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31969992 English Synonyms and Antonyms

31969992 English Synonyms and Antonyms

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English Synonyms

Antonyms ^i? ^x- ^^ AND Preposition
James C.Fernald

BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME FROM THE

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THE GIFT OF
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English

Synonyms and Antonyms

yust ivhat you 'want
tionsj Conjunctions^

to

know about

the correct use

Relative Pronouns^

and Adverbs

is

of Preposi' provided

in concise^

handy form ^ •with

illustrative examples, in this loork.

Connectives of
English Speech
Companion Volume to Antonyms, and
* '

English Synonyms,

Prepositions^'

By

JAMES

C.

FERNALD, L.H.D.
''*'

Editor of-^The Standard Dictionary"

English Synonyms

and Antonyms^"

etc,

Giving the definitions with the correct usage of
tnese parts of speech so far as pertains to their office
as connectives in the construction

of English phrases

and sentences
be used

;

indicating such prepositions as should

after verbs

tions are likely to arise;

and those concerning which queswith numerous quotations sus-

taining the decisions as to correct or incorrect usage,

"The
decidedly

topic of connecting

words

is

one of extreme impor-

tance in the Btudy of language, and

Mr. Fernald's book

is

worth while."

The Republican^ Springfield.

"In this valuable manual the reader, the writer, and the teacher will find on the instant an admirable solution for ten
thousand difficulties. The arrangement is simplicity itself, and the treatment lucid and convenient." Public Ledger , Phila.
**

He

points distinctions clearly,

shows the
a

common
great

errors,

and gives
sources."

many examples drawn from
Public Opinion,

variety

of

New

York.

Uniform Size and

Style ivith

^^English Synonyms, Antonyms,
Cloth.

and

Prepositions.''^

i3mo.

334 pp'

$i.^O,net
Publishers,

FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY,
NEW YORK
AND

LONDON

STANDARD EDUCATIONAL SERIES

ENGLISH SYNONYMS

AND ANTONYMS
WITH NOTES ON THE
CORRECT USE OF PREPOSITIONS
Designed as a Companion for the Study

AND AS A Text-Book for the Use of Schools

BY

JAMES

C.

FE^NALD,

L.H.D.

Editor of Synonyms ^ Antonyms f'Tlhd Prepositions in the Standard Dictionary

SEVENTEENTH EDITION

FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY
NEW YORK AND LONDON
:j>

Capyrtght, 1896, by \t,

WAVNALLS COMPANY. FUNK & W^.
Eng^

Segisiered at Stationers'' Hall, London,

December,

1907

Printed in thb United States

or

CONTENTS.
PAOB.

Pkefacb

,

V

Part

I.

STifONYMS.

Antonyms and Prepositions

.

.

1

Part

II.

Questions and Answers

377
509

Index

.

Bomans. Northmen. soldiers. The spirit of the Anglo^^Saxon race.PREFACE. finding often several words that originally exsame idea. arises the great value of synonyms as contributing to beauty and As interchangeable. English churchmen have introduced words from Hebrew. sailors. warring. EngUsh scholars have studied Greek and Latin for a thousand years. as. and all fenced in together by the sea. Britons. English merchants. masterful in language as in wax and commerce. with Scotch and Irish contending for mastery or existence across the mountain border and the Channel. fortifying. and travelers. but a composite language. The English language is peculiarly rich in synonyms. Saxons. it could not fail to be. As distinct and specific. and the languages of the Continent and of the Orient in more recent times. Scarcely any two of such words. could not but influence each other's speech. with such a history. of shop and camp and battle=iield. within which any other word comes as an intruder. and exploring in every dime. through Bible and prayer=book. of necessity brought back new terms of sea and shore. trading. style to choose in every instance the one term that is the most . From these two qualities . jiaking not a patchwork. so that we have an almost unexampled variety of words. has subjugated aU these various elements to one idiom. for expressing almost every shade of human thought. and settling upon the soil of England. JVom all this it results that there is scarcely a language ever spoken among men that has not some representative in English speech. sermon and tract. Greek. They have certain common gi'ound within which they are interchangeable but outside of that each has its own special province. Danes. and Latin. they enable a master of effectiveness of expression. they make possible that freedom and variety by which the diction of an accomplished writer or speaker differs from the wooden uniformity of a legal document. are identical at once in signification and in use. commonly known as synonyms. Anglo-Saxon thrift. kindred in meaning but distinct in pressed the usage. and Normans fighting. has detailed them to different parts of the common territory or to different service. From the time of Julius CsBsar.

beautiful. and then the exact reason why in any case any To give such knowledge in particular word should be chosen. when so many are eager to write. and the whole effect Is destroyed. these two directions is the oifice of a book of synonyms. unsuitable. exact. and confident that they can write. Ho sooner are they pronounced. and expressive words that make up our noble language. . but the teaching of pure English speech is the best defense against all that is inferior. or repulsive. obscuring the scene with a damp and chilling mist. New forms of beauty start at once Into existence. it is of the first importance to revive the study of synonyms as a distinct branch of rhetorical cultm-e. But they are words of enchantment. perfectly. Ws thought. perfect mirror of pose. Let anyone try the experiment with a poem like Gray's " Elegy. vagueness of thought. but has aU the aspect of absolute freedom. In our own day." of substituting other words for those the poet has chosen. and he will readily perceive how much of the charm of the lines depends upon their fine exactitude of little expression. To write or speak to the best pur- one should know iu the first place all the words from which he may choose. when he stood crying. to be no more iu his words than In other words. and he who should then hope to conjure with It would find himself as much mistaken as Cassim in the Arabian tale." or Groldsmith's " Ti-aveller" or " Deserted Village.' to the door which obeyed no sound but * Open Sesame. and all the burial places of the memory give up their tlian In Its occult " Bis poetry acts like an dead.' ' Open Barley. is by that very fact put beyond the reach of all temptatioa to linguistic corraption. a slight infelicity in the choice of words would be like a cloud upon the mountain. and when the press is sending forth by the ton that which is called literature. but which somehow lacks the imprint of immortality. Through his language his thought bursts upon the mind as a landscape is seen instantly." Macaiilay's own writings abound in examples of that exquisite which never seems to be precise.' The miserable failure of Biyden In his attempt to translate Into bis own diction some parts of the ^Paradise Lost ' is a remarkable instance of this.Preface. and a student who has once learned the rich stores of vigorous. subelitute one synonymfor another. than the past is present and the distant near. A precision in the choice of words. Change the stractnre of the sentence. There would seem. at first sight. ' Open Wheat. The most effective condemnation of an objectionable word or phrase is that it is not found in scholarly works. The spell loses its power. and beautifully from a moimtain height. Its merit lies less In Its obvious meaning power. Of Milton's diction Macaulay writes : Incantation. Prevalent errors need at times to be noted and corrected.

Such persons are simply unconscious which it is of the fact that there are other words of kindred meaning from which they might choose . Such poverty of language is always accompanied with poverty of thought. Often definition secured by the comparison of kindred terms and the pointing out where each differs from the other." ble qualities. Many who are not given to such gross misuse would yet be surprised to learn how often they employ a very limited number of words in the attempt to give utterance to thoughts and feelings so unlike. The fine distinctions and between words similar in meaning are often so elusive as to tax the ingenuity of the accompUshed scholar yet when clearly apprehended they are as important for ." "splendid. as the United States surveyors of Alaska found "the shuddering tenant of the frigid zone" wrapping himself in furs and cowering over a fire of sticks with untouched coal=mines beneath his feet. The great mass of untrained speakers and writers need to be reminded.. a poverty of language. and the persons least able to do this are the very ones most in need of the information." " awful. peritself is best We more clearly and remember better what each word is." " clever. that there are synonyms a suggestion — which they would not gain from any precision of separate definitions in a dictionary.Preface. rather than by an exact statement of the latitude and ceive longitude of each as a separate portion of the earth's surface. Special instruction in the use of synonyms is necessary. in the fitrst place. One who is content to use the same word for widely different ideas has either never observed or soon comes to forget that there is any difference between the ideas . by perceiving where each divides from another of kindred meaning just as we see and remember better the situation and contour of adjacent countries. compare them with each other. etc. by considering them as boundaries of each other. that what is the right word on one occasion must of necessity be the wrong word at many other times. or perhaps he retains . the purposes of language as the minute differences between similar substances are for the purposes of chemistry. of the first importance to correct. The deplorable repetition with which many slightly educated persons use such words as "elegant. to indicate (for they can not be said to express) almost any shade of certain approved or objectiona- shows a limited vocabulary." " horrid. for the reason that few students possess the analytical power and habit of mind required to hold a succession of separate definitions in thought at once. and determine just where and how they part company .

the meaning of which . This work treats within 375 pages more than 7500 synonyms. fifteen for henevolence." in the helpless attempt to inject into another mind by suggestion what adequate words would enable him simply and distinctly to say. by independent study of the dictionary. copiousness and clearness of language tend directly and precision of thought. But for the vast majority there is needed some work that compares or contrasts synonymous words. or two contrasted words. a vague notion of a difference which he never attempts to define to and dimly hints to others by adding to his inadequate word some such phrase aa "you see" or "youknow. but because such condensed statements are most easily apprehended and remembered. The mere mention of such numbers opens vistas of possible fulness. from which they may choose. fertile plains. A person of extensive reading and study. Thus. then. twenty for friendly. and thirty=seven for p^re. where modern discovery has revealed liimself . This is the purpose of the present work. to be a guide to selection from to affluence the varied treasures of English speech. Such a mind resembles the old maps of Africa in which the interior was filled with cloudy spaces. twenty=one for beginning. great lakes. and mighty rivers. It has been the study of the author to give every definition or distinction in the fewest possible words consistent with clearness of statement. Not one in a thousand of average students would ever discover. that there ai-e fifteen synonyms for beautiful. like Eoget's Thesaurus and the works of Soule and Fallows. But it is equally important to teach that synonyms are not identical and to explain why and how they differ. explains their differences of meaning or usage. wiU often find all that he wants in the mere list. which recalls to his memory the appropriate word. and shows in what connections one or the other may be most fitly used. and this not merely for economy of space. with a fine natural sense of language.Preface. Hence there is an important use for mere lists of classified synonyms. The method followed has been to select from every group of synonyms one word. and variety of utterance. One main office of a book of synonyms riches of their is to reveal to such persons the unsuspected own language . freedom. with intelligent choice of words there comes of necessity a clearer perception of the difference of the ideas that are to be expressed by those different words. which will have for many persons the effect of a revelation. and when a series of words is given them.

and for this there must be something definite with which to compare.Pbepack. The great source of vagueness. These are valuable as supplying definition by contrast or by negation. with discriminating remarks upon every word. much of the synonym matter prepared by him for that work. that the writer merely associates stray ideas loosely connected with the different words. and following the reference to evident. All has been thoroughly revised or reconstructed. The book contains also more than 3700 antonyms. but obviously beyond the scope of a text=book for the class=room. giving the key to the discussion. To speakers and writers antonyms are useful lishers of the as furnishing oftentimes effective antitheses. It is to be hoped that at some time a dictionary of synonyms may be prepared. so that a smooth and at first sight pleasing statement really gives the mind no definite resting=plaoe and no sure conclusion. It has been impossible within the limits of this volume to treat in fuU all the words of each group of synonyms. standard mined with clearness by reference to the definitive statements of the dictionary. the misuse of which is one of the most . thus securing soma fixed point or points to wliichall the other words of the group may be referred. It is not enough to tell something about each word. and perplexity In many discussions of synonyms is. the synonyms for one signification are treated in one group and a reference is made to some other group in which the synonyms for another signification are treated. Young writers will find much help from the indication of the correct use of prepositions. and much whoUy new matter has been added. in some cases only the chief words of a group could be considered. may be settled by clear definitive statement. by permission of the pubStandard Dictionary. When a word has more than one prominent meaning. error. sliding from synonym to synonym with no definite point of departure or return. one of the most effective methods of defljiing being in many cases to tell what a thing is not. Sometimes it has been necessary to restrict the statement to a mere suggestion of the correct use . The thing to tell is how each word is related to others of that particular group. The author has here incorporated. as may be seen by noting the synonyms given under appaeent. Such a work would be of the greatest value. When the approximation or differentiation can be deterand certainty. giving as full a list as that of Roget or of Soule. and leaving the student to follow out the principle in the case of other words is settled. A true discussion of synonyms is definition by comparison.

Y. . 4..X Preface.. and compactness. of errors. and how rarely they can give any intelligent reason for preference even among familiar words. To the text of the synonyms is appended a set of Questions and Examples to adapt the work for use as a text=book. firmness. or to a dictionary. and one of the most difficult to avoid. Aside from the purposes of the cla8s= room. this portion will be found of value to the individual student. N. 1896. There are few who can study such a work without finding occasion to correct some errors into which they have unconsciously fallen. Sept. and without coming to a new delight in the use of language from a fuller knowledge of its resources and a clearer sense of its various capabilities. is an important aid to perspicuity. West New Brighton. Excepting those who have made a thorough study of language most persons will discover with surprise how difficult it is to answer any set of the Questions or to fill the blanks in the Examples without referring to the synonym treatment in Part I. common and while their right use gives to style cohesion.

PART I. .

.." [S..J. Gr H. Eevell Funk & Wagnalls Co." and "Origjn and History of the English Language.] Graham's "Bnglish Synonyms. The Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary has been used as the authority throughout." [L. "Words and their Uses.] Smitli'8 " Synonyms Diecnminated. " False Philology. W." Latin.] Fallows' " Complete Dictionary or Synonyms and Antonyms.] Whateley's " English Synonyms Discrmiinated. T. Crabb's " English Synonymes Explained. H." [Bbu.. Widdleton . [J." tr. &P &H &M English Dictionary Macmillan & Co.] Trench's " Study of English Words. John Murray W.BOOKS OF REFERENCE." [H. Chas. Italian M. Anglo'Saxon „. T. German Greek H It J. Co. Hifflm &. & W. G & E Co D.Houghton. F.-F KrautVFleming "Yocabulary of Philosophy. B. M. H..Appleton &Co. &CoJ M Geo. A F AS Braj. Shepard Maom S Sp T.] Soule's " Dictionary of Englisb Synonyms. J." [A. & S Murray's Lee New & & Co. & Harper & Bros." [F. Co.] Fitzedward Hall. R. P. Lippincott L M L." [H.] Campbell's " Handbook of Synonyms. M." [P. Ticknor Taylor. Walton Troutman & Fields & Hayes & Maberley W." [L. Marsh. Co.. & S.] Maetzner's " English Grammar." JX." [S.1 Eoget's " Thesaurus of English Words. by Grece. & 3. W. K.W." [W.] Eichard Grant White. Bell & Sons French Fleming H. & S F." and " Erery Day English. Scribner's Sons Spanish . ABBKBVIATIONS USED. "Lectures on the English Language.] The Synonyms of the Century and International Dictionaries have also been consulted and compared. J.

retire from. desert is always un- A . Quit carries an idea of suddenness or abruptness not necessarily implied in abandon. abdicate. forsakes God. fors-wear. etc. leave. SYNONYMS. cease. authority. Forsake. Abandon is applied to both good and evil action . quit. ABAIVDOIV. repudiate. give up. like abandon. to military force. real or assumed . The king abdicates his throne. the abandons his designs. and more generally to any demand. discontinue. applying to persona or things of any kind abdicate and resign apply to office. claim. cowardly officer deserts his ship . a word of wide signification. a thief abandons his designs. previous association with responsibility for or control of forsake implies previous association with inclination or attachment. Synonyms. a man his principles. We quit business. and may not have the same suggestion of finality. the fainting hand relinquishes its Abandon implies grasp . a man may abandon or forsake house or friends he abandons an enterprise . helpless passengers abandon it. abjure. resign office. abandon a habit or a trust. surrender. renounces his religion. cast off. may be. passion. renounce. resign. Relinquish commonly implies reluctance . swrremder especially Abandon is . deserts his followers. cedes his territory. the creditor relinquishes his claim. withdraw from. give up property. forsake. ANTONYMS AND PREPOSITIONS.used either in the favorable or unfavorable sense . retract. depart Crom. vacate.PART I. forego. . desert. relinquishes his titles. recant. or power . cede to territorial possessions . relinquish.

oonrt. a breach of duty. . as. involving mere localities. it.abase favorable. claim. resigns. assert. It a president or other elected or appointed officer was held that James II. abdicated his throne by deserting adopt." While a monarch abdicates. advocate. Antonymsi cherish. except when used of "the Deserted Village.

