFA. 'I To sacrifice the ) tion their slaves. dispositio:~. The i monarch. E we have vens. < wise. a sage. and temperate. believing a11 the nrhile. Budukshan. so t o be ~ r o v i d e n t : think of Ilim nixht and that not a single deaire remains to draw them day. How. who should look thuusands of men are to be fo~md." A Persian remark. sage had come to a conclusion. Evon on the of that mankind should be honbst. that among them is a raceof beings. At last. and believe in HIS Unity. and it is ' alone.each tribe to the spread of Religion amongsh his people." !1 1 - 5l 1 ' '! 1 < : m' i I --- . a description of which ie given also in the Komw. whom you hare praised so much 1' in praying to and praising Ilim. Idolators. what order mill your water. They are split up into thousands of sects such as J e m . populated bp d "Not for religious purposes. "Then why have you so many sects amongst however. Hedjnz. he continued. 'God has pur." On hearing these words. "Oh race of men j derlve no benefit frorn any action. a all more towards God.-in the same way the on I s m . If he would but see the interposed the sovereign. YOU h o r n nothing of those j smired. Devotees. but Religion is primacy and Jiqan Neeshapore. wisdom no one has been ever able to fathom . The Lord has promised blessi~lgsto us: who are always near God. and indecd THENfrog had done speaking onc of the grateful to God for what Be has given us.cities and b w n s too of which he talks." ! Judgment. and no trace. India. to live in high fahies in the society of Majesty pass in fnvor of man ?"-That the Aouries. " are twins. porpoise. The one is necessary for ! Ferghaua. and sacrifice their property and i the earth. Besides these there are several lakes. in whatever direction we Pause in his sl~ecch. for the regions i excel8 them. A God has slaughtered several people for their politi.and that they are the lords. to of them. howThus every higher degree is midcr than the over. 1 were satisfied with the decision and all returned Besides these we have other merits which I hnve contented to their respzctive homes. Irak. Besides these there are innumert h e ~ecurity the other. can Refore these." The per. who believe not in 2 day of you ? l J asked the king : " Religion and Faith. but we are exempt is CEAPTER XXV. his perfect point. Greece. crocodiles. Eesides these. Bypo. and wickedness are. They know not what hypocrisy. whose opinions differ from each other. Thcy are always desirous of pleasthese spirits inhabit. To suffer in the tomb . ye beasts! enjoy not this that if you beheld these. religion and ingenuity. so that each from two hundred to two thousand miles they ~acriiiceall they possess. &c. * * * all sacrificed for God's mke and nevcr prol?& Each regards tho other as an atheist. and the brute crenI U ~ S S ~ O Uwas readily given. > ~ h o s eexistence and numbers are unknown to ali but God. turtles. Our Faith and Seli. and the heavenly regions ten times themselves in H s service. intelligent. that there should be one king. and that they are very wise ." The glorious spirits. h'om have you aught ! mouth and said :-[l 0 just king ! when the l else to say 1" A Hedjnzee returned There i claim of mankind is proved. Cebul. in the way of God. naFor this reason many n Professor of Tlzeology ture. Nazarines. nor sustain and beasts! YOU are nnacquainted with the might anv evil thereby. '' How are Fe equal 1 now reside on t h e several degrees of the Hea. Those who are virtuous. One cannot live I Aaerbijan. "are means by which me i not the recl~utalof crimes. Some indeed exclaimed :-U Now you hnve spoken to the are sulI>jectcd to others." '' Horn do you asked. will medan Religion. provides for t. Constxntinople. even as assist me. it matters not what means we employ are bant. Biooltan. who dread returned the other. Fire-worshippers. 35 yet there is uniformity in our spirits whereas . Jeelan. ing to the spirit of the New Testament :-"If fishes. and keeps them aafe from ail harm.~ r l n r ~ r a and besides these several more. with devils for your companions :-all those are for you. We the genii. Those who are angels. and many more. fact I obey him in all things:' The brnte creation Proves that we are lords and they our slaves. "but more for the sake of politics. ing the Lord. me will gain salvation through the interlower. and whose nature is To rise from the dead. to drink yellow j water. ckuse this is pleassnt to bin^. they self to obtain parclon of his sins. and five h~indredof those. without the other. We are free from these.' t h o ~ ~ s a ncities 111 the world. "aud that they should henceforth beasts will enjoy none of these." The frog here brokc in and crifices him~elf. The following again ia accord. so that you can go to heaven mith me and live with your brethren there." returned the the Almighty promised us i n the Ko~alz. From Him nothing is hidden. and are a. I n n word. t o render an account on the day of r that the tongue fails to give a right description judgment . are ten times wider than . and five hundred rivers chased t h e souls and property of the faithful. I n these are to be found. that they are so pure. We are content. differing from the other in langnage. wlio were d l l i r ~ g assist in the service of God. addressing maulcind.'?Wheu the Persinn had coore to s a in gaining it Go. I not recounted. diately answered him and ~ n i d . In the habitable world.j may peace be on him !-Then me will inherit occupied. Gucbres. end you are not highcr than we. the g ~ u superiority. but those who in. and faithless to Christ. Atheists. Bindoo contiuued." returned the other. mhatever reand that thus there were no demonstrations of mains of SOU. Xho~assan. even as the Prophet says: ' S o t a i Paradise mith the horries and gl~iilmans. Syria." I there arc good and bad individoaLs." Ylgrit~a.bat none could explain the nature of the beiugs ed mankind. These show cal tenets. to render a strict account on the day of judgment. that there are seven hundred species of aquatic animals. all the beasts put together. Cross. and the former tops of mountains. and made them inheritors of Reaveu . cessions of t h e Prophets. T h e . For there are fifteen plain. near the king of Hell . on from these diversities. I 1 I 1 1 I i. Politics secondary. saying: s race of -%dam is more uurnerom than like. If mankind mould hut refer to the number of the beasts they would find that they are n o t their slaves. hnhit the colder regous are giallts or devils. such as the Jihoo. and provides for all. that ye have entered Heaven . prepare yourselves for death aud the crites. t o w a r rags ." T h e n Christ to mankind are just the reverse. In a word. But do Iet us know what ~ o r t of beings s incumbent on us continuaUy t n occnpy ourselcea are those. thinking for x moment . The can one sacrifice his passions l" " I n the Naho.' Several other passages rivulets in 0 t h parts of the earth too numerous ~ prove the same. abstemious. ten patiently I shall recite an instance. 1. Cyon which he remarlied:-' If ye are creeds. in believe in the unity of God . and each and all are inhabited by heaven. "this too is appear not many after all." When the %fankind remained silent." "It is evident. "that kings are to be different kinds of aquatic animals.' At last. are nothing . I n the same way the Era.willing. TlSue i t is. the Nile.sake of religio~~ gion are one. and lunar degree is ten times wider than all the rest. The worst. to spread through the c angelic. ly spirits. to be questioued by Jloonkir and Nukeer. sacrifice yourself for God. holy and great world . representatives of the animals and all the genii r and form his subjects and army.of saints and prophets. and for the burn themselves living. Hence pour arguments are auof pour Maker.

covering. 1 *+? An Astrolabe. A kind of falcon. i. d !&.VOCABULARY: J. a Piebald. 001 a bright red @or. \+ . a . A( :! s . fluent. do~sers. 8. a j l d l 8. +34-1 . + J Tranquillity. Coldnes~. L. ~ ~ prop. &S3. a hawk. An insect. wrong. 1 S. t'J l 1 I i r ~ p o r t u n i t yurgency. Equals (in age and rank. content. reat I aJ + J Stile. J\qJ y%L-l 1 1 I +j& clad tidiags. A span. complaining. S. gmodees. 8. Beasts. 1 9 S. Violence. A . S. sc+JI J ! S. S .&&~ll &f 1j Lj$ f 1 U:j2d S. . I ~ 1 l Approving. protec- &JC. A swallow. Dress. tion. phants are driven. aiimals (PI. S . Exciting. commendations.l S. copious. oppression. 1I Pack. .1l J ~ JS. L* %& a S. arrangement. opening. Demanding justice. 1 Assistance. asking aid. ujL Lq [. con~uRation.-IbJ 641 1 S. a. Eloquent.) Incantation. & l 3 . Bastion . a sign of the Zodiac. e. . . birday mm& time of retiring. S. black white. of- s . chilinesx. htaxerxes. Brother.. & d r. A female falcon. Lightning. y ~ L lr Manner. the iron with which ele- 1 U?!!!. S. Nights' lodging. S. S. n hawk. ddhg!) Eyes. prmrota . causei s Loosening. S. concealing. party-colored. rotfen. purgiog. ~1/3f ~ ' j j . mods. t!. p! Bodies. Praises.(: lowest: depthhence Belt. An owl. Goad.

a. Betiremenb. intelligence. justice.Jl +4 L r. & p JIJJI G . 8 Act of leading or guiding. 5r~3. ! . ii I i d . Continence. S. ingenuity. pleasant. S . 33+" . a clad in armour. A royal white falcon. I dd - 9. S. a plain.strife. *p?a. Observations of the A bole made in the wall by bnrglars. p. Eqnity. A small tambourine. forgiving. j -i J r S. Clever.) repniring J Chequered cloth. A 33 S. Wickedness. a chrysolite. innate. 1 1 1 u. A crucifix. Striped muslin. 2 6. f ~ l9 . Imitation. . tyranny. Enmity.h. v." 3 5 5 S. A hare. aAterity. i Vesetation. a. . s Extortion. arbitratog mediator. revenge. The third j umpire. eb (pl.~ l 8. S. counterfeiting. wild beasts. Verdant. ~3 Abstinence. bi L v l j v. . S. Partridge.J & JaJ 6. pleasank ~ood sign. n. ! J? S S. A shedder of blood. violence. a & f c ~ . gripes. A porcnpine. s . 8- Natural. 4 L f I. An ostrich. d-2 S . li +(iY ya* '' The n m e of e bird. growth of a plant. a. S. li (9) J s . A falcon. Excelling deserving. ~ 6 j V b y S. The song of a bird. L "s + cf&" commtioo. deprarity. An owl. S. Mending (a garment. ~ (a house. travelling. k e . . r W[? pmp. ~ S. S. l h= S. J. s. ph 3 ~10th &roan m e r the sit on. A desert. Inflection. A tnio. A kind of erneraid. 3 rl> 3 A fierce rapacious animal. u ' A b a 4 &J1 +l! J b S. The interior cavity of a thirlg. s . . lib em lit^. cioset- J=-j The planet Saturn. d CICAI~ 8. +S . Consumption. Thunder. A leopard. of p*) Lions. Acknowledging the t m e God by repeatiog the sentence-" there is S. n i e equator. solitude. The Red Sea or Arabian gulf. 8. - / JJL l allsa31Jl a. j 1 51~ I h S. ! i w2r J Ingenuity. reracious.. -. A a m e l driver. S~RI'J d O of r B de . A moment . 1 JLir / S.. roads. To cry aloud. contortion . S. 1 ! I [oiluj ' Skill. L % porpoise. S. topaz. The four oontinenti. An b a g . & . a robbit. G S.[. The cypress tree. Mulberry. lit: limit md r i m S WJ J S . a subtle question. a. ! jS . &A $!='I . moist. ~~~mr(irj( .l 1 +!I . A sea-dragon. S . Sire..) The li~:ingof iron arnlonr. . no God but &d.&l?. movement. essential.' S. 1 7 J * firr * present S. prop. to 1 &=c" 3a& S.A kind of cloth in which the flowers are wove in and not worked. F . wrong. Reptiles. . S . Departing. j &j J S.8. s . devotion. S. cmninp. [ ? a. Syria.

. J+ 3 S . unclad. S . Substance. 8. 8. Detriment. Bound. euntention. &+l . surety. corruption. subdued. I he a. Distance. Light of the Eyes. S. plsa9ui-a. the other world. . Mortar. frigid zone. associate. &&. A rhinoceros. '~mqnered. of the body. Infection. a. ' cfFirr k c cc. Magog. Eloquent.& d9L L s .'l. " Be and it was. . Perceived. a Return. &jtjkaj' over of attraction.o a watch . subdued. Disputation. ha S . surrounded. Possibilities. shape. The ring-dove. fraud. plays. 8. 4 ~6ya. S . S . detained. Returning. glorious. Canai. Disagreement. uL~J S . J v. Slaughter-how. mirth. prop. an aquatic bird. to attend. a. V. a. The planet Veuus. r. Spleen. Lunar heaven. Satire. 1 ~2 1 Q . eL@ g. S. rational. Speech. Glibness of tongue. gambols. S. measure. Familiar. lig A drum. recourse. a. defective. known. quantity. S . s Fire of Hell. Initiated. S. S A. 1 I rJJi+4 +jfJ S. The planet Nars. s chameleon. Changed. a. Men of wisdom or holiness. heavy.d b : I a. TO be changed into an inferior S. also denotes the early h a m a t of the year. r. Security. &rI . sbambii. An apostate. S. b &&L !j a . Jealous in point of honor & of love. power. f & . r Vidorious. 0 (AS(. Pcederast. The place or state to which one returns. Reasonable. m e whole of t h creation. A &htiniale. (549 S. i J9*'i# S . 1 ~ 2 besn. tr & $ @ A . The Phimix. 0 9 4 S.g . 8. a. Name of a bird of the partridge kind. A ao. transmuted. a crocodile. Besieged. sport. promises. e9- 8." Epi- &1kJa s. S. 1 i Play. 7 1 &c All things existing. (a) f y n A bird. UD34 felt. r S. Traditional. virtue. S. s . 1 1 /I f. filthy. 2nd thet of God. I! 3-6( part. visiting the sick. the milt. a. U.i% The d e d . J G . space. ' / cr2&fl I. ! S . S . Insufficient. I ij ~ ~ J~ Taken. diving. L 1 1 A sparrow.) The season of spiing . 3a1+!? To hew. a. S One who delays doing what . An Epithet of the Deity.W mons. A companion. a. The. The law of retaliation. S- a. ordinary. Dipping. Perfidy. A Peacock. 8. referring to. Naked. abuse. 4'b J S L ' s . S. S.ic S. l [4 a severe. commenced. 1 1 s . S. Unworthy. -. ad+-+U& 1 S. A jackd. friend. i I &Gr I A lizard. fastened. libidinous. pl. a tambourine. A waterfowl. d. A village or parish. a. 36 4 J & S . - . a t$9& (Lit. authority.bG Sudden death. &id[( 2 " 1 Digging. jndiciom. ransomer. damage. 5 . Banghtiness. 0 8. p. c r * _ J ~ . Power or ail1 . Waking. diction. p1 3b a. 5J h&r A camel*^ &addle. S . Pore. Rare. the srotic re. Food . enmity. [ I~ l f o s. scorn. 8 . . d196*d-Jl S . h 4 a.

Path. S. h punther. 3 j S . prop. way. (3%. manner.A. j3i Yh Jb S. CALCCTTA:--PRIRTZD BY D'RoZarclo AND CO. bpatter. amplitude. ~4 > . Xu'arne of a bird (hoopoe. 6 Valley. $ F[? 3 bJb S .) q3b &uu) s. a lyux. . low growd. . 6 TASF-SQUARE. Leisure. i *("If "!J j j W+4 > 8.




l~!i which thc studciit inay compare and correct his owii ~voi-k.rcic:re. a t t r i b ~ t e d 3lr Jalnes Atl~insan. BI)!SU:'XGH : rn:KTBO E\-l < I L L h S T Y F X A S D CO>:Y. wilich is usecl e s a teatboolc both in 1:ldin and England.c 110 co~r. and rcprintccl in vol.T R A N S L A T O R ' S PliEFACE.cilghnrt main:ained. are oltrn ljlaccd ili situariorl~ w11er.lc aod manner of t l ~ c original.nination i i l it. One. b:it it \\. \\. lYllc11 I cuill~r~c~icccl work I was not .ctica! purposes it TH:2s .ill givc to rile 1<1:glish reader a cle. thcrcfori. but it is imperfect. Such beizg thc ol:ject of rhis translation. ! S translation has been i1:nde to sr:pply a want U hi& often been repraio:li~d to me..ecessisy would aliow. a ciosc adherence co rhc text has been thl. theil~sclrcs far csa. tlic." was publisher! in a n I~tdiancwjpaccr. The I k h w i i ~ ~ . T!lis translation is accurate nncl fi~r spirited. uii! daubrless prove a grcnt hclp 2nd zdvanragc to him.>ctenc inslructioa c a n bc ob.~ Safi" is n stai~dzlrd I-Iindustani work. 1r1. ssvili..::iiicci. and for ail pr:.as strict as the r.ir idca of the st. of thc 4sint2r. at ~ n c c accuratc anc!.ing the English clear anrl inrcI!i:ible The vcrsion. ( ur3Ra. o i 111al. is n a t sa smooth as it n i g h t 11zvc 11ccn made. but there are at ieast tlircc diiferent 1-s:-sions. esact. 70n~jzrtl 1829.\%-arethat any this previous trandarion cxis:cd .\hS. . A trarislation. to the translator of parts of the " ShBh-njma. Those v:ho havc t o pripnri.

T:iE X:. U S THE [)l.'i)lElIS . l i j h ~ ~ Icdin.by Profcsjor 1)idcrici o i Ecrlin.l.n. TI'E rIr. . tclls us . . Iti?. J t givcj 2 very fair idsa of the t\. from rv!lich i: is clcrivcd. C@S5LiCI'A'1'IDX O F TIIE AIICN. S. I a?:~:old there is is anorher translation.ncrall:. . 11. but I 1lai.L1:on. . T1x. CCN CHAP. V I I I .l(. I > I S S K \ S l O S S EEl'\T I2T.\CE.lullarnmain l d a n ~ent1ema:l.and xviii. h o ~ x v e r is :he genci-a1 f x d t of these rrandztions.~ s c ~ ! c ~~~ ~?cI'~L~ The present translation h ~ l sbeen made from the excellent edition of t1lc Test published by Drs Forbei ard Ricu.~c/mjY.t versiofi was publishecl a: Calcutra in IS&! a n d is no1 very gc. . SIIT. . VII.. PXUCF:I:!ilXC. and the chapters and paragraphs follow the arrangement there obscrl-ed. .ome:hing o the gl-cat : \veil. 'l'[:! 'I'IIE KIX:. XIr. . The origi:lal Arabic \vo!-k has bccrl rranslaced into Germ:i. I t is a kincl of Encyclopx:dia of considerable extent.T..\TIO?.\LR. CCX7rEYl'r<. of thc ZL-if~c!w$f dt2:L'Sn~?lf>~~/i~tf~ D J ~ ~ ~G~~e..l T l I i::S 1 . and the language is generzl!~clear a n d perspicuous.I AI':sSI.\S [L! .TI-! 1IESSESCBI<.jS \!. 111. but i c contains a very large proportion of Arabic words.\I. FLBS'L' YESSEL'CBI<. ' . CREA'C1<)3' 01: M.S5 S I T I I E 5BC0XL1 DIESjES(:CR. .\CCOI:ST 01' TIIE lI~~l<?iT'. DXLISE. . riii. T h e narnre of the subject renclered thz iniroduction of many Arabic scientific terms a marter of necessity. bp a .S T!TC h ! X S :\S> JISb. I. in his Prcf:~cc. Or?r Hindustani t?a.\XI) 1'10!. ' O F 'I I ? . 01: b hli?SSTIZ<.l.ork. CO:6ITLhlNTS L '. . ANI\I. but stillthcsc forcign ~vords often employed ~\-l-lirn are pure vernacular ~vordsr~lighthave bceu used wit11 advantage. p ~ b l .ri{ Trlx l. ancl by I ' r ~ i l s s o r UicterLci in vols. .S. XI-.. Tkis. PBBl?. . ?\XI3 ' 2 i I I < ~ l lA P P I . . .4X -ITIS Z~>:I..SGBR.c not lnet wit11 it. 1. hI3llucl c a n e t o my notice. but the tranj!ation :S not sufficientiy close to allsmer the purpose :or \viiich this 1~0t-k iiltended.n:ay be cu~ljiiIerccl buriecl. I Ilctd nearly coinpleticl the work rv!lcl? 3 rranjlation by L l r ?'. TV. Noticcs of the work have l x e a pubitshed b y Professor Fliigel in vo!.\.T. \ l .lxor.\L<T.'BB6. COSSCL1'ATITJ'S 01: Y I I E I?.iIIS3EsGEF. .ISTEI:.<. P. COX3L1L'l'hl'IOS 0 : 9'171~: IClSG I t . TBIS T!liRD 2. T h e st)-lc of rllc I-Iinlustani translation is cocsiderecl very purc all& elegant.: O f T I I Z KLXG O F T I l S $195. TYE P0URTI. TI. O F T I I T : JiX9. XIV.


\vas directed to translate SafL.t timc.and some mathcmatic~land other technicalities. he was directed to run his pen through such pzssagcs. of Eigh dignity and grcat authority. the Professor of Hindi. but his instructions wcre to make the translation very easy. little points and fzcts rcla:ii~g to God. hc was so highly favoured and patronised that the aforenamed gcntlcman (Mr Locl~ett). upon thc recommsndation of that distinguishcd gcntle~nan. in Blessings and peace be on hi. so that no abstrusc words might appear thercin. Muhanlmad is the guide of rnnn and of life. and to reproduce only the gist of tile dispute I n complinncc with this instruction: t l ~ c writer has writtcn in t1:c Urclii idiom merely the pith of the matter. KurBn. represents that. and in wisdoi~l surpassing the intelligence of the eleven ( i d t n s ) . but somc spcccl~cs. Muhammad thc Pure. and by whom the road of salvation has been shown to US. which bear upon thc subject under discussion. every spccch is a ~ n i n c eloquence. and under the guidznce of fortune. and the chief of the tilost accomplished scholars. After this (exordium).intelligence to approach Thee as he ought ? Still man has sufficientpower to surrouncl Him with praisc Blessings unbounded are due to the Chief of SIessengers. in the kindness natural to him. But? in fact. t . has led thcm to a placc of rest in rhe road of sal~ation. S d r ~ iii. in accordance %iththe gracious test. esccliing all the doctors of thc tii~lein learning. Through this we havc received the distinction over all nations. ancl as the scientific phrases and spcec!les of thc original test are not free frorn cliflicnlty. . the Scal of the Prophets.the cream of the learned of the age. after receiving much consideration. into the Urd6 language the worli callcd " Ilch~vhnu-S which is (a n-orl<) upon the contcntions bctween ~nankind and the beasts . (may his fortune cnd:ul-e!) tllc mriter Ikrhn 'illi. if thc style and polish cf this coluposition arc duly considered. through whom the religio~l of Isl5m obtaincc1 strength. which were not gcrmane to thc point in dispute . Ilcrkm 'Ali. Captain John William Taylm. H e is our defc~dcr the day of judgment. Ordinary people attending only to the surfacc of the work. \v110 look into particulars: espcricncc plcasusc in discovcrin~ from the eract meaning of the phrases. \v110 having brought sinllers oot from the vallcy of perdition. Ikrkrn 'Ni. in obedience to the kind suggestion of thzc renowned gentleman. v. havc bccn retained. that mosc hunlblc of individuals. came to Calcutta. H e 112s c:ipungcd somc specchcs. and of every passagc n store of brilliant espression.''' Mullammad is the chief of the universe. but lcarncd men. ' l Ye are the best people. caused thc w ~ i t cto be apr 1 pointed on thc cstal>lis!lment of the Company TlallBdur in a position subordinatc to himself After a sho1. C O ~ I panions. postericy md on hi. and he has olnittcd se\-era1 scientific tcchnicaliries. He ir is who makes intercession for sinners. 106. lean1 only about the subject in dispute . 3lr Ab1-aham Lochtt (may his prosperity continue !)-and upon the invitation of his brothcr and teacher.'. Ma\vlawi Turkb 'Ali (may his shadolv cr~dure !)-he.

I V ~ O dwelt in communion at Dasra. then. In this book the object was to set forth the various truths and dogmas by the mouths of animals. BahAdur. trcating of the contention between mcn and the beasts.' are well stated. There was not eve11 so much feeling of security as that three or four men could join together. Thc arguments. dcscripri~~e illustrative.in the time of thc government of that noblest of digni. What mention can there be. by seeing this: might have a desire to attain to thosc perfections.ll. and religious matters. 011 the bcgi?zxi~zg the Crentiojt of the H?-r?)iirnrz of Racz l-O. s the Afmz RITERS have thus recorded the circumsrances of the first appearance of tile 11uman race :-SO long as men were fcw in number. This translation was made in the ycar 1Sz5 I-lijri. nhmad. and this book. and their 1 Soils of Adam. In the cold weather they dwelt in warm places. rational and descriptive.. is one of them. chicf of chiefs and hero of hcroes.The alJtlloru of this work were Abd Salnl. and used t o cover their bodies with leaves of the trees. the HLtim of thz age and the Plato of the time.-intdlecr~al or ration. 1\b6-l Hasan. through fear of the animals the!. used to run away and hide rhemselves in caves . S a ~ e ' s ~ r r n ? ~ t o ~ z i 7 ~ ~ drfo~r Li7:t. May his prosperity endure ! 1 'dkli.h s b mid or! tht:t . They wrote fift)~-onc chiefly upon the lnarvellous and occult sciences.and so at the end of the work it is stated that those points in which men prevailed over the mimnls were in those theological sciences and dogmas which the writers have treated of in their fiftyone works. of their weaving clothes and covering their bodies ? In fine. Nawab Governor-General Lord Minto. When in that condition a short period had passed. carry on agriculture. i i CHAPTER I. or 1810 A D . and during the heats they used to choose a dwelling in cool districts. In thc end. nafili. a d s p e ~ ~ t their days in the i n v c ~ i i ~ t i oof a11 n works.f their co?rte7~lioit with the A ?zizzals--Oilztheir s r e k i ~ ~ g j ~ ~ s t i c e in the presence of thz wise A7i9g B f ~ t w .lcerefuge in the hills and mountains. A . the men prevaiL The ainl of the worb is simply to show from this contention thc (superior) perfections of man . so that heedless people. the cream of powet-ful princes. and take their food. fied nobles. and others-ten men.hn. or historical or tradrtional. they used to eat whatever fruits ancl vegetables of the jungle they could obtain. after mud1 discussion. and from fear and dread of wild beasts they used to t~.

the animals grazing and brousiilg on Lhc vcrclant hCrl~age were fat and s ~ L ' and. Ddnz o dad-llarn'. thief. ihcy took tile rozd to the drtscrt.no~\:o to the a~~ima!s. saying: Good ! let messengers be sent quickly. 'The c~ climate of thar. the ansict. All the me]-chants ancl leal-llcd mell that were in the ship Lincled and began to csplorc the coulltry. The true Prophet made known to all sinners the way of righteousness. tocc!lcd the short of that island.indler.-\~l~atpossibiIitycouId there be then of al:y tAar.ighfin. BiwarGb. according to their old coursc. animals in snares.: gctring to dl:.azu/l#ir-a camel v/ithour cvhosc cognomcn was "T.? and wherever their hearts desired as \yere picking the fine gr:en herl~agc they found it. When the King had l~eard tllc detai!s of the aniall mals. th/i~' 7 and every man in his own occupation. Every man had the fancy thar the anirnds were their slaves.: on chc trces. and related in detail beforc King Eiwardsb all the story of the oppression \\yliich they had su#a-ed at the hands of man.r 111e). H e was so just that in his r c i g ~thc tigcr a l ~ d ~ t!lr goat used to drinli water at oilc 'yhrEt. I t happencd thzt a s l ~ i p cai-qing mcn. and alt11ougl. place was esci.cil in his dorni~lions Thc island called Ealds. also. Catching anilnals in snares. and \ 5 1 what 1t1 Frauds and wiles did they make snares and nets and pursue them ! In this state of conflict a long time passed. .~-ave King.t: in their respective clnploymen~s. being ir! clistrcss tjrougl~ contia. and flew away fram the country of clle men. hc inst7:nrly issucd s command. n-itl~o~!: any one to i n t h e r e with thcn~. or ro. d dr. s t ~ c x n swere flau~lrtg crery on sidc . and let thcm bring thc me:.~nti abundaixiy ferrilc . The elephants and horses. Many Jins also obtained the blessing of the true faith and the honour of Islam. caillcls and asses..now had their shoulders @led with their labours by nigilt and by day : holes were famed in their backs. ant! t h e I.scrcan~cd and cried still.art to clcpart fro111 tlie!~ce. tbrongh fear of capture.1g?'ic1~iture 1 They - Thc A7ilrz0 1 j i i l ~ ." bccnnlc tile monarcl: of the Jias. d . When after this also an age had passed.G 0jp-t. refractoq.?.thcy ci1gagc. uncon~rolled. the last of the Prophets. about animals a: \vild beasts> which had filled the heart of every onc.rsjom rf t/rc i l ui~~rnls." c:ip'~::. ? rvhicli is siruatetl near the ecluctor. tlxey too!< to using them for riding and bearing burdensl for ag~cultureand cul~ivation. (the peace of God and rest be upon him !) for the guidance of mankind. ~vitlds. entirely disappeared Aftenvards they founded many furls a ~ cities.an to dwell thcrcia in comfort.inages and tourn$.note deserts and forests. this vain issumption of ~hcirs they assembIcd their chiefs. When the animals pcrccived that thcrc v>-as no safety f ~ r the~n cvcn there. a t t a d c d in the Hall of Justjcc. was t!:e I-ova! resiclcocel of th3t just lcii-rg.. so no olie desired in I~is hi. took their young ones with them. and ca~chingt h ~ . the sage of the Jins. havinz forsaken their roosting-places. I n fin% h ~ r i n gbuilt habitations of various kinds. when did these lords af men crer give ear to tllern? Many beasts. and so. The pliis used in the sellse of " independent. accordlilx to their c~lstonr.2nd be. fled into re. \wrc gaml~dingtogahcr. The mcn still had rbe same idea thnt all these were thcir slaves.less and rapacious hcasrs.cdin. They perccired tliat it rrlas a place of rvondrous beauty: Aolvcrs ancl fruits of all kinds were hangin. ancl the nLllncrOUs animals were al~vjys roaming about thc wcods and wilds like unbridled cnnlels. the implements for carrying o~ . 1 iTaklli'~~ili".Ig fine. v n! offspring had multiplied. IVhen bccanle I.LI." 1 * Shvlut.--"rllronc placc. the gicce of rmod i the nose n by which he is guided and controlled. they wcre intent upon capturi~lgthem. tllcy bcgan ro dw!L in t i n t island. The birds. until God Almighty sent hluhainmad Muaafa. sia.~naking snares of va~ious sorts and kinds.

Those things which arc forbidden in the Law were entirely ~~nknowill his reign." H e saicl. saying. exceedingly cloquent and fluent. Za'i/u-l du7zydn-u-eak in constitution. began to speak. Wllen they beheld the King upon his throne. who for thc sustcnnncc of the world has prepared so much and has made so many things upon thc iacel of t h c earl11 ." currrccy. ancl by His o~nnipotenccmade him the father of children. who was of the race of H. The poor and needy of the time coming to him obtainecl nourishment. and through rvhom the Muhammadan faith was sprend. Happy is the state of them ." I H e said. Benedictions and peace be upon his holy8 offspring. and for the sake of frail2 man has cl-czted such various animals. attended instantly upon the summons of the King.4 " In iinc. that the King wl come to our redress. In no part of his dominions was any overbearing tyrant able to practise tyranny upon any poor underling.ho. 1Vhat shall he said of those peoplc who. whom God Almigl~tysent after sll the (other) prophets for the sake of the guidance of man. and xvhorn he made chief of all. upon this c l a ~ m there are many rcasonable and traditional proofs. (may the approval of God be upon him I) thcn mounted thc rostrum.have unrighteously turncd away from him? And blessings without limit are doe 10 rhe True Prophet. g:LL W11y have you come into my kingdom ? there has never been any correspondence between you and me . and others.u. and beg-zn to spcak this oration with eloqucnce and fluency :' L Praise is due to that true Creator.-" rose c?.wen! mv:~y. showing disobed~cncc. holy. Afier two or t h e e days. Kothing was ever in dear to his heart except the (giving of) pleasure and satisfaction to GocL H e with great politeness questioned the men.X person among them. although they are perforce submissive.'' . having heard of the justice and equity of the Kink arc cone into his presence.giving satisfaction to him." The King inquired. they took their p l x e s in t h e ~ r respective ranks. A very fine house was assigned for Lhern to stay In. * Aiw~!j pdyc-obtained I 'Arsn-area. they offered their bencdictions." ' " Seen thc U-orld. take yocr p l ~ i ncsp." Accordingly.irlto my presence. peopled the face of the earth with thousands of human beings. "What is your desire?" H e humbly said. when the fatigue of thc journey had passed away." il H e said. and fed hinl rvith a11 kinds of pure food. . " 0 Icing. and the support ancl refuge of every one in the Day of Judgment. He alonc is king of all Jins and men. by rvhosc nleans religion and the worid mere regulated. a Ail -pur?. H e macle hiin ruler oLrer all theland and sea. Up to this day no seeker of justic: h:is evcr turned away disappointed from this seat of prosperity. Our hope is.-We. Muhammad the Chosen. the meaning of which is) c All anil:lals have been created for you. . . and gave man rank above all crcated things. State them. perfonuillg his obeisance.inhabirants of different cities. what cause has there been then that you have come rhus far ?" One person anzong them who was experienced2 and eloquent. This Icing was exceedingly just and righteous. in liberality and generosity he bore the pre-elnneiice over all his equals and compeers. Accordingly He himself has said in the IiurBn (hmbic. seventy of ~ h c m . 5 Lit. " Is there any proof of this claim ? for a claim without evidence is not listened to in a court of justice. saying. he had them called beforc him. are pursuing the road to futurity.iase. still they are averse to our authority. and having forllled Eve from him. and making them bows and obeisanccs. t!lnnlis are at all times dne to that incomparable Creator who made Adam froin a single clrop of rvzter.azrat 'Abbfs. of them some are recalcitrant. " 0 just King ! these animals are our slaves .

In eveiy way we are thcir I?iaStC1-5. 6. . they wcre to benefit by thcni.c are theilslaves and they our masters. 2nd in the evening bring them back again to their houses. holy. a:ld it is to be uildcrscoo& also from the Bible and the Testan~ent that animals wcrc nlaclc for our sakes. ' ~ And in one pl. In fine. Then.eat them. He gave to it the dignity of loftiness. tllcre was no one to interfere with us. Consequentlj~ Gocl Blmighty made u s subject to them silnply for this purpose. and mountzifis. that God Allnighty having created all things in the earth and in the sky. 4 Kuran. and make warm clotl~ing . about in the woods and deserts. many other verses of the I<n:-. in the mnrl~ing 5cnd tliern to the pasturage.'that they its but it. I-laying broug-hr:forth the race of Adam from a drop of water: He scnt t h a ? ~ hither aild thither in the world.L\daq fi-orn clay. who existed before the foundation nor of tbc worlcl. but rathcr. wandering whcrever our hearts desil-ed ..scs. and dctriil~cntb e averted-but not as they have supposed.i:. (Arabic.:' After this he proceeded to say-"It is not to be understood 5. v. 8 h . ] v. too. we spent our nights and days in His praise-we kncw no other than Him. sn.5 Having fashioned the sky froin water and fire. :he air and the clouds..e. not to n ~ i n Protecting the animals in a befitting manner. might engage i i ~ c~iltivation.' 3 and again he were cl-caicd t h . asses. xri.' From this it is no: to be understood that they arc our masters. a ready tongue. for you they ai-e a beaury acd ~ r n a m c n t . from the vcrscs ~vhichthis man has cited that \\..: advantage from tl~eill.derive benefit and keep off evil from cach other. Thanl. Haviu..:cc hc has tbm said (Arabic)-' On thc d r y land and 011 thc sca ride upun camels and in s h i p s .. arc rhc masters. we their slaves . we consoncd together among the hills. of that One. for ~ncntionis lvlade in those God verses of thosc blessings ~ v l ~ i c h Almighty has bestowed upon them.) i. " 'I'he King then :cnicd rotvards the animals ancl said-"This man has brought fortrard verses of the ICurBn about his claim : in reply to this: speak whatever conles into your minds. K~&. 'We . that benefit might accrue to them. Sdrat "uzir.. and fi-ec fl-0111 wants. the ~ n ~ ~ l e .'God Almighty has made all the :~nlinalssubjecc to you-just as H e has made subject the sun and moon. after this. they took to roaming the &?h." liesides this. ~ n a d e one thing subject to enother. v. woods. he with delivered this spccch : '' Praise is due to the majrst!. "CVllen. no: to tyrannise ovcr them and oppress them. 8. Simt xxiii. an age had passed. and each of us was eiigi'gcd in search ofllis means of subsistence. caught horses.ful for whatever God hacl orclained. 12. ailcl nourished our young ones. we zccl our parcnts were dwelling upon rbe face of the earth without obst~uction-wc grazed in every clirection. and remember the bounrics of Gotl. (Aranic)--L Ride upon their backs.Cn hnvc been revcalcd upon this subject. and this verse of the I<UI-~!I conclus~vc is upo:~ the point.~om their skins and hair . not jconhncd) to d ~ n e to place. mules. By the ottclancc of a single ' BE' He made manifest all creatures fi-om (bchindj thc veil of obscurity. . God Almighty formed . ancl asses you might ride on them . ~ has said. stating. ancl made him riler over the whole face of As nlcn became numerous. r " Chaos. bulls. so that they r=niglltall toyctl1e1. dwelling in our lionles in coi~~fort. ancient of days.they 21-C our ~ 1 2 ~ ~ s ." H a v i ~ ~ g x d tllis. they strerchec! out over us poor creatures the hand of oppression.. v.' " Ucfore these mex wcre created. mules. ' U n d in another placc be has said thus (Arcbic)-' Hol. they began tc~ csact service from t h e n 1 and by force and tyranny they l~roughtto pass (all) tilosc eoiis which had never come to . sfira. they are our slaves. and with fraud and calumny cantcnd. c X:. ' Kurin. and camels.

" He ~hed said. -4nd wjth all this even they are not satisfied. ir is their practice to slaughter (the animals). and gave orders that the judges and lawyers. to break their bones: tenr out their sinews. they all attended the royal court. they were carricd off. and all the grandees and nobles of the Jins.l and having roasted them. "purity." Dzsc~i6i~zg $nbls tafien 6y fh:ls k i 1 . On the contrary. He said-': What are these proofs ? " Then he prowhat perfection] has God Almighty ceeded to say-"With formed our persons. has. What could lve do ? Being helpless. With what various stratagems did they pursue us with their snares and nets! If three orfour animals. for they make this assertion-: We are the masters.the knowIedgc of our fathers and grandfathers. shoulcl attend. for. rip up their bellies. There is neither proof nor argument in (support of) this claim. to flay them. and whoever has turned atmy from our authority. Then he said to the men-"The animals have fully set forth their account and complaint of your tgran~yrvllat answer have you non. It is proper for us to exercise lorclly authority over them. Evcn then these persons in no \%-aygave up rhc pursuit. L L O u r c l a i n ~ i s e s t a l ~ l ibymany rationaland traditional proofs. ale fled to the wood^ and deserts. turned away from God. as it were." . and WC arc thcir masters.to give to i t ? " A person from among them made his obeisance. and to exact from thcm whatever service we may require. do not inquire as to their treatment. pluclc out their featlicrs." The King said. i ~ the Ring had heard this account of the animals. to eat them. Immediately. and thus began to make his statement-" 0 Asylum of the world ! These all are our slaves. and made every member (thereof) in 1 W HEN he Lit. bound and fettercd. Whoevcr among them has consented to obey u s is accepted by God. became intent in his heart upon the settlement of the dispute. io accordance with the order. they are the slaves.the T i f f s ihc k r go f for fhc stk~rz e t t ~ o oJt/~e c i l t t d f l t hzl'wecw the 11fc1zaitd f . anywhere fell into their hands. "-4 claim without evidence is not listened to in z court of justice-mention some title-deed or proof. fix them on spits. ancl what various ills were inflicted upon them ! Besicles this. 4 Aili~taZs. cook tlxem. it is sheer tyranny and oppression. fatigued and weary.' Whoever fled From them was (deemed) a culprit.

v. of them. . neither did He create us after this shape. 4.1d. and by u~hic11 even we lealn 2nd declare the Iacts of the skies. '\Ye halve nlade Inan excceclingiy gracef~~l.exact confannit? to what was needed-a graccftll form.'' The Icing askcc! the animals. He bestowed upon every one that form ~ ~ l ~ i c l ~ Fle decncbrl suitaI>Ie.'' TVhat rcply do you give to ! this ?'' I-Ie hun)l)ly s:iicl-': Asylum of the ~vorld In acldition to the manifest mcar~ingsof the Divine Word. Who besides u. and with this carriage. saying. jo that they might gather the fruits and leavcs of :lie trees. that we migl~t graze at ease. The esplanatioa of this must be sougl~t leanlec2.': -4ccordingl:ly a vise doctor. "Wllat have you now t:) say to tllis?" They humbly represented that :he claim wasnot cstnbIie11ed by this evidence.i1-at sciii." n c ~ ~ i . consequently We made our stature bowcd. no worli of His is devoid of a!isdoill . Consequently He made their stature upright and tall.l My state~ncnt that the Creator of is. possesses these excclicnt gifts? From this it is provecl that we are the masters. that we shouid be their slaves. I-Ic is wise . set forth the meaning of this verse as fo!loxs :-i: When God Almighty created Adam. consequent!^ man's person a a s '' 'TH1. in obedience to the King's co:nmancl. did not lnalre men after this form and fashion tvitl~ intent the that they shouid call themselves our masters . it was a stars rxVcre happy hour ancl an auspicious mornent-the shining in their respective glorious constellations. and take possessior-. and :hat ugliness and a crouching carriage al-e the marl<s of slaves ? " Then one of them replied-" May God -4lrnighty grant unto the King His divine favour. tile\. they the slaves. l > . -1- 1 KuAn. and feel no kind of inconvenience!' The King anstvercd-': God Alnligty says. tfiere are nuinerous interpretations which arc knoivn only to nlen of from the science. 9. and the matter of the elements was ready and prepared for the production of agrecabla forms. and presenre him from the da~igers thc w01. ail upl-ight stature-sense and wisdom? by means of which we can distinguish between good and bad. He said-" Do you not k:101v that propriety of deportment is a property of kings. were starlc nal~ed--there was nothing on their bodies through which tiliicy might live in security horn the colcl ancl hcac They uscd to eat the iruits of the forest. and eat thcm at their case. ti: is this : I\-llcn God illmighty cleared of mcn.I. and cover their bodies with lcaves of tllc trees. Our food is grass .

"Our Lord is He who giveth all He i t h i n ~ s : hath created thein ard directeth them (by Hs providence). that H e gavc to evcry one such members as were approp r i ~ e and showed them the pat11 of rectitude. Hence he niadc his ~leck long that he might graze at ease. saying. his stature erect. thick horns. and small tail. ' Iiur6r!. therefore ro find faults in u s is in fact to set forth His deficiencies. In this way there are many carnivorous alld graminivorous beasts. but has great ears. and through which they show affection to each other. The animals represented. Bcauty. your stature clumsy. then do thou make known what advantage there is in ma1. God Ahnigllty gave u s every one of our incmbers in the happy proporrions that were suitable . and no upper teeth. -4nd there is the elephant. v."or. and does not shut. the beauty and perfection of our menlbers comes from Hinl. "Where is this suitability of nleml~ers among you? Your figures are exceedingly disgusting. gn. .made fair. And thus H e has spoken by the mouth of the holy Moses. " Alas thou hast not at all comprehended the Divine art." . and boast about. is that which rnalies (its members) agreeable to their fellows. and be able to carry his lips over his whole body and 1ub himself. and spread them out in warm. There is the goat. in this pre-crninence ure and they are equal. one member having no conforlnity to the others. you consider ' We are the masters. us here rendered. knows this mystery. your hands and feet ugly. his hands and feet excellent. f i p r e .' 2 Thc meaning of which is." Upon hearing this speech one animal began to say. it would have been difficult for him to graze the grass. "This is thc case with us also. (Arabic)--" God Almighty created man in the happy mediuml-He did not make hinnl very tall nor very s h ~ r t ." That man said. Dost thou not knolv that God Almighty in His wisdom created each individual thing for solne special good ! No one. however. in every specics. so that none may be able to get into his cyes or mouth ." Thc men replied. " cremion. We are (His) creatures. And his tusks are long in order that he may defend himself against thc ferocity of rapacious ani~nals. "If thou art a sage anlong the animals. individuality. his mouth always reinains open. and after that He prescribed their I-cspectivecourses. F. The horns of the drtmba (sheep) are heavy and its buttoclcs fat. and (when) in your vanity. Slirar ss. Bulls and buffaloes have large tails. his earl are very broad 2nd his eyes v c v small. . who has a grcat bewd and no buttocks. with the exception of Himself and men of science. and Lirds whose form and stature are clumsy. ancl :Khi1kaf-li:. Sdrat lsssii.ed an individuality1 upon every thing. The hare is small in size.f i r i n . '! B e c a ~ s e legs wcre his long. of lalge fonn. 7. In the same way He has made the elsphant's trunk long instcad of his neck. and (He has lnaclej his ears large that he may drive away the flies and mosquitoes. for in consequellce of his tusks." Yet one more signification is apparent in this verse. Iong neck. and raise himself zlp from the ground by the strcngth of that necl:. Tbere is belonging to you the ciunel. and therriore if his neck had been short. " Whar you consider heauty. they are the slavcs '-this is (allj a mistake. ' Hadd i itidil. " ~ The King said this amount of symmetry and suitability of the mcmbers suffices (to establish) pre-ernineice. two long tusks sticlr out f r o a his mouth. 'God besto:r. S a l e s ' rranslatior?of rbe Arabic is. and (all) of the lnost pelfect elegance. whose form is very large and heavy." H e said. form. In fine. God Almighty has bcstowed upon every anirnd such menlbers as H e deemed suitable.ing the camel's neck long. And the hare's ears are long because his body is very tender and his skin fine-he can wrap round him those ears in cold lveatber.

In the samcwny also. he forgets mothcr and sister. and the mothers their young ones. the tramp of the traveller from afar. Thus there is the camcl. you would nut boast about rbose things wllich God Ahnighty has givcn you without a n y labour or [rouble (of your own)." . Sheep and goats zive birth in one night to hundreds of young ones. the young oncs severally recognise their mothers. your animosity ivithout meaning. and savcd him from his foe. But if you have passed along a road several tinlcs. who has long legs and a long neck. ancl does not dcsire the female of any other animal.vithout evidence. he. and whose head conte~ds 114th the air . Thcn where is the jndgment and ac:~tenessof sense of which you havc made such great boast i . or accluil-c great ~ ~ ~ ~ a l i f i c a tions by their o ~ %effo~ts and exertions.oar claim is . he does not at atiforget it. and comes back safe to his orqn homc. and it has ohen happened that having heard the steps of thcadversary. your beauty is no ground of superiority that you should consider yourselves to excel us. he has aroused his rider. "And whcn you say that you have great acuteness of sense. understandit is also a mist~ke. while you require torches the and lamps.this is the cause of procreation and propapcion of ofispring. For the beauty of one species is not agreeable to another species. still: ~vhenever there is occasion for you to pass along that road (again). Eut ). you are bewildered and forget i:. men have affection for thelr oxvn particular of species. he escapes from that place. And the horse hcar. . and those who are white c10 IIOL set their hearts upon the black. howe\cr much better she may be than its own. . hlany animals havc b ~ t t e r ing and scnse than you. descries the place on which to set his fcet. and then return homc. but notwiths~andingthis. as xvhen thcy master the theological sciences. ).nu have ~n not even one of these things to boast of over r!s . and turns him loose. If a person takes an ox or an ass once along any (previously) unscen road. For thc srise and pruclrnt collsider that to be a (ground of) boas^ which rl~eghave acquired by thcir own industry and labour. " If you had any scnsc at all. fathcf and brother. Evcry ani~llal fixes its benrt only upon a female of its own species. Tllerefore. in dark nights. Thosc people who are black do not like p ~ o p i e white bodies. and in thc morniag proceed to the pasturage. . and passes along roads of ~vhich passage seems impossible. and when they I-eturn from thence in the evening. But if one of you remain for some time abroad.

as here. from one vicissitude to another. they deal out the same treat~nellt the Persians.and the Turcomans towards thc Arabs. tenderly giving (them) medicine when they are sick. whenever one overcomes and gains a victor> over the other. shutting one's eyes to (their) faults. every animal individually made complaint of their tyranny before the King. tcrning towards the men. according to the behests of the stars. prevail among men. and in other ways show kind treatment to them." After that. but this does not arise from their colnpassion and kindness? bilt rather from fear lest thc animals should perish. they beat us over our buttocl<sand faces. these are some of them :-13uying and selling (the animals). and great burdens.hips in their hands. lading. "You have h e a d his answer . and sells them. and he said-" This man maintains that they buy and sell animals. P Ba-~aar-with the view or intent.CHAPTER IV. us put muzzies on our mouths aad bandages over our eyes. The ass said. E n g . saving them from the ferocity of wild beasts. In fine.&-lit. for Lirrd frrofmat. of keeping an eye of compassion and mercy upon their slaves. iron. and binding them band and foot. how many evils do we suffer. putting garments on them. Where are compassion and kindness to be found among them such as this man has supposed?" Then the bull said. (Arabic. " When we fall in-to captivity with men: they lade upon our backs. To supply their children with milk they take away our little young ones from their mothers." They replied-" There are still many proofs remaining by which our claim is established . stones. ordered the animal to give him an answer. they bind us to the plough.' Wise men know this fact. Turkey. wood." The King hzving heard this. t l n s the inhabitants of Persia. " When we fa11 into their bonds. carry them off to the shamI! . and the Sindians towards the Hindus . " treatment. bricks. and other advantages." After this the sheep said. THE Sindians. The to inhabitants of India observe the same practice towards the L Sulzt. They have always got sticks and u. and when the Turks prevail over Persia. How can one know for certain who is s!ave and who is master? These are changes and vicissitudes which. " hut frequently used. pl-eserving (them) from cold and heat. and injury happen to their property. for so God Almighty says. 3 sell the Turks. '' When we fall into their boncls. Eolding in their hands ~vllipsand sticks. Asia Minor. said. feeding and giving (them) drink. but this practice prevails also among rnen . T h c same practice prevails among all masters. he considers the family of his (defeated) foe to be his slaves.) c 1 make the times to change among men. when they gain s victory over Turkey. and l~arness to mills and ail-presses. the Xrnbs towards the Turcom~ns. These kindnesses l we show them out of "ompassion and mercy. With what lnbour and toil do m e get along. now say whatever else rhere remains for you to say. for thus interruption xvould happen to tllcir riding. "And he says that they feed and provide drink for the animnIs. If the King were to see us at such a time he would feel regret and pity. 'Rh-Rome. and beat us ovcr cur buttocks.

Havinx put ropes in our noscs. the air. and chaios upon our ieet. seeing al these evils: l remain silent and say nothing. and they. But still they take no heed of these villainies. " We are rctu!-nn. put bridles and bits into oar mouths." Tile elephant said. .) do you also pass over the oKcnccs of orhcr-S. :. carry them to tile butcherspsllops. k e y :ake us in dark nights along hilly and mountainous roacls. they bcat us over our buttocks and faces." The mule said. and set it forth in the prcscnce of so just a Icing. The gi-ooms and szdclle-men put pac!<-saddles on our backs and ride us. i. tear out their livers. Slirat xsiv. javelins and arrou-s in our breasts. tl~cy bawl o~lt. rz. VICurdii. Le.sccne expressions against themsclves~their ." . When we become captives in their hantls. the condition of all thcse is like your o~vn." A sage said. or both togcthcr. saddles cjn our hacks. ?'h: measure of rheir folIy rcachcs even to :his.'? (Aral~ic. for your species also belongs t o the herbivorous ciass. 39. thcn is.'a (Arabic. 12.Sdrt s:iii. and billce tllcm in ovens." The horse said. and then lacling very heavy loads up011 backs. and their dnughters. Lit. short. There. an2 obscene talk of thcirs. "When me are in bondage with them thep put bits1 in our mouths. l. We. ive endure the most astounding hardships. ig~~orxncc. our backs arc p i l e d by the jolring of the saddles. bridle. hungry and thirsty. coln~nnndthe faichf~~l pardon the sins of to unbelievers.5 to Cocl. Sdra: sl\-. They fasten ropes to our feet. they slaughter them. stupidity of the ivholc world. and w-e swim in a sea of blood. 13. Ir. and Ivi~atcvcl. tl~ieis our state. and (there) we receive sword-cuts on our faces. nottvlthstanding thzt they themselves read thcse vcrscs of the I.~nc! 11e1-bivorous animals and birds ivalk t:pon t!ic earth or fly ir.lur:~n.) 1 Kur. H e is holy rvho made snl~jccrto us an animal like this.': (Jlr:~i)ic. v. xve go into the battle.in. and taking the goad of iron in their hands. and thc soles o i ocr leet wounded by the stones . vice. the camel-drivers pull t h e ~ n . and xvc poor wretcl~csbeing l~clpless. rip up their bellies. v. Si~rar v.'7. Iiuuri!~. stick them on spits. ride us in battle-fields.submit to them." ~h~ camel said. and say. bi!. Taking sticks and whips in their hands. 0:) tltrm and tllcir masters : but it is true dlcy descrvc it. e) ' LYhntcver cnr~livorotis i . They do not release us for one instant. they put ropes upon our necks. All this nbuse is beaped sisters. sIzotving coliipassio~l and kindnns. wearing their mail and annour. Hungry ancl thirsty: our eyes stuficd with dirt and dust. perhaps lie. "When we bccon~etheir captives. xvithout (giving thcmj grain or mter. I-. ' 0 Muhammad. and on the head. and cut them up with knives. so that we may go to ocr liintes and satisfy our natural longings.. Ktillin. that they often utter al~usc and euiploy ol. 1 L~~~[E7rim. "When we become subject in slavery to them. over \vhon~ shoulc! ncver have beon able rve to prevail . :'If the Icing ~xwuldconsider this ignorance. never do they gix~e to the cries and wails of these ear injured ones. will give delicerance from their hands to suc!~ of us as are captives. they beat us on the righr side and on the lefc."'A Whcil thc inula ceased from the spcech. the camel said to thc pig Do you also tell the oppression which your race has suffered a t the hands of men. tear ofi their skins.) % \'h 'e n you ride upon camels think up011 the bounties of God. vi. and we shall return to God. thep drive us wherever their heart desires. and never a11ow the preccpts and admonitions of God a n d the Prop3ct to enter into their cars.-. '' Tile pi2 does not belong to . folly. he \vould perceive that they arc filled and with the mickedness.-\rabic.reak open their sl::llls. the nlezning of wllicl~ ' If you desire parclon froin God. sbusc or 01~sce11it.bles .collxes info their mouths. girths upon our loins .

" Then the hare said.hunring animals : falcons. camel. and said The Hare. for these are very serviceable to them. why should he assist them. 'The hunting dogs are excusable in this. and herbivorous animals of our fraternity who have taken refuge in the hills. who render assistance to men. because by our staying there the horses and animals are preserved from many evils. camels. Perhaps the King. with the object of catching us. The Armenians esteem us even as oxen and goats . 25 to him. they abuse and curse us inoffensive animals because they are at enmity with the Nazarenes and Greeks. whom shall we blame ?" When the hog had finished saying all this. and he also eats grass. Dost thou not kn& that his teeth protrude. unless it be entirely from his stupidity and folly ?" ' S/ri. and such iike. for he Ilas hoofs. the herbivorous but to the carnivorous animals. and they abstain from mentioning us. and lead them towards us. and that he also eats carrion ? " The other replied. we have chosento takeupour abodc in valleysand jungles. they consider it as holy. and is allied to the cattle. or of whom shall I complain ? There is much variety in their way of treating me. But we are terribly troubled by dogs and birds of prey. taking pity. they even put it in their medicines. in the same way as the can~elopard allied to the bull. will grant deliverance from their hands to us captives. we can say nothing. Herdsmen and grooms keep us in their stables and pastures near to their animals and horses. Rut the horse belongs to the graminivorous animals. " I know nothing about it. nay. .Ldri-jd~iwa. Musulmans consider us deformed and accursed ." The hare said.they deem our figures detestable and our flesh unclean.nay. andthrough this we are saved from their oppression. having left off dwelling in their country. Saddlers and shoemakers pull out the bristles of our necks and whiskers with great avidity and eagerness. " W e live far away from them . L L D ~ rehearse in thc presence of the King all the you tyranny which your species has endured from men. and does not eat our flesh . The Turkish Greeks eat our flesh with avidity.The P&. They ought to help them. but on the contrary are carnivorous animals. and is leopard . and the making sacrifices of it they deem very meritorious. oxen.. the ass looked towards the hare. in whose forin those of the bird and the camel are blended. They make over as captives into the hands of men all the deer. who was standing near the camel." A rhird said he is both carnivorous and herbivorous. goats. Tile Jews have great aversion and hatred of us . what can I say. The pig said to the camel. He is herbivorous. The Greek physicians employ our fat in many of their rerncdies . Enchanters and magicians cover their books and magical instruments with our skins. and he is Iike the ostrich. for they also are very fond of eating our Aesh. they even prize us more in consequence of the fatness and thickness of our flesh. and they do not belong to our species. and tbe abundance of our offspring. We are bewildered. whom shaIl we praise. hnwks.

his appearance is handsome. be thou has1 rcproachcd the horse enough if thou but known that the thc man . he is obedient to his rider. and if his tail ever gets wet in mud or water. and that he is obedient to man. bl-others. for he quickly turns right or left. just 2 it cuts its enemy and opponent. In the same way thcy drick the milk of mimals. but that is inanimate. and he answered. Thc hare saicl.CHAPTER ." The King asked thc man what the horse's superiority was.. rider in first. If his rider lays a wager.best said. forwards or backu~ards. his instincts sound. wvho war against their parents. to He is very stupid and ignorant. lest his rider should be sprinltled. for he trots along taming his rider with his helmet. he neither stales nor dungs . In illfancy they drink thc milk of their parents.hadstsilentthese words afh etheis hare. and a r c nourished in their bosoms. mail and armour. Bis new master. His speed is such that the wind cannot overtake the dust of his-heels. altogether a load of five hundred maunds. rip up their bellies. and bring into operation all kinds of 'Iriclcs ancl stratagems. ' 1 hearcl all he WI-IEN " Enough. and armour. thou wouldst ! not have ballbled so stupidly. This trait of his is lilce the nature of the sword. . If he passes under the thighs of an e~-ie~lly. so grcat condem:zaticn ." TheKing asked what it was. and is una!>le s . His for111 is good. though &o above t!le mark i s proud walk he is like a stnteiy bull: his jumping is like a leopard's. and in the battle-field hc rvill: at the direction of this enemy. strip o f their f skins. his colour is fine. His strength is like an elephant's. "With all these ~ncrirjthere is also one l great fault under which a! thesc 111eritsare hiclclcn. In m-horn esccpr the horse are all rhese merits to be found ?" The hare said. and are benefited by rnakin: garmcnts of their ski:^ and hair. "Your Majesty. T h a t trciltment which ought to be practised against enemies they employ against their f~-icnds. In their barbarity and cruelty they altagethcr forget the obligations and benefits received from them. the ass said to him. and does not knnm friend from foc. and by whom he has Been notrrished all his days. he docs not shake it. of a[ animals. then he runs cp~iclily! and brings hi. wherever his rider may direct him. so also when it faCs upon the ncck of its owner or maker. he becomcs submissive to him ." ~r-hic!~nearer. bridle. but in early tna:illood thcy bccoil~ctheir enen~ics. charge and Ile attack the nlan in wllose l~ouse was born. every limb is appropriate. the good qualities and excellences of the horse are numerous." When the here ceased from his censure of the man and horse. a i d make them taste the flavour of fire. but after all thcy slauglltcr those same animals. sisicrs. aild re!ations. it severs his heac! from his bocly without hesitation. Enough . and yet remains quiet. "The samc trait of character is found in men.' Hc is so patient and enduring that on the battlefield he receives \vounds from spears and arrou9sin his breast and in his vitals. and he is so well trained that whilst his rider is seated on his back. and knows no difference hetvc7een friends and strangers. as well as his own saddle. to distinguish betareen friend and rut. or Hc does not flinch from galloping. he is swift in running. he excels in intelligence. and told h i ~ n esplain. I n his 1 Some r1fi1il "seers.

and violence of men. W e see it by night and by day. and upon whom H e has not bestowed some one blessing nchich He has given to no other ? There is no ts one in the warld on whom all t a l c ~ ~ and blessings are hestowed. When God has imparted to some one person &Teat blessings Qrhich He has given to no other. rebel against a king. Thus God Almighty has given light to the Sun. the bull said. and yet has not debarred him from some one favour which exceeds them all ? Or who is the person that H e has debarred from all these blessings. is just the same . break into any one's house. and it is all true. or wound him. to such a degree. and rivers. or shadow of a Jin. t h a t some people. but a t the same time He has also made rhis provision. Their tyranny is not hidden from any intelligent or sensible person. They replied. and hold it no obligation upon any one. slay a traveller. and make no favour thereof. for if they were gods they would never beconle dark nor wane. tear sleeves. So also the moon and all the stars.Sptcch o the A ss.owed on the sun and moon-hglrt. indeed. to another little. conspicuiry. For the same reason tile Jins also have left their (the men's) country. break open the lock of any one's shop. pick pockets. and began to say. and that all day and night they remain in revolution. Perfection belongs to God only. has fallen on him. each in their respective degrees. all the animals gnashed their teeth. wept. but on that same one also He has affixed the stigma of sul~jection. The condition of the Jins. Still He has not preserved them from the inftrmitp of eclipses. greatness. to no other." When the bull finished speaking. or man is stupid. \Vhat person is that whom God Almighty has blessed ~ r i t h.e~. and does not make an obligation of it to any one. mountains. In the same way He has given light and brightness to all the stars . have deemed them gods. But still no one has ever scen a Jin kill a man. On the other hand. But with all rhis even we get no deliverance from their malignity. So suspicious and mistrustful are they of us. f is not seemly. and have hidden themselves i n hills. altitude-all these excellences and distinctio~lsH e has bestowed upon them. they say dircctly that the evil eye. he ought to let others share in those bIessings.aver so many virtues and favours. What dignity H e has 1. he looked towards all the doctors and sages of the Jins who were present. cruelty. diffuse light over the tvorld. and asked if they had heard the statement made by the animals of the tyranny. and g a n t u s deliverance from the tyranny of these oppressors !" When the King heard this. To one H e has granted the rank of lordship. and are praying for protection against the malice of the Jins. have mercy on us. but to one much. " 0 just King. for Cod Aln~iglxtyhas conferred many blessings upon them. His mercy is over all His worbs." Whcll r'ne ass finished this speech. there is still some little defect. in their ignorance. and it by its light carries comfort to all creation. rob him of his clothes or coininit a theft. The bounties of the great disintcrested Giver are not confined io any one species. The sarne duty is incumbent on men. foolish. for if any one of them possesses very great talents. and they remain intent upon one or other of them night and day. woman. that if any child. plunder any one. or sick. and angels. s o that the marks of the creature may be manifest in them. Through their bad collduct and evil ckhracter the Jins have entirely given up visiril~ginhabited places. it behoves that perso11to shorv his gratitude for them-that is. . or make any one captive. in order that this mixht be conclusive to men of intelligence . and have fled into the woods and wilds. They have always got mistrust in their hearts. " W e have heard. that they are lost in the effulgence of the sun. all these habits are to be found among them. which they should in~partto the animals. men.

Besides this: they never show remorse, nor do they %\ratch against their faults." When he had done speaking, the nlacc-bearcr cried aloud, '' Gentlemen, it is now- evening. T h e Cozrt has risen ; you are dismissed. Go to your homes; and attcnd azain tomorrow morning."


