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31969992 English Synonyms and Antonyms

31969992 English Synonyms and Antonyms

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English Synonyms

Antonyms ^i? ^x- ^^ AND Preposition
James C.Fernald









PE 1591.F36'"lgSr""''


3 1924 027 440 886


original of



is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the text.



Synonyms and Antonyms

yust ivhat you 'want
tionsj Conjunctions^


know about

the correct use

Relative Pronouns^

and Adverbs


of Preposi' provided

in concise^

handy form ^ •with

illustrative examples, in this loork.

Connectives of
English Speech
Companion Volume to Antonyms, and
* '

English Synonyms,






Editor of-^The Standard Dictionary"

English Synonyms

and Antonyms^"


Giving the definitions with the correct usage of
tnese parts of speech so far as pertains to their office
as connectives in the construction

of English phrases

and sentences
be used


indicating such prepositions as should

after verbs

tions are likely to arise;

and those concerning which queswith numerous quotations sus-

taining the decisions as to correct or incorrect usage,


topic of connecting



one of extreme impor-

tance in the Btudy of language, and

Mr. Fernald's book


worth while."

The Republican^ Springfield.

"In this valuable manual the reader, the writer, and the teacher will find on the instant an admirable solution for ten
thousand difficulties. The arrangement is simplicity itself, and the treatment lucid and convenient." Public Ledger , Phila.


points distinctions clearly,

shows the



and gives

many examples drawn from
Public Opinion,





Uniform Size and

Style ivith

^^English Synonyms, Antonyms,




334 pp'






Designed as a Companion for the Study

AND AS A Text-Book for the Use of Schools






Editor of Synonyms ^ Antonyms f'Tlhd Prepositions in the Standard Dictionary



Capyrtght, 1896, by \t,


Segisiered at Stationers'' Hall, London,



Printed in thb United States









Antonyms and Prepositions






Questions and Answers




From these two qualities . Northmen. trading. English merchants. JVom all this it results that there is scarcely a language ever spoken among men that has not some representative in English speech. soldiers. Saxons. finding often several words that originally exsame idea. within which any other word comes as an intruder. they make possible that freedom and variety by which the diction of an accomplished writer or speaker differs from the wooden uniformity of a legal document. are identical at once in signification and in use. it could not fail to be. Britons. commonly known as synonyms. EngUsh scholars have studied Greek and Latin for a thousand years. Bomans. and travelers. and Latin. Greek. they enable a master of effectiveness of expression. for expressing almost every shade of human thought. Danes. warring. They have certain common gi'ound within which they are interchangeable but outside of that each has its own special province. sailors. arises the great value of synonyms as contributing to beauty and As interchangeable. and Normans fighting. but a composite language. From the time of Julius CsBsar. sermon and tract. and all fenced in together by the sea. with such a history. through Bible and prayer=book. and the languages of the Continent and of the Orient in more recent times. masterful in language as in wax and commerce. fortifying. kindred in meaning but distinct in pressed the usage. of necessity brought back new terms of sea and shore. of shop and camp and battle=iield. As distinct and specific. jiaking not a patchwork. with Scotch and Irish contending for mastery or existence across the mountain border and the Channel. The spirit of the Anglo^^Saxon race. Anglo-Saxon thrift. has detailed them to different parts of the common territory or to different service. has subjugated aU these various elements to one idiom. and settling upon the soil of England. and exploring in every dime. so that we have an almost unexampled variety of words. Scarcely any two of such words. style to choose in every instance the one term that is the most . English churchmen have introduced words from Hebrew. The English language is peculiarly rich in synonyms. could not but influence each other's speech.PREFACE. as.

' ' Open Barley. to be no more iu his words than In other words. perfect mirror of pose." of substituting other words for those the poet has chosen. at first sight. Let anyone try the experiment with a poem like Gray's " Elegy. beautiful. and a student who has once learned the rich stores of vigorous. Prevalent errors need at times to be noted and corrected. and he who should then hope to conjure with It would find himself as much mistaken as Cassim in the Arabian tale. unsuitable. Its merit lies less In Its obvious meaning power. The most effective condemnation of an objectionable word or phrase is that it is not found in scholarly works. Change the stractnre of the sentence. Of Milton's diction Macaulay writes : Incantation." Macaiilay's own writings abound in examples of that exquisite which never seems to be precise. There would seem.Preface. but which somehow lacks the imprint of immortality. ' Open Wheat. these two directions is the oifice of a book of synonyms. Through his language his thought bursts upon the mind as a landscape is seen instantly. but has aU the aspect of absolute freedom. Ws thought.' to the door which obeyed no sound but * Open Sesame. but the teaching of pure English speech is the best defense against all that is inferior. subelitute one synonymfor another. and confident that they can write. and when the press is sending forth by the ton that which is called literature. . But they are words of enchantment. when he stood crying. a slight infelicity in the choice of words would be like a cloud upon the mountain." or Groldsmith's " Ti-aveller" or " Deserted Village. is by that very fact put beyond the reach of all temptatioa to linguistic corraption. and the whole effect Is destroyed. obscuring the scene with a damp and chilling mist. exact. or repulsive. and then the exact reason why in any case any To give such knowledge in particular word should be chosen. perfectly. and beautifully from a moimtain height. New forms of beauty start at once Into existence. Ho sooner are they pronounced. and all the burial places of the memory give up their tlian In Its occult " Bis poetry acts like an dead. To write or speak to the best pur- one should know iu the first place all the words from which he may choose. and he will readily perceive how much of the charm of the lines depends upon their fine exactitude of little expression. than the past is present and the distant near. when so many are eager to write. A precision in the choice of words. and expressive words that make up our noble language.' The miserable failure of Biyden In his attempt to translate Into bis own diction some parts of the ^Paradise Lost ' is a remarkable instance of this. In our own day. The spell loses its power. it is of the first importance to revive the study of synonyms as a distinct branch of rhetorical cultm-e. vagueness of thought.

Special instruction in the use of synonyms is necessary." " clever.. Such poverty of language is always accompanied with poverty of thought. for the reason that few students possess the analytical power and habit of mind required to hold a succession of separate definitions in thought at once. as the United States surveyors of Alaska found "the shuddering tenant of the frigid zone" wrapping himself in furs and cowering over a fire of sticks with untouched coal=mines beneath his feet. Often definition secured by the comparison of kindred terms and the pointing out where each differs from the other. of the first importance to correct. Many who are not given to such gross misuse would yet be surprised to learn how often they employ a very limited number of words in the attempt to give utterance to thoughts and feelings so unlike." " horrid. rather than by an exact statement of the latitude and ceive longitude of each as a separate portion of the earth's surface. peritself is best We more clearly and remember better what each word is. that what is the right word on one occasion must of necessity be the wrong word at many other times. Such persons are simply unconscious which it is of the fact that there are other words of kindred meaning from which they might choose . The fine distinctions and between words similar in meaning are often so elusive as to tax the ingenuity of the accompUshed scholar yet when clearly apprehended they are as important for . or perhaps he retains ." ble qualities. and determine just where and how they part company . etc. and the persons least able to do this are the very ones most in need of the information. in the fitrst place. One who is content to use the same word for widely different ideas has either never observed or soon comes to forget that there is any difference between the ideas . The great mass of untrained speakers and writers need to be reminded. by considering them as boundaries of each other. compare them with each other. to indicate (for they can not be said to express) almost any shade of certain approved or objectiona- shows a limited vocabulary.Preface. the purposes of language as the minute differences between similar substances are for the purposes of chemistry. by perceiving where each divides from another of kindred meaning just as we see and remember better the situation and contour of adjacent countries." "splendid. a poverty of language. that there are synonyms a suggestion — which they would not gain from any precision of separate definitions in a dictionary." " awful. The deplorable repetition with which many slightly educated persons use such words as "elegant.

But for the vast majority there is needed some work that compares or contrasts synonymous words. twenty=one for beginning. with intelligent choice of words there comes of necessity a clearer perception of the difference of the ideas that are to be expressed by those different words. One main office of a book of synonyms riches of their is to reveal to such persons the unsuspected own language . great lakes. But it is equally important to teach that synonyms are not identical and to explain why and how they differ. and shows in what connections one or the other may be most fitly used. a vague notion of a difference which he never attempts to define to and dimly hints to others by adding to his inadequate word some such phrase aa "you see" or "youknow. Hence there is an important use for mere lists of classified synonyms. but because such condensed statements are most easily apprehended and remembered. Thus. and when a series of words is given them. freedom." in the helpless attempt to inject into another mind by suggestion what adequate words would enable him simply and distinctly to say.Preface. to be a guide to selection from to affluence the varied treasures of English speech. which recalls to his memory the appropriate word. This work treats within 375 pages more than 7500 synonyms. where modern discovery has revealed liimself . or two contrasted words. and this not merely for economy of space. The mere mention of such numbers opens vistas of possible fulness. with a fine natural sense of language. It has been the study of the author to give every definition or distinction in the fewest possible words consistent with clearness of statement. Such a mind resembles the old maps of Africa in which the interior was filled with cloudy spaces. twenty for friendly. copiousness and clearness of language tend directly and precision of thought. and mighty rivers. wiU often find all that he wants in the mere list. then. The method followed has been to select from every group of synonyms one word. A person of extensive reading and study. by independent study of the dictionary. This is the purpose of the present work. Not one in a thousand of average students would ever discover. the meaning of which . from which they may choose. fifteen for henevolence. that there ai-e fifteen synonyms for beautiful. and thirty=seven for p^re. explains their differences of meaning or usage. like Eoget's Thesaurus and the works of Soule and Fallows. fertile plains. which will have for many persons the effect of a revelation. and variety of utterance.

When a word has more than one prominent meaning. The great source of vagueness. All has been thoroughly revised or reconstructed. the synonyms for one signification are treated in one group and a reference is made to some other group in which the synonyms for another signification are treated. error. standard mined with clearness by reference to the definitive statements of the dictionary. thus securing soma fixed point or points to wliichall the other words of the group may be referred. The book contains also more than 3700 antonyms. When the approximation or differentiation can be deterand certainty. The author has here incorporated. but obviously beyond the scope of a text=book for the class=room. as may be seen by noting the synonyms given under appaeent. much of the synonym matter prepared by him for that work. one of the most effective methods of defljiing being in many cases to tell what a thing is not. may be settled by clear definitive statement. It is not enough to tell something about each word. To speakers and writers antonyms are useful lishers of the as furnishing oftentimes effective antitheses. and much whoUy new matter has been added. giving as full a list as that of Roget or of Soule. sliding from synonym to synonym with no definite point of departure or return.Pbepack. It has been impossible within the limits of this volume to treat in fuU all the words of each group of synonyms. in some cases only the chief words of a group could be considered. These are valuable as supplying definition by contrast or by negation. Sometimes it has been necessary to restrict the statement to a mere suggestion of the correct use . A true discussion of synonyms is definition by comparison. the misuse of which is one of the most . by permission of the pubStandard Dictionary. and for this there must be something definite with which to compare. and following the reference to evident. Young writers will find much help from the indication of the correct use of prepositions. and perplexity In many discussions of synonyms is. with discriminating remarks upon every word. It is to be hoped that at some time a dictionary of synonyms may be prepared. and leaving the student to follow out the principle in the case of other words is settled. giving the key to the discussion. that the writer merely associates stray ideas loosely connected with the different words. Such a work would be of the greatest value. so that a smooth and at first sight pleasing statement really gives the mind no definite resting=plaoe and no sure conclusion. The thing to tell is how each word is related to others of that particular group.

. Y. and compactness. N. 1896. There are few who can study such a work without finding occasion to correct some errors into which they have unconsciously fallen. this portion will be found of value to the individual student. common and while their right use gives to style cohesion. and without coming to a new delight in the use of language from a fuller knowledge of its resources and a clearer sense of its various capabilities. . 4. is an important aid to perspicuity. Excepting those who have made a thorough study of language most persons will discover with surprise how difficult it is to answer any set of the Questions or to fill the blanks in the Examples without referring to the synonym treatment in Part I.X Preface. of errors. To the text of the synonyms is appended a set of Questions and Examples to adapt the work for use as a text=book. and how rarely they can give any intelligent reason for preference even among familiar words. Sept. firmness. Aside from the purposes of the cla8s= room. and one of the most difficult to avoid.. or to a dictionary. West New Brighton.


M.] Soule's " Dictionary of Englisb Synonyms.] Trench's " Study of English Words. Hifflm &. Bell & Sons French Fleming H.. & Harper & Bros.] Graham's "Bnglish Synonyms. "Words and their Uses. by Grece. & S. B. Co. Anglo'Saxon „." and " Erery Day English." Latin. & S Murray's Lee New & & Co. " False Philology." [L." [H.-F KrautVFleming "Yocabulary of Philosophy.] Campbell's " Handbook of Synonyms. R. F.] Maetzner's " English Grammar. Crabb's " English Synonymes Explained. Chas." [S." [Bbu." [W.Appleton &Co. M. &CoJ M Geo. [J.BOOKS OF REFERENCE. T. Italian M." and "Origjn and History of the English Language." tr. P." JX." [F.Houghton. W. H. Walton Troutman & Fields & Hayes & Maberley W. Scribner's Sons Spanish .] The Synonyms of the Century and International Dictionaries have also been consulted and compared. John Murray W.W. K.] Whateley's " English Synonyms Discrmiinated. Ticknor Taylor. & 3.. Eevell Funk & Wagnalls Co. Lippincott L M L.] Eichard Grant White. W.. Co. J.] Fallows' " Complete Dictionary or Synonyms and Antonyms. Marsh. Gr H. A F AS Braj." [S. H. & W. German Greek H It J. &P &H &M English Dictionary Macmillan & Co.J. The Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary has been used as the authority throughout. ABBKBVIATIONS USED. J.] Smitli'8 " Synonyms Diecnminated. G & E Co D. Co. Widdleton ." [A. T.] Fitzedward Hall." [P. & S F.1 Eoget's " Thesaurus of English Words. "Lectures on the English Language. Shepard Maom S Sp T." [L. ." [H...

Forsake. . leave. like abandon. resign. a thief abandons his designs. cease. swrremder especially Abandon is . abjure.used either in the favorable or unfavorable sense . cowardly officer deserts his ship . renounces his religion. may be. quit. vacate. relinquishes his titles. previous association with responsibility for or control of forsake implies previous association with inclination or attachment. the fainting hand relinquishes its Abandon implies grasp . Quit carries an idea of suddenness or abruptness not necessarily implied in abandon. discontinue. applying to persona or things of any kind abdicate and resign apply to office. or power . desert is always un- A . Synonyms. depart Crom. the abandons his designs. The king abdicates his throne. etc. give up. withdraw from. resign office. forsake. retire from. cast off. SYNONYMS. claim. abandon a habit or a trust. retract. real or assumed . give up property. We quit business. forego. Abandon is applied to both good and evil action . a man may abandon or forsake house or friends he abandons an enterprise . abdicate. cedes his territory. and more generally to any demand. authority. a man his principles. passion. cede to territorial possessions . renounce. deserts his followers. Relinquish commonly implies reluctance . relinquish. helpless passengers abandon it. repudiate. desert. fors-wear. ABAIVDOIV. the creditor relinquishes his claim. recant. surrender. forsakes God. and may not have the same suggestion of finality. to military force. ANTONYMS AND PREPOSITIONS.PART I. a word of wide signification.

.abase favorable. advocate. abdicated his throne by deserting adopt. claim. It a president or other elected or appointed officer was held that James II. involving mere localities. as. it. assert. except when used of "the Deserted Village. oonrt. Antonymsi cherish. a breach of duty." While a monarch abdicates. resigns.

discompose. iii.cuasli abate ABASH. hindeb." FiELDma Amelia bk. hinder. conround. disconcert. 800. '71. embarrassment of the feelings. inspirit. a speaker disconcerted by a failure of memory. sbame. Embarrass signifying primarily hamper. 9. dlsbearten. The embarrassed speaker finds it difficult to proceed. with or without the Eense The poor are abashed at the splendor of wealth. overa\ire. the ignorant at the learning of the wise. hostess is discomposed by the tardinesa of guests. [h. The parent is mortified by the child's rudeness. Synonyms • bewlldei. encoarage. i^ally. Confusion is of the intellect. r ebeer. '76. cbagrln. daunt." Gladstone Homeric Synchron. the child abashed at the parent's reproof. officer's weapon. so as to become confused in statements. uphold. oonfuse. or some mental defect one is embarrassed in the presence of others. & B. The criminal who is not abashed at detection may be daunted by the Sudden joy may bewilder. p. whether because of his own or another's fault or failure. humble. bumlllate. " I might have been abashedof wrong. A witness may be embarrassed by annoying personalities. To mortify a person is to bring upon him a painful sense of humiliation. [b. but will not abash. confused by some difficulty in a subject. mortify. embarrass. 72. "A man \vhom no denial. A Antonyms animate. p. the hypocrite shamed by exposure.] To confuse is to bring into a state of mental bewilderment is to confound is to OTeiwhelm the mental subject to a certain degree of fear. The mob is overawed by the military. a general confounded by overwhelming defeat. sense of inferiority abashes. to daunt is to a strong word. no scorn could abash. A solitary thinkei may be .] Compare chagrin . Any by their authority. faculties . The true worshiper is humbled rather than abashed before God. . ch. A pupil is confused by a perplexing question. impede. buoy. embolden. and because of their presence.

taxes reduced. re&t for receipt. for American is an abbreviation. . abbreviation is a shortening by any method . abated l>y law< ABBRETIATIOm. etc. sanction. paragraphs. Synonyms i contraction. encourage. support. Synonyms aid. I?^®' Prepositions Abate in fuiy . mdse. increaee. but an abbreviation is not necessarily a comtraction . countenance. suppress We a rebellion. a contraction A is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. Abbreviation and contraction are used of words and phrases. amplify. incite to persons only . Abet and instigate are now used almost without exception iu a bad sense one may incite either to good or evil. magnUf. terminate a controversy. sentences. rage^ extend. Abet and instigate apply either to persons or actions. upbold. one incites a person to an action. An . or substantial aid to the doing of that which is already projected or in process of commission. lerlve. Incite. enlarge. countenance. embolden. contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elemsnts an abbreviation may be made either by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part . continue. aid the poor. encourage the . Compare abbidoment. One incites or instigates to the doing of something not yet done. A clergyman will advocate the claims of justice. instigate. i enhance. assist. abridgment of books. fomeut. for merchandise. abridgfinent. but not a contraction. Am. and Dr. ABET. population decreased. or to increased activity or further advance in the doing of it one abets by giving sympathy. Antonrmsi aggravate. a contraction is an abbreviation. they are also abbreviations . abate a nuiSee ai> LEYIATB. . i advocate. sance. promote.abbreviation abet abated. fof debtor are contractions . develop.

I . loathe. or one may instigate or incite others to a crime in the commission of which he himself takes no active part. disconcert. counteract.blio]* ubidc despondent. Antonyms admire. with something of contempt. Compare help. We abhor Milton's heroic Satan. Loathe impUes disgust. ABHOR. but he will not incite to a quarrel. 297. impede. approve. Abhor especially is stronger than despise. expose." Trench Serm. detest a liar. or abet a crime. instigate a riot. but we can not despise him. in Westm. We cibhor a traitor. Synonyms: abominate. obstruct. dlsUbe. uphold the constituted authorities. binder. Antonyms: baffle. hate tyranny.a. disapprove. support the weak. denounce. physical or moral. covet. despise a coward. " How many shun evil as inconvenient who do not abhor it as hateftd. scorn. We abhor cruelty. confoand. frustrate.] Detest expresses indignation. despise. [M. hate. detei'. discourage. a moral recoil. We loathe a reptile or a flatterer. implying a shuddering recoil. Abbey xxvi. diesaade. The originator of a crime often instigates or incites others to abet him in it. nauseate. detest. We dislike an uncivil person. shun.

subvert always in a bad sense . An appellate court may reverse at set aside the decision of an inferior court. ptoceedi shnn. signifies to put absolutely out of existence. Abolish. revoke.ISH. repeal. subvert. building that is burned to the ground is said to be destroyed by fire. matter is never annihilated. eradicate. annlEUate. Overthrow may be used in either a good or a bad sense . nullify. Compare cancel. or harmful. to abolish slavery. as a philosophical term. Compare ensube . customs. suppress. A We EXTERMINATK Antonyms t revive.abolisU O temi)orarily . without formally repealing. nullify by revolutionary proceedings . depart. stamp out. demolish. hy a statement. with a petson. reside. migrate^ teject. nullify. reverse. a later statute abrogates. obliterate. dwell. is colloquial. in the sense of stay or sojourn. but only changes its form. especially as something hostile. As far as our knowledge goes. bring absolutely to overthrow. poverty. for a time. an end. and conditions. support. avoid. Abolish is now used of institutions. ABOI. Annihilate. Abolish is not said of laws. Some believe that the wicked will be annihilated. i foifelt. supplant. live. to subvert our liberties to suppress a rebeUiou. a usage now obsolete except in poetry or highly figurative speech. to do away with. exterminate. prohibit. best. destroy. . move. and not in approved use. ignorance. : repeal by the enacting body. abrogate. Stop. it abolishes an existing evil. Synonyms s abate. end. Prepositions Abide in a place. remove. The law prohibits what may never have existed . Antonyms abandon. resist. to have a permanent home. joiiin«7. especially those wide»spread and long existing . etc. suppress is commonly in a good. forfend. as. iatemperance. extirpate. abate a nuisance. any earlier law with which it conflicts. set aside. hindering. annul. was formerly used of persons and material objects. as. abrogate. There we use repeal. terminate. terminate a controversy. setup.

wickedness. delij|. blessing.abridgment abominatlouL ABOmOTATIOHir. execration. in conunon use abomination signifies something very much disliked or loathed. a foul sewer is an abomination. approval. appreciation. ABRiDoaiEarT. abridgment gives the most important portions of a work An outline or synopsis is a kind of sketch closely following the plan. Choice food may be an object of aversion and disgust to a sick person vile food would be an abomination. digest. The word is oftener apphed to the object of such aversion or abhorrence than to the state of mind that so regards it. An epitome. ab omen. Antonyms affection. We may have an abridgment of a dictionary. or that deserves to be. plague. or. toad is to many an object of disgust . summary. villainy. shame. desire. aversion. whether expressed or implied. horror. Compare abbreviation. Iniquity. infanticide is an abomination. outline. Synonyms . An abstract or digest is an independent statement of what the book contains. As applied to crimes. compend. An . annoyance. joy. gratification. abuse. A summary is the most condensed statement of results or conclusions. hatred. but not an analysis. An analysis draws out the chief thoughts or arguments. evil. as. abstract. abbreviation. crime. . sati treat. 15. We may have an epitome of religion. enjoyment. nuisance. or compendium is a condensed view of a subject. shameful. ill Abomination (from the L. detestation. whether derived from a previous publication or not.ht. epitome. benefit. substantially as they stand. revolting theft is an offense . A . a thing of omen) was originally applied to anything held in religious or ceremonial aversion or abhorrence. digest. but not an abridgment." Luke xvi. compendium. Synonyms! abhorrence. a compendium of English literature. synopsis. or summary. analysis. disgust. abomination is used of such as are especially brutal. "The things which are highly esteemed among men are abomination in the sight of God. offense. curse. compend^ abstract.

. positive. an executor or trustee should not be irresponsible. imperious signifies assuming and determined to command. an imperious disposition is liable to become arbitrary and arrogant. Both words are used. it is simply one that resolutely insists upon compliance. controlling. as. demand by its unreasonableness. or judgment. dogmatic. and positive are used ordinarily in the good sense. supreme. rigorously requiring obedience. arbitrary carrying the implication of wilfulness and capriciousness. peremptory. use. Authoritative is used always in a good sense. In the strict sense. an absolute monarch. but the bad sense is the prevailing one. autocratic. which is expressed more decidedly by Arbitrary may be used in a good sense as. but eminently dangerous . peremptory. Imperious. haughty. A perfect ruler might be irresponsible and not tyrannical. superior to all. imperative. dictatorial. coercive. and wiU not brook refusal . compulsive. in a modified sense. Autoeratio power knows uo limits outside the ruler's self arbitrary power. absolute. arrogant. irresponsible. imperative. especially in one whose superiority is not clearly recognized. Irresponsible power is not necessarily bad. positive instructions . free from all limitation or control. of human authorities absolute then signifying free from limitation by other authority. overbeariug. authoritative. despotic. an irresponsible ruler is likely to be tyrannical. an authoritative definition . the supreme coui't. A person of an independent spirit is inclined to resent an imperious manner in any one. Synonyms: arbitrary. an arbitrary proceeding. and supreme. but as absolute power in human hands is always abused. domineering. does not necessarily carry any unfavorable sense. however. compulsory. Despotic is commonly applied to a master- power. none outside the ruler's will . unequivocal. an imperative demand . and supreme exalted over all other Absolute. can not properly be said of any being except the divine. as. tyrannical. lordly. a peremptory command . the unfavorable meaning predominates. Commanding is always used in a good tone of superiority.absolute ABSOLUTE. irnplying the right to claim authority. commanding. . An imperious demand or requirement may have in it nothing offensive . exacting. an arrogant demand is offensive by its ful or severe use of tyrannical. unconditional. in this as. an arbitrary . the pronunciation of proper names is arbitrary.

take up. A some other substance. pardon. compliant. docile. . swallow. lowly. ABSOIiVE. i take in. absolve. snbmissiye. complaisant. silk great talker engrosses the and woolen goods are consumed. limited. regarded as a bond ujwn the soul. Declar. meek. imbibe. Compare dogmatic infinite perfect. a sin. drink up. quicklime. Toi acquit of sin or crime is to free from the accusation of it. engross. set &ee. forgive. exempt. with which it may or may not permanently combine. To liberate. constitutional. in the Gtrict sense. One may be absolved from a promise by a breach of faith on the part of one to whom the promise was made. A credulous person svjallows the most preposterous . when it absorbs water. conditional. conversation. from any bond. of Absol. Antonyms: sense . Enmble. clear. yielding. responsible. food in the body . discharge. consume is also applied to whatever is removed from the market for individual use as. or agency. suck up. pronouncing one guiltless . Synonyms accLult. Wood expands when it absorbs moisture. a commanding appearance a commanding eminence. as. becomes a new substance with different qualities. flree. the guilty may be mercifully absolved." Book of Comjmon Prayer. iron when it absorbs heal^ the substance remaining perhaps otherwise substantially unchanged . Compare paedon. condemn. bind.absolve absorb . eta Synonyms ABSORB. acconntabie. ductile. > cbarge. so that to it ceases to exist or . hydrated or slaked lime. compel. contingent. gentle. is to set free exonerate. fluid that is absorbed is talcen up into the mass of the absorbing body. release. To absolve from sins is formally to remit their condemnation and penalty. lenient. inculpate. Antonyms accuse. pardoneth and absolveth all those who truly repent. Preposition One is absolved from (rarely of) a promise. and unf eignedly believe his holy Grospel. mild. i exculpate. oblige. the innocent are rightfully acquitted. A . drink in. being. s-wallow up. - obligate. "Almighty Grod . A substance is consumed which is destructively appropriated by consume. be recognized as existing in its original condition fuel is consumed in the fire. impeach. . convict. . exbaust. .

even temper by moderate indulgence in some things. slioot f ortli. all that does not necessarily belong to it. purloin. abmay be for a single occasion. Abstinence from food commonly signifies going without. sobriety. nutriment may be absorbed into the system through the skin. We speak of temperance in eating. partaking moderately. complete abstinence from others. temperance. is «A A busy student imbibes or drinks in knowledge . -witbdraw. Prepositions Plants absorb moisture /rom the air. page 403. steal. : dissipate. : abstemiousness. abstemiousness is habitual moderation. ^ve up. : dranl^eiLneBS. Sobriety and temperance signify maintaining a quiet. divert. disgorge. but of abstinence from vice. frugality. " I onlypostponed it because I happened to get absorbed in a book. 43. discriminate. remove.. i emi^ exude. throw vomit. self-indulgence. abstinence may be refraining from what one does not desire. intemperance. detacb. In mental processes we discriminate between objects by distinguishing their differences. moderation. distract. Antonyms gluttony. the student is absorbed in thought . self-denial. Total abstinence has come to signify the entire abstaining from intoxistemiousness. eject. self-control. radiate. t reveling. separate. abstinence cating liquors. Selpdenial is giving up what one wishes. wantonness. We may separate two ideas. off. we separate some one element from. Fasting is abstinence from food for a limited time. put forth. Preposition The negative side of virtue is abstinence /row vice. disperse. excess." Kane Grinnell Exped. The central idea of withdrawing makes abstract in common speech a euphemism for appropriate (unlawfully). steal. and hold both in mind in . he absorbed in a subject that takes his whole attention. self-restraint. sensuality. distract. distinguisb. purloin. ch. take away. appropriate. eliminate. revelry.abstinence abstract statement. intoxication. Synonyms ABSTRACT. send out. greed.] Antonyms cast out. abstract it. continence. Synonyms fasting. and generally for religious reasons. and view it alone. V. '54. [h.

because his thoughts are elsewhere. The man absorbed in one thing wiU appear absent in others. increaee. ani preoccupied refer to the cause. one may be absent-minded either through intense concentration or simply through inattention. prompt. ill-advised. thoagntfnl. a book into a compend. monstrous. preoccupied. Ill-considered. erroneous. ridiculous.11 absard abstracted. cbimerlcal. diverted when it is drawn away from what it would or should attend to by some other interest. absent-minded.inded man is oblivious of ordinary matters. stupid. foolish. but the really listless and thoughtless have not mental energy to be preoccupied. ABSTRACTED. Anything is irrational . Synonyms: anomalous. incorrect. One who is preoccupied is intensely busy in thought. restore. on hand. beedless. listless. that a part should be greater than the whole is absurd. Indifferent. Compare discern. false. distracted when the attention is divided among different subjects. flllnp. abstracted. Compare abstract. A preoccupied person may seem listless and thoughtless. infatuated. senseless. while it may be reaUy true. with fitful and aimless wandering of thought. As regards mental action. wUd. nonsensical. ABSVRD. unreasonable. The absent=m. mlstalien. as. combine. inconclusive. ludicrous. A. absorbed. preposterous. obQvlous. conjoin. The trouble with the distracted person is that he is not abstracted. withdrawn from Antonyms add. Prepositions: The purse may be abstracted from the pocket . tbougbtless. but when we abstract one of them. That is absurd which is contrary to the first principles of reasoning . we drop the other out of thought. Irrational. unite. negligent. The mind is abstracted when it is all other subjects and concentrated upon one. attentive^ ready. Antonyms alert. inattentive. absent or absent-minded to the effect. strengthen. wide-awake. the substance from the accidents . complete. absorbed. so that it can not be given properly to any. paradoxical statement apx>ears at first thought contradictory or absurd. Synonyms absent. paradoxical. comparison or contrast. ill-judged.

abnso 12 when clearly contrary to sound reason. erroneous when containing error that vitiates the result. act ii. the Mother Goose rimes are nonsensical. 4. silly when contrary ta when petty and contemptible in its folly. Compare incongruous.' two. sc. unreasonable when there seems a perverse bias or an intent to go -wrong. foolish practical good sense. as. " O monstrous eleven buckram men grown out of . true. The lunatic's claim to be a king is ridiculous. . undeniable. The ridiculous or the nonsensical is worthy only to be laughed at. Monstrous and preposterous refer to what is overwhelmingly absurd. Antonyms 1 saTistantlal. nngnestionable." Shakespeake 1 King Henry IV.

instigator. either in a good or a bad sense. confederate. retainer are persons especially devoted to a chief. extol. chief. though only to stand outside and keep watch At against surprise. If present. Compare at- pendaqe. ACCESSORY. care for. rival. attendant. henchman. retainer. coadjutor. Sjnonyms: alietter or a1>ettor. . the accomplice or abettor can be convicted as a principal. allies of despotism. betrayer. assistant. protect. or of some other connection regarded as great and important. enemy. Colleague is applied to civil and ecclesiastical connections. common law. leader. panegyrize. a surgeon's attendant is one who rolls bandages and the like. harms his associates. or reward.Autonyms applaud. associate. assistant. hencliinan. Follower. consider. respect. helper. favor. An . opponent. an accessory implies a principal. associate and coadjutor generally so.AsSupreme Court is near in rank to the Chief surgeon's assistant is a physician or medical student Justice. as. wrongs his parents. suBtain. regard. antagonist. colleague. vindicate. an accessory never. benefit. accomAlly is oftenplice. commander. uphold. principal. An accomplice is usually a principal. tend. Partner has come to denote almost exclusively a business connection. the latter more distinctively the legal term. Colleague is used always in a good sense. auxiliary. ally. praise. companion. who shares in the treatment and care of patients. at the commission of the crime. almost always in a bad sense. foe. partner. and can not be convicted until after the conviction of the principal. eulogize. one is an abettor. confederate. but the former is the pop- may be bitter sociate Justice of the A ular. . abetter. laud. an abettor (the general legal spelling) is always present. belper. Accomplice and abettor have neai-ly the same meaning. abuses every good gift of God. accomplice. In law. ruins himself. follower. associate. opposer. participator. Antonyms: adversary. either actively or constructively.13 accessory and opportunities. hinderer. perverts his talents. accessory. est used of national and military matters. ally. an accessory never. and not an accessory. even though they opponents politically and personally. companion. shield. and generally bound to him by necessity. cherish. fee. members of Congress from the same State are colleagues. attendant. conserve.

Synonyms t adventure. possibility. a misadventure that which does turn out iU. bazard. unless the contrary is expressed. A slight disturbing accident is a mishap. t appointment. before or after the fact. If the direct cause of a railroad accident is. foreordlnatlon. . cbance." where we could not substitute fortune. ordinance. of a is Antonyms calculation. as when we say a fortunate or happy accident. An adventure is that which may turn out ill. or aside from the main design.accident l'^ Prepositions i An accessory to the crime. "Fortune favors the brave. but subordinate to the main purpose. all things being by divine causation and control. but chance can be used of human effort and endeavor as fortune can not be. plan. as personified. misbap. 31. the fortune of war. misfortune. chance are nearly equivalent. contingency. calamity." Lulce x. decree. hazabd. Compare event. game of chance. Fortune is regarded as having a fitful purpose. call it a chance. Prepositions The accident o/ birth. Fortune Fortune and is the result of inscrutable controlling forces. 1 intention. casualty. is that which happens without any one's direct ina chance that which happens without any known cause. Since the unintended is often the undesirable. the acces- sories of a figure in a painting. unexpected defeat. we say "he has a chance of success. disaster. blind Chance. accident tends to signify some calamity or disaster." or "there is one chance in a thousand. certainty. we speak of fickle Fortune. incident." The slaughter of men is an incident of battle. no chance. misadventure. Chance as purposeless. an accident to the machinery. fortuity. preparation provision ' purpose. necessity. law. An incident viewed as occurring in the regular course of things. ACCIDEBIT. we can not To the theist there is. bap. bappenlng. fate. but chance is spoken of where no special cause is manifest: "By chance there came down a certain priest that way. but not of a game of accident. in strictness. ordalnment. We can speak An accident tention. known.

Synonyms acerbity. from a slight or passing to a familiar or intimate acquaintance. experience. . tartness. As regards persons. Friendship includes acquaintance with some degree of intimacy. of one person with another ACRIMONY. There may be pleasant fellow- may be ship which does not reach the fulness of friendship. but can not claim acquaintance unless he personally knows us. Inexperience. Prepositions Acquaintance with a subject between persons. but acquaintance unmodified commonly signifies less than familiarity or intimacy. unkindness. which supposes minute knowledge of particulars. acquaintance is less than familiarity. as in the proverb. virulence. association. we may know a public man by his writings or speeches. hltterness. as between those whose homes or pursuits are far apart. . and by sight. .f 1^ *" acrimony acquaintance Synonyms association. is now uniformly preferred. friendship. severity. friendship without much fellowship. As regards studies. Compare ATTACHMENT FEtlENDSHiP LOVE. sharpness. for one may be well acquainted with an enemy. and conversely. lEnowledge. etc. nnfamillarity.. pursuits. Intimacy. asperity. as between busy clerks at adjoining desks. harshness. Acquaintance does not involve friendship. malignity. There may be pleasant acquaintance with little companionship. and ordinarily companionship. arising often from long experience or . in personal relations. Acquaintance between persons supposes that each knows the other. sourness. much companionship with little acquaintance. So there ship. but know each other only by word and deed. moroseness. the word intimacy." hence. fello'wslilp. familiarity. "Familiarity breeds contempt . though in a wider sense friendship may exist between those who have never met. companionship. jlntonyms ignorance. causticity. which refers to mutual knowledge of thought and feeling. association in business without intimacy or friendAcquaintance admits of many degrees. but sympathy as well. Ignoring. Fellowship involves not merely acquaintance and There may be much companionship. familiarity is becoming restricted to the undesirable sense.

enecutlon. effect. One might speak with momentary asperity to his child. effect. consummation. unless estrangement had begun. performance. imply an external effect. mildness. rily We say a virtuous act. state. an act of will. movement. or habit act exercise of power. but act refers to the power put forth. Virulence of speech is a quality in language that makes the language seem as if exuding poison. while an action does. or a process. n. the act of murder is in the determination to kill. action a complex of acts. true or false. exertion. as. Malignity is the extreme of settled ill intent. doing. kindness. proceeding:. operation.act 16 is a sharpness. metal. deep malignity. in of exerting power. asperity is keener and more pronounced. the act is not complete without the striking of the fatal blow. exploit. An course of action. goo i nature. Severity is always painful. action by an adjective preceding. but We speak of the action of Act is rather a virtuous power. an acid upon a used. deed. bitter. Antonyms: amiability. motion. emootlmesB. a voluntary act. action. We say intense virulence. legally. ACT. individual. Compare anger. In connection with other words act is more usually qualified by the use of another noun. acbievemeut. in speech asperity is often manifested by the tone of voice rather than by the words that are spoken. but carries ordinarily the implication. courtesy. it springs from settled Acerbity arise character or deeply rooted feeling of aversion or unkindness. Synonyms: accomplislunent. Virulence ia outspoken. exercise. gentleness. for the simple exertion of In this sense an act does not necessa- . and may be terrible. wor]£. which may from momentary annoyance or habitual impatience. we may say a kind act. Morally. but not with acrimony. as. Act is therefore single. with a touch of bitterness. denoting distinct irritation or vexation. of justice. is strictly and originally something accomplished by an which sense it is synonymous with deed or Action is a doing. enmity. also. feat. momentary. Act and deed ai-e both used for the thing done. malignity may be covered with smooth and courteous phrase. though oftener an act of kindness. Acrimony in speech or temper is like a corrosive acid. virulence is an envenomed hostility. not of its act. deed to the result accomplished. a bad deed. teansaction.

deed is commonly used of great. feat of memory. involving valor or heroism. lazy. spriglitl7. etc. The active love employment. diligent. meddlesome. Active refers to both quickness and constancy of former sense it is allied with agile. especially the latter. passion. Prepositions Active in work. The officious are undesirably active in the affairs of others. brisk. ACTIVE. supple. immobility. in the latter. auicli. deliberation. busy. not breathe. spry. an achievement is solid. and readiness of resource. A Country Town. ani feat. prompt. in thouglitB. the diligent and the industrious are habitually busy. energetic. for an object. loftiness of thought. with busy. BOif industrious. as for justice unth about something. Synonyms agUe. slow. act Fesius: We live in deeds^ not years. personal power.* quiescence. vigorous. brisk. indolent. usually combined with strength. * In pbilosopliic sense. or out of all proportion to the purpose contemplated. ready. endurance. stupid. an achievcTiient is the doing of something great and noteworthy. suspension. be transient. industrious. in the . action. rest. not an action of kindness. as are achievement. bustling. a heavy. skill. 7. inertia. Wide awake. officious. sluggish. endurance. notable. repose. Antonyms dull.17 active but only a kind action. An exploit is a conspicuous or glorious deed. Baikkt Festus. skill. as. alert. . quiescent. suffering. The restless are active from inability to keep quiet. inert. whether mental or physical. nimble. restless. as about other persons or instrumentalities . an exploit is brilliant. people's business. Antonyms cessation. and impressive acts. inactivily. in a cause. As between and deed. exploit. quiet. alive. idle. inaction. alert. expeditious. bc. Compare alert. a. qnlet. but its A feat exhibits strength. mol>ile. and its effect Act and action are both in contrast to all that is merely passive and receptive. diligent. The intensest action is easier than passive effect may enduring. a feat of arms. Inactive. lively. their activity may be without pm-pose. the busy are actually employed.

attach or annex a building to one that it adjoins or papers to the document they refer to. penetration. a farm. attach a condition to a promise. append. often with a somewhat evil bias. and acumen at a philosopher. we do not augment a house. and applies to the most erudite matters. the shrewdness of a usurer. Cleverness is a practical aptitude for study or learning. or an empire. ADD. andpenetration. annex a territory. acuteness.add acumen 18 ACCMEIV. keenness. the keenness of a debater. power or influence. increase. sbarpness. To add is to increase by adjoining or uniting: in distinction from multiply. but this word is seldom used directly of material objects. Shrewdness is Tceenness or sagacity. and belongs to a mind that is comprehensive as well as keen. annex a clause or a codicil. Sharpness. penetration and perspicacity to other subjects of knowledge. a clergyman. acumen may increase with study. amplUy. amx. perspicacity. extend influence or dominion. cleverness. There are persons of keen insight and great penetration to whom these powers are practically useless. augment riches. obtuseness. the insight and discernment of a student. sagacity. or a merchant. Insight and discernment are applied oftenest to the judgment of character. attacb. extend. which is to increase by repeating. Synonyms t a^oln. subjoin. insight. annex. sum up. Antonyms: blantness. sbre'wdness. affix a seal or a signature. perspicacity. and insight. join on. A speaker may amplify a discourse by a fuller treatment . Sagacity is an uncultured skill in using quick perceptions for a desired end. the penetration. etapidlty. a nation. Perspicacity is the iwwer to see clearly through that which is difficult or involved. To augment a thing is to increase it by any means. a farm. discernment. Acumen is sharpness to some purpose. however keen. however deep. enlarge. dnlness. etc. We may enlarge a house. generally in practical affairs. the sagacity of a hound. augment. as ready to take advantage of duller intellects. Synonyms i acuteness. fall short of the meaning of acumen. make up. cast up. which implies also ability to use these qualities to advantage. We speak of the acuteness of an observer or a reasoner.

nnaccastomed. We cast up or sum up an account. Abandoned tells of the acquired viciousness of one who has given himself up to wickedness. or involuntary tendency. given over. habitual. . Addicted may be used in a good. bail. Prone is used only in a bad sense. . A man may be accustomed to labor. given. is a stronger and more hopeless expression. attached to his profession. or he may append or subjoin certain remarks without change of what has gone before. disposed. Synonyms: accost. inclination. since one return another's greeting. inclined. given to study or to gluttony (in the bad sense. Preposition Addicted to vice. remove. addicted to study addicted to drink. v. Antonyms abstract. One is addicted to that which he has allowed to gain a strong. greet and hail may imply but a passing word greeting may be altogether silent . Preposition! Other items are to be added to the account. ADDICTED. to hail is to greet in a loud=voiced and commonly hearty and joyous may . greet. devoted. To accost is to speak first. as. deduct. or given up. to friend or stranger. though add up and malce up are now more usual expressions. generally with a view to opening conversation greet is not so distinctly limited. Habituated. . Synonyms abandoned. wedded. accustomed. V. prone. and enduring hold upon action. as. withilraw. One is wedded to that which has become a second nature . attached. and generally of natural tendencies as. diesever. apostrophize. One inclined to luxury may become habituated to poverty. ADDRESS. disinclined.- !" addicted address. reduce. a mother's devoted affection.. as is abandoned). throughout than was originally planned. one is wedded to science or to art. devoted to his religion. but more frequently a bad sense as. . court. diminieh. woo.salute. given up. as to a habit or indulgence. . given over. subtract. Devoted is used chiefly in the good sense . speafc to. our hearts are prone to evil. approacb. lesBen. appeal. indisposed. Antonyms averse.

as appears in the expression " hail fellow. I elude. courtesy. Antonyms: awkwardneBS. pass by. or even the Deity. clnmsiness. he accosts orally and briefly. ingenuity to devise readiness to speak or act . pass. elownisbness. To appeal is strictly to call for some form of help or support. Courtesy and politeness are indispensable elements of good address. which is the power of fine touch as applied to human character and feeling. and generally with the favor and approval of those with whom he deals. Address is slightly more formal than accost or greet.address. ADDRESS. dexterity. n. fatuity. manners. It includes adroitness and discretion to know what to do or say and what to avoid . . . adroitness. Bban. boorisbness. It is a general power to direct to the matter in hand whatever quaUties are most needed for it at the moment. politeness. Antonyms avoid. manners. . unwisdom. though it may often be interchanged with them. Prepositions plished intriguer Address in dealing with opponents the address of an accoman address to the audience. the president addressed the people in an eloquent speech . folly. overlook. Prepositions: Address the memorial to the legislature. and tact. he addressed an intruder with indignation. the dexterity that comes of practise . unmannerlineBB. salute ." To is to greet with special token of respect. rudeness. Compare speech. discretion. the saints of old. tact. ignore. well met. as a soldier his commander. cat. One may address another at considerable length or in writing. Synonyms I n. . ill •'breeding. ingenuity. 20 way. readiness. a preacher may apostrophize virtue. Address is that indefinable something which enables a man to gain his object without seeming exertion or contest. ill stupidity. To apostrophize is to solemnly address some person or personified attribute apart from the audience to whom one is speaking as.

competent to both natural and acquired . as he its doctrines or claims. Adapted. a capable accountant. adherents and disciples are followhis individual judgment. capable. Adequate. able being the higher word of the two. supporter. worthless. may differ on every point except the specific gi-ound of union. or the like. An able man will do something well in any position. a qualified teacher may be no longer competent. i aUy. inferior. One may be an aider and supporter of a party or church. imflt. a sum sufficient to meet expenses an adequate remedy for the disease. thus we say the disciples rather than the adherents of Christ. ADHERENT. Prepositions Adequate to the demand . as. clergyman may have strength adequate to the work of a porter . nnqaalifled. imeqnal. Partisan has Allies are regarded as equals The adherent depends more on . competent. inadeqaate. A capable man will come up to any ordinary demand. commensurate. though it may be very poor work judged by some higher standard. fitted. baclcer. Jit. nnsatisfactory. qualified. follower. for the purpose. but that would not be a. cause. "Work is satisfactory if it satisfies those for whom it is done. suitable. creed. suitable. principle. ansoitable. satisfactory. partisan. nseless. poor.21 adequate adlicreut Synonjrmsi *5^®v ^ adapted. while not an adherent to all An ally is more independent stiU. A We Antonyms) disqualified. Synonyms aid. commensurate. and sufficient Bignify equal to some given occasion or work . . the disciple is *^ore subject to command and instruction . sufficient. is disciple. Qualified refers to acquired abilities . Allies who overthrew Napoleon were united only against him. fit. party. The ers. fit or suitable occupation for him. . inenfflcient. equal. by reason of iU health. fitting:. Commensurate is the more precise and learned word. An adherent one who is devoted or attached a person. to alder. Able and capable suggest general ability and reserved power. say an able orator. signifying that which exactly measures the matter in question. incompetent. and qualified refer to the qualities which match or suit the occasion.

personal in its application. ^ ne^. impeded progress. Synonyms t abutting. i cobeslve. cohesive expresses the tendency of particles of the same substance to hold together.adhesive adjacent xft the narrow and odions sense of adhesion to a party. hater. degree of the same quality. as pitch or tar. at the boundary=line. Preposition The stiff. opponent. »"&"• if adjoining. stlclEing. Adhesive is the scientific. bordering. adherents of Lnther. Glutinous. nl^b. traitor. sepatahle. . Neighboring always implies such proximity that the in- Adjacent farms may not be connected. adjoining. glutinous. ylscid. Inadhesive. sticking or sticky the popular word. beside. renegade. and generally annoying. : betrayer. ADJACENT. Buildings may be adjacmt or adjoining that are not attached. neisbborine. close. deserter. Polished plate glass is not adhesive. gummy. One may be an adherent or supporter of a party and not a partisan. viscous. Contiguous may be used for either adjacent or adjoining. wet clay. right or wrong. i loose. but such plates packed together are intensely cohesive. and not in the best usage. contiguous. Antonyms! free. gummy. enemy. An adhesive plaster is in popular language a sitcfciJigr=plaster. adhesive to the foot. places being caUed near upon the raih:oad which would elsewhere be deemed remote. conterminous. That which is adhesive tends to join itself to the surface of any other body with which it is placed in contact. Prepositions Adherents to principle . they meet Conterminous would imply that their dimensions were exactly equal on the side where they adjoin. sticky. Abutting refers rather to the end of one building or estate than to the neighborhood of another. Backer is a sporting and theatrical word. Near is a relative word. and viscous are appUed to fluid or semi-fluid sub- stances. Synonyms ADHESITE. coterminous. attacbed. near. viscid. Sticky expresses a more limited. Compare accessoby. Antonyms i adTersarjr. antagonist.

esteem. bonor.nn *"* habitants admire adorn may be neighbors. esteem the good. dislike. as. love our friends. but ornament is more exclusively on the material plane. delight in the iimocent happiness of children. We honor and respect noble character wherever found. bedecli. Garnish is on a lower plane. detest. i beautify. enjoy books or society. as. ADmiRE. diBtant. admire is practically obsolete. separate. the binder gilds and decorates the volume. remote. Illustrate. bate. a walk or a dinner. i abommate. applaud heroic deeds. Preposition The farm was adjacent to the village. An author embellishes his narrative with fine descriptions. as. Antonyms abhor. dellgbtln. the word now expresses a delight and approval. the gateway was ornamented with delicate To embellish is is that . in which the element of wonder unconsciously mingles. ADORN. applaud. to illustrate is to add something so far like in kind as to cast a side=light upon the principal matter. despise. ornament. scorn. to brighten and enliven by adding something not necessarily or very closely connected with that to which it is added. approve. execrate. extol. next neighbor implies a neighborhood. decorate. Antonyms: detached. contemn. disjoined. To adorn and to ornament alike signify to add that which makes anything beautiful and attractive. Deck and bedeck are commonly said of apparel. 'wonder. gild. Preposition Admire at may stiU very wonder at. est of several or Neaet views some object as the nearmany. revere. Synonyms! adore. "We admire beauty in nature and art. rarely be found in the old sense of Synonyms deck. We extol the goodness and adore the majesty and power of God. the artist illustrates it with beautiful engravings. venerate. We approve what is excellent. dieconnected. a mother bedecks her daughter with silk and jewels. In the old sense of wonder. we revere and venerate it in the aged. respect. love. ridlcnle. enjoy. embellisli. the feast was garnished with flowers. gamisb.

i originator. tlntonyms deface. Compare CAUSE. etc. the prime mover or doer of an act is the agent. ingratitude of child or friend. acting under orders or instructions. pleaBe. -** Adorn is more lofty and spiritual. i aggravate. To affront is to oflEer some defiant offense or indignity. performer. In strict philosophical usage. if we say. footer. Goldsmith Deserted Village. > operator. Synonyms actor. t inventor. some careless neglect or needless misfortune. deform. gratify. means. vex. mover. Compare honor.aflnront agent carving. the gateway was adorned with beautiful carving. to one's face. wound. content. annoy. irritated at by a tight shoe or a thoughtless remark. Synonyms AFFRONT. To provoke. and can not be put on by ornaments or decorations. promoter. doer. Instrument." which is We At. Thus we speak of man as a voluntai-y agent. . provoke. offend. disflgnre. especially in business. a free agent. mar. refening to a beauty not material. literally to call out or challenge. fiqxte. but seems in perfect harmony and unity with that to which it adds a grace. His looks adorned the venerable place. Antonyms conciliate. and perhaps playful annoyance. it is somewhat i less than to insult. is to begin a contest. But in common usage. 1. AGEIVT. with meek and unaffected grace. Antonyms chief. ~. spoil. exasperate. but only an instrument or factor. irritate. ar or statesman. principaL Prepositions An agent o/the company /or selling. insult. tease. displease. of a vexed One may be annoyed by the well=meaning awkwardness servant. one provokes another to violence. dmrch. " he touched nothing that he did not adorn. is wounded by the To tease is to give some slight Aggravate in the sense of offend colloquial. we imply a unity and loftiness of design euch say of some admirable scholas ornamented can not express. as it were. 178. Preposition s Adorn his temples with a coronet. an agent is not the prime actor.

25 .

endeavor. determination. marTcet^gardening. The end is the point at which one expects or hopes to close his labors. Aspiration has less of decision than the other terms. farming is itself one department of agriculture. cultivation refers especially to the processes that bring forward the crop. referring to the mental acts by which the aim is attained. the choice varieties of the strawberry have been produced by wise and patient culture. inclination. we speak of the tillage of the soil. fioriculture. are often used as interchangeable with aim. marlc. the culture of fruits. intention. tendency. design. endeavor. may be wholly in we say an agi-icultural college tables. gardening is the close cultivation of a small area for small fruits. purpose. the goal.. the distinct cultiva- tion of vegetables. object. etc. a good crop in any year is the result of good cultivation. intent. AU alike indicate the direction of endeavor. Purpose is stronger than intention. we also speak of land as in a state of cultivation. intention. for the household. industry. but is now chiefly poetical. Aspiration applies to what are viewed as noble aim^. Mtchen^gardening. but not nor ordinarily of farming. the cultivation of com. Tillage refers directly to the work bestowed upon the land. Synonyms s aspiration. under cultivation. and while it may be done upon a farm is yet a Gardening in general. vege- land. etc. design. the dlyect. that which he would grasp as the reward of his labors. . etc. the raising of the same for saXe. Farming refers to the cultivation of considerable portions of land. the culture of flowers. end. purpose. and yet lack the fixedness of purpose by which alone it can be attained.. strictly and all horticulture. Aim. or sometimes that which is aimed at. flowers. or vegetables. goal. as plowing. one may aspire to an oly'ect. Culture is now appUed to the careful development of any product to a state of perfection. etc. that toward which one runs. flowers. purpose. are departments of agriculture. endeavor. The aim is the direction in which one shoots. scientific /ar-mingr is practised upon the rather than a college of farming. Aspiration. manuring.The mark is that at which one shoots. design.. and the raising of the coarser crops. indifferently to the best or worst.aim 26 books. Design especially denotes the . Husbandry is a general word for any form of practical agriculture. especially by care through successive generations.

may. thoughtlessness. mien. we speak aerial. he has a noble bearing. ethereal. gay. that lady has a good carriage. whose aspirations ai-e high. but is more exclusively a literary word. he has the appearance of a tramp. lively. oenavior. he has a pleasant expression of countenance. carriage. look. as. fasbion. endeavor refers to the exertions by which it is to be attained. Mien may be used to express some prevailing feeling. whose designs are wise. behavior. Eoopression and look especially refer to the face. Synonyms: appearance. style. Manner and style are. w^ay. as. One whose aims are worthy. carelessness.'" Demeanor goes beyond appearance. might say of a traveUsoiled pedestrian. Appearance refers more to the dress and other externals. sort. Air is that combination of qualities which makes the entire impression we receive in a person's presence. as. neglect. Expression is oftenest applied to that which is habitual. . too. but the air of a gentleman. but less often used in a bad sense. as. bearbag. AIR. Synonsmist llgbt. say a rakish air rather than a rakish mien. animated. toofc may be momentary. as. as. oversight. we say he has the air of a scholar. as. however. "an indignant mien. negligence. Aerial and airy both signify of or belonging to the air. frolicsome. or the air of a -villain. Joyous. manner. speak of the look or looks as indicating all that we look at. he had the look at an adventurer. acquired. port. is generally used in a good sense. including conduct. and will surely win some oly'ect worthy of a life's endeavor. We We We AIRY. Mien is closely synonymous with air. port is practically identical in meaning with tearing. expression. DESIGN. may hope to reach the goal of his ambition. avoidance. pnrposelessness. Carriage. and whose pwrposes are steadfast. demeanor. Antonyms: aimlesBness. Bearing is rather a lofty word. spri^tly. fatrylUze.27 airy adaptation of means to an end. I did not like his looks. in large part at least. as. heedlessness. but airy also describes that which seems as if made of air. a modest demeanor. a loo\ of dismay passed over his face. Compare behaviob. Compare AMBITION.

misgiving. dread. generally in the actual presence of that which is terrible. and so." is an arousing to meet and repel danger. timidity* consternation. Synonyms: active. a watchful promptness for action. Ready expresses more hfe and vigor than prepared. The gun is prepared. The sentinel discovers with alarm the sudden approach of the enemy. habit. and terror are overwhelming fear. brisk. stony. prompt. often. ftlglit. slow. Prompt expresses readiness for appointment or . a readiness to be affected with /ear. the man is ready. ponderous. overwhelms courage. A person of great timidity is constantly liable to needless alarm and even terror. calmness. consternation. and may be quite consistent with true courage. disquietude. panic. on the watch. Antonyms: assurance. ready. terror. ready. ne *' where we could not well say aerial. according to its derivation alVarme. watcbful. lively or animated may Antonymsclumsy. ethereal describes its object as belonging to the upper air. the pure Sprightly. nimble. heavy. confidence. Blnggish. " to arms. heavenly. Alarm. Affright and fright express sudden fear which. refers to ether. lively. light. dread.alarm alert of airy shapes. spiritlike. an animated discussion. wooden. ALERT. apprehension. dull. solicitude. Apprehension. Compare FEAB. tear. prepared. among the soldiers. as. Synonyms affrlgbt. though these words also may have an anticipative force. a lively company. airy nothings. for the time at least. wide-awake. That which is be agreeable or the reverse. Prepositions Alarm was felt in the camp. and wide-awake refer to vigilant. repose. Timidity is a quaUty. cheerful activity of mind and body. security. dismay. Beady suggests thoughtful preparation. Alert. the wandering Indian is alert. at the news. ALARH. dismay. bustling. free. the unarmed villagers view it with affright. or condition. miseiTlng:. Inert. t disquietude. the trained soldier is ready. and solicitude are in anticipation of danger.

but alien and foreigner are often used synonymously. The good general is ready for emergencies. native-born inhabitant. opposed. alien to difference of allegiance. impertinent. pertinent. Compare active. appropriate. " foreign. Synonyms: stranger. Antonyms: citizen. NIMBtE. at the required moment. or opposed. among our people. relevant. gennane. sluggish. contradi fc " distant. unconnected. that is alien which is conflicting. . w. unlike. ' trast. apropos. essential. native. a. remote contrasted. " ' bostiXe. Prepositions Aliens to (more rarely from) our nation and laws our land. nimble is the secondary and now less common signification of alert. n. fellowcountryman. jpro??ipf to seize occasion. though a foreigner by birth. altvk. V. inappropriate. Antonyms: akin. In their figurative use. aliens in . He is an alien in one country if his allegiance is to another. Im/pertinent and irrelevant matters can not claim consideration in a certain connection. foreigners to the people of all other countries. and A ceased to be a stranger to its people or institutions. that is foreign which is remote. strictly speaking. Synonyms conflicting:. or unconnected.»9 demand __ alien. though he may have been resident in the country a large part of a Uf etime. The sense of brisk. strange. irrelevant. Foreign refers to difference of birth. "lile. proper. heavy. concould not properly be considered. n. Prepositions Such apurpose was alien to (or/rorn)my thought: to preferable. iry. slow. naturalized person. stnpid. inactive. naturalized citizen is not an alien. AlilElV.. and perhaps a stranger in the place where he resides. alien.. rather than aliens. foreigner. countryman. inappropriate matters Compare alien. confllctii contradictory. Antonyms drowsy. alert to perceive opportunity or peril. VIGILANT. contrary. The people of any country still residing in their own land are. a. hostile. dull. A person of foreign birth not naturalized is an alien. unlllie. ALIEBf.

e<iuivalent. in all respects) CJotton and wool are alike in this. In geometry. or. mostly applied to energy of life as shown in swiftness of Breathing is capable of like contrast." is Quick. ALIKE. brisk. ture." "thoroughly alive. bomogeneous. as in the words "he is all alive. . which began by signifying "having life. analogous. now action. An identical proposition is one that says the same thing precisely in subject and predicate. . Alive applies to all degrees of life.alike alive 30 Synonyms: akin. uniform. these houses are exactly alike. Synonyms active. living. as when we say he is just alive. which yet leaves room for question or denial of complete likeness or identity. We say of a dying . e. e. while not alike in size or shape. they are all alike to me. identical. a comprehensive word. or which are the same in struc- Two pieces of iron may be homogeneous in material. nnllke.. line for line and angle for angle they are equivalent when they simply contain the same amount of space. heterogeneous. and fit. Prepositions r The specimens are alike in kind . these houses are somewhat (i. Antonyms: different. like. alert. similar. live.. diesimilar. distinct. . signifying as applied to two or more objects that some or all qualities of one are the same as those of the other or others by modifiers alike may be made to express more or less resemblance as. animate. but that he is the very same person. kindred. Similar refers to close resemblance." So the word quick. from that which shows one to be barely eooisting or eooistent as a living thing. to that which implies the very utmost of vitality and power. ^ame. To say "this is the identical man. two triangles are equal when they can be laid over one another. subsisting. vivacious. as. animated. (i. existent. plan. existing. ALITE. i breatking. or character." is to say not merely that he is similar to the one I have in mind. the gills of fishes are said to be analogous to the lungs in terrestrial animals. use. Alike is resembling:. tho perhaps quite unlike in appearance . Things are analogous when they are similar in idea. Substances are homogeneous which are made up of elements of the same kind. lively. partially) alike. e^ual. that they can both be woven into cloth.

appease. and have been often interchanged in usage. to mollify is to soften. plead. abundant life. humor) is to bring to pleased quietude. he allay allege is still breathing . To adduce. calm. or we speak of a breathing statue. Antonyms agitate. L 155. quiet. albet nimble. kindle. Allay and alleviate are closely kindred in signification. as. Pacify. We allay suffering by using means to soothe and tranquilize the sufferer. Compare active . Antonyms: dead. to soothe (originally to assent to. alive ivith alive through all his being. mollify. tranquilize. Synonyms AL. where the trouble is wholly or chiefly in the excitement. signify to bring to peace. appease.L. but do not allay it. To allege is formally to state as true or capable of proof. the quarrelsome. full and vigorous breath. spiritless. cahn agitation. introduce. hope. to allay is to lay to rest. where it means having. . to calm." Tennyson Princess can. resolve . to allay rage or panic. offer. i alleviate. declare. so that there is less to suffer . assign. adjust to a calm and settled condition. dull. arouse.AY. dispirited. defunct. distress. from the Latin through the French. fan provoke. Synonyms: adduce. But. to allay the excitement is virtually to remove the trouble. directly from the Latin.uiet. soothe grief or CJompare AiiLEViATE. "We allay excitement. claim. compose our feelings or countenance. touse. afOnn. compose. excite. beauteous battle. appease a tumult. we alleviate suffering by doing something toward removal of the cause. sootbe. say. inauimate. stirt atirnp. lifelees. V. in strictness. deceased. pacify. we alleviate poverty. cite. unite. tut without proving. poci/j. asseverate. ALLEGE. to place together. . aver. and compose. on the other hand. literally to lead to. state. produce.<> ** man. quiet the boisterous or clamorous. quiet or soothe that which is excited. q. alive to every noble impulse . Prepositions: Alive in every nerve fervor. or seeming to have. nxaintain. or "breathing and sounding. assert. is to lighten a burden. is to bring the . to alleviate. or tranquilize is to make still. advance. still.

nothing can be adduced in evidence tUl something has been An alleged stated or alleged. would be to cast discredit upon the document. When an alleged criminal is brought to trial. Adduce is not used of persons. or that the crime has been committed. respectful. as the only king and lord. except in elevated or poetic style. they will prodwce documents and witnesses. bomage. on occaan oath of allegiance to the government. The accused will usually assert his innocence. . Fealty is becoming somewhat rare. Compare state. for instance. that the will is genuine. and adduce the strongest possible evidence in its support. loyalty. he takes. faitbfulneBS.. offer pleas. which the evidence is to sustain. and imply that the speaker was ready to brand it as unquestionably spurious. sedlUon. of them we say introduce or produce. Synonrms. fact stands open to question or doubt. or friend. Allegiance is the obligation of fidelity and obedience that an devotion. The feudal uses of these words have mostly passed away with the state of society that gave them birth. fealty. ALiIiEGIAHTCE. an alleged crime. the counsel on either side are accustomed to advance a theory. introdvoe suggestions. alleged simply concedes nothing and leaves the question open. disloyalty. but his loyalty will lead him to do more than mere allegiance could demand. assign reasons. su1>]ectlon. Prepositions We honor the allegiance of the citizen to the govenuuegot. papers or persons. as. to speak of the "so= called" will or deed. A patriotic Ameri- an enthusiastic loyalty to the republic. rebellion. Antonyms dlsafEection. or to those principles of right that are spiritually supreme. the government has a right to allegiance from the citizen. etc.allegiance on " Adduce is a secondary evidence up to what has been alleged. or iit least very carefully to refrain from admitting. treason. wife. We prefer to speak of the faithfulness rather than the fealty of citizen. individual owes to his government or sovereign. is either to question. however. he resents the idea of subjection. obedience. he acknowledges the duty of obedience to all rightful authority. Alleged is. an alleged will. To speak of an alleged document. he pays homage to God alone. can feels sion. but their origin BtUl colors their present meaning. word. that the document exists. cite precedents. To produce is to bring forward. in return for the protection he receives.

histoty. or fable tells ing the reader or hearer to discover its its fictitious story as if true. this word in its widest use including aU the rest. representing animals as the speakers and actors. nutigate. in strict definition. example. Antonyms.L. moderate. briefer and less adorned than an allegory." A parable is exclusively moral or religious. from the away a burden toward onelift it back to remove is to take it away Alleviate is than remove. instance.«o c*tS allegory alleviate Synonyms i iUustratlon. but the applied almost exclusively to novels or ro- mances. of which the moral lesson is the substance. tale. to alleviate is to and so lighten it for the bearer bearer. to beat down. Any comparison. In modern usage we may say that an allegory is an extended simile. . fictions. mitigate. nearly or quite altogether. or the like which serves to let in light upon a subject may be called an illustration. like. relieve. to relieve is to . metapbor. fable." A fable is generally briefer. word fiction is now All these are. anecdote. Synonyms abate. relieve. ncord. as in " The Pilgrim's Progress. to bring within measure . story.ETIATC:. self. to sweeten. as it were. An allegory is a moral or religious tale. The simile carries its comparison on the surface. analogy. We not alleviate. and all descriptions and incidents but accessories. as "The Fables of ^Esop. relieve or remove the trouble . parable. while a metaphor is an abbreviated simile contained often in a phrase. simile. redzice inflammation. Assuage is. by derivation. less thus less than relieve. Etymologically. lighten burdens S . the sufferer. AL. reduce. oralleviate. lift . Compare fiction. abate. in the words as. the metaphor is given directly without any note of comparison. The allegory. soften. lessen. . we relieve. . Ilerhten. with its lesson more immediately discernible. to make mild. fact. assuage. remove. given. moderate. and so make less. We abate a fever lessen anxiety moderate passions or desires dinarily. chronicle. leavcharacter and learn its lesson. nairative. and commonly conveying some lesson of practical wisdom or shrewdness. parable. fiction. or similar expressions. mitigate or alleviate pain . perhaps in a word. at a stroke.

The United States is not a confederacy nor an alliance. augment. secession. disnnion. separation. or „ ** moderate grief . fusion. comfort. embitter. compact. select. we relieve any suffering of body or mind that admits of help.alliance allot soften. league. A portion or extent of timr =s al- . war. and no union except for a specified time and purpose. I antagonism. confederacy. Synonyms appoint. Intensify. alliance chiefly political or matrimonial. Federation is mainly a poetic and rhetorical word expressing something of the same thought. award. enmity. divorce. mete by lot. 128. Partnership is a mercantile word . the nation might be called a federation. confederation. but prefers to be styled a federal union. fusion In an alliance is now the more common word in this sense. League and alliance are used with scarcely perceptible difference of meaning. assuage. against the common defense . Antonyms: aggravate. connection formed by Alliance is in its most common use a treaty between sovereign states as for mutual aid in war. as in Tennyson's "federation of the world. In a confederacy or confederation there is an attempt to unite separate states in a general government without surrender of sovereignty. between. Coalition is oftenest used of political parties . Antonyms discord. assign. set apart. enhance. or among ALiLrOT. Union implies so much concession as to make the separate states substantially one. distribute. out." Locksley Hall. Alleviate has been often confused with Compare allay. . grant. 1. schism. hostility.' increase. give. originally to assign applies to the giving of a def- a certain person. we lighten or mitigate punish- ments allay. partnersblp. make worse. alliance of. Prepositions Alliance . portion out. Synonyms: coalition. between nations there is no surrender of sovereignty. apportion. heighten. inite thing to destine. vMh a enemy for offense and nations. union. federation. neighboring people. AI^IilAXCE. or remedy. magnify. divide. Allot.

let. and he has right and claim to it. confiscate. or assigned is more or less arbitrary. as. resnme. Assign is A appointed. tolerate the rudeness of a well=meaning servant. Prepositions Allot to a company /or a purpose. Antonyms: appropriate. yield. but rather of places. sanction a marriage. Allot may also refer to space. . that to consent to. the sheriff yielded the keys at the muzzle of a revolver. who. is now becoming rare. the medal was awarded for valor. Suffer. Ajapoint may be used of time. or person. There are establishments that any one wUl be allowed to visit without challenge or hindrance. tolerate. Destine may also refer to time. place. assign a work to be done and assign a man to do it. as. as. We if he must assign a reason for not doing it. permit an inspection of accounts. and allowed the mob to enter. deny. in the sense of mild concession. rarely used of time. suffer. an oflScer was aj>pointed to this station. there are others to which visitors are admitted at speciwithout a formal permit. We allow that which we do not given verbally it is attempt to hinder. as. but we now oftener use seZecf. submit to a surgical operation. Synonyms admit. permit. we permit this is it is which we give some express authorization. persons. Compare appoetion. a man appoints to meet his friend in five minutes he destines his son to foUow his own profession. definite period the audience assembled at the appointed hour. g^rant. there are others that no one is allowed to visit without a permit from the manager. as. fails. or ossigrn. reqviesb. Allot is not now used of persons. yield to a demand or necessity against our wish or will. that which is awarded is the due requital of something the receiver has done. sanction. . concede. intrusion. Beize. as. That which is allotted. appointed. When when in writing com- monly called a permit. called permission. or yield something imder compulsion. I expect to live out is allow my allotted time. witbnold. or things. the anointed day. space. to allot a plot of ground for a cemetery. consenitoa saleof property. we eoracecfe a right. or person. its fied times. but it always has reference to what is considerably in the future.*® lotted. se< apan. refnse. We allow a child's innocent grant a. the appointed place. AliLOTV. retain.

because there the only standard is perfection. as it were in byplay . mention. and refer are used of language that more or a certain thought . An excess of alloy Yirtually amounts to adulteration. Advert. withstand. refuse. it was easy to see to whom he alluded. or tolerate. Prepositions To allow of (in best recent usage. alloy is commonly good in the literal sense. place being taken Compare per- mission. In the figurative sense. point. resist. and kindred uses. adulteration. marginal figures refer to a parallel passage .. drink. as applied to character. Synonyms t debasement. protest. indicate. and may be good or bad . mention. allude to a matter slightly. forbid. the others of language from which it may be inferred. but what always unfavorable. suggest. One may indicate . Antonyms deny. tho he mentioned no name. as for giving hardness to coin or the like. Alloy may be either some admixture of baser with precious metal. reject. allow one in such a course allow for spending=money. intimate. as by naming it. insinuate. Adulteration. elgnify. we refer to it by any clear utterance that distinctly tui-ns the mind or attention to it less distinctly utters We as. intimate his plans^ imply cowardly. lilnt. . and deterioration are always used in the bad sense admixture is neutral. i disapprove. we advert to it when we turn from our path to treat it . but adulteration is now mostly restricted to articles used for food. Synonyms advert. admixture. ALiIiOY. we mention a thing by explicit word. perhaps by a word or phrase. is One may hint is insinuated at a thing in a friendly way. permit. alloy is unfavorable. debasement.alloy nlliidn allude aa «*'» by allow. See also synonyms for pbohibit. medicine. Imply. deterioration. The speaker adverted to the recent disturbances and the remissness of certain public officers. etc. disallow. simply to allow) such an action . generally both hostile and his wishes. refer. ALrLiVDE. or it may be a compound or mixture of two or more metals.

similarly. alluring. To inveigle is to lead one bliudly iu. signify bis will. in it surpasses the highest sense of allure. and led the way. captivate. which latter Win to seduce is to succeed in winning one from may be used iu either a bad or a good sense. to draw as with a lure by some charm or some decoy." Prov. in addition. "He that winneth souls is vyise. besides. besides. Synonyms attract. as. coEix. in UKo manner. Synonyms as well. lUcewlse. is To allure inveigle. As well follows the word or phrase to which i» fall into it . win. not of man may be cooked to that which is by no means the thiQg. because it succeeds in that which allure attempts. Antonyms: chai. xi. entice. tempt. While some between these words and phrases wUl appear to the careful student. . may attract others to a prospect of pleasure or advantage. add a fact or thought. *??il. 170. tepel. certain thing vsdthout intent as. allure by hopes .l. the good unconsciously attract may allure either to that which is evil or others to virtue. cajole. Prepositions t Allure to a course . " Allured to brighter worlds. as well as. Cajole and decoy carry the idea of deceiving and ensnar- A ing. We We Goldsmith Deserted Village 1. to that which is good and noble.SO. C!ompare SUGGESTION. Uke that to which likewise.„. simply two groups. Coax expresses the attraction of the person. draw. seduce. allure /rom evil to good AL. as in the familiar line. simUarly. drive away.„ «>• his opinion. distinctions in addition. Preposition: The passage evidently alludes to the Jewish Passover. as well as. afiSrm that what is added is it is added. also (all so). dissuade. lure." . damp. by purpose and endeavor.(jre:. It is the word we would use of drawing on an animal. al. warn. too. 30. The words withal. yet in practise the choice between them Is largely to secure euphony and avoid repetition. suggest allure also a course of action. deter. Lure is rather more akin to the physical nature. To tempt is to endeavor to lead one vsrong good to ill. in like manner. witHal.

from the Saxon. or the well. as. resource. store up. that to which one : glad to betake oneself. accumulate to the particular process or rate of gain. suits one best . AI. picli. yet." be either the right to choose. aggregate. A choice may be among many things. in spite of notwithstanding.alternative amass joined. death. picture the objects before one. option. he ac(ywmulated a fortune in the course of years. on the other hand. pile up. accur mulate is applied to the more gradual. pick. choice may tives. the act of choosing. 3g We can say the singers as well as the players. Synonyms : accumulate. amass to the more rapid gathering of money or materials. necessity. or the Gladstone even speaking of " the fourth and last of these alternaOption is the right or privilege of choosing . both Mill and Gladstone are quoted as extending the meaning of alternative to include several particulars. preference. Antonyms compulsion. a great bulk or quantity. gather. Goods or money for immediate distribution are said to be collected rathei . Antonyms but. and the singers as nevertheless.TER1VATITE. players. hoard up. from the Latin. AMASS. there were twelve horses. A A that which . election. and election. We say interest is accumulated (or accumulates) rather than is amassed . and either of which the alternative of the other . Synonyms: cbolce. or preference is I could take my pick. "With some occasional exceptions. an alternative is is that to which one is restricted a resource. board. the alternative of surrender is two things between which there is a choice may be called the alternatives. on the contrary. beap up. oftener it is one of two things between which a choice is to be made. he rapidly amassed a fortune by shrewd speculations. person of ability and readiness wUl commonly have many resources. amass referring to the general result or bulk. To amass is to bring together materials that make a mass. as. collect. election. strictest sense is an alternative is in the a choice between two things. or the thing chosen. among which choice. with freedom and power to choose which he will . Pick.

squander. tyro. Awe is the yielding of the mind to something supremely . . the expenses wiU aggregate a lound Antonyms disperse. parcel. million. and afifeoted. AMAZEMESTT. spend. the word carries a natural implication of superficialness. Etymologically. amazement the in- admiration. which had originally the sense of awnateur. perplexity. The amateur practises to some extent that in regard to which he may not be well informed. dissipate. Preposition) An amateur in art. Prepositions: Amass /or oneself labor by industry. pretentious. generally selfish. . has to some extent come to denote one who is superficial. scatter. portion. waste. A as to be able to criticise or select intelligently and authoritatively. connoisseur is supposed to be so thoroughly informed regarding any art or work connoisseur. whether in theory or practise. tellect. 'bevtrildernient. in the true be an incompetent connoisseur. They may be stored up for a longer or shorter time. dilettante. tho marked excellence is at times attained by am. many incompetent critics. In usage.ateurs. Amazement and astonishment both express the momentary overwhelming of the mind by that which is beyond expectation. Aggregate is now most commonly used of numbers and amounts. Astonishment especially affects the emotions. bub to hoard is always with a view of permanent retention. the amateur is one who loves. an amateur never is. ivith great Synonyms i critic. but there can not. confusion. novice. for a pm-pose from a distance . the connoisseur one who knows. awe. the term amateur is applied to one who pursues any study or art simply from the love of it. surprise. A novice or tyro may be a professional . Synonyms. -wonder. there are sense. as. I divide.„_ w9 auintoiir aniazeinent than amassed. . astonisbment. Dilettante. the connoisseur is well informed in regard to that which he may not practise at all. the amateur may be skilled and experienced as the novice or tyro never is.

not with reference to another. coolness.ambition ** grand in character or formidable in power. in . and viewed as a worthy prize. There is a noble and wise or an Emulation is not so ignoble. much to win any excellence or success for itself as to equal or surpass other persons. Amazement has in it something of confusion or bewilderment. and ranges from apprehension or dread to reverent worship. nobility. and the like. Astonishment may be without bewilderment or confusion. or something deemed great and eminent. Preposition I was filled with amazement at such reckless daring. and is the eager desire of power. pure and simple. Wonder is often pleasing. and harmful ambition. order. as. Emulation regards the abstract. the magnitude. fame. as when a multitude of details require instant attention. Synonyms Aspiration is AiaBITION. indifference. bition. Antonyms anticipation. and usually respects matters of lighter conseAmazement quence or such as are less startling in character. : expectation. But. or other high qualities. There is such a thing as a noble emulation. has primary reference to the award or approval of others. competition the concrete. honor. at the highest. composure. emulation is inferior which seeks the high quality or character for its own sake. "We can say pleased surprise. rivalry. but scarcely pleased astonishment. selt'poBsession. as when induced by the grandeur of the mountains. and beauty of the heavens fill us with increasing wonder. The prizes of ambition are advancement. but differs in the nature of the objects contested for. skill. stoicism. preparation. rivalry is the same in essential meaning with competition. which. Bteadineas. and may be continuous in view of that which surpasses our comprehension. or by the fury of the storm. opposition. selfish. competition. and the means we would use as a motive to aspiration. but confusion and bewilderment may occur without amazement. literally the desire for excellence. Compare perplexity. calmnesB. emulation. Surprise lies midway between astonishment and amazement. may be either pleasing or painful. Admiration includes delight and regard. Competition is the striving for something that is sought by another at the same time. aspiration. The prizes of aspiration are virtue. Am^ a going around to solicit votes. worthy. when those we would equal or siurpass are noble. fame.

or state. rectifr. correct. injure. t advance. AMEBrO. competition for a prize. cleanse. Competition may be friendly. and always refers to that which at some point falls short of a standard of excellence. pare AliljEVIATB. spoil. achievement. harm. Synonyms better. We mend a tool. better. Improve. Antonyms aggravate. To amend is to change for the better by removing faults. ameliorate. it motion is amended by the often emended by conjecture. A text. a constitution is amended by the peo- ment is A ple an ancient text is emended by a critic who believes that what seems to him the better reading is what the author wrote. But for matters below the jwint of ordinary approval we seldom use these words we do not speak of bettering a wretched alley. is an opponent and hinderer. mover or by the assembly. politics. . rectify incidental conditions of evil or error we ameliorate poverty and misery. . impair. nxab:e better. errors. There we use cleanse. evudation of excellence.41 amend the case of rivalry. or a statement or law that is defective. depress. tarnish. which we can not wholly remove. writing. blemisli. . mltleate. is amended by the author or by some adequate authority. haniillty. emulation in scholarship. and improve may refer either to what is quite imperfect or to what has reached a high degree of excellence we advance the kingdom of God. rivalry is commonly hostile. We it implies that the competitor carelessness. satisfactiQii. etc. measurement. prove the minds of our children. emend. We correct evils. repair a building. or improving a foul sewer. speak of competition in business. are usually of the nobler sort and less subject to direct gaging. mar. and rule. reform abuses. mend. \rltlate. s debase. meliorate. corrupt. indifference. Advance. or similar words. Com. better the morals of the people. JLiitonyms contentment. correct proof we amend character or conduct that is faulty. repair. twi. rivalry in love.. rivalry between persons or nations. puri^. Opposition is becomiiig a frequent substitute for competition in business language. reform. deteriorate. purify. success. or defects.

with the qualities that are adapted to win their love. among or amongst denotes mingled with. gruff. morose. Amid denotes mere position tility. QiilovelT. enrly. The good-natured have an easy disposition to get along comfortably with every one in aU circumstances. attractive. while by no means amiable. pleasant. Amid or amidst denotes surrounded by. Ul^conditioned. charming. A1HID. or some other incidental circumstance. 'winning. gentle. or among enemies. please. and make happy. Amiable denotes a disposition desirous to cheer. Antonyms: acrimonious. onainiable. disagreeable. ille>bumored. i betwixt. or of two groups of persons or objects. sour. between. and winsome add to amiability something of beauty. The engaging. mingled w^ith. amidst the woods. ill-natured. as from a height and a distance. a handsome. loving. lovable and lovely in character. crusty. Kind. and between my hevdmen and thy herdmen. as of etc. cmcl. the amiable character has ready affection and kindliness for others. 4ft Synonyms 1 pleasing*. winsome. between me and thee. In the . good-natured. surrounded by. the reference being to two bodies of herdmen. sweet. Synonyms amidst. We say among friends. among. hateful. betunxt) is said of two persons or objects. The benignant are calmly kind. dogged. brilliant. a lovely face. " Let there be no strife. and so fail to be agreeable ov pleasing." Oen. Lovely is often applied to externals as. amiable is a higher and stronger word than goocUnatured or agreeable. Kind. 9 . good-natured people may be coarse and rude. storing. Amiable combines the senses of lovable or lovely and loving. among. engaging:. xiii. and witty person may be charming or even attractive. winning. some active Lowell's relation. ill->temperecl. amid the shadows. and grace. lovable. in the midst of. Between (archaic or poetic. companionship. benigrnant. the loving heart bringing out all that is . A sweet disposition is very sure to be amiable. hosthe books as companions . clinrlish.amiable amid. amid my books would suggest packing. crabbed. lovely. amongst. "Among my Books " regards . A selfish man of the world may have the art to be agreeable. the really amiable are likely to avoid such faults by their earnest desire to please. sullen. agreeable. accomplishments. I pray thee.

as by stating fully what was before only implied. Antonyms abbreviate. unfolding the thought. as. get of treatment. > unfold. resemtolanoe. proporUon. . outside. whether with or without adding matter of importance. "I found myself in the midst of friends" suggests their pressing up on every side. Amplify this AlVALiOGY. or the like . compaSison. The chief difficulty of very young writers is to amplify. Analogy is specifically a resemblance ot relations . to beyond the bare curt statement by developing. Prepositions: To amplify on or upon the subject matter hy illustrations. " boil down. amputate. widen. or it may express even closer association than among . reduce. retrench. curtail. to add material substance. estend. eaypand an illustration. Amplify is now rarely used in the sense of increase." not so well to say " amidst them. expatiate. parity. eocpatiate. enlarge a volume. 20 . augment." cut down. condense. or by adding illustrations to make the meaning more readily apprehended. increase. a r-esem- coincidence. abridge. dilate. The chief difficulty of those who have more material and experience is to condense sufficiently. Ukeness. in the early days of our literature amplify was used in the favorable sense . similitude. bulk. dilate on something joyous or sad. as. is needless. widen the range etc. snmmame." Antonyms afar from. signifying to make fuller in statement. semUlance. I found myself crowd .I" amplify analogy in the midst of a midst of may have merely the local meaning . similarity. So. expatiate on a hobby. unfold a scheme. beyond. it is now almost wholly applied to discourse or writing. relation. there am I in the midct of them. xviii. Synonyms: affinity. smile." Matt. oneself the central object . expand. wttboat. epitomize. away from. " where two or three are met together in my name. volume. in which case it would be feebler to say " among them. expanding. enlarge. ahplift. so. extend a discussion." impossible to say " amid them. far from. but at present this word and most kindred words are coming to share the derogatory meaning that has long attached to "We may develop a thought. sum up. Synonyms develop.

temper. . Antonyms: disagreement. dissimilarity. incongruity. may. as. in the singular. exasperation. fury. Resentment (a feeling back or feeling over again) is persistent. ire. pettlshness. sonal and unselfish displeasure at unworthy acts (L. a fiery temper. soning thing to another with which it has some points in common. passion. fury is stronger yet. " did put me in a towering passion. demanding instant expression. a roughening. be employed to denote anger . Anger is violent and vindictive emotion. displeasure. and directed specifically and intensely against the person who is viewed as blameworthy. indigna). etc. like all violent passions. cboler. disproportion. Compare allegory. sc. is said of an argument equally conclusive on subjects not Similitude is a rhetorical comparison of one strictly analogous. Rage drives one beyond the bounds of prudence or discretion . Affinity is a mutual attraction with or without Coincidence is comlikeness as. Indignation is imper- animosity." Shakespeare Hamlet act V. fretfulness. vexation. offense. there may be a . the affinity of iron for oxygen. Parity of reacoincidence in time of most dissimilar events. AIVOER. the resemblance of a cloud to a distant mountain.. aroused by real or supposed vsTong to oneself. wratb. now rare except in poetic or highly rhetorical language. necessarily brief. so that from the likeness respects we may infer that other and perhaps deeper relacertain seeming tions exist. i. which is sharp. Temper used alone in the sense of anger is colloquial. Prepositions The analogy between (or of) nature and revelation the analogy of sound to light a family has some analogy with (or to) a . sudden. Passipn. superficial intensity of anger. is a hot. Choler and ire. and the latter a persistent. the bitter brooding over injuries. anger. irritation. plete agreement in some one or more respects . Exasperation. Indignation. and may involve no deeper relation .anger 44 in blance that may be reasoned from. Synonyms: rage. Displeasure is the mildest and most general word. Anger is personal and usually selfish. tho a word of far wider application. Resemblance and similarity are external or superficial. and. Impatience. . e. resentment. state. and sweeps one away into uncontrollable violence. denote a still. peevlsbness. tho we may correctly say a hot temper. 3. nnlikeness. petulance.

gentleneas. To call a man a brute is to imply that he is unfeeling and cruel to call . leniency. as when the people of Nazareth were "filled with virath" at the plain words of Jesus {Luke iv. Wrath is deep and perhaps vengeful displeasure. But because the animal life is the lowest and rudest part of his being and that which he shares with inferior creatures. eelf-reBtraint. i brute. axxd peevishness are chronic states finding in any petty matter an occasion for their exercise. . speak of to indicate that he is vilely sensual. Prepositions Anger at the insult prompted the reply. pettishness. as . the cruel father as a brute to his children . So firmly are these figurative senses him a beast is We established that we now incline to avoid applying brute or beast a horse or dog. self-control. Anger is commonly a sin indignation is often a duty. . long'SuSering. love. for which we have any affecto any Creature is a tion we prefer in such cases the word animal. peevishness. simply express the culniina. mildaess. 28) it may. peaceableness. pettishness. however. Thus man is properly classified as an animal. of wide signification. the wrath of God. as. AWimAL. living organism. sentient being. fretfulness. .45 animal at wrong as wrong. HATEia). . tion of righteous indignation without malice in a pure being . An animal is a sentient being. The brute is the animal viewed as dull to all finer feeling the beast is looked upon as a being of appetites. to call any individal man an animal is to imply that the animal nature has undue supremacy. cliarity. irritation. of the drunkard as making a beast of himself. fauna. Irritation. Impatience. lenity. and vexation express the slighter forms of anger. including all the things that God word creature. Anger toward the offender exaggerates the offense. enmity . distinct from inanimate matter and from vegetable life on the one side and from mental and spiritual existence on the other. petulance. peacefulness. peace. Compare acrimony . petulance. and needs no repentance it is also more self=controlled than anger. forbearance. and so is deep condemnation or utter insult. Fretfulness. living creature. patience. Antonyms: amiability. Synonyms lieast. and vexation are temporary and for immediate cause. Pure indignation is not followed by regret.

In a wider sense. hush. keep back. cover (up). the whinny of a horse. angel. Synonyms advertise. Eerald. an answer may be even made see bolt in a lock. AivivoinvcE. withhold. spirit. angels. retort. promulgate the views of a sect or party. keep secret.announce ansiver ^" . we announce a book that is to be . Antonyms bury. Antonyms man. suppress. spread abroad. plants. propound. action. soul. The animals of a region are collectively called its fauna.„ or men. communicate. : rejoinder. We may announce that which has occurred or that which is to occur. We report an interview. communicate our intentions. Declare has often an authoritative force to declare war is to cause war to be. Synonyms AWSWER. . herald the coming of some distinguished person or great event. Publish. whether inanimate objects. declare. We propound a question or an argument. published. tho the word is chiefly used in the anticipative sense. and is made to a charge as well as to a question. secrete. Prepositions The event was announced to the family by telegraph. vegetable. say. publisb. make known. a guest when he arrives. matter. anything said or done in return for some word. may each be an answer to some word . or suggestion of another may be called an answer. give notice give out. or the decision of a court. enunciate our views we notify an individual. some formal or public way. report. animals. hide. mineral. (of). conceal. promulgate. is becoming closely restricted to the sense of issuing through the press. has created. where before there may have been only hostilities we say declare war.. reveal. in popular usage. mind. enunciate. reveal a secret. repartee. circulate. the movement of a ifestation . 33. inanimate object. substance (material). notify. etc. The blow of an enraged man. proclaim. . verbal answer is a return of words to something that seems to call for them. A to an unspoken implication or manLuke v. give notice to the public. reply. the howling of the wind. state. we announce a book when it is in press. proclaim peace. response. intelligence of in To announce is to give We advertise our business. tell. an echo. etc.

recall. is not an answer . good reason to believe will happen . Synonyms hope. distrnst. or an objection reply far is at rejoinder adequate. PREVENT. fQrecast. expect that w^hich we have the prevalent and favorite use. but always with the implication of something more or less controversial or opposed. but is severe and may be even savage in its intensity. as. This is coming to be apprebeud. rejoinder is strictly an answer to a reply. of that which we In this use it is a eaypect both with confidence and pleasm-e. tho often ustd in the general sense of answer. ANTICIPATE. the appeal for aid met a prompt and hearty response. anticipate A reply is no. witty. dread.47 or movement. To anticipate . tho I have no . A." A response is accor- dant or harmonious. a boy expects to grow to hope for that which we much desire and somemanhood. like foretaste. fear. unfolding. Compare ABIDE ." I hope for a . stronger word than hope. or to meet the wish of him who seeks it as. and finally refutes and disposes of it a reply may be quite inadequate. and commonly good=natured answer to some argument or attack a retort may also be witty. remembra . may be either to take before in fact or to take before in thought in the former sense it is alhedwithpretieKi. expect. look forw^ard to. visit from my friend. . Repartee is a prompt." "I am ready with an answer" means more than " I am ready with a reply. : doubt. . Anwhat expect. FreposltloDs An answer in writing. in the full sense. word from him I expect it when he writes that he is coming and as the time draws near I anticipate it with pleasure. apprehend what we both expect and fear. designed or adapted to carry on the thought of the words that called it forth. ticipate is commonly used now. so that one may say. tho lacking the conclusiveness implied in ansiver an answer. where often " the wish is father to the We We We thought. in the latter. with the synonyms above given. Antonyms despair of. as the responses in a liturgical service. to the question. and ordinarily implies thought and intelligence. recollect. or hy word of mouth. an argument. to a charge. foretaste. " This .

. and acting upon what is . dread. opposition. Uncongeniality is negative. aversion is a deep and permanent dislike. enmity. distaste. presentiment. old^fasbloned. anger. kindliness. : Antonyms astonishment. style. a want of touch or sympathy. superannuated. uucongeniality. or both. Antagonism may result from the necessity of circumstances opposition may spring from conflicting views or interests . q. prevision. Thus. forecast. bope. repulsion. expectation. regard. natural antipathy may give rise to opposition which may result in hatred and hostility. antagonism. repugnance. other forms of dislike may be acquired or cherished for cause. distaste and disgust may be acquired . batred. foretbougbt. . it is a part actually received in advance. Antonyms affinity. foreseen. realization. antiquated to a discarded . cympatby. Synonyms ANTIPATHY. Compare anticipatb.anticipation antique Mtg * Synonyms: antepast> ANTICIPATIOar. A foretaste may be of good or evil. Prepositions Antipathy to Synonyms AlVTiqVE. we speak of the pleasures of anticipation. detestation. apprebension.ualut. disgust. aversion. fear. attraction. doubt. repugnance. foreboding. Foresight and forethought prevent future evil and secure future good by timely looking forward. and uncongeniality are instinctive. t abborrence. harmony. fellowfeeling. agreement. commonly of good. and may be physical or mental. and is more than imaginary . of evil . i ancient. (less frequently /or or against) a person or thing j antipathy bettveen or betimsot two persons oi things. consammation. hatred. A Compare acrimony. despair. apprehension and foreboding always. foretaste. bostUity. Antipathy. antlauated. enjoyiaent. Antique refers to an ancient. An antipathy to a person or thing is an instinctive recoil from connection or association with that person or thing. dislike. snrprlBe^ wonder. abhorrence and detestation may be the result of religious and moral training . antioipa^ tion and antepast. foresigbt. congeniality. Expectation maybe either of good or evil presentiment almost always. expectancy.

for a Puritan style may be scorned as antiquated. fear. a choking disquiet. misgiving. while a Koman or Renaissance style may be prized as antique. anxiety always stirs the question whether something can not be done. terror. to the style rather than to the age. dread. ANXIEXT. dread. . Fretting ot freshness is a weak complaining without thought of accomplishing or Dhanging anything. recent^ stylisb. modish. The antiquated person is out of style and out of sympathy with the present generation by reason of age . fretting. worry. always suggesting hopeful possibility. can speak of the antique architecture of a church just built. Worry is a more petty. In matters within our reach. akin to anguish . according to its derivation. new. trouble. and thus differing from apprekenskm. . Perplexity often involves anxiety. In the latter case it becomes a synonym for antiquated . foreboding:. anxiety in regard to the unknown . a quaint gambrel=roofed house. perplexity.. Antonyms! {asUonable. in this respect it is allied to core. concern. and is thus a valuable spur to doing . modem. the superannuated person is incapacitated for present activities by reason of age. disturbance. solicitude. anguish is in regard to the known. Quaint combines the idea of age with a pleasing oddity . commonly incapacitate for all helpful thought or endeavor. anicieij/ may be quiet and silent worry is communicated to all aroimd. anxiety because of what may happen. fzeeb. but merely as a relief to one's own disquiet. anguish may be mental or physical . a coin of the Csesars.**^ anxiety is Antique The reference is either ancient in fact or ancient in style. We call a wide New England fireplace old=fashioned . anguish is because of what has happened. anxiety is mental . Old=fashioned may be used approvingly or contemptuously. care. apprebenslon. fretfulness. and manifest anxiety. dread. but indicates less duration. Compare OLD. as. Foreboding. dlsctulet. in the good sense it approaches the meaning of antique. fear. antique.. Antiquated is sometimes used of persons in a sense akin to superannuated. Anxiety is. Synonyms i angulsb. Solicitude is a milder anxiety. aU of which may be quite despairing. The difference is that which We between antiquated and antique is not in the age. foreboding. etc. Anxiety refers to some future event. but may be quite free from it. The antiquated is not so much out of date as out of vogue. restless.

or Synonyms: calmness. entire absence of feeling. . Antonyms. Unfeelingness. without what he has fiercely struggled to avoid. pblegnm. immobility of countenance. Composure is freedom from nature. from force of will. excitement. susceptibility. passion. he confidence. carelessness. tranquillity. turbulence. eagerness. Impassibility is a philosophical term applied to the Deity. . anxiety. . courage. alarm. stoicipin. sluegisliness. . perplexed regarding a translation. unfeelingrness. . immobility. lethargy. agitation. storm. Indifference and insensibility designate the absence of feeling toward certain persons or things apathy. nonchalance. STUPOB. Stoicism is an intentional suppression of feeling and deadening of sensibilities. an innate sluggishness of the emotional resistance or sensibility. fury. apathy toward good. . We speak of insensibility of heart. resulting ordinarily above all stir of passion or emotion. indifference. tranquility. Prepositions The apathy of monastic I life . Calmness is the result of strength. to In the apathy of despair. Indifference is a want of interest insensibility is a want of feeling unconcern has reference to consequences. assurance. frenzy. not at all anxious regarding it. . a lack of the feeling one ought to have. a censurable hardness of heart. sensitiveness. sympatliy. has time enough. ease. Apathy. the Saxon word that should be the exact equivalent of apathy. is a simple absence of feeling or emotion. or from perfect confidence in one's own resources. ""> emotion. vehemence. APATHY. There are persons to whom a certain degree of apathy is natural. in regard to.apatliy 50 if A student may be Antonyms: apathy. while apathy is involuntary. quietude. lightsheartedness. according to its Greek derivation. Compare CALM REST . composure. or trust apathy is the result of dulness or weakness. violence. yet. stillness. satisfaction. While apathy is want of feeling. really means more. impassibility. quietness. calmness is feeling without agitation. Prepositions Anxiety for a friend's return concerning the future. unconcern. as infinitely exalted agitation or disturbance. feeling. distarbance. a person gives up. sensibility. calmness. anxiety about. insensibility.

that is. Plea ranges in sense from a prayer for favor or pardon to an attempt at full vindication. severally. justification. collectively. and vindication are more properly antonyms than synonyms of apology in its modern sense. eacb. There is no discernible difference in sense between so much apiece and so much each . An excuse for a fault is an attempt at pai-tial justification as. . vindication. each liable for the entire amount. . ."* __ apiece aimlufgy APIECE. unitedly. with or without apology or excuse. indiscriminately. but for . All these words express one's answer to a charge of wrong or error that is or might be made. each individual makes the demand. plea. exculpation. Witnesses are often brought separately into court. is . distributively. in order that no one may be influenced by the testimony of another. one sends beforehand his excuse for not accepting an invitation i£ he should fail either to be present or to excuse himself. that is a demand that each shall receive that sum if they individually demand a doUar. «?t confusedly. Synonyms: escuse. Defense. Antonyms: accumulatively. as if he had signed it alone. the latter the more elegant expression. Individually. defense. and should be so given. If a company of laborers demand a dollar apiece. exculpation. an apology would be in order. in the wrong. at least technically and seemingly. APOLOGY. synthetically. Individualhj emphasizes the independence of the individuals separately and severally still more emphatically hold them apart. The signers of a note may become jointly and severally responsible. one alleges haste as an excuse for carelessness. Confession is a full acJcnowledgment at wrong. An apology is for what one has done or left undone. masse. . generally of a grave wrong. Apology has undergone a re- ackno^vledgment. the former is the more common and popular. confession. together. an excuse may be for what one proposes to do or leave undone as well as. separately. Distributively generally used of numbers and abstract relations. markable change from its old sense of a valiant defense as in Justin Martyr's Apologies for the Christian faith to its present — — meaning of humble confession and concession. He who offers an apology admits himself. Synonyms. justification.

his seeming intent we beUeve to be a sham his apparent intent may be the ti'ue one. complaint. we believe will prove to be his real intent . it is likely to happen. charge. likely. dent. condemnation. or will be. nnlmaglnable. wrong. Probable implies that we know facts enough to make us moderately confident of it. 52 its historic their connection with fense. Prepositions (When apparent is Synonyms APPEAR. nnlikely. or of that which merely seems to be and may be very different from what is as. censure. injnry. usage. and -more than seeming. Prepositions An apology to the guest /or the oversight would be fitting. offense. A man'B probable intent . imputation. improbable. certain. is used in the sense of evident) : His guUt apparent in every act to all observers. Synonyms. s have tbe appearance or semblance. insult. the we have not yet evidence on which to pronounce with certainty or even with confidence. look. Apparent kindness casts a doubt on the reality of the kindness . t dnblons. seeming. Compare evi. either of that which is manifest. . Antonyms doubtful. Presumable implies that a thing may be reasonably supposed beforehand without any full knowledge of the facts. as. true . visible. Appear and look refer to what manifests itself seem. The apparent is that which appears . probable. de- Antonyms: accusation. presumable. to a semblance or probability presented directly to the mind. Apparent indicates less assurance thaa probable. APPAREBTT. as the other words of this list can not be . Compare confess . it is often used with the infinitive. apparent neglect implies that more care and pains may have been bestowed than we are aware of. the apparent motion of the sun around the earth. the word has two contrasted senses. Seeming expresses great doubt of the reality seeming innocence comes very near in meaning to probable guilt.appear apparent. to the senses. Seem . lAhely is a word with a wide range of usage. but always implying the beUef that the thing is.

but addendum may be used of a brief note. but not ery is tion with the principal . over the sea . appear for. exist. as of a railroad or of a franchise. auxiliary. . Synonyms < accessory. etc. An adjunct (something joined to) constitutes no real part of the thing or system to which it is joined. An extension. . addition. it looks like a fixe from my knowledge of the locality and observation of particulars. addendum. through the mist . etc. to contain names. accompaniment. one in court. extension. under the lee ... to bring it up to date. An attachment in machin- some mechanism that can be brought into optional connecmovement a hemmer is a valuable attachment of a sewing=machine. appendix. such notes are often grouped as addenda. tho perhaps a valuable addition . . attachment. which might be valuable additions. A horse's tall is at once an ornamental appendage and a useful appurtenance. in behalf of.It applies to appendage what is manifest to the mind on reflection. in print . be the fact. an index. concomitant. which would not be dignified by the name of appendix . Usts. adjunct. An appendix may be called an addendum . it seems to me a farmhouse must be burning. carries out further something already existing. or true. real. plates. we could not call it an adjunct. among the to the eye . near the harbor before the public . an appurtenance belongs subordinately to something by which it is employed. below the surface . an appendage is commonly a real. supplement. first . appurtenance. especially as an instrument to accomplish some purpose. which would encumber the text we add a supplement to supply omissions. It suddenly appears to me that there is smoke in the distance. with the insignia of his rank above the clouds . tho not an essential or necessary part of that with which it is connected . : be certain. We add an appendix to a book. on or upon the surface in evidence. in appropriate dress . from reports . for instance. . as I watch. Antonyms be. or against PreposUions: Appear at the front . dates. An addition might be matter interwoven in the body of the work. tho we might use that word of his iron shoes. as. editorial notes. APPEIVDAGi:.

as.appetite apportion within the meaning of appendix or supplement. divide. To allot (ar assign may be to make an arbitrary division. total. we think of the appetites as wholly physical and of the passions as. etc. To dispense is to give out freely . liking. cific . longing. desire. appropriate. appoint. One may apportion what he only holds in trust. Antonyms antipathy. the sun A thing is appropriated to or for a spepurpose (to which it thus becomes proper. Compare desibe. repulsion. disposition. lust. hatred. mental or spiritual. zest. We say an a^etite for food. dispenses light and heat. and when we speak of passions and appetites as conjoined or contrasted. sbare. Compare ALLOT. relisb. disrelish. deal. passion. propensity. grant. AUXILIAET. as. detestation. inclination. sory. love. distribute. Appetite is thus more animal than passion . he shares what is his own. repugnance. in part at least. distaste. tbirst. craving:. unless otherwise expressly stated. which is meant to be uniform and fair . Prepositions That which is thought of as added we call an appendage to that which is looked upon as an integral part is called an appendage of. dispense. loatliing. Appetite is used only of the demands of the physical system. representatives are apportioned among the States according to population. APPETITE. impulse. disgust. That which is apportioned is given by some fixed rule. indifference. Compare antipathy. aversion. as when we say an appetite for knowledge . hatred. Synonyms allot. i original. proneness. fear. assign. in the original sense of being its own). money appropriated by Congress for one purpose can not be expended for any other. dislike. a passion for fame. APPORTION. whole. 54 Compare acces- Antonyms: main body. as anger. the same is true of distribute or divide. A'ynonyms i appetency. proclivity. passion includes all excitable impulses of our nature. Preposition He had an insatiable appetite /or the marvellous.