uphold. To mortify a person is to bring upon him a painful sense of humiliation. hinder. the hypocrite shamed by exposure. A Antonyms animate. cbagrln. A witness may be embarrassed by annoying personalities. "A man \vhom no denial.cuasli abate ABASH. and because of their presence. 9. impede. The parent is mortified by the child's rudeness. officer's weapon. whether because of his own or another's fault or failure.] Compare chagrin . '76. daunt. A solitary thinkei may be . embarrass. sense of inferiority abashes. no scorn could abash. p. so as to become confused in statements. embarrassment of the feelings. The mob is overawed by the military. oonfuse. the child abashed at the parent's reproof." FiELDma Amelia bk. [b. disconcert. embolden. & B. ch. with or without the Eense The poor are abashed at the splendor of wealth. The embarrassed speaker finds it difficult to proceed. bumlllate. Any by their authority.] To confuse is to bring into a state of mental bewilderment is to confound is to OTeiwhelm the mental subject to a certain degree of fear. Embarrass signifying primarily hamper. i^ally. humble. mortify. The criminal who is not abashed at detection may be daunted by the Sudden joy may bewilder. conround. buoy. r ebeer. inspirit. dlsbearten. to daunt is to a strong word. but will not abash. The true worshiper is humbled rather than abashed before God. iii. sbame. 72. " I might have been abashedof wrong. a speaker disconcerted by a failure of memory. p. overa\ire. discompose. A pupil is confused by a perplexing question. or some mental defect one is embarrassed in the presence of others." Gladstone Homeric Synchron. 800. hostess is discomposed by the tardinesa of guests. a general confounded by overwhelming defeat. faculties . Synonyms • bewlldei. [h. confused by some difficulty in a subject. encoarage. Confusion is of the intellect. '71. hindeb. . the ignorant at the learning of the wise.

i advocate. countenance. Abet and instigate apply either to persons or actions. . paragraphs. a contraction A is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. but not a contraction. support. mdse. develop. An . Incite. aid the poor. continue. I?^®' Prepositions Abate in fuiy . Abet and instigate are now used almost without exception iu a bad sense one may incite either to good or evil. fomeut. one incites a person to an action. . ABET. encourage. terminate a controversy. Synonyms aid. encourage the . a contraction is an abbreviation. etc. or substantial aid to the doing of that which is already projected or in process of commission. taxes reduced. for American is an abbreviation. or to increased activity or further advance in the doing of it one abets by giving sympathy. enlarge. Am. A clergyman will advocate the claims of justice. abated l>y law< ABBRETIATIOm. upbold. sance.abbreviation abet abated. amplify. embolden. Abbreviation and contraction are used of words and phrases. population decreased. abbreviation is a shortening by any method . abridgfinent. Synonyms i contraction. contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elemsnts an abbreviation may be made either by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part . rage^ extend. fof debtor are contractions . and Dr. for merchandise. sanction. sentences. re&t for receipt. incite to persons only . countenance. One incites or instigates to the doing of something not yet done. increaee. assist. magnUf. abridgment of books. abate a nuiSee ai> LEYIATB. but an abbreviation is not necessarily a comtraction . Compare abbidoment. lerlve. they are also abbreviations . suppress We a rebellion. Antonrmsi aggravate. instigate. i enhance. promote.

We dislike an uncivil person. obstruct. detei'.blio]* ubidc despondent. frustrate. despise. disconcert. Synonyms: abominate. but we can not despise him. " How many shun evil as inconvenient who do not abhor it as hateftd. 297. hate tyranny. but he will not incite to a quarrel. physical or moral. The originator of a crime often instigates or incites others to abet him in it. diesaade. We loathe a reptile or a flatterer. detest. or one may instigate or incite others to a crime in the commission of which he himself takes no active part. denounce. counteract. dlsUbe. Abbey xxvi. a moral recoil. [M. We cibhor a traitor. We abhor cruelty. detest a liar. hate." Trench Serm. discourage. approve. Antonyms admire. with something of contempt. We abhor Milton's heroic Satan. expose. despise a coward. nauseate. ABHOR. support the weak.] Detest expresses indignation. uphold the constituted authorities. Compare help. shun. I . Loathe impUes disgust. Antonyms: baffle. loathe. or abet a crime. impede. in Westm.a. disapprove. confoand. binder. scorn. instigate a riot. implying a shuddering recoil. covet. Abhor especially is stronger than despise.

nullify. prohibit. Antonyms abandon. as a philosophical term. reverse. Abolish is now used of institutions. Some believe that the wicked will be annihilated. Overthrow may be used in either a good or a bad sense . to have a permanent home. in the sense of stay or sojourn. . for a time. an end. customs. support. subvert. a later statute abrogates. Prepositions Abide in a place. annul. best. destroy. Abolish is not said of laws. as. : repeal by the enacting body. matter is never annihilated. i foifelt. abrogate. suppress. resist. especially those wide»spread and long existing . eradicate. abrogate. set aside. to abolish slavery. An appellate court may reverse at set aside the decision of an inferior court. dwell. without formally repealing. move. was formerly used of persons and material objects. revoke. Annihilate. The law prohibits what may never have existed . a usage now obsolete except in poetry or highly figurative speech. joiiin«7. ignorance. exterminate. nullify by revolutionary proceedings . subvert always in a bad sense . There we use repeal. Synonyms s abate.ISH. demolish. setup. ABOI. signifies to put absolutely out of existence. to subvert our liberties to suppress a rebeUiou.abolisU O temi)orarily . to do away with. terminate a controversy. hy a statement. Stop. stamp out. migrate^ teject. avoid. iatemperance. terminate. but only changes its form. supplant. it abolishes an existing evil. repeal. obliterate. forfend. or harmful. and conditions. ptoceedi shnn. with a petson. as. poverty. end. Compare ensube . As far as our knowledge goes. abate a nuisance. etc. extirpate. reside. hindering. bring absolutely to overthrow. building that is burned to the ground is said to be destroyed by fire. live. nullify. Compare cancel. and not in approved use. is colloquial. any earlier law with which it conflicts. annlEUate. A We EXTERMINATK Antonyms t revive. suppress is commonly in a good. remove. depart. especially as something hostile. Abolish.

ill Abomination (from the L. evil. a foul sewer is an abomination. or that deserves to be. wickedness. abomination is used of such as are especially brutal. Choice food may be an object of aversion and disgust to a sick person vile food would be an abomination. but not an abridgment.abridgment abominatlouL ABOmOTATIOHir. epitome. ABRiDoaiEarT. digest. curse. Synonyms! abhorrence. summary. annoyance. An . As applied to crimes. or compendium is a condensed view of a subject. infanticide is an abomination. aversion. approval. nuisance. We may have an abridgment of a dictionary. 15. Iniquity. or.ht. sati treat. Antonyms affection. horror. detestation. joy. but not an analysis. benefit. as. compend^ abstract. A . shame. blessing. disgust. a thing of omen) was originally applied to anything held in religious or ceremonial aversion or abhorrence. outline. or summary. toad is to many an object of disgust . enjoyment. desire. delij|. whether expressed or implied. Compare abbreviation. . execration. revolting theft is an offense . compend. shameful. abbreviation. hatred. offense. villainy. An analysis draws out the chief thoughts or arguments. crime. analysis. synopsis. gratification. The word is oftener apphed to the object of such aversion or abhorrence than to the state of mind that so regards it. digest. appreciation. Synonyms . abstract. substantially as they stand. "The things which are highly esteemed among men are abomination in the sight of God." Luke xvi. ab omen. plague. in conunon use abomination signifies something very much disliked or loathed. abuse. a compendium of English literature. An epitome. whether derived from a previous publication or not. abridgment gives the most important portions of a work An outline or synopsis is a kind of sketch closely following the plan. A summary is the most condensed statement of results or conclusions. compendium. We may have an epitome of religion. An abstract or digest is an independent statement of what the book contains.

haughty. lordly. coercive. . the supreme coui't. peremptory. Autoeratio power knows uo limits outside the ruler's self arbitrary power. Irresponsible power is not necessarily bad. especially in one whose superiority is not clearly recognized. domineering. imperious signifies assuming and determined to command. arrogant. an authoritative definition . A person of an independent spirit is inclined to resent an imperious manner in any one. unequivocal. an arrogant demand is offensive by its ful or severe use of tyrannical. superior to all. a peremptory command . which is expressed more decidedly by Arbitrary may be used in a good sense as. irnplying the right to claim authority. tyrannical. but eminently dangerous . Commanding is always used in a good tone of superiority. autocratic.absolute ABSOLUTE. dictatorial. does not necessarily carry any unfavorable sense. Imperious. as. but as absolute power in human hands is always abused. compulsory. and supreme. an absolute monarch. free from all limitation or control. however. or judgment. A perfect ruler might be irresponsible and not tyrannical. can not properly be said of any being except the divine. the unfavorable meaning predominates. as. rigorously requiring obedience. and positive are used ordinarily in the good sense. arbitrary carrying the implication of wilfulness and capriciousness. demand by its unreasonableness. authoritative. commanding. it is simply one that resolutely insists upon compliance. positive instructions . and wiU not brook refusal . an arbitrary . the pronunciation of proper names is arbitrary. supreme. dogmatic. none outside the ruler's will . an executor or trustee should not be irresponsible. compulsive. controlling. Both words are used. but the bad sense is the prevailing one. of human authorities absolute then signifying free from limitation by other authority. . an irresponsible ruler is likely to be tyrannical. imperative. despotic. Authoritative is used always in a good sense. an arbitrary proceeding. positive. In the strict sense. Despotic is commonly applied to a master- power. Synonyms: arbitrary. use. an imperious disposition is liable to become arbitrary and arrogant. exacting. An imperious demand or requirement may have in it nothing offensive . in this as. unconditional. imperative. peremptory. an imperative demand . irresponsible. overbeariug. absolute. in a modified sense. and supreme exalted over all other Absolute.

hydrated or slaked lime. swallow. limited. . flree. a sin. is to set free exonerate. . Compare dogmatic infinite perfect. ABSOIiVE. a commanding appearance a commanding eminence. so that to it ceases to exist or . the guilty may be mercifully absolved. compliant. oblige." Book of Comjmon Prayer. Declar. One may be absolved from a promise by a breach of faith on the part of one to whom the promise was made. pronouncing one guiltless . drink up. imbibe. food in the body . i take in. becomes a new substance with different qualities. Synonyms accLult. . engross. in the Gtrict sense. bind. eta Synonyms ABSORB. lowly. > cbarge. lenient. pardoneth and absolveth all those who truly repent. inculpate. the innocent are rightfully acquitted. from any bond. forgive. fluid that is absorbed is talcen up into the mass of the absorbing body. exempt. take up. Compare paedon. yielding. condemn.absolve absorb . constitutional. impeach. convict. or agency. gentle. ductile. with which it may or may not permanently combine. complaisant. Enmble. absolve. A credulous person svjallows the most preposterous . be recognized as existing in its original condition fuel is consumed in the fire. being. To absolve from sins is formally to remit their condemnation and penalty. - obligate. consume is also applied to whatever is removed from the market for individual use as. A substance is consumed which is destructively appropriated by consume. Antonyms: sense . drink in. responsible. release. A some other substance. regarded as a bond ujwn the soul. snbmissiye. contingent. quicklime. To liberate. s-wallow up. iron when it absorbs heal^ the substance remaining perhaps otherwise substantially unchanged . compel. Toi acquit of sin or crime is to free from the accusation of it. suck up. when it absorbs water. pardon. conversation. of Absol. set &ee. meek. clear. discharge. exbaust. docile. conditional. i exculpate. Antonyms accuse. . mild. as. A . acconntabie. "Almighty Grod . Wood expands when it absorbs moisture. and unf eignedly believe his holy Grospel. silk great talker engrosses the and woolen goods are consumed. Preposition One is absolved from (rarely of) a promise.

intemperance. Synonyms ABSTRACT. Total abstinence has come to signify the entire abstaining from intoxistemiousness. Abstinence from food commonly signifies going without. We speak of temperance in eating. steal. wantonness. disgorge. In mental processes we discriminate between objects by distinguishing their differences. Preposition The negative side of virtue is abstinence /row vice. page 403. : dranl^eiLneBS. abstract it. and hold both in mind in . greed. self-indulgence. disperse. partaking moderately. Selpdenial is giving up what one wishes. even temper by moderate indulgence in some things.] Antonyms cast out. the student is absorbed in thought . Fasting is abstinence from food for a limited time. frugality. radiate. divert. temperance. abstinence may be refraining from what one does not desire. purloin. steal. and view it alone. excess. revelry. we separate some one element from. distinguisb. all that does not necessarily belong to it. is «A A busy student imbibes or drinks in knowledge . and generally for religious reasons. abstinence cating liquors. throw vomit. i emi^ exude. Sobriety and temperance signify maintaining a quiet. self-restraint. nutriment may be absorbed into the system through the skin. appropriate. separate." Kane Grinnell Exped. " I onlypostponed it because I happened to get absorbed in a book. intoxication. : abstemiousness. purloin. detacb. eject.abstinence abstract statement. We may separate two ideas. distract.. remove. abmay be for a single occasion. put forth. moderation. ^ve up. self-denial. [h. sensuality. but of abstinence from vice. eliminate. : dissipate. 43. abstemiousness is habitual moderation. off. self-control. send out. slioot f ortli. Synonyms fasting. '54. complete abstinence from others. discriminate. V. continence. take away. t reveling. -witbdraw. sobriety. Antonyms gluttony. ch. The central idea of withdrawing makes abstract in common speech a euphemism for appropriate (unlawfully). he absorbed in a subject that takes his whole attention. Prepositions Plants absorb moisture /rom the air. distract.

wUd. that a part should be greater than the whole is absurd. on hand. paradoxical. Synonyms absent. but the really listless and thoughtless have not mental energy to be preoccupied. tbougbtless. the substance from the accidents . Antonyms alert. ABSVRD.inded man is oblivious of ordinary matters. Indifferent. so that it can not be given properly to any. One who is preoccupied is intensely busy in thought. negligent. inconclusive. conjoin. with fitful and aimless wandering of thought. Anything is irrational . absent-minded. abstracted. As regards mental action. because his thoughts are elsewhere.11 absard abstracted. Synonyms: anomalous. ridiculous. comparison or contrast. The absent=m. infatuated. ludicrous. unreasonable. prompt. Compare discern. while it may be reaUy true. cbimerlcal. distracted when the attention is divided among different subjects. diverted when it is drawn away from what it would or should attend to by some other interest. strengthen. ill-judged. inattentive. attentive^ ready. erroneous. one may be absent-minded either through intense concentration or simply through inattention. mlstalien. unite. Ill-considered. as. incorrect. ani preoccupied refer to the cause. ill-advised. Compare abstract. beedless. we drop the other out of thought. paradoxical statement apx>ears at first thought contradictory or absurd. withdrawn from Antonyms add. wide-awake. thoagntfnl. absorbed. stupid. That is absurd which is contrary to the first principles of reasoning . absent or absent-minded to the effect. monstrous. absorbed. Irrational. increaee. but when we abstract one of them. ABSTRACTED. Prepositions: The purse may be abstracted from the pocket . flllnp. senseless. obQvlous. The mind is abstracted when it is all other subjects and concentrated upon one. complete. The man absorbed in one thing wiU appear absent in others. nonsensical. preoccupied. A preoccupied person may seem listless and thoughtless. preposterous. listless. combine. a book into a compend. A. foolish. restore. The trouble with the distracted person is that he is not abstracted. false.

the Mother Goose rimes are nonsensical. Antonyms 1 saTistantlal. unreasonable when there seems a perverse bias or an intent to go -wrong. as. Compare incongruous. undeniable. " O monstrous eleven buckram men grown out of . The lunatic's claim to be a king is ridiculous. foolish practical good sense. nngnestionable. act ii. erroneous when containing error that vitiates the result. Monstrous and preposterous refer to what is overwhelmingly absurd. 4. The ridiculous or the nonsensical is worthy only to be laughed at." Shakespeake 1 King Henry IV.abnso 12 when clearly contrary to sound reason.' two. . true. sc. silly when contrary ta when petty and contemptible in its folly.

conserve. tend. consider. benefit. est used of national and military matters. or of some other connection regarded as great and important. retainer. An . Colleague is used always in a good sense. an abettor (the general legal spelling) is always present. fee. retainer are persons especially devoted to a chief. common law. an accessory never. follower. care for. Accomplice and abettor have neai-ly the same meaning. confederate. ally. Partner has come to denote almost exclusively a business connection.AsSupreme Court is near in rank to the Chief surgeon's assistant is a physician or medical student Justice. auxiliary. associate. abetter. colleague. a surgeon's attendant is one who rolls bandages and the like. suBtain. accomplice. shield. companion. attendant. one is an abettor. chief. ACCESSORY. Antonyms: adversary. favor. accomAlly is oftenplice. hencliinan. allies of despotism. the latter more distinctively the legal term.Autonyms applaud. Compare at- pendaqe. panegyrize. uphold. . companion. participator. members of Congress from the same State are colleagues. assistant. an accessory never. either in a good or a bad sense. An accomplice is usually a principal. at the commission of the crime. partner. Colleague is applied to civil and ecclesiastical connections. laud. Follower. ruins himself. Sjnonyms: alietter or a1>ettor.13 accessory and opportunities. confederate. betrayer. cherish. almost always in a bad sense. and not an accessory. ally. who shares in the treatment and care of patients. rival. abuses every good gift of God. harms his associates. eulogize. henchman. opposer. attendant. and can not be convicted until after the conviction of the principal. principal. respect. hinderer. but the former is the pop- may be bitter sociate Justice of the A ular. extol. regard. coadjutor. as. either actively or constructively. vindicate. belper. enemy. or reward. though only to stand outside and keep watch At against surprise. the accomplice or abettor can be convicted as a principal. protect. commander. praise. opponent. and generally bound to him by necessity. foe. accessory. even though they opponents politically and personally. instigator. wrongs his parents. In law. . If present. perverts his talents. helper. an accessory implies a principal. antagonist. associate and coadjutor generally so. assistant. associate. leader.