H E N the Icing arcsc from his assc~ilbly, spokc to hc BedAl-, his ~ a z h in private, saying, " You have heard , all the statelnents and rcjoinders of themen and the animals ; what advice have you now to offer? How ocght the matter to Le settled ? What course jeems best in your opinion I" The wazfr was a very wise and prucicnt man. Afccr milking his obeisance, and invoiiin: 'ules~ings~ proceeded to sly, he " I t seeins to 1nc prefer;rblc thn: the Ring should call to his presence ail the judges, lawyers, and sages of the Jins, and consult with them a b o u t the case. The quarrel is a serious one, and it is not clear to which side the right inclines. In such matters consult~~tion necessnry, for in the counsels of is three or four some plan is dccidcd upon. Wise men and farseeing n l c n should be careful ncrer to enter upon such difficuit matters \rithout advice and counsel." In accordancc with this spccch, the King gave orclers that all the chiefs and noble3 of the Jins should attend. S o they al assembled according to the following specification : l judges of the race of Jupitcr, lnwycrs of the race of Venus, wise men of the cbi!clren of I>irBn, sages of the race of Lukmin, experienced persons of the children of Hamin, intelligcnt persons of the children of KaiwPn, and persons of common sense of the cllildren of Bahriin. The king a& dressed them, saying, "These men and bcasts have conlr

The Royal Cozlncil.
con-,plaining to usl and have taken refuge in our country. The animals all colnplain of the tyranny and violence of men. r\iow do yau advise me what ougllt to be done with them, and how their business should be decided." A learned sage of the race of Venlis who was present, said, " I n my opinion the proper course is for the animals to write out a statement of their circumstances, and of the oppression they have endured at the hands of mcn, and to take a legal opinion thereon from the learned. If any means of deliverance can be settled for them, r11e judges and lawyers will give a decree whether the men are to sell them, set them free, or show some kindness and mitigation of their harsh treatment. If the men do not obey this decision of the judges, and the animals flee from their tyranny, then ic will be no fault or sin of theirs." When the King heard this, he asked them what they had to say to it. They all replied that it was an exceedingly good proposition, and suitable for the occasion. But thc Sdib-i ' a m ' not approve of it, and observed, " If these men eit did agree to sell the animals, who vqU pay the price of them The lawyer said, "The Icing:' Upon this, he asked from wllence the King could get so much money. The lawyer said it would be paid from the public treasury. The Sihib-j ' f l z h a t then said, " I S there so much wealth in the treasury as to sufficefor the price of them ? Some men, too, mzy refuse to sell them. They have great need of the animals, and do not care for the price of them. Thus there we kings and ministers and many gentlemen who cannot move about without an equipage. They will never consent to sell them, and will oppose this decree." --The Kiilg then asked him what seemed good in his opinion,




1 A resolure or prac:ical person. 1 have retained the original title. because i t 1s dimcult t o find an equivalent word sufficient!y definite, without using the word rzan, %-hilt the bearer of the name is a j j z .

and he said, " It seems to me advisable that the King should direct all the animals to act in concert, so that in one and the same night they might flee from captivity, and go far from the dominions of men-just a s deer, hog-dccr, ancl many other harmless and rapacious beasts have lefr their dominions and have fled. I n the morning, when the men do not find them, on whom will they lade their goods, and on whom will they ride? Being helpless from their being so far away, they will not be able to go after them, so they will sit down in silence. In this way the deliverance of the animals will be effected." The King approved of this proposition, and asked them all for their opinion upon it. There was present a wise man of the descendants of LukmAn, and he saicl-" This proposition is not a t all a good one, and this course is very much opposed to sense. It is by no means possible, because many of the animals are fastened up in durance all night, the doors of their prisons are closed, and sentinels are placed on guard: how can they all run away?" The'SLhi6-i'nzimat said, "Let the King give his commands for all the Jins to go this night to open the doors of the prisonhouses, to untie the heel-ropes of the animals, to make prisoners of all the guards, and not to release them until all those (animals) are far away from their territory. There will be very great merit to the King in doing this. Feeling pity for the conditianof those(animals), I have offered myse~~timents byway of advice to his Majesty. If, with benevolent intentions, the King shall resolve upon this work of kindness, the Lord Almighty will render him aid and assistance. Gratitude for the favours of God is shown in giving help and deliverance to the oppressed. People say that it is written in the books of several prophets that God Almighty says-' 0 king, I have not made thee ruler over the face of the earth in order that thou nlayest amass wealth anddevote thyself to the greed and lusts of this world, but rather that thou shouldst give redress to the op-

pressed, for I indeed arengc them, c v c ~ though rhey be infidels.' " The King again asked them al what thcy ]lad to say to ii. l They all approved? 2nd said it was r-cry propel-. But a certain K a i d n i sage was not sarisfcd with it, and after offering his blessings and reverences, he representecl that if was a very difficult matter, and could not in a n y way be accomplkhed ; must be attended with many e v i k and clangers whichafter. warcl5 will in no way b- capalde of rectification. The King asked him \%-hat had. to fcar in :he matter, m d he told hiln to explain so that he himsclf also lnight know. He said, "Your h'f:ljcsly,he who proposed this \\-ay of deli\rwance for the animals made a great mistal~e. \I:hen rhc men rise in the morning thcy will not find the beasts, ancl n-(-;ll become apprised of their flight. They will then think for a certainty that it is not the work of any man, and that it cannor: have been effected by any scheme of the animals, but tuust rather be attributed t o the cufining and trickery of the Jins." The King said, "Tllat is Uue-there is no douht &o\rt it ; t h q will suspect US." The sage continued, "Asylum of the rl-or]d ! \\.hen the ha1.e escaped from their hands, and the services dered are interrupted, then the men will be vcrysorro\fil a n d anxious, 2nd will lXc0me enemies of the Jins. From of old, been Our foes, but no-.v nlorethan everthey will show their nlalicc and animosity." ~h~ sages observed that he indeed must be a wise lnan \h, making peace be", tween enemies, urould preserve his Majesty from the.r AU the Jills: when they heard this, said he spoke the truth. After that another sage encluired, ':Why feartheir enmity, for it will not avail against us. ourbodies are fiery, and are vcrv subtil and light, so that we fly up to theskybut the bodies of men arc of dirt ; they remain belour, and


We wancler and look about among thern sichout ceremony, but they cnntmt see us ; 50 what have we to fear ?" T h e ~ ~ is a ~ ansmereZ him saying, "-Alas! thou s k ~ i not kilow anlqhing al,out it. ~ l t h o u g l n1crl are ea*I1y: =till l sacls ancl angelic spirits, throxlgh have in them over us I and 12esicles, which they hold tile arith many wiles and stratagems- In 'ges are past there llavc l,ccn many battle^ between men andthe Jins, hearing of .,yhichjl,ould be a warning to u . The ICi1'x s" desired the sage to inform hiin of those matters, and how dlc truth stood, so that he also might understand it. The sage replied thar a natural hatret! and a n innate animosit~ come down from of old time, the narmen and the jins ration of t!,llich would be very prolix. Ijut the Ripg ordcrcd hi:n to recoul,-t little of it from the beginning, so fat as Could l-~e recounted.


obedience to tbc orders of the King, rhe sage thus set forth the facts of the (matter) :the earliest age, before God had created Adam, the Jins were dwelling over the whole face of the earth-wood, field, and wnter were all under their rule. When many days had passed, prophecy and law, religion and dominion, and numerous blessings were received. But they began to exhibit disobedience and error-they heeded not the testaments and p~ecepts the prophets, and set wickedness on foot over all of the face of the earth. Through their tyranny, the earth, and all the dwellers on the earth, went complaining to the court of God, and began to make their plaints and lamentations. When another age had passed, and their animosity and tyranny day by day increased, then God Almigllty sent an army of angels on to the earth. They accordingly came here, and having beaten the Jins, expelled them, making many of them prisoners and captives. They then began to liveupon the earth. It so happened that 'AziLzfi, the accursed devil by whom the patriarchs Adam and Eve .ereredeceived, i U-asamong those captives. Hs age was but little, and he knew nothing- He was nurtured among those angels, and he adopted all their rules and customs. W11m he had acquired their science, and had come to maturity, he was made head and chief of the tribe, and used to issue his edicts of command and prohibition.


When yet another age after this had passed, God Almighty said to the angels xvho wcre dwelling on the earth-l' I will make one, who is not one of you, ruler of the earth, and I will caii you up to heaven." The angels, who had been living berc for a long period, through having to dzpart, deemed this a most disagreeal~lecommand, ancl thus replied to God'' WilI our Lord create a person who will work evil and bloodshed upon the enrth; as the Jins were doing, xvl~iist praise we Thee, and considcr Thee ho;g."' God AIlnighty said, "That advantage which I know of, you know nothing about,' and I have sx~orn oath to myself of not keeping any angel, Jin, an or animal upon the earth after Adam nnci his offsprin~." I n tine, when God, having created Adarn, brearhed a soul into his body, and when from him he fornied Eve, he commanded all the angels 10 meet and pay him 11oma::c. In obedience to thc divine command, they paid hom~ge, and bec a n e subject to Xdarn. Eut2.Az5zildid not boxvdow:~ through ; his obstimcy and enty he was ol~posedto the colnmands of God. He rc.Aected, saying, ' l Former!y I was chief and master ; shall I nonr become his subject ? " So, through envy and malice he became the enemy of Adam. God Almighty then directed the angels to bring Adam into the - a r d e of Eden. Whcn Adail1 came into paradise a com~ n mand was given by :he divine Majcsry (Arabic verse, of ~vhich the meaning is)-" 0 Adam, do you dwell with your wife in this garden, and eat at your pleasure wl~ateveryour heart desires, only do not go ncar this trec, for lf l-ou do go near it, you will be a sinner."3 This pxadisc, which God _A.lmighty bestowed upon the patriarcl~ Adarn for a clxvclling-place, is a garden towards the Easr, on the Ruby mountain. No one has the stren$h to ascend it. The land of that place isgood, the air temperate, the days of spring are there perperuzl ;

K W ,Slirat ii. v. 15.

Kurin, Sdm: ii. v. 53

H e scnt an angel down to the ernr:li. " I advise you xvcI1:"l they f d l into his snare. and.i~ sin.as cove]-ed wit11 hair. they all defects of et-ery one. God -4lmighty took co~npassion on them. said. When Cain murdcrcd Xbcl. and cwre greatly nsllnmed of their conduct.s of t l ~ c streams they used to stroll about at their plcnsure. So one day pretending to be a fricndly counsellor. ancl Fled in disgust. and knew Adam to be better ~ h a n When'AzLzil saw this dignitpof Adam. in tlln same way did these t w o pass their days in full security and comfori. The ce1esti:. ancl hc meditated how he ~niglltin way by fraud and tricker). buiid houses. Adam and Eve went there and began to lir c in comfort. Tile angcls placcd tkem in a spot \vhcrc therc wcre no fruits nor lcavcs at all. Plouglling. Friendships sprung up between rhcnl. and cast them do~vnfrom the mountain. When a long period had been passed in rhis sorrow and remorsc. If you eat a little from this tree. and washing. When the angels saw t h ~ s themselves. they began to cover their persons.nt!y fell off from thcir bodies. his malicc and envy some still morc incrcascd. Gat w!iene%-cr mention was made of thc fraud and tl-czcltcry of thc zccurstd d ~ \ . They f ~ linto l a mosr abject condition. eating ail kinds of fluits. in the way as at the present time their descendants arc involvcd in thcsc evils. ancl set forth the uses and fact. and drinking water fro111the streams. In fine. The long hair upon their hcads a.so fell ofi. they urcrc ruined. never cone. tlicy felt an aversion for thcir persons. With greecliuess thcy tl-ansgressed and ate of that trce of which God h!mighty had forbidclen thc1~1 eat. The hair of their heads was very long. held their peace. and all kinds of flowers bloom. cultisrrting. Through the heat of the sun their complexion changed and became black. ruin him. The animals there do not hurt any one.l and bake brc:ld. and (to practise) many useful arts. nlnlte 1eaver. and hung down to their feet. When ihclr denccndants bccamc numerous the Jins also came and associated with :l?cn:. they did not kno~v.11~saw them i n this plight. fruits in abundance ripen. and you will live here for ever in perfect ease and comfort . and they taught t11em to plant trees. he instantly told the namcs of all. he went to them and said. Inan felt a misgiving of malice and envy on tllc pnrt of tlic Jins. ta reap. Whet1 Adam was asked. forgave tl1c. and to sew and n~alce garn?cnts. the trees are v e n green.l garments which to thev were wearing inst?. Everything \{:as attainable wi~liout toil or lahour. and they becarnc laked d. sit upon the branches. a blessing which he has never yet given to any one. Taking leaves of trees." In that hour when that accursed one. i ievery . When the anim. ancl you will always enjoy happiness. The wholc of thcir bodies \\. grinding. acccpting their repentance. and for a 1011: time they thus pasjcd their lives. Among rhc flowel--beds upon thc banl. and hence their beauty and loveliness werevery grcat. The angeIs thcn receivecl an order to expel thcni from paradisc. There was no sorrow. to weave clothes. spinning.ii to them. baking. a suspicio~lsprung u p . became subject. grind. and for a long time thcy wept incessantly in grief and sorrow. to plough and sew. and of all kinds. no: one of these troubles was knon. : God : Almigkity has bestowed upon you the great distinction of eloquence and spcec1-1. death will . then your knowledge and excellence will be greatly increased. who came hcrc and taught them to clig t i ~ cearth. Somello~vor o t h ~ rt h q came upon t h e earth. Just as other animals were living therc. &:caving clothes. axd keep up a continual warbling. having sworn an oath. but bcing confounded.many streams flow there . and beautiful birds of sweer song. Thc Lord Almighty made known to Adan1 tlte names of all the plants and animals which were there When the angels mere askecl thcir names.

Zn this wxy luatters \vent on well.?jesiy should not be :tble to rise from . Eellcc dlei. the J ins had no kno\i.nce. a!ld becoming devout and tc!npcrate. which becainc public afrcr his death.degraded. v.aid that Ile wanted his place (behre it was clone). \\'hen Solomot~. Sdrat lssii. asking X I . he mould have beell just like othcr kinzs. and made it known to thc m~gicians. they were all in perplexity. and paid adoration to God. !\'hen the intcllige~lce a?>out Cilkij (Queen of Slie!~a) reached Solomon.he sclperioricy overtl~em. he wrote a book on those mystic practices. ro. Solon~on it clone more c1uicl. and zave insti-uccions as to the way of shutting the Jins up in bottles. \%*henSolo~non saw the throne.. the Jins flcd. and offsred ro 1 all thc Jins and mcn thc in~ira:ion to Isibm. all the jiils and men became his subjects. ivho knew thc name of pun8cr..jias were seers. he of p:. When the Airnighty created the last of h e prophets. whose name vms Astlis. They were dtvays making pretensions to a knorvledge of tlie mysteries (of fate). the Jins were pret-ented from going to henveil. And vcri!y he brought it.o the cllil&-en of the h::er il12t the Jins h ~ d incited him.hiyB. for if t i c Jins llad not helped him.ly.x: then tile suspicion sprung u p in :he minds of men tl-]at thc Jins had taught Nimrod to make the Joseph's brethren put him into i5e pi^ they sling. they turned aV.lie second deluge. and were exciting apprehensions among men. up to .hen thonght thst this also was attributable to the :ui1e of the Jins.. imprecntions. 1 e taught to c v c one the way of salvation.ledge thereor. thc friend of God. When Gorl Alnlighty sent the prophet Enoct: he came herc.and all tlie men fcllov-ed them hooting. he was amazed. son of X i ~ i n vauntingly soid tliat he would bring . Thc Jins came into sho~vecl all of them the to the terri:ori-s of 1 1 mcn. and supericr~tp of the ~3rt. of David. T%'hen the Lord Jesus cxnc into the TVOI':~.rts1 by up which annoyance might cor?leto t l ~ c ]ins. son of 13arl. until thc time of :he patriarch Abraliarn. and even after ~ilat. I-Ic taught many occt~lr arts formaking thein prisoners. Solomon sent an army after them to capture them. or whether God desired to provide a nrap cf saIvation for those (terrestrial beings)."l X a n y Jins approved the ?iluhaminadan 1 Kurdn.. and in tlieir hatrcd they practised and Tvsrc always intent npo:1 magic.amon. \i7hen the pl-op11et Yoses came into the world hc also caused peace to be made between them. tl~cy 1c dwelr togcrhcr. ancl having made pcncc between men 2nd ji!ls. charms. Hearing tlie intelligence of hcavcn. and associating with them. incantations. A Jin. Ir now became mznifcs: to the Jins that men held . Indecd. thcy began to go to heaven. and became rebellious. they would not llat~e been so bewildered. Reing great!). The men then felt sure that if :h.ay.11 was given to him. Ashxn~cdand downcast. They said that (Brabic) they "did no: know ~vhetlicrthat calamity had befallen them for the good of the dwellers on thc earth. hlany Jins then camc into his religion. they came clowt-11here (to the earth). shuttii~g in bottles.y against the lins illcrcasecl still nlore. by ihc mouth of :he hocpoc: hc i!iclui:ild of evcry one if tberc :yere any such person as would bring the throne of Bilkis bciorc her arrival. ancl mnoy other l k l c k 2. it so quickly that his M. and shoxved the way to ~ hcarc-n ancl the mode of ol~taining association with the zngels. Lsaf.said that he nould bring iL in one iilstanr. Then the Jir. canliry and n11imosir. When his highness Solomon died. in a boasting way said that Solonon had aainecl his anpire with thcir assisiancc.I L . and many Jins became followers bf his reliqon. was made kin: of the ~rllole son over all the kings world by Almighty God.~h x l become of Sol~mon. When Ximrod cast Al~rahaminto thc 6. . And ~vr.

True it is that the it magic of this variable fortune never keeps anybody in one st~te . "They are in bondage. c r that he must give his decree in accorda~~ce M with what seems to him right and suitable for t h e occasion. " \i?hat secms to you advisable ? All these h a ~ e come complaining to iny rcsidence.cings in accordance with the divine commandsonct in a tllousand y.should hear their evidence and ~r_=uments.hat misery and ignominy foilowed " Whcll they all had heard this ~ ~ o n d e r f u l s~ol-y.cnch one bowed his head and bccan~e pcnsive.o~u~ioll of the sphere. so that they may be kept for ever su!?jcct to annoyance and torture ?" The doctor replied. In vain you cshibit youroid hatred . The King then asked this doctor. like does nor over r. so between t11c. or in one day. l TVhen the doctor had iifiished speai.. ancl prevai!ed ovcr us. e > or in twelve thousand years. or i n three hundred and sixty thourand yeas.recks and t l ~ c Bmily of h r d a s h h Fortune in one nniform ~ v a y wit11 any One . it turns perpct~~ally illis world of sreaed i. to the Sarsanims and the race of 'Adnin from the [he race tyra.~ng a l this.religion. May Gocl keep (you) in his protection. changes once. It seems to me advisable that the King should sir to-morrow morning in public courr. will you then surrellder them illto the charge of men. This hxred is fire from a flint ." The SrZi6-i 'mi?mzisaid. and calling then1 all forn7a1-d. arid cannot answer. : Time does not alnays pass in the same way.n~ the and Musuimins peace continues up to the prcsent time." The ~ o c t o replied.ny of the C.. when it makcs its appearance it sets a world on fire. If they we beaten by the pIausibility of the men. I-IOWcan I settle their quarrel?and send them away satisfied from my countly. ': Oh Jins. Or i" fiirry-sin thocsrnd years. from the tyranny of Kebuchadnezzar to the children of David. " The men are very fluent and eloquent. 2nd have taken refuge with me. 2nd make no disturbancc among yourselves. n. which maJ1 be equal to fiftyfive thourand s~a'5. When they showeE their eninity against us. to the tribe of Himyar from the torments of the tribe of TubbA. nothing can be done b y rashness. they cannot say anything. he a g ~ i n said. bu! the a~limalsare dcficicnt in that respcct. "The r proper course wiil be found out after (careful) consideration . an6 becarne Rlusnlm5ns. the end of it will not he pleasant. and must be resigned and cjuiet. d o no: annoy them. as he granted deliverance from the tornlents of Pharaoh to the children af Israel. God will a t icngrh give them deliverance.

their opinions will differ. Whar. Thcy will be esamined about these c h ~ ~ matters in the d a y of judgmcnt. Then. r presents.bccauseliings are czllcd the vicegerents of God. He will not sl~owpartiality to any one. and the dispute is not yet settlccl. Still there is one dangersn They all inquired what that was . they wii! invent some l c g d quibble. Give them like\rise some bribes. Have you found out at all what the King has dccided in our regard?" All said. a112 to cnforce the commands of the law among the people. ministcn. 'These aninals have come and taken refuge in our countqr. then the juclge \will give onc of three decrees. One wil! spcalr in opposition to another.'" One said.They said. this mgch has. One of them said." ~ said. but this we ]. '' H e n7illassemble the doctors and learned mca. assemb!ed in their own house." One of them said.y about our rights?" The other seplied. inhabitants of different cities. and nothing will be decided. '' J<ouv should we know? StiU. and satisfy tl~em. If the King consults with the rvazir." Anothcr said.nolv." One szid. t o dispense jostice and equity to their subjects. x7e do not 1. to drive oppressors from their dorninioxs. " I have found out that he rill hold a consultatioo in with his ~vazirto-morrobv about our cast. and he replied that lhere IVUS $reat fear about the opinion of the judges a d lauyers H ERE ConszcIZatio~zf tlzc Men. and do injury to our rights." Another observed. the Kin. The minirtn is to be feared.! Anotllo said. what will they s. there also thc mcn. cCYon speak tile truth . and take counsel. and to 6 v e assistance and succour to the weak . " Tbis is an easy m a t t n Give the v a ~ i SO. " I know. it is to be feared lest he should evert hinlself with the Ring on behali of our slaves.n Another said.. that the Ring is inclined towards us. But the S&%$-l n s i ~ ~ r n d nise and ' is honest. or tlmt vbre must sell them and accept a price for them. that the ICmg is much perplexed a b o u ~ maitm. He will say.'' Another said. These are the only t h e e courses provided for in the law. and has a s o d opinioll of u5. and bring him over to our side. in accordance citb our desires. I n no ~ . Each one said what came into his mind. must then be done?" They all snid. ':If the King consults the judges and lawyers.now what advice he will girt" Anothcr repllcc). they are oppressed. and held deliberations together. and the guardian of religion. the an6 probably will not come our to-morrow. and the Lord Almighty has give11 t h c ~ nrulc over the earth. ancl it is incumbeni: on t h e King to assist tbem.ur hands. "This is also an easy mattcr. seventy individuals. was consxlting in private with his \vazir. but if the Icing consults wirh tlie doctors. o event of t l ~ c Ring consulting him. and noblcs . I hope he ~ not turn agaibst us. In the CHAPTER VIII. L'Ajudge is the deputy of the prophet. If the King speaks to the jildge about deciding our case. and dclivcr them out of o. 'LTheopinion of the learned cannot fail of falling ynder one ~f these three categories : either they will decide that we must set thc animals free. "You have all heard the discussion which has passed to-day bctween us and our slaves. and oive their opinion. or that we must sllow some alleviation and kindness to them. " Lb'e do not know what advice the dottors will give about our rights .

4rab said.c sell the aninrals \VC eating sinll srscy incOnrenimre. and that rl~cy should have been subjected to rhis ~ f f c r i n g . We will reply thzt W had the legal documents. saying L ' t V will ~ bring forward orrr friencls. '' 1."\lie will sell them. gave no and reply. Wharcver He wishes HC does. and they sn7ear that the). but that t ~ ~ were all lost in rile storm.they were all sile~>t. '' Tbc judge may say that the lesrimany of nlell is not trustworthy.' But those who i . fall upon them YOUhave not xvurlcd so much righreousness a j that this reward should accrue to you i l l consequence. nay. what will you do ? " Then another one said. what MP YOLI then do ? l 9 Then those who were inhabitants of the sttded coulrtry said.e y . and that w e have many proofs . and tell US to produce it if we a r t honest. these animals are living bei~rgs they bare flesh 2nd sicin like b y troubling. said. are not our slaves.ioil of selling them. and they have come down to u s in blnd'qe from the times of our ancestors. H e is Master. the apt~cir nljcationof thrm t~ o d ~ e r I ~ C S ::esidcs--all L these advantages hill loiI.1 act cpon it we shall mu!~tiol~ ir. Death is pyef. acid tender tllem as ~~itnesses!' H e replied. the .id what harm theri' xr'as 111 !C. who arc just. 'l If ". Nor bare they committed any such great crime as till God should llavc inflicted this punishnlent because of it. "We will reply that we are their hereditary masters. there is no objec~ion ?-Our doing sor for to . l n anslvrr to tllis tllcy replicd. and no onc can no dudlers in the woods aad was:es.Vhat if thc judge directs us to prove tliat they are our hcieditar).h. artd if WC lilcel we can refuse to release them.way can we disregard his decision.\. or he may ask where the detd of sale and contract is. what course m u g lye then pursue ?" Another replied." A prrson asked. slaves by same legal document. At Icnzth an .. and thc evidence of enemies is not attended to in the la~v. Twk5. torture ill and 1 have . '' If the jadge decrees that we are to sell them7 and accept the price. then we will olsject that the oath ought to be taken the defendants. ':We will say tllat the aninlals have sworn f:llsely. or by witnesses l" One ansx~~cred him." One said. . If you are conrent to give rhcm relief. If." T3ose \v110 were dispcsed to sell :ls:.hichsubstantiate our claim. "If the judge takes an oath from the animals. ey And if the judge directs us to swear that they are our own slaves.11~~ making gilrlccl. What device can then be adouted 7 When they heard ~his. ccri5l1. Tlvi muit not IIC. x17e can relezse and set them free . " I i the judge decrees that we are to retease and set frec rhe animals. Another observed. and fo show kindness to thenl. do not even let the idea of it enter into Your minds. If we Iike.ts of their skin and hair. but we are thep1aintifikY Then one said.ral~le to s life like this. because they are ail enemies of he animals. for h e y propoii. Similar iaconuenience will 2150 befall the inhabitanm of the settled have great need of these mimals. e ." like. th'm further. The choice is orll-S. or settil'~ sever entertain them free . 1)riuking their nY. d and rha. and take zhc money. ~ o should hxve nlndc these animals your subjects. the Arabs.

if unwittingly the right of one sllouid fall to other.tworth~. they may despatch their lCprcsentafiv~~ rod orators to L I ~ . and proof and arguments are made effec:i\~e by e!oquence of statement and fluency of Iansage. he has been somewhat kind to us . and all n-ere dirmirict. Perhaps his Majesty may take compassion upon us. and a c t a ~ . Help 21S0 tome5 from &d. scorpions. the e failfib for the insects: suclr as the easth~vorm..o~~ nj At~?n/nlr. "We rill go in the morning and weep before the King. For in evcry species there our isa talent. this is the right course. Co?/s?tltizt..' The men. &C. and reflect and conside:. When mcny fric~lcls ' n hclpcrs s!~all assemble. indeed. and we are afraid that 1r. N711atin your opinion is the best plan Prophet has said. ants. and release us from bondqe. and tell rlhcm (all). u-hich no other passcsses. so :It. semble.d snfcty will be found. who will then all come here. Hc aids ~vl~on~soevcr ml. but it is not right i n a king to give a decree w i t b u ~ thearing proof md =pmerit. '' You have 2lcard all the disputation which hns gone on to-day between u s and the men.CEXPTER !X.e shall be discomfited in our evidence and arguments by their plaasibility. snch as meggots.en$erj to a l anirxais to reprCSCnt Our position. King arosc from his council. I decicle in his favour. (Arabic.t l ~ c scxlet fly. and one (man) is more clever wirh his proofs and arguments than the other. These having been a ~ p o i n r c d were se2t in every directioc. " Enough . KOW. pas&s grcltei eloquence and fluency of language than WC 60. began to advise and tzke counsel together. i. the fifth for tlx rcptlks. what seems to you advisable ?" One of tlleln replied.411 He il" the animals said. snz?<rs. . To-day. and a? clnque~~ce . d some nicnns of deliverance 1r.. he ought not to take it. d e y wcnr to their several ho~~ies.'' . and that they will prevail over us. G In m y opitlion the best course is for i us send mcs. r the for ~ h birds . Thus the WHEN the If \V? all asmust be given to this point. re1 and come to me. a wisdom. :lien some good pl" 'ill turn up!' individual said. If he doer talCe it I rppoint hell-fire for him. and the contention i s not yet settled. very tru. the third for the birds of prey. . a ~ c l complain of the tyranny of the men. kc. The beasts having also assemblccl. the sixth for the acluatic animals. sul~portcrs. which signifies) 'When quar- careful . indeed. were chosen : O be sent in eve? direction : one of them f ~ the wild beasts .4 ~ cor&in"Jlysix n:cssengers. One of them said. Therefo~e.

(f W H E Y the iirst lncssenger went to rlie kill: or thc xiild beasts. sort and kind-came io wait l upon him. niid holes. ant! I wil! conFel. '' Who is tlxere arnolxg you wlto wi!i go tilcrc and be the coacljutor of the aoimals? Whencver a l one procetds thither ancl prrly vails with evidence and rensoni!?g. The lcopard. The beasts hnvc sent messengers to all animals.so that tile claws and teeth the beasts mxy never take cfi-~cr upon tllcir bodics. . and. arroivs and boiu. > 'Lit. ~ digging ditches: pits. bring forward proois and argumcrits for eloquence of statement. and knives. that hc n a y go there and bcco~neCO-partnerwith his fc. hlet al the wild beasts of my army come." When the Icing heard (thisj from the mouth ofthe messcngzr. Havin: r q a r d t o the claws and teeth of wild beasts.ct . and thcn issue his orclcrs.?." When the wild bcns~s I~earcl this iii~ymcditated n thougl~t i for an hour.ii-ic.lIcsscn~er.orocs and lacefi~iing nniml. They make nets and ~nzri-S. " A dispute is going on between m m and beasts i l l tlie presence of the Ring ofthc Jins. canlir. " They ~naintain.i-~ri. and in one 0nslaug)it scatter and disperse them. they C O ~ C the 1igl:cly with dirt and grass . then I will instantly despatch my army that it may g0 there. a javelins. \.gi-eatntss upon hiin.. saying.clutching? fighting. Deign to send a gcncral with your army aIo~." . strength. to the lion-he said. an6 when his turn shall come. many varieties of wild beasts-iions. 0 ~ . for all thcse things. dagge-. (in fine). thcy corer their bodies uith armour m s l 1 double armour: felt a n d Ilel~ncts. all beasts are our slaves and we are their jnasters? The lion inquired. leaping. and besides this they are with n u n y praciicer ancl n t s . :' Yes. Otz the i ~ r ~ z t t < ! r s ihr Fir. evelything r:l~ich lie had hearcl from the tongue of the rncssenger. cl:.:hether any one was fit for the business was minisrer.g wit11 nlc. and we arc your depc~idants and subjects..\v-strikers. 13ut before rlle King of the J i n s there is no mcniiurl of rhese charactc. Abji-L flffi. let !iim conrend wich the men.risrics ." " " .CHAPTER X. calling upon theln to come and render t l ~ e ~ n assistance. when the aniill~ilsunwittingly walk upon them. close combat? or i faet n any onc of these.11o:~cs t!lc ling tbat in every marLcr be sbould consult carefully 2nd clclibcratcly with the -rvlsc. you. and Ilc replied.thcn\\~harsoeverhesl~sll clcsire of rile I mill grant.irc-li!. jl~mping. ancl superiority of intellect and judgment. different sorts of monkcys. as to \. in finc.alovr. therc the). gave his orders.llorvs . 'l'he king related 10 t!lcn." The king asked the messenger what claim the 111en xvel-c setting L up against the beasts. It lic. ~volvcs. ~rcaseis.'nzi-h. courage.' U'lm is such a one? 1 Chni?. Thou art our king ancl chief. alld (other) weapons. activity of tongue." The messenger said. w l ~ o kins. fraudr and grabgems. '' What thillg do the nien boas: of? i f they boast about vigour. they fall in. after pondering for an ho~:r. Theyhave sent me also to ~vait upol.r/. ~ l a ~ ~ 1 l t . They practise many wiles and stratagems in craer to catch the savage and other wild animals. " They do indeed boast =bout many of tliesc qualities." I11 accordance with l this command. then saicl t o the or not. and said. and then it is impossible for them to get out.s of ever). And it behoves rhr: sul~jccts hilt they should listen to the orders of the king e i t h the ear of ' C/~at:~ul-aza'rt~Z' striking with claws. they kno~vhow L make shields and rxxrorcls.

he should seck from him aicl and assistaiice.' ha\-e adopted devilish clispositions." The lion said. then I am bail for it. from his duty he shouid not deviate. stealinz. l' I i there be any need there of clancing. I am bail for ir" The monkey said. jumping. I am the one for it. and whatever ski1i and art he may possess he should make !<no~vn t o the king." The cat said. and may the king be always victorious and triulnph~ni. 1 will pror7iclefor it.their hearts. I It behoves a icing to be ' just. but now the learned and thc theologians among men. and wise . (and) he should occupy himself in \vl>otever may be for the welfare ancl comfort of his subjects.. "If there be any need there of craft a3d trickery. and n~imicr). and devotioil to the Icing ." Thc dog said. " You speak ~ r u l y . I am the one for it. and in slandering and maligning each other. and infornl him of its defects and merics. but now. brave. and d e ~ : ~ s t a t iIn ~ will provide for it. he said. Then who is the one whom me ought to send. and they indeed are fit for these matters. "Therc is no one there for these requirements. and." The fox said. barking." The king asked the leopard what sort of qualities those are which are mcct for the king and for the subject." The weasel said. In the same way rulers and kings also having turned aside fiom the practice of justice and equity. liceping and seizing . just 2 parents show aii'cction and 1. When the king and. It is true . then. then Geign to give me permission that I slay 20 there and effectuaily provide for it. all &ai~s =C acljus:cd. the subjects each keep to their respective positions and courses. fanning. service. wlla? zdvice do you give in this mactcrl" The leopard said. '' hlay the star of prosperity ever continue bright and respleildent. lie should show liirldrless and affection ta his subjects. the morals and virtues are like those of the angels." The wolf said. '' All these clualificatio~~s \vhich thesc animals have mentioned are nccessmy for the armies of the kings and nables of m e n . but cf such of thcln as src learned tl~eologians~ and discreet. Because the king srarlds in the exalted position of [he head and the subjects in [be places of the!imbs (oiihe animal frame). " l f there be need therc of burning. 5 their otispspring. and damaging. " If there be any need chere of flattery. still their dispositiolls are like unto those of wild beasts and bru:es . ' and tail-wagging. I am ready for it. and due order prevails in thc kingcorn. For tl>ese matters there is indeed no one there!' The ounce ~f there be any nced there of leaping. in ml?om all the cl~~a!ificztions of a messenger may be iound ? I s thcrc any one in this assembly who may be worthy to go ?here? " . and begging.hich they call ' angelic morality. If there bc any nced thcre of watching." The rat said. Night and day thcg continuc in strife and contention. " If there be any need thrre of attacking. and told K m t o derail them. And it is irLcumbenton the subject that in cvcry way he should be ready in obedience. The leopard said. in every transaction h e si~ouldcarsfully deliberate." The king said. the duties of his service he should discharge in a befiaing manner. having cast off this course u. If there be any nced there of strength and vigour. l' If there be any use there for fel-rcting. havc cl~oscnthe way of tyranny still it and oppression. .'' Afterwards turning tnwards the leopard. and in evcry point should show obedience to him. Who. making his wants known to the king. " You speak truly . is the one to send that hc may go there and contend on the side of the animals?" The leopard said. and keeping concealed. because although in outward appearance their shapes and figures are like unto those of the angels. is necessary that the king's messenger should bc v i r t u o ~ s and noble . I am the one for it.i~dnessto ." The king snid." Thc king said. kindling. plundering. courage andambition. jumping.

The reason of this is.verc . and bring him to the object of his hopes. 6: J many foes or my spacies there-rrrhat plan can I devise against this?" The king i. He should not for fear of anythinc 1 Tf %n?tcrhere forgt:ts his xpolcg~e." After this he said to the leopard. Whlrt has been told him. "You have heard ~vllat thc leopard has declared in respect of you? what do you salr to it ? " The jackal said.. from desire for it. raw and cooked." l The lion said t o the jackzl. He should rendcr to hii lnaster whatever the responsibilities of counsel-giving and tnistiness requlrc." The king said. If you go :here and contend on the sick of your fel:ows.in~ aware that thcy %revcry fricnclly and fkmiliar wit11 men. -. hs in t13e seilder.~ l ~ ~ . ~ thi: obedient servant of rhe king. " ILis neccssa~ythat a messenger sl~ouldbe a wise man' and a good spea1:cr.1u. and fall headlong into the pit of treachery and perdition. and assist the111 in catching wild beasts?" The king said. adju:ors of a diferent species ? " Xo one knew znyrhina al. The dogs havc struck u p n friendship with meil in co!lsecluence of a similarity of clisposition and asfinity o i to taste.and s h d l rcceivc r e i ~ a r d . nor npon a. "Days have a 1 invetcrate animosity azainst me.CHAPTER XI. but be should return (home) quic!dy. atld besides this. The jackal saicl. Salted or Ull-I ~ ~ l i D ~ nn. "The leopnl-cl speaks the truth .nquired who they were. fre3h or dried. and m ~ k e attacks upon wild heascs? \T%y. "What is the yeason that they have become so attached to men.out this nlattcr except the bear. they get m a n y nice thi~lgs eat and &in]. inay God give him a good rcwarci.iy rnatter should he go too far ior his own side. ]awful ancl nnla~vful. " 111your opinion is therc any one in this asscmblagc xul~omay posicss ability for this business?" The leopard said. " I ~ ! I O T Vthe 1 The reason of this.-cr. tllere. he SILOLII~ waver from the course of trustworthiness and fighteousness. e T i signification c{ k 7 n c an& tznzd dgsa is not ' I. "There is no onc better fitted for this norl. Is 1 not tllc 1. when you return you shall be The jackal in dignity.becatis: it is incurnbent upon a mcssenTer to dcliver all his mcssagc. If the opposite side sllould offer him m y bribq1 he should not he such a person that.-" Cic:ionmics. f s. crafty . bear said. And tile ivild beasrj abstiain from these vices. having left their ow:~ ~ l l i j \ ~liave thcy become the CO. still there arc said.o~ ~ jrckab crlclmkd ill StOt?'. Dclilt~mtio7rc n a s s e r ~ p l : f T H E Yopard inquire2 of the lion what sort of qualifications arc in a rnesscngcr? Tilc Icing said. and comnlunicate to his lord whatcvcr he may have seen or heard.it. And in their nnturcs here is greediness and avarice alzd iuclil:arions. that alone should he speak He s h o ~ ~ l d stritre a:~d exhibit devotion for whatever may turn to the uelfwe of his principal. If in a strange city he shoold in any way find gratification. and 1 c said." 'The king dircctcil hiin to state it. FIe should forget nothing that he hears. but retain i~ carefully in meinosy. like as in men-this is a strOnjiC7 reason for rbeir intimacy. Hc should not tell the secret of his hcart to any one. He should not be n grczt talker. than the brother of Raliln and Damna." fail a jot in the duties of a mcssc~. The duties of his tmst and covenant he should fulfil as they ought to be fulfilled. rhat dogs eat flesh. he shoald not remain there for the sake of it.

sour or sweet butter. the children of Ahel sought retaliation upon the children of Cain. Through this avidity and greed how abject and vile tl~cy 1 If they are see a piece of bread or anything eix to cat i n tilc band of any man. or I. E L I thcy do not allow the dogs to gct ~ an entrance into their houses . " Sincc the d q s *. But the wild beasts do not eat these things. parched $rail:. whcnever she sees a dog. and with great. on the contrary they are afraid of them and nin away. The bear said. " Weasds also sometimes go therc stedthiiy and secretly for the purpose of thieving and caWil. The cat also.s and take them there. but these do not g0 there willingly-)' T h e l ~ n asked from what period cats and dogs had been g frienay with men. The bear said. or child. good or bacl. asd when the). " A t the time mhen Cain murdcrecl his brother. * IS there any otl>a beasi bnider the dog M." ~. or rather. or a mcrsel of bread. " Is there any other anill~albcsidcs rhese who goes into their llauses 5" bc~r said. This is the reason why she is their enemy. " What is the reason of that connexion ? B The bear said. 'and a]] the various sorts of human food-they lcave n ~ t h i n g . "They also go the. but there is no intimacy1 between.son. vegctablcs." The lion inqnirccl if there was any other animal besides these two vil~owas also familiar with men. "She is somewhat better ofi than the dog>because she goes into their houscr r l ~ d a!eeps upon carpets ." The king asked. just as they get it. The cat also. and in consequence of tllis affinity> the dogs have ~ u i t t e dtheir own fellows. how quickly do they mn and pick it up. Whenever the dogs see her they spring from their place.hen the descendans of Gain prevailed over those of Abd. \Vhatsoerer they eat themselvesthcy give unto her also. ct~rds." The icing said. The king said. Having . . that the dispositions of theln and of men are co2formable. and so artack her.rage and f u ~ y she swelIs ancl puffs herself out.'Rats also go into their houses and sl~ops. s~ee:ments." The king asked. If ercr a fox or jackal enter a rillage silddenly a t night to steal a fowl. 4 t lenrrth rhe children of Cain proved victorious. \v]lose name was Ajei. " NO other one goes . " Whzt is the caps position tvith men?" The bear said." did this matter happen? narrate it. oil. and render then1 &lp and aid in catching wilc! anirnzls. fL The bear =aid. milk. and warred with them. they do not even notice them. has a desire and lol1ging-for food of various sorts. \!lit11 what violence do :he dogs b z r l ~ and attacking (the intruder).g off something. lloney. but the men violently seize leopards and monke!.. so that he may come and get something to eat. at length c1rir." The kin5 asked what was the reason of their going (to men's dwellings). dine she sits upon the dinnerclorb.?. \v. "For this also there is this one re>. and t h e benr replied. consequently envy and malice prevail between the dog and cat. and the bcar said. scratches his face and tears his tail and hair. " The cat is also very iricndly nrjcll them. so that no other lnay get it! All these vices are found also in man.ho has fcnned a connection and friendsllip with man?" The bear said.e him atvay. womzn.-e froln a lilcing of various kinds of food and drink" The king then askcd if there was yet ally other animal who thcrc. like men. or a carcasc of carrion." Again the king inquired. that if thev catch her thcy tear her in pieces and eat her up. And the greeclir~ecss a v ~ r i c e dogs and of reach to such a pitch that it i5 irnpossiblc for t h a n to allow any aninlal to enter a village.salted. pulse. or cat. them. bread.vith what avidity 20 they xvag their tails and s h a h their heads 1 If lie in pity thrcrvs d o x n a little morsel before them. and besides they devour fruits. and \vhenever she gets a chance she steals some of their food and drink. and ham go:le a116 joilled themselves to men.

secede and g to join the enemy. asses.e must return. May God ncver grant a blessirg to those cats and dogs ! " The bear raicl. " I n this way many dogs having consorted with one bitch. that the allies of their a m ~ y h o ~ ~ l d s . because uphen they go they make him acquainted with times of negligence. H e has bestowed it upon thc goats. young onCS in a whole year. The bear asked the king. get her in pup. in the town or in the forest a very large pack of dogs. and mules. thcy entered w i t h avidity iota their viliages and beca~netheir bclper~and coacijutors. thys they are xbject andr"lched. But the ~ o t snotwithstanding that they bring forth only one or W O . hating abandcned their own species. and had many kinds of food cooked. and all his various contrivances. The r e s o n of it is this :very many evils come upon the wuDg of dogs and cats through their faod Through the mfimess of thtir food they are subject to dive= diseases from . bullocks. they became very rich. wit11 all tI>jn~r good and bad. ten. and sometimes to even more young ones . :'What ground of sorrow is thcrero your majesty (in the fact of] the alienation of the cats and dogs from their own species." The lion said. and ro whom tvc.md armies. ' l NOWdo YOU depart-go there d o the presence of the King of the Jins. still no one h s ever a sec. When the cats and dogs saw this abundance of flesh. All tbk is m exceedingly great evil for kings . and tlvovgh their own vice and the crudty of nicn the lives of themsr~vesand of o ~ s p are g ~ short . Slaughtering animals. but I zm brooding over this ~vord which has been s p o h ~ l th'e wise. and carrying off all their cattle.-h. she riith great affliction and labour gives birth to eight. Infor~ninghin~ofalltl:in~~. they ldi~nderedail their wealth. so that the computation thereof i impossible. they make known the secret ways. Up to the present time they continue in alliance. God has already done to those dogs." When the lion heard this story he bcca~mevery pensive. and said. from xhom w e czme. '' There is 1 x 1 power ncr strength buz in God the great and glorious. and arc always being slaugl1tered.and "CComplisb that matter for which you have been app0inteL7' 1 i(lnfih. Tile bear said. and the p r a w of the king has been heard : having takeier.and with zll secrets.bfn~ ~!ai~ghter sacrifice or foodfor ." The Kng zsked how this llappencd. thcy caused their hcacls and feet to be thrown everywhere raund about their ci:ies and ri:iaqa. notrithatandi~~g no one ever slrughcers~ that them. floci<s npon flocks of them are t o be secn in the towns: s and forests. '' I !lave no sorrow for their departure. L'i All that which the king has desired.l1j& beasts are exempt. and when she brings forth.inflicted defeat (upon their opponents). There is no @eater by sad mischief or detriment to kings in their govcrnme~~t administration than this.from their race his favour and hlesling. and to!d him to relate it. Thcy gave cntcrtai12n:ents to each other." After that lion said to the jackal. and this plenty of viciuals a~:cldrinli. camels.:' and several times be reitcrated this formula.

n u r d l said. ortricll.ird. d n ~ cazicrrcsr. the crier of the s:lmmons to pn~yer. and asertain the 1 2nd qualities of each. he having heard the posErion of the animals. lnasmuch as Satan has prrvertcd. ancl so 1have brouglli a piece of intelligence from tlie city of Sal). Accordingly birds of every sort and kind: of rheforests. ." Arter this he said to the peacock. is stailiiing on the wall. When he speaks he bends in the same way as if he were ~ n a k i ~ g borvsl and proscratiolls .&o6akp a p r r d g e . " God is great. j ' T:TCzr-oo t / ~ r x i x . who is b ~ r a particle of His lighr.&. in which no falsehood at all is minglcd. his minister. and there is a very. do. 171 rz"z~~~i$ion Seroxd A C e q e r : o the f W H E N the second messenger irei~tt o the Shih-m. so that he may go and contend ~ i : h the men )" The peacock raid. they do not ac1:nowlcdge God. heron. gave orders that all birds should come and present themselves. cnllle and assembled in such exceeding great abundallce that n o one but God could know their number. cnlxpanion of Solomon." fie. tllc spy.CHAPTER XTt. your Majcsty has not seen .¶. that I may behold them. and is always engaged in rnagnifyinghnd praising God. " The whole society of bid. lle inculcates virtue and prohibits vice. \vag. said to the peaeoclc.:' 4 IS 1 bending the body fonvard. of the mountains. and reminds ancl admonishes his neighbours. " l'he men have set up a pretension that all animals are slaves. His eyes are red. " The cock.lrgh) the king of t i e birds." . Show them to me One by o:w. he who. is Present . they pay acloration4 to the sun. '' Who among the birds is most fluent m d doq~lent who is . nightingale. his wings outspread. fit to be sent there. an Haslmnz-rerinue. Havii~gcast off that beneficent Creator who made earth. ~ i The ShA-lllurg?. and they are their masters . in colnpliance with his command. and resting a l~nnd each knee. and of the waters. suite. rralloxcr. the very essence of dcvotioi>. wild-duck. on tllis account many anilnals are disputing with the men before the King of the lins. 30 that 1may h l o ~ v fllem. 6' The hoopoe. is with a crown placed upon his head. partridge. ivhe~herany one is fit for this duty. all the good things a l the world arc to bc found at her abode . whetbcr open or concealecl. Takdfr-repeating the doxology. Therc is a l\ronlan there in the description of whose dignity and splendour? the tongue is dehcient. J croup. 3 Sijda-prostrztion. But she and the peoplc of her tribe are terrib!~perrrcrts .large throne upon which she sits. the so11 of David. and stated the facts. sky.crane.turtle-dove.. He l i n o ~ s the time of prayer. Ict him go wham thou pleasest to command. " Royal ?. homage. the son of Dmici. these al are hcrc p r e ~ e n t . H e brought the news of the city of Sabd to Solomon. they aclnowIed~e t as their god the sun. ' T h c wonders and miracles of the world \vbich I have seen. wbcreas thcrc is no one worthy of n-orskip hesides that true and only God. 2nd o&crs . ~ Stone-eater. pigeon. sn7ic~-fihmcs'~a) sparrow. is 1 1 who is sitting (here) 12 wearing garments of Inany colonrs. and said this. they consider vice to be. and who knov-S everything. Thc peacoclc said. he is exceedingly proud and generous. In fine." Tile S h i h . tail' gms. there is no \vant of anything.those people. his tail cocked up. 111 the 1 R~. The Shih-n1ueb said. and heaven. bulbul. " Tell me the names of all of them. The sovcrcignty of that country is in her power. " Tbelloopoe." The peacock said. T U ~ & ~ & .

ancl preserve me also from p h p sicians. ' B e tlwnkful for the mercies of Gad. Lit. for in this there is no saietyl for me. and ever xrhen he flier l far a.lg mal. taxnp letten. you d o not thir. do not for an inutaot forget God . why are you regardless of the peri! or rhe rintc ? Be telnperate .' "And this is :he srcrkh-n'b Libc as a preacher rnoutlts into his pulpit. shall przcrise in it the cultivation of good ~vosks. Where are thoje lords of commerce and mcn of agricultmc. who declare that benefit arises to rick people from eating m y flesh. the i:ivieer to prayer.' And frequently in his prayeTs he offers up this peti"0% '060" place mein safety from the ~ndignity birds of of prey. is she who is sitting on a branch of a tTee. but will bring the faithful into paradise.for you will there co~llcinto a pleasant &eliing-pL?ce . you will fall into perclition. Think upon that day when God. If fro111 this time foril*n!-d. ' "The bulbui.'Before y ~ u rdeceare discharge the duty of worshipping him. he scys this. is he who. >lake provision for )-onr journey ta thC next world. then so mucl1 tbe bc~ter. g Lir. If any burn lilce dry litter in one s h d l pursue a n eui! course. that I lnay find happiness in reunion with m y friends. Oh. Yoil have been sic-1ling ' for a very long time . buiiders of houses in roxvns.' "The pigcon. in flight she is swift. and is engaged in singing with exceedingly sweet voice. so does he also at noan rise in rhe rir. Ziril'uf-cultivation. and show no mis~rustof God. If you desire to be preserved fi-on1 the fires of hell. thifiking upon your dying dag~.lcb of cam." . in his sumnlons to prayer. m y mr. This norld is the hrtl-.. With 1 d . be is bent in form. 0 ~ ~ show m e the Wry to my native cotintry.est-field of f ~ r u ~ i twl~osoever y. in the fear of God take warning . and men . And in his discourse h e says. who By the mercy of God derive very large profir from the of a single grair. ' 0 dwellers in my vicinity. and z.stcrs. "liie. and will dcsce~ldillto rile grave 2nlo.:' p r e s q t and counrel be cries continurily." " And the parcriclgc. " dcath. 1 am alwa)l thinking upon GM : in the morning I the proper invitation t o prayeq that all men may hear and act upon the good counsel. will cast these into hell-fire.k upon death slid destruction . you fee! no terror of the fire of hell . tl~il?dcupon tint day when you will leave this Inxnv at borne.lng ' the 5t. l before learing your native llome. At the time of invitntipn to prarrr he reminds the heedless and gives glad tidings -5. plalltcl-s of trees in gardens.s walking gacefully about among the flowers and the trees in the garclen. wit11 great pathos. lie si11gs various strains m*.' " And the &daL:l is he who is aliua). Hcr body is very small.th 0 exceedingly sweet voice. having separated the infidcls from the faithful. he ~vill the fire of hell. sitters in high places. ' 0 dcstroycrs of liie and conslitution. so that his blessings may increase . From the frequency of his bows and pmitrations. alld after that he says. ' There is horror in separation from one's brethren. shall find the benefit of it in the life to come. jackals. then pr~ctisc dcvotion and temperance. and she is constantly looking t o the 1 A kind of partridge or quail. Through stinginess do not take this idea into pour mind-" TO-day no poor or needy person will come to my house . t ~ v e to ~ distant cities. and show kindness and bencvolcnce to his crcatLrres. her face is white." for whoever now plants the tree of kindness will to-morroxv realise the fruit and relish of it. is he 1vho is standing on the hillock with a pale face and variegated 'vings. the guide oftheway.s.cj and scorpions.vay he says. and you show no gratkude for the favours of God Call to remembrance that person who will annihilate ail p1easurc. crop. and longing for meeting with friends.' mom. remember God. the story-tel!er. you are m n d f i ~ of this. you at? not dcsirous of paradise. ngricu!ture. if not.

with admonition she and c o ~ ~ n s e l exclaims. preserve me from the hankering of boys. Twice in the night hc keeps vinila.hat of the nesr.. ye ~ 1 1 negligence in thinking xpon God. 'Gracious God ! how hcedkss ye are : cliceit-ed by this existence of a feltr dayi' length. to-morrow. and betvare of J l Le. \LTby are ve not ab 0~ sorbed in the ren~embrance him ? Do ye not i. In flight she is l i g t .' The crane. '0 God. But in the end God made vain his cunning and craft. Going into country. She dwells for Lhe mosl palt in rllc hmses of men. How long.:!gat? a& beget ofiprinp. the wa. He is hob.~ p p oset:orer: in e~. and rays. Praise is due to Him W~:O is the crcaror of all creaturzs. 2nd the besrower of all blessings. ' Holy is d that God who of his power crcated a pcir of erer). consorting togethcr. -nspired.engage in s:~pplicationand player .kin will be tornoff. from which rllerc is never any deviation.eaven. s for there i m resting-place or delivera~~ce you.' H e is holy i . unll Ye conti~~ue occupied in p1enso1-e a d &ssipltian ? In the end. Observe temperance. nourishcc1 to n~ouldcr alt-ay. and temperate. ruler. together &h their elephants. If you xish for s2Alvation. her Pet are small. by stratagem and craft. clothed ibem wirh garmellts of esisicnce. In her and p r a ~ f she repeats this formula. have scen all the 5el-vautS (of ~ ~ a ) .rho the sea alld land. H e is black in cdour. to raze the house of God. who reveals hidden matters. ~ e t htorperish ? Ye are building this house that it may e fa11 10 ruin. perhaps ~vill preserve you from llarm! Cod. '~ ~ f ~ ~ & Z i ~ z f . and mi:L ren~eml>cr their Crcnior.hav.' After that she exdaims. With exceeding eloquence 2nd sweet voice she c o n l p o ~ her srmiils. having brou:1lt them out from the corner of nonentity. Havir~gfled from thc conlmands of Cod.S tllc s\lrallow. hrtoived them abundant oifrpriti: ..' After this praise alld prayer have travelled illto every country. govtmor. do ye not knorv xv~lat GO^ i\irnigI~ty d d ?" t o the "lord of the eiepbai~ts Abrah.. were riddled lile worm-ertcn leaves.' ye must die and be buried in the eafih.r of this world. and her rings layc. and in flight hc reaches half way to 1.. and s ~ l -ill the gardenn s 5 in close intimacy with nlen-she even goes into their houses and talks with them When they. who established the mountains. so that. 11i5 feet short. the~lnigllt proi. an$. and.right hand and to the left. llasing brought inale and female togcthcr.chman?is he alio stnnds upan the fidd His nc& is long.ho was cllief of that band. dufiirg the cold in warn1 p k t c ~ i . H e is the llelpcr of traveliers in their journeys. taking vp pebbles. . is Lord of all the face of the eaYtii and says? L I of all creatures. very soon. and ever i Passes his ( 1 1 ~n~travel and wayfaring.norl~that of Ye r e r e 111 born 10 die. unmindful of tilought about God.' . sought. In in places.brought t ~ . and with admonition and counsel he cries. Now through delusioll you givc the prefcrencc to the life in this world over . The birds. COW hack to my own country. tbar day ahen you will rot in the grave. c. Be wise even now . and against danger from all alin1a5 1 'L TIT' ' XIS1s the crow7the soothsayer. ( s ~ c c i c s of) animal. he ad\-anced towards the temple of God. He threatens the heedless with the evils of neglect. He giver information al~oureverything which has not as yet trH e is a t all rimes occupied in meditation upan GO^. he gets inforlnation about ancient annals. and formed alrrcnts of the stre~t~ns-1~h0 according t o onis dfiens sustenance and cleatb. tBGng com~passion. deceired by the deligi1t. 111 har journcys sbc proceeds to for d ~ yof heat she C ~ O O S ~ S abode j her p a t dist~nca3. i s Herc . -qounting many men upon eiephanti. tvl~cn from the disrrrace of your dccdi your . and in piaile of ~ o offers his thanksgiving. engage in pleasure and dissipation. and thcrc inulp UPh' L Always at jai~ii and at ere she utters prayeys and sJpplicarion~ m e r e . the rover in the air. podred down such a shower of stones that a11 of them. he sent\mmns upon iiivarml of birds against them.

wirhout considcrzT11c tion and thought. for He has no equal . H e alone upraises from theearth the vapoul-S by means of which tllc economy of the world is (maintainc-cl). i n o ~ ~ ( ~ i ~:. fieas. that h e may go ?ad contend with the men. brig said.' of And sonlciimei with deep sorrow she speakn in li1is way' How happy was that rime when I roamed about along the fl0ll7ers0-f the garden. the movemenr of the air. . s and. and these a11 revolve by His command. chief of :he d i the fliest 2nd recounted to him n!l the affairs .'' The chief of the moiyuitoes said." The Sh. private and public. ~OITLI the project of going thn-r ? " upon csngregation of g m t s said. there i s . &Tom ing and evening he repeats this forln (of puaycr)-C Holy is He urho created the SIT and the ea-th. the inhabitant of dry land. c ive aTe larger in size ancl staiurr. 0 king. the give:. In body he is ~111211. " I y go &re.'' In this wxy every one was rezdy tor the business. a u d act as the deputy of m tribe. I i d 1 discuss (the nmtrer) \Vith rhcnlen. r c hare greater strensh. gave orCera for a11 the insects to coias before him." ~ The cllief of the flies said.' The chief of the x a q l said. ~ h 1Ile. The falling of the rain. ': They boast upon this poinl ar. who is a help and support 1n evcry elnetxency. k i n g the ally of my own species. In consequel~ceof.ld.n~lj. and in voice sweet. Lilia unto the sea. Gracious God ! \vhat a Creator He is i The tocgueof 111an is incompetent for His praise and eulogy.' " Hereupon tllc Shjh-murgh said to the pencocl.vent to the king-bee. all creatures r h o snil in body end fly ~ $ 1 1wir. . behalf of the ani~nalr.--me 2nd rtrcndcd The king set fOZl1 t thml. " 1r i l l So rherc. H e always dwells in woods and deserts.dflies. 1~110 your opinion is the most fitting person to scnd in there.i. m d go there. A xonderful Creator is H e rvho a f t u death gives iife (again) to old rotten bol~ts.of all blessings.-ill po t b r : m d diiputc ~ L i ltl h men. virsps.~ttinghis trust in God." The peacock said. ':All tbesc have abilify for the duty. and in every point we are superior to the mimls. all is His worlr. x ~ all the trees d ladcn arith fruits of many kinds. T H E third mrranger -. flits. 2nd do not live more OlX . I will go there.gs. as soon as hc heard it.. of the constelhtions and of the stars. and be the ally of his own species. He alol~eis (God). but the i~ightingale the most eloquent and melodious of is dimcted him (the nightihdngde) them all.h-n~urgl~ to take his depal?ure.in motion iivifr..gnats: to~s.L Of all these. .ill the O informetion he had heard from the t c n q c of the messenger: and *=id. the bes:ower of boons. He. " "jho i n t h n e nnxmg you \rho vi!l 0 there. p.n Snc. the manifestation of the thunder and lightning.'cAnd this is the sang-lih~vira(stone-eater). how is it possible that the unc\e~-standing should arrive at (a Iaiowlcdge of) His nature ?' "The nightingale of sweet voice is 11c that is scatcd on a branch of a tree. no:bs. because they are poetical and eloqtlenf." The c h i d of the 1 0 ~ u a said. the kitlg ot all insects. L: 1 . ~ c t com~nnnd. ~ l d dispute with the men on. 'c How is this that ye all. He is thc Maker of thc heavens. After this fashion he meIodious!y poorsionh his strain in praise of God-' Praise be to that Crearor ~ h o is the Lord of pokvm and benrficance.senger said." Tlle~ 11 2 inquired upon what point thc men were boasting Orer thelll.d say. hc ullgmdgingly digllifies every man with the bo~~nties His favour.

. 1 . and pierces him wirh a sting (only) ecpal t o the point of a needle. n .e. an-d arrow in hand." The king said.e out from the conthe ~f~~~ the gregation. they r e r e nil siicnt. "If any man is seated in society or (in private) behir:d his screen. with its body all covered wit11 filtIlh. or his necessary." The wasp said. standing before tlu king. 'l You all speak t n ~ l y . jave:m. " May God aid you in the have onJerfal:m.hut in the presence the an$ the Jins there is no mention.of and manners. his power ciid not avail him anything. nor does he cver? rake any h ~ of his shield and sword. raid. on heurillp hCnging do\\-n their he&. then how restless does he beconle. "Among men X i m o d was a king of the highcst dignity.and eloquencl and fluency.e slaps to his own cheel." The king replied. v ~k~~ dispu:e is about jus." Thc king said. ': It . then how wrctched does his state beeome. because i former times thew have been very tyznnical kings. actin: liclp of ~ $ d I.the help of God. true. This sage having d e ~ a m d fl. u." d : The fly said. spear. goes alld sits upon his person or clothes and teases him. said notllin:.scr~lion. But a gnat of our racc. snd any one amollg you xvlx lhas ability in these n~atlers " ? of the king. and. '' Statc the ci~. but by the lic!p of God u7e have always prevailed over then. knife. Ofttimes thel-e has been proof of this. and make yotl victorious oi'cr the fincl haring given tohim nil proviliolls for :he journe)l. and. and certain it is that by His aid rvc shall a gain the victory over them.lcc.ice and equi'. ' l 1 is true. and one of our tribe goes and gets into his clothes and bites him. who was very sniai! ancl frril of body. and lvhat a rage he gets into ! But he can do nothing to us . a sage zm~ong flies ca1r. His body swells up.if a t that time a wasp bclonging to us goes ancl srings him." The king said. with sword. and in his pomp ancl dignity and splendour took thought of no man. his hands and feet grow languid . "At thc tinie when a man Fully furnished with snns. destroyed this king so great. " lk'llen a king of men sits upon his throne in great polnp and splendour. and his doorlreepers allcl guards are standing all around him with the utmost devotion and l!-illingnesl. The mosclr?ico said. of these things. "You speak tnrly.he can only thump his onrn head. ..mim&r. and there.s. the di. and gi-. he can never Gnd the power t o escape fro111 it.ill as ally of tile ." . i the presence of the King of tllc !ins." He was csceeding!? arrogant and perverse.cumstances." The king said. SO that no pain or a1mo)ranct may l-esch him--if zt thzt time a fly comes out of his bitchcn. and. or with the mosquito-curtains hung up. Notwithstanding his dignity and might. he dismissed him.vllere of sorts and kinds were present." The chief of the mosquitoes said. he cannot move. I will clisp~te with rhe n l e n x h e king 3 1the ~ i r e r n b l y 1 said. " upon this business. is accoutred (for bat~ie)-.

" Because all birds of przy are akaid of men. the king of the birds of prey. ~'Xcons. 2 Chara&-. The said. and through this animosity the day of battle will again arrive. henlks. never did them any harm. " What d o you say about this which the shunkiir has settled for you i" He replied. owl speaks truth.--for these matters they never show any inclination" said to him.Z and with great fondness seat them on their hands. 2. They show a !!king for u s merely for their own benefit. On tlre rjzatfL. vultures. they do not understand their language." The p h ~ n i then asl. " The shunldr speaks truth . and often.CHAPTER XIV. owls. phccnices. ('Tl~ere no is One b u t the owl who has ability for this business. parrots. By day he fasts and weeps in fear of God. sl~. sitrsr v. who among the animals (prcx sent) was best fittedfor the business . and fly from them . because among men. and. " In your opinion u. in their old houses which have become ruinous. that he may go and confront the men. and they cast abuse upon poor innocent me. and now other people have become the possessors of them. Night and day they are engagecl in zrnusernent and pleasure. and at night also he is absorbed in devotion and in arousing the heedless. and all the good things through which we lived in pleasure. and bes~des. In accordance with the order. kin@ and I K~~&-. the shunkrir." The king askedwl~at reason was that no one besides him was the fit for the business. But the owl dweUs nearth&rvil[. all carnivorous birds having claws and beaics instantly presented themse!vea The phenix related to them the facts of the anin&' dispute -4f~er that he said to his waii. for they tear away our prey from us. It is better chat you should not send me there. If they shoulcl see me there at the rime of rhe argument they will become still 111ore illjmicd. he also gave orclers for all the birds of his species to attend. and consider the sight against of me unluclcy. and dJldTflt~. it would be better?' The king. indeed. (black-eyed falcon. appropriate to their =ondition.-27.ecl the owl.) '' 1s there any one of these birds who is bt for this business. nor because thereis any great lImo\v!edge or gcorle mxnnners in u s throtrgh which they sl~ouldhave a-iicc~isnfor us.mofthe Foul?il J h t g .' " 1 The phcgnix said to the owl. '' My opinion is. andto have a dread of the account and boolts of the day of judgment. and be m ally of his own race in this conff ict ?' The wz-fr said. His continence and contclltment are such as G o other animal possesses. said.e r .l~omis it The p h ~ n i s advisable to send!" He said. kites. but still I cannot go thcre. because all men nourish a n i ~ ~ ~ o s i t y me. \ V H P N the fourth messenger went into the prescnce of he phcenis. the houses and cultivzted lands. "What is advisable in your opinion ?" The hawk said. that the parrot Gould be sent thcre. iookinp towards the asseillblagc of hawks. and apply it t o their own use.) 'Ure have left behind the gardens and faun- tains.and he replied. such as to perfor111 their devotions. But men do not distinpish us hcause w e haveany a s n i t y with them. Those matters on tvhich God has made incumbe~~t them. If the king should scnd one of them rhcre.a bird off i e hawk kind. " Kings and al-nong men are very fond of ha~vlcs. and made known the circumstances. and repezts this verse. . (Arabic. whom we may send there. in hne. Hc laments over former kings are dead. falcons.igas.

will unite and render mc assistance. indeed. for in this world there is no good in fighting and contendil~g." I l. take up several men. then . He replied. the time for a struggle has arrived. ': How Inany ships are there which b v e been in distress through adverse winds.." The pllwnix inquired what he wished. in conlpliance wit11 his request. ha." )Zfter t1r:hai he said. on the siclc of the animals.ght. " Ye know that men that those poor wretches have at their hands bcen rendered shunkir also having fled from their oppression. W e dciiberto p y slew keep aloof and remit tLem to God.row may be." Thc king. whatever our state of g i e f and sol. and have colne t o hide ourselves in the hills and rivcrs. the regular form o f prayer should be repeated." have so practised violence and oppression over animals ~sceedingiy miserable . 8 . and. ALthoug11 we arc so strong that any individual of . " H e speaks the truth . and make spoil or of them. that. no rcsult foIJaws. to such a degree. sincerity of purpose and p ~ r i t y heart rue necesof sary. still we have f i ~ d from their tyranny. The orvl said. ('1 am ready. will contend with the men .trouble and labour are in vain. Like as a person prays to God w h e ~ lin the decpest distress. and that we migl~t this way shorn Our orati:u& for Iqis mercies! For He has made US porverful bestowed upon us vigour and s t r e n g h md body. '' 0 king I if prayer is not accepted. And we ourselves. and all the congl-egation said. if he liked. and soar to the skies. is fond of him.it. learned or ignorant. H e replica. and He. abstinence shoxld be observed: and we should show some bindnesi to the poor and needy: and then. Our brother the . under every circmstmce. male or female.s gone to dwell in the forests. we cannot get deliverance from their tynnny. They will 011tain the fruit and results of it in the world to come." Thc king aslced the parrot what he thought was 'advisable." The king said to all the congregation. notwithstanding our being so far away. that I may prevail over the enen~y. n~trvithstandin~ we that have greatcr strength and vigour than man. \Irhatever he says. still it is not befitting for the good to do such e5~il: regard to their wicked conduct. Amen. Having no remedy.nobles. small or great. so should one fix the mind upon God at the time of prayer. and taI!cs with him. giving up his abode in his own country. The o~vlsaid. prayed to God for help. And before offering our (special) prayers. and unless prayer is attended with a11 the requisites. they havc come to seek refuge with us. n u t with all this even. and told him to state them. but I hope that the kiag. everybody. when they begnn to sink and to drown." Tire killg asiced what the conditions were for the acceptance of prayer. and we have helped them upon their course ? and how inany poor fello%'s are there whose ships have been broken by fierce winds. \VC have brought to the shore. WC should represent it to the Divine Majesty!' All said. they attend and listen to. in prayer these things are requisite. a r d all this congregation. " For thc acceptance of prayer. h:r'iingseen and known a!!. and w h a . I will go there. " My object is that the king should pray to God r'or mc. so that God Almighty might be satisfied in and fleasea with us. is our aider and helper.