. the result only fails of exactness because of some inherent difficulty in the problem. an approximation brings one really near. contiguity. not looseness. approximation to the truth. similarity.H^: approximation arms Antonyms: cling to. propinquity. But the linaits of error on either side are known. nnlikeness. The attempt to "square the cu-ole" gives only an approximate result. apportion the property among the heirs. mall. Synonyms: approach. collect. approoeimation is not guesswork. . 'weapons. he grasped his arms. because of the impossibility of expressing the circumference in terms of the radius. In mathematics. consolidate. APPROXIMATIOIV. indicating that one has come nearer than before. resemblance. keep together. gather together. Nearness. ARms. Approach is a relative term. The knight put on his armor. Resemblance and similarity may be but superficial and apparent . apyproximation is real. but it is still employed in the navy. the correct use of approximation (and the kindred words approximate and approximately) is to express as near an approach to accuracy and certainty as the conditions of human thought or action in any given case make possible. The process of approximation is as exact and correct at every point as that by which an absolute result is secured. retain. Synonyms bamess. dlBtance. receive. error. armor. Prepositions: The approximation of the vegetable to the animal type. Prepositions: Apportion to each a fair amount. neighborhood. and the approximation has practical value. between two claimants. remoteness. nearness to the town. where the dis. and propinquity are commonly used of place approximation. tho the distance may yet be considerable . likeness. accouterments. divide arbitrarily. nearness. nelghborbood. etc. Arms are implements of attack armor is a defensive covering. Antonyms: difference. and not error. apportion according to numbers. Outside of mathematics. variation. of mathematical calculations and abstract reasoning . we speak of approach to the shore. With the disuse of defensive armor the word has practically gone out of military use.

One may charge another with any fault. Greek) are applied by a kind of poetic license to modern forces . Acctise is stronger than charge. Indict. clearly preserved . a multitude of armed men is not an arm. suggesting more of the formal and criminal a person may charge a . the military may include all the armed soldiery of a nation. privately or publicly. soldiery. military. rather than numbers are the an army.y. forces. and the demand made of him to plead guilty or not guilty in more extended use. ARRAIGN. ARMY. or a vast army. an armed vessel . any vessel provided with cannon is an armored ship is an ironclad. . censure. ordina- rily considerable in numbers. tho either body . as a pitchfork or a pavingsstone arms are especially made and designed for conflict. Synonyms array. a person accused of crime is arraigned when he is formally called into court. may have a little army. bost. force . charge. or official way. the indictment read to him. multitude. Synonyms: accuse. t armament. always independent in organization so far as not to be a constituent part of ganization. summon. Any organized body of men by whom the law or will of a people is executed is a. imity. great or trifling. as at a fort. Anything that can be wielded in flght may become a weapon. force. for war. Arraign . essentials of any other command. leg^lons. the stars are called the heavenly host. but a mob. Orand independence. an official word. troops. the plural legions is preferred to the singular. or the term may be applied to any small detached company. a large army. Pizarro. Multitude expresses number without order or organization . cite. in distinction from civilians. to arraign is to call in question for fault in any formal. pbalans. An UTrmy is an organized body of men armed soldiers. public. Military is a general word for land=/orces . Legion (from the Latin) and phalanx (from the. Host is used for any vast and orderly assemblage as.army tinction arraign is «« "" . the word is a usual term for the police of any locality. is Impeacli. We speak of the invading army of Cortes or We was contemptible in numbers from a modern military standpoint. prosecute. formally or informally.

though unable to see or readily communicate with each other. ar-ay. forgive. But one may be detained by process of law when no offense is alleged against him. sbow. The legal term arrest carries always the impUcation of a legal offense . Censure carries the idea of fault. etc. parade. or public and A rank may . president. order. capture. but not of crime . Compare dbess. which expresses their location so as to sustain and support.."• --. arrest n. and partial rehearsal of military manual and Array refers to a continuous arrangefnent of men. of battle is archaic and poetic collection. One is indicted by the grand jury. detain. it may be private and individual. catcb. and only an alleged criminal is indicted or arraigned. restrain. excuse. and arraigned before the appropriate court. set free Prepositions: Arraign at the bar. This is practically impossible with the vast armies of our day. arrangement. order of battle. overlook. line of battle. an individual or corporation is who One may be . slgbt. on or upon an indictment. he may accuse a tramp of stealing. and maneuvers. take prisoner. "We say rather the dispo^tion of troops. Synonyms: army. or other officer of high official. disposition. stop. ezbibition.j_ take into custody. secure. so that all may be seen or reviewed at once. seize. person of the highest character may be summoned as defendant in a civil suit or he may be cited to answer as administi-ator. a be impeached before the appropriate tribunal for high crimes the veracity of a witness may be impeached by damaging evidence. discharge. release. Indict and arraign apply strictly to criminal proceeding's. as in an held in a house of detention till restrained of his liberty withinsane asylum . before the tribimal. The parade is for exhibibattle. The phrase battle array or array we now tion say in line or order of oversight. condone. exonerate. this is true even of arresting for debt. ARRAY. of or for a crime . bold. Synonyms: ARREST. pardon. as in the case of a witness a case comes to trial. out arrest. make prisoner. apprebend. judge. battle array. Antonyms: acqnit. „*. A . friend with unkindness or neglect .

i craft. . cbeat. wTiile artificer and artisan follow the mechanical or industrial sense of the word (see art under science). dismiss. a fort. delicate artifice. or by virtue of a warrant . any form of covert is a mean advantage in a bargain robbery or injury. by a locked door. fairness. stratagem. E^en children followed with endearing wUe. frankness. Antonyms discharge. ARTIFICi:. guilelessness. 184. Goldsmith Deserted Tillage 1. often. An artifice is a carefully and delicately prepared contrivance for doing indirectly what one could not well do directly. Imposture is a deceitful contrivance for securstratagem or maneuver ing charity. injurious. imposture. macbination. selfish. operative. In case of an arrest. A A . contrivance. maneuver. candor. in execution. tricli. invention. honesty. on suspicion. subterfuge. cheat contrivance or device may be either good or bad. credit. cunning. fraud. guuplicity. A and malicious . Capture is commonly used of seizure by armed force . to capture a ship. guile. an officer may secure his prisoner by fetters. on final process . obsteuot. liberate. a fraud.artifice artist *•=* -c may be restrained by injunction from selling certain property. or other means effectually to prevent escape. mecbanio. Compare hinder . device is something studied out for promoting an end. as. we A directed to an evil. the word is sometimes used playfully with less than its full meaning. Synonyms art. A mle is usually but not necessarily evil. as in a mechanism the word is used of indirect action. Finesse is especially evil. Synonyms: artificer. release. as it were a skilful movement of war. Antonyms: artlessness. artisan. subtle contrivance. or injurious end. or consideration. etc. -nrile. but not necessarily trick is often low. set free. say a mean trick. ruse. but artist holds to the esthetic sense. Artist. fcee. dodge. A may be of the good against the bad. ingenaonsnesa. workman. truth. Prepositions: Arrested /or crime. innocence. whether for good or Compare fraud. openness. elncerlty. on. artificer and artisan are all from the root of art. upon. blind. by the sheriff. A ruse or a blind may be quite innocent and harmless. device. finesse. ARTIST.

. Crave and request are somewhat formal terms . ASK. . the master mason is an artificer. putting more thought. as it were. the court requires the attendance of witnesses. Entreat implies a special earnestness of asking. reject. One osfcs whathe feels that he may fairly claim and reasonably expect " if a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father. extort. demand. to petition the legislature to pass an act. but is exceedingly strenuous as. insist. when it is withheld or denied or he may wrongfully demand that to which . Require is less arrogant and obtrusive than demand. To implore is to ask with weeping and lamentation to supplicate is to ask. but less of the idealizing. intelligence. and taste into his work than the artisan. shaping his model in clay. Synonyms: "beg. enforce. chisel and polish the stone. The sculptor. require. solicit. I beseech you to tell me. The man who constructs anything by mere routine and rule is a mechanic. creative power than the artist. : command. and constructive power is an artificer. is artificer. petition. . refuse. as well as artist patient artisans.. request." Luke xi. Antonyms claim. supplicate. the bricklayer is a mechanic . on bended knees. or the governor to pardon an offender. tives. The hod=caiTier is a laborer . Those who operate machinery nearly self»acting are opera. crave has almost disappeared from conversation . The man who paints a beautiful picture is an artist . The man whose work involves thought. skiU. The work of the artist is creative that of the artisan mechanical. may rightfully demand what is his own or his due. Pray is now used chiefly of address to the Supreme Being . 11 he begs for that to which he advances no claim but Demand is a determined and often an arrogant word one pity. beseech. pray. he has no claim but power. beseech was formerly often used as a polite intensive for beg or pray . crave. working simply by rule and scale. not being a synonym of any one of them and having practically no synonym of its own. deny. a stiU added and more humble intensity . petition is used of written request to persons in authority as. request wovild seem distant between parent and child. entreat. and beseech. as. . exact. the man who makes pin=heads all day is an artisan. .5» a«k__ Artist thus comes only into accidental association with the other words of this group. The artificer is between the two. . . implore.

whom the associate is not fully equal in rank. Companion gives itself with equal readiness to the good or evil sense. FRIENDSHIP. Synonyms ASSOCIATIOIW. i fellowsUp. one of their local organizer tions is called a lodge. Comrade expresses more fellowship and good feeling than companion. coadjutor. as also does comrade. colleague. conjunction. she would not advertise for an associate. opponent. leader. enterprise. peer. cbum. to associate as used oflScially implies Associate is popularly used of mere friendly relations. club. rarely speEik of associates in crime or wrong. familiarity. We A . friend. society. Antonyms antagonist. enemy. a after or abowt one's health. foe. a partnership or company of business men. except in an inferior or patronizing sense. federation. consort. confederate. stranger. fellcnr. corporation. welfare. companlonsliip. a club of pleasure=seekers. connection. accomplice. ask a thing of or from a person . or pursuit in which the associated persons unite. company. One may be a companion in travel who would not readily become an associate at home. a jury of his peers. confederacy. a confederacy. Synonyms. Consort is a word of equality and dignity. or princi- An pal. hiuderer. opposer. comrade. community.' pairicipation. lodee. a belpmate. Peer implies equality rather than companionship as. ASSOCIATE. corporation or company is formed for . etc.associate association *>*' „„ Prepositions: Ask a person /or a thing . using confederates or accomplices instead. a conjunction of planets. confederation. rival. a community of ShaJiers. or union of separate states under one general government. a company of soldiers or of friends. partner. federation. acquaintance .' friendsbip. lady advertises for a companion . fraternity. The whole body of Freemasons constitute a fraternity . speak of an alliance of nations. alliance. ally. companion. partnership. but oftener implies some work. union. mate. We A . Compare accessory . chief. confederation. Prepositions These were the associates of the leader in the enterprise. friends. Fellow has almost gone out of use in this connection. as applied especially to the marriage relation.

religion. what he assumes he takes. claimi. or to yretend to. presumption. if he assumes what does not belong to him. assumes the robes or insignia of office by putting them on. He may assume authority or office that is his right . Impudence. as. put on. with or without right. friendship. said to arrogate or u^urp it. effrontery. affect. arrosrance. felg^n. whether well or iU. acquaintance . The distinctive idea of assume is to take by one's own independent volition. Antonyms: disintegration. he is said to affect or feign. postulate. trustAssurance may have the good sense of a high. pretend. isolation. the character he thus assumes.Uf "^ . arrogate. ASSUME. benevolence. appropriate. he is man may tisurp the substance of. boldness. Synonyms ASSrRANCi:. In the bad sense. independence. sustained confidence and trust . Confidence is founded upon reasons assurance is largely a matter of feeling. literature. usurp. power in the most unpretending way. seU-rellance. self-confidence. rightfully or wrongfully. trick of the sophist is quietly to assume as true what would at once be challenged if expressly stated. what he arrogates to himOne self he assumics with a haughty and overbearing manner. with belief of one's ability to outwit or defy others the hardened criminal is . What a man claims he asserts presume. or he may assume an obligation or indebtedness that could not be required of him. separation. . what favorite he ossMmes he may take for granted without mention. One may acc^t an obligation or assume an authority that properly belongs to him. assertion. Compare associate . SynonyiuB accept. What a debater postulates'he openly states and tafces for granted without proof . assumption. take. Prepositions: An association of scholars /or the advancement of knowledge association toith the good is eimobling. A A his right to take . I confidence. If he takes to himself the credit and appearance of qualities he does not possess. etc. assurance is a vicious courage. assume assurance pm-poses of business an association or society (tho also incorporated) is for learning. solitade. the saint's assurance of heaven. self-assertion. .

sharp. perspicacious. ASTUTE. Assurance is in act or manner impudence may be in speech. the sharpness of the cutting edge. it indicates the possession of reserved knowledge which the person could impart if he chose.astute 62 For the calm conviction of is a better word remarkable for habitual assurance.. hesitancy. stupid. A knowing child has more knowledge than would be looked for at his years. dismay. shyness. or urge arguments. from the Saxon. from the Latin. In the bad sense assurance is less gross than impudence. while to speak of a child as intelligent ia altogether complimentary. Compare faith pride. . penetrating:. suggests the sharpness of the needle's point keen. of which he sees a result that they do not perceive. self=reliance expresses confidence in one's own resources. Antonyms: blind. doabt. penetrative. in the sense of sagacious. perhaps more than is quite desirable. . etc. . Effrontery is impudence defiantly displayed.. Knowing has often a slightly invidious sense. self=confidence than assurance . knowing. stolid. in general indicates practical knowledge with a touch of shrewdness. shallow. from the Latin. cunning. Astute. but of a knowing horse or dog. I discerning. meaning cunning or shrewd within a narrow range. The astute debater leads his opponents into a snare by getting them to make admissions. Synonyms acute. implying that he knows more than could be expected of such an animal. Antonyms: bashfulnesB. keen intellect may take no special advantage of these qualities the astute mind has always a point to make for itself. with the original sense of cunning has come to have a meaning that combines the sense of acute or keen with that of sagacious. dull. jdiotic. subtile. misgiving. A knowing look. sagacious. in regard to some special matter. keen. which is (according to its etymology) a shameless boldness. distrnBt. discriminating:. nndiscernlne. clear=siglited. independently of others' aid. sbrewd. confusion. consteraation. Acute. one's own rectitude and abUity. air. crafty. unintelligent. timidity. subtle. imbecile. The astute mind adds to acuteness and keenness an element of cuiming or finesse. and perhaps of cunning . short-sighted. . We speak of a knowing rascal. The acute. and seldom fails to make it.

A general invades a country by marching in troops he attacks a city by drawing up an army against it. enmity. coolness. etc. aversion. an inclination to study. One may assail another with reproaches he assaults him with a blow. so that assault alone retains the meaning of dh-ect personal violence. To attack is to begin hostilities of any kind. indifiEerence. Synonyms assail. union. fall upon. adbesion. an inclination to drink. Armies or squadrons charge combat and encounter may be said of individual contests. or persuasions. yielded to or overcome. etc. separation. An attachment is a feeling that binds a person by ties of heart to another person or thing . tenderness. Antonyms: alienation. distance. Compare acquaintance. friendsMp. attacks. opposition. To besiege and beleaguer are . estrangement. ATTACHMEXT. which may be good or bad. Assail and assault. as. or to anything to which he clings tenaciously. tho of troops directly upon its defenses. he assaults it by hurling his . UNION. V. To beset is to set around. Regard is more distant than affection or attachment. dislike. love. . estimation. I V. set upon storm. his adhesion to his party. so to speak. beleaguer. with . beset. attachment by muscular fibers. devotion. Prepo Bitlons Attachment of a true man to his friends attachment to a leader /or his nobility of character the attachments between two persons or things . or. ATTACK. but closer and warmer than esteem . repugnance. appendage. friendship. to the old homestead. regard. have diverged in meaning. antipatby. invade. a brandished weapon. the same original etymology. or to any persons or objects that he may hold dear. of his attachment to his church. esteem. we speak of high esteem. tho with no special tenderness. . affection. combat. kind regard.Ao ""* Synonyms: adberence. to stud one's path. we speak of a man's adherence to his purpose. inclination. we should not speak of a mother's attachment to her babe. or by a rope. Inclination expresses simply a tendency. divorce. animosity. but of her affection or of her devotion. cbarge. severance. attacbment attack. Affection expresses more warmth of feeling . encounter. love. menaces. besiege. assault.

surrender. A . person may obtain a situation by the intercession of friends. . An invasion of a nation's territories is an act of an intrusion upon a neighboring estate is a trespass. reach. miss. shield. . . may be upon the person. win. secure. pointing to some high or desirable result a man attains the mountain summit. acquire. sabmission. Compare do . resist. enpport. and may be said either of the attacking or of the resisting force or person. retreat. the Greeks at Marathon achieved a glorious victory. attain 71. Prepositions The enemy made an attack upon (or on) our works. Antonyms defense. Attain is a lofty word. repulsion. To encounter is to meet face to face. grasp. <>4 the acts of armies. or of both. invasion. Antonyms abandon. possessions. Synonyms: accomplisli. sustain.attack. ATTAIN. An An attack assault may be byword. infringement. compass. the man desires to live to a good old age we should not speak of his attaining his dotage. an aggression is upon rights. but what he achieves is in itself great and splendid as. forfeit. etc. protect. : resistance. he attains honor or learning as the result of strenuous and earnest labor. Even that usage of attain which has been thought to refer to mere progress of time carries the thought of a result desired as. an aggression is always by deed. defend. . get. t n. onslauglit. aggression. he procures a dinner by paying for it. get fall. procure. let go. intrusion. achieve. Antonyms: aid. Prepositions We were attacked by the enemy with cannon and musketry. tho it is sometimes used of violent speech. : shelter. onset. master-. trespass. ATTACK. withstand. aggression . befriend. . arrive at. encroachment. Onslaught signifies intensely violent assault. uphold. . to attain to old age . reach. cover. Synonyms assault. as by an army or a desperado. give up. gain. obtain. incursion. earn. _ . One may attain an object that will prove not worth his labor. lose.

Synonyms pose. Many diseases formerly attributed to witchcraft are now referred to the action a certain cause . connect. may attribute a result. we may associate the striking of a clock with the serving of We We . or posture of a corpse unless. assign. posture. an attitude of defiance . and to me they have ascribed but thousands. We charge a person with what we deem blameworthy. as. an erect posture. but more commonly evil. of the living or the dead but we do not speak of the attitude. we simply refer a matter to the cause or class to which it belongs or ascribe to one what is surely his. he assumed an attitude of humility. we ascribe anything openly in speech or writing . pose. or considered with reference to such effect . 6 . the unconscious posture of a spectator or listener may be an admirable pose from an artist's standpoint. refer. at first glance. We may imjaute good or evil." sociate things which may have no necessary or causal relation as. attitude is th& position appropriate to the expression of some feeling . posture is assumed without any special reference to expression of feeling . the attitude may be imconsciously taken through the strength of the feeling . v. impute. or as. Position as applied to the ai-rangement or situation of the human body or limbs may denote that which is conscious or unconscious. a reclining posture. . pose is apposition studied for artistic effect. attribute to a person either that which belongs to bim or that which we merely suppose to be his. King Saul said of the singing women. We may We We We in such case. rightly or wrongly. A Synonyms: ascribe. ATTRIBUTE. or it may be consciously assumed in the attempt to express the feeling as. how^ever. u. attribute to may attribute a wrong intent to an in(Jod infinite power. we might say the body was found in a sitting posture. ATTITUDE. etc. tho the two are not necessarily connected. attribute carries always a concession of uncertainty or possible error. where the posture is thought of as assumed in life. suggesting life. associate. . to nocent person. dinner. as. may attribute a matter in silent thought of micro=organisms.f><^ "" attitude attribute. " They have ascribed unto David ten asthousands. A . cbarge. position. in some rare case. Where we are quite sure.

prognosticate. Compare CHARiCcTERlSTic. portend. etc ). emblem. because men assumed no knowledge of the actual qualities of the Deity. separate. aiigur f^a '"' Antonrms: deny. inally 'the attributes of God' was preferred. property the more limited term. [M. A . property. express something of the real nature of that to which it is ascribed Origwe speak of the attributes of God. natore. disconnect. according to the German idiom denotes what a thing really is in some one respect an attribute is what we conceive a thing to be in some one respect thus. sander. ' ' . quality (L. . one's joined to superhuman power. in distinction from all other things when we speak of the qualities or the properties of matter. predict. but only of those more or less fitly attributed to him. extension. . Murray." Crabb English Synonymes. "Persons or things augur. dissociate. qualis.) are termed specific properties ." J. presag. own) is what belongs especially to one thing as its own peculiar possession. forebode. probably. quality. in this wider use of the wovd property. proprius. prefer to term those qualities manifested by all bodies (such as impenetrabihty. We augur well for a voyage from past good fortune and a good start we presage success from the stanchness of the ship and the skill . Synonyms: n. persons only forebode or presage. stances (as fluidity. propbesy. Prepositions: It is uncharitable to attribute evil motives to (archaic unto) others. malleability. etc. Antonyms: being..er. essence. while those pecuUar to certain substances or to certain states of those sub- — . A . Synonyms AVOVR. while attribute may. howev. quality must. general properties of matter.] Holiness is an attribute of God the attributes of many heathen deities have been only the qualities of wicked men property (L. ATTRIBUTE. quality is the more genquality is inherent a eral. sever. substance. A. A. sucW—the "suchness" of anything.attribute. betoken. n. property may be transient . it becomes strictly synonymous with quality. H. bode. divine. things only betoken or portend.e. the qualities of matter. physicists now. foretell.

money. insure. 189. autlliciltfc auxiliary We forebode misfortune either from circumstances from gloomy fancies for which we could not give a reason. Divine has reference to the ancient soothsayers' arts (as in Gen. autborized. demonstrate. real. An promoter. ii. mercenary. disputed. connterfeit. Synonyms: sure. [w. vi. assistant. accredited. tho usually where genuineness carries a certain authority.] I augur well. true. trustworthy. exploded. Dissipation among the officers and mutiny among the crew portend disaster. warrant. original manuscripts. A ' ' ' . a true statement. false. j. make prove. settle. Synonyms: aid. For example. We speak of accepted conclusions. reliable. all . That is authentic which is true to the facts that is genuine which is true to its own claims . fabulous. current. accepted. used by reputable writers as synonymous with genuine. genuine. as. however. veritable. & M. legitimate. that hetoleen failure. current money. determine. auxiliary is a person or thing that helps in a subordinate . genuine . a veritable discovery. aUy. 15). certain. p. Thomas did not write it. or his intention. belper. it is not authentic. . or this augurs w^ell. Prepositions I augur /rom of the enterprise * AUTHEIVTIC. real value. received. xliv. p. confederate.' for St. accessorv. fictitious. mate authority. authoritative. w. AUXILiIART. [t. '53. calculate. and refers rather to reading hearts than to reading the future. establish. baseless. the apocryphal Gospel of St. original. ' work ' is ' Authentic is.67 of the captain. a trustworthy witness. authentic history . spnrlous. 506. Thomas is neither 'genuine' nor 'authentic' It is not genuine. Antonyms: apocryphal. subordinate. or We Antonyms assure." Thomas Jeffebson Writings vol. for your cause. a legitimate conclusion or legitipretation.] mainly fables and lies. snre. say I could not divine his motive. 5.' for its contents are Trench On the Study of Words lect. genuim work is one written by the anthor whose name it bears an authentic one which relates trathfully the matters of which It treats. certain evidence. genuine letters. coadjutor. received intermre proof. unauthorized. circumstances a prosperous result I augur ill "augurs ill to the rights of the people.

and put it in practise in some form.onious. than a mere assistant. miserly. . Antonyms: bountltal. penurious. but often of other things. nically. auxiliaries often for reasons of state. . etc. generous. liberal. opponent. . and penurious to expenditure. . at least tech- inferiors or subordinates. Miserly and niggardlypeisons seek to gain by mean and petty savings the miserly by stini>ing themselves. opposer. The greedy child wishes to enjoy everything himself . parsimonious. Prepositions: The auxiliaries of the Romans an auxiliary to learning. stingy. as food. prodigal. rapacious. free. The avaricious man has an eager craving for money. the niggardly by stinting others. plural. .avarlclons capacity. Yet the auxiliary is more The word is oftenest found in the . The close man holds like a vise all that he gets. and niggardly prefer the safer and less adventurous way of avoiding expenditure. Oreedy and stingy are used not only of money. Parsimonious and penurious may apply to one's outlay either for himself or for others in the latter use. Antonyms antagonist. miserly. miserly. the stingy child. of another. Allies unite as equals aimeiliaries are. the parsim. to keep others from getting it. The avaricious and rapacious are ready to reach out for gain . parsimonious. Compare accessory APPENDAGE. niggardly. policy. the covetous man to get something away from its possessor. close. i hinderer. Avaricious and covetous refer especially to acquisition. wasteful. Mercenaries serve only for pay . and ordinarily desires both to get and to keep. Synonyms) niggardly. they are somewhat less harsh and reproachful terms than niggardly. and acting under the orders. greedy. tho one may be made avaricious by the pressure of great expenditures. an auxiliary in a good cause AVARICIOUS. sordid. The rapacious have the robber instinct. Near and nigh are provincial words of similar import. or patriotism as well. "' . Preposition The monarch was avaricious of power. as far as they dare. mnniflcent. and in the military sense atixiliaries are troops of one nation uniting with the arraies. covetous.

he would be said to confess it yet there is always the suggestion that some will be ready to challenge or censure what one avows . revenge Revenge. criminal. proclaim. could not be said To retaliate may be necessary for self=defense. and smote the Egyptian. visit. avers that he was present. Prepositions Avenge on or upon avenge oneself of) a wrong»doer. as. to ourselves. admit. great or small. admit. vindicate. avouches a deed. once close synonyms. Acknowledge. disown. protest. according to present usage. deny. . . are now far apart in To avenge is to visit some offense with punishment. or to uphold and illustrate the right by the suffering or destruction of the wicked. o\<rn. he avows openly a belief or intention that he has silently held." Acts vii. declare. . 24. . vrltness. Ignore. commonly as something one is ready to justify. and revenge. of God. disclaim. Compare revenge. or shameful if he did. STATE. : . . Avenge is unselfish. --. Avow has usually a good sense what a person avows he at least does not treat as blameworthy. the doctrine of his church. he avenged him that was oppressed. testify. retaliate. To avow is to declare boldly and openly. avoucli. repudiate. and declare refer either to oneself or to others all the other words refer only to one's own knowledge or . profess. in order to vindicate the righteous. revenge. Compare confess action. Avcyw and avouch take a direct object aver is followed by a conjunction a man avows his faith. Synonyms: adcncw^ledge. avenge avow AVEHTOE. .w" Synonyms: punish. disavow. . which one takes as his own. (rarely. . good or bad. Antonyms contradict. the clergyman avowed his dissent from Ovm applies to all things. A man acknowledges another's claim or his own promise he admits an opponent's advantage or his own error he declares either what he has seen or experienced or what he has received from another he avers what he is siu-e of from his own knowledge or consciousness he gives his assurance as the voucher for what he avouches . without the idea of revenge. To revenge is to inflict harm or suffering upon another through personal anger and resent- ment at something done is selfish. . "And seeing one of them suffer wrong. Avenge meaning. aver. confess. or defend. maintain.

imposing. but only of such as bring a solemn awe upon the soul. mean. despicable. ungainly. frightful. An awhward excuse commonly reflects on the one who offer's it. clumsy. etc. The clumsy man is almost of necessity awkward. lowly. sboclzing. . terrible. clumsy to condition. _ maladroit. or the human frame may be clumsy in shape or build. terrific. a solemn litany. solemn. uncouth. hmnble. Awhward. awhward in motion. from awh (kindred with off. it was anciently used of a is off'ward. . but the awhward man may not be naturally clwmsy. Thus. and perhaps recoiling force a statement that contains Unassorted and incongruous material in iU= chosen language is clumsy. We say the admitted facts have an boorisb. commoD place. portentous. a stately 7narch. that which is august an admiring reverence we speak of the august presence of a mighty monarch. as in the presence of a superior power as. also through the Norwegian). bungling. teggarly. We speak of an exalted station. an awhward scrape. the awful scene of the Judgment Day. the awful presence of death. august. fearful. stiffened with cold this is the origioal meaning of clumpy fingers. dire. fraud. awkward primarily refers to action. A tool. stately.70 Synonyms: alarming. unhandy. clo'wnisb. Clumsy. undignified. . of squinting eyes. appalling. nor of aU that are alarming and terrible. majestic. . . . a noble mein. contemptible. . a majestic cathedral. from the Norwegian). paltry. Antonyms > base. nolile. The finest untrained colt is awhward in harness a horse that is clumsy in build can never be trained out of awkwardness. an august assembly. a grand mountain. turned the wrong way back=handed or left=handed blow in battle. the awful hush before the battle. clumsy limbs. unskilful. That which is awful arouses an oppressive. signifies benumbed. Awful should not be used of things which are merely disagreeable or annoying. inferior. An awhward statement has an uncomfortable. We speak of an awhward predicament. a vehicle. AlVKITARD.. orriWe. an imposing presence. on the other hand (from elumse. ynlgar. direful. dreadful. dread. Synonyms rough.

demonstration. . while the truism simply says the same thing over again. not without sense. gossip." Compare peoverb. the chatter of a magpie. Synonym AXIOM. blurt out. twaddle. Both the axiom and the truism. unless the form of statement makes it striking or racy. as appUed to human speech. while the truism is weak and flat. Synonyms 'blab. palaver. In none of these cases could clumsy be is. the babble of a running stream.71 axiom babble awhward used. or says what is too manifest to need saying. gabble. handy. To prate is to talk idly. jabber. contradiction. prattle. prattling that of children. but in an axiom there is progress of thought. clever. Prepositions The raw recruit is awkward in action . pleasant way. tattle. the gabble of a goose. cbatter. Most of these words are onomatopoetic. as " all fools are out of theirwits. Chatting is the practise of adults. of pasTo chat is to talk in an easy. cackle." the former and the latter part of the sentence are simply identical. and need no proof . but without special purpose. prate. dexterous. are instantly seen to be true. however. truism. which might have been overlooked if not stated. and the mind Hence the axiom is valuable and is left just where it started. The cackle of a hen. indicate a rapid succession of what are to the listener meaningless sounds. Clumsy Antoayms adroit. applied to movements that seem as unsuitable as those of benumbed and stiffened limbs. appearance. murmur. blurt. nonsense. useful. paradox. Antonyms absnidity. A dancing bear is both clumsy and awltward. sMlfal. The axiom that "things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another" unfolds in the latter pai-t of the sentence the truth implied in the In the first part. of a secret blurt out. truism that " a man can do all he is capable of. . cbat. sionate feeling. . BABBLE. at the business. Blab and blurt (commonly blurt out) refer to the letting out of what the lips can no longer keep in blab. sopliism.

expatriate. oust. but not necessarily incoherently. brim. ostracize. dlscbarge. Banish is a word of wide import one may banish disturbing thoughts care may banish sleep. John the Apostle was Synonyms beacb. as for pastime or mischief. bound. or of complaint. and so often with disgrace. edge. To murmur is to utter suppressed or even inarticulate sounds. expel. Banish. the Synonyms BAIVISH. especially as a place for landing or embarking . marge. a more poetic term for a wave=washed shore. A beach is a strip or expanse of incoherent wave^worn sand. a person may be banished. and is used figuratively of the half sup- pressed utterances of affection or pity. suggesting the notes of a dove. is . banished from any country ban. To expel is to drive out with violence or rudeness. Compare speak. the Banks of Newfoundland. as. or foolishly. perhaps with restriction to some other place or country. generally more noisy than chattering. drive out. evict. or expatriated . primarily to put under ban. which is often pebbly or full of boulders we speak of the beach of a lake or ocean a beach is sometimes found in the bend of a river. exile. sbore. exiled. lake. To twaddle is to talk feeble nonsense. One may expatriate or exile himself he is banished by others. brink. BANK.banlsb bank __ 72 presTimptuously. etc. Strand border. . eject. To jabber is to titter a rapid succession of unintelligible sounds. . From a country. dislodge. Prepositions sick Babies babble /or the moon man babbles of home. Prepositions Cataline was banished banished to Patmos. To gossip is to talk of petty personal matters. . or ocean as. rim. . . to compel by authority to leave a place or country. or the sound of a running stream. . resentment. the crowd babbles o/ a hero . margin. but expatriated or exiled only from his own. Bank is a general term for the land along the edge of a water course it may also denote a raised portion of the bed of a river. coast. strand. where he may happen to be. : dismiss. . from Borne . the keel grates on the strand. .

savage. such as a civilized man would not be expected to do as. Synonyms atrocious. inhuman. the satire is plainlyuttered. satire. untamed. raillery. say barbarous nations. or marsh. perhaps meriy. barbarous tribes. barbaric.mtt •<* banter barbarous The whole hne of a country or continent that borders the sea is a coast. but is usually good«humored and well meant. BARBAROUS. barbaric indicates rude merciless. ing water. however. uncivilized. derision. We do not speak of the coast of a river. irony. tho there may be banks by or under the sea. barbarian. Banter is the touching upon some fault. Barbarous refers to the worst side of barbarian life. sarcasm is covert. barbaric splendor. a barbarous deed. the . rude ridicule. the water's edge. and may include mimicry and personal violence. as. . and to revolting acts. without inquiiing whether it will do good or harm . without imply. Synonyms badinage. Whatever is not civilized is magnificence. Irony. or fancied secret of another in a way half to pique and half to please badinage is delicate. the brink of ruin. The satire shows up follies to keep people from them the sarcasm hits them because they are foolish. Brink is the place from which one may fall. barbarian. as well as scornful speech. ridicule. Edge is the line where land and water meet as. . mockery. border. A . Mockery is more studied. Savage . whether cliflf or sand. Chaff is the coarse witticism of the streets. All the other words have a hostile intent. ing anything more than want of civilization and culture. nor of the banks of the ocean. as. rude. oftener malicious jeering is loud. BAIVTER. Ridicule makes a person or thing the subject of contemptuous merriment derision seeks to make the object derided seem utterly despicable ^to laugh it to scorn. uncultured richness uncoutb. Shore is any land. . refined banter. sarcasm. may be either mild or bitter. Raillery has more sharpness. a barbaric melody. cruel. brutal. the river's brink . jeering:. — . as of a hostile crowd or mob. the brink of a precipice . weakness. cliafr. satire is a formal composition a sarcasm may be an impromptu sentence. We may. especially of cruelty. the saying one thing that the reverse may be understood.

against invasion. such a wall for the protection of troops a rampart is the embankment surrounding a fort. impediment. obstacle. road. A mountain range may be a barrier to exploration but a mass of sand across the Discovered falsehood is a entrance to a harbor is called a bar. . ordinarily with intent to prevent entrance or egress as. entrance. Barricade has become practically a technical name for an improvised street fortification. refined.. a barrier between nations. is we Antonyms: civilized. restraint. or a new battle . elegant. thoroughfare. Prepositions A barrier to progress. imless in some way modified. bar to confidence. Synonyms bar. in military use. restriction. barricade. on which the parapet is raised the word rampart is often used as including the parapet. whether individuals or hosts. . BATTIiE. and. A bar is something that is or may be firmly fixed. Another battle may be fought upon the same field after a considerable interval. tender. Synonyms. bul-wark. the bars of a prison A barrier obstructs. . cnitured. . is usually so understood. as dashed together. encounter. conflict. a general word which describes opponents. teiTace. nice. way. bout. . ftumane. where it signifies the raised side of a ship above the upper deck. Compai-e boundary. Conflict is contest. transit. : opening. topped by the rail. BARRIER. delicate. polite. strife. etc. especially. 74 more distinctly bloodthirsty than barbarous. rampart. Antonyms admittance. graceful. A parapet is a low or breast=high wall. action. blndrance. flgnt. its only technical use at present is in nautical language. problbltion. affair. obstruction. Barrier is used of objects more extensive essarily impassable. One continuous conflict between entire armies is a battle.barrier battle _. passage of arms. parapet. engagement. passage. breastwork. nrbane. but is not neccell the bars of a wood=lot. combat. courtly. In this sense speak of a savage beast and of barbarous usage. skirmish. than those to which bar is ordinarily applied. Bulwark is a general word for any defensive wall or rampart. as about the edge of a roof.

I was in the thick of ihe fight. Others of the above words describe the manner of beating. a battle for Ufe. unless where the word is used in the sense of fighting. instrument. batter. that is bruised which has suffered even one severe contusion. To batter and to bruise refer to the results of beating . Synonyms bastinado. as. pommel. conquer. Strike is the word for a single blow . trace. cudgel. is now used also for extensive engagements. overcome. to beat with a stick thrash. the armies meeting upon a new field. belabor. it was the commander's purpose to avoid a general engagement. that is baffered which is broken or defaced by repeated blows on the surface (compare synonyms for shatter). a weight) is to beat with a heavy. An action is brief and partial. peace. battle between armies . smite. dus. concord. An encounter may be either purposed or accidental. to beat is to strike repeata bird beats the air with its wings. The metaphorical sense of beat. pound. Antonyms armistice. between individuals or armed forces. tbrasbj vancLUisb. unless he has got the worst of the beating. fight. the battle of (more rarely at) A Marathon. to disable or dishearten him for further fighting. may be a stubborn contest. To beat a combatant is Hence beat be- . ponedly. as wheat was beaten out with the old hand=flail . as. Engagement is a somewhat formal expression for battle. Fight is a word of less dignity than battle. castigate. Prepositions battle of giants . and pommel with a blunt. A protracted war. as bastinado. against invaders . we should not ordinarily speak of Waterloo as a. surpass. defeat. BEAT. flog. strike. so far pref)onderates that one may be very badly bruised and battered. originally a hostile encounter between individuals. Combat. whip. suspension of hostilities. however. to inflict a comprehensive and exhaustive beating. worst.75 beat may follow immediately. belabor. A skirmish is between small detachments or scattered troops. to pound (akin to L. a battle to the death . cudg^el. swltcli. cbastlse. as . a battle may last for days. to beat on the soles of the feet . scourge. spanlE. including many battles. and yet not be said to be beaten. bruise.

go down. Prepositions Beat with a stick over the head beat hy a trick . and can be formed indefinitely froin the conquering as. Compare conquer. be-defeated. get the worst of. etc. cbarming. . : fall.beautiful ''* comes the synonym for every word which implies getting the advantage of another. into submission. Almost 6e . end of town beat to the ground . Burrender. be conquered. words by the use of the auxiliary be beaten. go nnder. . Antonyms fail. all antonyms in this class are passive.

inasmuch as the debtor has no property. beautiful in appearance. fitting. I abandon the claim. decent. yet. Antonyms altho. comely. thus. ghastly. for (not because) the birds are singing. Since is weaker than because . That is suitable which is adapted to the age. As indicates something like. clumsy. Because. That is which would make a striking picture. deformed. Synonyms befittins. shocking. so as to and other pleasing effect. Synonyms! as. implying by just so much. as you request it. and other circumstances of the wearer coarse. ." Ps. unpleasant. since. ugly. unlovely. grisly. is the most direct and complete word for giving the reason of a thing. grraceful.ruous. beautiful o/ aspect. for. either may introduce the reason before the main statement. frightful. uncouth. coug. produce on the whole a decent which does not offend modesty or propriety. Since. notwithstanding. beseeming. xlviii. . giving often mere suggestion or indication rather than reason or cause . proper. Often the weaker word is the more courteous. heavy qualities of the wearer. situation. decorous. fit. horrid. coordinate. hideous. grotesque. as is weaker than since . odious. -wortby. BECOMIIVO. suitable. For is a loose connective. thus. literally by^caxise. because becoming pictureaqm as. rather than I wiU come because you request it.^^ « short of the beautiful . ungainly. BECAUSE. parallel. I will come. station. grim. repulsive. I will accompany you. Compare synonyms for bttt . unattractive. nevertheless. figure. neat. 2 . as. Antonyms: awkward. notwithstanding. disgusting. Prepositions Beautiful to the eye . implying less constraint. Inasmuch as is a formal and qualified expression. of its kind. inasmucli as. however. That is meet. in spu'lt " beautiful /or situation. originally denoting succession in time. and no more. seemly. a comely matron. becoming in dress which That is suits the complexion. it is morning. for example. since or as you are going. signifies a succession in a chain of reasoning. a natural inference or result.

a. spring. point. Antonyms: awkward. we should be understood to refer to the enterprise and its initiatory act if we were to refer to the roadway we should say " Here is the beginning of the Pacific Railroad. extent. Indecent." 1 John 1. . is somewhat more elegant. initiation. . a government. inception. cheery sociability would not be decormis. and always suggesting causal connection . origin. Compare beauthttl . degree. implying a nicer adaptation. nneuitable. Meet. opening. a juvenile style of dress is not suitable for an old lady. An origin is the point from which something starts or sets out. as. is commencement ning. etc. or to whatever else may be conceived of as having a first part. The letter A is at the beginning (not the commencement) of every alphabet. as. Fit is a compendious term for whatever fits the person. at a funeral Uvely. The Latin inauguration. or befitting. sumptuous display would not be suitable for a poor person. Such conduct was be- Synonyms arising. is enumeration. occasion. fount. as the verb commence. a somewhat archaic word. "In the beginning was the word. while beginning has no restriction. that which flows forth freely or may be readily recurred to. nnl)ecoming. as. start. . Fitting. as. but may be applied to action. nnaeemly. to the wearer. the source of a river a source of knowledge a source of inspiratioii state. material. ill-fitting. meet for heaven. In conduct much the same rules apply. the origin of evil . or a family. often involving. rise. fountain. A source is that which furnishes a first and continuous supply. while noisy hilarity would not be decent . etc. Prepositions The dress was becoming coming in him. Gomrmencement is for the most part restricted to some form of action. nnfit.beginning ''S boots are suitable for farm^work . the origin of a nation. source. . indecorone. ." In the great majority of cases begin and beginning are preferable to commence and commencement as the simple. expresses a moral fitness . The dignity and gravity of a patriarch would not be becoming to a child . place. . improper. outset. . idiomatic English words. always accurate and expressive. If we were to speak of the commencement of the Pacific Railroad. > commencement. more formal than the Saxon beginmore formal than begin. fit person a fit abode a. BEOIIOfllVG. fit place. time. ill'becoming.

influence. his manners are his habitual style of behavior toward or before others. a noble bearing. Motley wrote of "The Rise of the Dutch Republic. breeding. . as. Compare CAUSE. A rise is thought an action we say that a lake is the source of a certain river. rules . bow. bend the mind humbly to another's wishes. Antonyms: See synonyms for end. In some cases a thing is spoken of as bent where the parts make an angle but oftener to bend is understood to be to draw to or through a curve as. Synonyms action.anners are always pleasing. Behavior is our action in the presence of others conduct includes also that which is known only to ourselves and our Maker. deflect. manners." Deportment is behavior as related to a set of the pupil's deportment was faultless. mold. . as. good m. deportment. conduct. BEHAVIOR. turn. life. submit. especially in matters of etiquette and politeness . especially in sitting or walking. as when it is said of a lady " she has a Bearing refers to the bodily expression of feeling or disposition. deviate. unless with some adverse limitation. curve. yield. land of as in . bu-th training. was alike faultless. Synonyms: bias. keep close to their literal meaning. or toward a single person . to bend a bow. a devout demeanor. before the multitude. or with the worldly. To incline or influence to persuade is to is to bend another's wishes toward our own . a haughty bearing. persuade.wo '" fertile behavior bend is a source (not an origin) of wealth. or that the river takes its rise from the lake. demeanor. diverge. s . Breeding.figurative senses. and spring. BEIVD. in then. stoop. ." Fount. Carriage expresses simply the maimer of holding the body. not only of feelings. but of moral states as. or in the church. bearing.an' ner may be that of a moment. A Prepositions The behavior of the pastor io or toward his people. with the godly. carriage. denotes that manner and conduct which result from good fine carriage. fountain. To submit or yield is to crooli. twist. manner. and as. twine. incline. on or upon the streets. warp. person's m. Demeanor is the bodily expression.

to the stars Kindness and tenderness are personal benevolence and charity are general. BEIVETOLrElVCE. kindliness. . diverge of a more sharp and decided one. Charity. which originally . is now almost universally applied to some form of aVmsgiving. liberality. Synonyms: kind-heartedness. unselfishness. xiii). To hias is fiber. feeble. beneficence. meant the purest love for Grod and man (as in 1 Cor. . in prosperity or in distress. or even to the dead. Humanity is so much kindness and tenderness toward man or beast as it would be inhuman not to have. . . Bounty applies to ample giving. We speak of the bounty of a generous host. and diverge are said of any turning away deviate commonly of a slight and gradual movement. Tenderness especially goes out toward the young." Generosity is 8elf= forgetful kindness in disposition or action it includes much besides giving as. We should not now speak of benevolence which did not help. unless where there was no power to help even then we should rather say good=will or sympathy. kindness. almsgiving:. . generosity. deviate. "common humanity requires it. benignity. whether men or animals. which on a larger scale is expressed by munificence. and to displace it. and 'is much more limited in meaning than benevolence. . whether manifested in gifts or otherwise.cence of the founder of a college. as a board in the sun. . as a crooked stick. genial kindly views. sympathy. or incline to one side always with an unfavorable import. Kindness extends to all sentient beings. munificence. . the liberality or munifi. henefl/xnce is the doing well. we may iend by a superior force that which still reas. charity.benevolence SO To warp is draw them whole quite over. Deflect. bounty. such as was formerly ascribed we may say a good man has an air of benignity. good-'wlll. Liberality indicates broad. humanity. to bend silently through the To crooh is to hend irregularly. or of the liberality of a theologian toward the holders of conflict. Benignity suggests some occult power of blessing. in figurative use to cut across the texture. benevolence the wishing or willing well to others but benevolence has come to include beneficence. a herd bow sists the constraint we mold something plastic entirely to some desired form. According to the etymology and original usage. the generosity of forgiveness. Mold is a stronger work than tend . pbilanthropy. and needy. . we say of some act of care or kindness.

alent. oblige. tie. sbarp. nnkmdneBS. unloose. selffshneBS. fix. viuegarlsb. on the part toward the poor. 6 . i loose. untie. engage. as when we bind up a wounded Umb. irate. one is bound by a contract . sour. but not always. stinginess. sour. unfasten. as a cord or bandage drawn closely around an object or group of objects. illiberality. . bind a wreath about. Prepositions Bind to a pillar bound under a penalty to fulfil a contract. malignity. acrid. niggardlmeBS. often. One is bound by conscience or honor he is obliged by some imperious necessity engaged by his own promise compelled by physical force or its moral equiv. savage. Antonyms free. cutting. . secure. restrict. bind one urith chains or in chains . acid. . Aeid. as a board by nails. inhumanity. or . they are bound at both ends and in the middle one is bound by a contract. pungent. Prepositions Benevolence of. Antonyms barbarity. ill-will. churlislmeBS. acidulated. bind bitter Philanthropy applies to wide sohomes for human welfare. i greedinesB. caustic. twigs are bound in or into fagots for military purposes. and Utter agree in being contrasted with sweet. acetous. a splint is bound upon a Umb . . barsb. stinging. or from the wealthy. brutality. but acrimonious. tho. HarshneBS. Belf-seeking. "We bind a sheaf of wheat with a cord we tie the cord in a knot we fasten by any means that will make things hold together. the arms may be bound to the sides or behind the back . malevolence. Compare mercy. restrain. shackle. set free. unbind. unto an altar . involving large expenditures in charity or benevolence. Synonyms: acerb. Binding is primarily by something flexible. to a service . Bind has an extensive figurative use. fetter. tart. The verbs tie and fasten are scarcely used in the flgujrative sense. around. to or Synonyms: compel. or a door by a lock. . of. BITTER. acidulous. or round the head . biting. virulent. using the noun. .a » ing beliefs. BIND. we speak of the ties of affection. fasten.

bleach. V. Synonyms blot.. sharp words. to burn. biting sai-casm. reproach. as squinting eyes. Baccharlne. honeyed. but merely from a wit recklessly keen cutting. luscions. v. The bitter speech springs from the sore heart. BliEmiSH. whiten. taj&t. defacement. Acrid is nearly allied to Utter. sweet. quinin. imperfection. whether origiual. To whiten is to make white in general. crack. perhaps wholesomely. cutting irony. or the result of accident or disease. these In a figurative words are very closely allied. the latter either permanently (as. bleinlsb §2 the two former are sharply distmguished from the latter. fault. as applied to language or character. the former permanently. Antonyms: blacken. as in the satire of Juvenal or Cervantes. Synonyms BLiEACH. Antonyms dulcet. speck. Bleach and blanch both signify to whiten by depriving of color. darken. Whatever mars the beauty or completeness of an object is a blemish. blur. In the moral . blemish is super- A ficial . brand. stain. as nitrate of silver. dye. Compare moeose. Harsh carries the idea of intentional a stinging taunt. but commonly it means to overspread with white coloring=matter. soil. nectared. bitter that of quassia. a tart reply. Pungent suggests the effect of pepper or snuff on the oi-gans of taste or smeU as. the latter being the more deeply malicious. a pungent odor. whitewash. stain. effect of some strong chemical. stls:ma. as the pits of smallpox. harsh and severe unkindness. sense. Tart and sharp utterances may not proceed from an intention to wound. daub. bitter of a severity that arises from real or supposed ill treatment. blancb. dishonor. a flaw or taint is in structure or substance. spot. or strychnin. to blanch celery) or temporarily (as. We say a sour face. To whitewash is to whiten superficially. tarnish. disfigurement. dent. Add or sour is the taste of vinegar or lemon=Juice . Injury. etc. smirch. The caustic utterance is meant caustic wit. to blanch the cheek with fear). judgment. deformity. especially by false approval. Caustic indicates the corroding . soil. dlssrace. . defect. as linen . flaw. stinging. color. and biting speech indicates more or less of hostile intent. make wMte. bitter complaints.

a shock of surprise. open. rough. rude. a flaw or taint in character. bloiv bluff we speak of a blot or stain upon reputation. We speak of the buffets of adverse fortune. concussion. cuff is a somewhat sidelong blow. a stroke is a sweeping movement . a lash with shock of battle. and prostrating we speak of a shock of electricity. A buffet or cuff is given only with the hand a blow either with hand or weapon. blow is a sudden impact. genial. BLOW. couiteous. of an oar. a blemish comes from one's own ill=doing . of the arm in swimming. as. blunt. either from a defiant indifference toother's feelings. and also for sweeping achievement and success. inconsiderate. The blunt man says things which he is perfectly aware are disagreeable. stunning. reserved. cuff. says and does whatever he pleases with fearless good nature. slxock. stroke for sweeping disaster. BL. Bluff is a word of good meaning. or the like . cut.so ** sense. A shock is the sudden encounter with some heavy body . A A . tliump. disaster. A defect is the want or lack of something . stroke. brusk. stripe. Compare BEAT. polished. . generally with the open hand . blustering. Shock is used of that which is at once sudden. or from the pleasure of tormenting. A A . In the metaphorical sense. as. unmannerly. is something that fails of an apparent intent or disappoints a natural expectation . thus a sudden dislocation or displacement of geological strata is called a fault. lasb. we speak also of the cut of a whip. We say a stroke of paralysis. as of a fist or a club . uncivil. Synonyms 'box. leflaed. primarily a failing. frank. rap. violent. staggering calamity or sorrow. discourteous. Synonyms t abrupt. stripe is the effect or mark of a stroke. fault. the stroke of a sword. a whip. bold. urbane. as. as axe frank and open. a cuff or box on the ear. thong. coUiding railway =trains meet with a shock . blow is used for sudden. Imock. Antonyms Uand. polite. as. a brand or stigma is inflicted by others . the slap is given with the open hand. and with no thought of annoying or giving pain to others.IJFF. Impolite. calamity. the shock of an amputation. or a stroke of genius. The bluff man talks and laughs loudly and freely. Figuratively. coarse. i misfortune. plain-spoken. buffet. the brand of infamy.

Both refers to two objects previously mentioned. Twain is a nearly obsolete form of two. line. i clay. as. The two. landmarlE. as. viewed or acting in connection . bound. clay and dust are sometimes so used in religious or poetic style. invited to Antonyms: intellect. tho ordinarily these words are used only of the dead. expresses a closer unity. Corpse and remains are used only of the dead. frontier. mind. . enclosure. i two. The bound is the . carcass. ynonyms barrier. none. and system may be either dead or living . frame. is practically equivalent to both . every. verge. We would say both men rushed against the enemy . system. or i/ie twain. Antonyms: eacb. of . BOVIVDARY. both men fired at once " two men fired " might mean any two. frame. the two men flew at each other.body boundary 84 BOBT. BOTH. however. dust. marge. Body whole. Synonyms twain. perhaps of beauty . both. Intelligence. term. system views it as an assemblage of many related and harmonious organs. considered as a man or animal form looks upon it as a thing of shape and outline. marcbes. son]. that which marked off one piece of territory from another. regards it as supported by its bony framework . limit. border. friends are view the remains. neither. ter is also the more refined and less ghastly term . Body. Compare evert. corpse. edge. either. bourne. or of a human being regarded vidth contempt and loathing. Carcass applies only to the body of an animal. not any. or had in mind. trunli. i confines. its Corpse is the plain technical word for a dead body still retaining unity remains may be used after any lapse of time the lat. remains. and without reference to any previous thought or mention. bourn. denotes the entire physical structure. The boundary was originally the landmark. Compare company. Bpirit. out of any number. no one. margin. Synonyms asbes. termination. form. frame. form.

Bourn. The adventurous find something romantic in dangerous . Compare barriee . confidence with resolution in presenceof danger the chivalrousman puts himself in peril for others' protection. showy. . adding a moral element steadily encounters perils to which he may be keenly sensitive. clilvalric. valiant. i adventurous. an. at the call of duty the gallant are brave in a dashing. as was the Great "Wall of China. marked or unmaxked. however. inside. undismayed. . border is a strip of land along the boundary. Bounds may be used for aU within the limits. is a poetical expression for bound or boundary. the boundary bet^Deen neighbor- Synonyms bold. Boundary looks to that which is without . Limit is now used almost whoUy in the figurative sense . The adventurous man goes in quest of danger the bold man stands out and faces danger or censure the brave man combines cbivalrous. territory. As regards territory. through the lines. intrepid. as. Hence we speak of the bounds. the courageous man is more than brave. Courageous possess unshaken nerves in any place of danger.. AU great explorers : . gallant. . Eeroic. . we speak of the boundaries of a nation or of an estate . a ball=grovmd. or have been adventurous . or jurisdiction. we say the students were forbidden to go beyond the bounds. estate . etc. dougbty. The fearless and intrepid fools. A A A Antonyms: center. of an army. land. etc. thing that bars ingress or egress. barrier is somebarrier may be a boundary. the bounds of a college. not the boundaries. citadel. the difference between the two words has come to be simply one of usage. or bourne. of Line is a military term . of the universe. daring. courageous. end. and enterprises . the limit of discussion. of a subject. within the lines. the venturesome may be ignorant. simply heedless. and criminals are venturesome. . Now. estate. region. bound only to that which is within. BRATE. fearless. dauntless. venturesome. as. of time. interior.85 brave Kmit. boundary for the limiting line only. children. Prepositions: The boundaries of ing territories. undaunted. The daring step out to defy danger the dauntless will not flinch before anything that may come to them the doughty wiU give and take limitless hard knocks. as where river or ocean meets the land. reckless. Edge is a sharp terminal line.

crin^g. mend. sunder. sblver. . join. to destroy is to put by any process beyond restoration physically. . the heroic are nobly daring and dauntless. rend. as a mound. . and is applied to any other case where a natural tendency to separation is enforced by an external cause . transgress. sublimely courageous. rupture. but achieve great results . timorous. . Prepositions Break to pieces. rive. To smash is to break thoroughly to pieces with a crashing sound by some sudden act of violence . but it is used also for the result of violent force otherwise exerted . eecure. glass is broken into numerous minute. weld. burst. building. split. Antonyms afraid. as. . sever. fearfnl. tho both portions ai-e shattered still retained within the common muscular tissue. out of prison break across one's knee break through a hedge . fracture. as by a blow or strain. Compare FOETiTtTDB. crusb. pusUlanimouB. crack. slirinking. with severance of particles. . to destroy an army is so to shatter and scatter it that it can not be rallied or reassembled as a fighting force. To crack is to break without complete severance of parts a cracked cup or mirror may still hold together. In a. unite. as. as. To crush is to break by pressure from without. Synonrms banlzrupt. or in pieces. sbatter. the shore. fasten. A A Antonyms attach. faint-hearted. or morally . into several pieces (when the object is thought of as divided rather than shattered ) break teith a friend from or away from a suppliant break into a house . sharply. a vase shivered is shattered by a blow. To split is to cause wood to crack or part in the way of the grain. demolisb. a watch once smashed will scarcely be worth repair.break 86 splendid way. to burst in a door. a building by an earthquake. against the rocks. To burst is to break hy pressure from within. truly chivalrous. solder. mentally. fortress. object is broken suddenly and in numerous directions . bind. where the door yields as if to an explosion. as a bombshell. cowaraly. . Fracture has a somewhat similar sense. smasb. etc. frightened. destroy. as an egg=shell. the valiant not only dare great dangers. fractured limb. casbier. break in upon one's retirement break over the rules . timM. needle=like fragments. Compare rend. To break is to divide BREAK. break on at upon . to split a convention or a party. the ends of the broken bone may be separated. To demolish is to beat down..

Synonyms i blaze. except that animal leans more to the side of sensuality. exalted. without special inclination to do harm the brutal have always a spirit of malice and cruelty. Eamane. flasb. brute to that of force. devotion. to 6m™ one's hand on a hot stove . To burn is to subject to the action of fire. heat. unlntellectual. scorcb. Beastly refers largely to the outward and visible consequences of excess . base. with a candle ignite is the To kindle is more learned and scientific word To scorch and to singe To incinfrom that of to set on fire. Ignorant. strlnlsb. grand. set fire to. ignite. . lascivious. kindle. BVRIV. . as. set on fire. extending even to the heating of metals to a state of incandescence without burning. except as indicating what a brute might possess much the same is true of animal. i brutal.§7 'brntlsU burn Synonyms animal. or of intense heat so as to effect either partial change or complete combustion . stifle. BRVTISH. curiosity.' intelligent. insensible. . coarse. A brutish man Compare ammal. eztingniBh. pnt ont. to bum wood in the fire . sottisb. as appears in the famiUar phrase " brute force. vile. brand. love. carnal. Incinerate. as silver nitrate. stupid. unspirltual. noble. as. erate is to reduce to ashes it is the sense differs little cremate. beastly drunkenness. Bestial. implies an intensified and degrading animalism. great. leflneo. in modem usage. and to char usually so. cremate. Both kindle and burn have an extensive figurative use . Cremate is now used specifically for consuming a dead body by intense . brute. to kindle strife : to burn with wrath. the sun bums the face. are superficial. consume. ." Hunger is an animal appetite a brute impulse suddenly prompts one to strike a blow in anger. Any supremacy of the animal or brute instincts over the intellectual and spiritual in man is base and vile. Compare light. cauterize. enbdoc- . but as if in less popular use. Antonyms! cool. smotlieT.. stolid. cbar. for the same thing. Brute has no special character. One brands with a hot iron. Imbruted. Antonyms: elevated. as. sensual. beastly. Intellectual. enlightened. flame. bestial. but cauterizes with some corrosive substance. singe. simply follows his animal instincts.

I commerce. . calling:. A where men deal with one another on any considerable scale . Barter is the direct exchange of commodities business. and commerce are chiefly transacted by means of money. a trade is an occupation involving manual training and skilled labor . A job is a piece of work viewed as a single undertaking. skill A craft is some occupation requiring technical or manual dex- . while the occupation as. etc. bum to the ground . . an important transaction. A business is what one follows regularly an occupation is what he happens at any time to be engaged in trout=fishing may be one's occupation for a time. Business. single action. craft. Trade and commerce may be used as equivalents. or the roof . joli. or religion. the art of printing . duty. in general. philanthropy. affair has a similar. trade. as. energy to secure a result. we speak of the worlc of God. the exchanging of one business. traffic. a man of affairs. but trade is capable of a more limited application . or otherwise . bum vnth fire . including all activities . occupation. trading. the ancient Jews transaction is a held that every boy should learn a trade. this little affair . in the special sense. A profession implies the learned jjrofessions. we speak of the trade of a village. but lighter meaning as. rather than a Trade or trading is. trade. may be a matter of schol- learning. thing for another . as a relief from business . profession. thus. bandlcraft. etc. transaction. bum to ashes bum through the Bkin. that to which one arship . and ordinarily paid for as such.business SS Prepositions t To burn in the fire . as. Pursuit is an occupation which one follows with ardor. avocation. concern. bum into the soil. whether in business. employment. the commerce of a nation. as. The plural affairs has a distinctive meevn. work. Synonyms affair. business . bills of exchange. etc. is ordinarily for profit. art. the arts. Art in the industrial sense is a system of rules and accepted methods for the accomplishment of some . vocation. - practical result . . occupation. may be what one does independently employment may be in the service of another. An avocation is what caUs one away from other work . a vocation or calling. . or the result thus secured thus. we speak of the gospel ministry as a vocation or calling. barter. diplomacy. collectively. is called by some special fitness or sense of duty . Work is any application of jng.

" it never rains hut it pours." To the same head must be referred the conditional use . the metal by dint of. BUT. to things . provided. no injury except some painful bruises. as. By commonly refers to persons with. to the instrument. as. hut let us go (it being understood that we might stay longer). e. doing business for his father . in business with his father . yet." But never becomes a full synonym for an^ . i with. business about. . besides. The road having become impassable through long disuse. hut adds something different. . further. only. collectively. cause. just. . merely. as. tho. By refers to the agent .. through. hut (on the contrary) a villain. "Doubt hut" is now less used than the more logical " doubt that. except. Prepositions: The business of a druggist . So may the use of hut in the sense of unless . save. "provided you have. no injury hut a scratch .). The contrast may be with a sUent thought . barely. however. . that. by means of. unless. moreover. through. "brave hut tender" implies that bravery and tenderness are rarely combined."** by its terity. stUl. or condition . concerning." "except that you must have. to the means. except and excepting are slightly more emphatic than hut . exercise . notwithstanding. a way was opened hy By may. have you business vMh me ? business in New York property. I am wUling to go. hut (on the other hand) content to stay he is not an honest man. For the concessive use. be applied to any object pioneers with axes. Such expressions as "words are hut breath" (nothing hut) may be referred to the restrictive use by eUipsis. But ranges from the faintest contrast to absolute negation as. " you may go. hut with your father's consent" (*. Synonyms BT. through may refer to either. engaged in the weaver's craft. as." etc. with. or in regard to certain Synonyms and. which is viewed as partaking of action and agency . we say. or the persons. as. and adds something like. I bowever. "brave and tender" implies that tenderness is natural to the brave. compare NOTWITHSTANDING. nevertheless. or. In restrictive use.

division. enumerate. Synonyms: crew. count. have always an nite in plan. compute. larger numbers. and more intervening Material objects are perceived by the mind through elements. A faction is more extensive than a conspiracy. as. Cabal commonly denotes a conspiracy of leaders. as multimore rapid but not less exact. conspiracy. we reckon or count a thing precious or worthless. than a cabal. but of is used in a closely similar sense. Synonyms account. as if the object were one of a series. more distant connection than by or with. which is still more strongly expressed by estimate. Compare esteem. the generic term. . A conspiracy is a combination of persons for an evil purpose. To enumerate is to mention item by item as. We count upon a desired future we do not count upon the undesired. estimate more freTo calculate to use plication. to enumerate one's grievances. confederacy. and generally under statutory. We CABAIi. law. common. etc.. Prepositions It is vain to calculate on or upon an uncertain result. is sum up. is number. faction. i consider.cabal calculate AA •"' speak was corroded by the acid . Number one. rate. A gang is a company of workmen all doing the same work under one leader the word is used figuratively only of comhinations which it is meant to stigmatize as rude and mercenary crew A conclave is secret. cast. Compute allows more of the element of probability. . To rate is to estimate by comparison. to estimate the cost of a proposed build. reckon. less formal in organization. estimate. factious. ordinarily. is To count to number one by more complicated processes. We compute the slain in a great war from the number known to have fallen in certain great battles compute refers to the present or the past. sangr. use . the conclave of cardinals. As applied to the present. less defiFaction and its adjective. or Conspiracy is a distinct crime under the act of so combining. conclave. Through implies a of communicating with a person by letter. Junto. . . deem. unfavorable sense. CAIiClJLiATE. skill is gained by practise. and may have honorable comliinatloii. quently to the future ing. . . as. the senses.

exertion of voice. Toe Bilent. calmwhich is free from disturbance or agitation. in the physical sense. disconnected. placid. . unruffled. noisy cries. In exclaiming. calm 8f nonjnus bawl. hark. sedate. is to attract another's attention. scream. and only contemptuously to those of persons. Antonyms: be sti]]. undisturbed. as of a child in pain or anger. self=possessed. To call is ejaculate. listen. petition. to shriek or to yell refers to that which is louder and wilder still. cry out. tranquil. vociferate. or any signal. . . The sense is extended to include summons by bell. Imperturbable. when he calls. or yelling there is often no attempt at articulation. One may exclaim. shriek. his horse. it is oftener in grief or agony. one often exclaims with sudden joy as well as sorrow if he cries out. clamor. yell. serene. CALm. To ejaculate is to throw out brief. "We shout words in screaming. still. or their young Animals a man calls his dog. smootb. roar. Synonyms: collected. it To cry out . cool. shrieking. at- tention. either call their etc. but always by some articulate utterance. or by connected words. by word or by mates. To hawl is to utter senseless. i>. dispassionate. To vociferate is commonly applied to loud and excited speech where there is little besides the . Bellow and roar are applied to the utterances of animals. bellow. the utterance may not be stri. sbout. free from violent motion or action in the mental That is . is to give forth a louder and more excited utterance than in exclaim. To clamor is to utter with noisy iteration it applies also to the confused cries of a multitude. . hearken. tho somewhat.Qf "* call. bnsh. list. to cry is to express grief or pain by weeping or sobbing. composed. cry (out). or ejaculate with no thought of others' presence .ing or calling . kingly. to send out the voice in order to attract another's inarticulate utterance. prayer the use of such devotional utterances has received the special name of " ejaculatory prayer. but coherent utterances of joy. and especially of appeal. In the most common colloquial usage. above the ordinary tone and pitch we may exclaim by mere interjections." . auiet. To shout is to call or exclaim with the fullest volume of sustained voice to scream is to utter a shriller cry . exclaim. regret. peaceful.

and stiH. or perception awake and at command. stormy. if he scarcely feels the tendency. and . literally. discliarge. turbulent. efface.placid. waters. coal. Serene. one is calm who triumphs over a tendency to excitement . expunged. cross off or out. nullify. remove. In ing the Roman stylus. and resolute. of "still still night. erased. obliterate. The serene spirit dwells as if in the clear upper air. expunge. what is obliterated is gone forever. furious. expunge. disturbed. exactly our English cross out . CAKCELr. The star of tlie nnconqiiered will. commonly for the purpose of writing something else in the same space . make void. a. rescind. as if it had never been. also. as of an inscription . a placid lake. ruffled. scratcb out. a quiet day. 7. We speak of a tranquil mind. boisterous. excited. smooth away the face. feeling. One may be calm by the very reaction from excitement. wild. above all storm and shadow. heated. Synonymfst aboUsh. rub off or out. frantic. And cairn.cancel 92 or spiritual realm. AntonTinsi _^ . violent. to make a lattice by cross=lines.oTr Light qf Stars st. speak of a calm sea. so as to show that the words are no longer part ate is of the writing . placid disposition. to a prevailing tendency. flerce. raging. is to punch out with some sharp instrument. and eeif^possessed. vacate. repeal. a serene sky. LoNGOT. One is ccmiposed who has subdued excited feeling . passionate. free from excited or disturbing emotion or passion. erase.i. erase. He rises in my breast. as a letter. he is collected when he has every thought. a speak. as we speak of the calmness of despair. Cancel. Tranquil refers to a present Bta. to expunge. or by the oppression of overpowering We We emotion. Of mental conditions. to efface is to ruh off. revoke. to obliter- to cover over or remove. quasb. frenzied. abrogate.i. roused.te. blot out. efface. record. as was done by revers- rubbing out with the rounded end what had been written with the point on the waxen tablet. to erase is to scratch out." which are different modes of expressing freedom from manifest agitation. wrathful. What has been canceled. a gwiet home." "smooth sailing. annm. may perhaps still be traced. and obliterate have as their first meaning the removal of written characters or other forms of To cancel is.

tricky. guileless. as. shrewd. innocent.An * "'* candid. tranli. naive. maintain. bamess. subtle. maneuvering. Prepositions Candid in debate candid to or toward opponents. insincere. open admiration. open. Synonyms artless. enforce. On the other hand. and no favor. artless. . guileless. Compare abolish. designing. simple. Harness was formerly used of the armor of a knight as well as of a horse it is now used almost exclusively of the straps and appurtenances worn by a horse when attached to a vehicle the animal is said to be " kind in harness. intriguing. reenact. sincere. when a debt is discharged by payment. CANDID. "to be candid ynth you. open robbery. fair. enact. sly. unprejudiced. transparent. As truth is not always agreeable or timely. and unsophisticated express the goodness which comes from want of the knowledge or thought of evil. candid statement is meant to be true to the real facts and just to all parties a fair statement is really so. Open and unreserved may imply unstudied truthfulness or defiant recklessness . sustain. "a fair field. unreserved. . Fair is applied to the conduct candid is not as. Antonyms adroit. There may be transparent integrity or transparent fraud. simple. We . . caparison many establishments. Honest and ingenuous unite in expressing contempt for deceit. A . Synonyms accouterments. record. unsopbisticated. diplomatic. fair treatment. establish." " to be perfectly frank. cunning. knowing. especially imder saddle. Sincere applies to the feelings. the record is cancelled. perpetuate. unbiased. Antonyms: approve." are regarded as sure preludes to something disagreeable. . fo^. conflrm. crafty. honest. . wily. write. nphold. impartial. naive." The other words apply to the ornamental outfit of a horse. candid vnth friend or foe to be candid about or in regard to the matter^ . CAPARISON. straigbtfor-ward. ingenuous. bousings. deceitful. The figurative use of the words keeps close to the primaiy sense. sharp. trutbful. candid and frank have often an objectionable sense. artful. as being aU that one's words would imply. trappings." One who is frank has a fearless and unconstrained truthfulness. t aboveboard.

not expressed in anxiety. caution will keep him from mounting the horse . circumspection. precaution. as expressed in charge.capital care Q^ ''* Caparison is used soldier. and somewhat sUghtingly. Synonyms CAPITAL. often. Solicitude involves especially the element of desire. concern for the safety of a ship at sea. : seat of government. not implied in care. and all that may make the rider secure. Heed implies attention without disquiet . vigilance. is its CARE. Compare akms deess. Concern denotes a serious interest. it is now largely displaced by attention and care. Precaution is allied with care. charge. anxiety as to dangers that threaten it. but without the timidity implied in caution. if at all. speak also of the accouterments of a rarely . Circumspection is watchful observation and calculation. watch fulness. Watchfulrtess recognizes the possibility of danger. negative . trouble. milder than anxiety . in view of possible harm as. caution. caution largely in not doing. oversight. as a sharp warning. by careful deliberation and observation. SynonymfR> anxiety. direction. perplexity. management. Care inclines to the positive.. . . and of hopefulness. forethought. bit and bridle. heed. Care has also the sense of responsibility. as. "Take care!" Caution has a sense of possible harm and risk only to be escaped. A parent feels constant solicitude for his children's welfare. " " Take care of yourself " or. wariness the probability. worry. The metropolis metropolis. a man rides a dangerous horse with care . The capital of an American State is rarely cliief city. . wariness. prudence with caution. precaution looks to the saddle=girths. and trappings quite contemptuously. we possess. not riches bring concern. prudence. metropolis. caution to the care is shown in doing. Care concerns what . solicitude. management. many cares poverty brings many Care also signifies watchful attention. A man who is not influenced by caution to keep out of danger may display great wariness in the midst of it. for showy human apparel. what we do anxieties. anxiety. the chief city in the commercial. the capital in the political sense. attention. " This side up with care . with possible control. with care to guard against them.

at court. caressed by admirers. especially. disregard. met in full career. about the matter. generally of a person a burlesque treats any subject in an absurd or incongruous manner. . negligence. Prepositions Caressed by or vHth the hand . or. heedlessness. raee. honorable achievement. . CAREER. . some continuous and conand most frequently one of Synonyms coddle. rush. A burlesque is written or actted a caricature is more comm. these children are under me in care of the firm. public life. flight. A visitor caresses a friend's child a mother fondles her babe. slight. pamper. A If career was origtnally the ground for a . the style a travesty keeps is . inattention. take-off. Antonyms See synonyms for aJ'FEONT. early applied to the charge you will use the" lance. for the future . Antonyms: carelessness. recklessness. anxiety prudence. Compare business. exaggeration. p. take itself. usually a life=work.onIy in sketch or picture. pet. send the money Compare alaem . A caricature . oversight. my care . omission. A parody changes the subject. travesty. • embrace. indifierence. . flatter. CAREISS. Synonyms charge. is less fondle. a grotesque exaggeration of striking features or peculiarities. Fondling is always by touch caressing may be also by words. line of achievement. than to embrace . & co. passage. Synonyms i burlesque. race. The four horsemen [n. extravaganza. Scott Quentin Durward ch. parody. for a knight's charge in toiu-nament or battle whence career was . . or other tender and pleasing attentions. ground for your career. mimicry. imitation. CARICATURE. p.99 oversight to . remissness. course. but keeps. neglect. . Prepositions Take care of the house . To caress .] In its figurative use career signifies spicuous work. more dignified and less familiar than to fondle. lilss. 194. court. 14. career caricature as.

Compare CONVEY . but is content with a general resemcaricature. sustain. convey. and brings an answer. we say bring. a person may be said either to bear or to carry upon him whether in motion or at rest. the real story of the niad told in newspaper style would be a travesty. with no reference to holding or moving . carry (in the sense of capture) a fort. to carry an election. fall under. vsdthout reference to the direction . move. this sea. remove. Prepositions To carry coals to Newcastle carry nothing from. swiftly moving Time carries the hours lift. carry an audience.carry 96 the subject. An extravaganza is a fantastic composition. by personal strength. . as. Carry often yet. tiring. BliakeoS. or travesty blance to what it may imitate. since it is in this sense in place of carry ' . The stooping Atlas bears the world on his shoulders . or carry it here in such case we must say bring. even so. An account of a schoolboys' quarrel after the general manner of Homer's IHad would be a burlesque . I transport. A when in motion glass and scythe . we say carry . To lift is simply to raise from the ground. Synonyms bear. that is more than he can carry . a burlesque does not hold itself to either subject or style . beyond the river . etc. must have an original . tho but for an instant. over the bridge. through the woods. dramatic. . the cable was caxiied under the . as. if to the place we occupy. carry the country. carry a stock of goods. giveap. musical. KEEP . let go. a scar. he carried these qualities into all he did . or at rest he person may bear a load either carries it only when in motion. mimicry is either intentionally or uninten- tionally comical. signifies to transport take that letter to the office. SXTPPOET. The figurative uses of carry are very numerous . A messenger carries a letTake is often used ter to a correspondent. throw down. CARRT. or out of. carry across the street. one may be able to lift what he could not carry. Imitation is serious . transmit. parody. as. or narrative. but changes the style . . around or round the comer . A a burlesque may be an independent composition. house . If an object is to be moved from the place we occupy. it would not be admissible to say carry it to me. take. throw off. Antonyms: drop.

help. overtake. etc. cataclysm. comprehend. clutch with a swift. pleasure. In the figurative sense. In history. ensnare. discover. clutch. a defeat in battle. tho Yet such an event. will always involve much individual disaster and misfortune. to catch a criminal in the act . a flydeparting. sickness or loss of property is a misfortune . to a person. Compare aerest. upon). or denoueMisfortune ordinarily suggests less of suddenness and viom. if not a calamity to it may not be a calamity. boon. I Wessing. misfortune. tahe. In literature. It has been held by many geologists that numerous catastrophes or cataclysms antedated the existence of man. or a failure in business is a disaster. movement of the fingers .__ 97 catastrophe catch CATASTROPHE. Antonyms beneflt. Synonyms apprehend. denouemeztt. the thought of human suffering is always present. of a siege . lence than calamity or disaster. Preposition s The catastrophe of a play . the end of every great war or the faU of a nation is a catastrophe. Pestilence is a calamity. favor. sudden. or illusive. We We We snatch with a quick. to catch an idea.ent. cataclysm or catastrophe is some great convulsion or momentous event that may or may not be a cause of misery to man. in the sense of apprehend or comprehend. a shipwreck. and is especially applied to that which is lingering or enduring in its effects. or disaster. motion. seize. Synonyms: calamity. grasp. the break- A ing of a teacup is a mishap. entrap. we grasp with a firm but moderate closure of the whole hand . prosperity. fugitive. as. (on. tenacious ing bail. capture. CATCH. we grip or gripe with the strongest muscuclasp in the lar closure of the whole hand possible to exert. lay hold of To catch is to come up with or take possession of something catch a. take hold of. success. clasp. secure. comfort. privilege. mischance. 7 We . rarely. the final event of a drama is the catastrophe. disaster. sequel. and usually a surprising arms. mishap. catch is used of any act that brings a person or thing into our power or possession . gripe. the race. failure to meet a friend is a mischance . snatch. runaway horse. grip. a mouse in a trap. In calamity.

spring. outgrowth. product result." Every man instinctively recognizes himself acting through will as the cause of his own actions. creator. antecedent. Compare design . Strains of music quits work gradually or suddenly cease. pause. quit. CEASE. . Synonyms abstain. end. t bring to an end. that which makes anything to be or be designer. An occasion is some event which brings a caitse into action at a particular moment gravitation and heat are the causes of an avalanche the steep incline of the mountain=8ide is a necessary condition. of the word. CAUSE. An antecedent simply precedes a result. is occasion. discontinue. finlsb. efficient cause. relcaee. power. creation. . Prepositions > The cause of the disaster. leave off. refrain. let go. Monday is the invariable antecedent of Tuesday. event fruit. . restore. condition. The direct antonym of cause is effect. The done. with or without any agency in producing it as. and the shout of the traveler may be the occasion of its fall. outcome. end. while that of antecedent is consequent. development. may A . man on the instant he may discontinue a practise grad. origin. the common meaning effect "There is no . actor. cause /or interference. The Creator is the Great First Cause of aU things. causation the action or working of causes. former. but not the cause of it. reason.cause cease _„ "^ I Antonyms fail of. throw away. reason. fountain. effect. autbor. issue. originator. throw aside. > lose. desist. but does not produce it. A condition is something that necessarily precedes a result. come to an end. intermit. stop. Synonyms . give np. Causality is the doctrine or principle of causes. causation. to catch patient m . source. give over. as in the saying without a cause. Prepositions To catch at a straw to catch a fugitive by the collar a ball with the left hand he caught the disease from the the thief was caught the act the bird in the snare. . agent. fall short of. . causality. motive. precedent. Antonyms conseqeunce. terminate. miss. conclude.

etc. overlook. Preposition: Cease from anger. we celebrate or observe the Lord's Supper in which believers commemorate the sufferings and death of Christ rites or We Antonyms: contemn. on foot. vnth rejoicing. set about. middle. solemnize a marriage. set going. CELEBRATE. forget. . . as a he may . rim. commence. dishonor. the middle is more general and less definite. commemorate the death of one beloved or honored. violate. inaugurate. the midst of a forest. or from the opposite boundaries on each axis of a parallelogram. initiate. The center is equally distant from every point of the circumference of a circle. despise. the middle of a room. set in operation. surrounding objects. profane. Prepositions We celebrate the day with appropriate ceremonies was celebrated by the people. we commemorate by any solemn and thoughtful service. institute. start. disregard. We speak of the center of a circle. . . or to perform such public . neglect. midst. Antonyms bound. for amid. peilmeter. he quits suddenly and completely he stops short in what or may not resume he pauses in what he will probably resume. We celebrate the birth. the middle of the street. enter upon. celebrate center . Synonyms. We say at the center .99 ually . Compare synonyms circumference. observe an anniversary . keep the Sabbath. or by a monument or other enduring UEiemorial. with fluring of guns and ringing of bells . Compare abandon die . boundary. The center is a point the middle may be a line or a space. end . We celebrate a national anniversary with music and song. in Midst commonly implies a group or multitude of the middle. Synonyms: commeniorate. keep. What intermits or is intermitted returns again. originate. To celebrate any event or occasion is to make some demonstration of respect or rejoicing because of or in memory of it. Eolemnlze. ignore. observe. the victory CENTER. eest= Bet Autonyms: begin. fe-ver that intermits. ceremonies as it properly demands.

or harm to reputation. . Chagrin unites disa^ointment with some degree of humiliation. ordinarily in external qualities. and his raiment was white as the light. or impropriety . to change horses. A consciousness that one has displayed his own ignorance will cause him mortification. with or without deeper and more essential change it is less absolute than transmute. to change in an exalted and glorious spiritual way. ness of fault. turn. vary. however worthy his intent if there was a design to deceive. confusion. substitute. and his face did shine as the sun. . on account of) failure. guilt. as. Transfigure is. glory. "Jesus . but often in structure. To metamorphose is to make some remarkable change. chagrin of failure of judgment. dismay. rejoicing. to exchange to put or take someits . . Shame involves the conscious. discomposure. needless failure in some enterprise brings chagrin. as in its Scriptural use. humiliation. IVV CHAGRIN. commute. shift. veer. . or chemical constitution. . to one or more particulars. to exchange city for country property. To transmute is to change the qualities while the substance remains the same . to alter is ordinarily to change partially.chasrln cbange. convert. to transmute the baser metals into gold. the exposure will cover him with shame. use. V. To exchange is often to transfer ownership as. A rainy day may bring disappointment . disappointment. mortification. Synonyms! alter. been. qualify. Synonyms sbame. Antonyms! delight. To transform is to change form or appearance. trlmnpb. 1. xvii. transfigure. 2. as of a caterpillar into a thing else in place make different in . xii. and is often used in a spiritual sense as transmute could not be "Be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind. exchange. tho sometimes used for that word. 2. v." Rom. Prepositions! He felt deep chagria at (because of. diversify. was transfigured before them. esinltatlon. in To change is distinctively to make a thing other than it has some respect at least . vexation. modify. transmute." Matt. metamorphose. CHANOE. Change is often used in the sense of exchange . as. transform.

Prepositions To change a home toilet for a street dress to change from a caterpillar to or into a butterfly . but especially in position or action Variety is a succession of magnetic needle or of the pulse. as. novelty. regeneration. or in some way more favorline structure of rocks. Mutation is a more formal word for change. quaUties. a sinner into a saint. changes or an intermixture of different things. vyith. conversion. bide. qualify it by some addition. of the c]iang:e." as when a limestone is metamorphosed into a marble. joy into grief. . to change clothes with a beggar.101 butterfly. character. perBist. Synonyms: alteration. vicissitude. keep. transition. transmutation. milder. To turn is a popular word for change in any sense short of the able in place of that . and is always elty. he was perpetually desirous of nov. . or the change that had taken place was manifest. n. revolution. con. the mutations of fortune. tm-n) is to primarily turn about. mutation. and verto. renewal. transform. etc. Novelty is a change to what is new. remain. CHAIVOE. often capriciously. which is commuted . endnre. retain. renewing. to commute capital punishment to imprisonment for hfe to commute daily fares on a railway to a monthly payment. A change is a Revolution is specifically and most commonly a change of government. passing from one state or form to another. convert. any act or process by which a thing becomes unlike what it was before. To ccmvert (L. as. and signifies to change in form. being often equivalent to alter. stay. Variation is a partial change in form. transformation. To commute is to put something easier. . variation. To vary is to change from time to time. continne. or the newness of that to which a change is made . . or of the crystalhence called " metamoi-phic rocks. often suggesting repeated or continual change.. "We modify or qualify a statement which might seem too strong we modify it by some limitation. transmute. . as. etc. lighter. as. Antonyms abide. n. .. or the unlikeness so produced we say a change was tar king place. stamens of a plant into petals. use. innovation. diversity. meaning of exchange. the variation of the etc. hold. variety. through a wide range of relations iron is converted into steel.

. spirit. nnctiang^eablenesB. what he is thought to his record is the total of his known action or inaction. identity. Prepositions i We have made a change for the better the change from winter to spring . . especially in a natural. . persistence. reputation.character lO» thought of as agreeable. nature. disposition. a man's record will substantially express his character . always with the adjective. We speak of one's physical constitution as strong or weak. One's nature includes all his original endowments or propensities character includes both natural and acquired traits. in Luke xxii. sudden. and figuratively. by passing from one place or state to another. thy brethren. firmness. permanence. conversion is the conscious and manifest change from evil to good. v. temper. genius. a change in quality a change hy absorption or oxidation. with the sam? general sense as reputation. the transition from spring to . fixedness. or violent change. or from a lower to a higher spiritual state as. Repute is a somewhat formal word. Prepositions The witness has a character for veracity suspicion th§ character of the applicant. Compare characteristic. strengthen . Synonyms CHARACTER." In popular use conversion is the most conunon word to express the idea of regeneration. etc. constitution. the vicissitudes of politics. his character is above . uniformity. steadiness. In the religious sense regeneration is the vital renewing of the soul by the power of the divine Spirit. fixity^ Antonyms: constancy. of his mental or moral constitution. 32. or orderly way. record. the change of a liquid to or into a gas . regular. an innovation in religion or politics. summer. As a rule. .. be . . temperament. An innovation is a change that breaks in upon an established order or custom . For the distinctions between the other words compare the synonyms for change. his reputation may be higher or lower than his character or record will justify. or from youth to manhood. " when thou art converted. as. always thought of as surprising and often as disturbing or Transition is change distressing as. reputation. as. Character is what one is . invariability. personality. continuance. Vicissitude is sharp.

Compare Pallor is . sign. distinction. beaudress. CHASTEN. a charming Compare amiable . enchanting. CHARACTERISTIC. . and straight. winning. as a serpent its prey we can captivating. CHARHIWO. quality. while sometimes only close examination will disclose marks of violence. punish. or class. chastise. "they . partly retributive. Indication. refine. feature. soften. castigate. try. singularity. • . fascinating. tho both are somewhat archaic correct and punish are often used as . . chastise. dellgbtful. entrancing. Tli'LHi. trait. the mark of a villain. drawing by some unseen power. but of delightful anticipations. That is charming or bewitching which is adapted to win others as by a magic spell. thing. mark. enrapturing. 33. external to oneself . subdue. entrancing represent the influence as not only supernatural. purify. euphemisms in preference tive in sense . That which is fascinating may win without delighting. but often in a bad sense we speak of the characteristic of a gentleman. . discipline. ATTEIBXJTE . correct. but in some brave natures it is ordinarily a mark of fear simply a characteristic of intense earnestness. speak of horrible fascination. Punish is distinctly retribuand partly corrective . to either. a mark or a characteristic may be more difficult to discover an insensible person may show signs of life. . Chasten is Prepositions "We are chastened of the Lord. trace. we speak of a charming manner. Castigate and chastise refer strictly to corporal punishment. but irresistible and delightful. chasten. Charming applies only to what is delightful may apply to personal experiences or emotions as well . high cheek=bones. a copper^ colored skin. Mark is some times used in a good. xi." 1 C&r. black hair are characteristics of the American Indian. and serves to identify an object as.103 cbaracterlstlc chasten Synonyms attribute.. Synonyms: afiOict. CHARACTER. wholly corrective. characteristic belongs to the nature or character of the per- A son. enrapturing. Synonyms: be-witclilng. humble. property. A observer . used exclusively in the spiritual sense. peculiarity. Enchanting. and chiefly of the visitation of God. sign is manifest to an . character.

or the sick or wounded. honor. In the marriage vow. select. elect. chasten. throw aside. nourlsb. To cherish is both to hold dear and to treat as dear." the word cherish implies all that each can do by love and tenderness for the welfare and happiness of the other. Among objects so neai'ly alike that we have no reason to prefer any one to another we may sim- ply choose the nearest. : Antonyms: See synonyms for abandon . nurture. Mere unexpressed esteem would not be cherishing. protection.cherlsb clioose . Antonyms castaway. treasure. disclaim. nurse. cast out. sbelter. ligere. ~^ iw* chastened us after their own pleasure. but He/or our profit. but with loving devotion. . an act of will. xii. but may not be as tenderly nurtured or as lovingly cherished as if one's own. and help of every kind. CHERISH. as infants. pick out. To nourish is strictly to sustain and build up by food to nurture includes careful mental and spiritual training. commonly means to collect. leave. prefer. Select implies a careful consideration of the reasons for preference and choice. entertain. repudiate. from the Latin col. and cherish. iv. reject. with something of love and tenderness to foster is simply to maintain and care for. sympathy. decline. care in sickness. as well as to select. not with mere cold conviction. 7 chasten viith pain hy trials and sorrows. Synonyms cull. Cull. Prefer indicates a state of desire and approval choose. Aside from theology. . foster." Ps. . In a gar- den we cull the choicest flowers. Prepositions Choose from or from among the number . In the figurative sense. To nurse is to tend the helpless or feeble. choose out of the . Synonyms cbeer. . comfort in sorrow. to bring up a /oster=child will be nourished. elect is popularly confined to the political sense as. protect. Prudence or generosity may lead one to choose what he does not prefer. the opinion one cherishes he holds. 10 "chasten in thy hot displeasure. " to love. encourage. comfort. value. dismiBS. pick. CHOOSE. . a free people elect their own rulers." Heh. as by support. barbor. refuee. . but we could not be said to select it. bold dear. cllne to.

and sto. Verbiage is the use of mere words without thought. compactness. redundance. compresBioii. Prolixity goes into endless petty details. condenBation. redundancy. " all the members agreed unanimously " is tautology. detail. (See these words under . "I saw it with my eyes " is a pleonasm . situation. or perhaps in contrast circumstance is not strictly. TediousTiess is the sure result of any of these faults of style. plainness. particular. tautology. perlplirasis. eircum. surplusage. A an occasion. tedlousness. conciseness. circumstance (L. . concomitant of virtue. fact. army choose between (or betieixt) two the purpose. not necessary to it . choose /or Synonyms dlSUseness. CIRCimSTANCi:. Bhortness. modifying or throwing light upon the princi- A pal matter without affecting its essential character an aceompaniment is something that unites with the principal matter.i«. cheerfulness is a ordinate capacity. Pleonasm may add emphasis. nor usually. snccinctneBB. but in a subas. occurrence. verbosity. tho . prolislty. . overflow. Pleonasm is the expression of an idea already plainly implied . Etymologically. or result. Synonyms accompaniment. effect. stand). diffuseness is a scattering. is something existing or occurring in connection with or relation to some other fact or event. Incident. both of words and thought redundancy is an verbiage. aroimd. position. Verbosity and wordiness denote an excess of words in proportion to the thought. tautology is the restatement in other words of an idea already stated. . CIRCIJlILiOCtJTION. directness. wordiness.. periphrasis the more technical word. event. as. Constant circumlocution produces an affected and heavy style occasionally. Ciroumlocution and periphrasis are roundabout ways of expressing thought cireumlooution is the more common. Item. Antonyms: brevity. point. . concomitant. tautology is always a fault. +'»™.~IvO ctrcumlocatlon circumstance .io=. skilful periphrasis conduces both to beauty and to simplicity. . condition. . the piano accompaniment to a song a concomitant goes with a thing in natural connection. without selection or perspective. among many . or a useless repetition of a word or words. feature. pleonasm.

coterie. A . are consolatory eireumstanees. caste.'' we often is say. or characteristics. who meet frequently in an informal way." That a man wore a blue necktie would not probably be the cause. . . is Compare event. A caste is be independent of lineage or descent membership in a caste is supposed to be for life membership in a class may be very transient a religious and ceremonial sacredness attaches to the ca^te. own etc. of various orders of the priesthood . " This is not a circumstance to So a person said to be in easy circumstances.unfavorable meaning. or concomitant of his committing murder but it might be a very important circumstance in identifying him as the murderer. clique is always fractional. set. The rich and the poor form separate classes . We speak of rank among hereditary nobility or military officers . A coterie is a small company of persons of similar tastes. clan. nation. cliq. the lower orders of any society. the coarser and finer grades of wool a man of an inferior grade. • Prepositions " Mere situation affected is performed ' expressed by ' in the circumstances ' under the circumstances. With the same idea of subordithat. "My decision vnll depend upon circumstances " ^not " upon incidents.) Nor is the circwmstoJice properly an mcidewi. yet individuals are constantly passing from each to the other the classes in a college remain the same. rank. careful nursing.] action Synonyms: association.ue. A mon class is a number class club. we may refer in a general way to the higher ranks. or body of persons or objects having com- pursuits.' " [M. certain disease is the cause of a — We . circle. some inherent qualiwhich a person or thing is placed higher or lower in the scale as. but their membership changes every year. and ties for . grade. Persons unite in a coterie through simple liking . occasion. (See under ACCIDENT. as not to the class. Clique has always an . order. a may implies some regular scale of valuation. implying some greater gathering of which it is a part the association breaks up into cliques. . by accommodation.. that he has good medical attendance. AJl the circumstances make up the situation. company. Grade hereditary .) say. attributes. . that he is in his home. condition.class 106 CAUSE. A man's death his suffering is an incident . rather for social enjoyment than for any serious purpose. . purposes.

Circle is similar in meaning to set. contaminate. CLiEAR. corrupt. the room was cleansed by the attendants unth soap and water. metallic utensUs are scoured . Prepositions A class of merchants vard . besmear.. clean. . Cleanse is especially applied to purifying processes where liquid is of used. apparent. -wasb. brilliant) which shines. CLEANSE. scrul>. soil. . rinse. dusty. obvious. but of wider apphcation we speak of scientific and religious as well as of social sion to outsiders. taint. bespatter. drcles. an instrument . or soil any kind. deprave. disinfect. Cleanse implies a worse condition to start from. stralglitforward. transparent. "We brush clothing if or sponge off a spot. bright. are washed are dusted . translucent. evident.1 AW *'"^ cleanse clear . Prepositions Cleanse of or /rom' physical or moral defilement cleanse urith by an agent . sponge it. sponge. pellucid. lucid. it off. scour. books. wipe. limpid. foul air or water mopped or scrubbed swept . Compare AMEND. soiled garments Cleanse and purify purified. spoil. than clean. and more to do. floors are is are used extensively in a moral sense wash ia that sense is archaic. defile. for one another they withdraw into a clique largely through averA set. clarus. To clean is to make clean by removing dirt. distinct. unamliiguous. plain. vitiate. while exclusive. or sponge etc. . primarily refers to that through the eye with a Clear (L. debase. mop. impurities. perspicuous. Antonyms befoul. dust. purify. besmirch. Synonyms! InteUlgllile. a room is . sully. and chiefly of persons who are united by common social station. pollute. unadorned. Hercules cleansed the Augean stables. sweep. unmistakable. as in the flushing of a street. stain. etc. Furniture. manifest. soiled . diaphanous. and impresses the mind . Synonyms brusb. unequivocal. is more extensive than a clique. etc. explicit. the senior class at (sometimes of) Harthe classes in college. lave. if .