An adventure is that which may turn out ill. bappenlng. we say "he has a chance of success. hazabd." Lulce x. plan. but subordinate to the main purpose. calamity. ACCIDEBIT. We can speak An accident tention. or aside from the main design. no chance. game of chance. possibility. Fortune is regarded as having a fitful purpose. misfortune. bazard. as personified. An incident viewed as occurring in the regular course of things. an accident to the machinery. 31. accident tends to signify some calamity or disaster. unless the contrary is expressed. before or after the fact. casualty. Prepositions The accident o/ birth." or "there is one chance in a thousand. t appointment. the fortune of war. ordinance. Synonyms t adventure.accident l'^ Prepositions i An accessory to the crime. unexpected defeat. Since the unintended is often the undesirable. fate. misadventure. Compare event. known. but not of a game of accident. the acces- sories of a figure in a painting. foreordlnatlon. If the direct cause of a railroad accident is. "Fortune favors the brave. but chance is spoken of where no special cause is manifest: "By chance there came down a certain priest that way. cbance. contingency. fortuity. misbap. bap. Fortune Fortune and is the result of inscrutable controlling forces." The slaughter of men is an incident of battle." where we could not substitute fortune. 1 intention. law. we speak of fickle Fortune. decree. we can not To the theist there is. as when we say a fortunate or happy accident. Chance as purposeless. but chance can be used of human effort and endeavor as fortune can not be. in strictness. call it a chance. of a is Antonyms calculation. ordalnment. is that which happens without any one's direct ina chance that which happens without any known cause. blind Chance. disaster. necessity. all things being by divine causation and control. a misadventure that which does turn out iU. preparation provision ' purpose. certainty. chance are nearly equivalent. . A slight disturbing accident is a mishap. incident.

fello'wslilp. and ordinarily companionship. harshness. Prepositions Acquaintance with a subject between persons. experience.f 1^ *" acrimony acquaintance Synonyms association. familiarity is becoming restricted to the undesirable sense. "Familiarity breeds contempt . from a slight or passing to a familiar or intimate acquaintance. etc. for one may be well acquainted with an enemy. asperity. Fellowship involves not merely acquaintance and There may be much companionship. As regards persons. As regards studies. So there ship. association in business without intimacy or friendAcquaintance admits of many degrees. as in the proverb. lEnowledge. There may be pleasant fellow- may be ship which does not reach the fulness of friendship. pursuits. Ignoring. friendship. is now uniformly preferred. Inexperience. Intimacy. sourness. malignity." hence. but know each other only by word and deed. as between busy clerks at adjoining desks. . . which refers to mutual knowledge of thought and feeling. virulence. we may know a public man by his writings or speeches. but sympathy as well. severity. Compare ATTACHMENT FEtlENDSHiP LOVE. tartness. moroseness. but can not claim acquaintance unless he personally knows us. . companionship. familiarity. causticity. nnfamillarity. arising often from long experience or . though in a wider sense friendship may exist between those who have never met. as between those whose homes or pursuits are far apart. the word intimacy. Acquaintance between persons supposes that each knows the other. in personal relations. sharpness. Acquaintance does not involve friendship. but acquaintance unmodified commonly signifies less than familiarity or intimacy. and conversely. friendship without much fellowship. and by sight. association. hltterness. Friendship includes acquaintance with some degree of intimacy. unkindness. much companionship with little acquaintance. jlntonyms ignorance. There may be pleasant acquaintance with little companionship. Synonyms acerbity. which supposes minute knowledge of particulars.. acquaintance is less than familiarity. of one person with another ACRIMONY.

but act refers to the power put forth. teansaction. movement. Malignity is the extreme of settled ill intent. as. asperity is keener and more pronounced. proceeding:. of justice. legally. Severity is always painful. wor]£. an act of will. effect. the act is not complete without the striking of the fatal blow. true or false. as. doing. Compare anger. it springs from settled Acerbity arise character or deeply rooted feeling of aversion or unkindness. state. gentleness. but We speak of the action of Act is rather a virtuous power. enecutlon. effect. action by an adjective preceding. unless estrangement had begun. n. deed. or habit act exercise of power. in of exerting power. denoting distinct irritation or vexation. operation. or a process. virulence is an envenomed hostility. metal. Morally. though oftener an act of kindness. emootlmesB. kindness. exploit. ACT. Act and deed ai-e both used for the thing done. consummation. but not with acrimony. a voluntary act. for the simple exertion of In this sense an act does not necessa- . the act of murder is in the determination to kill. action. malignity may be covered with smooth and courteous phrase. performance. in speech asperity is often manifested by the tone of voice rather than by the words that are spoken.act 16 is a sharpness. bitter. an acid upon a used. Act is therefore single. mildness. enmity. feat. not of its act. which may from momentary annoyance or habitual impatience. Acrimony in speech or temper is like a corrosive acid. Synonyms: accomplislunent. exercise. Antonyms: amiability. is strictly and originally something accomplished by an which sense it is synonymous with deed or Action is a doing. Virulence of speech is a quality in language that makes the language seem as if exuding poison. with a touch of bitterness. One might speak with momentary asperity to his child. we may say a kind act. and may be terrible. acbievemeut. exertion. action a complex of acts. deep malignity. goo i nature. also. while an action does. motion. imply an external effect. deed to the result accomplished. In connection with other words act is more usually qualified by the use of another noun. but carries ordinarily the implication. We say intense virulence. rily We say a virtuous act. Virulence ia outspoken. individual. momentary. courtesy. An course of action. a bad deed.

diligent. passion. auicli. involving valor or heroism. an exploit is brilliant. diligent. As between and deed. a feat of arms. The restless are active from inability to keep quiet. alert. officious.17 active but only a kind action. qnlet. be transient. bc. etc. the busy are actually employed. deed is commonly used of great. The officious are undesirably active in the affairs of others. suffering. suspension. bustling. endurance. Baikkt Festus. for an object. in the . endurance. inertia. in thouglitB. prompt. meddlesome. immobility. mol>ile. ready. skill. personal power. not an action of kindness. deliberation. as for justice unth about something. inert. restless. A Country Town. The intensest action is easier than passive effect may enduring. * In pbilosopliic sense. in a cause. people's business. busy. vigorous. a. ani feat. stupid. indolent. Wide awake. an achievement is solid. alive. 7. and its effect Act and action are both in contrast to all that is merely passive and receptive. sluggish. the diligent and the industrious are habitually busy. lively. especially the latter. nimble. act Fesius: We live in deeds^ not years. and readiness of resource. an achievcTiient is the doing of something great and noteworthy. BOif industrious. spriglitl7. or out of all proportion to the purpose contemplated. in the latter. loftiness of thought. industrious. spry. as about other persons or instrumentalities . rest. as. Prepositions Active in work. supple. whether mental or physical. repose. inactivily. Synonyms agUe. Antonyms cessation.* quiescence. notable. action. quiescent. with busy. usually combined with strength. alert. idle. not breathe. energetic. . ACTIVE. exploit. a heavy. Compare alert. inaction. Antonyms dull. An exploit is a conspicuous or glorious deed. and impressive acts. lazy. their activity may be without pm-pose. but its A feat exhibits strength. brisk. skill. Inactive. slow. Active refers to both quickness and constancy of former sense it is allied with agile. feat of memory. expeditious. quiet. as are achievement. The active love employment. brisk.

and insight. perspicacity. Acumen is sharpness to some purpose. attach or annex a building to one that it adjoins or papers to the document they refer to. penetration and perspicacity to other subjects of knowledge. cast up. keenness. discernment. subjoin. We may enlarge a house. Perspicacity is the iwwer to see clearly through that which is difficult or involved. To augment a thing is to increase it by any means. and applies to the most erudite matters. annex. augment riches. etapidlty. Synonyms i acuteness. however keen. We speak of the acuteness of an observer or a reasoner. often with a somewhat evil bias. Sharpness. augment. or a merchant. sbre'wdness. which is to increase by repeating. or an empire. extend influence or dominion. obtuseness. and belongs to a mind that is comprehensive as well as keen. however deep. the sagacity of a hound. penetration. a farm. sagacity. make up. amx. cleverness. acumen may increase with study. dnlness. insight. affix a seal or a signature. but this word is seldom used directly of material objects. Insight and discernment are applied oftenest to the judgment of character. enlarge. as ready to take advantage of duller intellects. Cleverness is a practical aptitude for study or learning. the shrewdness of a usurer.add acumen 18 ACCMEIV. append. etc. generally in practical affairs. amplUy. annex a clause or a codicil. extend. acuteness. Antonyms: blantness. a nation. a clergyman. sum up. a farm. Synonyms t a^oln. perspicacity. Sagacity is an uncultured skill in using quick perceptions for a desired end. andpenetration. annex a territory. and acumen at a philosopher. which implies also ability to use these qualities to advantage. we do not augment a house. Shrewdness is Tceenness or sagacity. the keenness of a debater. A speaker may amplify a discourse by a fuller treatment . the penetration. attacb. fall short of the meaning of acumen. To add is to increase by adjoining or uniting: in distinction from multiply. sbarpness. ADD. attach a condition to a promise. increase. the insight and discernment of a student. power or influence. There are persons of keen insight and great penetration to whom these powers are practically useless. join on.

court. devoted to his religion. and generally of natural tendencies as. One inclined to luxury may become habituated to poverty. devoted. greet and hail may imply but a passing word greeting may be altogether silent . A man may be accustomed to labor. greet. inclined. given. and enduring hold upon action. throughout than was originally planned. withilraw.. Habituated. One is wedded to that which has become a second nature . Devoted is used chiefly in the good sense . subtract. or he may append or subjoin certain remarks without change of what has gone before. ADDRESS. habitual. We cast up or sum up an account. Preposition Addicted to vice. deduct. our hearts are prone to evil. Synonyms: accost. approacb. indisposed. One is addicted to that which he has allowed to gain a strong. Synonyms abandoned. Addicted may be used in a good. Antonyms abstract. remove. as. appeal. given up. . but more frequently a bad sense as. wedded. Abandoned tells of the acquired viciousness of one who has given himself up to wickedness. as is abandoned). to hail is to greet in a loud=voiced and commonly hearty and joyous may . is a stronger and more hopeless expression. Preposition! Other items are to be added to the account. speafc to. reduce. as to a habit or indulgence.salute. accustomed.- !" addicted address. . v. ADDICTED. nnaccastomed. disposed. since one return another's greeting. to friend or stranger. . V. To accost is to speak first. attached. disinclined. addicted to study addicted to drink. as. a mother's devoted affection. generally with a view to opening conversation greet is not so distinctly limited. . Prone is used only in a bad sense. given to study or to gluttony (in the bad sense. given over. or given up. diminieh. or involuntary tendency. woo. Antonyms averse. one is wedded to science or to art. inclination. attached to his profession. given over. lesBen. apostrophize. though add up and malce up are now more usual expressions. bail. . diesever. prone.

. and tact." To is to greet with special token of respect. clnmsiness. as a soldier his commander. Courtesy and politeness are indispensable elements of good address. To appeal is strictly to call for some form of help or support. Synonyms I n. Compare speech. though it may often be interchanged with them. tact. unwisdom. ADDRESS. It includes adroitness and discretion to know what to do or say and what to avoid . elownisbness. he addressed an intruder with indignation. ill stupidity. adroitness. n. overlook. fatuity. folly. Prepositions: Address the memorial to the legislature. which is the power of fine touch as applied to human character and feeling. well met. ingenuity. courtesy. ingenuity to devise readiness to speak or act . or even the Deity. . pass by. 20 way. It is a general power to direct to the matter in hand whatever quaUties are most needed for it at the moment. One may address another at considerable length or in writing. manners. Address is that indefinable something which enables a man to gain his object without seeming exertion or contest. Antonyms: awkwardneBS. . Bban. Address is slightly more formal than accost or greet. he accosts orally and briefly.address. boorisbness. I elude. cat. manners. readiness. dexterity. a preacher may apostrophize virtue. . Antonyms avoid. pass. the president addressed the people in an eloquent speech . To apostrophize is to solemnly address some person or personified attribute apart from the audience to whom one is speaking as. salute . ignore. unmannerlineBB. the saints of old. and generally with the favor and approval of those with whom he deals. discretion. the dexterity that comes of practise . rudeness. politeness. Prepositions plished intriguer Address in dealing with opponents the address of an accoman address to the audience. as appears in the expression " hail fellow. ill •'breeding.

a sum sufficient to meet expenses an adequate remedy for the disease. principle. ADHERENT. adherents and disciples are followhis individual judgment.21 adequate adlicreut Synonjrmsi *5^®v ^ adapted. imflt. the disciple is *^ore subject to command and instruction . nseless. clergyman may have strength adequate to the work of a porter . fitted. "Work is satisfactory if it satisfies those for whom it is done. and qualified refer to the qualities which match or suit the occasion. An adherent one who is devoted or attached a person. while not an adherent to all An ally is more independent stiU. or the like. nnqaalifled. Synonyms aid. nnsatisfactory. suitable. A We Antonyms) disqualified. ansoitable. suitable. cause. Prepositions Adequate to the demand . equal. by reason of iU health. inenfflcient. satisfactory. The ers. fit or suitable occupation for him. though it may be very poor work judged by some higher standard. say an able orator. poor. party. commensurate. fitting:. inadeqaate. competent. sufficient. follower. a capable accountant. baclcer. partisan. inferior. Commensurate is the more precise and learned word. Jit. imeqnal. a qualified teacher may be no longer competent. Adapted. fit. is disciple. for the purpose. Allies who overthrew Napoleon were united only against him. commensurate. worthless. . Able and capable suggest general ability and reserved power. . creed. A capable man will come up to any ordinary demand. Partisan has Allies are regarded as equals The adherent depends more on . supporter. thus we say the disciples rather than the adherents of Christ. to alder. One may be an aider and supporter of a party or church. qualified. An able man will do something well in any position. as. i aUy. as he its doctrines or claims. incompetent. but that would not be a. and sufficient Bignify equal to some given occasion or work . capable. Adequate. Qualified refers to acquired abilities . able being the higher word of the two. signifying that which exactly measures the matter in question. competent to both natural and acquired . may differ on every point except the specific gi-ound of union.