" The messenger repiied. it would no: be possible for them to enter there. or stream. If a man goes to the bank of any rivulet. * what ! does not the k n p b o w that by their science and wisdom they go down into the ocean1 m d bring up jewels froor its bed? By their stratagems m d mifiCes lih?~h *lilil?11. and in swimming surpasses eveqthing .'' ~l~~ me. copper.g i SO abundant that every river and stream. " Set forth in detail the facts of their science and art. and in one instant I will spun out fire on t h e q and then dragging them down by the iorce of my breath. Or. t l ~ efrog. he Ocean. the turtle.they climb up the mountains. from west to east. and is exceedingly friendly with men . to them all that he had heard fiom the tongue of the messenger. He represented. that they possas rhe greatest sense and wjrdom. and conveyed to him the infelligence of the dispute. in accordancc vri& the command.. stratagem and artifice. argument and proof . and placing it upon the shoulders of oxen. they lade heavy goods upon their backs. maintaining that these is no equal to them in sense and judgnlcnt. is swift in motion. (c If d ~ men consida themselves superior to us in strength u l d courage.senger said. gold. and a great variety of things. and snaigllt body . that they are icquai~itedwith every science and a*. that we also may know them. river. and conduct them from east to west. because she is l a c e in body and good in f i w e . he looked intently all round upon those who were sitting around and befol-e him. In the same way. i l a more i-esllrted sense. convey them about from sea to sea. for when a person is drowning he drags him from the water and places him on the shore. and of every for111 and shape. boast of no one of these things." f When the Icing heard all this from the mouth of the messenger. And she holds a high position also in the opinion of men. the crocodile. in numbers she exceeds all aquatic creamus. \v110 dwells in the salt sea.u The king said. K O one gave any answer except the dolphin. and her off5pr.the fish. The). and know crafts Zmd plans. the dolphiil. coUected together. by their science and wisdom thcy construct a yake of poles. he also asse~nbled his dependall e l ~ t sa d adherents. and asked what in their opinion was the best course. silver. ' l Among aquatic animals the fish is best fitted for this work. 1 will immediately go. because on one occasion she gave refuge in to her belly to their prophet. white colour. sea and s lake are filled. and embarking goods. By thought 2nd wisdom they build ships.the ~~d . Accordii)~ly.was a n y one who go and contend with the men. she has a fair face. traversinz every forest and desert. he can by the force of his kno~vledgebind such a charm that if a thousand crocodiles or dragons should afterwards go to t l u t place. But before the King of the Jins the discussion is about justice and equity. Going on to the mountains and hills. b r i n ~ them do!vil to the ground. BC. I will slvallow them. and if there . iron. they dig and extract from the earth jewels of every kind. and aftenvards brought h ~ m his W H E N the 6R11lncssenger went into the pruence ofthe king of the acgaatic aniinals. there is n o mention whatex73 o power and strength. and catcl~ing vultures and eagles. but they consider themselves rtlperior i n this respect. The king set forth. e After that he raid to the messenga. all aquatic a n i m l r of eZ'Y variety.

nor have I any tongue wherewith to talk to them.nporous in his movements. trickev. and hc replied. " I n my opinion the crocodile is very well fited for this business. He is swift in running his his t o n p c long. his s hands and feet large. he has got cipIlt legs and they are crooked. and has great powers of speech. t Andat time.'' The Icing asked the uocodile. in movement he. 2nd he said. speeches are impossible for me. the friend of Gad. HZ r o m s about b o ~ h the on land and in the water. i swift. " For going on this business tllel-e is 110 need of strength. In tlie estimation of the children of l s r a d his worth and honour are great. and g-odiying ( ~ o d ) . jumpillL " d running away with whatever 1 can ~et. elaquence and fluency are the things required. A11 men bold the belief that all the a r c h rests upon her back. h e n Nimrod Abraham. justice and equity. . and the way is hr. because he is very . because I have no feet wherewith to g e t tllere. a d he goes into the houses of men and show's no fear:' . hecause once upon a time hc showed them this lundness that . " I am not at all fitted for this work. mY f i ~ r exceediugly bad. his cheelcs are split open on both sides.oiui no rashncsr l11 anything. nor can I either contend with the men. who is this headless animal ? he has eyes ill his neck. moving on the land and swimming in His nlenlbers atso are aPPr0the water .." The king asked the turtle what he thought advisable." . Leapine. 1 Cannot endure thirst ." The king said.ere h derision of you ? what fault is t h e n in you ? " The crab ''When they See me they will ail say. Tile Ling asIxxi the fish what she Iiad to say about it. right and lie utters praises in commen~omi0'J of cod. He goer also into fbe houses of men. he took water in 11is mouth and squined it on the fire. his eyes bright. d~vdlingl l the sea 0. this he knows. his face go?d. I n my opinion the turtle is betier fitted for the business. . a mouth in his breast. And besides this-. if for one instant I am p i f e d from the water. because ile goer out of the 1vater stays also 011 dry land . Wily should t!. " Who then is better fitted to go there - Tile crab raid." said. is swift in walking and runnin his talons are sharp. There is no one of these qualities The 2nd merits ill me . and rl. n hen there was a conflict between Moses and Pharaoh. his body is hard. because he is mild and patient and devout . . and took no i f i ~ upon his body. And h e is eloquent also : he vtterp words. in fine. " I cannot in any uray go tilere. and he goes alone face downwards as if made of lead." The king asked the dolphin ~ v l ~ he thought advisable. my back ~ r o o k d . morn and e r e be is engaged in praYer and faning. at He said.--these are all derects of mine . his head is round.Tlze Crocodilehome in safety. because tilere is great passion in me. he is very patient. and she replied. to gain his object he waits a long while. his claws hard. so that the fire was exringuiihcd. I am a thorougll cheat and impostor' When r6e messenger heard this he said. When 1wall< 1nY feet become heavy. I am also a poor ~ ~ Iand w . pr. because he has many feet. All when they see me will c r a c ~ joker upon me:" ." The king spoke to the crab. he is exceedingly patient and enduring under trouble and pain. "The crab is best fitted for this business. 'L HOW can I go there ? my body is ugly. and lie replied. and his back nrong as if cove& with armour. because his legs are strone he has plenty of actian. b u t in my opinion the frog is the best person for this buiinei. and is ever e n g ~ ~ ind e praising1 m%nifying. into the fire. The king said. my statc becomes miserable. 0 is better suited for this. The dolphin c 1. ''This work is impossible for me also. his teeth numerous. I should not like for tilere to be e a against me.but sense andgrarity. vigour. he assistcd Moses. his bady is s:rOfir and his back Lard . i On the is all one t o him. and.

is quire agreeable to me. and. ('What is the best opinion ? " He said. spiders. Amen. earthworms. he as soon of as he heard it. king ivill Pray to God for aid and n s s i r ~ n c c me. YOU' wcnt the dragon. Then the fmg ~ ~andd . and remained silent for a moment. If it is decided that 1 am to go there. . He became serious (and aslccd). hil~g reptiles-ic. " I n Your opinion. will contend w i d the me% 01 1 hope that .hansc to the Prayers of on behalf of their $ubjec-s are In compliance with his request. he perceived that there =ere very many creatures small and feeble in body. licc. and blind. of the king. all came and attended before the king. p b . there is neither hair nor feather visible on their bodies. ar6 in a m the king's subject ." 1 Kira-a worm. Instantly all snakes. they have no beaks or claws. and crawl upon the leaves of trees. they have no hands or feet at all. lizards. green lizards. ~ them. when having attentively considered and loo1:ed upon them. chameleons. whatever order he may agreeable to me. he pres*nted himself before the King of the Jins. " I am ready. the scrpent. so that he may confront the men ? for these creatures are for the most part dumb. deaf. small ants. heafi ai1d soul.T h e king said to the frog. scorpions. chief WHENthethe sixth mejsenger of all theworrnsl andants-of to and told him all the circu~nstances the animals. and deficient in instinct and intelligence. "What can be done with these ?" He said to his minister. and for the most part they are weak and feeble. too~c leave procecding thither. When the king beheld their wonderful and extraordinary forms and shapes. in fine. the king pray& to alI Congregatioll said. directed that all the worms should attend. In such multitudes did they assemble that no one but God could have the power to c o u . Afterwards. I having tllere tab the pn of it my Own fellows. he was amazed. insect. all worms which are produced in filth. i s there any one among them suficicntlg clever to send there on the business of the dispute.


the wild ass. they by means of their strength and courage keep off injcry from themselves. like the anti. and v!eapoos for-tl~c repl!ing of injury. like rats and ants. b u t in His generosity and beneficence He has kep them all eqval To every one of them he has given suinble means for securing zdvantage. " I n like manner. &C. And there are some who. exceedingly fine and light. because they arc produced in sucll dweilinp and hidden places a s are known to no one. like the the hare. without (rile necessity of) sense or motion. He bestowed strength upon some. no one has any s"priority over anofhex When H e gave to the elephant a bully forq and bestowed upon him enormous strength. some by smelling seek their food. some are hidden in grain. then it wolI1d be seen that those among them who are small in body and are feeble. Keep concealed in your ~ s p e c t + e dwellings. All. If the king. bodies and great strength. t l l a as a substitute He granted ta him two wings.' "And there are very many ways d s o by which those szi& obtain their subsistence. "Among animals in general those w110 are lays in body and have great strength. for they do not are)? And there are some who* skin and know (. like the &phant and l i o ~and other animals berider theur who have large . and did not give them the instinct and means for pining their daily food. ' Thc chicf of the ants said to all the ants. ivould look upon the facts respecting them. eu- . Some are found in the . "And there are some which lie concealed in holes. pain or toil. and some in dirt and filth . He also made for him two long tusks. but kepi others weak. likc the turtle.them. he has not deprived of this blessing men this species which out~vardly appear to have 170 hair or feathers. When God created them in this state H e provided for them all the means by which they might secure knefit and remain safe from violence. and wherever they see anytl~inuogCO eat. to some H e gave bulky forms and to others bodies . such as rhe porcupine. by means of which they are prerewrved from every evil. ~ Other animals are subject to t ! labour and trouble of running away and biding . by means of which he flies and escapes from his enemies. Some by Reet mnninm and by Right remain secure from every danger. small and great. ad says. fish. thither they proceed. and some by means of flying nrnain m in securityfrom all horrors. so that they rcmain safe from every injury and are not disturbed about obtaining what is beneficial. hike the birds .g . " I n this blessing all are equal. that S O ~ O ~ I O llis army may not a s 1 1 YOU u n d u foot. Some by keenness of vision see. but there (insect4 are w e d from thzt work...here hide God has made very hard. He of His kindness relieved them from that labour and trouble. like the aquatic animals. and by power of wing fly. T h u s God Almighty speaks in the story of the a t . some are placed in the bellies of animals. The power of suction has been given to them. reinaln safe from every injury. When God created these animals which are very Small a d feeble. by hiding their heads under their tails. and those animals which are aquatic. like the vulture and e@e. having reflected. by means of which he is prrarved from the ferocity of rapacious beasts . are equal in that blessing by means of wl~ic11 they secure advantage and remain preserved from violence. and by his trunlc he obtains benefit If R e gave to tile gnat a lirtle body. are Iight and fearless in flight. by means of ~ v h i c h tl~ey. and for every one there is provided its food in that verJ place.and some b diving in the preserve themselves from peril.

they arc exempt from all thosc evils to which great and powerful animals are subject. make them the food of their bodies . So if God Almighty had not macle this venom in their mouths. ancl in gave to every species of animal the means and implements by the aid of which they might attain to what is beneficial and be secure from danget. nor a spleen to suck up the gall of bIack n~clanchoIy:nor 1:idncys or bladder to dram off thc urine. they know nothing about the true nature and valluc of a n y ~ l ~ i . but instead rhere is formed in his mouth a hot venom by means of which snakes eat and digest. how would they have been able ro eat anything? Kourishn~entwould not have been 111 an?. F . made their flesh the mcans of counteracting that poison. of His omnipotence. and would ascertain the facts ancl the uses of thcsc animals. aud say there is no good in them . "Art thou able to go there and contend with the men ?" and he replied. They a1. to some H e gave awarm stomach. say that there is poison in our months. Gut they babble thus stupidly through their ignorance and sillilless . nor any teeth by whose strength he can chew. " I am ready. and he said. learned and intelligent. to such a degree indeed. and would l e x n what is the use of this p o i s o ~U-hich is in ~ their mouths. because God has not provided then1 with hands an6 feet to xvalk about ancl p i n their daily food. " 0 sage ! set f o ~ t l ~ some other (of their) benefits. " May God bestow a blessing on thy elocluencc and elocution . tracting the juices. ho\vcver. F o r when the snalie takes the flesh of any animal into its mouth. after being masticated might be digeted and becon~e part of their bodies. nor would they cast absurd censure upon God. on the other band." W I x n the locust closed this speech. In short. then they mould never ask why God made them." The snalie said to him. such a rlegrce that kings and to n s noblcs keep the poison of these animals i their r i n ~ that i t may be aseful on occasion. heart and soul. At the colnlnand of the king I I V ~ U there go and be the helper of my brethren. nor folds in the brain by which to give sou~~dness insticct." After that he said. conveyed thcm to the object of their need. they all have need of these (snak?~). nor has He given them a mouth ox teerh to eat with." The snake said. Althougl~God has made the poison of these (snakes) the cause of the death of animals. and through the effect of thosejuices strength remainsin theirbodies. " Eecause there exists froln of old a n unbounded animosity and enmity between men and snakes . that the food. anti that use 2re of no use except (to cause) the desirr~ction and dedh of animals. and preserved them from every annoyance and pain. Eoly is that God who. then the fleshinstal~tly he swallows it. ': kT'h4. Praise and thanks are due to Him who besto\ved such bIessings.e subject to of 1 0 one of the chronic diseases. "When God created those animals of which you have made mentio~l your discourse. nor a liver to purify the blood.do they say this ? " I ~ rcplicd. he casts dissolves. He has." The locust asked the reason of that. nor a stonznch in wllicll to digest. If they would carefully consider. " Other animals wander abouc i n search of food and run away iron1 danger . nor veins for the bloocl to run in. nor a throat through which to srvnllow. C rlBecause the)." The locust said. In reality. nor entrails and guts in which the ordure ntay be collecied. and upon it thishot venom. consequently God has ~lg distressed them with tortures. but these are saved from t h ~ : labour and pain. they are from besinning to end injurious and hurtful'" 85 The locust said. "You must nor say there that you have been sent by the dragon and the snake. But the snake has no stamach a in whiclx to digest. 'Why did He create them? there is no good at all in them : on the contrary. t h a t some men even cast censure upon God. nor ha\-e they any need or 1 ~ h y s i c . saying.TLc Suahc. the dragon said. thou are exceedingly eloquent anci flumt.

" 1 t h i s m a t t e r fully. I t is not that God Almigl~tyinvolves them in this mischief. mischief or injury happens to some.' If they wodd consider and reflect upon the circumstances of iiU existing things. ~ ~ dlittle maggots~are the food of the big maggots. It is not right for the Creator to set aside the sun. w h a t good arises from their ancl being upon the earth?" H e said. injuly hlppens to some (beings). or the houses of the poor are destroyed by excessive inunclations. " Explain this i What benefit reaches aniinals from these (s~~akes). "The same is the case of Saturn. If ever through the sun injury and damage in any may occur to a few beings. L Why did He create it? there is no use i . fro111 some cause or other. they \vou!d have perishcd from bunger. throug-11 whom there comes prosperity and happiness to the Er. God Almighty created nothing which is useless. and insects. it. Just a s the natural heat is produced in the heart. and thar they live in filth.ldvanoge gained from these also. scorpions. small and great-for from His most bounteous source gracious favours proceed for all creatures Every one. H e did whate-r he kneiv to be for thc welfare of the world. Some of these he has formcd in hlth and corruption. '' The explanation of it is this-When God Almigllty fonned all the stars. according t u his capacity. know nothing of His art and power. and that all creatures should perish at once. Mars. and no snake \voulcl be seen in the world. Throughout the creation H e madc some creatures for the sake of others.the airbecomes pcre. The locust said. In the salne way God Alnlighty sends the clouds in every direction for the benefit of His creatures. Those who do not perceive the use (of a thing) cast reflections n upon ~ o dand say. whatever was the essence of that impurity they malfood . althougll at divers times falls npon animals in consequence qf them. e their .they would learn that His favour andkindness is cornman to every one. In fine. spreading through rile whole body. Does not ueviatC from the orbit of the moon. H e perfected e v e p individual thing according to His own pleasure.wny procurable .' ~ u int truth this is all stupidity and ignorance. It is for this reason that all maggots and insects are generally produced in the shops of butchers and fishongers. through an excess of heat or cold. and according to His wisdom H c furnished them with (necessary) instruments. may it never happen that the air should be poisoned b y the exhalation of noxious vapours. for those who throw unmerited aspersions on the works of God. accepts His bounty. and deprive the world in general of an universal blessing and consumm~te benefit. althougll to His 1 wisdom the harm and evil of everything is manifest a d open : but it is rather that it is not the habit a ~ l d custom of the Creator to refrain from making anything whic11 may tend to the colnfort and happiness of the generality of the world I3ecanse of its being injurious to a few.and people arc saved from cholera. and caused its warmth to be the cause of the life of all creatures. and. "The same is the case of all carnivorous and graminivororls animals-~f snakes." . for ' ~ h these devour them. fish. and all the stars. I hiwe heard that same foolish people hold the opinion that the kindness of God is in accordance with the position of the moon. crocodiles." -. among their number he made tlle sun to be a lamp for the world. and that cholera should come into the world. that the air mry remain pure from pollution. is the cause of its life. God Almighty l c r c ~ t e dal the rol-id." Tile locrrst asked him to explain - alrhough in a fe\v inauspicious hours. Oh. but ever and anon. When these creatures are engendered in impurity. I n the wholeunivene the sun occupies a similar position to that of rhe heart in the body. and he replied. "Just as bellefit arises from the creation of other animals so there is . so from the heat of the sun also there is benefit to (all) creation.

a11 d e animls. Active and passive. H e displayed to the eye of every man of discernment the splendour of the light of His miraculous art. but those forms are motive polvers. having sec11 it. having come from every country. asse1nbIed together. for the King has talcen his seat to pass a decis. I see and behold them with the eye of my heart. The King regarded every side. was in attendance Lost in n astonishment.is amared. Do KC this wonderful and extraordmary assemblage of beings ? D H e said.' Those creatures which are lower in degree than these are without instinct. . r 1N the morning. he appointed angels to each. and whatever there was behind hij veil of mystery he brought forth into the field of visibility: that men of perception. having seen them. L I as in pictures. the reprcscntatives of turning towards a sage of the Jins he %id.on in the case. upon whom tyranny has been exercised. they are (ever) present to His omnipresent knowQ KhiIRaf-lit. in obedience to orders. might. and tongue.CHAPTER XVIII. On animals hc - for - IiktJi-oneness." -4fter that he stood up and delivered this speech-" Praise is due to that Creator who by His oinnipotence made all creatures manifest. hut I am wondering over the wisdom and power of that an-wise Creator who created tlie111. who having brought into existence aU those created things to (the comprehension of) which the intelligence of no created being can attain. The King. Having formed many degrees in the heavens. of xvhere the imaginations of thought and fancy cannot reach. in the same way these fotms aIso bear a likeness to those forms which exist i n the world of spirits . while these are set in motion. ':And the fornls which are visible in the corporeal world are the similitudes and counterparts of those forms which exist in the xvorld of spirits. and produced in this world s creation of so m n y varieties and kinds .. might acknolvledgc His miraculous art. and unity: and should not be in want of pmofs and arguments. but these are mortal and perisllable. ' creation. they began to offer their benedictions. ~ f t e tint. and giras them sustenance. and the King of the Jins came and sat in the public hal! to decide the quarrel. and the judges and lawyers al-ein attendzncc" As soon a s this notice was heard all the animals and men. H e made time and lace for the comfort of (His) creatures. whilst these have instincts. Eut the forms which are in that world are bright and transparent. H e always nourishes them. He made manifest those miracles that exW-y person of intellig. i great numbers. and these are dark and dense. " 0 King. His incomparability.S who had assembled from e v e q side. there is a resemblance in every limb to ~ the animals of which they are portraits.and stood before the King-making their obeisances and payii~gtheir respects. He preserves than fmm every danger . Those forms which are in the eternal world live eternally. fell into rani. m might behold then1 . comc forward and attend. . and formed for them shape of so many varieties and Idnds. made proclamation-" Let all the con~plainants and seekers of redress. moreover. motion. he remained silent for a nloment. Havil~ghounded the expanse of thc world on six sides." a the God Almighty concealed Hiinself f r o i ~ of discernment behind the veil of His splendour. and perceived that r multitude1 of every sort and kind. The attendants.

(the peace of God be upon him. f a m e d the ]ins from burning fire. "Tell him to say something. and clothed i many sorts of garments. their intellects r e r e deranged. army andpeople. whose whole body was qmmetrical. Seventy men were standing there.r to all those statements.rhrm of ~i~ rewants. " Ulis m d e r r o ~ the ~ ~ e n . Moses. Darius. those \-ailous talents. ~ those cities and villages whose dimate is ~ p a i o to that r of fhe whole world. Among Nimrod. but those who allow their finite intellects to pry into His nature he has h u l d amazed and stupified into the valley of perdition.IOC~. " He is an inhabitant of Ifin. and from the bountiful house of (His) munificence He granted them blesr ings of every sort and End. Hebestawed upon them divers qualities and different n ranks.~ g ~ c ~us l. We are the quintessence of all men. and rest !) In Our tf. He thraugn the Deluge came upon the war14 and as mrnY m i n d s y were on the face of the earth were all drowned-of our race excited great discord. €iAmour race all these prophets were born. delivered a speech.r a m i ~ lking. !raving paid his respects. T o some He gave a dwelling-place i the highest of the highest heavens. t h o u ~ h t .J - e.bestowed forms and shapes of many varieties. Bahdm. bnd P ~ L I dcnce .g Praise and laudation be to Him wllo inicucct m d intelligence. pliorto A d m . Have you m y afinvcr . " Having. and made 11srulers on the face of the earth. of which this is the epitome :" Praise be to God. Praise 2nd thank be to Him who dignified us with the grandeur of the me faith and Islam. and ~ 1 1 0bestowed on us superiority over . And every one in this bed-chamba of the world H e has led by the lamp of prophecy into the royal r o d of saivation. some H e cast down into the lowest depths. the King looked towards all the sages of the ]ins. . . who cast *br. and allotted to our kings the blessings of howledge and c1emencv.be many kings of great dignity have been born. all different in person.FA say.lch (to Iiimself) . S n u i h ~ w ~and several kings of rrdovn and governthe Sassanian line.f' When the sage had finished the delivery of this discourse. . He r p & q rhc truth.made a sign to him He. erect in stature. Farfa1CdJn. and has nnde no mention of several great kings!' The Kin: told him to state them.and brbging forth all creatures from the hidden chambers of nonentity. and wanted to give an aaiwe. Among them there was visible n a handsome person. Ardashb. avas born. Jesus. E. the t ) ." But the Skhibul ' t d who did not allow any one to speak before (lie had said) hir OV. and he replied." The wadi. of the whole world we are the essence of the essence Praise is due to him F ~ O hestowed upon us the most perfect blessings? gave US taletits surpassing a11 living When lllis man had ended tile delivery of his oration. Noail. wisdom. mmed towards the man. Briefly. and lives in the territory of 'I&" T h e King said. who for our d ~ e l I i n g . H e gave them surprising and transparent form3 . He (the King) asked the aadr avho this person was. n. and to detail the ignominy Addressing the sag% he said. under w~luhuseguihnce re esublisl~ed rare arts and wonderful sciences.a T1-h 'Ir&i has on~itted to Say in his s ~ e c h . . the Icing loolced towards the congregation of the men. and all the wise men were bewildered. and Muhammad the pure. Abraham. of man has omitted many matters in his speech. and some H e placed between these two degrees. and men are the quintcsience of aIIimd5. He gave to us and prophecy . and sxid.o give to this man ah0 h~ Set forth his own ancl bar made his boast of them ?" They -id. nlent. tvbo regulated the k n i. To those who pray and ~ ~ ~ p p l i cate with tears H e has of His boundless favour granted the honour of near appro.

where there is never excess of cold or heat.3 with . and a waist-~10thfastened by a red srring round hk Loin% asked the wazir who it was? and he replied. and we have ail become depraved and it tuould have been consanallt with equitfl dirpced: *(er mat fie King beheld a mm. he makes gestures. the animals fat and sleek.J ~ ~ all ~ 1 draws his origin from thence. lem.y&ih . " Urhg should this mail have steed matters? There was no benefit to him from speak. such as the elepbanq which is fatter and bigger in body t h a ~ beastr. committed the OId Testament to the flames. and the children of Israel. and sages have appeared.s aluay3 engaged i n bloodshed. ~ 1 Who spoke with God." The King said. children rere born (among US)froin the Prevl. thin. .xards and forwards. the trees fine and green.orshihippcd idols. merit. looking at it. tall in stature. the foll~i~seri such a prophet. He spoke in modulated tones. in I which he kept burning incense. (these facts) also into his speech. . and diril~arion-all these sciences he gave f i e men of ollr country superior to all in art us. v r a p ~ e d in a ." The Icing said. and among them there appeared a person of wheatcoloured complexion.. md moving bacl.110~~rhet. the wood sugar-cane." 5 Intoning. the mines of jewek endless. In their race &o he bestowed the propheticd o f h e upon Moses. '' Tefl him also to relate something about his affairs. L God in his anger having transfomnlea us. A . and granted for us blessof ings of many sorts and ki. " It is far from justice and equity that at 'he time of 1 dispute one should set fonh all oness otvn cr. the ipeilkerwith God? praise and thanks be to Him who made U. belt farrcned round his waist." Accordinglh in Compliance with the Kings command. the medicina1. where the nights ancl days are al\vays equal. and drove out the race of 'AdnSn fronl into the banks of the E ~ p h ~ a t c s the woods and nlourta(na H e was very tyrannical and bIoodthirsty.. The . He asked the warir who the person was ? and he This is a H ~ b r t ofv tribe of the children of Israel. where the telnperahlre is agreeable.2 'fmi??~ai replied. Gocl Almighty r. Tllji is a Hindu. ~ the aninhabitant of Syt-iC-The Icing said. slender. who destroyed the Holy Tenlplc of ]emsa. and in like manner ~ 0 mimds-for the source of all is under the equator In our citieinlany llas to lnm-ty wonderful and extraordinary arts : magic. the pith and essence ofu. why does he not say this. dwells in the island of Cevlon. There appeared a man in woollen g-ent. and in a loud voice-' ~ l i(ing e asked the warfr who he was? and he replied.the friend of God into the fire. and lv2.eilce fornication ." After this the King again looked towards th. the pebbles rubies and topazes. with a long &al-d. tered the descendants of Solomon the son of David. the herbage edible vegetables.hi& is this : .iddrl' The Sdiribu-Z 'azhzai said.holdiug in his hand a written paper . cdlefices and conceal one%faults. made us monlteys and bears. and a censer in his hand. rather it 6 ail a conclc~nnationor himself'. ing . maliing neither ~penrance nor apology. he So-~ibrr-Z'n~i>~zat " I f he bad introdticed said. He in ascordancc with the direction delivered a long speecll." P ~ ~ S E due to is that Creator who bestowed on the cliildren of Ijraci adegree of excellence above ail the progeny of Adam. From our race Yebuchadnezzar appeared. " TeN him to SAY something? and the wazir gave him the sign (to speak:. and on account of our idolatry =it US into ignominy and wretchedness ?"' King again looked towards the asscmblagc After t i ~ a t of men. and making smoke. iiaugh. ' We burnt our bodies.assembly of men. he also spaLe :L'Thfinksare due to Him who for us granted an extensive and superior coulltry.

r ss ~ ~ Greek: inhabitant of t h e 1.-do& religion.L7. geomancy. He h= taught us to discover the v u e of e v e ~ h i n g to make astronomical instruments." The Sdhib~-l don he not also ray. i c l t is tme. 1~eca. The King directed that he also should . the science of astronomy. kiadtless. 'l Praise is due to that God who sent for our sakes the delegated prophet Muhmmad the Pure.nd of Ionia. and theologicai sciences . and through him cleansed the children of Israe] from their sins. Praise b e to the him rho bc"oYved upan us such blessings Besides these ihoe are many orher excellences in US. Speech o the Greekf to of bringing us into paradise." ' ISIS The King directed that be should be told to say so1nething. wheatcolo~red. delivered a speech : of which this is the si~bstmce " Praise be to that Creator.. rue pay worship to the cmcifix ." The Skharz Ifi&n~ntraid. H e asked the wadr who it was. ." The SdhBwZ'mimat said.' public prayer. who having produced the Lord Jesus froin the womb of Mary witl~outafather. and you acquired several sciences from the learned men of E inthe m days of . the papimage (to Mecca and Medina). thin. (may the peace of God be upon him. a Syrian. What is this which he says ?l' k and he replied.mehypocrites." The king the G r ~ rage. in consequence of this cornman4 he said. . and wrapped in sheet. we *have become infidels . Praise be to Him who hzs given us such blessings. cl Praise is due t o Him who gave US pe~fections beyond nlo* of Hi5 creatures. " It is true we have acquired many sciences began to descend. "U%Y be v u y prolix. and was told the Person a . and an inr habitant of Mecca.wearing a waist-cloth. because YOU did not found these sciences by your 0~ wisdom. P~~~oW"' and many other sciences besides these. but he has forgotten to say this : " LITe havc not discharged the duty of serving Him. The King asked who it was and the ~ a z j %id he Was a man of the tribe of Kumiih. and d m * gave many excdiences and blessings. and he gave '0 U S laiZat~~'Z-Xadr. i our kixd He M produced fluifs and n good ~ n g s all kinds and varieties. YOU now attribute them to yourselves. Besides these there are many other excellences in us of which I have made no mention. having given them currency After in your countq. physic. T h ~ o ~ His fayour ph beneficence he has imparted to US v. arithmetic.The Kingdirected that he should be told to narrate some of his circumstances : and accordingly. and h u planted in our hearts mercy. y d ~ ~ i ~ t ~ $ ~ that. and love of devotion. I t is vain that YOU boast about these sciencs.fl! in c ~ E ~ R L ofothe nirht *lIen the Xuri. The Syrian. He produced in our race many sages and saints. such as the night of power. and we have used deceit and calumny against God! v After him the King beheld a man. slender. gave to him the rniracuiour gifi of prophecy. who is of the religion of the Lard Jesus. be told to con~municate some paniculvr of his aff~ii-5 a d in accordance with the order be said. standing before him. . logic.h. the fast of the Ram&. in accordancewith the order. the detail of which 'm*xfit said. ' After the (time o f the) Prophet we . . and made us his followers and adlp=-rnts. we eat the flesh of swine &er offering them in sacrifice. . astrology. and rest !) and brought us into his religion. learn the economy of the leavens. He ordained the reading of ~e K ~ r d nthe five-fold order of prayer. and for love of this --world slew the Imims ?' U looked towards the assembkage of men? The King and he Fceived a man of fair complexion holding an arrdlbe and astronomical instruments in his hand. but you learnt them from t h e learned men of the of l5rae1 in the days of Ptolemy.~onderfulsciences aeaoTdinaq arts.

robust in form. and had not been fornicators. and we exacted the requital of blood from those who caused him to be slain.. . T h u s there are many verses of the ICurin which bear testimony to our eminence and virtues. and C Y U ~ inell. l h..yhea cried Gentlemen. ' l Praise be to God.. and the wazir said he was a Rhurrisinf. Tlxe King a s h d ii~liohe was . "What reply have you to make to this man. and looking with earnest faith totv. again in . you are dismissed . and by the mouth of His prophet He has introduced our praise into the 1)ivine L ~ o r d . T h e ImBm JI&d(.'> The King looked towards the sages and said.._ come . wearing a long beard. who has vaunted 1 said. .?~-dsthe sun. I3ecanse among us there are many ~vho read the Bible and Gospel. praise is due to Him who has given to us a faculty of religion greater than to any other men.from ancient sages. workshop. they consider the prophetic power of the Lords Moses and Jesus to be a verity.d m m n ." After that a person appeared in the last rank. who has given us many kinds of blessings and distinctions. the evening the court attendants . Verily. althoogh they do not understand the meaning of them. and in thc same way the chilciren of Israel got the sciences of magic and enchantment from Solomon. the11 t h c r e matters XVhen all the men 1" the 5 1 a have been a gmllnd of boa*-" tlleir respectivc &!Pities and . We pnt on mourning garments in sorrow for Im5m Husain. in obcdience to the command. If t h q h d not his glov and d g i i ?" inc adu~iel-ers. and besides. Thus the learned of Persia acquired the sciences of astrolo. he said. and from His grace we are hopeful that the appearance of the Im&n of the latter daj~s%ilI be in our country. And some read the K u r b although they do not understand its import..morning-" Ki~-Kfidna-Iit. KChas made our country to excel all countries in the extent of its prosperity. T h e course of operation in this world' is that benefit accrues to one person from another. The King dirccted that he should be told to nlention some few facts about himself. but still they acknowledge in their h e ~ r t s the religion of the prophet of the latter days.~ and astronomy from the sages of India. the son of David. just as many peoplc now learn from us. Accordingly.

and the jackal appeared in the front. H e dwells in the woods and wilds. his teeth and claws hard. the hare. his waist fine." The King said. the hogdeer. the stag. l' Describe his figure and character. No man or animal is able. I am the representative of the animals. his bosom is broad. ." He said. He is so zenerous that when he has taken prey he divides it among all animals. "The hunting leopard." He asked. and a11 beasts and cattIe are his subjects. and his form terrific. "U7hat country does he dwell in ? and who are his subjects ?" The jackal said. " Who art thou ?" and he replied. and superior in strength. and the wolf. through fear. and has no want of friends and allies for any business. the fox. for this insect prevails over him and the third day. He is afraid of nothing except the ant. H e is upright in every matter. to go in front of him. a The Lion Al~li'lHaris sent me. his head large." The king said.o~spring.less and attcntian to his S L ~ ~ ~ C C ii' d ." The king said. his fetlocks strong.c ibo. his voiceloud. " He is bigger in form than all animals. in awe and dignity he surpasses all. this he Said. H e has a great liking and love of music. like as the gnat prevails over e ~ h a n t s and man. "Who are his allies?" The jackal said. He rends neither woman nor child.it towards his subjects l'' He said. H e asked. "What Son of and fie fly maimenntdoes he exhi\.vs great hnd. all. " Who sent thee?" and he said. and he himself eats according to his necessity. 1 will set forth at l e n S h his PecU- ~ CHAPTER XIX. a s all the men allimals were 0N ing in ranks before the Kink andlooked towardsstandhe them . W h e n he sees a light from a distance he goes and stands near it. and then his rage abates. ali are his fl-iends and allies." The jackal said.

by the heat of the sun. " Does any one h o w the qualities of the 1 % sea-serpent so as to describe them ?'l The locust said. He asked him who he was. but he is afraid of no. When. and he said. are his subjects. his head is large. the food in his belly becomes digested. is in attendance in the presence . are his army and ru!iects. " I am the 0 of the king of the aquatic animals. and subjects and lie said." He asked him who he (the king) was. except a small animal. turtles." The King asked why he had sepal-ated from his anny 2nd subjects. Animals perish there from the severity of the cold. The frog. s!ature. and flee from him . his body2 is long . '' I am the represcmative of all the wonns and ants. and crocodiles. and feed upon his Aesl~for a long time. he dwells upon high hius andmountains near the region of cold. and bey comes the food of wild beasts. and then the clouds which rise from the sea rake him up. and a t length he dies. he gets indigestion.. and supports 1 himself by the strength of his head and tail. Just as he devours other animals that are small. The King asked him ~ 1 he rvas." The giq looked towads him. and he said. bis eyes bright. and s e m them as food for several days. . his mouth broad. But sometimes being raised aloft with the clouds. where there are n o clouds or rain. H e perceived the locust imparting motion to his tneo wings. and all the aquatic animals assemble. In bulk he is bigger than all aquatic animals. Then. C. His name is ' Sea-Serpent . In sl~ort. deign to inquire of him." The King told hrnl to describe his form and appearance. Through the coldness of the icy region he dr\. IIHis appearance and character are exactly like those of the ~ea-re-pent!~ The King said. who is the ambassador of the aq~laticanimals. " His name is Dragon . A7dm o nishdn-name and address. For when this creacure bites him. and had gone to live upon sucll an acclivity. H e then dies. and where hc dwelt. All m a t e h scorpions. fish. and they live in every place upon the face of the earth. sign : seat. address. one. frogs. a11 the aquatic animals.F T E R that tllc King cast his regards on the riglit hand and an the M.clls there in c0111fort. and he tepiied." The King told him to describe his appearance and character. from over-feeding. and singing with an exceedingly soft voice. He answered.' hedwells in the salt sea . 9 Kadd-lit. and was engagcd in praycr and praise. 1 e bends his body like a bow. and cast him 011 the d ~ land. His appenrance is txtraordinal-y. of which he is greatly in dread. and his teeth numerous. a11 the animals of the sea are afraid of him . and no vegetation at all. and tlleir king sent me hither.1 Tile frog said. and he answered. &C. 'l Because there is a poison in Ifis mouth. from the heat of which ail his body burns. and his figure terrific . u-hen sudclcnly a voice Bii upon his ear. when in that state. he elevates it in the air. all the animals of the sca are afraid of him. its poison affects the whole of his body. He answered. and thus protruding the middle of his body from the \vater." The King then commanded him to colnnlunicatc his Eame and abode. All the water animals he catches he swallows in countless numbers." The King aslted xvho were his arm). so do they all conNishdx-mark. about the size of a gnat. H e was swnding on a llilllock by the *ide of the sea. But often. he faints. he falls tvithin the confines of Gog and Magop.

" I am the representative of the birds of prey-their ling the phenix ('Ankd) has sent me. Sparrorvs and others eat gnats and ants. the birds of prey from the mounta~ns. and sometimes they become the food of others. the climate temperate. and sometimes the little ones use their teeth upon them. I am surprised I~ow they can {venture to) declare that A1 rapacious.' And so God Almighty has said. Hence the wise have said. 134. this trickery and false assertion of theirs give rise to great astonishment. Hence (these men) are filled with conceit. in flight he is strong. nor can any ship even ~ r o c e e d far as tllat. and in the end they will return to God" After that he said to the King. The same is the practice of birds prey and other birds. sheep. The parrot. after the account which I have given of the state of the animals. and when they die little worms devour their bodies in the grave. ' l He resides upon the loft): mountains in the islands of the salt sea. ' L Who art thou?" and hereplied. i. not one man yould be left remaining? (These creatures) would come into their countly 2nd destroy them all-not one man mould cscape with life. and no one knows this fact but the wise. hog-deer. 2nd when he flies the mountains are moved by the force of i t 5 motion. grazing. They are exceedingly stupid to utter a statement so contrary to sense. and scorpions.) ' We make the times to change from vicissirude to vicissitude among men. Siirat iii. KrOn. seated upon a branch of a tree. and were to n ~ a k c n attack a upon them. How is it that they do not perceive. that all animals are equal?-there is no difference between them. and he replied. " His character is ." He replied. are their slaves. and birds . crocodiles. Then the great hawks and eagles and vulturcs prey upon the sparrow-hawks a n d falcoi>s. I cannot understand what the men have to boast about over the animals. and he replied. for they all eat the flesh of deer. Do they not d e a n it a mercy. serpents. his claws and be& are hard. when they die. And finally. "The land of that place is v e q good. and hunt1 ing animals. Sometimes the big animals eat the liztle ones. " The same is the case with men. Sonletimes they fecd.' " After that he said. After that the King looked to the fi-ont. v. the fountains sweet-tasted . all will mingle in the dust. He takes up and carries off elephants. and that all the animals are their slaves.0 to the words of every one. "I have heard that a11 thc men suppose that they are the masters." The King directed him to describe his character. and to have al the animals as their slaves. his wings are exceedingly broad. and sparrow-hawks and falcons make prey of them.e. for their position is just the same as ours." The Ring told him to describe the form and appearance of the p h e n i . L The death of one is the p i n of another. The King asked him. and vithout proof or argument advance such a senseless claim. Tell me the particulars of that isla~d. and animals of all sorts innumerable. and do they not render tha11ks that God has placed all these animals far away from thcir country ? But those wretched aninwls whom they keep a t their abodes in captivity they subject to torture night and day. and he said. No man can pass so to that place.gregate and eat him. rhinoceroses. was listenin. (Arabic. and 0 t h -large animals from the earth. " In size he is bigger than all birds.I t is the same case with the whole world." The King asked him where the pilenix lived." He said. dragons. all the worms and ants and small creatures devour them. ' L When the men advance l their claim to be the masters. and when he moves them i the n air they seem like the sails of a ship . or the crocodiles from the sea. Do they not know that if the wild beasts were to come from the forest. his tail is long. goats. there ate many sons of fruit-bearing trees. the good and evil will become manifest after death. and devour them.

that their subjects may ." The King asl~ccl. 'l Men have many wants .. and at some time or other I wiII espatiatc upan it.'' The11he asked them. knaves. financiers. in consequence of these (soldiers). " Reflect and ponder over your answer ro all this that the animals have spoken. so that they may bus!' themselves &out the of their kingdom. %rho g . Some are judges and l a ~ + ~ e r s . seventy persons of every variety of fonn. and secretaries. "We have man)m kings. These. for religion and law are necessary evcn far kings. and the funds are colIected for the a m y . like slaves and dome~tics. All these monarchs call themselves the vicegerents of God. t mnii "Among mankind there are great diversities also in the royal servants. Among men the reverse of this often happens. and among them he is king who is biggest in form. consequentl~ man to ad Almighty has set up nmny kings over them. Tlueves.14 0 V~zr'iEticsf l T ! l . delicate. For the same reason men require m y chiefs. and that no kind of mischief may spring up. while among you. who enforce the mzndates of the law among mankind .sters of their slaves. and cutpurses are unable. and one. for their kings arc freqllently weak. without whom business lt~ouldbe interrupted. Some are soldiers bearing arms. their positions are diverse . and wearing garments of divers kinds. . said to them. restrain them from everything which God has prohibited. notwithstanding d ~ e igreat r numbers. were standing there. and benignant. o ga astray. For in the whole world there many countries." After that the King Iooked towards the congregation 0: men. coilsequentlg many kings are required for them. He creates and . Who is your king? " and they replied. Some are merchants and tradesmen. for God has made them the possessors of their countries and the m. Others are they who produce grain by cultivation and husbandv. and in each c o ~ ~ n t there are thousands ry of cities. Some are ministers. in which lms of people live-each one's Language various. is the guardian of every one." excellent. 2nd provide effectually far protection of his servants. and each one dweUs in his own k i ~ ~ g d oHIB his a m y and people. to create uproar and disturbances in the cities. equitable. Verilv. because what is required from kings is that they should be just. romes. 1L And it is not possible tlmt one king should carry on the govement of all mankind.-my on i business of buying a ~ i d and some are destined for service only. a h o repeI every enemy of the king. gives food to ail. so that these in every city may applytllemselves to the Pvernment and regulation of their respective peoples. !\hat is the reason of this ? Thereis only one king among the animals. notwithstanding your paucity. enforce the mandates of the law amon. I t is impossibie for One different. Tbey o u ~ hto have consideration and kindness for the lot of ever). In l i b manner there are many other classes who necessary for liins. and fie government of ail countries. are there many kings ?" A11 'Tdki (Arab) beIanging to the party of men answered. selling in every country. by whose means the administration of the country is careec? on. Th" they should have compa~ioo and show kindness for the condition of evely mankind. But this is not the case among animals . and thin.

so that we constrnct our habitations with great excellence." The Icing then inquired why he had a m e . not a qurcn-bcc have ir . "God Almighty. and whatever else we find. From our saliva he har made honey. and in our stings H e h= placed some poison.. and has "t ay to participate i t h e m Thus He has bestowed upon us the n honour of sovereignty and the prophetic o&ce. Presently a gentle voice fell YPOn his ear.The BLX. which honey is food for oorse~ves and 0. the lighr of which we see everythmng. He said. On our stomach H e has besto~ved . and becomes .U. +he King observed. We construct out houses Upon such an exuuent plan that the wind can never enter them. so that we eat ficm without a ~ x i e t y . and llas ca-nied down this inheritance to n)y ancestors from generation to generation.' tile monarch of the flies.'' supposed to he a male. " God Almigl~ty gi. and why he had not. H e has also made for us four hands and feet resembling the ribs of L s e ~ n g u l a f i ~ r ewith W r . On our slioulders He has made favr %6ngs.41mi~htyhas bestowed all these a CHAPTER X X I . flying before him. a d of store than in our dweJlings. %&g then that tli. '' I am the king of the insecn. and from that comes healing to all ~rrankind There are texts . He has made our neck5 slende" 0 . H e has not given these two blessing. so that no tmuble migllt reach any M e of them.by means of which we Ay. a d besides this he haspiven e r ~ to me many ather distinctions and e ~ ~ e ~ l e n c e r . 2nd suitable to onr size. b a u y . through which we are raved from the wrongs of our ene~aies.. in same as H e has given to the teats of quadrupeds such p m . materials of auifood. 2nd our appearance is exceedingly wonderful. H e asked who he was. of His great favour and ." He replied that he felt soIicituda and com~assion fortheir state. "This virtue is nor (found) i any other animal . and the mrtver Was. other animal. fie d f a i ~ ~ qf&e Il'fitg qfZ/lr W H E N the man ceased speaking. He has also made mouth by which we know the plearuns of eat% and lips also he has given us. that by them the blood is transnluted. the louver part of the body long. and engaged in singing bepraise and of God. tile King fllrned hir thoughts to the animals. H e perceived the king-bee.. He has made the fruits and flowers of the whole earth l m f u l for us. gimce of geolnctry and many arts. Our appearance and character arc proofs to the heedless . and the l~ead round. like the ot 11th animAs.f the KurAn which arc explicit upon this our exaltation. why then have you got it ? X n He said. . " the adf l o t . by ihe aid of which we collect g. do any mischief to ourselves or our young onesof our hands and feet we collect the fmit. T h e n~iddic joint he has made square. ~ ~trees. The Lord has placed in our bodies three joints.. by means of which we alight and rise UP. the skill and power of the hlmigl~ty-for Our forms are $ very delicate. Besides this. Sent some one of his subjem or of his army as his messenger and representative.Young ones. heads with ease to the right and to the left. ha5 to me and to my ancestors many blessings. God Almighty has taught us the ' "yd$d6.h e* directed him to detail some little of his exccllca.-es that he also might know them.c.+ powers of digestioi~ that it makes the juices into honey. that on both sides of our head He has given us two bright eyes. bestowed this ~ i n u upon me.

a d s~. per &c-: they beat dntms and tan~baurincn. tllai the king-bce asked the King how the jins their roverein and chiefs.' The ICm: inquired how they found secufiry from the hands of men. Those who are P o d ." ~h~ ing-bee inquired where the s t a a had acquired this pefiecti~n of obedience and regulality The King raid." CHAPTER XXII.. it)-of rases. but u~leneverthe men get an opportunity they annoy them. and take away the honey and eat it among them.. are obedience to Him. S all - to. T b ~ d h l r S comma11deis iechief. The King said.. "They show their obedience and S U ~ I ~ ~ toS h iO chief. I bare taken all this trouble upon myre& and have not sent any one of than. He said. and have selected their hauses far their abodes. and upon the trees . ulhis d e n c c has becn obtained by them from the render ~vho all the heoldierr of the Almilht~." After this he asked. "We b e u all tYs tyranny.. because they to the sun.owcd beg& him to sate particulars. having consideration and kindness for my subjects. in fine. T r u e it is that God has bestowed these bIeningi on no animal besides you. Bravo ! a hundred times bravo ! You are very ffuuetmd eloquent. often even they breait their bonep combs... to what extent shall we ahoxv our gratitude? It is for this that." When the bee ceased from speaking thc King cried. znd limits. destroy their young ones. his terntow Then men. Jupiter in judge. They rend us all kinds of presents. and move according to his motion i when he aire~red. bring forward mrny devices. " M a y hi& themselves from them. h our nature there is no mallgnity or evil .TAe Bee. ancl so escape . Saturn is treastlrer. he king-bee said. &orr o b e ~ c n c e and sybmirsion to their chiefs in.a degree t t is impossible for mall. For the obedie~~ce d s u b s a viency of Jins is like ~ d a of the stars. Solne hax?e g m e into fie countries of the men. without pmof or reason they assce that they are masters. " Upon the hills and mountains. we make peace with them and rctum to their abodes. Among these the t sun lloldl the dignity of kinq. and he saicl.and. "In the fmily of Jinr there are good and bad.'' The X%-bee =ked him to enter into details The King said." The King asied why they submitted patiently to man's tyranny. and all the stars stand i the n position soldiers and subjectS. the moon is heir-appareni subare and like solldicsi and subjects. but sametimes we are SO distressed that r e depart iron. u~herevcr they find convenience there they dwell. and they n e r o transgress 'heir as. they satisfy us giuiag to 11s all sorts of presents and rarities. we are slaves.. believers and U*b e h v e r ~just a s there are amollg men. blessings upon us. But for all this they are not satisfied . to make peace with us. . Of what cllaracte~ . S t ~ r ~ and whatever commaad he issues they obc~. M ~ C U is Y ~ minister. Vellus is consort. (' Where are your people and your troops ? " He repIied.

en they instantly execute. Oft" to gain some advantase they ap path of righLeousness and become infidels side from apostptes . will show partiality or indulgence to them. witlioul hesitation or delay. still bey a n better than villainous men." Thereeresenrative of the men said.ftEe flier. " T h e five sensfi need no command or prohibition in bringing to the notice and Imowiedge of the reason such things as are perceptible by them. If they in qpearance sho\v obedience. looking toivzrds t11e men. (or any object or desire. they.n n'hi~ll speak upon this subject.is the obedience shown by the angels l'' H e said." A rage of the Jins raid.he chief of the insects shauld hold a position near the which no &er animal has attained. And berid%. repcats a prayer or formula through fear of the b s . for many Jinr. There are severzl texts of the Kur5. And it is the rule among kings to converse with such persons of their own race a s share with them in royalty and rule. they require no regulating or directing. they said. When the mind directs its attention to the inverti.'' The King said. Do not take the idea into Ymr head that the 6 n g . they Pay no obcdience m their own prophets. and be is the chief and Orator of au the insects. gation of anything." ' . for the king-bee in chief ofthe flies. In this same way tbe ang& shoi7 Uieir obedience and subjection to God-tvharevcr order js gi. for his deliverance. "It i s V U Y extraordinary that t. and noturithstandi~lgmiracles and wonders they are became rank heretics. and communicrre (the to the mind. they a n always cnsaged in murder and strife on the face d the eartl~. Whenever a man. i h e man of R h said. nofrvitbstanding their infidelity and error. Among tjK Jins there are villains and infidels. they called many to the Mullammadan 1-cligion. If perchance a Jin obtains the mart e r i aver 2 W o w or a man. i any n or jungle. cornPare this with some ather thing. PIeasC to describe this fully. still they stood 6rm in their obediom. they inflict no kind? of injury upon him so long as he remains in that place. 2nd they have a150 Sven their answer to the which you have made. ' I Men are the V e V reverse of this. and going back to their tribe. Fu~ther. m o u g h he is sma8 and thin in body. the King. G oar b e at this. and caused them to share in the blessings of the true faith. sai4 ''%*batthe m i n ~ a l s have made of Your tYrmny has erer been au heard by gm. m a h no failure in their obcrJjence f O King Solomon. " we 1 l' The Grzek. h e is still ve1-y intelligent and wise . although they may differ in form and appearam.*id and erring they do not mderstand an@ina. He tezches t@ all animals rules hjl of qowament and sovereignty. there is this proof of the excelfence of their obedience." The bee said. by the forcc of his occult 2 % brought many suffcrings and hardships upon them. Their disposirions inhddity and ~vickedners the)' are a1to:dha puffed . such obedience as the five senses pay to tbe reasonable soul . still their hearts are not firehorn infidel if^ and wickednesg and inasmuch as they are . W are s l a v e c e that the King continued talking with mn men tile ~i~ chief . NOW then c0m1unimte all that tllere remains for you to say. all of them became Musulman5. There are m y ercellencu and talents in us uhich iestify to the honesty of our chin>: The directed him to a t e them. and an exorciser performs incantations and exorcisms to the chief of the Jinn. Tile hophet (may the peace of God znd rest be with him !) was oncereading the Kurdn in a certain piace where some Jins passed by. they instantly fiee. AS Soon as they heard it. But for d1 this thur pretension is. and although in they pay no obedience to their king. m fine. t h a they are masters. Although he.

W-hen its wing. She then Covers thern t d .We extract honey from the leaves of tree% and when we have coIlected it. but there is not one in which we have m y necessity for tl1un.and ~ t great foil h labour carry it OK If any one ant is l a w his u~rl. it eats and denks till it gm~v. no water can ever enter therein i how he Lollect5 and stores grain for his food. but they are to US from the Almighty. year. if he would find out ~11. W h a have about t120~e merits which he has described ? to say gation of animals having heard these words. lays ifi and hider them in the ground. goes and digs a hole in some ~ f~ o u n and lays her eggs. are developed.Sfiill of the Atat.-th flies a\my. a little young one is produced horn egg like maggot. 1 thisway " gear gear the young ones are produced. which for the most Part live nPon 0" the the eees of the hills. then why do they eat our leavings. 'g ~ i ~ . nve sit down m f o . if any of it rakes it out and dries it in the sun i ever let5 tao the s d breaks in two pieces a11 the grains iihich arc 1iILeIyto germinate.e lift. and tri. and no one gave any answer . which creeps on the ground and the feeds upon the grass. From tllis it is obvious y that we arc the masters and the aninlals are our slaves. the affairs of this world and of the next ~ e f u l l provide for.th ea. eating and drinking d ~ i n g the spring harvest. and weather becomes mild.. afterrardr they 211 conF%Tate. l~h~ COngre. What&verremains Our leaving. .ving when the spang reason returns. but more e s p e c i ~ ~ ~ y mulberryfie. he conStn~ct5 di ~ all t_uous dIvellingr under the ground. l In the fo~~o-. i l sik-\vorm.. o v d their heads. proficiency in the science of geometv that without or compass we draw circles of a11 sorts. and we excel all animals in wisdom and counsel. the lomrt. % n' h e the time of her death a r v e s . the birds ear her up. ~f m a l t discovers anything which horn its reizhr he is ~~1abl. P thcir ~S L ~ ~ muas on rhc trees. SO that how great Soei'er m2t..n T h e King said to the animals. he takes a little of it 2nd goes to to i s Then the ono ivho marches at their head t h s 2 slnail portion it as r sjin~ple which tlu r e c o g ~ s e by C and goes to the place . SO that without the fmchers we are versed in so many a r t s If the and aid of men have the conceit to think that they are masters a d tile animalr are their slaves. it . ~ ~ l ~ . . this claim without proof cannot be gain& by them. bur if which ihey these men ivauld think alld consider. '' If this man would only look upon the doings of the mt .-am after what fashion We order and settle our dam and counsel we are s~~pel-ior them and that insucll to LVe haue &C. There are many matters in which men have need of us. Men have learned the ruler of sovereignty and government from U S . or she perisi~esfrom excess of heat or . 1t is nOf the practice for kings to eat the arts of slaves. and hoiv. they beat bin. =e acquainted with many sciences and arts. wllen they grow fat h the days of S P ease. for we station porters and guards at Our abode$ 50 that no one can approach our king 7v. and sleep therein in up they lay their eggs in that same ~ o . hblv7n o ~ p i t h r ~ ~ n hisntiny form. This man opines that men of arc Wjuainted with many sciences and afijfices. t a b l y i n houses and eat if with our young o n e . they ivould ]. when she gets fat. be the inundation. . in virtue of masters and the animals their slaves . In the hot season lnMY ants ulemb~E large carayanr and go about 0 evers side in in .irs e a t science this ivavld and intelligence the ant possesses. and drive him off Thus.thout letmission. Therefore. all these men pick out and tdce for their oJvnuse " "0 one has taught US these arts.I and then in the Wular big.mgular md 4Uadranp~lar $ures : i our dwellings we connmct nu rafis n of angles. m the same \MY. but &er an hour the repre~cntativc the dies said. of food.

Because e v e v one of them h% a full assurrnce of his own death. drugges.as many men deny that there is a resurrenion and day of jud€Pent. and in the next year the young oner are produced from them. \Ve eat thc pulp and kernel of the fruit . i i e said-'' Our life parsCS by virilF e a t pleasure. m A d . eat $Weetmeat. and produce their young ones. build their drvellings. they are slaves.pestly. and Praised him. . and having the animals for slaves. drink. cakes. He said. and how greatly they excel him in &e. Gcnemsity and liberdity. "you h?-ve heard to the of all that he hu . and thus addressed the ~i~~:a T G man. " In this these endurc many hardships m d troubles for the sake comforts. Sowln-. and bein% quite naked brr night and by day.Digging the ground. ae promrable for cmr food and. m d T e lai. cOns@Ucling bridges. b y which our claim is established.and then they depart. cloth. of all kinds. "' tmnsLubic into English. and other insects which Iay eggsJfeed their young ones.h a w YOU any m r r e r l e t ?" Then one penon of'them. but that after their death other insects may come and find comfort. lupbrer and merriment. by the power of t o d . these do not under any ~ i r c u m s t a n ~ ~ ~ deny them. not the expectation of services to be rendered by them . are complete. having brougl~r forth their young." ~h~ nighonpl+ the representative of the birGs. -ploughing. Besides this.thentvhat thing have they to boast about over US? Again. nourish them entirely out of tenderness a d kindness. irrigating with water . he would not boast of being master. t. Then ~ " m i n ~ a s s e ~ n b l a p men. and build houses. which are not even by animals." when the ieprerntativc of the fie5 closed his speech the King of the j i a a was nluch pleased. g-inding . they are sub~ectlike siaves toil and labour. of e\lery kind and Sort. different indeal from men who always entertain the hope of kindness and benefit from their children. IQ-~sPs their colnbs upon walls and trees.For the "of our can5riiution~ Call h ~ dal~cil% WC e and music. or they die of themselves from heat or cold. we wear beautiful garments and jewel." The King asked howdat that *S.' The god king directed bilrxto mention them. But &y do nor amus any food . down (for v our US. day by d r y they seek their sustenance. and confectionst in VCat variety. c0oki47 wL"gling rith bufchers about moat. . and when the days of mar. v e r z ~ Him. which are characteristics of the great> never m be found in are them . God in His power reproduce.a. and many different all these artides? so* of carpets. and do not decay or melt away. keeping accounts with shopare 1 7bclixt gives t j ) ~~~~S ~ of S Y ~ but .-aIlor d n d and stone. V ~ is boasting about thevarieties of his ~ O food and drink does not that all these are in red it^ woubler and torments him. All these things are proofs that we are masters. weighing and reapbg. TIleir skins relnain there all the winter. Good things. do not do so merely for their benefit. ''Thus 211 insects. and in r b time of winter they hide in holes and crewces and die.where can r11e animals They cat the grass of the forest. and these crawl about upan the tress When they become plump m d strong. in their usual manner.. If man could but understad these facts about the animals. tales and stories. The cocoons remdn in safety all the year. and deposit forrn therein their eggs and young ones. flies~ gnats7 mosqujtoes. and they. and told him to exphinin.hey s. life again Comes into them. kindling fires in Ovens. said-u There arc man7 virtues and in us.r plans for this life and the next.In the spring season. they in the s a c wry lay eggs and produce youl~g ones. with resignation and cheerfulness it p a s e r away in the following y a r . he said. The birds then devour them. Was sitting in front a branch of a tree.) felt.