. Clear is also said of that which comes to the senses without — . but plain never whoUy loses the meaning of unadorned. offers 10§ A substance is said to be clear that no impediment to vision is not dim. Compare evident. opaque. dark. the word is used for that which is free from any kind of obstruction as. so that there is its exact form. indefinite. ^^^^Yj Indistinct. That is plain. clear in argument . level to the thought. planation. . a clear field. turbid.clear sense of luster or splendor. . . so that one goes straight on without difficulty or hindrance as. a translucent body allows light to pass through. obscure. clear of or from . or obscurity. transparent body allows the forms and colors of objects beyond to be seen through it. it as. unintelligible. so that we can say the style is perspicuous tho highly ornate. . . in the sense here considered. or that which suggests cent. A . without reference to anything to be seen through it we speak of a stream as clear when we think of the water itself we speak of it as transparent with reference to the ease with which we see the pebbles at the bottom. as. Transparent refers to the medium through which a substance is seen. . " clear as a beU" a clear. mysterious. limpid streams. or meaning. . or blurred . . the outlines of the ship were clear against the sky a clear view . frosty air a clear sky a clear statement hence. a clear note . distinct enunciation enables the hearer to catch every word or vocal sound without perplexity or confusion a distinct statement is free from indefiniteness or ambiguity a distinct apprehension of a thought leaves the mind in no doubt or uncertainty regarding it. That which is distinct is well defined. as it were. as of crystal. Perspicuous is often equivalent to plain. clear to the substance itself. which is. clonal dlm^ dubious. not confused. ground glass is transluLimpid refers to a liquid clearness. or obscure. lAbdd and pellucid refer to a shining clearness. . plain language a plain statement a clear ex- no uncertainty as to . dimness. obstruction. Antonjius: ambfgaonfl. . dulness. character. when we could not call it at once ornate aadplain. especially in outline. . Prepositions Clear to the mind annoyances. each part or object standing or seeming apart from any other. . with something of the brightness or brilhancy implied in the primary meaning of the word clear . but may not permit forms and colors to be distinguished plate glass is transparent. vague.

gifted. concurrence. Meeting is neutral. happy. and may be of the dearest friends or of the bitterest foes of objects. which makes its use a doubtful compliment. impact. meeting. apt. opposition. whei-e it has never been much in favor. ingenious. an explosion of dynamite shatters neighboring windows by concussion. clomsy. talented. Collision of one object with another of or between opposing . intellectual. dull. is the result of motion or action. and is sudden and momentary contact clashing. unison. talented. Antonyms agreement. POWER. especially implies an aptitude for smart. Collision. and generally hostile. : concord. CLrETER. slow. In the figurative use. we speak of clashing of views. foolish. CLuick^witted. gifted. and for excellent the not preeminent mental achievement. Impact is the blow given by the striking body as. Smart. adroit. differently of all. keen. Compare acumen . The early New England usage as implying simple and weak good natm-e has largely affected the use of the word throughout the United States. harmony. more rarely of opinions or interests conflict is used in. Shock is the result of collision. witless. bright. conformity. . tMck-lieaded. senseless. Concussion is often by transmitted force rather than by direct impact. quick. as used in England. . and be . idiotic. The discriminating use of such words as able. collision of persons. study or learning. etc.. : coincidence. shock. stupid. ASTUTE . concert. expert. encounter. Clever. two railway»trains come into collision. Prepositions objects. An encounter is always violent. . . dexterous. the impact of the cannon=shot upon the target. unity. Synonyms clash. may be a condition of rest. knowing. capable. conflict. ignorant. contact. . is now coming to have a suggestion of unscrupulousness. bungling. of persons. or of opinions of two or of a multitude. continuous and permanent collision is sudden and violent contact. Opposition is used chiefly of persons. concussion. COIiLISIOlV. sharp. amity. similar to that of the word sharp. skilful. is greatly preferable to an excessive use of the word clever. intelligent. : Antonyms awkward.1AQ elcvci- Synonyms: able. the act or fact of striking violently together. indicating dashing ability.

cro'wd. in the sense here considered. Synonyms: agreeable. Synonyms assign. cbeerful. wretched. and panis. atease. bost. meeting. disagreeable. Religiously. COMmiT. COMPANY. intrust also of material things we assign a duty. from the Latin cum. . and hence is widely extended to include any association of those united permanently or temporarily. commoilious. . for business. consign. congregation. concourse. miserable. commit the soul to Grod. commit to prison for trial without bail in default of bail on suspicion. A little additional brightness makes He is and measura- him cheerful. Synonyms assemblage. table=companions. confide being used chiefly of mental or spiritual. cbeery. comfortable in body when free from pain. conference. He is comfortable in circumstances. forlorn. to consign jail. distressed. tbrong. we consign the body to the grave. or in comfortable circumstances. discontented. dreary. . satisfied.comfortable company no COMFORTABLiE. Company. pleasure. gatbering. snug. when things about him are generally agreeable and satisfactory. well-off. Prepositions Commit to a friend for safe=keeping in law. . convention. or the persons so associated. dissatisfied. group. pleasant. bread. messmates. A person is comfortable in mind when contented bly satisfied. confide. at ease. a body to the earth a prisoner is committed to Consign is a formal word in mercantile use aa. at rest. denotes primarily the association of those who eat at a common table. convenient. usually with the suggestion of sufficient means to secure that result. relegate. . Compare do. intrust a treasure we commit thoughts to writing commit a paper to the flames. quiet. A. entrust. collection. confide a secret. contented. vrell'to-do. goods to an agent.ntonyms cheerlesB. multitude. is to give in charge. uncomfortable. -welloirovided. with. genial. • . . trust. . conclave. . at rest. Commit. satisfactory. . put into care or keeping to confide or intrust is to com/mit especially to one's fidelity. assembly. convocation. friends.

solitade. or wrong. An assemblage is promiscuous and unorganized an assembly is organ. A conclave is a secret assembly. Congregaalmost exclusively religious m. as. and multitude have time. Gathering refers to a coming together. An assemblage may . clearly marked ofE from all else in space or Collection. seclaBion. commonly of numbers. in the military sense a company is a limited and definite number of men company implies more unity of feeling and pirrpose than crowd. Antonyms dispeieion. . group. the gathering of the Scottish clans.. Prepositions The soldiers infinitive. Compare drive . COMPEL. to an overmastering power as. company may denote an indefinite number (ordinarily more than two). constrain. 14. coerce. as we may speak of a meeting of armed men. . be of persons or of objects an assembly is always of persons. absolutely subduing all resistance.. and in some cases of inclination or affection.eeting is often so used. letiiement. drive. misfortune. but less than a multitude. A convocation is an assembly cailed by authority for a special piu^se the term convention suggests less dependence upon any superior authority or summons.** compel festivity. v. and is a less formal and more familiar word than assemblage or assembly. gathering. lonelinees. other terms tion is come under the general idea of assembly. A group is small in number and distinct in outline. Antonyms See synonyms for hinder. and united in some common purpose. the unorganized and promiscuous character of the assemblage . make. secure its performance by the use To compel one to an act is to of irresistible physical or moral force. influence. travel. " the love of Christ constraineth us. necessitate. Synonyms oblige. the ized . : preferably with the . now . privacy. Force implies primarily an Coerce actual physical process." S Cor. or by sorrow. etc. the American seces- contended that the Federal government had no right to Constrain implies the yielding of judgment and will. sionists coerce a State. force. from far and near . were compelled to desertion compelled to desert. but is less restricted. imphes the actual or potential use of so much force as may be necessary to secure the surrender of the will . crowd.

eulogize. . In a heterogeneous body unlike parts or particles are Conglomerintermingled. . Prepositions Complain of a thing to a person of one person to another. conglomerate.urmuring is commonly said of half=repressed utterance repining of the mental act alone. manifold. is growl. One may complain of an offense to the offender or to others he remonstrates with the offender only.urm. Antonyms: applaud. or otherwise combined into a single substance.ur through mere peevishness or ill temper . which the other words have not. . mingled. but fused. ate (literally. Complain has a formal and legal meaning. intricate. complicated. obscure. noun complaint. . laud. is true of the commend. that the mind can not readily grasp their mutual relations in an intricate arrangement the parts are so intertwined that it is difficult to follow their windings things are involved which are rolled . remonstrate. grunt. Synonyms abstruse. murmur. composite. That is compound in which the parts are not merely connected. with vain distress. compound. praise. . find fault. or so combined. mixed. present a spe. tangled. but maintain their distinct individuality.AI]V. . signifying to make a formal accusation.complain complex COIttPL. . at the irrev- ocable or the inevitable. the same approve. One complains of a real or assumed grievance . beterogeneous. repine. In a complex object the arrangement and relation of parts may be perfectly clear in a complicated mechanism the parts are so numerous. express a sense of wrong or ill treatment. Complaining is by speech or writing m. grumble. of or against a person for an act to an officer before the court about a thing. multiform. confused. lie may m. 112 Synonyms: croalE. cific charge . . globed together) is said of a confused mingling of masses or lumps of various substances. COMPLiEX. often without apparent order or plan. involved. entangled. To complain to give utterance to dissatisfaction or objection. That is complex which is made up of several connected pares. The New England pudding»stone is a conglomerate rock. he repines. In a composite object the different parts have less of unity than in that which is complex or compound.

Antonyms clear.1** condemn together so as not to be easily separated. direct. person others . as. . The conception of a material object is usually complex. obvious. 137. plain. . the twining serpents of the Laocoon are involved. CorpiN BuUding the 10. either in thought or in fact things which are tangled or entangled mutually hold and . is to reprove. Compare aebaign reprove. simple. ordina- To condemn rily pass judicial sentence or render judgment or . . color. he was sentenced to imprisonment but it is good usage to say. . by open and formal utterance. uncombined. denounce. in legal usage one dict of is said to be convicted only by the ver- In stating the penalty of an offense. To doom is to tion or to predetermine to . and other elements a clock is a complicated mechanism the Gordian knot was intricate . especially in a violent and threatening manner. he was condemned to imprisonment. Synonyms: blame. [h. a jury. involving form. CONDEMN. From the pulpits in the northern States Burr was denounced Nation ch. a complex conception. is made is clearly manifest to said to be convicted in somewhat archaic a person when guilt is brought clearly home to his ovsti conscience (convict in this sense being allied with convince. '83. Condemn is more final than blame or censure .n . a confused heap. 8 . To denounce is to make public or ofiicial declaration against. A . a heterogeneous mass. convict. speak of an abstruse statement. an intricate problem . decision against. unraveled. an involved sentence of the complicated or intricate accounts of a great business. which see under per- suade). is convicted when his guilt use. as an assassin. other. of covnposite architecture. We may censure silently we condem. . p. censure. the legal word sentence is now more common than condemM . a tangled skein. the entangled accounts of an incompetent or dishonest bookkeeper. : homogeneoiiB.] condemn solemnly and consign to evil or destrucan evii destiny an inferior race in presence of a superior is doomed to subjugation or extinction. a condemned criminal has had his trial a condemned building can not stand a condemned ship can not saU. sentence. doom. draw upon each We . uncompoimaed. nniform. size. reprobate.

ITie continents are fixed. strengthen. . waAfirmus. Confess has a high and sacred use in the religious sense as. Confirm (L. Both confirm. sanction. approve. : exonerate. avow. An act ration . disguise. as. : conceal. CONFESS. praise. certify. settle. . accept another's statement us acknowledge what we have said or done. the established church. . Antonyms cloalc. establisli.confess confirm m 114 m-m Antonyms: absolve. AVOW. allow. Synonyms: accept. ratify. to confess Christ before men. good or bad avow our individual beliefs or feelings. . Synonyms: assure. aclaio^^ledge. own. for his crime. corroborate. sustain. one confesses to a weakness for confectionery. disown. is sanctioned by any person or authority that passes upon it . repudiate. COSTFIRIH. so is that which is ofiBcial and has adequate power behind it as. It may have also a playful sense (often with to). admit. pardon. disclose. or give stability to. firm) upbold. . veil. grant a request own our faults or obligations recognize lawful authority concede a claim. Testimony is corroborated by concurrent testimony or by circumstances confirmed by established facts. . grant. A treaty is ratified . secrete. . . dissemble. substantiate. the established government. and more specific than ovm . con. an appointment confirmed. cover. . disavow. deny. mask. justify. . acquit. . The chief present use of the word. screen. prove. Prepositions The bandit was condemned to death. dissimulate. recognize. is in the sense of making known to others one's own wrong=doing in this sense confess is sti'onger than acknowledge or admit. C!ompare . is to add firmness and corroborate presuppose something aheady existing to which the confirmation or corrobois added. a person admits a mistake acknowledges a fault confesses sin or crime. admit any point made against APOLOGY. together. We endorse. . concede. fls. That which is thoroughly proved is said to be established . applaad. certify to facts within our knowledge confess our own faults endorse a friend's note or statement . bide. however.

Antonyms capitulate. many cases. carries the idea of possession as. A country is conquered when its armies are defeated and its territory is occupied by the enemy it may be subjected to indemnity or to various disabilities it is subjugated when it is held helplessly and continuously under military control it is subdued when all resistance has died out. reduce. crusb. affection.ATE. overcome. overtlirow. overmaster. destroy. surmount. fly. shatter. cbeclonate. shake. Felicitate is cold and formal. Antonyms condole with. annnJ. discomfit. retire. . surrender. . yield. to sympathy in his joys or hopes. tall. i felicitate. happy or wish one joy . prevalent. lose.II **** approvingly. Synonym CONGRATlJi:. subject. nnsettle. settled results of Christianity confirm our faith in it as a divine reve- Antonyms abrogate. "We say one felicitates himself tho to congratulate oneself. . subjugate. which is less natural. retreat. vanqulsb. The beneficent A statement is substantiated . lation. is becoming is To felicitate is to pronounce one congratulate to express hearty . Conquer. Prepositions: Clonflrm a statement by testimony . the decision of a lower court sustained by Just government should be upheld. confirm a person in a belief. subdue. to . etc. Synonyms beat. . cancel. rout. sahmit. npaet. bumble. overmatcb. in conquer respect. Prepositions Congratulate one on or upon his success. Compare beat. defeat. down. win. prevail over. put down. master. succumb. weaken. forfeit. peace. overtbrow. worst. console. cosrqiJER. An army is defeated when forcibly driven back it is routed when it is converted into a mob of fugitives. overpo^rer. fail. effectually that the victory is regarded as . cede. resign. a report confirmed . . congratulate conquer a controversy a higher. final. To defeat an enemy is to gain an advantage for the time to vanquish is to vnn a signal victory to conquer is to overcome so .

but less directly than the A The motion of the piston is the effect. but in use it is more nearly equivalent to upshot of steam in the cylinder. apprised. or by logical inference. to say a culprit is sensible of his degradation is more forcible than to say he is conscious of it. or result being termed an end . unaware. . consequent commonly is that which follows simply in order of time.conscious consequence 11<i »«" COSfSCIOVS. The an act. aware. informed. must be fact. as. the shot took effect. upshot. many 'elements the issue we say the issue of a battle. and the agitation of effect. or logical outcome. man is conscious of the limitation of human Synonyms: consequent. effect commonly relates to intention . " Every must have an adequate cause " (compare cause). dead. the water under the paddle»wheelB a consequence of the expansion hteraUy. sea. . result is. insensible. Sensible may be used in advised. the strongest of these words it is that which is di. . . depending on . e. Effect is Issue. out. A . the effect intended. e. effect. The event (L. Antonyms: cold. as. outcome. sequel. result. and venio. Synonyms t sensiUe. In re. A often a reference to the emotions where conscious might apply only to the intellect . Preposition On the stormy power.. or sure of something false or non=existent . or it may partake of both the senses mentioned above. cognizant. deaf. assured. come) is primarily exactly the same in meaning as outcome . end. the reboimd of is that which jQows forth directly the result of a campaign. event. any effect. certified. the exact sense of conscious. outgrcwtb. Sensible has still more what he is conscious of. what he is aware at. One is aware of that which exists without him he is conscious of the inner workings of his own mind. natural. the end of such a course must be ruin. consequence is that which follows an act naturally. One may be sensible of his own or another's person may feel assured error he is conscious only of his own. rectly produced effect by the action of an efficient cause we say. i. consequence. certain. gard to human actions. sure. ignorant. nnconscious. The end is the actual outcome without determination of its relation to what has gone before it is ordinarily viewed as either the necessary.

Synonyms men. . as by the assurances and promises of the gospel he encourages him by the hope of some relief or deliverance he comforts him by whatever act or word tends to bring mind or body to a state of rest and cheer. etc. unremitting. Infection is applied to diseases produced by no known or definable influence of one person upon another. or other wide=spread conditions are believed to infection. but as regularly begins again. invariable. unvarying. Compare accjidbnt cause . disturb. COIVTAGIOIV. effluvia. The incessant discharge of firearms makes Constant is sometimes used in the the ceaseless roar of battle. not only in sorrow. . but in joy. cessant . sympathize -with. Infection is frequently confused with contagion. constant. sadden. ical medThe best usage now limits contagion to diseases that are transmitted by contact with the diseased person. condole 'with. and a course of action. One condoles vnth another by the expression of kindly sympathy in his trouble he consoles him by considerations adapted to soothe and sustain the spirit. reg:iilar. A continuous beach is exposed to the continual beating of the waves. . even by be chiefly instrumental. uninterrupted.-g^^ 117 signifying the results of console continual sum and substance of aU effects. consequences. . . incessant. perpetual. but its chief uses are mental and moral. encourage. that which often intermits. malarious. Synonyms comfort. but where common climatic. Synonyms ceaseless. PITT. COKTiafUALi. s distress. Antonyms annoy. A similar distinction is made between in. CONSOlrE. Compare alleviate . by breath. Continuous describes that which is absolutely without pause or break continual. unbrolien. "We sympathize vnth others. unceasing. grieve. either directly by touch or indirectly by use of the same articles. sense of continual . . CIRCfUMSTANCE END EVENT. continuous. tronble. wound. hurt. and ceaseless.

as contract is in law and business. these words involve at least two parties. an inter- change of ideas with some other person or persons. Preposition: We contrast one object loith another. compare. CONTRAST. conference. or compensation. communion. A consideration. cartel. compact. when we note the difference exactly and point by point. pact. To compare (L. con. etc. CONVERSATION. A hargain is a mutual agreement for an exchange stipulation is of values. tho an engagecontract is a formal ment or promise may be the act of but one. intercourse. together. and stand) is to set in opposition in order to show unlikeness.couversation contract -a^a JtlH CONTRACT. We nnust compare them. A contractmsij be oral or written. contra. parley. and is ordinarily in writing. dialogue. equal) is to place together show sto. Mutual promises may have the force of a contract. is. Synonymai stipulation. bargam. but is applied to international agreements. We differences. and par. converse. treaties. agreement between two or more parties for the doing or leaving All arrangement. Conversation (Latin con. discourse. covenant. tallc. I coUoauTj communication. promise. A undone some specified act or acts. Synonyms chat. A covenant in law Covenant is frequent in reUgious is a written contract under seal. oppose. We contrast them when we observe their unwe differentiate them. the same as contract. without the formality of a contract. otiugatiou. A A Synonyms in order to against. We contrast objects that have been ah-eady compared. to contrast (L. with) etymologically. likeness or unlikeness . cartel is a military a single item in an agreement or contract. Compact is essentially usage. even to know that they are different. pledgre. > differentiate. at least momentarily. engagement. discriminate. distinguish objects when we note a difference that may fall short of contrast . Talk may be . we discriminate them when we classify or place them according to their Ukeness in a general way. is essential to convert an agreement into a contract. agreement for the exchange of prisoners or the lite. agreement. confabulation.

the impression being given to another. The antonyms apostate. but sometimes of more. There may be intercourse without conversation. transmit. Synonyms transport. . as by looks. Discourse is now applied chiefly to public addresses. as. transmit. A conference is more formal than a conversation. I will convey the information to your friend. transfer.unication is often by writing. give. . CONVEY. The name disciple is given to the follower of a certain faith. proselyte. signs. I will transmit the letter. communion is of hearts. words with little thought thus. empty talk. A neophyte is a new convert. Synonyms: disciple. air conveys carry. Prepositions Conversation mth friends. but does not convey goods. or not admitted to fuU privileges. . move. sblft. Dialog denotes ordinarily an artificial or imaginary conversation. (to a listener). pervert. neopbyte. cbange. conveys often does not admit of it. and generally somewhat informal. A colloquy is indefinite as to number. with or without words . religious system. sound A A them. transport the horse carries his mane and tail. about a matter.119 convert convey wholly one=sided. between or among the guests. we say idle talk. generally of two persons. etc. not yet fully indoctrinated. and renegade are condemnatory names applied to the convert by those whose faith he forsakes. and man carries an appearance. items may be transferred from one account to . and may be uninvited Talk may denote the mere utterance of and unreciprocated. Many brilliant talkers have been incapable of conversation. the appearance remaining his own. an impression. COIVVERT. A . com.m. without reference to any previous belief or allegiance a convert is a person who has come to one faith from a different belief or proselyte is one who has been led to accept a from unbelief. remove. whether with or without true faith a convert is always understood to be a believer. sell. Transfer may or may not imply delivery to another peranother as. Compare behavior. carry does not necessarily imply delivery. and transport aU imply delivery at a destination. son . Convey. rather than idle or empty conversation.

all acts punishable by fine or imprison- or unlawful. wrong. call togetlier. vile. sinful. nefarious. ident. offenses against private rights are merely illegal or unlaivful. In law.convoke or a criminal inn *-*" word transferred to the following line. felonious. Transport usually refers to material. Every criminal act is illegal ful acts may not be criminal. dismiss. A convention is called by some officer or officers. or its pres- some eminent leaders the del- egates are assenibled or convened in a certain place. preserve. CRimXAIi. Compare cabbt. witnesses and jurymen are summoned. its executive committee. by . real estate. assemble and convene express more independent action . hold. transport them. etc. aaeitious. gatber. Ttricked. Antonyms adjourn. As a general rule. possesB.. Prepositions: Convey to a friend. abominable. muster. unlawful. keep. immoral. but do not . vicious. dissolve. transfer. A felonious act is a criminal act of an aggravated kind. etc. are criminal to trespass man . convey from the house to the station convey by express. and convey may refer to immaterial objects we transfer possession. discharge. the trespasser is hable to a civil suit for damages. Convoke implies an organized body and a superior authority . proroguCi separate. collecT. but it is not criminal. Synonyms assemble. is conveyed by simply transferring title and possession. a purchaser. > disband. Synonyms: culpable. transmit. convene. now Antonyms: cling to. scatter. transmit intelUgence. illegal. fine. criminal. disperse. In the case of convey the figurative sense predominates. A flagitious crime is one that biungs ment or both. hy hand. It is illegal for a on another's land. guilty. but illegal or unlatuOffenses against public law are in view of the law. Congress assembles. at a certain hour. or imprisonment. Troops are mustered . as summon. iniquitous. Par- liament is convoked . . which can not be moved. call. CONVOKE. break np. but not to indictment. convey ideas. retain. which is punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary or by death.

or a government. birds. distinction to nocturnal flowers. daily is the antonym of nightly as diurnal is of nocturnal.. lega]. or the possibilities of a Compare hazasd.131 public odium. neither is criminal illegal. diurnal the Latin and scienIn strict usage. A Antonyms nightly. soldier is ia peril of death. TOtnona. DAIVOER. violence. hence. Insecurity is a feeble word. like risk. neither is punishable by human law . which may be either near and probable or remote and doubtful peril is exposure to imminent and sharply threatening evil. applying to the placing of a dish. a man tried upon a capital jeopardy of life. but forms of law. hypocrisy is vncJeed. That which is iniquitous. a diurnal bird or animal flies or ranges only by day : in contra- diurnal motion exactly fiUs an astronomical day or the time of one rotation of a planet on its axis. Synonyms bazard. habits. Insecurity. may sometimes be done under the Ingratitude is sinful. peril. safeguard. tiielter. or speak of a vicious horse. a physician makes daily visits if he calls at some time Diurnal is more exact within each period of twentyrfour hours. certainty Antonyms defense. in danger of consumption . Danger is exposure to possible evil. but exceedingly broad. or passions even . Compare sin. especially to such as results from . held strictly to this use. t noc^nrnal. vicious acts are not necessarily criminal. more of the element of chance or uncharge is said to be put in . ristit. risk. Synonym diurnal. I inunonity. lawfol. Jeopardy. merltorlons. contrary to equity. i. we or illegal. a fortune. . life. etc. Daily is not. protection. a disJeopardy is nearly the same as but involves. in all its uses . aafety* eecnrlty. moral. An invalid may be armed peril. a diurnal flower opens or blooms only in daylight Daily is term. e. however. danger Vieioiis refers to the indulgence of evil appetites. tific the Saxon and popular. while a daily motion is much less definite. jnet. Antonyms innocent.

See mysterious . gloomy. a murky den a murky sky. iDrilliant." Prov. the more general word decay being used of either a-niTnn. Synonyms. clear. Murky is said of that which is at once dark. as water into oxygen and hydrogen to say that a thing is decayed may denote only a partial result. . are impervious to light. dark is emblematic of sadness. swart. white. shining. Of intellectual matters. dismal. however. or shady from which the light is more or less cut off. is blacTc. that which absolutely destitute of color which is darTc is absolutely destitute of light. dismal. dazzling. lucid. Dim refers to imperfection of outline. or from some defect of vision. Opaque objects. mysterious. gleaming. putrefy. etc. as are swart and swarthy. "the name of the wicked shall rot. darkness. as. mist. dark is now rarely used in the old sense of a dark saying. glowing. common speech.. but to say it is decomposed ordinarily implies that the change is complete or nearly so. Antonyms briglit. but maybe instantly decomposed. a coat tho not optically colorless the night is dark. y decay a. or even verging toward black. tho the stars shine. obscure. luminons. gloomy.n6. decompose. transparent. of the human skin when quite dark. as. rot. as. obscuke. x. and the nouns putridity and putrescence. shadowy. and gloomy . Compare synonyms for light. ]>e:€at. or vegetable substances. molder. also of moral evil . . swarthy. dusby. but on occasion capable of approved emphatic use. sbady. A substance is decomposed when resolved into its original elements by any process it is decayed when resolved into its original elements by natural processes it decaj/s gradually. Figuratively. opaq. that murky. In Strictly. etc. light.l Sot is . Dushy is applied to objects which appear as if viewed in fading light . 1. from distance. . soxalier. is blaoJc is sat>Ie. a dark deed. the word is often used. ordinarily esteemed coarse. DARK. obsciire. ijlnmined. . decompose ax& now common euphemisms.decay 122 Synonyms black. sliado-wy. are used almost exclusively of animal matter in a state of decomposition. agreeing with somber. That is obscure. a strong word. dim. as smoked glass. Putrefy and the adjectives putrid auA putrescent. spoil. i crystalline. corrupt.ue. radiant.

surrender. Compare aetifice . capitalation. deceit. We tection from the cold. and even unintentional. . or falsehood. Ue. untruth. bulwarli. guile applies to the which deceit and deception grow. fortress. veracity. deceitfulness. lying. Com- pare APOLOGY. Synonyms apology. flight. dissimulation. sincerity. . DEFEIVSE. rampart. imposition. Falsehood and lying are in utterance deceit and deception may be merely in act or implication. delusion. FICTION FRAUD HYPOCRISY. none but defense is ordinathe powerful can assure others of protection. lying.123 Synonyms craft. double ^dealing. Deception may be innocent. desertion. resistance. rily against actual attack protection is against possible as well speak of defense against an assault. Craft and cunning have not necessarily any moral quality they are . traits of animals. the ancient teaching that the earth was flat was not a lie. prevarication. safeguard. but it is a somewhat milder and more dignified word than lie. The weak may speak or act in defense of the strong A . but stand rather low in the human Duplicity is the habitual speaking or acting with intent to scale. openness. betrayal. . common Antonyms candor. implying always lack of veracity. Eypocrisy. the habit. A lie. trickery. . proas actual dangers. deception the act . gailelessneBa. troth. simplicity. is the uttering of is Deceit disposition out of what one knows to be false with intent to deceive. vindication. guile. falsehood. finesse. deception de reuse DECEPTION. Untruth is more than lack of accuracy. Dissimulation is rather a concealing of what is than a pretense of what is not. guard. duplicity. Vindication is a triumphant defense at character and conduct against charges of error or wrong. shelter. protection. because not meant to deceive. fraud. Finesse is simply an adroit and delicate management of a matter for one's own side. and also to their actual practise. Antonyms a1>andonment. . appear to mean what one does not. not necessarily involving deceit. fraDkness. justification. The novel or drama is not a lie. honesty. as in the case of an optical illusion deceit always involves injurious intent. fabrication. because not then known to be false. fair dealing. cunning. shield.

exact. definition must include all that belongs to the object defined. water ^oMuied with sewage.deflle . vitiated taste or style . contaminateiefers to deep spiritual injury. an altar. A soiled garment maybe cleansed by washing a spoiled garment is beyond cleansing or repair. stain. The hand may be defiled by a touch of pitch swine that have been wallowing in the mud are befouled. commentary. sanctify. . defile may be used merely in the . A An exposition undertakes to state more fully what is compactly given or only implied in the text . disinfect. Antonyms clean. description. suUy. defiled by sacrilegious Synonyms: comment. . vitiate. Prepositions The temple was defiled deeds. contract. Pollute has also a reference to sacrilege as. We speak of a. explanation. translation. as. s corrupt. DEFIIiE. A definition is formal. 28 . In figurative use. . or from the language of one period into that of another it may also . and exclude aU that does not . defense to an from the testimony. hollow. rendering. pollute. taint. cleanse. pnrlfy.„. . spoil. " they themselves went not into the judgment haU. roinfed meat is repulsive. to pollute a sanctuary. a description pictorial. an exposition of Scripture. soil. tarnlsli. in law. fraud vitiates a title or a . a description may include only some general features an eocplana^ tion may simply throw light upon some point of special difficulty. ceremonial sense . infected meat contains germs of disease. exposition. Prepositions: Defense against assault or assailants action. or an ordinance. Interpretation is ordinarily from one language into another. . . wash. Synonyms tiefoul. The innocent are often contaminated by association with the wicked the vicious are more and more corrupted by their own excesses. interpretation. infect. contaminate. lest they should be defiled. as the human body or mind. Pollute is used chiefly of liquids as." John xviii. Contaminate and infect refer to something evil that deeply pervades and permeates. an explanation general a definition is . vjith blood. DEFIBTITIOIV. Bright metal is tarnished by exposure a fair sheet is sullied by a dirty hand.

These words agree in designating one who acts in the place of others. . Deliberate. exposition. is also the word for a great number. the interpretation of a dream. opposing views . but is usually understood to be a volume of comments. some other or The strict legate is an ecclesiastical officer repreis sentiag the Pope. explanation. meditates. reflects. or information. advice. representative. he may confer with him on matters of general interest. as does debate. In the United States informal assemblies send delegates to nominating conventions with no legislative authority . and interpretation are ordinarily blended in a commentary. he weighs a matter in his own mind. Deliberating always carries the idea of slowness . Synonyms deputy. which may also include description. Debate implies assembly deliberates. which can be applied to a single individual. ponder. by himAn individual self . i legate. an .lot *'*' de]es. ponders. A comment is upon a single passage a commentary may be the same. as. substitute. He consults a dictionary. A single officer may have a deputy . deliberate. simply a gathering and balancing of . or of some difficult passage. prosy. but does not confer with it. meditate. consulting is compatible with haste . we can speak of a hasty consultation. consult indicates almost exclusively the receiving of man confers with his associates about a new investment it.ate deliberate be a statement giving the doubtful or hidden meaning of that which is recondite or perplexing. representatives are legally elected to Congress and the various legislatures. A he consults his physician about his health . with lawmaking power. considers. and is sometimes said even to debate with himself. reflect. a riddle. Consult and confer always imply two or more persons. while consult is ordinarily limited to a few a committee consults . consult. Confer suggests the interchange of counsel. many persons combine to choose a delegate or representative. unless expressly Umited as above. debate. Synonyms DELIBERATE. confer. consider. Definition. weigh. not of a hasty deliberation. In usage the deputy or delegate closely more limited in functions and more bound by instructions than a representative.

and and smell . loatlisome. luscious fulsome meaning. as. Agreeable refers to whatever gives a mild degree of pleasure Acceptable indicates a thing to be as. i acceptable.delicious delightful all facts taA !'*«' and reasons. paelancholy. moamful. palnfnl. an agreeable perfume. nnpaiatable. Delicious has a limited use in this way . pleasurable. welcome Compare beautiful . a delicious bit of poetry . rebreslilng. savory. welcome. disappointing. Satisfying denotes anything that is received with calm acquiescence. inclining toward a cloying excess of sweetness or richness. gratifying. horrible. eaddenuig. nnsavoiy. or concerning a matter Prepositions We deliberate on or upon. such a person's society will be delightful. delightful. bitter. also about the first two are preferable. as. while meditation may be quite purposeless. indicating whatever awakens a feeling akin to gratitude. Criminals agreeable companion may find each other's company congenial. satisfying. worthy of acceptance . hateful. miserable. pleasing. That is welcome which is received with joyful heartiness . . wretched. luscious. as. Antonyms I depressing. chaeminq . or established truth. as. tidings. woful. Synonyms DELIOHTPVIi. vivacity. delicious esquisite. Savory is applied chiefly to cooked food made palatable by spices and condiments. as delightful music. That is which affords a gratification at once vivid delicate to the senses. and make the possessor an A . nauseous. a delicious odor . We consider or deliberate with a view to action. grateftil. pleasant. if possessed of intelligence. Delightful maybe appUed to the higher gratifications of sense. agreeable. congenial. Grateful is stronger than agreeable or gratifying. DEIilCIOVS. an acceptable offering. has a kindred but more Antonyms acrid. and goodness. delicious. distressing. delicious. but is chiefly used for that which is mental and spiritual. as. Synonyms! dainty. this is delicious ! Compare delightful. pleasant face and pleasing manners arouse pleasurable sensations. the word is sometimes used ironically for some pleasing absurdity . but scarcely delightful. especially to those of taste delicious fruit . as substantial food. repnlsive.

: certainly. to suggest it . by violence or neglect. verity. Antonyms actaality. delusion is a mistaken conviction. illusion. and gives the most absolute certainty. trafb. delusion Synonyms error. insanity. sound premises. an inference is a probable conclusion toward which knowi] facts. statements. is the highest form of proof. An illusion may be wholly of the senses . DEMOIVSTRATIOIV. testore. the hallucinations of delirium tremens. it is demolished by bombardment . consequence. it is destroyed when its structural unity is gone. evidence.1TSIOIV. Synonyms destroy. Evidence is that which . sbeae.fnv DEL. An edifice is destroyed by fire or earthquake . building. bnild. monument. an illusion a mistaken perception or inference. together with their necessary eonehmon. but of the delusions of the insane. Inference. or what exists otherwise than as he sees it. as when in a mirage distant springs and trees appear close at hand. overturn. Antonyms: mslke. conetmct. ruin. a A delusion always involves some mental error. In an optical illusion the observer sees either what does not exist. DEmOIilSH. hallucination is a false image or belief which has nothing. Synonyms t certainty. Demonstration. deduction. fallacy. the absolute and necessary result of the admission of certain premises . whether or not its component parts remain. reality. > raze. as. "We speak of the illusions of fancy or of hope. but can not be applied outside of pure mathematics or other strictly deductive reasoning there can be proof and certainty. or admissions point. however. in conclusion is matters that do not admit of demwistration. A Compare deception . but which they do not absolutely establish . it has become unfit for human habi- A overtlirow. hallucination. create. in the strict and proper sense. tepalr. Compare aboijsh . fact. or other structure is tation. it is ruined when. it is razed when leveled with the ground . A . constitute a demonstration. proof. demolished when reduced to a shapeless mass . induction. conclusion. outside of the disordered mind. pbantasm.

Inclination is DESIRE. irresistible evidence . irresistible as demonstration. Plan relates to details of form. induction. there was much evidenoe against the accused. structure. a design for a statue. purpose looks to assured success . as. Synonymsi object. craving. he forms a plan to entrap him into his power. the correspondence and coordination of parts. wisn. Design refers to the adaptation of means to an end. and action. device. . end. while not so Compare hypothesis . hence. intent. The plan of a campaign may be for a series of sharp attacks. Moral certainty is a conviction resting on such evidence as puts a matter beyond reasonable doubt. inclination. with the design of then compassing his death . cause .design desire . but not amounting to proof of guilt. proclivity. it is a quiet. aim. Intention is simply the more familiar form of the legal and philosophical intent. we speak of the purpose rather than the intent or intention of Grod. hankeringr. 1S«8 „ tends to show a thing to be true . plan. BESIOIV. model. or of separate acts. the mildest of these terms a vague or unconscious. intention. or even when we speak of a . intent and purpose overleap all particulars. hold that the marks of design in nature prove it the work of a great Designer. it can only infer the intent from the evidences of design. and fasten on the end itself. as the law can not read the heart. proposal. purpose simply the placing it before oneself . with the design of thus surprising and man comes to a fixed intention to overpowering the enemy. project. as including selt'evidence or consciousness. it is the basis of all knowledge. A We Prepositions The design of defrauding. idea . appetite. stretching forth toward an object . Intent denotes a straining. final cause. aspiration. design considers these same details all as a means to an end. to produce a result . intent or intention refers especially to the state of mind of the actor . purpose. the design of a building. longing. kiU his enemy . purpose to the result of the action. Intention contemplates the possibility of failure . Even propensity. in themselves . in the widest sense. tendency. scheme. coveting. Compare aim . conouplsence. Proof in the strict sense is complete. Synonyms: appetency.

reckless of consequences. A. Despondency relaxes energy and effort and is always attended with sadness or distress . Synonyms DESPAIR. right) and dexterity (L. corn-age. adroitness. elation. and may result from simple apathy . Discouragements too frequent and long continued may produce a settled hopelessness. aptitude. or near in thought. Craving is stronger than hankering . assaiance. despondency. right-hand) might each be rendered " right-handedness". but adroitness carries more of the idea of eluding. Compare appetite. or taking advantage of another in controversy dexterity conveys the idea of doing. dexter. craving may be the imperious and reasonable demand of the whole nature. confidence. a wish may be for what is remote or uncertain. Coveting ordinarily denotes wrong desire for that which is another's. ing something readily and well. discouragement. cheer. cleverness. or even for what is recognized as impossible. Despondem^ is an incapacity for the present exercise of hope . a desire /of excellence. without reference to any action 9 . hankering may be the result of a fitful and capricious appetite . or it may lead to desperation. from the liighest objects to the lowest . despair is the utter abandonment of hope. Desire has a wide range.1 . despondency and despair are more emphatic and decided. Desperation is energized despair. as. expectation. right. or checking some hostile movement. trnst Synonyms: DEXTERITT. Antonyms See synonyms for antipathy. Longing is a reaching out with deep and persistent demand for that which is viewed as now distant but at some time attainable . Prepositions The desire of fame . bope. expectancy. Antonyms: anticipation. Hopelessness is negative. encouragement. and viewed as attainable . ezpertness. the captive's longing for release. desire is for an object near at hand. vigorous in action. Adroitness (F. Discouragement is the result of so much repulse or failure as wears out courage. despair may produce a stony calmness. readiness. I desperation. to. and droit. bopefolness. parrying. accomplish. skill.>Q * *«' despair dexterity Btrong or decided inclination we do not express the intensity of desire. hopelessness.

Prepositions Dexterity of hand. or of the style of Macaulay. Diction is general . of his personal traits in short. We and method than dexterity. fit. of a resolution. apttis. the effect of an . Die. author's prevailing tone of thought. POWER . verbiage. — we speak etc. fencing. Verbiage never bears this sense (see circumlocution. . eapression.) The language of a vmter or speaker may be the national speech he employs as. at cards. of management . life. weapons. perisb. Dexterity can not be communicated. skill to a very great extent can be imparted. An author's diction is strictly his choice and use of words. . Style includes diction. in military phrase. i decease. Aptitude (L. Tocabulary. Synonyms cease. DIE. with no special reference to thought expression regards the words simply as the vehicle of the thought. boxing. which by practise may be developed into dexterity. pbraseclogy. thus. An author's vocabulary is the range of words which he brings into his use. the author's language is well (or ill) chosen. Compare LANauAQE. Synonyms DICTION. wording is limited we speak of the diction of an author or of a work. oftentimes can not even be explained by its possessor. i. or debate of dexterity in horsemanship. fitted) is a natural readiness. rule. in manipulating men . in legal phraseology . expire. the wording of a proposition. of movement. the EngUsh or French language . "skilled workmen" in various trades are niunbered by thou^nds. CUBiVEB . all that makes up the clothing of thought in words .. in the use of tools. SKILFUL. etc. a frigid or an argumentative style. as. in action. or others. etc. rhetorical figures such as metaphor and simile.diction die „_ 130 _ speak of adroitness in. to go out of decline. phrase. expression. language. wither. of a figurative style. style. fade. wording. Prescott. or the word may denote his use of that language. become destitute of vital power and . Skill is more exact to of others. and. as. Phrase and phraseology apply to words or combinations of words which are somewhat technical . depart. with the pen . line. Compare ADDRESS .

as. the disparity of our achievements when compared with our ideals. i come into being. " I perish with hunger. the word denotes utter destruction and decay. art and empires. difference is sometimes used in the same . esist. "the fire goes out ") is ofteuest used of death by privation or exposure . rise grow. discrimination is in our judgment of them . riseag^. implying that one thing falls far below another . but the opposite. variety. BIFFERENCE. Dissimilarity is between things sharply contrasted . 17 . by reaching a natural a lease expires . it is a mild word for opposition and conflict . distinction. an issue. as in English we say. die to the world. begin. disparity. rarely. sometimes. does diversity . limit figuratively of things that cease to exist . from the dead. Synonyms contrariety. ance. dies. etc. Expire (literally. Tbhhtbon Zockekff EaU Bt 4a a strain of music. Where the dying night-lamp flickers. it is used An echo. divergence. Difference is the state or quality of being unlike or the amoum difference is in the things compared . may be said to perish. Disparity is stronger than inequality. of death by violence. contrast. variation is a difference in the condition or action of the same object at different times. discrimination. UTe. as. Disagreement is not merely the lack. Knowledge and fame. is figuratively applied to anything difference which lias the appear- ance of life. in agony . dissimilitude. To perish (literally. to die for one's country . 15) . of agreement . so. discrepancy. a topic. variation. beimmorta]. in general. diversity. there may be a difference between those almost alilse. a distinction is in our definition or description or mental.uality.131 action. Careful A diserimination of real differences results in clear distinctions. come to life. to go through. Antonyms be born. to breathe out) is a softer word for die. vnth the sword. flonrisli. eoiviTe. a of such unlikeness. a tempest. vii. {Ezelc. to die at sea . There is a discrepancy in accounts that fail to balVariety involves more than two objects . famine." Luke xv. disagreement. in one's bed .. Prepositions t To die of fever . dissimilarity. the time has eocpired. Ineq. as. Inconsistency. iy violence . image of them. uulllEeuess. in Latin.

Eesponsibility may be onerous even when strain it involves eaey. Synonyms DIRECTION. That which is laborious or toilsome simply requires the steady application of labor or toil tiU accomplished . or the hne in which the object is moving. steep) Eignifies primarily so steep and lofty as to be difficult of ascent. Way. be hurd to do or hard to bear. Synonyms arduous. Anything is hard that involves tax and whether of the physical or mental powers. Blight. onus. Prepositions Difference between the old and the new . that is difficult which involves skiU. hard. differences among . with or without a considerable expenditure of physical force . light. comes naturally to mean the direction of the road or path. Inclination. Difficult is not used of that which merely taxes physical force . esliaustlng. eamenees. great learning can only be won by arduotia toiL Hard applies to anything that resists our endeavors as a scarcely penetrable mass resists our physical force. of Btyle . a dead lift is called hard rather than difficult .T. pleasant. That which is onerous (L. Bimilarity. DIFFICinL. i aim.difficult - direction „„ Irf^ Antonyms agreement. onerous. i Hkeness. a difference in character . nniformilyi unity. or address.cult to solve. course. arduus. a mountain Hard may be active or passive . laborious. a thing may difficult to ascend. Arckums (L. a tangled skeui to unravel . harmony. consonance. a burden) is mentally burdensome or oppressive. no special t exertion. trifling. Identity. tendency. teeeinblance. literally the road or path. . toilsome. a difference of men one thing /roflt (incorTectly to) another. and hence applies to that which involves great and sustained exertion and ordinarily for a lofty aim . The direction of an object is the line of motion or of vision toward it. trying. sagacity. Arduous is always active. (less frequently) a difference (controversy) unth a person . way. severe. a geometrical problem may be diffl. trivial. considered from our own actual or mental standpoint. of action . Antonyms facile. toilsome is the stronger word. breaking stone on the road would be called hard rather than diffiadt work . bearing.

descry. disclose. a slight fluttering of the pulse could be detected. the auditor finds the account to be correct. see. in which direction i Bearing is the direction in which an object is seen with reference to another. or finds his own which he is searching for. discriminate. what we distinguish we mark apart. find out. Objects may be dimly discerned at twilight. detect is used. inclination. real merit is sure to be discovered. Compare atm . detect. Columbus discovered America . discover may be used in either the good or the bad sense. descry. Morse invented the electric telegraph. is . the direction toward which conversationally.1 <l!I *"** discern discover way is almost a perfect synonym of direction . what we discriminate we judge apart . find. Antonyms See synonyms for hide. The expert discovers or detects an error in an account. "What we discern we see apart from all other objects . we distinguish by outward . Find is the most general word for every means of coming to know what was not before certainly known. Compare DISCOVER . anything stretches or reaches out . Synonyms behold. almost without exception. "We discover what has existed but has not been known to us we invent combinations or arrangements not before in use . oftener in the good he was detected in a fraud . tendency is stronger and more active than inclination. CARE . as. recognize. LOOK. ferret out. detect used of delicate indications that appear in course of careful watching . or recognize by some special mark or manifest difference. expose. DISCOTER. signs Synonyms: ascertain. . Compare discern. which way did he go? or. Of human actions or character. in a bad sense . In scientific language. an officer is readily distinguished from a common soldier by his uniform. "We discriminate by real differences . Invent. OVERSIGHT. "We descry (originally espy) what is difficult to discover. observe. when yet we can not clearly distinguish one from another. distinguisb. ORDER . as. . tendency. and especially with reference to the points of the compass. that toward which a stationary object leans . Course is the direction of a moving object . perceive. discern. A man finds in the road some stranger's purse.

A Antonyms See synonyms for praisk. mSPARAOE. A witness or a statement is discredited . slandered. complaint. There is now. strength.disease disparage «<»« 1<>4 Synonyms DISEASE. Sickness was generally used in English speech and literature. till the close of the eighteenth century at least. his motives depreciated. . or "sickness at the stomach. stnrdiness. or conspicuous manner. disorder. indisposition. merits. a good name is dishonored by unworthy conduct we underestimate in our own minds . Disease is the general term for any deviation from health ." and to hold ill and illness as the only proper words to use in a general sense. 23 . we may underrate or undervalue in statement to others. with few exceptions. unbealtbiness. sonndness. as blindness or lameness. carp at. depreciate. robuetness. he himself is calumniated." S Kings xni. 14.. dlsbonor. underrate. These words are used. for every form of physical disorder. To decry is to cry down. it is used only of things. in affection. i discredit. which may be applied to any degree of iU health. attainments. a tendency to restrict the words sick and sickness to nausea. underestimate. a serious or a deadly disease ." Matt. We speak of trifling ailments. a painful sickness. Synonyms belittle. disorder and affection are rather partial and limited . decry. infirmity. distemper. Complaint is a popular term. undervalue. detract firom. This distinction has received but a very limited acceptance in the United States. sUght or severe. his professions discredited . unsoundness. Infirmity denotes a chronic or lingering weakness or disability. pubUc. derogate from. the currency is depreciated . Compare slaxdeb. healing all manner of siehness and all manner of disease among the people. it denotes some definite morbid condition . in England. etc. where sick and sickness have the earlier and wider usage. man's achievements are disparaged. illness. his sickness intonyms health. vigor. i sickness. malady. a slight or severe illness . a slight indisposition. as abundantly appears in the English Bible : " Jesus went about . ailment. in some noisy. " Elisha was fallen sick of a more limited sense whereof he died. as. lower. of things such as qualities. a nervous affection. iv.. etc. To disparage is to belittle by damaging comparison or suggestion .. a disorder of the digestive system.

plan. actualize. Effect includes all that is done to accomplish the intent consummate is limited execute refers rather to the final steps quite sharply to the concluding act. — . sort. carry tbrougb. he may realize the dreams of youth by inheriting a fortune but he can not effect his early designs except by doing the utmost that is necessary to make them fact. being applied to the whole ideal. One may know where to find what he has misplaced . Exehopes. execute. put in place. order. worl: out. the one comprehensive word which includes this whole We may say of the least item of daily work. mislay. is "It is done. execute. bring about. To discharge is to Realize. effect. disarrange. Antonyms adjust. to finish there the fine details . . as. realize. put In order. perform. a son fulfils a father's is . carry out. because his officers and men promptly executed his commands. . the commander effected the capture of the fort. commit. t disturb.mated when the money is paid and the property delivered. finisb. . acbleve. what he has mislaid he can not locate. bring to pass. given in charge. or desired . dispose. Do class. place. DO. crowd derange. assort classify. effect and consummate to one's own designs as. unsettle. to discharge the duties of the oflSce. and consummate aU signify to embody in fact what was before in thought. remove. while complete is comprehensive. hoped. out. gronp. cute refers more commonly to the commands of another. fulfil. transact.ACE." and of the grandest human achievement. Jumble. Achieve ^to do something worthy of a chief . array. perpetrate. is consummate. Synonyms i accompllsb. expected. . One may realize that which he has done nothing to bring about . " Well done ! " Finish and complete signify to bring to an end what was previously begun frequently the difference in usage that finish is applied to and is superficial. effect. misplace. dlscbarge. DISPL. set In Older. and execution as. a statue do what . Objects are displaced when moved out of the place they have occupied they are misplaced when put into a place where they should not be. expected. complete. or required as.135 displace do Synonyms confuse. An officer executes the law when he proceeds against its violators a purchase is consum. to complete a scheme of philosophy. To fulfil is to do or to be what has been promised.

Synonyms: amenable. a dogma rests on authority. and may be defended by reasoning . TRANSACTION. doctrhve. a trespass. fmstrate. the whole process of doing it. miscarry. Compare dxjtt. wilful.mate a bargain or a crime. whether grave or trivial perpetrate is used chiefly of aggravated crimes or. yielding. In Longfellow's lines. Doctrine primarily signifies that which is taught principle. DOCIL. miBB. Compare transact. inflexible. . principle. unyielding. while accomplish carries the thought of full completion. as applied to actions. " Patience . mar. disdiarge a duty. — A Antonyms baffle. mln. cojw- pliard rpiresents one as inclined or persuaded to agreement with another's wiU. Dogma has . one submissive. Synonyms: article of belief article of faith. tame. opinionated. destroy. Perform and accomplish both imply working toward the end . tenet. teachable. belief. epolj. perform could not be substituted without great loss. or a murder . resolute. of blunders. iDtractable. fulfil a promise. Antonyms: determined.. is pliant. complete considers rather the thing as done . is used only of those that are bad. perpetrate an outrage or a felony. fail. man may commit a sin. One who easily led . obedient. accomplish thy labor. dogged. effect a purpose. stubborn.!!. somewhat humorously.docile doctrine 136 signifies always to perform some great and generally some worthy exploit. defeat. A doctrine is reasoned out. as of direct revelation. the fundamental basis on which the teaching rests. precept. self'willed. complete an edifice or a lif e»work. compliant. perform our daily tasks. tractable. accomplish. obstinate. We finish a garment or a letter. dogma. manageable. docile is easily taught . c&l " teaching. i come short. execute a command. but jjer/orm always allows a possibility of not attaining. consum. Commit. a creed is a summary of doctrines or dogmas. achieve a victory." etc. is tractable is who one who is pliant is easily bent in any direction . lief . realize an ideal. A doctrine or dogma is a statement of some one item of beetc. accomplish a design. As between complete and accomplish. firm. neglect. gentle. pliable. the decision of the church.

Dogmatic theology. . dogmatic doubt. opinionated. t mistrust. domlneeiing. DOGMATIC. is To doubt cline to lack conviction. systematic. one may distrust himself or others . suspect. neither approving nor condemning . n. as. trust. he suspects others. self-opinionated. Outside of theology. or because of his contempt for those in common use. but only of motives. is. allied whom he addresses thus dogmatic with arrogant and kindred words. law. used of persons. positive. a dogmatic statement is one for which the author does not trouble himself to give a reason. at the present day. dogm. rely upon. authoritative. Compare faith . believe. and is applied to a single item of belief . Compare synonyms for doubt. systematic theology considers the same propositions in their logical connection and order as parts of a system . doctrinal. depend upon. Antonyms: confide in. or Distrust may now rarely.atic has generally an offensive sense . dictatorial. DOUBT. I distrust my own judgment . it is a neutral word. to belief. an oflEensive Bignification. Incompleteness of evidence some perverse bias of mind may inexpress simply a lack of confidence as. V. of the tenets of others. mistrust is often used CJompare suppose. either because of the strength of his convictions. belief arrogantly asserted. a doctrinal statement is less absolute in its claims than a dogmatic treatise. etc. Mistrust is may compel one to him to.UT commonly. as of a Tenet is simply that which is held. surmise. overbearing. V. Synonyms distrust. imperious. called also " dogmatics. if ever. doubt. playfully. tions. Dogmatic is technically applied in a good sense to that which is formally enunciated by adequate authority . A Synonyms arrogant. reiy on." gives definite propositions. but to conduct. magisterial. . intenDistrust is always serious. we speak of the doctrines of precept relates not our own church . doctrinal to that which is stated in the form of doctrine to be taught or defended. or it may be nearly equivalent to suspect . which it holds to be delivered by authority . I distrusted that man from the start. depend on. Mistrust and suspect imply that one is almost assured of jjositive evil . and may be more partial than the term systematic would imply.

and are more decidedly adverse than doubt. tho jects are attracted . question. draTT n. Inclin Induce. lead. In theological usage unbelief and skepticism have a condemnatory force„as implying wilful rejection of . To attract is to exert a force that it may produce no actual motion . Perplexity presses toward a solution. scruple. to drag a sled over bare ground. tew. skepticism. unbelief. hesitancy. . uncertainty apunknown or undecided doubt implies some negative . indecision. roBOlntlon. DRAW. of others. Doubt is a lack of conviction that may refer either to matters of belief or to matters of practise. evidence. entice haul.doubt. all obtoward the earth. indecision. Suspense regards the future. belief. I disbelief. incredulity. etc. Misgivirig is ordinarily in regard to the outcome of something already done or decided . To drag is to draw against strong resistance as. hesitation. Antonyms assnrance. Scruple relates to matters of conscience and duty. tug. plies to the As regards practical matters. lure. irresolution. Any improbable statement awakens incredulity. generally accompanied with opposition of heart. misgiving. Perplexity is active and painful doubt may be quiescent. or a carriage up a steep hiU. coDfldence. and irresolution have reference to something that remains to be decided or done. to the contrary unbelief refers to a settled state of mind. n. 13S Synonyms DOVBT. One object draws another when it moves it toward itself or in the direction of its own motion by the exertion of adequate force. and are due oftener to infirmity of will than to lack of knowledge. distrust.. character. To pull is to exert a drawing force. suspense. manifest truth. determination. suspicion. while doubt is lack of conviction disbeli^ is conviction. and be quite indifferent. decision. conviction. perplexity. tho they may be sustained from falling. attract. hesitation. uncertainty. drag. teeolve. and is eager and anxious uncertainty may relate to any period. > Gertainty. pull. Distrust and suspicion apply especially to the motives. doubt may be content to linger unresolved. whether slight or powerful. Synonyms: allure. whether adequate or inadequate tends to draw. As regards belief.

a day-dream that which passes before the mind in such condition. One vessel tows another. we speak of dreams of fortune. reject. To hatil is to draw somewhat slowly a heavy object . dream the fish puUs on the line . vision. fantasies. Hallucination is the seeming perception. draw the boat through . repulse. to TmuI logs. reverie. the wagon is drawn by horses. to haiil a seine . draw air into the lungs draw loith the water. whether in sleep or wakefulness. Compare allube . a trance is an abwhich is different from nonual sleep or wakefulness. as. to the barn. to tug at the oar. a dentist ^Z7s a tooth. attract is more nearly akin to incline. of non^^existent objects. iOCRAY .139 as. realization. fancy. substance. A reverie is a purposeless drifting of the mind when awake. To tug is to draw. Prepositions To draw water /rom or out of the well . a resisting object witla a continuous straining motion . rebuff. "We are attracted by one's appearance. along the road. : estrange. K fancy is some image as A more real normal state. with little difference of meaning except that the vision is thought of as fuller and more vivid. and in clear exercise of the senses and mental powers vision is often applied to something seen by the mind through supernatural agency. conceived and authoritative than a dream . dream is strictly a train of thoughts. verity. : fact. Antonyms certainty. In the figurative sense. repel. romance. over the stones. through the woods. or try to draw. across the field. teaatatsy. to the shore cords of love. under the influence of mental images . Synonymsi day-dream. reality. In the figurative sense. . influ- ESOE. often in the fullest exercise of its powers. trance. and images passing through the mind dttting sleep . as La insanity or delirium. presented to the mind. draw to induce. We speak of a trance of delight when the emotion almost sweeps one away from the normal exercise of the faculties. ballucmatlon. as. visions of glory. a vision may occur when one is awake. See synonyms for drive. Antonyms alienate. . draum to his ^de.

we sometimes speak of a national costume. Repulse is stronger and more conclusive than repel . specifically. nakedness. xvii. DRESS. court dress. diBhabille. and garments may be used of inner or outer covering . Garb denotes the some class. the Shakespeare speaks of "poor and mean attire. tho in Scripture we read of riding in a chariot (3 Kings ix. man leads a horse by the halter. apparel. 16 Jer. undress. so. Array. as. A good examples of the same usage may be . A^yparel and attire are most frequently used of somewhat complete and elegant outer clothing. and in that sense may be either rich or shabby but in the general sense it denotes outer clothing which is meant to be elegant. repulse. Dress has now largely displaced apparel and attire. Synonyms compel. tbrust. uniform. except in ecclesiastical use. etc. as.- raiment. a lady's riding=c?ress. drives him with whip . certain conventional modern usage. impel. evening dress. one may be repelled by the very aspect of the person whose favor he seeks. clothes and garments view it as composed of separate Clothes. full dress. grarb. ride. sion ." Dress may be used. raiment. Clothing denotes the entire covering of the body. except in technical use to denote . propel. the garb of a priest. 35. drive a synonym equally for compel or for repel or repulse. etc. is parts. A rein. exposnre. robes. clothing. especially in England. clothing characteristic of Antonyms bareneBB. ride upon a horse . push. taken as a whole. but is not and is . : disarray. costume. requires us to say that we drive in a carriage. garments. One may be driven to a thing or from it hence. vestments. all the other words in the list (with possible rare exceptions in the case of raiment) refer to the outer garments.drive 140 Synonyms. for a woman's gown. repel.) . too. resist. Costume is chiefly used for that which befits an assumed character . fiablllments. and vesture are archaic or poetic. profession. urge on. array. etc. and appropriate to some social or public occahabit. clotbing. The word vestments is now rare. as. lead. habit. repulsed except by the direct refusal or ignoring of his suit. a threatrical costume . vesture. nudity. complete. etc. To drive is to move an object with some force or violence before or away from oneself it is the direct reverse of draw. or the like . clotbes. DRIVE. attire.

. . . but never an inaccurate duplicate. . as. A facsimile is like the original in appearance . authenticated by the signer ture of the proper ofiB. across the field . and by the seal of the appropriate court. the signatures. Many good authorson's saying that ities to be supported prefer to use ride in the older and broader sense as signifying and borne along by any means of conveyance. A replica is a copy of a work of art by the maker of the original.141 duplicate found abundantly in the older English. a duplicate is really an original. a transcript is an oflScial copy. into the bam . . a carbon copy of a typewritten document must be a duplicate . . or under the lash drive hy or past beautiful estates . Reproduction is chiefly applied to living organisms. While strictly there could be but one duplicate. from one's drive hy. D1TPI. transcript. along the beach heside the river through the park . we may have an inaccurate copy. replica. original. a duplicate is the same as the original in substance and effect .I€ATE. out of the city . influence. . does all the driving. A counterpart exactly corresponds to another object. The propriety of a perhe is going to drive when he is simply to be conveyed in a cai-riage. Antonyms. a duplicate is exactly like the original . the word is now extended to an indefinite number of exact copies. imitation. is exceedingly questionable. model. with. around the square to the . a duplicate will open the lock. drive into exile . so that it may have in all respects the same force and effect . ^ » * prototype. Synonyms copy. may be copied . . facsimile. while a copy is intentional. as the coachman. -litomyms: archetype. Compare BiNiSH compel. an imitation of Milton. a facsimile of the Declaration of Independence is not a duplicate. containing the same provisions and signed by the same persons. In law. as well as other matters. counterpart. out of the sunshine. . pattern. a copy of an instrument has in itseH no authority . to despair . but perhaps without design.cer. where some one else. Prepositions Drive to market presence . An imitation is always thought of as inferior to the original . See synonyms for draw. reprodactlon. A facsimile of a key might be quite useless . door . A copy is as nearly Uke the original as the copyist has power to make it . libeness.

stolid. as by one's own promise. needless.. It is the creditor's right to demand payment. regardless. is by which one is bound . cold.eager 14!S Synonyms Etymologically. intent. One is eager for the gratification of any appetite or passion . Indifierent. Antonyms apathetic. cool. stupid. one is glowing. right is impersonal. honor. zealous. impetuous. and constant . vebementi yearning. a debtor's obligation . and so be the converse of duty. duty that to or is BrTY. Compare straight. eager for a decisive battle. rigbteousness. Bnmindfnl. or in the direct line of truth BUSINESS. phlegmatic. not. Eager usually refers some specific and immediate permanent and enduring . Importunate. Prepositions Eager for (more rarely pursuit. Duty arises from the nature of things . entbusiastic. fervent. intense. and the debtor's duty to pay. oflace. eager in . tmconcemed. Synonyms anxious. desirous. impatient. business. responsibility. that which owed or due . ardent. right. one is anxious with a desire that foresees rather the pain of disappointment than the delight of attainment. right. In a more limited sense. his obligations and responsibilities are to others. careless. pnrposeless. after) favor. unmoved. etc. One is eager who impatiently desires to accomplish some end j earnest with a desire that is less impatient. he is earnest in conviction. keen. longing. the to satisfaction. frigid. : animated. negligent. burning. obligation. function. and goodness. stony. dispassionate. responsibility. One's duty may be to others or to himself . purpose. uninterested. resolute. Right is that which accords with the moral system of the universe. that which correct. or by the acceptance of a trust. but more deep. Righteousness is right incarnated in action. earnest to something patriotic soldier is earnest in hia devotion to his country. etc. or character. that for which one must answer. obligation. Duty and responsibility are thought of as to some person or persons . earnest. i calm. or of a child's duty of obedience. and a parent's responsibility for the child's welfare. is accountability. obligation and responsibility may be created by circumstances. EAOER. We speak of a parent's duty. right may be used of what one may rightly claim.

action or of expected action. when ity . educere. instruction. Ease may be either of condition or of action facility is always of action readiness is of . . expertness. which he gives himself. but does not end there. facility. p. Expertness applies to the more mechanical processes of body and mind . vexation. It begins in the nursery. and goes on at school. leaming. to lead or draw out) is the systematic development and cultivation of the mind and other natural pow" Education is the harmonious development of all our facers. and one more important. Instruction. readiness of wit . the speaker has facility of expression. readiness. knowledge. training. Ease of action may imply merely the possession of ample power . Easiness applies to the thing done. study. irritation. '94. culture. development. dexter. trouble. information. discipline. uneasiness. Training refers not merely to the . Education (L. . ing cares one stands at wholly without constraint. I breeding. Teaching is the more familiar and less formal word for instruction. moves or speaks with ease. tax. reading. whether we will or not 'Every person. Ease in the sense here considered denotes freedom from conscious or apparent effort. to build in or into) is but a part of education. rather than to the doer. Antonyms annoyance. awkwardness. One lives at ease who has no pressease. 111. discomfort. POWER. constraint. often the smallest part. It continues through Uf e. tuition. EASE.'" John Lubbock The Use of Life ch. disquiet. worry. but of the expertness of a gymnast.' says Gibbon. readiness may be active or passive . the impartation of knowledge by [Macm. difficulty. others (L. one which he receives from others. .] . ulties. nurture.i/iQ *** ease education Synonyms easiness. facility always implies practise and skiE any one can press down the keys of a typewriter with ease . any appliance is in readiness for use. we speak of the readiness of an orator. Facility is always active . Compare comfortable . teaching. or sti-ain. instruere. iJeadiJiess in the active sense includes much of the meaning of ease with the added idea of promptness or alertness. vii. scbooling. 'has two educations. . Synonyms EDUCATION. cultivation. only the skilled operator works the machine with /aci7ii2/. perplexity. knaclc.

Insolence. not. and nothing whatever of that moral development which is included in education in its fuUest and noblest sense learning. vigorous. Study is emphatically what one does for himself. and personal association. or discipline. training. Study is emphatically what one does for himself. public opinion. . but any fuU education must be the result in great part of instruction. Antonyms ignorance. is a reckless defiance of law. Study is also used in the sense of the thing studied. training. like the latter word. a studious pursuit. eefinement . breeding having reference largely to manners with such qualities as are deemed distinctively characteristic of high birth nurture (literally nourishing) having more direct reference to moral qualities. encourage the student to advance. a subject to be mastered by study. especially as directed by and dependent upon home life and personal association . wisdom. decency. not overlooking the physical and mental. and remove obstacles. Breeding and nurture include teaching and training. i Uliteracy. but not of the education or tuition of a dog or a horse. impudence. Discipline is systematic and rigorous training. the audacious person .em-ontery 144 impartation of knowledge. and in which instruction and tuition can only point the way. . "We speak of the teaching. EFFRONTERY. . approaching the meaning of impudence or shanwlessness. hardUiood. or personal rights. Synonyms. including training. Tuition is the technical term for teaching as the business of an instructor or as in the routine of a school tuition is nai-rower than teaching. but always carrying the thought of the personal risk that one disregards in such defiance the merely impudent or shameless person may take no thought of consequences. Compare knowledge . with the idea of subjection to authority and perhaps of punishment. in the sense here considered. too. sbamelessness. persevering study is one of the best elements of training. or views. Compare synonyms for ignorant. boldness. Audacity. brass. Knowledge and learning tell nothing of mental development apart from the capacity to acquire and remember. audacity. but to the exercising of one in actions with the design to form habits. claims. may be acquired by one's unaided industry. assurance.

in the good sense.•'•S egotism recognizes and recklessly braves them. with the constant Egoism self-esteem. self-consciousness is commonly painful to its possessor. self-distrnst. Hardihood defies and disregards the rational judgment of men. Antonyms: baslifalness. modesty. spoken of with reference to the presence and observation of others . but is ordinarily a weakness. nnostentatiousness. shameless) adds to audacity and hardihood the special element of defiance of considerations of propriety. ego- tism. diffidence. fails to receive its supposed due. boldness. conceit arouses resentment. yet not to the extent implied in impudenee or shamelessness. EOOTISm. except as it. > egoism. Impudence disregards what is due to superiors shamelessness defies decency. Iitunility. self-conceit is ridiculous or pitiable . self-confidence. Self-consciousness is the keeping of one's thoughts' upon oneself. selMorgetfiilnesa. There is a worthy self-confidence which springs from consciousness of rectitude and of power equal to demands. or manner of what one believes to be his due . Self-assertion at times becomes a duty . Effrontery (L. but the word is frequently used in an unfavorable sense to indicate a lack of proper sensitiveness and modesty. Synonyms conceit. is anxious question of what others will think. and respect for othei-s. deference. duty. Egotism is sometimes used in the sense of egoism. 10 . act. diffidence. self-conceit. self-conceit is an overestimate of one's own powers or deserts. Boldness is forward=stepping courage. with always an offensive implication . undue supremacy in thought . > basMulness. nnobtmsivenesB. modesty. eensltiveness. vanity. Vanity is an overweening admiration of self. or supreme regard for oneself. vanity always a source of satisfaction. Self-esteem is more solid and better founded than self-conceit . pbide. shynesB. self-consciousness. is giving the "I" giving the " I " undue prominence in speech. timidity. Conceit is a briefer expression for selfconceit. Self-assertion is the claim by word. barefaced. Compare ASSUHAN CE . shyness. self-assertion. Antonyms cojneBS. craving equal admiration from others. and never has the worthy sense of self-confidence. but self-conceit is always a weakness. BKAVE. effrons. shrinking. Compare ASStrKANCE . is courage viewed from the outside .

which is a natural emblem of eternity. with or without natural fitness a sign does actually suggest the thing with or without reason. sign. symbol. symbol may be also an emblem. An emblem has some natural fitness to suggest that for which it stands . . 146 image. token. On the other hand. and with or without intention or choice. especially in sculpture. . thus the eagle is the attribute of St. is frequently given as a token of friendship or love. or astronomical symbols. a letter of the alphabet is a sign which indicates a sound but letters are often used as mathematical.emblem EKIBL. . signifying the English form of emblema. a symbol has been chosen or agreed upon to suggest something else. An image is a visible representation. a gift is a token. . as representing a future reality. . or found to correspond with another. A statement of doctrine is often called a symbol of faith but it is not an emblem. as in drawing.E1I. a figure inlaid in wood. from within rial as . type. whether there was or was not anything in the objects compared to suggest the comparison. A token is something given or done as a pledge or expression of feeling or intent while the sign may be unintentional. or sculpture. A . a symbol represents. A . John as an emblem of lofty spiritual vision. stone. chemical. figure may be prac. and also its accepted symbol. painting. having or supposed to have a close resem- blance to that which it represents. a. The Greek word symbolon denoted a yictor's wreath. or other matea copy of some natural object. the same thing may be both a sign and a symbol . a ring. tically the same as a type. the token is voluntary . An attribute in art is some accessory used to characterize a figure or scene the attribute is often an emblem or symbol. a Latin word of Greek a figure beaten out on a metallic vesse] by blows also. Synonjrms attribute. Compare sign. a check. kind looks may be signs of regard. thus the elements of bread and wine in the Lord's Supper are both appropriate emblems and his own chosen symbols of suffering and death. as in the case of animal or vegetable types. type is in religion a representation of a greater reality to come we speak of one object as the type of the class whose characteristics it exhibits. Emblem is origin. figure. Thus an emblem resembles. A figure in the sense here considered is something that represents an idea to the mind somewhat as a form is represented to the eye. or any object that might be compared with.

to use is to render subservient to one's purpose what is iised is viewed as more absolutely an instrument than Synonynis: call. except in a degrading as. in such cases we could not substitute employ. a general is employed in his country's service . and to many birds and animals. A . according to the side from which the action is viewed. or of periodical retm-n it applies to . or in familiar employed . the conspirators used him as a go=between.ly **• einlKi-ate employ Synonyms Immigrate. use. Hence the "We phrase used up .a . hire. according to present usage. to speak of hiring a pastor the Scripture. and immigrates to the land where he takes up his abode. he uses pen and as a rule. a merchant employs a clerk . we used twenty tons of coal last winter . indeed. is to devote to one's purpose. To migrate is to change one's <iwelliiig=place. person may be ew ployed in his own work or in that of another in the latter case the service is always understood to be for pay. use is not said of persons. . "The laborer is worthy of his hire". wandering tiibes of men. ehiorate. use up. or when the business side . says of the preacher. sense . it has also the fatilt of representing the himian worker as absolutely a passive and helpless instrument . A EMPLiOY. as. engage. but this sense is archaic. a mercenary adventurer is hired to fight a tyrant's battles. the two w^ords are used distinctively of human beings. Prepositions person emigrates /rom the land he leaves. expression common in some religious circles "that Grod would Mse me " is not to be commended . In general terms it make use of." That which is used is often consumed in the using. It is unsuitable. In this connection employ is a w^ord of more dignity than hire . the phrase is altogether unsoriptural . and apply to the same person and the same act. may be said that to employ what paper is . Emigrate and immigrate carry the idea of a permanent change of residence to some other country or some distant region . are laborers together with (co= workers with) God. and hire now implies that the one hired works directly and primarily for the pay. engross. as expressed in the noun " hireling". usually with tha idea of repeated change. the Scripture says. a pastor is properly said to be called. I migrate.

in such a case. cessation. concluded. or possibly employed. the speech is neither closed. engaged. the statue is finished. bound. that is closed. nor. is 148 referred to. complete. conclusion. iv. effect. outcome« extremity.end of the transaction a certain salary. utmost. not merely to complete in the essentials. or about a work. purpose. acblevement. completion. break off. period. A . speech may be ended almost as soon as begun. goal. but to perfect in all the minute details. uttermost. limit. point. at Prepositions Employ in. " I have finished my course. fulfilment. in the strict sense. or is ended. progx-ess. boundary. tip. expiration. wind up. Synonyms. quit. A thing stops that comes to rest from motion . That ends. Intent. he terminated his remarks abruptly. the spire terminates in a cross. i conclude. . concluded.i for a purpose . the poem. upon. as in the expression "to add the finishing touches. or the motion stops or ceases when the object comes to rest . etc. Issue. the picture. To finish is to do the last thing there is to do . finale. Synonyms cease. or action of any kind. business. because of the speaker's illness. terminationt terminus. completed. stop. on. of which there is no more. desien. result. step frequently signifies to bring or come to a sudden and decided cessation of motion. expire. finlsb. terminate. when an argument is concluded all that is deemed necessary to prove the point has been stated. whether or not more was intended or needed . or of tumult in the audience . consummation. as. accompUsbinent. close." S Tim. at a stipulated salary. close. An argument may be closed with nothing px-oved . To terminate may be either to bring to an arbitrary or to an appropriate end as. Finish has come to mean." The enumeration is completed. extent. desist. Compare DO TRANSACT. 7. finlsb. OT finished which has come to an expected or appropriate end. finis. completed. consequence. Antonyms See synonymns for BEani. nor finished.

Eocpiration signifies the coming to an end in the natural course of things . to endeavor is to attempt strenuously and with firm and enduring purpose. but is said of small or slight and tapering objects . Term. or of a lease . or privilege . extremity is said of something considerable . goal is an end sought or striven for. to essay. a fork. To undertake is to accept or take upon oneself as an obligation. Terminus is chiefly used to designate the end of a line of travel or transportation : specifically. as some business. a continuous exertion . To attempt expresses a single act . the furthermost station in any direction on a railway. the limits of an estate (compare boundaey). A Antonyms See synonyms for beginning. or abstractions of any kind. it is used of things of some consequence . as. undertalce. the eoepiration of a year.ination is the Latin and more formal word for the Saxon end. we say I wiU endeavor (not I will attempt) while I live. as. or by extension the town or village where it is situated. design. undertakings. to endeavor. essay. attempt. with a view of testing our own powers.149 endeavor. and may thus be but part of the end in the general sense of that word . the extremity is distinctively the terminal jpoiraf. the extremity is viewed as that which is most remote from some center. as. i D. as the point of a needle. or trust . we do not ordinarily speak of the eocpiration of an hour or of a day. conseqence. Limit implies some check to or restraint upon further advance. Tip has nearly the same meaning as extremity. words. To attempt is with the view of accomplishing . Synonyms ENDEATOR. the word often implies complete assurance of success . the tip of the finger . For the figurative senses of end and its associated words. labor. or a sword . point in such sonnections is said of that which is drawn out to exceeding fineness or shai-pness. To attempt is to take action somewhat experimentally with the hope and purpose of accomplishing a certain result . but is chiefly used of time. the southern end of South America includes all Patagonia. try. V. compare the synonyms for the verb end. right. the southern extremity or point is Cape Horn. as. as in a race. . The end is the terminal part of a material object that has length . we do not speak of the extremity of a needle. strive. or some mean or standard position. also for aim .

bear up under. EXDURE. let go. tlirow away." To attempt suggests giving up. brook. endeavor less strenuous but more continuous. or of Christian Effort. tiirow up. grief. exertion. tolerate. An essay is an attempt. to try implies using means and studying out other ways if not at first successful. throw over. bear. Compare endeavor. an endeavor a continued series of acts .endeaTor. attempt. afford. . annoyance. v. lamenting. and may be lifelong . effort. pass by. i. omit. endare ^ ^^ low I will undertalce to produce the witness. pain. Endeavor is more mild and formal the pilot in the burning pilot= house does not say " I will endeavor" or "I will attempt to hold other . Effort denotes the voluntary putting forth of power to attain or accomplish some specific thing. trial. Eveiy effort is an exertion. overlook. I will spare no labor and exertion to do it. An effort is a single act. neglect. strugg^le. Try is the most comprehensive of these words. Allow and permit involve large concession of the will put up with and tolerate imply decided aversion and reluctant withholding of opposition or allow. if the thing is not accomplished at a stroke ." but " I'll try. strain. in seeking it .. an endeavor is sustained and enduring. or repining. effort. n. dismiss. e. . bear witb. exertion is a putting forth of power without special reference to an object. Bear is the most general of these words it is metaphorically to hold up or keep up a burden of care. n. Attempt is more experimental than effort. sir I Antonyms: abandon. To strive suggests little of the result. struggle is a violent effort or strenuous exertion. drop. . it reaches toward a definite end . Synonyms: ElVDEATOR. much of toil. I will strive to fulfil your wishes. but of Christian Endeavor. and contest. The oi-iginal idea of testing or experimenting is not thought of when a man says " I will try. essay. or endeavor made as a test of the powers of the one who makes it. put up witb. but not every exertion is an effort. without sinking. A Synonyms abide. support. sustain. we do not have a society of Christian Attempt. undergo. or the like. suffer. give up. submit to. the ship to her course. permit.

To endure is to hear with strain and resistance. but with conscious power." where no personal animosity may be implied foe. faint. Compare abide support. e. opponents in debate may contend with no personal ill will rivals in love. . . endure conveys a fuller suggestion of contest and conquest than bear. yield. fall.151 interference . competitor. . give up. breakdown. opponent. : accessory. foe. surrender. : despair. antagonist. . etc formerly much used in the general sense of antagonist or opponent. ambition. to be able to bear it. . Adversary was rarely avoid inimical feeling. I will abide the result. falter. give out. but does so with hostile spirit. rival. ^ Prepositions He was the enemy of my friend in the contest. which is rather a poetical and literary word. . one in whom the attitude of resistance is the more prominent a competitor. opposed actively and with intensity of effort an opponent. but is now less common. enemy whispering is allowed by the school=teacher who does not forbid nor censure it one puts up with the presence of a disagreeable visitor a state tolerates a religion which it would be glad to suppress. Compare synonyms . fail. provocation or insult. . implies intensely hostile An antagonist is one who opposes and is spirit and purpose. One may choose to endure the pain of a surgical operation rather than take anesthetics he permits the thing to come which he must brace himself to endure when it comes. Antonyms abettor. Synonyms : adversary. To brook is quietly to put up with i. accomplice. Bink. Abide combines the senses of await and endure . • j v helper. supporter. Antonyms break. . . for AMBITION. as. droop. one who seeks the same object for which another is striving antagonists in wrestling. An enemy in private life is one who is moved by hostile feeling vnth active disposition to injure but in military language all who fight on the opposite side are called enemies or collectively "the enemy. . . . or perhaps out of pure malignity as. succumb. . ally. the great Adversary. . „ ^ tnend. and largely restricted to the hostile sense an adversary is ordinarily one who not only opposes another in fact. To afford is to be equal to a pecuniary demand. competitors in business..

alliance. enliven a dull evening or company. Enmity distinctly recognizes its object as an enemy. maUgnlty. notes actual arising Antonyms: agreement. of hostile feeling. hostility. he entertained us with an amusing story. Malice is a disposition or intent to injure others. friendEhlp. harmony. tdndllness. cheer the despondent. Enmity is the liIttemeBS. malice. occupy. Bympatby. To beguile is. notes a feeUng more active and vehement. than enmity. regard. animosity. gratify our . rancor. action . malignity is intense and violent enmity. Bitterness is a resentful feeling from a belief that one has been wronged . To recreengage mind or body in some pleasing activity that restores strength and energy for serious work. armed collision. being an enemy or the feeling and dispoAnimosity desition characterizing an enemy (compare enemy). hatred. gratify. to be met or dealt with accordingly. in the sense here considered. to cheat into cheer and comfort by something that insensibly draws thought or feeling away from pain or disquiet. one may be entertained or amused who has ate. but deeper and more persistent. concord. To entertain. at least. but ordinarily suggests a shade. Compare synonyms for ACEmoNY . lU'will. Antagonism. please. where no injustice or wrong is felt. acrimony is a kindred feeling. literally to re=create. disport. for the gratification of some evil passion . to amuse is to occupy the attention in an especially bright and cheerful way. batred. t acrimony. divert. often with that which excites merriment or laughter . We beguile a weary hour. cheer. Hostility is enmity in. interest. does not necessarily imply enmity. and may arise from the crossing of one's wishes or plans by another. kindness. recreate. as it were. as. entertahv. spite. or malice. enliven. Synonyms amuse. malevolence. is to nothing serious or laborious from which to bediverted.enmity entertain . as between two competing authors or merchants. but often less enduring and determined. beguile. is to engage and pleasantly occupy the attention . ai^geb . emlty. delight. To divert is to turn from serious thoughts or laborious pm-suits to something that lightly and agreeably occupies the mind. the term hostilities between nations destate of antagonism. hatred. 1»^ __ Synonyms EXMITY. divert the preocoupied.

is used of somewhat mirthful mental delight recreation may. warmtn. recreate when worn with toil . horse=^ . fatigue. occupy idle time. zeal. but entertainment and recreation are capable of a racing. meaning so high as never sport. but enjoyment may be too keen to be called amusement. lassitude. labor. and baseball are sports.ent and pastime are nearly equivalent. and usually does. sport. combine the mental with the A7nusem. bnsy. The old meaning of enthusiasm implies a ysendonnspiration. frenzy. apart from its special senses of a public performance or a social party. many slight things may be pastimes which we should hardly dignify by the name of amuseSports are almost wholly on the physical plane. fim. the physical. and predominantly even there. pleasure. Cheer may be Compare synonoyms for entertain. disturb. deliglit. fervor. vebemence. excitement. eagerness. recreation. fun and frolic are apt to be boisterous. diversion. Entertainment. Amusement is a form of enjoyment. £rolic. tho in an agreeable. earnestness. Antonyms annoy. they are therefore words of a high order.lua friends' wishes. each according to his taste. Synonyms ardor. EKTHIJSIASni. i bore. refreshing way. latter probably the lighter word . rapture. passion. involving a certain grade of mental action fox=hunting. Certain sports may afford entertainment or recreation to certain persons. extravagance. to be approached by any meaning of very quiet. enjoyment. Synonyms amusement. as the cheer of a bright fire to an aged traveler . according to their individual tastes . entertain. distract. devotion. inspiration. . work. Entertainment and recreation imply thought and mental occupation. we amuse ourselves or others with whatever pleasantly passes the time without special exertion.erriment. ecstacy. tiro. please _ entertainment enthusiasm a listening audience. intensity fanaticism. weary. tho ments. toil. fervency. weariness. transport. disquiet. disport ourselves when merry. Antonyms: ennui. pastime. cbeer. merriment is with UveUness and laughter . m. interest.

Entrance. Inlet. portal. or of entrance into the ministry. obtain. office . egress. Antonyms. refers merely to the fact of passing from without to within some enclosure . withdrawal. rejection. Introduction. recognition. into battle . admission and admittance refer to entering by or with some one's consent. ingress. or becoming a member. tho often without its hopefulness. nothing great and good can be carried without a certain fervor. Indlilerence. exit. these joined with faith. . procure. opening. Apa movement toward another . win. etc. dulness. but not admittance or admission. admission refers also to position. an intense and eager interest. refusal. Against the hindrances of the world. the act of entering. intensity. lukewammess. wariness. Antonyms. coldness. Enthusiasm has now chiefly the meaning of an earnest and commendable devotion. ejection. entree entry. An unworthy favorite may prevent even those who gain admittance to a king's audience from obtaining any real access to the king. admission.action with all the devotion of enthiusiasm. as. access is coming all the way to his presence. the gates on or upon a work or course of action by or through the door within into or among the company. accession. calmness. and consideration.of some organization . or at least to opportunity afforded by some one's act or neglect. . cantlon. privilege. timidity. and hopefulness make enthusiasm. Am intruder may gain admittance to the hall of a soci- ety who would not is proach be allowed adm. ElVTRABfCE. admittance. policy.entrance IS4 an almost frantic extravagance in behalf of something stipposed to be an expression of the divine will. prudence.ission to its membership. Zeal is burning earnestness. a. Prepositions Entrance into a place into or upon . . deadness. Compare eagee. approacli. secure.nd vehemence . departure. expulsion. door. i access. always tending to vigorous. w^e speak of one's entrance upon college life. favor. gateway. This sense remains as the controlling one in the kindred nonn enthusiast. those we gain. friend- We ship. courage. Entrance is also used figuratively for setting out iipon some career. may effect or force an entrance. penetration. Synonyms adit. calculation. doorway. gate. exclusion. Admittaneereteisto place.

right or claim. while an ambiguous utterance may be simply the result of a want or hearer to fluctuate . intentionally deceptive. That is doubtful which is fauly open to doubt . which would fit the language equally well it is equivocal w^hen it would naturally be understood in one way. That which is enigmatical must be guessed like a riddle a statement may be purposely made enigmatical in order to provoke thought and study. or even without reason. on account of his wealth or power. obscure or doubtful through indeflniteness of expression. that is dubious which has become the subject of doubts so grave as . trastfnl. (L. because of. word) denotes that which may equally well be understood in either of two or more ways. Indeterminate. around. he is jealoiis of intrusion upon that which is his own.f-. envious of his wealth or power . is envious who cherishes selfish ill wiU toward another because of his superior success. One is suspicious of another from unfavorable indications or from a knowledge of wrong in his previous conduct. satisfied. and ago. envious of hiTn for. equus. but is capable of a different interpretation an equivocal expression is. or to which he maintains a. ambiguous when it leaves the mind of the reader between two meanings. i friendly. A statement is either of clear thought or of adequate expression. welMIsposed. or the lite. Synonyms JCQVIVOCAL. uncertain. aml>i. . . Prepositions': Envious of (formerly at or against) a person . lead) sigfnifies lacking in distinctness or certainty. questionable. A free people must be jealous of their liberties if they would retain th^. i ambiguous doubmil. suspicious. voice. according to its object and tendency. possessions. as a rule. indefinite. dubious. Ambiguous is applied only to spoken or written statements . indistinct. and to which he himself has no right or claim . kindly. a jealous spirit may be good or bad. A person is envious of that which is another's. suspicious. equal. Equivocal enigmatical. Antonyms contented. Compare doubt. enigmatic. An envious spirit is always bad . obscure. endowments. equivocal has other applications. perplesing. t jealous. drive. *"«» envious equlvoeal Synonyms One Enrriovs. and vox. Ambiguous (L.

to appreciate beauty or harmony . a favor. beyond all price. one whose friendship I esteem. a shell greatly esteemed for inlaid work. appreciate. or may prize it as the gift of an esteemed friend. denotes a imion of respect and kindly feeUng and. perspicuous. as a family heirloom. bold. To say that one's honesty is questionable of saying that in the opinion of the speaker he is Equivocal is sometimes. as said of persons. regarder. obvious. but esteem be deeply or keenly sensible of or sensitive to its qualities or influence. the word may be used in a similar sense of material things or abstractions . is less estimate. one whom I highly esteem . be alive to its value. of moral approbation. as a picture. we estimate it to be worth so much money. consider. in the highest sense. calculate. as. I regard him as a friend . as. . i V. To prize is to set a high value on for something more than merely commercial reasons. tlilnlE. unambiguous. manifest. a questionable statement is one that must be proved before it can be accepted. reason to be suspected . a dubious reputation. it an honor. to see its full import. To appreciate anything is to Esteem and estimate alike imply to precise upon. i). To regard (F. a suspicious temper is inclined to suspect the motives and intentions of othbrs. as. deem. I esteem. indubitable. Questionable may be used nearly in the sense either of dubious or of doubtful . Antonyms certain. plain. observe) is to have a certain mental view favorable or unfavorable . as. This sense of esteem is now chiefly found in literary or oratorical style. is a mild way likely to prove dishonest. indisputable. tho rarely. regard. tho more suspicious character gives manifest rarely. set a certain mental value and mercantile than calculate or estimate. used in this sense. prize. and in certain conventional phrases . One may value some object. We esteem a jewel precious . Synonyms ESTEEIH. unquestionaole. t evident. unquestioned. I regard him as a villain regard has a distinctively favorable sense as applied to institutions . ISO scarcely to fall short of condemnation . or.esteem. used of persons. or worth . unequivocal. In popular usage esteem. A Compare cleab. wither without reason. clear. value. the word is similarly. without at all appreciating its artistic merit or commercial value. distinct. look at. Jacid. as. to appreciate one's services in a cause . as. importance.

witbout end. excellence. hatred. antipathy. Antonyms abhorrence. or superiority. as. never^falllng. respect. without end. regard. Regard is more personal and less distant than esteem. Compare ESTEEM. Respect may be wholly on one side. dislike. but endless applies to God constantly used in inferior senses. unceasing. in its utmost reach. undying. ever^living. while regard is more often mutual . contempt. proprieties. Synonyms ETERlVALi. is not distinguishable from everlasting . immortal. and is especially used of the feeling entertained by numbers of people . we may pay an external respect to one of lofty station. signifies perennial. we regard the Sabbath . Everlasting and endless are both used in a limited sense of protracted. loathing. ESTEEm. repngnanoe. fa. indefinite. fadeless. v. endless.tut " esteem. aversion. interminable. regardless of personal qualities. is very high. my estimate of the man. unending. unfading. Esteem for a person is a favorable opinion on the basis of worth. imperishable. endless. Estimate has more of calculation . especially in mechanics. Lote. eouian. we have a regard for the person. I deathless. n. is . as in the phrases an endless screw. duties. friendship. respect is a more distant word than esteem. eternal is also used in this more limited sense . Regard for a person is the mental view or feeling that sjirings from a sense of his value. with a cordial and hearty friendliness. everlasting applies to that which may or may not have beginning. n. especially of moral worth. estimation. Estimation involves the idea of calculation or appraisal with that of esteem or regard. showing respect for the office. and adds a special kindliness . an endless chain. and honorable. eternal n. Compare esteem. never>ending. we regard a person's feelings. perpetual. etc. unfailing... or to a person of such qualities . or of his abilities. everlasting. as. worthy. but does not share the use of the noun regard as applied to persons . respect in the fullest sense is given to what is lofty. he stood high in public estimation. joined with a feeling of interest in and attraction toward the person. in which alone . but will never cease . Synonyms: estimate.vor. Eternal strictly sense it without beginning or end. timeless.

either. great events . circumstance. the event is what has been accomplished . fortune. as. issue. as.event every 1 xa ***" but not infinite duration . the incident is that which falls in. result. the event that which comes out . the event of a war is victory or defeat . eternal death. Circumstance agrees with incident in denoting a matter of relatively slight importance. Etymologically. without thought of its origin. AU and both. both are collective . perhaps. so we speak of interminable quarrels. Sfnonrms case. any. occurrence. Incident. and is forever exempt from death. but is of more independent interest and importance. Since the future is contingent. and not to be measured by it. " incidental evidence " would be some evidence that happened unexpectedly to touch it. i contingency. and evei-y are distrlbu- . COKSEQIXENOB . episode. sequel. like an incident or circumstance. event comes to have the meaning of a contingency . possibility. as. etymologically. the end of the war is reached when a treaty of peace is signed. al connection. each. we speak of trifling incidents. Compare circumstance . as above and beyond time. Out- cbance. in the event of his death. events of history. endless debates . end. everlasting chains. An occurrence is. the everlasting hills . the Saxon. event is thus greater and more signal than incident . endless. any. Eternal holds quite and sacred meaning in which it is applied to the Divine Being and the future state. and event the Latin for expressing the same Consequence or result would express more of logic- and be more comprehensive. the policy will at once fall due. and eternal may be applied to that which has no life . connection or tendency. Synonymai all. come is original idea. EVERY. that which we run against. but implies a more direct connection with the principal matter . EXD. The end may be simple cessation . EVEWT. consequence. fact. " circumstantial evidence" is evidence from seemingly minor matters directly connected with a case . immortal applies to that which now has life. endless night. Everlasting. Timeless strictly to the vast carries. An episode is connected with the main course of events. each. the fullest idea of eternal. incidents of daily Ufe. outcome.

glaring. . i mdubitable. . manifest is thus stronger than evident. palpable. overt.159 tive. each and every proceed through the units to the total. of all . tho sustained by good authority. mind as soon apparent which clearly appears to the senses or to the as the attention is directed toward it that is evident . tangible. a ship on the horizon. Visible applies to all that can be perceived by the sense of sight. each and every make no exception or omission. if the meaning is on hoth sides. obvious. as. of which the mind is made sure by some inference that supplements the facts of perception . he discharges them separately. each individuaUzes. The use of either in the sense of each or hoth. directly in the tion of the way so that it can not be missed . is objectionable because ambiguous. transparent. whether the noonday sun. discernible. every classifies. Each is thus more individual and specific than every . open. His friends sat on either side of the room would naturally mean on one side or the other . and the finding of a mutilated body and a lified purse made it evident that robbery and murder had been committed. indefinitely. Each divides. EVIMENT. plain. a promise made to each is made to the individuals personally. and on comparison with the original its inferiority was manifest. That is apparent. patent. a promise made to every one is so made that no individual shall faU to be aware of it . conspicuous. and must extend to all . one by one. to the exclusion of the other. unmistakable. manifest. hofh unites . visible. a man may fire hofh barrels of a gun by a single movement if he fires eaxih barrel. or a microscopic object. hoth (together) must receive twice the amount both must be aware of what has been separately communicated to ea^h . if a certain sum is given to each of two persons. all sweeps in the units as part of a total. distinct. Either properly denotes one of two. the marks of a struggle were apparent in broken shrubbery and trampled ground. That is obvious which is lay the . evident Any makes no selection and may not reach to the full limits . A promise made to all omits none a promise made to any may not reach all . That is manifest which we can hand upon. as touch is more absolute than sight that the picture was a modern copy of an ancient work was evident. Discernible applies to . it would be better to say BO. Synonjms clear. the applica- remark was obvious. perceptible.

Invisible. Ensample is the same as example. Antonyms concealed. precedent. i redundance. exorl)itance. exactly imitate the best example. Compare model . bidden. superabundance. overplus. one sets a good (or a bad) example. sample. it may be the very archetype or prototype to which the whole class must conform. covert. an exemplifir arcbetype. on the one hand of a pattern or model. ontbought of. or of what is to be shunned. model. but is practically obsolete outside of Scriptural or theological language. may be raore than a sample or specimen of any class . prototype. redundancy. Impenetrable. in a given case. surplus. nnknown. exemplar can scarcely be distinguished from exam-ple . sample. imperceptible. Ideal. i dark. since this in lavisliness. for which exemplar is not used as. latent. secret. and. Impalpable.example excess 160 that which is dimly or faintly wsjbte. profusion. ensample. but example is most frequently used for an act. often we can not. wastefulness. waste. requiring Btrain and effort in order to be seen . but only adapt Its teachings to altered circumstances. An example. An exemplification is an illustrative working out in action of a principle or law. the ship was discernible thi-ough the mist. dissipation. extravagance. specimen. superfluity. as when Christ is spoken of as being an example or leaving an example for his disExample comes nearer to the possible freedom of the ciples. without any reference to its being copied or repeated . undiscovered. — . as. obscure. emphatically the thought of manifest. exemplar. Synonyms I warning:. nnimaglned. model than to the necessary exactness of the pattern . an example guides. exemplum) example derives the seemingly contradictory meanings. Synonyms EXCESS. pattern. intemperance. or course of action. From its original sense of sample or specimen (L. and on the other hand of a warning a sample or specimen of what is to be followed. exemplification. however. In its appUcar tion to a person or thing. cation illustrates or explains. occult. . type. That is conspicuous which stands out so as necessarily or strikingly Palpable and tangible express more to attract the attention. unseen. standard. prodigality. Excess is more than enough of anytliing.

Compare do 11 . or other executive officer. As extravagance is excess in outlay. Synonyms To i administer.. the trustee administers an estate. Enforce signifies also to present and urge home by intellectual and moral force . execute is caxry out. as. want. exorbitance is excess in demands. actual or potential. or amiable excess . mete out. constable. a generous. lavishness of hospitality. as. defect. a surpluit is that which remains over after all demands are met. to enforce is to put into effect by force. Overpltts and superabundance denote in the main a satisfactory. i destitntlon. lavishness and profusion. insnfflciency. scantiness. enforce. •deficiency. to administer the law is to declare or apply it . lac^ need. a profusion of fair hair . dispense. Careless expenditure in excess of income is extravagance. etc. intemperance. etc. Surplus is neutral. to execute the law is to put it in force . excess . To administer the laws is the province of a court of justice . fragallty. to follow through to the end. Redundance or redundancy refers chiefly to literary style. having none of the unfavorable meaning that often attaches to excess . administer passes by a natui-al transition to signify inflict. shortcoming. poveny. do. perform. for this enforce From signiis the more general word. bountiful. and superfluity an undesirable. and blows. failote. economy. Excess in the moral sense is expressed by dissipation. etc. etc. prodigality. marshal. professions. the many cases word Antonyms dearth. a charity. medicine.. to enforce a precept or a duty. put into absolute and final effect in action . inadeqaacy. EXECUTE. . fying to superintend officially some application or infliction. we may have also extravagance ot language. denoting an excess of words or matter. are said to be administered a usage thoroughly established and reputable in spite of pedantio objections. control. the sheriff executes a writ. execute the more specific. as a minister and not an originator. and especially in pecuniary demands upon others. make. kill . to execute the laws is the province of a sheriff. to administer is to conduct as one holding a trust.161 very execute indicates a lack either of is judgment or of selfa used frequently in an unfavorable sense.

or takes time for practise on the piano. and commonly enforced practise under a teacher or commander. "he won his fame at the cost of his life . Synonyms cost. we speak of the cost of goods. we may violent exercise. Drill is systematic. receipts. expense of what we pay for a service . a person takes a walk for exercise. profits. or even unconsciously . exertion. profit. we speak of a joke at another's expense . expense is what is laid out by calculation or intention. product. We say. EXPEIVSE. Synonym: express. outgo. occupation. drill. exertion is the putting of any power to strain and tax. relaxation. expenditure. Practise is also used of putting into action and effect what one has learned or holds as a theory . operation. or merely for enjoyment . Compare habit. employment.exercise explicit 16a EXERCISE. as. Exercise. Inactivity. Antonyms: Inaction. See PBicE. outgo of a steady drain or of incidental expenses. maintaining. EXPLICIT. practise. return. as for the purchase of supplies . proceeds. application. An exercise=Aiive for a liorse is so much as will develop strength and health and not appreciably weary. But by qualifybring exercise up to the full sense of exerExercise is action taken at any time with a view to employing. the eapense of making up. Synonjrms act. a profession of religion is good. is systematic exercise with a view to the acquirement of facility and skill in some pursuit . The cost of Antonyms: gain. as. ing adjectives tion . receipt. in the ordinary sense. income. use. " "I know it to my cost . Outlay is used of some definite expenditure. : performance. but the practise of it is better. intentionally or unintentionally. There is a tendency to use cost of what we pay for a possession. rigorous. a thing is whatever one surrenders or gives up for it. is Both explicit and express are opposed to what merely im- . is the easy natural action of any power . retoms. outlay. the practise of law or medicine . activity. action. or increasing power. at another's cost would seem to make it a more serious matter. rest. practise.

overtbrow. originally signifying of ai from the time or occasion. written. extirpate. and terminus. and is now chiefly applied to addresses of which the thought has been prepared. remove. extemporary.. direct. e. a boundary) signified primarily to drive beyond the bounds or limits of a country the word is applied to races of men or animals. root) is . Improvised. the impromptu utterance is generally brief. and only the language and incidental treatment left to the suggestion of the moment. doubtful. extempore. expel. nncertaln. Indeftnlte. doubtful. is extemporaneons exterminate That which is explicit is unfolded. implied. denoting absolute want" of preparation. and more formal. **»«» „^ or implied. Offhand is stUl more emphatic as to the readiness and freedom of the utterance.. denoting something that springs from the instant. and is now almost exclusively used for removal by death individuals are now said to be banished or expelled. ex. the extemporaneous speech may chance to be prosy. recited. root out. primarily applied to numbers or groups of plants which it is desired to remove effectually from the soil a single tree may be uprooted. -wipe out. we labor to eradicate . impromptu keeps its original sense. destroy. out. out. banlsb. Compare A^ntonyms: ambiguous. vague. prepared. . so that an extemporaneous speech is understood to be any one that is not read or recited. Eradicate (L. Synonyms annlbilate. uproot. Indeterminate. etudied. but is not said to be eradicated. Extemporaneous. that which is exit plicit may not press uttered or stated so decidedly that may not be forgotten be misun- nor overlooked. so that it be obscure. offband. eradicate. premeditated. ready utterance as is generally designated by impromptu. An explicit statement is too clear to is an express command ci^eae. derstood . impromptu. Exterminate (L. Synonyms EXTEiniPORAWEOVS. unpremeditated. read. Implicit. has come to mean done or made with but little (if any) preparation. or ambiguous . EXTERinilVATE. Antonyms elaborated. and vigorovis . Unpremeditated is graver. . but is rather too heavy a word to be applied to such apt. too emphatic to be disregarded. and radix.