hater. stlclEing. they meet Conterminous would imply that their dimensions were exactly equal on the side where they adjoin. places being caUed near upon the raih:oad which would elsewhere be deemed remote. viscous. Antonyms i adTersarjr. as pitch or tar. and viscous are appUed to fluid or semi-fluid sub- stances. . Polished plate glass is not adhesive. Buildings may be adjacmt or adjoining that are not attached. adjoining. Neighboring always implies such proximity that the in- Adjacent farms may not be connected. attacbed. opponent. Sticky expresses a more limited. Synonyms t abutting. at the boundary=line. contiguous. One may be an adherent or supporter of a party and not a partisan. Preposition The stiff. wet clay. nl^b. »"&"• if adjoining. personal in its application. That which is adhesive tends to join itself to the surface of any other body with which it is placed in contact. cohesive expresses the tendency of particles of the same substance to hold together. sticking or sticky the popular word. sepatahle. viscid. renegade. Prepositions Adherents to principle . Glutinous. right or wrong. deserter. neisbborine. and generally annoying. ^ ne^. Contiguous may be used for either adjacent or adjoining. degree of the same quality. : betrayer. ylscid. and not in the best usage. beside. impeded progress. coterminous. sticky. gummy. antagonist. ADJACENT. but such plates packed together are intensely cohesive. traitor. Backer is a sporting and theatrical word. Compare accessoby. Inadhesive. glutinous. gummy. bordering. Near is a relative word. adhesive to the foot. Adhesive is the scientific. Synonyms ADHESITE. Abutting refers rather to the end of one building or estate than to the neighborhood of another. near. adherents of Lnther. close. conterminous. enemy. An adhesive plaster is in popular language a sitcfciJigr=plaster. i loose. Antonyms! free. i cobeslve.adhesive adjacent xft the narrow and odions sense of adhesion to a party.

disjoined. embellisli. esteem the good. execrate. We approve what is excellent. separate. as. scorn. to brighten and enliven by adding something not necessarily or very closely connected with that to which it is added. In the old sense of wonder. est of several or Neaet views some object as the nearmany. decorate. the artist illustrates it with beautiful engravings. Antonyms abhor. applaud. We honor and respect noble character wherever found. Preposition The farm was adjacent to the village. love. the word now expresses a delight and approval. 'wonder. venerate. rarely be found in the old sense of Synonyms deck. ornament. Preposition Admire at may stiU very wonder at. the feast was garnished with flowers. Garnish is on a lower plane. delight in the iimocent happiness of children. despise. applaud heroic deeds. respect. i abommate. to illustrate is to add something so far like in kind as to cast a side=light upon the principal matter. Antonyms: detached. a walk or a dinner. bedecli. a mother bedecks her daughter with silk and jewels. bonor. enjoy books or society. dellgbtln. we revere and venerate it in the aged. approve. ridlcnle. diBtant. revere. To adorn and to ornament alike signify to add that which makes anything beautiful and attractive. gamisb. We extol the goodness and adore the majesty and power of God. dieconnected. extol. as. the gateway was ornamented with delicate To embellish is is that . admire is practically obsolete. Illustrate. the binder gilds and decorates the volume. as. gild. dislike. ADORN. in which the element of wonder unconsciously mingles. detest. i beautify. enjoy. bate. ADmiRE. An author embellishes his narrative with fine descriptions. "We admire beauty in nature and art. but ornament is more exclusively on the material plane. Synonyms! adore. love our friends.nn *"* habitants admire adorn may be neighbors. esteem. next neighbor implies a neighborhood. contemn. Deck and bedeck are commonly said of apparel. remote.

~. But in common usage. an agent is not the prime actor. i aggravate. fiqxte. the prime mover or doer of an act is the agent. the gateway was adorned with beautiful carving. we imply a unity and loftiness of design euch say of some admirable scholas ornamented can not express. Preposition s Adorn his temples with a coronet. To provoke. some careless neglect or needless misfortune. Thus we speak of man as a voluntai-y agent. is wounded by the To tease is to give some slight Aggravate in the sense of offend colloquial. vex. i originator. 178. literally to call out or challenge. if we say. pleaBe. irritated at by a tight shoe or a thoughtless remark. ar or statesman. mover. content. His looks adorned the venerable place. is to begin a contest. and perhaps playful annoyance. To affront is to oflEer some defiant offense or indignity. a free agent. and can not be put on by ornaments or decorations. provoke. one provokes another to violence. Antonyms conciliate. tease. -** Adorn is more lofty and spiritual. etc. irritate. insult. Compare honor. deform. offend. Antonyms chief. exasperate. gratify. In strict philosophical usage. ingratitude of child or friend. of a vexed One may be annoyed by the well=meaning awkwardness servant. acting under orders or instructions. Synonyms actor. dmrch. Instrument. doer. footer. promoter. 1. t inventor. to one's face. " he touched nothing that he did not adorn. but only an instrument or factor. > operator. as it were." which is We At. . wound. AGEIVT. Synonyms AFFRONT. but seems in perfect harmony and unity with that to which it adds a grace. tlntonyms deface.aflnront agent carving. Compare CAUSE. displease. means. mar. performer. principaL Prepositions An agent o/the company /or selling. Goldsmith Deserted Village. refening to a beauty not material. spoil. with meek and unaffected grace. annoy. it is somewhat i less than to insult. disflgnre. especially in business.

25 .

Aim. etc. for the household. Mtchen^gardening. flowers. purpose. or sometimes that which is aimed at. referring to the mental acts by which the aim is attained. Design especially denotes the . and the raising of the coarser crops. that which he would grasp as the reward of his labors. and yet lack the fixedness of purpose by which alone it can be attained. The aim is the direction in which one shoots. purpose. Aspiration has less of decision than the other terms. Farming refers to the cultivation of considerable portions of land. marlc. object. the distinct cultiva- tion of vegetables. under cultivation. Purpose is stronger than intention. design. that toward which one runs. vege- land. determination. but not nor ordinarily of farming. tendency. one may aspire to an oly'ect. Culture is now appUed to the careful development of any product to a state of perfection. industry. Synonyms s aspiration. design. intention. Husbandry is a general word for any form of practical agriculture. flowers. the cultivation of com. endeavor. the culture of fruits. and while it may be done upon a farm is yet a Gardening in general. cultivation refers especially to the processes that bring forward the crop. the goal. especially by care through successive generations.. intention. marTcet^gardening. design. the culture of flowers. end. intent. purpose. we also speak of land as in a state of cultivation. gardening is the close cultivation of a small area for small fruits. may be wholly in we say an agi-icultural college tables. etc. the choice varieties of the strawberry have been produced by wise and patient culture. or vegetables. Aspiration applies to what are viewed as noble aim^. a good crop in any year is the result of good cultivation. The end is the point at which one expects or hopes to close his labors. but is now chiefly poetical.The mark is that at which one shoots.aim 26 books. are often used as interchangeable with aim. manuring. . fioriculture. etc.. inclination. we speak of the tillage of the soil. endeavor. the dlyect. farming is itself one department of agriculture. the raising of the same for saXe. etc. endeavor. strictly and all horticulture. are departments of agriculture. Aspiration. scientific /ar-mingr is practised upon the rather than a college of farming. as plowing. indifferently to the best or worst. AU alike indicate the direction of endeavor. Tillage refers directly to the work bestowed upon the land.. goal.

ethereal. carelessness. Aerial and airy both signify of or belonging to the air. Mien is closely synonymous with air. speak of the look or looks as indicating all that we look at. oenavior. port. Eoopression and look especially refer to the face. but the air of a gentleman. might say of a traveUsoiled pedestrian. acquired. Appearance refers more to the dress and other externals. as. as. whose designs are wise. One whose aims are worthy. bearbag. Mien may be used to express some prevailing feeling. mien. manner. as. carriage. port is practically identical in meaning with tearing. lively. he had the look at an adventurer. Compare behaviob. pnrposelessness. heedlessness. neglect. he has a pleasant expression of countenance. Expression is oftenest applied to that which is habitual. w^ay. he has the appearance of a tramp. style. too. we say he has the air of a scholar. but less often used in a bad sense. as. but is more exclusively a literary word. including conduct. expression. in large part at least.'" Demeanor goes beyond appearance. is generally used in a good sense. We We We AIRY. Joyous. as. spri^tly. Compare AMBITION. Manner and style are. oversight. . animated. may hope to reach the goal of his ambition. fatrylUze. demeanor. frolicsome. as. Air is that combination of qualities which makes the entire impression we receive in a person's presence. thoughtlessness. fasbion. sort. Synonsmist llgbt. that lady has a good carriage. and will surely win some oly'ect worthy of a life's endeavor. gay. Antonyms: aimlesBness. Carriage. however. "an indignant mien. we speak aerial. I did not like his looks. may. he has a noble bearing. AIR. a loo\ of dismay passed over his face. look. as. say a rakish air rather than a rakish mien.27 airy adaptation of means to an end. DESIGN. toofc may be momentary. or the air of a -villain. a modest demeanor. whose aspirations ai-e high. behavior. and whose pwrposes are steadfast. negligence. but airy also describes that which seems as if made of air. as. Synonyms: appearance. endeavor refers to the exertions by which it is to be attained. avoidance. Bearing is rather a lofty word.

apprehension. slow. often. timidity* consternation. a lively company. Affright and fright express sudden fear which. Timidity is a quaUty. heavenly. nimble. Ready expresses more hfe and vigor than prepared. the pure Sprightly. Alarm. and so. and solicitude are in anticipation of danger. the wandering Indian is alert. ne *' where we could not well say aerial. ALARH. dull. tear. light. confidence. and may be quite consistent with true courage. ftlglit. though these words also may have an anticipative force. and wide-awake refer to vigilant. and terror are overwhelming fear. bustling. miseiTlng:. Inert. the unarmed villagers view it with affright. generally in the actual presence of that which is terrible. consternation. dismay. Synonyms: active. Alert. a watchful promptness for action. Antonyms: assurance. The gun is prepared. Prompt expresses readiness for appointment or . ready. stony. misgiving. Beady suggests thoughtful preparation. among the soldiers. brisk. That which is be agreeable or the reverse. t disquietude. Prepositions Alarm was felt in the camp. free. wooden. The sentinel discovers with alarm the sudden approach of the enemy. habit. airy nothings. prompt. for the time at least. ponderous. repose. spiritlike. " to arms. overwhelms courage. lively or animated may Antonymsclumsy." is an arousing to meet and repel danger. a readiness to be affected with /ear. solicitude. wide-awake. according to its derivation alVarme. dismay. ethereal describes its object as belonging to the upper air. watcbful. as. heavy.alarm alert of airy shapes. panic. refers to ether. an animated discussion. Blnggish. disquietude. or condition. at the news. ready. dread. prepared. lively. security. the trained soldier is ready. cheerful activity of mind and body. dread. calmness. Apprehension. the man is ready. on the watch. Compare FEAB. A person of great timidity is constantly liable to needless alarm and even terror. ALERT. terror. Synonyms affrlgbt.

confllctii contradictory. n. strictly speaking. alert to perceive opportunity or peril. inappropriate matters Compare alien. Antonyms: citizen. A person of foreign birth not naturalized is an alien. heavy. Synonyms conflicting:. n. unlllie. among our people. . concould not properly be considered. apropos. a. The sense of brisk. and A ceased to be a stranger to its people or institutions. hostile. fellowcountryman. at the required moment. ALIEBf. inappropriate. contradi fc " distant. Foreign refers to difference of birth. impertinent. The good general is ready for emergencies. contrary. irrelevant. relevant. aliens in . foreigner. that is foreign which is remote. appropriate. NIMBtE. In their figurative use. V. w. native-born inhabitant. though he may have been resident in the country a large part of a Uf etime. Prepositions Aliens to (more rarely from) our nation and laws our land. stnpid. dull. countryman. Im/pertinent and irrelevant matters can not claim consideration in a certain connection. essential. alien. a. altvk. Compare active. unlike. rather than aliens. Antonyms drowsy. remote contrasted. Synonyms: stranger. gennane.»9 demand __ alien. native. sluggish.. He is an alien in one country if his allegiance is to another. and perhaps a stranger in the place where he resides. inactive. or opposed. naturalized person.. naturalized citizen is not an alien. pertinent. " foreign. ' trast. Antonyms: akin. The people of any country still residing in their own land are. opposed. AlilElV. or unconnected. Prepositions Such apurpose was alien to (or/rorn)my thought: to preferable. unconnected. but alien and foreigner are often used synonymously. iry. VIGILANT. "lile. though a foreigner by birth. slow. jpro??ipf to seize occasion. " ' bostiXe. strange. nimble is the secondary and now less common signification of alert. proper. foreigners to the people of all other countries. that is alien which is conflicting. alien to difference of allegiance.

." is to say not merely that he is similar to the one I have in mind. plan. subsisting. distinct. . vivacious. ALIKE. e.. identical. animate. Antonyms: different. Things are analogous when they are similar in idea. signifying as applied to two or more objects that some or all qualities of one are the same as those of the other or others by modifiers alike may be made to express more or less resemblance as. brisk. alert. they are all alike to me. the gills of fishes are said to be analogous to the lungs in terrestrial animals. as in the words "he is all alive. kindred. Substances are homogeneous which are made up of elements of the same kind. now action." So the word quick. e<iuivalent. while not alike in size or shape. Alike is resembling:. diesimilar. . analogous. tho perhaps quite unlike in appearance ." is Quick. that they can both be woven into cloth. e. but that he is the very same person. ALITE. (i. existing. ture. living. In geometry. mostly applied to energy of life as shown in swiftness of Breathing is capable of like contrast.alike alive 30 Synonyms: akin. lively. line for line and angle for angle they are equivalent when they simply contain the same amount of space. uniform. similar. a comprehensive word. to that which implies the very utmost of vitality and power. heterogeneous. Similar refers to close resemblance. existent. animated. Prepositions r The specimens are alike in kind . as when we say he is just alive. ^ame. in all respects) CJotton and wool are alike in this. like. from that which shows one to be barely eooisting or eooistent as a living thing. bomogeneous. nnllke. Synonyms active. live. or which are the same in struc- Two pieces of iron may be homogeneous in material. An identical proposition is one that says the same thing precisely in subject and predicate. two triangles are equal when they can be laid over one another. i breatking. or. We say of a dying . and fit. which began by signifying "having life. partially) alike. these houses are exactly alike. Alive applies to all degrees of life. use. e^ual. To say "this is the identical man. or character. which yet leaves room for question or denial of complete likeness or identity. these houses are somewhat (i." "thoroughly alive.. as.

alive ivith alive through all his being. in strictness. adjust to a calm and settled condition. offer." Tennyson Princess can. Synonyms AL. ALLEGE. or seeming to have. appease. But. L 155. cite. declare.AY. dispirited.<> ** man. asseverate. stirt atirnp. nxaintain. to place together. so that there is less to suffer . pacify. . to allay the excitement is virtually to remove the trouble. advance. cahn agitation. Synonyms: adduce. quiet. the quarrelsome. calm. but do not allay it. introduce. spiritless. To allege is formally to state as true or capable of proof. quiet or soothe that which is excited. where it means having. mollify. or "breathing and sounding. to allay rage or panic. to allay is to lay to rest. as. to soothe (originally to assent to. kindle. plead. aver. to alleviate. produce. and have been often interchanged in usage. humor) is to bring to pleased quietude. defunct. V. "We allay excitement. resolve . he allay allege is still breathing . is to lighten a burden. To adduce. directly from the Latin. poci/j. afOnn.uiet. full and vigorous breath. Antonyms: dead. fan provoke. appease a tumult. assert. we alleviate suffering by doing something toward removal of the cause. lifelees. unite.L. literally to lead to. to calm. . distress. soothe grief or CJompare AiiLEViATE. to mollify is to soften. say. where the trouble is wholly or chiefly in the excitement. quiet the boisterous or clamorous. on the other hand. claim. tut without proving. q. sootbe. or tranquilize is to make still. or we speak of a breathing statue. abundant life. Allay and alleviate are closely kindred in signification. Pacify. appease. Antonyms agitate. is to bring the . alive to every noble impulse . compose our feelings or countenance. i alleviate. from the Latin through the French. assign. dull. and compose. We allay suffering by using means to soothe and tranquilize the sufferer. excite. still. tranquilize. Compare active . hope. Prepositions: Alive in every nerve fervor. deceased. compose. touse. inauimate. beauteous battle. state. arouse. signify to bring to peace. albet nimble. we alleviate poverty.

he resents the idea of subjection. Fealty is becoming somewhat rare. of them we say introduce or produce. fealty. loyalty. wife. an alleged will. or to those principles of right that are spiritually supreme. which the evidence is to sustain. except in elevated or poetic style. the counsel on either side are accustomed to advance a theory. but his loyalty will lead him to do more than mere allegiance could demand. that the will is genuine. in return for the protection he receives. sedlUon. an alleged crime. Compare state. disloyalty. and imply that the speaker was ready to brand it as unquestionably spurious. nothing can be adduced in evidence tUl something has been An alleged stated or alleged. however. When an alleged criminal is brought to trial. alleged simply concedes nothing and leaves the question open. Allegiance is the obligation of fidelity and obedience that an devotion.. rebellion. on occaan oath of allegiance to the government.allegiance on " Adduce is a secondary evidence up to what has been alleged. the government has a right to allegiance from the citizen. respectful. or that the crime has been committed. he acknowledges the duty of obedience to all rightful authority. or iit least very carefully to refrain from admitting. would be to cast discredit upon the document. assign reasons. can feels sion. offer pleas. he takes. and adduce the strongest possible evidence in its support. . as the only king and lord. obedience. but their origin BtUl colors their present meaning. papers or persons. ALiIiEGIAHTCE. they will prodwce documents and witnesses. To produce is to bring forward. Synonrms. Adduce is not used of persons. A patriotic Ameri- an enthusiastic loyalty to the republic. Antonyms dlsafEection. treason. Alleged is. etc. bomage. The accused will usually assert his innocence. he pays homage to God alone. cite precedents. is either to question. We prefer to speak of the faithfulness rather than the fealty of citizen. word. The feudal uses of these words have mostly passed away with the state of society that gave them birth. that the document exists. for instance. as. individual owes to his government or sovereign. to speak of the "so= called" will or deed. introdvoe suggestions. Prepositions We honor the allegiance of the citizen to the govenuuegot. To speak of an alleged document. fact stands open to question or doubt. su1>]ectlon. faitbfulneBS. or friend.