' Sicl~nessis not a t ail p e r u l i ~ us . 'We are masters . and P ~ T ~ O P their sin. g_. without b l ~ o n r troublq mrlie use of. headache.d scareh for meat and drink never enters into oar n1ind. ~ 'H re(orted. and frorn of Old Our anCeStOr5 and your mce. and consequently from time to time they fall sick. and there is no deficiency or excess in thegum- tits. p n p a n t women and nurses. The angels.not keep their bodies under control. mntinued to be on an equality O this matter). it is entireh through asrociation and intimacy with you. they are subjecf '0 discascs of all Sons. cast them into a placneither leaves nor fruit : what mention can there be then of (deed) fruits ? Fol. who Calne and t a u ~ h t e H . bar crated for us.surer many pains and torlnella. it is torture and tcmcnt. because Our food is merely regctablcr . being deluded by their e n e m ~ . To u? there diseases they ire rubject to sudden death. cats. because their times of eating and drinking are fired. and tllrougb its effects lr i ' r o? cKldren are born ugly and always liable to diseases.. We eat the or various fruits rllich God Almighty. nngl~orm. CS boils.~ifi impudence declare. and for two farthings standing n-ith t h r r hands clasped in the presence of noblemerl. but if it has not. You eat it and emplog it in your C I S medicines . h d as they consume many different kindr of food. eat that uns$trblefood of which YOU boast. a l e milk is vitiated. and to Hiin we nl~vayspay our thallk. . saye ing. ~ h ~ s e animals r h o roam about at rill in the jungles pl-eserved from every disease. through hunger they eat t~ excess i they no. diarrhea Wnonhaa. P ~ ~ P ~ itch. pmcurable . Adam a d Eve¶ \vcredWellingin parsdisc. to beasts d s o are subject to most d i ~ a s e s . ha".scrofula. cndurirlg toil for the salic of gctiin: moncyj rtudriol science and art.At l e q t h God accepted their repentance. 1f it has been a account can be given gained in a lawiul u7a>7. I' m' e arc sealred from 7111 thcie priss and torturer. o d ~ animals who are in bondage to you. In fine. then what have YOU to boast about ? equal (partners) in eating the remaining and you f&is and grains. hectic [ever. ancestors. For medicine and physic they run and r=on to [he ~ O L I S E S docto~s. of His power. cough. and to sorrow and anger in fine. "When animals fall sicl. and are subject to chronic dirmses. do not obtain their natural food and drink . in their natural manner . for of but this ~ l . giving pain to their bodies. from which foul humours a0 prodLlced. ele~llantja~i~.a long period they kept weeping "their gjef. they eat food a t UnSeasonaa~e ~IOUTS. eating t l ~ fruits of that place withe out foil i a b m . and feeling no kind of anxiety (0' need 00 mrkion. pigeons. and showed theu greed for a certain . xihatever springs from the earth. . p~lypus-in fire. having a where there were brau& them down. jaundice.. consequently tI:ey fall sick.they were expelled from thence. ~ O W I ~ . ~ 'When the munsel f GO^. So do they. H sent an m g d to them. YOU are in\rolved in these evils from the effect of Your own works. travelling into distant countries.j . to the agonies diaolution. h e y arc ourthey ~ ~ : r r ~ f The man repiied. our ancestors d s o there shared with them those comforts and blessings. vapours. gripes. fever. cholera.. wherever 1 go. Care al. honey h &c choicest and best. lvith all this iaholv and effort they amass tvealth and property. everything (we need) is e . but tlleie (men) are ever writhing in anxiety about their food. ire.but i t is the nwxS of ~ ~ S ~ .. ague. through greediness. vhicll after their death Llls to the lot of others. but we are preserved from the111 i r o f all the kinds of food to be found in )lour houses. n In those dry$ when your great ancestors. it does not arise from any art of yours .keepers. But those animals who are captives to you cannot P I S S thor &ay. There is also this reason for your children being diseased. fic-doiOreux. a a t i s i a c t o ~ of it. by the grace of God. palsy. Dogs.

matters have arrived a t such a pitch that now you stand there boasting. <.them how to till the ground. free from toil and labour.'' The King inquired. these are all distinctive marks of slaves : how then is it proved that you are the masters. 2 K&". and sell (the water). althaugl' 1 m . instead of jewels. ' Good deeds prevent ~f they do not act upon the rules of the gu. some were made prisoners. instead of parties of pleasure. At length. Having made known to us what is lawful and unlawful. .-dl these biersings He has given to us. Ablution. q&er is a Muhammadan. We are Pure from and have no need of the devotion of which they boast. we have no need of ropes or buclic-ts. But we are exempt from all these evils.ml runong them said. a b s g l m Z . you wear a collar on your neck. 116. grind. day and night they were subject to these troubles and labours. w h a t k n d of trouble. instead of music and laughter. good and evil. c m y thcm on &out from place to place. and to make garments. prayer. and chains upon your legs . You are ever liable to labour and trouble . fasting. sxying prayers in the mosques. COO?<. instead of fine houses. we f y We pick and eat the green v e r d ~ ~ r e the banks of the rivers without let or hindrance . then evil doings began against the (animals) dwelling on the earth.ed ~t has . sacrifice. f i y d d . pfi. but ycu havefor every one of these things its opposite of pain 2nd toEnent. expatiating on your dignity. he liar restricted this (kno\vledge) to us. Their abodes were seized. we eat our suitable food and drink pure water . In fine. from which we are exempt. you endure grief. they pursued them in order to capture and confine them. on desire. you are subjected to derision. ~ e b r mbut it is obdo= that the . that we are masters. and that you have many things besides these which we cannot get-this is aU true. and pass your days in luxury and enjoyment . v. In fine. and some fled. "Instead of your cities and houses. and these began to live in every place. these . " W e have many erce11ences and distinctions which testify to our ddlrn!' The told hihim to state them.God Airnighty h= bestowed upon us distinctions of many bds-religioh prophecy. A Persi. you weep and feel pain . distinctions afford evidence to this. because these are the troubles and pains which befit slaves and miserable creatures. wherever our hearts l. there is no one to forbid us . When many children were born to them.. and that they may not be able to go asway. " If you Were to and conrider. Making all solis of snares and nets. fetters on your hands. and instead of praise. and rmdy for contending and quarrclIing '<And when you say that you have parties of pleasure. you sleep in the dark grave . SJrat xi. " Gad Airnighty has established all there modes of worship in order that their sins maybe forgiven. in order to bring US into paradise. you sit in the house of mourning . bus He rays in the KurPn. to SOW. bottles or pitchers-all these t h i n g are required for p. instead of happiness. \ve the slaves ? " The King then asked the representative of the men if he had any other answer left. for every joy you feel a corresponding sorrow. purification. preaching i n pulpiu. then it would be found that these things are troubles and hardships to you. and the revealed Word. Thus.rhat you may take tl~em your shoulders. that you wear fine clothes and jewels of all sorts. And God m i g h t y has sent prophets to those people. evil ones:' b e n they a n disgraced in the estimation of God. they the slaves? The representative of the birds then said. that you are occupied in music and dancing.'7 He said. He replied. we have this boundless plain for our use. In this fear they continue occupied in devotion. From earth to sky. and many other acts of devotion H e has taught us. whether wood or field. probably an l n f x i Or P e ~ i m .

that I mi&t similarly inter my brother's bier. Sfirat xxic. Thus we s have various garments to adorn and beautify us-shawls. 70. that thl. the IGng looked to the men and said. and b u y of his brother. silks. The prophets and messengers 2 God) are like the physicians and astrologers. ery and wickedness. then why would alm.they are infidels. Sli-at V v ++ . dnggets. . and sianem. v." An li&f out of the assemblage of men answered. because you are always snciean. chequered ~ 1 0 t . but for this c we have no necessity at all . for the sole object of the perpetuation of our species we do ' the deed. in the same way. . might dig the c a d . for where can the animals net all these things ? They wander about stark naked in the a K" & . lace. 'Ever). and do not bestow it upon deserving people. There are still many superior qualities 2nd excellences in us by which it is establisl1d that we are the masters and the a n i ~ n d are our slaves. f a~ V~&ndl ~YOU talk about YOLK going into the mosques religious houses for the purpoK of ~ u b l i pra>-er. If J-ou expended it On the poor and needy. . consequentIy you require teachers and masters. . then speak. get many other fine things. then ~ h should these be duties for us l Sacrifices and duxgiving are incumbent upon you. 1K& u .' wherever we c ~ s our eyes we perceive the divine presence. and besides all these. to us every place i s a mosque t m d temple.' Indeed he felt . fun. flowered muslin. prz-badan. These people find the need of physicians when they are sick and ill. brocader.vithouf the intervention of prophets. We y do not comnit sin. v ~ i o * kinds h~ of carpets. they the slaves. UAblution and pnrification have been made duties for you. and show Cain that he also. during the whole year we apprrn& each other only once. Neither have we any need of prayers on Sabbaths and festivals. muslini. 41.-giving be made a duty for You ? We take compassion and pity upon our fellows. "When you say that God Almighty has revealed to texts of t h e Kurfin relating to things la$dul and to penal laws and the laws of retaliation. engaged in His worship." When the messenger of the birds had thus finished speaking. all those things you boast about we do not aU require. and felts . 3 Rurin. b c a c s e your hearts are dut Tbmllgh smpidiry and ignorance you do not know what is bene&iai. But God Aln~ighty makes all things h o w n h us . 11 .' And in another place he s y . V. A altars are the mountains and the bil~s. ' What a pity it is that 1 have not got as much sense as the crow. . mixed fabrics of silk and colton.ough them your sins may he pardoned. who do not per(orm and day in debauchworship to Him. what in. and your bodies are of foul odour. fine Mahmbdi rnus~in. Prayer and fasting are duties with you an this accocnt. goid embroidery. jurious . W e are free f r a n ~ we know God to be one and vithotlt putner..animal kno~vsits n as' praise. because YOU mulate late great wealth by lawful and unlawlul means. ' God NmightY rent a crow to go and dig the ground. Night and day you pass year time in adultery and ."~&'~*n: ~. Hence it is a s c e ~ i n e d fhat we are the masters.s f l h satin. SSlrat xri. all thin for your instruction. \lTr abstain from these things.' -4nd ~~d slid to PnYer i one place he says. as He himself says inthe K ~ ~ L ~ . but are occupied nigl~t that idolatry and sin . and . for we are always engaged night and in prayer and fasting. ay. hence Uie command of purification for you." When Cain saw ir he said. idolaters. In fine. build your house upon the hills. and never accumukte anything through avarice. and they entreat the astiolo~err tell them) d things inaus(to picious and 111-fatcd. great regret on this matter. and that not for lust and gratification. " If you have anything &p left to say.

" he m m asked wht. h e y underwent l now forced kind of toil or labour like as these people undeqro he divine command Was. and your finest garments are genemade fron1the wool of animals. it would become us." The King asked the aninzls if they had any answer to give ' this. All taese gifts and blessing.time he was spcaking about ? He raid.Then the)r lost their superiority . that we might be protected from cold and heat. that the7 were to eat the garden.jungles like slaves. ~ u you aixvays. that you have to it. God Almighty brings forth this dress upon Our bodies at the time afben we are born. ~fwewere ~S. that we might malce it . and that comes from the mucus of a worn . the finest and the softest are the bracades and silks." arked. He. HOW i-) fiis And the man replied. it is right that we should E lordly authority over tbem. fiat you carefully keep it and sell it--you are always writhing in aniietynbaut i t " So there arc other garmenu which you weave fmm the fur 2nd hair of many animals. The angel+ by divine expelled t h m from thence. of His compassion and kindness. and do with the~n we as they. ~t the time He created thon they Were quite d e d . no more hard-heam& pnd none '0 greedy to good for nothing but to wO*N anidevour cadon you . '' when God 1 created dam and Eve 1 e provided food and covering for the. and this rvorm does nor bdong f O the race of Adam. beginning of the race rf Adam. and washed by rashermen. till your dying breath. because God Allnighty produced it on our bodies. i n the W 3 Y that the doctor of fins the circvmrtances length i a fOnner n chapter!' of the rapacious beasts had thus w h e n the a man said." The King said to the jacl. with the exception of one tree the fruit of \"hiCh they not to approach T h m u d l the hg~il". ' npforre m t w ~ YOU have torn it from these insects. to boast thereof.ll Relate to US the facts about 11. They used to stroll about in the and eat the fruit of a l the trees . it is not fit and right for before us. x e involved in trouble about it. ing a d dress. and became quite naked. but &ir emire bodies r e r e covered with the hair of their heads.nure ih bmt upon their death and destruc- . .ce rnll~ You tear them from the animals. the= two li* i the East upon the Ruby mount*l~%under the n equator. Where Were ail &ere d$fcrel~tguments in the first age? perllap~you to& them by tyranny and riolei~ce fram the animals.ll like as he did far the animals. the ambassador of the rapacious beast$ 0 said to the man. "As you are boasting SO lnuch about your fine and soft dress. mals. Ofall the garments that you possess. conrcqucoily d y God made you subject to this punishment. of God are . tion. your ancefors l'cbelled againn ~ o d and in requital thereof YOU arc subjected to . whicll for its 0% Protection spins (aweb)with its mucus on &trees. it is better for YOU to be silent:' The jackd asked for orhat reason ? He said. The jacW. but is a species of insect.-over. and of His kindness it ail withiil our power. and then appropriate t h m to Y O ~ ~ S ~ I V3'0 make such boar of this is improper.yjo]e. without any labour or t tmuble of ours. and by means of this same hair they u7ere protected from the cold and heat. " B e r n S e the h m a bthere is no one more wicked and vieious than you. t<is trouble.are all our slaves. and then to get it sewed by tailors. stowed this dress upon us. tell me this. be. with force aad. the hair of their heads fell off. proofs of our domination. these are made of raw silk. Y 0 M~U. Accordingly. Indeed you suffer SO much trouble and kbour about it. of satao they &isregarded the direction of Cod. so that it may be sheltered from the evils of cold and heat." H e replied. with labour spin and weave it.

flay thenl.Because . it is all through you. rip open their bellies. and in it passed amy. and eat their flesll. the representativeof the cattle has stated t h e first chapter YOUalso pursue such a course t o b ~ a r d=. You cut them with hives. z u ~~k~ f i dAfr&jiyib. and kep A warn. COWS. slaughter them. ~f do inflict this treatment on the animals. The birds of prey XISOv110 are in bonds with and p u . their blood. is rucll that YOU buP/ Your dead .-amivorous beasts ear open the bellies of animals. that tile rapacious beasts kill a d ravagehave " SO." The representatire of the carnivorous beasts raid. camels. when any animal died in the woods and d d s . then t'h~ flee holy ma devout men resort to them ? Far pious perate pmple do not resort to the wicked. \liodchihr. . they did not tearauy animal. where the wild beasts have their abode.gj11e~~towards US. 1 rapacious beasts prey upon a11d devour ani1I mals. this is dear.and he replied. that . and eat their flesh. o they used t ezt its flesh. ~ l d deTstand that the tyranny of the rapacious beasts is not equal t o your o m . and 90 Out into the mOuntGns devout md jungle.~anta.rs be obtained in the jungle? Having no rcsouxe. we do not find any animal complaining of us lilce as they complain of you And you my dro. we tool. Thus. but they did no injury to living beasts. the animals derive from you. so that are cannot get to eat them" you ray. ~ u r h bones. for you slaugi~terthem. sheep. and eat t b m their -all these practices oure their origin to you.If you ~ ~ 0 consider and reflect. Dbr& Islcandar. and unfh fraud and fake pmenrions to YOU' authority orer t h e m Have you ever the engaged in War and *rife. But t d l US what ad. but the rapacious beasts having seen YOU the usage. but far 111 this YOU boast turbance and a b u e the rapacious beasts. Jamengaged in war ihfd. hunt tl~eir prey and feed you with it.-h ~ other. and were d. m d never take any compassion upon their condition. ' When You say that the hearts of rapacious beash aye bard and mercilas. but in the time ofwant and extremity they were compeUed to do j:m ! h 'Vere created.. 6. that benint comes t o all of ). acquJnfance night and up day. for without that we knew nothing rv]1aterer about it* Becore the time of Adam no rapacious b e s t preyed upon aninmib. but you do just the fbiEg. rather do better t_ horn them. roast them.Qu from Our sw hr. But p sti. and towards your kindreed. Even now YOU are i disn . and you began t o catch and confine g o a ~ . to preying upon living animals . instruction. just as it is alloaable for you to catand this is lawful for earerne carrion in time of necessity. From the days of Gain and Abel d1'w5 3'0' "ie ta the continues to h seen . as the animdr h o w nothing about. nor do the wild beasts te-?T them. This is a proof that the wad beasts than you. " Those of you who are your dominions. The injury is a p parent. Tbexfore~ if your the wild be=u were not better than YOU. SOlong as in i n y place they found flesh lying on rhe groulld. and a r m . and other like as YOU 60? if YOU to i n j w of the wild animals wit11 considerainquire into the tion and c a q you would learn that they are far better yourselves" ~h~ d r r s a d o r of the men inquired if there was any poofof this.vay-i occupied i n massacre and slaughter. Isfnndiyhr. " w h e n you 611 us that no goad comas to any one from us. in the earth. own. present time. 2 . you did not allow any animal remain in the jungle . then you would un. h . then h o l ~ their flesh to u. they crush their bones and drink tl~eirblood. WC do not do W. Rustam.

and its distinct and apppprovrdinstimtes and arts An these "e'lences and and the aniqudiues are peculiar . He the truth . geometricians. merouE chssri. . still in good qualities they surely mu* be ~ ~ f i ~ ~ r J J All the congegation of Jins said. mace-barerg ~en~allt'.ministersl not. buildus~ and any it A Persian raid. they understand fmm that fact that he is righteous devout . dreams. m w the varieties of the birds. cottansar~ei~ h o e r n a k ~tailors. logicims1 physia thsayers. the varieties of men . ' 1 make tyrants to prevail over tjr'm~s. preachers. . Were greatly ashamed. SJrat. cers." him to set tlhem forth. rag. vi. lawye"& . v. Of all thew classes each one has i t s distinn mords laudable q"Liitie5. ~crretmcs. and hung down their heads. he 11 he would undastrnd that. went to thek own dwellings. financiers. virtuous abstinent people.hich our claim is established. because every species recognises its otvn fellowJ and the wild beasts k n o r i i ~ g him to be righteous do not molut h i m True it is ' One u i n t hors anofier* VeiilY there are bad a!~dvicious ones among the wild beasts. and there conceive affection for the wild beasts. Mean. Thus cod AImighty declares. mab and many other dasser besides these i devotees. weavers. but is tbjs ? nlE there not good acd bad in ever)-spedn' Even the beasts which ere bad do not tear to i w e s rile good ancl riCteous." ha& ended his statement. the parrot said When the to the E(mg. Kudn.m . they we" to state to go and associate with fi There are many laudable qualities in The King directed us 4 \\. n o ~ ~ t b r t a n dthat~they belong to a distinct in these and those there is no appveot dmispecies Get~vcen Lrity . and other m~ s. If tlie wiid beasts do not tear him to pieces. and those who are bad flee from fie good the ~vicked if were nor evil and sllould heir devout and holy nun go and dwell in the wiids and mountains. the sovn rose. mrhcl~ they heard this condemnation 1 censure.mals our slaves. "He $pc& the h t h there no doubt O ~i'I~ertai&y r about iL" The nlen on every side. a philono~herbelonging to the company ofIins said.our t y r a ~ ~ n i c d kings haire any doubt about the probity a11d purity of zi)y man. those people who are good d u n the bad associate l*itIl the good. d . judges. yid he 51 . a s ~ ~ i o g e rSO0 s. this . V~C~OUYS why he IY of justice. while evening came on.- 6' . but tlleyclevour the evil men. dchemir~~. as opposed tO these."Anotller proof is this : when ). revenue Offlmgyate. men of trade. &ov drive him out into the jungle. the animals do not share m thecm to rqnm it is evident that W e are the manerr. learned rnell. humane men. although these belong to a diffmnt species . arsiaa~\u. that they m y obtain the recompense oftheir rills:JJI ivhen the anbassador of the rapacious b e a t s finished this speech.. magiu. scientific me" holy poets. This man is boasting about hi.4 In 0 1 race there are 1' fings. proof L all the men and animals attended the King told the men that if had of their ciaims to adduce. and all taking leave.. grammarians. interpreters of cians.les.


are born. " geometr. i ~ this ski11 they have acquired 1 (he t e d ? n g of parents or mastern .ans. and make it firm and suong. They caU this also rblfs (devil). so that *. and h 4 accordin? their cllstom. and some she keeps under her ""3w h ~ I Lit. L ~ .s & n e and skill than fit+' irorlaenwhen have and are satisfied. no need of r u k or cOn~P~"Cs marciialr and t o o k So JSO tilere is the it. tion this ha5 been the partner of man's body. thg.'30 Thc SoztL! and kind.iog. $hy reward Then he looked towards the p m t . and enter into paradise.vca.. having formed it into a kind of ladder. and are not perceptible by the nlO*al senses. some she exposes the beat of therun. but t h e i irrriiors and damers can b nothins "thout them. h e white requiring nothing for the work beas= and bird5 make houses and neds. in %. .simp. Y ln fiLle. in the same Way aS the Corporeal form of A d a m rtifi survives. i n the first place. and supPO* their offspring. They have greater intelligence and skill mm. Tlley who did not pay bomzge are the pasdon of and the sensual lusts. 1 (he drawing .c. tWba it ' 0 al~ove. This man mainwins that there are many worlcmcn and mechanics jn his race . behold them. and keep5 Open a smdl IPaCe in fie centye. h o w i . The s p replied. He said. reasoll2ble Soul StiU remains among the descendants of Adam. The %ge replied. because among us also are many animals who share with them in those fly (bee) possesses greater ability in building and repairing ~h~~ than their architecrs and engineen.hE1 em_ oa to or thirty. thmugh purity of heart. but this is no proof of his superiority. he draws act a thread from his sdix-a i aftc' wardn.. they ?in some fine kind of lines from their saliva . Those who. there is the ostrich. they are watchful against the slumber of h e e ~ e ~ ~ n e s s .ese (men) is t h e wvcakcrt of all insects. these they afiewards at16LCh (0 Overhend.J7 ~~d The King having heard these detlilr. For instance. for the p~rporeofcapturing %er." The King asked how it was that L e angels m d the senses a were not visible. they come to their dwclling-p~ace. is allled both to bird and beast. but V'hich. their senses are similar those of and the angels Hence they see them . vhereas their r e a v e r s cannot weave anything without stuff:< So . she divides them into three lots: she SeCUres in the &h. bs and grexter &iil than a l their wealrersl fintplace. he firmly at. The prophets and saints. and in the day of judgment the sons of ~ d will fire jn that m form. and hearing fheir words. s ~ i d .ither nor water can get iioo it. they communicate them to their felious. but which pmsess g"*et. and they continue in that form. Then. a the divine command. because their s e a r s a e free the gloom of folly. or lime or mortar. It is because fiey are erhered and &ansparent. paid homage to ~ d they ~ are 'Animd Life." Tile King asked who \%as chief of ti~ore the angels r h o had been appointed for the protection of m n . All this is a proof of His kindness and mercy." ~h~ ter( rqrnscnts tke male 3s doing thisis. in this of h e has no need of materials .' for it buildr itr house without eaRh or bricks. with what When the care does for the ~ w i s b m e nof her Young t . and told hill1 to finish his qeech.irninlag .' and they are subject to the reasonable soul. dlineP circles it ha.t-e verl feble.gain there are silk-WOrmS. '' The reasonable SOU] for since the tinle of Adamps crea.neither do they ~ or thread . whiih 7. The s w a ~ ~ o also build their ar hanging in tile air under the cave+ and require neitha ladders nor al1fihing of the kind t o get up to t h e m constructs her house i t h o u t mud Or watm.

We are the masters. they bathe and mash them. and quails. '' You say that in your race you hare poets and preachers. 'main the biggest fools in existence 6 u t \!. the p r a ~ c r s :he frog.of the C ~ O \ the. the motIler of the d1. a s soon as they come out of the egg. I . they h o i v at . ~ r e s s c ii k d. the predicurn. Thus the young of fowk. the s:llnonJ of of fie ~ f ~ f b i r the lecturer of the sait~-. for DOnng there latter the cocl.-hadren believe in it. Shrat d i . that among those birds the n1a1e and female do not assist other in feeding then% as pigeons and orher birdr d o . 49.notv that amens them also there are fluent and e h qnenf poets preachers. t l l e ~ slaves ?' the have made a Statement about astrologers. nothing about their own affairs. 0d" '0 delude fo01s7 s declare t b t i o n x prrtict~luincident will happen in such in ten or twenty yead t i n e ..l 0 then. ' Every animal knows and ifs form of pRise. we hare the superiority over Ym.the Sumlnons (. '' Their children also are excessively stnpid . is the hishest in the estimation of God Almigilty? Bight and are employed in prayer and praise to Him. Still they require mast. . After "0th'"' the). p i c k out tile ivorlns. but to Us He has given a turn far k~~oxxledpe. or fhc iarl1ing to ~~ fear by the owl-if.This knowledge and inteliigence has hem cornmunicated to them on the part of Grd Alnlight). and with frmd and ulvmny to say.hat maltcr have you to boast about. to of the cock. whereas they such a kn. the cooing of he pigeon. so that people may think they speak tmlj'. ~h~~ . and hen unite in feeding their Young It is for this that God has bestowed on young that they do not depend upon their fowls such int~uigence Parents for support. or xvill be the condition of their chiMrf he7 nremenrn about some distant countli some time -beforehad.ot anequ$ity. and consequa~tly h s taken a11 this compassion upon our he state. arrive a t fifteen or twenty years of age they get to years of discretion. % L . Some a ~ t r o l ~ g e rin. \\-et nurses feed and 1~11 m in cndlcs-they do everything . But among mankind no roman nowjshcS her children in this nay. what will happen to them. remembm.hen our W n g Ones are born they are from the first instant aware of what is good and what is bad. N ~ o has. run peckiing ab*uq and if any one tries to catch them. 41. the praises of the reptiles. the11P* . soon as they are taken from the womb and are born. in o d e r to sustain them she digs up the ground. you you do not underr&their praises . child takes n o heed of it. w110 f e3 gratitude. and feedr her !oua. as the ignorant and the learned are l. or fed with grain. but of t1lernselves peck and feed. 51udrnts and rmenlI>ranccr~ 1 bxt if you undentood the language of birds. paeedges.iroo~d l. tl~erefore. the laudations of 111~ C ~ S Sre~ the . flies. eulogies of the sraiiow. They do not need to be supplied d t h milk. Then. they der they Pass their d r r s in reading and writing. but it is held in no eslecnl and wise. d given inclination towards ignorance-that is to SzY. Thus God Almighty says. fiat their may knowwllat good and what is bad..l11 of what is beneficial. has said. besides these.Elirvd?r. they run away from him. what injurious. studeots and rnemori&sts. you knew the Farlicularr of the devotion paid by the anti. ~~d then but asvology is practised only among ignorant peoplewomen . and teachers .a ones. like the Young of other animals and birds. The only people who place reliance on the of astrologeri are those who have erred and are I L&+. citdsd the IOCLIS~. C Everything pays its devotion i praise n of G ~ J lIut gall do nor L ~ O it:l . Nurses and midvviucn attend m them.a g o o d many Young ones are hatched. CXP~CSS~Q" d faith of tile insects. &c-. and mxy haire faith in them. The reason of this is. s )+ 3 I(urjn.

lm. even thousands of children put to death. but not in the way the astrologers maintain. that ilre child would be killed among them At length God Almighty created Abraham. Gad would hatre brought him also into his religion. "B). such as the tyrannical and violent kings anlong men. rather t11a11 to act upon the rules of a~trolo?ZY(' of The King said. is certainly possible.' tbeir idea being. but is it not Ocmatter to pray to the Lord to prevent better in cu~rcnce. " If the prevention of evil through the itus i impossible. would attain r hi$> pontion. " The divine predestination does not change. who deny. " The prevention of the evil influencer of the rtu. These kings. d m those who put their hurt in God pay no heed to tlieir words. and overthrow the religion of the idolaters. 14henrver any one implores God t o prevent (the inampiciour influences of the stars). help of God. I t is (to be effected) b y secking the help of God.. assuredlr God does preserve him. ended. and preserved him from the malevolence of the infidels. They did not know that nothing happens without the command of the Lord. If by acting on the com~nands the law evil is averted. then why do astrologers study them and s establish (the fact: wit11 proofs Z and why do they fear them i' : He said. But if at that time 2. The astrologers and soothsayers givf information before the occurrence of events. True it is that ' 'Gninst fa:@ no plans prevaiL' After all. acting o n the commlnds of the law. after being brought up. H e replied." The Kingaslced how the help far this was to be sougilt of God. and yet you boast and say that you have astrologers and Eager in your race.imrod had prayed to God for safety. for instance. brought i low rind dcstmved Nimrod al. they could not tell Xiin. This u n l e kind of treatment Pharaoh dealt out KO the children of Israel. if he to ~ ~ llad his supplications to Cod for safety. b y fasting. the predie. They usedto believe that the regulation of the world rested upon the seven planets and the twelve signs of the zodiac. and SaJr Gob Almigllty will Mng this event to pass. and ~vho do not believe in destiny-Nimrod and Pharaoh.110 ivauld throiv all his subjects and m y into co~~fu5ion.uri Allraham~% friend of God. there is any future state. tile King asked him.upon the statements of the astrologers. who made the constellations and the planets.rebels (against God) . He preserves them from the event d so the astrobgcrs informed Nimrod that a child ~ o ~ l be be who . 'Give orders that all children born during this year r h l l be slain . who is the Creator of the stars. what God willed came to pass. in the ssiine manner as the *ilnight5' gave to his !vice. who was thus it the indiclted . and by worshipping with sincerity of heart-this is (tl~e way of) setin. and . ivl~o. When he asked them a t what place and in what family the child rould be born. had hundreds. Whell the parnot had reached this point of his speech. the friend of God.then the m h t y in f i r mercy would have brought hinl into the relidon of Abrah. and where he would be brought up. and have pruerved him from di=hallour . but whcn people make their supplications to ~ o for its pevention. it follo~vs necessity that what is predestined of by ~dis set aside. These men are only fit to delude sil~ners. by weepil~gand lamentation. m d he and his anny would have been raved from dishonovr and d e s t r u c t i o ~ SO d s o when the astrologers ~ I I O U D ~ Pharaoh the. by prayer. and Gad Almighty having created him. b tionl of astrologers are all fables ." He raid.d his army by H s hands. so they said to the king. fate is never to . but here also God Aln~igl~ty kept tile patriarch Moses safe from his malice In fine.~ould the opponent of the religion of idols. birth af M o s s . and bestowed upon her blessing . b y making offerings and giving alms. that the astrologers had inof formed Ni~nrod that a child would be born in iiir reign. The l%istory this matter is.

but We overwllelmcd those ~ 1 1 0 deemed My words false. and God grants them a cure. that the event rvould befall on such and such a date of such and such amonttl. and resort to physicians." l <'The philosophers and logicians whom you make your boast but rather lead you astray" V-ben the of. for them to give this direction to their follorvers ~ v l ~ e n accident befell them. he replied. then pray to God with earnest supplicatio~l and mourning because He. v 42. God says. and through the many. will preserve you from that occurrence.' Begincing from Adanl. with great importunity and lamentation. and hang these up on the malls or pillars of the mosques. God might save them from that calamity." The King said. & SJnr vii. and they who were Ieari~ed the law replied. for the averting of the evil . and the t o m being situated on low grom& the waters drew towards it from all sides. m d stayed in the city. The opinions and religions of them all are antaaonistic . there was a certain Icing to whom the astrolagers had given information that an event rvould liappen to his city. " I t is true-the study of the stars. "For restoration to health of the sick also. apply to physicians. still they a c r e able to tcll this much. and kept watching all night. perhaps. "So it behoves us to resort to God against the influences of the stars. while nil the rest were drowned. should go out of the town into the fields. In conformity with thcir declaration. but they could give no explanatlon . they in thcir despair bctake themselves to God.inconsistencies (occurdng in the holy book) they set aside the commmclments of religion. full of danger to the inhabitants. and He gave thcm a refuge from their ills. S o a e men. and many people also went forth with him. It is not right that we should turn away from the court of the true Healer. when they were beset with troubles. ['We gave deliverance to Noah and to those people who embarked in tbc ark with him . on that day the king left the city. Sundry men felt no alarm at the predictions of the astrolo. prayed to the Lord. and there make supplication-and weeping before God. do you no m m inquired how. hey write out statements of their cases in petitions. and (coming down) to the time of Muhammad the Pure. and not a s astrologers in these days delude people to forsake God.S. but those who were engaged in prayer and lamentation outside the city were saved. and prayer to God fur prevention of thase evils-these all are things of which the adwntagc has been understood.~ +em maintain that the world ir p r i r n o ~ d some maintain the I K. The tdbe of Jonas zlso. Frequently even. During the night it rained with great violence. Thus. and filled it. ar the beginning of their illness. just as Koah and those people who had faith were preienred from tile deluge. the prediction of events before they happen. and asked him t 0 explain. (may the blcssing and peace of God be on him !) this practice has always prevailed.. because were a perverse eeneration. For this reason hloses gave this admonition to the children of Isracl. "Because they divert men from the xay of the lax. ' When you are in dread of any calamity. . for a perfect recovergmay be obtained from His grace and kindness.then. and fly (for direction) to the revoiutions of the skies.of the true faith. but receiving no benefit from their remedies. one should first turn to God. any Tlterefore it is proper for us to act in this way as regards rhe behests of the stars. some of . small and great. through the sincerity of your przyers. ? ICadint-ancient- . The king inquired of his people what ccurse ought to be pursued to avelt this calamity. that the best thing in was that on that day the king and all the dwellers in the city. and not to act upon the delusions of astrologers. Then they began to pray to God to preserve them from the evil. All the men who remained in the city perished. The kixg inquired how. saying.

Besides these also there nre many ather diverse beliefs to which they are all fettered.pte-existence1 of matter. "Then as to the mathematicians and geometricians w11om you boast abaut. others are co~~vinced that there are four. We do n o t make our boasts over any creature of His . they puzzle themselves night and day in thinking about demonstrations. some are distracted in ascertaining the heights of mountains and of clouds . with all this st~~pidi$ i p o r and awe. because our diet is of one sort. knows God. . We do not reject His authority. boasting about your astrologers and physicians is sheer f0W We bavs no need of them. Xight and day we arc engaged in His worship and praise. and others are convinced that all is deli~sion. The man who goes to the door of s the physician or druggist is sick. Physicians. others L n y it. of some maintain that there are three. some go abaut surveying rivers and farests. Some acknotvledpe a resumcction. thdr only because the astrologers have no power in anticipating or delaying favourable or unfavourable momenti B notxvith" standing this. "But our religion and way is one (only). They never know anything about those things which are easy to understand. nor what the fashion of the joints. Some dircct their attention to the me2surement of bodies and of distances. So. then the sick man would soon well. fake Paper and write rubbish upon ir. same adduce proofs of the priorityl of form S o ~ n e them say that there ale t x o pnme causes. many aitrologers and necromancers. just a the crowd rvho wait ypon artrologcrr are ill-starred and unfortunatr after d. We acknowledge God to be One. and do not heed the dccreos of the Divine law. but the of slaves is to run about to the houses of eve~bod>'. "The phyjicians whom you boast about are not required until you fall sick through eating unsuitabk food in by greed . They take no heed about the physiology or measurement of rheir o u n bodies. what the state of the heart and brain is: what the natureof the stomach is . but others object. though rhey do not h o w it. and His skilI. Somc are satisfied o i the CO-existenceof the Creator and the creature. They show no inclination for those sciences which are suitabIe for the. and because of this (simplicity of our diet) we do not fa11 sick. Soine believe in prophecy and inspiration. The course of the free is to have no need of any One. for. resorting thitl~er makes them more unfortunate. they rarely read the Divine Word. and they recommend abstinence from those things by which sick people are frequently cured. and others adduce evidence of its being finite. S o ~ n e say that the world is infinite. nor hav-e any need of draughu and electuaiesi. The same is the case with the physicians. They do not know how many cntrails and intestines they have. or tbeordinancer of the Prophet. re do not go to the hauses of physicians with our complaints. then you go and wait at their doors with your uriile botrles.what the shape of the bones. if people would leave it all to nature. and some ponder and study to find out the system of the heavens and the centre of the earth. His will. nor d o we ask the why or wherefore of anything. for S ~ C ~ is only S S aggnvated by resorting to them with your complaints. They make pretensions to those things which are beyond conceptioli or imagination. in order to delude their dupes. while some say that thew are five." And. But it is from these things that the art and power of the Almighty are discovered. as men (do whm tl~ey) carp at His behests. Somc arc bewlclsrid and dizzy with doubf others reject all reason and evidence. and right to investigate.and pursve those vain trifles which are quite unnecessary. and others increase them to six or even seven.md gluttony . as the prophet says. what space there is in the cavity of the chest. " He who L C O ~ himself. whatever is ordained in our lot we are thankful for. and without equd.

from begi~~ning end. and f m e r s whom you boast ' abour. their instructing men in morals and teaching them the mandates of the inn. in the hope of its becoming dear. There are no p a t e r fools than these. and pbau5ibilify. their making of long prayers so that their foreheads become indented (fm prostration on the ground). they go begging from door to door. iheir satisfaction with coarse clothes. for in the \vl~oIeworld there are no men more villaillous and rascaU~~. and so by fraud and deception they get him dismissed. and neighbours of these people go about poor and needy. is fraud and falsity. Day ancl night they are bent upon their schemes of dismissing onc man from his office. or some tyrannical king seixs it. that they have sold the next world for this. their cultivation of their beards. architects. but t h y do not eat the fruit of them. T o your eyes they Seem good. their faded CompleGonsr all this. naked and hungry. *hey are always censuring God. craft. their precious life . For this public ioorship of the*. "YOUsay that you have kind-hearted people in your race. relations. They buy grain. the right of God there are none worse. relations. for they ~ccumulatewealth and propeny. their removing the hair round their lips. rhat they are divided by doubts. ornate stylc. IZll a t once the wealth which they have amassed during a long period is destroyed . Openly they write friendly letters in a vcry florid. their eating but little food so that their lips hang (flaccid). . but stilt it is v e v ill-judged of you to boast about them. and keep it. and cannot take a moment's rest. that they have thrown religion to the minds. For the friends. and whose prayers and interccssions YOU think to be acccp:able in the right ofGod : these have deceived YOU by (outwardly) exhibiting their e V n a pity. Night and day thry are inx~oloed in toil and labour. Why did He create the devil and Satan ? why were i~horemongersand adulterers brought into exi&ncc? and why does H e give them Sustef nance Such talk is improper. their laying patch upon patch. they give notl~ingto the p m r and needy. or thieves cm-ry it off. that they should sit a t home h1 ease and take their pleasure. The merchants also are always intent u p n alnassing dishonest wealth. ancl are more wretched even than the poor and needy. and have found d e l ~ d o nbut no rest. Then. tlleir remaining silent and speaking to no one. being wretched and abject. your boast about this seeming advantage.< The mr. Their to hearts are m full of malice and rancour that they do not recognise the existence of any one (but thmselva). They think that they have gained some advalrrage. ':As to the devotees and worshippers whom in your cornpla-cy you consider righteous. are worse than slaves.~tcni upon their designs of digging up the root and basis of (their competitors). Do they call this humanity. begging from street to street. Why do YOU boast about them? they are a disgrace and shame to You- .rihants. but in their hearts tlrey are ever i. which they leave to their heirs. and do not perceive that they have thrown away for nothing that valuable weaIth.while their friends. They are always building houses although they themselves do not dwell in thein. while they themselves always lead a life aT stan-ation. and neighbours pursue a life of mendicancy? YOUsay also that you have writers and revenue accountants among your people. and in the days of famine they sell it for a high price .They are constalxtly enga* in thc endeavour to supplant their rivals by cunning. it s i n b in the sea. If you m a i e . Uleir wearing of the recluse's gument. and all the remnanr of their lives is lost in vagrmcy. then we curse it. but in. their dried-up brain$ their emaciated bodies. They dig the ground and plant trees. and saying. but this is a n~istalce. and of securing a dovrricr for the appoilltment of another. and have not even got what they purchrred. and these take no heed of their condition. and their hearts are filled " h sin~iiar Satanic notions.

* . they silence hiin with threatening and broiv-beatil~g. Whjtd tL'A. In b r r . by his supemat& POxver. prayingin his private ceil in the Temple. And your jurists and lawyers. Your khalifas and kings you have mentioned as being heirs of the Prophet.. afrer his deslll. The claims of his service are antirely banished from the mind. and hir dab was discn~ered but the Jins had accomo. S ~ i o m o n ' ~ hod.doctors and iatvyers : they also. When any one of them becomes ruler. the first thing he does is to imprison the lnan who from of old has served his ancestors. TabarL. the King looked towards the congregation of Jins and men. A staff u u miramlousb p r ~ % i d r d k=. they take away the p:operty of the poor and of orphans.hi\e... chap." A person out of the Hebrew party said-" The Jins raise the ealth for this inred. &is insect did s h ~ i the Jins that kindness which this person r . They put senseless interpretations on the word of God. These are not the characteristics of great men.. and consider theinselves better than aIl d e n . mey replied." CHAPTER XXIV. .-&rdn. They prefer this et world to the n x . say their praycrs and preach to md admo:lish the people . he p n y d that h s decese might be Coni e l horn them. m d collvey it will1 flattery to tyrannical Itings.ed lvo&. and fien . They constantly drink wine. what possibility is there of devotion and piety (in them) ? Hell (is prepared) for ihese very people whom you boast about. and \>. fell d \ . they have slain the children of the prophets. a How can we say t h i t the Jins t a l e UP the esth md ~ ~ ~ t edrgive them to this insect? For wen if a . He fell d a r n .'' Thcn as to youl.*ed him. e jes perceiving he was dead. In their greed of this worldythey their frie~ldsand brothers. They exact service from the people of God.! t. before they get i3to office they g~ morning ancl evening to the mosques. xuv. They ukc bril~es and pervert the right. unlawful. kept devouring the staff . scvii. and have not the least fear of God.n : pli5i. eau m labour. but when they becolllc mngistratcs and law-oficers. and aware th3. HER the parrot had iiished his speech. Tortures and punishments are in reserve for them. and the Jins u m t on working. but their blamewol-thy qualities are manifest. . meiy the Ternpie was finished. and t11c iaw-ful. fled from thence. Rllwres exPLrmtion.me=The white rnpp.hich. for the sake of mammon. Solomon. and How is ir that the white a1lty altllough he has no hands or feet. but a5 the wood m Veq " it for a When it rr( =ten through. and obtained release from their troubles and hardships.. these people are terrible rascals .t the Jins wmld. is from end to end trickery and deceit. thsy make the wrong right? ancl the right wrong.and for the sake of gaill pervert its original meaning."' ~h~ King inquired of the jin sages whether h e y knew anything a b o a the m a t t n which this person had spoken of. Abandoning the coursc of the Prophet. To boast about those kings and lords is injurious to yourselves. he died. bemuse tbcse (insects) did for them the ser- vice of eating up the staff of Solomon. 1 ford ee 10 labour in the c o ~ s t ~ c t i oof the TempL Ad\"er1 jjns n of his n p T m & i n ~ dissolution. and to assert a claim of lordship over us without evidence or reason. make the unlawful to be IacvfuI. nlies up e<arthand builck his vaulted habitation hb body? Erplain the facts of this t o me. and if any (suitor) is dissatisfied.Inning a d for upon \..

a d wood. althougb his neck and f i g r e arc l r q 7 long. nor is it even known how a lifts the dirt and works. with which it bites fruit. and m t h e e a sagacious illtdligence. who is small in size. tliere is the bee: r h o in her house constructs all kin& of angles and circles without luler or compasses. the articulations and pores of its w!~olc body arz constantly open. He made their intelligence acureand wise. by Ris omniscience. explain then what this Greek doctor has said." . in spite of his huge form. is 30 mean-spirited that he is obedient to a child. whose rnetllod of ' no one has discovered." The Ring told him to eqlain. and did not trouble them in a n y other way. bLlt gill \\-hen he stings the elephant. but he has not given a complete description o f the ant . perceived that animals of large body were capable of (inflicting) pain nnd uouble. and the little creatures sharp. for the exact Way in which she builds her house has never been disclosed. 2nd he replied -Lc The (chiefl excellence of every a t is th& that the art of r the artist and his mode of procedun should not be known to my Thus." The locust replied-" He has spoken the truth. so that it may be safe from every danger. alld have not been delivered from i t . and he then said" When God Almighty made all His creatures." A Grcek sage said to the Kin5 "One reason for this is known to inc. coagulates. in H s wisdom and i i justice H e kept them all equal To some He gave a body and figure large and heavy. In fine. they nrould always have been in trollble and difficulry. all those insects which are small are acute and wise. this exudes on the surface of its body. And there is the camel. lial-ing coilected tl~is. there is the elephant." The King directed him to explain this more full}'. The air which enters into its body is condensed by the great degree of cold. deny the =irtence of tile world is posiil~le oitlaut matter. and you are the representative of the insects . or from %+hence how she and brings the war and honey. and if the little creatures had not been acute and wise. and he said" The structure of the white ant is wonderful and marvellou~ . who mounts upon his shoulders and drives him whither he will.V&. E has stated. who. LIOWS she does it." The The King said to the 10curt--~~ white ant belongs to the insects. is yet such a fool that he follows the lead of W ~ C s o e m seizes his Gse-cord . for Solornon used to make them raise earth and water and buSd houses. and bestobved H s Wcssinp upon each one of them. this art of hers must have been disclosed. there is the silk-worm. Tbm. 1 is the Same spinning and C S e with the white ant. there is something yet left. and the dirt which falls on its body being formed into mud. leaves. and so if a high spirit bzd been given to them. they would never have submitted to any one .' The King desired him to explain it fully.it builds t l ~ e house over its body for its protection.T ~Ant. again. Therefore H e gave to the f ~ r m e r an abject spirit. . "is the divine wisdom in this?" The locust re?lied -lL The Creator. who. although . this it is very diminutive in size and very feeble. Where:' said he. God Alncghty has made the art of the bee a proof (in refutation) 1 Lit. The King asked the reason why all the large-bodied aninmls were stupid. For instance. Its two lips are very sharp. and becomes itrater . Doctors ofp11ilosoph~ that . Then there is the scorpion. and bo1-es holes into bricks and stones. he kills hiin In the which they call the ivhiic ant. still it is VeQ' sil-ong-ivi]\ed. its temperament is very cold. but H e made their spirit v c ~ y mean and despicable. they are still liable to that work and labour. T o others H e gave forms small and h . even a rnoase n~ight drive him if it liked. "l¶}'. If her body had been large. thus the a but excess and deficiency of one side or the other was rectided.

excellent qualities in us by which it is proved that \ware the masters and tlleyour slaves:' The King dlrecled thun to rf them forth. but neithcr Inan nor Jin had the hardil~ood face him. They considcr honey a most delicious food. they still r&garc~ic~r . ancl places ilelself upon the surfacc of the water. In their assemblies they illuminate with wax candles .for tllcse also they are indebted to the bEEI. Obtaining her food and sustenance in the depths of the sea. and that is produced by bees.ms. "cooked. all remaLnedfor an hour pensibe and downcast. bul in wisdom and kno~1ecIge is wiser and more sensible she than they all. and make something? If slle gathers it from the midst of rhe water or the air. she instantly C~OSES it. and they show no grati~ude His biessinp. and brought great clistress on h i m So wl~ellGod bestowcc1 on SoIomon the royal and the PI-ophetic office. there were solne cvil persons who doubted his prophetic dignity. to serve as proofs of his power and skill to tyrannical kingS who h a w relxlled and turned ax~ay from H i n ~ For instance. his poor and helpless servants!' T\?en the locust bad finislxed this speech. For dthough they see ail His arts and all I-Iis powers. then why do not they also collect some. and declared that 1le had obtained his sovereiguty by fraud and artifice. 1 it. God Allnighty sent an army of locusts. ~ 1 1most exquisite of all their decorations is the e pearl. and build d\~ellings tIlcnlselves ? for " In the s a n e way God has made creatures of little bodies. Although Solomon told them that God. a gnat kilIed Ximrod. slie dtr. to This (exercise of the) divine power was exhibited as a warning :o thosc persons xho glory in their size alld dignity. and for a period lcecps the two drops of rain shut up until the water is decomposed: and becomes a peal% Well. although thc gnat is the smallest of all insects. still they take no warning from them. rhen if they are sharp-sighted. The= are wt m. whicll went (to his) country. but on rainy days she comes up fro111 the bottom. uehydo they not find out how she collects it. who went and ate up the staff of Solomon . and made all the Jins and all mankind subject to him. 4. and diversity is indicative of &~vcry. When Pharaoh chose a wickcd course. Shc has two large ears which she opens out. had co~lferredon him this distinction. If it is their opinion that she gathers it from the flowers and leaves. and a certain maa said.'' The King asked the anii<7haf answer they could give to this? and tlie). where is 5~ch science to be found in inan ? Gad has inlplanted in the hearts of man1:ind a love for brocades and silks? and these are produced from the ~ n U c u s of those litile worms. but for violence and o p p ~ n s i o n toward. without matter. so that the salt waier may not mix with the rain-drop. the King asked the men i( they llad anything else left i0 Say.ells t11e1-e. bec a u a (identity of figure) a proper for rule and master/. and boast about those kings rvho are powerless against the smallest of our xvot.lm. in His grace and bounty. builds her house of wax and collects her food froln honey. and 5vhm a drop of rain Fails into one.of this. and thin proves us to he masters and tlienl t o h slaves . they waste their days in rickedness and inhdelity. still the doubt was not banished from thcir hearts. But although they behold all His powers md all His a*." . and rebcUed against the patriarch Moses. their forms and shapes are diverse. Our forms are identical. because she. he the11 fell down in his cell. Tl1ey replied. she Afterwarc'~~ goes back to the bottom of the sea. God has produced from those creatures such excellent things illat men might see then1 and acknowled:e His art and poiver. At length God sellt the white ant. '' The shell (pearl-oyster) in which pearls are produced is smaller in bull: and more feeble than any aquatic creature. atid this is prodnced by the skill of that little Creature of \vhom a descripti~n has just beell given.

our creed and fzith is one. ' God ALnighty has purcllased conllnand. "If the sole object of all is to reach God. among the Magians are ZarBdushtis. pursuir of &minion is obvious . fire-worshippers. Hannis. prayer. Rifizis. Murjis. " T11e killing of Linz5 in g.ligon Stae their own passions?-ten me this. Llazakfs. and faithfuL They kno\v nothing of idohtry or wickedness. do professon of . infidcIs. fornication or adulter): They have not the leas: doubt or scepticism about the porvcr and unity of God . Magians. Jahamis. Zal-wPnis. still the instincts of all are alike . MGtazilis. but uhr. ainocg the hlusulmhs there are Shias. "This is not for the sake of rcligion. idolaters. Whatever direction we go. He said. iice llilnsclf. p ~ o m i s i n f ~ h t . and rule is secondary. Provider. and be slain themsdvcs? There are many other texts of the i K ~ ~Shyat ix. Nbsibis. for there is no hatred in that . in each religion thcre arc many sects. Every minister of religion desires only this. the 'Ab2li and the J. one and without equal." The King directed hinl to explain this fully.dion nszd Politics. then why does one (party) kill the other ? " He replied. and listen. (those of) one religion thinking the others infidels.Rcl. and cursing them. said-" The man speaks truly. and praise. ih can enforcethe commandments of religion mlong the people. that ail men may adopt his creed and and the oldinances of his law. w t authority." He $=id.'' K . they know Him to be the true Creator and Provider. for properties of true believers. Ash'aris. If tilt Kingwill attend to me. of 1 49 by wliatevcr road they reach it. it is the practice to slay ally other f 1 . and mortification of the aion should sacrirecpircs that the aspirant for reli. ~ ~ h jo!mont of p a m d i r m ~ a n d i f i o ~ z ay fight for 11 ~~ of . ' The I<inq said. I will adduce a clcar proof upon this point. " Reli$on and belief are the way and means by wllicl~ ol~jects lifemay the of be obtained The aim and ol~ject all is one and the same. In of Islam this is certainly the clearer says. m d h= provided pas"ons for them. their minds are very different. and h l i n m i s . Sunnis. Gahrdmis. But these men are not zcquaintcd with our prayers. star-worshippers. among C h r i s t i ~ n ~ there are Nc-storians. Kadaris. and others.!dti . I n fine. and he replied." An inhabitant of Persia said. polytheists. Khdrijis. r n . W e are free Iron1 dl diversity ." The King directed him to proceed. Sa~es' L ~ ~ . Religion is necessary for rulc.just as in oldcn times the opinions of the philosophers were diverse. and night and day they devote themselves to meditation. we proceed only towards God" The King asked. Ijcsicles this. and folIo\vcrs of hIalk5. that (through its influence) all men may be honest . God. Rule and religion are twins . it is rzther for rule. which is an institution of religion. "The mortification of the passions is an ordinance in all religions and creeds. the anirnals are all uniform in their belief." The King asked for the proof of this. and althougl~the forms of men ate identical. that in the service of Gad they may slay. the rrpresentative ofthe the birds. for among men thcrc are thousands of sects -Jews. one cannot exist without €he other. Aftera little ~vh-hile nightingale. whether they slay or be shin. fhat 1 . and religion requires a kins who. What a great variety of sects there are ! All their rclipions a l ~ d creeds differ. and he said-" The variety of reljgions and crecds substantiates this statement. Hc said. "We also bdieve God to be the Creator. Christians.. but although the f i ~ i r e s of anilnals are various." Upon which the King asked hiin how it was that there was such s e a t diversity in the religion and creeds of man. translation is-" Verily God hafh purchased of true believers their souls and their substance. For this reason some ministers of religion liill other persons for the ends of rule and government. 50 in rule. Anlong the Jews there are the Samaritans. but religion is First. Eutychians.

the Persian Gulf. and said. that man is by far the worst who denies that there is a day of resurrection. Weltern S a .' Finally. and islands. he cities and countries also which he has mmcioned would also look still less. Hijjk~. Sind. Cyrene. althougl~all men retun to ~ 6 be? of their species. and arts. after making this statement. and lusts. and differmce of pursuits and objects. great nunlbei of men (as an argument). I<hw+rirm.oufl-&rn Sea. the SS. mountains. and keeps them under his protection.KurCln besides this which are explicit upon the point. so that their sins may be forgiven. ail religious men i~nmolatc their passions. assista ~ l t s the service of God ?' a11 His friends repIied. they were a l slain in l the seiwice of God. and attain unto heaven. Alexandria." to the King. Besides this. and but if he \"ere to see the aquatic animals. and others. looting upon this a s the h i g h s t a a of devotion. Syria. India. 'Azarbaijdn. 'IrAk. 'We in rill be your helpers in God's service' Then the Lard 1 ~ ~eplied. and not the least desirc or lust of this world is left. ~ kill themselves. then in comparison with them men would seem very few. Yemen. and did not forsake the religion of Jesus 1" t h same way. Greece. colour. a d behold their mulfifarm sl~rper and figures. and in pursuit of their religion burn themselves dive. the Sea d Ydjuj. i b d d u s i a . the Indian ocean. But there are good m d bad to bc faund in ail religions and creeds . '' Thus men l a m e d in theology reskain their pasdon% appetites. ' If ye will turn unto God. and burn their bodies.the people of lndia. according to the c o m m a ~ ~ ofsthe Old Testament. the Northcm Sea. aod the Eastern S e a And there are five lluo&ed small rivers. the Sea of Sind. Thus there arc COina. Karm&n. all differiop in language. the detail of xvhicl~ would be very tedious. then you are not of my flock. such as Him. Constantinople. prove that the humall race jn better than any other species. d God says. and take upon themselves tlie burden of devotion. This vastness of number. the Sea of Hind. Red sea.'l "And when the Lord Jesus said. If you will ! my assistants. a Hindu s p o k . but of all t11e wickd. " The children of M a n l .-of allimalr a i s t . greatly exceed the beasts. the Caspian. a d in one place. Besides these cities. thousands of men live and make their abodes i n forests.the B n h m n s adorhers. Multan. and individualities. I n fine. consritution. variety of circunlstames. mortify yourselves. sea of china. 'Who will be m). It is their belief that the 11ighest of ail in the sight of God is that repentant shners should denroy themselves. of Ab~ssini" . and varieties. in the =urn- . and live with yoar brethren.. Abyssinia. God Almighty supplies them all with food. and two hurdred l x g e ones. who has no hope of the reward of virtue. and all the animals are their jlavcr. because in all the habitable quarters of the world there are nineteen thousand countries in which a great variety of races dwcll. Naishapur. Rbbul. KiiurAsbn. then be ready for death E and the scaffold. There are still fu-rther exceliences in US. Jurjbn. Jilin. and svho does not acknorvledge the unity of God. Armenia. creeds. ~batevclother . through which they find deliverance from the fires of hell. Miwar Au-n Nabr. no f e z of the punishment of sin. the Lake of Giian. Xajd! Egypt. Because in the habitable quarter of the arorld there are fifteen la%e seaS: the &lediterranean. Badalihshbn. FrrgliAna. rhausandn of citin and countries wllich il: is impossible to enumerate. And if you will not be my asistanis. This man has adduced the ~h~ Frog about it ." When the Persian stopped. until their passions are subdued. for this is best for you in the sight of God. SO that you may go to heaven with me. manners. F m m this if is clear that men are the masters. ihzy hold superiority over it.$.

~ f 17z7s the Oxus. is of no account. ye men. " So if you could bnt conceive the full amplitude of creatcd beings. crocodiles. &C. and have no affinity with corporeal forms. cattle. On the World o S$irif5.ould be clcar that the number and concourse of men afford no proof of their being [he masters and we the sIzves. which no : one but God knows of. there arc fivc hundred spccies. ye would know that your race. lakes. pools. which dwell in the regions of the sky. turtles.S A 7 i 1 L 1 . the lengiil of cacli of 11111ich is from a hulldrcd to a thousand kos.Ij Z Knsi L ' V ~ I ~ D Z ~ C . alligators.&c. or lying prostrate in the worship of God. the Tigris.' Therefore. beasts of prey. " Sonle say that there arc seven handrecl species of aquatic animals.o . And in addition to these there are the small and larger streams :und rivers. you ~vouldknolv that. as opposed to them. the Euphrates. " 011 ye partier of men and bcasts. as the Prophet (may t l ~ cpeace of God and rest be upon hiin 1) has declared : In the seven heavens not one span is empty in which the angcls are not either standing.. Some of them tvl~ich belong to the angelic class are placed in the highest zone of the heavens. If the men would consider this. and other aquatic aninlals of thousands o kinds.: which are to be found in the woods and wilds. They are incorporeal souls and elerne~ltary spirits. Because the extent of thc cold sphere is t e n times greater than h e (terrestrial) sea and land 1 and in the same way the lunar sphere is ten times larger than both these spheres . if ye could but see their hosts. All these are the sermrlts and slaves of God." CHAPTER XXV. There is nothing which is hidden from Him.%. without reclconing x~ariet i e s an(! specialities. and no one can estimate. bend.. without reckoning the varieties and specialities . and of anirnals which dive11 on dry ]. whom I-Ie suppons and continually protects from evcrp ill. You do not know those beings which are spiritual and ethereal. &C. and that your num- . and which it is impossible to enumerate. f HEN the frog ceased from spealting. whom by His power he has crentccl. ye are cjrcurnscribed in your knowledge of the great variety of creatures. porpoises. and could comprehend the (nunhers of the) swarms of ani~nals. as compared with them. and each superior sphere bears the same relation in its extent to the one beneath it. aud those who dwell in the broxd espansc of the cold sphere are the Jins and thc tribe of devils. then it m. tllc Kile. All the incorporeal souls dwell there. men and beasts hare no (appreciable) esistence. In these there are fishcs. a sage from aman5 the Jios said.and. All rhcse spheres are filled with spiritual beings-not one span of space is left.

entrance into paradise . the. the going into hell. more especially will our sins be forgiven through the mediation of the true prophet. and there are many more punish~nents tortures mentioned in the Iiurkn. Sa'ir. which are mentioned in the KurPn. and water. and the angels will say to us. honey. there is the suffering of the gravc. N Z L ~ and Hri?uzya. "The animals have given an answer to the thing you were boasting about : if you have anything left to say. the drinking of foul matter. they our slavcs.' But all ye tribes of beasts are deba~~ecl from these blessings. the hdls called Yalrinz. but some are subject and suborclinate to others. and good. eating of the snkklisn: tree (the fruit of which is the heads of devils). streams running with wine. If we show obedience to God. speak. These and many other bIessings. the garden of refuge. the mansion of peace. the garden of delights . ':Ho\v are you equal to us ? For \ve at all events shall exist for ever. they address their prayers to him . and all others your slaves. be and just. the fountain of Salsabil. and learned. he has issued the orders for their regulation among them according as he in his supreme wisdonl deemed right. the dread of the day of . and put their trust in him .wearing the gaiments of liquid pitch. Can the animals anywhere attain to these things? This i s a proof that we are the masters. " There are yet many esccllei~cesin us by ivhich i t is proved that we are masters. their hopes are in him. said. and eminent. they long for the Divine presence.154 God's PI-omisiscst o :PTLZZ. God has prepared for us. the terrors of the account. Praise and glory are due to him under all circumstances. ~IZ~. spl-eadjng over the whole face of ~ h earth . c the passage over the bridge of Sirht . these are all prepared for you." When the ]in sage finished his specch. be happy. and enter into paradise. And. judgment. We are satisfied with and are . they devote their lives and wealth to God." An orator of Hijjdz then said. Besides these blessings. heaven . the chief of messengers and seal of the prophets. No benefit o r injury accrues t o us from any of our works or actions.%tehl for the commands of God. -U1 the servants of God are his soldiers and subjects. and so he has madeus no threat of punishof ment. and you have no superiority over us. dwelling near the ruler of hell. besides these. on whom be the blessing and peace of God ! After that we shall all dwell in paradise in the society of the nymphs and youths. 'Blessing on you. the reclconing in the day of judgment . for they take the lead in good works.still our salvation will be effected tl~rough the intercession of the prophets . n so has he passed upon you many denunciations c f punishment." The nightingale. the glorious abode. tortures of helI. the garden of Eden.and excellences there are many othcr great qualities in us which I have not mentioned. they slavcs. the society of the 11Grfs. Sakar. elevated dwellings . there to durel1 for ever. L a x . and he said. Muhammad the Pure. milk.the garden of eternity. and holy. the representative of the birds. w e shall dwell with the prophets and saint% and sl~all associated with the great. the Tu'ba tree. These beings are like unto the angelic chembims. and pious. for after your departure from this world ber and aggregate affol-d no proof of your being the master. the King turned towards the men and said. If we are sinners and do nor obey him. " God Almighty has pro~nisedus many blessings : resurrection from the grave . and pure. lixbility to tortures in d ~ companionship of e devils . the interrogations of the two recordi~igangels. Thus. Thus we are equal to you in evidence. nearness to God. the mansion of permanence. and dcvout. and they fear his wrath. from which we are exempt. the home of rest." Tile King directed him to speak." The Hijjhzl replied. God has made us no pron~ise reward. '' In the same way as God has made you many excellent promises. In fine.

and virtues. and yet do not in reality arrive at a true Icnowledge. no one could tell. tell us fully." &he animals consented. But now tell us what is the nature of the attributes. just Icing. what order do you give in the matter of these foreign men whose slaves the animals are I" The Icing said. " The men all reflected for 2 while." On hearing these words all the representatives of the animals. whose habits are holy. and no name or trace mill remail1 ot you. and kept silence .l- TIIE Em. whose characteristics are pleasing. they all rciurnzd in security and peace CO their honlcs. After a little while a holy person said.ye wiII cntircly pcrish. Now. and all the preachers and orators are engaged during their whole lives in follorving out the description of their excellences. " 0 just King! the truth of the men's clairn has been established in the royal presence . . and excellences.\vhose tempers are angelic. and being satisfied. and it has also appeared that there is among them a class who are near to God. and have adduced a conclusive proof. whose graces are laudable. and all the Jiu sages said. . " Let all animals be submissive and obedient to man. and let none depart fro111their allegiance. and whose nature is wonderful and miraculouj~so that no tongue can describe them. if you know. The mind fails to understand the nature of their qualities. Boastcrs inay boast of such things. . of those beings who have been the objects of your praise and eulogy . " Now you have advanced an effective argument. whose virtaes arz estimable.


PREFACE. in order to make the book moi8e handy and chea. TRE patronage with which the first edition of the " Translation of Ikhwan-us-S~xffa'' received was by the public.ted. as all 'the copies printed ior the first time had been exhausted. Joseph Wall.o preserve the memory of the departed. and to allow to the public an opportunity of enjoying the fruits of his valuable labour. .he translation had become rare. June 1880. LUCKNOW : Z7!ie 5th. during .per. Mr. The corresponding original pagea in the Nastalik character" have been omit. encouraged the pubIiwher to take u p the second edition of this popular story of the Controversy between Mau and the Beasts. the author's life-time. The original with t. J'ti a lif view t. the publisher begs to present this edition to them.

ioa to that God is du. gave hitn a position.y poor pen* to pcrfornl the salnc duty. how shall I fillfil His. having bro right ma~llriild from hidden non-existenct into the ~vorldof existence. 13oiindless praise is due to the Creator who.PRAISE Beyond iin. has given various shapes. \v110 to existing bodies. liiwcilhj. has colnposed Man of body and spirit and to ever. above all creatures. Couplets :Well. A . and wh.aginat. individ an1 has given different talents. broken writing. praise when the efforts of prophets fail ? -- + Ehikastn rnknu. What power has frail Inan to give thanks for His blessings . and mhat power has 1r. of one origin. notwithstanding their bein. and adorned him with the gift of speech and clothed him with the robe of lcnowledge.

'Shrongh him sinners are pardoned I'raisc and blessings be to his race ail4 to his oompaoions. holy men say nought but tbis. who am n sinner. As it says in tbe sacred text.* the giver of blessings. who havillg taken sinneri out of the crooked paths of rrickedncss put t. (whose rnnk is high. Professqr of Hindi) he ordered me to translate the book fi~bzru?z-ru-." In Again.he receiver of lrindness from him. the Inrt pmphet. o d of the world arid of every p ace. Mnhomed Diustnfa. Abraham Lockett the renowned. without any difficult ~ o r d . tbe essence of the learned men of his age. throog5 who~n faith was confirmed the and who showed us the light way. my respected brother. . the cbief of the highest of the wise.6Sn : oy The Controversy betwee.heln in the right m7ay . through him we have obtained superiority to all other races. the worthy Moulvi T ~ l r a b Sahib (may Ali his shadow never grow less. may he ever be f o r t ~ ~ n a. the eleventh. the higher than the highest among the wise. and secured my service under him. We do not understand Him.Him. and s * Hadi asbr. when shall this poor creature attain to such wisdom ns to gain access to the Creator ? What power has man to express His praise ? Roulldless praise is due to the highest.ny. [yes] a1together sinful. honori~ble. When I came to Calcutta at the kind suggestion of Mr. Ilh~intum khairn zinlufin-" conpletms :race is superior to Jl. he got ille employment under the Honorable (':ompa..r. greatest of this world's philosophers. I I k r h Ali. e t and at. Nnn nnd Animals. the invitation of my brother and tutor. now write. After this. literally. 1 I~Iiiirhoinedis the guide of tnnn and of genii. after the honor of visiting him [Yr." Your Ynhomed is the I . Since the said gentleman desired t o do me some good.) by means of my good fortune. at the suggestion of Captain John Willinm Taylor Saliib Rahadur. in a very easy style. After a few days. Lockett] I became t.

t h e h r n e d 1'l. This hook. the gellcrous Ilatiln of that age.md A2~~imals. leaving out t*he p r y e r s . and have colnpilecl fifty -one books.-every one is iI ' a inille of eloq~~ence. and at last after ~iluch discussion nian is declared sictor. d s i t is myitten in thc end of this. and sometimes the scientific words t.) His Excellency the Governor Clellera1 Lord Minto. if you look illto nected with the story.t. They J ~ v a y s spent their time in the investigation of' science and religion.le-~ninded..lto of his time. .roversy. wise Inell.bject of this volume is to describe the pttrtiulars and give a brief account of the faith of the Luimals and their l < i i o ~ r l e ~of gGod: that the wise ~ e from seeing this inay bc inclined to acquire simi1:lr $ood hrtbits. Ahls Salnznn. I). rvhicb we have described in 5 volumes. 1810. the chief of chiefs. the figures and elegallce of the texts. E:ttional and traditional arguments both sides are nicely narrated. Abul Husan.htit mere not nccessnry to the narrative Biit certain texts." and the .ppenrs to be vritten.js about the coutroversy between Yall 1 ' 1 . I hnoe that vere closely con. Their s object in t h ~ work is silllply to describe the perfections of man. H.s drift will ge+ a tzste : of the mysteries and lieowledge of God. d. 31 1 The translation of this work. 1225.en rnt:n joined together il-i Uoasorah and wrote this work. every sentence : treasury sad L of beautiful co~nposition.kbu Ahmed. . f11e bravest of the brave. subt. 'He only rvisbed to have the substance and meaning of the cont. ~vill only the see narrative of the controversy . was completed in the timc of (the cssellce of the highest standard of nobility. book. and Bindi expressions. &C.ople: from what a. In accordance witlu this wish I only a r o t e the substance in Urdu.to leave out the scientific terms aud prayers that are put in for ornment. froin understanding it.j In fact. " Those qnalitieh by which Inall overcame the :ulimxis mere [sinq?ly] a Xnozctedye o j the Cveiltor. the best of the best co~nlnnndersof tell thousand. They fisequently mrote on ~ o n d e r f u l and excellent subjects in them. Though common pe.. which is m e of thrm. 9.