Belief. voices. conspicuous. reliance. or person may be faint when physically wearied. esbausted. out. breed. exterminating wild beasts or hostile tribes . as said of persons or lacking deflniteness or distinctness of color or sound. . signifying overcome with physical weakness or exhaustion. Synonyms: assent. stem. faint-hearted. clear. ex. or lacking in purpose. sturdy. -vigorous. covers . Compare abolish. Faint.faint faltb 164 or root out noxious weeds. Written characters may he faint or originally written with poor ink. an intellectual process. purposeless. or energy. assurance. worn down. FAITH. belief. increase. faint in color. daring. fatigued. build up. faltering. credit. with the general sense of lacking strength or effectivea wide range of meaning. Antonyms bright. stock) is not only to destroy the individuals of any race of plants or animals. of extirpating a . energetic. worn out. lute or because faint-hearted threaten. Synonyms FAIWT. To extirpate (L. plant. populate. brilliant. so that the race can never be restored we speak of eradicating a disease. we seek to eradicate or extirpate all vices and evils. settle. timid. dim. as said of written characters. opinion. beget. but the very stock. or because half=hearted in the cause he may be a faltering supporter because naturally irreso. doctrine. Indistinct. worn. cherish. Antonyms: augment. musical notes. a listless worker. courage. is the acceptance of some . ness. trust. colonize. feeble. w^earled. hearty. credence. cancer. listless. propagate. or because they have become faded by time and exposure. weak. conviction. balf-bearted. as creed. strong. fresh. foster. faded. languid. confidence. resolute. either because purpose. A or when overcome with fear he may be a faint adherent because naturally feeble or purposeless. irresolute. lU'deflned. Prepositions Faint with hunger . replenish. through and timid in view of perils that want of mental energy and dim. and stirps. develop.

we give one credit for good intentions.. involving the heart as well as the intellect. unbelief. assent to a proposition oi to a proposal. as. or upon a person as worthy. confident opinion. Faith is a union of belief and trust. sure. Bosplcion. . or saving point is . Conviction is a belief established by argument or evidence assurance is belief beyond the reach of argument . kindness. Goods are sold on credit . . as any other truth might be believed. incorruptible. Confidence a firm dependence upon a statement as true. a doctrine is a statement of belief regarding a single . We than belief. trustworthy. a person or thing is trusty that possesses such qualities as to justify the fullest confidence and de- A . An opinion is a general conclusion held as probable. firm. the faith of the gospeL FAITHFUI. dissent. credence is a more formal word perience. infidelity. and belief of the heart. Reliance is confidence on which we act or are ready to act unquestioningly we have a calm reliance upon the uniformity of Trust is a practical and tranquil resting of the mind upon nature. In religion. credence might be descxibed as a prima facie "belief. Antonyms! denial. true. . or promises of a person . distrnst. faith. tho without full certainty a persuasion is a more . and seems to imply somewhat more of volition we speai of giving credence to a report. person is faithful who will keep faith. Belief is stronger than credence . incredulity. Faith is chiefly personal belief may be quite impersonal we speak of belief of a proposition. but not of giving belief. friendship. because the promise emanates from a person. miggiving. skepticlBm. the integrity. loyal. Synonyms > trusty. we have trust in God. rejection. . the Christian's assurance of salvation. standi. In religion it is common to distinguish between intellectual belief of reUgious truth. donbt. disbelief. devoted. unwavering.165 faltliful thing as true on other grounds than x>e'sonaI observation and exgive credence to a report. a creed is a summary statement of doctrines. whether with or without power to aid or serve . But belief in a person is often used with no appreciable difference from faith. faith in a promise. Prepositions Have faith in God .

laurels. . I c« *"" we say Antonyms capricionB. glory. ignominy. . contumely. eminence. deeds. . superstition is ignorant. : discredit. fickle. Celebrity is limited in range . but it is always given as something good and worthy . Eminence and distinction may result from rank. faithless. infamy. Fanaticism is extravagant or even frenzied zeal bigotry is obstinate and unreasoning attachment to a cause or creed . Bigotry has not the . credulity is weak. Fame in its best sense maybe defined as the applause of numbei's renown. fame:. bonor. distinction. obscurity. intolerance. disgrace. FANATICISM. Synonyms 'bigotry. and is oftenest used in the favorable sense. Prepositions faithful Faithful in service . reputation. nntraBtworthy. oblivion. Notoriety is evil repute or a dishonorable counterfeit of fame. the patriot's renown. but is a general readiness to believe without sufficient evidence. I credulity. we can speak of an evil fame. Bigotry is narrow. which is unwillingness to tolerate beliefs or opinions contrary to one's own . "We may speak of & faithful but feeble friend a trusty agent. or abilities. wavering. shame. Fame is the widely disseminated report of a person's character. disrepute. to comrade or commander i among the faithless. . with a proneness to accept the marvellous. intolerance is severe. . repute. or world=wide fame. but not of evil honor . dishonor. Glory and honor are of good import honor may be given for qualities or acts that should not win it. as such applause worthily won we speak of the conqueror's fame. Antonyms contempt. credit. Reputation and repute are more limited than fame. fanaticism and bigotry usually include intolerance. i nnfaitUul. or character. Synonyms I notoriety. a trusty steed. fanaticism is fierce. we speak of local celebrity. untrue. station. a trusty sword. humiliation. glory has a more exalted and often a sacred sense. superstition is ignorant and irrational religious belief. and may be either good or bad. to duty . superstition. renow^u. celebrity.fame fanaticism pendence. : false. Credulity is not distinctively religious.

solid. predilection. . calculame. we speak of a mere fancy. image. The fanciful swings away from the real or the ordinary lightly and pleasantly. mood. as a fancy is lighter and more airy than the common mode of thought.167 fanciful fancy capacity to reason fairly. while a conception always has. conception. but is never worth serious discussion . supposition. humor. idea . a fantastic arrangement is striking. fanaticism has not the patience. . fanaticism. idea. imagination.. liliing. intolerance has not the disposition. A A Antonyms accurate. some answering reAn intellectual fancy or conceit may ality. fantastic. Bigotry. ordinary. superstition has not the knowledge and mental discipline. calcalated. (Compare reason. literal. i commonplace. a conceit is somewhat aside from the common laws of reasoning. and siiperstition are perversions of the religious sentiment credulity and intolerance often accompany skepticism or atheism. the grotesque ridiculously. That is fanciful which is dictated or suggested by fancy independently of more serious considerations the/anmsficisthe/awciful with the added elements of whimsioalness and extravagance. tme. a visionary scheme is erroneously supposed to have a basis in fact. or is believed to have. prosaic. An intellectual fancy is a mental image or caprice. the fantastic extravagantly. sounds sure. a conceit has less of the pictui'esque and more of the theoretic than a fancy . conceit. vagary. 'Whim. IMAGINATION. a grotesque arrangement is laughable. Indifference. An emotional or personal /arecy is a capricious liking formed with shght reason and inclination. visionary. fanciful theory or suggestion may be clearly recognized as such . conceit or fancy may be wholly unfounded. a droll or odd conceit. grotesctue. real. Compare synonyms for dream . FANCY. Antonyms cynicism. free-thinking. desire. fanciful arangement of objects is commonly pleasing. Synonyms FANCIFUL. latitudlnarianism. regular. sensible. A .) be pleasing or amusing. reasonable. imaginative. I chimerical. Synonyms belief. picture founded upon shght or whimsical association or resemblance .

or combined. is stiU more ceremonious than farewell . Prepositions To have a fancy /or or take a fancy to a person or thing. associated. timidity. good>'by. leave-taking. reality. In a broader sense. in view of present. Valevaledictory is diction is a learned word never in popular use.) Affright. it is fear mingled with abhorrence. Adieu. (See ABHOR. certainty. no exercise of judgment. congi. is commonly contemptuous or supercUious. or (without preposition) I bade my comrades farewell . horror. from the French. triglit. valediction. of imminent. disciuletude. liable to fade as lightly as it was formed. farewell the formal English word at parting. Oood'by is the homely and hearty. fear may be controlled by force of . consternation. trembling. tremor. the fancy signifies the faculty by which fancies or mental images are formed. I took a sad farewell of my friends. verity. fright. and in actual presence of that which is terrible. or may nerve one to desperate defense . valedictory. and equivalent to dismissal. imagination. apprehension. we say of a desperate but fettered criminal. Synonymsi adieu. or of distant and only possible danger. fright and terror render one incapable of defense . misgiving. as when one suddenly encounters some ghastly spectacle . dismay. Synonyms affiTigbt. and terror are always sudden. idea. Compare synonyms for dream . panic." Where horror includes fear. cong6. fact. Horror (etymologically a shivering or shuddering) denotes a shuddering /ear accompanied with abhorrence or such a shock to the feeUngs and sensibilities as may exist without fear. trepidation. truth. and Antonyms! actuality. terror. awe.fareTvell tear „a Iw* . FAREWEIili. FEAR. fear may be sudden or lingering. dread. Fear may overwhelm. parting salutation. also from the French. "I looked upon him with horror. Fear is the generic term denoting an emotion excited by threatening evil with a desire to avoid or escape it . Prepositions I bade farewell to my comrades. A a public farewell to a company or assembly. in the latter sense dread is oftener used.

Womanly tears would suggest respect and sympathy. durance. leather. 'womanisli. Panic is a sudden /ear ov fright. Fright is largely a matter of the nerves . fright and terror overwhelm the will. Handcuffs. female. sbackles. imprisonment. fetters. Irons. Antonyms: See synonyms for fobtitude. Dismay is a helpless sinking of heart in view of som. Dismay is more reflective. manacles. or any other substance that can bind chains are of linked metal. womanish tears a touch of contempt. affecting numbers at once vast armies or crowded audiences are liable to panic upon slight occasion. fright may cause one to fly.1 Aa **•" feminine letter will . Awe is a reverential /ear. especially the finer physical or mental qualities that distinguish the female sex in the human famUy. a feminine voice may Antonyms i See synonyms for mascdune. to scream. womanly. In a like sense we speak of a financial panic. cbalns. FETTER. The word effeminate is always used reproachfully. bondage.. duress. Synonyms bonds. used either for hands or feet. and only of men as possessing womanly traits such as are inconsistent with true manliness. and despamng than fright. gyves may be for either. Manacles and handcuffs are for custody. feminine to the quaUties. I gyves. Womanish denotes the undesirable. a horse is subject to fright or terror. effeminate. We apply /eniaZe to the s&s. womanly the admirable or lovely qualities of woman. . Bonds may be of cord. FEMIBflHTE. enduring. Compare alakm. an . pecially employed by them. bodily and mental. or to the objects appropriate for or es- A female voice is the voice of a wombelong to a man. and restraining a clasp. or to swoon. or braceletdike fastening for encircling : limb commonly one of a pair. fetters are primarily chains or jointed iron fastenings for the feet . . Synonyms. fear of the intellect and the imagination terror of all the faculties. . terror pai-alyzes. and chains are used in a general way for almost . the hands. A shackle is a metallic ring. but not to dismay.e overwhelming peril or sorrow. Bonds.

/ray. apologue. Affray. contest. strife. contention and strife very rarely so. the affray always involves physical force . or parties. fiction and novel are used with little difference of meaning. of a party or other organization. FICTION. as a mere fiction may not do novel is a general name for any con- Fiction in . . bitterness. and shackles are frequently . Dissension is used of a nimiber of perof hostility mutually retaliated Bitterness is in feeling only . brawl. enmity and hostility involve wiU and purpose to oppose or injure. dispute. the prisoner was put in irons. romance. falsebood. the brawl or broil may be confined to violent language. dissension. An affray or broil may arise at a street corner . sons. like quarrel. fabrication. clans. Contest is often used in a good sense. and which is designed to portray human life. are words of inferior dignity. except that novel characterizes a work in which the emotional element is especially . a feud is long=enduring. or both. and the oth«* words are mostly restricted to the literary style handcuffs is the specific and irons the general term in popular usage as. A feud is enmity between families. brawl. hostility. Oyves is now wholly poetic. controversy. strife extends from verbal controversy to the contests of armies.fend. never of nations. tinuous fictitious narrative. novel. legend. with or without a practical lesson a romance portrays what is picturesque or striking. . figment. Synonyms affray. and is commonly slight and transient. contention. as we speak of childish quarrels . While all the other words of the group may refer to that which is transient. enmity. quarrel is in word or act. quarrel. . chains. F£VI>. Bonds. mytb. story. Controversy is commonly in words . and often hereditary. contention and strife may be in word or deed . with acts and avenged feud is rarely used of individuals. broil. is now chiefly used of a prose work in narrative form which the characters are partly or wholly imaginary. contest ordinarily involves some form of action. A Synonyms allegory. fiction 170 any form of restraint. used in the metaphorical sense. and broil. fable. especially a love-story . Invention. animosity.

The moral of the fahle is expressed formally .I'M *** fierce prominent. " That statement is & figment of his imagination. Earmlese. bistoiy. . A. furious and cruel nature. . . A fiery spirit with a good disposition is quickly excitable in a good cause. falsehood. Synonyms: ferocious. Hob fabrication may mingle the true with the false. Compare atTiKGORY. and not at aR ferocious. but is reaUy stronger. fiction is studied . or only the sudden anger of the moment. is inwrought. the lesson of the: fiction. reality. That which is wild is simply unrestrained the word may imply no anger or harshness as. but can not be historically verified . 'wild. verity. raging:. more commonly the latter. FIERCE. a fierce passion. I fact. Antonyms affectionate. we speak of a. kind. the falsehood is aU false . intensely cruel. Ferocious always denotes a tendency to violence it a person is more distinctly bloodthirsty than the other words maybe deeply. submissive. but may not be^rce or ferocious. tmth." The story may be either true or false. peacefol. but is now known to be false. tender. violent. Fierce signifies having a. or liable to intense and sudden excitement. fiery. It applies to that which is now intensely excited. savage. a word simply transferred from Greek into English. or being in a furious and cruel mood. vHld delight. impetuous. is the same as fable. a myth has been received as true at some time. that which is ferocious steadily burns . mild. A. literalnees. Ferocious refers to a state or disposition . figment is something imaginary which the one who utters it may or may not believe to be true . tame. Savage signifies untrained. legend may he true. docile. wild alarm. uncultivated. untrained. a fierce coim-tenance may express habitual fierceness. while a fabrication is a series of statements carefully studied and fitted together in order to deceive . patient. if any. as a falsehood may be a sudden unpremeditated statement. . and covers the various senses of aU the words in the group. gentle. furious. A A Antonyms certainty. fabrication is designed to deceive . ferocious animal. sweet. . a ferocious countenance expresses habitual ferocity. Apologue. it is a less odious word thsio. uncultivated. that which ia fierce flashes or blazes . we say. a myth grows vip without intent.

or to private transactions of considerable moment . we speak of a pecuniary reward. tures. all relate to . with no special reference to the handUng of cash. a financial enterprise . nanoial apphes especially to governmental revenues or expendi- monetary These words . or expenditures.financial fine 1 »a **-* FIHTAHfCIAIi. money. Synonyms fiscal. i pecuniary. currency as. Pecuniary refers to that in which money is involved. we give a needy person pecuniary (not financial) assistance. the monetary system a monetary toansaction is one in which money is transferred. coin. Monetary relates to actual money. we speak of one's pecuniary affairs or Fiinterests. but less directly . It is common to speak of the fiscal rather than the financial year. . receipts.

Fire is always attended with light. fire the popular term.B ° ' "* ^*> fire fluctuate Synonyms blaze. drove. . designate the mingled light and heat of afire. Floch is applied to birds and to some of the smaller animals . driven or gathered for driving is called a drove. set. as well as heat . a swarm of bees. veer. Synonyms bevy. or elephants. Bevy is used of birds.. a li^ht or a flame wavers . we speak of a bevy of quail. Synonyms To I besltate. animals. blaze. lot. vary. litter. I burniug*. hor-ses. as in a blast=f urnace. Brood is used chiefly of fowls and birds. as oxygen. undulate. sw^arm. evolving heat. a litter of puppies . oscillate. or inanimate things. vacillate. those in the other groups may not be. buffaloes. a pack of wolves. Cfroup is the general word for any gathering of a small number of objects. . we speak of a brood of chickens. fluctuate (L. a flock of blackbirds. Comhustion is the scientific. conflagration. or undulate . FIRE. brood. combustion. fluctus. FLOCK. flame. Compare light. A conflagration is an extensive fire. combustion being the continuous chemical combination of a substance with some element. „ aatcb. waver. Combustion is the essential fact which is at the basis of that assemblage of visible phenomenon which we call fire . pack. litter of certain quadrupeds which bi-ing forth many young at a birth . a frightened steed swerves A . group. to the processes producing the most intense light also. herd is confined to the larger animals . a covey of partridges. A FliUCTIJATE. The individuals in a brood or litter are related to each other. waYea fluctuate alternate rise and fall. Eat herd. collection of animals a pack of hounds. or a fl^ck of sheep. a wave) is to move Uke a wave with pendulum oscillates. whether of persons. swerve. brood is sometimes applied to a family of young children. but rarely of men. and extending from slow processes. such as those by which the heat of the human body is maintained. or on the surface of the sun. > covey. and figuratively of any bright and lively group of women or children. a herd of cattle. flame. etc.

practise. but taking always the form of the containing vessel . Persons hesitate. servant follows or attends his master. All liquids axe fluids. l'* . FOLiLiOW. keeping the same volume. tho capable of being reduced to a liquid form by special means. either in space is said to follow it. A .) One event may follow another either with or without special connection if it . leaver Compare shake. fluctuates. persist. eta^. bold fast. . vacillate. turns upon actions. hcerere) on the verge of decision . . but they are not liquids under ordinary circumstances. is A fluid state in a substance that. Water at the ordinary temperature is at once a. result. one vacillates between contrasted decisions or tion . a liquid is an inelastic fluid a gas is an elastic ^tiid that tends to expand to the utmost limits of the containing space. imitate. observe. obey. adhere. yields to its force that tends to change form . or in time. liquid. pursue. he who vacillates decides now one way. the wind veers when it suddenly changes That which veers may steadily hold the new direcits direction. need. but not all fluids are liquids . come after. attend. decision and indecision. he may waver between inaction. like air or water. his course . a tool or weapon swerves from the mark or line the temperature varies . sticks (L. so after. Anything that comes after or goes after another. Antonyms: abide. from that which oscillates. he who hesitates its way. fluid and a liquid. copy. undulates. or be.fluid follow ~. air and all the gases are fluids. and now another . (Compare synonyms for hunt. but remain in one mass. as by cold and pressure. stick. succeed. or wavers reAs regards mental states. a victorious general may follow the retiring enemy merely to watch and hold him in check he chases or pursues with intent to overtake and attack the chase is closer and hotter than the pursuit. stand fast. Synonyms: accompany. Synonyms gas. he who wavers does not stick to a decision . a liquid is any a body in that which the particles move freely among themselves. tween action and tee&a^ fluctuate or vary. ensue. cbase.

or the like. feed denoting anything consumed. in this wider sense food is closely synonymous with nutriment. nutrition have more of scientific reference to the vitalizing principles of various foods . there is some relation of effect. serves to build up structure or supply waste may be termed /ooc? . etc. sustenance. Nourishment and sustenance apply to whatever can be introduced into the system as a means of sustaining life . clerk observes his employer's directions child obeys his parent's commands. fodder. the word is extended to plants to signify whatever taken in any way into the organism serves similar purposes thus. nourishment. provender. homely word for whatever may be eaten'. pabulum. fare. Diet refers to the quantity and quality of food habitually taken. more whatever. we speak of liquid food. Synonyms diet. forage. Regimen considers /ood as taken by strict Fare rule. thus. is. Nutriment and scientific sense . nutrition. ia the popular sense. conse quence. good or bad . when taken into the digestive organs. sumptuous/are. fodder denoting hay. as. but in a. aa. whether grain or hay. provender is dry feed. of Food wholesome. follows or copies his exam^ pie. but more commonly grain. whatever one eats in contradistinction to what one drinks. etc. wheat is said to contain a great amount of nutriment. Feed. there is if it results food some orderly connection . and provender are used only of the food of the lower animals. viands. i aliment. or inference. primarily as obtained by a military force in scouring the country. he is taking nourishment. is a general word for all table supplies. the incoming succeeds the outgoing officiaL A A FOOO. wretched fare. feed. with reference to preservation of health. Victuals is a plain. imitates his speech and manners. nutriment. country. we speak of choice viands. . The compositor followi copy . plant food. we say of a convalescent. Forage denotes any kind of food suitable for horses and cattle. victuals. regimen. but applies more widely to the whole ordering of life. fodder. we speak otfood and drink. unwholesome. and sustenance. straw. corn- sometimes called " long feed " . especially an enemy's stalks. or indigestible food.175 ensues. Thus. the ensuing year from another. nourishment. cold victuals..

. formidable is less overwhelming than tremendous. or of evidence. we speaJs of the fortifications of a. a. in strength . within which a garrison may be placed to overawe the citizens. loaded gun is dangeroiis . for etrongliold. fastness. is a and strength . strong) the strength or firmness of mind . hannlesa.fortis. Formidable is a word of more dignity than dangerijus. a fortification may be but part of a defensive system . That which is FORMIDABLE. as. and suggests more calm and collected power than terrible . fortress. a formidable man may not be dangerous if not attacked an enraged maniac is ferrible . tremendous. Synonyms. . Any defensible place. citadel. courage. a charge of cavalry is terrible the full shock of great armies is tremendous. formidable to the Synonyms: castle. formidable is worthy of fear if encountered oi opposed. A dangerous man is likely to do mischief. ^tt *'" Bynouymst dangerous. powerless. belpless. fortress is a. are tremendous. fastness or stronghold. or to which the defenders may retire if the outer works are captured the medieval castle was the fortified residence of a king or baron. resolution. Antonyms i contemptible. despicable. is berolsm. Fortification is the general word any artificial defensive work . and is ent work . or the a city or fortress. fort or fortification may be temporary . rORTIFICATION. formidable array of troops. A. The fortifications of a modern city usually consist of a chain of forts. fort. Prepositions Formidable by or in numbers enemy. a. fortification of especial size fortress is regarded as permanent. A citadel is fortified inner part of . a. and needs watching . weak. Fort is the common military term for a detached fortified building or enclosure of moderate size occupied or designed to be occupied by troops. a ordinarily an independ- a city. FORTIXrDE. terrible. the force of ocean waves in a storm. a park of artillery is formidable . whether made so by nature or by art.i'ormidable lorlitude . endurance. and the silent pressure In the ocean depths. i feeble. redou'bted. Fortitude (L. fortification within a city.

it is that quality which is able not merely to endure paia or trial. cmeliea." or " enduring courage . A deceit or deception may be designed merely to gain some end of one's own.. PATIENCIE. or against which one has no adequate defense . Synonyms i artifice. lucky more strongly emphasizes the element of chance. he is fortunate or hicky if advantages have come to him without or beyond his direct planning or achieving. A man is successful in any case if he achieves or gains what he . rather than the luicky. Synonyms favored. a lucky guess. deceit. Antonyms > broken. endurance to resist hunger and cold. issue of a great battle . imposture. as when we speak of a lucky hit. but not complete. deception. duplicity. fortunate is more naturally applied to the graver matters. he is known as a successful man if he has achieved or gained worthy objects of endeavor . swindle. cbeat. prosperous. v FRAITD. ." wliich is a good definition. Compare brave .ntr» l7» . treason. iuiluc%. to take . signifies possessed of the means of happiness. A fraud is an act of deliberate deception with the design of securing something by taking unfair advantage of another. mlseraWe. trick. FORTUHTATE. as we speak of the fortunate. Happy. seeks prospered. it requires resolution to resist temp' tation. swindling. Fortitude might be termed "still courage. '''P'l'f lU'Started. in this connection. prospered rather denotes the action of a superintending Providence." Favored is used in a religious sense. but steadily to confront dangers that can not be actively opposed. cbeatmg. euccessful. anfortnnate. fallen. dlsbouesty. fortunate fraud or soul to endure paJn or adversity patiently and determinedly. Resolution is of the mind endurance is partly physical . One is said to be happy or prosperous whether his prosperity be the result of fortune or of achievement . implying that one is the object of divine favor. fortunate the more elegant word . Fortitude has been defined as " passive courage. it takes courage to charge a battery. with no intent of harming another an imposition. unhappy. or of one as " bom under a lucky star. I lucky. fortitude to stand stiU under an enemy's fire. imposition. Luchy is the more common and colloquial. Happy. treachery.

social relations. . but deceit may not reach the gravity oi fraud . Fraud is conimonly actionable at law . credit. and is definable and punishable at law. etc. treachery may be more harmful than fravd. honesty. and may be practised by a All action that is street beggar or by the pretender to a throne. or position to which one is not entitled. An imposture is designed to obtain money. Treachery is chiefly used of dishonesty in matters of friendship.friendly 178 some small advantage of another. integrity. politics. Fraud includes deceit. and is not ordinarily open to legal redress. but of a petty sort . cheating and swindling are for the most part out of the reach of legal proceedings. a cheat is of the nature of fraud. good faith. or war. but is not so gross. not honest is dishonesty. to deceitful practises which are not directly criminal. nprlghtnesB.. a swindle is more serious than a cheat. Antonyms fdmess. or simply to make another ridiculous. govern- ment. but the term dishonesty is generally applied in business. inyolving larger values and more flagrant dishonesty. troth. Treason is a specific form of treachery of a subject to the government to which he owes allegiance. Synonyms 1 . Compare artifice . deception.

while Friendship mutual respect and esteem. s belUcoBe. Affection may be purely natural . FRnSNDSHIP. as. excessive. not of his friendship for God. the comity of nations. 78. consideration. enduring affection. favor. we can not speak of the passion oi friendship. belligerent. friendliness. unrequited love. love. founded upon Friendship is always mutual . contentions. affection. comity. distant. is esteem. regard. or the friendship between them. nnfrlendlr. and amity a friendly feeling and relation. friendship is more cahn and quiet. gooawfU. hosUle. Antonyms: See synonyms for battle enmity feud hatred. IU«dlsposecl. there may be unreciprocated affection or attachment. warlite. an affectionate son . a devoted friend " the tender mercy of our Grod. estranged. without the deep and settled attachment implied in the state of friendship. Antonyms adverse. it is easier to give reasons for friendship than for love . disaffectnd. or even unrecognized and unappreciated devotion. but while there is hostility or coldness on one side there can not be friendship between the two. antagonistic. love does not we can speak of man's love toward God." iMke i. with care of each other's right. . . alienated. devotion. . Prepositions The friendship of one person for or toward another. Friendship is more iutellectual and less emotional than love . or at least appears. quiet. love. Abraham was called "the friend of Grod". nnlsind. . Friendship implies some degree of equality. and tender are almost always used in a high and good sense . Inimical. affection that becomes. one may have friendly feelings toward an enemy. indiSerent. as. Friendliness is a quality of friendly feeling. Compare friendship. love more fervent . attacnment. (There is more latitude in the use of the concrete noun friend. amity. .. but never unreciprocated or unrequited friendship. love often rises to intensest passion . friendship is a growth. . not necessarily implying special friendliness ."^ devoted. or amity between neighboring countries. Christ was called "the friend of sinners. cold. Comity is mutual kindly courtesy. frlendslilp Affectionate. frigid. a deep.") Compare acquaintance.

he is intimidated by an apprehension of contingent consequences dependent on some act of his own to be done or forborne . and sacrifice the present to the future. to terttfy is to awaken fear that is overwhelming. the means of intimidation may act througli the senses. browlieat. to davnt is to give pause or check to a violent. luxury. extravagance. Economy manages. Antonyms: abundance. (See prudence. becomes the vice oi parsimony. thrift at once earns and saves. parsimony is excessive and unreasonable saving for the sake of saving. FRITOAL. parsimoniousness. unnerving fear . To browbeat or cow is to bring into a state of submissive fear . or paring of supphes or provision. but to earn. the quiet levelsavage beast is ining of a highwayman's pistol intimidates. opulence. miserliness. saving:. threatening.ITT.fi'lgliten frugality 180 FRIOHTEN. . a mother may be intimidated through fear for her child. saving as much as may be necessary for that end. to a noticeable and often to a painful degree . Miserliness is the denying oneself and others the ordinary comforts or even necessaries of life. instead of as a means to an end. appal. frugality . See ABSTINENCE. terrify. daunt. one's disposal careful administi'ation of the means at frugality is a withholding of expenditure. waste.) Thrift seeks not merely to save. for the mere sake of hoarding money. bounty. One is A timidated by the keeper's whip. Economy is a wise and saves. Compare alarm. riches. The sudden rush of an armed madman may frighten. Synonyms economy. scare. providence. liberality. Frugality exalted into a virtue to be practised for its own sake. To scare is to cause sudden.idate their employees from voting contrary to their will by threat of discharge . sparing. affluence. parsimony. frightened by a cause of fear addressed directly and suddenly to the senses . scrimping. t alarm. with a view to wholesome and profitable expenditure at a fitting time. dismay. or may appeal only to the intellect or the sensibilities. wealth. or even a brave spirit. Synonyms afnrierlit. providence plans. Intimidate. Employers may intim. Prudence and providence look far ahead. co^. prudence. tbrift.

petty. . among living beings : a distinction it is also the charac- by which most living beings are distinguished from inanimate things. babitual. familiar. whether articulate words or such. Synonym ses. Edient. as to writings or public addresses. as resemble them . which are of no sex. a garrulous old man. Seos is teristic OEIVDER.tterances more formal than conversation. either may be lively and for a time entertaining. and those that maintain it are often quite arbitrary in its application. a talkative child. the male or female sex. reserved.|e| garrulous general GARRVIiOVS. The talkative person has a strong disposition to talk. the garrulous person is tedious. and self=absorbed. Chatter- ing signifies uttering rapid. and unintelligible. usual. - reticent. commonplace. not out of the regular . loquacious. popular. sounds. everyday. as in English and German. Synonyms t cbatterlng. Garrulous signifies given to constant trivial talking. noisy. a talkative or loquacious woman. speak of a chattering monkey or a chattering idiot. with or without an abundance of words. Synonyms common. taUiative. OElVERAIi. The French language has but two genders and makes the names of aU inanimate objects either masculine or feminine some languages are without the distinction of gender. a verbose writer. "We speak of the masculine or feminine gender. the loquacious person has an abundant flow of language and much to say on any subject suggested . Compare circumlocution. public. epeechlesg. ordinary. three genders. normal. prevalent. thei-e are in some languages. repetitious. Common signifies frequently occurring. universal. freciuent. tacitiuu. or many ideas . We Autonyms: laconic. chattering is often used of vocal sounds that may be intelligible by themselves but are ill understood owing to confusion of many voices or other cause. gender is a distinction in language partially corresponding to this distinction in natm-e while there are but two sexes. Verbose is applied to r. or scarcely intelligible. veiliose. customary.

or even low . a general rule. As regards giving. One may be free with another's money . munificent gift is vast in amount. open^bearted. however. hence. free^bearted. General may signify pertaining equally to aU of a class. a race) primarily signifies having the qualities worthy of noble or honorable birth. onnsnaL Bynonyms GEIVEROVS. OSUAI. race. Blojtnlat. common also signifies pertaining to or participated in by two or more persons or things . . since that can be negatived by a single exception. One is magnanimous by a greatness of soul heartiness of the giver. a universal It is is one from which no human being is exempt. a chQd generous In the gift of an apple. is commonly thought of as both ample and hearty. munificent. a millionaire makes a liberal donation .. generous refers rather to the seU-saci-iflcing disinterested. unknown. Antonjms exceptional. free and abundant in giving. magnus. and animus. We say a common opinion. inferior. not excellent or distinguished. Disinterested suggests rather the thought of one's own self-denial. magnanimous. whatever the motive of its bestowal. free. hence. liberal to the A (L. sorrow is common to the race. Generous (L. not exceptional . common experience. open^banded. i bountiful. genus. a genercyus gift. may show himself amount of the gift . cMvalrous. liberal. raro. Universal applies to all without exception . general truth. a universal law. soul) that rises above all that is mean. poor. but not necessarily to all. giving freely.generons 1§2 course. free^bantlecl. but very commonly signifies pertaining to the greater number. as. he can be generous only with his own. a general fex- perience experience one that comes to the majority of people . while a general statement is not invalidated even by adducing many exceptions. especially above every petty or ignoble motive or feeling pertaining to one's self. of one's hearty interest in another's welfare or happiness. nnconuiion. Infreqaent. or weak. and thus above resentr . noble. great. etc. Compare i^ynonyms for nokual. dangerous for a debater to afSrm a universal proposition. and self=sacrificingly. generous. common apmany without deciding whether they are even a A commmi remark is one we often hear . not above the average. general applies to aU with plies to possible or comparatively slight exceptions very is majority. heartily.

Oet is a most comprehensive word. he acquires by association with others a correct or incorrect accent he acquires a bronzed complexion by exposui-e to a tropical sun. one acquires a foreign language. Synonyms OET. procure. acquire. parsimomonB. iUlberal. ignoUe. what he axiquires A person earns what he gives aa slowly and gradually resulting. Btmgy. Compare synonyms for MIND . invention. and marked by an extraordinary faculty for original creation. Imbeciiity. . or desire he gets a bargain. secure. foUy. Antonyms: dulnesB. as. adapt oneself to demand. in such iise. Synonyms talent. whether with or without endeavor. ivin. exalted intellectual power capable of operating independently of tuition and training. attain. tho he may not get it. a fever he gains what he comes to by effort or striving the swimmer gains the shore . rapaclons. penurions. i talents. a fall. a particu- Genius is lar and uncommon aptitude Oenius is tainment. Talent is marked mental ability. gain. talent is largely the capacity to learn. one is generous by a kindness of heart that would rejoice in the welfare rather than in the punishment of the offender. Antonyms aTariciouB. appropriate. a blow. A I)erson is sometimes said to gain and often to acquire what has not been an object of direct endeavor in the pursuits of trade. niggardly. miserly. earn. mean. covetous. acquire. more spontaneous. less dependent upon instruction. he incidentally gains some knowledge of foreign countries. . senBeleBsness. greedy. the temptation . expectation. discovery. cloBe. On the other hand. Btapidity. Yet the genius that has won the largest and most enduring success has been joined with tireless industry and painstaking. what he gains is viewed as desirable. petty. an equivalent of labor for. expression. .""* 1§3 genius get ment of injury or insult . obtain. and in a special sense. achieve. . etc. less amenable to training . he may get what he has not earned . for some special mental work or athigher than talent. a man acquires by continuous and ordinarily by slow process . . POWEK. receive. A person gets whatever he comes to possess or experience. obtaseness.

largess. h. as an endowment for a college. gratuity. Oift is now almost always used in the good sense. and given as to an equal or a superior no one's pride is hurt by accepting what is viewed as strictly a present. A donation is something. in the latter case he is said to receive it. present. one is strictly passive . as among the heralds at ancient tournaments. Synonymsi benefaction. MAKE REACH. and also in the legal sense that which voluntarily bestowed without expectation of return or compensation. he procures it commonly by the intervention of some one else .girt 1S4 to all dishonesty is the desire to get a living or a fortune without earning it. boon. A present is a gift of friendship. with a suggestion of chance or hazard in popular language. bounty. a donation to a pastor. A gratuity is usually something of moderate value and is always given as to an inferior.e procures a dinner or an interview he secures what has seemed uncertain or elusive. 4. See synonyms for ABANDON. A boon is a gift that has . or cause. In receiving. grant. gift is in the popular. Compare synonyms for attain . a gratuity to a waiter. but not necessarily of value beyond the immediate present as. One obtains a thing commonly by some direct effort of his own . A benefaction is a charitable gift. never of trivial value. Antonyms: . . . . but in legal phrase he is said to gain his suit. given usually on some pubhc ground. or to win in a suit at law. Largess is archaic for a bountiful gratuity. not of right as. and as of favor. when he gets it firmly into his . perhaps of great. bribe. donation. usually to be distributed among many. When one gets the object of his desire. a person is often said to vnn a lawsuit. he is said to obtain it. or conciliation. whether he has gained or earned it or not. bribe is A always in the evil sense to signify payment for a dishonorable service under the semblance of a gift. In Scriptural language " The king by judgment establisheth gift is often used for bribe.uest. GIFT. case. xxix. beq. possession or under his control." Prov. Win denotes contest. . and viewed as of enduring value. . as to a cause or to a person representing a cause. generally of large amount. he may get an estate by his own exertions or by inheritance . the land but he that receiveth gifts overthrowelh it.

. . sway.. this book was given me. guerdon. . but when there is nothing in the context to indicate the contrary. (or without proposition. etc. wages* Synonyms cede. to put into another's possession by any means and on any terms whatever. for a purpose. To it is give ship without compensation primarily to transfer to another's possession or owner. To grant is to put into one's possession in some formal way. communicate. direct. or by authoritative act as. like get. Give thus becomes. control. remuneration. manage. give a person a sum of money) we give a thing to or into one's care or keeping the weary fugitive gave himself up to his pursuers. Synonyms command. to confer a degree or an honor we grant a request or petition. grant is commonly considerable in amount and given by public authority' j as. OOTERN. Congress grants lands to a raih-oad corporation. and I will give you the money " we speak of giving answers. exercise of authority that Govern carries the idea of authoritative administration or some conis at once effective and continuous . To impart is to give of that which one still. reproof. as blows. OIVE. To speak of granting a favor carries a claim or concession of superiority on the part of the one by whom the grant may be made to confer has a similar sense as. or something freely given that meets some great desire. reign. reign over. . grant. . give is always understood in its primary sense as. . etc. impart. is deliver. supply.*"" govern been desired or craved or perhaps asked. in its secondary sense in popular use. information. a buyer may say " Give me the goods. furnisb. a term of such general import as to be a synonym for a wide variety of words. retains the teacher imparts instruction. to a greater or less degree. influence. but do not confer it. restrain. is which the receiver stands in especial We give money to a person for a thing. and often of giving what is not agreeable to the recipient. penalty. need we Prepositions: to give that of bestow alms. mold. earnings. . medicine. To bestow . . Antonyms i compeDBation. rule. curb. . confer. . i bestcw. a grant' oi public A lands for a coUege.

obey. Govern implies the exercise of knowledge and judgment as well as power. as well as requiring^ submission or obedience. To rule is more absolute and autocratic than to govern . but govern Command is. Synonym beautiful. to sway is to move by quiet but effectual influence . but neither is graceful. as. " control yourself. . regularly or constantly. but to shape character. That which is graceful is marked by elegance and harmony. or delicacy of form. however. the Czar of Bussia both reigns and rules. attitude. often used in the sense of securing. he controls another whom he can effectually prevent from doing anything contrary to his will he governs one whom he actually does cause. . comply. be in eubjection. or control their pupils largely by other means. a man commands the situation when he can shape events as he pleases . the Queen of England reigns . once so absolute. a parent may command a child whom he can not govern or control.anage is to secure by skilful contrivance the doing of one's will by those whom one can not directly control. The best teachers are not greatly prone to command. be subject. to Tnold is not only to influence feeling and action. now simply denotes that one holds the official station of sovereign in a monarchy. as when we speak of a commanding influence. a fortress commands the region when no enemy can pass against its resistance. or claims. ." A per- son commands another when he has. a skilful horseman controls a spirited horse a person controls his trols . 186 but may be momentary or occasionaL One conwhat he holds or can hold at will absolutely in check . to obey his will .graceful trol is effective. The word reign. snbmlt. the right to make that other do his will. with or without effective power . with ease of action. GracefuJ commonly applies . a wise mother. we say to one who is excited. to m. by gentle means. temper .. sways the feelings and molds the lives of her children to be able to manage servants is an important element of good housekeeping. Graceful commonly suggests motion or the possibility of motion beautiful may apply to absolute fixity a landscape or a blue sky is beautiful. with power of inflicting penalty if not obeyed . Antonyms. or posture. ORACEFVl. yield.

IS*^ to ^a'Sft beauty as addressed to the eye. an Apollo is graceful. Antonyms! See synonyms for AWKWABn. Graceful applies to the perfection of motion. dition. distress. or even unconscious. \ro. attitude. use. officer of state. misfortune.. Prepositions i Grief at a loss . Compare beautiful be. Grief is acute mental pain resulting from loss. system. which convey no poem or a suggestion of stress or strain. or an action or regular series of actions. i melancboly. as. especially of the lighter motions. and may become chronic. mourning most frequently denotes sorrow publicly expressed. Habit is a tendency or inclination toward an action or conwhich by repetition has become easy. or a conOustom is the uniform doing of the same act dition so induced. . sorrcnr. fasblon. Synonyms ORIEF. wont. and are in harmonious curves. HABIT. sadness may be momentary . practise. troulile. spontaneous. proportion. it is common to observe thirty days of mourning on the death of an affliction. from a low state of health. or the public expression of such sorrow as may reasonably be expected. rule. with a certain degree of delicacy . or other ill>defined cause . Antonyms! See synonyms for happiness. tribulation. mourmiig. usage. speak of We a graceful coming. Grief is more acute and less enduring than sorrow. sadness and melancholy may arise from a vague sense of want or loss. Affliction expresses a deep heart=sorrow and is applied also to the misfortune producing such sorrow. routine. a Hercules is massive. Synonyms' custom. saaness. Apart from the thought of motion. etc. graceful drapery. for a friend. graceful denotes a pleasing harmony of outUne. xegret. or deep disappointment. melancholy is more enduring. habitude. Sorrow and gm'e/ are for definite cause . tho we often speak of a graceful graceful compliment.

thought of as waiting and coming at its appointed time : as. Habitude is habitual relation or association. greatly strengthened by frequent repetition of the act. a use I make it my invariable rule. etc. wo betide him I One event supervenes upon another event. practise in penmanship. and is more and better than routine. a thought or fancy occurs to him. and may be uncontrollable. the habits of an individuaL Fashion is the generally recognized custom in the smaller matters. to pass. It is the custom of tradesmen to open at a uniform hour. we do not speak of 13:^. acts or things into is almost always a habit. [" Transpire. but of the ULsage of many . fall out. Wont is blind and instinctive habit like that which attaches an animal to a locality • the word is now almost wholly poetic. chance. befall. Practise is the active doing of something in a systematic way .bappen 188 in the same circumstance for a definite reason. a lawyer's or a physician's practise. Compare DRESS. one disease upon another. happen is intransitive . or. and to follow a regular routine of business until closing=time. A thing is said to happen when it is no design said to diance when transitive . take place. especially in dress. rule is prescribed either by some external authority or by one's own will . Betideia especially used for anticipated evil. as. we speak of a tradesman's custom. is manifest. or usage Synonyms: becbance. or even unconscious. or none it appears to be the result of accident (compare synonyms for accident). betide. Habit always includes an involuntary tendency. Chistom is chiefly used of the action of many . something external or actual happens to one ." in the sense of happ&i. we speak of one person's Mse of language. routine is ilie doing of customary acts in a regular and uniform sequence and is more mechanical than custom. something befalls or betides a person or happens to him. natural or acquired. A System is the coordination of lAany a unity. supervene. . it is the rule of the house . Use and usage denote the manner of using something . An incident happens or occurs . habit of the action of one we speak of the customs of society. Befall and betide are especially thought of . but of the habit of going to sleep . occur. practise is the voluntary and persistent attempt to make skill a habit . as. HAPPEN.6 practise. come faU. Educationally.

Happiness is more positive than comfort. gratification is used to denote a mild form of happiness resulting from some incident not of very great importance . satisfaction should properly express a happiness deeper. satlsfacuon. merriment. but the plural of happiness ia scarcely Happiness. there is comfort by a warm fireside on a wintry night . Happiness is the positively agreeable experience that springs from the possession of good. happiness is abiding. Comfort being found in security or relief from that which pains or annoys . or satisfaction. As referring to a mental state. a worthy satisfaction remains. but as intellect or sensibiUties of a low order may find satisfaction in that which is very poor or unworthy. more serene and rational than pleasure . rapture. ecstasy. we speak of used. i blessedness. is mental or spiritual or both. a-nd is . more complete. being an arousing of the faculties to an intensely agreeable activity satisfaction is more tranquil than^^eosure. and more abiding . cneer.**" is bapplnesEl is not authorized by good usage : a thing that has Ttappened properly said to transpire when it becomes known. and may be eternal . we may speak of a'brute as experiencing comfort or pleasure. always implying something to be definitely and consciously delighted in a sick person finds comfort in relief from pain. . viewed as resulting from some worthy gratification or satisfaction . being the agreeable consciousness of having all that our faculties demand or crave . but scarcely as in possession of happiness . HAPPENESS. enjoyment. Joy. comfort. pleasure is of necessity transient . rejoicing. pleasure. may be almost wholly negative. satisfaction is the giving such a desire all that it craves. . mirtb. while he may be far from a state of enjoyment. triumpb. we speak of pleasures. gaiety. Enjoyment is more positive. gladness. gratification. contentment) enjoyment. a person happens on or upon a Synonyms Dllss. the sympathy of a true friend affords comfort in sorrow. Pleasure is still more vivid. thus. Gratification is the giving any mental or physical desire something that it craves .] Prepositions An event happens to a person fact. the gratification or satisfaction of the desires or the relief from pain and evil. in the fuU sense. the word has come to be feeble and tame in ordinary use. felicity. etc. delight. discovery. when a worthy pleasure is past.

as. Felicity is a philosophical term. 2. more demonstrative than gladness. and the associated Happy words. happy at retort (compare clever). lucky. Rejoicing is happiness or joy that finds utterance in word. prosperous. happy is the man whom God correcteth. success. he has a happy w'it. song. however. rapture is closely allied to ecstasy. Gaiety is more superficial than Joy. when it becomes almost equivalent to blessed. or is even excluded by direct reference to the divine will. mlrtlifiil. sprightly. achievement. ecstasy is a state of extreme or extravagant delight so that the one affected by it seems almost beside himself with joy . or joy. rejoicing:. and action. smiling.) Happy has. Compare comfort. etc. Happy primarily refers to something that comes "by good hap. and enduring." a chance that brings prosperity. (See FORTUNATE. manner. . And grasps the skirts of happt/ chance. so far diverged from this original sense as to apply to advantages where chance is not recognized. 17. Job v. the blessedness of the righteous. successful. exalted. Behold. but not of vicious happiness. deeper than gladness. to which it is akin. when it becomes a synonym for dexterous. sunny. as. Delight is vivid. In this sense happy is closely allied to fortunate and luehy. or to that by which happiness is expressed. voice. In its most frequent present use. is also applied to the ready dexterity or skill by which favorable results (usually in minor matters) are secured. Bliss is ecstatic. Triumph is sach. piness. Joy is more intense than happiness. Blessedness is at once the state and the sense of being divinely blessed . rejoiced. colder and more formal than hap- Gladness is happiness that overflows. or success. as. festivity. benefit. pleasea. felicitous. the hliss of heaven. overflowing happiness of a somewhat ti-ansient kind . merry. TEmnrsoif In Memoriam Ixiii. nobler and more enduring than pleasure. expressing itself in countenance. rapturous. Antonyms t See synonyms for gbiep.Iiappy 190 vicious pleasure. delight. st. but is more serene. perfected happiness . joy as results from victory. happy is applied to the state of one enjoying happiness.

happy at a reply . the attempt to secure conformity to an established religion. A cheery word spontaneously gives cheer to others . or acts which are brought into comparison. Conformity is correspondence in form. or patched=up agreement. Prepositions happy event /or him . but harmony is wider in range. individually different. as. A vrith his friends. among bis children happy at . unison. manner. the word often signifies submission to authority or necessity. A sunny disposition has a constant tranquil brightness that irradiates all who come within its A influence. BARIHONT. combine to form a consistent and pleasing whole. Oay applies to an eflEusive and superficial happiness (often not really worthy of that name) perhaps resulting largely from abundant animal spirits we speak of gay revelers or a gay horse. as. accordance. symmetry. happy in his home. amity. conformity. we may have a superficial. as in the different statements of the same person or the different periods of one man's life . Harmony is deeper and more essential than agreement . by conference concord was secured . congruity. statements. Cheerful applies to the possession or expression of a moderate and tranquil happiness. When tones. consent. union. or use . a happy face . Congruity involves the element of suitableness consistency implies the absence of conflict or contradiction in views. forced. happy laughter . a happy heart . their views were found to be in perfect accord .Ill * _ barmouy tears as. uniformity. we do not secure accord. as it were. Concord is less full and spiritual than liarmony. consistency. agreement. a cheering word is more distinctly planned to cheer and encourage. but discover it. AntonymsCompare synonyms for grief. Synonyms' accord. unanimity. but never a superficial. unity. or patched=up harmony. buoyant spirit is. the discovery. and may be as far as possible from harmony . consonance. or. there is harmony. Concord implies more volition than accord . over his success. or feelings. unanimity is the complete hearty agree- We . concord. thoughts. forced. happy (compare synonyms for happikbss). may speak of being in accord with a person on one point. concurrence. borne up by joy and hope.

barvest=Iiome. 35. Antonyms antagonism. rowth. consent and cotwurrence refer to decision or action. and look on the fields. barvest=tlae. product. barvestins. result. Product is a word of wider application than produce . fruits. also. proceeds. reaping. the word came to its present meaning of the season of gathering ripened grain or fruits. controversy. disagreement. vegetables. for they are white already to harvest. signified originally "autumn. eggs. barvest=festival. friendship. Harvest. The word proceeds is chiefly used of the return from an investment . we speak of the products of manufacturing. Harvest is the elegant and literary word . may be termed farm= produce. MELODY. disnnion. Produce is a collective word for all that is produced in farming or gardening. but of the proceeds of the money invested in farming. Ingathering. produce. opposiUou. return. arvest^feast. but we should not speak of his selling his harvest ." is the usual season of gathering ripened crops in Northern lands. not the TpotatO'harvest we may say either the wheat=crof) or the yrhesMiarvest. or the prodiici obtained by multiplying one number by another. and hence a crop gathered or ready for gathering . or the products of the farm. etc. conflict. " The harvest truly is " Lift up your eyes great. hostnitjr. warfare. we say a man sells his crop.. battle. one speaks by general consent when no one in the assembly cares to make formal objection . frowth. a good crop. coutenuon. crop is the common and commercial expression ." Jjuke x. whether summer or autumn. almost wholly restricted to this sense we speak of produce collectively. crop applies to almost anything that ia gathered in . Compare agree . we speak and as that of an ample or abimdant harvest. schism. barvest-tlde. . product. butter. separanon. we speak of the produce of a farm. variance. _arvest:feast. discord. Synonyms crop. but the laborers are few." John iv. t contest. Increase. but consent is more passive than concurrence . dissension. a decision of the Supreme Court depends upon the eoncurrence of a majority of the judges. yield. HARVEST. Harvest is applied almost wholly to grain . difEerence. but of a product ov various j)roduets. Incongrnlty. inconsistency. from the Anglo=Saxon. In modem usage. we speak of the potato=cj*pp. truit.barvest 192 ment of many . the products ot thought. haxvest^tlnie. disproportion. and is. 2. the act or process of gathering a crop or crops.

" Her wrath became a hate. as. Harvest'home ordinarily denotes the festival of harvest. bostlllty. antipathy. and venomous. the result of lax enforcement of law is a harvest of crime. an^er. etc. Malice involves the active intent to injure in the legal sense. or hatred. or from some course of action. harvest. aversion. Harvest has also a figurative use. revenge. is intense and continued aversion. tho often impotent to act . such as crop more rarely permits . the best word of the three. Repugnance appUes to that which one feels himself summoned or impelled to do or to endure. we term a religious revival a haj^vest of souls . Malice is direct. Aversion is the turning away of the mind or feelings from some person or thing. grudge is deeper than spite . 16. repugnance. harvest'tide. nate. Sate. As applied to things.193 The yield is what the land gives hatred up to the fanner's demand we . but of the yield of corn or oats. spite. malignity. revenge may denote also the retaliatory act resentment." Tennyson Pelleas and Ettarre st. usually with disposition to injure . resentment. and revenge are all retaliatoiy. a highwayman would be said to entertain malice toward the unknown traveler whom he attacks. as applied to persons. and from which he instinctively draws back. Bpeak of the return from an expenditure of money or labor. detestation. enmity. rancor (akin to rancid) is cherished malignity that has soured and festered and is virulent and implacable. lingeriag. r&venge the determination to repay real or supposed offense with injury . As regards time. Spite is petty malice that delights to inflict stinging pain . Synonyms abhorrence. but more vehement. with desire to destroy or remove . malignity is deep. resentment. hatred of evil is a righteous passion. malice. even tho with no personal ill mil . pressing toward a result . malice is the intent to injure. 111 will. hatred is lingering and enduring]. hatred is intense aversion. dislike. akin to abhorrence. malevolence. srudge. always holds itself to be 13 . HATRED. and when used to denote simply the season always gives a suggestion of festivity and rejoicing. and harvest* time alike denote the period or season when the crops are or should be gathered (Mdti being simply the old Saxon word for time). anger is sudden and brief. grudge being the disposition. rancor. it is sinister and bitter grudge. animosity. such as harvest and harvest'time by themselves do not express.

Synonyms I accident. to occupy is to have possession and use. Have is the most general word. Antonyms i See synonyms for fbiendship .hazard justifiable. he holds a promissory note. casualty. or securely in one's control a man holds his friend's coat for a moment. the faculty is in actual present exercise. Hazard is the incurring possibility of benefit tive. . in chance and venture . a fortune or an opinion. Compare abomination . enmity. HAZARD. . contingency. possess. To possess a thing is to have the ownership with control and enjoyment of it. To otvn is to have the right of property in to possess is to . A man occupies his own house or a room in a hotel . chance. he has time. To have reason is to be endowed with the faculty . iovb. or holds an office. Simple goodness may arouse the hatred of the wicked . . risk. with or without ownership. with some degree of permanency. Sfuonrms i occupy. penl. 1®^ but looks less certainly to action than grudge or revenge. have that right in actual exercise. fortuity. be possessed of. they will be moved to revenge only by what they deem an injury or afiront. what he has borrowed. he may be said to have what is his own. the possibility of loss or harm for the danger may have no compensating alterna- In hazard the possibilities of gain or loss are nearly balanced . or has need . in risTe the possibility of loss is the chief thought . what has been entrusted to him. HATE. and is applied -to whatever belongs to or is connected with one a man has a head or a head< ache. anger . venture. or he holds a struggling horse . a man may own a farm of which he is not in possession because a tenant occupies it and is determined to hold it the proprietor owns the property. or what he has stolen. danger. antipathy . the foolhardy take great risks in mere wantonness . own. but the tenant is in possession. a friend or an enemy . jeopardy. To be in possession differs from possess in that to possess denotes both right and fact. while to 6e in possession denotes simply the fact with no affirmation as to the right. to be in possession of one's reason denotes that . be In possession ox^ Hold. To hold is to have in one's hand.

tending or adapted to confer. aid. t^Sag. 01.) . Antonyms] delicate. salutary. a healthy person . as. worn down. but uncertain as to whom or how many. of help. bea]. preserve. Healthy is most correctly used to signify possessing or enjoying health or its results . safeguard. a healthful ciimate. be arty. cooperate. sustain. while the other words are associated with healthy. we speak of a merchant's venture.. and is chiefly applied to air or climate. Tn extremity we say " Grod help me I " rather than " God aid me I In time of danger we cry " help ! help ! " rather than " aid t aid I" To aid is to second another's own exertions. assist. support. sound. wasted. one may be driven by cir* cumstances to run a ruik . In law to aid at (Compare synonyms for accessory. Tie. onsonnd. plan. See accident . encourage.THT. he freely seeks a venture . second. "We can speak of helping the helpless. befriend. a salutary lesson. are incalculable. A Antonyms asGcrance. Help includes aid^ but aid abet may fall short of the meaning makes one a principal. protection. but of an insurance company's i^k . Wholesome food ia a healthful climate makes a healthy mao. nnhealth. "^ worn. danger. exhausted. tatetf. npboUL Help expresses greater dependence and deeper need than aid. succor. foster. and wholesome. or promote health . necesdfy. Synonyms I bale. 'wbolesome. the hazard or risk of losing. Synonyms abet.tliful. contingency is simply an indeterminable future event. stand by. ealubrlous. well. but not of aiding them. we speak of the chance of winning. salubrious. Salubriotis is always used in the physical sense. Accidents casualties may be to a certain extent anticideath and wounds are casualties of battle. famtmg. Healthful signifies promotive of health. strong. pated . salutary. as. as. vlgrorous. sanitary. HELP. which may or may not be attended with danger or rislc. HEAL. Salutary is now chiefly used in the moral sense . ' worn oat. With healthful are ranged the words hygienic.195 Iiealthy help the hope of good predominates . certainty. a healthy condition. byglentc. diseased. secimty. emaciated. sick. safety. certain to happen to some. sanitary.

the religious sense of the word is the predominant one . Help in an enterprise vjith money . to material assistance. a schismatic introduces divisions. uSLhomoeeneaas. Synonyms HETEROOEWEOVS. Prepositions the enemy. differs in doctrine from the religious body with which he is connected . resist. help to success . a schismatic differs in doctrine or practise. dissimilar. philosophical. conglomerate. school. and heretic is often used playfully. scbismatlc. promote. instead of the belief of his church . various. Dissenter and nonconformist are terms specifically applied to English subjects who hold themselves aloof from the Church of England . We Antonyms counteract. or in both. against Synonyms HERETIC. Etymologically. < oppose. a schismatic is heretic primarily one who produces a split or rent in the church. A heterogenious Substances quite unlike are heterogenious as regards each other. withstand. Encourage refers to mental aid. i dissenter. With advancing ideas of religious Uberty. Compare abet. or party . bereslarch. oftenest . mixed. mingled. «o« Iwo To cooperate is to aid as an equal to assist implies a subordinate and secondary relation. variant. hence. or who holds opinions contrary to the recognized standard or tenets of any established religious. nonibomogeaeous. or even silent . heresiarch is the author of a heresy or the leader of a heretical party. as uphold now usually does . or other system. thwart. mlscellaneouB. discordant. unlike. succor the endangered. succor and support. the former term is extended to non=adherents of the established church in some other countries. and is thus at once a heretic and a schismatic. a heretic is one who takes or chooses his own belief. i confused. encourage the timid or despondent. discourage. support the weak. One assists a fallen friend to rise he cooperates with hun in helping others. a heretic itfone who denies commonly accepted views. heretic may be reticent. the odious sense once attached to these words is largely modified. as A A A Russia.licrcUc hetcrogenious . uphold those who else might be shaken or cast down. nonconformist. mixture is one whose constituents are not only .

etc. . grief. Antonyms alike. air»bubble8. disguise. by accident. and more strictly. like. signifying to approach . or for any other reason is not of uniform structure and density throughout. a cloud hides the sun. a pile of unassorted lumber is miscellaneous . but the cement is said to be homogeneous If the different constituents are evenly mixed throughout. screen. but different in size. HIDE. Even an unconscious object may hide another thing else building hid^s some part of the as. I Iiomogeneoiia. maslc. Synonyms biinr clo^te. a put out of right or beyond ready observation Or the imthing may be hidden by intention. face in anger. a bar of iron that contains flaws. if the objects differ in kind. not be heterogeneous . veU. is said miscellaneous mixture may or may to be nowhrnnogeneous. -which are heterogeneous as regards each other. the contents of a schoolboy's pocket are commonly miscellaneous and might usually be termed heterogeneous as well. so that subany one portion of the mixture is exactly like any other. entomb. slmuar. if the objects are alike in kind. use.. pure. sand. quality. or abstraction he conceals his hide his face the when he fears recognition. but unevenly distxibuted . or from their conceal. overwlieUn. . . separated from the person. form. secrete. same. See complex. and is used chiefly of such material objects as may be ordinary surroundings. nnllonn. children hide the sUpper. inter. Buppretw. the collection is miscellaneous . or hide man unconsciously hides a picture from another by each other a laying somestanding before it. dissemble.. prospect by one may As an act of persons. perfection of themselves from in their games. or hides a thing from himself by over it. in which case it is said to be noru'homogeneous or unhomogenecms . cement is composed ol substances such as lime. stance may fail of being homogeneous and yet not be heterogeneous. t» ecmeeal is always intentional . including all the rest. and without special order or rela- A A tion. cover. etc.197 hide unlike in kind. and clay. tdeatical. Bide is the general term. or a intervening between it and the observer's position. or by the faculties of the one from whom it is hidden. heterogeneous . such a mixture is also. bkd'snest . A house is hidden by foUage Secrete is a stronger word than is artfully concealed. tho no foreign substance be mixed with the iron. I conceal.

in study. entomb and inter only of a dead body. s . attack. a paper is buried under other documents. inconvenience. Antonyms admit. but there are many ways of hiding or concealing a thing without burying it. A thing is covered by putting something over or aroimd it. an officer may also be said to secrete himself to watch the thief. censure. Compare immerse . palliate. Bury may be used of any object. always with some purpose of protection from observation. whether by accident or design . and not buried under them. So a person may be covered with wraps. a person may hide honorable feelings . Whatever is buried is hidden or concealed. but does not secrete it . etc. a thief secretes stolen goods . Anything which is effectually covered and hidden under any mass or accumulation is buried.blgU 19S and put in unlooked=for places . a man conceals a scar on his face. it is screened by putting something before it. etc. In the figurative use. Figuratively. one may be said to be buried in business. Money is buried in the ground a body is buried in the sea . he conceals an evil or hostile intent.

a motion.. motion. frustrate. foil. and this less than exalted .. low. by a snow=storm from arriving on time it may by special order be prevented from starting. mean. To obstruct is to hinder. prevent. or possibly to prevent advance or passage by putting something in the way to oppose or resist is to hinder. the physical system may resist the attack of dis- . Towering. stop. inferior. . counteract.*"" platform is less . embarrass. A railroad=train may be hindered . balk. hamper. high ambition may be merely selfish a lofty ambition is worthy and noble. we speak of high. resist. short. Antonyms base. or gi-owth later in be- make such giiming or completion than it would otherwise have been. an eminent promontory. a towering passion. however rational. To hinder to keep from action. An action that is hindered does not take place at the appointed or appropriate time that which is prevented does not take place at all to hinder a thing long enough may amount to preventing it. stay. lovely. in the invidious sense of haughty or arrogant. delay. stonted. or the like it is a criminal offense to resist an officer in the discharge . its use is almost always invidious . It is more common. is impede. tbwart. in the good sense. oppose. sense. or as expected or intended. cbeck. etc. progress. deep. bar. resist being the stronger term and having more suggestion of physical force obstructed roads hinder the march of an enemy. in the literal sense compares with lofty and majestic . block. Synonyms: baffle. In the figurative sense. degiaded. or holy. interrupt. but some- times of high feelings. An action is prevented by anything that comes in before it to make it impossible . but in the figurative A . as. . an amendment. a towering ambition disregards and crushes all opposing considerations. tho there may be no force strong enough to oppose it one opposes a measure. or possibly to prevent by directly conti-ary or hostile action. Ulndor lofty. action. motion. or growth. retard. or elevated thoughts. of his duty . etc. clog. dwarfed. HIBTDER. depressed. obstruct. it is hindered by anything that keeps it from either beginning or ending so soon as it otherwise would. words. the progress hindered. . to say that the start is delayed. Compare steep. however. To retard is simply to make slow by any means whatever. . or to encumber. elevated than eminent. looks. . progress. aims.

Both necessarily lack emphasis. saintly. is hallowed. distinctively a written account of one person's life and actions an autobiography is a biography written by the person whose life it records. History is blograpliy. Archives are pubUc records. selection.ease or the action of a remedy. Annals axe yearly records . t account. and with complete subserviency to their succession in time. IMPEDIMBNT i Antonyms See synonyms for qdiceen. their causes and consequences. chronicles follow the order of time. annals. Annals and little regard to their relative importance. HOIiY. their mutual relations. chronicles. single eminent life. History recounts events with careful attention to their importance. memorial. Compare becobd. Synonyms lilessed. biographies. story. memoir. tho sometimes we speak of the history of a A . . a systematic record of past events. from acting promptly . therefore lower applications it is less than holy. autobiograpby. and memoirs and other records fm-nish the materials of history. History is usually apph'ed to such an account of events affecting communities and nations. and so which :^8 to be regarded as inviolable not restricted to divine things. by Synonyms HISTORY. muniment. Compare CONQUBE . or chronicles. which may be annals. consecrated. record. Annals. etc. OBSTEUCST. selecting and grouping events on the ground of interest or importance. archives. recital. archives. divine. clironlcle. set apart. and perspective. or chronicles relate events with deeds of property. register. narrative. Prepositions Hinder one in his progress opposition. Antonyms: See synonyms for fiction. That which is sacred applied to that is . sacred. t devoted. Sacred in its on any account. narration. Memoirs generally record the lives of inbiography is dividuals or facts pertaining to individual Uves.

since we have other words to denote the mere dwelling=place . Divine has been used with great looseness. Thus the word comes place. in the line either of goodness or of mere power. denoting originally a dwelling. music." " my home." or "The humble cabin' was dear to him as the home of his childhood. pcee. that which possessing intrinsic moral purity. as to eloquence." or more formally " my residence. or association . is holy is so by its own nature. may be made so by institution. a sense to which there is an increasing tendency to restrict the word desirably so. Synonyms abode. absolute moral perfection. God is holy commands are sacred. beartbstone. Impnie. qualities of Antonrms abominable. as. Abode." — Home^B not merely four square walls. and and eternal dwelling* . Even dwelling is not used in familiar speech. 5. as the soul's peaceful any place of rest and peace. nnconsecrated." In such use holy is more than sacred. as designating that which belongs to or is worthy of the Divine Being. common. i cnrsed. Some is where affection calls Where its shrine the heart has bnilded. but there is a commendable tendency to restrict the word to its higher sense. a person says "my house. as applying to anything eminent or admirable. Tbo with pictures hung and gilded. secnlar. hoihe:. Compare perfect . residence. domicil. abode and habitation belong to the poetic or elevated style.ean an endeared dwelling as the scene of domestic love and happy and cherished family life. in the highest sense. of habitation.201 home decree. Ex. iii. unhallowed. nnboly. dwelling. came to m. we say "The wretched tenement could not be called home. Ingleslde. bouse. and habitation are used with little difference meaning to denote the place where one habitually lives . as if the very a spiritual or divine presence were imparted to the place or object. from the Anglo=Saxon. etc. to signify especially heaven.. polluted. nnsanctifled. worldly. " the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. dwelling." Home. Holy may be applied also to that which is hallowed . fireside. his and. wicked. beartb.

when his own sense of right demands it. traitorous. and is used with more mathematical exactness than flat. as. and will do nothing imworthy of his own inherent nobility of soul. a floor. good. treacherous. and. . trnfaithfal. . especially in matters of business or property one who is honorable scrupulously observes the dictates of a personal honor that is higher than any demands of mercantile law or pubUc opinion. is more loosely used of that which has no especially noticeable elevations or inequalities . straigbtforward. as a picture may be painted on the^af surface of a perpendicular wall. is now rarely used except in the figurative senses. a plane surface . lying. in the first and most usual sense. Just. faithful. as we speak of " a wide plain. ingenuous. In this sense honest differs from honorable as having regard rather to absolute truth and right than to even the highest personal honor. plane. HORIZOSiTAIi. the honorable man wiU not take an unfair advantage that would be allowed him.' fradulent. The adjective plain. or defraud . faithleee. trusty. Honorable. For practical purposes level and horizontal are identical. The honest man does not steal. & plain country. dishonest. Flat. Compare candid justice. flat is also applied in a derived sense to any plane surface without irregularities or elevations. mendacious. ^^^i trustworthy. One who is honest in the ordinary sense acts or always dis- posed to act with careful regard for the rights of others. a level road. I flat. Plane applies only to a surface. tho level. aflat morass. hypocritical. false. but the original sense appears in the noun. Horizontal signifies in the direction of or parallel to the horizon. equitable. genuine. a level road. unscrapulous. plain. Synonyms even. perfidious. according to its derivation from the Anglo= Saxon ^ei. or will make a sacrifice which no one could require of him. tranlc. level. is sincere." We speak of a horizontal bne. . One who is honest in the highest and fullest sense is scrupulously careful to adhere to all known truth and right even in thought. Antonyms: deceitfal. to a surface that is horizontal or level in all directions a line may be level. upright.bonest borlzontal „_~ Jn^ HONEST. disingenuous. untrue. as the more popular word. Synonyms candid. a fioor is flat . fair. originally the same word as plane. cheat. appUes to a siu^face only.

nneren. where it includes both search and chase . . Icind. we speak of human . a slope may be even. Compare mercy . or excellences. cbantable. rolling. and that which is even may not be be very rough . klnd^Iieaxted. pitying. and the chase till it is hunted down. Synonyms: benevolent. searcli. as to its forgiving. we speak of literary pursuits. symp^uetlc. the human race /iwraan qualities achievements. . as. hilly. which is fleeing or departing a search is for that which is hidden a hunt may be for that which is either hidden or fleeing a search is a minute and careful seeking. with no suggestion being good or evil . lough. rugged. a level may Inclinea. . and is especially applied to a locality we make a search of or through a house. vices. The compassionate man sympathizes with and desires to relieve actual suffering. 'benig:nant. slanting. buman. PITI. PITT. in which connection it would be colloquial to say a hunt. tender=Iiearted. virtues. while one who is humane would forestall and prevent the suffering which he sees to be possible. A chase or pursuit is after that . or crimes. A hunt may be either the act of pursuing or the act of seeking. Figuratively. . gentle. humano may road not (especially in the scientiiic sense). Antonyms i See synonyms for baebarous. human follies. for an object. . iitegolar. fitl. the search till the game is hunted out. Human denotes what pertains to mankind. jVntonyins: broken. Synonyms cbase. compassionate. is level be even. or i hunting. pursuit. gracious. a combination of the two. merciful.201 '«''<$ hunt That which level . The humane man will not needlessly inflict pain upon the meanest thing that lives a merciful man is disposed to withhold or mitigate the suffering even of the guilty. or of the pursuit of knowledge a search for . sloping. Inquisition. tender. Hunt never quite loses its association with fleld=sports. Humane denotes what may rightly be expected of mankind at its best in the treatment of sentient beings a humane enterprise or endeavor is one that is intended to prevent or relieve suffering. clement.

opennesB. Cant (L. Compare DECEPTION. pretense commonly signifies the offering of something for what it is not. Affectation is in matters of intellect. pretender. but with more of dash and aggressiveness . hunt. impostor. but. either as a cover for actual wrong. alone and unlimited. cantus. especially hypohrites. an one who acts a false part. sincerity. Pretense (L. Honesty. much what hypocrisy is in morals and religion . pretense. Synonyms HYPOCRISY. Synonyms clieat. in the good sense. there can be no pretense that this is due . pbarlsalsm.. as. Deceiver is the most . without corresponding feeling or character. As cant is hypocrisy in utterance. taste. . a song). i sanctimony. or for the sake of the credit and advantage attaching to virtue. it is now rarely used except with a negative . I deceiver. tmtlirulneBS. actor. tmtli. Hypocrisy is the false pretense of moral excellence. without corresponding earnestness of heart sham (identical in origin with shame) is a trick or device that puts one to shame. etc. etc. affectation. one a mimic actor) is assumes a character other than the who answers on the stage. I gennineneBB. proetendo) primarily signifies the holding something forward as having certain rights or claims. denotes the mechanical and pretentious use of religious phraseology. tones. rites. HYPOCRITE. whether truly or falsely . dissimulation. sanctimoniousness. primarily the singsong iteration of the language of any party. A hypocrite (Gr. the chase of fame or honor as. is now chiefly used for an unregulated emotionalism formalism is an exaggerated devotion to forms. in- clines to the unfavorable sense of inquisition. Pietism. dissembler. .bypocrlsy Iiypocrlte reasons *04 . in figurative use. transparency. pietism. or real. . or that shamefully disappoints expectation or falsifies appearance. as in looks. a false pretense implies the xwssibility of a true pretense. and ceremonies. Antonyms candor. school. so sanctimoniousness is hypocrisy in appearance. or sect. formalism. frankness. sham. affectation might be termed petty hypocrisy. cant. IngeniionBiiess. a hunt for heresy. originally a word of good import. sanctimoniousness is the assumption of a saintly manner vtdthout a saintly character.

while one confessedly lacks material for absolute certainty. honest. resting upon . The deceiver seeks to give false impressions of any matter where he has an end to gain the dissembler or hypocrite seeks to give false impressions in regard to liimself The dissembler is content if he can keep some base conduct or evil purpose from being dis. Antonyms: The antonyms of hypocrite are to be found only in phrases embodying the adjectives candid. hypothesis all the other words of the group. Synonyms conjecture. and in the sense of a somewhat visionary plan. and held as probable or tentative. . of if supposition. but is more frequently applied to proposed action. Theory is used of the mental coordination of facts and principles. a surmise that a stranger may be a pickpocket. including . ingenuous. The cheat and impostor endeavor to make something out of those they may deceive. but useless in fact. it is regarded as verified tOl then it is regarded as a working hypothesis."wa comprehensive term. especially. guess. . HYPOTHESIS. possibly true. etc. Compare hypocrisy. like a guess. which is meant to include all other facts of the same class. is prehminary and tentative a supposition is more nearly final a surmise is more floating and visionary. and often sinister as. A speculation may be wholly of the brain. one that may answer for present practical purposes. . sincere. . while a supposition is still slower and more settled a conjecture. speculation. that is. in the sciences. as the thimble=rig gambler the impostor may aspire to a fortune or a throne. Scheme may be used as nearly equivalent to theory. with a view of reaching truth not yet surely known . surmise. . that may or may not prove correct a machine may be perfect in theory. The cheat is the inferior and more mercenary. A guess is a swift conclusion from data directly at hand. system. . but to gain credit for virtue. theory. A hypothesis is a statement assumed and reasoned upon as what is deemed certainly true. and which is assumed as true tiU there has been opportunity to bring all related facts into comparison. A hypothesis may be termed a comprehensive guess. if the hypothesis ex- plains aU the facts. true. A conjecture is more methodical than a guess. a hypothesis is a comprehensive tentative explanation of certain phenomena. . scheme. covered the hypocrite seeks not merely to cover his vices. .

standard. according to which any existing thing is constructed istence the prototype has or has had actual exin the derived sense.. judgment. model. phenomena. tho something of the original meaning still appears concept^ conception. sentiment. this coincides with the primitive sense at but a single point that an idea is mental as opposed to anything substantial or physical thus. proof. ideal. theory. evidence. The archetype is the primal form. actual or imaginary. design. purpose. 206 . image.Ideal. opinion. plan. discovery. substance. archetype. Antonyms: certainty. as in metrology. Compare system. pattern. Idea is in Greek a form or an image. Idea. etc. demonstration. Synonyms! archetype. having most of assurance and fixity a system unites many . thought. I Compare fancy reality. impression. opinion. prototype. design. when in theological or philosophical language we speak of the ideas The present popular use of idea makes it to signify any product of mental apprehension or activity. > apprehension. model. as a belief. An ideal is that which is conceived or taken as the highest typo of excellence or ultimate object of attainment. Synonyms helief. IDEA. no facts worthy of consideration system is the highest of these terms. fact. called an idea. fancy. ideal. . conceit. This high sense has nearly disappeared from the word idea. of the Copernican system of the Tiniverse. pattern. and has been largely appropriated by ideal. supposition. facts. notion. considered as an object of knowledge or thought . a prototype may not be the original form. but one having equal authority with that as a . fact. almost any mental product. or doctrines into an orderly and consistent whole we speak of a system of theology. . conception. . original. Antonyms actuality. . may now bft of God. fantasy. — . n. The word signified in early philosophical use the archetype or primal image which the Platonic philosophy supposed to be the model or pattern that existing objects imperfectly embody. imagination. IDEAL..

Stupidity is dulness and slowness of mental acts. or of cotton. but may also result from other causes. duties of Ufe. The ideal is imaginary. good or bad the original of a master is superior to . The standard may be below the ideal. Compare insanity. the standard of weights and measures. as from insanity or from age. Antonyms > accomplishment. The original is the specimen. Antonyms: . Synonyms fatuity. An ideal may be primal. doing. stupidity. development. and ordinarily unattainable the standard is concrete. necessarily results . etc. reality. Folly and foolishness denote a want of mental and often of moral balance.Idiocy standard. but is at least such as to incapacitate for the serious Idiocy quite to total absence of understanding. or lack of legal qualification for certain from imbecility. not merely the thing that has been attained or is to be . which may or may not be as complete as that of idiocy. . is Incapacity. performance. embodiment. folly. . but the best conceivable thing that could by possibility be attained. practise. realization. attained. as. Incapacity. The idea of virtue is the mental concept or image of virtue in general the ideal of virtue is the mental concept or image of virtue in its highest conceivable perfection. being a measure to which all else of its kind must conform as. of which his finished worlj first is but an imperfect expression. Fatuity is sometimes used as equivalent to idiocy. of corn. imbecility. incarnation. action which may range all the way from lack of normal readiness to absolute imbecility. or may be slowly developed even from failures and by negations an ideal is meant to be perfect. execution. while insanity is disorder or abnormal action of mind. attainment. acliievement. . The artist's ideal is his own mental image. and ordinarily attainable. the incapacity of a minor to make a contract. a state of mental unsoundness amounting almost or Imbecility is a condition of mental weakness. all copies. sex. IDIOCY. Compare EXAMPLE . fact. senselessness. Idiocy or imbecility is weakness of mind. act action. I foolistuiess. IDEA. but more frequently signifies conceited and excessive foolishness or folly.

slothful. empty. "The slothful hideth his hand in his bosom . . trifling. Antonyms: active. . the idle schoolboy may be very actively whittling his desk or tormenting his neighbors. Compare tain. occupied. useless. be employed in useful work. . . diligent. it is his own fault. sluggisli. Ignorant signifies destitute of education or knowledge. Lazy signifies indisposed to exertion. but less absolute the unlettered man may have acquu-ed the art of reading and writing and some elementary knowledge the uneducated man has never taken any . busy. the indolent man lazy person acts without energy or impetus. uninformed. The inert person seems like dead matter (characterized by inertia). 15. it grieveth him to bring it again to his mouth. averse to labor . unoccupied.E. uneducated. from Idle in all uses rests upon its root meaning. Slothful belongs in the moral reahn. effective action. denoting a self=indulgent aversion to exertion. A may chance to loves inaction. unemployed. lOlVORAIVT. which signifies vain. untaught. knowledge that has become generally diffused in the world the tgireorawi savage may be well insti'ucted in matters of the field and the chase. illiterate. persons are spoken of as ignorant who have not the. but he We speak figuratively of a lazy stream. indolent. Idle thus denotes not primarily the absence of action." Prov.Idle Ignorant SOS IDL. as derived the Anglo=Saxon idel. laziness is in disposition or inclination. unenligbtened. idle. untutored. unlnstructed. xxvi. The most learned man is stiU ignorant of many things . idleness is in fact . worUng. lazy. InduEtrions. and is thus more properly untutored than ignorant. but vain action —the absence of useful. vacant. unlearned. unlettered. Synonyms t inactive. the most active person may sometimes find the bodily or mental powers sluggish. Illiterate is without letters and the knowledge that comes through reading. inert. employed. Doing nothing whatever is the secondary meaning of . powerless to move the sluggish moves heavily and toilsomely . . Unlettered is similar in meaning to illiterate. unskilled. or lacking knowledge or information it is thus a relative term. One may be temporarily idle of necessity if he is habitually idle. Indolent is a milder term for the same quaUty the slothful man hates action . . Synonyms illdntormed.

which simply reproduces the images that the mind has in any way acquired. pliantasy. yet without any true constructive power. whimsical. or odd mental images. Fantasy in ordinary usage simply denotes capricious . wise. graceful. while imagination is deep. including /anc?/. fantasy. presents numerous and varied images. . IlIAOINATIOiy. Antonyms educated. or ideal forms of the mind . learned. and the Productive Imagination which modifies and combines mental images so as to produce what is virtually new. The old psychology treated of the Be^rroduetive Imagination. but with the mind adrift. as appears in the adjective /amtosiic. somnambulism. skilled. but also as purposeless and unsystematized as the visual images in a kaleidoscope such fantasy (often loosely called imagination) appears in dreaming. spiritual. Jgnorance is relative. imagination is the broader and higher term. often combining them into new forms with exceeding vividness. imagination is the act or power of imaging or of reimagiag objects of perception or thought. and with reason and will in torpor the mental images being perhaps as varied and as vivid. well-informed. trdned. instructed.^09 Imagination systematic coTirse of mental training. so understood. To this Reproductive Imagination President Noah Porter and others have given the name of phantasy or fantasy (many psychologists preferring the former spelling). illiteracy is absolute . . — Both fancy and imagination imagination in its lower form. blindly and passively following the laws of association. Phantasy or fantasy. sage. while fancy is the act or jwwer of forming pleasing. recombine and modify mental images either may work with the imagination may glorify the tiniest flower other's materials fancy may play around a mountain or a star the one great distinction between them is that fancy is superficial. ified. we have statistics of illiteracy . or of combining them with little regard to rational processes of construction. . 14 . essential. or erratic fancy. revery. Imagination and fancy differ from /awiae?/ in bringing the images and their combinations under the control of the will . and intoxication. Wordsworth. who was the first . Cynonyms fancy. . no statistics of ignorance axe possible. of combining the products of knowledge in modthe creative or constructive power new.

and the dramatic. and for a different purpose. she does not tell you that her gigantic angel was as tall much less that he was twelve cubits or twelve hundred cubits high. but for it.Imagination clearly to 210 distinction : draw the it between the fancy and the imag- ination. oflSlB. and where they admit of modification. in Milton. less upon casual and outstanding than upon inherent and internal prop- — — — erties. fiends and demons. the ijofaney to describe Queen Mab as coming: pliant. p. or infuse a series of images with such a spiritual truth. and compare an image drawn from the external world with some spiritual truth bom in the mind itself. Fancy does not require that the materials which she makes use of should be susceptible of changes in their constitution from her touch.. 646. but either the materials evoked and combined are different. '51. the human mind has never invented one organ or atti-ibute that is not presented in human or animal life the lion may have a human head and an eagle's wings and claws. * His stature reached the sky! the illimitable firmament! nation frames a comparison. the perfection of which the absolute master.' Having to speak of stature. or that his dimensions equalled those of Teneriffe or Atlas. but in the various features. states as follows To aggregate and to asBOCiate. molding them as needed for its more vivid expression. theresemblance depending less upon outline of form and feature than upon expression and effect. or they are brought together under a different law. because these. [t. is it sees all things in is . it is enough for her purpose if it he slight. & h.. When the imagision is. and demands of the im^agination. .. there is absolutely nothing new. Directly the reverse of these are the desires recoils from everything but the plastic. clear.] So far as actual images are concerned. . both fancy and imagination are limited to the materials furnished by the external world it is remarkable that among all the representations of gods or demigods. a sense of the truth of the likeness from the moment that it is perceived grows and continues to grow upon the mind. of which Shakspeare CoLBBiDQB Tabk Talk June 83. discussion from which the quotation is taken is worthy of. app. to Ed. Mong as well to the imagination as to the fancy . and if they were a million times as high. are bounded.* Poetical Works. Fancy keeps the material image prominent and works not only with *The whole it. and gives unity to variety. Pref. The expresas Pompey's Pillar. She leaves it 'In shape no bigger than an agate stone On the forefinger of an alderman. modifies images. and evanescent. and will well repay careful study. But imagination can transcend the work of fancy. '34. The imagination one. and imagination always uses the material object as the minister of something greater than itself. grifiins and chimaeras. it would be the same. . There is the epic imagination. limited. . . to evoke and to combine. She and the indefinite. individually. .

and yet aU keep the unity of the inventor's thought. and sees them all within the circle of one grand law. even a unity that no human eye ever can when the machine is in actual motion. By imagina. straiglitway. ing at some (perhaps remote) future time. hereafter. sometimes petty and sometimes false imagination goes to the heart of things. one part may hide the connecting parts. By and by. and practical. philosophical. and seeks always and everywhere for es. and is airy and playful. By imagination a Newton sweeps sim. instantly. and for which alone she values it. by and by. Fancy delights and entertains im<igination moves and thrills. xig:Iit away. even the briefest. hence without the intervention of any. See also fancy idea. riglit off. now. and the condition of vance and success. The strong and general human tendency to procrastination is shown in the progressive weakening of the various words in this presently. etc. Antonyms*. tion transforms . Fancy flits about the surface. but the creative. which once meant with no intervening time. earnest. iiential truth. are fain to substitute at once. interval or lapse of time. ir the future. but scientific. miMEDIATELiY. Immediately primarily signifies without the intervention of anything as a medium. penetrative power of imagi- nation is to them the breath of life. since and varied interactions of a and machine never yet constructed. Even immediately is sliding from its instantaneous. gproe time . planets. philosophy. . Fancy sets off. Directly. meangroup. so that we when we would make promptness States. the inventor sees the unity see. now means after some little while presently no longer means in this very present. tion the architect sees the unity of a building not yet begun. forthwltli. has become an antonym of immediately.. and decorates imaginaand exalts. serious. Imagination is not only poetic or literary.411 •""^ and often almost Imniedlatel)' loses the object in the spiritual idea with which she has associated it. all ad- Synonyms at once. but before very long. variegates. Instanter. and stars into unity with the earth and the apple that is drawn irresistibly to its surface. which was once a synonym. and mechanical invention have little use for fancy. without delay. Science. instantly. Eight away anr" right off are vigorous conversational expressions in the United ness. directly. this Instant. and is deep. after a while. emphatic.

problematical. Dip is Saxon. Imminent is more immediate. . with the sense of hanging over. To dip and to im. Synonyms impending. sink. contingent. with the sense of projecting over. in this sense we say dip up. he immerses it. sigmfies liable to happen at once. but dip implies that the object dipped is at once removed from the liquid. dangerous and close at hand. Antonyms chimerical. Synonyms: bury. cnespected. if he but touches the edge . also from the Latin. donbtfnl. Submerge implies that the object can not readily be removed. he completely sinks it under. from the Latin. douse. as some calamity. To speak of baptism by immersion as dipping now seems rude. dip out.«1^ inilERSE. to denote the putting of a hollow vessel into a liquid in order to remove a portion of it. Impending. Immerse one also more absolute completeness of the action may dip his sleeve or dip a sponge in a liquid. impending more remote. is closely akin to imminent. if at all. plunge. whUe immerse suggests if is wholly silent as to the removal. and covers it vidtb the liquid. for which douse and duck are colloquial terms. but always with hope that it . Compare synonyms for buby. immerge. a submerged wreck. as. Dip is used. perhaps very near an imminent peril is one liable to befall very speedily . also. a threatening perU may be near or remote. Preposition: The object is immersed in water. An impending evil is almost sure to happen at some uncertain time. threatening. tho entirely proper and usual in early English. submerge. while immerse is Latin for the same initial act dip is accordingly the more popular and commonplace. duck. immerse the more elegant and dignified expression in many cases. may be averted. unlike the other words. Imminent. Baptists now universally use the word immerse. . To plunge is to immerse suddenly and violently.merse alike signify to bury or submerge some object in a liquid . dip. taprobaWe. threatening more contingent.liumerse imminent ai» . nnlikel. but somewhat less emphatic.

boxes and bales placed on the sidewalk are obstructions to travel an ioe=floe is an obstacle to navigation. An encumbrance is always what one carries with him an obstacle or an obstruction is always without. Impua dence is shameless impertinence. . offlciousness. Synonyms assurance.313 Synonyms bar. To a marching soldier the steepness of a mountain path is a diffi<Mlty. presumption. encumbrance. loose stones are impediments. difficulty. 'benefit. That which rests upon one as a burden is an encumbrance. Intrusiveness. What would be arrogance to the occasion or the person. a fence is an obstruction. help. a cliflf or a boulder across the way is an obstacle . '^^°S' Impudence Imitedlinent iiHPEniniEivT. A difficulty or a hindrance may be either within one or without a speaker may find difficulty iu expressing himself. Difficulty makes an undertaking otherwise than easy. at least for a time. The tendency is to view an impediment as something constant or. balmier. an obstruction something that is built or placed across the way. An impediment is primarily something that checks the foot or in any way makes advance slow or difficult an obstacle is something that stands across the way. but an obstacle may not always be properly termed an obstruction . insolence. pertness. bindrance. an inlet or channel A hindrance (kindred anything that makes one come behind or short of his purpose. or relation of the person interfered with or of the one who interferes especially. obstruction. . incivility. struction if it closes with hind. obstacle. assistance. and may become an ob. efGrontery. boldness. forwardness. saucluess. an impediment in one's speech. rudeness. position. m . forward. continuous as. presumptuous. An impediment may be either what one finds in his way or what he carries with him impedimenta was the Latin name for the baggage of a soldier or of an army. a knapsack is an encumbrance. relief. impertinence. behind) is . aid. IMPVDElVCi:. or meddlesome speech. An obstruction is always an obstacle. Impertinence primarily denotes what does not pertain or belong and hence comes to signify interference by word or act not consistent with the age. succor. or difficulty in holding the attention of restless children. Antonyms: advantage.

inapposite. assubance effbonteey peetness. Prepositions The impudence . and may be either deliberate and insulting or unintentional and even unconscious. humility. Jmcongruous applies to relations. Synonyms absurd. diffidence.incongruous superior becomes 214 impertinence or impudence in an inferior. repugnant. coyness. Things are incompatible which can not exist together in harmonious relations. contrary. term. a room. of customary respect others unasked . . . modesty. things that jar in association like musical notes that are not in accord inharmonious has the same oiuginal sense. or impudence from. inappropriate.. We speak of thoughtless impertinence. the violation and courtesy. . feel alike . Rudeness is the behavior that might be expected from a thoroughly uncultured person. Irreconcilable. or with some standard of ti'uth or right slavery and freedom are inconsistent with each other in theory. Impertinence has less of intent and determination than impudewce. e. INC0X0RV01JS. contradictory. Two adapted sion . or occa- the term is also applied to a thing made up of iU=assorted Discordant is applied to ail or inharmonious elements. or an occasion. but is a milder parts . fit mlsmatclied. and whose action when associated tends to ultimate extinction of one by the other. place. and incompatible in fact. incompatible. Offldousness is thrusting upon and undesired service. either may be unsuitable for a person. Incompatible primarily signifies unable to sympathize or inconsistent means unable to stand together. inbarmonious. mismated. t ill^matclied. unsuitable. inconsistent. Compare akkogancb . i. lowlinesB.o/. unsuitable to purpose or use two colors are inoongruov^s which can not be agreeably associated. are said to be incongruous a tiling is said to be incongruous that is not adapted to the time. or are not . or to more things that do not well together. meekness. Inconsistent applies to things that can not be made to agree in thought with each other. conflicting. incommensurable. each other. a subordinate to a superior. and is often as well=meant as it is annoying. . discordant. shameless impudence. BubmisslTenesB.. Insolence is literally that which is against custom. Antonyms baBlifulness. discrepant.

i busy. more quantities that have no common measure or Antonrins accordant. reader of the Bible. Thus what is ordinarily known as scientific induction is a constant interchange of induction and deduction. applying to two or aliquot part. gent. industrious to a habit of life. inference. an induction is careful. and suggests more say one is a diliof heartiness and volition than industrious. as when we say he is a busy man. Compare demonsteation. occupied at the moment with something that takes his full attention. assiduous. INUIJCTIOIV. agreeing.Of 5 Incommensurable is Induction Industrious a mathematical term. he is industrious just now. In the use We . employed. because we can never be sure that we have collated aU instances. compatible. sedulous. It would be ridiculous or satirical to say. now that is. harmonious. occupied. Induction. Synonyms active. In deduction. diligent. to a general principle. But busy can be used in the sense of industrious. but while an inference may be partial and hasty. We also a disposition. and aims to be complete. engaged. on the other hand. induction can ordinarily give no more than a probable conclusion. Deduction is reasoning from the general to the particular . Busy applies to an activity which may be say a man is iusy just temporary. Preposition The illustrations were incongruous mth the theme Synonyms deduction. through some attribute common to them aU. the conclusion is certain . Diligent indicates any work or . rather than an industrious. EVD1JSTRIOUS. and the special case falls under the rule. if the general rule is true. Buitable. which is ordinarily habitual. proceeds from a number of collated instances. hypothesk. Deduction proceeds from a general principle through an admitted instance to a conclusion. induction is reasoning from the particular to the general. Industrious signifies zealously or habitually applying oneself to business. An induction is of the nature of an inference. The proof of an induction is by using its conclusion as the premise of a new deduction. consistent.

absolute. TemiBsneBB. diligence. eternal. Synonyms DfFIHIITE. Industry is the quality. steady. with love of the work or deep accomplishment . idleness. immeasurable. sits down until it is done. in. interminable. ajpplioation (L. unbounded. I illimitable. Antonyms: changeablenesB. Umit) signifies without bounds or any way. assiduity. Patience works on in spite of annoyances perseverance overcomes hindrances and difficulties . business. action. fickleness. limitless. indolence. quantity. unmeasured. ad. manual or mental. and may be applied to space. measureless. finis. or number. Diligence (L. constancy. persistence strives relentlessly against opposition. not.Indnstry Infinite of the nouns. neglect. implying that one persists in spite of considerations that should induce him to desist. effort. S ynonym* i application. and numberless. or habit of earnest. diligo. sedulousness. hence. fold) bends to its work and concentrates all one's powers upon it with utmost intensity . and continued attention or devotion to any useful or productive work or task. sit). unlimited. but not of plodding Compare active. patience. time. pains. unconditioned. to. to. countless. numberless. inconstancy. ad. slotlu negligence.. Countless. Labor and pains refer to the exertions of the worker and the tax upon him. persistence. diligence applied to some avocation. perseverance. persistence has very frequently an unfavorable meaning. love. which should Infinite (L. etc. &ndi. heart and principle. we speak of plodding industry. innumerable. as the etymology suggests. innumerable. intentness. unfatbomable. choose) to a task invests exertion. and sedeo. diligence. exertion. refer to his continu- ance in the work. s Antonrms See synonyms for idle. and plieo. perseverance. limits in . industry. Industry is more effort and interest in its . or profession. boundless. attention. Assiduity (L. while assiduity. inattention. application can hardly be Constancy is a steady devotion of as unremitting as assiduity. labor.

Impel. influence. sway. within. draw. We are urged from without. boundless. • finite. Acturate refers solely to mental or moral power impelling one from . especially in . dispose. and fiuo. too. measurable.217 Influence be the same as infinite. induce. or moral power. Compare synonyms for eteknal. mental. but can not directly actuate another may be actuated to cruelty by hatred which another's mis- representation has aroused. while instigate is always to evil (compare abet). in. countless leaves. the countless sands on the seashore. and lead refer to the use of mild means to awaken in another a purpose or disposition to act. prompt. moderate. differ in the fact that incite may be to good. i compel. but one One may influence. Drive and compel imply irresistible influence accomplishing its object. limitless. -STnonyms actuate. little. To urge and impel signify to produce strong excitation toward some act. measureless. lead. Instigate. To ify. modor act upon by physical. vegetation is influenced by light every one is influenced to some extent by public opinion influence is chiefly used of power acting from without. stir. So. infinite time is truly eternal. transitory. subtle. persuade. Infinite space is without bounds. in or into. incline. to spur or goad one to action. shallow. the . To excite is to arouse one from lethargy or indifference to action. incite. J circomaeribed. some gentle. and gradual way as. incline. urge. impelled from within. Prompt and stir are words of mere suggestion toward some course of action . innumerable delays. dra^^. as. flow) is to affect. move. limited. Incite and instigate. and unlimited are loosely used in reference to what has no apparent or readily determinable limits in space or time . short. we speak of the boundless ocean. small. illimitable. narrow. as. Antonyms! bounded. one either is by his own passions or by external force or compelled only by some external power . tho perhaps falling far short of infinite . are in common usage vaguely employed to denote what it is difficult or practically impossible to count or number. excite. tho it may be used of motives regarded as forces acting upon the will. restricted. as. evanescent. transient. One may be driven urgency . influence (L. not only in fact. drive. but in thought . dispose. • n. numberless battles.

Synonyms i congenital. fortuitous. congenital idiocy. casual. That which is inherent is an inseparable part of that in which it inheres. inseparable. natural. as when we speak of innate ideas . inbred. inhering. God is said to be immanent (not inherent) in Frequently intrinsic and inherent can be interthe universe. DRIYB. naturally existent or incorporated in something so as to have become an integral part. hinder. external.. ingrained. but inherent applies to qualities. as. superimposed. inbred. indispensable. innate. preventi restrainr retard. Immanent is a philosophic word. so that to speak of intrinsic excellence conveys higher praise than if we say inherent excellence. intrinsic. : extrinsic. changed. subjective. superfluous. native. an . dissaade. subsidiary. Innate and inborn are almost identical. unconnected. while intrinsic applies to essence. but that which is Antonyms accidental. inhibit. incidental. but innate ispref erred in philosophic use. essential. inborn. inCongenital is frequent in medical nate. .Inherent 21S sell his estate. and legal use with special application to defects . to denote that which dwells in or pervades any substance or spirit without necessarily being a part of it. inwrougbt. congenital. outward. immanent. and without reference to any working out (compare subjectivb). Prepositions i Actuated to crime by revenga ISfHERElVT. superficial. and is usually thought of with reference to some outworking or effect as. Inherent signifies permanently united as an element or original quality. superadded. discourage. infixed. Inherent and intrinsic may be said of persons or things . transient. impede. Ingrained signifies dyed in the grain. or innate individual. which is inborn. inherent difficulty. supplemental. apply to living beings. owner was compelled by his misfortunes to pare COMPEL. congenital. Com- Antonyms i deter. indwelling:.and denotes that which is deeply wrought into substance or character. inborn. internal. that may be original with the inbred is inherited.

harm. prejudice. something contrary to some standard of right or good whatever reduces the value. hurt. juris. to rub or wear away) is similar in meaning. damnum. mischief. . interference. may have received not the slightest damage. deterere. whatever is so done as to operate adversely to one in his person. Compare synonyms for blemish . mind. loon. help. Harm is closely synonymous with A causes pain. not. evil. . the evils of poverty. or harm usually caused by some voluntary agent. the word is especially used of whatever mars the integrity of the body or causes pain as. . Antonyms advantage. . injury Tyy . damage. Damage (L. detriment (L. a slight hurt may be no real harm. any impairment of value. . Prepositions: fire The injury of the cause an injury to the by or from collision. it may apply to body. rights. beauty. impairment. or beauty . Injury is the general term including aU the rest. etc. Evil commonly . we may speak of a partial or a total loss. . wrong. when rescued from the wreck his injuries were found to be very slight. Detriment may affect value only damage always affects real worth or utility as a rule. the slightest use of an article by a purchaser blemlsli. or both cial evil. . the soinjury . loss. and jus. Mischief is disarrangement. or reputation is an injury . right. detriment. . suggests suffering or sin. . . trouble.S*ld Injury IXJIJRY. injustice. in. law) signifles primarily something done contrary to law or right hence. tho the article . physical or mental . injustice. blessing. Synonyms s disadvantage. service. or desirableness of anything is an injury to that thing of persons. structure . utility. or estate. while inhurt is an injury that jury may concern only estimated value. utility. utiUty. . improvement. An outrage combines insult and injury. often with the suggestion of fault on the part of the one causing it damage reduces value. as. outrage. vjrong is harm done with evil intent. with or without injurious intent a child's thoughtless sport may do great mischief . operates to its detriment if again offered for sale. loss) is that which occasions loss to the possessor hence. Damage is partial loss is properly absolute as far as it is predicated at aU the loss of a ship implies that it is gone beyond recovery the loss of the rudder is a damage to the ship but since the lossoi apart still leaves a part. but far milder. benefit. property. s amelioration. remedy. Injury (L. but always affects real worth. CEiMrNAL .

in the f uU sense. faultless.Injustice Innocent „nQ ^^^ nvjvsTici:. as the resiiii. and sinless may be used either of one who has never known the possibility of evil or of one who has perfectly and triumphantly resisted it. wrong. lawfnlneaa^-aitgkteoasiiess. an innocent remedy. Synonyms t grlByance. clear. pure. one not dangerous. spotless. is a want of or a deviaffon from equity^ but it is. not having done wrong or violated legal or moral precept or duty as. stainless. as. guileless. . right. In popular usage. one who attrib- utes another's truly generous act to a selfish motive does him an injustice. an act or omission is contrary to equity or justice . In legal usage a wrong involves injury to pei-son. Innocent. honesty. signifies free from the guilt of a particular act. uiiqulty. of evil intent . Innocent. Immaculate. or character. upright. upright. property. A little child or a lamb is innocent . property. pure. upright. a tried and faithful man is righteous. injury. Antonyms eqaity. virtuous. virtuous. even if not helpful. Antonyms Compare synonyms for criminal. or virtuous. Injustice is a violation or denial ofjiwtice. as by misrepresentation of goods which does not amount to a legal warranty. an innocent babe. clean. and no harmful intent. Synonyms: blameless. sinless. the thief was found to be innocent of the murder. Eannless. Innocent is used of inanimate substances in the sense of harmless . signifies not tainted with sin . siN. in the original sense. while wrong always involves both . innocuous. aptf^tnesB. f^mesB. in a specific case. guiltless. as. inte^ty. which imply knowledge of good and evil. See candid pure. inoffensive. . . righteous. fair play. with free choice of the good. impartialitr. Iniquity. larivocENT. honor. ^mpare synonyms for ckiminai. rectitade. Innocent is a negative word. unfairness. unrighteousness. interest. that or reputation. that is. immaculate. now applied in the widest sense to any form of iU^doing. even tho the total character may be very evil as. not necessarily involving injury to person or property. expressing less than righteous. injustice may involve no direct injury to person. rigbt. . injicsHee applies to civil damage or loss. the injustice of unequal taxes. innoxious. t faitlifnlness. . justice.

but with suggestion of excitement. nnconcemed. Lunacy originally denoted intermittent insanity. tho in such connection inquiring is to be preferred . especially of Ijttle and personal matters. careless. akin to mania. luqulMtive Insanity DfCtlJISITITE. regarding trifles. Madness is the old popular term. and is specifically the insanity of disease. alienation. Prepositions Inquisitive about. Craziness is a vague popular term for any sort of disordered mental action. Of these terms insanity is the most exact and comprehensive including in its widest sense all morbid conditions of mind due tc diseased action of the brain or nervous system. heedleee. unintereBted. inattentive. As applied to a state of mind. delirium. a well=bred person may be curious to know. ways temporary. De- common. frenzy. In the derived sense. what is of interest in the affairs of another. Synonyms INSAiyiTT. Dementia is a general weakening of the mental rangement .221 Synonymscurious. supposed to be dependent on the changes of the moon (L. dementia. lunacy. as. Delirium is alis a common euphemism for insanity. or for conduct suggesting it. madness what is insanely desperate. crazlness. monomania. Inquisitive may be used in a good sense. and hence is generally meddlesome and prying. derangement. : Antonyms apathetic. but will not be inquisitive in trying to ascertain. luna) : the term is now applied in general and legal use to any form of mental unsoundness except idiocy. i aberration. as in acute fevers. peeplne soruttnlzln^ An inquisitive person is one who is bent on finding out all that can be found out by inquiry. meddlesome. now less for insanity in its widest sense. but in its more frequent restricted use applied to those forms in which the mental disorder is persistent. concerning. but without the active tendency that. ingwrnYive implies. lunacy denotes what is insanely foolish. mania. : indifierent. madness. an inquiring mind. in regard to. hallucination. curious denotes a keen and rather pleasurable desu-e to knowfully something to which one's attention has been called. as distinguished from those in which it is temporary or transient.