The simile carries its comparison on the surface.«o c*tS allegory alleviate Synonyms i iUustratlon. . word fiction is now All these are. We not alleviate. or fable tells ing the reader or hearer to discover its its fictitious story as if true. moderate. Antonyms. in the words as." A fable is generally briefer. as in " The Pilgrim's Progress. we relieve. and all descriptions and incidents but accessories.L. relieve. representing animals as the speakers and actors. fact. mitigate. . redzice inflammation. simile. fictions. Etymologically. soften. ncord. the sufferer. to make mild. lighten burdens S . An allegory is a moral or religious tale. to relieve is to . chronicle. assuage. fiction. less thus less than relieve. to beat down. the metaphor is given directly without any note of comparison.ETIATC:. relieve. but the applied almost exclusively to novels or ro- mances. abate. this word in its widest use including aU the rest. parable. briefer and less adorned than an allegory. Ilerhten. AL. while a metaphor is an abbreviated simile contained often in a phrase. given. at a stroke. . remove. to alleviate is to and so lighten it for the bearer bearer. reduce. like. example. relieve or remove the trouble . and so make less. nairative. We abate a fever lessen anxiety moderate passions or desires dinarily. In modern usage we may say that an allegory is an extended simile. The allegory. with its lesson more immediately discernible. tale. moderate. Compare fiction. to sweeten. or similar expressions. of which the moral lesson is the substance. histoty. instance. story. metapbor. Synonyms abate. nearly or quite altogether. or the like which serves to let in light upon a subject may be called an illustration. mitigate or alleviate pain . nutigate. perhaps in a word. as it were. fable. and commonly conveying some lesson of practical wisdom or shrewdness. to bring within measure . self. Any comparison. anecdote. analogy. parable. as "The Fables of ^Esop. lift . in strict definition. from the away a burden toward onelift it back to remove is to take it away Alleviate is than remove. by derivation." A parable is exclusively moral or religious. leavcharacter and learn its lesson. lessen. Assuage is. oralleviate.

magnify. 1. assign. as in Tennyson's "federation of the world. Synonyms: coalition. apportion. originally to assign applies to the giving of a def- a certain person. alliance chiefly political or matrimonial. comfort. Allot. make worse. hostility. inite thing to destine. league. Antonyms: aggravate. Federation is mainly a poetic and rhetorical word expressing something of the same thought. fusion. set apart. between nations there is no surrender of sovereignty. secession. . A portion or extent of timr =s al- . mete by lot. League and alliance are used with scarcely perceptible difference of meaning.' increase. connection formed by Alliance is in its most common use a treaty between sovereign states as for mutual aid in war.alliance allot soften. war. Partnership is a mercantile word . Antonyms discord. compact. alliance of. divide. In a confederacy or confederation there is an attempt to unite separate states in a general government without surrender of sovereignty. confederation. augment. confederacy. give. partnersblp. enhance. and no union except for a specified time and purpose. Coalition is oftenest used of political parties . Union implies so much concession as to make the separate states substantially one. embitter. award. federation. we relieve any suffering of body or mind that admits of help. out. Prepositions Alliance . or remedy. or among ALiLrOT. The United States is not a confederacy nor an alliance. we lighten or mitigate punish- ments allay. Intensify. the nation might be called a federation. schism. divorce. portion out. against the common defense . I antagonism. AI^IilAXCE. assuage." Locksley Hall. select. enmity. neighboring people. distribute. separation. heighten. Alleviate has been often confused with Compare allay. between. fusion In an alliance is now the more common word in this sense. 128. union. or „ ** moderate grief . vMh a enemy for offense and nations. Synonyms appoint. grant. disnnion. but prefers to be styled a federal union.

we eoracecfe a right. witbnold. as. deny. refnse. tolerate the rudeness of a well=meaning servant. is now becoming rare. or ossigrn. the medal was awarded for valor. as. the appointed place. suffer. to allot a plot of ground for a cemetery. there are others that no one is allowed to visit without a permit from the manager. place. and he has right and claim to it. called permission. tolerate. there are others to which visitors are admitted at speciwithout a formal permit. or person. Allot is not now used of persons. I expect to live out is allow my allotted time. We if he must assign a reason for not doing it. yield to a demand or necessity against our wish or will. rarely used of time. as. fails. let. Beize. or assigned is more or less arbitrary. se< apan. a man appoints to meet his friend in five minutes he destines his son to foUow his own profession. assign a work to be done and assign a man to do it. Suffer. There are establishments that any one wUl be allowed to visit without challenge or hindrance. or yield something imder compulsion. but it always has reference to what is considerably in the future. g^rant. an oflScer was aj>pointed to this station. in the sense of mild concession. we permit this is it is which we give some express authorization. definite period the audience assembled at the appointed hour. Synonyms admit. consenitoa saleof property. intrusion. that to consent to. resnme. permit. but rather of places. Antonyms: appropriate. Destine may also refer to time. confiscate. Allot may also refer to space. or person. as. yield. persons. Ajapoint may be used of time. When when in writing com- monly called a permit. who. concede. . as. as. space. . sanction a marriage. Compare appoetion. permit an inspection of accounts. That which is allotted. sanction. We allow that which we do not given verbally it is attempt to hinder. reqviesb. submit to a surgical operation. that which is awarded is the due requital of something the receiver has done. its fied times. Assign is A appointed. and allowed the mob to enter. retain. AliLOTV. the sheriff yielded the keys at the muzzle of a revolver. We allow a child's innocent grant a. or things.*® lotted. Prepositions Allot to a company /or a purpose. appointed. the anointed day. but we now oftener use seZecf.

i disapprove. ALiIiOY. protest. is One may hint is insinuated at a thing in a friendly way. lilnt. as it were in byplay . perhaps by a word or phrase. intimate. One may indicate . debasement. as by naming it. or it may be a compound or mixture of two or more metals. we mention a thing by explicit word. Imply. ALrLiVDE. Synonyms advert.. disallow. The speaker adverted to the recent disturbances and the remissness of certain public officers. Antonyms deny. etc. alloy is unfavorable. as for giving hardness to coin or the like. point. suggest. marginal figures refer to a parallel passage . indicate. we advert to it when we turn from our path to treat it . mention. See also synonyms for pbohibit. but adulteration is now mostly restricted to articles used for food. place being taken Compare per- mission. Advert. refuse. adulteration. we refer to it by any clear utterance that distinctly tui-ns the mind or attention to it less distinctly utters We as. admixture. because there the only standard is perfection. simply to allow) such an action . In the figurative sense. but what always unfavorable. An excess of alloy Yirtually amounts to adulteration. intimate his plans^ imply cowardly. permit. and may be good or bad . Alloy may be either some admixture of baser with precious metal. drink. refer. Adulteration. deterioration. mention. as applied to character. and refer are used of language that more or a certain thought . resist. and deterioration are always used in the bad sense admixture is neutral. it was easy to see to whom he alluded. the others of language from which it may be inferred. allude to a matter slightly. . allow one in such a course allow for spending=money. alloy is commonly good in the literal sense. Synonyms t debasement. reject. and kindred uses. generally both hostile and his wishes. Prepositions To allow of (in best recent usage. insinuate. elgnify. forbid. or tolerate.alloy nlliidn allude aa «*'» by allow. tho he mentioned no name. medicine. withstand.

drive away. Cajole and decoy carry the idea of deceiving and ensnar- A ing. tempt. to draw as with a lure by some charm or some decoy. entice. Coax expresses the attraction of the person. is To allure inveigle. Lure is rather more akin to the physical nature. To tempt is to endeavor to lead one vsrong good to ill. To inveigle is to lead one bliudly iu. in like manner. tepel. not of man may be cooked to that which is by no means the thiQg. may attract others to a prospect of pleasure or advantage. As well follows the word or phrase to which i» fall into it . lure. as. yet in practise the choice between them Is largely to secure euphony and avoid repetition. allure by hopes . as in the familiar line. add a fact or thought. in UKo manner. . simUarly. C!ompare SUGGESTION. too. alluring.l. While some between these words and phrases wUl appear to the careful student. besides.„. captivate. Prepositions t Allure to a course . Preposition: The passage evidently alludes to the Jewish Passover. in it surpasses the highest sense of allure. *??il. xi. and led the way. simply two groups.„ «>• his opinion.(jre:. by purpose and endeavor. signify bis will." Prov. similarly. al. witHal. Synonyms as well. the good unconsciously attract may allure either to that which is evil or others to virtue." . allure /rom evil to good AL. in addition. as well as. " Allured to brighter worlds. seduce. draw. "He that winneth souls is vyise. The words withal. also (all so). which latter Win to seduce is to succeed in winning one from may be used iu either a bad or a good sense. lUcewlse. 170. to that which is good and noble. 30. We We Goldsmith Deserted Village 1.SO. Synonyms attract. because it succeeds in that which allure attempts. cajole. certain thing vsdthout intent as. damp. suggest allure also a course of action. Uke that to which likewise. warn. distinctions in addition. coEix. It is the word we would use of drawing on an animal. dissuade. deter. besides. win. afiSrm that what is added is it is added. Antonyms: chai. as well as.

pick. on the contrary. or preference is I could take my pick. players. there were twelve horses. beap up. or the Gladstone even speaking of " the fourth and last of these alternaOption is the right or privilege of choosing . A A that which . accur mulate is applied to the more gradual. Synonyms : accumulate. or the well. amass to the more rapid gathering of money or materials. and the singers as nevertheless. on the other hand. necessity. election. A choice may be among many things. preference. the act of choosing. "With some occasional exceptions. yet. amass referring to the general result or bulk. Synonyms: cbolce. as. with freedom and power to choose which he will . in spite of notwithstanding. option. suits one best . To amass is to bring together materials that make a mass. 3g We can say the singers as well as the players. from the Saxon. the alternative of surrender is two things between which there is a choice may be called the alternatives. aggregate. Antonyms but. a great bulk or quantity. and election. or the thing chosen. an alternative is is that to which one is restricted a resource. resource. board. store up. as. Antonyms compulsion. picture the objects before one. that to which one : glad to betake oneself. he rapidly amassed a fortune by shrewd speculations. choice may tives. person of ability and readiness wUl commonly have many resources. pile up. death." be either the right to choose. Pick. oftener it is one of two things between which a choice is to be made. both Mill and Gladstone are quoted as extending the meaning of alternative to include several particulars.alternative amass joined. he ac(ywmulated a fortune in the course of years.TER1VATITE. election. and either of which the alternative of the other . hoard up. We say interest is accumulated (or accumulates) rather than is amassed . among which choice. AMASS. strictest sense is an alternative is in the a choice between two things. from the Latin. picli. collect. accumulate to the particular process or rate of gain. Goods or money for immediate distribution are said to be collected rathei . AI. gather.

the connoisseur is well informed in regard to that which he may not practise at all. 'bevtrildernient. has to some extent come to denote one who is superficial. whether in theory or practise. Astonishment especially affects the emotions. for a pm-pose from a distance . . . many incompetent critics. The amateur practises to some extent that in regard to which he may not be well informed. spend. the amateur may be skilled and experienced as the novice or tyro never is. Preposition) An amateur in art. In usage.ateurs. the term amateur is applied to one who pursues any study or art simply from the love of it. bub to hoard is always with a view of permanent retention. generally selfish. pretentious. They may be stored up for a longer or shorter time. A novice or tyro may be a professional . but there can not. Amazement and astonishment both express the momentary overwhelming of the mind by that which is beyond expectation. million. which had originally the sense of awnateur. there are sense. as. Dilettante. dilettante. tho marked excellence is at times attained by am. portion. amazement the in- admiration. Awe is the yielding of the mind to something supremely . Synonyms. awe. AMAZEMESTT. parcel. A as to be able to criticise or select intelligently and authoritatively. scatter. in the true be an incompetent connoisseur. and afifeoted. squander. confusion. tellect. surprise. astonisbment. Etymologically. perplexity. the expenses wiU aggregate a lound Antonyms disperse. . connoisseur is supposed to be so thoroughly informed regarding any art or work connoisseur. the word carries a natural implication of superficialness. ivith great Synonyms i critic. Aggregate is now most commonly used of numbers and amounts. Prepositions: Amass /or oneself labor by industry. the connoisseur one who knows. waste. novice. an amateur never is. -wonder. tyro.„_ w9 auintoiir aniazeinent than amassed. the amateur is one who loves. I divide. dissipate.

Admiration includes delight and regard. worthy. : expectation. and beauty of the heavens fill us with increasing wonder. Emulation regards the abstract. stoicism. when those we would equal or siurpass are noble. The prizes of ambition are advancement. and the like. bition. and usually respects matters of lighter conseAmazement quence or such as are less startling in character. but differs in the nature of the objects contested for. Competition is the striving for something that is sought by another at the same time. as when a multitude of details require instant attention. which. as. calmnesB. selfish. selt'poBsession. Wonder is often pleasing. nobility. emulation. much to win any excellence or success for itself as to equal or surpass other persons. and may be continuous in view of that which surpasses our comprehension. There is a noble and wise or an Emulation is not so ignoble. composure. aspiration. and is the eager desire of power. honor. Antonyms anticipation. fame. has primary reference to the award or approval of others. but confusion and bewilderment may occur without amazement. may be either pleasing or painful. coolness. pure and simple. in . the magnitude. or by the fury of the storm. emulation is inferior which seeks the high quality or character for its own sake. and the means we would use as a motive to aspiration. or something deemed great and eminent. or other high qualities.ambition ** grand in character or formidable in power. rivalry. at the highest. opposition. indifference. "We can say pleased surprise. competition the concrete. The prizes of aspiration are virtue. Astonishment may be without bewilderment or confusion. preparation. Am^ a going around to solicit votes. skill. Synonyms Aspiration is AiaBITION. Surprise lies midway between astonishment and amazement. literally the desire for excellence. order. as when induced by the grandeur of the mountains. but scarcely pleased astonishment. and harmful ambition. Amazement has in it something of confusion or bewilderment. Preposition I was filled with amazement at such reckless daring. There is such a thing as a noble emulation. Compare perplexity. competition. fame. and viewed as a worthy prize. But. Bteadineas. rivalry is the same in essential meaning with competition. and ranges from apprehension or dread to reverent worship. not with reference to another.

rectifr. meliorate. achievement. harm. . or defects. blemisli. But for matters below the jwint of ordinary approval we seldom use these words we do not speak of bettering a wretched alley. is amended by the author or by some adequate authority. rivalry in love. writing. JLiitonyms contentment. nxab:e better. cleanse. \rltlate. There we use cleanse. Competition may be friendly. a constitution is amended by the peo- ment is A ple an ancient text is emended by a critic who believes that what seems to him the better reading is what the author wrote. and always refers to that which at some point falls short of a standard of excellence. competition for a prize. correct. are usually of the nobler sort and less subject to direct gaging. it motion is amended by the often emended by conjecture. rivalry is commonly hostile. repair. errors. reform abuses. emend. mar. ameliorate. satisfactiQii. prove the minds of our children. puri^. t advance. rivalry between persons or nations. which we can not wholly remove. AMEBrO. A text. evudation of excellence.. Advance. Antonyms aggravate. or a statement or law that is defective. Synonyms better. better the morals of the people. speak of competition in business. success. or improving a foul sewer. Improve. haniillty. mltleate. reform. Com. emulation in scholarship. or state. purify. rectify incidental conditions of evil or error we ameliorate poverty and misery. etc. and rule. . politics. is an opponent and hinderer. spoil. corrupt. depress. impair. twi. deteriorate. s debase. injure. Opposition is becomiiig a frequent substitute for competition in business language. We it implies that the competitor carelessness. mend. and improve may refer either to what is quite imperfect or to what has reached a high degree of excellence we advance the kingdom of God.41 amend the case of rivalry. We mend a tool. tarnish. correct proof we amend character or conduct that is faulty. or similar words. To amend is to change for the better by removing faults. measurement. better. indifference. . repair a building. mover or by the assembly. We correct evils. pare AliljEVIATB.