Literally. a.iys )lid the]-nselves ia car7es from fear or the animals . the earth for their support : weaving cloths to cover their bodies was out of the question. horse. Every maii had the idea i that all animals were llis slaves. t h g lived upon. I n short. cunning they made snares and neta and pnrsued .hey found them-no one ~lioleating them-had. the family of man i~~creafiedthen the fear of wild bensta which j Having made agricultural implements each engaged himself in his own work. and began t o live comfoortably.bfaan and o f their pt.gricultural purposes. and having taken nnirnais captive in snares. nild took shelter in the hilts o ~ l d .CHAPTER 1. noble mail rever gave ear to them.hstnnding they sl1011ted and cried ant esceedingly.. In cold meat.' .. Xotnit. cities. t. whatever fruits and herbs of the forest they could get. When tbis stnte of things had lasted some time. bearing burdens.m nuountilinr from dread of rnvenoos bans te. ass and many other anilllals that had always wandered unrestrained' in the forests and wilils mheresoever tliey wished.asb. and covered t]lcir bodies with the lewes of trees.. With much .her they chose rrasm spots to live in. Of the bgbwiny of the Crrntion of . The birds also !eft their homes. f Hakeon. feeding on freslr pnstnres wherever t. i here was not secndty enough for two or t'hrea to join :ogether to cnltivate. l o s t of the wild animals from fear of being captured fled illto the 6a. and in the slrmrner cool p1:iccs.hcy $rv.. While they mere yet fen?.rjungle.. entirely disappeared. j the dwellings of man. had filled every oone's heart. ICi?. began to use them for riding. Further they built Inally forts..nd for a. c 'as a calnel without a nose string.q of t Genii. and taking their voung with them flecl from . The e l e p h a ~ ~ t .nrrels with the Animals and a their d~mandin~ justice br the presencr! o Bezuai. Historial~s h8ve written of the probable state of Ynn in the begiimi:~g. camel. towns and villages. their sho~~ldcrs skinned tbcir backs g:illed by inceasnnt labor. and of the JUCLJC L sum?)zo?~i?zg tlzenb.

Several o f the Genii 3150 obtxii. eloque~lt men n11d fluent. attended . took al> their abode in the island. nild engagecl themselves in the captnre of mirnds as before. '. a n d snrindlers fir:tl n place in his dominiolls I The islnnd of Balnsagon: situated lieas the Equator. fruits and flowers of every kind lg on all the trees. very fat and pl~ulzp. he there and then said. TYIze11 the animals perceived tliesc bad ii~tentions they collected their elders.thieves. ?Then the ~ i l beasts saw that there was d 1 0 rest there also.mals fe. rwidents of differe~ztcities.the desert.he good prophet pointed out. they Luilt . n a ~ n e d Shah Murdan. the riglit way to those who had go^:^: :~strnj-.hat a ship f1. Fiaall y . No one wished in his heart to leave the place. 7 The clinlate was very pleasant asd thc land e s txemely fertile.igs.were ga~:~bolling vith." Therefore 70 mcn from aniongst them. race.ed t. n-as the capit. water-co~zrses flowing in all direct.them.lnr<s. In this conflict Eome time passed until the Great God sent Ifahoinecl Mustaftt the prophet o f latter clays (on whom be peacej to guide God's r creatures aright. JThen soli^:. They snw that it was w o a d u ~ f ~ ~ l beautiful .ions . 1 Men had the idea thzt these r e r e all his slaves.st of this isla. and ha\-ing taken the animals captive in snwes engaged thernsclves in their different ernploynlents according to custom. Yes. was mreclied off the coa.ediilg in green pnstures. Directly the ! < i ~ > ~ heard the whole of the staten~elitof the animnlq. the nni. and ill the presence of Eewarasb Halrim: gave a detail of the vhole tyranilical treatment they h a d rcccived at their (man's) hand. He was SO just that throughout his dominiona the goat and the lion dmnk at the same stream.nd. Iiow could tI~z.ors of Islam. nnd assembled in the jnstice hall.ed the blessil~gsof the faith arid the ho~. becnrne Icing of tile Genii. through c o a t ~ a r y \rinds. time had elapsed l3emar:~sb. All the merchants and wise men that were in t. ]. the &eat Genius snr. each other. .honscs of differcilt kinds.111of pcople. they took the road to.he ship landed a i d began to mallc about the place.let messengers be quickly sent and nlan be brought illto my presence. They mn(2e all kinds of s.21 of this just SSonsrch. I t happen.

i accordance r i t h the Icing's summons. A nice n house was set apart for thcrn to live in. After two or three days rn1.1en the fatigue of the journey had gone off, he c:tlled them before him. They saw the ICi11g on hia throne, and asked blessings, then paying their respects took places accordii~gto their rank. This Iiing m2s very j ~ ~ and upright. He st had taken a ~ ~ thea p2lm for courage and genero~ y sity from his conteinpo~aries. The poor of that age came to hiin and foonrl support. Throughout his dominiollv no despotic tpranr; wzs able to tyrmnjze ove:. the poor a i d helpless. Those things which ape ibrbi6den in t?ie 13~\*,altogether disappea~:.cdjiz his reign. Esc2yting the mill and pler.surc of God: no rct wcs tbvught of. He very kindly s ~ k e d thew. " '?;Ly did you come into my eountry ? Thcre has never been any correspondhwe you ence b e t m e n us. For what encro:lched so fi~s " One man arnongst them, ? who was experienced and eloqnent. made obeisance and began to wy, '' ?FTc heal~cl of the justice and rxprightness of your nlqjcsty a d have come into your prcscnce, Aud i o this day no petitioner haa

gone ltmsy from this blessed threshold without obtaining mercy, and m e hope that your n~nje~sty mill give us justice." He said, What is your petition ? " IIe replied, " 0 j 11st King, these animals arc our slaves. Amongst them some are an abhorrence, and others though forced t o serve us, dispute our right of posses~ion." The Ring asked, '' Is there any support to this case ? For a case without evidence ifi not heard i a the justice hall." He replied, " 0 Icing, in this case there arc many prooSs both rational and tni,ditioaa.l." fIc ordered him to reiate ihetn. One of them, who was of thc race of H ~ r z r ~Abbas (may God be pleased with lt him) ascended the pulpit 2nd began eloquently and clearly to deliver this sermon, " Praise is due .: :) the God*: of truth, nrho for tbe support of His creat,ures has prepared all things on the surface of the e n r t l ~and made eveyy convenicnco, and created all kinds of anitnnls for the nse of frail man. Happy is the coildition of those wbo by walking in His ~ v a y s sec.ure sa?.vntio~-L the' last day. What in &hallme say of t1:ose r h o disobey G.od and rebe%. ---.

* MahLakd, lite~ully> adored God, tbc

sga,inst Hirn ~'itho'ilt a ca,xse ? And boundless blessings are due to the true prophet. Mahomec! Must&, whom the Great God sent last of all t . l e proiihet,s to show the right vay to His creatures ;-~ncl made him Lord of all. He i s the Icing of a1i genii and men, aild will be the salvntion of %Ill in the last day. Blessings be upoil his holy de~cendant~s whoill the worlci aa1c3 rhe far tll were by arranged [or diuposed] and Islamism sp~.c;ttl. And thanks be ever to the our unrivalled Creator who made A d m from a drop of water and by His perfect Omnipotence made hi111 fiather of children, and from him, having made Eve: penpled the fcce of the earth with thonsands of men, mzlrinp; them giving thew ci~rilinion s:lpcrior to all creatures over land and sen.. IIe gave Eiiln good food of variotls sorts as he himself says in the I<orni~ JYala-. : 1-1 Ama I; hnlnlcaha laic i11n fiL& ciifnn ITa munafeo r a rninh& taku!ill~a lnlci~rnfiha jan~$,lun hina, tar; r ' hfinn we h i m tasrah6na. 1he meailins of n~hicll is this : " All ailin~:ils were creatsd fey you, use them, eat t,hem, mnlie Karm clothes fkom their skivs and hair. Sending tLcma out iato the pas.L-.

tures in the mornilzg and bringing them again to their homes in the evening, shall be evidence of your grandeur." And in another place he says, FVst ala,ih& alalfulke yohmhlun,' i. e., Ride upoll. wn camels and boats by land and sea. And in another place he says, ' Jn'alkhda wabigdla walhanlirn letarkab~ihii,'which means, The horse, the nlule and the ass were created for you to ride upon. -4nd in another place he says, ' Litastau ala zuhfirehi surnm:t tnzkurh ilelnats rabek6m i z a s t a w e t h alaihe,' which is, Ride upon their backs and be mindful of the blessings of God. A l ~ dbesides these there are many texts of the Iiorail in support of this case, and in the Old and New Testan~ellts this fact is understood, ' l Animals were created for us, me are in every sense their masters and they ;Ire our servants." The11 th.e King turning townrds the animals said-"'rhis man has brought iorwnrd texts o the Iiorail to. support his case ; f you call now reply as you think fit." On hearing this the Mule began" to say, "Praise be t o the. * Zabaa-i-hnl, literally, spenking by signs. Zibm-i-lral, l i t t ~ r r l 4 ,
speaking with the ruoulh.

holy Being Eternal, who =ants for nothing, who existed before the creation of the world, Infinite and Omnipresent, who with a word brought forth the universe from His secret treasury. Having naade the Heavens from fire and water and raised them to their position ; He with a drop of water created the family of man and sent them into the world generation after generation to inhabit it, not to ab~lse 2nd to protect the animals as n ~ u c h it, as they could, and benefit by them, not to oppress nor hurt them." After this he resumed, ii 0 King, it is not shown from the texts this man has repeated that we are their slasres and they our masters, for the subject of these sentences i s ' t h e blessings which the Grcat God has given them, which is supported by the following texts of the Koran : " Salthkharahd l a l i h n kama sal;hkharast~ shan~samal kamara rwry&hwassa216ba ; i. e., God has made the uniinals subject t.o you the same as He has the sun, moon, wind, and clouds. ; from this it is not uilderstood that they arc our owners and we: their slaves, bu: the Great God made all things in heaven and earth, one dependent on the other, that

they may benefit by one another and save one another fi-oin harm. Hence the Great God has made us dependents on them, only on this account, that they Inay benefit by us and save us from 11mm ; not as they imagine, alld. deceitfully and calumniously say, that they are masters and we slaves. Previous to this when man was not created, we and our parents lived on the earth unmolested, grazing every where, wandering wherever we wished, and every one was employed seeking his own livelihood. In fact, we lived socially together in the jungles, hills, and wilds, and supposted our young ones. l\rhatever God ordained we were thankful for ; spendink day and night in His praise, we thozrght of nought but Him. Each lived comfortnbly in his own dwelling-place, no one l~lolcsted us. When n period had thus passed, the Grcat God cre:it,ed hdain out of earth and made him sovereign of the world. \'hen lnen increased, t.hey begm to epyead over the eart,h and outsbretched the ha.nd of tyranny over us weak ones. They seized the horse, ass, nlulc and camel, m d began t o make t;hern serve ; and those troubles which our

ancestors had never seen- mere brought to pass bv force and oppression. What could me do ? We were obliged to Ay into the jungles and deserts. Further, these men desisted not from pursuing us. With many artifices they made snares and nets and pursued us. If they laid hands on t v o or three tired and weary ones, do not enquire their fate, how they were bound and taken and in every way ill-used ? bloi~cover their [consta~~t] employment is cutting our throats, skinning us, breaking our bones, taking out our sinews. ripping up our bellies, plucking our feathers, spitting us, cooking us in the fire, roosting and eating us, and more than ail this they are not satisfied, they claim that they are our masters-me their slaves, and that those that escape from then1 commit a crime. There is no proof nor evidence in this case, it is a1toget:etLer tyranny alld oppression.

This Chapter gives tin account qf th.e King o j the Genii Eistewilag t o the qzccc~..~-cl befzoeen Jdilen ci7zd A?zii?zal,sin 0 1 ' d ~ ~ decide bbetzaec,iz thenb. to \Then the King heard t.hese statements, having given his mind to do justice to this dispute, he said, "Let the judges, priests, and a11 the nobles of t.be Genii be present." They immediately, in accordance with the order, presented themsel~~as before the King, Re then sa.id t o Man, " The znimals have given me a full account and complaiat of your t p n n y , what reply dn you now ms,ke ? '' One of them made obeisance and began to say, " 0 shel~er the world, these are our slaves and rt.e of their rnnsters ; we sl10~1ld have a ~liaster'sauthority over them, and nza,lce them do whatever we miah. 'Those anlong t.hem who have su!)mitted to 1 :we : s acceptal~le with G,od, a i d those who have turned q a i n s t us have as it were turned against God." 'I'he King said, " -4 claitn wirhout proof is not heard in a court of justice ; give us some documents or p~oofs." He sniil, ;' There are manj7 proofs traclitioqal and ratiofial to establish oar claim.'; Be

. Our bodies are graceful. every limb is proportionabie. d .ablishecl by these proofs. be was d t o besides us has these adva~~rages From t . and nndersta~~c? all about the heavens and describe the same.) the C'reat. given to as as u ~ shape.t.3iin . ~ istic of a superior! and ill shape and c~*ookedliess for This reason our sliape is bent that me mnathe stiglna of slaves T " One of them replied.zdkh~zlE~a?mi.~cui l i st. their slaves. c ~ l ~ l l i i t i of the morld. L. I bnve given L\1:111 a n e s c e l l e ~ ~ t n e.said.l nmea. erect and tall. ~ Ifan c:^ :his for111 and ststnre t. ': TYbnt do ?or1 ex\.od has mncte us of a comely Ckqpfer is about t 6 2 d<fes-e.~~re ned] Ic.he heat and cold. a o m ? '' They ~ e s p e c t f ~replied: :' The cl aim is dl~ ieares of trees.'l sb0uld a& rrise men to point them ov.niags of Go cl's ~ 0 1 . There is no morl..l in. CHAPTER TTI. The graze ensilr and experience e o kind of imnoynnc~. that he may easily pluck the fruits y011 not lmow t. nre many i ~ t e r ~ r c t a t i o n[or hidden n1ea:llnp.lirr~~ farm .: fron~ tlip the Great God 11a::l said. d they ought to be.te the The King asked the Animals: '' TTrh:lt... plied." fact is! (may the Great God bestow good intenb e I said.t o this rrhicii tions upon your Sfajesty. [zceli upright. ':L)c. '' The Great G." protect him from t.f.~k(.hat. h i ~ ? it gether naked . :6\TThatare the proofs ? " The Man then re. He is Omniscient." He said. and protect yo.theri. they ere our slaver. our sense such as can ~ o ~ ~ ~ our stat. create us with these ways and habits to be I :esides the litera. 1 ~ ~ 1 ~ ~When the Great God made Man. 'l 0 shelter of tbc world : tcr.o be called our mas.good breeding is the characte:-to eat and tlie leayes to use. do you say -fruits of the forest: and covered his body v i t h the . JThatever ~ h i c hare kllornn ollly t o leamecl u:en : 'yni: s!lnpes He considered best? He ha^ given to nll. . is as follows :-distinguish betwecn good and evil. nlaks es ohsalLe f ~ k t ~ i %.j s ~f His that does not show His wisdom." T ~ C S C l' .Lap ? Be replied. O L Zfood is grass .or dicl not. On tbis account he was mnclcnot est. there was nothing on his body to follows : v c are their n~asters. He a.

and the cl~aos of elements was x.' l Le i nuimala said. ' i It is a pity that you think ~. then ospln:in ~ ~ ! i a t the advantage of the cnmel's neck is He replied.O 7 is large.. e:?d has iara:. .fore wise sage..o. 1 ~ 2 . and there is the goat with a !ong lrenrd no I:l:ttsclis.'that is.reach . linlbs ugly. in accordance with an oscle~ the of espounded the drift of the tests thus: JYhe~l God created Adain: i~ ~ 3 as propitious Inmncnt : the stars shone forth in their most favoraI)le posiiions. neither too small r.~not." ." 'I'he Man said. t o graze. stature not suitable. ?. odious.v.eatus. long necked.l) smdl.or :c0 large. t. do you not krron.. The correctness ancl bear~ty of OUT limbs are 5oxn I-Iim.:.es. his I.im:~Js begal t o arty. This is the case ~ ~ i us halso. > X.:re is fi:<i:i!l." The King said.h.hermeaning.pe. His necl. l l i e rl.s of c. the Great (Cod created 3Ian proportionable.hr horns thick? a ~ l d they have I>O upper The fat-tailed sheep has heavy horns wit. r h o is of a greg. r h e ~ e f o ~ e received erect sts2~1re blan ancl vel'J fonned limbs! and ' the propitions moment ' also has . '' If you tu.-since one nf SOLI. kr. eyes his .nclBirds: whose fonns :tre ~ ~ proportio~~rtble.l.G one besides aHimself sztl ~ i a eme:.:~thilig the slrill of tLc C'wntor.izbin ~ i / . therefol-c onr fi:!~lt~are of a hnrcty. '' Flom l a are . The tail of iJle ox and of the b ~ f f . his ears are large and spread oi~t. 0f r ~ x x tLe yro~lnd. was made long that he may graze in comfort.hi: ~vh~ll.~: so long. the camel.s. 111 a mpaner these are mauy wild aiid domestic nnilnnls <:. Ci-ori t has given every limb proportinnable t o us. alld by the strength of his heck get ~ 1 .lr.: his c.and the elephant.and that h2 m?. this reason... is great in stature.-.~ i i a t God ui' ts His wisdom created every thing for some g o d pxrpose..:re yonr linlbs in propordon ? Yonr fcmms nl-c. Fo:.f P\ . ' Fa ccda7nka .cc IIis secre~s.e :. ." Mall replied.e e. We are 11.His f ~ ~ u l.-In hearing this! one of the o t ztl... i ' This proportion of tbcir limbs is enongb to show their superiority. siiort tailed .h fit buttocks . i t mould have been difficult for hi:.fi cniys szu. lu rllis l ) a r t i ~ ~ lwe ~ equal.ue of the philosophers of the animals.nog legs are long thei-eforc if his neck had been shor:. . has two long teeth sticking ont of his :lmut.st ready sild xilling to assume definizc forlns . i sh/ilr&~akkccbaku. heavy slln.

lack do n o t wish for those vho are white. S s he has said ill the n-ords of 31oses the prophet.) and get is able to see places (i.e lllucll superior.h always remains open on account of his tneks.d:rice.iiz i~bnl1. This is the sourc. 11 short.11an us.li(.for him. . and cannot be closed. And certain men who cohabit with boys have no desire for the most beautiful women . For instance.xead them (to lie upon).tbni g o ~ isho?ild rhillk you~selves better t. there is the camel. of vild beasts. The ears of tile hare m e iar*.j. t.3. that your undtrataniliilg is superior. where you reqnire torches a.body with hi3 lips and scratch lii~il~cli'. His tusks are lone that he lnxy protect hili~seiffrom the attack.!and in yonr own opinion you are masters and we slaves. every anima! is attached GO the female of its kiad.alr~i srinznla Badci.o for himself and shown him the right W). You %. Therefore yo:ir beauty is no proof of superiori~y.\is0 a mistate.the flies and moscluitoes. i i l L'LI~ same way the elephant's trunl. Beauty every aaimal is that L in adaired bj. OP more fully. For ]:is :no~zt. ' Ratbanal lctzi dtd k~i!l!z. God gave every creature existence and afterwards gave the% his gc.. with its large feet and Iong neck.nd lamps. is made long in the Place of a long neck. Then there is the horse also. For the elegance of one is riot appreciated by any other . nor . through which they ijecolne attached t o one a-i~other. eve11 shoald they I. 'fhose persons that are ].~ith Tomen c10 not thinlc of boys. whose head talks with the vin1. ancl those that live -.. t I l n t in r!te i~ winter he may cover himself? and in rlle s ~ u u u l ~ r i:. the Great God 1 has given every being such limbs as I-le thil:$s suitable.9 for his feet in dark nights.hose that are vhite love black people. Certain animals har-c n3ore accie sense than you. and to travel roads ~ h i c hare difficult to pass. They uerer lore the females of aliother race. He has given evely olle limbs fjt- ii:.' rrhich means. Ecnst of things which you think superior. !'or Lis b ~ d y delicate 2nd his skill t!liz>. hlan also in this may is indined rowards his own species. tall.hat rile y Inay not get illto his eyes and mouth. is . +%ndthis vhieL oou sny. its own species. and his ears Inrge that I:e Inay dtive away.e r:f continued population. who from afar hears the somd of any one coming. which is wrong.

I A ..". or of :he religious knorrlzclge a d good h ~ b i t sthey l-arn by their onn e::er~ioioas. fat.o ioirr.*' . ~ a any sense a t all.me.?. ' Buying ..iais merely case airhoot eir. he has awi~l.a10113v a strungc roncl m d let hi12 . Then n h e e is your &scerllment :W:. It is the custonz of a11 masters to watch over their s!s.!fie\. ~ ~ shutting our eyes t o their faults: pmtccting thcm horn the a.ttacks of wild aaimn!. 1s l.C)ftentimes it has happened that on hearing th2 slpprosch of an enemy.. . "Give a reply.~era\ti~iles :~udI1a~>~)2li L:~ve to 10 p. ciothing the=." D$ . the Great God has giwn you.w i t h o t ~ t ~ l i f i ... t h e you~1g ones i-noiv h e i r lnotllern a i d the). . If ally one take ail 3 5 3 or a ~uUOCI..a i i ~ ~ ~ '' There. strife ri-itIiout a cause.lg h w?lich oor claim : c m be er. - -. . in n-hich yon dornlneer o ~ e ?1 .. ~ ~ i ! t y ic Jiis o v : ~ rct!:l'u h. zre yet mall? proofs i-crno?n!. he $7.rds IIen snid.. ed~ have heard their kLrv-o?.st mhen sick treating tEexIl kindly and cruring them.c.~ ~ ~ ~ L. : had oE tliase t h i ~ ~ g s . ." They ~eplied.oenee--oZd.hrr ::A brother. Slieep iuld goats r h o byir:g fcrth liundrec!s oi' rolIng in one . The l<jEo. which w i t h o ~ tl a l or Cxer. yon would ~.return. i\lemthem.I..lotboast -. t o the past~~ree the ifil>rlli~g. >-on are perplesed tu:d forget.ccilrre home. CLCLIE sense o f d i c h ~ O L boast SO I ? T " -. yon fo~get~xother. glrmg them food find drink.om his enemy..ves vith mercy 2nd kindness (at all times ncd:) The Ring henring this. For vise rind cJaser a r n boast only of those things they by their W !cbor.' This our treat1:lcnt of then.t. hrgia.tsbli~hed--thcse WC some of' them. d in in m t h e ereaii~? vhcn the.r e m ~ i n array for : short t i m p L mc!. i h e from coid 2nd heal. said to ill tlle animals.: go UN.2~:...U!: go :.eaed his lnaster nl:d saved bin1 fl. he does liot in axy n-ny fb:. arises from kindness and mercy.3 ngfiin.t. jf r n y une of ~ L J . ' l P o a *.' ."If ~1. If \..sister. This L r o i she case with you 2 3 *.lr.b.!one a road se.LL :.their young uller.

the moo.lly other burdens.t the 1'er. " From the honr X lvas take11by &Iali... bat from fear that if we died they would lose Their prosperity and be inconvenienced fop dding.n i. wood w d fi:a. q~]lo -are in tri1t.f ~bou!ld h t ZnJ! or the ~ . .. orlea and binding their lands and feet t.rbips. transporting burdens and many other thinga.hb. o i ~ r )l\ldcsty could see me a t t. I give every one prosperity and d v e r d t y in his turn.&r-hc~se. 1 D2i. open our skulls. m d nhen the Turks coirquer Persia.Toided. when the inlaliiai~tsof l'ersir ecn.~ r e s athe i l l ~ ~ z z lin ZNY . for instaace. they n separate my little p o u ~ ~ g fls01Il their liloike~-. After .?g. race his slaves a d sells them. G Since I became rnbjeci is >liul. Q Ela.h slaves nnd \vllo masters ? These are t h e vicisssitudes of life.tions. each animal in the presence of the King. they loaded me vith bricks and stones. As God has written. which me11 are according to t. And that which they say. the Turks with the Arabs and the Arabs nitb the Tnrls brirlg the same into practice. with which they belabour my bnck. which this 31. This fact' is well knolrn to the wiae among men. : ~ic . The inhaI~itant. made I s~pwatc eolnplaint of &I:LII's tyranny. !.1. I older t o drink the milk of my children.he laws of astrology. they trea. If ~ . mittloni food or drink they slaughter us-tear off our skins.he slaughter-konse-xiever listening ro their crier 2nd. iron.t. i here. they sell the Turks . TLi ii~s .. nsd art w nith b n i ~ ~ 5. l . .ent I a n s taken by Jlan. lu short.1have yoked to the p i o r ~ ~or. that they feed us and do other things for us is not from kindness.m n 62s. Who tell. rip up onr belllei. i Afau says that they buy aliinlals a i d ~ drhen~. tear out our livers. tillcat aiydnz izuduuilohd bai~zannds ' .e borne much nfiiction. Yqi'Lere is the fondness xi~d kindness i them. +hen one overc. e : ill our^: my erer $&llc!.'' A ~ X Y 1 &is the rut-t&J sheep said.lso prevails among !nen . In their hands are sticks and . &at is.hat h e .loer TurkeJ-.sians the salilc.Ileir hands beating me 0 1the face nnd bnck . the whip and e n 2 a .sof India ~ i t h those of Sindh mid the people of Siildh with the Hindoos.omeg inother a. take i l s . W . you woldd have on me. yieillrcd ? " T&n the bullocl: said.ikr t h t .mt.7 I .nd gets a ~ i c t w yhe considers the . hs i this custom a.

stupidi t. True it ist thcy are clesel-ving cf : I f y o ~ J[a+iestpmill only t.::::cl ride io T:lr n-rRringel~nianrmocr m p u l l : .: i.cn.hsbridles llllii hard bit.Prom the honr I w:s . . .s .. on our.s... and i1:tnghters. feet they have bouilcl ropes?in ourmout. ~iloutbsis abuse and obscenity..E-e ljoor tl~lrlgsaye :.e ~vonnclcd1 2 ~ .the soles of n:ir &et 2r. our bncks rire galled h\. y o ~ ~ r onmess' snc! b:lyersl n ~ ~ i l sellers7 ~ i v e s ..our cpes filled tvirb c ] ." The camel soiil. and . "&c.~ ~ . d 1ct.tht. + : * *. 3 d chn. 'l'hcg attain to S ~ I X degree of st-upidity C ~ that at tirrles they give obscel~e abuse t o their o w n ~ e l v e their sisters..ire in onr he:~rt.L :.s :)!it! . advice of ~ S of the prophets.f their mnsters.t. : i ~ t~1ii1 i ~ t ..ut rherever they wish. Noteoi~hstnndir?g they thernseives .. s~ :. Q I ' . this as l >c.::I. an.d \VC s m i ~ n xve1..( 29 j * m .2C. . L:~i:!. roast 11s in rile ovens.LL ~ ~ .:ite :is .the stones.1: t.g a n d obscenitv.nd oisr necks 2 ..ns ronnt-l onr feet: : d : t::iiirlg the driver's iron sp'lke in ihe lia~lds.s and ritle 11s: and takins sticks a d whips in their hanrls beat u s before and bebincl. . dml.adergoixg these aflict.h:..-.-#r. l r c f tLe saddie .s!igec-! to serve them:" . lyal.es ..cl:I=.c. '..s. the hen. 'l'he grooms and others p11~ saddles on anr bncl.+ .her. .the s ~ l u ~ . \. I rtloll.'D.i\ae Tre Lccallic slil~ject:S + -. bel!y-hnr:d on our m:aiets:-. . one inoluent that we r n a y r. d :.$ . ::lid s p e ~ y ~ ~ y C. .hep hare fastetled brjdlcs in otlr mouths.hrtni scid. and all tLat comes inro their. 1 titcn as on the spit.o to our ~lltltesa11J remove the longings I\-kich .. arld ne r.rnm tlla t.thcy are unconscin x s of these evil tendencies. ~ . :i. p t j ~ by them mc have snfTered monclriius troubles 3 on c?:!.7 .e pu:. .taken captive by then!.i.. *? -411 t'his:abuse is of them..:jrse 5 5 4 ..c)n f. and hungry ant1 thirsty they tnlie :I> r. . L. 'iT<e go into battle field hunzuv a:ld thirsta-. . 123pcs are p ~ through our noses: the cni~:e!-driver ~ t l i d i s them.C ~ : (l.jons seluaj:~ r!iiie t anil say r~thing. . they leave us not.. night.we are taken over hil!s nnd nlol!tit:~i~!sdnrlng r!!i ." . hemy loads a1.k i d they say. s:rddlcs on our bxk?.F1-omthe time F e were take:: c n ..be eIe!.~ ~ d .v.a or i ~ i ~ c c .zr:tiy we becnme subject to t112112.heir igl~sr r:mce.hink of t. l hey never give ear to the i n s t r ~ ~ c t i o n the C r e a t o ~or the last.:?ui US rigfit and left i\ll('f 011.. you will ~ulderstaxrl rhat they are fill1 of the whole of this world's TFi~filiness and ignorance. tlley p n t ro1. 1 iiF: rn !nule mid. 1 ' the breast..-l.

There isda t~.' The meaning GP mhicl~is. 'lhose x ~ h o bIussul~nans are t. King. ~cllich the shape of a bird and Las a camel combiaed. tbai wander on the faee of the earth or fly m iLr &." T h e n the n~lile had finish rd this speech.adition among the kIussulrnans that monkrrs allcl swine were origi~lallp ulel). Mye 211 depend upon God . ' Iditastau nlh zl:hlt1rehi siimma. and they abstain from mentioning us. inr?Qi l i rabena larnhkalebimna . hands. Order the believers. in the same way as the camel-leopard a is t.-If you wish forgiveness from God. let the crimes of others pass-' Kcl liilazinah rnallfi yngfini lilazina layarjims rijim allihe.hini. G-od is pure r h o ha8 put such tin anillin1 nndey ns. -. for they are ciovenfooted and eat grass also. and that they eat carrion ? " Another said. lhey are grazi~ganimals.'are sociable like yourselves.remarked. and he of his kindness a. " A learned one . wa. from their.aslihrri nemata rabet Gm. m-e rhouid never have been able to subdue him.it).i lmin dbbbatin Rlarze nald taerin yutiro bijanAyati1 omam ams&lnkum'. and birds. IYhile in Turliev t." A third said. ' that is.!' The boar said to the camel. merc changed into those shapes.' That is. what can I say ? and against.zL .now nothiilg (about. "1 1.wad t&se texts : ' f a iagdfil rrb 1ayasfaLli di. iznstnn-ehini alaih .ame before - this very . All cattle' vild beasts.hey eat our flesh L i r 7 *. \vr. probably Lot. " They are a compound of n mild beast.l~ofor offending sorrie p q h e t .jr:st.nd mercy wilI probably release those of us who sre slaves. [ o r he?U$t8] God has given you and en.and detail :Le s. Fcr your race are also beasts of the field ( g m z e ~ ) . our fbrni disgusting and ollr flesh unclean .hink us metamoryhosed2 and accursed. "Pigs are not gmzers. . they are beasts of prey.he cor:~pnund of the ox: camel. XfiUSt tell of the tyranny yoor race has reeeiv "d the handof RI&. V7a m. a grazing aniplal a i ~ d brnte. they t. the eanlel said t o the boar. A t the time you mount [your] camels: think of tile ?~lcssing.y. iohilbhna anyagfira dllaho lnk6m.' rrhich means. wa ID& kunna lahii mGkrebna . do yon not Bnow that their teeth are projectilig. and leopard and the oa~rich. m-llom shall I complain? There is great flit-ersity of opinion amongst nien concerning 11s. 0 Mahoomrned I t o look over the crimes of the unbelievem. wa t a k i l 6 subhdnnaliazi sak hk hnrn lans h4. brit.

1 t :s they also have a longing ro eat our flesh. his igool-ailcc aucl st. m3n lsy leading him towards oa t o take us.~~.0111 orlr lising there.pc S . But the horsc r h o is of our species. r. '. (logs a115 beasts of prey who as-jist." The hare again said. it is altogether. The A::1. a i d who does not ear o u r flesh. ~ 1 1 was standing aeay the canleI. or whom shall I blame ? " V'he. 3lzgicians and exorcists keep our skin in their boo1. for t'hey ~ n u s assist mar!. vo:. C / L C Lis i~i L ~c* i y zo/' the Uiir. IF you bad !izoc-n thar the C .n t. extra flesl-1. the ass looked towards the hare. a. they t.me as oxex and goats. They i :ire not of OLIP speci. 0 " Relate all t.re at enmity mitli the Nczarenes and T~uyks. -' The bounds itre excus:~bie11 this athir. live in ~ I ~ Y P O T and jr~ngles. goat and other animals: who have taken shelter in t h e hills. I an] per~ l e x e d I am not able to speak.es:they are of t!le beasts of prey.uld perhaps the Ring nil1 bc kin:] enoi~g-11to 1 1're^ e I - rhose of us who are prisoners. Boot and shoe-mafiers very e a p l y pluck and preserve the l~ristlesof our r m k a!.1:i?ni. ~ ~r ~ p \Then mail heard all t h e ~vorr. therefore we escs. having left the country where they live.he boar bed Snished all this. and my brethren the deer. in the presence of the I<ing.rc. h a r e 11111r:h s1andei:ed the horse.he oppreasio~~ yacr species has that ~iiffered from 3Im. 13ecause their cattle and horses! fi. .~:l>i(. because tlicg a. he said :-'' Enougl1.s of the h:. The Grecian physicians often use o::r . they preserve tlieir 0 1 ~ 1 1 .t. fat for lnedicj~les further.Iif~.j:~~aat~ but we aTe extrenlel y harassed !ly 111s y. ~nedicineain it. . Herdsinen and grooms keep s s in the pastures and stables with the c a ~ t l eand horses.. from their hands. .'' CWX]'TE!: I-. We live far from them. The Jevs (ifspise ELTld -us. 3 ~ i G prolificness.hink better cf us on account of our fitttness. why does Le assist man ? So. they give. be silent . ltTe choose ti:. alld said to him.ii1~ col~sider t s the sa. curse us.s and charms. camel. us a $ i i ~ e hate when innocel..m:& relish alld think it a Biesseti :~~lorsd: nzJ us 2 very eirectaal sacrifice. causing 11s all to fail into the Lnncls of man. whom shall I p k s e . for they are of great use to them.i.re protected horn many evils." The hare sxid. ox.d face .

lle t.. wherever he is guided. armour (or cuirass. "TTThat is that defect. "He is altogether foolish and ignorant.) his coat of mail.If his rider make a bet he wallops fast. obedient to his rider . If he get beneat. fleet of foot. p p arrows in his breast and heart and remains silent. It k n o ~ n o s t P i k o r . the noble horse has many good! excellent qndities .. at the directioil of his enemy. there is also :I areat defect. This chnr. right or left. describe it. superior in intelligence." The King asked.he horse 3" The hare in replied. he has a good ap?earance. (he raises) he is as stately as the holy bull.horse is the best of animals. so tloes it un11esitatingl~separate the head from the body of his n1asi. he rushes and attacks those of the house where he was born and supported all his life. if it falls upon their necks. '' What is t. Like as it wonucls irs enemies. to him.ally.he strength of a.l these q~ialities any one besides t. he is like the Chetah in bounding (~.n elephant he takes his master: with his helmet. and taking his own rider in front. O quickly arrives (at the goal) .-* h1unll morna .zctt?ristic of the horse is like that of the s ~ o r dnrhich lies lifeless and cannot distii~guish between friends 2nd foes.hen becomes subject. He is so (swift.-in form and shape pleasing. every limb is correct.) when galloping that the wind cannot keep up with the dust. iitet. his senses acute. t h e ci~aili arluonr won1 on the hind quarters of the Ilorse." He replied. that a drop map not fall ou his rider. With these good qualities. he never knoms his friends from his enemies. are nny of a1.unnin*q).h the stride of his enemy. front or rear. f and with rhis load of 40:001) lbs. " Sire.iellt and forbenrillg that in battle he receives wounds from spears and . He is so ptlt. bridle and armour. If his tail gets wet in the mud or water he never shakes it. And in war. (or proportionable). t o t u r n away the facc. and his own saddle. With t. Ile goes along. and subject to man. . and never turns his back* on nrort : he is so respectful that when his rider is on his back he never attends to either call of nature.here superior in him ? " I-Ie said. you would not have (given) so much absurd chatter. and all his good points are hidden in L3 this." The King said to man.cr o r maker. his color clear. he quickly turns.

md allurements. clothes of their sl~ia. h ') m n r way they get milk from tile n:iim:tl. :: E~jor:~h! you 7 X. . id . j In this ~ 2 God has giren light and 9 brightness to all the stnre! but with this (provi~ .~ ~not S ~nilcll to tbeir diaparag-e~ncl~t. rijast them nit.. rriodily .4 night.e edilisc--that the wiac mav ayrise at illis {:kit: : if thev are (. o blessjiiirr of ibe (1is:fit~rebtd nlid beuc&t. brothel. silcli one does not p r i j i ill file r ~ c r l d God bus g i r m ~ eiai. and has not reterusome p a ~ t i c u l n rr72c rrhicb Be has not ~ e s t a "i)ou him .d causes (them) to &l into many snares ! .. 2 ~ .~. .gthem the f l ~ z ~lli.. yet $rill tliev nrc uc>-i. givi?2.~ tbe Mghrness of t h i in alnlthep d g a:. .itp of si6 .k). This is also a ~Larwtoristic rnan . filther. e. .2nd to mhorn tIe ~ I R Snot given smile pwe1iay benefit vhicb He 112s nor bestoned on an.rivell ri-ie s ~ m mooil \. benut!-. mother. 'mefi: tl~emseiues m a k i ~ .slloald treat. TT.O?:~I:CC P tllelxi t o be tileis God .i a ~ i j :o u'liiindlp. to the p. ' I youth they hecoine their ( p r r e ~ ~ t scilemies.z l o v nereri 1.iril>riip . .augerr. To their infancy! they receive milk f. 2nd nllo is he LG rrhom He hag denied C[i< . q. and in the tilne of ril"me.hcir parents ""-. pl. that ic r. r i. the ass said to him.: hrifitnpss.r$i.( t h n s ) d::rl. ar. . from one defect_ t1.oils r i a j .riifference bcimeen its friends nnil stl.:a7: C U . they disapper. skin them.+. and rip up their bellies.cry high P O S ~ an!! ti0i7 (r2r.sfi . by o ' and fur.einpt. 211 ~ L c i t ..ened u j l (or the IIKXI: increase) or dccrexse : ('tl)i.ni?iilrcc: sill.ion) also. unmercifuily forget entinlir the oljligzand benefits rhey receiy-ed from the hare had finished r ~ ~ i ~ nilono rnel: ing k1ll-l the horse. the mnnuer the).s and biessings. their enemies. ~ e r n .kxsea ?is ilie nlooll.r relaills ?ions. he is ar e~irr. ld " 1s there such a person to whom God hhs given slli~erior tnlent.l are nourished iu their arms. and in the end cot Qe throats of there anilnds.om t. mllch g o that certai:~ fi~tiaiisin L ~ ~ C I?~P. tlrey treat iileir acijanirLiallces. sister: illld r1eii.~.1 -v : . .y ~ u i a. d perfcctiolls s:d r i r r u e s Iic 52s givcli . .

hive mercy upon us and deliver us from the xgrsnny of this oppressor. beat any traveller. They altogether left off p i n g t o populous places through man's bad ways. that should any child. should bestow them on the animals not :hi!& them indebted to him. and seek shelter frotn the niischief of the Genii. The Icing having heard this. wounded one. "He to whom God has given many talents that to others He has not given.This is the influence or shadow of the Genii. becorne sick. each according to his ability. On this account the Genii also left t.nner the mocn and stars. broke the lock of any one's shop. ii~telligent person. man rtlld n angels. end in the same ma. and entering the hills." \Then the o r had fiirislied saying this: d the animals weeping and l clm:tshing their teerh hegm to say : "Just Kin$ . snatcled awajr his clothes. 3fan to whom God has given so many bless- . gives light t o netare thinking no one under ohligatiol~ :-in t. should be thankful in this manner. whether ignorant or insane." \?Then the ass had finished this speech the OS said. man. egress. looked torards as many of the Philosoijhera and learned Genii as were present and ::Have you heard the tyranny: cruelty and oppres&on of man. Jf olle has many superior qualities. and it is a11 correct. broke into any one's house. ~voinaa. picked any one's pocket.against the king. \Ve see it day and night . . They are so far suspicious and without or faith in us. and no at}iers.-saily. or tore my one's sleeves. 'They Jmaj-s suspect us. their tyrnlzily is not hidden fl-on1 any wise.) Yet they (the Genii) are not free from their suspicions. and he with his splendour sends blessings to all creation. ings. and considers no one u~tderoblig-a:inn.-share those blessings vith otbera-thus as God has given brightness to the sun.* p " E u r u j . mountains and rivers hid themselves. Perfection is God's done. (and not creato~s. which the anilnals have described? They replied. and their ill-usage (of the Genii. man. irruption. they say this. he has also sorne little defect. ) rlhis is the case with genii. ':We bave beard.he same 'in?-. o r stole any thiag. Yet no one ever saw that any Genius ever killed a man.heir country and fled illto jungles and wilds.be evident they were created. rebelled . :.

side is in the rigl.!<.ho e ~ ~ ~ c r i c n c e d tl. TheJ.are day and night piotiing against each other.cess8l-i-..:Eyfi" sclloo! of .he animalls to ( a detail of) the e i r c u m s t ~ ~ c e s nlld of oppressio~~ theyhave receix-c-ed at thi. i. 1s Directly the Court nmse. 111 the C o i i n se] of t . 5aEiiIr%.. and rake :... ?. be w i i . ..'...'' (rliosc Nile cklna yen:) ?LS Fo~I. ~ ] .!E p ' ~ r7i.i:.LnJ importiLl1~ aEtiu. I. h ~ e or foxr a tbirlg 1)econzes clear. go t o ." X !c?nrncclm n l ? of Tsce of ?tTnhid the 1msent : he said?L : In my opinion it ~ o u l be best f01.Get) kl?lilell: it is :%naerening : the Coi. tile ministers c):' the Genll he p ~ seilr.t.:j.~ . taiie iesve.-o:lr OLI-n home_ and Go liclse in tllc liijnlln. : j . 'l I think it is hest t o stuntnon and fake 3 coulisei in this ease wit11 tlio jtidrres: priests n d l W scphers of the Genii! for this is a reig-htY nqmnect : ~ > it i s :lot knosrn n-!lnse . d l.~n!s hn.s mi:llouL co~msol and deiil~emtion.all nfz:cr paying h i s respect.:.ilrrcr repcfit nr tdie wztmillg-'' LPII t l i i ~ filiishsd. ..ve come C C ~ i~!:tinillg to us. g ~ ordered tllnP: 4: let.lolV their c 152 shoilld h+: be do. fro cbi!(lmil of l h i i c n n ~ and ~ ! L C eilrerlxlg1ag men of Brhmii~. . t jTcrji)!z. mid asking blersinss. handa of man. ienrr-~cd ..~ .t. ~ : ~ S ~ ~ O I I Sanswers of these me3 2uld and 7:f-j do p i g now advise ? ? -'at this bp (i-ci<?ed7 What course do YOU thhl1.I . T T -- <. .c sons iig ~ g c .i!lljFs "f lace ei.y_ t.. the lliacc boiirrr cried ont :. or ~ o i ~ f i l ~U~ C ~ d oile.LI~~~ETS the @fthe r8L..o\Ts : Th? . All the auimds complain of the tyranny o p p ~ s sof ~ ~ i mm. 1 these are all practices of theirs. . .. Advise 113 rrhat sLon!ri them: ancl I.he opinion' of the Lenrned f ~ ~ r i l i ~ t .'hp. the best 7'' .. TLer.*nbhed any O I I ~ .coullsel .. d . lnen of the tribz of B n i d ~philoso. Icing s ~ i dto theln: "'l'hcse ilnd nr-." l n compiianec with iyhat be soid.. v i a e e nlen o~rght not to enter into s ~ c h ..l*t illilsr cloic. ti:e ging sni(j .?.ie decided . and entcrcd oi:r cooniry and tclicn s21elte~..?. niinlster Bedar.ad sabl -. xhc 1 G . he l!idstell was ?L ve?y nrise and intelligent. A ~ nii. in p r h a t e : "EnPe yoil llenrd hi.

would never agree to their being sold : they would dlject t. From the p~tblie Treasury." Again the other replied. n ~ r l he said. on what will he load his goods or mo1111t ? He will not be able by reason of the great distance to go in pursuit of them. once ? " He answered. In this way the deer. liings. the King asked all of rliern what they said in t>his (matter. while lnoney is not cared for." The Icing was pleased with this proposal.light escape from confinement and retire to a distance from man's abode. " W heere will thc Tiing get such n s u m of money at. or freed. A philosopher of the descendants of Xsop was thei-e.If an jr thing be decided for their release. In t. the J u d g m and the Bench $hall order h e m to be sold. a. and many gentlemen who cnnn ot n o r e about without a conveyance. Is ndvisable that t. "What do YOU then h thil& best ? " He replied. or to have their sufferings lessened and to be treat. i t shall he no crime or sin of theirs." The other said. The King may give order to the whole of the Genii to go there on that night and open the doors ~f the U J . it.how then ill they be able t o escape ? " He of the men of l i e h a m said. the bufialo.nd watchmen placed on goard . who will give the money for them? " The religious man replied: Tbe King. But one of the men of Behram did not npprove of the advice.0 the L( decision. it c211 in no V C L ~ ~ be: because a t night many animals are in close confinement and their stable doors closed. and on some . " This is not at all advisable? and this p1811 is verv co11trnr. " if rhese rnen aye n i l l i q to sell the aaimda. and many animals have left man's abode aiid fled.) They all said it was excellellt and befitting the occasion. minis ters. Animals are very essentid to them. hut will remain q ~ i e t ." Hearing this. If man obey not thc orclel*of the judgesv and the animals fly from their oppression. and ci~quired Cram all if they thought what he had said was best. 'C my opinioo. C: T h e r e is them such a sum in the public Treasury that v! aaffice for their purchase ? Some lnen will i! never sell them..he morning when man does not find them.he King order the animals to agree together. Tllus the release of these animals will be eEecter3." The Killg sairi. For instance. ed kindly.y to reason . and said. .

iid. :: IIe speaks the t. Si1.sy this cannot be.but that this rrick the .f til~ prophets. -:. .lr the > a rcry great nc.i.rt it is nor man‘^ i wss impossible fix minxils t o t work. .iley will sns. 3 D cS1.rcd.hcir hands.. F all picxsed r::. he:ird as I rnysc:lC give t o tllem.. :::ice fr0111. I' . I pit. Sn g mnke act.' opp~csszdare oar best t j ~ z ! : ! ~ ~ h'..p. all. the :. ': 11-1 have yoo no confidence 7 Tell ns. . vi&nce bchre. cnJ ther.s!lorl]d th." The learned have sr. alsoknow.r of their flight. %~l. s)i:i y become the ellemy of thc G$nii. it is fi. are deprived of the henelts (derived froiii .nd i~ccomplish same tirc~uielres.ifair : any .'' I he King said.clit you 011 earth tlint p i 1 2zay :LccnmllILi~eiTeal:b Jr i~lvoire youweiver in rl?r arn!$rio~ aud arfirici: SE t'uc =orid . that Fe may .t.?-.hem gc until the miilnals had esr:~peii t n R i. rnil ~ic?eforehovethosnilvi. Tfhec lilari gets up in t. tBa. :' Jrle alone is W j l e that mrires p e x e bct:ireen foes..'' 'The philosopher said..llJij I-t iheln out.: . .c. abode of' m:i?l. he ~ i 1 1 know tii..bn nni~nnlshns mnde 2 g-refit mistake. God has s ~ i d : 0 l.hc morni nc7 and doe3 n ~ 6.rcEt this plan for thz xiease of r.nd tlrz cattie tind l~ecomes t awarBt: ..l o l r j i l rh. Why shoulrl we be afraid of their erulity ? Their enrnixy cannot d e c t us.rutl~. :. he who has devlseri I . the oliprcjsc-J m a r c. ' -7.S. '' Trne i t is.i.: -?:ls m attempr to . ~ t L:. Aftcl. P~ThOllgi: i:rey lniv be heathen.and untie the heel-ropes of !hc nlrinrnls .srin: bin1 : . ..i~:gs ! I hare no. tllem) t-he vill grieve and lament excessively. blessing nlld the i h S " This is n very difieolt flbffa. theye is no doubt that t. . People say that in solnc tile l)ooj. blessings.zdrhc l i i n r . and m21icc. n Cod wili r. They were ar." T1:e E:in% agaill :'lerr." Iiearing this all the Genii s.:.'' He replied." After this a philosopher remnrked. What d o yen ray this ? ~h~~ L . " 0 shelter of rEe univcrse ! When rhese snimds escape from t.but fcr this. God for liis . of the Genii.y t!icir cnnilirioit. i' TJlis is tile i g l E:it 0 : of t h phi!osol>hers of :: did xct ngree rnirh ii.u~gl~t mllch sbj& with : ! ' danger which it will be il~l)ossitJ!eto aroip~ rk&lrs. and keeps himself clenr of their quarrels.. Onr - J . and seize all the x~ateilnrei~? lror sr<I let :. Ili]p aiid reiicnt .i mid.s (. no\r t I ~ e y viil e n t c r t ~ n extm hnt. U part of this (propoeiiior:) T h King said.ject n s 01kl. Tile i i i t ..i. .

bodies are (made) of fire, and are subtle md airy : we fly.up to heaven, vhile man's body is of earth, and he lives below : he cannot ascend on Mgh. M7e go them unrestrained and see tbem, they are not able to see us ; then what is zhere to fear?" The sage of Kaiirran gave answer to the above :
L ; K is a pity you understand nothing at all. t 31rn a?.tlxough of earth, has heavenly breath, and a!; a.ngelic spirit, 'nd is superior to us? and iinoi~x many stratagems and arts. I11 former times bet~veeli men and the Genii there vns much contention, from



the rdation of which every one trembles." The Billg said, " Tell us the particulars also ; what was it. all about 1 let us know it." The philosopher said. ': Innate and natural bntred have existed between m m and Genii for ages, the na~ration hi eh vould of he very tedious " Tbe King said, Give us a little the commel~cementso far as you are
The Co~~tention detueen ,Wan and the Genii The philosopher in compliance with the Ring's order, thus related the particulars : "In a1leient

timer when God had not creat,ed Adurn, the Genii i~lbabitedthe whole of the face of the earth ; all forests, inhabited places, and rivers were under their way. Aft.er a long time had passed. and they received prophecy, lam; and the faith mcl many other blessings. they then began to be disobedient and t o go astray, and not to heed the teacbing of the Iwophets, and raised strife throughout the vhole enrth. On account of their oppression, the earth and its inbabitauts complained at the throne of God, groaning and lamenting. When some rime more had elapsed, and their dissensioll and oppression day by day increased, God sent an army of ansels on the earth. They came, aud h:tving beaten the Cienii turned them out, nnd confined many of them ; und thcy themselves took up their abode on earth. And hraail, Qe nccussed Satan, who deceived Adaln and Eve, was among those a h n were contined. Be ~ 2 vary young and line^ nothing ; he was s b r o ~ ~up lamong l u e angds, and he adopted a n ~ r~ their habits ar~d costoms. When he had learnt a11 t,heir ways and had grown up, he W ~ made the hhend S md chief of that race (nngdsj. He continually

issued hvs (to obey) and proLibitio11s (to ohservc]. 2nd mhen another age had passed, the Great Go< $aid to these angels. who were living on the earth; dzni Jdihn $l nrnt i;hul<Jirtira ?,i i i,i.rrir-t?k:7r,' i m . f i k ~ i ? ~ snmcir;' that is, I n-i!! rnnke !rim &S ai' the earth, who is nor Loin ntnong yell, and wcail YOU t o heeven. The a11ge1s that had iirefl here so long, a t the idea of being aepar~ted il-orn the earth, thinking rills oniel. disno.rce:tblc, b ihis answer to God : dtojri2o -filin yi~,~il/+#ii(.Lin. ,fih~a loft ymfe fsknildiiisihd, ?mnorm,?,izt~,gaM~ho &/:n,j~&! ""h~%k~ '. Thoil wilt crcntr a persoil nllo kzkka: ill bring war and bioods!leti on the earth like ;:S the Genii did ; while me adore Thee, find think Thsp holy.'' The Great God eommnnded---;. h2rj, <i!ct,,i;; j '?~cild fdl6nz!ln, i. e., y o u he,ve no idea o f what 1 consider best, a ~ l d1 smear hy myself, that .,!dam and his race? I mill place neither dlls-p;, (;enina, nor beast upon the earth." In short, rile hour the Great Creator forined ACTuln and byeatbed into his body a soni; anri otlt of hilli nlade j:ve, he ~ommanded rhe :\ngels. nil Gnther :,her all Fe; and borr do-ix-n to AdalU,'. ~ ~ c c o r d i n g

ta the Divine order, they boved d o e n and became subject to Adam. Bnt dzazil did not how dovn. Through obstinacy and envy, he refused the order of the Lord. Re thought; I n r s formerly lord and master, and shall I now become subject to them ? ' Therefore through hatred and malice, he became Adam's enemy. Then God commanded the .h~gels to put Addam into Paradise ; and mhen he was in Paradise, this order came from the Divine Being : Y&ddhi~6skLin nsta toa Zn~+~kn2 jna~,.ntcbn a kuhi minhd rugad~xn ~ i s o h Shetdmb, z Zdtcik.~~tbc~ m hlileish hnjaratu fatakzina rninot strlimk. The purport of tbis text is this : " 0 Adam, lire in this Paradise with Your wife, and eat with joy whatever your heart desires, but go not near that tree ; if you go near it, you mill become a sinner." This Farm, disc which the Great God gave nnto .idam' to live in is a in rhe East, on mounPains of rubies ;no man has power to go and gain access M tbi~i. place. The lai~d there is fertile. the climate healthy, the season of spring continually abides. many vater-conrses flow there?the various kinds of * Eazt.ut, noble. D

fruit trees are extremely prolific, bearing all sorts of flowers and fruits. The animals there molest no one, beautiful sweet-singing birds of all color3 sit marbling or, the branches. Xdam and Eve went there and lived happily. Very long hair to hung from the Head of both of them d o m ~ ~ their fect. The vhole of their bodies was covered bv [their] hair ; this added greatly t o their grace and elegance. On the banks of %he stl-ean~letsand amor.g the parterres they wandered fi-eely, eatin? 2.11 kinds of fruit, and drinking of the water of the "reams. For them, emry thing wirhout labour and exertion, was provided. Ploughing. tilling. grinding, cooking. spinning, weaving cloth: wash-

be zt once told their names ond described the adrantages and disadvantages derived from each. TJ7hen the Angels saw this they all became subject to him, and thought Adaln superior to themselves. Azazil, when he saw Xdam's position, his malice and envy increasing, began to consider how he could in any T a y by finud a d deceit effect his diaorace. Therefore olie any assuming the disguise of an adviser, hement to him ancl said, " TheGreilt God who has given you the ucco~n~ilishnlentr of eloquence and reason, to this day has given soch advantages to n o one else. If yon eat of this t ~ e e ;

ing-not one even of these taslis Lad they. In this age their descendants are subject to these cares :

you will obtain knodedge a,nd gifts supedor t o these, 2nd you vill live here conticudly in I I C ~ fect happiness and peace ; death mill never come,
you miI,l always eu,jo>7yonrself. llTl!en the nccorsed one svore and said, I n r ~Z iU ~ Z L L$~ ~ t i i n n j~lcLsehi)lct, I i 'I give you good advice,' he fell into the snare ; t,hro.ougl kb covetousness he went beyond all bounds and ate of that tree. of wbich the Great God forbidden him to eat. The hearellly robes in ~Oich they were clotlled inulledi.ate?y fell from off their bodies. They tocl; leaves of trees and begas

Lilie as other animals lived there, so these t w o ill perfect safety and trni~qoillit~ pass their time. They had no care ;a11d all the names of the trees and animals wldch mere there the Great Gocl told to Adam ; and when he asked tlle h1,oels their names they knew them not, and b e i q pel-plesed remained silent. ]Then he oslced Adanl,

The very long hair that was on their heads a110 fell off. They became naked. and from the heat of the sun their complexion changed and became black, and they became disgraced. When the a~linials saw them in this state their appearance became hatef~zl them, and they to Bed with disOaust. Man became very much degmded. The Angels were ordered to cast them out of Paradire and throw them out at the foot of the n~ount,ain. The Angels threro them into a. lace where there was neither fruit nor leafThan on the earth for a long time in grief and sorrom thev - made lamentation, and became extremely ashamed of vhat they had done. When some tilne bad been spent in this grief and sorrom, the Great God of His mercy accepted their repentance alld forgave fieir h d t , and sent an angel to the earth. tie ba\~ing nrrived here [ t a ~ ~ g them] to dig the ground, to ht ~ l o ~ ~t o h , to reap, to grind. t o brev, to bake g SOW, b r e d , to weave cloth, to sew, to make clothe&; all these he taught them. When their race had iiucrensed, the Genii came and mixed with them, and t-ogbi them how to plant trees, and build houses

to cover their bodies.

and rnany other arts. Friendships arose betveen them, and for a long time in this way they passed their time. Gnt \vlxenever mention of the treachery of the accursed Satan was made, through a-ery inads -lnind passed 3. suspicion of the malice and envy ot the Genii. When Cain slew Abel, Abel's fimily From had the idea that the Genii prompted him. this their v ~ i a n c ewith the Genii was increased, alld they begm to devise stratagelns to get rid of them. Through hatred they nsed magic, spells, curses, charms, confineme~ltin vessels, and many ---other means to annoy the G-enii, and xere alrrays fuil of this speculation. When God sent the pmphet Enoch, he calxe, and made peace between I t a -n- a116 . th Genii, and shemed them the mays of relipon and piety. The Genii also came into the kingdoms of iilan. and they lived together on good terms. In this way until the second deluge, and even afterwards up to the time of Abraham, the friend of God, they lived happily. When Kinlrod cart Abraham into the fire, man again rras of the opinion that ttL Genii had Ximrcd



. -

" h d Le compiled a book of t. 1 :nzile Solomon. and the Genii got no news of it: all of them 5 e c m e puzzled to know where Solornon was. with presi:nlptionl .the Genii that Xan was superior to thetx. lZlld J T ~ ~ Ithe brethren of I Joseph put him into the mell. aild mnnv Genii embraced the religion of Moses. Icing Sololnori sent an army after them to seize them.h dcgraded fled thence. showed every one the right vay. Thel: h c \ i . teaching his men many arts by vhich they could confiilz them. and became rebels. and borred to God. IYiTIjcn ( h t . " I ~ i s h to be brought more it quickly than that. 311 Genii and m m bzceme his ubjecii.n a c e he vould be like other kings are . putting all the kings of the eartll ~mder him. ihese do~nil~io~ls to che hnnd of Solon:ori came 197 our help . When Solorno11 departed 5c-nce. sqing. Thcy redmd abashed m r i vith drooping herds." I will bring it SO q ~ ~ i c k that your %Iajesty ly mill not have time to rise from ?cur senx. [ridicule. ':I brisg it ill a second.t." and he did so. When Christ came into the world and invited all Genii and men to the t r ~ ~ e and faith. sovereign of t L 2 ahole world. r". and this book after & s death was i published. Thell rnen beczme positive tha.] and the Genii being very n3uc.nen said the Genii to IIlan. he aslred all.( rc innLe the sling." Asif Unrhhya: the possessor of n powerful charm. whose name mas Bastooz. Every man follomed thern clapping Lia hands. This g w e fur. the son of David. And when the news of the (coming of the) Queen af S h b a W ~ given by the Hoopoe to King Solo.her rise to differences [between ihem]. T C h e ~ ~ the great prophet Xoses came into the n-orld." King Solornon &aid. " The Genii can in &is way be confined in glass vessels.they would not have been thus at fault. telling them how . [or* knozlccZge qi m y r t e ~ i e s ]throwing man into a perplexed state of mind. lie also reconciled them to one another. son of Hainan. B r 55 m. they thought tBia also x ~ a s a trick of the Genii. if the Genii had not given h l assist. said.. .." nnll they -ere a l r r g s speaking of their pre-science. l : TTTho is strong enongh to bring her throne before she C O U ~ ~ arrive ? " A Genius. if these had been omnis c i e ~ t . 'iThe~~ Ring sa-iv the the throne he was stunned.hese arts. bonstingly ~ : i i d .

A s h a ~ r u ntij. Being told of the thillgs of Iiearen. 2nd their (the Genii's) goilig t n Heaven was stopped. they continually corn~nunicated them t o the inspired vritcrs.nothing is accomplished in a hurry." Some of tLe Genii accepted the true faith and became IfKssulmans.ro go to Heaven m d gain access to the Angels. and the animals in &se are deficient . they cannot t a l k If they are defeated by the glibness of Non and unable to reply to him. . which when struck sets fire to a whole world. And harmony has existed betrreen theln and 31ussulmans to this dav. Times are always changing . and got the pl*ivi1ege of visiting Heaven. he [turned and] said. " Gentlemen. several Genii embraced the of Christ and hecame devout and temperate. hat Ioss and . May God defend us ! * I mill be ours ! " Wheli all heard this mollderfd story. each held domn his head and was absorbed in thought. " They should be patient and quiet (when) in subjection t o them. SOU so do. God will in the end release them . and let them leave my country sstisfied ? The philosopher said. i.icZa limnn2 jliarze am ariidri 6ihi)?z ra(iboBsan ~~asdafiJo. I n my opinon it is for fhe King to sit in ine public Court in hmorning7and calling ihenl all. do not Yan. advantage of the dwellers upon earth. When the philosopher 11ad finished this narretyon. or whether God himself wishes to be their guide.. "11an has much eloquence and fluency. r. This hatred is Eke the spark of the flint. and do not raise strife arnollg yourselves .you are reviving old enmity for no purpose. When God created clie lair Prophet [hIohamed]. " I t is not evrdent whether this is to the dis. "In your opinon what i s advisable ? How shall I settle the disputes of those who have come to me t o complain and aslied protection from me. Iie of the sons of Eehra~n remul<ed. they mid. The King asked the philosopher. After this whatever adrisable ~ n d befitting the occasion. Eke as He gave the children of Israel freedom fro111 Jnen they oppose and eonclaer us. hear the pr*os and cons of every one's ease.:Good advice is obtained ayter deliberation . :he consequences will be ill. rrill you consig~l them to the111 that ther may keep them in pain and torment ?" The philosopher said.

o-da:~. did x-e give him samet.olV P ~ O L O l~Y I l Some one else s~icl. c l i n ~ m who% not the l"nilosophers i$dl adrise on our nccount.-the children of D a ~ i d release from the tyranny of Nebuchaclnezzar-alld .vornble iorrar6s XIS. time you any idea what the King will decide in our behalf ? " shoold r e know ? Hovever They all said. or in 12. or hi 336. IIe is going to collcci the plliloaophers rind learned men to--morro to T T eonsl." all They i . and the disagreerneut has not yet been arranged. " There is ~h~~ all great cause t o fear the decision of the jodges and C " TMs is ~ I S C e r . one revolution is made. :' Ton have all heard the ~ ~ ~ ~ g u r b e n t ne t r e e n us and our slaves t.lltthelp.gsre relief to the race of Ba~neer fi. thxt rbe Icing i n rnr~cch puzzled iil i s aifair .000 years.b'S vorld : in aeeorda~~ce the orders of the Creator. h " - One snid. b z ' knom that the 1<iog is fa.000 yye~~s. 8x3 that he has implicit trost in us. and consulting arcon. May it not' be that be turn against ns. wns.the oppression of Pharao11.hiog valusble. the men also in their residence (the 70 men." t o ollr what it." Arother szid.. He said. inhabitants of different cities) were col." L$nother observed." Another said. ancl freed the Lonscs of Sasnn and Adnarn from the tyranny of the Greeks and of Fate nel-er treats any one [ a l ~ a y s ]in thc some way. perhaps he may not come out to-morrnrp. in one or day. 137hilethe Iiing mns consultii~g with his miniaie:a in private. CHAPTER ~ 1 1 1 . themselves. fear of the vizier." One remar. expressing whatever passed r h r o ~ ~ gtheir minds. iected together. There is a.ed.om the cruelties of the tribe of Tubah . v-e should bring him But there is another danger.000 years. that he r i l l the riaier in private t0-mor. In n =it6 t'ucosaad years one revolution. which is equal to 50.000 years or in 36.. It is true that the revolutian of change%Mefate never keeps any one in one condition. HOIV rre bnav this. " That is a n easy nffnb .ri. and be severe in our cnre. y an lawyers. but like the circle of the heavens continunlIy revolves round t. " T lino" this. the King Artaxerxes.