Monomania is mental derangement as to one subject or object. hold off. Intercept. tatlonalltT. is intermeddle. One may interpose with authority he intercedes by petition. with or without acknowledged right or propriety. intercede. in the matter. mediate. .Interpose itZi powers the word is : Aberration specifically applied to senile insanity. and is manifested by error in is perceptions and rambling thought. as the seeing of specters or of reptiles in delirium tremens. stand away.eddle is to thrust oneself into the concerns of others with a petty officiousness. keep aloof. . To interm. A. stand back. withdraw. interplace. " every fool will be meddling. Synonyms nvTERPOsi:. To intercede is to come between persons who are at variance. to intercept a letter or a m essenger . Prepositions Interpose between the combatants . the other words . stand aside. keep clear. t arbitrate. keep away. usually as . and plead with the stronger in behalf of the weaker. interrupt is applied to an action which might or should be continuous. meddle always in a bad sense. let be. to place or come between other things or per^ a means of obstruction or prevention of some efifect or result that would otherwise occur. Halluoination is the apparent perception of that which does not exist or is not present to the senses. interfere. Antonymsi cleamesB. Frenzy and mania are forms of raving and furious insanity. stand off. goodBense. the conversation was interrupted. retire. 3 to interfere is to intrude into others' affairs with more serious pm-pose. Intercept is applied to an object that may be seized or stopped while in transit . some disturbing power as. dotage. eanlty. interrupt.ntonym8i avoid. xx. meddle." Prov. keep out. hold aloof. of the group imply that he steps in of his own accord. Compare synonyms for delusion idiocy. . to break) by To interpose sons. rumpere. meddling commonly arises from idle curiosity . or be expected to take Intercede and interpose are used in a good sense . One who arbitrates or mediates must do so by the request or at least with the consent of the contending parties . let alone. but is broken in upon (L. and interfere frequently so. as. eccentricity of mental action due to an abnormal state of the perceptive faculties. Incidity.

denoting more complete entanglement. and volvo. i disentangle. is now a going to a considerable especially by sea . the nation is involved in war . that which is involved is necessarily to be inferred . as. while involve is more commonly used of that which is unfortunate . Journie. but is naturally to be inferred . remove. a tour. disUnguisli. travel. in. Synonyms voyage. separate. include overwiielm. that which is implied is not stated. generally over a considerable distance . which was formerly a distance by Journey of any kind. daily) was primarily A journey (F. expedition. a slate roof is in(Huded in the contract. the contrary supposition involves an absurdity. Travel is a passing from place to place. and direct Journey. implicate.223 Synonyms journey Involve INVOLiTE. a day's work . explicate. roll) is to roll or wind up with or in so as to combine inextricably or inseparably. A voyage. or nearly so as. a voyage to India. Antonyms disconnect. Europe ma. a Journey through Europe would be a passage travel in to some destination beyond or at the farther boundary . as. To involve (L. See COMPLEX. diurnus. one is im/plieated in a crime. embarrass. extricate. in its extended modern use a Journey is a direct going from a starting^ point to a destination. or the writer's sentences are involved. or the Journey of life. pilgrimage. involved in embarrassments. and involve ordinarily so . be in no direct course. from L. but implicate applies only to that which is wrong. entangle. Involve is a stronger word than implicate. but may include many Journeys in different directions. in. excursion. transit. trip. a movement from place to place within one day. the bookkeeper's accounts. which we now describe as " a day's Journey " . JOVRSrEY. As regards logical coimection that which is included is usually expressly stated . i complicate. A tour is a Journey that returns to the bridal 8tarting=point. as. . ordinarily over a considerable distance. misfortunes. embroil. implicate is always used in an unfavorable sense. not necessarily in a direct line or with fixed destination . that the roof shall be water-tight is implied. As applied to persons. imply. we speak of a day's Journey. A trip is a short water. or perplexities. hence.

war must now be the arbiter . the as. over the sea . as the Uidted States Supreme Court. on foot. taken for pleasure. or a goodjudge of a horse. as. is used specifically of the conveyance of passengers or merchandise rapid transit is demanded for suburban residents or perishable goods. in the legal sense. any person who has good capacity for judging is called a jtidge . . especially by water. as. Pilgrimage. as. is referee.Judge 224 tour. legally constituted officers sometimes given to other the judges of election . a person is said to be a. eto. Arhiver. Synonyms arbiter. umpire. Justice. or business tour. justices. as. Prepositions > A journey /rowi Naples to Rome . the Supreme Arbiter of our destinies. in the widest sense. etc. . judge of pictures. fordon«Avon. with its suggestion of final and absolute decision. as. and is to decide legal questions duly brought before him lations. The judges of certain courts. a journey into Asia . a judicial officer appointed or elected to preside in courts of law. the judges at an agricultural fair. on the cara. in other re- name any person duly appointed to pass upon the merits of con- testants or of competing articles may be called a judge . In most games the judge is called an umpire . /or health. Passage is a general word for a Journey by any conveyance. referee is appointed by a court to decide disputed matters between litigants . iy land. transit. through Mexico . . An excursion is a brief tour or journey. or at a race=track . as. an arbitrator is chosen by the contending parties to decide matters in dispute without action by a court. A judge. across the continent . has come to be used only in a high or sacred sense . retains in derived uses something of that sense . a rough passage across the Atlantic . &j/ rail. often by many persons at once as. an excursion to Chautauqua. In certain cases an umpire is apjjointed by a court to decide where arbitrators disagree. a pilgrimage to Strat. are technically known as A . i arbitrator. literally the act of passing over or through. once always of a sacred character. avnong savages . the umpire of a game of ball or cricket.

or consideration as is given to any other . The system of equity. devised to supply the insuEQciencies of law. virtue. as. justice is the giving to every person exactly what he deserves. In its governmental relations. deals with cases " to which the Zaw by reason of its universality can not apply. onlawfiilneea. fair play. favorlttem. Synonrma equity. nntratli. faJmess. Lawfulness is an ambiguous word. justness. wroDg. Justness letera rather to logical relations than to practical matters . and imbiased adherence to essential truth or fact . which is giving others that which is their due. In legal proceedings cases arise for which the law has not adequately provided. it is that which is equally right or just to all concerned . unprejudiced. human or divine. in matters of reasoning. or of doing justice to a subject. . equity is equal justice and is thus a close ^Tionym iov fairness and impartiality. Prepositions' The justice of the king 19 . is the soul and spirit of all law . word. injustice. would work individual hardship. right. rectitude. ing to every one what is due or merited. Impartiality. not necessarily involving any consideration of what any other may deserve. right. whether in act.. Inequity.. legality. or thought . truth. but it has a philosophical and legal precision that those words have not. uprightness. positive law is construed and rational law is made by it." Blackstone bk. partiality. iii. or literary work of any kind. Integrity. ch. then." "Equity. Antonyms: dishonest?. or in which general provisions. to or for the oppressed . integrity. nnfaimesa. but in its higher sense signifying accordance with the supreme law of right. privilege. honor. which may be very far ttora justice. righteousness. meaning in its narrower sense mere legality. rightfulness. justice is close. we speak of the justice of a statement. See JT7DGE. law. n. equity (the quality of being equal) is giving every one as much advantage. righteousness and virtue denote conformity of personal conduct to the moral law. 429. In personal and social relations jzcsf ice is the render27. faithfulness. just in the main. faithful. and thus necessarily include justice. imreasonablenees. we speak of the justness of a statement or of a criticism. rectitude.225 justice JVSTICB. and thus including •gextect justice. lawfulness. p.

keep the peace. . or violence . detain. to massacre to butcher is said when there is no chance of successful resistance . execute. soldiers mown down in a . To slay is to kill by a blow. such words as preserve or maintain could not be substituted without loss. we keep or maintain a horse. sustain. conducts or carries on a business . slaugbter. despatch. or keep the faith. slay. bold. ourselves. an occasion. or by a weapon. massacre is appUed primarily and almost exclusively to human beings. restrain.keep kill 2!26 Synonymsi carry. preserve. in or within the house .Iv. we keep or preserve silence. keep to the subject . preserve order preserve being We the more formal word . keep faith. murder. To kill is simply to deprive of life. execute. murder. butcber. or celeactly discriminated by other words. puttodeatb. Assassinate. with no suggestion of how or why. animal. protect. signifying to kill them indiscriminately in large numbers . etc. he keeps or carries a certain line of goods : we may keep or restrain one from folly. or vegetable. brate a festival . we keep or obey a commandment . KIl. maintain. out of mischief . to murder is to kill with premeditation and malicious intent . defend. . strong Saxon term for many acts which are more exkeep. apply only to the taking of human life . refrain. retain. obey. a servant. observe. massacre. fulfil. whether secretly or openly. is the terse. Keep. conduct. in mind. restrain. signifying generally to have and retain in possession. witbbold. the defense is effectual Compare ceIjEBRATE . keep or fulfil a promise. when the killing is especially brutal . we keep from or refrain from Keep in the sense of guard or defend implies that evil. Butcher and slaughter apply primarily to the killing of cattle. keep one's own counsel. observe. support. etc. a man supports his family . carry on* celebrate. A person keeps a shop or store. keep for a person. Prepositions Keep in hand. to execute is to kill in fulfilment of a legal sentence to assassinate is to kill by assault this word is chiefly applied to the killing of public or eminent persons through alleged political motives. we keep or hold a prisoner in custody . KEEP. from evil . Synonyms > assassinate. guard. In the expressions to keep a secret. human. crime.

intuition. Knowledge is all that the mind knows. and to a certain degree complete. with or without right. lore. perception. except those is Kind ship. recosrnltion.nam **' kin knowledge hopeless charge are said to be slaughtered when no brutality on the enemy's part is implied. by a robber. literature. etc. consanguinity is relationship by blood. kiUed /or his money. Prepositions To kiU mth or hy sword. We say of a studious man that he has a great store of knowledge. scbolarsliip. family. To despatch is to JciU swiftly and in general quietly. learning. etc. cognizance. been learned respecting phenomena. Synonyms affinity. KIN. wisdom. science. denoting the most general relationwhole human species in mankind. principles. aliens. etc. or observation. real or supposed. comprehension. apprebension. There is a tendency to regard knowledge as accurate and systematic. grief. pestilence. care. either of these words may signify collectively all persons of the same blood or m. including alike the intuitions native to the mind and all that has . birtli. books. as of the made by negatives. always with intention. . for accumution. erudition. KNoirLEDOi:. Information is knowledge of fact. intelligence. information. and is regarded as casual and haphazard. alUance. as of a people or age. consanguinity. experience. famine. relatives or relations. or principles acquired or retained by the mind. kindred. t blood. or by whatever process the aggregate of facts.. descent.embers of the same family. relationship. foreigners. hxanaakind. Synonyms acquaintance. Affinity is relationship by marriage. laws. or in a more limited sense We speak of perception or external for learning or erudition. race. causes. There are no true antonyms of kin or kindred. or of an intelligent man of the world. kind. from whatever source derived or obtained. cognition. truths. with a dagger. since strangers. broader than hin. light. derived from persons. kin and kindred denote direct relationship that can be traced through either blood or marriage. lated knowledge. and foes may still be kin or kindred.. that he has a fund of varied informaLore is used only in poetic or elevated style. preferably the former.

merely as such .language objects. wisdom. people. patois. assiduous study . Inexperience. eiducation. Synonyms barbarism. we can speak of the language of animals. dialect is a special mode of speaking a language peculiar to some locality or class. but not of their speech. or race. or some usage akin to that. Compare acqitaintanos . and. vocabulary. we take cognizance of it. Antonyms ignorance. cognizance is the formal or official recognition of something as an object of knowledge. the tongue) signified originally expression of thought by spoken words. the result of long. not recognized as in accordance with the best usage . nnfamiliarity. it is the peculiar mold in which each language casts its thought. Idiom refers to the construction of phrases and sentences. 228 Simple perception gives a limited knowledge of external objects. Speech involves always the power of articulate utterance . motber tongue. language in its broadest sense denotes all the uttered sounds and their combinations into words and sentences that human beings employ for the communication of thought. the language of the eyes. The great difficulty of translation is to give the thought expressed ia one language in the idiom of another. but now in its widest sense it signifies expression of thought by any means . Learning is much higher than information. the cognition of the same objects is a knowledge of them in some . Intuition is primary knowledge antecedent to all teaching or rear soning . liANOVAGE. beiag preeminently wide and systematic knowledge. expression. As regards the use of words. diction. mlsconcepttoiu misanderfitaaffiiigi rndeneea. or race. tongue. dialect may be lised by the highest aa well as thfl A A A . langage < L. iUiteraey. as. apprehension of intellectual truth. scienob. and abilily. erudition is recondite learning secvired only by extraordinary industry. as. a child's experience that fii-e will bum. misapprehenaon. lingua. dialect. tongue is the speech or language of some one people. the language of flowers. the words or combinations forming a means of communi cation among the members of a single nation. Idiom. and the way of forming or using words . country. a barbarism is a perversion of a language by ignorant foreigners. speech. in a more limited sense. vernacular. op- relation portunity. Language (P. experience is knowledgethat has entered directly into one's own life .

as in the case of the Italian lazzaroni or the former negro Vernacular.329 large law lowest within Its range . from the Latin. Compare diction. the Scriptures were translated into the vernacular. but speak only the degraded form. or that of a people . same general sense as the Saxon mother tongue. . as. has the slaves in the United States. those who speak a patois understand the cultured form of their own' language. of one's native language. belonging to the lower classes. a patois is distinctly illiterate.

including not only all special laws. a city) signifies the form. as. or a system of laws scientifically considered. but tho principles on which they are based. as. politeia. constitution. the laws of nature. a natural law is simply a recognized systeni of sequences or relations . political or religious. In more strictly scientific use. firoedom. classed. it is may be said the state of being exempt from the domination of others . The Mosaic economy is known also as the Mosaic law. license. of which they form a part . oikonomia. or method of government of a nation. military orders. but the word is extended to the administration or government of a state or people. speak of algebraic or chemical formulas. the laws of business. as. denotes also the body of statutes enacted by a legislative body. army regulations. and we speak of the English common law. in usage it differs from economy as applying rather to the system. In general terms. primarily the management of a house) is any comprehensive system of administration . Law is often used. the code of Draco. for a recognized principle. Polity (Gr. while polity has more reference to broad principles. or to the system as admin. legislation. municipal ordi- up nances. is the science of law. Kepler's laws of code is a system of laws .liberty ' 230 its to send specific law. freedom is the absence of restraint. the Mosaic economy. whose violation is attended with injury or loss that acts like a penalty. British legislation. Law is also used as a collective noun for a system of laws or recognized rules or regulations. signifying a body of laws and regulations. church. liberty is primarily the removal or avoidance of restraint . liberty relative. from polis. especially the latter. it Independence. also. Boman juri^arudence. in its broadest sense. an economy might be termed a polity considered with especial reference to its practical administration. or the law of nations. Statute is the recognized legal term for a enactment is the more vague and general expression. with the entire system. or other institution . An economy (Gr. as. that freedom is absolute. We records. state. primarily the act of legislating. istered Synonyms : emancipation. the rules of a business house. while A economy applies especially to method. hence commonly with special reference to details or particulars. and interpreted . jurisprudence planetary distances. ecclesiastical canons. domestic economy .

from the faintest phosphorescence to the blaze of the noonday sun. sudden gleam of light came through the half=open door . Liberty keeps quite strictly to the thought of being clear of restraint or compulsion . scintillation. — Antonyms: captivity. and a reckless doing of aU that individual a base and dangerous councaprice or passion may choose to do terfeit ot freedom. twinkling. slavery. a flash is a light that appears and disappears in an instant. LIOHT. flare. if it contains few solid particles it will yield little light. luster. Shine and shining the case of a hydrogen=^ame. the independence of the United States did not secure liberty ov freedom to its slaves. in the wider sense. necessity. flame. freedom takes a wider range. We speak of the glimmer of distant lamps through the mist . or gains his freedom . shimmer. glow. the glare of torches the glow of dying embers. we speak of freedom from annoyance or intrusion. sheen is a faint Glimmer. liant flame. and shimmer shining. sheen. flash. denote wavering light. glistening. glimmer. applying to other oppressive influences thus. illumination. the glow subdued . a glitter refer to . shine. saperstition. tho it may afford intense heat. Synonyms! blaze. flame is both hot and luminous . a steady or continuous emission of light . compalsion. servltade. gleam. a The glare and flash of lightning. a bounded liberty . a permission or privilege granted by adequate authority. twinkle. Light. usually by reflection. constraint^ sendom. oppression. the slave is set at liberty. permission.231 light or from restricting circumstances. hnprisoDment. license is an ignoring and defiance of all that should restrain. gleaming. glistering. as. brila wavering ^ame or blaze. thraldom. Compare Aiiow . . gutter. License is. of the shimmer of waves in sunlight or moonA gleam is not wavering. shining. sparkle. as in A A blaze is an extensive. glitter. but transient or intermittent . as. glow are steady. Freedom and liberty are constantly interchanged . glare. but freedom is the nobler word. freedom and liberty of individuals . A flare is . obligation. strictly denoting a form of radiant energy. Independence is said of states or nations. the flash of gunpowder. in its limited sense. the glare painfully bright. a light. flicker. Incandescence. is used as a general term for any luminous effect discernible by the eye.

as. dark. as. reasonable. may be taken for granted in advance of proof. the ship was liable to founder at any moment. is a thing conjectural which is Antonyms donbtfnl. Glistening is a shining as intermittent light of the fixed stars. the glitter of burnished arms. Synonyms apt. liable. i credible . an industrious worker to is likely to succeed.) To hear is . Compare appabent. tho not always. conjectural. dimness. independently of external grounds for belief or disbelief . beav. Reasonable in this connection signifies such as the reason can be satisfied with. harken. dnak. Bfaadow. scintillaTwinkle and twinkling are used of the tions of wit or of genius. dablone. as when all the windows of a house or of a street are lighted. a likely story thing is conceivable of which the mind can entertain the possibility I . (Compare synonyms for LOOK. Illumination is a wide=spread. onreamiabla Synonyms attend. liiKEi^ir. as. and usually. probable. as. obscnrity. an impetuous person is apt to speak hastily. gtoomlnesa. Antonyms blackness. nnlikely. as. as of sparks thrown out .Itkely listen „„„ »<»'« A sparkle is a is a hard light . shade. sudden light. or tentative judgment a thing is presumable which. as. conjectured as possible or probable without other support than a conjecture. I darkness. The light of incandescence is intense and white like that from metal at a white heat. gloom. scintillation is the more exact and scientific term for the actual emission of sparks. a credible narrative . Credible signifies readily be believed . Incredible. Liable refers to a contingency regarded as unfavorable . Apt implies a natural fitness or tendency . hark. as. LISTEN. favorable . Between listen and hear is a difference like that between the words look and see. from what is antecedently known. conceivable. heed. Likely refers to a contingent event regarded as very probable. from a -wet surface. likely in such connection A is used ironically to signify the reverse . list. questionable. that seems a reasonable supposition. > Improbable. brilliant light. also the figurative term for what suggests such emission . presumable.

Antonyms be deaf to. Literature. or in some department of human knowledge . the works collectively that embody taste. a signal. i. or in a more limited sense. and dramatic compositions. referring to aU that has been belles'lettres. Compare KNOWIiEDaE. is nearly obsolete. the literature of politics or of art. e. Prepositions We listen for what we expect or desire to hear we listen to what we actually do hear listen /or a step. as to a distant speaker. SCIENCE. publications. sense. bear) is n. books. including also much of philosophical writing. a train . the literature of the Augustan age .. . Synonyms t literary productions. A load (from the Anglo=SaxoD . clog. but to remember and observe. tho listening implies some attention to the meaning or import of the soimd. pack. as the orations of Demosthenes. In listening the ear is intent upon the sound in attending the mind is intent upon the thought. wliich is what one has to bear. encumbrance. Synonyms: burden. to listen is to make a conscious effort or endeavor to hear. LiOAD. fiction. literary w^orks. as poetry. feeling. from the verb beran.noo -e"** literature load simply to become conscious of sound. and the word is used always of that borne by a living agent. charge. ten to the debate. Literature is also used to signify literary pursuits . as. ' ^ or occupations . used absolutely. the literature of Greece . to devote one's life to literature. lading. denotes what has been called "polite literature" or helles'lettres. Ignore. To heed is not only to attend. history. slight. ecom. as the " Republic " of Plato. incubus. we can speak of the literature of science in the narrower sense. listen . weigbt. may hear without listening. and purity and beauty of style. A burden (from the Anglo=Saxon byrthen. including in the most general sense all the written or printed pro)luctions of the human mind in all lands and ages. loftiness of thought. Harken neglect. writings. and oratorIn the broad ical productions. cargo. freigbt. Literature published in some land or age. as words suddenly uttered in an adjoining room or we may We . as. is collective. lis. without hearing. we speak of literature and science as distinct departments of knowledge.

Synonyms: hook. discern." mule is called apacfc. what is laid upon a person. carrying. bar is a piece of wood or metal. the same weight that one finds a moderate load full strength becomes a heavy burden in weariness or weakness. gaze. fastening. may be movable or permanent . a simple hook that fits into a staple is also called a hasp. which is. or vehicle for conveyance. etc. a bolt is a movable rod or pin of metal. Synonyms: bebold. latcb. calculated to be secured by a padlock . bar by which an opening is obstructed. descry. forward or backward by a key.OOK. A ship's load is called distinctively a cargo. course. hasp is a metalUc strap that fits over a staple. as the clasp of a A A book. clasp is a fastening that can be sprung into place. in commercial language. To behold is to fix the sight and the mind w^ith distinctness and consideration upon something that has come to be clearly before the eyes. L. clasp. animal. glance. regard. a door held fast. basp. or other device the bolt is the eslatch or catch is an accessible fastensential part of the lock. contemplate. -bar. and the animal is known as a packshorse or when in his A pack^mule. To gaze is to . as ia pitch=darkness. view. survey. and we may see without looking.OCK. inspect. A A A . Freight denotes merchandise in or for transportation and is used largely of transportation or of merchandise transported by rail. see. or carriage) . . to draw and hold the parts of some enclosing object firmly together. and simply to secure against accidental opening of the door.lock look lad. watcb. etc. usually of considerable size. no J 234 is a way. a two=horse load. bolt. or what is customarily Weight measures the pressure so imposed as. due to gravity . scan. L. as in case of a flash of lightning. cover. We to may look without seeing. or it may be known as freight or lading. sliding in a socket and adapted for securing a door or winlock is an arrangement by which an enclosed bolt is shot dow. A ing designed to be easily movable. catcb. stare. load to be fastened upon a horse or eaid to be "shipped. to To look is see is simply to become conscious of an object of vision make a conscious and direct endeavor to see.

and constant. long. but of deep or tender affection. tender. for inanimate objects. or other object of affection . Love is more intense. suwej/ expressing the greater exactness of measurement or estimate. Love can never properly denote mere animal passion. regard. than friendship. as we speak of love for a horse or a dog. The Eevised Version uses lovein place of charity in 1 Cor. Affection is fondness. strong friendship. and crave the presence or possession of the person or object loved." ing that probably it never can be recalled (compare benevolence). To scan. Synonyms affection. or rudeness. To glance is to casually or momentarily. love may be briefly defined as strong and absorbing affection for and attraction toward a person or object. firm. devotion. alarm. liking. it is the yearning or outgoing of soul toward something that is regarded as excellent. I. desire. movement Compare APPEAB. One may properly be said to have love for animals. more intense. attraction. tenderness. or of close. kindly feeling. and to desire to please and benefit the person. for mountains. deep. going out object. di-awing one toward a person or object and causing one to appreciate. which is expressed by such words as appetite. or to advance the cause. to note every visible featm-e. friendship. to some person or . beautiful.8«» lo. To inspect is to go below the sui-face. lust. a signal. and subsists throughout all happy wedded life. etc. Love is an intense and aosorbing emotion. and elsewhere. and perhaps passionate than affection . Love may denote the sublimestand hoUest spiritual affection as when we are taught that "God Charity has so far swung aside from this original meanis love. truth. study item by item. charity. the love that normally leads to marriage. attachment. the approach of an enemy. whether applied to persons or things. and steadily upon an object. Watch brings in the eleZoofc ment of time and often of wariness we watch for a or change. is to looh at minutely. To stare is to looh with a fixed intensity such as is the efifect of surprise. View and survey are comprehensive. or desirable . being less fervent and ardent than love. absorbing.e looh intently. Love is used specifically for personal affection between the sexes in the highest sense. delight in. .OVE. or for abstract qualities that enlist the affections. impulsive. we speak of fervent love. uncover. and tender xiii.

make on the accomplished fact. niARRIAGE. ox from certain materials. make make out. Prepositions Make of. out of. inpluencb. effect. . made vyith hands. to cause a voluntary agent to do a certain act is to make him do it. establlsb. . to the idea of caiise all its vari- be traced (compare synonyms for CAUSE). . Synonyms espousal. do. it was very good. made hy a prisoner. Love of articles of food is better expressed by liking. constrain. i. w^eddlng. expresses something spiritual and reciprocal. demolish. force. frame. behold. To to exist. (make ous senses may make is to cause known) announce avow confess (make up) add. perform. bring about. . 31. constitute . union. render. (make better) amend. get. mto a certain form. fasblon. Antonyms See synonyms for antipathy . ocean. as. compel fixing the attention more on the process. Antonyms See synonyms for abolish. compose. spousal. Similarly. conjugal union. (make prisoner) arrest . cause. such as can have no place in connection with objects that minister merely to the senses. spousals. Matrimony denotes the state of those who are united in the . construct. create. bring to pass. manufacture. shape. espousals. constitute. or to cause to exist in a certain form or in certain relations. (make void) cancel. nuptials. Compare compel. with a jack-knife. or of love of nature. by hand. occasion. love to God and man." Make includes also the idea of compose. (make haste) quicken. for a certain purpose or person. require. Prepositions Love of country for humanity . matrimony. reach. do. the word thus includes the idea of create. and love of virtue. Synonyms: become. fabricate. as love. hatred. MAKE. or compel him to do it. and. compel. the parts mMke up the whole. as in Oen. in its full sense. enmity . bring Into being. up. execute. Compare attachment friendship. Make is essentially causative. break. 'wedlock. . " And God saw everything that he had made.make marriage <lt<i -eo" woods.

to at with among the Greeks. a mannish boy or woman. as. We apply m. especially to the stronger. and is thus an emphatic word for sturdy. manly. Prepositions Marriage of or between two persons . a masculine face or voice. as. divorce. Wed: a word of specific legal use. with any attendant festivities. masculine to the qualities. by which two persons are united as husband and wife. hardier. and more imperious qualities that distinguish the male sex . Manlike may mean only having the outward appearance or semblance of a man. especially to the valor and prowess that become a man . is the Saxon term for the state by matrimony. celibacy. Masculine may apply to the distinctive qualities of the male sex at any age . manlike. Synonyms male. i manful. virginity. widowhood. intrepid. manulsb. virile. she acted with m. we say manly gentleness or tenderness Mannish is a depreciatory . or the like . Manly refers to all the qualities and traits worthy of a man manful. we speak of a manful struggle. tho one may say in a conmiendatory way.asculine courage or decision. etc. we word could not say manful tenderness. but marriage denotes primarily the act extensively used for the state as well. masculine has often the depreciatory sense of unwomanly. as applied to women. the indiscriminate killing in numbers of the uu- . Wedding denotes the ceremony. or harsh . Antonyms i See synonyms for feminine. maidenhood.ale to the sex. A massacre carnage. of one person another . or may be closely equivalent to manly. virile applies to the distinctive qualities of mature manhood only.o*** ** relation of lock. manly decision . referring to the mimicry or pa- rade of some superficial qualities of manhood . slaughter. as opposed not only to feminine or womanly but to childish. butcbery. rude. nuptials being the more formal and stately term to express the same idea. masculine masnacre husbaad and wife is of so uniting. or relation denoted Antonyms bachelorhood. Synonyms. is bavoc. mASCVLINE. MASSACRE.

retiring. Accordant notes of different pitch sounded simultaneously produce harmony . it is destruction let loose. carnis. harmony i^ust be of two or moi-e parts. others and undesirably upon their notice . qualities. nor so coldly brutal as hutehery. repulsed with great slaughter. as carnage does to the result these two words only of the group may be used of great destruction of life in open and honorable battle. unasked and undesired. sympliony. actions. intrusive remarks meddlesome 18 used indifferently of persons. but is more widely spread and furious . intrusive is used chiefly of persons. or of words. upon Obtrusive is oftener applied to words. intsbfose. 'he made havoc of the church. as is officious. unison. tho we speak of officious attentions. obtrusive. etc. simultaneous . or the carnage was terrible. as a voice and a bell may Harmony is A . nnasBnimng. etc. and may be applied to man life " as for .E:sonn:. others. interests. actions. IHELODY. but refers more to the process." Acts viii. Synonyms linpertiiient. Synonyms: harmony. the person thrusts his services. intrusive. ]HEi>i>L. his opinions conceitedly officious . there may be unison between sounds of very different volume and quaUty. music. organizations. meddling. Carnage (Latin caro.meddlesome melody resisting or defenseless . etc.. melody is successive . as when we say the enemy was 3. ehy. qualities. the obtrusive person thrusts himself or The meddlesome person . flesh) refers to widely scattered or heaped up corpses of the slain slaughter is similar in meaning. . nnobtrasive. reserved. o£Sclous. Havoo may not be BO complete as massacre. interferes unasked in the affairs of the intrusive person thrusts himself uninvited into their company or conversation . melody the pleasing succession of a number of notes continuously melody may be wholly in one part following one another. aoa JtSB hutehery is the killing of men rudely and ruthlessly as cattle are killed in the shambles. Antonyms: modeBt. . than to persons . Compare iKQUisixro: . unison is the simultaneous sounding of two or more notes of the same pitch. When the pitch is the same. as well as to huSaul. harmony is the pleasing correspondence of two or more notes sounded at once.

Pardon remits the outward penalty which the offender deserves forgiveness dismisses re.239 sound in unison. the same is true of memory. the granting of Tcindness or favor beyond what one may rightly claim. forgiveness. kindness. altho this not literally exact . memory mercy Tones sounded at the interval of an octave are is also said to be in unison. while remembrance is the having what is known consciously before the mind. recalled in a . as of many accordant voicep or instruments. grace. and pardon are exercised toward the ill»deserving. benignity. a thing is brought to remembrance or we call it to remembrance . nnconsdouBneas. back upon the is past. or blessing shown to the undeserving forgiveness. Music may denote the simplest melody or the most complex and perfect harmony. tenderness. this usage arises from' the fact that bass and tenor voices in attempting to sound the same note as the soprano and alto will in fact sound a note an octave below. gentleness. retrospect. sentment or displeasure frona the heart of the one offended. lenity. pardon. pity. Reminiscence is a half=dreamy memory of scenes or events long past retrospection is a distinct turning of the mind is Memory . memory is a retention of knowledge within the grasp of the mind. remembrance.em. Synonyms Henevolence. vocal or instrumental. bringing long jwriods under sm-vey. recollection is to Antonyms forgeifalnesB. or in a more extended sense. Remembrance may be voluntary or involuntary . less severity than one deserves. to reminiscence much what oversight. Synonyms: recollection. Mercy is the exercise of forbearance. leniency. clemency. mildness. oWivionsnesa. blessing. mercy. retrospection.brance. Recollection involves volition. compassion. . lenience. A symphony (aparc from its technical orchestral sense) is any pleasing consonance of musical sounds. IHERCY. . the faculty by which knowledge is retained or more general sense. Mndness. or fixing the attention actively upon it when recalled. reminiscence. oblivion. ftivor. inEMORY. Or ace is favor. Retrospection rem. the mind making a distinct effort to recall something.

. etc. from which timely punishment might have saved. . and is matter rather of good nature or poHcy than of principle. measure. rigor. rather than moral sanction it often denotes a habitual mildness of disposition on the part of the powerful. vengeance. prose and verse.ency of a conqueror. since it would encourage to repetition of the offense. Verse. . METER. the clem. strophes. a measured rhythm with regular divisions into verses. . in the general sense. m^ter is more precise than rhythm. punisliment. . verse. Clemency is a colder word than mercy. agreeable linguistic sound. euphony may apply to a Euphony the other words apply to rhythm and meter may be produced by accent only. word or even a lines.meter 240 mercy seeks the highest possible good of the offender. Leniency or lenity denotes an easy=going avoidance of severity these words are more general and less magisterial than clemency . severity. Antonyms cruelty. applies only to poetry. justice. . as in the mitigation of sentence. harshness. Prepositions The mercy of God upon one. signifying mildness and moderation in the use of power where severity would have legal or military. or to music. dancing. or by accent and quantity combined. Compare melody poetry. . as in English. either to prose or to poetry. sentences. PITY. we should speak of the leniency of a parent. to or toward sinners . There may be mercy without pardon. . they besought the robber to have mercy. and rhythm denote agreeable succession of sounds in the utterance of connected words. . measure. and without its religious associations. as in Greek or Italian rhythm or measure may apply single single syllable etc. however produced meter. denotes metrical writing without reference to the thought involved as. but the word is often used as synonymous with stanza. A verse is strictly a metrical Une. I implacability. BtenmeBS. Mercy is also used in the wider sense of refraining from harshness or cruelty toward those who are in one's power without fault of their own as. and denotes . or in there may be cases all possible alleviation of necessary severity vrhere pardon would not be mercy. Compare . is rliytlini. etc. paragraphs. revenge. stanzas. have mercy on or Synonyms! eupliony. penalty. hardness.

he replied with Soul denotes energy and depth of feeling. In this sense we speak of human instincts. perhaps impatience . really sees the mind. 144. Spirit is used especially in contradistinction from matter . sensibilities. kind. and especially the reason. he showed good sense . as appears in the phrase "to have a mind to work. Thought. not the eye. mind is nearly synonymous with intellect. we can conceive of spirits as having no moral nature the fairies. understanding. consciousness. as. must be reckoned among the activities of mind. excitability. speak of soulful eyes . reason. thousbt. sense. from whatever source arising and of whatever character. even in its material signification. or. or it may denote the very life of anything Milton L' Allegro 1. he is a man of sense. In the figurative sense.241 ^' mind Synonyms < brain. in a general sense. intelligence. . spirit. soul. and will beyond what is expressed by the -word mind. "the hidden soul of harmony. thinks. as. but sense is used also as denoting clear mental action. good judgment. in a limited sense. knows. but not souls. instinct. 18. elves. and brownies of mythology might be termed spirits." As the seat of mental activity. . as when we speak of the sense of hearing . or the tendency toward action. the act. really hears. Intellect. not the ear. thus denoting tendencies independent of reasoning or instruction. The soul includes the intellect. sense. or feels. intelligence. Mind. or power of thinking. Palby Natural Phitosaphy ch. but soul has commonly a fuller and more determinate meaning ." Sense may be an antonym of intellect. as. brain (colloquially brains) is often used as a synonym for m. he sang with spirit . An insHnct is a propensity prior to experience and independent of instruction. but inferior and limited . intellect. as when we spirit. or degree. but includes disposition. . it may in many cases be substituted for soul. acumen . is often used to denote the thinking faculty. The instinct of animals is now held by many philosophers to be of the same nature as the intellect of man. the immortal nature . the soul (not the mind) has fled. the soul denotes especially the moral. IS . we say of a dead body. yet the apparent difference is very great. includes all the powers of sentient being apart from the physical factors in bodily faculties and activities . a lad of spirit . tho dependent on bodily functions the mind. process. disposition. spirit denotes animation.ind. whether with . Consciousness includes all that a sentient being perceives.

or which attends to matters of exceedingly slight amount or apparent importance . stroke. . comminuted referring more to the process. particular . we say a substance is finely comminuted. and Buch as the sufferer is not deemed directly responsible for as. iU. Compare fine. trial. observation. miKUTE. 111 lucl£. exact. fine gravel but. fine sand . esact." is distinguished by many philosophers from reason in that " reason is the faculty of the higher cognitions or a priori . disaster. usually of lingering character or consequences. as. t adversity.. an examination so extended is critical. The intellect is that assemblage of faculties which is concerned with knowledge. small. distress. but is chiefly used of the reasoning powers the' understanding. particular. Iiardsbip. That is minute which is of exceedingly limited dimensions. truth." Antonyms body. afOictlon. precise. is sorrow. reverse. fine to the result. as. That which is broken up into m. we speak of the consciousness of the brute. Synonyms circumstantial. comminuted. precise. which Sir Wm. misadventure. An account extended to very minute particulars is circumstantial. diminutive. material Babstance. of the savage. miscbance. or willing . niln. little. cbastlsement. any untoward event. disappointment. i brawn. calamity. critical. Synonyms IHISFORTimE. fine. as a grain of dust. tiny. feeling. blow. a minute account m/inute . failure.mlsfortnne mlnnte 242 or without distinct thinking. or of the sage. as distinguished from emotion and volition. detailed. in using the adverb. barm. visitation. brute force. misery. he . matter.inute particles is said to be comminuted . chastening. detailed. mlsbap. 111 fortune. Understanding is the Saxon word of the same general impoi't. Hamilton has called "the faculty of relations and comparisons. things may be termed fine which would not be termed comminuted . trouble. Antonyms: See synonyms for largi!. tribulation. . bereavement. slender. Misfortune adverse fortune or any instance thereof.

relief. tribulation is long and wear- a tribulation. A crouxl may be drawn by mere curiosity some strong. Synonyms i archetype. gratification. pervading excitement is needed to make . of lighter troubles and failures. A pattern must be closely followed in minutest particulars by a . design. C!ompare people. We speak of an affliction. 'nie populace are poor and ignorant. tbe vulgar. crowd. Affliction.. Any considerable disappointment. as. since viewed as a continuous process. failure. joy. but may be rich and Influential. Synonyms MOB. orlgiiial. jiosition. copy. Compare CATASTROPHE. chastening. boon. trial. either the thing to be copied or the copy that has pat. or misfortune. constitutes adversity. triumph. good fortune. A pattern is always. as loss of fortune. often overwhelming ill fortune and ill luck. The rabble is despicable. standard. worthless. Image. example. when long continued or attended with enduring consequences. as regards outward circumstances. representation. type. good luck. dregs of tlie people. a model its is usually in relief. For the loss of friends by death we commonly use affliction or fcereaoement. the models in the Patent Office. that which is to be copied may be made from it is commonly A superficial. canaille. ing. MODEL. We speak of the misery of the poor. which may endure for years or for a lifetime but we speak of our daily trials. tribulation is . . purposeless a mob may have effective desperate purpose. i rabble. nappiness. but may be law=abiding a TJiob is disorderly and lawless. populace. but brief . but rarely of Antonyms Uessmg. prosperity. Affliction may be keen and bitter. . the hardships of the soldier. it a mob. and tribulation have aU an especially religious bearing. success. masses. lo'wer classes. disciplinary purpose of Gfod with beneficent design. focsimlle. a model been tern mold. Imitation. consolation. panem. suggesting some . pleasure. comfort. prototype.243 model mob had the mitfortune to be bom blind. Calamity and disaster are used of sudden and severe misfortunes. and the Uke. in modern use.

property. gold. the cash account the cash price. Modesty has also the specific meaning of a sensitive shrinking from anything Indelicate. . Reserve may be the retreat of shyness. while money. diffidence. Bashfulness is a shrinking from notice without assignable rea/Coyness is a half encouragement. the contempCompare abash. loquacity. Cash is specie or money in hand. half avoidance of oifered attention. TACITURN.modesty money <i44. BOciabil%. Synonyms! bills. bullion. arrogance. freedom. . coin. medium of exchange coined money What are termed in England bank=»iotes is called coin or specie. egotism. notes.<*•«•« faithful copyist . frankness. self-'safficiency. idea . but they are not money . timidity. A sculptor may idealize Compare example . indiscretion. . son. sanciness. and mercial . The notes of responsible men are readily transferable in comMoney is circles. and may be real or affected. casb. timidity. Imugtitiness. a flve=dollar hill. currency. tuous withdrawal of pride and haughtiness. as. or. property is not money. capital. oneself aloof from others. assurance. conceit. ideal. impudence. loquaciousness. a model may allow a great degree of freedom. are in the United States commonly called hills . as such. his living actly copy in marble or metal the model . or paid in hand as. has but representative value. forwardness. silver. error. constraint. specie. or failiire. basbfulness. Synonyms: bacliTrardiiess. MODESTY. confidence. self-conceit. pertness. In the legal sense. Shyness is a tendency to shrink from observation . or holding back one's feelings from expression. PEIDE. and money is not property . the authorized funds. a disReserve is the holding tinct fear of criticism. as. his workmen must exmadel he has made in clay. assumption. or with the demands of some undertaking. a humble estimate of oneself in comparison with others. mONEY. coldness. for property is that which has inherent value. sbyness. on the other hand. unototruslveness. the stock was sold for $500 in money and the balance in merchantable paper. coyness. boldness. or one's affairs from communication to others. Antonyms abandon. reserve. Diffidence is self »distrust modesty.

complaisant. benignant. and thing . action. Antonyms amiable. snappisli. . gentle. sulJcy more or resentful obstinacy. severe. or the coined Bullion is either gold or metal considered without reference to its coinage. Motion is change of place or position in space transition is a passing from one point or position in space to another. Action is a more now rarely speak of mencomprehensive word than motion. thus we speak of a surly dog. process. crusty. out bitter speeches. transition. we speak of vhe movements of the planets. The morose are bitterly dissatisfied with the world in general. passage. . but simply as nierchandise. suUcy. but of perpetual motion. and disposed to vent their iU nature upon others. The sullen and sulky are for the most part silent the morose growl The sullen . dogged. . sympathetic. splenetic. mild. sullen. genial. and sulky are discontented and resentful in regard to that against which they are too proud to protest. move.«'•«> . crabbed. but of the laws of planetary motion . We . ready to take offense at any- position or habit. good-natured. transit. The word capital is used chiefly of accumulated property or money invested in productive enterprises or available for such investment. cburllsli. Motion may be either abstract or concrete. act. Synonyms acrimonious. . loving. or consider aU protest vain sullen denotes more of pride. Sullen and sulky moods may be transitory one who is morose or surly is commonly so by dis.. kind. _ morose motion intrinsic value. as. in a state of latent anger. more frequently the former mcyvement is always concrete. of military movements. may or may not have silver uncoined. considered in connection with the thing that moves or is moved thus. gruff. cbange. a shrewd move of the opposition. pleasant. ul-liumored. movement. when its value as bullion may be very different from its value as money. it is your move . that is. surly. tender. sour. MOTION. IHOROSE. A surly person is resenting approach as intrusion. as in chess or politics . Ill-natured. gloomy. friendly. Move is used chiefly of contests or competition. bland. Synonyms. mdolgent.

lament. that is mutual (Latin mutare. affliction. triumph. and a considerable usage of good society in its favor. MlTTUAIi.„ 24W but rather of mental or spiritual acts or a formal proposal is termed a processes. grief or regret may be transient. reciprocal. others). mourn. make merry. That is common to which two or more persons have the same t or equal claims. regret. Intercliaugeable. Synonyms common. Antonyms be joyful. change) which is freely interchanged that is reciprocal in respect to which one act or movement is met by a corresjKjnding act or movement in return . One regrets a slight misfortune or a hasty word . He laments in plaintive or pathetic words. quiet. One is made to rue an act by some misfortune resulting. he sorrows over the death of a friend. mutual affection. repose. joy. Antonyms: immobility. or by some penalty or vengeance inflicted because of it. One may grieve or . To mourn is to feel or express sadness or distress because oi some loss.mutual tal or spiritual motions. and effect. rue. mourn „. he bemoans with suppressed and often inarticulate sounds of grief he bewails with passionate utterance. sorrow. because of the disagreeable suggestion that attaches to common. Synonrms: bemoan. to . friend" practically never used. of ordinary or inferior. : exult. or misfortune mourning is thought of as . whether of inarticulate cries or of spoken words. correlative. where the effect becomes in turn a cause. reciprocal obligations." One deplores with settled sorrow which may or may not find relief in words. Dickens." and insist that "& common friend" would be more accurate but " common . quiescence. prolonged. Compare ACT. " Muis and tual friend" has high literary authority (of Burke. rest. movRsr. we speak of our common country. or of the laws of mental action. but of action in a deliberative assembly motion. or in which they have equal Interest or participain the strictest sense. or sorrow without a sound . Joint. rejoice. grieve. as the prophet Jeremiah in his " Lamentations. . deplore. regret. Many good writers hold it incorrect to say " a mutual friend. bewail. stillness. Scott. rue. the reciprocal action of cause tion .

mystic. or a word or phrase used as an adjective. occult. 9ITSTJERIOUS. unrequited. title. appellation. That is dark which we can not personally see through. which belongs to him personally. style. enigmatical. . cabalistic. That is secret which is intentionally hidden. epithet. disconnected. prenomen. .„ ^ iVi mysterious name the expression being quite naturally derived from the thoroughly correct phrase mutual distinct. inexplicable. unfatbomed. obscure. good or bad an epithet is always an adjective. tSynonyms t agnomen. an appellation is descriptive. something added. a title In the phrase WUUam the Conqueror. . secret. dissociated. unsliared. recondite. denomination. surname. separated. unfatbomable. NAME. but is given to mark some assumed characteristic. unreciprocated. includes aU other words of this group in this sense every noun is a name . the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse. in the more limited sense a name is personal. An epithet (Gr. inscrutable. the title denoting his royal rank.. signifying the word by which a person or thing is called or known. unluicwn. as in the . especially if sadly perplexing as. especially of a religious kind as. Antonyms detached. severed. sundered. from epi. on. unconnected. incomprehensible. That is mysterious in the true sense which is beyond human comprehension. designation. put) is something placed upon a person or thing the epithet does not strictly belong to an object like a name. Antonyms: See synonyms for clbab. land. mystical. epitheton. separate. Synonyms t abstruse. and tithemi. and is properly used to emphasize a characteristic but not to add information. bidaen. King is Name in the most general sense. William is the man's name. independently of any rank or achievement Conqueror is the appellation which he won by his acquisition of England . Compare DABE. . transcendental. cognomen. . King of Engis official. a dark providence. friendship. . disunited. dark. That is mystic or mystical which has associated with it some hidden or recondite meaning. as the decrees of God or the origin of life.

ocean. . as. alien. but is more distinctive or specific in meaning . Synonymst IVAUTICAl. natural. artificial. a secondary derivative from the same root. a c?esignation properly so called rests upon some inherent quality. Among the Bomans the prenomen was the individual part of a man's name. Marine (L. Compare inherent primeval . oceanic. maritime. the name and style of Baring Brothers. also. bordering on or . or simply the first name (rarely the prenom^n) . as John or Mary. Style is the legal designation by which a person or house is known in official or business relations . Native denotes that which belongs to one by birth natal that which pertains to the event of birth natural denotes that which rests upon inherent qualities of character or being. is given in infancy. and the agnomen was added to refer to his achievements or character. the "nomen" designated the gens to which he belonged. to designate any class of like objects collectively. foreign. Designation may be used much in the sense of appellation. original. native genius. or of his natal day of natural ability. maritime. without the opprobrious meaning attaching to the word ' sect" . indigenous. (Compare tebli.. while an appellation may be fanciful. as. the cognomen showed his family and was borne by all patricians. In modem use. The term denomination is applied to a separate religious organization. t . naval. the cognomen or surname is the family name which belongs to one by right of birth or marriage. and that any word used opprobriously is an epithet is a popular error. . and is often called the given name or Christian name. ' Synonyms NATIVE. mare. especially money or notes of a certain value .. . a personal name. sea) signifies belonging to the ocean. the idea that an epithet is always opprobrious. When scientists name an animal or a plant.native nautical _ »4S _ phrase "the sounding sea". imnatnral. natal. aEBumed. Antonyms acquired. the sum was in notes of the denomination of one thousand dollars. radioai. marine. We speak of one's native country. Innate. they give it a binary or binomial technical nam^ comprising a generic and a specific appellation.

. precise. Ocean. a naval force a nautical almanac. implying value and beauty . . and hence with ships or navigation naval (L. Nice is stronger than neat. neat stroke just does what is intended. Neat refers to that which is clean and tidy with nothing superfluous. cleanly. nnkempt. to similar forces on lakes and rivers as. as when we speak of plain but neat attire the same idea of freedom from . is applied to that which belongs to or is part of the ocean . as. and is always a term of mild contempt . but is especially applied to that which borders on (or upon) or is connected with. Spruce is applied to the show and affectation of neatness with a touch of smartness. for. with a tendency toward the exquisite as. Nautical (Gr. suggests minute elegance. oceanic islands. . a diminutive of neat. naus. . Synonyms clean. often with supple- A . Gr. of an oceanic intellect. rongfi. That which is clean is simply free from soil or defilement of any kind. dapper. orderly. bIoqcIit. a dapper little feUow in a natty business suit. formal. natty. nautes. Things are orderly when in due relation to other things a room or desk is orderly when every article is in place a person is orderly who habitually keeps things so. tmcared untidy. negligent." "a neat reply. and. soiled. prim. Trim denotes a certain shapely and elegant firmness. ness and grace . a ship) refers to the armed force of a nation on the sea. . . tidy. by extension. a trim . or showy. spruce. Tidy denotes that which conforms to propriety in general an unlaced shoe may be perfectly clean. . Dapper Autonyms: dirty. XEAT. or which is similar to or suggestive of an ocean ." "a neat clean cut has no ragged edges a turn. rude. but would not be termed nice. as. a cheap. we spealc of ocean currents. slovenly.g^» ." etc. or. neat connected with the ocean . disorderly. conspicuous. a sailor) denotes primarily anything connected with sailors. a spruce serving man. is Prim applies to a spruce with the suggestion of smallness and sUghtness natty. navis. . perhaps. used adjectively. affected nicety. oceanic may be used in the same sense. the superfluous appears in the phrases "aneat speech. trim. coarse dress may be perfectly neat. as. dowdy. marine products marine animals maritime nations maritime laws. figure. but is not tidy. a trim suit . nice.

and plied to things. SfECESSARY. while needful food is that without which he can not enjoy comfort. while that which is necessary may meet with no objection . iVised! and want always imply a lack necessity may be used . shun) is primarily the exact equivalent of the Saxon unavoidable . unnecessary. . required. a necessary conclusion satisfies a thinker. requirement. destiny. unavoidableness. inevitable.uisite. infallible. but it is one that can not be spared vigorous health is essential to an arctic explorer warm clothing is indispensable. IVECESSITY. needed. occur. wortiileBB. needlesB. . urgency.ua non. Inevitable (L. indispensability. but may not be so absolutely . . ment of the person requiring it. become. sine q. both words are apsome at least would escape or prevent. nseleas. or the quality of that which can not but be. . AainfaUible proof is one that necessarily leads the mind to a sound concluNeeded and needful are more concrete than necessary. exigency. undeniable. unavoidable. That which is requisite (or required) is so in the judgin the nature of things can not be otherwise. thus. . That is necessary which must exist. . needful. emergency. Antonyms casual. the quali ty of being necessary. so that the thing cannot exist in its completeness without it that which is imZ&pe»isa6Ze maybe only an adjunct. essential. Synonyms compulsion. food is necessary.'essential. Prepositions: Necessary to a sequence or a total for or to a result or a person unity is necessary to (to constitute) completeness decision is necessary /or command. Necessity is indlspensableness need. non. reqiuisite. or for & commander. fate. or be true. the requisite is more a matter of personal feeling than the indispensable. want.necessary necessity iSoV Synonyms: essential. in. extremity. an mewtabfe conclusion silences opposition. fatality. or be true which That which is essential belongs to the essence of a thing. or be accepted as true. indispensable. and sion. not. death is inevitable . contingent. . which . optional. and evito. strength. respect an end to be attained we speak of a necessary inference necessary food is what one can not live without. req. health. .

FBEBESTiNATioir.ence. option. remissness. Antonyms: choice. e.. contingency. as by dust. SFnonyma s carelessness. we speak of neglect of his books. which is the same in fully or reasonably expected. failure. nee. or in any complete idea or statement of it. that belongs to the essence of something else so as to be inseparable from it in its normal condition. to speak of a person's want of decision merely points out a weakness in his character . or element. this is a necessity to me. Need suggests the possibility of supplying the deficiency which want expresses . indifference. may be used in almost the same sense. negllg. but with a slighter force. from being neglected by others the child was suffering from negligence would imply that he him- transitive. onussion slackness. gather) pay suchcoiurtesy. or duties. is neglectfulness. and lego. tidiness. beedlessness. etc. fteedom.251 neglect in this sense. but negligence is often used to denote the quality or which the act is a manifestation. in which cases we could not use negligenee . a necessity for action . friends. Neglect is trait of character of . as when Whittier speaks of "the negligence which friend- show such ship loves" . l!lli:OL<ECT. a weary per- son is in need of rest . Compare kecessaby .. uncertainty. when rest becomes a necessity he has no choice but to stop work. to say that he has need of decision implies that he can exercise or attain it. etc. slight. disregard. or to denote the habit of neglecting that which ought to be done. moths. possibility. origin. i. Inattention. the failingto take such attention. not. As applied to a deficiency. fortuity. negligence in dress implies want of care as to its arrangement. but in the higher philosophical sense neoessiiyBiiaply denotes the exclusion of any alternative either in thought or fact righteousness is a necessity (not a need) of the divine nature. doubt. as a quality. overslglit. An essential is something. default. donbtinlness. negligence is intransitive . necessity is more imperative than need . etc. inadvertence.. Neglect (L. disrespect. the child was suflfering from neglect. as may be rightNegligence. dabionsneBS. Prepositions t The necessity of surrender . care. Neglect has a passive sense which negligence has not . scorn. thoughtlessness. neglect ot one's garments would imply leaving them exposed to defacement or injury.

new self ggg was neglectful. and is still existing . but not far enough to be called old. (Compare youthful. and may or may not be existing still. possessing actual youth . there was neglect on the part of the teacher.) Fresh applies to that which has the characteristics of newness or youth. Modern history pertains to any period since the middle ages . lately upstart. autonyms: See synonyms for CAEE. is new-made. recent denotes that which has come into existence within a comparatively brief period. Synonyms fresh. The distinction sometimes made that neglect denotes the act. That which is late is somewhat removed from the present. that which is new may be of a familiar or even of an ancient sort. recent. and negligence the habit. while the negligence which causes a railroad accident may be that of a moment. Young and youthful are applied to that which has life that which is young is possessed of a comparatively new existence as a Living thing. youthful. late. in such cases the law provides punishment for criminal negligence. juvenile. a novel contrivance is one that has never before been known. as a new copy of an old book. young:. is but partially true . and on the part of one ordinarily careful and attentive . the wife may suffer from her husband's constant neglect. or in a more general sense is one that has just come into the possession of the present owner or occupant. existence. That which new has come into or use . Modem denotes that which has begun to exist in the present age. novel. i modern. of the child by the parent .. new-fasliioned. That which is recent is not quite so sharply distinguished from the past as that which is new. a new house is just built. possession. Freposltlons Neglect of duty. that which . That which is novel is either absolutely or relatively unprecedented in kind . modern literatiwe. a novel experience is one that has never before occurred to the same person . one may be guilty of habitual neglect of duty . recent publications range over a longer time than new books. while capable of deterioration by lapse of time. that which is youthful manifests the attributes of youth. etc. are not strikingly remote from the styles and types prevalent to=day. new-fangled. modern architecture.

conies sometimes near the meaning of nimble or quick. but one is as natural as the Typical refers to such an assemblage of quaUties as makes other. color. the specimen. Antonyms See synonyms for old. That which is natural is according to nature that which is normal is according to the standard or rule which is observed or claimed to prevail in nature a deformity may be natural. Shakespeare's "^nimble lightnings" is said of the visual appearance in sudden zigzag flash across the sky.. BrilHBLrE.. lively. we speak of nimble wit. or unfaded . IVORIHAL. quick. normal. . genus. regular. Compare active ALERT. sprlgbtly.253 is nimble normal unworn. Blow. Synonyms conunon. a race^horse. while normal is more commonly appUed to the parts of a single object the specimen was typical . hence that which is steady and constant. The regular is etymologically that which is according to rule. speedy. . alert. auick. the normal color of the crow is black. and quickness of motion within a somewhat narrow range. spry. . . modem to ancient. Nimble refers to lightness. svnft destruction. aged. a dancer wtmbZe=footed an arrow. as. which is strictly a synonym for ready. or an ocean steamer is swift. ordinary. unspoiled. nnready. speedy. recent to remote. dilatory. prompt. sluggish. fresh sggs. wide= awake person is likely to he lively. symmetry is normal . dull. New is opposed to old. usual. heavy. etc. Synonyms active. natural. Figuratively. from the fact that the ready. with readiness to turn suddenly to any point sioift applies commonly to more sustained motion over greater distances a pickpocket is mm&Ze=flngered. agile. Antonyms: clnmsy. a fresh countenance. as opposed to that which is fitful and changeable the normal action of the heart is regular. inactive. freedom. a type of some more comprehensive group. inert. typical. and other characteristics. s-wift. Alert. smft intelligence. . while the normal color of the sparrow is gray. . size. . etc. bustUng. . fresh flowers. That which is common is shared by a . young to old. brislE.

affidavit. monstrouB. . execration. . while insisting that it can not. However simply waives discussion. prep. . Notwithstanding simply states that circumstances shall not be or have not been aUowed to withstand despite and in spite of refer primarily to personal and perhaps spiteful opposition as. 254 disease is . Tho and altho make as little as possible of the concession. a normal Compare general peculiar. . reprobanon. irregnlar. malediction. as. as it were. ban. bowbelt. after all. he failed notwithstanding his good intentions or. imprecation. OTTTITHSTAHrDIJTG. we shall conYet and still are weaker than notvnthstanding. singular. admits the one and its seeming contradiction to the other. withstand the other as. incidentally. Bf Synonyms altlioCugli). while quer. tmt thou art but. common. unprececlented. this is true" the truth of what precedes. yet. vow.oath great ntimber of persons or things state of health is rare. but claims that what follows is none the less true notwithstanding marshals the two statements face to face. denunciation. and (like the archaic hov)nevertheless concedes hett) says " be that as it may. " an oath is a rev- . "tho we are guUty. as in a court of auatbema. exceptional. swearing. . profane swearing. profanity. USUAL. good. In the highest sense. . still. justice. . WOTWITHSTAlVBISr©. blaspheming:. nnnsnal. : in spite of. thou art good" to say "we are guUty. blasphemy. Synonyms despite. cursings. liowever. he persevered in spite of the most bitter hostility. tlio(agli). sworn statement. "When despite and in spite of are appUed "in to inanimate things. . Compare but yet. the concession of guilt more emphatic." would make . it is with something of personification spite of the storm " is said as if the storm had a hostile purpose to oppose the undertaking. Antonyms: abnonnal. oonif. OATH. rare. uncommon. [Synonyms adjuration. curse. nevertheless. notwithstanding the force of the enemy is superior. stronger than tut. dropping it. .

An oath is made to man in the name of God a vow. but the obscure which is muddy pool. 2. as a is abstruse (L. Antonyms See synonyms for oleab. dusky. Synonyms ambiguous. . Incomprebenslble. diSBcult. mysterious. often without the knowledge. intricate. a less usual but very expressive word. unintelligible. is obscure. push) as if removed from the usual course of thought or out of the way of apprehension or discovery. of man. it may be wanton and powerless " so the curse causeless shall not come. darksome. enigmatical. or because of mere defect of Ught. doubtful. . In the lower sense. dim. . but that may be not at aU complicated and scarcely complex. and imprecation are modes of invoking vengeance or retribution from a superhuman power upon the person against whom they are uttered. Anathema.T." Abbott a sworn statement made in writing in the presence of a competent oflBlcer an adjuration is a solemn appeal to a person in the name of God to speak the truth. complex. curse. the curse of God or. cloudy. profound. to God without the intervention. Compare TESTIMONY. abstruse. in that which is obscwre there may be nothing to hide . and trudo. it is hard to see to the bottom of ^e profound. Compare complex . dark. complicated. deep. because of its depth. the thought is remote. indistinct. xsrvi. . dase . hidden .. Curse may be just and authoritative as. Antonyms benediction. OBSCITRE. whether because of its own want of transparits depth or intricacy. In that which most shallow turbidness DIFFICUI. an oath may be mere blasphemy or profane swearing. Execration expresses most of personal bitterness and hatred imprecation refers especially to the coming of the desired evil upon the person against whom it is uttered. : benison.255 erent appeal to obscure what one says. bidden. MTSTEBIOITS. dbs. blessiiig. Involved. muddy. Malediction is a general wish of evil. That ency." Prov. Anathema is a solemn ecclesiastical condemnation of a person or of a proposition. : . from. is obscure which the eye or the mind can not clearly dis- eem or see through. That which is complicated is likely to be obscure. dense. in corroboration of God Law Diet. an affidavit is . turbid. execration.

as word is obsolete which has quite gone out A of reputable use a word is archaic which is falling out of reputable use. out of date. while the obstinate and stubborn . The headstrong act. Compare OIJ). One is obdurate who adheres to his purpose in spite of appeals that would move any tender=hearted The headstrong person action.obsolete obstinate o(>A '*'"' OBSOLETE. Contumacious refers to a proud and inor right=minded person. solent defiance of authority. flzed. aubmissive. mother. refractory. arcliaic. dutiful. that obstinate. compliant. Synonyms ancient. is resolute. headstrong. wavering. and kicks metals that resist ordinary processes of reduction are termed refractory. rare. dogged. not to be stopped in his own course of is not to be driven to another's way. . . Synonyms OBSTINATE. anticLuated. opinionated. . are few present instances of its reputable use. amenable. Immovable. The most amiable person may be obstinate on some one point the stubborn person is for the most part habitually so we speak of obstinate determination. > Antonyms docile. determined. pliant. the oldest or most ancient words are not obsolete. irresolute. stubborn resistance. tractable. obedient. mulisb. inflexible. teachable. Refractory implies more activity the stubborn horse balks the refractory animal of resistance plunges. decided. undecided. indomitable. stubborn. rears. etc. the obstinate and siitbbommay simply refuse to stir. firm. on the other hand. unyielding. pliable. • contumacious. obsolescent. old. yielding. inflexible. gentle. firm. complaiBant. or. which we condemn we are apt to term headstrong. having been obsolete. Some of father. Compare perverse. intractable. pertinacious. heady. as of the summons of a court. resolved. unflinching. disused. . we approve we call decided. is taken up tentatively by writers or speakers of influence. . unconquerable. . The unyielding conduct which resolute . obdurate. stubborn. Stubborn is the term most frequently applied to the lower animals and inanimate things. so that it may perhaps regain its position as a living word a word is rare if there . Pertinacious demand is contrasted with obstinate refusal. Antonyms: See synonyms for HEW. persistent.

but scarcely reached . thus. we obstruct his course by standing in his way or putting a barrier across his path. persons. may hinder one's advance by following and clinging to him . the familiar are also the near . literally to build To obstruct is by fallen trees We Antonyms accelerate. as. That is . Gray. One may be aged and neither decrepit nor senile. venerable. through the French. hoary refer to the effects of age on the body exclusively . further. and thus old is a word of endearment . cbeclc. Olden is a statelier form of old. senile upon the mind also . Elderly is applied to those who have passed middle life. obstructing the way may have the effect of arresting progress. noary. On the other hand. old story has been sung feelingly by millions " tell me that ancient story " would remove it out of all touch of human sympathy. ." "Tell me the old. stay. Aged apDecrepit. immemorial. an old hat. olden. embarrass. Familiarity. the more familiar word. OLD. barricade. . pave the way Synonyms} aged. senile. clog. '^B^' obstruct old OBSTRUCT. old. free. etc. interrupt. As regards periods of time. " the old homestead. antiquated. and moldering refer to outward and visible tokens of age. buildings. patriarctial. an obstruction is always from without.257 Synonyms arrest. Compare hinder . Anything that makes one's progress slower. ancient.ue. To arrest is to cause to stop suddenly ." the " old oaken bucket. impediment. on one side. advance. decrepit. the olden times are more remote. hoary. as. the old times are not too far away for familiar thought and reference . Ancient. termed old which has existed long. antiq. ancient times still further removed. time^Iiouored. time-worn. oppose. from the Latin. forward. clear. is the more stately. structed cioke. impedes. famiharity is akin to tenderness. from the Saxon. Impede. an old coat. retard. is near to contempt thus we say. and is applied almost exclusively to time. senile garrulousness. a decrepit frame. not to places. stop. up against. and plies chiefly to long=extended human life. for. gray. the road is obthe passage of liquid through a tube is obstructed by solid deposits. promote. elderly. open. facilitate. whether from within or from without. aid. hinder. 1 gray. or which existed long ago. remote.

without explanation or question an order in the commercial sense has the authority of the money which the one ordering the goods pays or is to pay. perfonnance. force. youthftjIj. . as well as highly authoritative. ask of a friend. ORDER. powerlessness. and moveo. a teacher gives instructions to his pupils. and may apply to the action of an intelligent agent or of a material substance or force . Inaction. Compare antique obsolete . primeval. the exe.operation order old age. cution of a sentence. at some remote period. Performance and execution denote intelligent action. . Operation is action considered with reference to the thing acted upon. the requirements of the position. reciuirement. result. . primabut is extended to that which is far off in time . procedure. Antonyms Compare synonyms for new. Ineffectivenesa. Synonyms action. Antonyms: failure. execution often the wiU of another we speak of the performance of a duty. the operation of a medicine. but not always formal. ag^ency. workmen. . inutility. nor made by a personal agent it may be in the nature of things as. effect. as. direction. sailors. or sometimes. nua (L. instruction. Venerable expresses the involuntary reverence that we yield to the majestic and long=enduring. more authoritative than direction soldiers. mandate. by polite hyperbole. injunction. performance accomplishing the will of the actor. less frequent in common life we speak of the commands of Grod. execution. Compare act. thority InBtruction implies superiority of knowledge. as. Command is a loftier word. whether in the material world or in human life and character. re. proUbition. still an employer gives directions to his . considered with reference to the actor or to that which he accomplishes . move). "Have you any commands for me?" A requirement is imperative. OPERATION. back or away. . TisetegeneBS. Synonyms command. direction of auon the part of the giver . Remote rily refers to space. Order is and rail- road employees have simply to obey the orders of their superiors. inefficiency. . influence.

permission. and so used is a more disparaging word than ostentation . . as. a parade is an uncalled for exhibition. consent. sbow. ostentation it is a command not to do . rich clothing. parade. the ostentation of wealth ui fine residences. Pageant and pageantry are inferior to pomp. and since the multitude is largely ignorant and thoughtless. etc. Pomp is some material demonstration of wealth and power. lioastlng. the ostentation of learning. paro. ostentation may spring merely from undue self=gratulation. Pageant. considered as worthy of the person or occasion in whose behalf it is manifested pomp is the noble side of that which as ostentation is considered as arrogant and vain. prepare) is an exhibition as of troops stantial. law . pomp. . There may be gi-eat display or show with little substance ostentation suggests something substantial to be shown. pageantry. costly equipage. the words pageant and pageantry have a suggestion of the transient and unsubParade fL.^*® Prohibition is wholly negative tion is . Antonyms aUowance. flourisli. Ostentation is an ambitious showing forth of whatever is thought adapted to win admiration or praise ostentation may be without words . vaunting:. authority that certain action be suspended or refrained from. or the like when in words. pomposity. pending final legal decision.. liberty. rich furnishings. and is always offensive and . pompousness. ostentation is rather in manner than in direct statement as. display. Compare array . and is louder . Boasting is in direct statement. class . . system. license. in the more general sense. denoting spectacular display designed to impress the public mind. in camp going through . and suggests a lack of earnestness and direct or immediate occasion or demand hence. . and more vulgar than ostentation. . and pomp refer principally to affairs of arms or state as. the evolutions that are to be used in battle. a mUitary parade. OSTENTATION. pageantry. leave. processions. as in grand and stately ceremonial. injuncespecially as the requirement by legal now oftenest so used. pageant. permit. prohibit. Synonsrms lioast. parade implies a desire to impress others with a sense of one's abilities or resources. vaunt. parade. a royal pageant .

inspection. command. direction. qnietnees." i. shrinking. Bbould.oversight ouKbt noA -**»*' . surveillance. holding most closely to the sense of moral obligation. commonly implying constant personal presence superintendence requu-es only so much of presence or communication as to know that the superintendent's wishes are carried out . control. he will. in the latter sense denoting inadvertent error or omission. A person may look over a matter in order to survey it carefully may look over it with no attention to the thing because his gaze and thought are concentrated on something beyond . w^atchfolness. "The Ought is liar should have a good memory. Synonym OVOHT. Control is used chiefly with reference to restraint or the power of restraint a good horseman has a restless horse under perfect control. timidity.need it. aflfectation of Pomposity and pompousness axe the pomp. a parade of wealth or learning. modesty. Antonyms: diffidence. retirement. . suspicion. as in the proverb. manag:enient. should in such connections would be correct. cbarge. supervision._ unobtrnsivenesfl. necessity . Compare care . Synonyms: care. oversight has thus two contrasted senses. there is no high character without self=co»itro^ Surveillance is an invidious term signifying watching with something of in its entirety. the superintendent of a railroad will personally oversee very few of its operations the railroad company has supreme direction of aU its affairs without superintendence or oversight. Ought is the stronger word. watch. these goods ought to go into that space these arguments ought to convince him . Compare duty. neglect. . or sometimes of imperative logical should may have the sense of moral obligation or may apply merely to propriety or expediency. One ought to do that which he is under moral obligation or in duty bound to do. . but less emphatic. reserve. or he itself . superintendence. . sometimes used of abstractions or inanimate things as indicating what the mind deems to be imperative or logically necessary in view of all the conditions as. . and In the former denoting watchful supervision. . OTERSIOHT. e. somewhat contemptible as.

ease. sharp. ache. -woce. angulsn.261 palUate Synonyms agony. The prick of a needle causes pain. suffering. making the outlines less distinct . raptant. screen. PAIN. or discontent). the most general term of this group. Antonyms: comfort. paroxysm. from the Latin. Suffering is one of the severer forms of pain. etc. Synonyms apologize cloalz. including all the others . envy. cloak is used in the former. Distress is too strong a word for little hurts. hide. craves. are the have diverged in meaning a be used to hide completely the person or some object . enjoyment. but only to extenu. to cloak a sin is to attempt to hide it palliate. cover. extenuate. the distress of a shipwrecked crew. faults we do not seek to cloke them altogether. a bruise. or of a destitute family. which . Paroocysm apphes to an alternately recurring and receding pain. more or less severe pang." Trench Study of Words lect. PAIiLiIATE. but cloak insLj carried about the person. pang. too feeble for the intensest suffering. TAroe is a violent and thrillingjsam. We speak of the pangs of hunger or of remorse. delight. solace. vi. comes as it were in waves the paroxysm is the rising of the wave. a harsh word. for. but coiAmonly applied to some continuous or prolonged trouble or need. Agony and anguish express the utmost pain or suffering of body or mind. peace. or from some lack of what one needs. intense. or cherishes (as. as.). torture. and perhaps repeated. the pains of disease. or it may but partly veil the figure. relief. p. in the latter sense from discovery . the pain of hunger or bereavement). to palliate it is to attempt to hide some part of "When we palliate our own or others' its blameworthiness. Torment and torture are intense and terrible sufferings. 'palliate. conceal. throe. pain is a disturbing sensation from which nature revolts. ate the guilt of them in part. but we should scarcely speak of it as suffering. Agony of body is that with which the system struggles anguish that by which it is crushed. or from some abnormal action of bodily or mental functions is Pain (as. a pain short. mitigate. torment. from the French. Ache is lingering j)atM. Cloak. veil. . . gloss over. and same in original signification. distress. twinge. resulting from some injurious external interference (as from a wound.

but not of pardoning himself. . thus. chasten. but has nothing to do olficially viritb. correct. God at once forgives and pardons . while to palliate is to disguise the fault hence. PARDON. the pardoned sinner is exempt from punishment . to forgive is the privilege of the humblest person who has been wronged or offended. the executive may pardon. V. or breach of etiquette . A person may speak of excming or forgiving himself. To condone is to put aside a recognized offense by some act which restores the offender to forfeited right or privilege. convict. without legal formaUties. pass by. Forgive has reference to feelings. Acquittal is a release from a charge. absolution. as not guilty. Synonyms PARDOIV. pass over. the forgiven sinner is restored to the divine favor. and is the act of a private individual. . oblivion. To pardon is the act of a superior. as a fault or sin. In reference to diseases. To pardon to let pass. or punishment. doom. condemn. M. Either to palliate or to extenuate is to admit the fault but is rather to apologize for the offender. n. since circumstances can not change the inherent wrong of an act. Personal injury may be forgiven by the person wronged . recompense. giving it . Compare alleviate hide. acquit. pardon is often used by courtesy in nearly the same sense. chastise. remission. a mild name does not make it less evil. To excuse is to overlook some slight offense. forgrlveness. we speak of extenuating but not of palliating circumstances. blame. as where the penalty includes both fine and imprisonment. to palliate is really to diminish their violence. condone. mercy. forbearance. remit. overlooli:. sentence. to remit the whole penalty is equivalent to pardoning the offender . sconrge. Antonymii castigate. Synonyms absolve. implying the right to punish. excuse. after trial. Compare absolve . . 262 . forgiving. visit.l>ardon 266. or partly to relieve the suflEerer. tho they may lessen the blameworthiness of him who does it palliating a bad thing by to extenvate . but a part of a penalty may be remitted and the remainder inflicted. pnnish. pardon to consequences hence. error. In law. acguittal. is forg^lve. amnesty. without resentment. PARDOIV.

" and includes a full pardon of all offenders who come within . . an employer "parts mth a clerk or servant . insurrection. a person or from someis to relinquish possession thing thought of with some sense of companionship . for of offenders or offenses. or rebellion . he may be said also to part from his native shore . signifies overlooking and vir' tuaJly forgettmg an offense. An innocent man may demand acquittal. so that the offender stands before the law in all respects as if it had never been committed. Synonyms: Compare synonyms for pabt. to part leith we part from. part teith may be applied to a person thought of in any sense as a possession . and need not plead for pardon. from the Latin. part between contestants . Prepositions n. V.ission of Remission is a discharge from penalty as. retribation. Pardon is oftenest applied to the ordinary administi-ation of law amnesty. the pardon PART. to grant a pardon is sometimes the only way to release one who has been wrongly con. m. Pardon affects individuals . Absolution is a religious word (compare synonyms . amnesty and oblivion are said of great numbers. a copyright . . commonly of a poses an offense yet. and miUtary affah-s. a removal of penalty from one who has been adjudged is by the decision of a court.363 Pardon guilty. Antonyms penally. part . Prepositions A pardon to or for the offenders . all offenses . a traveler parts from his friends . it is often granted by " an act of oblivion. Oblivion. in general. Part into shares . for ABSOLVE). Pardon supjury . Amnesty brings the same idea through the Greek. ponishment. to part /rom is to reUnquish companionship . as our laws stand. victed. the re- a fine. but part with is sometimes used by good writers as meaning simply to separate from. to national its provisions. part in the middle part one from another among the claimants . a horse. retaliation. a man parts with an estate. An amnesty is issued after war. vengeance. is part Acquittal pardon is the act of the executive.(archaic) .

part l>artlcle .

Patience sively PATIENCE. Prepositions Patience in or amid sufferings . when we speak of passive endurance " patience is riot so hard as endurance nor so seM^eflfacingas submission. endurance. . while patience may apply to slight worries and annoyances. and fall to one's lot. entiirety. mass..ent universe any essential constituent the ancients believed that the was made up of the four elements. evil. earth. as ' ' . air.265 cule is patience atoms. wbole. composure. Antonyms aggregate. submission. without reference to quantity. forbearance.ent gold may be represented by an ingot or by a particle of gold=dust. is . patience with (rarely toward) opposers or offenders . a substance regarded as simple. m. qnanlity. long^sufrerlng. far hardship that may Endurance hardens itself against suffering. one incapable of being resolved by any known process into simpler substances . fortitude. an elestituent parts . Synonyms t calmness. as in tilling the soil. . is the quality or habit of mind shown in bearing pasand uncomplainingly any pain. flre. total. As regards our relations to our fellow men. . made up of as used by physicists. a molemle of water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. Compare part. a storm is spoken of as a manifestation of the fury of the elements. snm. Submission is ordinarily and resignation always applied to matters of great moment. forbearance patience is keeping is abstaining from retaliation or revenge kindUness of heart under vexatious conduct long-suffering is oontinuei patience. We speak of corpuscles of blood. Compare industry. the elem. etc. may be merely stubborn fortitude is endurance animated by courage endurance may by modifiers be made to have a passive . In popular language. sufferance. e. sum total. i. leniency. ard is regarded as separable into its cona vwleoule is the smallest conceivable part which retains all the characteristics of the substance thus. force. resignation. . and water . patience under afflictions . Antonyms See synonyms for anqbr. Patience may also have an active force denoting uncomplaining steadiness in doing. (rarely) patience of heat or cold. Element in chemistry denotes. .

A people is the aggregate of any public community. or of money to a child or ward. Compare requite. the community may De very . A community is in general terms the aggregate of persons inhabiting any territory in common and viewed as having common interests a commonwealth is such a body of persons having a . allowance is a stipulated amount furnished at regular ina matter of discretion or gratuity. earnings. l. An A Synonyms conuuonwealtlx. or recoTOpense. state. and even applied to inanimate things as. hire. Stipend has become exclusively a literary word. i n. tervals as .'ecompense is a still wider and loftier word. Earnings is often used as exactly equivalent to wages. small . remuneration. community. a commx>nwealth is ordinarily of considerable extent. salary. but may be used with reference to the real value of work done or service rendered. Salary is for literary or professional work. and is sometimes in the nature of a gratiuty. Hire is distinctly mercenary or menial. Remuneration is apphed to matters of great amount or importance. allcwance. race. population. fees. as of food to besieged soldiers. remuneration. recLultal. except when the contrary is expressly stated. A government as. as when we speak of "high pay" or "poor pay. with less suggestion of calculation and market value there are services for which affection and gratitude are the sole and sufficient recompense . tho the verb to hire is common. fee is given for a single service or privilege. PAY." Wages denotes what a worker receives. salary. and wages are forms of compensation and may be included in compensation. especially a republican commonwealth of Massachusetts. bire. recompense. nation. pay. PBOPIiE. either in distino' . common government. compensation. the earnings of capital.people aoo Synonyms fee. stipend. -wages. earnings. Pay is commercial and strictly signifies an exact pecuniary equivalent for a thing or service. wages for handicraft or other comparatively inferior service . Compensation is a comprehensive word signifying a return for a service done. tribe. bonorarium. a compositor receives wages. . but as a noun has gone out of popular use. payment. a salary is regarded as more permanent than wages an editor receives a salary.

understand. a definite number of citizens. organization. in a way for which usage would not allow us to substitute apprehend. none of the rights and being subject to none of the duties In American usage State signifies one commonwealth of the federal imion knovsTi as the United States.267 . "All people that on earth do dwell " to sing " All persons that on earth do dwell. every citizen is nation is an organized entitled to the protection of the state. by reason of its collectivism. Many things may be appre- We We . PERCEIVE. The members of a pecrple are referred to as persons or individuals . Synonyms: apprehend. pos. perceive . take together. without reference to race. but not of the nation. the individual members of a state or nation posing it are called citizens or subjects. A . nomadic tribes. as. I perceive that thou art a prophet. As Dean Alford suggests. That which we apprehend we catch. Tribe is now almost wholly applied to rude peoples with very imperfect political organization as. embrace wholly within the mind. prehend what is presented to the mind. "Sir. the Indian tribes . and may fitly be classed as idiomatic. conceive. The population of a country is simply the aggregate of persons residing within its borders." has been severely criticized. The use of people as signifying persons collectively. Compare sessing of citizens." John iv. it would make a strange transformation of the old hymn . we. 19. grasp around. and often better than persons. that which we comprehend. A political community considered with reference to the persons com- as having certain definite boundaries. . MOB." state is an organized political community considered in its corporate capacity as "a body politic and corporate " as. Yet perceive is used in the figurative sense of seeing through to a conclusion. whether through the senses or by any other means. that which we conceive we are able to analyze and recompose in our mind. as it were. as with the hand . as in the statement " The haU was full of people. a legislative act is the act of the state . tion from their rulers or as including them a race is a division of mankind in the line of origin and ancestry the people of the United States includes members of almost every race. etc. or allegiance unnaturalized residents form part of the population. comprehend. but is old and accepted English. apperceive what is presented through the senses. seize.

spoiled. in this fullest sense God alone its is perfect. accurate. maybe perfect flower a copy of a document is perfect when it is accurate in every particular . Ideal. short. unblemlslied. KNOWLEDGE. yet the philosopher can not comprehend it in its fulness. completed. That is perfect to which nothing can be added. as his truth and justice but no finite intelligence can comprehend the Divine Nature. Compare anticopate. Inferior. as intuitive truth. marring its symmetry. Compare innocent . and from which nothing can be taken without impairing its excellence. ignore. but in a limited sense anything . a vase may be called perfect when entire and unblemished. Synonyms: absolute. corrupt. deformed. faultless. a child can apprehend the distinction between right and wrong. . power. faulty. absolute hoUness and love are attributes of Grod alone. incomplete. ruined. . undefiled. and perfection. misapprehend. insufficient. CATCH . boly. kind perfect. is absolute . INFINITE . God. by reason of the imperfection human mind . because they see always ideal possibilities not yet attained . as 6elf=existent and free from all limitation or dependence. complete. We can axiprehend the wiU of God as revealed in conscience or the Scriptures we can conceive of certain attributes of Deity. overlook. consummate. misconceive. AntonymiB i ^ad. aeeest. the best judges never pronounce a work of art perfect in as a. a human character faultlessly holy would be morally perfect tho finite. is called the absolute Being. imperfect. even tho not artistically faultless . immaculate. stainless.perfect 268 hended which can not be eomprehended. marred. PERFECT. correct. absolute signifies free from all necessary. or simply the Absolute. in its majesty. entire. vmrelated and unconditioned truth immediately known. . or even from aU possible relations. lose. perverted. blameless. poor. defective. deficient. RADICAL. even the ideal is not perfect. worthless. In philosophical language. Antonyms: fail of. fallible. blemisnea. meager. finlsbed. not dependent or limited. corrupted. That which is absolute is free from admixture (as absolute alcohol) and in the highest and fuUest sense free from imperfection or limitation as. sinless. scant. miss. spotless. of the . . defaced. or detracting from its worth . . .

PERmiSSION. license is a formal permission granted by competent authority to an individual to do some act or pursue some business which would be or is made to be unlawful without such permission . Consent is permission by the concurrence of wills in two or more persons. hindrance. There may A Antonyms denial. Enduring is a higher word. and is even called an authority. The noun permit implies a formal written permission. PERMAWEBfT. as. and usually implies some degree of approval. . constant. Permis. enduring fame. which constitutes an implied permission. permit what we expressly authorize. . permit. cbangeless. PerTnanent is a. perpetual. resistance.nan '*"'' permanent permission Synonyms abiding. liberty. license. Authority gives a affected may be by the ac- be a failure to object. steadfast. a license to preach. license is permission granted rather than authority conferred . Invariable. uncbangeable. Synonyms allowance. tho this is more properly expressed by allowance . permanent color buildings upon a farm are called permanent improvements. prohibition. to solemnize marriages.aterial things. applied to that which resists both time and change as. m. persistent. Antonyms: See synonyms for tkansient. objection. autborlzatlon. lasting. durus. age. consent. Durable (L. a mutual approval or acceptance of something proposed.word of wider meaning a thing permanent which is not liable to change as. autborlty. Compare allow. . refusal. uncbanglng. fixed. wisdom. or to sell intoxicating liquors. and character give authority to their possessor a book of learned research has authority. . certain right of control over all that tion. stable. sion justifies another in acting without interference or censure. is . enduring. a. Authority unites the right and power of control. opposition. we allow what we do not oppose. hard) is said almost wholly of material substances that resist wear . lasting is said of either material or im- Immutable. leave. durable. prevention. the sheriff has authority (not permission nor license) to make an arrest.

. cially to the sense of smell . PERNICIOUS. espe. deleterious. good. doubt. tending to hurt or kill. burtful. astonisbment. has not the unsettling of the faculties implied in confusion. through. mlscMevous. evil. as. per. from confundo. reason. serviceable. beneficent. but the want of full and definite knowledge. wholesome Synonyms amazement. Pernicious is stronger than injurious . favorable. nor the overwhelming of the faculties imamazement or astonishment . Pernidous (L. PERP1. as referring to that which is injurious or destructive. useful. hurt) is a stronger word than noisome. noceo. but is less overwhelming. that which is injurious is capable of doing harm that which is pernicious is likely to be destrvxitive.EXITY. insalubrious. The dividing of a woodland path may cause the traveler the ^eatesk perplexity. poisonous. beneficial. confusion. foul. as it were. Healthful. it is not the magnitude of the things to be known. pestiferous. pour together) is a state in which the mental faculties are. noxious. life-giving. plait) is the drawing or turning of the thoughts or faculties by turns in different directions or toward contrasted or contradictory conclusions . which may become bewilderment when he has tried one path after another and lost his bearings completely. memory. ruinous. Noisome now always denotes that which is extremely disagreeable or disgusting. and neco. distraction. thrown into chaos. unbealtbful. destructive. that causes perplexity. profitable. and more readily recovered from clear . the noisome stench proclaimed the presence of noxious gases. invigorating. harmful. rejuvenating. disturbance. so that the and distinct action of the different powers. wiU make him unable to think Amazement results from the sudden and unimagined occmxence of great good or evil or . noisome. embarrassment. pestilential. through. 'baneful. as of perception. and plecto. Noxious (L. un^vbolesome. perpleocity. Antonyms advantageous. deadly. helpful. per. salutary. kill) signifies having the power of destroying or injuring. bewilderment. confusus. accordingly. Perplexity (L. injurious. detrimental. perverting. confusion (L. and wiU is lost bewilderment is akin to confur sion. With an excitable person bevnlderment plied in may deepen into confusion that clearly or even to see or hear distinctly.pernlclouB perplexity „^^ Se7U Synonyms: bad.

or he may be convincedot truth that has no manifest connection with duty or action. sauciness. repel. one may be convinced that the earth is roimd he may hepersuaded to travel round it . dispose. which the word was formerly understood to imply. . largely by appeal to personal feeling. . disanade. flippancy. coas. Astonishment often produces heimlderment. convince. Compare impudence. eliTiiess. DOUBT. Of these words convince alone has no direct reference to moving the win. hniuUitj. with or without success . Ijrislaiess. induced. To persuade is to bring the will of another to a desired decision by some influence exerted upon it short of compulsion . one may be convinced of his duty without doing it. One may be brought over. impudence. influence.. lead. he is won over chiefly by personal influence. as by bribery or intimidation . pertness and savMness are always vivid and keen. Impertinence. PERSUADE. liveliness. Compare amazement. Coax is a slighter word than persuade. and regardless of the respect due to superiors. as. butpersuasion is so largely dependent upon conviction that it is commonly held to be the orator's work first to convince in order that he may persuade. denoting an effect upon the imderstanding only . Synonyms t allure. sprlgbtllness. Synonyms t lioldness. prevail on urge. : dlaconrage. incite. PERTIVESS. diffidence. usually with unfavorable suggestion pertness and sauciness are these qualities overdone. win over. Antonyms deter. seeking the same end by shallower methods. holdback. smartness is a limited and showy acuteness or shrewdness. ANXIETY. -* * persuade pertness the sudden awakening of the mind to tinthought=of=truth. a child coaxes a parent to buy him a toy. modest. Liveliness and sprightliness are pleasant and commendable. or prevailed upon by means not properly included in persuasion. impel. Induce. entice. Tiring over. Antonyms t basbfalnesB. demoreness. Impertinence and impudence may be gross and stupid . smartness. or upon. binder.qa. forwardness.. Incline. lestraln. Compare nwLtiBNCB. as of a mathematical proposition. move.

nnsnbstantial. "Whatever is composed of or pertains to matter may be termed material . stabbom. arising from some neglect or offense. physis. untoward circumstances. unreasonably set against right. Antonyms : accommodating. invleible. hence. material. kind. nnreal. froward is practically obsolete. foctlous. authority. Umbrage is a deeper and more . intangible. bodily. PIQITE. natural. perversus. offense. tangible. The petulant person frets. visible. froward. bodily presence. Pique. Perverse (L. governable. Synonyms PHTSICAI^.perverse plqne ava -e«^ Synonyms PBRVERSfi. displeasure. irrltatlou. i corporeal. compliant. resentment. or The stubborn or obstinate person will not do what another desires or requires . turned the wrong way) signifies wilfully wrong or erring. from the French. but slight and usually transient. Compare obstinate. we speak Bodily. corporal. as of a nettle . of material substances. Antonyms i hyperpb^sical. corporal punishment. verse disregard of morality and duty . petulant. corpoi-al is now almost wholly restricted to signify applied to or inflicted upon the body . umbrage. lutellectnal. and corporeal apply primarily to the human body . physical laws. Synonyms: grudge. nature) applies to material things considered as parts of a system or organic whole . bodily and corporal both denote pertaining or relating to the body corporeal signifies of the nature of or like the body . amenable. sensible. physical (Gr. mental. untoward. eplrltaal. but may comply the perverse individual may be smooth Wayward refers to a peror silent. reason. untoward is rarely heard except in certain phrases . fractious. genial. real or imaginary. immaterial. ungoTemable. as. corporal. the corporeal frame. moral. physical forces. complaisant. Intractable. contrary. but is wilfully intractable. obliging. we speak of bodily sufferings. signifies primarily a prick or a sting. obstinate. w^ilful. . the perverse person will do anything contrary to what is desired or required of him. the word denotes a sudden feeling of mingled pain and anger. i wayward.

by an easy transition. . contentment. or distresses of others. grand. Buperb. base. sorrowful. superior. miserable. piteous. kindred. and so far. glorions." James v. mercy. or union pity is for what is weak or unforainate. enblime. 18 . MERCY . Since pity. joined with a desire to help or reSympathy (feeling or suffering with) implies some degree lieve. commiseration. pitiable for that which is brought directly before the senses as. a. a shadow) or subjected to any treatment that one deems unworthy of him. " the Lord is very pitiful and of tender mercy. 11 but this usage is now archaic. a pitiful excuse . dignified. wretcbed. gratification. It may be said. Pity is a feeling of grief or pain aroused by the weakness. PITY. Pitiful and pitiable now refer to what may be deserving of pity. Antonyms aagnst. compassion. for what might awaken pity. as a general statement. loft.^. . pitiful and pitiable are often used. toucbing. eatisfaction complacency. condolence. paltry. at least. Compare anger. of equality. that pique arises from wounded vanity or sensitiveness. umbrage from wounded pride or sometimes from suspicion. . Synonyms tenderness^ sympatby. misfortunes. pathetic. inferior to ourselves hence. and the meaning in question is appropriated by such words as merciful and compassionate. HXJMANE . pitiable condition. always implies weakness pr inferiority in that which is pitied. mournful. noole. Antonyms: approval. PITY. despicable. . moving. PITIFULi. a piteous cry. but in its derived sense applies to what really excites the emotion . mighty.273 persistent pitiful Ptty di^leasure at being overshadowed (L. contemptible. but does awaken contempt as. exalted. however. . and is deep and persistent. a pitiful story a pitiable object . . Resentment rests on more solid grounds. woful. pity ia . beneficent^ commanding. Piteous is now rarely used in its earlier sense of feehng pity. Synonyms': abject. umbra. pleasure. Compare Pitiful originally signified full of pity as. pitiable. delight. as. lamentable. pitiful being used chiefly for that which is merely an object of thought. he presented a pitiable appearance.

e:ai>.. brutality. t We may seed down. Antonyms barbarity. set. "We have sympathy with one in joy or grief. uproot. or set out sUps. weed out. : ferocity. usually with earnestness or importunity similarlj . hkepity. entreat. truculence. Tho by modem agricultural machinery the smaller grains are almost as precisely planted as corn. for those in suffering or need . hard*heartedness. but mercy does something for those who are its objects. sow. beg." Job xix. Compassion. rootnp. Pity may be only in the mind. Condolence is the expression of sympathy. set . rigor. . 1. ask. pity only we may have sympathy with the we are moved with pity for the captive or the slave. at. the old word for broadcast scattering is retained. inhumanity. Land is seeded or seeded down to grass. mercilessness. solicit." Tennyson In Memoriam bdi. young trees. cruelty. ruthlessness. O ye my friends. beseech. as in hills. Compare MERCY. urge. with some care we sow wheat or other small grains and seeds which are scattered in the process. which we put in definite places. Synonyms seed. Antonyms eradicate. hardness. Synonyms: pl.. sternness. . cuttings. To plead for one is to employ argument or persuasion or botb in his behalf. PLANT. pitilessness. . is exercised only with respect to the suffering or unfortunate. in pleasure or pain. press. etc. etc. set out. harshness.plant plead 274 often resented where sympathy would be welcome. but combines with the tenderness of pity the dignity of sympathy and the active quality of mercy. Commiseration is as tender as compassion. struggles of a giant or the ti-iumphs of a conqueror . tho we also be said to jstani them . we plant com. potatoes. iseverity. argue. . . < extirpate. 21 "pity /or a horse o'er=driven. implore. PrepoBltlona Pity on or upon that which we help or spare pity for that which we merely contemplate "have pity upon me. but more remote and hopeless we have commiseration for sufferers whom we can not reach or can not relieve. advocate.

pleasant mood if asked to do a troublesome kindness. without reference to any action or intent in that which confers it . £lnd. a. he advocates one side for the purpose of carrying it. . Pleasant keeps always something of the sense of actually giving pleasure. to show kindness and do any reasonable favor. a pleasing landscape. Solicit is a weak word denoting merely an attempt to secure one's consent or cooperation. there are good^ natured people who by reason of rudeness and ill^breeding are not pleasant companions. or may readily'be received. plead to the indictment in open comrt. in legal usage. PL>EASABIT. In this sense pleasant is nearly aMn to kind. or pleads for a person with still more intense feeling. pleasant (not a. to plead said to plead for himself or for a cause. Press and urge imply more determined or perhaps authoritative insistence. at the bar . and implore imply impassioned earnestness. . a pleasant face indicates a kind heart and an obliging disposition. expression. . . sion or the oppressor the court . As applied to persons. complexion. pleasing) day. as. or in a pleasant mood. before Synonyms s agreeable. pleasurable. entreat. he pleads a cause. sometimes by sordid or corrupt motives. . etc. and under the influence of motives that may range all the way from cold self» interest to the highest and noblest impulses . many persons are no longer in a. pleasant always refers to a disposition ready and desirous to please . Whatever has active qualities adapted to give pleasure is pleasant as. obliging. pleasant breeze a.. pleasing. plead against the oppresapx)eal to the feelings. etc. when inclined to make happy those with whom he is dealing. but hind refers to act or intent. Beseech. eood^natured. with direct and tender appeal to personal considerations. a pleasing picture . as wctU as kindly feelings in actual exercise we can say of one usually qood'natwred.^^^ one pleasant direct object. while pleasant stops with the disposition . Prepositions Plead vnth the tyrant /or the captive. A pleasing face has good feattires. pleading is argumentative. kindly. That is pleasing from which pleasure is received. but in popular usage. "on . and thus surpasses the meaning of good=natured . pleading always implies some may be One argues a case solely on rational grounds and supposably with fair consideration of both sides . one is pleasant. attractive. or with a case .

. plentiful. is an equivalent of the Saxon enough. homely. as. hateful. Plentiful is used of cedes supplies. overflowing. bounteous. ricb. we may move leisurely. Affluent and liberal both apply to riches. repellent. to a given enougb. etc. unpleasant Prepositions Pleasant to. large. ThsA is ample which gives a safe. affluent. Sufflr dent. "a. exuberant. repelling. is now rare." Ps. vnth. 111-liumored. Earsh. PI^EHTTIFUL. Antonyms. liberal. forbidding. plentiful 9. comfoetabie . full. margin beyond a given demand . copious. and forcible word. language. ample. Complete expresses not excess or overplus. abundant. austere. Neither affluent. water. and yet not mere sufficiency.. offensive. adequate. but to its productiveness. nor plentiful can be used of time or soace. plenteona. or toward persons . proportion. disagreeable. of enough to boil water . Sufficient usually pre- noun . unkind.plentlfal that occasion 276 he did not meet me with a pleasant fEWje. Ixviii. lavish. ill-natured. about a matter. We have time enough. with especial reference to giving or expending. with no perceptible diflEerence of meaning. repulsive. bountiful. Compare amiable . but harmony." still in the sense of gay. retained in pleasantry). copious. or ideal. generous. means that we can reach our destination without haste. enough usually and preferably follows. dreary. not be understood outside of literary circles. neither is enough to melt iron. if we have ample time. but only of usage. denoting a supply equal teeming. ttiat is abundard. A temperature of 313° 70° Fahrenheit is enough for a living=room . etc. replete. demand. as of food.. may be used of thought. affluent. and note . DEuaHTFuru ginm. Synonyms abounding. gloom. Ample and abundant may be applied to any subject. liberal. bountiful. where plentiful can not well be used. and would displeasing. etc. jocose (the sense Pleasant. Enough is relative. not with reference to its extent. from the Latin. but also without delay . luxuriant. ram. but copious can be applied to thought. fitness to a design. feeling. arrogant. liberal. Affluent. while SM^ctewf is in many cases the more its elegant or polite. crabbed. but not a large. complete. grim. which is largely in excess of manifest need.. a field is sometimes called plentiful. enough being the more blunt. (Compare synonyms especial reference to giving or expending. resources . profuse. sufficient. We may also say a copious rain . referring especially to riches. merry.

to view the scenery. miserly. sense. or to rest when weary. inadequate. oftenest in the ill "We rejoice in abundant resources. lavish or profuse expenditure suggests extravagance and wastefulness. drained. Lavish and profiise imply a decided excess. if we have abundant time. we may pause to converse with a friend. as. Luaowriant is used especially of that which is abundant in growth . hospitality Antonyms: deficient. insnflicient. . exhanBted. mean.277 poetry polite what is by the way . a luxuriant crop. Impoverished. and honor generous .

uncivil. a polished gentleman or a polished scoundrel cultured refers to a real and high devolopment of mind and soul. boorish. ill-bred. the national ^oKt^ of the United States is repubhcan each administration has a policy . impertinent. stateliness without reference to the prompting feeling . becoming. a church. coarse. blunt. or those agreeing in polity may differ in faith. and the word is thus inferior to polite or courteous. courteous is fuller and richer. of which the external manifestation is the smallest part. raw. constitution. brusk. or a society . and is used of external grace and . as. many think honesty to be good policy. impudent. Policy and doctrine. he cares for the comfort and happiness of others in the smallest matters. own. policy. conforming to all that is gi-acefiil. Genteel refers to an external elegance. unpolished. Insulting. two churches identical in faith may in polity. as. ill-mannered. impolite. that which befits a royal court.polity to avoid being rude 27S . unmannerly. rude. which may be showy and superficial. Civil is a colder and more distant word than polite . Polity is the permanent system of government of a state. which is coming to be the prevaiUng one. . the courtly manners of the ambassador. insolent. hluff. and if polite in the highest and truest sense. ill-behaved. : clownish. Antonyms awkward. and is used only in the good sense. untaught. Complaisant denotes a disposition to please or favor beyond what politeness would necessarily require. to faith diflfer Com- . pare LAW. uncouth. policy is the method of management with reference to the attainment of certain ends . Synonyms POLITY. and thoughtful in the intercourse of refined society. Polity used in ecclesiastical use serves a valuable purpose in distinguishing that which relates to administration and government from that wnich relates its is . dealing often with greater Courtly suggests matters. discourteous. untutored. form or system of government. Polished refers to external elegancies of speech and manner without reference to spirit or purpose . A man may be civil with no consideration for others. Urbane refers to a politeness that is genial and successful in giving others a sense of ease and cheer. simply because self =respect forbids him to be rude but one who is polite has at least some care for the opinions of others. rustic. one who is polite (literally polished) observes more than the necessary proprieties. of often used as equivalent to expediency as.