attractive. Antonyms: acrimonious. crusty. please. winsome. lovely. the reference being to two bodies of herdmen. companionship. The good-natured have an easy disposition to get along comfortably with every one in aU circumstances. between me and thee. onainiable. and make happy. and so fail to be agreeable ov pleasing. Amid denotes mere position tility. We say among friends. ill->temperecl. and witty person may be charming or even attractive. gentle. or among enemies. sour. lovable and lovely in character. cmcl. The benignant are calmly kind. or of two groups of persons or objects. some active Lowell's relation. disagreeable. as of etc. and between my hevdmen and thy herdmen. amidst the woods. or some other incidental circumstance. amid my books would suggest packing. hosthe books as companions . ill-natured. QiilovelT. mingled w^ith. Kind. the amiable character has ready affection and kindliness for others. the loving heart bringing out all that is . among. sweet. the really amiable are likely to avoid such faults by their earnest desire to please. between. a lovely face. crabbed. 'winning. i betwixt. lovable. pleasant. sullen. among. xiii. amid the shadows. amongst. charming. Between (archaic or poetic. agreeable. while by no means amiable. " Let there be no strife. winning. I pray thee. A selfish man of the world may have the art to be agreeable. Synonyms amidst. benigrnant. Amiable denotes a disposition desirous to cheer. Amiable combines the senses of lovable or lovely and loving. and winsome add to amiability something of beauty. ille>bumored. A1HID. with the qualities that are adapted to win their love. Amid or amidst denotes surrounded by. surrounded by. hateful. In the . good-natured people may be coarse and rude. brilliant. among or amongst denotes mingled with.amiable amid. accomplishments. A sweet disposition is very sure to be amiable. in the midst of. storing. a handsome. amiable is a higher and stronger word than goocUnatured or agreeable." Oen. morose. enrly. Ul^conditioned. Kind. good-natured. clinrlish. dogged. 9 . and grace. Lovely is often applied to externals as. betunxt) is said of two persons or objects. 4ft Synonyms 1 pleasing*. The engaging. gruff. as from a height and a distance. loving. "Among my Books " regards . engaging:.

" cut down. unfold a scheme. or by adding illustrations to make the meaning more readily apprehended. retrench." Antonyms afar from. as. or it may express even closer association than among . "I found myself in the midst of friends" suggests their pressing up on every side. there am I in the midct of them. away from. 20 . The chief difficulty of those who have more material and experience is to condense sufficiently. widen. bulk. relation. wttboat. as. oneself the central object . dilate. Antonyms abbreviate. The chief difficulty of very young writers is to amplify. condense. estend. far from." Matt." impossible to say " amid them. Synonyms: affinity. > unfold. to add material substance. Ukeness. snmmame. but at present this word and most kindred words are coming to share the derogatory meaning that has long attached to "We may develop a thought. reduce. enlarge a volume. dilate on something joyous or sad. increase. in which case it would be feebler to say " among them. expanding. expand. signifying to make fuller in statement. outside. parity. unfolding the thought. enlarge. similarity. " where two or three are met together in my name. as by stating fully what was before only implied." not so well to say " amidst them. Synonyms develop. sum up. in the early days of our literature amplify was used in the favorable sense . semUlance. xviii. eocpatiate. . so. is needless.I" amplify analogy in the midst of a midst of may have merely the local meaning . eaypand an illustration. proporUon. it is now almost wholly applied to discourse or writing. volume. to beyond the bare curt statement by developing. resemtolanoe. get of treatment. smile. Prepositions: To amplify on or upon the subject matter hy illustrations. ahplift. a r-esem- coincidence. I found myself crowd . So. augment. epitomize. Amplify this AlVALiOGY. or the like . expatiate. " boil down. Amplify is now rarely used in the sense of increase. widen the range etc. curtail. beyond. amputate. compaSison. abridge. extend a discussion. expatiate on a hobby. whether with or without adding matter of importance. similitude. Analogy is specifically a resemblance ot relations .

. tho a word of far wider application. Compare allegory. nnlikeness. the resemblance of a cloud to a distant mountain. Exasperation. is a hot. and. incongruity. demanding instant expression. Choler and ire. ire. fretfulness. temper. e. Prepositions The analogy between (or of) nature and revelation the analogy of sound to light a family has some analogy with (or to) a . Synonyms: rage. tho we may correctly say a hot temper. aroused by real or supposed vsTong to oneself. and the latter a persistent. Resentment (a feeling back or feeling over again) is persistent. etc. plete agreement in some one or more respects . irritation. anger.. cboler. peevlsbness. Indignation is imper- animosity. displeasure. necessarily brief. denote a still. superficial intensity of anger. in the singular. soning thing to another with which it has some points in common. Anger is violent and vindictive emotion. Affinity is a mutual attraction with or without Coincidence is comlikeness as. be employed to denote anger . and sweeps one away into uncontrollable violence. and may involve no deeper relation . a roughening. Antonyms: disagreement. sc. Indignation. the affinity of iron for oxygen. AIVOER. may. i. Passipn. state. Resemblance and similarity are external or superficial. Anger is personal and usually selfish. now rare except in poetic or highly rhetorical language. exasperation. Displeasure is the mildest and most general word. sudden. petulance. vexation. . resentment. Temper used alone in the sense of anger is colloquial. the bitter brooding over injuries. 3." Shakespeare Hamlet act V. offense.anger 44 in blance that may be reasoned from. a fiery temper. Impatience. wratb. there may be a . fury. dissimilarity. pettlshness. as. Rage drives one beyond the bounds of prudence or discretion . Parity of reacoincidence in time of most dissimilar events. sonal and unselfish displeasure at unworthy acts (L. disproportion. indigna). fury is stronger yet. passion. is said of an argument equally conclusive on subjects not Similitude is a rhetorical comparison of one strictly analogous. which is sharp. " did put me in a towering passion. so that from the likeness respects we may infer that other and perhaps deeper relacertain seeming tions exist. like all violent passions. and directed specifically and intensely against the person who is viewed as blameworthy.

eelf-reBtraint. Wrath is deep and perhaps vengeful displeasure. cliarity. Prepositions Anger at the insult prompted the reply. . self-control. the wrath of God. as when the people of Nazareth were "filled with virath" at the plain words of Jesus {Luke iv. the cruel father as a brute to his children . for which we have any affecto any Creature is a tion we prefer in such cases the word animal. love. as. fretfulness. AWimAL. mildaess. gentleneas. and vexation are temporary and for immediate cause. of the drunkard as making a beast of himself. But because the animal life is the lowest and rudest part of his being and that which he shares with inferior creatures. to call any individal man an animal is to imply that the animal nature has undue supremacy. To call a man a brute is to imply that he is unfeeling and cruel to call . leniency. simply express the culniina. Synonyms lieast. Fretfulness. Irritation. sentient being. petulance. of wide signification. fauna. . speak of to indicate that he is vilely sensual. pettishness. So firmly are these figurative senses him a beast is We established that we now incline to avoid applying brute or beast a horse or dog. Anger toward the offender exaggerates the offense. and so is deep condemnation or utter insult. 28) it may. living organism. living creature. long'SuSering. i brute. forbearance. Thus man is properly classified as an animal. . peace. irritation. Pure indignation is not followed by regret. Compare acrimony . however. pettishness. peevishness. distinct from inanimate matter and from vegetable life on the one side and from mental and spiritual existence on the other. tion of righteous indignation without malice in a pure being . Antonyms: amiability. HATEia). as . and needs no repentance it is also more self=controlled than anger. Impatience. enmity . . The brute is the animal viewed as dull to all finer feeling the beast is looked upon as a being of appetites. lenity. An animal is a sentient being. including all the things that God word creature. Anger is commonly a sin indignation is often a duty. peacefulness. peaceableness.45 animal at wrong as wrong. petulance. axxd peevishness are chronic states finding in any petty matter an occasion for their exercise. patience. and vexation express the slighter forms of anger.

an answer may be even made see bolt in a lock. report. The animals of a region are collectively called its fauna. declare. where before there may have been only hostilities we say declare war. state. Synonyms advertise. we announce a book that is to be . and is made to a charge as well as to a question. We may announce that which has occurred or that which is to occur. (of). intelligence of in To announce is to give We advertise our business. spread abroad. propound. response. give notice give out. whether inanimate objects. Antonyms man. : rejoinder. an echo. plants. Synonyms AWSWER.„ or men. A to an unspoken implication or manLuke v. Declare has often an authoritative force to declare war is to cause war to be. circulate. matter. substance (material). some formal or public way. reveal. spirit. soul. Publish. tell. published. a guest when he arrives. reveal a secret. or the decision of a court. keep back. AivivoinvcE. hush. communicate. in popular usage.announce ansiver ^" . mineral. promulgate the views of a sect or party. mind. angels. cover (up). vegetable. action. animals. anything said or done in return for some word. make known. secrete. etc. In a wider sense. or suggestion of another may be called an answer. . notify. communicate our intentions. angel. tho the word is chiefly used in the anticipative sense. promulgate. enunciate our views we notify an individual. The blow of an enraged man. hide. . 33. suppress. the howling of the wind. conceal. has created. the whinny of a horse. inanimate object.. proclaim. may each be an answer to some word . keep secret. reply. is becoming closely restricted to the sense of issuing through the press. Prepositions The event was announced to the family by telegraph. retort. we announce a book when it is in press. repartee. We propound a question or an argument. We report an interview. enunciate. herald the coming of some distinguished person or great event. Antonyms bury. publisb. verbal answer is a return of words to something that seems to call for them. say. give notice to the public. withhold. proclaim peace. Eerald. the movement of a ifestation . etc.

A. and ordinarily implies thought and intelligence. tho lacking the conclusiveness implied in ansiver an answer. stronger word than hope.47 or movement. the appeal for aid met a prompt and hearty response. or hy word of mouth. with the synonyms above given. PREVENT. so that one may say. word from him I expect it when he writes that he is coming and as the time draws near I anticipate it with pleasure. where often " the wish is father to the We We We thought. designed or adapted to carry on the thought of the words that called it forth." A response is accor- dant or harmonious. recall. but always with the implication of something more or less controversial or opposed. Repartee is a prompt. in the full sense. witty. dread. or an objection reply far is at rejoinder adequate. tho often ustd in the general sense of answer. visit from my friend. of that which we In this use it is a eaypect both with confidence and pleasm-e. . may be either to take before in fact or to take before in thought in the former sense it is alhedwithpretieKi. : doubt. ANTICIPATE. Antonyms despair of. apprehend what we both expect and fear. fear. foretaste." I hope for a . To anticipate . Anwhat expect. ticipate is commonly used now. " This . look forw^ard to. is not an answer . to the question. anticipate A reply is no. in the latter. to a charge. as. Synonyms hope. recollect. or to meet the wish of him who seeks it as." "I am ready with an answer" means more than " I am ready with a reply. distrnst. Compare ABIDE . tho I have no . rejoinder is strictly an answer to a reply. FreposltloDs An answer in writing. remembra . and commonly good=natured answer to some argument or attack a retort may also be witty. and finally refutes and disposes of it a reply may be quite inadequate. but is severe and may be even savage in its intensity. unfolding. fQrecast. a boy expects to grow to hope for that which we much desire and somemanhood. This is coming to be apprebeud. . like foretaste. expect that w^hich we have the prevalent and favorite use. expect. an argument. good reason to believe will happen . as the responses in a liturgical service.

snrprlBe^ wonder. enmity. repugnance. forecast. it is a part actually received in advance. hatred. Foresight and forethought prevent future evil and secure future good by timely looking forward. natural antipathy may give rise to opposition which may result in hatred and hostility. fellowfeeling. kindliness. harmony. distaste and disgust may be acquired . aversion. distaste. uucongeniality. consammation. foresigbt. antlauated. style. apprehension and foreboding always. and may be physical or mental. Synonyms ANTIPATHY. An antipathy to a person or thing is an instinctive recoil from connection or association with that person or thing. expectation. prevision. cympatby. Antonyms affinity. foreboding. a want of touch or sympathy. old^fasbloned. foretaste. . foretbougbt.ualut. repulsion. other forms of dislike may be acquired or cherished for cause. batred. i ancient. Antique refers to an ancient. repugnance.anticipation antique Mtg * Synonyms: antepast> ANTICIPATIOar. fear. expectancy. attraction. (less frequently /or or against) a person or thing j antipathy bettveen or betimsot two persons oi things. : Antonyms astonishment. and is more than imaginary . antioipa^ tion and antepast. commonly of good. antagonism. or both. Compare anticipatb. disgust. q. and uncongeniality are instinctive. of evil . Expectation maybe either of good or evil presentiment almost always. apprebension. t abborrence. Uncongeniality is negative. and acting upon what is . A Compare acrimony. dread. Thus. abhorrence and detestation may be the result of religious and moral training . antiquated to a discarded . opposition. presentiment. Prepositions Antipathy to Synonyms AlVTiqVE. Antagonism may result from the necessity of circumstances opposition may spring from conflicting views or interests . foreseen. bope. doubt. despair. detestation. Antipathy. A foretaste may be of good or evil. aversion is a deep and permanent dislike. enjoyiaent. bostUity. dislike. anger. . regard. superannuated. agreement. we speak of the pleasures of anticipation. congeniality. realization.

The antiquated person is out of style and out of sympathy with the present generation by reason of age . Fretting ot freshness is a weak complaining without thought of accomplishing or Dhanging anything. . Antonyms! {asUonable. anxiety because of what may happen. Old=fashioned may be used approvingly or contemptuously. perplexity. the superannuated person is incapacitated for present activities by reason of age. In matters within our reach. solicitude. but indicates less duration. . recent^ stylisb.**^ anxiety is Antique The reference is either ancient in fact or ancient in style. terror. new. Worry is a more petty. a choking disquiet. dlsctulet. but merely as a relief to one's own disquiet. commonly incapacitate for all helpful thought or endeavor. for a Puritan style may be scorned as antiquated. Solicitude is a milder anxiety. dread. as. The difference is that which We between antiquated and antique is not in the age. a quaint gambrel=roofed house. Anxiety is. to the style rather than to the age. anxiety in regard to the unknown . Quaint combines the idea of age with a pleasing oddity . In the latter case it becomes a synonym for antiquated . The antiquated is not so much out of date as out of vogue. foreboding. in the good sense it approaches the meaning of antique. aU of which may be quite despairing. Foreboding. Antiquated is sometimes used of persons in a sense akin to superannuated. a coin of the Csesars. but may be quite free from it. anguish is because of what has happened. modem. Perplexity often involves anxiety. We call a wide New England fireplace old=fashioned . misgiving. care. apprebenslon. modish.. akin to anguish .. fretting. ANXIEXT. dread. concern. in this respect it is allied to core. worry. Anxiety refers to some future event. Compare OLD. fretfulness. can speak of the antique architecture of a church just built. and thus differing from apprekenskm. fear. anxiety is mental . dread. Synonyms i angulsb. anguish is in regard to the known. and is thus a valuable spur to doing . and manifest anxiety. fear. anxiety always stirs the question whether something can not be done. restless. always suggesting hopeful possibility. etc. according to its derivation. while a Koman or Renaissance style may be prized as antique. fzeeb. disturbance. foreboding:. anicieij/ may be quiet and silent worry is communicated to all aroimd. trouble. antique. anguish may be mental or physical .

assurance. indifference. . the Saxon word that should be the exact equivalent of apathy.apatliy 50 if A student may be Antonyms: apathy. has time enough. alarm. unfeelingrness. he confidence. without what he has fiercely struggled to avoid. There are persons to whom a certain degree of apathy is natural. carelessness. while apathy is involuntary. excitement. Impassibility is a philosophical term applied to the Deity. vehemence. calmness. Prepositions The apathy of monastic I life . Indifference and insensibility designate the absence of feeling toward certain persons or things apathy. lightsheartedness. not at all anxious regarding it. . pblegnm. or trust apathy is the result of dulness or weakness. really means more. ""> emotion. storm. anxiety about. in regard to. lethargy. susceptibility. a person gives up. from force of will. turbulence. Unfeelingness. or Synonyms: calmness. sensitiveness. . or from perfect confidence in one's own resources. feeling. Antonyms. perplexed regarding a translation. Stoicism is an intentional suppression of feeling and deadening of sensibilities. fury. apathy toward good. sluegisliness. While apathy is want of feeling. nonchalance. sympatliy. Prepositions Anxiety for a friend's return concerning the future. sensibility. . a lack of the feeling one ought to have. distarbance. tranquility. insensibility. tranquillity. as infinitely exalted agitation or disturbance. resulting ordinarily above all stir of passion or emotion. stoicipin. quietude. yet. anxiety. Composure is freedom from nature. . passion. violence. is a simple absence of feeling or emotion. to In the apathy of despair. APATHY. stillness. . an innate sluggishness of the emotional resistance or sensibility. STUPOB. unconcern. a censurable hardness of heart. according to its Greek derivation. satisfaction. immobility. frenzy. Compare CALM REST . Calmness is the result of strength. impassibility. . composure. Apathy. courage. agitation. calmness is feeling without agitation. immobility of countenance. ease. Indifference is a want of interest insensibility is a want of feeling unconcern has reference to consequences. entire absence of feeling. quietness. We speak of insensibility of heart. eagerness.