" The Judge is the propher's representative. kings will be a r ~ s ~ e r a b lfor all e these things. Should the King collsult him. 7Ye will ansver. " l f the King take counsel with the jitdeer z:ld Iawyers.truly. or they wiii ' Sell them and take their value' . In law also there nre three rays. and will not be partial to nny one.e same and be kind to them." One asked. \Tc a r e their original masters . but lcaeeE t'. The Great God for this reason. from the time of our ancestors they ha-ce alvays lived in slavery . either they order the animals to be liberated." Ailother asked. oc tell us z o t to give them unnecessary annoy'urce.-to assist them is incr~~nbent tbe on Icing. that they r11ay do jnsiice. assist tbc . me have the option t o release them and let them go. d U . " If the JJuge say." One aairl.try and claimed pmtection n:ld they 3 ~ c oppressed. B L I Azilnat [of the sons of Behram] is a vise and ~ EonorJle man. what shall me then do?" Another replied. for k i q s are called God's lieut.] Then id one. If the Jltdoe order the animals to he let go and left alone.enants. give them too a hrihe. '. hilt if the King consult the philosophers. there is fear lest he colxlnand our slaves to the Icing and release then1 from our hands. and the Kinrr the defender of the faith ." Then snid another. or if me rrish. Yoa spe-6. I know he s l y that the animals have coiue into the . and finally they also will make some iegal pretence in our favor and give a decision.xntter . l'rove by legal doc~lmentsor vitncsses that . [only of deciding. they dieer i~ ophion among themselves. aged.we cannot in sly vny deviate from their orders. expel che oppressors from their doulinions. and then what should be done? " They all said.&. " The decision of the learned vill be in one of these three shapes. If the King take the a d ~ i c e the minister. not to let them go." One of them said. and they mill lean torards us. and uphold the l a v amonp the people . of will he say? " A second said. for in the last day. " If tlie Icing ask the iudae as to a dicision [in our case] the judge will decide in one of the three [above] aal-s. one will contradict the other : nothing mill be decided. what will they say in our favor ?'* One of them replied. gnve then1 authority in the earth.

or say: Where are your deeds of sale and agreements . eating flesh. we shall incrlr great inconvenience. x e ~ . and that. the h m b ~ .e r the beget the intention of selling them and letting them fiee . " If t. and make them witnesses. they are not our slaves. and they swear nlld s:. that an oath should Be required of those that deny the claim. &C. 'hen we mill say. for which you received such n reward as God's giving you dominion orer the animals. bring them and present them. if you are in t. said. For these brutes hare life. not one of them gave anamer. Allcl if the Judge wishes us to swenr that they arc our slaves.he Judge sag that the testimony of mankind is not reliable for that they are all enemies of the ailin~als. J17e will fetch our friends who are honest. further. " TVe will say they have taken fike oa.they are your origind slsves. and are of the senle flesh 2nd blood as ourselves. " If me sell the animds." He replied. Drinking m*. E\'or did said." Another said. if we act tl~os we shall be ruined. all these l mill be lost.lt we should lessen their labour a d be kind to them. If they ilre rvilfin~ th. '' If the Judge put ihe animals on their oath. .. but they were all lost in the flood. it does not matter. making clothes of their hide and far.r.ths. me have many proofs that strengthen this claim. do no' entertain the thought in )-our minds. and besides these puxring the= to other uses. hat should we then do ? " The inhabitnnis of Thev vould sell thein and receive tlieir value. till an Arabian observed. rre are claimants.TLV~E. " T17hnt harm is there in this ? " They replied. !%'bat will the11 be deoised ? " On hearing this they all remained silent. then what &ha11 done? '' be Another replied. YOUIleT-er Jld SO good act. They derive many f~-ori~ anii1:nls." Those ~ h nere milling to o sell tjlem said. c * This cannot be . Death ~ o ~ l bedbetter than such an existence." who were the denizens of the Gut those viids and jungles. ' l We will t l ~ s reply : We had legn! documents. '' If the Judge should order us t o sell them and take the price of thei:?." One sdd. the evidence and of enemy is not taken in lav .he rigbt. Tlie same inconvenience upon the dwellers in cities also. do not mention it. and feel pdn from excessive labour." One interrupted.

h2~oLzZrn hlhtaaen2lino ilaiyk K lanNn .de. and complain of their tyranny . they xi11 be victors ancl ~ ~in your ~ t should then be done ? JTe h cpil~ion shollld delibcy.bey and deliberate alld think. b&z~lkdmalA0n.o lihij j. For in . ihe brutes also collected together and began t o take counsel among themselves. for that." CHAPTER IX. One said. Therefore.ntsiires and orators to ns. some gift of eloquence irhieh is not in E (: l . (act) east him into hell fire. 'c To-morrom morning a e will go in front of the I i k and make lamentations. ' Of y o ~ r*ho are .q oence. he should not tnlre it .' mom eloquelloe. and ingenuity of speech than we f 1fear that through Illis glibness of tongue Vf shall lore in the arsurne~~t. perhaps the King will be merciful and release us f r o n ~ bondage." S& he a thonghi this advisable : Send messengers M all tile animals. and doeth rbnterer He chooseth.c. l at variance nnmng yoursekes nlld come t o me. If Be meet nlt. some iiitdil.. When the Icing got up from the Court.ijl.inan kiliaito b 6 d bishuiyin n i i hakke c~khihe yd.they (ever) commit a crime for which God gave them such a punishment as their lieiug cast into this misery.rtp?~( niin hizi71 $t dhbfia bhli fa. For the and prophet says.s affair. Proofs and argun~ents are strengthened by ~loqueuae fluency.kilntar2 rnin.&c-tnnn rfiinho shainri fainn: i ~ ~ n i h d aktct.ind tell them to selCi represent. Sow what is your advice ? " Another said. " Yo~on have heard the controversy between us and our enemies to-day. He is Lord of all.. No one ca. To-day he did shew us some kindness.ite well in th. that thev may all come hcre and assi:-L us. and the quarrel has not ended yet.n nh~*e that is. but the Icing should not decide without hearing the arguments and proofs.oact.n evade His orders. for him will I deci. the in argunlent is more proficient than 0 e .0 iahll . and all had taken leave and gone to their respective homes. if h does. then solne one aood idea *ill certsinl~:come out. should one ~~nklio~inoly obtain that which is the right of allother.&. . I will. and let them our condition. species thcrc is some excellence. On the Consti?tc~tion apilony dz A4r. .

for our - ihe fifth to the poisonous reptiles: tile sua1<el lizard. lyiien the f rst ~ ~ ~ ~ p ci.e snd joill liis op. il. ~ L P Y L0iisI 0 ' prre them.mngth.. ' ' TIIC Icing ~.d<i. lu.." i t iras arroligecl to selld i a11 : directions six very tri~stxrorthymessenmra.ind.th:ii i r Inn: go t. I Tyill start my :irmr i!keC!ri>. of daili. ' . . ilisllllte lrith ~ 8 9 .iil F!Z. lion. ISorr. . tbht t h c ~ ill^^ . 1 .)licd to qnadropecis:- !%ahaem. Rely is of the Lord only vl:o assistcth those vholn he c?iooxtl-.ir t:. third to the Leasta of prey. One .1nnsrersA7? (par.l e so. I$e plen~cd scnd one of the to eener.. brilrer)-.olrersy goillg on before t. beetles.. this is the (best) ndilice. o s ~ ~ I .herf. he )?laygo thal.r:ns apl.ne of tll.& of your army mith me.+ of them to tlie mvenons animals: a second to ille :r ~ t ~ d s . : the sixth to the inhabitants of the ~ a t e r srpeyc . .e ~ i i i i ~ k .~ I I ~ of thew they Lonst.1 spccics.he I<. b e . Tljens ." - L.ino. is: the he rolJ.-Ti~e d i r i s ~ u ~ ~tile i<ingdam of Barllrs:an.! ~ e a4-il are collected. slid in 9:. n ierrnccous animals.Y~S. leai. " Euoogh . When a ni?l-nl>er of friends and a s s i s t p ~ ~ i ~ thcre mii1 certainly be some means liberation and improl-ement.ule t o pthe kiE~gof s ~ n ~ r l-pyenoua allin.nd tllcy om. c o n r a o . s.re Tlie j:oll Z S I < C ~ '' 0 ' . ecparnm nrid illsmessenger anid. '' 1 ::m n.i~igI the C ~ that the animals had sinc merse:lgera in directions to the other n n i r u d i .hat hbettrccfi mzn 2nd ncilrinls there r a s a colltl.ri in s i t g r e i t .. q'poiilted and desimiched in ereyJ: )-direction. &C. of holmcling. : n-hit r.icl:." All the whnals said. or t i ~ o s c thet Ilnri: n o reason. ! o Sent i!ito your collie a:ld hip them. the fo~lrtliro a A. 1 a . t h a t is norms.s!s: t h n ~ 81. '' .d: ic ! l?lejaellger. brutes.. mGeslg's presence. .hiin t.lilr) tliiilg do men boest l If of I>OTT(:~. ljOCU~i~:! n fipiltili" o ~ ~ ~ . and ichell his turn eolae.LLe:'~. njlet lilnn cl:~ilneri of the animals ? He 6 : TIicy thil: illlilx~d~ their s'tzlres.



EFlne of hose qualities even. In addition to these, they h a r e mueh practice and skill. cllnning and device, and are versed in the manufacture of shields, swords! spears, lances, dagprs, knives, b w s ancl :urows, a d many other weapons. They cover themselves mith mail nrnioLw, with its lining, voollen clothes and helmets, against the claws and teeth of the beasts, that their teeth and c l z t ~ may not h a m s their bodies. They are very wary and cuilnillg in catching the rapacious and mild animals ; they m&e nets and traps : they dig pits, wells and calves, and cover the mouths with earthand grass, so that whe3 the animals unxittingly go and fall into them it is impossible for them to get out again. But they do not mdie any mention of these practices before the King of the Genii. There they bring Forward argnments and proofs i n favour of rllelr eloquence, clearness of style, s~~periority,s vi doin 2nd prudence." Directly the king heard the mosds of the messenger, he remained in thought for half an hour and ordered (saying), " Yes, let r~ll the beasts in my 21-111come !" I n accordance 7 with she orcler, different kinds of beasts, lions and

WOIPCS, kinds of monkeq 3 vlrious

-- and

rensels ; iri

,, f that eats flesh or pounc,es short e\TC1> itself before l i ' ~ ~ The (upon its prey), Y the king bad heard? OE the messen, asked t h e m Is there any be told to them i vi\l 80 there nnd liccome One 3 one a.mong YOU ChrlYillgon t,Lis case) of the (that are ill he bar been there and ore-conle lvbntteT.~er nskr of llle I will g<vc ha u p m e u t ? the11 and I bestow (upon him) rallk-" him, ; o- tGs , ix thought AU the mimals on heall-la was 3ny one fit for for some time, T h e w The ~ h Vns the vizier, o this task or not~b~~ art king and head, to the lion, and ~rtkjects; it behoves allcl mc are order j after colln~el, the king ill every act, to a t,alGng the adrice of wise loen-a ~~n it baoT.-esthe subject to obey the';l1.a ,; T, I to him in every hi6 heart, be sum1su for the kslg is like the head (of the body),


thin:: ; d the n&ject like the limbs i and so long as , his o m duty. eyer) nl,' i: i t king m~iu~,,, do ,ill ren-dll the hmgin go "Id order


TO j
men:. The there is not even one [ ~ I I I O ~ ~ said, '[If jtlmping, leaping . ~d seizing . of I:se there. I a m the one tb.zt will msver." The fi, Silid! if zttncjci~i~i ., pl~ulcieni~g, , destroyin?; rretliliredtiie~e, c211 nccompllsh 1". nre I The t;,z rajd. If' there be : l l l ~use of tricks OF deceit for it." 'She weasel mid, " If t,berc, 1 a " ; these be mar.ted searc!ring, stealing, or hidifig, I 5~la~l zlny,qmey for it.." 'I. Le monkey said. " SbonId dancing, &ipping, mimicing be of use: I Nn Cie o n 1 'Ihe said, " i f there be rranied flattery, nttschl12ellt or h&lity, 1call perform t l ~ ~ ~ e The .l' dog said, If ~ a t c h f i ~ l n ebarking; o r "r~eging ss~ of the tail be of any use? 1 irn tile one." The moose said, G If setting (things) on 6re: b l o ~ i n g , The dnlnaging be of any us?, I am the oae. king ~ j , d ,l. C)f these acco~xplishnr~nts: is lrot there eve11 one reqrlired there." After t.his he tnrned towards tile and said, " M1 these pniiries the aninnls have mentioned are necesnfly for the kings of and the armies of the nobless These qualificacons are j n s t suitable for tl:zm, far although in appearance their form and sh??e are
7 a 3,

del-a." The king aslied t,lle chee'nh, '' What, the quaLificntions req~~ired a king and in a in m+ject ? Detail them." The cheetah raid, The king should be just, h a v e and wise, deliberate in every t L i ~ q and act with such lcindlless a,nd love ? towards his subjects as parents do t,oiranla ;heir always be el~gagcriin nililroFslwing ; he s b o ~ ~ l c l ever may tend to thc tranquillity nlld 1,rosperjq of :he subject. And the subject should in every way consider hiinself the iiing'b illferior, his scrvilnt m:d devoted slave ; and explain t o the !<ing lrlint ~ l i i l lor art hc lnny know hilnself; tell li:m of his ikolrs and of his good actions,; d n l ~ rpm'ibnn Iiis service t o the fullest ; tnalie Icnovn his n-;,l;ts to t h e king m ~ d ask assistance of hinl." Tile ]ion said, '' YOUspeak the truth, now nhat sd\rice do J-o:: give in t h i s case ? " The cheetah said, c: Yay the s t m of your lxospcrit,~be always bright ni:d lmiinous, and your majesty ever be successful 1-ictorions. If there be strength, masteyy: bravery. or ainbition required there; I am the one, let your majesty give me leave to go there, and effectoa]ly p e ~ f o r m all these." The king said, ( ( O f there



like that of nngels, yet


their nature they aR

The cheetsk asked the l'on, ''I'fbat are the oo&6eationa necessary in an amnborsado~ Detail ? them'' The king said, :'An ambassador should be a wise man, an elenant speaker, one thnt forgets llot but well remembers anything he hems ; not. tolling tlie secrets of his heart to ally one ; preserving confidence, aild keeping hhs word t o the utmost ; ii he s ~ o ~notl be 8 great t ~ l k e ; he shodd 110t add l ~ r to mything of h's o r n X C O Y ~ ; he should say 110 more than be is told. In whatever the sood of the persol1 who sends him appears, he shot~ld strive and exert himself. If his opponents should ten@ him; he not break out of the paxhs of fidelity and integrity for the rake of siding with thein, fall badlong into t l ~ cveil of bad fait11 pall illfidelity In the city [to which he is sent], if by any means he find ease, he should not 011 that account remain there, bat come arsay unhlesitatiilgly, W11ateye.r he bears or sees. he shot~ldgo a n d tell t o h p master. Re should, to the extent of his i

similar to the beasts and brutes. But those who are learned, versed in religion and l'mdent, have manners and aceom~)lishmenits,are like the angels. Who is there fit to be sellt there to go and plead on behalf of the animals ?" The cheetah raid, '' True b ~ the learned and versed in rsligion anlong mei., t have left the ways thnt are called the ways of -4tlgels, and have now taken to the m q s of Satzl. They live night and day in contention and fighting,
ili slandering aud i ~ ~ j u r i none another. 11 this g 1 way the governors and kings have forsaken the paths of justice and equity, and taken to t ~ ~ a n r and oppre~siol~." The king said, " You peak the truth, but the king's representative should he a man of parts and of rank ; he should not deviate from the truth. Then who is there that me send who has all the qualifications ofall ambassador ? I n this multitude there is no one colnpetent to go there."

Of the Quol~ficnfionsd mi B ~ L ~ s . ~ c L Y

ability. carry out the vis'fies and i n e t r ~ ~ z t i oof his l~a master. He should not onlit any item of the dn&.. of an emissary tEror;gh fear of anyrhing. For it is the duty of an emissary to conrep his messnges iil their entirety." a f t e r this he said to the cheetah. -' 111 your opinion, who is there in this nsaembly like tlxis, that hns the ability for this r o r f i ? " h :e clieetah said. Besides the brothers of I<alela/~ ' and Da~inz(rh, o one is fit for this tasli." The lion n said to the jackn!, "What do you say to the proposition the cheetah has made on your B C C O E ~ I ? " ~ The jackal said, ': The cheetah speaks thc truth ; mny the Lord recompense him well, and grant him his desires ! " The lring said, " If 3-ou go there m d plead on behnlf of your fellow creatures,
m *

h beasis ? .' The Iiillg ~ s l < r d e rerson, w:ly ht beasts, so femiliar with ~ n a n t o attack cs and leave h i s species t o join different one ? X m e but t h e h s r ine er^ anything abont it, so . he :L 1 the rroaon." The lring s ~ i d , L. Detail it,'' The bear said, " On aecoant of sin?!IXriryof disposition mid m t i i r d i~ttachmcnt; dog the llas secured the frien6ship of man. Bebides this,

when you retux-n you shall be promoted anrl re-

warded." The jzckal sdd, ': l am your majesty's .;abject, but there are many of my species there n.ho are my worst ciicniies ; how shall I monsge ? "

The bi11g aslted, f ho they were ? The jaclral replied, " The dog Sears bitter enmity againat me. Does the king not know tthat he has love arid aflEection for i-uan, n3d helps him to catch r i i d

tllem they obtain an nb~mrlmce delicacies to eat of 311a drink. And ill their dis~:ositioi~ covetousare and bad ifialmess like ss in il:alis. ness, These are the princitrd rcasolls for their friendship and t,Le beasts keep a t a distance from their vices. . The renjon is this : dogs eat f i c ~ h ~ Z LOS c~o~iec-l, , K lnrrfd h b i d d e n , sodden or dry, salt OS fresh; or or bad, as they get it. Desides these, fruits, t5 hrestl, pnlse, milk, curds, acids, and Saeetmests, ,q/>ee' sficl oil, honey nncLl i z ~ l t c : r~ ~ ~ ~ c J G ~u alld every Lilld of food tizken by m:tn;--they eat all and refuse none. Other beasts eat none of these
.- p

* Ghee, clarified buttcr.



f Suttoo,

a swectxrleat reseutLlillg t o r e . parched grain groan&

and has B fondness for different kinds of food. to steal array a fowl or a moose." The king said. " This d s o is for the same reason. I hrough this stil~~giness sud coretcusness. ascl on aceoul~tof this simil~rititp dog has Iek the his owl1 species and gone and m i ~ e d vith them .- khings.niis and heads through greediness ! If through modestv n morsel or so is thrown before them. Low fast they do run and pick it up tllat another may not be to g e t it. and attncking them they eventaally turn them oat. he jumps up from his place and rushes at her in a way that if he could catch her Le would make mincemoat of her and devour her. end in furious anger puffs herself out as large as she con. or a 3:inrsel of bread.ttached t o him. sleeps upon the carpets. like as man has. they do not even k n o r of them. she is his enemy. If erer I)y any chance a fox or jackal goes ilzto a village a t night. Rut the dog never likes her to gs into the house. " Are there any other animals besides the dog thnt are familiar or friendly wit!: m m ? " The bear said. " She is a little better than the dog. t and vhenever she gets an o p ~ c ~ t u n ishe pul*loins ty their eatables. if there were my more besides these t n o who rrere familiar [ ~ i t hnm]. 1l11d in the dog are covetousness and parsimony to ~ u e h a degree that they v111 not by ally mc. when she sees the dog. swells out her face. woliiail or child. therefom there is envy and hatred between tbe cat and the dog. " The mouse a150 . and sets up her tail and fur.i\ p." He asked the reason of her sociableness. how fi~rioasly they harIi. When the dog sees her. The cat is also greedy. The cat also. " The cat also is very mueh . or anything dead. goes to the dining table at dinner time: and they give her of ~ h s they cat themselves. horn they shake their t." The king said. The bear said. The bear said. r4U these bad qudities are in men also . because she goes into their house. her disposition and man's are the same. " On what footing is she Kith them? " The bear answered.ans a1lo-r auother animal to enter man's habitation lest he sl:ou!d get something to ent. bow cbnte~ptible and degrzded are they ? If they see tread or anything else eatable in the hmcl of man.. and they assist men to catch the other animals. The reason for this is." The lring asked.

and mules. " \Then Cain murdered his brotBer. enntds. ~ Gain pre~niledover the children of dbel.fferent kinds of food. " How does the story go ? Tell it." t .ny more still who fi. becnme very mealthy. but he has no coz:fidence in man . 6 : Ld JLilqJa ua Id bivnta illit billaiiil aiul I) * aihLe iJ1nn/il[a]ie urr inea ilctihee r~tjetina. TOthis day they hsve lived mined vith them. the children of AbeI desired t o be revenged oo the children of C. space. and said. ' For p t IG~lsal capscity. irxrkiug about to step1 or r u n away with anything. f~lrtherBe fears him and flees fro111 him. but it is a source of ~ ." ." 0-ae bear said. " From the time the chilclren of l l of their property. i who mas named Abel. " Since what time llave t h ~ dog 2nd the cat been familiar wit. giving them a defear ." The king said. and thr0~1gh [for these things] re11t into their habitations Rlid became their fyiendi and aasista~lts. . r b o ir great of a r e God's crc'atl~rcs. '' He also goes through fondness for di. \JTc cannot avoidsin 001 11~1.cwe pover t o do mytbing punerful. ond foughr wish them." The king aslced. oxen. I do not regret their going. bnt man forcibly seizes ancl takes a .goes into their houses and shops." The king asked." The king asked. if there were 2. They feasted among themselves. they left their orrn species. When the dog and cat s a v illis abunclnllce of flesh a ~ i d much' eating and so dfinking. " The weasel also someti~nesgoer i!we. and prepared kinds of food .ain. In the end the family of Cain was Vietorious. 7 and many timcs. asses. " There are no others. \'P but 4 the as~istance God. they slaughtered the animals and scattered the hands and feet all round their cities and villages. The b e n mid to repented this tllc lcinp.equentec1 his abode ? The bear said. v q the cheetah and monlreyj though they do not colirent to their going there. the cause of his going there e? He said.h 111a11 ? " r " ice bear said.and we expect t o retorn t o (iod. w h y shauld you regret that the cat and dog h:ivc kept aloof From their fellow species ?" Tile lion said. and taking d their cattle." The king aslied agnin! " Are &ere ally n c r e besides these mho frequent their houses ? " The bear said. they plundered the v -* JT-hell the ]inn lenrd this story be was grieved.r e that the rvise have said.

and accepted the prayers of the king. in p e a t abund~nce. and that r h i e h you are nppointed to do. .irnl. =3 S + e S With great pain and laboor at. Ne has taken away the advantages and blessings from their race end bestowed them upon the goat. and man's persecution their lives and those of their offspringase shortened. the king of birds?and macle linonn the state of things. either in civilized places orjungles. vhoie . although no one ever kills them. Therefore they are despised and d e p d e d .he whole year it only brings forth cne or two yonng ones." The bear said." The bear said. go now. " After tbis the lion said t o i ' i ~ k l n . The 'eason of this is. do it effeetudly . n u his good snd bad points. of the jrmglee.. But no olle ever saw. eight or ten young ones. -411 this will throw the king ancl his nrlny into great confusion ?' %fay God never prosper these cats and dogs. -4nd the goat. will tell rhe~n of secret entrances and of many stratagems. and informing them of every thing. the When the second messenger went to S h a h n ~ ~ g h . yet flocks upon flocks are seen in towns and in jmgles that cannot be nnmbeucd." c - CHXPTElE SII. of rhe rivers. Go there into the presence of you &heKing of the Genii. and sometimes more! she brings forth. alnrge herd of dogs. "Let a11 the birds be present. that the young of the cat and the dog are subject to mnch suffering on account of their food. " As your majesty has wished so has God dealt roith the dogs. and or&red." The king said: " How is this P Tell me all about it." Therefore all the different kinds of birds. Different diseases that other animals are not snbject to they are s~~bject and throogh their had rvays to. notwithstanding that in t. nnd is nlsays being killed. and his erery secret.kings there is not a more serious disar~m?ngement or cnIamity ill their administration and governnlennt &an for the supporters of their army to desert and go and join the enemy. The d d u e ~ a t u iof~ ~ recoltd 2i')iii. For they mill go and accjxaint thein with [the king's] ungnarded moments. the time of delivery.y. the liilig listened to the story of the animals. of the hilit.

&C. the aangkii. But the people of ille bowing d o v n of the &11l~s1llmfills pl-g?pr3 in t Jso the form of wol-ds they ropea. the pad' 1 ~bird. t h e ima." bfter this be said to his ministe~. and r ~ h o fit for this is task 1" The peacock said. the duck. and protests against an that is bad. therefore many of the animals are disputing with man in the pmence of the King of the Genii. the son of David. who is sitting there. the dove. the who is the best speaker and the most eloquent. He it is ~ h conveyed to Solomon o the son of David. in deseribiug d o s e splendour and magnificence the tongue is at fault. that it appears like praying md bowing" dawn. " Show each of them to me that I "ay see them. the partridge." The peacock said. notling is wanted. "Men claim that all animals are their slaves. The oovernment of that country is in her hands. At the tlme he should speak be warbles in gueh a way. . . the cowtier of Solomon. probably . the Persian nightingale. and they their masters . ~ h o m s o e v e r your majesty orders vill go there. the eron. the wild dock.L That is the spy hoopoe." The king said. the ostrich. wearing n variegated suit. The king said to them. a small kind of partridge. I short.t. " Among the bids. ~ ~ i ~ . He exhorts [all] to do good. all are present. in whicl~ h there is not the sligbte st particle of fdsehood 7. and a the throne is extremely large on vhich she sits. even your majesty never S To show this Z have brought facts connected ~ i t the city of Sheba for your majesty. fit to be sent there to go and dispute mith man ? " The pefieoclr said. 'The wonders and curiosities of nature that I saw there. the pigeon. " Here is the whole assembly of birds. that I may know them. 7 sangkhara .a~a. " TcP me all their naruer. the kabk*" the inrfi. the snallor. the wagtsil. the ri-ngdove. There are the hoopoe.. all the good things of the world are to be n had there. the crane. and understand the characteristics * Kabk qualifications of each. and said. There is a lady there. peacock.f the spnrrorv. Shahrnurgh said to the peacock. the cock. t ~ i l ~ iu aliichifalaeliood never has adniirsion. informtion respecting the city of Sheba."amber no one but God could know in accordance with the order. came and collected together. the nightingale.

and a t morning time 1 i i l ~ i t e1 8: God. is the pertridge .-. is c ~ m 1' cr and 130 Wfair . They have left the Benea volent Creator who creaked earth. ' Thnnlc God for l3is giit.they echomledge not God. slS. :]link of God ! y u have slept long enough . ~ O L have no desire for heaven . that ail men may benr and practise good pre. that they mny increase . ing her form llas become croolied.llmlc not God for His blessings . As Satan has led those-people as t. my Kindred. vho t&es letters and goes to the lfiost distant . :0 God.her wings piebald. if you lvisL to be &red from the fire of hell. and from the doctors who tell the heHicted the benefirl be derived from eatillg my flesh. I t morning-time when Le cmms. 0 YOU that liw in this .' h1ld often she mel.-.her nation are thorough infidels . snve I earnot exist under all these . extremely high-spirited and generous.neighbourhood. 2nd r h o is acq~lab~ted4 t h that is visible and ~ a11 invisible. he Jays. notwithstanding that no one but the true God is worthy of doration. they consider idolai.es her petitioll t o God h her hyillui (thus) . by much b e n ~ l n . I ever tlG~ik of the Creator. Aiafie preparation for the road eternity . l have a horror of separation from & . yv'heil she cries she arouses the careless. ~ t lyi~e011R-110 3cts as a guide.and think llot ill of God. C) God. ancl from the depravity of man . He knorrs the time of prayer and reminds his neiglrboors find admonishes them.' And Le who is aitung 0 1 ful that lilllocl. alld dosometinles \vliile flying. with great regret . have a strong desire to mix with mJ7friends. the crowing cock who has n croirn on his head. they bov down t o the sun. he is nlsnys repeating God's praise and name.prs. her c o ~ i ~ t e l ~ . thillk of the Being who can deprive you of all (your) luxuries. his tail raised . his r i n g s spread.' ~ h is. and pleases th111.ry to be the true worship. That is. and is standing on tbe ~ 2 1 1 . and have imagined the sun who is olllg n particle of His splendour to be God.you I t. be p~nver1 circum~pect. you fear not the fire of hex.e. His eyes are red.Afterllrnrds she says. defend me from the bexsts of p ~ ? j auld from jack&. heaven and sky.! . direcr nlc to my n a t i ~ epi:lcc tlat 1 hay obtain comfort by visiting ray friends ! ( .my.you o think not of death and destruction .

he destroyer of life and -rank. have a fear of the vengeance of God. He l who sows good works therein. and alighting on the corn heaps mirh n sweet voice warbles all kinds of songs. If any one practises wickedness. wbile preaching and teaching? 0 thou who art t. by the blessing of God. a. ' 0 Great God. This ~ o r l i is the [hanest] field of the last day. when he to remember his Crestor and gives his mind t o pleasures. Where are those rnereha. the builder o houses in cities. 7 latter end . always on the lool. And in her song she says. Think of your sali&ction thereof to-mor~-ow~ [he)-eajfer] . in %ghz. n31d do good to oblige hs slaves.is sitting upon the branch of that tree. -4nd the small partridge (ka8k) is be who in always moves gracefully over Aowers and t x e s . i let this wish into your minds. that you may find I cornfortnble home there [in iaear. If before you leave this world you now become esreful. she says by of precept and exhortation. j and not fail in+P?* t o perdition ? ' This ia the lark-likc'as the priest ascends the pulpit. Res tr'ain thyself ! forget not thy Creator a moment ! Think of the day when thou wilt lose rhis pleasure and this dkelling place: and fall i r m the midst of snilkes and lizards in the grave.--' Let no poor beggm . and convey the fuithful to heaven.nd with a very melodious voice continually siogr sweet songs-' He ever says..me to my home to-day ! For be who plants the of ri~hteousnessto-day. gained many benefits ? 0 man. fair iu appeal-ante. from the sowing of one grain. with excessive eloquence she warbles exquisite melody. vili gain the fruit and a p . snlnll in foirn.. the story telles. in fdshe enters his dwelling and converses with ~ln. Do not through onkindness.' The nightingale. thou who m-t the planter of trees in gardens. and up to the time of your derth render t o Km the worship that is IIis due. she also at midday mounts high in the air. And in the groves she intimately associates vith man. why art thou indifferent to the tyrannyCof the age ? . he burn in hell fire like grass and veeds.-out right and lcft. will reap the benefit in the end. it will be better for you . Think of the day ~ h p God will aeyarate the ~~nbelierers n from the fsithfd and cast them into hell. that sittest in hi oh f places. what .nts or farmer who.

and sent flocks and flocks of birds who took stones and rained them down h such a m y that they were all kiiled. keep me from the eagerness o f lads and from the cruelty of all . and made like worm-eaten 1eax. enwurselves in praise and prayer .ire:wsh. been aIld continonlly passes his time wandering about trax:elling. . She goes a great distance in . -$haha. be k i l o i ~that you mere all made to die ? You are nourished that 9011 may decay.h the c$amities of t h e ungodly st~ikesterror illto the cnye. possib1ly the a = ereat -gill be mcvciful and save you from &siructioil !' And there is the troreller in the air.. Ewr. vhii ans t h e head of their tribe. ' 0 God. you make this a home that it might be destroyed . you are collected together to LE dispersed. snldl of foot. alld. m o l d g and cvcning slle is prqing and . elephants included.s. putting a maltitr~deof men on elephants tunled toirards Mecca . and be buried in the dustbe warned now at once.' That the soothsayer t. If YOU desire C O ~ B ~ O ~ . Now throngh yOar b:indness ~ O L I prefer existence in this world to that which is t. bfinging illf0lformrii~n the remains of antiqlliv.g in the houses of man.o come. Do yoo not know vbai the Great God did with Ashab-fil.he luxuries of t 6 i ~ world ? You are liable to die on the morrow.tlioughtless~lessto be enamoured of these fen dgs of existence and neglect to thinlr of God ! Why not enter into cont. If you evade the Divine yan ~ i l have neither place nor i delircmce ally'here. He goes into every couutry. and be afraid of that daj.emplntion of Ninl ! Do you not He is of sable hrel and is abstemius . often 1irir..ves ? ' After this she says. -LO lei:ea!S Ldden makes us amare of eveq~fhingrvhich has not yet I3e is honrig mindful of his Oreator. g h for. He.. ancl God in the end rendered theil* stratagems futile.hese plei~sures be attraetand ed by t. ipislled by some pTeor excuse to demolish the temple of God. and vitL addmonisbing voice L Reetrdn yonneIres. For your acts your sliiil vill be torn off.inim$s. there nouri8hing her young.le. file sivallOw. v U .. of . h a ~ i n large lvinas. swift of flight.\vhell you will ba rotien ill the grave. l o w long -rill j-oil engage yourselves in t.he E ~ O I V .

' I have been into every region. the bloning of the wind. . and gives motion to the streams. He is holy who brought male and female together and gave them numerous progeny. anij in the winter in warm places. LO prai~e. possessing D tbou~audsongs OI tales : the Persian Nightingde. He always resides in the jungles and deserts. made a m t for every creature. the bringing forth of thunder and lightning. of Hi. his feet small. and counts a rosary in .' Ancl this is sungkhava (stone-eater ). she has a small body.her travels . . estnblished the bills. Ele is Creator of the heaven's constellations and stars. and come back to my oxrn llatiye place. might.' And the melodious hazardastan' is sitting OE the branch of tt tree . and nothing ever ~ differs from His will. Holy is He who m ~ d e heaven and earth.~r!&e of God. took man out of the hidden recess of non-esjstence and clothed him with the robe of life.' After this formulary and prayer.' And the watchful crane is standing in the plain. and seen every creature. are His work alone. Praise be to Him only who is the Author of all creatures and the Giver of blessings. that ae U ihmugh rheir meeting each other they nmay be fruitful and multiply. And He is the help in his journeys. and when he flies he gets way to heaven. 0 the earth. During the night he keeps watch at two [different] times. He determines life and death as is most f i . literally. Re uplifts the vapours from the earth. 91orn and night this is his task.and magnify whom the tongue of man is a t a fault. This is ever the ~ubjectof her rosary and prayers : 'Be is pure who created sea and laud. she says. His neck is long. saying. through WLt a ~ i s e =hich the world is ordered. H o w is it possible for wisdom to penetrete His hidden mysteries. is h swift in motion. They all revolve at His command. takes up her abode in cool places. who lives . The raining of the waters. and of pleasant voice . is He who after death $ves life to decayed and rotten bones. Great God ! what a Creator. and she * Hazardastan . 'Pure is that God who . He is Lord of the hole earth end creatures.. aud be mindful of their Creator.

) C C." The elders of the there and dispute fies said.Zssse7zge?. with man does man boast biinrelf s n p ~ r i t o~us ? o 'rhe messenger said. but the hazarclil. heard ~h~ king ret&&d he h e ~ e m qhe ~elves. All these are competent fbr the wo~l.d ii..c5Laarbles forth tlie praise of the bmnipotcnt : the Beneficent ! He is naequalled. he gave an oyder? let all the insects be p"sent-7' c Llitoes grass-bo~~In co~npliance with the the flies. Yssub. .!' On this the k i q said to tht: peacock.. :L n:e will so there and representL . \$re with In this va'j every t ~ ~ r e s dispute and Tbe king Gne was l. Y CS.7 9 ~h~ head of the m o s q ~ i t 0 emid 3 ~ of the pass-hoppers go there.s. he gave a f~tll descrip- qns the king of all insectstion of the an\tnd~. Tice Bdventures o the tIli7.I-Z. \vho srnollg 90" from the messenger. ? They all said.( 9-3 ) .7 ~ ~ fly wizb nin:r and do not ill body can* pesented thenemlonger than one year.ttrr is the most eloquent and ~neloclious.e~ " The pel~cock ? etid-. fdr they are all poet and eloquent. rind to have confidence in God. every tree 1o:irIetl with rnrio1:a ki~ldsof fruit.'' The king ordered him to take leave and go there. gl13t5. *"--'l in factall the a n i m a l p r s .~ 2 3 lnot113. for Re is in every may tthe 3ssistmce and support [of nil. the Benevolent ! the Giver of' all see11 and unseen G!zssings ! Like nlito a river? He freely nlld bountifilllp ~howers blessings on tdl mankind. And at times with great regret she speaks in this '' IYhat happy days were those 1~11enthe gnrdefis: were full of fiomers. "Among these iu yol-~r opinion who is the best qualified to be sent there to dispute with man.IPTEI: SII!. jyhen he hna heard all. fleens~. and has 110 rival. and 5aic1? t&iling the side of & is there that can S O there.eady to -mde~-taIce the he'f~rlc(4 7y )) :L . $ T ~ the insects. s1:eci. the anirntls OX.e m the anjlual~ everyill and that he is supeyio~ Let as g0 The chief of 'Xai\w D mall. and join his fellon.--that his bo of form are large: his strength greater. . ~h~ go there md join our fellon?-cressaid. :: 11~ a s i ~ this. f When the third messenger arrived before the chkf of the insects.t*Lll.

" kind in all his pomp and glory sits npon the throne. he strikes hs own head." The chief of the gnats went on. be sitting.What is this. and further he foygets about his shield and sword. " If a man in any company behind a curtain. " 0 king. with said. " What you say is true. his limbs become languid. eloquence and rhetoric. 2nd his doorkeepers and watchmen a i t h devotedness and loyalty are standing around him. that every one decides to g o there without reflecting or thinking ? " The armp of gnats said. One of our tribe." The mosquito then said.o n ~the$p)." The king mid. for in ancient days there wen many kings who were great tyi-ants. that notwithstanding his rank and power his strength was of no avail. " mThenever any man has completely armed himself. extremely proud: and rricked king. how he is annoyed and made angry. and any one of our race go and get into his clothes and bite him. tormented this p e a t king so. f! (' a spear in his band. daggers. and gives his i oan face blows. and it is certain that with His help we shall get the victory. s gnat. he fly said. and with the assistance of God we always prevailed against them ." The king said. l' This is correct. etiquette. and arrows. I n his pomp and splendour and rank. or covered with B veil. they (the Cotart) have no power to free him f l ." The king said. what a state he get into !-his flesh swells. be is nnable to move. who was extremely small and insignificant. " YOUare right. " There the clebate will be mith regard to justice. Among men rras King Nimrod. but he cannot contend wit11 us ." The king said. he never regarded man. covered with impurity and alight upon h* body or clothes and tenze him. Is there any one of yob that . if one of us wasps go and bite him and insert his sting which is only like the point of a needle. " Tell us all about it. Rut in the presence of the King of the Genii there is no occasion for all this. that no annoyance or pain may in m y vny reach himi should a fly then come but of his kitchen or closet. morals. L'When the king of man('True. a very magnificent. this we have often experienced." The king asid. impartiality." The wasp said. and furnished [himself] with swords. we depend upon the help of God. discrimation.

andlaments [over them] and appropriately repeats the folloaing text : K i ~ n turakii minjanndtyas waoyd. and arouses the negligent. also be is engaged in prayer." The king asked. '(Let ail the animals of my " be present.rn. . in short all flesh-eating birds that have talons and hooked bills. in fact in old dwellings that have gone to ruin.m the story of the controversy with man. they gave him all necessaries for the journey-: itnd let him go. to be sent there that he may go and confront man and join in the defence of his species ? " The minister said. CHAPTER XIV. 2nd made his statement. C _ _ . where all the other nnimds o diffemt f kinds mere and presented himself. ~ ~ e n ~ ~ ~ . "By the help of Gad I am going on thii errand. T e Tale of h the f b u ~ t h I f e .( 97 j bna an insight into these things ?" When 'hep heard these words of the king they all beca.He has devotion and contentntment such as not other agimal has .a!iing you are upon. but the owl lives near his habitation.. ? " The minister said. he fasts by day anlid weeps from fear of God at night . and held down their h e a d . he also ordered.~~un zuadiiiyun woindkclntia kdri777. roc. the Roe. " Xay God help you in the undert." In short. the hawk. "No one besides the owl has the ability for this undertak-ins. and after this he said to the falcon the prime minister. neither understand they his lang u y e ." In accordnilce with the orcler h the v~llti~re.1e. He remembers ancient kings have died.y t ~ a G . not having a word t o say. There I will mix rritll the animals and contend with men. the parrot.rnp silent. i When the fourth messenger K e n t to the king of the birds of prey. 2nd said. the white falcon: the the kite. the owl. The roc told tl. immediately came and presented themselves. ' T o r this reason : all birds of prey are afraid of Inan and flee from him. '' Who amongst these birds is competent for this task. "What is the reason that no one besides the owl is fitted for the worl. and give you victory over your enemies. After this n philosopher from among the ffy tribe came forward in fmct of the king. This Disc By vent thence into the presence of $he King of the Genii." The king and all that were collected then said.

'' The king s:Gd to &c pasrot. but man does n o t respect 11s for the remon that we hare any collnection rrith therr. ~ o cfurther nslrecl the owl. t h e parrot should be sent. ~ .ld (' . they mill become lzore opposed [to us] and from their ill-felli~g quarrellitlg will come rouud again.ac said to the o d . " d ~ n o n gthese animals. the falcon and the chc~. mho is best for this nndertaking 1 " He said..011 sajT to the proposition the fiilcon lias made regarding you ? " He said.+gh. ':The kings alld no'J1es of man have great nfFecrimi for the h a ~ l i . The meaning of which is. It is ollly for t. their snd every blessing through rhich they lived hapl. For tlfi-: ronsou.eves give their attention to tl~osetilbgs vhich God has required of tliein-to p 1 and live m7 in few of the eonscclilencss of the day of judg. 1 will go there. In my opinion. and think it ominous to see me. and night they indulge irr pleasures. n-onlm and man: foolish and wise. what is advisable ? " The h a d said. it advisable to send ? " He said. Eot I trust that ~ L c I~illa?. do you tbinl. and taU: vitb him. xvhat ndvisnbie 5 " He ""4 ':' I n m is yeaay. they at.a kiud of b n ~ ~ l i . if the king would seild olie of these it woald he better. It is better not to send me there.* with great fondness alld carry them 011 their haads . Whaterer he says. torrards h i s audience and sdd. " The f ~ l c o i ~ speaks the t." The .hcir o v n ndvaliltage they cherish 11s. If they see me there at the time of discussion. " In your opinion. L 99 ) aailch~ at-ti?zkhnd $Jld fcikehina " Cha?y. " The owl speaks the truth. Others have nom become the possessors therecf. haye a fondness for him. s m J l and great. and every one. t ' The r o c said to tllc h s ~ f i " Then ~bo111 .' . hut I am unable to go there.ily. t-hey hare lost. and they abuse me v h o am faultless. ~ d 6 r kawinnn akhnrin.-the liings of mankind. i Their gardens. and palaces. for inen are at enmity wit11 me.nlr. " 1 ' 1 1 your opinion." The kinq looked U . n on liehalf of the s n i m n ! ~ d contend ~it.ruth. fountains. They rob us of our lxey and use it t b e ~ ~ ~ s e l r e s ." The .tentirely listen to. '' What do 3.( 2uzrileka wa a u ~ ~ p . and have never offended them.11 clan. or that u e have extra forbearance and manners filch them consider us their faroritea.a. . ~ l d the noMes. They ..

tliough we possess greater power and strengLb than man. We knowingly allow them t o escape us. At. and bow m5ny mm m t h r e t11nt have had their boats wreclced throllg. offered a prayer for God's as.: of them. " Ry what means are blesaiugs obtained. that in prayer these things were necessary.anding their being so fir renloved from us. and fast. still r e and . The fruit and result they After this he saicl. agreeing with what was said. and the whole assembly said. For if prayer be not in conjunction with every nlldertn1.b bad winds that have golie donn and nearly . no good -mg. yet tbe $9013 r h o ~ ~ lnot do such viclcedness. and IcEr off living in their neigi~bo~~rhood. Altbongh . md then petition God regarding your grief and sorroa.-that I may overcome the enemy. " If your prayers are not heard: your trouble and exertion are in vain.re not exempt from their atinclis. "Do YOU know that men have eserciaed tyranny and oppression over the animals ? These afflicted ones hare be- "id. so s h o ~ ~ be give ld his mind to God when he offers his usual prayers. tell us ? " The o\vl " To obtain blessings." the ships that by contrary winds b a ~ e becn nearly . " I should like the king to ask God this fnvor. Like as a io bouble implore God's help. a n d mount up to heaven." They all said that was correct. result will appear. d n d before asking a favor you s h o ~ l d give praise to God. come so extremely he:pless through them! that notairhst.. and annihilate them. sistance.that F e have led aright . r e are so ~owerfulthat? if one of us wished be could seize 1 . The king said to the whole assembly. yet on cccoout of their I > e r a e u t i ~we havl Red: and hid in tile rivers and l~ And our bro:her the falcon has fled fwm them and gone and lived in the jungles. they have sought relief here. ru~dal. this crisis n discussion is inevitable. mill give me assist an^. and leave them to God in tliis world. because from fighting and quurelling nothing is get at the zained." The king said.^ The roc said. " How many are lapt day.dl his company assembled. 'Amen: The owl said. or bear in mind d their ill-treatment." The king. " What do you desire ? " He said. and do good to the poor and destitute. implicit trust and sincerity of mind are required.

e and help in every why. t. they have great wisdom and knowledge." The king stlid. and we have b l ' o u ~ ~ it th e n to the shore ? For the Great God is satisfied and please(.been drowned. for that I-Ie has given us a strong const.. the dolphin. of After this he said to the messenger. that.t. ': Give us a detzilcd account of their knomledge ancl skill that we nia.'' P CEIAPTEIi S V . The king told t-heln what he had learnt at the ~llouth the rncssenpr. I wl go directly and in n molllent conil sume them. ancl give11 =S power 02~1 strengtl~ t-jt: : irj onr assistanr.r knomledge they lnalre n wooden yoke and put it on the shoulders of the bullock: and loading heavy goods upon his back take him from east to mesi and from west to east. that they are acquainted with every science ruld art. the turtle. wit8h us.:)? mid told 6i1n the news of the dispnte with %an. the crcsodiie.hcin.iculars.inds of jewels and . md hake them over seas and rivers. by means of tLe." The messenger said. he also collected the whole of his subjects slid adherents.itution. the frog. and by different strat. all the anilnnlp of the sea. They go over mountains and hills. of various forms and shapes.y also knolv of .nge~ns ascend mountains a ~ d seize the v~lltnreand the eagle. but consider thel~~selvcs superior in these part.tolxl. ~vieijorn and prodence iilie theirs is not in any one. " %:hat 1 does not the king know that by their skill they descend into the Red Sea and take out jerels from the bot. \Then the iifih messenger went and prescnred 1:imselE to the king of the inhnbirnnts of the SF. and dig out of the earth all 11. If me11 consider themselves superior to us in st. &c.har. "They do not boast of any of these things. and know many invenrions and contrivances. and take te n !s : below ? Tn the same may. By invention and skill they make boats and put goods thereon." The luessenger sdd. Therefore the fish. and they cross all deserts and jungles. and in this way we r e t ~ w n thanks for His blessings. I rrill drav them in by the pover uf my breath md devour -hem. i~nmecliatcly upon the order attended.rength and courage.

ot one g a w an answer. o~ desert. neither b a r e T s~eceh that 1may conyerse Thirst to me is unbearable. river and pond is filled [with them]. his appear~~~c~ canle1j7. and many orhey things. &. diles and dragons go t o v u d s that place. But before the King of the Genii it is n question about justice md equity.x1 i1 not be able to approach it. neither can I eo~xtendwith man. A h y person that is drovning be talres out of the water and thmrrs on the shore. because he at one time gave shelter to their prophet in his belly. In man's estiruation also his rank is high. except the dolphin who lives in the salt sea.n--y 6 l05 ) stream. and has p-'eat affection for manur. my condition is Ildpless. for he lenves the voter and h e s 011 the land. Vhen I rralk my feet become heavy. his face pretty." Mhea the kinl heard these words of the messoilger. To him living in sea or land is the same. "In your opinion. If one man. and g said. and can enduye pain sld grief. ~ n much talking cannot be done d by me. for his body is large. what pian should Le adopted ? What person will go t h e e and disp~. stre~~gh. I cannot in allp way go there. the). and the vey is long . I am also one of a few words. he turned towasds thoae who were s i t t i ~ ~round him. in number more than all the creatures of the vater. If I remain .( old. so very prolific that ek-. his color clear.g asked the f& ~ L 5 he said to this ? He i. iu any river or sea.ute with man ?" ?. " Of the creatures of the vaters the fish is fit for this work. away from the vater a moment. in swimming "" 0 than perfect.iih hinl. Besides this his body is strong and back hard . " This task c m never be done by ine." The Icing asked tile tortoise. co~ltentiou and argument:-power. swift in motion. silver." The tir.]l bnild talisman (of art). m-ater-course. for I have n o feet thnt I may p0 there. and aftervmds conveyed him in safety to his own place. In my opiaio~i tortoise is better for the this business. he is very forhearing. " w h a t do you think advisable ?" We said. t said. Eves? lman believes thnt -the whole earth x s t s on his (a ~irlr's)back. or stlmatngem will have 110 weight. He said. for he is a U . For this the doilrhin is best. his bo* proportionable. iron and copper.noes to the edge and by neans of his great. then if a thousand el-oco. .

" be h ~ l m ~ eJ ~ Dd ' his teeth nuner." l. r u n n i n ~ with any thing &at I canget. 1 the eyes of the cbil~s " dxn of Isrze1 his noyih and esteem are gred . p e ~ l ~ Ia ~ s ' 9 13ogLed at tlitre. . telnples al. s i g h t day thinking of God he coonrs his rosary. e n ~ yE 111 fi~ S 'ihe crocodile said. and morni~lg a ~ l devening Ell$ages hintself ill prayer and fustiag. so as if m d e of lead.e Open On either side.-. : his body firm. 7. in my opinioll. he has eight feet." The messenger go there. In jmlking and r ~ m l i n g is sFift . ing-" The king then aslied the doil. \vhnt 1.for be is 3 physicia: is patient. be is. In r w L l g g is swifl. jnst.r he is hasty over nothing. the crocodile is most 'or t. "h my opinion. nnil lie is 1 eeypersevering iil striving to gain his ends .igity. hk i6 "OLI!~ yell l- .equired there. laughed a t ? l:?hnt. feetare strong." The Ling said> " The11 Whom it ~ i be best to send there ?" u The crab $aid.I.bacIr shape w r y eoilterupiiblc .debcts arc tllcre in you ? " The cl-ab 011seeing mo they This animal i Lea&ess. for I nrn very pnssionnte. yet. L l . equity. . hi. ~1.SZY 6r.is eyes eye s his necic) his lnouth in Lio chest.his task.ice. nears :rrmonr. king mentioned this to the IIe How 5. sl~ipping. Tn short." Ti" king ciuestioned the crocodile He replied. YOLl 111aj. md they also are cro'Jiced.. f01.jCi~~Ilce.11~ king said. be goes headlong on his face . slldl I go tht1. I m 3lt0geL-er a &stiirber and all io~postor. ]. hin back p Strong.this business the frog is t!:e bent. o ponyer." ~ b . ~ n d &his stewious. mid h36 more of the power of Bas~n. of them on seeing me make me n laughing stoc].good malkfl'. jumping. ': 111 . '' I am in no %ayfir ror this ulldert&iag. ?3eenuse his fea a y m a n y ." nolle of these qualities and acquirement S arc . the friend of God. strength: heailup &is said. adstratagem are 1102required. re. I~oLI~:~? ia liirae in your opinion is ~dviszbie " i-Ie 8 :r this affair the crab is most fir. PO. he can bear a great deal. but wisdc:~. me my defects. He also f r e q l l ~men's ho~ises.e ? My fornl is 1n. because on One oecnsion he served them thus :ll-heu xinlrod oast A b n h m .. he his cla~vs ~ h i ~ rhis~ naila Lard.hin. his tongue long. olld b e hye'g much.


" Do not grieve over the frailty and inal~ilitv of this assembly. Thou alone takest con. ('In your oPinioii. he staod np by the wall: and having cleared his voice began to sing melodiously in the of God.infirm and weak.ording to % I I I ~ s u ~ God cre:rted before Ise fiid lllans tllerc r e r e ten of these essences or pritleiples S U C C C S S ~ ~ ~ ~ ji~odueedent of the l n t . Further." And tLrougL the king'r pmjer all the anin~alswho were collected thsrc b~ga11 converse mith great eloquence and fluency. deaf. to C___ CHAPTER XVII. I n short. Beaki and talons also they have none. W . and blind. vhich L ~ ~ e world. T l l q n also perio~libcd. He produced the first eascneeii in pure briglltness vithout convection with matteT 01shape. " The Sellnzotz qf the Locust. and dispute with man. by the ~periiing of' one word he brought them from bellind the veil of nonesistencc into the x o ~ l d bemg.t h e first r is represented by the angel Gabriel.em is ever mindful of d asked his minister the dragon. Look dovu 0fThy goodness and favor on their cimomrtauces.. and loolcing iox~ards heaven he offeyed this p a y e r : " 0 Thou the Creator and Benefactor. ~ ~ i n ~ a l s dumb. and to repeat this sermon with eloquence and duency : " Praise and thanks are due to that true Benefactor who has provided so many blessings in this rrorid . When the locllst saw that the king *as inclined to he kind and considerate towards his subjects -- Aic\-i-fil~.110 > troops." After this hc of slirl. Tho~iart most merciful. ditiw.He shines forth with unec4~~alled glory. and they are geuerally. and feeling regret in his heart lie began anres trainedl~t o cry irith sol*ronr. is theye any one of these fit to be sent the.passion on the condition of the weak. and of His perfect p o ~ c having bcongl~tauilnels out of the depths r of non-existence into the field of life. \ S W ~ s e n c e or principle of action. for the Creator who made them and supports tl. Ac. and confront him ? For most of theee a . the bing became mueh grieved and sorro~vfiilover their cm. He existed before time and place-earth and Len~~en. There are no "igns of hair or feathers on t i ~ r i rbodies. are They have neither hands nor feet. has givcn rbem rvtrious shapes. ~111alloyed mith anythillg created.

He also made his two tusks long that through them be may be saved from the attacks of ~ i l beasts and use his d trunk. saved from every harm . that apparently haye neither hair nor plumes. If he has given the gnat n small body. Some live free from care through their ability t o fly. delicate and light.heir strength 8nd intrepidity . like as the birds . And some.them. he has ou the other band given him two wings. That is. He has bestowed means to acquire cornforte.l-tin. and weapons of defence suitable to every one. and strength great.s said unto all the i his ovn honse: n tints. as also other animals vhose bodies are large. that they may be safe from all harm. Let each one hide himself K .like as the elephant and lion. and are protected from harm. and not be disturbed in the enjoyment of their privileges. but in His blessings He is impartial to all. 21-e swift and fearless in flying. the deer. For when God created the animals. Some he gave large foi-ms. no one has inore than the other. or be caved from harm. save tkemselvss from harm by means of t. sn~alland great. and to some he small bodies. and Illany by diving into the rivers save themaelvea from danger. I n this "ay this assembly also. for inare stance. And the Great God says in the story of the ant : 1<dlat namlafujz ya ayohan namlcldhdld arasdlrinaklr* lnynetemanakun~Suleima?to wa 2cahum iciyas1tau. the chief of the ant.her weakness. And r n q there are who hide in holes. made their forms and shapes of different kinds. \&'hen He gave the elephant a tremendous body and excessive strength. the hare. All the animals that are large in stature. are not exceptions to the rule. by which he flies and is saved from his enemies. n7hen God placed them in this condition. by swift ~ U I ning and flightht. Be gwe them. In these advantages a11 are equal . In the means by which they enjoy their (particular) privileges. the wild ass. like 3s the mouse and the mt. yon see &at tbose mhose bodies are small and frxil. and have extraordinay Strength. &. If your majesty wait a little and loolc into their condition. like as the animals of the waters. Be gave one strength: and anot. they are all alike. ererg means bp which they could enjoy their gifts.

And God sends the food of -and one to tL& rsrp place. the tortoise. And there nye lnnnp hide b e d s llnder their tails. 1" short. the)y exempt from the calamities that l f l"1~ ' ihollg . ~ ~ " ~ "Y L J . ~~d &J. p br0~1.~ht forth in such.hey are unannre of (yooip~rsei2ee). nor spleen to absorb ill-humours .lrddrrs to h 3 the urine . without t h o ~ ~ g l l t or exertion. Pi""$ tllkt i'bgr~ ancl t~onble.ajninu. R of His liindness has lessened their e 61 2 ' in mLici fil~h. trouble or toil. killc~lllneys. to fly at the nphave to proacb danger: f o t h e i r food. tlor 11 bloocl o~ayROW . 0 t h . They have the power of absorllti~n g-ivcn to them. neirher give 'them rnou. d u d the nleons of obt. For justallce.llly in n m i n .:ost Solomon nad his army trainpie yoa under foot.j 'Y lnenns of nhich they me safe fimn ewey inj 2 " ' instmce.r. nor liver to purify the blood .arter may collect . and hidden ere found m. onimnh :'"depgo trouble of Beeinrt. Solxe of 3 them that see with piercing sight.llom . i:2g fo3d to those anirnnlr that are extyem2elysludl ""{l feeble.limj.s "rander about. food these animals have: are vgriaos. Of chronic diaenses they never get one. And there are severni vhose skin and hides God bns made jlBY. ~~~d some ir seek their food by scent..and ?&&hthe spots hi lrhich they diseoVel' ) food: like as the ~ ~ i l t ~rind ethe eagle. those are exempt froin this labor. Some are broilgLt forth in grassl some in the bellies of animnIs. nud these are ~ esemlted fiaom toil and t ~ ~ u b l e Therefore . by etl-ength wing 8. places and llidden that no one is amare [of them].kept in order. like ss the ant. aq~latic animals. nor nerves in vlJicb thmugh v"h& the senses in the brain are .O ~ fol. alld his moistllre bodies %ye srrengthencd. They r ~ l i t110 medicine. u l a ~ ~ l i ' e. for a.:iy Food .nlimdh are subject to. no' a somacL with which t o digest . to D . the fish. nor intestines or entriiils which E R digested n. not make them hands and feet. r d biding them. by vhich they draw in moistore and support their bodies. ncd are safe from danger: 3s the porcupine. their d.th teeth by nhieb ta eat augthicg ) nor a llalate by rrhich to sm. \JTben God has given mute sense and means of obtain.nor b].

For this reason God has . . to when required.'' and added. Jiny ~~d bless thy eloquence and fluency. cessive?v eloquent m l floent. But it is throu% their ignorance and stupidity thqv hlk the.m every may at your service: At the order of the king.. nor teeth with vhose strength to mns- .e these? tbey are of 1 1 use." ?Vhw the locust had finished his sermon. They are of no use. but altogether hurtfr~i m d injurious.' M C ~ '0 sill not impertincnti~ blan~e God. nod extremely learn. To Him be praise and thanks who has given such blessings. . so much so that kings and nol>iea the poison of these animels in their rings. . " O DOC~OP l describe me other advantage. md means by which they gniu comforts and from annoyance. I will go there and mix with my brethren. rudely. They know nothing of the nature and use of anything.sked why He said. For the snake there is no stomach. y e t they all Csnskesl of use to them. "Aw you able to go there 60 dispute with man: " He said.!' The snake said to him.who of His omnipotence has provided them a11 they want. " For this reason betwen snakes and men excessive enmity and opposiiioll I1"e been for ages. Saln?z add. SO much so that certain men have blamed God for creating them. thou art er. the37 will not say. to some He gave ponerare fill stomachs (or co?vlitutio?v)tbat after mastication their food may be digested and strengthen the body. .Excepting the r u i ~ land death of m u . and has kept them free from every grief and torment. why do they say so?" He replied.bile understand the condition aud U ~ of S these animals. If they a 3 tbink e ." The locust said.no benefit is [derived] from them. '' Because there ia poison jn their mouths.. ' J T ~ ~ J did God creat. Do not sap there thst yoli "re come sent by dragons and snakes. c ed and wise.. Although God has t k i r l'oison for the purpose of kiKiug animslr." The locust a.. and perceive the u s e of this ppoision is in their mouths. %Then God created those animnls you mentionecl t o every clcss of aninlals ill your sernlon.bieCted them to afiictioo. . that it may digest.yet Be has made their fiesh XI antidote for the The locust said. Saying." The snake said.

he . ' ' He said? :.. ft'sion and hurt t o s3rne. so from t]jpln also solne is the cause of life.cjj henrt the body." The iocrirt szid7 cij)egCyit. llealtb and p ~ O s y e ~ :iyet 3i cert'ain u i l l ~ r o ~ ~ t i o u i g 111 h a t or cold mnug sll$er.t $Iasr. j i jn.culd never be pi-oenrtble .Jlerrol-ld mny tilld ber:~fit or ad~3.akes the flesh of ally animal inh. mJ stars. n ~ildie ~vould: scrn ill the s ~ ~i ~ ~4 d .i r7 . Rl. It is nor that the Great times from .e b a t of the sun ereatic.t o stop it on their account . i~ would not be correct ~ ~ ~ ~ p dto l l y $'ill: of the ofiimn]a He created i for tile C. lilny aceroe fro111 i ~ l ~ y ~ i lare open and C ~ C S t o il~g his 1nour.ything .ticate. To the vhole world the suil is like thii Bis h::ve come froin their exisrelice ? '' ~1~ sct.dcccrdiu~gt o thir wisdolll.h and puts thereon stro~rg poi8oLi.icts are these : ' r. '' Describe to us ~rllft nGvmtcges MS heat the supporr.. His rr-isdm the Lnd resuite and mischief that . N ~ C I 011 L) ~ n ~ i q-liet belle?? !l nturea. By them the vol'lrld gains all the i sO1netines from certain causes this ]jeeolnes ecfi. Tbc f.ind "me for the Llse of others: lnnking thein rIieir depriye tile nol:lC\ this nniversd blessing and of ~ l ' o P e r t ~ . of the esistnlce of %S cseman gets from them. in h e same r i r & j ~ fro1ri he good is gained. slid made h Ilie 10ccst said. by ~ L i c h eats and digerr.reat~i.Id 13e did.11D k e a t God had not created this polmii iTl his looolb rfi.. ~ He thought best for the wor. that ahst coamon ndoantzp T h i is the case with Saturn. ~ blade the sun the light of the rrod2. IThen the AllllightJF no y oue should bp any means ercr irclsr miy hwin created the W ~ ! S \ r ~ l d and nn:lilgcd eme. not to c r e n t e anything in which the mediately dissolves.i~~ AlthougL poison is pmdoccd. alefirer p u t of t. or igjuyy from this beat. XTlien the snake t. a ~~d throws them into tl-eshca1amit. . Him.ge. fo. out of then1 HC i bi~npr. and E T T B ~ ~ O W S Then if *he it.~~ benefited If therefore is this c k a r l ~ . as in the heart nstturnl '' In the same may 3s benefits arise hill t ] 2 e exlieat is l-l*oduced and spread t h ~ * o u g ? lthe ~ t ~ ~ bodg istence of other ailimals. he r c a7i d God created all the stnre. but instead of these in Lis liio~lth ~t~.thOoghR few m27 be i n c o n ~ ~ ~ e n thereby: ced lionr wnauld be be Ale to ear f i ~ ~ y t b i n o His ? is R~~ belo\r the Creator..

C L they J are formaTd and present yourse~ve~.jt\-hen all Thi. perish. t ? k e the n t ~ these are produced from this inlpuritp." Although they are dso ignorant .re also food for the larger himself in the P L I ~ ~ C for the PurPoSe Court for they are their food.that His ~ and stench. [saying. ~ ~ and think of the condition ofel'' eroendiJes insectp. are generally produced jn butchersv and of houses. i ~ ~ IT . the ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~of ~ ~ Aniinals. Every one according come upon the earth. grazers. l. and people are saved from disleoted together. they uncalled-for objection to direction for the good of K.creatures. ye com~lainnnts " Au is not aware OFthis utility criticises the almighty . yet works .lague tion ia e a c e s s i r ~ ~ ~ blessed. j ( 121 ) the same God sends forth clonas in and stupid.ar. they make the morning when all the representatives the eshalations of the filth their food. Therefore 311 these aorrus and ~1~~I"J"lt XT7III. and of justice who are 0 ~ ~ r e 9 s e d y 'Ome these were made. they are no way acquainted with His 1s at times the animals are inconlTenienced skill pow. This is the case beyond the region of the doM not 'l ' of Prey. they mill v n d e r s t ~ n . Of them some wholeof nature. and all the aJlimals sudto hi3 desert receives of Ifis bounty. And these small worms .5 chaptel. . rho of deciding the& dispute. ~ c o ~fish.The Iiing no use. Great has made nothing uaeleJs. a descyi~tio?i the gatheriflg togethe'. and live in 61th. and T ~ C ! Icing of the Genii had ease. the macembearer as he ordered shouted and saidaid. that the air may be mercy estend to every one srnail goodlless its and t h t from the rieillg of bad pOr the Jolldancc of His grace l ' mpODysthe air may uot Be offensive.( 1 0 . I have heard that certain ignorant them . or from excessive floods the houses of opinion that the goodness Of Iprsons the Poor are destroyed.l f&. snakes. and the air the animllsfrom exrerp country had Come and Pme.