Poverty denotes strictly lack of property or adequate means of . portion powrer PORTIOIV. might. Compare paet. want. destitution. part. comfortable living privation denotes a condition of painful lack of what is useful or desirable. efficacy. skill. force. qualification. indigence. distress. the jjower of the legislature to enact them the power of an acid . tho not support.279 Synonyms lot. faculty. privation. or result be. or purpose is called a portion. When we speak of a part as a proportion. Power is. to . property. but continuous. penury. streng:tli. divided iato parts. according to his arbitrary and unreasonable caprice. . indigence is lack of ordinary lack of the comforts. mendicancy. possibly not so sharp as destitution. cogency. thus. the portion allotted to a child by will may not be a fan. proportlou. need. so that the different parts bear a contemplated and intended relation or ratio to one another . thing. or of the executive to enforce the most general term of this group. dexterity. or faculty or may laws. common use is a relative term denoting any conbelow that of easy. energy. When any whole is . capacity. Synonyms ability. Synonyms beggarr. pauperism. cleverness. divided according to some rule or scale. espertness. any part that is allotted to some person. effect. but in dition to the extent of absolute distress . is quality. charity. Proportion is often used where part or portion would be we think of the whole as more appropriate. while that may be temporary pauperism is such destitution as throws one upon organized public charity for support beggai~y and mendicancy denote poverty that appeals for indiscriminate private . aptitude. susceptibility. readiness. as. destitution is . several portions great or small. tho the division may be by no fixed rule or relation a father may divide his estate by will among his children so as to make their parcel.proportion of the estate. efficiency. means of subsistence . competency. and in part even of the necessaries of life penury is especially cramping poverty. POVERTY. capability. sbare. POWER. talent. subject. including every by which any change. produced .

faculties. which is power to but ability is often distinguished from capacity. the power that actually does. dexterity and skill are largely acquired. eulogy. feebleness. applause. but does not reach the positiveness and vigor that may be included in the meaning of power. Efficiency is effectual agency. as power that may be manifested in doing. Effi^ cacy is the power to produce an intended effect as shown in the production of it as. Faculty is an inherent quality of mind or body . sycophancy. dnlnesB. Compare address . Power and ability include capacity. Antonyms awkwardness. and talents. cheers. SKILFUL. talent. Efficiency is active power to effect a definite result. Applause is expressed in any way. acclaim.praise 2S0 corrode a metal . weakness. uusKilfulness. etc. as distinguished from that which may do. and is expressed by spoken or written words applause. maladroitness. incapacity. incompetence. encomium. efficiency is applied in mechanics as denoting the ratio of the effect produced to the power expended in producing it but this word is chiefly used of intelUgent agents as denoting the quality that brings aU one's power to bear promptly and to the best purpose on the thing to be done. Synonyms. acclamation. as distinguished from active power . competent power . helplessness. the spontaneous outburst of many at once. laudation. inaptitude. PRAISE. and yet not possess ability to teach. imbecility. compliment. or of a number or multitude considered individually.. we speak of an exertion of power. and readiness that can be acquired. impotence. with all the dexterity. clapping of hands. : . Our our natural capacity. DEXTERITY . Praise is the hearty approval of an individual. approbation. as capacity is in receiving . adulation. Ability is nearly coextensive with power. the power of a polished surface to reflect light. having a special end talent is innate. but not of an exertion of ability. abilities include . . inability. receive . flattery. ability often implying latent. approval. stupidity. one may have great capacity for acquu'ing knowledge. skill. as well as by the voice acclamation is the spontaneous and hearty approval . by stamping of feet. Competency is equal to the occasion. waving of handkerchiefs. readiness prompt for the occasion. Dexterity and skill are readiness and faciUty in action. panegyric. some special mental ability. cheering. the efficacy of a drug. inefficiency. plauiut.

while praise is always uttered. as expressing a polite humility of request. denunciation. Beseech and entreat express great earnestness of petition . Approbation is a milder and more qualified word than praise . C." is now rare. . and is commonly used in the plural as. W. in the religious sense. commonly understood in a loftier sense as. plead. XtBg. . vilification. . and frequently implies official sanction approbation may be upon a general view. as "Pray sit down" . Invoke. Praise is always understood as genuine and sincere. Praise is always personal. a nation's acclaim. The iadustry and intelligence of a clerk win his employer's approbation . animadversion. Importune. Plaudit is a shout of applause. even in these "please" is more common . " I beg you " is also frequently used. approbation may be silent. bid. ignommy. implore and supplicate denote the utmost . entreat. obloquy. contempt. implore. "Approbation speaks of the thing or action. Approval always supposes a testing or careful examination. Tlius one ia chosen moderator by acclamation when he receives a unanimous viva voce vote we could not say he was nominated by applause. [macm. and strictly by the voice alone. flattery is insincere and ordinarily fulsome praise. . Applause is also used in the general sense of praise. unless the contrary is expressly stated compliment is a light form ot praise that may or may not be sincere . 549. . blame. hissing. petition." A. supplicate. disapprobation. the plaudits of a throng. beseecli. is devoutly to address the Supreme Being with reverent petition for divine grace or any favor or blessing. and J. . vituperation. ceuBoie. reproach. p. Antonyms abuse. call upon. . imless in writings molded on older literature. To pray. disparagement. slander. Haee Guesses at Truth first series. certain phrases. his decision in a special instance receives his approval. disapproval. or in . Synonyms' aslf.2S1 pray of many at once. . scorn. . and in the fullest sense with thanksgiving and praise for the divine goodness and mercy the once common use of the word to express any earnest request. condemnation. Acclaim is the more poetic term for acclamation. conjure. request. as " I pray you to come in. repudiation. reproof. PRAY. '66.] Acceptance refers to an object or action approbation may refer to character or natural traits..

antecedent. which can not be quoted as an authoritative prec- A edent. and now. firm. dependent on chance or hazard. or land by a. insecure. which. undeniable. pare ask . Compare cause . eq. The communism of the early CSiristians in Jerusalem is a wonderful example or instance of Christian liberality. risky. or instance. by extension of meaning. unsteady. authority. instance. a blind something in the nature of things binding the sUghtest action or motion in the chain of inevitable. obiter dictum. settled. foreordination and predestination are Christian.An. forelmowledge. Fate is heathen. steady. Antonyms. unstable. one holds office by a. uncertain. precedent is an authoritative case. precarious originally meant dependent on the wiU of another. precarious title the strong man's hold on life is uncertain. is an opinion outside of the casein hand. strong. PRECARIOVS. Cases decided by irregular or unauthorized tribunals are not precedents for the regular administration of law. warrant. pattern. example. stable. Predestination is a previous determination or decision. . foreordlnation. assured. reaches on from eternity. Uncertain.uivocal. eternal sequence .precarlons predestination fervency and intensity. unqnestionable. sure. in the divine action. . irrational power determining all events with no manifest connection with reason or righteousness necessity is philosophical. the invalid's . example. infallible. case. Synonyms PRECEDENT. nso -ev^ Coin> Synonrms doubtful. example. real.F. An obiter dictum. unsettled. unassured. Synonyms: fate. necessity. with manifest unfavorable possibility verging toward probability as. immutable. but not a precedent for the universal church through aU time. precarious tenure. PT. dubious. PREDE STES ATIOW. supplicate implying also humility. hazardous. an irresistible. perilous. undoubted. is applied to things that human knowledge can not certainly determine or that human power can not certainly control . denoting the rational and righteous order or decree of the supreme . certain. actual. incontestable. is precarious.

pretension. A person makes a pretense of something for the credit or advantage to be gained by it he makes what is allowed or approved a pretext for doing what would be opposed or condemned a tricky schoolboy makes a pretense of doing an errand which he does not do. cloak. so that the burden of proof is upon one who advocates a change. subterfuge. which is also the usual sense. in the unfavorable. A prejudice or prepossession is grounded often on feeling.USA prej n<1tc6 pretense and all=wise Grod. choice. or he makes the actual doing of an errand a pretext for playing truant. mask. 'Wile. free agency. pretext. PRETEKSE. demonstration. proof. air. Synonyms. Antonyms certainly. whUe others hold foreordination to be inseparably involved in foreknowledge. independence. preconception prepossession. which some hold to be entirely separable from his foreordination. in favor of. seeming. show. reason. i bias. usually grounded on some general principle. a prejudice always unfavorable. conclusion. dlsslnvulatlon. trick. . is something advanced or displayed for the purpose of concealing the reality. Prepositions s Against . semblance. freedom. A ruse is something (especially some- assumption. rarely. fancy. color. unfairness. Synonyms prejudice:. reasonmg. partiality. jlntonyms accident. . in one's favor. ruse. presumption. and always held subject to revision upon fuller information. Prepo sltlo ns Predestination of believers to eternal life. simulation. There is always a presumption in favor of what exists. (literally. unless the contrary is expressly stated. evidence. A prejudice against foreigners is Very common in retired communities. A pretense. associations. I conviction. free will. . Foreknowledge is simply God's antecedent knowledge of all events. excuse. uncertainty. A prepossession is always favorable. is A presumption decision a taking beforehand) a partial formed in advance of argument or evidence. chance. Compare INJURY. etc. disguise. affectation.

ket. before the desire is formulated or expressed). act in advance of. e. . candor. 25 " Thou 2}reventest him with the blessings of goodness" (i. simplicity. addressed him first). xvii. his sense . e. Preposition: He was prevented by' illness /rom joining the expedition. : fact. Anticipate is now the only single word usable in this sense to forestall is to take or act in advance in one's own behalf and to the preju. xxi. A pretension is a claim that is or may be contested : the word is used in an unfavorable sense. Matt. dice of another or others. as appears in such passages as. "I was about to accost him when he anticipated me " (by speaking first). and enable a person to gain some end that he would not be allowed to approach directly. 3. PREVENT. which at first had only the anticipatory meaning.prevent 2§4 thing slight or petty) employed to blind or deceive so as to mask an ulterior design. . was still in good use when the authorized version of the Bible was made. preclude.. Antonyms actuality. Prevent. Compare hinder . (literally. ingenuousness. walls and bars precluded the possibility of escape a supposition is precluded. guilelesBnees. sincerity. openness. Honesty. to come before. in neither of these cases could we use forestall or prevent. . Compare artifice now commonly . Synonyms I anticipate. hypocrisy. has come to apply to the stopping of an action at any stage. as in the phrase " to forestall the maris very frequently used in the favorable thoughtful kindness anticipated my wish (i. to stop the way of or remove from the way). e. To obviate (literally. prohibit. so that something that would naturally withstand or disturb may be kept from doing so . to preclude. is to prevent by interception. Jesas prevented him " (i. met the wish before it was expressed): or we say." But to anticipate as. The original sense of prevent. Ps. reaJity. a necessity or difficulty is obwiafed. by -sending the blessings . the completion or conclusion only being thought of as negatived by anticipation the enemy passed the outworks and were barely prevented from capturing the fortress. which is now practically obsolete. truth. " When Peter was come into the house. or one anticipates a payment (by making it before the time). to close or shut in advance) is to prevent by anticipation or by logical necessity. oTiviate.. forestall. frankness.

Antonyms after. Foregoing is used only of that which is spoken or written as. consegnent. an antecedent event may have happened at any time before the preceding transaction is the one completed just before the one with which it is compared a previous statement or chapter may be in any part of the book that has gone before the preceding statement or chapter comes next before without an interval. is coming to be employed chiefly with reference to place as the anterior lobes of the brain. later. Antecedent and previous may refer to that which goes or happens at any distance in advance. wortb. not of can say former times. or sharp contrast. Acts i. I . following. conclnding. . . . we should say the front part of the garden. space in general. preceding is limited to that which is immediately or next before . a prior demand. a }>revious engagement. introductory. the foregoing statements. or of position in written or printed matter. the forward car of a train. Prior bears . forward. Anterior. these arrangements were made previous to my departure. expense. Antecedent may denote simple priority in time. a former chapter. antecedent. etc. value. implying no direct connection between that which goes before and that which follows as.] vious to is Preposition Such was the PRICE. precedent. succeeding. in constructions where previously to would be more strictly correct . the striking of one clock may be always antecedent to the stariking of another with no causal connection between them. {Prestate of things previous to the revolution. snbseqnent. . as. earlier. posterior. expenditure. anterior. and commonly where that which is Former is as. . former.ne<s •*s* previous price Synonyms PRETIOVS. even when not fully expressed. while it can be used of time. foregoing. Synonyms I cbarge. and Eccles. exclusive reference to time. . preliminary. front. Former has a close relation. We . with something following the former always implies the latter. hind. 10. The cost of a thing is all that has been expended upon it. prior. hinder. . cost. hindmost. preceding. latter. often used adverbially. as in . . vii. 1. first in time is fii-st also in right used of time. Previous often signifies first by right as. but not the former part of a garden . outlay.

thus. conceit. while its intrinsic value may be practically nothing. the charges oi a lawyer or physician . Arrogance claims much for itself and concedes little to others. ostentation. expense to minor outlays . Synonyms. haughtiness feels one's own superiority to others disdain sees contemptuously the inferiority of others to oneself. disdain. decoration. the intrinsic value is the inherent utility of the article considered by itself alone the market value of an old and rare volume may be very great. insolence. traveling expenses." Value is the asks.pride 2*® whether in discovery. Haughtiness thinks highly of itself and poorly of others. when goods are sold at cost. generally from an inferior to a superior. self^esaltatlon. to bring it to its present condition in the hands "of its present possessor is what the seller . the price of a thing In regular business. . intrinsic value is a weaker expression than intrinsic worth. Pride is an absorbing sense of one's own greatness . what the thing will avail with others) than worth. the price the buyer has paid becomes their cost to himself. Insolence is open and rude expression of contempt and hostility. . transportation. . arrogance. expenses. vanity self-esteem. refinement. or otherwise. reserve. the seller's price on his wares must be more than their cost to him when goods are sold. superciliousness. assumption. In exceptional cases. as from a servant to a master In the presence of superiors overweening pride or mistress. household . self-complacency. the market value is what it would bring if exposed for sale in the open market . production. estimated equivalent for an article. hence the significance of the taunting proverb that " every man has his price. . selforespect. PRIDE. manifests itself in xyresunuption or insolence . bauslitiness. self-conceit. as. vainglory. Value has always more reference to others' estimation (literally. presumption. Presumption claims place or privilege above one's right pride deems nothing too high. which regards the thing in and by itself . for it. always implies that an article is for sale what a man will not sell he declines to put a price on . whether the article is for sale or not . the seller's jsr-ice is made the same as the cost of the goods to him. in the presence of . Charge has especial reference to services. as a rule. the cost to the Price seller and the cost to the buyer becoming then identical.

Self-respect is a thoroughly worthy feeling. pristine. primitive.. immemorial. primal. as if by the uplifted eyebrow. . autoclitbonic. is commonly founded on something real. and primeval combine the meanings of ancient and original .) Pride too self=satisfied to care for praise . old. Primeval (L. Autochthonic (Gr. origo. native. ' patrlarcbal. or in either case often by cold reserve. ancient. immemorial. primum. is elated if they are rendered. Aboriginal original. pride is founded upon something that one is. or has done vanity. Self'conceit is ridiculous . and ehthbn. silently manifests mingled haughtiness and disdain. Conceit and vanity are associated with weakness. PRIMETAL. self'esteem is a more generous estimate of one's own character and abilities than the rest of the world are ready to allow. over and dlium. disdain. haughtiness. pride manifests itself by arrogance. too. autos. Assumption quietly takes for granted superiority and privilege which others would be slow to concede. Vanity is eager for admiration and praise. autochthonic. conceit is offensive. Vainglory is more pompous and boastful than vanity. primary. self-abasement. earliest in time. is . supercilium. age). and cevum. Superciliousness. Aboriginal. ab. but often (L. tho far slighter than would afford foundation for pride. self-distrust. only the earliest of which man knows or conceives. tion or praise. signifies strictly belonging to the first ages. including not merely human beings but inferior animals and plants as well. or those primeval supposed to be inferior. uncreated. aboriginal inhabitants. Indigenous. (See reserve under modesty. Antonyms hmnilify.287 inferiors. autochthonic races. vanity intensely craves admiration and applause. eyebrow. origin) signifies pertaining to the aborigines or earliest known inhabitants of a country in the widest sense. as its etymology suggests (L. self. or has. Compare egotism . and pained if they are withheld. earth) signifies sprung from the earth. primordial. lowliness. from super. pride with strength. and seeks them . especially from the soil of one's native land. Synonyms aboriginal. meekness. pride could never solicit admu-aConceit is somewhat stronger than self'Conoeit. prime. modesty. Conceit may be founded upon nothing. from. first. ostentation. eyelid). superciliousness.

independently of quality.itive chiu'ch. theprimal cui-se. recent modern. receipts.. helpful. Pristine is an elegant word. utility. new. Compare synonyms for new. Primal is ohiefiy poetic. Immemorial refers solely to time. late. primordial \e^t. PROFIT. a primary school. returns. etc. valuable. in the sense ot prime as. or Prime and primary may signify either first in more frequently first in importance primaryhas also the . Primitive also very frequently signifies having the original or early characteristics without remoteness in time. good. in government. tage=ground. fresh. time. needs. either for coping with competitors or with difliculties. the prim. a. or demands . used almost exclusively in a good sense of that which is original and perhaps ancient . . " that whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary " as. gain. innocence. Antonyms i adventitious. an immemorial custom an immemorial abuse. useful. as to have the advantage of a good education it is frequently used of what one has beyond . . . Compare old. though it may be of foreign extraction humming-birds are indigenous to America canaries may be native. foreign. Primordial is first in an order of succession or development. novel. . that which is actually produced there is said to be native. Primitive frequently signifies having the original characteristics of that which it represents. pristine purity. service. as well as standing first in time as.profit 28§ primeval forests. usefulness. . benefit. The returns improvement. sense of elementary or preparatory we speak of apritne minister. but are not indigenous. is received from an outthe profit is the excess (if any) of the receipts over the outlay hence. in legal phrase. denoting. avail. expediency. as. exotic. . the profit is what is really good. morals. or receipts include all that lay or investment . return. proceeds. value. That which is both an original and natural product of a soil or country is said to be indigenous . Primeval simplicity is the simplicity of the earliest ages primitive simplicity may be found in retired villages now. Synonyms advantage. . Utility is chiefly used in the sense of some immediate or personal and generally some material good. Advantage is that which gives one a van- emolument. vigor. . as. .

Oain is what one secures beyond what he previously possessed. Compare inrruTT. ently of good or evil one advocate o{ progress. in business. Improvement. increase. proficiency. this is a great advance. proficiency includes the idea of skiU. to walk forward) is steady and constant forward movement. but not of retreat advance suggests more clearly a point to be reached. development. attainment. individual. and may be either mechanical. go) is a moving onward or forward." 19 may say without limitation. Attainment. denoting some point of advantage or of comparative perfection reached by forward or onward movement we speak of attainments in virtue or scholarship. Prepositions The profit of labor . rain. loss. waste. advancement. Benefit is anything that does one good. real or supposed. there is a growing tendency to . or value accruing through official position. whether in space or in the mental or moral realm. ument is profit. but always relatively with reference to the point from which the movement Advance admits the possibilstarted as. . disadvantage. to have the advantage of another in an argument. " I am an . pro. in actions having a moral character. harm. ity of retreat progress (L. Emolreturn. . or social. destruction. Expediency has respect to profit or advantage. Antonyms damage. Progress (L. but more naturally of swift advance. gro-wtli. admitting of pause. another or secures at the expense of another as. development. the development of new powers or organs . on capital . PROORESS. gradior. . the progress of ideas progression fixes the attention chiefly upon the act of moving forward. while progress lays the emphasis upon the forward movement we may speak of slow or rapid progress. Advance may denote either a forward movement or the point gained by forward movement. : detriment. Synonyms advance. progredi. . or to take advantage of another in a bargain. forward. liurt. and proficiency are moreabsolute'than the other words of the group. using increase indiffer. injary. Progress is more frequently used of abstractions as. In a thing good in itself all advance or progress is improvement . proficiency in music or languages. progression. restrict the words to this favorable sense. considered apart from or perhaps in opposition to right.'"^'' progress .

. falling off. relapse.problblt 290 delay. decline. stoppage. i . retrogression. Propositions The progress of truth progress in vktue from a lower to a higher state. Antonyms check. stop. stay. falling back. toward perfection j Synonyms PROHIBIT. .

assist. A person promotes a scheme or an enterprise which others have projected or begun. that which is an auspicious . s advance. furthers. To promote (L. Synonyms: PROPITIATION. One who excites a quarrel originates it to promote a quarrel is strictly io foment and urge it on. pro. Propitiation is makes the governing power propitious toward the offender. is now chiefly used. . . forward. urge on. gracious. benignant. merciful. kindly. exalt. Satisfaction in this connection denotes the rendering a full legal equivalent for the wrong done. push. favorable. eBtran_ offense. That which is au^dous is of favorable omen propitious is of favoring influence or tendency as. or urges on. Propitiation appeases the lawgiver . clement. reconciliation. further. foster. or suffering sufficient to win forgiveness or make up for an offense. on. him to a higher position or dignity. especially and distinctively of the sacrificial work of Christ in his humiliation. satisfaction. rank. pnnisliment. PROPITIOUS. penalty. cnrse. "We promote a person by advancing. or the bringing into agreement of those who have been estranged. help. forwards. or dignity. or exalting . elevating. encourage. atonement. push. suffering and death. condemnation.TiAY. raise. the one who promotes keeping himself in the background. chastisement. and which he encourages. satisfaction meets the requirements of the law. expiation. Compare abet . Antonyms alienation. in the sense of some offering. wrath. pushes. Expiation is the enduring of the full penalty of a an offering. reprobation. friendly. quicken. benign. kind. or sacrifice that wrong or crime. vengeance. urge forward. Antonyms See synonyms for abase . PROIHOTE. as in theology. and moveo. move) is to cause to move forward toward some desired end or to raise to some higher position. Atonement (at=one=ment). forward. excite. especially when he acts as the agent of the prime movers and supporters of the enterprise. prefer.291 promote propitious Synonyms aid. sacriflce. Synonyms auspicious. retribution. originally denoting reconciliation. action. foment. at. elevate.

In this latter sense propose is nearly identical with purpose. . especially toward the suppliant auspicious is not used of persons. Preposition May heaven be propitious to the enterprise. repellent. but An overture opens negotiation or conference. ill-disposed.'' purpose would not have the same sharp directness. unpropitious. what we propose is open to deliberation. Antonyms: adverse. proposal of marriage but proposition is often used nearly in the sense of proposal when it concerns a matter for deliberation as. propose differs from purpose in that what -wB purpose lies in our own mind. a. ciliation . In its most frequent use. repnlse. . But in the majority of cases what we purpose is more general. nnfriendly. In another use of the word. offer. inauspicious.. implying Jdnd disposition and favorable inclinations. a. a determination what we propose is offered or stated to others. A hid is commercial and often verbal as. : forbidding. liostile. . Synonyms: bid. I purpose to do right I propose to do this specific thing because it is right. In this use of the word. as what we purpose is not. is more formal. a tid at an auction proposal is used in nearly the same sense. what we propose more formal and definite . Synonym: PROPOSE. proposition in geometry. In the historic sentence. and the word is especially used of some movement toward reconoffer ox proposal puts . and the two words have often been used interchangeably.proposal propose „„„ . rejection. Antonyms acceptance. disapproval. Propitious applies to persons. something before one for acceptance or rejection. as a decisive act of will. purpose. proposal being the more formal word a proposition sets forth truth (or what is claimed to be truth) in formal statement. . one proposes something to or by himself which may or may not be stated to others. unfavorable. antagonistic. : overtures of peace. . a proposition for the surrender of a fort. propitious breeze. overture. . a. proposition. An . the jsroposaZ for action as. refusal. " I propose to move immediately on your works. PROPOSAL.«w* morning . The proposition is for consideration. as. . denial.

procrastinate. or would be so if longer continued . limit. . are thought of as ancient and widely known. to. saying. defer. but only of material objects or extension in space protract is very rarely used of concrete objects or extension in space we elongate a line. Compare hinder. Protract has usually an unfavorable sense. protract a discussion. but especially the latter. adage. delay. dictum. though less decidedly both are often used with some definite limitation of time as. lengthen. . hasten. precept. axiom. liurry. An apothegm is a terse statement of what is plain or easily proved. . To protract is to cause to occupy a longer time than is usual. through time. maxim. continue. aphorism is philosophical. . . Elongate is not used of actions or abstractions. Both the proverb and the adage. . extend. shorten. continue is neutral. or postpone a matter intelligently and for good reason he procrastinates through indolence and irresolution. saw. abridge. . expected. i curtail. or desirable. till. postpone. the adage often pictorial. to postpone till. as defer also does. Antonyms abbreviate. motto. dra\r out. apborism. an unreasonable Synonyms PROTERB. or to a certain day or hour. F repositions To protract a speech by verbosity. An aphorism partates of the character of a definition it is a summary statement of what the author sees and believes to be true. Postpone implies a definite intention to resume. The. conclude. reduce. prolong. byword. the apothegm prac. the heart sick" is a proverb . . but dares not wet her feet. The proverb or adage gives homely truth in condensed. until. prac"Hope deferred maketh tical form. truism. implying that the matter referred to is already unduly long. delay. but defer and protract are not used of persons. apotbegm. contract. We de/er a negotiation which we are slow to enter upon we protract a negotiation which we are slow to conclude delay may be used of any stage in the proceedings we may delay a person as weU as an action." is an adage.„_ '•«'<* protract proverb Synonyms: PROTRACT. elongate. . or until a late hour. applying equally to the desirable or the undesirable. "The cat loves fish. One may defer.

Bravery. -esr* A dictum is a statement of some person or school. Antonyms: cowardice. impersonal. . fear. being more uniformly and directly practical love" may be a motto. but somewhat worn and tiresome. . FORTITUDE. . . discretion. its utmost to conquer at any risk or cost prowess has power adapted to the need dauntless valor is often vain against superior Courage is a nobler word than bravery. consideration. ludgment. of the deep. ' . Compare bbave. the worse speed. or passive PROITESS. spiritual." a . they may be exhibited by a martyr at the stake. spiritual. wisdom. . foresiglit. Prowess and valor imply both daring and doing we do not speak of the prowess of a martyr. as submission to a surgical operation. courage. timidity. circumspection. forecast. deriving its authority from its manifest truth or good sense as. it is an old saw is a saying saying. and intrepidity may be silent. involving more prowess." that is old. it «Q. or the facing of censure or detraction for conscience' sake.pi-owess prudence tical. cowardliness.axim is a brief statement of cherished maxim. the is duty motto or m. pusillanimity. doing ferer. or a passive sufValor meets odds or perils with courageous action. caution. "the more haste. a dictum of Ai-istotle. and enduring elements of character such an appreciation of peril as would extinguish bravery may only intensify courage. frugality. Precept is a com- A mand "God to truth. "Fear God and fear naught. on whom depends for authority as. Synonyms care. cuiTent among the common people. providence. neroism. carefulness. intrepidity. The precepts of the Sermon on the Mount will furnish byword is a the Christian ^vith invaluable maxims or viottoes. A saying is . prudence:. valor. maxim. heroism. Prudence may be briefly defined as good judgment and fore- . judiciousness. which is resistant and self^conquering courage applies to matters in regard to which valor and prowess can have no place. phrase or saying used reproachfully or contemptuously. foretbouglit. effeminacy. a child. gallantry. A Synonyms bravery. . courag^e.

. honor. "Buy the truth. One may either buy or purchase fame. Frugality is in many cases one form oi prudence. Foresight merely sees the future. improTldence. wastefnlness. of or from a person . bargain for. Antonyms barter. the French purchase is often restricted to transactions of more dignity yet the Saxon word buy is commonly more emphatic. saving.- cash Purchase at a price at a public sale unth money on time. and seU it not " (Prov. Antonyms: folly. . purcbase and frugality ia practical affairs. PURCHASE. but when our feelings are stirred we speak of victory or freedom as dea. and in the higher ranges of thought . Forethought is thinking in accordance with wise views of the future. prodigality. Buy and purchase are close synonyms. wisdom. recklesBness. impmdence. get. 23) would be greatly weakened by the rendering " Purchase the truth. secure. xxiii. doing.•"" sis'?!. Care only the present . barter for. pleasure. and do not dispose of it." Compare business get pkice sale. thonghtlessness. Synonyms} acquire. and perhaps expending largely to meet the future demand. indiscretion. fkugality. and is nearly equivalent to providence. and may even lead to the recklessness and desperation to which prudence and providence are so strongly opposed. inclining to caution may respect . procure.*. . but It is a more popular and less comprehensive term we speak of man's forethought. but with the difference usually found between words of Saxon and those of French or Latin origin. pnt to sale. providence planning. sell.rljbought. preparing. favor. The Saxon buy is used for aU the homely and . heedlessness. Compare caee . buy. signifying to obtain or secure as one's own by paying or promising to pay a price in numerous cases the two words are freely interchangeable. providence will strain every nerve to introduce supplies and to raise the siege. . Prepositions. . obtain. rashness. guarding. prudence watching. exchange. etc.. . God's providence. for . In a besieged city pinidenee wiU reduce the rations. dispose of. appeals more strongly to the feelings. . prudence and providence look far ahead and sacrifice the present to the future. petty concerns of common life.

pure put .

comical. lauglialjle. peculiar. queer quicken QVEER. expedite. a stronger and more censorious term than eccentric. facilitate. . and so off or aside from the ordinary and what is considered the normal course as. urge. is to increase speed. Erratic signifies wandering. grotesque. That which is funny is calculated to provoke laughter that which is droll is more quietly amusing. anomalous. and so uneven. extraordinary. aside from the common in a way that is comical or perhaps slightly ridiculous. an an odd number. . though it may be shared by many as. nainral. odd. the singular number. singular. the French bizarre is practically equivalent . speed. press forward. often with something of the antique as. normal. . promote. A singular coincidence is one the happening of which is unusual a strange coincidence is one the cause of which is hard to explain. despatch. a drawerful of odd gloves. whimsical. the Shakers are peculiar. A strange thing is something hitherto unknown in fact or in cause. fantastic. advance. cuBtomary. unusual. Israel was called Jehovah's "peculiar people.. uncommon. To guiclcen. preposterous. ridiculous. Queer is transverse or oblique. usaal. Singular is alone of its kind as. as. but what is odd may not be singular . I familiar. droU. erratic. unmatclied. especially chosen and cherished by bim . funny. ordinary. word than odd or queer. QVICKEIV. drive on. Quaint denotes that which is pleasingly odd and fanciful. e. ludicrous. the quaint architecture of medieval towns. i accelerate. make haste. bizarre.297 Synonyms. eccentric. to grotesque. What is singular is odd. Synonyms drive. curious." i. crotchety. . in its ordinary use there is the implication that the thing peculiar to one is not common to the majority nor quite approved by them. . unique. hasten. . quaint. Eccentric is a higher and more respectful . genius is commonly eccentric. urge on. regular. further. That which is grotesque in the material sense is irregular or misshapen in form or outline or ill»proportioned so as to be somewhat ridiculous . strange. hurry. as an odd shoe. Odd is unmated. That which is peculiar belongs especially to a person as his own as. Eccentric is off or aside from the center. Antonyms common. in the sense here considered.

hinder. either exactly. drag. To accelerate any work is to hasten it toward a finish. In exact location by chapter. in power. as in indirect quotation to cite is. To accelerate is to increase the speed of action or of motion. advance unsuccessfully. but simply the reference to the location where they may be found. or otherwise. To despatch is to do and be done with. comfort. neither the author's words nor his thought may be given. hurry has come to be the colloquial and popular word for acting quickly. mologically. excerpt. recite.quote v9S move or cause to move more rapidly. commonly by quickening all its operations in orderly unity toward the result. Antonyms check. impede. parapbrase. to attempt it. page. etc. delay. because reckless haste may attain the great object of speed. or in substance. it . clog. Synonyms cite. to expedite is to quicken by removing hindrances. plagiarize. in the so that quoting. which becomes swifter with every second of time. up a must be given. to call citing a passage its passage. courtesy. repeat. the location may . appearance. To despatch an enemy is is to kill to despatch a messenger to send . to get a thing off one's him outright and quickly him in haste to despatch a business is to bring it quickly to an end. everything but speed he may forget something vital to the matter in hand yet. retard. ety. it . Despatch is commonly used of single items. good general will improve roads to faemitate the movements of troops. as through more space or with. as in direct quotation. QUOTE. hasten supplies and perfect discipline to promote the general efficiency of the force. To quote is to give an author's words. forgets dignity. The hurried man A army. to hasten is To speed is really to secure swiftness whether successfully or Hurry always indicates something of confusion. but the words or substance of the passage must be given. expedite all preparations. To promote a cause is in any way to bring it forhands. I extract. A motion wliose speed increases upon itself is said to be accelerated. prominence. can be promptly called into evidence in or may not be given. . To facilitate is to quicken by making easy . as the motion of a falling body. To quote. a greater number of motions in the same time. In citing. obstruct. as a witness is summoned. despatch details of business. in order to accelerate the advance and victory of his . ward.

. with the hope of escaping detection by change of phrase. vinegar. insipid. t flat. pleasing originality . constitutional. innate. natural.literal sense. fundamental. Synonyms-. but changing the language. or other purposes (as in the metrical versions of the Psalms). ^iey to that which is stimulating to the mental taste. spicy. native. tasteless. lively. Synonyms complete. piquant and pungent in their figurative use keep very close to theu. vapid. they come. The widely divergent which the word radical is used. thorougbgolng. As applied to Uterary products. vigorous. extreme. total. less explanatory matter as if part of the orig- One may paraphrase a work with worthy motive for homiletic. as. and commonly to give credit to the author is To paraphrase to state interweaving more or inal writing. or he may plagiarize atrociously in the form of paraphri se. RACY. flavorless. spirited. to recite one's misfortunes. stimulating and agreeable pungent spices may be deftly compounded into a piquant sauce. positive. To redte or repeat is usually to quote orally. keeping the substance of thought and the order of statement. Racy applies in the first instance to the pleasing flavor charac- teristic of certain wines. . essential. flavorous. Antonyms cold. senses in perfect. piq. in ordinary speech . RADICAL.itaa *"*' racy radical is proper sense. forcible. primitive. stupid. tborougli. whose words are eman author's thought more freely than in indirect quotation. as .uant. pungent. appropriating all that is valuable in another's thought. racy refers to that which has a striking. ployed. Pungent denotes something sharply irritating to the organs of taste or smell. spice is to the physical . dull. original. tho recite is applied in legal phrase to a particular statement of facts which is not a quotation a kindred use obtains . To plagiarize is to quote without credit. rlcb. appropriating another's words or thought as one's own. as pepper. prosy. entire. devotional. ammonia piquant denotes a quality similar in kind to pungent but less in degree. often attributed to the soil from which . ingrained. stale. organic.

a radical difference is one that springs from the root. is get to. and is thus eonstit'Wtional. unusual. land. . Antonyms: See synonyms for general .reacb 300 it by which can be at some time interchanged with any word in the above list. time more plenty. scarce applies to demand and use. and is entire. or contemptuous sigrdflcation as. scarce. are aU formed upon the one primary sense of having to do with or proceeding from the root (L. tentative. in the sense here considered. but reaches down to the very root. Incomplete. . organic. Extraordinary. radix). which is sometimes. since the majority find superficial treatment of any matter the easiest and most comfort- able. gain. unlctue. a radical chaxi^e is one that does not stop at the surface. a rare old book a rare word to call a thing scarce implies that it was at some Unique . a rare gem. odd._ normal . eoctraord'bnary . Antonyms: conservative. peculiar. is alone of its kind rare is infrequent of its kind great poems are rare. and almost always to concrete things to speak of virtue. capable of a high and good sense or of an invidious. thorough. are apt to be looked which strike upon as extreme. signifying greatly beyond the ordinary. . unprecedented. at the root of evil or need. precious. trial. . RARE. To say of a thing that it is rare is simply to afSrm that it is now seldom found. or heroism as scarce would be somewhat ludicrous. extraordinary genius necessai'ily. singular. usual. curious. original. but not . radical measures. inadequate. To reach. remarkable. " Paradise Lost " is unique. is a neutral word. unparalleled. enter. ln£reiiuent. to come to by motion . . essential. Synonyms arrive. total . A blended with that above given as. opprobrious. Rare has the added sense of precious. particular fruit or coin may be rare . moderate. strange. genius. Synonyms. an extraordinary statement is incredible without overwhelming proof. Blight. fundamental. snperflcial. wickedness an extraordinary assumption of power extraordinary antics . REACH. as when we say food or money is scarce. palliative. partial. attain. uncommon. . come to. estraordiuary. whether previously common or not as. incomparable.

positive. The present condition of a thing is its actual condition. in its original meaning. or the existent as opposed to the nonsexistent. essential. as. weigh anchor. leave. Come is the general word for moving to or toward the place where the speaker or writer is or supposes himself to be. or progress. Attain is now of tenest used of abstract relations as. Compare attain. The developed is susceptible of proof . To gain is to reach or attain something eagerly sought . to attain success. a thing) signifies having existence. to that which is undeveloped or incomplete.301 real . go away. as. real is opposed to feigned or imaginary. and is capable of demonstration . substantial. authentic. water. positive to that which is fixed or established. genuine. go. to the uncertain or doubtful developed. to reach a point intended or proposed. Actual is in opposition to the supposed. To reach is to come to from a distance that is actually or relatively considerable . positive. the positive precludes the necessity for proof. or reaches the harbor . to- gether with trees. or being in fact according to appearance or claim . eigniiies the Antonyms. ills are real that have a substantial reason. minerals. certain. across the distance. demonstrable. and furnishes the proof of its existence in itself. or comes to land. to stretch the journey.. embark. developed to that which has reached completion by a natural process of unfolding. i actual. denoting the thing as distinguished from the name. but in fact. the dismantled wreck drifts ashore. Real (L. or other natural accompani- . unqiuestlonalile. steamer arrives in port. One comes in from his garden he reaches home from a journey. so to speak. Synonyms REAL. conceived. When applied to concrete matters. set sail. start. the storms beaten ship at length attained the harbor. not merely in thought. developed. the wearied swimmer reaches or gains the shore. it commonly overcoming of hindrance and difficulty . veritable. set out. depart. true.^ plant is developed when it has reached its completed stage. res. or reported. Actual has respect to a thing accomplished by doing. real to a thing as existing by whatever means or from whatever cause. To arrive is to come to a desThe European tination. one reaches an object by stretching out the hljid. proofs are positive when they give the mind certainty . Real estate is land.

A Prepositions reason with a person about a subject. . like argue. To argue (L. To reason is to examine by means of the reason.reason ments. hypothetical. controvert. REASOX. dis. motive. oUect. to prove by reasoning. «^ act. or to iniluence or seek to influence others by reasoning or reasons. we reason a person into or out of a course of action . supposititious. I ' V. feigued. To demonstrate is to force the mind to a conclusion by irresistible reasoning to prove is rather to establish a fact by evidence . While the cause of any event. fractious. it. "We reason about a matter by bringing up aU that reason can give us on any side.. as. /or or against an . . and any permanent Compare authentic. Antonyms: conceived. n. opinion We Synonyms account. design. dispute. argue. debate. cause. Persons may contend either from mere ill will or self interest. Reason is a neutral word." Jvde 3. etc. demonstrate. fictitious. reported. if otherwise. principle. Demonstrate strictly applies to mathematical or exact reasoning prove may be used in the same sense. ground. not. naturally or necessarily implying contest. which can give only moral and not absolute or mathematical certainty. estalilisb. Synonyms REASOIV. argument. one reasons from a cause to an effect. adebate. untrue. etymologically. illusory. apart. and quatio. theoretical. . discuss. prove. imaginary. fabulous. and petty . That which has been either demonstrated or proved so as to secure general acceptance is said to be established. end. . wrangle. fanciful. structures that S02 man has built upon unreal. but is often appUed to reasoning upon matters of fact by what is called probable evidence. or we may reason down an opponent or opposition . discuss. or from the highest motives "That ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered to the saints. it becomes a mere wrangle. argue. contend. question. purpose. shake) is. a debate is formal and orderly . consideration. dispute may be personal. as commonly under- . or fact. show) is to make a matter clear by reasoning to discuss (L. suppoeed. to shake it apart for examination and analysis. visionary. aim. to prove one innocent or guilty.

Conoipare cause . . is to be explained . Reasoning. as denoting a process. but if we say " Caesar deserved death because he was a tyrant. Synonyms argument. in popular language. argument and argumentation strictly imply logical form. reason. or the premises considered together apart from the conclusion. is a broader term than reason or . or the clear establishment of truth for oneself. or of a debate between reason and conscience. especially in the sense of final cause. Argumentation and debate. as it is simply the orderly setting forth of reasons." the latter clause would be termed the reason. mind . often used as equivalent to cause. debate. struction of inquirers. With the rise of the inductive philosophy these words have come to be appUed to inductive processes also but while reasoning may be informal or even (as far as tracing its processes is concerned) imconscious. . REASONING. the reason for a REASOSriSTG. suppose two parties alleging reasons for and against a proposithe same idea appears figuratively when we speak of a tion debate or an argument with oneself. In the statement of any reasoning. Reasoning may be the act of one alone. axgrumeutatiou. or in logical strictness the middle term only by which the particular conclusion is connected with the general statement. the confuting of opponents. the sniddle term following the conclusion is called the reason . Reasoning may be either Argument or argumentation was fordeductive or inductive. argument.'' "Caesar was a tyrant" would in the strictest sense be called the argument . in the ordinary use of the words. is the reasoning power that makes it to be. merly used of deductive reasoning only. Caesar was a tyi-ant. the argument may be an entire syllogism. whether for the in. . ratiocination.303 stood. But when the reasoning is not in strict logical form. the reason of or for it is the explanation given by the liuman mind but reason is. Therefore Caesar deserved death. many arguments or reasons may be included in a single chain of reasoning. v. thus in the statement "All tyrants deserve death. Prepositions The reason of a thing that thing that is to be done.

. especially in the army. insubordinate. ungovernable. enumeration.iovs. deferential. refractory. the rebellious or seditious may be forced to submission as. the man has an ungovernable temper the horses became unmanageable he tamed . the inscription on a tombstone is a record of the dead . A Antonym SI compliant. controllable. or conspiracy. gentle. enrolment. whether a writing. RECORD. the striae on a rock=surface are the record of count.l. chronicle. scbedule. Prepositions Bebellious to or against lawful authority. too. i manageable. dutiful. scroll. arcbive. memorial. applying to any writing. to that which partakes of or tends to excite a rebellious spirit. Bubmiseive. . A memorial is any object. mutinous. seditious. . catalog(ue. a monument. or trace that serves as a memorial giving enduring attestation of an event or fact an extended ac. or history is a record . obedient. . seditious suggesting more of covert plan. navy. Synonyms: account. docHe. _ . Record is a word of wide signification. document. to open defiance of authority. Ungovernable applies . disobedient. Bnbaervient. muniment. .rebellious record 304 ri:bi:l. tractable. may be a brief inventory or memorandum . his rebellious spirit. mark. to that which is defiant of authority. intractable. inscription. bistory. Compare obstinate. Insubordinate applies to the disposition to resist and resent control as such mutinous. revolution. inventory. rebellious more of overt act or open violence. register. or other permanent thing that is designed or adapted to keep something in remembrance. unmanageable. roll. scheming. uncontrollable. and is even extended to inanimate things that resist conti-ol or adaptation to human use. contumaeiovs act or spirit is contemptuous as well as defiant. seditious. instrument. Rebellious signifies being in a state of rebellion (see rebellion under revolution). whether successfully or unsuccessfully . chronicle. While the unmanageable or ungovernable defies control. so. entry. yielding. or merchant marine. memorandum. Synonyms i coutumacious. . to that which successfully defies authority and power unmanageable to that which resists the utmost exercise of skill or of skiU and power combined rebellious.

Civilization applies to nations. stoby. are documents or records. preserved in a public or official deposito . retrieve. to recover health. elegant. to cover damages of or from a person. recruit. . regain. made for preservation or reference a series of entries a register of births and deaths. he restored. often legal records. sickness. process of cultivating the soil or growing crops. elegance. resume. especially as.n~s '•''O a glacier's passage. to recover from die. be cured. etc. I be cured or healed. to recover stolen goods . recuperate. terror.. economic. is very common sink. and a corresponding attainment of what is deliOultivatimi. . The chief transitive use of recover is in the sense to obtain again after losing. heal. denoting the removal of what is coarse and rude.. culture. " That thou mayest recover him of his leprosy. (Law) to recover judgment against. fortify) are records that enable one to defend his title. Refinement applies either to nations or individuals. etc. Archives. etc. the word archives is also applied to the place where such documents are regularly deposited and preserved. restore. Compare histoey . sum of those civil. as Kings v. repossess. reanimate. is applied in similar sense to the human mind and character." is now practically obsolete. The transitive use of recover in the sense of cure. rarely of . Synonyms i civilization. denoting primarily the cate. but civilization is susceptible of various degrees and of continued progress. but in this usage is now largely superseded by the term culture. regain. as. and beautiful. heal. The intransitive sense. Pr eposltlo ns From . repossess. and political attainments by which a community a people may be civilized while still is i-emoved from barbarism far from refinement or culture. in the sense here considered. be restored. in 2 RECOVER. which denotes a high develop. cultivation. recover refinement A register is a formal or oflScial written record. munio. Synonyms cure. or misfortune. denoting the social. rie- REFINEmEBiT. then the improved condition of either which is the result. Muniments (L. relapse. 6. as. I grow worse. I Antonyms fail. politeness.

in the matter of usage." and the like." " laughable. Mill. rusticity. Newman.refute reliable „_„ SOto best qualities of man's mental and spiritual nature. and others of the foremost of recent English writers. and in the usage of good Trasty and trustworthy refer to inherent a high order. while. Irvmg. brutality. . disprove. repel. . and denoting moral integrity and truthfulness we speak qualities of ." which is The word applied to persons in the authorized version of the Scriptures. mdeness. speakers and writers. clownisnness. RELrlABLiE. Refute is not now applied to persons. Refute applies either to arguments and opinions or to accusations confute is not applied to accusations and charges. REFUTE. . reliable has been sharply challenged. but seems to have established its place in the language. The objection to its use on the ground that the suffix -able can not properly be added to an intransitive verb is answered by the citation of such words as "available. answer so as to admit of no to demonstrate its falsity by argimient or countervailing proof confute is substantially the same in meaning. To refute a statement is . boorlshness. barbarism. but to arguments or opinions. with especial reference to the esthetic faculties and to graces of speech and manner. pare Com- HUMAHE Antonyms : . The objection to the application of reZmhle to persons is not sustained by the use of the verb "rely. Gladstone. regarded as the expression of arefined nature. tho differing in usage." "conversable. coarseness. Martineau. while he himself remains ment of the uncultured even to the extent of coarseness and rudeness. but confute is in good use in this application a person is confuted when his arguments are refuted. grosBnees. trustworthy being especially applied to persons. To refute and to confute are reply. Synonyms: trustwortliy. Culture in the fullest sense denotes that degi-ee of refinement and development which results from continued cultivation through successive generations . reliable has the authority of Coleridge. trusty. vulgarity. in the writings of Shakespeare and Bacon. savagery. confute. a man's faculties may be brought to a high degree of cultivation in some specialty. Synonyms confound. POLITE. to overtlirow.

. faith. Reliable is inferior in meaning. tIieoIog. sinless perfection of any spirit. but to judgment. Devotion. Worship may be external and formal. as the Heavenly Father duty. pietism. righteousness. some- times an affected piety . religion is the reverent acknowledgment both in heart and in act of a divine being. knowledge. Holiness is the highest. or perhaps pecuniary ability a thoroughly trustworthy person might not be reliable as a witness on account of unconscious sympathy. . as. or as a security by reason of insufficient means. consisting chiefly in outward acts. Morality is the system and practise of duty as required by the moral law. Religion. he is engaged in his devotions. A man is said to be reliable with reference not only to moral qualities. Synonyms: Piety hence. . or the study and scientific statement of all that the human mind C9:P.S07 of . devotion. A reliable messenger is one who may be depended on to do his errand correctly and promptly a trusty or trustworthy messenger is one who may be admitted to knowledge of the views and purposes of those who employ him. a reliable pledge reliable information. which involves both outward act and spiritual service. includes all the other words of this group. is often used to denote an act of worship. piety. rellglou a trusty sword.IGIO]V. in the fullest and highest sense. tho often used for purity or for consecration. seeking outward expression. and who will be faithful beyond the mere letter of his commission. a trusty servant we say the man is thoroughly trustworthy. habit. . and a loving obedience and service to God pietism often denotes a mystical. worsbip. noliness. or it may be the adoring reverence of the human spirit for the divine. primarily filial its liighest sense. Theology is the science of religion. . . liuow ol . We can speak of a railroad=train as reliable when it can be depended on to aiprivei on time but to speak of a reliable friend would be cold. in is R£L. and to speak of a warrior girding on his reliable sword would be ludicrous. denoting merely the possession of such qualities as are needed for safe reliance as. especially prayer or adoration . godliness. Godliness (primarily godlikeness) is a character and spirit like that of Grod. which in its fullest sense is self»consecration. whether divine or human. . and thus may be observed without spiritual rectitude of heart morality is of necessity included in all true religion. as of children to parents.y. morality. skiU.

irreligion. dunce is always averse to study . man is loath to believe evil of his friend. willing. comment. oral or written. Annotations are especially brief notes. REIiUCTANT. absolutely unwUUng to use it to his injmy. and closely following the text. and remarks oftenest oral. is note. as. lath. A A A Antonyms desirous. back. slow. Synonyms annotation. A . An observation is properly the A remark . loath. re. a good student is disinclined to it when a fine morning tempts him out he is indisposed to it in some hour of weariness. Inclined. strictly the belief and trust which the soul exercises toward God.reluctant remark tr^a tiUS God. is often used as a comprehensive word for a whole system of religion considered as the object of faith . un-willing. baclrward. from. godleBsness. observations. favorable. . comments being oftenest written. commonly marginal. hateful) signifies having a repugnance. : disposed. eacrilege. turn) signifies turned away as with dislike or repugnance loath (AS. Comments. the Mohammedan /ajfTi. struggle) signifies is urged or impelled to do. a saying or brief statement. profanity. strive. a comment is an explanatory or critical remark. as upon some passage ui a Uterary work or some act or speech in common Ufe. man rnay be slow or backward in entering upon that to which he is by no means averse. a note is briefer than a letter. disgust. is something to call attention. legislator may be opposed to a certain measure. observation. Antonyms: atheism. utterance. ungodlineBS. hence a brief written statement in correspondence. struggling against . a. reluctant to speak of it. eager. and lucto. Compare ANTIPATHY. or loathing for. opposed. or remarks may be oral or writtesn. evil. unbelief. commonly made without much premeditation . Synonyms: averse. disinclined. impiety. A note upon some passage in a book is briefer and less elaborate than a comment. indisposed. REIHARK. A note . blasphemy. the Christian /ai(7i. Faith. or is actually doing averse (L. what one . wickedness. while not averse to what it aims to accomplish. and verto. Reluctant (L. tho the adjective loath is not so strong as the verb loathe.

Mangle is a stronger word than lacerate . tear being the milder. recall. rennite. . back. recant. one recants what was especially his own. To lacerate is to tear roughly the flesh or animal tissue. as a belief that one has held or professed. back. . a remark may be the suggestion of the instant. eecnie. recant. re. rupture. sew. To rip. stitch. the other senses bear some resemblance or analogy to this as. disown. Retract (L. To hurst or rupture is to tear or rend by force from within. re. deny. disclaim. sever. into parts cleave. solder. forswear. a lacerated wound is distinguished from a wound made by a clean cut or incision.309 ""'* i-enounce result of fixed attention and reflection . and canto. burst. Remarks are more informal than a speech. join. discard. Antonyms heal. abjure. bear a message) is to declare against and give up formally and definitively . back. to retract a charge or accusation. lacerate is more superficial. vreld. like abandon. to hurst a gun to rupture a blood=vessel a steam=boiIer may be ruptured when its substance is made to divide by internal pressure without explosion. reject. is to divide along the line of a seam by cutting or breaking the stitches . sing) is to take back or deny formally and publicly. . mangle. REKD. Abjure. Synonyms: abandon. . retract. discard. forswear. torip open a wound. lacerate. sunder. renounce. Compare break. Rive is a wood=workers' word for parting wood in the way of the grain without a clean cut. and nuntio. refuse. and traho. . disavow. draw) is to take back something that one has said as not true or as what one is not ready to maintain as. rip. recall. Synonyms breali. Recant (L. silt. RENOUNCE. as. rive. he retracts what was di. tear. mend. retract. to renounce the pomps and vanities of the world. mangle more complete. repudiate. re. stances). nnlte. revoke. Renounce (L. hurst denoting the greater violence as. as by the teeth of a wild beast . as usually applied to garments or other articles made by sewing or stitching. and revoke. imply some previous connection. Rend and tear are applied to the separating of textile substances by force violently applied (rend also to frangible sub- rend the stronger word.

back. repeivtaivce:. To deny is to affirm . heresy. back. feel shame) is primai'ily to renounce as shameful. re. . a will. etymologically the exact equivalent of the English recall. and complete turning from the sin. own. regret. vindicate. penitence. A man abjures his religion. . disclaim. Penitence is transient. to be not true or not binding as. or a grant recall may be used in the exact sense of revoke. error. or evil practise. but is often applied to persons. as. Abjure (L. call). repudiates another's claim. one discards a worn garment a coquette discards a lover. and may involve no change of character or conduct There may be sorrow without repentance. as an belief. To discard is to cast away as useless or worthless thus. to deny a statement or a . disown his child . as a wife. Repentance is sorrow for sin with self' condemnation. away. to hence to divorce. assert. signifying to put away formally and . and voco. Revolce (L. away with emphatic and repudiate a debt. eeU'Condemnatlon. native of the United States can not abjure or renounce allegiance to the Queen of England. rela- or to refuse to grant as something requested as. retain. under oath. . axxd juro. retracts a false statement. in to take back something given or granted as. One is moved with penitence for wrong=doing. maint^n. recants his abjures or renounces his allegiance. To speak of regret for a fault of our own marks it as slighter than one regarding which we should express penitence. contiiteness. disavow the act of his agent. proclaim. disown what has been truly or He may deny his falsely imputed to him or supposed to be his. avow. and pudeo. A person deny. we recall a messenger and revoke the order with which he was charged. remorse. sorrow. or a condemned and detested person.repentance rected against another. uphold. renounces his own. may A Autonyms i acknowledge. compunction. as for consequences . Regret is sorrow for any painful or annoying matter. to revoke a command. Synonyms contrition. he may repnjiidiate a just claim or a baso suggestion. as revoke is not . cherisli. claim. disavow. hold. defend. re. or away. signature. advocate. <»»v Repudiate (L. swear) is etymologicaUy the exact equivalent of the Saxon forswear. db. his mother could not deny him what he desired. Compare ABANDON. thus in general to put determined repulsion tionship . but will promptly deny or repvdiate it.

. reflection. Comment and criticism may be favorable as well as censorious they imply no superiority or authority on the part of him who utters them nor do reflection or reprehension. before or toward God unto life. which . statement. . ordinarily with a view to please or entertain. m. Blam^. reprehension. an ante=mortem statement. . description. obstinacy. censure. as its derivation indicates. reproval. back. and reproof are always expressed. cbecli. Compunction is a momentary sting of conscience. re. reprehension. criticism. REPORT. condemnation. self'Congriftalation. comment. comfort. impenitence. record. admonition. Belf'complacency. in view either of a past or of a contemplated act. reprimand. and disapproval may either be felt or uttered comment. Contrition is a subduing sorrow for sin. self-approval.ent is definite. Remorse is. The same is true of admonition and animadversion. i content. Prepositions Repentance of or in heart. . and porto. objurgation. recital. reflection. reproach. blame. Account carries the idea of a commercial summary. story. is something brought back. with no turning of heart from the sin. as by one sent to obtain information. censure. A description gives espicial scope to the pictorial element. . bring). stubbornness. tale. A report (L. a biting or gnawing back of guilt upon the heart. narration. A narrative is a somewhat extended and embellished account of events in order of time. relation. complacency. rebuke. rumor. reliearsal. rebuke. and no suggestion of divine forgiveness. REPROOF. as its etymology implies. hardness. and may be concise and formal or highly descriptive and dramatic. confined to essentials . Antonrms approval. narrative. as against the divine holiness and love. criticism. denunciation. upbraiding.311 report reproof only. . . obduracy. Synonyms: disapproval. animadversion. repentance for Synonyms account. A stateand properly to matters within the personal knowledge of the one who states them as. cMding. but not r^entance without sorrow. or from the heart sins. Compare allegory history RECORD.

and is capable of great force. we often speak of unkind or unjust reflections. and reprimand exclusively to persons. eulogy. warn. REPROVE. panegyric. Repis official censure formally administered by a superior to one under his command. encomium. Rebuke may be given at the outset. Re- from mere ill feeUng. reprove. to some action or course of action reprimand is to reprove officially to . cbeck. reproof. To reproach is to censure openly and vehemently. and direct expression of flection is often disapproval to the face of the person rebuked or reproved. to reprove is to censure authoritatively. animadversion. both words imply authority in the reprover. as expressed in the phrase severe reprehension. applause. and with intense personal feeling as of grief or anger as. is to pronounce an adverse judgment that may or not be expressed to the person censured . Antonyms . Synonyms blame. and often with abruptness. reprehend. always follow the act . Reprehension is supposed to be cahn and just. and directly to the face of the person reproved . literally a stopping of the mouth. reprove and rebuke are applied chiefly. . reproof is administered to one intentionally or deliberately A^Tong . reprimand. Rebuke. cblde. approbation. buke. censure. and meant to be preventive. expostulate 'with. take to task. or in the midst of an action . Animadversion is censure of a high. reproacli. commendation. chasten. as for a fault . to rebuke is to reprove with sharpness. make answerable. and somewhat formal kind. a familiar word signifying to pass censure upon. however mild. but with more of personal bitterness and less of authority. usually in the midst of deemed censurable blame is . openly. and is likely to be more personal and less impartial than reprehension . find fault witli. to reproach one for ingratitude reproach knows no distinc. reprehension. i admonisli. condemn. remonstrate vrltb. blame and censure apply either to persons or acts. authoritative. approval. and given before or during action . rimand Compare condemn . admonition is Check is allied to reanticipatory. reflection. is administered to a forward or hasty person . and with good intent it is therefore a serious matter.reprove 31^ are simply turning the mind back upon what is disapproved. To censure may rebuke. chiding is nearer to reproof. upbraid. praise.

recreation. excuse. sleep. pardon. ease. but always with the suggestion.„ •**«* requite rest tion of rank or character. applaud. cessation. forget. whether .„. return. that he may not repeat or continue in the wrong. encourage. settle with. coantenance. quietness. satisfy. of the original idea of full equivalent. oneself of all obligation of favor or hostility. revenge. and reprove apply to wrong that has been done warn and admonish refer to anticipated error or fault. calmness. Synonyms avenge. Censure. slumber. peacefulness. Antonyms abet. remonstrate the severer word. may be to make some return very inadequate to the benefit or injury received. Synonyms: calm. pay on. Admonish is the mildest of reproving words. REST. forgive. intermission. pause. quit. ' REQUITE. Compare CONDEMN . Instigate. approve. urge on. to punish or to reward. or the right or wrong done but to requite (according to its etymology) is to make so full and adequate a return as to quit . reciprocate. overlook. stay. cheer. To expostulate or remonstrate with is to mingle reasoning and appeal with censure in the hope of winning one from his evil way. rewara. pay. neglect. Preposition • To requite injury unth injury is human. the view is still future. Antonyms: absolve. or of simply reminding of duty which might be forgotten. and may even be used of giving a caution or warning where no wrong is implied. tranquillity. Requite is often used in the more general sense of recom/- pense or repay. stillness. a subject may reproach a king or a criminal judge. the expression gains force from the comparison of the actual with the proper and appropriate return. acquit. pass over. incite. at least. Ease denotes freedom from cause of disturbance. peace. rehuke. repose. When one is admonished because of wrong already done. retaliate. To repay or to retaliate. quiescence. recompense. punish. repay. remunerate. of punishment or reward. Impel. stop. conxpensate. expostulate being the gentler. when one speaks of requiting kindness with ingratitude. quiet. but not Christian. sligbt. EEPEOOF. quietude. Compare PAT.

Repose is more complete than rest . : commotion. disturbance. rebellious. fractious. unrest. toil. mulisli. Secreation is some external or internal. a blacksmith finds a temporary rest while the iron is heating. The disposition to offer active resistance to control by any means whatever is what is commonly indicated by restive in the best English speech and literature. slumber is a light and ordinarily pleasant form of sleep. conscience. ftisky. but with no refractoriness the restive animal impatiently resists or struggles to break from control. excitement. which is With this the metaphorical use always in the sense of such terms as and the like . rebellious. but the rein is not used to propel a horse forward. vicious. and complete. Sleep is the perfection of repose. movement. fidgety. or otherwise. is not mere cessation of activity. rush. recalcitrant. ajid those cited to support that meaning often fail to do so. primarily of the body. in a pause of battle a soldier rests on his arms after the battle the victor reposes on his laurels. as by bolting. . mutinous. intractable. but to hold him in. tumult. and it is against this that he is " restiff. especially especially pleasing activity of certain organs or faculties that affords rest to other pai-ts of our nature that have become weary. Balky. sliittisli. flinging his rider. obstinate. obstinate. resentful. In the figurative sense. Intractable. but he does not yield to repose . impatient." is scarcely supported by any examples. Dryden speaks of " the pampered colt" as " restiff to the rein ". stir. refiractory. the most complete rest . restlessness. work.restlire ^^* Quiet denotes freedom from agitation. and stubborn are synonyms of restive only in an infrequent if not obsolete use . tranquil relief from all painful and wearying activity repose is even more deep. impatient. and figuratively a similar freedom from toil or strain of mind. of the word agrees. Synonyms: bailey. stubborn. but a pleasing. or from annoying soimds. Eepose is a laying down. restless. a pause is a momentary cessation of activity . mulish. disquiet. fretful. restiff. the supposed sense of " tending to rest. unruly. rest of mind. motion. ." A horse may be made restless by flies or by martial music. strain." " standing stubbornly still. Best is a cessation of activity of wearying or painful activity. tranquil. soul. a people restive . RESTITE. Antonyms agitation.

encourage. curb. As " private " denotes what concerns ourselves individually. binder. Incite. RETIREmENT. Antonyms aid. set free. keep back. To restrain is by physical or moral is keep down. To repress. suppress. either force. that which is stUl very active . restrain frequently to physical force. Antonyms docile. seclusion. so that it is under pressure even while it acts to restrict an action is to fix a limit or boundary which it may not pass. peaceable. . to hold back from acting. restrict. solitude may be enforced we speak of the solitude rather than the seclusion of a prisoner. bold in. . -withhold. keep. tractable. In retirement one withdraws from association he has had with others . bind . cing. proceeding. we speak of the retirement of a public man to private In seclusion one life. emancipate. holdback. free. Constrain refers almost exclusively to moral force. aronee. let loose. confine. to suppress a rebellion. shuts himself away from the society of all except intimate friends or attendants . or advanhold. release. in solitude no other person is present. . animate. Synonyms loneliness. impel. manageatle. passive. keep. Synonyms abridge. is to hold in check. quiet. . circumscribe. as when we speak of putting one under restraint. keep under. obedient. gentle.»| li under despotism are not disposed to " it I'estralil retirement rest " under it. RESTRAIN. Compare aerest . privacy denotes freedom from the presence or observation of those not concerned or whom we desire not to have concerned in our affairs. solitude. While seclusion is ordinarily voluntaiy. repress. as. but to resist and fling it off. tho he may stiU be much in company. literally to press back. Constrain is positive constrained to an action he is restrained from an action. and perhaps only temporarily. it is a feebler word than restrain . but within which it is free. To restrain an action is to hold it partially or wholly in check. yielding. to suppress is finally and eflfectuaUy to put down . restrain negative one is . suppress is a much stronger word than restrain . keep in. submissive. constrain. bridle. privacy. excite. i cbeck.

Retaliation and revenge are personal and often bitter. veiling. manifestation of the divine character and will. manifestation. comes into English as the name of the closing book of the Bible. Retaliation may be partial revenge is meant to be complete. such as to quit one of obligation what has been received. Revenge is the act of making return for an injury done to oneby doing injury to another person. and retribution the impersonal vis- . coDcealnient. Or we might say that nature is a . more commonly temporary than of a moment's privacy. of which Scripture is the fuller and more express revelation. re. retribution. lital reteivge:. and even if poor or unworthy is given as complete and adequate. obscuraQon. apo. more the personal injury ance the ill in return for which it is inflicted. as amid an unsympathizing crowd. Revelation (L. we speak There may be loneliness without solitude. society. all Scripture is a revelation of the divine will. back. vengeance. Vengeance. the character of Christ is a manifestation of the divine holiness and love . retaliation. companionsliip. Antonyms: clond. hiding. now signifies the most furious and unsparing revenge. Apocalypse (Gr. Avenging and retribution give a solemn sense of exact justice. and solitude without loneliness. avenging being more personal in its infliction. from. is the act or process of making known what was before secret or hidden. literally an uncovering. Antonyms association. and velum. cloudineBS. company. Synonyms REVELiATIOK. t apocalypse. and lealypto. sliroading. Revenge emphasizes self . A requital is strictly an even return. Synonyms avenelni avenelng. requital. vengefor desert of those upon whom it is inflicted. or what may still be future. cover). mlstery. veil). fellowsliip. literally an unveiling. disclosure. whether by God or man. converse. as if to the very gaze of the seer the whole gospel is a disclosure of the mercy of God . which once meant an indignant vindication of justice. The Apocalypse unveils the future. and may be excessive. as when one is glad to be alone.revelation revenge privacy is „_ „ tSlO seclusion .

rebellion the fighting. is a proposed disintegration of society. against the existing government. revolt is an uprising against the English Bevolution of 1688. Antonyms compassion. Insubordination is individual disobedience. Anarchy. but there may be revolution without rebellion . pardon. otherwise than as provided by the laws of succession. Slaves make insurrection . revolution . reconciliation. Confusion. mercy. and Brazil changed from an empire to a republic. Compare socialism. forgiveness. ness is a temper of mind or condition of the commimity which may result in anarchy. these make no necessary part of the revolution. revolution doom of righteous law. while such change is apt to involve armed hostilities. command. disorder. mutiny. revolt. REVOLiVTIOBf. Synonyms anarcliy. rebellion. confusion. election. sedition. insubordination. and tumult are incidental and temporary outbreaks of lawlessness. . etc. Prepofslttons To take revenge upon the enemy. when more than temporary disorder. tumult. grace. domination. for the injury. but always with the purpose of establishing some other . control. la-wlessness. as. in which it is imagined that social order might exist without government. riot. disorder. subject prov- inces rise in revolt. Insurrection. and almost without a shot. When rebellion is successful it is called its place. or a change of rulers. Anarchy refers to the condition of a state when human government Lawlessis superseded or destroyed by factions or other causes. pity. disintegration. was accompUshed without a battle. but may not be anarchy. soldiers or sailors break out in mutiny . existing authority without the comprehensive views of change in the form or administration of government that are involved in government in A revolution. . The essential idea of revolution is a change in the form of government or constitution. riot. Sedition is the plotting. Antonyms authority. excuse. The revolution by which Dom Pedro was dethroned.:nr itation of the EEQUITB. Compare avenge hatred.

a paradox is a true statement that at first . the answer often depending upon a pun an enigma is a dark saying. conundrum. elide. Any object that is in contact with or connected with a rolling body is often said to roll . chafe. problem. Objects whose motion approximates or suggests a rotary motion along a supporting surface are also said to roll . so as to return periodically to the same relative position that it held at some previous time. belt is drawn is said to roll as regards the belt. Conundrum. the earth revolves around the sun. . ocean waves roll in upon the shore. and rotates on its own axis . stick. o^ c •»** Synonyms roll. a word of unknown origin. or to have a daily "revolution. n. To rotate is said of a body that has a circular motion about its own center or axis to revolve is said of a body that moves in a curving path. tho it rotates as regards its own axis. enigma. a man turns his head or turns on his heel the gate turns on its hinges. puzzle. about a center outside of itself. Antonyms bind. grind.TE." but rotate and "rotation" cylinder over which an endless are the more accurate terms. as. the riddle is . the earth is often said to revolve about its own axis. as a circle or an ellipse. turn.re rolve riddle. RETOL. A A . The riddle is an ambiguous or paradoxical statement with a hidden meaning to be guessed by the intricate ai-guments mental acuteness of the one to whom it is proposed .E. Blip. Any round body rolls which continuously touches with successive portions of its surface successive portions of another surface a wagon=wheel rolls along the ground. the car rolls smoothly along the track. especially for a motion less than a complete " rotation "or " revolution". rotate. or the ship rolls in the trough of the sea. or for any motion about a fixed point. in popular usage. problem is something thrown out for solution puzzle (from oppose) referred originally to the . by which disputants opposed each other in the old philosophic schools. n. parados. Turn is a conversational and popular word often used vaguely for rotate or revolve. appears absurd or contradictory a. as. stand. Synonyms RIDDL. signifies some question or statement in which some hidden and fanciful resemblance is involved. . revolving body may also either rotate or roU at the same time .

as a dissected map or any perplexing mechanical contrivance. equity. prerogative. a railroad franchise.. license. issue. To rise is to move up or upward whether slowly or quickly. flow. explanation. exceptional. . . RISE. as the right of inheritance by primogeniture. and the pursuit of happiness " are the natural and " Life. Aprivilege is always special. able rights of all men. a peculiar benefit. proposition. A . puzzle applying to something more commonplace and mechanical there are many dark enigmas in human life and in the course of providence the location of a missing object is often a puzzle. Compare duty . natural or artificial. . and often artificial. axiom. reason is the prerogative of man kings and nobles have often claimed _prerogiaiiVes and privileges opposed to the inherent and . proceed.nd puzzle may be applied to any matter difficult of answer or solution. Synonyms claim. especially one inherent in the royal or sovereign power in a wider sense it is an exclusive and peculiar privilege which one possesses by reason of being what he is as. latter case it is an exemption or immunity . RIOHT. A prerogative is an official right or privilege. rise may require much acuteness answer a. exemption. solution. or only to be enjoyed on certain special conditions. artificial it is something not enjoyed by aU. . Immunity. Synonyms t arise. emanate. Both enigma a.319 Hot so petty as the conundrum. . etc. . or of natural or positive law. enigma conveying an idea of greater dignity. problem may require simply study and scholarship. morality. rights of the people. Antonyms answer. privilege may be of doing or avoiding .tustice. A right may be either general or special. as. inalien- liberty. A right is that which one may properly demand upon considerations of justice. in the advantage. A franchise is a specific right or privilege granted by the government or established as such by governmental authority as. etc. rights of property.. and for its . ascend. privilege. inheritance. n. . a puzzle may be in something other than verbal statement. as a problem in mathematics . favor. liberty. francliiBe. spring. are individual and special. a privilege of hunting or fishing exemption from military service . immunity from arrest. the elective franchise . .

footpad. In early English thief was freely used in both senses. ' majestic. princely. pillager. as said of persons. I IdngUke. sink. Antonyms: decline. Regal denotes that which in outward state is appropriate for a king . Christ ascended to heaven.royal 320 least or greatest distance . and equipage. ROBBER. magnificent. buccaneer." Synonyms august. pirate. the river rises after heavy rains . Smoke issues from a chimney and ascends toward the sky. rise at the summons we . To ascend is to go far upward. plunderer. tbief. the waves rise . substitutes where the Revised Version more correctly "two robbers. marauder. sitting. dress. royal raiment that which the king wears. drop. bigbwayman. reclining. to rise is to come to an erect position after kneeUng. my friend rose whether through the the mists rise . I brigand. burglar. raider. The sun rises or arises . fall. as. as. ROYAL. . rise to duty . Prepositions Rise from slumber . regal. or lying down . and is often used in a stately sense. or a committee said to rise when it from the sun. Synonyms bandit. fireebooter. forager. Kingly denotes that which is worthy of a king in personal quali. settle. go down. a sun or star rises when to our apprehension it comes above the horizon and begins to go up the sky. the property of others by force or ina thief by stealth and secrecy. munificent.. descend. xxvii. the guests rose to depart is . the river springs at a bound from the foot of the glacier and flows through the lands to the ocean. rose ^Dith the lark. 38). so a deliberative assembly breaks up a session . The shorter form rise is now generally preferred to the longer form arise. Light and heat emanate as I entered . Royal denotes that which actually belongs or pertains to a monarch the royal residence is that which the king occupies. Mugly. timidation depredator. A roVber seeks to obtain . a subject may assume regal magnificence in residence. despoUer. and the Authorwhich has " two thieves " (Matt. set. except in poetic or elevated style. to rise from a sick=bed . as in Shakespeare ized Version of the English Bible.

often used of a studied is pleasing and perhaps a rustic chair. as. rustic refers to their effect upon man or to their condition as affected by himaan agency . clownish. etc. a Princely is especially used of treasure.„„. . where regal could not so well be used and royal would change the sense. untaught. Antonyms. or dwelling In the country but in usage rural refers especially to scenes or objects in the country. city«like. poor. mean. uncoutb. a rustic cottage to the care of flocks. a princely fortune. speak. but the tendency of the best usage is as here suggested. as denoting a lack of culture and refinement w^ell=ineant. Bucolic is kindred to pastoral. thus. especially . urbane. sylvan. . solemnity. etc. Synonyms SACRAIHEWT. unsophisticated. polite. viewed as a means . beggarly. rural simplicity. unpolished. artless. however. and to the shepherd's life with the pleasing associations suggested by the old poetic ideal of that life as. polished. gifts. boorish. Pastoral refers beautiful as. of the rural popula. We tion. Synonyms: agricultural. counand may be alike defined as pertaining to. communion.. : ceremony. rustic sacrament of character and conduct as. hoidenish. vUe. elevated term. rustic politeness expresses that . ordinance. verdant. «»•* ties. a rural scene a rustic party . eucharist. which . refined. Lord's Supper. country. plain. a kingly bearing . inelegant. contemptible. Antonyms: accomplished. especially a public act. a rustic lass. . . pastoral. The distinctions between these words are not absolute. however. Rustic simplicity. rustic garb. rite. ture. countrified. RUSTIC. elegant. well-bred. eerrile. bucolic. Rural and rustic are alike derived from the Latin rus. service. urban. a'wkward. and sometimes slightly contemptuous. but is a less pastoral poetry. observance. rude. Any 21 religious act. outlandish. rustic frequently an unfavorable one. slavish. expendias princely muniflcence. hingly resolve. coarse. try. rural. Rural has always a favorable sense which . feast. is but awkward similar ideas are suggested by a rustic is. etc. considered as the work of nature . cultured. characteristic of. an artistic rudeness.

acute. as by instinct or intuition it is not now applied to mere keenness of sense=perception. or at least respect we may speak of . and circles around till he strikes it again. Ceremony is a form expressing reverence. the ceremonies of polite society. SAGACIOUS. viewed as an established custom. are often used interchangeably the ordinance derives its sacredness from the authority that ordained it. etc. however. sage. but not as a distinctive name at an early period. that peems like a special sense or to a similar readiness to foresee the results of any action. . is called an ordinance . — . reaching or approaching a religious sacredness a stated religious observance. even when viewed simply as a representation or memorial. viewed as established by authority. quiclt of scent. especially upon human motives or conduct a kind of prophetic common sense. In human affairs sagacious refers to a power of ready. sbarp. it is a rite. keen. We do not caU a hound sagacious in following a clear trail but if he loses the scent. the name communion was so applied. keen^siebted. sbrewd. Sagacious is a broader .sagaclons 322 A of serving God is called a service . 16). as the ratifying of a solemn vow of consecration to Christ. as at the edge of a stream. an inauguration. apt. wise. and accurate inference from observed facts perhaps in themselves very slight. • Intelligent. his conduct is said to be sagacious. The term eucharist describes the Lord's Supper as a thanksgiving service . religious ceremonies. sbarp^witted. while the sacrament possesses a sacredness due to something in itself. Synonyms able. perspicacious. . rational. Sagacious refers to a power of tracing the hidden or recondite by slight indications. discerning. or with one another. as denoting the communing of Christians with their Lord. religious service ordained as an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace is called a sacrament. . clear=si^bted. it is also called by preeminence the sacrament. The Lord's Supper is the Scriptural name for the observance commemorating the death of Christ the word communion is once applied to it (1 Cor. more than a formal . An observance has obligation. . sensible. the cere- monies of a coronation. the word commonly includes the entire series of exercises of a single occasion of public worship. keen-witted. far=reaching. in the religious sense. judicious. . The terms sacrament and ordinance. x. qulcksscented.

A sample is a portion taken at random out of a quantity supposed to be homogeneous. ezcbange. the word being used generally with reference to jjortTrade in the broad sense may apply to vast able commodities. Synonyms: specimen. Sale is commonly. silly. but it frequently signifies simply a sale or exchange. ignorant. unintelligent. nncUsceming. instance. sottish.323 sample and nobler word than shrewd. so that the quaUties found in the sample may reasonably be expected to be found in the whole as. . Synonyms bargain. when it becomes nearly synonymous with barter. Antonyms absurd. but as denoting a single transaction is used chiefly in regard to things of moderate value. or for something estimated at a money value or considered as equivalent to so much money in hand or to be paid. . irrational. a sample of sugar a sample of cloth. A bargain is strictly an agreement something as an equivalent or return. substitution. Barter is the exchange of one commodity for another. . trade. A specimen is one unit of a series. businesses (as the hodk'trade). sagaciotts is less lofty and comprehensive than wise in its full sense. simple. a dealing . a heavy deal in stocks. senseless. Compare ASTUTE WISDOM. foolish. exemplification. case. exchange are words of wider signification. example. stiipid. limited to the transfer of property for money. a change secures something different in any way or by any means an exchange secures . obtuse. the nomination was the result of a deal . tho not necessarily as payment for what is given. SALE. as. and not capable of the invidious sense which the latter word often bears on the other hand. futile. A deal in the political sense is a bargain. and more limited to matters of direct practical moment. deal. . applying only incidentally to the transfer of property or value . as. barter. or contract to buy and sell. . illustration. . in business it may have a similar meaning. or transfer for the benefit of certain persons or parties against all others . and with increasing strictness. cbange. dull. SAMPIiE. tho the word is often used to denote the entire transaction and also Change and as a designation for the thing sold or purchased.

Prepositions Satisfy with food. or spiritual desire. mental. gratify to the point of revulsion or disgust. requite. restrict. sate. or No other unit or portion rest is is aU the actly action. fill. To cloy or surfeit is to Olut is a strong but somewhat coarse word appUed to the utmost satisfaction of vehement appetites and passions . pupil. while ture. the word is generally understood in this latter sense. The primary sense of a scholar is one who is being schooled thence the word passes to denote one who is apt in school work. to glut a vengeful spirit with slaughter we speak of glutting the market with a supply so excessive as to extinguish the demand. SATISFY. refuse. he is manifestly a scholar. a specimen of quartz. To satisfy is to furnish just enough to meet physical. starve. learner. To sate or satiate is to gratify desire so fully as for a time to extinguish it. tantalize. satisfy one (in the sense of or make upon satisfaction) for labors and sacrifices . Synonyms: disciple. as. Compare pay .. suffice. master of what the schools can teach. may be supposed to be exa sample or specimen of total. An instance Compare exampu!. an erudite. and finally one who is thoroughly schooled. whole. Much less than is needed to satisfy may suffice a frugal or abstemious person less than a sufficiency may content one of a patient and submissive spirit. accomplished person when used without qualification. Synonyms cloy. all of ^ 324 which is supposed to possess the a specimen of coinage. stint. under the close personal supervision or instruction of a teacher or Those under instruction in schools below the academic . exactly like the specimen. disappoint. savant. as. etc. Uke the sample. Pupil signifies one : tutor. student. as. Antonyms: abnormality. SCHOLAR. content. satiate. exception. restrain. with gifts. monBtrosity. surfeit. or of architec- same essential qualities . . deny. Antonyms: clieck. straiten. glut. aggregate.eatlRfy sckolar or a fragment of a mass. satisfy oneself hy inquiry.

The knowledge of various countries gathered by an observant traveler may be a heterogeneous medley of facts. Science does not. Antonyms dunce. idiot. as the academic. something to be known. Those under instruction in Sunday-schools are uniformly designated as Sunday=school scholars. s fool. Knowledge of a single or of many facts not fact. teachers and scholars enjoyed a holiday. etc. mechanic arts. not known as related to any other. does not reach the meaning of science . I knowledge. Not only must art be discriminated from science. fine arts are the province of the artist . Student suggests less proficiency than scholar in the highest sense. illiterate peison. Synonyms art. while it makes use of rules." a statue like the Apollo Bellike RafEael's like the vedere. transcends production of a painting all rule .. The word pupil is uniformly so used in the Reports of the Commissioner of Education of the United States. the college student often becomes the private pupil of some instructor in special studies. science is knowledge reduced to law and embodied in system. but popular American usage prefers scholar in the original sense. the former aims chiefly at utility. thus. or a poem like the Hiad. For disciple. yet its possible productive application in the arts is a constant stimulus to scien- . the student being one who is learning. all the industrial arts. the latter at beauty. The mechanic arts are the province of the artisan. the esthetic or. Art in the highest esthetic sense. arithmetic or navigation. no i-ules can be given for the " Transflgm-ation. Student is applied to those in the higher grades or courses of study. idler. but art in the industrial or mechanical sense must be distinguished from art in the esthetic sense . are governed by exact rules. compare synonyms for ad- HEKENT. which gain real value only when coordinated and arranged by the man of Art always relates to something to be done. as of weaving or printing. make production its direct aim. etc.325 science grade are technically and oflSciaUy termed pupils. as. scientific. On the other hand. collegiate. known as having any mutual relations or as comprehended under any general law. ignoramns. science to i/ science. student suggests less of personal supervision than pupil. the scholar one who has learned.

state. first gage." The A — . pledge. etc. security to the the prisoner. surety. SECVRITY." pledge or security may be wholly different in kind from that to be given or paid. A mother will care for a sick child with complete self-abnegatimi. as when part of the purcha8e=money is paid. bonds. Self-deootion is heart=con- . . self-renunciation.security selt'-abuegatlon tific lafi «*. paid. self-devotion. Creative art seeking beauty for its own sake is closely akin to Compare pure science seeking knowledge for its own sake. according to the common expression. he is said to become bail tor that person . the person accused gives bail for himself.*o the science. Self'Control is holding oneself within due limits in pleasures duties. A Prepositions Security for the payment of a debt . self-denial. self^sacriflce. SEIiF^ABIVEOATIOlV. etc. selMmmolatlon. but without a thought of self-. as in the case of chemistry or elecurged on to higher development by the demands of the art. while the art is perfected by the advance of the science. for Synonyms: self:control. in the latter case. four words agree in denoting something given or deposited as an assurance of something to be given. tricity. Security may be of real or personal property anything of sufficient value to make the creditor secure . " the gage of battle. self-abnegation forgets that there is and anything to surrender. the giving up of pleasures for the sake of duty. person may become security or surety tar another's payment of a debt. and may greatly exceed it in value. Synonyms ball. land. Gage survives only as a Uterary word. merchandise. investigation .denial. in the sum of a thousand dollars. An earnest is of the same kind as that to be given. "to bind the bargain. appearance in court. as in all things else . are frequently offered and accepted as security. self-denlal. There have been devotees who practised very Uttle self-denial with very much self-renunciation. Every pawnshop contains unredeemed pledges . is knowledge. uteratube. a portion of it delivered in advance. as. chiefly in certain phrases . a pledge is always of personal property or chattels. or done. Self-renunciation surrenders conscious rights and claims . 1 earnest.

where any other of the above terms would be feeble or inappropriate. send any needed the strongest and completest term of all. Selpsacriflce is Antonyms 1 . and contemplates the gift of self as actually made.327 secration of self to a person or cause with readiness for sacrifice. We speak of the self'sacriflce of Christ.

While sensations are connected with the body. p.) In popular use sensibility denotes sometimes capacity of feeling of any kind . emotions.] Feeling is a general term popularly denoting what is felt. a person of great or flne sensibility. tions'] are positively agreeable or the opposite. sometimes. and to involve no relation whatever to matter or the bodily organism. " As the most of them [the sensaetc. though improperly. ready to be excited by the slightest cause. emotion. in physics. a peculiar readiness to be the subject of feeling. in the "sensitive=plant. are wholly of the mind. gusceptlblUty. as distinguished from the intellect and the will. as it were. the sensibility of the artist or the poet . the sensitiveness of a magnetic needle IB the ease with which it may be deflected. susceptibility more per- Thus. perception. Sensitiveness denotes an especial delicacy of sensibility. as displayed. sensibility to heat or cold . whether through the body or by the mind alone. and. 138. (Compare synonyms for sensation. sensitiveness.sensation sensibility to raoe «>^S into banish- ment a fiiend hy a messenger or hy mail send a person . sensitiveness is more superficial. Sensation is the mind's consciousness due to a bodily affection. '90. as anger and envy. Synonyms i sense. grief. for instance. Such/eeZmg^s are not infrequently styled sensations. especially of the higher feelings . Impressibility.. denotes the capacity of emotion or feeling. feeling. so that a person of great susceptibility is capable of being not only readily but deeply moved . A Synonyms I feeling. to contain feeling. the sensoitOJi of heat may be connected with the percepKora of a iire. Sensibility in the philosophical sense. which are acknowledged by all to belong exclusively to the spirit." Susceptibility is rather a capacity to take up. [s. as by another magnet Its susceptibility is the degree to which it can be magnetized by a . they are nearly akin to those emotions." Porter Human Intellect % 112. sense is an organ or faculty of sensation or of perception. as. or those passions. perception is the cognition of some external object which is the cause or occasion of the sensation . as. send a shell among the enemy. as of heat or cold . and includes both sensation and emotion. as hope or terror. as joy. receive. . vading.

gentle. sweet. amplification. . barsb. We speak of austere morahty. but is a stronger word. a rigid person or character is one that resists all efforts to change the will or course of conduct a rigid rule or statement is one that admits of no deviation. Rigorous is nearly akin to rigid. indulgence or levity. . mildness. easy. lenient. and similarly unrelenting toward others. rigorous discipline punishes severely any infraction of it. unmitigated. bland. severe signifies such as heavily taxes endurance or resisting power as. a severe pain. not only touched. nnconsclonsness. as by music. or winter. but it is always strong and may be grand. insensibility. pathos.329 given magnetic force or the amount of magnetism it will hold. inexorable. rigorous. stern commands. Inflexible. ''arsh speech or a harsh voice. or is ridicule. The austere character is seldom lovely. stern. fever. as said even of inanimate objects. strict. Rigid signifies primarily stiff. Eidnlgent. i austere. relentless. commanding. . or embellishment of any kind as. Prepositions The sensibility of the organism to atmospheric changes. pliable. tractable. unyielding. harshness and authority with strictness or severity forbidding. mild. bound or stretched tight. soft. strenuously exact. tender. Synonyms SEVEKE. deadness. estimable. bind) signifies . genial. uncompromising. and Antonyms affable. . bard. tenderness. . but moved Autonyms coldness. strict in self=restraint or discipline. or (in literature and art) devoid of unnecessary ornament. yielding. Stem unites oi . bardness. hard requirements. Strict discipline holds one exactly and unflinchingly to the rule . as rigid does to state or character a rigid rule may be rigorously enforced. unrelenting. rigorous discipline. rigid rules. while a to person of great susceptibility his inmost soul. stem. strict injunctions. resisting any eitort to change its shape a corpse is said to be rigid in death hence. stiff. . a severe style as said of anything painful. and strict obedience. tense. rigid. Strict (L. So a person of great sensitiveness is quickly and keenly affected by any external influence. . suggests something authoritative Austere signifies severely simple or temperate. stringo. in metaphorical sense. That is severe which is devoid of aU softness. severe punishment. numbness. morose. having reference to action or active qualities.

flap. fluctuate.shake 330 Synonyms: agritate. . flutter. brandlsli.

Sway applies to the movement of a body suspended from above or not firmly sustained from below. tottering more irregular . brandish denotes a threatening or hostile motion a monarch sways the scepter . a drunken man reels . To shelter is to cover so as to protect from injury or annoyance as. To reel or totter always implies liability to fall . . Earttor. . To defend (L. An extended mass which seems to lack solidity or cohesion is said to quake . as a garment from cold : defend is used but rarely. his credit. as. Flap. Quaver is applied almost exclusively to tremulous sounds of the human voice. Sway used transitively especially applies to motions of grace or dignity .331 . protegere. the swaying of a reed in the wind. To shield is to interpose something . cover before) implies the pos. SHELTER. Bbelter feelings are agitated by distressing news his courage. to strike away) implies tho actual. . his faith. flap generally to such as produce a sharp sound a . the ruffian brandishes a club. flutter. and by somewhat violent metaphor. we speak of the tottering step of age or infancy. defendere. screen. sliield. and fluctuate refer to wave=like movements. protect. . protect one who is weak by simply declaring himself his friend he defends him by some form of active championship. protect (L. or his testimony is shaken. the roof shelters from the storm woods shelter from the heat. Anything is covered over which something is completely extended a vessel is covered with a lid the head is ccwered with a hat.sibIa use of force or resisting power guard implies sustained vigilance with readiness for conflict we defend a person or thing against actual attack we guard or propowerful person may tect against possible assault or injury. . an is may be faithfully guarded which protected object or bravely defended in vain. . troops interposed between some portion of their own army and the enemy are often called a covering party. in such connec. smoother than vibrating. but that secure. as. his . An inanimate object may protect. and not necessarily constant as oscillating . Compare FLUCTUATE. . A . tion. reeling is more violent than swaying. thus. a quaking bog. That which covers may also defend or protect . to . ward. Protect is is more complete than guard or defend. wings flutter applies to a less pronounced and more irregular motion a captive bird or a feeble pulse flutters. cock^ops Synonyms cover. < guard. defend. and the motion of which is less pronounced than swinging.

and may be intentional or accidental. immorality. A . defense.. from attack. expose. one may guard another by standing armed at his side. and even unconscious. the sign of a business house now usually declares what is done or kept within. viciousness. the letters of the alphabet are signs of certain sounds. ^venp. a blush may be a sign of shame the footprint of an animal is a sign that it has passed . in the fortress. EMBLEM. cast out. or wholly arbitrary thus. manifestation. criminality.sign sin 332 over or before that which is assailed. A sign (L. and has a comparatively passive sense . fault. and is usually concerted. but formerly might be an object having no connection with the business. thus. symbol. See cherish. AUGUK CHARACTERISTIC . Sin is any lack of any defect of moral purity and . note. Harbor is generally used in an unfavorable sense . signal. indication. While a sign may be involuntary. or shield him from a missile or a blow by interposing his own person. Antonyms betray. wrong^doing. . omen. whether morbid or healthy .. behind mthin the walls. natural or artificial. confederates or sympathizers harbor a criminal . smrender. reject. depravity. misdeed. Synonyms: crime. transgression. offense. a hot skin and rapid Synonyms! emblem. ungodliness. signum) is any distinctive mark by which a thing may be recognized or its presence known. so as to save from harm. evil. wickedness. . symptom. suggestive. as "the sign of the trout" . expe. a person harbors evil thoughts or designs. presage. refuse. wrong. vice. a ship may show signs of distress to the casual observer. Compare . Prepositions Shelter under a roof from the storm or . a signal is always voluntary. maric. pulse ai-e symptoms of pneumonia . dulness of some portion of the lungs under percussion is one of the physical signs. Compare synonyms for Hms. symptom is a vital phenomenon resulting from a diseased condition in medical language a sign is an indication of any physical condition. ill^dolng. descriptive. holiness. defend him by fighting for him. type. but signals of distress are a distinct appeal for aid. token. prognostic. guilt. iniquity. unrighteousness. delinquency. SIX.

uprightness. and all immoralities. as falsehood. Synonyms. Carol and warble are especially usually also with the idea of joy." 1 John v. as in the expression a sin. in the specific sense. whether of God or man. which is neither crime. transgression is always an act. to sing joyously. : Antonyms blamelessness. is synonymous with depravity . crime. are sins . we speak of "t\ie: singing quahty " of an instrument. or may denote some moral activity that could not be characterized by terms so positive. but there may be sin. as by certain .morality which is not crime. hum. is cbirp. mental or physical. is the stepping over a specific enactment. Sin is thus the broadest word. Compare synonyms for virtue. perhaps often repeated in the same key. rectitnde. gl„g whether in heart or life. all crimes. Crime is often used for a flagrant violation of right. To chant is to sing in solemn and chant is ordinarily applied to non= To carol is metrical reUgious compositions. ordinarily by overt act. virtue. and to warble (kindred with whirl) is to sijigr with trills or quavers. Transgression. The word has come to include any succession of musical sounds we say the bird or the rivulet sings . "All unrighteousness is sin. warhle. but in the technical sense denotes specific violation of human law. misdeed. goodness. nor immorality . 17. Sin in the generic sense. and by still wider extension of meaning we say the To sing . purity. excellence. right. primarily and ordinarily to utter a succession of articulate musical sounds with the human voice. offense. morality denotes outward violation of the moral law. whether of commissioner omission.333 truth. and there may be im. chant. Imest sense. the term may be synonymous with transgression. Compare CEnaNAL. somewhat uniform cadence . but a perverted moral condition from which any act of sin may proceed. nollness. as denoting a state of heart. Guilt is desert of and exposure to punishment because of sin. and immorality next in scope. teakettle or the cricket sings. etc. applied to the singing of birds. as ingratitude. as its etymology indicates. carol. but in the broadSin may be either act or state . righteousness. BlnlesBness. To chirp is to utter a brief musical sound. Integrity.. properly so called. morality. transgression. Depravity denotes not any action. — jij innocence. in volition or desire. chirrup.

like the shading or color.skotcU 334 small birds. but shading and color. of which a plan is strictly a (ratline. i draft. The lines of a sketch axe seldom so full and continuous as those of an outline. but if he says. a full detail design is such a preliminary sketch as indicates the object to be accomplished or the result to be attained. being. and style is given in a sketch. being sufficiently exact and complete to form. skeleton. we speak also of the hum of . picture. apian of the cellar. and of the main heads of his argument on points of law. . SKETCH. Draft and plan apply especially to mechanical drawing. a . . insects. " The design is mine. lawyer's brief is a succinct statement of the main facts involved in a case. or a drawing from another man's design . design. drawing. but is hasty and incomplete. etc. the hues of which change so rapidly. as of a building or machine. sketch. etc. plan. now in a wider sense at any height. originally at the level of the ground. the basis for the decision of A . is outline. suggestive presentation of anything. Synonyms 1>rief. To chirrup is to utter a somewhat similar sound the word is often used of a brief. commonly intended to be preliminary to a more complete or extended treatment. with reference to authorities cited the brief has none of the vagueness of a sketch. A sketch a rough. . . and drawing are also used view from above. little more than indications or suggestions according to which a finished picture may be raade the artist's first representation of a sunset. In written composition an outline gives simply the main divisions. A mechanical drawing is always understood to be in a draft is an incomplete or unfinished drawing . and is understood to be One may make a drawing of any well-known mechanoriginal. whether graphic or literary. machinery. treatment. and in the case of a sermon is often called a skeleton . ism. somewhat fuller suggestion of illustration. sharp sound uttered as a signal to animate or rouse a horse or other animal. on occasion. giving the lines of a horizontal section. usually with closed lips . &plan of the attic." he claims it as his own invention or composition. An outline gives only the bounding or determining lines of a figure or a scene a sketch may give not only lines. must of necessity be a sketch. To hum is to utter murmuring sounds with somewhat monotonous musical cadence. as.

unbeliever. . a master of his branch of knowlA skilled workman is one who has thoroughly learned his trade. dexterous. Christian. ability. freetbinker. The Crusaders called all Mohammedans infidels. adept. One is adept in that for which he has a natural gift improved by practise he is expert in that of which training. " an expert" denotes one who is ties. lation from him . . Infidel. practised. SKEPTIC. bandy. experience. Synonyms accompUsbed. the unbeliever (in the the disbeliever and the more of intellectual dis- common acceptation) with indifference or with opposition of heart as well as of intellect. expert. clever. Antonyms believer. when the case is said to be "submitted on brief. Ingenious. Synonyms agnostic." Compare design. but denies that the Christian Scriptures are a reve. and were so called by them in return . SKIL. adroit. with or without training. in addition to his acquired knowledge and dexterity. " experienced " in the fullest sense. skilled. though he may be naturally quite dull a skilful workman edge.FUI^. especially in work of the hand or bodily activiIn the case of the noun.almost have been said to be geographical in its range. The atheist denies that there is a Gfod the deist admits the existence of Grod. . Infidel is an opprobrious term that might once . . doubter. Compare CLEVER . and power of adaptation. having alert and welWrained faculties with reference to a given work. . DEXTERITY . proficient. the word is commonly applied to any decided opponent of an accepted religion. the disbeliever with sent. apt. deft. Skilful signifies possessing and using readily practical knowledge and ability. and study have given him a thorough mastery he is dexterous in that which he can do effectively. the agnostic denies either that we do know or that we can know whether there is a God. deist. disbeliever. trained. POWEE. The skeptic doubts divine revelation uvheliever reject it. atheist. bappy.oos «»35 skeptic skilful the court without oral argument. has some natural brightness.

inexpert. land. printed. lielpless. bungling. eulogize. 3'>o AntoUTms: awkward. by ascribing a man's benevolence to a desire for popularity or display." or vilify another to his face he asperses. Synonyms i asperse. . defame. but below the literary grade educated pei'sons are apt to allow themselves some colloquialisms in familiar conversation. a pen or tool of any kind. to calumniate is to invent as well as utter the injurious charge. extol. SLAIVO. praise. Antonyms defend. secretly to one's injury . To asperse is. calumniates. is to circulate studied is and malicious attacks upon character to traduce . mal&oit. with injurious charges real or . and perhaps not incorrect. . . in the primary sense. depreciate. leith unhandy. Prepositions Skilful at or in. vulgarity. is an expression not coarse or low. revile. To slander a person is to utter a false and injurious report concerning him to defame is specifically and directly to attack one's reputation to defame by spoken words is to slander. backbite. malign. slanders. To libel or slander is to make an assault upon character and repute that comes within the scope of law the slander is uttered. to bespatter . Bhiftless. clnmsy. Slang." "assail. . calumniate. or traduces him behind his back. by wi-itten words. A colloquialism. Synonyms: cant. to libel. as it were. disparage. decry. nnsldlled. which they would avoid in writing or public speaking. as for instance. nntrained. to exhibit one's an odious light to revile or vilify is to To disparage is to represent one's admitted good traits or acts as less praiseworthy than they would naturally be thought to be. a work. the libel written. vulgarism. or pictured. One may "abuse. denotes expressions that are either coarse and rude in themselves or chiefly current among the coarser and ruder part of the community there are also many expressions current in special senses in certain communities that may be char. To backbite is to speak something traits in assumed attack with vile abuse. vilify. vindicate. libel. traduce. . untaught.slander slang. collocLuialism. to malign .

college slang . Synonyms: dawdling. especially in doing a w^ork or arriving at a place. . a depreciatory implication may be given in a sneer such 32 . a watch or a clock is said to be slow when its indications are behind those of the standard time. inert. or with a relatively small number of motions in a given time slow also applies to that which is a relatively long while in beginning or accomplishing something . doing. as of muscle or of will. and ultimately take their place as accepted English. dilatory. A vulgarism is an expression decidedly incorrect. sluggisli. inactive. tardy. slacli. gl1>e. drowsy. language. Cant. etc. taunt. racing slang. moderate. Gradval (L. A it sneer may be simply a contemptuous facial contortion. who lays aside. gradus. as of a stream a person is deliberate who takes a noticeably long time to consider and decide before acting or who acts or speaks as if he were deliberating at every point a person is dilatory . lingering. scoff. necessary or required action both words may be applied either to undertaking or to . sluggish to action that seems as if reluctant to advance. In the evolution of language many words originally slang are adopted by good writers and speakers. dull. . deliberate.„„^ <><*• acterized as slang . Jeer. procrastinating. gradual. denotes the barbarous jargon used as a secret language by thieves. or may be some brief satirical utterance that throws a contemptuous side»light on what it attacks without attempting to prove or disprove . a step) signifies advancing by steps. Compare diction. tho the latter may be used also of things. Tardy is applied to that which is behind the proper or desired time. or puts off as long as possible. delaying. and sure progression. as used in this connection. Synonyms fling. club slang . moCk. and refers to slow but regular Antonyms See synonyms for nimkle. SLiOW. Blow sneer as. Deliberate and dilatory are used of persons. and the use of which is a mark of ignorance or low breeding. Slow signifies moving through a relatively short distance. Slack refers to action that seems to indicate a lack of tension. tramps.

Socialism. . Compare banter. Thus. as it would destroy. ch. note. Sound is the sensation produced through the organs of hearing or the physical cause of this sensation. v. and a more equal distribution of the products of labor through the pubUo collective ownership of land and capital (as distinguished from property). cominunisni. and often sly or covert the jeer is rude and open. Anarchism is properly an antonym of social. all existing government and social order. leaving the future to determine what. and the pubUc collective management of all industries. Who can refute a sneer f commonly pettish a taunt is intentionally A fling is careless and insulting and provoking the sneer is supercilious the taunt is defiant. Palet Moral Philosophy bk. which undue importance : . reverence. Sound is the most comprehensive word of this group. increase of wealth. by violence if necessary. Synonyms collectivism. including the profits of individual labor. if anything. . should be raised upon their ruins. ix. fabiaulBm. Its aim is extended industrial cooperation socialism is a purely economic term. . The jeer and gibe are uttered the gihe is bitter. among members of the community many of its advocates would abolish marriage and the family relation. SOCIALISH. applying to anything that is audiTone is sound considered as having some musical quality or ble. as expressive of some feeling noise is sound considered without reference to musical quality or as distinctly unmusical or discordant. . in the most general sense noise and sound scarcely differ. " I heard a sound. applying to landownershipand productive capital. as defined by its advocates. and Communism would divide all things. . .socialism sound tits *'** as could only be answered would seem to give the attack by elaborate argument or proof. their system collectivism. ism. is a theory of civil polity that aims to secure the reconstruction of society. Synonyms: tone. Preposition: Only an essentially vicious mind is capable of a sneer af virtue. or worship. soiisrn. and we say almost indifferently. A sco^ may be in act or word." or " I noise. and is commonly directed against that which claims honor. Many socialists call themselves coUectivists.