Synonyms: escuse. the latter the more elegant expression. indiscriminately. Apology has undergone a re- ackno^vledgment. vindication. justification. An apology is for what one has done or left undone. confession. each liable for the entire amount. distributively. in the wrong. one alleges haste as an excuse for carelessness. APOLOGY. the former is the more common and popular. Individually. An excuse for a fault is an attempt at pai-tial justification as."* __ apiece aimlufgy APIECE. . but for . an apology would be in order. one sends beforehand his excuse for not accepting an invitation i£ he should fail either to be present or to excuse himself. that is a demand that each shall receive that sum if they individually demand a doUar. plea. justification. defense. He who offers an apology admits himself. each individual makes the demand. in order that no one may be influenced by the testimony of another. markable change from its old sense of a valiant defense as in Justin Martyr's Apologies for the Christian faith to its present — — meaning of humble confession and concession. masse. together. as if he had signed it alone. . Antonyms: accumulatively. The signers of a note may become jointly and severally responsible. generally of a grave wrong. Distributively generally used of numbers and abstract relations. eacb. There is no discernible difference in sense between so much apiece and so much each . severally. with or without apology or excuse. . Plea ranges in sense from a prayer for favor or pardon to an attempt at full vindication. unitedly. Witnesses are often brought separately into court. . synthetically. All these words express one's answer to a charge of wrong or error that is or might be made. Individualhj emphasizes the independence of the individuals separately and severally still more emphatically hold them apart. separately. exculpation. collectively. at least technically and seemingly. is . If a company of laborers demand a dollar apiece. Confession is a full acJcnowledgment at wrong. that is. exculpation. and should be so given. Defense. Synonyms. «?t confusedly. and vindication are more properly antonyms than synonyms of apology in its modern sense. an excuse may be for what one proposes to do or leave undone as well as.

A man'B probable intent . likely. as the other words of this list can not be . Prepositions An apology to the guest /or the oversight would be fitting. lAhely is a word with a wide range of usage. to a semblance or probability presented directly to the mind. Apparent indicates less assurance thaa probable. it is likely to happen. injnry. his seeming intent we beUeve to be a sham his apparent intent may be the ti'ue one. Apparent kindness casts a doubt on the reality of the kindness . apparent neglect implies that more care and pains may have been bestowed than we are aware of. charge. we believe will prove to be his real intent . improbable. Seem . nnlmaglnable. nnlikely. imputation. and -more than seeming. Synonyms. wrong. usage. as. Compare confess . or of that which merely seems to be and may be very different from what is as. APPAREBTT. to the senses. Prepositions (When apparent is Synonyms APPEAR. Appear and look refer to what manifests itself seem. seeming. the we have not yet evidence on which to pronounce with certainty or even with confidence. but always implying the beUef that the thing is. s have tbe appearance or semblance. presumable. Compare evi. the word has two contrasted senses. Seeming expresses great doubt of the reality seeming innocence comes very near in meaning to probable guilt. dent. certain. insult. look. de- Antonyms: accusation. 52 its historic their connection with fense. . probable. censure. Presumable implies that a thing may be reasonably supposed beforehand without any full knowledge of the facts. offense. visible. condemnation. the apparent motion of the sun around the earth. true . complaint. either of that which is manifest. is used in the sense of evident) : His guUt apparent in every act to all observers. t dnblons. it is often used with the infinitive. or will be. Antonyms doubtful.appear apparent. The apparent is that which appears . Probable implies that we know facts enough to make us moderately confident of it.

An adjunct (something joined to) constitutes no real part of the thing or system to which it is joined. one in court. . We add an appendix to a book. . exist.It applies to appendage what is manifest to the mind on reflection. it looks like a fixe from my knowledge of the locality and observation of particulars. especially as an instrument to accomplish some purpose. etc. or true. : be certain. below the surface . editorial notes. extension. but addendum may be used of a brief note. plates. real. an index. An extension. supplement. Antonyms be. an appurtenance belongs subordinately to something by which it is employed. appendix. . first . which would encumber the text we add a supplement to supply omissions. An attachment in machin- some mechanism that can be brought into optional connecmovement a hemmer is a valuable attachment of a sewing=machine.. over the sea . as of a railroad or of a franchise. in behalf of. attachment. carries out further something already existing. Usts. auxiliary. from reports . among the to the eye . accompaniment. appurtenance. as I watch. A horse's tall is at once an ornamental appendage and a useful appurtenance. in print . it seems to me a farmhouse must be burning.. be the fact. addendum. appear for. as. on or upon the surface in evidence. addition. Synonyms < accessory. tho not an essential or necessary part of that with which it is connected . concomitant. in appropriate dress . dates. but not ery is tion with the principal . we could not call it an adjunct. for instance. or against PreposUions: Appear at the front . such notes are often grouped as addenda. which might be valuable additions. near the harbor before the public . which would not be dignified by the name of appendix . through the mist . to contain names. an appendage is commonly a real. etc. . under the lee . tho perhaps a valuable addition . to bring it up to date. tho we might use that word of his iron shoes. APPEIVDAGi:. with the insignia of his rank above the clouds . An addition might be matter interwoven in the body of the work. An appendix may be called an addendum . adjunct. It suddenly appears to me that there is smoke in the distance.

Antonyms antipathy. in part at least. divide. appropriate. A'ynonyms i appetency. passion includes all excitable impulses of our nature. zest. passion. hatred. indifference. he shares what is his own. we think of the appetites as wholly physical and of the passions as. craving:. longing. loatliing. grant. which is meant to be uniform and fair . proneness. dispense. APPORTION. liking. cific . One may apportion what he only holds in trust. Appetite is thus more animal than passion . lust. love. tbirst. a passion for fame. sory. and when we speak of passions and appetites as conjoined or contrasted. disrelish. hatred. repugnance. as. fear. Appetite is used only of the demands of the physical system. propensity. sbare. inclination. Preposition He had an insatiable appetite /or the marvellous. total. repulsion. dispenses light and heat. the sun A thing is appropriated to or for a spepurpose (to which it thus becomes proper. mental or spiritual. the same is true of distribute or divide. That which is apportioned is given by some fixed rule. Prepositions That which is thought of as added we call an appendage to that which is looked upon as an integral part is called an appendage of. money appropriated by Congress for one purpose can not be expended for any other. detestation. as anger. i original. Compare antipathy. etc. relisb. distaste. deal. disposition. as when we say an appetite for knowledge . impulse. appoint. We say an a^etite for food. as. Synonyms allot. assign. whole. distribute. aversion.appetite apportion within the meaning of appendix or supplement. To allot (ar assign may be to make an arbitrary division. in the original sense of being its own). APPETITE. Compare ALLOT. proclivity. disgust. Compare desibe. AUXILIAET. unless otherwise expressly stated. To dispense is to give out freely . desire. dislike. representatives are apportioned among the States according to population. 54 Compare acces- Antonyms: main body.

. apportion the property among the heirs. The attempt to "square the cu-ole" gives only an approximate result. between two claimants. nearness. Arms are implements of attack armor is a defensive covering. and propinquity are commonly used of place approximation.H^: approximation arms Antonyms: cling to. the result only fails of exactness because of some inherent difficulty in the problem. the correct use of approximation (and the kindred words approximate and approximately) is to express as near an approach to accuracy and certainty as the conditions of human thought or action in any given case make possible. likeness. but it is still employed in the navy. armor. nearness to the town. nelghborbood. and not error. The knight put on his armor. nnlikeness. variation. tho the distance may yet be considerable . Synonyms: approach. mall. gather together. The process of approximation is as exact and correct at every point as that by which an absolute result is secured. With the disuse of defensive armor the word has practically gone out of military use. contiguity. APPROXIMATIOIV. similarity. ARms. retain. Resemblance and similarity may be but superficial and apparent . . because of the impossibility of expressing the circumference in terms of the radius. apyproximation is real. where the dis. and the approximation has practical value. neighborhood. an approximation brings one really near. receive. Approach is a relative term. apportion according to numbers. we speak of approach to the shore. propinquity. etc. error. Nearness. In mathematics. collect. approoeimation is not guesswork. he grasped his arms. approximation to the truth. not looseness. keep together. resemblance. of mathematical calculations and abstract reasoning . remoteness. divide arbitrarily. Prepositions: Apportion to each a fair amount. Prepositions: The approximation of the vegetable to the animal type. consolidate. 'weapons. But the linaits of error on either side are known. accouterments. indicating that one has come nearer than before. Synonyms bamess. Outside of mathematics. dlBtance. Antonyms: difference.

Host is used for any vast and orderly assemblage as. Orand independence. charge. formally or informally. multitude. or official way. Synonyms: accuse. the word is a usual term for the police of any locality. Greek) are applied by a kind of poetic license to modern forces . in distinction from civilians. . Arraign . the stars are called the heavenly host.army tinction arraign is «« "" . as at a fort. suggesting more of the formal and criminal a person may charge a . pbalans. always independent in organization so far as not to be a constituent part of ganization. One may charge another with any fault. ARRAIGN. Synonyms array. rather than numbers are the an army. clearly preserved . bost.y. an official word. Acctise is stronger than charge. essentials of any other command. prosecute. but a mob. military. Anything that can be wielded in flght may become a weapon. privately or publicly. imity. forces. soldiery. Multitude expresses number without order or organization . troops. tho either body . as a pitchfork or a pavingsstone arms are especially made and designed for conflict. Any organized body of men by whom the law or will of a people is executed is a. the indictment read to him. force . Indict. the military may include all the armed soldiery of a nation. We speak of the invading army of Cortes or We was contemptible in numbers from a modern military standpoint. the plural legions is preferred to the singular. and the demand made of him to plead guilty or not guilty in more extended use. public. a large army. or the term may be applied to any small detached company. cite. any vessel provided with cannon is an armored ship is an ironclad. ordina- rily considerable in numbers. Legion (from the Latin) and phalanx (from the. to arraign is to call in question for fault in any formal. may have a little army. a multitude of armed men is not an arm. Military is a general word for land=/orces . for war. Pizarro. an armed vessel . censure. summon. or a vast army. great or trifling. leg^lons. t armament. a person accused of crime is arraigned when he is formally called into court. ARMY. force. is Impeacli. An UTrmy is an organized body of men armed soldiers.

on or upon an indictment. discharge. Synonyms: ARREST. Censure carries the idea of fault. which expresses their location so as to sustain and support. forgive. of battle is archaic and poetic collection.j_ take into custody. Compare dbess. take prisoner. as in an held in a house of detention till restrained of his liberty withinsane asylum . detain. „*. so that all may be seen or reviewed at once. The parade is for exhibibattle. ezbibition. an individual or corporation is who One may be . overlook. before the tribimal. One is indicted by the grand jury. sbow. apprebend. this is true even of arresting for debt. arrest n. ARRAY. line of battle. This is practically impossible with the vast armies of our day. catcb. a be impeached before the appropriate tribunal for high crimes the veracity of a witness may be impeached by damaging evidence. it may be private and individual. and only an alleged criminal is indicted or arraigned. battle array. and maneuvers. president. seize. parade. though unable to see or readily communicate with each other.."• --. pardon. stop. order of battle. of or for a crime . or public and A rank may . judge. "We say rather the dispo^tion of troops. and partial rehearsal of military manual and Array refers to a continuous arrangefnent of men. secure. make prisoner. condone. excuse. slgbt. and arraigned before the appropriate court. Antonyms: acqnit. he may accuse a tramp of stealing. exonerate. restrain. capture. The legal term arrest carries always the impUcation of a legal offense . Synonyms: army. bold. order. as in the case of a witness a case comes to trial. etc. person of the highest character may be summoned as defendant in a civil suit or he may be cited to answer as administi-ator. The phrase battle array or array we now tion say in line or order of oversight. or other officer of high official. Indict and arraign apply strictly to criminal proceeding's. disposition. set free Prepositions: Arraign at the bar. release. But one may be detained by process of law when no offense is alleged against him. but not of crime . out arrest. A . ar-ay. arrangement. friend with unkindness or neglect .

Prepositions: Arrested /or crime. upon. artificer and artisan are all from the root of art. as in a mechanism the word is used of indirect action. device. A A . honesty. but artist holds to the esthetic sense. Antonyms discharge. Goldsmith Deserted Tillage 1. workman. or injurious end. by the sheriff. fairness. Imposture is a deceitful contrivance for securstratagem or maneuver ing charity. truth. injurious. contrivance. on final process . to capture a ship. liberate. as. etc. an officer may secure his prisoner by fetters. subterfuge. tricli. in execution. A may be of the good against the bad. ingenaonsnesa. operative. A and malicious . or other means effectually to prevent escape. on. a fraud. set free. frankness. guilelessness. guuplicity. blind. i craft. dismiss. Synonyms art. imposture. Capture is commonly used of seizure by armed force . subtle contrivance. wTiile artificer and artisan follow the mechanical or industrial sense of the word (see art under science). credit.artifice artist *•=* -c may be restrained by injunction from selling certain property. Synonyms: artificer. fraud. macbination. mecbanio. say a mean trick. a fort. In case of an arrest. Antonyms: artlessness. or consideration. . A ruse or a blind may be quite innocent and harmless. -nrile. we A directed to an evil. on suspicion. Finesse is especially evil. cunning. candor. ARTIST. by a locked door. whether for good or Compare fraud. E^en children followed with endearing wUe. the word is sometimes used playfully with less than its full meaning. A mle is usually but not necessarily evil. An artifice is a carefully and delicately prepared contrivance for doing indirectly what one could not well do directly. 184. finesse. device is something studied out for promoting an end. elncerlty. often. but not necessarily trick is often low. obsteuot. Compare hinder . guile. Artist. cbeat. openness. maneuver. invention. artisan. fcee. or by virtue of a warrant . innocence. stratagem. dodge. cheat contrivance or device may be either good or bad. selfish. any form of covert is a mean advantage in a bargain robbery or injury. delicate artifice. ARTIFICi:. as it were a skilful movement of war. release. ruse.

petition. Synonyms: "beg. implore. 11 he begs for that to which he advances no claim but Demand is a determined and often an arrogant word one pity. chisel and polish the stone. insist." Luke xi. entreat. reject. . he has no claim but power. exact. the master mason is an artificer.5» a«k__ Artist thus comes only into accidental association with the other words of this group. request wovild seem distant between parent and child. One osfcs whathe feels that he may fairly claim and reasonably expect " if a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father. may rightfully demand what is his own or his due. To implore is to ask with weeping and lamentation to supplicate is to ask.. working simply by rule and scale. a stiU added and more humble intensity . deny. : command. solicit. and constructive power is an artificer. ASK. require. and taste into his work than the artisan. Pray is now used chiefly of address to the Supreme Being . . but is exceedingly strenuous as. The artificer is between the two. . request. The man who constructs anything by mere routine and rule is a mechanic. as. extort. . tives. The man whose work involves thought. creative power than the artist. but less of the idealizing. beseech. is artificer. . Antonyms claim. the court requires the attendance of witnesses. . shaping his model in clay. The man who paints a beautiful picture is an artist . The hod=caiTier is a laborer . skiU. The work of the artist is creative that of the artisan mechanical. Require is less arrogant and obtrusive than demand. . or the governor to pardon an offender. pray. when it is withheld or denied or he may wrongfully demand that to which . to petition the legislature to pass an act. enforce. intelligence. crave has almost disappeared from conversation . putting more thought. the bricklayer is a mechanic . as it were. Entreat implies a special earnestness of asking. Those who operate machinery nearly self»acting are opera. Crave and request are somewhat formal terms . beseech was formerly often used as a polite intensive for beg or pray . demand. I beseech you to tell me. not being a synonym of any one of them and having practically no synonym of its own. supplicate. The sculptor. and beseech. on bended knees. refuse. crave. the man who makes pin=heads all day is an artisan. petition is used of written request to persons in authority as. as well as artist patient artisans.