They are perc&yed by us.? rg tkese forms clso cre h prol>ort. . up repente. 411d those who cre b .za. creatoms ? " He replied. ancl not be in nant l~mofsand 21-glunent.tilr(<rb d presented themselrea in great nmnbors.7: power and matchlcssncsa.' wlcb.i this address : '' 12r:fise 13 h e t. i ~ l i l ! ~ m h a t Z X I ~d211se.o that adcreil oile xho of Bit. or speech. > ~ N .he anilnnls which they 2 . they ore [ever] within [the panel. The King tool.h tile eyes of my heart.e ill that ricrld are 1~1:llinonk tllnt And subtle. Be nlxnifested EIir skill [h His vwksj Q a i every sensible man may perceive it. aud having piid their l*espeefr begm to Mess [Llm]." and observing them. si-~:ingeed tilell~selvesmd stood hfore the Icing. iil the visible vorld r. 2nd s n r t h t rnrious killda of c.'' Hen~i:ip this the sniillals and men tLnt had come from ever).seated in order t o decide disputes.re copies and sbxies of forills that arc fcn. Further. 13OJVE1' 226 pci'- . who nlnnpn supports the111 mid gives then).nzc. :' 0 hiiig: I am looking a t theem enmestly. And these f o r ~ n i?bat G .hougl-~t ncy could nesrcr -. nolice d all monnd.atiofi may see. ut After this be turlletl towards a pl. . i c ~ [ m mj nl.e. hod.iiosopl!cr of the Genii ~ i l d snid. " Do you see these n~oilderfiila d excellcat.s::~. of] his ornnisehnce. or motious.ion t o thfo l> Ernlns that found in t l ~ e spiritual I T O . the Those fopllls 2i. ~ ~ .houtbelizg. and these aye .. rjnArtcr nud coilected together. ~ n t tk-oje forms given vitality io others while these receive vitality fpom tl. i u the snr:?. Those i > . end the judgei and l a w ~ e r s are present.o-it.m and gave them different kinds of shapes. who protects them from every harm.7'Aftcr -t5is 1-C . ' Toor majesty is arnazed looking at ~lrela. that men of obsern .ble. 224 these 8 ~ 2 lllortnl and i~a~isha. For when the Great C40d became Bidden from the view of man b r the curtitlll of brightness: here fa] and t. 2nd adiiioriledge His skill! supl. And ~vhatsoeverwas in His hiddeo treasury He made i the vorld of mture. t c ~ + i ~ t]l3t in t:le world of eternity live for ever.ld i : ~ spiritunl vorld. Be irss fov a l ~ ~ o m e astonished and remained motionless. ~d Like 2s in i>ictures oT?crylimb ia in prcportion TCJ . I a 1 11 nstonisiled at the sliill iind power of the s i r e Authoi mho 111ade t11.2 . 7 ~pictures.

and made rulers on earth. ar. was noticed. resting place in the first Heaven. I-Ie lives in the .pparel mere standing there. who has exalted us by means of the true faith and worship." The minister beckoned to him. He made the Genii before the time of Adam out of the burning fire and gave them wonderful forms and very subtle bodies. And 011 the fttce of the e a ~ t h ot-ested a11 the various binds of and having provided every thing mhi& is created far beyond the understanding of a~lp created beiqg. . TPisdom m d forbearance. good looking. t i . To Bone He has given a.'::i. upright..i-eiayrational creature t o s l i o ~ rcrc. " Speak to him that he may say something. The King aslied the minister. Many He has placed between these two positions. of which this is an extract: :' Thanks be to that .hstt person live ? " He said. Bud He has set every one in this world by ths light o Hs prophets on the highway f i of salvation. gwe them different na1 tures and made them different in rank. Ancl those who use their OWE imperfect abilities in judging of His mysteries He has placed in a plain of ddnrkuess. "He is an inhsbitant of Persia. others H e has cast into the bottomless pit of the lokest Hell. From His treasury of benevolence He hns given every kind of comfort. Praise and thanks be to Him. He h : ~ i made many storeys of the lieavenn and ~ppointed the angels in every place. And having brought forth the rrhole of the creatures frm His hidden treasury. " %There does t. well pyoportioned in every part of his body.d haa give3 our kings a share of the blessings.. of' His infinite goodness He has bestowed places round about Himself.fection b ~ o q h t forth all creaiilres. G ~ i ~ E . and he made obeisance and began to repeat a sermon. a:~dfor the eol~renienceof i H e creatu~eshas created time and place. Upon those who pray and lilmeni. Those seventy men of different forms mea4r-.r! t." When the philosopher had finished this sermon. He has given the animals different kiuds of shapes and forms. perplexity and uzlcertdi~ty. ~ g ~ i ~f His-glorious haadivorli.region of Irak." The Icing said. F-ie has bounded tile e u t h i11 s x directions. ing different kinds of a. One person from amongst them. placed the ssme within the view of " c. the King looked towards the multitude of men.

nild [learnt] ~ o n d e r f ~ sciences. Addressing tlie philosophers Ile said. a s man is superior to animals." When the man had finished this sernion.va. the King said to all the philosom o s t creatares. and has given up superiority over Praise and hoi~orbe u n t o E-Iim r h o has bestowed upon 11s a11 these gifts-wisdom." He procecdcd : '! The Persitin in his address did not say that on the'Ir a c c o u ~ t the fiood came upon t. the chosen one.d." Rnt Azimst allowed no one to p ~ ir. who me11 nlannged ihe government.il?gs have descended :Fa. that in their 1-2ce spl~. knowledge: perceptioiz.he subjects. 03 rvhom b p blessings and peace-.%brallamy Xoses: Jesns. and did not 111cntion many great kings.h. that all thc enimnis that. In fact. '' FIe speaks the irnt. . that their reason hnd deteriorated. burnt the Old Teat. Brtaxel-ses.Lc earth.arni~ig to. Kourshirman. the provinces. reason. who threw Abrt~ham. 2nd given ns s ~ q ~ e r i ority over all nature. From our tribe many noble l.( 127 &.nhat reply can yonmnlre ? " They all said. Describe you them." To Him be t h a n l i ~-rho Lns gir7u1 u s the most perfect Isleesinge. friend of God. t-he into the fire. t. pr~rdicace. . we are the crenln of t l ~ c whole w0~1. of From our race %onhi Knoch.EL&rarn. the army and 1. lTTe are the esseuce of mankind." The king said.nment.. the tyrant was born. and clrove out the mce of Sdam from the l ~ l l l i ~ the Euphrates of -7.he rnaa in his speech omitted 11ia11:v' f::ct. all their wise lnen mere in error. mere on the earth mere all c1rorl:cd: that in ' his tribe mnn has done much xvrnilg.eared Nebnchacla nezzay who destroyed the Temple. md all the children of Israel. ancl of describe the vices and bad cond:lct of man. ) pbers ofthe Genii : '' TOthis man who has detailed his privileges and boasted of t<hem.raidoon: Dmius. the son of David. t h a t among them 1113%simrod.211 these prophets have de.scended. 3Iahoined. " 0 philosophers. and killed Solomon. and many sultans of the race of the Snssanides. ancl t.-oil -rho fos our dmellillg place has given those cities and villages whose climate is the best in the whole world. and by whose assiatxnce v e have made excellei~tinventions.rrIs thc man he desirccl to reply to the ~rhole his speech. s t wcrd before his.s. It is Hc :l rrho has given us authority ailcl the g i f ~ prophecy.

the trees flourishing. "This is a Hindoo of the island of Ceylon. not repenting of or apolo gizing for them. the reeds fire sngarcane. and he asked the ministel." Azima replied. arid moving about . having an enormous body. There is never excessive cold or heat." After this the Kingloolred towards the crowd of men. From our cities many prophets and wise men have sprung. given dmiseion to this also in your speech. " If you had . " Thanks be to Him who has given us an extensive and good country. xhat person t h a t was. worship idols. swaying baekw a d s and forwards. " It is far from justice and equity to describe adl ad~antages t.'! The King said.he time of disat pute. that you burn bodies. and he asked the minister. olive colored. the stones of that place are r ~ ~ b j ~ and emeralds." After this the lG11g saw a man. and he saw one of them. for every thing originated on the other side of the equiiloctial line. he nas a great tyrant. the elephant. The Great God has endued us with many wonderful and excellent gifts. ?That person is that ?l' He said. no benefits would accrue to him from mentioning them. this is all to his disparagement. the animals fat and plump . The creation of niaakind also took place these. for instance. as also of the whole of the animals. and in adultery bring forth n numelons race. "How could the man relate these things . " This person is a Hcbrem of the tribe of 1 . Further. " Speak to him. and one who continually deIighted in blood. lookhg at a written paper in his hand. slightly made. thzt y011 are r~~inecl and disgraced. divination-a11 these sciences has He given us. who is the largest of animals. in compliance with the King's order said. i t would have been in accordance with justice. that he also may relate something about himself." Azirnat said. tsll of stature. the green grasses of that place are all medicines." Accordingly he also. Astrology. Day and night there are equal. covered with a yellow shawl. and bound with a red a&dIe. with n Iong beard. IIe add. his holy thread round his body. magic. The climate is temperate.!' The King said. and to hide a11 faults.into the wilds and mountains . He has made the people of our country most proficient in every art and accomplishment. the jewel mines w e innumerablej tthe herbs are eatable.

the cLiidren of Irmcl. kindness. and fi-om among whose race gave MO~eb. and a desire to worship Him. (irclered him to tell him to speak. The mhisieP ljcckol~d him. a resident of %fecca. He according t o the order to pented a l o ~ l g nddress. in his hand was a censer full of b u n t incense which he was aaring. olive colored. have you forwtten that you have not fulfilled your dtities a towards Him as you o ~ ~ g ." Tell him t o state his case also. " I:& race of'. The minister said. ': Tme ." Azimat said. The sylian. Thanks be to 13im has given us such blessings. Accordingly he commenced: ' l Trdse be to the ." B. He is of I<oreish. and through Eh prified the children of Israel from sin.** God an address of which this is the substance : '' T b n ~ k s be to that Crestor who brought forth the 91essiah illcar. and noticed 8 1 ~ 3 .ldarn to the children of Israel gave +:[pcriority. in compliance with the order. Besides these a have many more privileges which I have not e nlentioned. wllo tallied with God.hy do you not say that his w ~ a t h changed you and made you into and monkeys. a follower of Christ. and made us His dqendents and children. you have adored t h e crucifix.Le ::':XI" :---'. covered wirb s sheet. and on account of idolatrg disgraced and ruined you." He ordered him to tdl him to speak. repeated 11:) [:S. Pron~our race He hna brought forth many wise and pio~xsmen. Wit11 8 lollcl voice he a s s repeating something in a dironting tone. IIe said. M. wea~inga' narrow slip of cloth." -4fteter this the King s s r~ man who was slight.maa from the rrolub of hlary and gave Him prophet's miraculous power. He has put into our heart. 'L He is a Syrian. a dseller in Syria. He asked the minister what persol1 that aas. of rrbiefi this is the sub." Kingsaid. the rank of prophet.s compassion. Thanks be to the Creator who orer t. you have become illht fidels.. deceived and mronged God. and having sawificed swine. standilig there: and asked who he Was." Bfter this the Ring %ail1 loolted towards the assembly of men. have eaten of their flesh.wearing woollell clothes : round his loins was n bound a lenthern strap. Prise nlld gratitude be to Him who made us subject to E I ? " ~ a pl>opbetand gave such a variety of blessings Azimat said.

' pra57er asselnblier pld lcnomledge of the faith." The King looked tomards the assembly of men. '' YOU are to "S. ITe has revealed to us the ohtnlse sciences and bemtiful arts. and disngreed." d z i ~ n a tremarked. i ~ m i 11 Ramazau. Lo$c. Thanks he to Him who ha? besto~@a such favors upon us. our country various kinds of fruits and zood things are produced. making piigdmacges aid crivino b b prilrilcges and blessillgs He givenus. on whom be blessLiga and peace." has He vain boasting of these sciences.~ilmighty who sem the prophet m ~ d apostle Nabo. Astrology. Illany moye advantages we. A S ~ ."The King asked the Grecian philosopher. and he saw a mall of f2ir colnplelion wirh an and astl~ouom apparatus in his ban d.hst does he say? " He said. for instance. 3Iathernatics. Arimat said. for us. ical He asked who it was.. and for worldly ~ ' j j e c t s Pllt to death the patriarch. a dweller in 'he p r o ~ c e Z) {iTeece. (:Sq also that you renounced the faith after [ Q e of] the prophet. " It is trite. made 11s to understand the use of e p e y thing. I . But in them of your onill ability. Also He has prolnised us elltl. Afterwards you introduced them into your ovn country. we many sciences from the ancient sages." The King said. PLJosophy. - the t.. The minister said. r n d besides these many other sciences. &feclicine.es.nd learn the p8rticulars of the heavens. the detailillg of which would be long. the dsvs ~ f f ~ ~ t .ac@ into heaven. Of His favor and gooclnes." Therefore in compliance with the . the night of Iiad). and now you take the credit to your. relL.. :L t\.ime ptolemy you learned them from the of Israel.q~est he also began:-(' Praise is due t o FIim who has give11 us superiority over most creatures. observe the five times ofsprayer. x e d the chosen one. md entered us into [the list of] his hilowers. ia . and certain arts in the days of psmmeticbus you took from the wise men of Egypt. " Tell him t o descC!c 1Ga case also.O ~ O ~ I P . and tedious. for ~ 0 1 . .%i n tho month of EarnaZan ~ u ~ when God zever refuses a request.ver * P r ~ ~ i t inight. and com~uandedLIS to rea. i. This 'nan is of Rome.d the I(oran. to make obsesrations a. Geomaney .

Pany texts of the Koran prove our superiority and rank. In the number of population he Has made our country to exceed ail countries . -. then certainly these things would be worth boasting of." CHAYTEM XIX. the son of David. In short.same may as at. who has given us stronger fsith than the rest of mankind. The ~r~inister . '' Gentlemen. and worshipped not the sun and moon. one derives benefits from another: the wise men of Persia took the sciences of astrology and astronomy from the s a p s of India.Tell him also to relate his own circumstances.le >$o~es and Jesils they aclcnowledge the tmi?l. Ke hope that of his grace. with a largish bead. depart and be present again in the mol~ing. vhen dl the animals and men in the presence of the King w r e stand- . Sollle read the Koran . This is the way of the world . In this way magic and the talismanic art went to the children of Israel throzgll Solomon." Wheu every man had finished relating his podtion and superiority7 the macebearer shouted and said. ! * ': If they were not adulterers." And he in complirsce n i t h the order v e n t on : " Thanks be to God who has given us t'. stout in body. '' This man is of Rhorasan.. and cruel. though they do not understand its meaiog. f On the third day. The Icing asked who that was. For some of us read the Old and New Testaments. looking towards heaven with great confidence. present other people learn fro111 S . and although they know not its meaning. it is nonr evening. fornicators. '' To this man who has described his pretensions and p o s i t i o ~ ~ what mply do you malre? '' L philosopher said. and have revenged his blood on his murderers. thanks be Xis." dfter this a man appeared from tlie last row. said. but of the prophecy o f looked towards the sages and said. yet they acknorrledge in their hearts the religion of the last prophet [ H a l o m e d ] We through grief for Ilnnm Hoosain wear moor::ing appasel." The King -rarioas blessings and privileges. Description o the Lion. the ! s i t Jmam will first appear in our country." He said. and by the mouths of His prophets 4as inserted our praise in the UTord of God.

( 136 . corns the elephant and ox. He is so generous that when be has taken his prey he divides it with ed. song. and then MS anger iri tppeased. '' The chetah. " I am the representative of 211 the norms. He fears no one but the ant. " Who art thou ? " He repli1 am the representative of the beasts. his loins slight. his appearance terrible. He saw that rbe locust was shaking both its wings and in a very t o v mice singing a. " V%o art thou ?" He said." C8BAPTER XX. ?Le other animals. Haris. the bogdeer. their king has sent me. and the gy. his teeth and claws hcrd. ." The King said. his chest broad. He lives in the forests and wilds. f and Afteter this as the King v a s looking right and left. j i n a runr_ the King t ~ r n e d towards :Lem and looked [at tben1. EIe asked.ag. aid Le himself neoessar?. no man or aniniimal is able to approach him through fear . Aa account o the Seipe?~t D~sagon. he goes nesr md stands. the wolf-all are ]:is friends and ofieera. MS limbs strong. and ail the mild anjmnls 2nd br~ltesare his sobjects. Re replied. eats j u d what is When from e distance be sees a light. the st. for he can o\-ercome him ancl his sce. he is correct in everything." He asked irho rrere his officers." The King said. the hr~re. . " In size he is greater than all anima!~. " Who sent thee ? " Be said. and nLere dues he lire ? " He repkd. hi8 bead Inrge. ': treats them vith nlac'u hindneaj aild regard. :-1Io-i~ dues he treat his subjects i'" IIe replied. end who rvel-e his subjects." He esked.j The jackal was aec:l in the front. the king of the beast6 of prey. Tlre other said. inan. IIe has n great desire and fondness for i . He does not molest any womnu or child. his voice lond. He asked. and is not dependent upoil my fiend or assistant in anything. il: strength beyond them. as the n~orquito over-. most terrible." The jackal said. ~t +some ti~:!a L xi11 give n detniied apcoant of the same. ': Who is he. and mosi dignified. The I<ing sJd.the fox. suddenly a noise reached his ear. sent B e enquired in what colintry he lived. " Describe h i s appearance and chzrac h i s ties.

ask be was on the bsnlis of a river standine on a hillock engaged in repeating his rosary.Aia name is Salan. near the region of iniense cold. by the strength of his head and tail." IIe add. " Becnuse in his mouth is a poison. and from its heat the whole of his body bums. The King aaslceil who Le was. beyond all calculation. his appearance is terrible. When he beco~nes gorged through excessive eating. rcor-411 pions.noros the nature of the sea dragon and can describe the same ? .- Describe his name and residence.. all the creatures of the sea a r e nfrnid of b. Of the inhabitants of the sea he devours ns man' as he cm. He said. ' I am the representdre of the king of the ceeatixres of the sea. Animals die there from the intense cold. and by the heat oftthe suil the food in his stomach is digested. eyes. the ti~rtle. and thmwing the middle of his body out o tka f vatey raises it in the air. and goes into the regioll o f God and Yagq. &c. and. " The representative of the inhabitants of the waters-the frog-. Often times in this &ate he becomes seosaless. he has Inany t. and they lire in every place on the face of the earth. take him up a d cast him on the land." The King looked towards him. on high hills and nlounrains he lives. and for some days he is food for ibn. U . the frog." The King asked who a ere his arluy and subjects. '(7Vhy has he separated himself from his army md gone to live at such a height ? " He said. 'L snakes. .' The locust snid." The King said. the the crocodile are his subjects. " In size hc is greater than all the inhabitants of the m a t e ~ ahis . is present in front of your ~najeaty. he then bends himself like a bon-. him. At that time the clouda which rise from the ocean. fish. then L dies and becomes the foodof the beasts of p e y . form is wonderful. " ITho 1. all the inh y t s n t s of the waters." He said. And sometimes he rises the clouds." He said. thus in the regions of cold he lives comfortably. his lengthgreat . He said. where clouds and rain and vegetation are not.'' He asked. " Describe his form and shape.his head am his bright." He snid. " His is Tanin. are his soldiers and subjects.eeth. he lines in the salt sea ." The King said." He said. erects him-. his face is in large. " His shape and qualities are like those of the sea dragon. " Give an rccount of his appearance nzld qua1ificstio:ls.

rows? &C.hem..l. God regulai-ly circulates fortuni: . they f ~ the same way collect and erit him. He fears no oae. Like as he devours ather snlall animals. of and mhy do they not perceive -therefrom that a!. " From the death of oiie comes the befie. and take ~vitnesses from amongst: .&dh ailohn barnandse zculegdalnzulE6 hzZI lnzinn ci. "I have heard that :l11 men are of opinion that they are mneters a ~ i d animals their slaves. goat. 5. Therefore philosophers have said.j!e71z"nthat is. but a small clyature like a rt~osquitoof which h e is very much R&aid. that He may know those people whotrust in Him. This is the t cxse with beasts and birds of prep.nay2c 2MYILttd~~o n~lnkunzshohdddd raalaho Zrcytolribbiiz z." .another. This is the case vith man-.f c i ~ a m ofi. sheep birds. For after death oidy are the good and evil to be distinguished. the effect t11e poison penetrates the mLc!e of his body. At last when tbey di2 all the volms and sn~stll animnlg eat them. I cannot understaxk! in what instance inan thinks himself superior to the animals." After this he said to the king. hog-deer. and when they die very small -ii-orms dei7ou-r their bodies.d flee frolu him. all I have described the co~~dition a11 the anitnds. enpIe 2nd mlture chase the SPIL~'WFFhank. He ~vesumption is very stupid t o say such an nnreaaonable thing.Tl1 sl:ort: all the creatures of the sea are a. Sometimes they devour [others] and sometimes they beconle the food of others. God is c o t friend with a tyrant. and sometimes small ones put their teet-h into large animals. For the fate that is ours is his dso. d m turn towards God in the end. This is the case witIL the mhole of the ~~orl'ld. c-." -4ftec this he said. The spn. For when this animd bites him. amidst mankind. aninds are equal-di s tlinction tbere is none. All will be 11Gxedin the dust. Then all the inhabitants of the seas collect together and for a long time feast on his iiedl..-they ail eat the flesh of the deer. pot the Great God has said TiZa2 . and falco:~ de\-anp t. sometimes large animals eat small ones. h a n ] ~ falcon hunt them 3 q a i a the hawk.t of. kind.fraid 2:. 2nd i n the end be dies. That Inan should make this aesertiox that be is master and all animals his slaves--t-he and aspersion is very astonishing. feed on gnats and ants: alld tlze sparrom. .

the climate temperate. cattle. " The land there is . Those seventy men." Re said. and when he flies t l ~ e hills tremble a t his strength as he moves. on high mountains he lives. t'hat they could go into their country and annihilate t." I-Te said. L'Desn The tribe the appearance and form of the Eioc. llis n . not s man mould be left .wy h i p go so far. cl_. " Who art thou ? " He said. They do not consider that if the mild beast froln tire forest. serpents." . ': His abilities are very many. ." The King snid. ~ King snid." After this the King looked tovrards the assembly of men. " Describe his qualifications. and a single man mould not be saved alive.nu they not see the ad~antngeand be thankful that God has kept a11 these animals at a distance from their dwellings. snalces mzd scorpions are his slaves." He replied. No one can enter there: neither 1 I He said. C. hmting animals." After this the King saw before him a parrot sitting on the branch of a tree. " Give partic~ilars of &at island. &C. they are like the sails of' :I ship.why he should imagine that all 1 am beasts of prey. different the kill& of ai~irnrtls u m e r o ~ s .y good.. various kinds of trees h i t f u l . . the fountains pleleaaing.. ''I am the representative of the birds of prey. "Where does he live ? " He replied. Ile takes uy~the elephant. I-le said to them. and for this reason they have become inflated and ~ i t h o u tproof or argument have made such an unreasonable complaint. the beast of prey from the hills.i ~ ~ g s very broad and thick. and the crocodiles from the waters were to come forth and attack them.. '' In the islands of the salt sea. When he gircs nlotion to them in the wind. Re is in size larger than all birds.. His tail is long.ocodiles. " Who is your king ? " They replied. of different forms wearing various kinLsJ of clothes vere standing [there]. " Think and reflect on an answer to what the animals have advanced. his tdons and bill are strong. " \Ire have many kings." The King said. and every one in his own country has his own army and sub- . No. earth." Again he asked. the Roc their king bas sent me. strong in flight.. he asked. who was listening to every word . I mill detail them some otlzer time.hem. rhinoceros. they persecute tllose helpless animals that are in subjection to then1 day and night. and other lnrse animals from the .

hey may remain engaged in the government and management of his own race.on on every one's condition.d corn. by whom the kingdom is managed.iag to govern the mliole of mankind. Some are judges and lawyers. Therefore me11 require rulers. or t h e seyen divisicns i!. l7rrith man it is &ell the coat. secretaries and clerks. dthough they are so numerous there is one king. YLeg nlnp be defirred as 7 zones of about 1 2 degrees each from the Equator to t h e Xorth Pole. mho among men enforce the commc~nds the iav. Men have many wants. that the subject luight not err. slight: and weak. that among animals. and there lives. 3fany ape lxerchants and men basiness. and of the subjects. swindlers. For kings zre oilly required t o be j ~ s ti~npartid. For religion of and the laws are necessary t. a stand-still.n." you From amongst the assembly of men the h k i gave answer. who keep those who are Icing's enemies at a distance.to w11icJ the vcrld ia divitlad accordiug to eastern Geogrnphy. In every country thousaiids of cities are built in vhich rnillioils of people live.n climes. the serc.o kings. " What Is the reason of this. who carry on buying and selling in every country. honsebreakers. For in the whole worlds are :nnny countries. Every one's language is di%creut 2nd religion distinct. their conditions . and tribute collected for an army. And it is not possible for one 1." The King asked. that in no way may disorder be admitted. In this way there 2ye many more classes thst are very necessary 1 0 kings. hut eastern ideas of Geography are so iinlited the moat absurd coi~fusion occnrs a t limes sit11 regard to the position cf pinccs. vithout whom their affairs would be . - . It is not possible for one man to manage * Hnft Akliln . By them thieves.: iects. Sonle there are who by a g r i c u l t ~ ~ ~ ehusbandry produce ar. some soldiers rrho mrry a m s .gis thin.zre various. 3 n d certain ones are only for service like as slaves and attendants. often with for hei in the 1ri. This is not the way or castom with the animals: among them bc is king that is greatest in size. Some are imnisters. Among men the servants of the Iring are of all Iiinds. th2-t in every city t. to have mercy and compassi. protectors . at. and mith you are few there are many kings. and pick-pockets are prerented raising strife or disturbance in the city. therefore they require many kings.ra~y.

2nd he saw t h e chief 01the f ies E. 'l T h y hast t.~." He enqnired. The Great God has given nle and 1ny fathers an4 grand-fatathers many a blessing. Ke nslced. -. qf f X'lzen man obtained relief from his speech. For instance. have compassion a.szr6 flying in front. 13e is the Protector of a11 : He creates all and gives theill sxpport. how is it that it is in tbce?" He said. CHAPTER S S I . ': The Great God of His kindliess and mercy has bestowed [upon us] this quality. Thcse t ~ o lririleges He has not given to any other creature Besides these. his ear. has given us the privileges of roydty a ~ prophecy. *411d reore than this.rds the animals. f1e has innde no uuimal a. participator in these.hou come thyself ? As other slnimsls haw sent their messengers and representatives.'' The King said. the Great God has tnugllt us thc science of BCnthemntics aild many arts. t'he governor of of His slaves~that they may employ themselves in colonizing countries and dr11y protect His ject. Describe thy privileges that 1 may also kl:om them. In truth.he King inclined towa. From oilr e a l i ~: : . m(i r e eat them unmolested. and enforce just laws amoilg the people . S ~ t d d e n l ~ a l o v sound met." IIe replied. why didst thou not send some one of thy subjects er soldiers ? " He said. The f r ~ ~ i t b in sud flowers of the hole world arc concecird to U>.nd mercy in every one's condition. This cluality is in no other animal. I am " the king of the insects.s.rg. " I took compassion upon their condition. and siilging the praises of God na he counts his rosary and repeats His name. that they nlny restrain the creatures from those things God has forbidden. And all these kings or! the earth are called God's lieutenants for God has made them r~xlers the count. for ire make our dmelli~~gs a very excellent btyle.?after tion this iiiheritx~lce has descendecl. d hid from our forefzihcr's ge~~erutioa genes. A descriptio~a the Chief o r l ~ d R i e s . t. He has given ns many privileges and comforts. " Who art t h o ~ l ? He said." The King said. that trouble might n o t be given t o of them.Therefore the Great God has for all :hem appointed many kings.

'' D:~Yo ! : ii~urdred i hurrahs ! a. the Grent God has not given these odrantnge~ any anilunl ? AEcer tkls he asked. some go i i ~ t o liirgdoms of the m m . And on both sides thereof He has giren t w o bright eyes.eech.od to the ignorant.he Lrensi. Ey ihe strength of our limbs the fruits of the twcs. Our neck Iie has made thin that we n ~ a y easily turn our heads to the right or Ieft. E-Iil~l 11.id." \$-hen J'usub rras relieved from his sl. mou~ltainsand trees.o-q The King asked.1)~ v'i~ichthe blood is lie ehaiiged allcl be con:^. The centre part IIe has made square [ni. Our strncture is extremely delicate. enemies.od has ns 111nl:~:blcssiilg~. He has a. v h e r e ~ ~ ethey r fir. by which r e fly. \r:~s thro:igh this I took ! eolnpnsjioll upon the contlition of the sul~ject. dlld this honey is fooJ tbr 1:s and our cLilc1ren.-the head roucd. hinder rnernbw long. R P collect and store in our houses. " I!or is ii t h y are -? . Our honscs n-e build vith such exactlless that the ~ i a c z n d ?lever enter then1 to disturb us or our yonng. by rrhose vision vre see every thing. leases and flowers. And in our sting is a poison produced. o n Iirlls. And our form and qualities are proofs of the slcill znd polver of G. For God has dividecl our bodies into thi~ee p a ~ t s . the Icing sr. ct~bical]. :nil!<. and take up their residerce in their dweli. TIi:m E~uc'LI CHli we thanl. Upon our shoulders He has made four -rings. In short.-seifnncl did i10t send one them.lso made Th01-r art extremely fluent imd eio:iuent. nrlth great taste in proportion to orzr ~ i z e Ile has made. besides thee. Two iips has H e also given? rrLicL a e collect things t. by whose help we sit or rise.. the Tour hands and feet like the sides of n heaagol~. True.ful.lcney is produced by which all men are Le&& Ailldthis position of onrs is supported by texts of the Koran. azd took the ti-onble rrpo:l ~n. the same may that in t. af c l u a d r ~ ~ ~ ~ e i given t1:e poicer 1. moutll by wiiich nre perceixpc the flavor of our food.d rest they live . through which we remain safe from the mischief of oni. that we may happen to get.. And in ozr sroll?nchs ZTe has given such p u r c r ~ digestion of that it tnvlls the juices [of o:tr bodies] into homy. the Grezt (.o eat. to TVhere are thy subjects 311d soldiers? " i-Te said.. OIIT shape wonder.

b said: ': Re pleased t o give I'hz king ssid. we even lilake pec. Saturn is the tseasurslnves. Those that are good.ly bezr this oppression?" He eai.Thus Mars is the ~ ." er.vs like subjects i:soldiers.e all this ty~anny. For tlre obedience and resinischief or strife.!el-s :uld s~~ijjeccs.4ccount o the Obedience qf the G'etiii to tliei~n l f . For we g o baci to them..tolerated at their hands? " E e said.. ever they get opportunity they [nlen] annoy them. . eveu nlnu could not.'hen.yet sciilet. then taltirig out the honey ear ir the -Genii obey their king and governor ? Be themselves.Vorm their duties to their you pstient. they all stay also. o. F~rrther. save 'L . '' These pei. they sead us many rarities.judge. the Genii are good an3 bad. an account of the same. In the race of :I. Whatever the Icing orders nre so persecuted that ~e !ome theii. hithful and infidels: C . ." The King aslted.. to giv. an:l all the stars are satisfied ~ i t us.' They themselves by hiding from ~ i .3 vitb t.d \ ~ e l ! i ~ ~ . " Then rrhy (. L' said How (10 the young ones.~ryis the prime minister. For they are all dependenta ld of the Sun. JTe.=us is queen. ihey bent dri::ns and cyrnl~ais: sii-l at i:lsL all like as tliere are amcng nlen. pect of the Genii is like that of the stars. iirctagems. and the st:. In or:r dirposIt.imec s r to perfectioii.they often break up their hives and kill -1fter this 3 ' ~ . oir(x. J.Ierc.reason or canse-that they 3re masters a~ll:?we: general. they never exceed .. they c o m p l ~ a h agoinst ep ri." l'ci. the Ezooil is the heiy-impweut. and eveli the11 they arz ilot she San ij Icing nli~oi?g them.s. an6 move according t o his niovenlents.iici..c. " IT)Tc cndu1.su.rc-3fi. If'he stays.lr seeing these difTem:it kinds of food a c d tjiiilea olwy and rcspect their chiefs in such a way that i r e nre reconciled. for the sake of peace? they esen:iio L ~ S the details.l. - .bclli." '-""S' . ) L : his sol.ion tllem i . ~ ~ they carry out." The Iiiug said. but when fCiqrg ancb Rule. 2 upit-ec is the . ~ 2 ~ b to the King.

nd trouble. theJ? do not. ~ ascertai~~ the spirit ideas of ol?jects: reyniriq for 1. Ai~damong the Genii those who are ill-disposed and unbelies7ers. alcllough." The king s d : -..ch.s [laid out f ~them 1.he it: sensts) without rzflection or hesitation comijnre it with some other thing and give the spirit the Tdea...v~tb snicl. L Jfuhonlcd] or! whom l a blessings and peace.ot orders or prohibitions. Mankind are the reC \Terse of th. Their dispositiol~s full of infidel it:. S:!r:~~l. implicitly obey the king. Ofteildrnes for the sake ofgetting audsainicg they break out of the road of honesty and becorninsde'is m d apostates." Y a s z ~ said. y e t the.mighty and oher.the routine or 1imit. they are all the army of the Al. A!thongh he by the . never committed e .. the details.lower of hi6 spells gave them much grief a. of oBedie~~ce the angels? '' The Icing saicl. invited . And if evzr any jl13n i 1 any desert or jungle from f e z ~of the 1 Genii repeats a prayer or text they give him no trouljle while he remains in that place. woman! and ail? n?ngician sunmlons or invokes one of the elders of' the G-cnii they immediately depart. 13esides this: lze1-e is a proof of this pei-fect s u b l i : i s s i ~ e ~ ~ e s-4 t ORF: time the last pi-ophet ~. and ox listening they a11 becZlni? liussnli~~aas going to their own tribe. c : These graces they obtained from thc angels .han the \vicI<rd amoug men. Whatever order is giveii: they E mrnediately ful61.he n n t n ~ e the . " What is t. ~ ~ themselves. If it happ911 that any Geni'c?~ has any influelice over malz or. Like of t h a t of the sccses obeying the spirit: not requiring lllstruction or correction. For rnally of the Genii.!' I'i:.ertain place and the Genii i11 ectered there.tcr arc t. JTThere dic3_ the stars ahtnin these acquirem ment.. In this vay the angels live engagecl in obeyil7: i i ~ i i l serving God. And many texts of the IIorr7r1 wive evidence of these facts.q.and lllelly t o Talanlism and gave them the privileges and blessillp of the faitb. obedience and order' " I he Iring said.d spirit nothe tice a thing and wish t~ ~?i:ricr~tand they (.is. They live on the face of %Le . >?ett h e j ~ bet..-iz his ses-vice remained staan. are and hypocrisy : they are altogether haughty ant1 proud. mas the Kori~n s c. notwithstanding their infidelity and erro? in their allegiallce t o Solomon.l he fice s e 3 . Him.'' r asked. ': G-iye 11s .

? zre lnasters an& anilrl& thzt our slaves.my selfish motive is partial to him or pays him such attention.rlk and power. '' ! is v c ~ y t strange that tl. a philosopher mid. " Have you heard the conlplaint of che animals against your oppression mhich ]IfLs been related ? They have given a reply to t h e claim ~ L i c h you made.he King f>om . :(Describe thenz. Although in shape and appear3nce he is different. &at they are masters 2nd all at-e their slaves. l ~ fillfil the ciuties cf this wcrid 2nd the next.os one gave any reply. and alimdtls his slaves. they are open : if they do at any time appear to respect them in their hearts. do you give ? " The nsserubiy of mifilals hearing this. nloreover they respect llot their own prophets : not.nor l~rinyscicaces and arts. they are never free from unbelief s:irl mistrust. In learning. i that he k a o r s c l a l l y sciellccs and devices. race of the Genii. :: it. i L: ." When the men saw that the King remained talking vith the chief of the flies." A t last the Ring turned towards man and said.c chief of the iiisects should hst-e this p r i ~ i lege vich the fii~lg above a11 other afitmals. l.!'he representative of man said. Xow: whatever you Lave to say. tlley begun to say..and invention we excc! all the animals. do not lei the thought illto your minds that t.iG to the aaimals." -4 Grecian said. " Do not be surprised at this act." Oae of tb." '." Th2 Icing s:l.e. nnii the chief and mouthpiece of tlie ~ h o l c the insects. R .i. ] S In us cre nlany esccllent (1:lalities and privileges. which prove ours to bc a just claim'' The Icing snid. We t h o r o ~ ~ 7 l .s. fix I'a. bijired their heads [in thought]. Every aniuai of that exists he instructs in the rules of rank and gover:imznt. nud mrith this there is this clainl. U a t after half'an hour the thas .z~bthe head of the files. y~~resentatit :the 2ies said. and fw t h ~ rezson he is master.aaTthslaying allcl quarrellizig c~lItir~nally. though srunll in body and dirnil111:i.~~ithstanciing their mirnclea and wonders. is k l ~ o ~ n K. Frcm &is if. ~ c : ansmc. A I I ~ with kings it is a custom to collsTeraewith those of their fellow creatures who are equal to them in ra. W e ]. js very r i s e and leanled. " I h an opinior. 17'0 him thnt has mentioned his superior privileges. Th011gh they are i g n o r a ~ ~ t in errsor and understand nothing.

she takes off t'he peel and cuts them mithout permissioll may BC nllo. ail men take o u t and prlt t o takes a little of it allcl goes t o her company and their o v n use.lso learlit fro111 for x e appaint ir. underneath the earth. and if there be pzss me &scribe many ci.ion from God. and ~f . troops upon troops toll-ect and go off in every .ltmethod we aild manage our unproved claim does not extend to them. If any of 1..e ~ I ~ O FSO lfialijT arts. gulzr and square. the water never enters them. J5-ith the science af lnathrmatics we is small in body. 'FVe obtain honey fro~l2 tLe leaves of ants.nd vatchmen that no olle germinating. she takes it out and dries it out in the ycnk.. and eat wit11 O u r >?OLiIig 011es.lt are ~ ~ ~ p e r i ~them look at the condition of tlre ant . wiil appear atie in no v a y dependent on them. But T ruali makes this Boast.hrtt ii. many a m Icing. wisdom and prudence the ant has. guides those who are in front is an inspirat. it. Tlien they all collect and with great assistmce of a mnster . In wisdom arid tL~ugl.. And they ir. trees and collect it: m d st r::s:ire WC ssi ti_a opr direction for food.mnll M-illbut think and ccnsider.iti?out rule or cc. The 1-111esof govei-~-rment~ . sun.:~~.ges. Similarly tllc many thing6 are under obligation to us j aud we locust in the spring seasoil feasts and drinks. that they are masters and labor and pains take it amay. although she ~ to them. and in cur owil houses Lrn. This art nc. hax-e such accluaintance t. mnn a. they heat her and turn her out. Therefore this \\-\th \~h. She vho takes the piece of the thing to recognize it.leavingrs ? Kings are not in the h b i t of eatIf m:ln will reflect oil this. V'i'ihout the help allcl to the place.. Alld what2nd by reason of its weight is not able to lift it: she eT7ey refuse remains. Of those grains which she suspects to he osr hogses doorkeepers a.cles: and f i g ~ i ~ ~ s . oul.?~gles. one ever taught as. n d it gets met. trianever such ZL flood.inde of z. i t will be seen mhat ing that mhich is left by slares..s.p. I11 the hot season many. If any ant gets sight of a thing houses. Then why do they eat worlc acts lazily. . I any ant in the f 211 animals their slaves.~-ecI to go I>efore into two pieces.1 I. horn she.oyl. makes various minding prtssa. Let n.:any She gatllers and stores grain for food. it gives t'he news.

the birds eat her. The next gear the young n. Likewise the s:ll. I n short. &C. the gnat. T t is not that they expect any return fronl them . simply from love and kindness. but they nothing to eat. or from extreme heat or cold she perishes. r l l e n they beconle quite large. Then in ~ h nthing do they think themselves superior to t us.-worms that live on many of the hill trees.-: become dor~nmlt.ps also in the mails and trees make nests. The .. The fly. especinlly upon the mulberry. in those days vhen the weather is mild. she also in the same way lays her egg a. At t. Day by day they seek for hod.winter d:~ys in holes or pits they llide and die. The next year again j t.he .. from that egg a snlall young one like a p u b is producedl m d it creeps upon the earth and feeds on grass.hey in tile s a a e nay lay e g g and bring forth young.from them and cra. and in t..iid hides it in the earth.' . and in them produce eggs and young ones. t. aliva.* Their bodies tllroughout the winter remain there.re pro* Luab-liternllg.he n spring season. the mosquito. Generosity and liberty that are the graces of the virkuous are never in t. who In)eggs md nourish their youllg and make houses. they weave their \rcbs* on the trees and repose in them with every co~nfort. in this nlanner year after year the yo1111g aye produced. I duced. or they of themselves die fronz heat or cold.b comes. which is the rcverse of nlanlrind who live in hopes of benfits aiid advnntage from their descendants. i n this way all the insects produce their j-oung and noilrish them. then covering it with flies away herself.becomes stout and goes to some soft earth.wl about on the trees.hey thelnselves go ayny. K h e n they awake they lay %heir eggs in their cocoons. and t.he time her vings come out and she has eaten and drank and become large. again in the spring reason bp the pojver of God life comes into tbeln. t. do * That is. The eggs during the whole year safely remain in them [the cocoons]. in the days of spring. ?Vhen the time of her deat.hem.bey never decay or hither . In short. The b i d s eat them. digs a hole and lavs her egg. I n the like manner again they make their own houses and bring forth eggs and yonng. when they beconle plump and strong.

vailable. ht: has said ? Now is there in your opinion any answer remaining ? " One of them.--the sjliccs. fluit cjf tile egg-plant cooked in ci~rtfs.zus.--rre eat.s. Besides these. like tlje co~v'stor:guc. "Hare you henrcl all '.-a 1. Rich robes and iroollen jerrellerg of rnnuy Iiinds we rear.ind o f bread ~ ~ ~ awitli nrilk. !. milk. the Great God of Iiis power rex-i~ifies them the next year. uclyus. Lill:fis. joking. " Relate hen^.re of his death. arc 211 a qrcet ]. 6 ~ 7 i ? .mel~t our lives pass.not so. and l n u z i ~ a il:c saolc: niih t c atidition of al~~:onl'.lc-lo. that after :heir death Inore insects may Be prodnced and be comfortable. And . b:iq*ci?~i. zi~-bi.ind milk. mhich oar clr?iin is p r o ~ ~ d . t o nllluse ourselves we have dancing. ~ B a l m n sohull . stew. roast. If mall vould nnderstand the coilstitution of these animals aud that they in worldly and spiritual afiaira are acquainted with more facts than he. amarti: lc~uziyclt!$c. curds. t l ~ o fonrt11. baker-kl~kuc. The kernels and ~ llllp of fi'llits Ri'e food fbr US : the skin and stolic 1 they eat. At the time the represenir~ti.i. I n $act. Eurani . different sorts of hod. . ji.-coarse* S)lir-m&l. f lliliau nhicll is brownec?. the King of the Genii being much towards the aspleased praised him and ti. the thircl sllapcd lilie enkc . CBAPTER.yrh2. :' In grc:it enioj. T!~isfirst is a flat rnallii aic 111c snnie o11lp lal-gcr .-l)oileC nliil.-is like toffee .hi. bni for this. For of them every one has a po<ti. i s i a r I ~ i onnts and raisins. stories and f2b!es :. t (If the swcctmcats only two out of the seven have znytlli~:gf i p p r o n c l i i ~ lt1:cn: in England. gao-za~~tll. Various kinds of delicacies to eat and drink are provided for us.cliL-lu.$hil. with willillgness and plezsurc they expire of themselves .n-irh Firni . said.. like as mauy deny the resnrrection and the judgment.gao-dicls ailrl pao-zsban.vcof the files finished this speech. for their own benefit. w i t h a srnzll q ~ i a n t i of rice and snpar. ISSIII. '' In us are many tnlents and good cl~~alities.K h d i ~ ~ .iuti c . ! : p Y i .?. n man of Arabia. they never ill m y vay deny that they will die. lihi .jnlahis: 2taci7~kls.~ri~ing sembly of men said. laughing.. . aaEron pillans. smcet pil!." Iie said. ' The by ' Icing said. all kinds of sweetmeats. rice .ofee. Zir-birran .. . 7IThen their day to die comes.? a i . t. biscuits :.l.al*. illc lilt eye of a (:OTT . which the a i G m ~ lnever get a sight of. he would not make boast that he is master and animals his slaves.

pimples.11 these exertions they acquire and property. . He said t o the king. boils. jaundice. quarrelliilg with the butcher over the meat. do not remember that in reality these are [a source of] great grief and trouble to thern. These are continually wandering and flo~mdeling. weighing.ving water. After death it frills t o the &re of others. And day and night entirely unclot. Whatever things are produced from the earth we put to our own use without labour or exertion. headache. ing to distant countries. epilepsy. like slaTres thev labour and work. lye live exempted from this orief and punishment.-digging the earth: golring the plough. the Persian nightingale.he birds. dr8. because our food is simply 5 gnss and leaves. " These m 1 e1 rho boast of their different kinds of food and drinks. it is with a.n with folded hands for a couple of pence. rugs and mally other things* we Where are the animals provided with these things ? They always eat the grass of the foRst.gs are proof of this. that the Great God of His power c~eatedfor us Ke eat: and we continually thank Him. standing before a noble--* Parash-o-farosh . " T h y is this ? Describe it. 1 1 short. They are s~bject to chronic diseases. Thought or al~xiety for food never enters our minds. distorfioll of the face." The representative of t.clothes.-a general term for carpets. They rush to tl:f .. if not they 3 have its punishment. all kinds of diseases are they s ~ h j e c tto. ringvoi-ins. lear~liag. go. If they have accuillulated wealth 1 7 fair means they hare its reward. by eatjag certain kinds of fooci. itch.-in a short. Wherever F e go by the providence of God every thing is povided.Eed. Iighting fires in ovens in cooking. coughs.-on account of this ease they undergo much toil and trouble. and they also experience grief and trouble. lteeping accounts and books with the grocers. sowing corn! reaping. cholera. science and art. consumption. grinding. "For this reason. that me are masters and theS slaves. The different kinds of fruit.*Y" elephantiasis: 1 and diseases of the nose. ague. All these tlzin. delirium. gripes. to fevers. sheets. ciriving bullocks.." She said. toiling to collect wealth ." The King said. was sitting before thein on the branch of a tree. afflicting the body. carpets.

gh the gnilc of tlreir Enemy forgot thc conilllnlld of the Loilcl. . Thcls the humours nre pY~ilucet3 gvoas.. or throagh h~ulgcr cle~ournlors then their usual cjuant.o~~gl~ 1 greedimss eat: improper food.l \\-itllout Iilbo~r esertion ate of' the f?t!it of thi\t or -l.t:rai!l cot.. affliction ancl anger. and fi. Jl71:en your elclew t..rongj-h .. I7 Xnn gave flnsver : '' Diseae. In tlic .s. The dogs.n of bcca.ites .1~ tti:ctt(:)rs l ~ n v e ::ln. their n. these nuii. esti-elm agon. i. es al-e llot eases.as-e: honey is the purest :LT:dtile ~ J C S ~ .om the effects of &ese tL-incs the child is -.i>:I ljecijn~esni!ject to these cal:lit~ities. and after all this tile s~lallleles~!~ assert that they are masters and every ttnima1 their slaves.ifid Llse i. YoL1 t. t1.y or toil. get food ancl drink 111lfit for them and thcl-efore fa11 sic]<. vnr f ~ ' ~ : ' e f : l t l i ~ ~\vel.s tl:<! s:!li\. rl:i~-i: v:Le11 3r0111' g1-.ity. Tlley rc.e sllnrers ~\-\-.th also ~ tLe1.llosecomfosts n~idblessings.y lvl-rnt tllii~g o yofi bozat ? Ecsitlt:~i:i catillg Crni? d :!li% z crr:ll~>.laceT\-l~en there T a u n o Iiind CC xl1tl7siet.. T h i s it.ppt. the mi!k is spoilt. tlie ai~gels took them bclorr and threw the111 into a place rrhere them . pigeons! cocks. nlc 2nd you arc cclni~l!:11lc. bo~n ugly and lives continual!y ~nl!ject to diseases. Tlkrough these disenses they live li&le to sudJel: denrli.. czts. IIom could f~*nii.l for ilgcfi m:?:llIC1y~11. aninlitls tllnt are confined bp you. There is uo irregnIarity in it [the t i ~ ~ z e ] . IL is rrot i:-~v~nted ycjil. oild begot a desire f o n grili!t ~ :lniP r e r e t~imecl out thence..$t.nt kinds af li.ilnrl it.n in t.hro[.vns not eve11 vegetation or icaf.~!nt3ncestor-.t in 3-OUP medicil-!~~. .n bc. &C. tllm r : : !.e!gnaat :rorneu n 1 ~nurses i-!~r.:. snch ns you bonst of. livecl in the GnrJen of Eden nr:. zald tilosc xuiaals r h o ivnlzder of their own free r i i l in the forest gyp fl-ee from every disease because their tin~evf ~ r eating ancl drinking are fisecl.his they s o : ~ i e t i ~~ ~ r 1 ~I s sick. They eat their fooi! 81 in~l~rolxr timcs.lt it . - 7 .>ys Leen an all eqnai t .comp sick :--pr. throl~ghthe ill effects of yoxr ~ m n acts j. to us : azlilnnls often catch dis.: t!~cin.i?als that ape ancl c o ~ ~ f i ~ lbyd you are not nllo~retl to spcnil t:icir e time i n their own m y . Of the diZep:. li: f:lct.{mn :uncI Eve.oll \-!jli ].ancl v-c arc cscttlptcd f i o i l . .hJ7 sicifins for medicines." H e replied: " h ~ i m ~ l lhccolne sick onb s from ll~isillg and becoming fidini:iar wilh you. thc rensnn your chi1dri.

you have arrived a t this pitch-1-ou now stand and detail your pretensions to supe~ioritjr. we @razeand eat mithour. I n the place of praise you are . From the earth to tlx heavens wherever our heart wishes we fly. (:orresponding to yoxr jewellery you Tear iroll colIiirs 011 your necks.tHic. day and night they lived ellgaged in this xoil a ~ l d l abonr. buckets. Tyater-skinsand r. you live in your elegant house. on the banks of rivers. fetters on your hands.e them upon your sioulders and go from place to place with t h e 3 and sell them. and to nla!ie clothes. you sit in the honse of mouluing. '\Yithout labonr b *P exertion me eat our i a ~ f food.e for coutrorers~and quarrelling. t o e a r to gind. to cook. there is no one to pye\-ent us. y o u have music. restraint. In short. and pursued they them. At last their repentance was accepted. who came there an2 taught them to dig the earth. then begun they to oppress tlie inhahitmts of the earth. seize and confinc them.from mhich we are exempt.] ~ l pare lr.Ler vessels. wear rich ro!>es and digere)lt kinds ofjcmellei*y.zttacked with irony. you suffer a c o y responding grief for every pleasure. pleasure and mirth.i. tEcy made various kinds of snares and nets .enter there I For a period they wept in this i:.aLer. but you weep ancl suffer grief. and Isesides these many other things that are nor. rion. We. YOU drFayS in rhe midst of toil and &tress. . And me are exempt from these calamities. In short. oLtaina1:ie by us. He sent an angel. For these exertions and troubles are only for slaves and unfortn. They seized their houses caught many acd conlined t h e ~ n many fled. [As a set off] to your pleasant parties.J they hnd begun to settle in erery spot. 017 ropes. T h e n their race was greatly increnszd ar. youtnl. engage in the plensurz of dancing. And a t lasi. 2nd this that you s q that 7011hold pleasant meetiogs. in the forests and cities. These live . is true. spend your tilne in delightful pleasures. and [drinl. and chains on your feet. El1t you have also a corresponding suffering for every- one of them.e. with this estetisive plain. instead of your cit:es and houses. In fresh vei-dme. we do noc depend.late ones. God forgave t5e offence. All these things ere necessary for you. You ai. and you sleep in the dark gra\.

hes. h ~ tlot His services." The Icing said.ll rhese blceaings L:ls i i e tile ' Tie llas jnforll:ed ca of ~v!. lligljt ill Trlli!e frc~lnthis \ ~ i c l i e ( l l a ~ ~sin v .5:tYS: ' h 2 ? 2 d ? l d .ei.:nlly rnil viLrious 1.1j3se of cfit.. 5 Bebyerr. are exempt. a h s .. R e lice. Prom lrhat gt.'c ape free from sin: we ha\-i: 1:o necessity for tlie ~ ~ o r s hof npllich these bwAss ip so ~nucli. 110 :~i'1(? fo~nicitti~n izmain cngnged. lal'ly lenlaining of thine ? " He ~ d d " In US J n l n j .) holn these things.' If they act not accord! ing to this r ~ ~ofe religion.slaves. From this fenr they relnnill eugagc~t in devctiuns.elieve God to lje ~~npnrn!leiedand uueqi. and for ~fih repson you got orders to purify yonrselves.it pro~ed thnt you are masters and n-e sl:~rrs? " The I<$$ iLskedthe delegat. 11 is good and !.heir propllets 1. p c r b r l i ~ i u ~ s(:rv i c e s in the llzosclncs.~:lleci? nlrd live eagagcd in Ilis 1~raisc.nt . IJ]lYsici.. rending serinons in t11e1)t?lPi:.-:>x.efore ! h d .::m~. arc Ixcretics. ! ' tjlle of t. set 11s :~p:~rth r l:jict biilJell! pl?i. Good acts hide crimes.^. )rho da. tllex n ~ a j not 'oe allomed to go astrnj-. K O ~are these a trotiI~ie:''' 0 TT He replied. " X11 these services the Great Goc! a.eof mankind. * .A!! IIe u these privileges go to prove tllut rre nre 111nste~~ci . tit. . 1:s . ancl sicl!ers. .Ln\3 n1. ti. it will Ile scel. is: . Ohat their sins may be forgiven.incl tlley . =i:l those \ r . I\. alld.jcln. ~ i ' ~ i:l1 d frji. 'LDescribe t h o ~ . exid." The Iiing raid. Night a!!d are day J-OLI pms you. polytheist. " IS there non. \>ecau. eseel~~llt and silperior qi~xliiiesihnt go ro I)Tol'e oilr claim.i:lg llt. For in the !io~:~n - h d g r s of slarer~-.time in ad~~lterjr beastlineis. Xnil thc Crcat &cl sent C x tI1o3(5l)eople ~vlir.ostlc-s are like pl!yaicians and astrologc~s. prayer.il!s to tliose 1 ~ 0 1 ~ l r n w enecessary who have disorders n:~d siclcness : and the astrologers are only ~01!~llt the unfortlmate nnd be~itchecl. '' God I ~ L ~ s gi. '.itiectiou..a~-e:l. fasting..An!: by IJr?thiy and purificntioa for you is made n dn!j-. In the whole year we go net:] ..ey o i ~ continnally polluted..pointed. ~ & ? ~yt~:idyla~s ~ l ! j d t e that dfe .hese things are [a source of] grief n ~ l d t suEeri~lg: poll.S I t .rivll~~g2~-rellg1~11~ pl'ciphcc3-: of' (>ocJ-:t. l:.: Tf you v i l l pause and refieet. they ill be disgracciL l I:. . And t. and And youy bodies arc generally filthy. ~~ d r s \ye 1." The representntii-c of the hirrjs cni..1 t ! ~ t. Xnrl bntlliilgl l>lu.)ad.ld nlfiny kinds of ~rurship! has ti~:~glts .

therefore yell rec.-izasau atn ak)li fasbohn rninnnnocJi?~lb~ . A t that time saw him and said: ' U a s I that I am r. And again it occurs : Fabcr nsaUaaiio gurVban . Prayer aid fasting j$ your duty. To us every home is a mosque and a &sine. ri~~xeh nealth and wive zot to the deservirig. And ~vithout the i-~terventi~n of prophets. Etgmolo. For He FIimself *hns said.' In short. it means recurring.-the Easter of the Nusmlman. honestly m d dishonestly. and about comecticn and 1.o go and dig the earth and teach that he may also in the asme may dig a hole and b o y the corpse of llis brother. Whichever way me turn. vb:3i you sv..d Z I R ~ ~ ~ th?o:augh X nvaricce.k2 corpse of my brother.. fi. make your house on the i 1 s And in one place He d:recta thus : ~ ~ l l z j n &ad u l h a salalahi wa tasbihey. olliy for the puqlose of propagating the sJEeier Ferform tbis act. not from liist desire . or a&nz!. day end nig?. to know how to bury +. Tllrongh ignorance and stnpi2iq jron mdrrstaod noL [your] advantages or disadvantages .~: incident he was i ~ u c h h~milint~ed. If YOU snpported the C why silould giving alms be made pooy Rnd are io:*iny and kind to~rnrds our duty-? I~~II speci2s.* We continual!~..y fi. S -.ey be a duty to us ? .i~tedwith prayers and formulalies. --- . rend congregstional prayers.fi~od.--Friday and Eed. And &is.' that is.r this reason :--you coilcat and keep. ~ .cicallg.t.cenling is] Inwf~l! and fm-bidden. the Great God acquaints a s with every thing.'.And this that they aa?. we see evidences of God.et&~ion: these are fc-r your iustrnction. For your m b d s are ia ilarlincss.ao~ ~ Iaifa y t ~ h snu aten aklz~hekdln yd ronilat& l amkhdna nzisia HdzaJgCiihe . then why should iq~..e k sacrifice of Isace. God said to the Ay. L J E& . .ll xpuired of us. is not at a..' the meaning nhich is this : Every animal b ncqua.x eqad to this crow ill wisdom. that through them pour crimes may be forgivell. ' T a audd rcb boku ilannal~le anit t a k ~ z minn jibale b d y d t ~ n t h z i .jl.-e is. that the Great ha4 sent dow:~directions coli. And me arc not obliged to read the uravers f c . that tl. rommc"laratinq t -.' v. X-e commit no crime.zy go to the mosques and monasteries t i ..lour matea] once . ' The Great sent a crow t.4~rns and tithes arc cece..om tl. ~ ~ b n bPo Z le.uire teachers and masters.. and then erell. JJTe never hoa1...

st of this rich and soil clothing." The King said to the aniinals.l-ipei: sill. it carefully and sell it. fill.. .. rugs: sheets.to~:lrds nlen .~o. are all our slitves. ITou by force and oppreaaion steal it from her.llew]. sable skins. f i o ~ e r c d line::.lIiis.ileges . " Of $1 your clothes the most delicate and soft are silks. and this grub is not in Adam's $amily brit is a species of insect. Yor adorning and benuti.::. pol. A11 those gifts of God and blessings are proofs of our authority [over t. . :. saj:. -xe .-erelnniiling t o S!-:." The lnnn snid.. and strong silks: itnd they are the saliva af a grub. :nen gave nnsver.--" If you boi\. Thcgc. ixar! superior rjunlities rcm:lin:ng :u us: from n:hicli ! i~is proved that n7e are :uastc. you have so much trouble and labor that you k 6p c.olen them. perp!execl ~ n d uncertain. szttins. they are generdly . It is the same with all the other clothes. that she may be protected fro~ll serefities the of vinter and summer. 7TTeare entitled to exe~wckethe authority of masters over them: arid to treat them ill sny may we wish.sntins. snid. drill.illl! the said. silk.-where were these various garments in ancient times ? Why you have oppressed and tyrnnllizcd over the anirndi and st.11 many pris. m l l e ~ ehave the animals ssch things procnmble : i Entirely naked they wander about in the jnng1es like slaves.eprese~>tative ~ i l c i ~ d shncl ijl?islleti t .scss mmy and various kinds of n:-!l~::rel.--in short. the representative of the beasts of prep." !~ 'IT-: the ~. s h :wls. Prom this ir is finown that n e are masters and these slaves . Thcll for those things of ~ h i c you boast Ire hnve no nccessitT.-you take it from her ancl stretch and weave it! then yon get it sewn by tile tailor: and wasbecl by the washerman. who for her own safety weaves her web on the trees.~!: slnres. said to this nian. silk. carpets.\That reply do you now give hi111 3'' lialelah.leii of b sajing this. ansver tl.lis. st. You continually live this ansietg. ? ' What time do you refer to ? " KuZrlnlr.. " K o w whaterer yon h%.. . 2nd hesides thesc mmy other boons.e:nbIy of : . the King 100fd.rs nlici animals c. muslin: fine muslin: calico. I here are sti.-c cngnged iil prayer and fi:~irng. different kinds of things to spre:td. ~ l~rocade. chcqne.'' The Tmb man fi-0111alnnng :lie nss. Therefore God has put FGri to this inconvenience.fying. coarse woollen cloth.

By His kindness. . south of the equator. For what reason?" He said. for God created them on our bodies. all the hair of their heads fell OF : they became naked. but go not near that tree. that me may corer and clothe ourselves. '' 0 wild beast ! it is not fit or proper for you to a8rguein our presence . And in no a11hcl is there such hardness of heart as in you.-that among animals there is none more mischievous or wiclced tlmn yotl.he hair of their heads t.of the skin and hair of animals . From the molllent me are born. present these people are ~ubject to." A-aleluh said." When the representative of the wild beasts had related these things." He said. with severity and oppression: steal them from them and take credit to yourselves.' " Through the gnile of Sata. The order of the Allnighty was this. Your ancestors disobeyed God.test breath remain wlbjeot to anxiety. st the order of the Lord. on the mountsins of rubies. They walked about the garden and ate of the fruit of every tree . He of His love and kindness gave us this clothing..11the3 forgot the instructio~~s the Lord. When they were created they were entirely naked. If we boasted of these things it would be to our credit." The King said to XuleZah. God provides this clothing upon our bodies. the man said. " A t the time God created Adam and Eve. thep both lived. turned them out of the place and put them outside . and you have this punishment in cansequence. And you ever to your la.-' Eat a11 this heavenly fruit. He provided food and clothing for them like as He did for the animals. and by means of the same hair they mwe protected froin cold and heat. they underwent no kind o f labor or esertion vhatever snch as at. it is all prepared for us without labor or exertion. especially your rich robes are offen made of the fur of animals. and than all of their dignity was lost . '' For this. it would be better for you iu remain silent. And in the east. that me may be protected from cold and heat.he whble of their bodies was covered. and by t. " Relate t o us the be. You. To boast so much of this is out of place. like as the philosopher of the Genii has fully detailed the facts in the first chapter.&ning of the creation of Adam. The angels. and 110 one has such a longing to feast on dead bodies.

dend bodies. For before the timc of Adam. And r h e n you say that the wild beasts t. that the nnirno!~ are not even nvare of. that the disposition of the wild beasts are hard hearteh~ess and unmercifulaess. "Because all the beasts of prey h u r t the animals and eat them. ~ Bow tell u s this. so long as they found :he flesh that fell here and these t1:ey molested not any living being . ~ e continually killing and miningthem. And you are SO L .te the flesh of ally animal that died in the forest or desert. lJyhcn gou r e r e cmnted. brenk their boiles n. that the cruelty of the mild beast is not eqttal to yours . then where could we get ihcir [goats.nd drink %heirblood. it is evident that frcim our sliin and hair every one of you is benefited. you a . if you mill think and pause you r i l l understmd.koogh you say. the xild aoimale hunted not any animal. lies. breaking bones. sheep. dition. And ercry animal that llunts that is subject to you. they a." The representati r7ea of the wilcl beastss said. and left no-. In short. And you among yoiirselves do such things to your brothers and relations. Cutting aith knives. but were collatrajlled to (10 so I\-hen they reqr~iredfood. n~hermise rre shonld not lcnom aught aboxt it. like as the representative of the animals has described in the first chapter. cow. And although you say. We %ere obliged to commeilce living anilnals. $C.Except injuring the animals there is no good qndiry in you . nnd seized the goat.md eat their flesh. cd nnimal in the forests. ripping up bet.-" We who act t h ~ r sv i t h mimals only dc so from your esa~npIe." He repliecl: '' f-Iov is this ? Describe it. They never have pity on their con.ar rmK the bzllies of the nuimda and drink their blood -. They gave no trouble to living animals.1-erne cases are alloreil to eat .nd c o m n ~ c ~ ~ cconfiiling them. that from ns no one gains any beocfit. like as you in exl. v e never find any animal a m plaining against ns like as they complain against con.'' Re said. nTe never do such. ox: camel and ass: s. hunts fir y o and~feeds you. mhich is lawful f o us to ~ I~nntiag do. nr. roastins ancl eating-all these nets are pracbised by you. ~ O L I$so do the same. from you vhnt benefits ncelve t o the animals? The evils are manifest-)'on slaughter the animals and eat their flesh.] flesh. And t. killing and sl-inning.

dfrasinb! 3lanaeLbrr. Davius.. ll1nls do ~ o molcsi Li1nl rlicy 1. living or dc.not ? I n erery class there are good and bsd. but keep them at n distance. For every class recogl~ines i:c o v n cliLir Lencc the lieasts of prey knowing tl:c . ~ h do I . you will understnnrl that they are much superios to you. do not interfere vith them.deadin the earth that n e Inay not get thein to eat. Zohok.-If your t]7m11nical liillg~ C" a . Jarnabid.mong the beasts of prey there arc also ~'icliecl and low jcxnmplesj . For Xustmn.now tlint the man t is virtuous nlld . V> derive no bellefit from you. .. 5 .irtilous and * .le 12-e beasts of prey took t~ tbc same. Yet. Parnidi~n.mood. a. mnilltli!l a a a r m friendship with the^^ continually.. And from the tine of Cain and Abel to the present time. Asfundynr." &C. tro~zble to cnch otbir among thotiirelves ? If you will mq~:ir~+ illto the condition of the anirnals with due delibcrntion and thought. nna this is allother proof. h the rrny tL:lr ~ O L coilatantly live in war and disaensioo. tbosc . ille bcnsts of prey: also lnolcst them not : therefore if rhe Lcasts of prey vere not hetter than you.a(l. girinc.. rrl?eTe are the). ---- Kings of Persia. L " man said. m ~ with deceit a i d pretension roll d desire to assert poor si~periority.ild bca. fmests. I-es. An? you silj-. have you I ever seen the ~:. and yet you s?ralnelessIy boast and ipenli evil of the animals. that the beasts of' prey liill : I I ~destrry the anirnnis~nlrile it n n i fi-0111 yonr exat~ll.O L ~hermiti n~lddcvout nien go to them? v the yirtoolls and abstemioar $0 "Ot llear tile rriclied. Alexander.srs of prey me better tha11 you. zlmays lived ill liiood and war end ended [tllcir career] therein. i s there any proof of tliii ? " The other Those of your race rrho are acstere and derout. leave your dn-eilings and go into the hills resi:jcnce of beasts of prey. This is a p ~ o f fiat the hea.sts living. Aacl a t present also yoa are e l l ~ g e d strife ancl dissenin sion.?' The representative of. t l ~ e y n v e constzntly witnessed that y o ! ~continu:lllp !ive at rrar with them.

the accomplished jud F l a ~ e ~ s . .... :e noble.di.. a pbilosop!~er from among the race of the Genii said.ie tllcrn. there is no doubt of this. ancl besides this there :we wriv." The wLole of the assemL!? of t h e Genii said: '' This is true.te with the good though thev may be of a different species.L1L> 1 r The Kil:$ Isr " U i our race arc kin.0 I l l s onli house.aticinna. the temperthe of ate. seerei. matherr.i~lpsaid. mheu they heard these reproaches and sarcasm. I:~:~. devout.~ n ~ t against tyran te. And those who are wicked. millistars.. to Rdi~. why should tl-eir derrout and ~t~?stere men go and live in the forests and mor~nteinsand cnltivate a friendship for the beasts of prey.... !i . . that isi ' We have p ~ tyrznt.!! e ]'ar:.heorators. n o ~ . If' yo:i I~ii~-c Innre proofs C)[ any T.n.tile moraiug all the m e n and :mimsl* in p s m tin the court of j n s t h : ~ . macebenrers. If man h d not been -wicked mrl vicious.iirit~. the h 1:13IlJ a h e beri.c IllSnY i ) ~ a i ~ e w ~ iql?i~liS~a~ . t.- Cfl-4PTXK. :?>cn.iII. ." The p e r ~ i n ~ 1 1 21. etymologists. became extremely abashed and all of them held 181 ) . the cocrt was dismissed. X .ssocia. [']L~Il~!PI." .les rich. i. God has said. gmmnln~-inn S.2ce.ii!. The I<l:ig ~ &: 19 . ) . taxa rili~lcmrE F c~oilfri:!s. d ? x ! l. natwitllstanding the difference of species ? For bcimeen t. the poets.. the generous. But undoubt. G 288 r)isj?rr!a b e r l c r n ~?Ia!z. '' This is tl. fris1:. doetors.th~ tj-.crrlda. ---. the learned.j7feel the eKects of their omn sin." The lnon on zll sides. ailcl2bsdsmnte. those who are good pereons flee from the rcicked and a.edly they am on n level in their good qualities .( who are viched among the beasts of prey da ]lot molest the good and ~Crtuoua. rel:l. logieims.u'n bdzan . .aries. t h ~ kSn8 gainbihi8 . serma~~ts. asi~oiogers.' " When the delegate of the beasts had finished his speech.heln there is no limilarity cpparent. S S I V . L. stewards. the .!\. Ntircali Basnxn'Zim. interpreters of dreams: chenlists 2r:6 aoot~sayera. that t h o ~rn?. doKn their bends. I e ~ . they also floe from the gooil and go and Inis with the wiclced.L. Jili:ll is proved. all of then^ took leare 2nd wen: each t.bst dccour wicked men. . It was now erening ..* br a-llich o .