Speech is the general word guage." leaving tone to stand only for the sound. language. as distinguished from singing. To speak is to give articulate utterance even to a single word the officer speaks the word of command. Prepositions Speak to (address) a person speak with a person (converse with him). or a speech that has oration is an elaborate and prepared speech . is discourse. and becomes practically equivalent to tone. utter. . ordinarily with the expectation of being listened to. conversational way to chatter is to talk in an empty. oratory. for utterance of thought in Zawone's sentiments in the A speech may be the delivering of way an ." We speak of a fine. harangue is . dissertation. To talk is to utter a succession of connected words. tone denotes the gen- eral quality of its sounds collectively considered. cliat. tone is chiefly applied to ' that quality of the human voice by which feeling is expressed as. talk. speaking. ceaseless way like a magpie. or pleasing sound. and sometimes to inammate . but in loose popular usage it denotes the sound also. objects. declaim. an audible sound. To utter to give forth as pronounce. converse. In music. articulate. speak on or upon a subject in parhamentary language. Note in music strictly denotes the character representing a sound. deliver. he spoke in a cheery tone . cbatter. but does not talk it. To speak is also to utter words with the ordinary intonation. the question. SPEECH. taui. . articulate or not. dlsq. say. speak of or about a thing (make it the subject of remark). tell.339 llltcn heard a noise. but in the most careful usage the latter is now distinguished as the 'interval. SPEAK. express. enunciate. declare. Synonyms address. Aside from its musical use. tone may denote either a musical sound or the interval between two such sounds. discourse. the word is similarly applied to the voices of birds and other animals. but never thus of a noise. barangue.ulsltion. simplest oration. sermon. As used of a musical instrument. musical. Syoonyms announce. To chat is ordinarily to utter in a familiar. . sx>eak to . utterance. a a vehement appeal to passion.

the action of swallowing is voluntary up to a certain point. speechlessneBS. taciturnity. voluntary agreement. instinctive. . We speak of spontaneous generation. while to call it involuntary would imply some previous purpose . but so completely dependent on sympathetic impulse that it would seem frigid to caU it voluntary. In the fullest sense of that which is not only without the will but distinctly in opposition to it. involuntary. the smile of a pouting child wheedled into good humor is involuntary. ^tontaneous combustion. . beyond which it becomes involuntary or automatic. of an enemy. A discourse speech on a" definite subject. In physiology the action of the heart and lungs is called involuntary . an unhidden tear. voluntary. which are antonyms of each other. and perhaps in opposition to it a willing act is not only in accordance with will. The scout lurks on . movements. . scout. A babe's smile in answer to that of its mother is spontaneous . a spy enters in disguise . involuntary becomes an antonym. 'willing. impulsive. SPOWTANJEOrS. as. spontaneous sympathy. Btillness. intended to convey instruction. or compulsory. travoluntary servitude.^ S^O is a set Com- Antonyms: hush. Synonyms automatic. but without disguise . without special premeditation or distinct determination of the will that is voluntary which is freely done with distinct act of will that is involuntary which is independent of the will. silence. in human actions. The scout and the spy are both employed to obtain information of the numbers. unbidden. £ree. with no external compulsion and. but with desire. pare CONVERSATION DICTION LANGUAGE. not only of voluntary but of spontaneous . Synonyms SPY.spontaneous spy Bomething disputatious and combative in it. etc. willing submission. Thus voluntary and involuntary. the growth of the hair and nails is spontaneous . n . an involuntary start. A spontaneous outburst of applause is of necessity an act of volition. emissary. . are both paitial synonyms of spontaneous. i detective. the outskirts of the hostile army with such concealment as the case admits of. or inclination not to applaud. That is spontaneous which is freely done.

a standard or a garment may be dyed with blood in honorable warfare . yam. Stain is. claim._ <»'»1 stain stale lines. sent rather to secretly influence opponents than to bring information concerning them . to assume a color in any way as. has the rights of held to have forfeited all rights. propound. to impart a color undesired and perhaps unintended. state (L. and may also be used of giving a slight flavor. express. tell. A a prisoner of war . used of giving an intended and perhaps pleasing color to wood. ad. certify. he colored with shame and vexation. maintain. a character stained with crime or guilt is debased and perverted. a spy is Synonyms: blot. and sero. inform. and is liable. or a slight admixture of one ingredient or quality with another that is more pronounced. assert. temporary or permanent. To stain is primarily to discolor. by an application of coloring^matter which enters the substance a Uttle below the surface. so far as he does the latter. pronounce. in the intransitive use. swear. Assert (L. aver. protest. An emissary is rather political than military . discolor. specify. or similar materials which are dipped into the coloring liquid. To color is to impart a color desired or undesired. Thus. bind) To is strongly personal. tint. dye. allege. in case of capture. disgrace. avow. declare. STATE. he is not only an emissary. To tinge is to color slightly. tinge. predicate. or particularly in speech or writing. sully. STAIK. spot. sto. depose. and which may or may not be permandiit. set forth. asseverate. if captured. in which coloring=matter is spread upon the surface dyeing is generally said of wool. however. avouch. Synonyms afOrm. signifying to state boldly and positively what . To dye is to impart a color intentionally and with a view to permanence. and especially so as to pervade the substance or fiber of that to which it is appUed. say. Figm-atively. testify. but a spy. glass. and pervading influence . in distinction from painting. formally. color. or. assure. permanent. . stand) is to set forth explicitly. dishonor. to. soil.. within the enemy's scout. etc. a character ''dyed in the wool" is one that has received some early. to capital punishment. tamisb. an assassin's weapon is stained with the blood of his victim. cloth.

apply to the person is . and more composure and dignity than asseverate. an ascent of 100 feet to the mile on a railway is a steep grade . STEEP. vertical precipitous. certify. contravene. Certify is more formal. Affirm. or assert his right to what he is wilUng to contend for . retract. repudiate. it differs from swear in not invoking the name of God. oppose. assure right to cross the river . I assure conciliatory. we say a mere assertion. sbarp. disprove. . the honest man will seldom lack means to vindicate his integrity. To vindicate is to defend successfully what is assailed. refute. and applies rather to written documents or legal processes. he asserted his innocence has less force than he affirmed or maintained his innocence. I assert my my friend it is perfectly safe. coming nearer to aver. Steep is relative . state. while a little hill may be accessible only by a . gainsay. In legal usage. . t controvert. or he may assert in discussion what he is ready to maintain by argument or evidence. affirm.steep S'iiB the one making the statement has not attempted and may not attempt to prove. Assert is combative . dispute. more than 45° A high mountain may be climbed by a winding road nowhere steep. Assure. blgb. is sufficiently sheer. his unsupported assertion . to the thing. Almost every criminal will assert his innocence . It has more solemnity than declare. which is to assert excitedly. and tell have not the controversial sense of assert. a bare assertion. etc. affirm has a general agreement with depose and testify . what is One may Antonyms contradict. SynonyniH t abrupt. To aver is to state positively within one's own knowledge or matter of deep conviction. . and hence in such cases both the verb assert and its noun assertion have an unfavorable sense . To assert without proof is always to lay oneself open to the suspicion of having no proof to offer. and seems to arrogate too much to one's personal authority. High cline is used of simple elevation steep is said only of an in- where the measurement great in pro- portion to the horizontal to make it difficult of ascent. inform. a rise of 600 feet to the mile makes a steep wagon=road a roof is steep when it makes with the horizontal line an angle of . but are simply declarative. waive. deny. To assure is to state with such authority and confidence as the speaker feels ought to make the hearer sure. assert himself. Affirm has less of egotism than assert (as seen in the word self-assertion).

Synonyms account. flat. record. somewhat archaic dote tells briefly some incident. a stwy is a common euphenearly synonymous with story. A story is the telling writing .. as. tempest is a storm of extreme violence. STORY. tranqnlllltgr. serenitsr. a sheer ascent or descent is perpendicular. anecdote. Synonyms agitatloii. and by extension. a A storm is properly a A We tempest of rage. peace. snow=storm. as. mism for a falsehood. In the moral and figurative use. or is fictitious recital. recital. Antonyms calm. A traditional or mythical story of anA history is often somewhat poetically . whether real or story. precipitous appUes to that which is of the nature of a precipice. novel. tempest. do not teU tales . always attended with some precipitation. 30. legend. alight. narrative. Thus we have rain=sf orm. hall. mytli. speak except that tempest commonly imphes greater intensity. legendary. abrupt is as if broken sharply off. is no toZe=bearer. disturbance. relationi tale. level. of passion. hnsh. of some series of connected incidents or fictitious. decided angle with the plane from which it starts . and tempest are not closely discriminated. as of rain.„ „ <>*«» ste^ storm story path. Compare HiGtH. ceases to be assumed to be fact. A Antonyms easy. it close limits of brevity. snow. or thunder and Hghtning. and becomes a narrative or narration. disturbance of the atmosphere. for an idle or malicious report . disturbance of mind." Prov. of agitation of feeling. narration. xxvi. low. events. from the atmosphere. gentle. An anecthere termed a In children's Tale is . a storm. or nearly so . storh. magnetic storm. horizontal. in prose or verse. and applies to either accHvity or declivity. cient times is a legend. " where also. with or without rain. a fairy tale . If it passes an anecdote. fair weather. sharp ascent or descent is one that makes a sudden. but it is used for an imaginative. gradual. the strife ceaseth. and is used especially of a descent . orally or in or the series of incidents or events thus related may be talk. stillness. especially if of ancient date . etc. storm. incident.

intelligence. abnormal sleep. IDIOCfY. stupor. animation. stupefaction. and be dispelled by appeal to the feelings or by the presentation of an adequate motive. Apathy may be temporary. quickness. stupefaction. memoir. Asphyxia is a special form of syncope resulting from partial or total suspension of respiration. as from cold. or inhalation of noxious gases. FICTION. Stupidity is sometimes loosely xised for temporary dulness or partial stupor. cleverness. Coma is a deep. asphyzia. lethargy. The apathy of disease is a mental affection. Stupor is — . properly comatose. the story of the American civil war. a state of morbid indifference lethargy is a morbid tendency to heavy and continued sleep. a condition of the body in which the action of the senses and faculties is suspended or greatly dulled weakness or loss of sensibility. stertorous breathing. swooning. but stupidity is inveterate and commonly incurable. and is due to failure of heart=action. keenness. as from sudden nervous shock or intense mental emotion. Insensibility is a general term denoting loss of feeling from any cause. STUPOR. HISTORY. but chiefly for innate and chronic dulness and sluggishness of mental action. or injury. Synonyms apatby. a state of profound insensibility. unconsciousness. sensibility. alertness. with suspension of pulse and of respiration. story .Btnpldltr stupor called t544 a. Syncope or swooning is a sudden loss of sensation and of power of motion. Insensibility. intoxication. slugglsliness. torpor. Antonyms acntenees. brilliancy. etc. t biography. apatby. as in strangulation. sagacity. pare ALLEGORY. as. from which the patient may perhaps be momentarily aroused. . or is aroused only with difficulty. from which the patient can not be aroused. readiness. sense. Insensibility. and is due to brain=oppression. obtuseness of apprehension. STUPOR. Compare apathy . hlstotr. syncope. perhaps with full pulse and deep. folntlns. slowness. Com- Antonyms annals. STUPIBITY. Synonyms coma. obtuseness. s^^oon. chronicle. dulness. drowning. Stupor is especially profound and confirmed insensibility.

as a mass of a certain size. bereavement. objective to something without. relating to the subject of mental states. A mountain.. are objective. Synonym objective. Different individuals may receive different subjective impressions from the same objective fact. it is called subjective when it derives its materials mainly from or constantly tends to revert to the personal experience of the author. the mental picture it forms of the mountain. The style is a cause of hope being to another a cause of fear. of a writer is called objective when it derives its materials mainly from or reaches out toward external objects . Subjective being. that to something outside the perceiving mind in brief phrase be said that subjective relates to something within the mind. that which to one . But this subjective impression may become itself the object of thought (called "subject=object"). contour. hope. the outward causes of these experiences. as when we compare our mental picture of the mountain with our it . experiences them is. etc. . That which has independent existence or authority apart from our experience or thought is said to have objective existence or authority thus we speak of the objective authority of the moral law. Subjective signifies is. Synonyms . as joy.„. fear. grief. as prosperity. objective signifies relating to the object of tal states. that to the person who men. disappointment.<*'•«* subjective substtly SIJBJECTITE. strictly antonyms. etc. Compare INHERENT SIJBSIDT. are purely subjective . The direct experiences of the soul. color. most part. is subjective. for the and objective are synonyms in but one point of view. is an objective fact the impression our mind receives. may idea of a plain or river.

prevail. fail.subvert succeed aMU »4o nation may also grant a subsidy to its own citizens as a means of promoting the public welfare as. . a bounty for enlisting in the army a bounty for killing wolves. preserve. supplanted by a rival. ruin. To unn implies that some one loses. To supersede implies to overthrow . attain. . perpetuate. fall short. bring to ruin. solitary swimmer succeeds in reaching the shore if we say he voins the shore we contrast him with himself as a possible loser. but one may succeed where no one fails. I overttirow. Antonyms conserve. the sugar bounty. lose. A person succeeds when he accomplishes what he . The somewhat rare term subvention is especially applied to a grant of governmental aid to a literary or artistic enterprise. flourlsli. To subvert tion . To supplant is more often personal. as. extingulsli. come Compare follow. Synonyms destroy. a subsidy to a steamship company. prosper. for A . attempts. from or as from the very foundaThe word is now generally as of moral or poUtical ruin. overturn. uphold. . miscarry. short. supplant. The word bounty may be applied to almost any regular or stipulated allowance by a government to a citizen or citizens as. Many students may succeed in study a few win the special prizes. utterly destroy figurative. suppress. which all compete. . usually by underhanded means one is superseded by authority. . A bounty is offered for something to be done a pension is granted for something that has . Antonyms: be defeated. . Synonyms: acbleve. Governmental aid to a commercial or industrial enterprise other than a transportation company is more frequently called a bounty than a subsidy . : beep. SVBTERT. SUCCEED. tlirive. the putting of something that is wisely or unwisely preferred in the place of that which is removed to subvert does not imply substitution. Compare abolish. Bostain. been done. is supersede. miss. signifying to take the place of another. virln. . or attains a desired object or result an enterprise or undertaking suAxeeds that has a prosperous result.

more limited in expression. nod). intimation. Innuendo. SVOOESTION. others hold that the miracle is simply the calling forth of a power residing in the laws of nature. to give one a hint of danger or of opportunity. sub. a preternatural gloom. the most respectful way in which one can convey his views to a superior or a stranger. in the strictest sense. above or superior to the recognized powers of nature the preternatural (preter. God in his providence . preternatural. above) is . in many cases. and even unconsciously. Some hold that a miracle. prophecy . superbuman. under. and nuo. leaving consideration A suggestion (L. or the like. as by a partial statement. as when we say an author has " a suggestive style. and gero. (super. suggestion may be given unintentionally. often in the sense of inauspicious as. SUPERIVATIJRAL. Insinuation. to. in. Insinuation and innuendo are used in the bad sense . sometimes to the very person attacked an innuendo is commonly secret as well as sly. . beyond) is aside from or beyond the recognized results or operations of natural law. in. but not within their ordinary operation. and is always covert. Suggestion is often used of an unobtrusive statement of one's views or wishes to another. A hint is still gives us intimations of his will. so that the miraculous might he teimed " extranatural.. and hence is. as the raising of the dead. an illustration. and is hence. or sometimes one's by . supernatural The supernatural . Synonyms miraculous. a question. as if pointing one out by a significant nod (L." rather than supernatural. and dependent on a distinct act of God. an incidental allusion. in the latter case often the act of a superior as. significant act. gesture. is a direct suspension and even violation of natural laws by the fiat of the Creator. but frequently with good intent as.ttMif Suggestion supernatural Synonyms: hint. Implication. or token." An intimation is a suggestion in brief A utterance. and any consequent action entirely to his judgment. All that is beyond human power is superhuman . as. bring) brings something before the mind less directly than by formal or explicit statement. as referring to the direct personal intervention of divine power. Miraculous is more emphatic and specific than supernatural. an insinuation is a covert or partly veiled injurious utterance. of it is meaning or wishes .

is guess. Compare ABET ENDUEE KEEP. deem. surmise. Antonyms: alDandon. SUPPOSE. To support may be partial. keep. . desert. everyday. . destroy. to bear is a tax upon sti-ength or endurance pain or grief. Support and sustain alike signify to hold up or keep up. . to maintain health or reputation . either . usual. carry. natural. upbold. prop. imagine. a man supportshis family a state maintains an army or navy. . To prop is always partial. . to prevent from falling or sinking but sustain has a special sense of continuous exertion or of great strength continuously exerted. demollBh. throw down. or upon pillars supported on or upon a pittance. as when we speak of sustained endeavor or a sustained note a flower is supported by the stem or a temple»roof by arches the foundations of a gi-eat building sustain an enormous pressure to sustain life implies a greater exigency and need than to support life to say one is sustained under affliction is to say more both of the severity of the trial and the cotopleteness of the upholding than if we say he is supported. maintain.aintain is complete maintain is a word of more dignity than support . the family was Synonyms conjecture. To suppose temporarily to assume a thing as true. sustain. . to bear a strain . think. break down. drop. clierisli. SUPPORT. . . overthrow. wreck. To hear is the most general word. signifying to add support to something that is insecure. Iiold up. betray. Antonyms common. To maintain is to keep in a state or condition. Synonyms: Ijear. . suppose o^a <»*s . : commonplace. . Prepositions: The roof is supported by. . surpassing ordinary. . . especially in an excellent and desirable condition as. let go. keep up. human power. denoting all holding up or keeping up of any object. or by charity. on. to maintain one's position to maintain a cause or proposition is to hold it against opposition or difficulty. gives evidence of superhuman knowledge the word is sometimes applied to remarkable manifestations of all that is ordinary. to m. cast down. whether in rest or motion in the derived senses it refers to something that as.snppoi-t .

give over. capitulate. will. or being one . his spirit is at least somewhat submonarch or a state cedes territory perhaps for a considdued. and hence under compulsion.axn '**•' surrender synonymous with the expectation of finding it so or for the purpose of ascertaining what would follow if it were so. design supposes the existence of a de. equivalent. Compare doubt HYPOTHESIS. diBCoyer. passion. give. To surrender is to give up upon compulsion. burw. . correspondent. eration . Yield implies more softness or concession than surrender . surrenders an army. identical. friendship. give oneself up. . in this application. alienate. but I think this to be the fact a more conclusive statement than would be made by the use of conjecture or suppose. give up. synonymic. conclude. We sacrifice something precious through error. To think. name) being interchangeable names for the same thing. yield. To imagine is to form a signer. I do not know. be enre. or superior force. Synonyms abandon. rellnijLUlsh. a stronger Compare abandon. cede. as to an enemy in war. influence. together. : . the most determined men may surrender to overwhelm- ing force when one yields. like. always with some expectation of finding the facts to be as conjectured. or duty. Antonyms: ascertain. is to hold as the result of thought what is admitted not to be matter of exact or certain knowledge as. Synonyms aUke. or even impossible. sacrifice. similar. A . tho its actual existence may be unknown. or a fortified place to a conqueror a military commander abandons an untenable position or unavailable stores. let go. a navy. SVRREIVDER. hence to give up to any person. syn. or power. and may not accord with fact or yet again. prove. To conjecture mental image of something as existing. SYIVONYMOFS. corresponding. strictly sig- interchangeable. to suppose is to imply as true or involved as a necessary inference as. To yield is to give place or give way under pressure. same. and onymn. is to put together the nearest available materials for a provisional opinion. winsome persuasion. Synonymous nifies (Gr. To suppose is also to think a thing to be true while aware or conceding that the belief does not rest upon any sure ground. . yield to convincing reasons.

. By synonymous words (or synonyms) we usually understand words that coincide or nearly coincide in some part of their meaning. each shade of meaning outside of the common limits. . or we . to say that two words are synonymous is strictly to say they are alike. a system of . Synonyms: manner. these papers are in order . to some extent equivalent. . a difference in usage commonly exists. or the same in meaning . rule. & p. It is the office of a work on synonyms to point out these correspondences and differences. not merely a law of action or procedure. Method denotes a process. To Bay that we are morally developed is synonymmis with saying that reaped what some one has sufiered for us. [t. so that the words are not interchangeable. . Order in this connection denotes the fact or result of proper arrangement according to the due relation or sequence of the matters arranged as. a method of collecting taxes. is destructive of freedom and variety. and may hence within certain limits be used in- In the strictest sense. and sometimes interchangeable. equivalent. '66. SYSTEM. and to those often as settled and characteristic we speak of a system of taxation. identical. . but a comprehensive plan in which all the parts are related to each other and to the whole as.system 350 of two or more interchangeable names for the same thing . mxinner refers to the external qualities of actions. regularity. the rules by which assessments are made . . metbod. that language may have the flexibility that comes from freedom of selection within the common limits. 294. order. Bebohbr Boyal Truths p. are any two words in any language equivalent or identical in meaning where a difference in meaning can not easily be shown. if ever. with the perspicuity and prefittest cision that result from exact choice of the words to express . W. in alphabetical order. theology a railroad system . a general or established way of doing or proceeding in anything rule. To consider synonymous words identical is fatal to accuracy to forget that they are similar. an authoritative requirement or an established course of things system. . while outside of those limits they may differ very greatly in meaning and use. terchangeably. mode. but the use of synonymoun in this strict sense is somewhat rare. the digestive system . we have H.] synonymous words scarcely exist rarely. and rather with reference to statements than to words.

One who is silent does not speak at all. . . is order oration. Dumb. but in a grudging way that repels further approach. garrulous. diBarrangement. silent. unreserved. either from natural disposition or for the occasion. dumb. . as when we say one is re. There is a regularity of dividing a treatise into topics. The talkative person may be stricken dumb with surprise or terror the obstinate may remain mute. equivalent to uncommunicative. as taciturn . speechless refer to fact or state toci- turn refers to habit and disposition. paragraphs. one may be siteM^hrough preoccupation of mind or of set purpose but the taciturn person is averse to the utterance of thought or feeling and to communication with others. Synonyms close. Compare habit . reticent. confusion. often suggesting pride or haughtiness. disorder. Reserved suggests more of method and intention than taciturn. suggestion of purpose. applying often to some one who is communicative regarding all special time or topic Reserved is thus closely else may be reserved about his business.»51 6ay. Regularity applies to the even disposition of objects or uniform recurrence of acts in a series.. agent or the appearance or suggestion of such design regularity appUes to an actual uniform disposition or recurrence with no . uncommunicative. derangement. but is a somewhat stronger word. Antonyms: cIiaoB. Irregnlarlt. and sentences. that is destructive of true rhetorical system. where the objects are placed at varying distances. . as in the recurrence of paroxysms of disease or insanity there may be order without regularity. one who is taciturn speaks when compelled. mute. HYPOTHESIS. talkative. i reserved. speecliless. a nde the payments are heaviest at a certain time of year a may be made odious by the manner of its collection. silent and mute. and as applied to intelligent human affairs is less and more mechanical than order. served toward inferiors. TACITURN. There may be regularity without order. Antonyms : commnnicative. as in a fine essay or The same may be said of system. Order commonly implies the design of an inteUigent just tax . Compare peide. free. The most perfect often secured with least regularity. loquacioae. as in the arrangement of furniture in a room.

as. dainty tending in personal use to an excessive scrupulousness which is more fuUy expressed hj fastidious. cbaste. also delight appUed to intense keenness of any feeling as. . standing. elegans. a delicate distinction is one worth observing a nice distinction may be so. especially denoting that which exhibits faultless taste and perfection of finish. select) to that assemblage of which makes anything choice to persons of culture and refinement it refers to the lighter. used colloquially in a similar sense. wliile in elegant it is blended as part of the whole. displeasing. Nice and delicate both refer to exact adaptation to some standard . estbetical. grotesque. delicate is capable of the single unfavorable sense of frail or fragile . nice. See beadtiful . distasteful. mde. Exquisite is . hideous. coarse. That which is elegant is made so not merely by nature. but would not ordinarily be termed elegant. Synonyms: artistic. . delicate is a higher and more discriminating word than nice. . disgusting. but by art and culture . narsh. estbetic. exquisite. Inharmonious. but (tho capable of an imfavorable sense) has commonly a suggestion of positive excellence or admirableness . delicious. Inartistic. gaudy. Dainty and delicate refer to the lighter and finer elements of taste and beauty. rugged. horrid. . fine. . Tasty is an inferior word. an exquisite lace. and is always used in a favorable sense . elegant. rongh. delicate. especially from the philosophic point of view. delicious fine. tasty. Tasteful refers to that in which the element of taste is more prominent. deformed. Chaste (primarily pure). a woodland dell may be beautiful or picturesque. is closely similar to delicate and nice. fulsome. Elegant qualities . (L. a fine touch does something . Esthetic or esthetical refers to beauty or the appreciation of the beautiful. Antonyms clnmey. fine perceptions are to some purpose . finer elements of beauty in form or motion. the bar of a balance can be said to be nicely or delicately poised as regards matters of taste and beauty.tasteful 352 TASTEFUIi. Exquisite denotes the utmost perfection of the elegant in minute details we speak of an elegant garment. offensive. meretricious. fine in such use. denotes in literature and art that which is true to the higher and finer feelings and free from all excess or meretricious ornament. dainty. a delicate constitution. exquisite exquisite pain. refers fastidious. or may be overstrained and unduly subtle . as it were. more by itself. tawdry.

Train is used in preference to educate when the reference is to the inferior animals or to the physical powers of man as. simply to communicate knowledge . train. to build in or into. mental. edge of danger and experiments with it foolhardiness rushes in . audacity. scbool. or to make an unworthy proposal to one sure to resent it in such use temerity is often closely allied to hardiVenturesomeness daUies on the hood. tutor. hardibood. . . To train is to direct to a certain result powers already existing. is inform. Audacity. but temerity is always used in a bad sense. . precipitation. discipline. rashness for want of reflection. Inculcate. venturesomeness. precipitancy. . to instruct put in order) is to impart knowledge with special method and completeness instruct has also an authoritative sense nearly equivalent to command. or of . over^confidence. bastiness. To educate is to draw out or develop harmoniously the mental powers. instruct. teherity. indoctrinate. soldiers must be disciplined as well as trained. give lessons. in the sense here considered. Compare education. want of sense. To teach . ^ educate. and moral growth nurture is a more tender and homelike word than educate. initiate. the moral powers as well. To discipline is to bring into habitual and complete subjection to authority discipline is a severe word. to be thoroughly effective in war. rasbness. heedlessness. give instruction. or presumption. denotes a dashing and for somew^hat reckless courage. enligbten. recklessness from disregard of consequencas. temerity often of mental or social matters there may be a noble rashness. . fooUiardiness. To nurture is to furnish the care and sustenance necessary for physical. to train a horse to train the hand or eye. . "^ili- teacli temerity TEACH. (originally. Synonyms audaci^. instill. and. in defiance of conventionalities. presumption. Rashness applies to the actual rushing into danger without counting the cost temerity denotes the needless exposure of oneself to peril which is or might be clearly seen to be such Rashness is used cliiefly of bodily acts. nurture. .353 Bynonrms. and is often used as a euphemism for punish . in the fullest sense. recklessness. We say it is amazing that one should have had the temerity to make a statement which could be readily proved a falsehood. heedlessness for want of attention.

The sum. as when we speak of the definition of terms. tersus. TERSE. as it were. together. sententious. that is a legal or scien. expression. hesitation. Anything short or brief is of relatively small extent. I denomlnatlou. compendious. That which is compendious (L. thick) is. con-. so as to include as much as possible within a small space. under.ary is compacted to the utmost. . — tific term. the landmarks of its meaning or power . condensed. condition. we speak of a summary statement or a summary dismissal. together. (L. name. That which is concise (L. member. often to the point of abruptness. The articles of a contract or other instrument are simply the portions into which it is divided for convenience the terms are the essential statements on which its validity depends as it were. and oingo. a term is a word that limits meaning to a fixed point of statement or to a special class of subjects. diction. Compare boundary . wariness Synonyms article. as. with. weighty and from sub-. I concise. or phrase . that is of the keyswords in any discussion . or we say. a condition is a contingent term which may become fixed upon the happening of some contemplated event. gird below) has an alert effectiveness as if girded for m. compact. cowardice. plirase. rub off) has an elegant and finished completeness within the smallest possible compass. from tergo. together. Compare EFFRONTERY. or of what would be deemed probable consequences . out) is trimmed down. Thus. laconic. Synonyms brief. and ccedo. That which is terse (L. caution. Intonyms care. com^. pressed together. as. TERIH.terse 354 other men's opinions. pithy. andpendo. and that which is condensed (L. with. succinct. weigh) gathers the substance of effective. eon-. and densus. the boundary of statement in some one direction. as The succinct girded from action. expression. timidity. neat. a matter into a few words. word. In logic a term is one of the essential members of a proposition. in general use term is more restricted than word. short. clrcamspection. Term in its figurative uses always retains something of its literal sense of a boundary or limit. succinctus. the audacity of a successful financier.

whUe the former is made under iaterrogatories and subject to cross-examination. we have the testimony of a traveler that a fugitive passed this way . affirmation. wordy. thence. are mortal. Compare demonstration . deposition. which " All men demand my attention is . proof. consequently. which argument. may not be consequence it is often used in narration . verbose. Therefore. as. evidence. Testimony. " Important matters inference. is the most precise and formal word for expressing the direct conclusion of a chain of reasoning .ony of witnesses and all facts of every kind that tend to prove a thing true . long." Con- rarely used in the formal conclusions of logic or mathematics. then. Evidence is a broader term. wherefore. then carries a similar but slighter sense of it gives incidentally rather than formally . in legal as well as in common use. the word may be used invidiously of that which is pretentiously oracular. apart from the context . but marks rather the freer and looser style of rhe- sequently may Accordingly denotes correspondence. whether in rude or elegant style. Synonyms TESTIMOIVT. lengthy. as. A sententioits style is one abounding in sentences that are singly striking or memorable. prolix. signifying for that (or this) reason. but more frequently said." Thence is a word of more torical or . . oath. signifies the statements of witnesses. certification. bence. attestation. including the testim. A pithy utterance gives the gist of a matter effectively. t accordingly.„-<*"* if tesUmonr tberefore rubbed or polished down to the utmost. "The contract is awarded. the deposition differs from the affidavit in that the latter is voluntary and without cross=examination. as. " The soldiers were eager and confident accordingly they sprang forward at the word of command. Deposition and affidavit denote testimony reduced to writing . therefore Caesar is mortal . his footprints in the sand are additional evidence of the fact. Antonyms: diflase. Caesar is a man . because. . witness." of a practical than a theoretic kind . tedious. Synonyms THEREFORX:. consequently I shall not sail to=day. < affidavit.'' or. then there is no more to be Consequently denotes a direct result. wbence.

while suggesting less massing and pressure than is indicated by the word . we can speak of infl. period.e . season. Synonyms age. and still existing when the event is past. but time Time is measured or is commonly contrasted with eternity. ering of many persons moved by a common impulse. multitude. and whence of hence or thence. measuring it as it passes. secLuence. but a multitude may be diffused over a great space so as to be nowhere a crowd . Compare synonyms for because. mass. Wherefore is the correlative of therefore. and has a suggestion of stateliness not found in the word crowd. host is a military term. wlille. events are contained in time as objects are in space. press. Host and multitude both imply vast numbers. . but there can not be a throng. measurable duration. crowd. and properly denotes an assembly Concourse signifies a spontaneous gathtoo orderly for crowding. date. appending the inference or conclusion to the previous statement without a break. t concourse. of vastness and dignity. i duration. According to the necessary conditions of human thought. the Throng is a word total number in a crowd may be great or small. crowd is a company of persons filling to excess the space they occupy and pressing inconveniently upon one another . but often to all that has gone before. bost.\Y^V^ 356_ sweeping inference than therefore. Sequence and succession apply to events viewed as following one another . including the reasonable inferences that have not been formally stated. A throng. era. Synonyms THRONO. epoch. term. TIME!. applying not merely to a single set of premises. always implying that the persons are numerous as well as pressed or pressing closely together there may be a dense crowd in a small room. jam. eon. succession. Duration and succession are more general words than tim. time and duration denote something conceived of as enduring while events take place and acts are done. time existing before the event.nite or eternal duration or succession.

. according to the common phrase. Incline is a more formal word for set slantingly . tveary. but tary . TIRE. "too tired to stir " but for this extreme condition the stronger words are commonly used. . from shifting of cargo. beel over. dip. . or even unconsciously tired. on the other hand. fag. One who is fatigued suffers from a conscious and painful lack of strength as the result of some overtaxing an invalid may be fatigued with very slight exertion when one is wearied. repose. slopes. lean. Incline. the painful lack of strength is the result of long=continued demand or strain one is exhausted when the strain has been so severe and continuous as utterly to consume the strength. One is fagged by drudgery he is jaded by incessant repetire is to . so that further exertion is for the time impossible. slant. tip. Synonyms: exbaust. rest. cant. fatigue.'' which is to capsize. list. . . the hiU . tip is tip and cant more temporary. becoming aware of the fact only when he ceases the exertion or. . harass._357 Synonyms. well=nigh impossible journey. he may be. slope. careen. relieye. and also for slant or slope. wear out. the words are closely similar. To tilt or tip is to throw out of a horizontal position by raising one side or end or lowering the other. etc. To heel over is the same as to careen. reduce strength in any degree by exertion one may be tired just enough to make rest pleasant. restore. tition of the same act until . usually. jade. : To . . from water in the hold. A vessel careens in the wind lists. but tilt suggests more of fluctuation or instability. and must be distinguished from " keel over. as. becomes increasingly diflScuIt or a horse is jaded by a long and unbroken it Antonyms: invigorate. often momen- in many cases one tips a pail so that the water flows over the edge a mechanic cants a table by making or setting one side higher uhan the other. Slant and slope are said of things somewhat fixed or permanent in a position out of the horizontal or perpendicular the roof slants. . tilt. telax. Ji?e_ TIP. To cant is to might be interchanged. recreate. refresh. Careening is always toward one side or the other listing may be forward or astern as well.

the word is especially applied to articles used for domestic or agricultural purposes as. A — or surgical apparatus . A utensil is that which may be used for some special purpose . as. as.tool 358 Synonyms TOOL. iJnpZemerai is a less technical and artificial term than tool. Implement is for the most part and . we speak of a surgeon's or an optician's instruments. Instrument is the word usually applied to tools used in scientific pursuits . An appliance is that which is or may be applied to the accomplishment of a result. for a collection of appliances for some scientific purpose . but they are not tools. . a chemical A . instrument. chisel by itself is a tool . but not every appliance is a tool the traces of a harness are appliances for traction. zaieclianism. the apparatus of a gymnasium . denoting any combination of mechanical devices for united action. as. but the word is commonly used for a collection of distinct articles to be used in connection or combination for a certain purpose a mechanical equipment . the entire mechanism is called a machine . The paw of a tiger might be termed a terrible implement. implements ot -wax. as. those designed for warlike purposes being designated weapons. especially. as. Those things by which pacific and industrial operations are performed are alone properly called tools. an apparatus may include many tools. macMne. An apparattis may be a machine. An implement is a mechanical agency considered with reference to some specific pui-pose to which it is adapted . as. 'weapon. a piano is a musical instrwment. in general usage. the word is of considerably wider meaning than tool . but not a tool. utensil. appliance. i apparatus. either independently or as subordinate to something more extensive or important every mechanical tool is an appliance. machine in the most general sense is any mechanical instrument for the conversion of motion in this sense a lever is a machine . and by the combination and coordination of powers and movements for the production of a result. an agricultural implem. An instrument is anything through which power is applied and a result produced. farming utensils. when it is set so as to be operated by a crank and pitman. a mortising^nlachine. tool is something that is both contrived and used for extending the force of an intelligent agent to something that is to be operated upon.ent . instruments. Mechanism is a word of wide meaning. kitchen utensils . Implement. but in more commonly accepted usage a machine is distinguished from a tool by its complexity. A . or implements.

Issue. . an instrur ment of Providence the tool of a tyrant . trail. instrument being used largely in a good. especially of a practical nature an issue . track. . a pleasant drive will suggest many topics for conversation. In deliberative assemblies a proposition presented or moved for acceptance is called a motion. motion. weapons. . A vestige is always slight compared with that whose existence it recalls as. a member is requii-ed to speak to the question. a slight token of regard may be and stately. In speaking or writing the general subject or theme may be termed the topic. points. tho it is more usual to apply the latter term to the subordinate divisions. etc.. matter. and that is still existing. remnant. A topic (Grr. topos. are vestiges of a former civilization. or heads of discourse as. tool always in a bad sense . token. or some slight footmark. vestige. question tbeme. the chau-man puts the gwesflow.ISO <*•»» Utensil is altogether restricted to the literal sense . machine inclines to the unfavorable sense. has come to be extensively used to denote a debatable topic. Synonyms: division. bead. TRACE. since it is or may be stated in interrogative form to be answered by each member with a vote of "aye" or "no". as. Synonyms: remains. footprint. plaoe) is for discussion is often stated in the a head of discoiuse. as implying that human agents are made mechanically subservient to some controlling will . machine. the labor question . form of a question. question. A vestige is always a part of that which has passed away a trace may be merely the mark made by something that has been present or passed by. and tool have figurative use. point. scattered moimds containing implements. . memorial. footstep. and such a motion or other matter for consideration is known as the question. — . proposition. sign. topic trace instrument. mark. to enlarge on this topic would carry me too far from my subject . . a political macMne. the temperance question. Impression. a cherished memorial of a friend either a concrete object or an observance may be a memorial. A memorial is that which is intended or fitted to briag to remembrance something that has passed away it may be vast On the other hand. as. TOPIC. Since a topic subject.

or brought to a conclusion.transact transaction evidence of of its laa <*w it presence or of the effect has produced. the citizens of the two nations are then free to with one another. is negotiated. a proceeding is or is viewed as something in progress . act. negotiate.iid proceedings axe used of the records of a deUberative body. action. afClair. but both these words lay stress upon deliberation with adjustment of mutual claims and interests . but the Negotiate has more reference to execution than final settlement. traces game were observed by the hunter. doing. the Proceedings of the American Philological Association give in full the biisiness done. Notes. one may do a duty. while it may depend upon previous deUberation. . the dividing line between the two words becomes sometimes quite faint. treat . business. A when published strictly used. transact. deed. states execution only. accomplish a task. perform. business. act. his transaetransaction tions involve the agency or participation of others. bills of exchange. or perforin unaided . while proceedings may result in action. nations may treat of peace without result. with mere abstracts of or extracts from the papers read. what he transacts is by means of or in association with others . To negotiate and to treat are likewise collective acts. but transaxit business when a treaty. Compare DO. do. act. and treaties are said to be negotiated. One's acts or deeds may be exclusively his own . but since transaction is often used to include the steps leading to the conclusion. but he transacts business. peace is secured. proceeding. Both transactions a. as. conduct. TRAIVSACTIOIV. the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London give in fuU the papers read . Compare especially . . accomplish. TRANSACT. tho transaction often emphasizes the fact of something done. There are many acts that one may do. treat. carry on. the two are distinguished as. is something completed . Synonyms: accomplisli. since that always involves the agency of others. the word so used covering not merely the preliminary consideration. loans. Synonftus. Compare chakacteristic. perform a vow.

" K. "Being is transcendental . as is looked upon as at once extinction . being neither what thereas an a posteriori nor a priori element of cognition fore transcends every category of thought. Philos. ." K. Philos. or that things which tive truths or beliefs are transcendental. STnonyms brief fugitive. short. as that the whole is greater than a part.. Vocab. transitory. epi. this transibe made use of but a little while . existence is life is transitory. and tory lite a temporary marks more hemera. TRAHrSIENT. Ephemeral (Gr.„^. thus that which is ephemeral and the word carries often a suggestion of slight and perishable. Intuitive truths are those which are in the mind independeutly of all experience. temporary. it agrees strongly than transient exceeding brevity destined to pass away. As being can not be included under any genus.=F. often .. fleeting. epbemeral. of duration . as. not being derived from experience nor limited by it. man's ephemeral . denoting them a fine shade passes or is passing away. p. but transcends them all. 531. Emersonian school to the soul's supposed intuitive knowledge of known things divine and human. a transient chamnan. and eo. a butterfly's contempt. "wl transuendental transient Synonyms a I priori. intuitive. Transcendental has been applied in the language of the p. joy . trans. over. Compare mysterious. with transitory in denoting that its object is denoting not only its certain but its speedy but is stronger. 530. including all withia the limits of thought that is not derived from experience. so far as they are capable of being — to man. " Transcendent he [Kant] employed given to denote what is wholly beyond experience. but there is between fact is not lasting a of difference. day) literally lasting but for a day. time) which is intended to last or a thing is temporary (L. go). so the properties or affections of being have also been called transcendental. primordial. transcendent. A thing is transient which in soon pass away thing is transitory which by its very nature must tempus. as the ideas of space and time. All intuiBut transcendental is a wider term than intuitive. with no solid qualities or worthy achievements a pre- .. are equal to the same thing are equal to one another. flyingT Ivaiescent.=F. origTransient and transitory are both derived from the same that which quickly inal source (L. original. on. flitting. passing. momentary. Vocdb.

UBflOBf. from e. habit. wont) signifies such as regularly or often recurs in the ordinary course of events. . oneness. common and general apply to the greater number of individuals in a class but both words are in good use as . is conjunction. customary. comlilnation. contrariety. everysday. decomposition. accustomed. dissociation. when a single pm-pose or ideal is so subserved by all that their possible separateness is lost sight of as. w^onted. public. disconnection. Immortal. perpetual. flee) as eluding attempts to detain it that which is evanescent (L. Synonyms: common. undying. harmony. division. which never has been divided or of that which can not be conceived of as resolved into parts of the . severance. according to an established order.usual tender is 362 may sometimes gain an ephemeral popularity. eternal. we speak of the unity of the human body. fiigio. general. persistent. the unity of Grod or the unity a bringing together of things that have been distinct. ordo. Usual (L. or of the unity of the church. we speak of the union of the parts of a fractured bone or of the union of hearts in marriage. lasting. disjunction. unfading. association.. is . prevalent.. separation. divorce. as the fleeting hues of the sunset. or is habitually repeated in the life of the same person. unity.t. fveq. familiar. or the state or condition of things thus brought together in a union the separate individuality of the things united is never lost sight of . hence of everysday ocIn strictness.uent. permanent. everlasting. human soul. especially of that as. juncture. Synonyms Unity I coalition. so that they combine or coalesce to form a new whole. oneness. use. attachment. the state of being one. unification. normal. Eabltual. vain) as in the act of vanishing even while we gaze.tance. imperisbable. and that which is fugitive (L. order) signifies ordinary. schism. out. and vanus. But unity can be said of that which is manifestly or even conspicuously made up of parts. empty. regular. Compare at. Antonyms abiding. VSIJAl. disunion. prevailing. That which is viewed as in the act of passing swiftly by. > enduring. junction. MARRIAQB. currence. Union Antonyms: analysis. Ordinary (L. evanesco. usus.

the gettingthe foot out) refers primarily to escape from or avoidance of some difHculty or trouble . or. anusnal. or I have found it of use . benefit. use. t advantage. while usefulness denotes the actual production of such result. extraordinary. expediency denoting have a moral charimmediate advantage on a contracted view. usefulness. etrange. either expediency or utility may be used to signify profit or advantage considered apart from right as the ground of moral obligation. " Honesty is the best policy" Compare profit. Expediency (L. ex. Compare general normal. or loss. and especially with reference to avoiding danger. inexpediency. Utility (L. . out. Infreonent. tho ordinary or usual would in such case be preferable. We contrast beauty and utility. more positive than expediency but narrower than utility. Dncommon. its usefulness has been proved by ample trial. profit. while utility may be so broadened as to cover aU existence through all time. its utility is questionable. singblar. out-oi'the-way. Antonyms: exceptional. Synonyms untenanted.o«» -- utility >**»"» vacant applying to the greater number of instances in a series. Synonyms avail. leisure. Antonyms: disadvantage. on the other hand. service. and is often employed to denote adaptation to pro- duce a valuable result. vacuous. impoliqr. utility and usefulness are frequently interchanged. utilis. still. unoccupied. so that it is possible to speai of one pereon's comvion practise or general custom. literally. but is quaUty of being somewhat more abstract and philosophical than usefulness or use. Policy is often used in a kindred sense. difficulty. folly. serviceableness. rare. void. or of actions that acter. unemployed. UTILITY. TACANT. nnprofltableness. nselessness. useful) signifies primarily the useful. expediency. as in the proverb. Inutility. wortblessneBs. waste. futility. nnparalleled. unfilled. is vacant has extensivs reference to rights or possibilities of occu- . empty which contains nothing that is vacant which That is without that which has filled or might be expected to fill it blanli. We say of an invention. and pes. foot . inadequacy. empty. as in the utilitarian theory of morals. .

or unavailing fails to accomplish a result that it was. ineffectual. the contract is void for want of consideration. an empty boast. we speak of a waste track or region. trifling. jammed. but for the most part confined to abstract relations. Useless. especially as combined with vastness. delusive. replete. a vacant or leisure hour. overflowing. unsubstantial. brimming. in this connec- A may not . VAIN. full. brimmed. an empty dish. in the widest sense. fruitless. unserviceable. or homely matters. which is made so by devastation or ruin. That which is bootless. a vacant lot. fruitless. an empty sleeve. a vain pretension is empty or destitute of support. packed. empty. vanus. shadowy. useless. ' busy. and having with that addition the effect of a prepositional phrase . bootless. worthless. is preferred in speaking of slight. common. as derived from the Latin.vain pancy. That which is useless. a vain person has a conceit that is empty or destitute of adequate cause or reason. idle. unprofitable. trivial. baseless. that which is abortive. if of considerable extent . aliortlve. unavailing. futile. and an empty house be vacant. or vain is inherently incapable of accomplishing a specified result. gorged. devoid being followed by of. 364 vacant room may not be empty. empty) keeps the etymological idea through changes of meaning a vain endeavor is empty of result. crammed.pty heart. from the Saxon. vapid. occupied. or an impression of desolation. tho it may be applied with special force to the highest . Vacant. Vain (L. a vacant office. unsatisfying. Antonyms: brimful. ineffectual. a vacant mind. Synonyms. unreal. filled. but not of a waste city lot. probably from association of the words waste and vast tion. the article is devoid of sense . we speak of empty space. inconstant. an em. unimportant. profitless. . is apphed to things of some dignity empty. all . adapted to accomplish. Waste. nugatory. futile. Void and devoid are rarely used in the literal sense. as. Vacuous refers to the condition of being empty or vacant. or of adequate power to produce a result. inhabited. crowded. or profitless fails to accomplish any valuable result. or was supposed to be. visionary. applies to that gives waste is applied also to uncultivated or unproductive land. regarded as continuous or characteristic. deceitful. null.

conscience. from merces. money or other consideration mercenary (L. and is thus closely similar to valueless and ivorthless. eoUd. Synonyms Venal TEBTAi:. if he gives essential advantages for pay. effective. purchasable. The mercenary may retain much show of independence hireling service sacrifices self=respect as weU as principle .ercenary spirit . or having the spirit or character of one who works or of that which is done directly for hire or pay. a purpose . competent. mercenary. faction. Compare synonyms for unuTY. from venum. valuable. a spirit or motives to which money is the chief consideration or the moving principle.. salable. valid. he is both hireling and venal . adequate. while the venal are openly influence. (L. profitable. t hireling. venalis. the mercenary can be hired. a public officer who makes his office tributary to private speculation in which he is interested is mercenary . and honor of less account than gold or sordid considerations . mercenarius. e. sale) signifies ready to sell one's . That which PRIDE. Jiyrling. neefnl. powerful. reward) signifies influenced chiefly or only by desire for gain or reward thus. vote. . eerriceable.365 veual signifies not of use for any valuable purpose. as applying to the sum or harvest of endeavor. substantial. potent. is useless lacks actual fitness for fitness. corporation. sufflcient. pay. or the like. or actually for sale . but the mercenary and venal may be simply open to the bargain and sale which the hireling has already consummated . vain lacks imaginable Compare vacant that which is ostentation . The hireling.ercenary in making place and pay of undue importance while not venal enough to forsake his own communion for another for any reward that could be offered him. the mercenary. etymologically. a m. beneflcia. and the venal are aUke in making principle. without subjecting himself . if he receives a stipulated recompense for administering his office at the behest of some leader. expedient. Fruitless is more final than ineffectual. Mercenary has especial application to character or disposition . from hyr) signifies serving for hire or pay. efficient. a clergyman may be m. or efforts for . real. Bound.. mercenary motives i. Antonyms . advantageo«8. as. worthy. hireling (AS.

and without that subjection of soul to the grandeur . public-spirited. disdain. . scorn. despise. dishonor. i reverence. but revere or reverence him. Revere is a stronger word than reverence or venerate. from that which is overwhelmingly vast and mighty to that which is productive of momentary physical pain in its higher uses dread approaches the meaning of awe. scoff at. but not hireling. as that of civil or religious not venerate God. being said especially of aged persons. awe. disregard. respect. power. honorable. or grandeur in the object present. reverence. the dust of heroes or martyrs. we do Antonyms contemn. Synonyms VESTERATIOIV. aaa <»wo his com-se is venal. tho not necessarily. to give outward expression to the reverential feeling we revere or rever^ ence the divine majesty.venerate veneration to any direct domination. slight. • detest. sense of vastness. some great cause. there is no element of esteem or affection. and of abstractions we venerate an aged pastor. Bnpurchasable. but with more of chilliness and cowering. Synonyms adore. patriotic. or self-sacrifice. to revere or reverence is to hold in mingled love and honor with something of sacred fear. revere. spurn. . i dread. to reverence is often. generous. considered by itself. of places or objects having sacred associations. as for that which while lovely is sublimely exalted and brings upon us by contrast a sense of our unworthiness or inferiority to revere is a wholly spiritual act . is always Dread is a shrinking apprehension or expectation of possible harm awakened by any one of many objects or causes. IncorrnpUble. tho the adoration. To venerate is to hold in exalted honor without fear. venial. or liberty . In the highest sense. Compare VENERATION. We adore with a humble yet free outflowing of soul. TEIVERATi:. honest. in awe. lofty virtue honor. . . Antonyms: disinterested. and is applied to objects less removed from ourselves than those we revere. Awe is inspired by that in which there is sublimity or majesty so overwhelming as to awaken a feeling akin to fear . Compare pay .

primarily and verity is always a quality of thought or Vespeech. We may feel awe of which we can not reverence. trivial. a habitual liar may on some . active. and with more of the spirit of direct. that . . Synonyms excusable. disregard. Antonyms inexcusable. ingenuousness. and personal nearness. so used. pardon) signifies capable of being pardoned. Excusable is scarcely applied to offenses. a. sUgbt. Synonyms candor. especially of speech. pardonable A more serious consideration. Venial (L. his action was excusable. and. and joyful worship. reality. affection. as a grandly terrible ocean storm awe of the divine presence is more distant and less trustful than reverence. it often falls little short of justifiable under those circumstances. and suggest something of esteem. is loftier than veneration. unpardonable. trutbfulness. trutb. Compare venax. . I honesty. • dUdaln. inexpiable. dread with apprehension of personal consequences. VERACITY. but to matters open to doubt or criticism rather than offense requires direct censure as. as in exact conformity to fact. venial is always understood as marking some fault comparatively slight or trivial. Antonyms contempt. in common use. Compare esteem venerate. Veneration is coramonly applied to things which are not subjects of awe. in its full sense. Protestants do not recognize the distinction between venial and mortal sins. VEKIALi. mortal. scorn. capable of being readily pardoned. Truth is verity. Venial must not be confounded with the very different word VENAL. less restrained and awed than reverence. pardonable. racity is properly a quality of a person. I think. but on deliberation is found to be susceptible of pardon. unjustifiable. Severence and veneration are less overwhelming than awe or dread. easily overlooked. Aside from its technical ecclesiastical use. the habit of speaking and the disposition to speak the truth . Adoration.*>gi>y **"' Tenlal veracity and worthiness of the object that is involved in awe. dishonor. Awe is preoccupied with the object that inspires it . venia. venial offense is one readily overlooked . franlaiess.

Synonyms literal. fabrication. frankness. falsity. falseliood. but that does not constitute him a man . A . By this rule we should in strictness speak of an oral contract or an oral message. verbum. verbal translation may be oral or written. and ingenuousness are allied with veracity. Compare synonyms for deception. have become so fixed in the language that they can probably never be changed this usage is also in line with other idioms of the language as. deception. a letter) sig- expressed by letters. OS. I know him Antonyms: deceit.rd of mouth. or according to the letter. and verity with truth. vocal. on the other hand. duplicity. a word) signifies of. nntrutli. . as. mendacity. in the former case becoming a close synonym of veracity . "I give you my word. Truth in a secondary sense may be applied to intellectual action or moral character. in the broader sense of the exact meaning or requirement of the words used." "by w:. tmpostiue. honesty. the voice) signifies of or pertaining to the voice. the mouth) signifies uttered through the mouth or (in common phrase) by word of mouth . to be a man of truth. Thus oral applies to that which is given by spoken words in distinction from that which is written or printed as." etc. guile. litera. resonant voice nifies consisting of or . oral ti'adition an oral examination." " a true man's word is as good as his bond. Truthfulness is a quality that may inhere either in a person or in his statements or beliefs. ficflon. so that it is word for word a literal translation follows the construction and idiom of the original as well as the words a literal . delusion. or connected with words. pertaining to. soimding with f uU. . a person of undoubted veracity may state (through ignorance or misinformation) what is not the of veracity truth. literal (L. especially with words as distinguished from the ideas they convey vocal (L. falseness. Candor. . and especially uttered with or OraJ (L. . i oral. error. but verbal contract and verbal message. uttered or modulated by the voice.verbal 36S occasions speak the truth. what is called "the letter of the law" is its literal meaning without going behind what is expressed by the letters on the page. as indicating that which is by spoken rather than by written words. verbal (L. lie. vox. VERBAL. while truthfulness may accord with either.

Victory is the state resulting from the overcoming of an opponent or opponents in any contest. culties. Synonyms alert. an oral statement. disappointment. disaster. a person who is truly watchful must keep himagainst evil . circumspect. miscarriage. . mastery. -wide-awake. vocal may be applied within certain limits to inarticulate sounds given forth by other animals than man as. trickery. success. failure. etc. advantage. on tlie lookout. destmction. Compare conqtiee. obstacles. or sucIn conquest and mastery there is cess may be termed a victory. of attending to words only. 'wakeful. he is wary in or treachery. . Vigilant implies more sustained activity and more intelligent volition than alert . one may be habitually alert by reason of native quickness of perception and thought. careful. on the alert. as. VICTORY. Synonyms: acbievement. vocal music . In the same sense. danger or harm he may be alert or watchful for good as well as . retreat. both verbal and literal are opposed to free. a verbal change. supremacy. we speak of verbal criticism. complete. . watcbful. Antonyms defeat. rout VIOILrANT. sleepless. view of suspected stratagem. trlumpb.. meaning . or from the overcoming of difficonsidered as opponents or enemies. impUed a permanence of state that is not implied in victory. and glorious victory. Vocal has primary reference to the human voice as. as through insomnia yet he may be utterly careless and negligent in his wakefulness. evils. . cautious. has come to signify also a peculiarly exultant. awake. overthrow. vocal sounds.«**'' oeo victory vigilant translation is more than one that is merely verbal. the reverse of watchful . Triumph. origiaaUy denoting the public rejoicing in honor of a victory. the woods were vocal with the songs of birds oral is never so applied. Tvary. A person may be wakeful . because of some merely physical excitement or excitability. but is limited to articulate utterance regarded as having a definite . conquest. In the latter sense any haid=won achievement. frustration. advantage. or one may be mo- mentarily alert under some excitement or expectancy one who One is vigilant against is vigilant is so with thoughtful purpose.

as rising sublimely above the possibility of temptation and conflict the infantUe Virtue is distinctively as contrasted with the divine goodness. primarily manly strength or courage. Inconsiderate. probity is honesty tried and proved. but of the life be- — . Synonymst c&astity. is moral wholeness without a flaw when used. Integrity. one may be habitually watchful . one is vigilant ot set purpose and for direct cause. in its full sense. probity. neglectful. excellence. the being morally good. morality. a hero) is. from the Latin. oblivions.virtue self 3''* wakeful while on watch. faithfulness. especially of that which debases . honesty. uprightness. rightness. it is chastity both of heart and life. virtus. in the fvdl sense. honesty may be apphed to the highest truthfulness of the soul to and with itself and its Maker. but vigilant has somewhat more of sharp definiteness and somewhat more suggestion of volition . Honor rises far above thought of the motto that " honesty is the best policy. of contracts and dealings. as lacking the strength that comes from trial and conflict. rectitude. may be much less than virtue. worth. of mental quality. Honesty and probity are used especially of one's relations to his fellow men. whether with or without right principle. we do not predicate it of God. Honor is a lofty honesty that scorns fraud or wrong as base and unworthy of itself. human . incautious. especially in those things that are beyond the reach of legal requirement above the commercial sense. heedless." Purity ii freedom from all admixture. Antonyms: cai'elese. Compare alert. . as it often is. Virtue (L. worthiness. goodness that is victorious through trial. a man. it has reference to inherent character and principle. integrity. . nnwt^. VIRTUE. or it may be very much more than virtue. goodness. and vigilant. from vir. are almost exact equivalents . as in the presence of an enemy. negligent. honor. whether in matters concerning ourselves or others. from the Saxon. Goodness. dull. truth. in which case wdkefvl has something Watchful. justice. inattentive. righteousness. probity being to honesty much what virtue in some respects is to goodness . drowsy. and denotes much more than superficial or conventional honesty. Morality is conformity to the moral law in action. virtuousness. duty. thonghtlesB. purity. perhaps through temptation and conflict.

Rectitude and righteousness denote conformity to the standard of right. . roam. or m&rally. apart. physically. wickedness. diverge.3'M -nrander cause from the heaxt. Synonyms: go astray. usually with unfavorable implication cattle stray from their pastures an author strays from his subject one strays from the path of virtue. (L. . wrong. the ship veers with the wind. . religion. from. a prescribed or right way. distances of land or sea range commonly implies a purpose afl. . mndan. . veer. Ramble. in its literal use. a way) is to turn from. rove. Duty. but in its figurative use always somewhat contemptuous . viciousness. stray. whether in heart or act . often of vast. and gradior. . is always a word of pleasant suggestion. . aside. and via. err. To wander (AS. and always without defu?ite aim. . Compare synonyms for sin. and rove imply the traversing of considerable. . range. To swerve or veer is to turn suddenly from a prescribed or previous course. de. . . apart. an error being viewed as in some degree due to ignorance. Virtuousness is a quality of the soul or of action . cattle range for food Roam and rove are often pui-poseless. To stray is to go in a somewhat purposeless way aside from the regular path or usual limits or abode. it is . the fulfilment of moral obligation. mentally. di. rambling talk. in this connection. . usually in an unfavorable sense to diverge (L. and often but momentarily veer is more caprio'ous and repetitious the horse swerves at the flash of a sword the wind veers . digress. as. di. and has no unfavorable implication to digress deviate. vice. the rendering of what is due to any person or in any relation. wind) is to move in an indefinite or indeterminate way which may or may not be a departure from a prescribed way to deviate (L. step) is used only with reference to speaking or writing action. incline. to err is used of intellectual or moral and of the moral with primary reference to the intellectual. is. . righteousness is used especially in the religious sense. . ramble. in the latter sense . a hunting=dog ranges a field for game. Stray is in most uses a lighter word than wander. swerve. Uprightness refers especially to conduct. Compare innocent justice the essence of virtuous action. tend) is to turn from a coiuse previously followed or that something else follows. Antonyms evil. and vergo. Range^ roam.

enlightenment. knowledge. be private . Wisdombaa and . a highway may be over water as well as over land. Enlightenment. learning. street route is a line of travel. An avenue is a long. roadway. judgment. and understanding are native qualities of mind. A channel is a vraterway. judgment. route. pathway. . sense. A thoroughfare is a way through a road or street temporarily or permanently closed at any point ceases for such time to be a tlwrvillage street. lane. avenue. cipal street. highroad. and imposing or prinTrack is a word of wide signification we speak of a goat=(racfc on a mountain=side. Wherever there is room for one object to pass another there is a way. sagacity. Synonyms: attainment. reasonableness. thoroughfare. skill are acquired. a railroad=fracfc. as by study or practise. skill. A passage is between any two objects or lines of enclosure. Insight. always the latter unless the contrary a way suitable to be traversed only by foot= is expressly stated . . as of a private residence. A road (originally a rideway) is a prepared way for travchannel. passengers or by animals is called a path. and may be over many roads. discernment. reason. judiciousness. Information. erudition. town. highway being a specific name for a road legally set apart for the use of the public forever . course. WAT. Compare air .Avisdom 372 Synonyms: alley. bridle-path. a pass commonly between mountains. broad. knowledge. prudence. path. a race=fracfc. driveway. profundity or depth. trach. the roads in that country are mere bridle-paths. Insight. tho capable of increase by cultivation. road. or track road may as. foresight. discretion. . reason. eling with horses or vehicles. a highway or highroad is public. passage. erudition. oughfare. street. the track of a comet on a traveled road the line worn by regular passing of hoofs and wheels in either direction is called the track. understanding. passageway. or village it passes between rows of dwellings the country road becomes the A A A . highway. A driveway is within enclosed grounds. sense. bridle-path. when is in some center of habitation. learning. profundity. sagacity. information. depth. as a city. prescience. The other qualities are on the bovder^Jine. pass. direction.

leading one to do.373 been defined as "theiighixiseotTcnowledge. jocularity. . imbecility. power. foolislmess. Skill is far inferior to wisdom. burner. and habitual processes. wagglsbness. Prudence is a lower and more negative form of the same virtue. . entertaining. . or in the ingenious contri- vance that makes such application possible. raillery. when the highest unsdom is in the disregard of the maxims of prudence. and has been said to depend upon a union of surprise and pleasure . consisting largely in the practical application of acquired knowledge. WIT. . senselesBneos. but no wisdom. misjudgment. miscalculation. wisdom implies the highest and noblest exercise of all the faculties of the moral nature as well as of the intellect. to say of one that he displayed good judgment is much less than to say that he manifested wisdom. waggery.. Compare acumen astute knowledge Mnro prudence. it depends certainly on the production of a diverting. The analogies with which wit plays . so that while the part of prudence is ordinarily also that of unsdom. drollery. fatuity. folly. burlesgtue. . is broader and more positive than prudence. as in the exigencies of business or of war. Antonyms: al)snriJity. witticism. Compare synonyms for absurd idiocy. Wit is the quick perception of unusual or commonly unperceived analogies or relations between things apparently unrelated. indiBcretion. facetiousness." or "the use of the most important means for attaining the best ends. . nooBenee. and largely with a view of avoiding loss and injury wisdom transcends prudence. idiocy. pleasantry. SAGACIOUS SKILFUIi . There may be what is termed " practical toisdcwn " that looks only to material results but in its full sense. eillineBS. stupidity. especially correct decisions. cases arise. In the making of something perfectly useless there may be great skUl. as readily as to refrain from doing but Judgment is more limited in range and less exalted in character than wisdom . imprudence. Jest. Wisdom is mental power acting upon the materials that fullest knowledge gives in the most effective way. 3oke. or merrymaking surprise. the power of forming decisions. error. Synonyms banter. playfulness. . fun. respecting outward and practical matters. Judgment." loisdom thus presupposing knowledge for its very existence and exercise. .

and. Synonyms: acblevement. labor. Boljriety. and has special senses. and always kindly. and is pronounced and often hilarious. brief. solemnity. thus far. stupidity. furtlier. bltberto. rest. Labor is hard and wearying work . like still.yet 374 are often superficial or artificial . Drudgery is plodding. drudgery. occupation. action. now." Yet has a reference to the future which still aoes not share "we may be successful yet " implies that success may begin at some future time " we may be successful still' implies present time. which labor and toil do not share. often applies to past action or state extending to and including the many closely related senses. toil. we can say " he is feeble. or by any fortuitous occasion of mirth. performance. production. especially feeble as yet. leiBiu:e. Antonyms dulnesB. Work is also used for any result of working. often replacing a positive statement with still . still." or " while he was still a child. with verbs often interchangeable we may say " while he when joined with as . business. gravity. irksome. TVORK. Antonyms: ease. Synonyms: besides. "he is not gone yet" is nearly the same as "he is here still. . sustained. Compare act. : Berioagness. employment. vacation. doing. business. humor is deep. toil is straining and exhausting work. humor deals with real analogies of an amusing or entertaining kind. work may be hard or easy. Fun denotes the merry results produced by mt and humor. thoughtful. exertion." or "he is still . physical or mental. Work is the generic term for any continuous application of energy toward an end ." Yet. relaxation. was yet a child. deed. idleness. as in mechanics. still YET. repose. are . Yet and have of past time." with scarcely appreciable difference of meaning. recreation. Wit is keen. sudden. and often menial work. Pleasantry is lighter and less vivid than tvit. . product. stolidity. except that the former statement implies somewhat more of expectation than the latter. Yet with a negative applies to completed action. or with traits of character that are seen to have a comical side as soon as brought to view. and sometimes severe .

Juvenile and youthful are commonly used in a favorable and kindly sense in their application to those still young . light=hearted. vigorous. arrived at maturity. is distinctively applied to those in the early stage of life or not . but in a bad sense of those from whom more maturity is to be expected childish eagerness or glee is pleasing in a child. but unbecoming in a man puerile in modern use is distinctly contemptuous. juvenile in such use would belittle the statement. youthful in the sense of having the characteristics of youth. vigor. young. immature. may have a favorable import as applied to any age. puerile. and girlish are used in a good sense of those to whom they properly belong. for OLD. as when we say the old man still retains his youthful ardor. Compare new. boylsli. buoyant.^"^^ that youthful we may continue to enjoy in the future such success as are winning now. . Antonyms Compare synonyms . Boyish. hence fresh. cMldisb. Synony ms adolescent. or hopefulYoung ness . Juvenile. cMldlUce. girlisli. we YOIJTHFIJI. callow.. childish.

This will often be found not easy to do. and all disputed points should be promptly referred to the dictionary usually to be looked up after the recitation. wuereby that may be correct to-day which would not have been so at an earlier period. and all others carefully prepared for this work. suca quotations being held open to revision upon consultation of authorities. also quotations from the best newspapers. The change of usage. the teacher should insist text. or desired that the questions should he answered or the blanks in the examples supplied off-hand. The teacher should make a thorough study of the subject. as the dlflBculties will simply represent an inferior usage which the dictionary will brush aside. Hence. expiesslj and eolely to accompany synonyms have been carefally pointed out. etc. It is not expected. and consulting the ultimate authorities the best dictionaries and the works of the best speakers and writers. if need be. copied on the blackboard before recitation. In a few instances. with any others that may be added. with words underlined for criticism. The very best method will be found to be to have the examples included in the lesson. but always upon the authority of an approves aicnon^ry. For the latter purpose a good cyclopedia of quotations. pupils should not be allowed to open it during recitation. au appropriate word to fill each blank can always be found bv careful study of the corresponding group of synonyms. Such independent study will be found intensely interesting. periodicals. The majority of them will not need to be referred to again.. but going beyond the necessarily brief statements there given. To secure the study of Part I. Eence. and no books brought into class..SUGGESTIONS TO THE TEACHER. In such study nothing can be worse than gness"Work. but the class should not be allowed to become a debating society. leading questions have been avoided. unless on rare occasions to settle doubtful or disputed points. like the Hoyt. The teacher should so study out the subject as to be distinctly in advance of the class and able to speak authoritatively. such quotations being held authoritative. though not infallible. The meaning of English words is not a matter of conjecture. The class should be encouraged to bring quotations from first-class authors with blanks to be filled. In such case. will be found very helpful. and can be made delightful and even fascinating to any intelligent class. Definition by synonym should be absolutely forbidden. not only mastering what is given in Part I. and the order of synonyms given In Part I. speeches. at the next recitation. but the resulting upon the very words of the — difference of meaning should be cleaily pointed out . One great advantage of synonym study is lo exterminate colloquialisms. The examnles have been in great part selected from the oest literature. unless the pupil can give in his own words what is manifestly as good. either of two words would appropriately fill a blank and yield a good sense. before coming Into class. intended. the preceding text in The following exercises hare been prepared which the dietinctione of — In answer to questions calling for definitive statement. cither should be accepted as correct. has frequently been departed from or reversed in Partn. and considered. Seasonable questions should be encouraged. should be carefully noted.

ABASE How disgrace f (page 2). To provide funds. the defenders agreed to his To the surprise of his friends.PART II. the throne. in such numbers that the commander fonnd It France was compelled to Alsace and Lorraine to Germany. QUESTIONS. himself by cowardice was themselves before wealth. the fortress. What does abarii- don commonly denote of previous relationship f forsalcef EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. and power. ABANDON 1. the king resolved to the coinage. . QUESTIONS AND EXAMPLES. In the height of his power Charles V. To what 'quit f resign f surrender ? f desert objects or classes of objects does abandon apply f abdicate f cedef 2. but no* The officer who had Only the base in spirit will The messenger was so to the ranks. Senator Conkling suddenly work. the men instantly office. does aiase differ from delMsef humble from humUlatet degrade from EXAMPLES. He came from the scene of his disgrace. Finding resistance vain. Is abandon used in the farorable or nnf avor- able sense favorable or unfavorable ? forsake f 3. rank. The soldiers -^—— his standard necessary to the enterprise. At the stroke of the bell. haughty and defiant. (page 1). that no heed was paid to his message.

but qnicWy recovered himself. QUKSTIONS. P. The nnmerons questions for a moment. The treatise was already so brief that It did not admit of The Dr. Is a cotiiraMion always an aM?«xiaBont Give instances. an —— of f ^e title ** Fellow of the Boyal Socletjr. 3. The prosecution was evidently malicious. which of these words are nsed In a good end which In a differ from incite and instigate as to the time 3. Can we have an abbrtnAaBon of a book. B. What does dbJixrr denote ? t How does Archbishop Trench illustrate the difference between abhor and shunt 4. EXAMPLES. 1. ABHOR (pageS). Can one be dawnfed who is not abashed f 6. it. S. or sentence f What can be abbreviated f and what abridged * EXAMPLES. bad sense t 2. Is embarrass or morlify the stronger word f Give Instances. as arguing less ezcltemen''- and more calculation and cowardice. is naed both for Doctor and Debtor. paragraph. an otfrreviotion always a ayniracVUm t 2. What does detest express 1 S. QUESTIONS. I. hbn In this ktod Oholsh rebellion. instigate.abash abhor nvm <»/s ABASH What has (page 8). Is (page 4). And you that do by envy and revenge. 1. to flie etronger word. Ahdt^ tnetie. the effect to make one abashed f 2. Instigate: 4). The spealcer was b At the revelation of snch depravity. How does confust differ from abash t 3. ta ." ABET (page QUESTIONS. EXAMPLES. actions? How does abet of the action ? Give instances of the nee of abet. The peasant stood the witness. Which 3. What does loathe imply It it . he To a crime may be worse ^— than to originate the viceroy to rebel agidnst the king. the visitor was deeply . Which of the three words apply to persons and which to incite. In the royal presence. I was utterly When sensible of his error. Give an instance of the use of mortified where abasTied conld not be subBtitnted. What do we mean when we say that a person is mortifled? 4. ABBRETIATION QUESTIONS. and are rebels aU. ablwr or despise f 2. Why conld not the words be interchanged ? 6. To farther his own schemes.

He Is at the Albemarle. 3. QUESTIONS. — ABOliISH (page QUESTIONS. What does annihilate signify 1 abolish f 2. One generation passeth away and another generation Cometh. bot the earth forever. by sD good "m^ — that which Is evil. What terms do we nse for doing away with laws. and svbcertf especially between the last two of those words f 6. was found to bava been —— by later enactments. From the original liquor has been New Jersey. — 8). . Give illustrationa of the appropriate EXAMPLES. degradation as to be ntterly Snch weakness can only be • Talebearers and backbiters are everywhere He had eonk to snch —— . Brfaitbbe— 'InUielaodof promise. dwell. settlement of VIneland. keeping So great was the crowd of visitors that many were compelled to neighboring villages. suppress. and of the limited use of abide. What other words of this class are especially referred to t 9. was at last The law.379 physical or moral In Its application » OSes of the above worda. And there were In the same coantry shepherds over their flock by night. though The Supreme Court Even . He has for forty years in the same bonee. had long been by the revolutionists. as in a strange coaaBf. What by dJAdet by l^'lgef by Hve. *"'''' abolish 6. retidef the meaning of scgoum f 3. What are the differences between overthrow. What EXAMFLES. cleave to that which Is goa& ABIDE 1. and why i 4. and how do among themselves f 5. which — — —— by the le^slatnre. The one great endeavor of Buddhism Is to Modern science seems to show conclusively that matter is never . How does prohibit differ from abolish f 7. sedition should be promptly the adverse decision of the Inferior tribunal. What word do we especially nse of putting an end to a nuisance f 8. Give some antonyms of oMiaA/ those terms differ EXAMPLES. The ancient never formally statute . Of what Is It to it nsed 1 Give stronger or weaker than 4. T« atottali nsecl of persons or material objects f examples. or it may result In the of free institutions. sorrow. (page 5). Should we say one is slapping or staying at a hotel . Give examples of the extended. the sale of intoxicating . limit of time Is expressed Is 3. . 1. —~— watch In the in the fleld. In a republic.

so that they are either subjugated or exterminated. The New Testament may be regarded There are several excellent as an of religton. of the decision of the court was published in all the leading papers. arbitrary? imperatlvt? timperiotiat peremptory? positive? authoritative? EXAMPLES. After the ship began to pitch and It is roll. for United States should be rarely need. 5. (page 7). How does an obominaiitMi differ from an QfeTise T from crime in general ? EXAMPLES. iSSec from an outline or a synopsis f from an abstract or digestf 2. Is arbitrary ever nsed in a good sense ! What is the chief use } Give examples. . How are they nsed in a modified sense i 4. How does autocratic differ from arbitrary? both these words from despotic ? despotic from tyrannical ? 6. Does an arialysis of a treatise deal with what is expressed. ruler. QUESTIONS.abomination absolute „_ 3sO ABOMINATIOIV QUESTIONS. What words may we use to express a condensed view of a sabject. S. Bow does an abridgment. QUESTIONS. nnlesa in bastj ABSOL. How does an abstract or digest differ from an ouiline or a synopsis? 3. Man^s vriU and Intellect have ^ven him dominion over creatures on the earth. (page 8). Is irresponsible good or bad in its implication. or with what is implied f 4. To what was mind or to abomination originally applied » 2. n— On all and questions of law in the United States the decision of tiM final. God alone Is and The Czar of Bussia is an . as V. 1. What does absdutt In the strict sense denote f supreme f 2. of their dictionary. whether derived from a previons publication or not I EXAMPLES. An Such The publishers determined to issue an writing or technical works. Court Is Learning of the attack on our seamen. To what are these words in such sense properly applied i 3. of English literature. Does It refer to a state of some act or other object of thought f 3. (page 7). time that snob a were ABRIDGIHEBiT 1. the fonlest (nevaient among the Greelss and Bomans of classic antiquity. power tends always to be In its exercise. How does abominaiion differ from aversion or disgust f 4. Capital punishment was formerly inflicted in England for trivial In spite of their high attainments in learning and art. we conld not look npon food withont shonld be abated. the government sent an for apology —— demand all other and indemnity.VTI: I.

. (page 10). How do abstracted. What is the original sense QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. very little heat was' the fnel was rapidly from the outer surface. How does ammme differ from absorb? 4. Is the substance of the alieorbtng body changed by that which it absorbs? Give instances. within the furnace. does What la it difEer from acguitf forgive/ jmtlfyf pardon f of absolve? What are the chief antonynu Ko power ander heaven can When the facts were known. and absorb in the fignrative sense.fiQi «*='* absolve abstract ABSOLVE . ABSTRACTED QUESTIONS. Intoxi- more than a century old. Give instances of the distinctive ases of engross. absorbed. What is temperance regarding things lawful and worthy i regarding things vicious and injnrions i 3. See these words under discern as referred to at the end of the paraeraph on abstract in Part I. In setting steel rails special provision must be made for their expansion under the influence of the heat that they . (page 9). does 1 it apply t its special sense when used with reference to sins 4. differ from divert? from distract? 3. may be said ABSTINENCE 1.. a man from his personal responsibUltj. The pupil should be instructed. Bow does (Ulstlnence differ from abstemiousness? from self-denial? 2. to Tho have Jip stood on the table and barked at Traddles so persistently that he the conversation. of all blame. 3. v. How does abstract. What is the diSerence between aisorb and emit? absorb and radiate? EXAMPLES. seemed to cost him no He was so moderate in his desires that his from all Among the Anglo-Saxons the idea of universal and total cants is little . Can one who is preoccupied be said to be listless or thoughtless ? one who is absent-minded? • Note. 11). What is the more exact term for the proper course regarding evil indulgences t EXAMPLES. When Is a flnld said to be absorbed? 2. (page 9). of absolved 8. ABSORB 1. is the difference between abstract and separate? between dismminaie and distinguish ?* St. fwallow. What (page 10. 6. To what S. tolook up and read over the synonyms referred to by the words in small capitals at the end of the paragraph in Part I. QUESTIONS. In all cases. ani preoccupied differ from absent-minded? 4. How 3. when said of the mind. imbibe. he was EXAMPLES. ABSTRACT.

Which are indifferently either good or bad f 3. and eillyf 3. and all who had formerly been his friends. Is reproach. To what does aUy generally apply r colleague f 4 How . n. (page IS). What is the especial element common to the ludicrous. What are the distinctions between irrational. most plan. and the nonsensical t 6. intellectual gifts make the ACCESSORY. The tenant shall not the property beyond reasonable wear. may be disproved by deducing logically from utterances. many of his arguments were so The — 1. and which in a bad sense ? 3. It a conclusion that Carlyle delighted in hatred of the Jews In the Middle Ages led the populace to believe the slanders concerning them. osa «*»* EXAMPLES. ABVSIE: To what does abmt apply f (page 12). In his rage he began to To be for doing right can never really a true man. the ridiculous. case of rented property. misuse. What bad f and pervert apply does abuse differ from damage (as In fbs 3. does an associate compare In rank with a principal < . g. • The bnsy student may be excnsed intolerable. What is the difference between absurd andparcuUxciealf Z. with these perpIexitleB as to be completely if .absurd accessory. 1. «. How does ofr>«« differ from harmf 4. Do misemploy. but found him altogethei I attempted to dissuade him from the » as to be positively — . ABSURD 1. How e. QUESTIONS.)i to persons or things ? To which does abuse apply ? EXAMPLES. A Is statement . What is the especial impiicaUon in unreamnabUf 4. Which words of this group are used in a good. (page 11). QUESTIONS. He vraa bo totrndings. How do momtraua and preposterma compare with absurd f 5. good or 6. QUESTIONS. dangerous villain. words of this group are used in a bad sense f 5. has man hie fellow man more cruelly than by him for his In no way religious belief. What are some chief antonyms of absurd t EXAMPLES. occnpationg had made him Numerone toterraptions la the midst of almost . In the merely - one idea from all its associations and view it alone la the The power to mark of a philosophical mind. 2. fooUsh. How do persecute and oppress differ ? 7.

Gambling clings almost inseparably Bruises and contusions are regarded to games oi . henchman. occupation. As he was not present at the actual commission only an of the crime. many who can not be admitted The enduring of school and college life often develop into the most beautiful and . What i. How does acquaintance tiom companionship ? acquaintance tiomfrientishipf iioia intimacy ? 3. should take the greatest care In the choice of their . In what sense axe follower. misadventure. What differ does acqitaintance between persons imply ? 2. QUESTIONS. but with him. How does incident 3. of soul. I. How does fellowship differ iiom friendship ? EXAMPLES. The called to the for a fresh bandage. as ordinary of the cavalry service too far. The Senator differed with his in this matter. ACRIIHOIVY How (page 15). and mishap distinguished t Is the difference between accident and chance f ? differ from both EXAMPLES. ACCIDENT (page 14). France and Russia seem to have become firm . and creed. are ready promptly to claim with of life must bring us into The . Bttlo ACQUAIIiTAJfCE QUESTIONS. The baion rode into town with a great array of armed . and retainer f partner f 7. Great thoughts and high purposes keep one from being greatly disturbed by the of d^y life. To what is accomplice nearly equivalent f Which la the preferred legal term 1 used sor!/ EXAMPLES. What is the legal distinction between a8««or and accesf 8. The prudent man is careful not to tempt The misplacement of the switch caused a terrible . How are accident. I. he was held to be and not an . How is . (page 15). does acerbity differ from asperity? asperity from acrimony? 2. All persons. Ib assistant or attendant the higher word i How do both these words compare with associate f 6. What Is the special significance ot fortune f 4. by language. Between those most widely separated by distance station.n^n "*''» acrimony accident 6. A public speaker becomes who within the inner circle of known to many persons wiiom he does not know. there may yet be true of place and time. but especially the young. QUESTIONS. How does It differ in usage from chance f 5 .

independently of its ACIJIIEIV 1 . Give illustrations of the uses of the above words as regards the possessors of the corresponding qualities. How Is act distlngnlshed this group necessarily from action? from deed? 2. Great will be patiently borne if the sn£erer Is convinced of its essential ACT 1. What is sayaciiy^ Is it attributed to men or brutes f 4. What is the special characteristic of acumen ? To what orderof mind does it belong? 3. into a settled . QUESTIONS. 384 acrimony ^trngaishedtroTa malignity f malignity from vlriUencef 3. How do active and restless compare? 4. To what sort of activity does qffldous refer ? 6. acuteness. EXAMPLES.acumen. With what two sets of words is active allied 1 2. Wha. (page 18). . is done. penetration. This smooth and pleasing address veiled a deep . The rewards. What are some chief antonyms of active? EXAMPLES. What is perspicacity? 5. ACTIVE 1. Being of an tion. The treatise displays great critical The Indians had developed a practical . that enabled as the by scarcely perceptible signs almost as unerringly them to follow a hound by scent trail .t\B shrewdness? Is it ordinarily good or evil r 6. B. disposition and without settled purpose or definite occupa- she became as a hornet. and insigM compare with acumen ? 2. had become habitual with hhn. QUESTIONS. What 1b Implied in the use of the word severity? EXAMPLES. He had his days and hours. he answered with sudden . true student is from the mere love of learning. (page 16). How do sharpmss. A constant sense of injustice may deepen justice. (page QUESTIONS. 17). Wliich of the words in imply an external effect J Which may be wholly mental f EXAMPLES. How does active differ from bvsy? from induetrious? 3. He who The docs the truth will need no Instruction aa to individnal is the truth of thought. A certain To this of speech ill-timed request. but could never be properly said to be An attendant instantly seized upon my baggage.

What b tact/ 3. till the trial comes. invent have very poor and unhappy brains for drinking. to the Chief who in triumph advances. The I EXAMPLES. what thou hast done by day. of doing doth expresse No other but the doer's willlngnesse. EXAMPLES. How does salute diSer from is it to apostrophize EXAMPLES. ADDRESS. To what does amplify apply ? 4. and sufficient alike signify f How does crnnmcTisurate specifically differ from the other two words f Give examples. And In the morning what thou iiast to dc And every grin. I conld wish some other custom of entertainment. merry.„„<*"«• add" adequate ADD Bow 1b add (page 18). What greet? hailf 2. (page 19). left nothing coorse. ye heroes heaven-bom band I Who fought and died in freedom's canse. To what do adapted. The pale snowdrop is springing To the glowing sun. QUESTIONS. —^— would ADEQUATE (page 31). fit. We know not of what we are Indeed. I. QUESTIONS. for your purpose untouched. related to Increase f How does it differ from midtlpXyt %. Is satisfactory a very high recommendation of any work ? Why f 4. QUESTIONS. What And the tear that is wiped with a little — Hay be followM perhaps by a smile. n. draws one ont ADDRESS. suitable. 2. Is aile or capable the higher word ? Illustrate. What do adequate. In what ways may a disconrse or treatise be ampMed t EXAMPLES. V. (page 30). . so a nail no doubt. I His faithful dog the smiling guest. in dls- . slightly handled. Wliat does augment signify } Of what is it ordinarily nsed t 3. QUESTIONS. and qualified refer? 3. Care to onr cofBn —^— up at night. What is qualities are address In the sense here considered. indnded in address/ 2. 1. commensurate. What does accost always signify accost or greet/ address f f 3.

Has partisan a good or a bad sense.adherent adorn nagt tSso ADHERENT (page QUESTIONS. home. Henceforth the majesty of God . as it ought to be. the venerable place. men . What distance is implied in nea?' / neighboring f 3. arise speaking perverse things to draw away Woman is woman's natm:al Self-defense compelled the European nations to be s against Kapoleon. At church. evening hours. Give antonyms of adjacent. and it bows the knee. How from decorate f does adorn differ from ornament f from garnish f from (feci or beOec/cf EXAMPLES. Fear him. What Is the difference between acfjacent and adjoining f contiguous t conterminous f 2. to their eternal ADmiRE (page 23). With hoary moss. 31). How I. at His looks The red breast To the ground where thou art laid. does It now express t 2. Also of your own selves shall s after them. The beautiful are sure to be . M they draw Stronger by weakness. The deposed monarch was found to have a strong body of ADJACENT (page 22). was admire formerly used ? What EXAMPLES. What does next always imply I 4. I It gives ten thousand motives to : Be it religions. near. s. I. The heart it humbles. and why ? 6. with meek and unaffected grace. QUESTIONS. — ADORN (page 23). value Science none can prize it more. In what sense does aifmire compare with revere/ venerate/ adore f Give instances of the use of these words. . wiser men become. Shall kindly lend his little aid. EXAMPLES. I. oft. QUESTIONS. What le an adiierentf 2. and gathered flowers. QUESTIONS. Is it well to speak of a supporter as a backer? EXAMPLES. How does an adherent differ from a mpporterf from a disciple f 3> How do both the above words differ from allyf 4. and you have nothing else to fear.

A woman's lot is made for her by the love she ——. for the better a man do- Berves. Itom farming f 2. man must be held to be a free . My poverty. Who with no deep researches the brain.naw «»»• aim aliVont AI'VROJiT 1. but not my will. QUESTIONS. What is design? Is . —— AORICVL. What is gardening f Jlorictillure f horticulture f Loan oft loses both itself and friend. And borrowing dulls the edge of A field becomes ezhansted by constant AIM (page 26). ACE]ST(page24). .TVRE QUESTIONS. The declined to take the responsibility in the absenoe of the owner. . endeavor. (page 34). QUESTIONS. How does What agent In the philosophical sense compare with nwoer or doert different sense has it in business usage f EXAMPLES. How does (Kwsde compare with co««c«<^ 3. Oh. 1. To what does asplratUm apply f How does it differ in general from design. That morality may mean anything. What an aim f How does It difEer from markf from goalf 2. or purpose? 4. They rushed to meet the foe. . How do end and object compare 1 3. rather give me commentators plain. Which the most general word of this group ? EXAMPLES. How ioea purpose compare with Intention f B. How does it EXAMPLES. What Ib it to affrontt 2. How does affwrU compare with InsuUt with iSeOM/ EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. AGREE is (page 25). The petty dedre to is simply a perversion of the hnman love of power. What does agriculture Include ? (page difEer 35). How do concur and coincide diSer in range of meaning ? How with reference to expression in action f 3. the worse they will speak of him. It is safer to some people than to oblige them. QUESTIONS.

O yet we trust that somehow good of 111. up and down with me. . In deeds of daring rectitude. 3. AIRY 1. How does airy agree with the two words. What do affright Give an illustration of the contrasted terms. What is What does demeanor include ? EXAMPLES.alarm EXAMPLES. How does air difEer from appear the difference between aEp''^*"''*^^'^^^^. - tongues that syllable men's names. and differ from aerial? Give instances of the uses ot 2. would soon expel Her mischief. (page. Aie avely and animatedMsedi in the favorable or unfavorable sense ! EXAMPLES. Soft o'er the slirouds That seemed but zephyrs ALARm 1. and misgiving related to the danger that ttai fright express 1 derivation and distinctive . For mieerable air taa •*'"' It is not . Howare apprelwnsUm. and purge off the baser Victorious. QUESTIONS. What is the meaning of alarm? 2. I never. whispers breathe. (page 27). with important In conversation overbear. . QUESTIONS. . What does e^Acreoi signify f sprlghUy? 3. What is air in the sense here considered f 2. the room up of my absent child.'^ ^" What i» the sense of bearing? carriage? 5. Vice Grief fills is a monster of so frightful As. needs but to be seen. to be hated. Incapable of stain. in ecom that end with self. ance? 3. (page 28). dread. QUESTIONS. dieguietude. Will be the final How quicl£ly nature falls into revolt. my children. 27). How does mien differ from air? 6. on sands and shores and desert wllder- The mold flie. to the train beneath. Society became And hopes my glittering bride. walks Puts on his pretty repeats his words. Lies in his bed. When gold becomes her but ambition that is the mother of misery in man AIR 1.

To he He who is for war not one of the most effectual ways of preserving peace. to-day will he less so to-morrow. never the Fashioned for himself.L.oun '*"'•' excites alert allay them ? 4. and ready refer? 2. J and terror. fof two moments together. Is a. taken from his side. dismay. . How does alien f alien differ tiom/oreign ? 3. a bride. widcawalce. What are consternation. iSb n. In what sense is AomoyeM^mj used? tion often EXAMPLES. What is the sense of analogtiusf (Compare synonyms for ANALOGT. a. (page 30). How does aUke compare with similar ? with identical ? 2. What Is (page 31). hands thy dying eyes were closed * * * hands thy humble grave adorned By By strangers honored and by strangers mourned. nor something What is reli^on ? Not a which comes and takes up its abode in the soul. sometimes awfnl.IK1: 1. as he would overleap His destiny. QUESTIONS.AT 1 . Sometimes gentle. foreigner by birth necessarily an 3. to our natnie. An AL. What is the distincmade between e^al and equivalent ? 3 . the distinction between aMay and alleviate f Which word implies s par- . By AL. QUESTIONS. 1. from the covenants of from the commonwealth of Israel and promise. How do foreign and alien differ in their figurative use ? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. What Is timidity f ALERT 1. Are the people of one country while residing in their own land foreigners or aliens to the people of other lands ? 4. Thus ending loudly. QUESTIONS. What does prompt signify f 4. How does ready differ from alert? tiom prepared f 3. To what do alert.) 4. sometimes capricious. he stood. How can one residing in a foreign country cease to he an alien in that country f 5. What is the secondary meaning of dUri? EXAMPLES. is ALiIEir. (page 38). inhabitant. and bow are they related to the danger 5.

Behold a sower went AL. many cases of haunted houses. How much of certainty is imgVi^ in aUegef 3. pacify. signature.i:«ORY 1. document. things unto them In . To what iBjiction now most commonly ap- EXAMPLES. I can not -^—— one thing and mean another. sootht. (page SI). the spirits have not ventured to face an armed man who has passed the night there.) EXAMPLES.ETIATE How (page 83). Under whatgeneraj term are all these included ? 4. QUESTIONS. With which of the above words are we to class appease. How much does one ad mit when he speaks of an alleged fast. And come like the benediction That follows after prayer. In argument -^^— are like songs in love: They much describe. Which Is the primary and which the secondary word. Such songs have power to The restless pnlse of care. Uany aword.l. If I can't pray I will not make beIn lieve I AL. To pity distress is but human. (page 33). Is alleviate used of persons f 3 . etadparaile? 3. at random spoken Uay or wound a heart that's broken I —— AliliEGE I.) EXAMPLES. or an actual lightening of the bTirden T 2. >- But. they nothing prove. and the like f 3. O what mighty magician can A woman's envv ? . With whatwordsisffiife^jafeespeciallytobegroupedf (See synonyms for AIXEVXiTB. QUESTIONS.allege allevlato tlal nnA JwW removal of the canBe of enSering. And He spake many forth to BOW. What are the special significations of atate ? assuage ? mitigate ? moderate ? 4. allege or adduce? Why ? 2. How does allegory compare with simile? plied? Simile with metaplwrf 2. saying. or the like ? EXAMPLES.L. How does alleviate compare with allay? (Compare synonyms for AILAT. does aUeviate differ from relieve? from remmie / 2. to I it Is Godlike. QUESTIONS. What are the distinctions between allegory. faMe.

and the battlcflags were f nrled.L. How do the above words compare with mention as to explicitness ? 3. QUESTIONS. 85). I. Man hath his daily work of hody or mind . the of the world. lest so despised a name Shonld move a sneer at thy deserved fame." . . Whai does yield imply t permisof toler^ EXAMPLES. saying: ** I name thee not. Bow doesa cotifederacy or federation dlScr from a union/ EXAMPLES.'illing to AI. destine dlSer from appoint f 4. dissent. or person ? 2. going <lowt. The two nations formed an ofEenBtre and enemy. State churches have ever been unv.OT How does (page 34). The cruelty and envy of the people by our dastard nobles.1JI>i: (page 86). How does award WS&x from aUot^ appoint. who Have all forsook me. Frederick on a field of his the Austrians to cross the mountdns that he might attack them own choosing. Till the detenBive —— against the common war'dimn tlirobhed no longer. WhatlsanoBioTMW/ how does It diHerftom parin^sMpf ttomcocditionf from league f 2. 1. QUESTIONS. the son knoweth hie The king is but as the hind . QUESTIONS. and assign? EXAMPLES. What Is the difference between aSow and permit f between a permit and sion f 2. . How do hint and insinuate differ f EXAMPLES. What Is the distinctive sense of cUludef of advert? ot rtfer? 2. also ate and submit/ 3. To what does appoint refer t assign T 3. flCid AULOW (page QUESTIONS. Business are the warrant for the existence of trade > ^— AIiL. place. Does aSot refer to time. to Late in the eighteenth century Cowper did not venture to do more than the great allegorist [Bunyan]. In the Parliament of man.on< "*»* alliance allude AliLiIANCE (page 84). hath devonred the rest. He cth the moon for seasons. Who may not wander from the Before bis work be done. 1. What instances can yon give of the use of these words.

what purpose dost thou That thou return'st no greeting O. He had a strange gift of AliSO 1. QUESTIONS. . What is it to cajole f to decoy? to Inveigle 5. The ruddy square The of comfortable light him." AMASS (page 38).i» nsed in the favorable oi nnfaTOrable sense ? What EXAMPLES. How does hoard differ from stare ? it to artwss f EXAMPLES. Is u. 1. Letting heaven *8 warm sunshine ALTERNATITE QUESTIONS. to thy words. 87). Into what two groups are the (page 37). Which distinctly imply that what U added is like that to which it is added F EXAMPLES. Plucking up the weeds of sin. The sum was the savings of an industrious and frugal life. (page 38). QUESTIONS. How does *e(?Mce differ from tempt f 6. ajid pr^eremx imply regarding one^s wishes alternative? resources? What do Homer delights to call Ulysses " the EXAMPLES. (page QUESTIONS. Which words simply add a fact or thought ? 3. By daring and successful speculation. Whatlslt tooSMrs? Z. not making poor. friends. 'Bovi &oes allure AiSta fmm attract f iiom lure ? 3. as the beacon blaze bird of passage. Thine to work to pray. But Satan now is wiser than of yore. And by maldng rich.amass allure „„„ av* ALiIiURE . Clearing thorny wrongs away in. and of the love of women. How is amass distinguished from accumulate f 3. What is 2. is the difference between cTuace and altemative in the strict nse of lan? ? f guage 2. Is alternative always so severely restricted by leading writers choice^ j^f:^ electimi. What 3. does coax express ? 4. he a prodigious fortune. interest amassed or accumulated ? 4. man of many . synonyms for also naturally divided f 2. to thy friends ? .

(page 39). (page 40). And gaping mouth that testified 'Twas while he And AIMIBITIOir 1 . That. who produces notliing. Envy. and whose businesB is only to judge and AlIAZIliriEIVT 1. What two senses has amMtion? 2. How does amUtion differ from Which is the higher word ? 3. What is the distinctive sense of 4. fling away the angels. my intent. And overcome us like a summer's doud. toiled him to be freed. in the leam'd or brave. ViTiicli word carries a natural implication of eaperflcialneBS J How do novice and tyro differ from amateur f EXAMPLES. I charge thee. with the rein to raise the steed. QUESTIONS. ? Without our special The fool of nature stood with stupid eyes . and sculpture have not been done by He was The mere enjoy. (page 39). What do amazement and astonishmeM agree in expressing 1 2. Cromwell. What is the meaning of awe? of admiration? 4.<>a<> '*'* ambition atnateui* AMATEUR What is 3. QUESTIONS. Can such things be. from All Wycklif' s soldiers waked at once. to which th' ignoble mind's a slave. bat only Vaulting . How do the two words differ? 3. painting. the difference between amateur and connoisseur f between connoUseMr and critic? 2. 's iron trance. in Logic a great Profoundly skill'd in Analytic He could dlBtinguishf and divide A hair 'twixt Bouth and south-west side. fell By To prick the sides of . How does surprise differ from astonishment and amazement? S. What are the characteristics of wonder ? EXAMPLES. Ib 1 have no spur that sin. Has emvlatitm a good side ? aspiration/ How does it emulation? compare with aspiration/ EXAMPLES. The greatest worlm in poetry.

What is the difference between amend and emend? EXAMPLES. Whaiie a similitude? G. VTbsXia affinity t coincidence? 3. soft as a kiss. This was a manl The east is blossoming Yea a rose. and the elements was So mixed in him. and charming differ from amiable t Give exa good'naiured person necessarily agreeable f an amiable ? EXAMPLES. What the specific meaning of analogy? 2. To what does lovdy often apply How do agreeable. that Nature might stand u^ And say to all the world. or eyil f 4. ANGER (page 44). QUESTIONS. not difficult to trace the of the home to the Btat«. How do advance. QUESTIONS. Betum ye now every man from hia evil way. A]VAI. person? 4. with at the hypocrisy of the Jews. been variously Human be- characters and conditions never reach such perfection that they can not AMIABLE (page 42). Is 3. Hoes coi?icide7ice necessaLTily involve reseniblaTwe or likeness ? 4. 1 . and the text at this point has your doings. What Is it to amemtf 2. . I —— as the presence of woman is. QTIESTIONS. Are these words applied to matters decidedly bad.amend aiij^er „„. amples. Vast as the heavens. I was overcome by a sudden feeling of was filled . QITESTIONS. . To what does amiable always apply f 3. His life . better. fonl. 'Eovi do resemblance and is similarity differ from analogy ? EXAMPLES. attractive. The two boys bore a close It is to each other. What are the especial characteristics of anger ? How does it differ from indig- nation? exasperation? rage? wrath? ire? EXAMPLES. My enemy has long home me a feeling of Christ . r*w* AIHEINO (page 41). and improve differ from amend/ 3. What is parity oi reasoning ? 5. and The construction here is difficult.OOY(page43).

Is man. m Nature to every mood of his A man renowned for Nothing is and unprofitable Will seldom scmple to make free With friendship's honest feeling. It is only within the last half century that societies have been organized for the 1 prevention of cruelty to . . To mind. What is a verbal answer? 2. aa animal f 3. What is implied it we speak of any particular man as an animal? a brute ? a beast? 4. In what wider sense is answer used ? 3. Theirs but to do and die. QUESTIONS. (page 45). Through the rare fehcity of the times you are permitted to think what you please The Sphinx its riddles and to spring.aaK. What is a retort ? How does it differ from r^artee f EXAMPLES. (page 46). (page 46). sensual AiraroriVCE 1. of abuse and sarcasm. QUESTIONS. What forms of ezistence does the word crea^ur^ include 7 6> What are the animals of a country or region collectively called ? EXAMPLES. or the like. QUESTIONS. What is a reply? a ryoinder? 4. differ from a reply or r^oinder? 5. and he does find give thee of thy just demand. lazy. and applause. but thanks. He could not be content without finding a it. What isittoanKOKnce. an argument. Does it apply chiefly to the past or the future f To what is advertise chiefly applied f propound ? promulgate ? publish ? 3. transform onrselves into 1 Take a out of his instinct.make. How does an answer to a charge. and you find him wholly deprived of underSpuming manhood and its standing. we O that men should put an enemy in their mouths to steal away their brains that should with joy. but so easy and inviting as the contest. **•"* aiiima] aiisTFer AWIMAL.? 2. What is the special quality of a response ? 6. 1. joys to loot. pleasance. revel. with life and death depending on the answer. EXAMPLES. WhaXiaaaardmal ? a brute ?& beast? 2. It is a paltry . I can no other . Upon thy princely warrant I descend. what you please. Theirs not to make Theirs not to reason why. To be a lawless. The songs of birds and the wild flowers in the woodlands the coming of ANSITER 1 .

anticipate, autlclnallon ^


„„„ 396


What are the two contrasted senees of anticipate? 2. Which is now the more common f 3. How does anticipate differ from expect f from Iwpef from apprehend?
4. How does am<iraj)a<iora differ liom presentiment? tiom apprehension? tiomforetx>ding ? 5. What special element is involved inforetaste? How do foresight anAforelhmght go beyond the meaning of anticipation?

Then some leaped overboard with fearful As eager to their grave.

every man to do his duty. These are portents; but yet I , I hope, They do not point on me. If I know your sect, I your argument. The happy of a renewed existence in company with the


of the







is antipathy to be distinguiehed from dislike? from antagonism? from aversion? 2. WhatiB uncongeniality? How does it differ from ontipaMv/

Which is




wUch negative f EXAMPLES.



the solvent of



From my soul I
All affectation;


my perfect scorn,

object of

my implacable


To what does

antique refer f antiquated? 2. Is the difference between them a matter of time ? Give examples. 3. Can a modem building be antiquated?

Can it be antique ? 4 What


the signiflcance of quaint ?

copper lamps, at any rate, For being true I bought. I do love these ruins, We never tread upon them but we set Our foot upon some reverend history.


ANXIETY (page 49).

What Is

anxiety in the primary eense aMrf«<y differ from anguish? 3.




mental or physical

What kind

f 2. How doei of poBslbility does anxiety al

ways suggest
this regard


How does it differ from

apprehension, fear, dread,


worry? fretfulness? 6. Does perplexity involw

fl'>» ••'*


Yield not to the future, weep not for the past. Superstition invested the sliglitest incidents of life with needless is harder than worls, and far less profitable.




is apathy f 2. How does it differ from the Saxon word wnfeeHngTiess f from indifference f from insenHbUity t from unconcern f 3. How does «toidsm differ from apathy f

In lazy let stoics boast Their virtae fixed: 'tis fixed as in a frost came. At length the mom and cold Bank Into a from which it was impossible to arouse him.


APOLOGY (page 51).

What change of meaning has opotogv undergone
always imply
these words


2. Whatdoesanapotog^now

How does an apology differ from an excuse? 4. Which of may refer to the future? 5. How does coTiJ'eeaion differ from


only account for that which they do not
for being. Beauty is its own but suicide There is no refuge from










What two


do seeming?

contrasted senses arise from the root meaning of apparent ? Z. What when we speak of apparent kindness or apparent neglect f 3. How presumable and probaHe differ i 4. What implication is conveyed in

What do we


when we speak of " seeming innocence "t

It is not It is

not yet

that the students will attempt to break the rules again. what his motive could have been in committing such an

It is

that something has been omitted which


essential to complete the





Of what kind of demands or impulses is appetite ordinarily usedf 2. What demands or tendencies are included in passion? 3. What is implied by po«aums and appetites when used as contrasted terms ?