. Froln rhie it k!. noblcs. -4ild rre are above these.nyTot to tjlr King. For. But I csn point out for e. they desire n o h i n g in return. are rreniTers. -4od ere:*:. eunuchs: adulterers: prderastp. hc will perccive t h t compfired wit). friends: and gefieuous persms. In this Kaj. These are j not the duties of ~ ~ t nobles. faithiess tymnts..$. iThile r a provider n? I T . polTibeiste. swiildlsrs. L O ~ j -\nd the chief of the nniluds i ~ l r r g s love nnd hiie +ielldsbip for the army nlld subjects. robbers. tller:i they are very few. and among tradesmen tl~ere bG!dcrs. tsilors. at.heist. ignorant. 1llc nair. This man bonstr of tile ~ ~ of their ~ classes.inship require G a t the icing SIIOE~~? dway~ treat his zrmg md subjects with love and kindness.12d the subjects. thieves. misers. kii~dnesr I ~ his SUIJ~e c l ~ .m] take cnre of the subjects and troops s i m ~ l y for their oivll objects and benefit. hweeticr. Pharaoh.s.lals have not a share in tLem. highlmr.. linrs. ? i i l a ~ ec n. chief of the w t s and d the birds lire engagecl in the discipline find crder of their si~bjects. $Then their ~ IVhen msn had fi~>iabed this.( 182 j generzlly equal t o r h m in goad quali-ies manners. t?icliccers. its religion aidpeculiar accomplishments. For of their races are Ernrod. the)7 . hnd a trait. fools.. and besides these mnny classes SO whose ~ o r d s and nets re not fit to be mentiol~ed.e :( desires are obtaiiied. so should erer)king similarly look with. it11 these good rjufijiries w d charecterisiies are pecuiiar to us. i h e duties of governrnent and cllic?fta. niid tile lllilnal o!lr slaves. and in the place of every Yirt~oLls One lnentiOn n vicious one. And if they act ever so kindly or obligingly tomnrdt h i r t m o p or suSjeits. t p u r s e ~ ~ ~ fooipaddr. If he enquire abo:it the difirrllt kiiidv birds. moglwans . tile 1. L!.! of many ?ii~d. Bnt . fornicatora. class hns its orrn ( : ? l 2 rate good 1raq-s &IICI chnraeter. t . For in our race also ore chiefs. si~ocmakers.dmiuistratioilto the kings of mankind.' I. cortoil dressers..erJgood trait of xbich he J~oasts coyyespondhg. . bm 2l.. . iin [. In t h e same -nay as the Great God d v a y s meroifr~ll~ t. mlbelicrrrr.rents his slaves. ci:!efs are gnporiar in the art of gorernmellt kfid n. they give not a t h o ~ ~ g tot the h condition of the army a. And they expect no Geoefit in r e t ~ l m for nourishillg tllcir o'fspriilg.zil t h a t F e are master.

down their hezclu... " ?'lie is. they aye strict followers of God's mrij-g-. When the p::r. " They by the grace of God hare obtained this good quality.lh u a s good Lad. I or thak .Lem up and iced 'hem .-::~s t o IY!~?asd tc..:or cr:?s. T1xsmre dl proofs of His $1 bindn with such lore 2nd kindness.nr. HE oppainted ~ l ~ p fors d for mz do nokil. 2 ~j.. t.the ailimci. mat their s o ~ f c t Dlld a!Tl?y ~. We sent t h e m t .:~ir i r y ~ i i ~ .I!.3 h-came nb:iahcd c:ld b2jr! qilhintedn.c~j~c. they hring i. $]. created His creatures.1~ bring forth yaung. And in c o m p ~ r i r o i ~ ~ X ~ E ncr erail thmicr f~2111thcnl.. from the Pery moment Adn~nv a s created md: for the!. who act lcindlg and friendly each towards his oen tribe.ig s::id to n?ii!osoii3er .t. r h o ifi The angels me appointed by the Great God for the the ? The philosopher said." Tile King ns!ied. h fruits 3 1 s ~ 1d In ~ilol't.. i Tlair ~rilape olld f ~ mKC 3 esci. ! ~ i c t to filly m. ienree of been d i s c n i s i ~ v:h. coaim2:ici:-' c:. •i ' i ailc l~ul~-(liyd ~ ~ ~ .~t !12d ~ .i. i e p~ovidel l trees for food.cn irj. "Whence dicl '( -7 L : ?l1 fi .tcs His slarcs m d scllds them food and in the r x e of angels there al*e nobles and chiefs. has dwelt in body.~e regard for thm.id. " The breat. Those R I I ~ ~ who E 4 :fo~ his children and then requires them to se1. C ~ S If tjlerc had kindnaas m4.~~ ~ t .-nourish them.. not one con16 gil~. ~ l .. i ~ tad t hFor ~ b c n th p n not iFOE? ~ 2 " 1 : ~ . $Ic. s luxuries.h nllich He acts tovwde Iiis pa.what liings are they lore 2nd kindlless.ctices Ilnd not k e n il: man. i powers of obsaratiou.' 1ill60 s~. He ii~ade of them acall 'be t ~ l t h . md then desire nothing from them : simply Goln love and kindiiess.ha coilIn tb? rnsnrirrh!ie t h i Ki.r~ hi1ilil..11 Wrvice of every genius.o!llfort He the sull and t h ~ moon.ilent ~zfiued...?.. of thii G.p~cteetand hn.. species or individual cni. l i e gave t h e e the lll:iiosophi::.: Pils.9ttl l i l ~fflP in his apreeli. of life . Ee speaks ~ ~ .s :llc slrhjects-the kindness of aii.le Gesii? "Tiie kijlgs v?~ihoscabiiitiFs FOII hIITFe s t c ~ l n t i o l ~and stars. '' Ofthe The sage ~ e p l i e d . ' :<C l p ~ c.'' The King asked.-pK e. angelawho are nppoiided to pmtect man. By these kings angels are meant.i one in the world is Grent. the~ ~ t ~ of each. i ~ ~ ~ ---a .( 184 > 1s..so:. ) this kindness and friendliness arise among the :ingels ? " He replied..

\TTLat js the that acgeis n. to the sage.e nleiiy ~kilfiilmen nhd tradesthis is nothing to boast :of for zlii02g 1:s men. For instance. " May God reward thee ! " And afreraards looking torrards the pqrrot said. which is the rrea\iest of i n x e t s . nud these [[e~un] require tools 2nd instl-1:meilta. grit - . '' This man bocarn tl~y speee'l. certaill are in these arts their equals. First she d r a m cut the &rend fr.use their soulij sl. ! . T h ~ y :h. lime.hnn their ivdnvcrs.rl.h. and in this form :lt . Al.~nl. eil. bricks.X.hij fnrlii they ere ~ O Y U itad lire .d he ~vlio not 1. The 'Lrcnth of lib' still remains in the IJOCI~ childreii of Ad. or jinir they build their 1a1ir. inst CL^ "ill the chiiJrcn of Adam rise and entey j~eavcn.sare not seen ? " T]le save b rcpiicd.lle firat grade.12 sllirit. X ~ Sthe sill<O irorms very feeble. therefore they e e them .s1m1~e. In t.2s tile bodily of the cf A d a n n!so riinni~.he has Inox proficiency bfiilding tha~l b~ilclers and engineers nmoilg men.0 their fellow creatures. and receiving their words communicate them t. T b r e is something in common bctmeen rhern and the angels. but they I i n o ~ more s ~ i e i l e e and art than n r t i i t ~ . After that s l ~ a stretches it in lines. midrllc sl.y)rn ber sdirs.Ire ca~efid not to fall into the sleep of forget. ~h~~ .a with mnn.nd are full the). l$'l~e" rliey have fed 8:l.-!L did ille spirit of anye:.11 to Adnln LR ealied the second grade of angels.6ey are essential and They are llol perceived by the senses of the bady : but prophets and holy lnen by reasoll of their pureness of heart ssc them. while D wearer wjthant his tools can?lor rresve at 211.according to God's 0~de1. S I:e is a!ao enj]ed Satan. go the where they da^l!_:.orr i-." that of his race 2r.-:.e!es and are not dependent OR chalk-line.e~ they draw lines mid .c leaves a space open to catch tile ilics. a Pinigh -J $ v He replied. For nirhoct enrt.es.d d~i. becal~.i*dI: ~1c-1 in ~leiicsie :ir. t.2 unsollied n7i th the darkness of igllorance. they arc subject to t. and then completes i t from Ill the. So it is vitb the spider. or :olllpass. a i ~ x 3 this ~t she is dependent in no ivJtrillllellts whatever .'' The iiing asked.fGiness." The King heard this. but it1 q i n n i q and ~ e m i n g Inore Skilful t. ' L Sccnore t.

This knowledge and intelligellce is an inspirnt. jj!..( 188 ) i 189 them coprect and and the mind and rain do not tilere.jii!:> .. . The reason of .ing and readillg : thus they spend their time..3 ~ dL O I : ~ all:!~ i2t art ~: tdeii. ~ d i ea~!d thread.). divides them three lotsy she P J ~ C illS ~ eartllj the "lt of son~cr l ~ e Yudrm. +lle&il.rtL wygs whell a good niirnber of Ones she rakes sp the earth md geg J ""~~s."& make the.. they take out the child from nlld bathe and wash it and give it milk.And their cbildrell also are excessively stupid.. At the time of birth. p:krtridge. 4 f t ~fifteen or twenty years. ?hot <lel. SLe Over them. the mother of the child has not the least care. On coming oni of the egg. 1" an!.. . tl A'1 sl'ilI q ~ ~ i it^:^^^!^ *h2 irisT.ion from God..:~ I~lore j..e. OUP j7GUCg Gnea they are borl1 are ac~naintedwith at Once every. morn. the J'oLUlg p of tile hel1..:c: ?... P . . 85.* 1 t. lutliis ~ ~ e o r d i nto-*heir h s ~ i t s . They hare no ic-ea of good or harm. or quail. Tliey do e17ery t h b g . &C.yl:cii r e ~f their parents or tutor&.-. ~ 1 . peel. 011 \\.hingo d or bad. o Q 7.. TLcy !:s-. about without any instruction f i O r n their From any One who tries to c3tch them they flee...s~ between :rood or evil...::.. And still they remain as .:..great fools as ever. the \Then they ht3\7e fed it with milk.. they pat i t o t sleep in the cradle...!>: T12:: f~.again and . 1 1fiLCt. S i r u i ~ a d$lJc nLito nrlt -.!:olil aily thing s'T2i'01*t imdey the eai-. For instance. rf!qL!J "0t6il>g n-hctever.Among mankind there is no woman who taI.... ~ . . .. .cai~eiji " I n l l .. They can a11 distingui.. '"'" .es care of her children like this : nurses and midwives take care of them.l# ""{ss her holise i l l O : l t C. ' 7.nI. if h. .. >a .-.. l oils. 5 4 a]. 'O 1 ~ ~ 1 !R I : o u ~ill f j l l ~ '?lY ~ii.. Ornn Young.!-ho " a W'"pound of a bird ~ 9 d be....* d ~ LL. . "' li ~ l n c e .-I rcpnireTs "-'O rritLout "ern call (10 ~ ~ t l : i Arjd the sTn!~ . gcnce ' a ' ' 'rikc I D y iilstapc: o s f ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l . .~ ..s md feed her young. tlley come to the age of d i s c r e t l a ~ ~ 'rhen they reynire teachers of science and l ~ l o r a l ~ ~ The of theiy lives they are mrit. rrLi:t b r i i l ~ s lie' rounp ! x?hrn thrrty eabra me aecumalnted. . g .

'~O?S> divotees allcl iEdivii:r. of the o v l instilling the fear ~~d :into o'ihC~s]. rhetoricians. that soii are ~ilastfrs find .ala for God L~LS said. but you do not kno" til at :' so G.lie rosaries of the insects.timally . rhoae rank is s ~ ~ p e ~?i orr e day 2nd iiiglit remail: engcged in His prayer and praise. they have no place. tLr warnings of the COCL. that they reqiiirr not the atrention of their parents . you lllention. devotees. Therefore t h e Great God gmnttd those yorlag ones such sngocit. that rrith these birds the n. their acts nfhct 0111~ the ignorant.. 2nd 3 5 ' ignorallt alld wiseeriL1fil.& alld femnie do i ~ o tshnre the duiy of silpportir.tlict is. r. F e "re ~ i l ~ e r i o r To". ilnd though yoo say that of your race there are ports. In the opinion the r i s e .. c o ~ ~ t e m p l n t i ~ i l ~ of the locnsts. 1lie rnemling of which is : ' Every thing . And it is on this account He has bee11 so i. lioets. &C. ancl besides t h e 1 dercription of the devotion of the ant and bee and athers-you Ko$:d l ~ e r c c i v e that alllong them also eloc~Llcni spcnlieys. are not to ~h~~ of thing do you boast and dcceitf~~ll)and cnlumnionsly say. the confessions of the beasts. \Voruen and children only beliew them.*d has given you the ehn~ncter bein: of iunorzl1ti &y you unclersta~ld not IIis pmiie.isslLak~l y ~ ~ ~ ' 6 b d n ~ b c ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ . ' Every anilnfil 4 ]iliore his pr. exhortations of the nightingales.. the eennons of the emu. psyei-s of the frog.. 7 z~~bCiJLilli~ Jks.ihlago is. the praises uf the rronns. together attend t o tbc young ond. ICziLhi?~ LUC~UHe hna eaiied us hi. Chd. Then in thc opinion of the -IlmightY. and godly men. and were nn.are of t. rnsCeiin7i i i . tlle plaises of the swallorr.g their :-onfig eq~~ali.i:ld to us. they know nothing of .they can graze and peel: for than:selves. and 0 and 6 s r$d. orators. the revelation of secrets bp the crow.Some astrologers M deceitre &c foolish: say that in sucll a city a ccrtai!~ event after ten or t ~ e n t j years will happen. i f you llnderstood the tongue of the birds. as other b i ~ d s pigeon. ilk tdfbcL2ir2.r. but they do not.~:. rrhq like the male and female. The yooilg of othcr animals aliil birds depend upon being fed with iniiii a ~ l dcorn. OYP. the cooing of the pigeo:l.iJTcrs roray .u~mals slnvcs ? hnCl regarding the aatrolosel-.

and the c. e r s an idle tale. and rrliere he would La b ~ . I I . The facts are these : the astrologer gave intitmatio~l to Ximrod that n. Those nrthe people who depend upon the words of the astrologers who have gone asstray and rebel. Destiny nelres are changi." XTben the ?N'"t I'"d sa. lkt last God Abmhnm. witloot the order of God who created the Zodiac and stars. tyrannical and o1~p~essive kings of men deny the resurrection.id this muell.olnmon people think it t.-m&her is it so I3j. " If a s t r o k Y is una to prescrlre Person] 601" doing harm: T do l v y l j t d y it and bring proofs t o .lisL it ? And why persons 8fr~lia tilere:' CeTt-ail~lo. they exist only to deceive tlla iglloThose follra who have faith in the A1tnighty believe not tlieir n~osds. For instalice. nothillg c m take place. whatever God has mished He has done." After all. who after being brought up and attaining n hipll position should overthrow the religion of the idolators. 'Give nn order for all the children born in this yenr to Be 1. Hence the m-ords of the ~ t r o l o g ~ . %'hen he asked tkem. 3fany years previously they describe [what vill be the condition of] distant countries.me and trust in them.lb. They thought that the regulation of the world depended upon the 7 planets and 12 signs of the Zodiac. There also God sheltered the prophet y o g e s from their wickedness. is p ~ ~ ~ i ba . as Kimrod and Pharaoh at the morcls of the astrologers caused hundreds of children. thousands of fizmilies ta be murdered. ~ u up?-they TYCE not aWe t o tell.s. They s:Gd ~ht to the King.iveof sav. They understood not that. know nothing of destination . TLia is true : " Opposed to Fate no project -will succeerl. n. Where. 2nd of what race Le would be boril.illcd. or what mill be the condition of their. yea. child woiild be horn in Lir r e i p .lld preserved him from the hatred of the a i c i ~ e d 'plinraoh did the s s x c thing nit11 the children of Ism&).P'Cit l lg ? " He hot not so ~ I I U CBS tile a ~ t ~ o l c g e r ~ rcnj-nt.' They had the idea that this child also ivould be hilied with them. the i<ing aslied him. And yox~ boast of then1 [the astrolopraI rind say that in yam race are ~st~rologers phiand losophers. means of aS for !4' 1$ . the friend of God.:st.their own fate. as to what will happen to tberfiselves.

e 11~tlticns ~ ) t God n:. 11111:1iI. who is the Creztor of astrologer^." The Icing srid? When the l a m of religion 2rc o b s e ~ v c ~ zutl by that means ca1:t.id.i~y ail6 -irceping: p x y e r ? 51si:q: .lcl such ail evcnt. E11t those people who to avoid calamities 11zal.t~ their r a y s ofottainiilg assistance. v~orship.'' corwse tha. t. ~1-:1e11 t h e .>ing with a sincere 11eai.lles. EIence the ~ s t ~ o l o y iand uzngi-3 clails girc out b a f ~ r ethe occnr:. it follov-S of asitle. L By pract.ishlg the lau-S ' of religion.of the All~ligbty.^' The King said: " Row c10 they obtain the nid of God in this ? " Re sn. and God Lra~ing created him hnml~ledz i ~ dspoiled Xirnrod S .t the decrees of Fate have been I!e replied: "His decrces: never fail.zstro!ogcrs told Xiinrod that a boy o p ~ o s ed to the faith of the idol:itors would be born and thsov his s~lhjects RI~CI m-:l~yinto coafi~sion.eiicc of tlic crent that God vil! manifest srich s. glv:ag s!ms nnd tit.n 1>1-otectcd from thesc things.&s by r n s meant Abrahain the friei~d of God. Tl'hen are they ask God to nrcrt [any c a l n ~ ~ i t y ] doubt FIit no accedcs to tllem. For instance. 'It ~ro:rld bc better t o pray directly to God to be protestecl 2nd not to practise astrology.nity is averted.

:i!. '.L. 'ur.<.fiecity: aild mnzl3.ig.-.. '. For the rccoccry of the ~ i c l i ! e sho~llclfirst pray to God : F for perbct health is obbdtled by I i i a 1ne::cy o13ncI kindness.fix.lisined ardr!ii~:p..< %y1(.ople who ncre outside he engaged in ilrarel* aad ismentr. c o n j w c t i o ~ ~ ld [in xith p ~ q e ant1 not U S C ~ 5 lllenlls for the astrolo. One shonld not crlrn fro111 the threahald of the true Pl~picim apply to the physicians and [of tLis vr~~l~!]. aiiid.:!. and ofte~~timos muell In with tears and grief they write their condition i e pctitiu~is and hang tlrem on the ~ ~ 1 and piliars of tile 1 s T6e Kiag asked.T-yll o:!-c.: L L . f i ~.on him nnd his race) this ptlactice ha. j i l a cci. A . that in his city ~n event ~ o u l c l happen. l : .. 'Those pe..:i!. . and God grmlts them recorerr.. C : : 2nd all djy :li. .2: i.LIE:: .i. Therefore natro. md if from thsir treatment no b~ilefit accrlres t. 7 -77 ? .?. ""6 t : x ~ xS\.bey lose all conEidel:ez . Lid\-ic. xii. c. l ( . They fox& God and trnsl i the rei~uivi'il~g n heavens.!nts of the llsppen .. niosqtzes. L<- .lii2iT~ . every ono [of the pmpllets] orrlemd his foIloTera to do t611s i~nder every n1isfo~t1111e. j d K ~ ! I . i.liu. .. l i:eg c.. ) .!:~) r a y pir." 1: 1 GII t?~::: 2 c c d T ~ ..-ji.. L l l ~~ .i it ? ljFSr ~ ! 9. Worr it ~01112 t. tslie place. rvrut 3 .~ a a i ~~ h . Somt persons in the bc. . .nt :I!SC.:~ w.liry. <l. 'I!icy bCf3. .i l o " Tr.: God t o l><!%:\Y!d pi:*apJ cii. aIite. Q-.. i .is f i T.. 1 11% f ~ i ' n i d i i a e. 1. e.ctJ1+?c .ii even: c .toir.. . tl.t t!.. y h e r a t e r oil sides in and c v v e ~ dthe the persans n-110 remained in their .b. ! J y s ].eren c i nble to give rite pnrticL.t:in mmlrb 01-c . l j ~ i tcertain lnen. earig!ll . .:>i> .el.~.inained ia the night i b rained in the city was situated in a holion-. to ijreiTw. cTod c~ from 1 .:glit l0 be takeil rcy.1 to petition . ~ : ! ! j : n e ...tion.>r thore be~lectq clarirerl from ast~uiogy. For there was R B to ~ h o m i n the astrolo.1r.:\e ~ ~ ~ l .innin. them m d tom to God. ilot tlie p r p d i c t i ~ s die nstroloI of Fers p. frx*:I.!:~ n:. z steps o. i : . and dnrellings perished. ~ : .s.~ r t:lcjs.: been obsermJ.nZrs ~] as of this age to inislend the pcoplc.t d:! t r t z king ~ l l d ~ ~ ~ :.::i zr. I I I ~ 111 f h e pii. mid not trust to the tricks of the ~strologers.s'!l LL:e . ! ~ j : ~ ~ .. Iogy s h o ~ ~ bs practiacd tlii~s.IT&. . . \ 7 .nersg~~-e wnord. which would be rery fdtal to the iinhahi- niii r!riy said tl!ai.zl i. U . :<:fi:i]l 5:ye:ik: $Ix3!!1~! : .il ti. Th::s one should apply to God i.Fez\. &! ixtz . .a of their sickccsk apply to doc. The ~e t ]~ilq syka.

ljZ 7 2 ( l ~ l .L C. a o.. \Ire bcliere in ?:m Cuiij.gs t. .: T.c-.2 -. 2 c d ~ c -~ Thoro i-. I . .\i. '. .:i:. >..:3 LA^ i!.clms. acln.-.I.~t!.-..:... 0 1 ' '2 7 7 .tc...LL... -. many diflernnt rcligiciis t o rr.j . ~r allotted in our f.y n-Orcjso Lu!:c-.. v-:. .i-iithey ~ i ~ ~ knor theln not..:>:."L \..7.I. ...ve110 ine~in. z o ? ? . ..in uv. L - 2 '.hrterr:.i:.iL. ...r <:.zEgs whicll come no red ienafi:.:.ir2 .>. l r 1.:-jib hiE1 izi j tlrnsc ~ i i t!i(iityhf 1T. Kiglii e!ld . c ~ ? ~ c . .. said.er:.( 198 ) { 199 ) remained safe . .ne Sclicve in the resrri-rection7nnd some deny it solne zc~i~o~I&eilge prop!~ew and inspiration.. . . j. nlarifj7ii1r: 'rrc \vc do llor T. !:~voil~l .-~.eJ: -i. Pox God has saii!.. 1.? . ?):. .--L.i r-S sf . n? 'g . some Lrilg proofs oi its fii.... nitd ..~. arc thn~kf!i! i c y v.. .7 I y.l i ~ i l C f : > ~solilc i!L!2yQ c : ~ ~ &).-a yil)ii ?.itenass .{lL2Tl<...-: L : .- ~2 &--A..).?~. 110 V>. L. 8 0 ! t C say the T . IL e -- s..c311 t3 to those tknt rnnai:l?d .ii. to i.. .?(..i.:r-. 7 . of' :li2 . . . :'. ieo.. 2s 5 s c ~cve:1. So:ne say ihc E .. . .. ~:I A. tllre: c. ..- -. :<. : 1 .? fir. i.- L2 LAX. b::il:$:ie t?:::t crc>ti:yes . it" knnn-!. sz~v:i:.. -. - ?..h--. c : baye c.~:j\.. -. -'ri.. f < < ~ ! .*.. >- J l i . .. ..::.i)ji.A ... >.:jc t'. ...r7c .ch pc sllbizer. t o $2 drai-.. +::... dldcrent oi>lri:. jyA. . : of CO : i ? l : ~ > .. . ~ h i i e t-ey r. nctioy). . -/. 1]loee scic!lfis t1..a t!xt is? 1 barre gi-~ci.:~:-i9 . : a!:<] J 2 ? G . rind flyat He in 02rqu:i?':c<>.c do not gr\i Iiij ol. .t.Y.r. i.:.:j . ..~~ ~ --i k r e in S j ~ raom<. bcdiyatenn itz ~ L G ] L ~ rcaj.-. 0. : : hare esisted 2s 1011~?L..c ni:J7 : .of (>i7c. 1 1 ~s i. a T:~:. .l r ~ 7 e y o ~ ~ ~ L G .-..j~ Llye s .a . ' 1 ' . . L L ~~rh?iiifi20 cL~o ii2LIf0 jv~llb~ .L.? ". .-<:11. : ~ ~ q g]c12ct/1iL.. 'C-. d.:cl.: fi.Ltio2 to~'":.tllcy ha. ~ ~ y \\ C . occ.~.< $>$-.:.nt is the r e s o n for th2t> .. y a~. 2 o.-0 .. iomc ibrictiy eq'y th&r . <.:A2i. -. ~ m disbelieve in them .c:ic.!+& . ori~ci-s.. same I)??.'. U 1 .. ii .. t.: ~-!). y.~.~ ~~~p zbin i ~ n r x l d .::T k is everlasting. ivLile all the others were drawned.-.i from .-. c2niinnal.?l~eestora ~ l l d .A. ellgnged in pr:\lsl?ig .... some are perillexed s ~ l d c lral:der in dolfit.. .>. some depend up311 seme ~ i l d L-..ofil. a: .s the <liciesb.hy L I ~ S C ~ rill23of tlie i.:.l.1~~ l i g i o i %lid i " clie form of Tvor&ip.. Lye. : y .e r ~ n t . . iIimlrillntion t i l ~ v pp$e~:. 'i..?:opreiicn3lon -.. 3 .I. .. .. EJ L.:!":? t. 7 -..rcl?Sb kno.. IS of piety.ii-!L-.. like a s Sroah a i d those persons xho held t h e faith wcse mved from t h e flood.$tr12c'"-.i]z .! ii?3kheri>z:. i! P t:Z':W:?'3 i7.bina'i that .. ' htsifi2s tllls illere .egent our bani:!:. ..r7 . i ~ t J . . ..! !:.this i:. 1 a \> .~~o:.s:.-. .::gc I> 25 *..-:icd b?.a1 ."ill' . illiij . ar.I.-t2ociri>i ..! t ~ k l . . T 7. tbi.-.9oi.. :.-<y .l::snt .7!:C1:! i.. ( -3.i.02 ~ ~ : f i l .

- 7 I < ~ r ~.i p from these the aliill alld rt G. and yet f:":'01~ going tllerc. J-ON go tc their doors and w a i t Oldy those are.2r c siuEy. Jlcllce y o : ~ boasting ~ fYOU' pbl' sicianLns astro~oge~segregious folly.]-J arc :unde mnnifest. c> . the GC~C man lroLlld yecover. D iil:es!.l?. tbyoilg!l iakillg their ~ d i ' i ~ e erse Fy"ln those tlliugs T V ~ . . ' IIe who understood his own body God. ~ l this is d ~t h e ? llonxnse phS-aiuniis.. becly :LW ~ i t ~ a t ~I l t ~ ~ g thine-S 1 t o ic.ro!ogers n!l ull] and a!id &vioerr ta:.31071 a l n h nafisojizi fnlfdd n r ~ l a 7-a&joA2b .:-... linsfcii a lucky o r arrest 1 1s oofi-cr i:losLliot. As tiie ~ ~ o p h e :llr!. fhcy tell him t o &ho . . %re take 110~ the advice of physicians base no for draughts or codections. ~ ~ ~ ~ If t h y left Ilim to nntnw. therefore v e do not become ill.( 200 ) 7 Some of tbcm are absx~rbsdn :llfasnrinri t h e heavenly budies and their dista~ic?~. and taking a urinal xith v. a. tluki is. Xany go meaaorjng tllc yiyen nnil fomsis. tli. L.2 tl:e f o ~ l i i .?:/C . Also tile imlocl<y and imfortunate cravd round doors of tlre astrologer..lfi>. 0 Solac are puzzled over ascer~iiningthe height o r mallu.. Bo\\r tlrcjciiiri oc ~ ~ r d .tb'~ c c n t ~ ? . .-hns lyritbt.ii. ~ ~ . nut in ilk&.f : i . t d n s rltd c!ouds. cort:~innst.ased. It is a characteristic of . i t'L n:iJ bniinr .:iI u p c e a s q . Some study and pcndcy arii* .aySiLi~sO U Laast of J~OLI rely only when t h r o ~ ~ g h kreoaioess 2nd lust you hare eaten many kinds of food suE ~ z c o r n aaiclc. .: .: ni:l .incS t i w r am . Y i. T z is ..j r.:rn Ri:icii 3 ' is easy and to uilderstn.~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ blessings cud gmcc of God be upon him. :lic the sic?: m m . 17!lnL is the n i l t x . They kiloir lloi hair ill. jich no to the doors of the yhysicinu or ailotheo-q. fnrti:lr.lie cxf2!i[ hs!low i ~ the cili?sr . . .Lra 119 i.(!:'h. and know llot 13is orders reapeotil?g duty and ceremonies.. C ~ is iixn-c~.i!:li i j the ctiidition of t h L O C C .. I:orv the st<unn& is fo:-lsc(.iioi5~]cdge ihi: . .i!>:~.2L.e piece of p s p ~ r n7&e SOKlc JjCeii~.. . . for oor food llever i. their t r o ~ i b l e ~ increased for are . >L c .' In addition t o this stupidity thBy read cot the word of God. .. k .. JTTe vlld is fiat dependent on them.U . the free that they dependent on 110 0 " " .1 h.. &d 4 .lie colllpositicn of the Hcasaiis ul discovering of i:le :d x:::.arias. f i i f 1 1:.~i' ...

X.<..o k i ~ e r k h g dm".:. temptiblc i l r .?. ilil!.llz.. q .l 2.??'. ' of' . :.i%.J7. ~ : tl:c ? . fancy they :we gainers.L!?if .= ~ br :Ll.:- .' J L ? ~at~yo::? s ?':z 2 < $ s ~ w l.e iroy. they '. which.?.f s!nr:~c :I:: insi! rcs.r. & . T[!IJ. t ~ e r sare iiot ir. ~ ~ ~ . ..:..'~e:i. . ' ~L . .. > r g c y etid :Ilod ~ ~ i. t is .:: i -. filcll~ls.q-ith C..:.... 7 7 ':!d.l ryeS.:i . fi. L%* :: L- .jid ~ m~ ':L..al you s3.fioie. =.9 thair c<~~...I-.-... &: C S ~llot of the f'. noilher nos lieoran..?:!.. . L ~) a nilrl they lilrcr :ooli illt.p .: .d !:oar: I n GTIllo r:5iiia>i i. a hop2 of 2 f ~ i ~ i i i &clr -::m!.n rourid.the lot of aizves to con! i ~ l c a ! l :*:1nuinn froin one ~ i)lnce to anothm..?if..:. j:T~ccsa ancl give i:s%i~ig 10 t1:2 s.:ir:.-1 1 . and do not understal~c~ that they have given array for nothing the veal treasure.1 ' a:e-&2ries..g .: r c!~i'l<. Those maychantF. r C l : l ~!!. .ltdiiio~~.1 c .Y t h h ~*. f i d ~.-Og G . boaic!i2 o~ 3..-.. L ~ J L IhV ~ them of it..!li cf .. c.a t:..l tll1s I L L .-.'C . )tiii:c t...-. .z(1 r ..G.'.-.c:.is the soul. n y .' If YOU boast of tIlrr yen a:ib. L L :.\ ~ . ? ~ their xhoie lircs in v.OLi~ion.. 7jjcii. . i L l . colrp?.#>.-cs ho... .. 1 . degi*aded.. rel~tions..-~ v ! .1:1~ ~ e c o l l ~ 3 :. 1 L- J . they v:ite tl1?1:1 !?:: ....inCd an.. relations . 1 h i . rrhile FOLIY fiiellds.bd .. .p . ~ ' ~ l C S?..iesd&ip. x i : 0:::: S~C)::I:::?.i:.:.d d2J' iG toil .. . .(A::.?: F> bonrs go bci(?iiiz? i L ~\i.-. For sh~iv.4 9 d then 1::1..:i :. bi:t 4 Cl.L i'j(!t '""&$C? C. They have sold their sdvation for this vorlld.-QFc jii:Sdrie\-c~s X ~ C K ~ ! ~ ' 0 1~:'~:~ Tyi~11 their CC:I~:: : :. L I n t. ...?:iglit a3.:] L.clli. ..L.....*: < ** > . ~s ~ ~ i j d ..j riakl I.ic .i:a.!cy get ..\-lint c h u a are boncroleut men of zl~t":iz Tbe!:l..:\. d . 1 1 1 1 ~2 . .. .. .. 2.-. ~ f i ...:!l.. 7 7 < - L - L .:. i ~ t .i:? tile rice .:l -. TLro$d..hcnrts &CJ.07-!.. ic.. .?? >.~ e a l t b Was nor grJi-Led.." er!. ' In oI two things bofi were l ~ s t .ia nsoing (ill ~ m t .c. TheJ. . + ? ' . they aanL'cr Ijcgging fmm dijr fa door.~6 & l l c i g ~ ~ o v .yS ~ .7 . .e Cfjil.h&. ?!l:.-r rscc.:...?.. j7cf.~ 2 1 12. DO:) l :his biinrlTalcnccto "lljoy ~ ...'"p tL>:{ t o deceive t..i "i in +h.m 2 :i:a!!~?s: yet t l ! ~ ?l-JICITSe!.?ill l l a s f i ~ t ~ ~ y c:::. L ' .yk $ic:. \::: ::.L .+ :!:c c::y!h:. .kjlzl d.~ S ta!ce it ZK::~: or some I .~ :t " :-. .. : alld plcza.+.s 2*.?:-<.li7of fi.ir::bc!.iends. c.i l:!..l.:.!> l12.:>pr tLrv nw J I'':..:. ]ri:iirjcwl liusb~eZ~:~'ulli: which y.I . -c to L 1 :::.:--. ~ : 3 . yoL.55 of sCpLYCit'.-%"--* I. neither do they enjoy the vOrld-heave~~ is lost to them. h r U L-t . are of even worse OR : ! .~i:d l:il. They X T Z . J- : 1 .) -:::. ' ..

give vroug explanations of the T F O ~ of God.ijs! of m" t.. these .. e]jc&iog to lie one. .roar'ixo lolls ' E robes.%ureligion and piety do ? IIel] is prepal*edespacialliyfor those of ~ h o l n host. YOII tLin1. U L) They are continualIy complaiing of God. them t o be riyliteous.!ct 1li-i disiiiiiaiij. right. TT?hy you bosst of them ? These do people a sb:~nle1 1 .vicirad.:. They take bribes do jnsliee. l-cLll= jLcrli2ifs 2nd desatees thzt )-a:: ~ L i f i Lill laiii.ltlu.. Kiairt alld dny they Law the idea of stop. To ativa~~tnges. mal<ing to f. rC.ijgiolls also for the sake of tile v-odil hnve m. L s ~ I L ~ . For tT':at n?licL aI3PXX . their bodies become thiu their color becori~eche. 1Jy God. 3-cm lnnyers so lol~g they are not ifi as Pour jiidges situatioll [bdl.lif EI:. 3 c . i g b t ~ ~ i lts .l itye nccc.fng bonr to i-mdormioe he r o ~ tend foundation . being satisfiei wiiL coi:-sc c l o i ~ j 1 2 y ill!fLiDg .t?~ I . and deceived sop.i ""C? g2tti11g a ! i Y ? ~ e l l t ni?piiilrt silot!lor ill ]-. L 1''. tha ~ j . be 0 tlil lenqt!wni. \Vllat c. si' t i ~ e i r eharzater.!s ' 0 l:? ~ . and preach $0 and teach peollh. being teaching the 1 ~ 1 ~ s i'e:ioiml. hnve shen-n )-G(: their s]f-desiai nl!rl nbsiineoce. long pmq-let-jnDn lilj hallg t l l r o ~ g h eating so little f90d. Those wllo are not contefiied: tlley make so by f e n and threatening.. ~ . ** L -2 . Their bearts are so full of nldiae % ~hatred. Their harts are &IICdwith such-like diabolical ideas. but before God none are so .t n disgrace to 5-0~1. poIp11cc: they sA. In sh@l%. go t o the mosque rn6i-n01. patch npon pltch: rernainii. . tngc!ji? oi* . YQ" arc 1 1d l vise re. d L- C 7 . Inaful which is unlrm~ ~aIld aometi:nes inde that unlawful which is ~ 1 .:ll their foreheads a m3rked. j i idep L :: ti~oir prayaw inre>--. twist the real t-hey I . taliiu. they think no o11e created cquni tothelll.lil"Ilet.d 1 ' a ~ 10 -. Tlleq. t .h p l ~ ~ c e A ~ i lat last by 6O. [saying] did God cycste the accursed Satan? '??by nere adulterer^ and fornicators created 1 Why doer He give thenl food? These we improper words.sa.: little to eat.-these are dio. When they kt posts they seize the rnredth of the poor and the orphan.i2 of their ' a d s : takjng lie hair 6. and gixreii to oppreFsivekings t o pIense them.yether 2 3 deceit and lies. w] ing and evening and say prayers..)irlq t o elliplor o f iile p-i.~siic~:.nged. letting their brains wither.

T h i o ~ l ~morldly b no~bition kiUs his friends and Bmthcrs. is CHAPTER SXT7. To boast of of these kings and nobles is injurious to Toor case. file t~llcs tllz Gw-lii.t slit did i.ason.c of the men of the IIcliuew nsseulbly ~ ~ i .ongi:$i mciljllbrmce nf past se~*~-ices. i.fa:. For this 1. The GeSi 1 t.tion of ~Lis. I kllo.. the King looked towards the aseemb1~. finy that tha Genii. On thcir account are p u ~ i i a b ~ n e n t ~ and ji~dprnel~t [lodai~lcdj. : Bi.( 206 S ) ( 207 ) wicked .e up esrth and over h r bad:: build Ler arc?:cd horse. A?2 ~ C C O U o j~ the TT'hife A~zt. They yrefbr this \rur!d to {Jlel~cxi.OU m e n t i ~ n b e i ~ ~ g s::ccercorr as the C:' the pmpheis i r ? re11 I<iionn. P ~ VLen the parrot had finished this speech. he first irnl~dsonlslhim T Y ~ O has sprrcd ]:is nllcestoyr n-ell for years. freed ? xinS Solo~ilnnmade tile Genii bring earth nll.Lmn dlis scrrice-she ate the wand of !<ii. for if she a c i d thoi tolr-nrds Gullii this man hns d e r e r i b ~ dsl~oifid .and rrrollg right They ferr cot God in tire least. Tile bad pr~:ctices of c:iliphr ~11d kings that J. '' l'h 6 c m j<illg rnro of tile *bite riit is rronderfi~l her body .d wnrcr.Do Y O I L 1~1103anyThey tliis pfrhon n ~ e n t i o ~ ~ s ?" r!.ril her imllcl. and they \I-Lrcfl*2e<JfrOStl tl)il nlrl! ~roul~lc.y one reason for tlds. ~ . ': T h o ~ y h white a n t Lns no liaild~. y . nov iri.lt toil DIUI t r ~ ~ b l ~ \re 1. ? Give me an exp!nuP. thn.Goilght lie \Taa &ad Rc3 thence. '' . they leavethe ~T::YS of the pYoph~ts and jrnt to daitb the of t h e prophet^ Th?)? tiriolc themrc~ires better t h a n all men.lject to tll. the nbi& goes into her hod)L .x A Grwkphilosopher mid " The tile King." Ol. TIla Giilii xive hey tile earth.Genii and men of and said. U'hsn m y p ~ r s o nnliloxg the111 ~ C C U I I I C B B rulel. and built houses 2nd gave the111 0 sort c~ r. .illi.. He cspcls fwm liir iiiind reare tho. r .llnoyn.lle . the fiet. dild your claim of omnersLip rritl-oot proof or i~enson altogether false aiid unfo~mtled. they msIce right ~~:rong. hcv does she ml. y.ncc. i l cOO1 the pores of her nrhole body ever : remaiAdape11 .'' 'The Icing id r:. '.g So!osmn and 1 r fell. These he m e not the chai~cte~isticr s~q>criora. of . &lilte its7' fie re131ied.

To some Ile glL:rrre bodies of a i. To others IFe small and tender bodies. He in His porer and justice made all eqnnl." Tlie King said. though his body is very small weal<." ITe &l.ills him even. Thc ?ednndnncy rind the deficiency on one aide aud the o t h r arc made . when he stings the elephant 1." The King said. And she has two teeth which nre very strong. the elephant." The Ring said to the locust. and tbe dust which falls npon Ler bodv becorneh mud and sticks to it.oe ~ i z enild hczry. I n the same way this grub. every Form that is s~ilall body is altogein tber wise and il~telligent.o t c c t i ~ ~ ~ se that from every harm she may Le sared. and . they could ncrer bare existed uirder grief and trouble Therefore He gave those inferior spiritq N is congealed 114.ir. And the scorpion. 2nd gave each of them his biesiing. but made their spirits extremely vise and intelligent. which is ed1&1 the xhite ant. ~~\T]lell the Great God ercnted the whoie of tile :min. ]lad be given them c9pacious minds they ~ o u l d never have subo~ittedto any one. though small in body.in bricks and stoilcs. but ga~-e the111 grovelling and gross spirit. This forms in drops on the surface of jler body. rrLich she cuts through fruit. who mounts his shoulders and tnkes him where he chooses." The locust .. " The white n n t in a sort of grilb y0-a are representative of the grubs.( 208 1 to balance For instance. thew are some others. The camel. This she collects. he is governed by a child. the excessive cold and becorn:r water. " Finish about them.qmall-b0died wise ? What skill of the Creator is in this ? " 'I e said. explain what this Greek pliilosophcr snjs. " He speaks the truth. b ~ i he has not dcseribed the t whole of her talents. and makes her h ~ l ~ over her body for p ~ . \JThen the Creator of His perfect power perceived that those animals whose bodies rrrere large were able t o bear grief 'and pain.nI. though be has a large body. " What is the reason that large-bodied animals are dull. In short. though he bas a long neck and body: is yet w c h a fool that he folloms my one who seizes his nose string. lcnvcs mid vood. If a mouse wished he could lead him a b o ~ t . is mild tempered . Ancl had the jmall-bodied ones not been wise and ell-info~med. has a very capacious mind.aid. and makes passsages.

inn] that he his do. The phi]osopbers dellv t. or how he makes [any thing-] For instance. or 1yhenCe she brings Wax and Had her body been large. The ever?. tile bee without rule or compass makes in her house different kinds of angles and circles. alld it is not lrnomn she does it. -4lthough said that ~~d had Of E-iskindness rind grace given from him fiztrnnlr. art is not t o let the secrets of the inventor be knon. So is the Lthe secret of] her $pimina alld is not h o r r n to 3 1 . [thinl. thank Him not far His blessinf. even then the doubt neut ~ d tileir minda.wealt. the bodied animalsare nn e~idence His Power and of skjllm insbllce. . " Give the data.atmdillg this that he is the s m ~ l l e s of insecte t and pharaoh beca~ne disobedient and Rrn'y of . .ize and . why do they .her. horv to she collects it rind makes her home ? tyrsnnical kings. For without mnteri"Is she .beye lvitll the ability uhitd ant]. honey food I they are of opinion that she collects it f f l o r a. .. Z U ~ s ~ ~ a~l''~~~' "lm .." The other replied.i 210 ) ( 211 ) and these in triligen t spirits. ~ " d o sent the white %'ltrrllo the wand of solomo~'.lot coliect it ~ ~ ~ use it? And if she gets it fiom-air Tater_ "'ld man carl see: why does he not watch her.md subdue him.ionre11 boose.h. are rebellious m d disobedient..ils. m d the 6ft of prophecy. a"d in the mosque. I t is not k n o i n how talcer up enrth and builds.gainat voses7 the Great God sent ~ocults to go there . This power of the Aimigtty to the nicked who boast is a A41thougb see dl His ill .lld~leaves.this art have been discovered.to any one. the knat killed Ximrorl *lotnit.ninions by fraud nnd deceit." The hing sad.hat it is l'ossib1e t o form anything rritllout matter.Sin'i'al'ly ~~d gwa solomon authority. gni. And Great God has proved by the s~cill of it [p~saibie]. and nlnde all Genii 2nd men bject to to solne of $he rricl<ed b d a doubt Obtained being propllet. This is the care raitb vbita 1y a""t) nothing can solve the secret of the formation of bcr house.

': Onr shapes l.-- are also got from it. where is sucl. aild here the). she is solaller in body and wea1cer than all the anjma. There is the oyster. 'Ehe Great God bi. 7 7 a? . 1.Is of the sea : but in knowledge and wisdom..c Have lrou i ! ~ o rttc SAJ? ? ~ T h e ~R ? n:~)' L Ladvalltagest by O ~~ i'ljed. aiid keeps those tiro shells closed fbr sometime till that I n t e r hardens and becomes a pearlsl.nomledge in man?.o~nof the sea and there lir?ea. '' Eeinte them.o said unto the men. which are oroduced from the saliva of thene small worms. in which the pearl is produced . 2nd silk cord. . Better than the best is the pearl for their adornment. DPOT" tt!~*t . i. ~ o e~lss~ers they T ~ e and .. God has placed great fond~less the minds of mm1 in for brocades. Well.rp cp<r. fio2n rmangi. Their assemblies they light up mith n. a. 7I . ~~ the). they do not take iranlling.cna find ~ m s t e their lives in error.d~ form and appearance arc . ..ongiit forth such excellent i:?ing~ frolll these auimnis.lx candles. p-n.. e p ~d o you Tile xi:.iGuFj. she comes from the bottonl and stnys----J on the susf'ace of the water.nifoym. and mu1iiiormity is pec~~lilia~ to slavery.z.i']esa m. t:. rvLich is produced by the ei. s~nF!.ill of sinall fish rriiic?l I haye just now descrihea. " What to tLia S " All the snimJ r . . boast of those kings who are inferior to T h e J ~ OUY small insects. Of their articles of food they think honey the most ~ - . S o t .is pover and ingenuit>-. for opprission tin': tymun? m" His .rcl.and might. T v o shells of hers are very large? and she opens them-when the min water goes inside them: she immediately closes them.er.l r. In the rainv season. that the water of t h a salt sea rnny not be mixed with it. f!mt mull may observe thcln and ncknorlcdge Ris skill m d pon-er.il.[hcy t . most proficient and intelligent.ri&stnniiing 1 1 1 see ?..7p ola L delicious. Prolzl&is it i p l m o ~ ltl h ~ rt e are maSte. .in. .hrc-a. give not t h a ~ l t r His blessings. ht.nd tkey g.v ~h~King said to the animals. th21:: id. She gets her food and n~nintenancea t t&e bott. For s ~ m e t r y belon~sto r3:1k a sprenlacy. After this she goes again to the bottom of the sea. which." \ Y b n the l r ~ ~ ~ 5 t ~ ~ ~ haG gnis3ed this speech.tves. which is produced by an insect. sillcs.

Anglicans.d faith prove it. Nazarenes. Btheists. said.nimals are various..they a sort of QOLkers among Mnhomedans. and. &c. . the representative of the birds. . polytheists. Hirmees. yet their spirits differ. Ashflis are sect of the Sannia. f0110ive1. who all vary in their belief aad reli~ion. the one God and the une~uaued. .among the l l ~ s s u l m ~ n ~ . heretics. AlanuLi . but although the forms of the a. hypocrisy or sin of any h i n d 'fhey have riot the least donbt or uncertinty of the polver and unity of God. in one religion there are many dirisionr. Nestorians. Our religion is one and also our faith. Each thinks the other a heretic. For instance. d in praise. and though the forms of mankind are all dike.r o r shippers and star-wordippers.bent their heads and remained for a while in thought. '' Faith religion are only ways and mesns by which And the object and end of each object is is one and the same. yet the spirif. all animals are Unitarians and believers. Son-ft'~talisis. Deists. Galiieans and Jaluteee .ie. And in additioll to this. among Christians. Jh3inis do not believe in revelation . Abdbekr md Omar. They belieso Him to be Creator and Ba~efactor.. Asharis. Among the Gu=bers. Why is there so much difference in y o u faith and 1-eligion?" He said. . the Benel factor.Man must gab that the same ss gannis. Kasibis. But the lnen know not of our payers-" They that dvell i Persia said. and haye no public prayera-Rn6zis means saeadrrs .s of ama aster. Sbils and Sunaees. Jacobites.* Rafizis. '* What proofs are there of this? " HS replied. Karijees. like as the ancient philoscpllers ditfered in opinion. n ITe dS0 belieye & to be the &-eator. Nuzkis. they believe' only in Ali 8s a Cslipb. For among them are some thousands of sectel-Je~vs. They know not plytheism. i n fact. They think of Him night and d g .* The Ral+ijisbelieve only in two Calipils." The King aslred them. After amoment the Persian nightingale. s a ~ i b i s e yery nearly a . '' This man speaks the truth . Bre. . We all are from schism. h n d there are many more sects." The King sairl. and rernain engaged with their ro. among the Jerrs are Sztmnritane.s of all of us are alike . curses him.hainis. Behrahis. Lrwallees. Galilenns. " Difference in religion sr.

-tentively. 1.. and the Cross.ii?~ b(lreki~.I~. it i s $:. rr I S : 1 he Great God has purchaser1 from the fzitl!fill their passions ancl tvenlclr and pro. I[f t.he service of God ? ' A!i His friends szid.ilznazfo:." The XCng said: :: Tell us znoi-e f:lll y . " L~~sD He olpdercd him to do so.. Tlre f i ~tl: is !lecceserji for the world. fo: the sa?x of Gcd. " It is not on account of r e l i g i ~ l ~ .' Blld the11 Jesus said..?!-~ 3 1 3 ! e to . . " In the fait.ohzit~zzua arltcn!~l2l7 FJZQ'IZTLC~.? kill2 is requi. be p~epc. .tr~-.$ --." The King said.--::.Iiis n.h of 1 ~ 1 x 1 2 this practice is Irnovn.t sl! ~ i ~ e l l Le hou::st.li. inrportance.. " The 'FTOL'I~~ a:1d faith are twins. F o r erory re~. Imaltntta'hu is:shtcir.. B:lt the hith is of. sac~ific.l.q::s . 7 1 may nlount up to I-:eni*i. 1hi7 luh ~ii?~ulzilja~zn~11c~ yzikcitiiu.om of the world is to ~~. like ns it is mitten in the Bib!e.lia .ncl the world scconr1.-to sscrificr: ~ O I I S Smhik the cust.ct : .i:.sr. I will give a clear pros.' Besides these t l c r a a x r~rnnnymolbe t e s t s to prnre this point. :' Slaughter by kixgs t. .. L 1. you must. one is not ahle t o esist without the other.fit.' And when Jesus sniil.v C n - .)zd~c E . in whatever may he aallis he must keep tllmed towards God.tn $~abiliZin?LP Jnyz/nkfdEtinzd 7. Wcau:ln: a d tllej-.::th. I> . a.." He said.-~ l y8!il.5ncrX:. "If yn!t vould serve me. ~ ~ God's service." The King said.~ .niscd ther!.. L?. . enfc?:ce bj-L.o acquire territory is very colnmon .red ." 11s replied. the meaning of wllic3 .ii. that is..ed for deail. it is on account c cosqucst: which ' ic a duty of the religious. :'\ITl:o ill join me in t.. sires that nl! 1:1~:1 may folloc. "If this be tlle object of evel*j7 oce to reacb Heaves. 0:xc pIi:ce. i1:::a d. Fuktrid a?~f~j. .!i)?r l. ' I j-o:l m.tr.:.::.cribe :'To d u e the passions is .nni.z duty in ever> weed 532 religjon.ca yBktalum. lifiten 2. :7Ire nil1 be feyor ~ o r f i ii:.bli i u bBr. .!:Ii:?:-:. sight of it is acceptable.: t!let:lseires and are st~crificed. sla~ighter an? other that opposes one. tell us.:domil~lonancl r::ak.. An? for the faith .. Rut. For God says.3 1 1d p~zctise r:lles of religion.is aiizthority t l ~ crri':es of re:lgion xraor~gt21e pcoplc.:l:??ieil.I i.sonle means . tnru to God the11 sacrifice j~ourself.hai. o'. P"zls..id.rt'il.cek. but how do religious nlen kill their pi~ssions. why does one peraoll kill anot'her ? " He replied. H rc.~r 03 7 . th..fcr iil thr.n miqial n?o.I. in religion i s for 110 hatred.\--:: .-t?a. and to subdue the passions is this. fIence many religious I l l C i l SIIII:.!. ! : : . that..

Khomsan. . and arts. &c.Iiirman. Trmaoxlania. Armenia. If you mill not work with me. penitent to put hinlself to death slld b ~ w n body t h a t all his sins may be his thus forgiven. In short. and think it accey table service. Thus the leariled on religious matters keep their souls from avarice and lust. And besides these cities in the jungles. N. There are China.nlld live there with your brethren. and of the wicked. that acknowledges not unity of God to whom every one wilt return. Cabnl. Ferghana. disposition. Ethiopia. in species and in individuality.be created animals which are not of their raw.hey are saved from the fire of hell and obtain hen. There are thousands of cities and towns which cannot be numbered. Every one's language. Badak shan. vary. and that they all are in advance of t. ricked who being nmare of a day of judgment clesil-es not the reward of goad aets and fears not the punishment of sin. But of every creed there are good and bad. a Hindoo remarked : '.The children of Adam are greatest in numbers and [most varied] in races. and while living. religion.tlly. difference in co:~dition. that theyeby t. Sindh. color.hc most accept:t5!e to Gocl. a i d islands.r the burden of devotions. Icharism. For in the whole four qcarters [of the ~ o ~ l d ] there are nineteen thousand cities. Irak." When the man of Persia had finished his speech and paused. They mortify their passions till they have none of the love of the world remaini~g. ancl variety of employmeats and pnrsuits go to prove that lncn are superior to the other races. Syria. and never tcri~cd from the. Egyptr Alexandria. the Bralln~ius. Greece.' F'in. Th's excess in nutnbcrs. mountains. Their belief is that of all devotion this is t. Mooltan. The Almighty sends food to 211 of them and keeps them under His protection. Azerbijan. Stambonl.ven. in t5ia may all religious people practise self-denial. sacrifice tllea~sclves. Jeelan. religion of Christ. and in them live various Binds of people. Kajad. Jirj an. Yemen. Kir~ran. Hedjaz. In 3 sirnilzr manner the people of India. C. India.Indiis. that person is most. manncrs. 'C hurl1 thelrlselves fcr the sake of religion. alid bea.--for a. thausands of men have settled and live. theg were all mnrtyrs in the service of God. then you are not of my followers.zishal>orzr.

. in the forest and wilderness. of v$ich the length of ench is from 200 to 2. l the Africm sea: the Snatbers. one of the philosophers of t. the yellow sea. n recital of vhiclt ~ o 1 7 l d Trery long nild teclious..the Cc?. and classes. divisions and classes. -- - .r e hare. and comprehend the mnl-. titude of the animals it will appear that the num. and gives them food and al~vayskeeps them from every harm. the facts of the numerousness of created beings. Resides these there aye i. they are masters ancl ali~nsls CHAPrI'EIl S X V I . tbe Euphrates! t. :' 0 ye.he Genii said.iany.Fromthis it is ~ulderstood that man is master 2nd all animals his slaves. f When the frog was relieved from this speech.nd t o ~ n s bus he described would d s o appear f c ~ Frjr in the n-ho?e .enti~aed the numerC I I S ~ C S Sof n~nnkind and boasts thereof. the brutes. &C.>i:msea: t h e Red . d h i m sea: the Chinese S:::. tllc Incli:-ln Oceau. 21ell: Ocesn. of aquatic animals live. the sea of J i ~ j n n. cf the f ~ n qi~artet-s fifteen I f i r ~ seas-the G!?r aye c cian sea. rircrs CTC ~ tw3 Lul~drcd Iwgcr ones . and the cities n. If lle could S ~ P the jnhabitants of rLe sea and cjbscrve their rarious forn~sand bodies. KO act of theirs from Him is hidden: If this man wiU reflect. the f'ersian Gulf.. and many other sub-. And of the inhabitants of the land the wild animals.ind. and in then1 fisli.000 miles.Cigris. '!C. croco. t'anks.+ c . smdl a11d large ponds... God only knows of thcm or can count them. multitnde of men and animals. t:hc F-.other pr'irileges . the '.n sez.. thousailds of kinds._ a dUcs.. there are 500 divisions besides sub-divisions. <he Eastern and t l l ~ ~five hru~dredsinali. &C. &C. mnnkiad W O U ? ~:IppPXT t o hi!n very fev.. . Kithout number. The remainder: streams and broolcs.. alligators. Some say there are 700 divisions of the aqtmtic animals. the sea of Gog. sea." The frog said be t o the Icing. bcnsts of prey. for He of His power created them all.he Kile. '' T l ~ i s mail has n. And these a11 are God's slaves x ~ ~ d ' property.. A Description o tthe Spiritual World. turtles. Qcea?:. for example? the Jihoon. porpoises. You are not acquainted with those beings [compos-. the Arnbi:. you are mcaware of. the $. bers and crowds of mankind do not prove that slaves. ..

To some l i e has made others subject.f Aag3." The King snid.of the Genii mns reiiercd fro111 this oration.he Sira. and they live in the heavens. every vosld as you ascend is in that proportion to the one below [fen times gt*eate>-. T11 fact. which means: Xn the seven hczvens there is not a ' spsn of space c m p t s but there allgels stand alld bon and kneel before Eiin in worship.]. Gocl shol~ltl alrrays be praised and tla~lfied. A d that your nun~bersand assemblies do not pluve tEnc you aye masters and a11 are your slaves. In shy'. These single spirits live there. Some of them who $re of angelic race.-4xd all these worlds are 611ed with spiritual beings.ers and they slaves. The space of a span is not left yacant. aye statiolled in the highest heavens.' When the philosophel." An orl:>torc. Then of if you thought of t h e numbers of these beings.n kdeminz au rcikedn an skj'edun . and the highest heavens in extent are ten tinles larger than the iomer regions. and those who live i n the colder regions are the Geuii and the compnili~ns Lucifer.hinge of fvilich you boast. If you h a r e a~~ytliing more t o say: say on. T2len 0 men ! if you SRT their uumbers you vorxld understand'thn. they are uncompounded spirits. grzvc? : spreading over the trbole earth. n trial in the jrtdgl n e ~43ity.t blbiclge: entet-iag heaven ~i of] Firdos the first hcavcn." He went on-" The Great Godhas proi~~isec? many t . the King said to the men. And the heaven of the region of tbe moon is ten times larger than any of the worlds. you would kuom.nd snilllals coaxpared wit.ed] of spirit and light that have naitght to do with shape. like as the prophet (on whom be blessings and peace) hns said.h them are as notliir~g. which prove that we are rnnst.. the second .t your race has no place co~nparedwith them. Ma ylissamci~dtisabe bezuaze shi6l8in illa w a hzinuku naaluk?j. hey are single sl3irits and have no distinction of sex . " Tell us of them. jr:st 33 I-Ie chose of His perfect wisdom He sent forth His Inws for the govelnment [of all $hings]. For the [sitid] cold regions me ten times as exiensive 3s the land and mater. The animals have given a reply to the i. For d are God's ~iaves ! and His army and subjects.~ ~ : x r d s~isil:g fro11 the. cmssjng t. that a.z 1-eplied? '' We Lr~venlore good qualities.

. . honey a.-!2'. al~stem:Lous.:W::.:??ce~ i:-z11 aln~:ys Te exist ? If 73'2 sb.erii-:!.!l:c~] .besides these that are mentioned in the IIorm. of Iife.pnny wilh 3:: .~:. .e~~:.cly. " Like ns God has promised you good things. ey&rs. Where are these things procurable by the animals? These are a proof that we are masters and mimals our slaves.:-i(l . yaGre p~-~::-z~:l.:ulis ~~~i~. ... devout. r ... ~ o proi~l.:~l::< it: these . cD:-. p .p"u!>!e TVLDnre . v : y h i .-:3fG:..~. the heaven of repose. beillg cast into burning pitch . pizase God.. tbe secontl hell.!ise are -.&-c2 or -:l<--i.o ITiin.t: !:at si. ~rophatsand holy :x:I.. ~ n d %L%-. the nightingale. has the Great God provided for us. ~ s i . i. .. .h tX : ?. c-22 . streams filled wit11 mine. EZorar. V ) e 2l. enil n.ll..'red11s s11.8e 3 mile reseix519 the a:g~i!s of GO^..xvantzgz. -irLq. tan C . the third hell.. :!::a . .~i:..nd water . $2Eides . T T C ' ' . thut -:. milk. paradise...ne~'iorto 11s.tIlzre ~ lllr.6 .. d. i>.. . 5.-led! L:):--.. . . ::. -4nd if F e be n7ieke:I an< obey Hini n G r ! 7 .ljoTT on 21.e ~ ~ ? ~ fvjt. -... there is the punishment of the grave . .er. h s e tiL:hL excel all others i l l p(. npl:s\uted for ~ 7 9 2 ." The representative of the birds.-2 ~ .. .. the severity of the l:.us.1 Hedje3.c. . e 2 -< . the esalnination of ilJ.. .c>!.Lsz:. fFr c 3<':..eyiye : 1 prom 2. -. thpEtened us -:. ?. the company of houvies .e. iil~s~. Besides a11 these privileges and blessings Ke have other distinctions which we have not related. .ill..aa n r 11. v 1 t (i ..s:..$z. for mder an:? c:rcr:mst~.upan... and those that have t%e fear of the Lord. t.A ne. drinking of the naters of hell : living iq. the heaven life. Eurfenng jn c3..::i: ~ f ~ a. Him. afflictions.-i::l-i. the heaven of holy men. so also has 'I-Te threatened yen with punishment.:: and neniih t:.:.2 v. the heaven of peace... and m? arz 2:.ocl war$. For instance. splendid drrellings... the fourth hell.. a heaven to live in.elt::e?: t i-t: .r i. I .-.the everlasting heavens. said. drinking poisons.-. crji.i! live :i.1i z .T-! -j:. .ly ... T:-irii i?avia--. * ..z. r3 S 5y.nearness to God and many more blessings .Lza.i '.:.Riitpvitb you.he:. and the seventh hell . angels of purgatory. o ~ e .nfi: . the 6ich hell: the sixth hell. ailcl rely upon Him.. L si.:: t.lkii.. the tree .:.J --t o you in z:g~. . that prny t.I .sa.~eis. l i! 51. . the water of charity. that devote their live.s ::.ci. fear of the last (lay.. that depend upon Him.~' A:.irll t!~. the first hell fire.st judgment being sent t o hell.

. 'l THE ESD. you mill altogether dissppear. and never disobey him." . But tell us now of the mcnners." On hearing this all the representa. intelligent mall said.{'ad lihziliha kdledina .tives of the aninzals ail3 philosophers of t. ! the animals assented. But after a nloment a learned. who have such privileges. Now vhat does the just King decide on behalf of poor mankind whose slaves the animds are ? The I i i n ~ ordered thus :'. pleasing manners.then by the intercession of the prophets our salvaticn mill be nccoi~~~lished : especially through the intercession of the true prophet-the real apostle -t$c chiefof the pr-ophets-the seal of the prophets ." A 1 the men reflecting a mo1 ment. and every oue &l took his departure in peace. Every speaker and orator is attempting to speak their praise throughout the whole of his life.la!.Let all the Aniinals reinail1 subject t o and nlider the authority of Mail. such astonishing and high positions that the tongue is at a h u l t to describe-and wisdom itself at a loss t o pe~letrate the secrets of. elegant and angelic WZJ~S.' And not a class of animals are there part'akers of these privileges. that is. Salcil~ztc alt. good qualities and virtues of those people who are thus qnalified.3 live there for ever. " 0 just King ! When in your presence the validity of man's claims is established.kl/:i?z tibLzhn .ies and ghilv?ua.hc Genii said.omed Muatah (on whom be blessii~gs and peace)-all our sins will be forgiven.c.just and virtnous qualities. kept silent. &l. give us a detailed accoant. Your name and trace mill be blotted out. an. " Xom y o ! ~ have come to the point and advanced a substantial prooi: Thcse who boast should boast of such things as those. Then the angels mill say to us. KO one v a s able to answer. After the diss~lutioti in this vorld. 'Peace be to yon. and it is also fonud tllere is a race among them who are attendants on God. but is never able to do so completely. And afterwards we shall alwzys live in the company of irou~. l o ~ happy m d enter heaven. If you can.