<io& "*'"

Govern well thy , lest sin Stirprise thee, and her black attendant Death. sway Take heed lest Thy judgment to do aught which else free will

Would not admit.





the special significance of apportion

aUot, assign, disiribuie, or divide f

the transitive use



What is


by which it is distinguished from 2. What is the significance of dispense in to appropriate?

Representatives are
the several states accorcung to the population.





their shares duly

among the captors.



is an approximation, in the mathematical sense? 2. How close an approach to exactness and certainty does approximation imply? 3. How does approximation difEer from resemblance and similarity ? from approach ? 4. How does approximation, as regards the class of objects to which it is applied, differ from nmrness, neigliborhood, oi propinquity ?


We have to be content with
faith, there is

to a solution. to




Wit consists


knowing the

of things



and the

difference of

things which are alike.





the difference between

arms and armor t 2. In what connection


armor used

modem warfare ? EXAMPLES.



on clashing brayed Horrible discord. constant rivahy between irresistible projectiles and impenetrable


ARMY (page


QUESTIONS. What are the essentials of an army? 2. Is an army large or small f term would be applied to a multitude of armed men without order or
tion f




4. In what sense


host used



For the is a school in which the miser becomes generous, prodigal; miserly soldiers are like monsters, but very rarely seen. and the generous.








ARRAIGnr (page 66).
To what kind
dieted f of proceedingB do indict and arraign apply


How arraigned? 3. cusef ctnruref


do these words


How is one from cliargef

iir ar-


for his offenses.

Beligion does not

or exclude unnumbered pleaenres, harmlessly pnrsueda




QUESTIONS. What is an artifice ? a deoice ? finesse ? 3 In what
and imposture always used



a fraud?

. sense are cheats maneuver, 3. In what sense is trick commonly used f 4. 5. Is wile used in a good or a bad sense ? 6. Does the

good or the bad sense commonly attach Wind, device, and finesse?

to the words artifice, contrivance, ruse.

Those who can not gain their ends by force naturally resort to The enemy were decoyed from their defenses by a skilful Quips and cranks and wanton Nods and becks and wreathed smiles. Whoever has even once become notorious by base , even truth, gains no belief.
, .



he speaks the

ARTIST (page 58).



an artist? |an artisan?



an artificer?


related to


and artisan ?

The power depends on the depth

of the


insight of that object he contein-

professions of
If too

Infuse into the purpose with which you follow the various employments and life the sense of beauty, and you are transformed at once from an



many turn shopkeepers, the whole natural quantity of that business divided among them all may afford too small a share for each.

ASK (page 59).
I. For what clasB of objects does one aslf?

For what does he Jeg'/ 2. How do compare with ask? 3. What is the special sense of implO}'e? ot supplicate? 4. Sovfaie crave and request distinguished? pray 5. What kind of asking is implied in demand? in require} eind petition ? How do these two words differ from one another?




We, ignorant
of ourselves,
often our

Deny us

for our


own harms, which the wise powers so we find profit,


losing of our prayers.
is great,

Tlio harvest truly

but the labourers are few:

ye therefore the

Lord of the harvest that he would send forth labourers

into his harvest.

Speak with me, pity me, open the door,

A beggar

that never begg'd before.

Be not

afraid to


is right.

thou canst, with hope; but ever Though hope be weak or sick with long delay; in the darkness, if there be no light.




What does

What when used In popular lanspeak of associates in crime or wrong f What words are preferred in such connection? (See synonyms for aocebsokt.) 3. Is comr pardon used in a good or bad sense ? 4. How does it differ in use from assoassociate imply, as used ofllcially f


Do we

ciate f


What is

the significance ol peer f comrade f consort/

His best

And his best riches
The The

innocence and health, ignorance of wealth. accepted Napoleon's abdication. leader In the plot was betrayed by his -


(page 61)

Does assume apply to that which is rightfully or wrongfully taken t 2, In what use does assume correspond with arrogate and usurp ? 3 . How do arrogate and usurp differ from each other 7 How does assume differ from postulate as regards debate or reasoning of any kind ?

Wherefore do I These royalties, and not refuse to reign. a virtue if you have it not. For well we know no hand of blood and bono

Can gripe the

sacred handle of our scepter. Unless he do profane, steal, and ———.






assurance in the

How does

aesuranse In the bad sense assurance compare with impudence? with effrontery t

QUESTIONS. good sense ? 2. What is

Let ua draw near with a true heart in fuil of faith. Some wicked wits have libel'd all the fair. With matchless they style a wife The dear-bought curse, and lawful plague of With brazen he denied the most indisputable facts.

astute attain





QUESTIONS. From what language is acute derived f What is its distinctive sense what language is keen derived f What does it distinctively denote

f f

2. From

3 . From what language is astute derived, and what was its original meaning ? 4. In present use what does astute add to the meaning of acute or keen ? 5. What
does astute imply regarding the ulterior purpose or object of the person credited with it f

who is

You statesmen are so in forming schemes He taketh the wise in their own ncss. The most reasoner may be deluded, when he

practises sophistry upon




is attachment? How does it differ from adJier&nce or adhesion? from c^feetionf from inclination? from regard?

Talk not of wasted

never was waated.
for yonr family

Ton do not weaken your

by cultivating





bat deepen and intensify

ATTACK, V. & n.

(pages 63,


special element is involved in the
differ ?

meaning of attack?


How do assaU
word compare

and assault



is it

to encounter?



with attack?

How does attack differ from aggression? EXAMPLES.

We see time's furrows on another's brow.
death intrench'd, preparing his

How few themselves in that just mirror see!

Who ever knew Truth put to the worse in a free and open
Roger Williams
never his persecutors.


the spirit of intolerance, the doctrine of persecution, and


(page 64)

Whalt kind of a word
is attain, and to what does it point ? 3. How does aitain from obtain f from achieve? 3. How does obtain differ from procure?





and kept men by sadden flight. But they, while their companions slept. Were toiling upward in the night. Onr doabts are traitors, And make us lose the good we oft might

The helghtB by Were not


By fearing to



(page 65).


differ from attliucle, posture, or does position as regards pose t 3. Do the three latter words apply to the liTing or the dead 1 3 . What is the distinctive sense of attUude ? Is it conscious or nuconscions f 4. How does posture differ from attitude? 5. What is the distinctive sense of pose? How does it differ from, and how does it agree with attitude and posture?

QUESTIONS. the human body

The The
assumed indicated great indignation because of the insult implied. was graceful and pleasing.

What suggestion




often involved in attrilmte?

and ascribe?

2. How does attrVmte differ 3. Is charge (in this connection) used in the favor-

able or unfavorable sense?

ye greatness unto our God. unworthy motives which proved a groundless charge.





2. What Is an 3. Which of the above words expresses what necessarily belongs to the subject of which it is said to be an attribute or guality ? 4. What is the derivation and distinctive sense ot property ? 5. How does property ordinarily differ from quality. 6. In what usage do property and quality become exact synonyms, and how &ie properties then distinguished ?

the derivation and the inherent meaning of quality?


His scepter shows the force of temporal power.

The to awe and majesty. Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings.
Nothing endures but personal

AVARICIOUS (page 68).


do avaricious and covetous


from miserly, niggardly, parsimonious.

Aat ""*
and penurUms ? 2. Of what matterf art ireedy and they differ from each other f





How do

am not
care I

for gold;

feed upon my cost; yearns me not if men my garments wear. It is better to he content with anch things as ye have than to become in accnmnlating.


who doth


ATENOE (page 69).


avenge f 3. How does avenge differ from revenge f 3. Which word would he used of an act of God f 4. Is retaliate used in the sense of avenge or of revenge f
is It to

O, that the vain remorse, which must chastise Grimes done, had but as loud a voice to warn



keen sting is mortal to

I lost mine eye laying the prize aboard, And therefore to it, shalt thou die.

AVO'W (page 69).

QUESTIONS. Which words of tliis group refer exclusively to one^s own knowledge or action y 2. What is the distinctive sense of aver? of avouch? of avow? 3. How do
avouch and avow
or a br.d sense


from aver

What does

in construction ? 4. Is avow used in a good imply of others' probable feeling or action? 5

How does avow compare with confess? EXAMPLES.
The child
his fault

And, but herself, no parallel and was pardoned by his parent.




To what
matters should awful properly be restricted f 2. Is awful always interchangeable with alarming or terrible? with disagreeaMe or annoying?

thing to die. Then must it be an The silent falling of the snow is to me one of the most
things in nature.





what, therefore, does

the derivation and original raexam^oi awkwarS,? oi clumsy? 2. Tft awkward primarily refer 1 and to what clumsy? 3. Is

a draft-horse distinctively
uses of

mi\m 404




4. Give some metaphorical

awkward f




Though he was was not only but

he was kindly.

and had to be taught over and

over again the

same methods. The young girl stood in a

vay, looking in at the showy shop-windows.




1. In what do axiom and truism agree ; 2. In what do they differ they compare in interest and utility f


How do

almost an that those liberal for the heathen at home.
It is

who do most

for the heathen abroad




s clothed in great, swelling

words of vanity.

To what




do most of the words

in this group belong



are they so


How do they from each other in use? 3. What is chat? 4, How does prffiitfinj from chatting f 5, In what sense is jaSber used f How does it com2.



the special significance of bla^ and blurt?

pare with chatter/

" The crane," I The dove may

" may of the crane. of the dove."
one of them amusing a
ing babe.

Two women sat contentedly





From what land may one By whom may one be

QUESTIONS. be banished ? From what
said to be banished?

expatriated or

etciled ?



whom expatriated or exiled f
Give examples of


of these words

of widest import


phorical use.





a beach ? a coast ?



does each of the above words differ from

bank? 3. What Is the distinctive sense of strand? In what style of writing is it moat commonly used f 4. What are the distinctive senses of edge and


405 *""






What la banter f 2. How is badinage distlngalshed from banter f ratUery from both ? 3. Wbat is the distinctive sense of irony f 4. Is iran^ kindlj or the reverse f badinage? banter? 5. What words of this group are distinctly hostile ? 6. Is ridicule or derision the stronger word ? What is the distinction between the

two } between


and sarcasm f between clufff, ieering.

ami mockery?




is the meaning of is the added slgniflcance ot barbaric? 3* How does barbarous in general use differ from both the above words ? 4. Wliat special element is commonly implied In savage? B. In what leas opprobrious sense may barbarous and savage be nsedf Give

QUESTIONS. barbarian? 2, What



A mnltltade like which the populona North
Poured never from her frozen loins, to pasa sons Ehene or the Danaw, when her Came like a deluge on the south. Or when the gorgeous East, with richest hand. pearl and gold. Showers on her Ijings It is most true, that a natural and secret hatred and aversation toward beast. any man, hath somewhat of the Then art bought and sold among those of any wit lilce a -.——slave.

society, in






a bar? and wliat is its purpose 7 2. What Is a JarrJ«f ^ 3. WUct ordinarily applied to objects of great extent,? 4. Would a mountain range be termed a bar or a barrier? 5- What distinctive name is given to a mass of sand across the mouth of a river or harbor i



BATTI/E (page 74),

QUESTIONS. What Is the general meaning of conflict? 2. What Is a batOe? 3. How long may a Jo<«e last ? 4. On how many fields may one da<fl« be fought f 5. How
does engagement difEer from batUe?


does combat differ


action? skir-

mish? fight?

BEAUTIFUL, (page 76).


necessary to constitute an object or a person beautiful ? 2. ful be said of that which is harsh and rugged, however grand f

Can beauti3>




beautiful related to onr powerg of appreclatlonf



with beautifvlt handtarmt esque f



4. How doea pretty compare does /air denote ? comely t pictur-



within. I pray thee, O God, that I may be and free. happy youth, and their old age is in their lives 'Twas sang, how they were And in their death had not divided been. How has the day been, how bright was the snn. How lovely and joyful the course that he run.

Though he rose in a mist when his race he began And there followed some droppings of rain I





What is the meaning

of becoming f of decent? of mitaMef 2, Can that which worthy or beantiful in itself ever be otherwise than beamdng or euitable? G'.re instances. 3. What is the meaning otJUf How does it differ from Atting or batting f


A merrier man.
Within the
limit of


1 never spent

an hour^s talk withal.

govern thou my song, audience find, tho few. for your purpose Indeed, left nothing Untouched, slightly handled, in discourse. In such a time as this, it is not That every nice offense should bear his comment. How could money be better spent than in erecting a greatest library in the country f
Urania, and

^—— building for


BEOUOriKO (page


1 . From what language is beginning derived f commencement t How do the two words differ in application and use ? Give instances. 2. What is an ong'in.^ a murce f a rise f 3 . How &k fount., fowntain, and spring used in the figurative sense?

For learning is the pure. Out from which all glory springs. every good to gods and men. Courage, the mighty attribute of powers above, By which those great in war are great In love;





The of all brave acts is seated here. can not be that Besdemona should long continue her love to the Moor, nor he hie to her: it was a violent and thou shalt see an answerable sequestration. In the God created the heaven and the earth.

In what sense is benevolence now most commonly used f 3. Which of the above three words EXAMPLES. all our shattered hopes and hid them bloom again. What is the special significance of caustic? 4. up the knocker. BITTER (page 81). Qood are made np of petty BEIVETOLEWCE QUESTIONS. good Is the special meaning of tie? 4. When mine is cheeks. QUESTIONS. Is BIWD . Whatis»7Miren«r/ marmersf ca/triagt t EXAMPLES. What f 3. QUESTIONS. and acrid be distinguished ? pungent? caustic? 2. and not of the hands. t Adjust onr lives to loss. We lot the years go: Leave them to wash them clean with out in the open day. You can behold such sighte. Out thonghta and onr are our own. sacrifices. sense of bind? 3. QUESTIONS. make friends with pain. The a virtue of the heart. In how general a sense iB/asten used is UBed in a figurative sense ? Shut. What la the distinctive QUESTIONS. How may a(Ad. What is the special sense ol 3. I said. I'm dead. say I'm sick. What was the original sense of charity? the present popular sense ? S. tears. shut the door. How do behavior and conduct differ ? 2. What of humanity? generosity? liberaiity ? philanthropy EXAMPLES. John fatigu'd. I. In metaphorical use. (page 80). 1. how are harsh and bitter distinguished ? 3. What words are commonly nsed for benevolence in the original sense f 4. (page 81). (page 82). secrets of life are not shown except to and likenees. And keep the natural ruby of your with fear.**»« bleach BEHATIOR (page ot tearing? demeanor f 79). various uses. What is the original distinction between lienevolence and beneficence? 2. How do bleach and Uanch differ from whiten ? from each other ? EXAMPLES. Give examples of these words in theii bitter^ BIiEA€H 1 . .

How does brave dS&fittioiai courageous f 2. Which words of this group are naturally applied to rep? utation. What of results 6. Rnshed together at last. So these lives .EIHISH . What does valiant tell is especially f denoted by /emrtess and intrepid/ 6. What ideas are combined in heroic f EXAMPLES.3 . In what distinctive meaning of edgef 2. flaw or taint? 3. whom my satire seems too Stout once a . and one was lost in the other. How does it differ from a. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. month they march. A- - man is also full Fir'd at of faith. BLUFF (page 83). What is a 4. . 85).brave 4W» BI. What is the original sense of bouTidary ? style bound or bounds t 3. In worst extremes. What la a defect f blemish f a. Parted by s strong. and which to character EXAMPLES. 1. and rude employed f . (page 83). . bnt drawing nearer and nearer. first No crime's so great as to excel. fault f 2. Sliere are to EXAMPLES. ^— BRAVF (page QUESTIONS. . it was a grievous . In what sense are Uuiit. 2. How do these words differ from veniure- somef 4. rough. youth we tempt the heights of Arts Thy danger chiefly lies in acting well. In what sense are Uvff. How does it differ innsagefrom and sense is bourn used f 4. What is the special sense of adven' turoua ? of bold f of chivalrous f. 1. BOVIVDARY (page 84). and on the perilous Of battle. What is the EXAMPLES. Every page enclosing in the midst little . a at hand. frank. In sight with what the Muse imparts. A square of text that looks a The noble Brutos Hath told yon Csesar was ambitions If it were so. band And ever but in times of need. and open nsed brush.

What is wor*/ 10. What is an art In the the distinctive meaning of . . How many of the trast applied to water ? S. A man must serve his time to every We turn to dust. culate. What 7 .409 . QUESTIONS. Can you concited. What is occupation? Is it broader than iminess? 4. industrial sense/ a craft EXAMPLES. preceding adjectives can be ccdm and quiet? 4. Do we ever apply MUm and roar give more than one sense oteryf 4. To what apply calmf collected t classes of objects or states of mind do we Do the antonyms boisterous. turbulent. CA1. - and the wren. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS.. by actual . 91).CIJL. What to is the distinctive meaning of human sounds f 3.L. s die too. What (in the strict sense) is an o«oco(ion/ 6. What is a transaction ? 8 How does is implied in profession f pursuit f trade ^SiectTom commerce? 9. which is used with especial reference to the future Do cal- EXAMPLES. ruffled. How do you distinguish between mate ? couni and calculate? compute.^ CAtJa. captain The aporti" hard " In a voice of thunder to the helmsman. if ever. exr quiet f placid? serene? still? transit? 2. How does composed differ from c^m ? . Put your helm . Which of the words hi and which ordinarily applied to articulate utterance ? EXAMPLES. We ask them to approximately the cost of the building. and all our mightiest . rechon and esti- 2. and wild. CAL. also apply to the same f 3. Which is nsed mostly with regard to future probabilities ? 3. 1 (page 91). There were 4046 men in the district.„ business calm BUSINESS (page 88).ATE 1. What does hminesa add to the meaning of barter? 3. WhatiBajJoca^ion? 5. we use cmvpute or estimate of numbers exactly known f 4. Are less expressive than call? 6 . (page QUESTIONS. so used ? for the robin redbreast caU? 2. The time of the eclipse was to a second. The pioneers could hear I the savages my servant and he came. estimate. and. Can you s/iout this and scream more or group are necessarily Which rarely. What is Mrter? 2. outside. Of compute. (page 90).

Can you state the similarity between artless. CASTCEL. as much as bravery. and unsophisticated? How do they differ as a class from the words above referred to? 3. Is it possible to obliterate or ^aoe that which has been previously canceled or erased? EXAMPLES. dean a postage>stamp that has been properly can be used again. . dealing as the secret of mercantile Buccesa An man will not steal or defraud. ^ace. expunge. CARE (page 94). T. Is concern as strong a term as anxiety? 5. lift her with A military commander should have The Invaders fancied themselves so the to station sentinels. simple. Stewart relied on sophistry The as to disgust the assembly. secure against attack that they had not taken . (page 92). guileless. naive. was so A.cancel care •«mv 410 EXAMPLES. Tlie water is said to be always in tbe ocean depths. QUESTIONS." or " To be candid " often precedes the utterance of something disclass of things EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. How do the figurative nees of these words compare is with the literal ! 4. What is circumspection? precaution? heed? special difference EXAMPLES. SiJii obliterate ? Z. Which suggest the most complete removal of all trace of a writing f 3. she seems with artful care ASecting to he unaffected. How does it happen that*' To be frank. QUESTIONS. Take her np tenderly. What the difference In method involved in the verbs caned. on the listening ear of night Fall heaven's melodious strains. 1 What is the between care and anxiety? 2. . By lapse of time and elemental action. The possession of a conscience is an estimable blessing. Can you give some of the senses of care? 4. tbe inscription had become completely It Is practically impossible to so that it CAIVDID (page 93). To what do we apply ajbmeboardt candid? fair? frank? honest? siMCere? Iranspareni? 2. With the aid of a sharp penknife the blot was quickly . Wherein does care differ from caution? solicitude from anoAetyf watchfulness from wariness? 3. erase.

The of If it eagle nose of the general was magnified In every artist's . strong The man catastrophe: (page 97). What kinds of force or power do we indicate by convey. a calamity. it is cert^nly a huge CARRY (page 1. It was found necessary to the coal overland for a distance of SOO miles. or a disaster? 6.000 pounds with apparent ease. How do mimicry and imitation differ 1 5. Fortune is not satisfied with inflicting one . QUESTIONS. can 1. The failure of the crops of two successive years proved an the emigrants. S. Give some chief antonyms of the above. VSTiat is the special difEerence between j)a™Sj/ and travesty f between both and burlesque? 3. lift. Which word has the broader meaning. Napoleon always endeavored to the war into the enemy's territory. transmit. Can you give some figurative uses of QUESTIONS. Is a catastrophe also necessarily a calamity or a disaster? 3. His laughable reproduction of the great actor's vagaries was a clever hit be not lying to say that a fox's tail Is four feet long. Does mitforiune suggest as serious a condition as any of the foregoing.411 __^ caricatui-o cause CARICATrRE (page 95). What a eatastn^Jie or cataclysm? 2. irreparable to cause: 1. do we apply bear? carry? move? carry? EXAMPLES. What does lift mean? 5. QUESTIONS. antecedent and cause ? illustrated 2. disaster or calamity ? 4. while the loss of a battle but not a . QUESTIONS. Ky punishment is greater than I can . How are the and occasion by the (all of an avalanche I . WTiat is the distinctive meaning of caricature f 2 . (page 98). I. Is EXAMPLES.TSxswAown mishap compare with a catastrophe. Is an extravaganza an exaggeration? EXAMPLES. To what is caricature mostly confined f 4. condition. 96). and transport ? 3. What is the central distinction between words cause. To what sort of objects take? 2. War and I . What is the distinction between bring and carry? between carry and bear? 4. Well had the boding tremblers learned to trace pestilence are properly may be a ) The day's in his morning face.

and QUESTIONS. Where tmst him. and hollow. his is superior to loss or change. can blush from . not hope prevail. How do yon distinguish between chagrin. whyf EXAMPLES. And the antonyms coneeqtierwe? effect? What are carnality and causation ? How are origin and source related to cause ? EXAMPLES. How do you distinguish between character and reputation ? position? and dis- 2. for 'tis their to. his music by introducing a few popular tunes. 41 outgrowth? remit? 4. . constitution QUESTIONS. (page 100). Misfortune may cause the loss of friends and reputation. What are the shades of difference between choose. disappointment. yet if the man has not yielded to wrong. We requested the pianist to his costume between the acts.cliagrln choose 3. elect. If so. follow. CHAGRIN 1. The tailor offered to the armholes of the coat. the distinction between change and exchange? Are they ever used as and how f 2. there ie an effect there mnst be also a . Can yon distinguish between modify and qualify? EXAMPLES. The king's at the limitations He is not wholly lost who yet imposed upon him was painfully manifest. CHAIVOE What is (page 100). (page 104). QUESTIONS. We often fail to recognize the actor who CHARACTER 1 . QUESTIONS. It is necessary to know something was found of the of a man before we can safely The of the river to What was given as the of the quarrel he a small lake among-the was really but the hills. and shame? 3. . equivalent. Let dogs delight to bark and bite. (page 102). Which involves a sense of having done wrong f EXAMPLES. What feelings are comhined in chagrin? 2. humiliation. The philanthropist's for charity CHOOSE 1. Hope tells a Ahl Lest let flattering tale. mortifleation. pick. 5 . is often a great source of annoyance to him. Is nod/re abroader word than any of the preceding? 3. prefer. Delusive. vain. cull.

^„ select? circumstance clever 2. What special sense does this word always retain f How does transparent differ from translucent ? T What do lucid and pellucid signify f 8 What is . Is it a word of broader meaning than incident? QUESTIONS. What other words of this group are preferable to clever in many of its uses f is . In what connection is rank used 3. The fire was proved by the smoke-blackened in a case of homicide. . there hope for him. (page 109). Extreme provocation may be a mitigating that there had been a walls. CI. QUESTIONS. tho he was . How does clear differ from transparent as regards a substance that may be a medium of vision ? 3. What New England the meaning of clever as used in England f 2. What does distinct signify ? 5. does dear originally signify ? 2.**>» . With what meaning is clear used of an object apprehended by the senses. What is plain? 6. 3.? f EXAMPLES. ASS (page QUESTIONS. Does select imply more care or jadgment than choose? re- pudiate? EXAMPLES. How order? does a class differ from a caste ? 2. Can you give some instances of the use of circumttance ? 3 . Also between the antonyms cast away^ decline^ dismisSj refuse. city. An A select There is was formed for the relief met at the residence of the poor and needy of the . What was the early usage ? 3. 1 . What is to be said of the use of smart and sharp? 4. What is a coterie? How does it differ from a rfigwc . 106). of one of the leading men of the city. the special force of limpid ? CLEVER . The prettiest flowers had all been Jacob was to Eeau. QUESTIONS. (page 105). To what concomitant? circumclasses of things stance? event? fact? incident? occurrence? situation? 2. as an object of sight or hearing ? 4. a struggle of the masses against the CLiEAR What (page 107). the younger. is little When a man deliberately to do wrong. CIRCIiniSTANCE 1. do we apply aax>mpanim«n^^ EXAMPLES.

Employers may their employees into voting as they demand. For what are those associated who constitute a company f Is their association tempo. and the vast foierer One grand. 1. Par from the madding The A fellow that makes no figure in had met. not pleasant to live with one who is constantly ing. COMPABfY (page 110). From what is company derived ? What is its primary meaning ? 2. we were not willing. compel? 2. QUESTIONS. 's ignoble strife. not dream them. sweet song. Their sober wishes never learned to stray. To what use is congregation restricted ? How does meeting agree with and differ from it ? EXAMPLES. What are the characteristics of a group f 6. These considerations — — ns to aid them to the ntmost of our power. His brief experience in the department had made now assigned him. room contained a large of miscellaneous objects. and which is limited to the mental act 3. company . Which finds outward expression. (page 111). What is a conclave? n convocation? a convention? 5. rary or permanent^? 3. W Itli vhom does one remonstrate? i EXAMPLES. all day long . . The dog gave a low which frightened the tramp awav. Do nohle things. imply i In what favorable ? sense is it used EXAMPLES. but for the Even if secret ballot. Mm very in the work She was especially in song.complain EXAMPLES. (page 113). eweet maid. and let who will he . death. What Is the especial of coerce ? 4. it shall be determined In a law- COmPEL. but without organization or ofUcers. 4I« . they possessed the power of ns to do justice. In the formal sense of the word f 4. What does force imply? 3. To whom does one complain. And so make life. QUESTIONS. What does constrain. By what ie complaining prompted? murmuring f repining? t. It is — . A great If ful ye inquire anything concerning other matters. What Is It to significance QUESTIONS. COmPI^AIlV I. What is the difference hetween assemblage and assembly? 4. Be good.

compare? 2. In what sense consequent nsed ? COIVTAGIOIS 1.. No pestilence is so mnch to be dreaded as the feai COWTEW1JAL. (page 117). How is contrast related tiate^ to QUESTIONS. How does complicated differ from intricate P f. (page 116). Is How do regult compare 1 3. How does complex differ from compound? from composite f 2. for the most part. How does eontlnwma dUfer from continual? amples. 1 . What Is hetero' geneauef cmiglomerate f 3. What is the essential meaning of conversation ? 2 How . He was of a stealthy step and a hulls dimly visible through the darkness. How does conMQiience and lestie differ from ^ectf both from remit? 3. How does «cn«£W« compare with the above-mentioned words 1 3. inceesani from ceas'leM ? Give ex. What does sensible indicate regarding (he emotions. (page 117X QUESTIONS. They are now it would have been better to resist the first temptation. that To he COSrSEQVESrCi: QUESTIONS. (page 118). CONTRAST 1. QUESTIONS. 1.-« **" complex conversation COMPLiEX 1. does conversation differ . (page 118). What are the special senses of differen- discriminate and distinguish ? COIVVERSATION QUESTIONS. Of what things Is one aware/ of what is he conscious f 2. To what is the EXAMPLES. (page 112). of the During the plague in London persons walked In the middle of the streets for from the houses. 1 . catching an opinion like a cold The mob thinks by of bad example. (page 116)l QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. To what is cmdaglon now limited by the best medlcaJ usage term infection applied ? » 2.om involved f COKSCIOCS 1. yon are ignorant is a great step to Imowledge. that would not he expressed by conscious? EXAMPLES.

transmit. the tree's trunlc The water was by the electric cnrrent DECEPTIOIV . S. Belay always breeds . What the essential dtfCerence between decay and decompose? EXAMPLES. There can be no Nor wanted sweet with a great genius. careful rider avoids running — — Is at your ! DECAY (page QUESTIONS. What is the distinctive meaning of evil ? danger? 2. (page QUESTIONS. The Stir. transmit. To what class class of objects transport agree f of objects does transport refer i t What Is the dlstlnctlTe sense 3. In what do em/cdji. What are the ipecial BenBee of dUUogue and cMoquyt EXAMPLES. How 5 Ib dec^ distinguished from deception? all from guUe? fraud? tlfing? hypocHsy? 2. and of convey? 2. Have craft and cunning always a moral element How is dissiiiudalion distinguished from duplicity ? . (page 120). Which Is do transfer. Does datigeroi peril snggestthe more immediate ger and peril? 3. QtTESTIONS. who does . Wiatia felonious ? flagitious f S. What is the primary meaning of Iniquitous/ 4. the banqnet of the mind. What Is the distinctive meaning of crimindtf How does it differ from Ulegal <a unlawful f a. To what 4. 1 . Do . 1. How &k jeopardy and risk distinguished from dan^ EXiMPLBS. QUESTIONS.convey deception tromtaHkf 3. 123). The flowers wither. CONVEY (page 119). all the mg. QTIESTIONS. Is decepium ever innocent f 4. Mta «lo Bow Ib discourse telated to amveraatU>»r 4. and convey apply predominant sense of the latter words f the CRIMIIVAL. Is an iniquitous act necessarily criminal f DAKOER (page 131). 1. What sort of things decay ? putrefy ? rot? 133). of these apply to conduct as well as to speech T 3.

-. a d^niHon or a description f 2. DELIBERATE (page 135). (page 127). . KXAMPLES. ? in is ponder. To what kind of reasoning does demonstration in the strict sense apply t 2. It was a matter of self* The judge decided It to be a case of . Do large gatherings of people consult. Which Is th e more comprehensive *^ ? EXAMPLES. In the soft light the The DEmOlVSTRATION QUESTIONS. was required. What are the chief distinctions between (. (page 137). What is evidence t proqff 3 . delibercUe. DEFINITION 1. How many persons arc necessarily implied in consult. and delusion t is QTTESTIONS. and debate as commonly nsed 5. QTTESTIOira. and what mnst it exclude f 3. A prompt The The seer gave an of the difflcnlty prevented a of scenery was admirable. What most a description include 4. Which la the more exact. The legislatuie DEI. in all its bearings. A mathematical 3ff . Which Is the stronger term f 4. '• deflnltlon Aemonstratfon EXAMMjBS. (page 1S4).. of the witness was so complete that no further The must be final and conclusive. qnaneL Many a coutroTersy may he Instantly ended by a clear of tenna. Which word How does hdJUiiinsed especially of objects of EXAMPLES. difference between iUusion 2.e2i&«7'a<«/<x»i^</ consid^f medliatef reflect f 2. or meditate. confer. In what respect has interpretation a wider meaning than <ran«2atu»i/ How does an explanation compare with an exposition/ i 5. cination differ from both . What mnst a < Hon Include. reflect} in meditate f What idea of time implied in deliberate f EXAMPLES. The of his condnct was patent to all. of the dream. of the sick are sometimes pitifoL was complete.USI01V What is the essential sight.. consider. The matter was carefully for several days. QTIESTIONS. . or deliberate? 3< Do we reflect on thinprs past or things to come i 4.

The The The of the discourse was plain and emphatic. each as the result of the previous condition f 2. What element la prominent In Intention? purpose? plan? 3. dexterity? From what is rendered! How might each be from dexterity? 3. "Does purpose suggest more power to execute taan design? 4. adroitness derived f From what How does adroitness differ in use EXAMPLES. of the Almighty can not be thwarted. and what does it signify f 4. diction. His in debate enabled him to evade or parry arguments or attacks which he could not answer. How does intent epeciflcally differ from purpose? Which term do we use with reference to the Divme Being ? EXAMPLES. discouragement. Hell is paved with It Is the good . . DI€TI01V 1 (page 130). The architect's Involved much detail. The of the best trained workman can not equal the precision of a machine. What is style? How does it compare with is What is diction or language f EXAMPLES. language. QUESTIONS. desperation. the true meaning of verbiage? Should it ever be used as the equiva lent of language or diction? 3. (page 129). he abandoned all endeavor. How does sUU differ from dexieriiy ? Which can and which can not be communicated f 2. The The adaption of means to ends in nature clearly Indicates a and so provea DESPAIR (page 139). The atter In weak — ^^ of their condition was apparent. distinctive meaning of design? 2._ 41S DESIOX What Is the (page 128).design diction . and by long practise gained of manipulation. In what Older might despair. . QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. How does despon- dency especially differ from despair? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. of the voter that decides how his ballot shall De counted. DEXTERITY t . He had a natural an imimltable for scientific investigation. Which the more comprehensive word. of a written contract should be such as to prevent misunderstandings poetic of Milton is bo exquisitely perfect that another word cat scarcely ever be eubstitnted for the one he has chosen without marring the line. or phraseology ? 2. Prom what is aptitude derived. and /lopeleasnesa loUow.

Whlcn pertain mostly to realities. What do we mean by " a dUtltui(Ion without a dijference 'V The proper should be carefully observed in the nee of " shall " and " will. In what sense are n» . Lei OS mmately the color of the goods. the dlstinctiva meaning of detect? discover f Inventf 2. 3. What Is the present reBtriction upon the nee of these words in England ? What words are there commonly substituted 1 4 What is the prevalent usage in the United States f How long did that usage prevail ? . QUESTIONS. W ith the aid of a great telescope we may tne upright man. To what sore of objects do we apply beMd. and which are matters of jnclgment—c^ijference. What is the most comprehensive word f 2.419 dureience DIFFfiREHiCE: 1. discern. EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. He Is just It IS a. How cover and Invent diSer } 3." The between black and white is self*evident. An ^Ing criminals.a machlnea one must flrst understand the laws of mechanics. . diatinetion. Is detect often used in a favorable sense f do di» EXAMPLES. the early and general meaning of sick and sickness in English f 2. The of our representatives' conduct with their promises Is unpardonable. DO I (page 135). recovering from a slight not good manners to talk of one's . of this group QUESTIONS. what stars are double. or ineonetstenffy f 2. (page ISl). spread in the camp and proved deadlier than the sword. QUESTIONS. experienced policeman acquires wonderful skill in the law of gravitation. DISCERN (page 133). —^ EXAMPLES. observe. Tne was found to be contagious. QUESTIONS. Newton . and see i 2. distinguish. Xo — —— DlSEASi: What was (page 134). DISCOTER What Is (page 133). What do tehold and distinguish suggest in addition to seeing f EXAMPLES.. disparity.

The -^— rests either upon of the Church. class of M. The work It is the is not only grand in design but legislators it Is with the most exquisite magistrates to delicacy in every detail. and suspect mostly to persona and things. duty of the to make laws. Nearly every law of nature was by 1 my own heart man first . . (page QUESTIONS. b of his guilt could to further the enterprise. and tations of those who have committed to him any trust. a work of gratitude and affection Iiaa been wonderful how mnch can be by steady. dietrusti mrmlae. QtTESTIONS. So we or to motives apply dmiM. plodding industry without . (page 186). To what ft. of the Every one should labor to his duties faithfully. effect. Ith . but stlU bad oor t u to the . n.1b dogma used favorably or unfavorably > EXAMPLES. TowhaiTosttetBdoweapplj the wotA creed fdoctritiet dogma f primiiple/ 2. Which of these words doubt f ftesitattonf mtsgivlngf most commonly implies an unfavorable meaning? as applied to religions matters? 3. (hen proved to be Vnna. the just expec- DOCTRINE 1. . realize. V. objects do we apply dlsbelitff DOUBT. them. 188). We feel no -—^ In giving our approval.Is It useA in a favorable or an unfavorable sense 1 EXAMPLES. The jury had We did all we outcome. and how are they dJBcriminated from each other 1 3. We do not I that that the earth moves around the sun.doctrine doubt. A duty has heen It is brilliant talents. man from the outset I. the authority of the Scriptnies. and execute f peiform and aceompliehf accomplish and complete f EXAMPLES. (page 137). or upon a decision d even A man may have nprlght whUe he disregards commonly received DOUBT.„420 How and complete need. Is mistrust used of persons or of things F 3. do we discriminate between fuyu. and intentions f 2. QUESTIONS. Which is the more inclusive word t 3. What meaning has skeptidmi EXAMPLES.

QTTESTIONS. and to what may it be limited ? 4. I will not excuse. ZafacUity active or passive imply. QtTESTIONS. and I will be heard 1 I to hear of your welfare. Do we nee duty and right of civil things ? or Imsiness and oSligathn of moral things 1 2. and at imitation f i. 1. we ought to take advantage of the — which children possess of learning. and will open the lock. Can you give the distinction between a copy and a duplicate/ a facsimile. plied ? (page 143). but do we not a good influence over the children of others ? EAGER 1. nessf 5. considered » Does ii apply to action or 3. Does re^xmsibilify imply connection with any other person or thmg! ^ EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. The of an organ by the violinist was perfect Tills key is a . I will I single inch. in the sense here 3. How does anxious in this acceptation differ from both eager and earmstt EXAMPLES. What sort of a copy is a transcript/ EXAMPLES.. the shrill trumpet sounds to horse I away for the fray. What Is the distinction between eager and earnest In in the objects toward which it is directed t the nature ot the feellne im2. 4l!el duplicate ease DUPLICATE (page 141). and of the prospects of the enterprisB. Hark My I am am in . Whatever he did was done with so much with great . EASE 1. To what is eaepertness limited f EXAMPLES. . 1._. He plays the violin and delights an audience. What does ease denote. condition f (page 148). soul's in arms. and not retreat a I wUl not equivocate. The signatnie was meiely a printed ^— DUTY (page 142). for the also rest under some to society to exercise good conduct of our own children. What does ease ? readiness? What ioeB/aeility imply t readi- QUESTIONS. . truth that It IB often said vrith equal In him alone 'twas natural to please. We 1 go because It is recognize a my .

What to audadly t Imrdlhood f 3. What to the distinctive meaning of education f Is Inslrucllon t teaching f Z. nnder the love which it may puff a man is as ill up. and how do they differ from each other t 6. and what to God we owe. with which political gentlemen in I am not a little snrprised at the easy and out of Congress take It upon them to say that there are not a thousand men in the North who sympathize with John Brown. Than to perform it first. What is vanity f How does It differ from sdf-cmifidence) tiomp7idef 7. Is self-assertion ever a duty 1 sif'concdtt 6. la often pnt to on Improper nse. How instruction or teaching related to education f 3. What is boldness f Is It nsed In a favorable or an nnfavorable sense T EXAMPLES. What Is discipline f tuition f S. maketh a fall man. 1 . What to tetpassertlon } sdf'concdtt 3. and how f 4. ^— — EOOTISm (page 145). What special element does ^irmtery add to the meaning of audadty KoAhardihoodt 3. What to impudence t shameiessnessf 4. QUESTIONS. Does cowtwii differ from sej/iawjcrfi. heard yet That any of these bolder vices wanted Less — to gainsay what they did. except they be bounded by experience. and For natural ahlliijes are like natural ^plants that need pruning by B themselves do give forth dhrecflons too much at large. . ns tenderness to can not return. but never prop liim up. edge and learning related to education f differ What are breed- How are hnowl EXAMFI. (Vhat egoism and how does it differ from egotism ) 3. How does ^n)n2«rv compare with these words f 5. to to cherish and nnfold the seed of immortality abeadj we do learn onrselves to know By And what to man. 1 . What is se^'csieem? How does It differ from ssj^'conceji^ to from self'confidenxe f EXAMPLES. A branch of in EFFROXTERV (page 144> I.E3. How does training from teaching? 4. What is selficonfidenee f Is it worthy or unworthy ? S . at ease under indifference. . for fear of ita being Idle. . The true purpose of sown wltliin ns. and writing an exact man. conference a ready man. When they saw the of Peter and John. ing and nurture.education egotism aA» -laa EDrCATlON (page 143). and perceived that they were nn I ne'er :eamed and Ignorant men they marvelled. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS.

of Christ EiniGRATE I. —— EXAMPLES. EMBLEm (page 146). What is it to end. refer to reaching i an arbitrary or an appropriate end ? What does stop signify . : a pastor. EXAMPLES.H« does be should do with all 'ESn. V. How does hlrt compare with employ f The young man hod been faithful in every respect. and fruits and was a falling of the leaves. The ship was crowded with year. QUESTIONS. Bose of the An —— thon art to of stainless pnrlty. signify as t<r expectation or appropriateness ? Give instances. meaning of migrate f What Is its application T 2. (paga 147). desert. conclude. Whatisatoie»/ ajigunf a/almagef Atypef EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. What specially distinctive sen^e has finish? 4. What do close. V. How do thetwo words compare as now used ? 4. lieeping their garments whiter Walls on through life with steps aright. one ought to his might. 1. Can the same thing be both an emblem and a si/mM f a «iffn aniasymiolf 6. Does terminate 5.OY 1. What are the distinctive senses of employ and use f Give Ivtances. How does a mgm suggest something other than itself f S. and whatever . as Israel's deliverer./lao *** emblem Olid. complete. by the firm for several months and bad proved The church was then ready to What one has. An things are s : the external shows Of nature have their in the mind flowers Itoses. and what reference does end have to intention or expectation 2. What Is the distincflve What do emigrate and immigrate signify f QITESTIONS. 3. are pouring into the United States often at the rate of half a million a EMPI. and Jinis/i. From what language is emilem derived I What did It origlnaBy signliy t a. mostly from Gernuuiy. QUESTIONS. — me ^ Of those who. 2. (page 147). Tff what do they apply two words be used of the same person and the same act ? Bow f t Can the EXAMPLES. The life was suddenly long enongh The train for the passengers to get off. (page 148). What does use often imply as to materials usedT 3. then whirled oa . What Is the derivation and primary meaning of eymiol/ 3.

ENDEAVOR. What is the meaning of termination. How does essay differ from attempt and endeavor in ih view of the results of the action f 3. How do allow and permit compare with the words just mentioned r 4. grief. What is an essay. (page 150). 'Wliatfe the distinctive meaning of extremity f 3. QUESTIONS. manhood a . the end. (page 160).„f*-*** END. j. and of whatisitcliieflynsed? expiration? limit? EXAMPLES. So vast an reijuired more capital than he could command at that time. and after call on God. and never stand to donbt. What is a terminus? What specific meaning has the word in modem travel ? 7. 1. He that endureth to the — . What Is the meaning of bear as applied to care. and the like T 2. How does extremity compare with end ? 4. Nothing's so hard bat search will find it out. How does try compare with th( other words of the group f EXAMPLES. he abandoned all Youth Is ENDURE 1. What is a struggle? 4. All rejoice at the successful shall be saved. After a few spasmodic at improvement . M. pain. 1. v. a necessary of the vast undertaking. first thyself. 4. What does endure add to the meaning of bear? 3. What reference is implied In extremity t 5. What Is It to (page 149). What k the end f 2. What does strive suggest ? S. (page 148). a blunder. endure n. QUESTIONS.end. For to the worker God himself lends aid. to endeavor? To what sort of exertion does endeavor especially apply ? 3. How do piU up with and toUraU . to enter In at the strait gate. What is implied in undertake? Give ai Instance. QUESTIONS. What is the meaning of tlpf point? How does extremity differ in use from the two latter words 1 6. Do not turn back when you are just at the — ^— ElVDEATOR. How does ai tempt differ from ^ort? 3. attempt? QUESTIONS. and how is it distinguished from ^or^/ from attempt? EXAMPLES. n. old age a regret. Seeing that death. Others combining with him enabled him to succeed with it. will come when it will coma. and for what piupose is it made 1 5. What is an endeavor. What Is an e^ort? aa exertion? W^ch includes the other I 2.

safe guide. (page 152). (page 163). tho smothered for awhile. He that wrestles with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens oar la our helper. Let all from you. two words as to the purpose implied? 3. What is the distinctive sense of 3. with . and wrath. —— ENEmY 1. What is 4. What is the special sense of ({yortf/ How does it come Into connection with the words of this group f 6. distinction Is there is QUESTIONS. and clamor. Make —^— of nations who had else. The carnal mind is neither indeed can be.. the path Thou lead'st me. against God. Mountidns interposed . I follow thee. QUESTIONS.425 *" enemy entertain compaieyMiallowaadpermU? S. How does animosity hostility t What is meant by Aos^iiJScs between £. What Is enmity t 2. Who God doth late and early pray More of his grace than gifts to lend the harmless day And With a religious book or friend. What is Wiferdoes antagonism compare with the words above differ nations f EXAMPLES. burnt with redoubled violence. ElVTERXAIN I. and anger. CanonebeomKse!Zorentertaine«?whoisnot<?i»«rfei:?/ 4. • Like kindred drops been molded into one. charity all things. Our EafMITT 1. can admit of no . This friendship that possesses the whole son]. QUESTIONS. and to the hand of heav'n For there was never yet philosopher That could the toothache patiently. Charity long and is Isind . skill. . for it Is not subject to the law of God.. What Is It to recreate f to beguile f EXAMPLES. What between the aa antagonist f an oppodoes/o& compare with enemy t He makes no friend who never made a . however good Minds are not ever craving for their food. all But their . nent f a competitor f a rival t (page 151). What is it to entertain mentally f ' divert T to amuse t 2. nessf acrimony f mentioned f How from enmity f 3. What iaaaenemyf an adversary f 3. Books can not always . What is the sense of irook / ?• Of what words does abide combine the meanings 1 EXAMPLES. . be put away malice. and evil speaking. What 4. How EXAMPLES..

position secured In (he crowded was obtained by a side>door. do they rank among the lighter matters of life ? a. except on business. How do ammement and enjoyment compare i EXAMPLES. grew fa:t and furious. An ardent leads to great results in exposing certain evils. tional matters does admission refer ? Illustrate. ence between envimis and jealous f Wliat is the diflei^ 3. How do amusement and pastime differ \ 3 . accordingly. 1. And so. QUESTIONS. No true heart can find —^— in another's pain or grief. 1. ElVTHVSIASm (page 153). On what plane are sports f How do they compare with entertai'timent and reereation t 4. At Christmas play. It Is as The Puritans hated bear-baiting. (page 154). I . What do entertainment and reereation imply f How. so engrossed Trith cares of state that the needy conld not have He was never to him. As Tammie glowered. Is an envious spirit ever good ? 4' . What Is now 1(8 prevalent and controlling meaning? 3. ENTRAlVCi: 1. The mirth and If I might be judge. and make good For Christmas comes but once a year. but it could never inspire them with an ^^— of hnmanlty.entertainment envious A^IG "»«" (page ESfTERTAIMMEKT QUESTIONS. In what sense was en«A«sia«» formerly used } 3. amazed and curious. it could make men feel it right to be hnnume. O^TJESTIONS. What do admittance and admission add to the meaning of en<ran««? 3. No . nnwoithy members sometimes gain EMTIOUS (page 155). QTIESTIONS. qnl^ Innocent than angling. What do we mean when we say that a person is enviant f S. . The precept had its use . His was contagious and they rushed into battle. -^-^ to fools to do mischief. 4. 153). and desire to be so. However ivill carefully church>membership . not because cause it gave —— it gave pain to the bear. How does zeal diffler from enlfmsiasmf EXAMPLES. but be- to the spectators. To what does entrance refer? 8. may bo guarded. To what does a(imi«ance refer? Towhataddi. What Is the figurative use of entrance f EXAMPLES. and a good hall. God never did make a more calm.

Whatever may befall thee. What Is the derivation and the original signification of eqtiimcalf of anMguous f How do the two words compare In present use f 2. (page QUESTIONS. 427 Ja Jealous capable of being used In a good senee^r equivocal event S. In honor. In wbat sense le eus pldous nseii EXAMPLES. —— EQIJITOCAL. . seeming blest. The years of God are hers. Truth crushed to earth shall rise again. a foot WUl ne'er wear out the EVENT . These sentences. Which Is the greater and . What is its chief present nse I 4. Ibe toes of consdence or honor is one that can not be » ETERNAL . ever brought down t» such interior use f EXAMPLES.„„. It was preordained for thee from It were better to be eaten to death with a rust than to be scoured to nothing with —— notion. (page 155). 1S7). What is tue meaning of eternal in the fullest sense f 2. In wlut sense gueeUonoMe need f suspidmtsf EXAMPLES. to sugar or to gall. are . Is esteem now used of concrete valuation ( 3. Being strong on I>oth sides. 157). How does endless agree with and differ from everlasting? 5. 1. Here comes the lady I Oh. How do doubtful and dubious compare t 4. in good speech or writing. may it be applied P 3. What in popular use as said of persons 1 n. In what Inferior senses are everlasting and Interminable used ? 6. How do ««M( and tnddmt differ etvmoloeically f 3. (page QUESTIONS. (page QUESTIONS. Th^ please. is the difference between esteem and esUrritet 2. Whattsltsmeanmg EXAMPLES. sudden and quick in quarrel. are pleas'd. QUESTIONS. What la the meaning of enigmatical f Is 3. they grow to what they seem. so light flint.. 158). In what does everlasting fall short of the meaning of eternal? 4. To what being. In that sense. Till they give to get . Is eternot. An statement may result from the thoughtless use of a single word that Is capable of more than one meaning — ESTEEH. Neither be thou against the workers of iniquity.

and every f 2.. open. What is the sense otdMam? 4. A free pardon was offered to As the garrison marched oat.^a ^-** more Important T Give ejcamples. What Is the primary meaning of 0(!(rK7T«n<. 3.e? 5. the Tictorioas troops stood In arms on It side of the way. QUESTIONS. Bow io each andeveryiWeiftorn aU? 4.every evident . I. . who shonid instantly lay down their arms. How does event differ from enaf 7. To fickle when Men are the sport of . No light. What does either properly denote.. In what other sense is it often used? What is the objection to the latter nse t EXAMPLES. What is the sense of palpable and tangible t conspleuousf EXAMPLES.person In the room arose to his feet. How does circumstarwe compare with InddetUf 4. . How wide is the range of vlsiMef 5. What What does it imply as to the observer's action I 6. Where an eqnal poise of hope and fear Does arbitrate the . i These lies are like the father that begets them. The prime minister was The statement is a by A paradox Is a real truth In the guise of an — absurdlly. In what are ttH and loth. — absurdity or contradlctlorx his absence. ETERT (page 168). In order to keep his secret Inviolate. How do apparent and evident Is the special sense of manifestt How does it compare In strength with ecldentt 3. my natore Is That I incline to hope rather than fear. Fate shall yield and Chaos jndge the etiUa. (page 169). The And gladly banish sqnlnt snspicion. gross as a monntain.. -^—. compare ? 2. ETIDENT . but only darkness ^^—. Coming cast their seem the sport of men. alilse ? any. he revealed intimate friends. What is an epliodef 6. privately to of his most person giving such information shall be dnly rewarded. What meaning does evetU often have when applied to the fature 7 EXAMPLES. each. shadows before. Bow does any HItextiom each aai every? 3. How does discernible compare with visible f QUESTIONS. How does each compare with every f with boihf 5. On a comparison of the two works the plagiarism was Tet from those flames .

(page QUESTIONS. What Is extravagance f 3. How does example differ from sample f 4. (page 160). — to deter others from the Hke The Gommandei was resolved to make an — oflenae. History is an of philosophy. What two contradlctorj meanings does example derive from this primary sense ? 3. 100). brings want . How does exemplar agree with. What Is exorbitance f 4. QUESTIONS. What kind of excess Ao overplus and superabundance denote? . What words are used as synonyms of excess in the moral sense 1 EXAMPLES. the laws. and of the demand caused unfeigned surprise. but the loom of life never stops and the when the son went down is weaving when'it comes np to>moiTow. EXCESS 1. there nsnally follows correspondinir cause of covetonsness. Saving requires self-denial. What is an txempHflcationf an ensamplet EXAMPLES.7o'»foAn««» and prqfuslonf 6. . How are the Give instances. What secondary meaning EXAMPLES. of langnage often weakens the impression of what would be '. The More of the present woes of the world are due to is ^— than m any otha single cause. It is the place of the civil magistrate to The pasha gave a signal and three attendants seized the colprlt and promptly the bastinado. which was weaving We sleep. I can not Illustrate - mora! duty without at the same time tog « precept ol our reils^n. What is exceett la it used in the favorable or nnfavorable sense'! 2.A2ft **" example execute EXAmPLii: 1. What Is the etymological meaning of example? 2. What is Hie meaning words applied in has administer f special cases ? of execute f of administer f of enforce t It. and difier from example f 6. Is surplus used in the favorable oi unfavorable sense f 6. 3 . (page 161). How does it compare with nmddt with pattern f 5. I hid him look into the lives of men as the himself a mbior. To what do redundOTice and redundaney chiefly refer t 7. QUESTIONS.moressive is sober statement EXECUTE 1. and from others to take an for himself. Where there is great — —^— of wealth Haste brings —— and is the death jf self-denlai.

extemporaneous? 5. . present meaning f (page 163). what men most admire. What Is the original meaning of Impromptu? The 4. EXERCISE . What is the meaning of exerdse exercise in that sense diiler apart from all qualifying words f 2. (page 163). What is drlM? EXAMPLES. sitteth not whether he have snfiBcient to finish it. Clare. Now the Sphit speaketh the faith. while his opponent waa et s answer liim because not gifted in the same way. (page 163). . QUESTIONS. How is praciise discriminated from snch theory or profession ? 6. No more on prancing palfrey borne. And poured to lord and lady gay The lay. Begnlar in time By constant mind In the best working order. EXPEKTSE 1. becomes second nature. What did extemporaneous originally mean f 2. What has it now come to signify in common use? 3. God least regardeth. How does the Impromptu remark often dlFer from the How does unpremeditated compare with the words EXAMPLES. How does from exertion? 3. QUESTIONS. he excelled in address. the most dilBcnlt feats may be done with no apparent tends to keep body and . intending to build a tower. if the income can not be increased. to admit of doubt. of yon. He carolled light as lark at mom. and connteth The entire receipts have not equaled the When the is more than the income. loss to As a speaker. it becomes an absolute necessity to reduce the EXPIilCIT 1. 1. ly that In the latter times some shall depart from EXTEIHPORAKEOUS QUESTIONS. came here at this critical juncture by the The language of the proposition was too I order of Sir John St. above mentioned t In prayer. How may exercise be brought np to the full meaning of exertion ? 4. To wliat are explicU differ and express from each other t alike How do the two wordi EXAMPLES.exercise extemporaneous /ttA »»w (page 162). opposed? 2. What Is the meaning of outlay? of outgo f EXAMPLES. down first. How are these words now commonly differentiated I 3. Which the . QUESTIONS. What is cost f expense f 2. What is practise f How does it differ from exercise f 5. .

largely Involuntary. in princes.^•>l *** exterminate faith EXTERMINATE QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. (page 163). and what the original meaning of exterminate f erad3. (page 164). How does a persuasion compare with a. QUESTIONS. faded. Every one of us. What is trust? 9. in Put not your is whom there is no help. opinion ? 6. Is Great the strength of And we With which his steps he stayed still. No inveterate improver should ever tempt me to the dandelions from the my lawn. FAIIVT 1. What Is bdieff 2. How is belief often nsed in popular language as a precise equivalent oi faith? 11. whatever our speculative knows better than he practises. 1. . a mathematical demonstration can not be doubted by a sane mind capable of understanding the terms and following the steps. The evil of intemperance is one green carpet of exceedingly dUttcnlt to .-a. What is tcattf extirpate f the derivation. the evidence of things not seen. What are the chief meanings ot faint f 2. What are confidence and reliance? 8. How is faint a synonym otfeeUe ta purpoaeksaf of irresolute or timid? of dim. In his right hani a tipped stafEe he held. and weak with eld That scarce his loosed limbs he hable was to weld. and recognizes a better law than he obeys There are few greater dangers for an army in the face of an enemy than undue . What is a doctrine? a creed? 7. - Is the substance of things hoped for. FAITH (page 164). nor in the son of man. the buffalo has been quite . arms combined^ can combat even with the brave. To vphat are these words severally applied ? EXAMPLES. What is an opinion? 5. What elements are combined ia faith ? 10. Since the building of the Pacific raUroads hi the United States. How does credence compare with lelitff 3. or indistinct f EXAMPLES. For he was with cold. What is eonr vietion? assuramx? 4. How is betitf discriminated ixomfaith in the strict rell^ous sense 1 EXAMPLES.

good by stealth. 3. From what do eminence and distinetUm result f 5. and repute. FA1VATICISIH (page 166). How does grotesque especially differ from tbsfaneifut or fa» How does visionary diEEer tmmfancy^? . What is notoriety? 4. What is the special difference of meaning between the two Give examples. may ? Be fhon —— EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. What is the import of honor? of glory? EXAMPLES. called trusty a person be caWeA faithful f 2. QUESTIONS. and in which sense commonly nsed ? 3. angels could no mora. be nnto our Saying. QUESTIONS. Great Homer's birthplace seven rival cities dalm. Blessing and and power and might. What does fantastie add ot fanciful ? taetle? to the meaning 4. FAME 1. What is intolerance? 4. In what sense trusty f wordfl ? (page 165).„„ 43» FAITHFUIj 1. and wisdom. Is faithful commonly said of things as well as persons ? is 4. How does renown compare with fame? 7. 1. What is the meaning otfanciful? 2. of the that will believe nothing contrary to that will believe anything in favor of it. acts nobly. (page 167). and thanksgiving. and —. Amen: . What is credulity? Is It distinctively religions ? EXAMPLES.^^ God for ever and ever. How does celebrity compare with fame? 6. (page 166). a creed is often joined with a FANCIFUL. A good Do is more valuable than money. and blush to find it . The fierce The blind Moslems was the mainspring of their early conquests.faltbful fanciful . QUESTIONS. In what sense may one be 3. and I will give thee a crown of life. is eqnal to the deed: Thy pmpose Who does the best his circnmetance allows Does well. nnto death. What are reputation. 1 . Vnmtia fanaticism? Mgotry? 2. What \afamet Is it commonly nsed in the favorable or nnfavorable sense I 3. What &o fanaticism and Ugotry commonly Include? 3. Too mighty such monopoly of . What is the distinctive meaning of superstition? 5. Seeking the bubble ^— Bven \a tiie camion's month. is a senseless fear of God.

That fellow seems to me to possess but one . 80 savage. QUESTIONS. . What is an emotional or personaI/(m<v/ 4. FAREIVELL. QUESTIONS. Ub wild work. contrasted with fright and terror In actual or possible effects ? How is fear 6. What tints the year puts on. Come see the north wind's masonty. (page 168). . and that is a vreong one. Prom what language have adieu and congS been adopted mto English f 3. What is the generic term of this group ? %. nanght cares he For nnmher or proportion.433 EXAMPLES. yet — — » FEAR (page 168). and hath been— A Bound which makes us linger . To what longnage do farewell and good'by belong etymologically f How do they differ ? 2. If she were to take a . How does a ccmcM co7icep<io» Tell EXAMPLES. g'r"^ 80 . fancy f a from both f 3.UESTIONS. me where is — bred. What iafearf Is It sudden or lingering f In view of what class of dangers 1 3. Q. and terror? 6. What is the etymological meaning of horror? What does the word signify in accepted usage ? 4.^^— to anybody in the house. 1. The train from out the castle drew. What is an differ from a. she would soon settle. What is the special significance of congif 4. What is panic? does it What of the numbers affected by it ? 7. What is fancy as a faculty of the mind ? Intellectnal /anc^? 3. When falling leaves falter through motionless air Or numbly cling and shiver to he gone I Plays such tricks before high heaven As make the angels weep. 1. FAHTCY (page 167). . . Or in the heart or in the head r Elizabeth united the occasional of her sex with that sense and sound policy in which neither man nor woman ever excelled her. AVhatare the characteristics of affright. . What are val»dtctUm and vakaidory t —— my EXAMPLES. paper's out so nearly Pve only room for yours sincerely. But Marmlon stopped to bid 1 a word that must be. but not fill then. What is dismay? How compare with right and terror? . fright. 1.

How do these words compare in dignity with and dissension? and practise love be answered. FEUD What is a/««(f / (page 170). EXAMPLES. Bex. I. Could we forbear ** We should agree as angels do above. 160). What is the difference between B female voice and a feminine voice } 3. Notice. What are shackles and what are they 4. Is a gwarre? in word or act ? contenin importance with the does an affray always involve 1 To what may a Of what is it . too. What are /«{fera In the primary sense f 2. controversy. 434 Swa the braveBt men may be swept along in a sudden With much more I view the fight than thou that mak'st the fray. Look in. qTJBSTIONS." . What are manacles and Tiandc^ffs designed to fasten or hold ? gyveef 3. Bound in those icy by the& Slaves can not breathe in England Thejr toncb onr conntiy. How are womanly and womif anieh discriminated in nse T EXAMPLES. contest. Bnt first set my poor heart free. Bow aie female Bad feminine diBcriminated ? 2. and see Christ's chosen saint . bnt the good sense of the FETTER I. tention f strife ? contest f 3 How does quarrel compare other words cited brawl or b7'oil f 4. intended to fasten or hold devices i (page 169). " There is> Beware of entrance to a of five hundred years. and thelt fall. In triumph wear his Christ-like chain lest he should swerve or faint. . Which of these words are nsed in the metaphorical sense f EXAMPU.feminine feud EXAMPLES. how precious are these qualities In The demand for closet>room is no mere —^— &e sick room« fancy. The ghastlyspectacle filled every beholder with crept upon him as he waited in the darknesa A lingering No — — FEMIIVIIVE: (page QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. ." . Between my houBe and yours. Of what material are all these restraming commonly composed f are lionds By what general name are they popularly 1 known f S. What be confined? 5.S.„. What and of what material composed 6. used? 2. oontentlOTi.

What Is of tlie word ? 2. Is fabrication or falsehood the more odious term f Which term is really the stronger S 6. many a sound business bouse goes dovra for want of power xeahze instantly on valuable securities. How do faliehooA and/a6Hca<«>» differ from the words ahove mentioned ? 6. and yet true.435 2^^"° FICTIOX 1. The aid at a time when It was most needed. the wintry sea Moaned sadly on New England's strand. What does savage EXAMPLES. How. trod the desert land. 3. in the QUESTIONS. When first the thoughtful and the free. To what does signify f 'ierocious refer J How do the two 3. O scenes surpassing A . Our fathers. la what connection is fiscai most commonly used ? EXAMPLES. most common modem meaning does aJictUm differ EXAMPLES. What does fierce words differ T signify » qUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. savages massacred the snrvivois to the last man. and dire. pure. spring from no petty cause. dear. QUESTIONS. to-- FKVE (page 172). lbs Ardent. To what 6ae&flrMmAal especially apply? 4. He was rejoiced to receive the In a panic. How does a myth differ from a legend ? 4 . Scenes of accomplished bliss. true or false ? With what words of the group does it agree f &Jiction. What is a story f Is it good or bad. bora this primary meaning does fine become a synonym of eicceUent and beautiful fi 3. year closes with the society out of debt. does monetary directly refer f 3. How does pecuniary agree with and from monetary f 3. r^j^c^f 1. Contentions . A of the FIERCE 1 . FEVAlVCIAIi To what differ (page 173). and what is its original meaning f 2. How from a novel? from a fable ? from a myth f S. From what Is /n« derived. (page 170). strange is told of thee. . 1 Delieve the whole account from beginning to end to be a puio thing sustained by such substantial evidence could not be a mere Imagination. was the day. . (page 171). How does it come into connection with clarifiief.

What the most general word of this group ? 2. To what is herd limited 1 6. To what class of animals does brood apply ? to what class does litter apply ? 4. tenuouef for keen. and who knows how he may report Thy words by adding fuel to the f Lo I as he comes. and of what may it be composed ? 3. How does^M be a synonym for minute. at the moment of com- —— . Which of the above-mentioned words apply to persons ? which to feelings f to the eye. What is the difference In mental action between hesitate and waver f between vacillate and waver f 4. A trees. undulate. of brightly clad women and children were enjoying a picnic under the s _____^_ FliUCTWATE 1 . What is a drove t Is class of objects EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. fluctuate. and waver f 3. and exquisite f S.fluctuate '436 How come connected with dainty. because so to a film of dust or a breath of air. 2. (page 173). QUESTIONS. Some people are more The to be than wise. — — FI^OCK 1. In what one characteristic do swerve and from osdllate. Of what is bevy used Ijlockf 5. What the essential fact underlying the visible phenomena which is comtnstionf 3. feathers do not always make est balances must be kept under glass. comminuted f How for Jilmy. delicate. s and the twitter of birds among the trees. (page 17^ we call Href 4. sharp f Give instancea of the use of fine in its various senses. —— is winds slowly o'er the lea. — — ly adjusted as FIRE 1. Wliat the meaning of flvctiwte t t!««rdi£Eer (page 173). AdA scattering wide the Jay. in Heaven's array. faith. He's gone. almost universally true that the human mind mitting a crime. The vessel suddenly from her course. It is Thou almost mak'st me in my The surface of the prairies rolls and —— EXAMPLES. gathered at the comers discussing the affair. What ie QTJBSTIONS. What is a group. Is It to EXAMPLES. What is not good for the He heard the bleating of the The lowing Excited Is not good for the bee. What Is 2. Of what is pack used f 7. How wide is its range of meaning ? a conflagration f EXAMPLES. birds.

a array. What \Bafori? 4. Into what two sectionB are fluids divided f 3. t the triumph and partake the gale When Youth and Pleapure meet to the glowing Hours with flying feet. Say. (page 176). For a man's bonse Alva bnllt a In Oar helper He amid the flood Of mortal ills prevailing. extracting was once a haze of light. slowly toward the forts. the heart of Antwerp to overawe the city. Now nature paints her colors. . (page 174). Are gases fiuidsf 6.FOLiLiOW . differ from dtm EXAMPLES." FORiniDABLiE . What is a fluid f 2. What substance is at once a liquid asAst fluid at the ordinary temperatare and preBsnre ? EXAMPLES. siiail my little bark attendant sail. like shadows in a dream. What Is a liquid f a gasf 4. QUESTIONS. " Then me. A mighty A bulwark never failing.UID £. All delays are - in war. What is the die What H fastness oi s^ etronglwldf EXAMPLES. QT3ESTI0NS. (page 174). the Prince " I answered. how the bee Tills earth Sits on the bloom. QUESTIONS.M9<f *' fluid I'ortlflcatiou FL. sweet . formidable f 3. 2. tinctive (page 176). Are all liquids Jluids? 5. t. Are gases ever liquids? 7. as an army with banners. what is the difEerence between follow and en guef result f EXAMPLES. How ioes formtdaUe gerousf terriUef tremendous? Give examples. The great fleet moved FORTIFICATIOaf QUESTIONS. Wliat Is the meaning cX. How does follow compare with duae and pursue f 8 As regards succession in time. What Is it to follow f 2. How does a fortress speciflcally differ from a fortification f meaning of citadel? 3. is liis is our God. " each be hero in his turn I Seven and yet one.

ThoQ didst smile. How does the adjective friendly compare in strength with the noun fnendf . t-Wbut iB/arUtudef 2. Ah. QUESTIONS. Tempering each other in the victor^s mind. fraud f How does it differ from deceit or deception ? ieAsa ot aaimpo%ture / S. 2. (page 178). what^s the reason ? Why. How docs /ortvnaie compare with successful ? discriminated 1 2. Whoever has once become notorious by base . What swindle f is the QtTESTIONS. FRIESTDIiY 1. How are lucky and fwlunate 3. no good comes of those that have it so often in their mouth. QtTESTIONS. When I had decked the sea with drops fnll salt. What is a. even if he speaks tmth gains no belief. Infused with a from heaven. In what special sens*. QUESTIONS. and compassion join'd. How doresO' EXAMPLES. not a word this same ^^impOBSible" . Of what relations is treachery need treason t EXAMPLES. (page 177). and with what reference are/a«ora2 and prospered used P EXAMPLES. or as applied to acts f S. consider^. Unboanded Tell thy story If thine.for tltnde friendly mib *** FORTITUDE (page 176). prove the thousandth part Of my . — years 1 once more who wonid not be a boy f I have a mind presages me such thrift That I should questionless he It is — FRAUD 1. doth never prosper . thon art a man. How does lution and endurance compare ? It compare with coaraye / 3. Wh&t is dishonesty f a c?ieat? a do all How these fall short of the meaning of ? fraud f 4. FORTUWATE (page 177). WhatdoesyW««(Sy signify as applied to persons. if it prosper none dare call it . and I Have suffier'd like a girl. 1. The first and the worst of all is to cheat oneself.

Cpage 180). its waters returning Back to their springs. To all the lower world denied. loud winds. (page 181). He that hath friends A fellow feeling must show himself makes one wondrons . increase By close the little home was at last paid for and there was a great thanks- giving time. never was wasted. like the rain. QUESTIONS. In what one quality does it differ from <?y«c<ion. FRICHTEIV By what is (page 180). Wkat is economy? 2. peculiar boon of heaven. FRIEIVDSHIP 1. What is it io QUESTIONS. What is the special characteristic of prudence and protAdence? of thrift? 6. What is the motive of economy? FRrGAL. shall fill them full of refreshment. oMocAment. one JHg/Uened? by what intimidated? browbeat or cme f 3 • What is it to scare or terrify f EXAMPLES. What is the meaning of comity and amity f 4. QUESTIONS. What does garrutam signify ? chattering ? How do talkative and loguacUna . QUESTIONS. raising. increase of industry in of in laying out. Wb&t ie frugalily ? 3. What is parsimony ? How does itcOmTfaiev/ithfrug(^ity? "Wh&t is the motive ol parsimony ? 4. 2. The noble mind's delight and pride. the bravest soul I 1.439 friendship garrulous 3.nd fi-iendlinees ? 3. The load. OARRULOUS 1. To men and angels only given. Talk not of wasted If it enrich . not the heart of another. (page 179). . devotion. What la the special meaning of acceesiblef of companlonaile and toeiablef of cordial and genial f EXAMPLES.ITY EXAMPLES. 2. What is friendship? 2. What is miserliness? S. a. that o'er the billows sweep Shake the firm nerve. Mow does JHendsMpdiSertmm love/ EXAMPLES. . There are but two ways of paying debt. The child was by the stories the nurse told.

. the good humor of that person. QUESTIONS. . QUESTIONS. What is the distinctive meaning of magnanimous ? How does it differ from generous as regards dealing with insults or injuries ? EXAMPLES. and To mine own children. a tongue. with one resentment glows. What is sex? i. A The conqueror proved friendship no cold medium knows. a facility of saying nothing. A feeling of unrest prevailed. and charm her Guard against a feeble fluency. What is gender? To what does it apply ? Do the distinctions of geTider correspond to the disGive examples of languages containing three genders^ and of the classification in languages containing bnt two. The maternal giving to relation naturally life. and so on. OENDER 1. all Death comes to by GENEROUS What is (page 183). What is the special applica- tion of tigr&o^^/ EXAMPLES.gender generous differ M/tn **v 1 from ga/n-uUms. friendships will admit of division. To tame a shrew. Burns with one love. How does general compare with universal with common ? 3. tinctions of sex? (page 181). How does disinterested compare with generous? 6. What illustrations of the differences are given in the text ? EXAMPLES. What is the distinctive sense of mmiflcent ? 4. s either of the masculine or feminine the language sometimes very reason to indicate the of some person GENERAL 1. in good bringing up. the primary meaning of generous? the common meaning? 2. prosiness. . the work of the outer world. To what beings only does sex apply? 3. one may love the beauty of this. and from each other 3. as in victory as he was terrible In battle. . QUESTIONS. (page 181). How does generous differ from liberal ? 3 . EXAMPLES. woman in While referred to. What does general signify? 2. . law. and French every word is the indoor fails for that to and necessarily divides the work of the man. What does munificent tell of the motive or spirit of the giver ? What does generous tell ? 5. To cunning men I will be very kind.

What does one «oto. fish. What is the special sense of boon ? 8. In the strange city he found that understanding. What is talent? 3. What is a grant. GIFT . courts of justice had fallen so low that it was practically Impossible to win a . and by whom made ? EXAMPLES. Can we give what we are paid for f 4. (page 184). or not ? 4. noble knights " cried the heralds. What is a person said to is g'«<. Can we give gim what is undesired 1 3. What is a gratuity^ and to whom given f 5. his learning would not - him a dinner.441 GEIVIIJS (page 183). wisdom and with all thy getting. What does obtain imply f Is the thing one lAtains an object of de^re f How does obtain differ from get f 7. QUESTIONS. (page 185). What is especially implied in secure ? EXAMPLES. What is the primary meaning of give ? the secondary meaning ? 2. fowl. How ifl . Dominion absolute. (page 183). He a living as umbrella mender but a poor all living it is. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. genius give QUESTIONS. By what special element does procure differ from obtain? 9. Does a person always get what he earns or always earn what he gets f 6. Which Which is the more dependent upon training ? is the higher quality f EXAMPLES. found His single well employ'd. To man cause without a OITE 1. What synonymous word is always used in the evil sense ? 3. By what procesBes does one acqutref Is the thing acquired sought or desired. He gave us only over beast.? 6. What Is genius? 8. and to whom given f 7. . What is a gift? Is gift used in the good or the bad sense ? Does the legal agree with the popular sense ? 12 . What is a benefaction? a donation? What difference of usuge is recognized between the two words ? 4.? a-HowissreirelatedtoexiwctattonordeBhref How gain related to those words 1 3. eternal Master The No great OET . What is a present. What is the sense and use of largess ? 6. -. What does vAn imply ? How is one said to vAn a suit at law ? What is the correct term in legal phrase ? Why f 8. was ever without some mixture of madness. that right we hold By his True love's the which God has given The alone beneath the heaven.

My God Jesus. Is It correct to say " He gave it to me for nothing " f 6. For our light which is but for a moment. What private they have. What most common acceptation ? Implied EXAMPLES. (page 185). alas I know not. QUESTIONS. A head. The king instruction to those who really de. What does the word govern imply ? How does it difEer from control f 2." say that General Jackson meant to that his spirit is He greater than — ORACEFVL. feet of How upon the mountains are the myrtle rear'd its him that bringeth good tidings. We glory in also.govern grief **-* . and some Tho all are made of day. turn not thou away. that made them do It I . What is implied when we speak of granting a favor f 8. What is especially implied in impart? in bestow f EXAMPLES. " I do not say that General Jackson did not mean to his country well. How do rule taiA govern iiSet t 4. One of the pleasantest things in life is to sire to learn. In Its What two chief senses has (([^iciion^ 4. worketh for us a far mor« exceeding and eternal weight of glory. Daniel Webster well described the character of " Old Hickory " In the sentence. GOYERIV 1. he that taketh a city. 3. What is to grant? 7. The court promptly upon him the honor of knighthood. What is the special signiflcance of sway f of moM t 5 . What is to confer f 9. and from him that would borrow of thee. How is it especially distinguished from teauHfulf EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. the injunction. How does yri^ compare with sorrow f with sadness? with Is tnelanc/ioly f in mourning. (page 187). What is it to manage t 6.„ always nnderstood when there is no limitation in the context ? 5. but I do his country. shall all yonr need according to his riches In glory by Christ to every man that asketh of thee. For some must follow. QTJESTIONS. What is the present meaning of ragn f How does it compare with niilet EXAMPLES. that publisheth peace. C}RI£F 1 .. What does graceful denote ! (page 186). How do command and control differ f 3. What Is grief f 2.

How does comfort differ from enjoyment ? with happlmss? fi. as the of walking by walking. Montaigne is wrong in declaring that ought to be followed simply because . (page it 188). and not because it is reasonable or just. comfort. What happiness differ from comfort ? ecstaoy? rapture? 9. What Is euetomf roatim f Which is the more mechanical f a. What are -use and usagey and how do they differ from each other f 6. him. HI It that shall be. How doeapleamre compare with comfort and enjoyTtient? 6. How does happiness compare with gratification. What element ioeshoMt&iAiaemtom&ni routine? 3. (page 189). What does Aajipen signify ? 2. How does 4. Should we preferably use custom or habit of a society 1 of an individual ? 4. How do both from happen in grammatical construction f 5 . of rnnniug by running. (page 187). HAPPHWESS I. HAPPEIV 1. may of wheat. . Every is preserved and increased by correspondent actions. What is triumph? Uessedness? bliss? EXAMPLES. Is <ran«pir« correctly used in event be properly said to transpire ? and MMe differ is the meaning of superthe sense of happen? When may an EXAMPLES. little that is valnable is ever learned or done. What is happiness? 3. but within the house all was brlghtnesB and There is no This is the very so sweet and abiding as that of doing good. QUESTIONS. gratifmlianf satisfaction? 2.443 habit taapplnesii HABIT 1. What is delight? Is QUESTIONS. Lord Brougham says "The longer I live the more careful I . brightens his crest Hope elevates and The storm raged without. is Virtue alone below. What \apraetlsef 1. What is the distinctive meaning of want? EXAMPLES. Sweet is after pain. of love. Whatever at all as it should. How does diSer from chance? ttefall 3." thing that I really care to do to the beneficent power of it is am to entrust every- makes Without perfect. thou shalt bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. What do gratification and satisfaction express f How do they compare with each other? 7. satisfaction. What is the distinctive meaning of hetide ? 4. it Thon sowest not that body or of some other grain. the graceless renegade that 1 If mischief ^— a secret treaty had been previously concluded between the powers. What vene? 6. but bear grain. QUESTIONS. and pleasure? with delight wAjoy? 8. What isfashion? rule f system ? £.

And the ripe of the newmown hay gives It a sweet and wholesome odor It soweth here with toll and care But the of love Is there. What is tho meaning of proceeds f yield? return? S. How does harcompare with (»'()p/ 3. What Is the »e«< its later meaning f 2. QUESTIONS. are they that monm for they shall he comforted. f QUESTIONS.«/ How does it differ from pivtiuct? 4. . Is harvest capable of figurative use.Wha. Jnst tickle the earth with a hoe. allowed to proceed. 198). Whatispro(i!«. To what A heart accident is it that we owe so unexpected a visit maketh a countenance. (page 191). by general . and in what sense ? 6. Of no distemper. What Is the sense f original meaning of happy f With what words Is It allied Inthia 2. In what way is happy a synonym of bteaeedf 3. What is unanim%/ 7. from the reciprocal struggle of discordant powers draws ont tlie of the oniverse. Tho twere to huy a world of days. HATRED I (page QUESTIONS.tmcontieteney? 6. and she laughs with an abundant . 3. The speaker was.liappy Uatred 444 HAPFV (page QUESTIONS. made desperate efforts to secure outward In religious ohserv- of religions helief That action and counteraction which. How do concord and accord compare with harmony and with each other ? 4. What Is repugnance ? aversion ? How does hatred compare with aversbm as . HARVEST (page 193). But fell like autumn that mellowed long. . What Is harmony f 2. of no blast he died. What \i conformity ? amgruity ? S. in the natural and in the political world. How do consent and concurrence compare ? EXAMPLES. What is the special meaning oi harvest'honw ? harvest-tide ? harvesl'time? original meaning of harvest f EXAMPLES. I would not spend another such a night. What Is the meaning of happy in its most frequent present nse f EXAMPLES. —— HARMOIVY 1. 190). aqreemerU. We have made a covenant with death and with hell are we at Tyrants have ances without . How does harrrumy compare with 3.

Wiat Is malice f malignity? 4. the law presumes for the man. from gallant foe. QUESTIONS. and to what is It applied f 4. The slight put upon him filled him with deep . To what Is Race applied i How widely inclnsive a word Is it f 2. nature. In books. He occupies the house. Do yon think it necessary to provide for every before taking the first step > HEAIiTHT (page 195). bnt does not is thine. to it. sweetly cooperative. and how do they compare with one another ? applied to persons EXAMPLES. He ne'er Ta'en in bore fair flght for stalwart blow . for your own sakes. What is the difference between the statement that a man has reason. To what realm ot healthful? chief EXAMPLES. What Is the meaning of hedUhy? changeable 1 it. my life upon a cast. There is no known duty. does hazard compare with danger? . How does be in possession compare vfi^ possess f 5* How does own compare with possess or with be in possession? 6. 1. and the statement that he is in possession of Ills reason } EXAMPLES.. What is to hold? to occupy? 4. Son... How 3. (page 194). What does possess signify i 3. 194)l What Is flie meaning of luaard? 2. QUESTIONS. or Blessed is the play let my first years be passed. How do risk and venture compare with change and hazard. In all cases of wilful injury to person or property. thou art ever with me. What are grudge. or work. yourselves of solid reasons. HAZARD (page QtTESTIONS. I felt which on acquaint- HATE . from our first meeting an instinctive ance deepened into a settled . and all that 1 I earnestly entreat yon. What are the In what sense Is does salutary belong ? Are the words properly Inter synonyms of healthy? of healthful? 3. salubrious nsed. not the self- distracting one. and revenge. We must take the current when it serves or lose onr I have set ./i **'* have healthy f as applied to things? 3. Heaven has no like love to turned. resentment. What is spite f S. . It is the coherent. and with each other ? 4 How do aoAdeni and casualty differ f 5 What is a contingency ? EXAMPLES. . and I will stand the in doing of the die.

Does hdp include aid or does aid include help? 4. Which implies the seconding of another's exertions f Do we aid or hdp the helpless ? 6. your dlmhiished rays. alike resisted the tyranny of James II. How do a heretic and a schismatic. (page 198). How are the terms dissenter and fum'conformist usually applied. EXAMPLES. the most general term of this group. QUESTIONS. reject.HELP . Ishdp or ot<i the stronger term f 2. Give bistanoea of the iel« QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. 4. Is an object hidden by intention. What is the special significance of non'homogeneous ? 4. HIDE Which is (page 197). and employ speech only to stars I their thoughts. HERETIC I. To what do encourage and uptuM letex 1 succor and support ? EXAMPLES. What is it to cover. He does not prevent a crime when he can Know then whatever cheerful and serene it. Cpage 196). after the first and second admonition.? to scr^nf EXAMPLES. or in what other way or ways. and patriot can not politics mix Their Without an effervescence. said to be heterogeneous? viit&i^ homogeneous? 3. as cement. QUESTIONS. often differ in action ? 4. What kind of a term is high t What does it signify ? . (page 196). When is a mixture. if any f 3. A man that is an Ghmrchmen and . In what does a heretic differ from his church or religious body? a schismatic? 3. (page 196). What is a heretic? a schigmatic? 2. My second son received a sort of Courtier education at home. Does conceal evince intention. HETEROOENEOIJS . HIOH . 2. When are substances heterogeneous as regards each other i 2. Which ie ased in excitement or emergency ( 3. Men use Te little thought only as authority for their injustice. How do cooperate and aesiat differ i 6. and what does It signify . the mind the body too. How does secrete compare with conceal? How is it chlefiy used f 5. How does misceUaneous differ from heterogen&ms ? EXAMPLES.

Happy the peopie whose ^—— is little else is than a picture of human crimes and misfortunea philosophy teaching by example. 2. and build the rime. divinely What is and echoing walks between. What is the meaning of retard? 5. It Is the for every drop my needle and thread. HIIVDER (page 199). (page 200). — time is quiet as a nun breathless with adoration. He knew Himself to sing. QUESTIONS. half discloses 1 As it fitfully blows. In what sense is divine loosely used ? What is its more Tlifl appropriate sense ? EXAMPLES. What is the meaning of sacred? 2. and in the figurative sense ? ? 8. To what class of events does QUESTIONS. HOIiY . half conceals. the Devil. A daughter of the gods. How does AJj'A compare with tfeep? To what obthese words be severally applied f 3. How do the words above mentioned compare with eco/feei / may 7. and he will flee from you. How does hinder differ from detaij? 3. A pillar'd shade. What is the special significance of tall? 4. All sects axed churches of Christendom hold to some form of the doctrine of the inspiration of the Christian Scriptuiei. What Is 2. How does hinder compare with prevent? 4. How do elevated and eminent compare in the literal sense f in the figurative? 6. and most divinely fair. word. that which the breeze on the steep. are dulled. What element does l<^ty add to the meaning of high or tall? 5. Which 4. overarched. What is it to obstruct? to resist ? How do these two words compare with each It to hinder? other —— be- EXAMPLES. What Is history f How does apply f it relate events ? It 2« How does history differ from annals or chronicles? EXAMPLES. My tears must stop. A— ye bear. Etady of mankind to that advance of age or death which can not HISTORY . burden is this life . . (page 300). QUESTIONS.447 tive use of the hinder holy jects . What contrasted nses has Itiffh in the figurative sense ing in the literal. How ? term do we apply directly to God does it compare with holy? 3. What is tmver- EXAMPLES.

The attempt to abolish the ideal woman and keep the ideal tinated failure.hunt 4*S MOME 1. For what is a chase or pursuit conducted f asearch? 3. - labor bears a lovely face. HUBfT 1. (page 303). undisguised murder will be any longer allowed to confomid warfare. What does huni ordinarily include ? 4. From what language is /umie derived What distinctive meaning f EXAMPLES. (page QUESTIONS. What Is a hunt? Z. The prominent lines in Greek architecture were .. What does horlsontal signify 1 How does it compare with level? S. Is it correct to use hunt when search only is contemplated f 5. What is the meaning of honorable? 3. QUESTIONS. dwelling. Sun and moon were in the sea sunk. (page 201. in this sense. giddy and unsure Hath he that buildeth on the vulgar heart. (page 303). 1. QUESTIONS. QUBSTIONS. What Is Is the general sense of a&ode. What is its original meaning f its most common present sense f In what derived sense is it often used f 4. and kabitation? f What difference there in the use of these words is its 2. a true . Maw will the merely honest and the tnilj /umoraNe man differ in action ? 4. does it differ from honorable? EXAMPLES. with the necessities of HORIZONTAL. and not vertical. What is honest in the highest and fullest sense f How. How are these words used in the figurative senses > . What are the senses of plain and pla/ne ? what language EXAMPLES. but it Is not a liOve is the lite of ^. An ^— is a predes- A house without love may be a castle or a palace. From \s flat derived? 3. An No Itself man's the noblest work of God. Ample spaces o'er the smooth and pavement. Wliat la the meaning of honest in ordinary use ? 2. form of pure. HOXEST .

(page 306). QUESTIONS. How does affectation compare with hypocrisy? EXAMPLES. The formed the principal amusement of our Norman kings. with a feigned prince. Among happiness. (page 304). tho widely accepted by men of many important points.440 EXAMPLES. What is cant? sanctimoniousness? 4. What element is common to the cheat and the impostor ? How do the two compare with each hypocrite derived? is its What includes the other words of the group? other? EXAMPLES. fancies. Iiypocrlsy Idea the Inalienable rights of man are life. What is a hypothems? What is its use in scientific investigation and study ? 2. What is pietism? formalism. is of proffered peace. ^^__^_^ . named Perkin Warbeck. What . and the of an end. and what did originally mean J 2. which accommodates itself to human the weakness of men in order that it may gain Its own ends. Let not the Trojans. HYPOCRISY 1 . liberty. It is the HYPOTHESIS 1. at IDEA 1. From what language is pretense derived. it QUESTIONS..? sham? 5. and what does it signify f 2. What implication does surmise ordinarily convey? What is a theory? a scheme? a speculation ? How do they ditfer ? EXAMPLES. From what language is What common term primary meaning ? 2. I dare swear he is no In the reign of Henry YII. and so did our for lodgings. laid claim to the English crown. (page 304). an . and flatters a fawning and flexible art. Prom what language 15 iOea derived. delude the Latian feel- ings. (page 305). but they shall know The stag at hay's a dangerous foe. weakest sort of politicians that are the greatest . What is hypocrisy? 3. All things have The is up. QUESTIONS. but prays from his heart. HYPOCRITE 1. built on nothing firm. QUESTIONS. 3. than those of the human mind. What is a guess? a conjecture? a supposition? a surmise? 3. who for that purpose retained in their possession forests in every part of the kingdom. How are hypocrite and dissembler contrasted with each other ? 4. There are no other limits to science fails of proof The development .

and what is its original meaning ? Z. How does imanity differ from idiocy or irribecHity ? 4. or attaiimient without application. What is Imbecility? How does it compare with Idiocy? 3. (page 308). So foolish was I and A boy is better unborn than . What is the standard? How does it compare with the ic2ea2. but thrifty and thoughtful of others. The lOlVORAWT 1 . Is an ideal primal. How does unlettered compare with illiteraie ? EXAMPLES. How does indolent compare with slothful? EXAMPLES. 'tis To expect an effect without a less to be wise. and what does it denote 1 6. What does idle in present use properly denote ? Does it necessarily denote the absence of all action? 3. of the man. Whatis an ideal? 2. What is the meaning of illiterate ? 3 . but is not IDIOCY (page 307).ow standard of it in his mind. 1. What Idiocy? 2. What is an archetype? a prototype? 3. f What is its present popnlai and with wliat words is it now synonymous who it EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. How are i(2ea and i(i«a2 conti'asted r EXAMPLES. Never a moment. Can a prototype be equivalent to an archetype ? 4. Wh&tie fatuity ? stupidity? is EXAMPLES. stream was covered with a green scum.' 7. As the door tumeth upon his hinges. What Is an original? 6. The mind's the Every man has at times in his mind the of what he should he. so doth the turn upon his bed. of greatness . QUESTIONS. IDL. What does lazy signify? How does it differ from idle? 4. . is little cause. A work or must always have had a yery to himself. f MHA *»" 3.E 1 . or the result of development? 5. What does Ignorant signify ? How wide is its range ? 2. In what realm does slothful belong. 206). I was as a beast before thee. What does itwrt signify? sluggish? 5. (page 208). How do foUy and foolishness compare with idiocy? 5. From what language is idle derived.Ideal Ignorant did Idea signify in early pliilosopWcal nse use. IDEAIj (page QUESTIONS. . QUESTIONS. than . All rests with those Is what each makes He who comes up to his own read. 1. Be a to others and then all will go well. Where ignorance is bliss.

. Into in tlie old psycliology f 2. What is fantasy in ordinary usage f 5 imagination defined? fancy? 6. is still Runs the great circuit. and what does it now commonly mean ? 4. In what other respects do imagination and/ancj/ agree f What is the one great distinction between them f How do they respectively treat the material objects or Images with which they deal 1 Which power finds use in philosophy. (pageS QUESTIONS. 1 Let ns go up Obey me HHHERSE 1. What fe the primary meaning of immediately f Its meaning as an adverb of time! 3. While . Is immediately losing anything of its force f What words now seem more emphatic ? EXAMPLES. (page 211). 2. and how f EXAMPLES. Which word imply preferablyusedas to the of baptism What are (fous^ and duck? words do not share ? 6. Nothing is there to come. life may be prolonged by nutritive fluids. science. and at home. Congress and Cumberland. howe'er pleasant 1 its dead. ? QUESTIONS. Let the dead Past by the Merrlmac. like the finger of a clock. (page 213). From what language words is dip derived ? from what immerse ? How do the two ? differ in dignity ? How rite as to the completeness of the action How ? as is to the continuance of the object in or under the liquid 3. 1. What did directly formerly signify. What change has presently undergone ? 5 . Bat an eternal does always last. What 5. What h fantasy oi phantaey? In what what two parts was imagination divided is nsmc now mental actions is it manifested f 4. were the body In When food can not be swallowed. and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name. for we are well able f o overcome it. special sense has dip which the other ? 4. What did ftyaretifty formerly signify ? What is its present meaning? 3.451 immerse iitiaginatlon OIAGEVATIOIV . the poet's pen Turns them to shapes. The ships of war. and mechanical How is invention. Trust no Future. What preferahly given to the so-cailed reproductive imagination by President Porter and otliers ? 3. . What does «M6m«rye EXAMPLES. and possess it . nmaEDIATELY QUESTIONS. And as bodies forth The forms of things unknown. and nothing past. To what faculty of the mind do both of these activities or powers belong ? 7.

"What is anencumirance? How does 6. To what does inconsistent apply? 5. and lawful plague of It is better life. fall. A not to turn friendship into a system of lawful and unpunishable certain class of ill-natured people mistalse for frankness. B overcome are the stepping-stones by which great men rise. in spite of an ^—^ in his speech. Is a diffloulty within one or it difier from an obstacle or obstruction? without ? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. (page 213). What does ? EXAMPLES. With matchless they style a wife The dear-bought curse. ~ And nodding Ilium waits the And these she does apply for warnings. — ISrCOXORVOVS When are things (page 214). What does incompatible signify f When are things said to be incompatible ? 4. Ib lea impediment what one finds or what he carries f Is it momentary or constant ? What did the Latin imp«<2i»ien^a signify ? 5. rudeness suggest i What is its common acceptation f What is crffldousness? 4. said to be incongruous ? 2. QUESTIONS. imminent derived and with what primary eenee ? imdo imminent and impending differ in present nse ! 3. To what is discordant applied 1 inharmonious? 3. QUESTIONS. What is the meaning of incommensurable? . inPEDimENT 1. Something between a and a help. does threatening differ from the two words above given ? How How EXAMPLES. What is impudence ? insolence? 3. What does impediment obstacle diSer primarily signify ? obstacle? obstruction f 2.Incongruous Imminent 45!i IIHlIINEjyT From what language pending? Z. And evils . Thus far into the bowels of the land Have we march'd without Demosthenes became the foremost orator of the world . What illustrations of the uses of these words are given in the text f 6. portents. What does impertinence primarily denote 2. How does tiom obstruction ? 3. is (page 212). Wimt is & hindrance? i. IHPVDENCE I (page 213). QUESTIONS.

meas- . There His form of no success in study without close. What is what What 4. The longer one studies a vast subject the more cautions in he becomes. Wb&tiaconstancy? patience? perseiierance? 5. What is the Implication if we say one is industrious just now S 3. Perhaps the widest and l)est Isnown of Biology. limitless. ordinarily followed in known 3. What l8 industry? 2. How does application compare with assiduity? 4.. the proof of an induction? is Wliat is deduction? process is QUESTIONS. larDlJCTION . Honors come by 'Tis . From what language it is infinite derived.453 EXAMPLES. What is the use of boundless. love. No Bolltnde is so solitary I liear Induction Infinite as tliat of companionsliip. IWFIWITE 1. QUESTIONS. (page 215). innumerable. The —^ Here. What ie persistence? What implication does it frequently convey f 6. (page 215). What does assiduity signify as indicated by its etymology? diligence? 3. QUESTIONS. INDUSTRY 1. is that organisms grow. supports us is all. a strain as a merry dirge. in wickedness would have won him endoring honor if it had taken the in a better cause. or sacramental bacchanal might be. How do countless. QUESTIONS. and Intense . How does bugy differ from induetiiom? 2. EVDUSTRIOVS 1. induction? 2. as scientific induction? How do deduction and induction compare as to the certainty of the conolu sion ? S. To what do ^ofto. continuous. (page 216). bow does industry compare with diligence? 7. Look cheerfully upon me. and numberless compare with infinite/ 3. riches spring from economy. have no time for tears. illimitable. (page 216). and with what meaning ? To what may be applied ? 2. What does dUigeni add to the meaning of indmtrious? EXAMPLES. thou see^st how 1 am.and ^ain* especially refer? EXAMPLES. How does an itiduction compare with an inference? EXAMPLES.

mim *^* 4. Many philosophers hold that God is Any stable currency must be founded at last upon something. An power in the lite of the world. The wrongs and abuses which of society as it are in the very structure and constitution now exists throughout Christendom. 6. To what do congenital. What do urge and impel imply ? How do they differ in the source of the power exerted ? 7. injury derived f What is its primary meaning f Its .Influence Injury urelesa. is it to Irffiuence? is one influenced by external or internal force f 8. Does one person actuate or ijifluence another f 3. she can Fine thoughts are wealth. Prom what language is QUESTIONS. What does inTiereni signify f 2. the more I have. stupidity that seemed almost tantamount to He evinced an in nature. to those they . that has value. Wliat do prompt and stir imply 1 4. . What is it to excite f 5. my love as deep. EXAMPLES. for hoth are Man's inhumanity to man makes thousands mourn. If not to Thee. What does inired add to the sense of innate or iniom t What is ingrained ? EXAMPLES. All men have an right to life. To what kind of power does actuate refer . What do drive and compel imply. and inborn apply as distinguished from inherent and intrinsic? difference in use between innate 4. UVFliVEIVCE What (page 317). To what realm of thought does immanent belong i What does it signify f How does it differ from inJierenl f Which is applied to the Divine Being % 3. What do incite and instigate signify f How do these two words differ f 6. INJURY . as gold or silver. He was And well by his own . liberty. the more I give to thee. INHERENT 1. With what f special is reference does congenital occur in medical and legal use 5. and protection. QUESTIONS. violent passions to desperate crime. idiocy. for the right use of which Men are and ought to be accountable. (page 318). (page 319). and how do these two words compare with each other ? EXAMPLES. QtTESTIONS. and unlimited? the duration of What time ? are the dimensions of inflnUt epoceT What is ittfinite My bounty is as as the sea. What the and inl>om ? 7. innate.

With what limited sense is innocent used of moral beings ? 5. The wicked flee where no man pnrsueth. In what two applications may immaculate. What is harm? hurt? How do these woi'ds compare with injury f 7. and how does it differ from inquisitive/ . How does wrong differ from injustice in legal nso ? How in popular use ? 3* What is iniquity in the legal sense ? in the common sense? EXAMPLES. And won thy love. . are bold as a Bon. a sure reward succeeds.-- Injustice In^ulsfUve 2. pure. (page! QUESTIONS. How inclusire a word Is i-n^wryt 3. and a goodly babe the queen receives Much comfort m't says. What ever are the characteristics of an inguisltive person ? 2. What is mischitf? How caused. : Jam as you. (page QtJESTIONS. How does damage compare with loss? How can a loss he said to be partial ? 5 What is evil. deeds. doing thee . and with what frequent suggestion? 6. For blessings ever wait on And tho a late. What does curious signify. I woo'd thee with my sword. Such an act is an upon humanity. (page 221). nVJVSTICi: I.455 derived meaning ? . Is Inquisitive used in a good sense ? what. but the A daughter. Is innocent positive or negaHow does it compare with righteous. What does innocent in the full sense signify ? 2. upright. EXAMPLES. and with what intent ? damage derived. Nothing can worli me about with me. War in men's eyes shall be a monster of as a pawn for his fidelilj. QUESTIONS. They are aa as grace itself. My poor prisoner. mVqiJISITIYi: 1. In what sense is innocent tive ? applied to inanimate substances ? EXAMPLES. No man can mortgage his . is ordinarily preferred I 3. and sitiless he used 1 4. the that I Bustidn I cany real soflerer bnt by my own fault Hippolyta. What Is Injustice f 2. . in that sense. and never am a except myself. From wliat Is and with wliat original sense? detriment? How do Uiese words compare in actual use? 4. IKIirOCEIVT 1. or virtuous t 3.




His was an anxiously Adrian was tlie most

mind, a scrapulonsly conscientious heart.




man that ever lived, and the most universal inquirer. the cause of this sudden change of purpose.


(page 321).


Insanity in the widest sense


in its restricted


Which nse is the

more frequent ? 2. Fi'om what is lunacy derived ? What did it originally imply ? In what seuse is it now used ? 3. What is madness ? 4. What is derangement? ddiriwrnf 5. What is thespeciiic meaning of dementia 6. What is aberration f 7. What is the distinctive meaning of TiiMwAnaMonf 8. What ismomomoraia.? 9. What are/rsKsy and mania.?

folly—you shall not chase All power of fancy over reason is a degree of .

Go—you may call

my gloom away.

Whatisit tomferpose.? 2.
is it

(page %%%).

to Intermeddle


How does te<eree(2e differ from info?5)o«c^ 3. What How does it differ from meddle f from interfere f 4.

What do


and mediate involve

Dion, his brother,

him and his


was saved.

Nature has

a natural barrier between England and the continent.


(page 333).

From what language

How does involve compare with implicate ? 3

and with what primary meaning f 2. . Are these words used in the favorable or the unfavorable sense ? 4. As regards results what is the difference between inxiludet imply, and involve ?

involve derived,

Rocks may be squeezed

new forms,

bent, contorted,
their ruin.



An oyster^shell sometimes
in other men's affairs,


he went down to


(page 233).

Prom what language
present meaning

QUESTIONS. is Journey derived 1 What is its primary meaning f Its 2. What is ^TO^e?.? How does it differ from^'oumey/ 3
4. What is passage f ol

What was the former meaning of voyage f its present meaning ? atHpf a lour? 5. What is the meaning ^nd common use of


judge keep



the original meaning of



Is it






men countrymen.
life is

All the

of their


in shallows


in miseries.

were a


the path to heaven.

To help you find them.


(page 324).

QUESTIONS. What is &Juage in the legal sense ? 2. What other senses has the v/oiijudge in common use f 3. What is a referee, and how appointed ? an arlAtrator? 4. What is the popular sense of umpire? the legal sense ? 6. What is the present use of arViterf 6. What are the judges of the United States Supreme
officially called f

The end crowns

And that





Will one day end

A man who Is no
the hand.

of poetry. only the mouth of law, and the magistrate who ponlshes

of law

may be a good



is justice in

(page 335).
in social

governmental relations

and personal




To what do integriiy, rectiWhat do all these include f 3. What two contrasted senses has lawfulness? 4. To what does justness refer,
matters of reasoning or literary ti'eatment ? tude, right, righteousness, and virtue apply ?




what sense

is i