Companion gives itself with equal readiness to the good or evil sense.associate association *>*' „„ Prepositions: Ask a person /or a thing . federation. society. familiarity. We A . Fellow has almost gone out of use in this connection. federation. Antonyms antagonist. Compare accessory . leader. acquaintance . a confederacy. The whole body of Freemasons constitute a fraternity . Synonyms. lodee. a community of ShaJiers. FRIENDSHIP. one of their local organizer tions is called a lodge. a conjunction of planets. but oftener implies some work. conjunction. ASSOCIATE. a jury of his peers. rarely speEik of associates in crime or wrong. i fellowsUp. colleague. Prepositions These were the associates of the leader in the enterprise. confederate. etc. peer.' friendsbip. comrade. coadjutor. One may be a companion in travel who would not readily become an associate at home. confederation. alliance. cbum. Consort is a word of equality and dignity. to associate as used oflScially implies Associate is popularly used of mere friendly relations. a after or abowt one's health. company. friend. friends. companion.' pairicipation. confederacy. whom the associate is not fully equal in rank. companlonsliip. a belpmate. she would not advertise for an associate. opponent. fellcnr. consort. Peer implies equality rather than companionship as. We A . ally. accomplice. connection. chief. a club of pleasure=seekers. or union of separate states under one general government. rival. opposer. enemy. or pursuit in which the associated persons unite. Comrade expresses more fellowship and good feeling than companion. using confederates or accomplices instead. partner. stranger. welfare. as applied especially to the marriage relation. except in an inferior or patronizing sense. partnership. hiuderer. corporation or company is formed for . Synonyms ASSOCIATIOIW. corporation. union. confederation. community. enterprise. foe. lady advertises for a companion . mate. as also does comrade. ask a thing of or from a person . speak of an alliance of nations. a partnership or company of business men. a company of soldiers or of friends. or princi- An pal. club. fraternity.

separation. He may assume authority or office that is his right . he is said to affect or feign. assertion. . what favorite he ossMmes he may take for granted without mention. seU-rellance. boldness. felg^n. What a debater postulates'he openly states and tafces for granted without proof . or to yretend to. The distinctive idea of assume is to take by one's own independent volition. affect. power in the most unpretending way. trustAssurance may have the good sense of a high. independence. I confidence. Compare associate . ASSUME. assume assurance pm-poses of business an association or society (tho also incorporated) is for learning. Impudence. claimi. sustained confidence and trust . pretend. Prepositions: An association of scholars /or the advancement of knowledge association toith the good is eimobling. presumption. appropriate. religion. A A his right to take . assumes the robes or insignia of office by putting them on. If he takes to himself the credit and appearance of qualities he does not possess. trick of the sophist is quietly to assume as true what would at once be challenged if expressly stated. solitade. with belief of one's ability to outwit or defy others the hardened criminal is . self-assertion. arrosrance. SynonyiuB accept. self-confidence. friendship. he is man may tisurp the substance of. the saint's assurance of heaven. What a man claims he asserts presume. or he may assume an obligation or indebtedness that could not be required of him. the character he thus assumes. One may acc^t an obligation or assume an authority that properly belongs to him. effrontery. . usurp. assumption. what he assumes he takes. Confidence is founded upon reasons assurance is largely a matter of feeling. as. etc. with or without right. isolation. said to arrogate or u^urp it. acquaintance . Antonyms: disintegration. benevolence. literature. if he assumes what does not belong to him. In the bad sense. assurance is a vicious courage.Uf "^ . rightfully or wrongfully. postulate. what he arrogates to himOne self he assumics with a haughty and overbearing manner. Synonyms ASSrRANCi:. put on. arrogate. take. whether well or iU.

. subtile. and perhaps of cunning . while to speak of a child as intelligent ia altogether complimentary. short-sighted. Synonyms acute. I discerning. . hesitancy. subtle. Astute. A knowing look. keen. penetrative. nndiscernlne. Knowing has often a slightly invidious sense. crafty. self=reliance expresses confidence in one's own resources. in general indicates practical knowledge with a touch of shrewdness. but of a knowing horse or dog. with the original sense of cunning has come to have a meaning that combines the sense of acute or keen with that of sagacious.astute 62 For the calm conviction of is a better word remarkable for habitual assurance. and seldom fails to make it. stupid. dull. air. Acute. from the Latin. from the Saxon.. independently of others' aid. imbecile. cunning. Assurance is in act or manner impudence may be in speech. The astute mind adds to acuteness and keenness an element of cuiming or finesse. sagacious. jdiotic. ASTUTE. self=confidence than assurance . one's own rectitude and abUity. it indicates the possession of reserved knowledge which the person could impart if he chose. dismay. timidity. We speak of a knowing rascal. unintelligent. A knowing child has more knowledge than would be looked for at his years. shyness.. in regard to some special matter. distrnBt. or urge arguments. Antonyms: bashfulnesB. Compare faith pride. meaning cunning or shrewd within a narrow range. which is (according to its etymology) a shameless boldness. . penetrating:. from the Latin. doabt. The acute. knowing. the sharpness of the cutting edge. misgiving. perhaps more than is quite desirable. perspicacious. shallow. . sharp. confusion. implying that he knows more than could be expected of such an animal. keen intellect may take no special advantage of these qualities the astute mind has always a point to make for itself. of which he sees a result that they do not perceive. clear=siglited. in the sense of sagacious. consteraation. sbrewd. etc. stolid. suggests the sharpness of the needle's point keen. Effrontery is impudence defiantly displayed. The astute debater leads his opponents into a snare by getting them to make admissions. In the bad sense assurance is less gross than impudence. Antonyms: blind. discriminating:.

with . we speak of a man's adherence to his purpose. Regard is more distant than affection or attachment. V. cbarge. encounter. antipatby. or to anything to which he clings tenaciously. animosity. Antonyms: alienation.Ao ""* Synonyms: adberence. he assaults it by hurling his . To beset is to set around. or. coolness. so to speak. beset. Synonyms assail. we speak of high esteem. attacks. but of her affection or of her devotion. menaces. separation. ATTACK. attacbment attack. a brandished weapon. To attack is to begin hostilities of any kind. indifiEerence. of his attachment to his church. dislike. or persuasions. his adhesion to his party. attachment by muscular fibers. beleaguer. severance. Assail and assault. appendage. tenderness. enmity. which may be good or bad. estrangement. tho of troops directly upon its defenses. friendsMp. an inclination to study. assault. friendship. to the old homestead. . . etc. repugnance. or to any persons or objects that he may hold dear. fall upon. ATTACHMEXT. an inclination to drink. love. or by a rope. An attachment is a feeling that binds a person by ties of heart to another person or thing . regard. Affection expresses more warmth of feeling . as. Compare acquaintance. Armies or squadrons charge combat and encounter may be said of individual contests. Inclination expresses simply a tendency. devotion. so that assault alone retains the meaning of dh-ect personal violence. Prepo Bitlons Attachment of a true man to his friends attachment to a leader /or his nobility of character the attachments between two persons or things . to stud one's path. combat. divorce. invade. yielded to or overcome. besiege. adbesion. UNION. tho with no special tenderness. aversion. kind regard. affection. union. A general invades a country by marching in troops he attacks a city by drawing up an army against it. To besiege and beleaguer are . distance. One may assail another with reproaches he assaults him with a blow. love. the same original etymology. inclination. esteem. we should not speak of a mother's attachment to her babe. estimation. opposition. I V. have diverged in meaning. set upon storm. etc. but closer and warmer than esteem .

t n. and may be said either of the attacking or of the resisting force or person. Compare do . trespass. the man desires to live to a good old age we should not speak of his attaining his dotage. _ . Even that usage of attain which has been thought to refer to mere progress of time carries the thought of a result desired as. etc. Attain is a lofty word. Antonyms abandon. achieve. One may attain an object that will prove not worth his labor. tho it is sometimes used of violent speech. incursion. . withstand. win. An An attack assault may be byword. resist. acquire. possessions. shield. earn. let go. To encounter is to meet face to face. procure. pointing to some high or desirable result a man attains the mountain summit. . Synonyms: accomplisli. aggression . . miss. person may obtain a situation by the intercession of friends. A . Prepositions The enemy made an attack upon (or on) our works. befriend. cover. onslauglit. give up. protect. infringement. attain 71. defend. reach. : resistance. arrive at. invasion. ATTACK. lose. Antonyms: aid. Antonyms defense. or of both. intrusion. to attain to old age . : shelter. get. retreat. obtain. may be upon the person. enpport. secure. compass. the Greeks at Marathon achieved a glorious victory. onset. gain. reach. get fall. grasp. repulsion. Onslaught signifies intensely violent assault. ATTAIN. surrender. <>4 the acts of armies. . forfeit. sabmission. he procures a dinner by paying for it. Synonyms assault. he attains honor or learning as the result of strenuous and earnest labor. sustain. . but what he achieves is in itself great and splendid as. Prepositions We were attacked by the enemy with cannon and musketry.attack. an aggression is always by deed. an aggression is upon rights. . An invasion of a nation's territories is an act of an intrusion upon a neighboring estate is a trespass. encroachment. aggression. master-. as by an army or a desperado. uphold.

we may associate the striking of a clock with the serving of We We ." sociate things which may have no necessary or causal relation as. to nocent person. rightly or wrongly. cbarge. the attitude may be imconsciously taken through the strength of the feeling . A Synonyms: ascribe. Where we are quite sure. tho the two are not necessarily connected. etc. u. the unconscious posture of a spectator or listener may be an admirable pose from an artist's standpoint. we ascribe anything openly in speech or writing . . of the living or the dead but we do not speak of the attitude. pose is apposition studied for artistic effect. he assumed an attitude of humility. " They have ascribed unto David ten asthousands. but more commonly evil. Synonyms pose. attitude is th& position appropriate to the expression of some feeling . may attribute a result. attribute to may attribute a wrong intent to an in(Jod infinite power. ATTRIBUTE. We may We We We in such case. Position as applied to the ai-rangement or situation of the human body or limbs may denote that which is conscious or unconscious. in some rare case. where the posture is thought of as assumed in life. an erect posture. A . how^ever. attribute carries always a concession of uncertainty or possible error. posture is assumed without any special reference to expression of feeling . we simply refer a matter to the cause or class to which it belongs or ascribe to one what is surely his. posture. We may imjaute good or evil. may attribute a matter in silent thought of micro=organisms. or as. or considered with reference to such effect . King Saul said of the singing women. suggesting life. pose. we might say the body was found in a sitting posture. a reclining posture. impute. attribute to a person either that which belongs to bim or that which we merely suppose to be his. and to me they have ascribed but thousands. connect. 6 . refer. or posture of a corpse unless. Many diseases formerly attributed to witchcraft are now referred to the action a certain cause . dinner. ATTITUDE. . an attitude of defiance . associate.f><^ "" attitude attribute. position. at first glance. v. as. assign. as. We charge a person with what we deem blameworthy. or it may be consciously assumed in the attempt to express the feeling as.

H. sucW—the "suchness" of anything.) are termed specific properties .attribute. stances (as fluidity.er. dissociate. quality.. proprius. physicists now. bode." Crabb English Synonymes. propbesy. property may be transient . but only of those more or less fitly attributed to him. quality must. in distinction from all other things when we speak of the qualities or the properties of matter. extension. because men assumed no knowledge of the actual qualities of the Deity. . "Persons or things augur. probably. inally 'the attributes of God' was preferred. malleability. n. according to the German idiom denotes what a thing really is in some one respect an attribute is what we conceive a thing to be in some one respect thus. Synonyms AVOVR. in this wider use of the wovd property. etc. prognosticate. general properties of matter. disconnect. aiigur f^a '"' Antonrms: deny. natore. sever. foretell. substance.] Holiness is an attribute of God the attributes of many heathen deities have been only the qualities of wicked men property (L.e. ' ' . [M. etc ). A . quality is the more genquality is inherent a eral. A. presag. Synonyms: n. quality (L. Compare CHARiCcTERlSTic. predict. separate. emblem. Antonyms: being. A. things only betoken or portend. ATTRIBUTE. sander. own) is what belongs especially to one thing as its own peculiar possession. persons only forebode or presage. while those pecuUar to certain substances or to certain states of those sub- — . betoken. . one's joined to superhuman power. property. essence. prefer to term those qualities manifested by all bodies (such as impenetrabihty." J. while attribute may. A . Prepositions: It is uncharitable to attribute evil motives to (archaic unto) others. divine. qualis. portend. express something of the real nature of that to which it is ascribed Origwe speak of the attributes of God. the qualities of matter. howev. property the more limited term. forebode. it becomes strictly synonymous with quality. Murray. We augur well for a voyage from past good fortune and a good start we presage success from the stanchness of the ship and the skill .

Thomas did not write it. legitimate. warrant. p. true. or We Antonyms assure. Prepositions I augur /rom of the enterprise * AUTHEIVTIC. 189. mercenary. genuim work is one written by the anthor whose name it bears an authentic one which relates trathfully the matters of which It treats. An promoter. tho usually where genuineness carries a certain authority. used by reputable writers as synonymous with genuine. ' work ' is ' Authentic is. Dissipation among the officers and mutiny among the crew portend disaster. exploded. autlliciltfc auxiliary We forebode misfortune either from circumstances from gloomy fancies for which we could not give a reason. the apocryphal Gospel of St. [t. false. ii. subordinate. current money. 5. all . reliable. 15). vi. AUXILiIART. . money.67 of the captain. j. accepted. 506. & M.] mainly fables and lies. certain evidence. aUy. demonstrate. or this augurs w^ell. authentic history . genuine. assistant. for your cause. it is not authentic. certain. connterfeit. a legitimate conclusion or legitipretation. spnrlous. current. determine. Divine has reference to the ancient soothsayers' arts (as in Gen. original manuscripts. fictitious. veritable. received. as. a veritable discovery. insure. or his intention. coadjutor. snre. confederate. For example.' for its contents are Trench On the Study of Words lect. Synonyms: aid. unauthorized. genuine . accredited. fabulous. trustworthy. however. received intermre proof. genuine letters. a trustworthy witness. original. authoritative. Antonyms: apocryphal. Thomas is neither 'genuine' nor 'authentic' It is not genuine. that hetoleen failure. baseless. Synonyms: sure. [w. calculate. establish. belper. make prove. '53. settle. A ' ' ' . That is authentic which is true to the facts that is genuine which is true to its own claims . say I could not divine his motive. accessorv." Thomas Jeffebson Writings vol. autborized. circumstances a prosperous result I augur ill "augurs ill to the rights of the people.] I augur well. mate authority. real value. a true statement. xliv. disputed. auxiliary is a person or thing that helps in a subordinate . We speak of accepted conclusions. and refers rather to reading hearts than to reading the future. p. real. w.' for St.

Compare accessory APPENDAGE. and ordinarily desires both to get and to keep. the parsim. parsimonious. policy. Yet the auxiliary is more The word is oftenest found in the . free. Allies unite as equals aimeiliaries are. . Prepositions: The auxiliaries of the Romans an auxiliary to learning. than a mere assistant. The avaricious and rapacious are ready to reach out for gain . but often of other things. as food. nically. of another. covetous. mnniflcent. the niggardly by stinting others. and niggardly prefer the safer and less adventurous way of avoiding expenditure. miserly. and acting under the orders. sordid.onious. . they are somewhat less harsh and reproachful terms than niggardly. plural. parsimonious. prodigal. The rapacious have the robber instinct. Miserly and niggardlypeisons seek to gain by mean and petty savings the miserly by stini>ing themselves. Antonyms antagonist. Avaricious and covetous refer especially to acquisition. . at least tech- inferiors or subordinates. auxiliaries often for reasons of state. Near and nigh are provincial words of similar import. miserly. to keep others from getting it. . tho one may be made avaricious by the pressure of great expenditures. rapacious. The close man holds like a vise all that he gets. Preposition The monarch was avaricious of power. The avaricious man has an eager craving for money. Parsimonious and penurious may apply to one's outlay either for himself or for others in the latter use. etc. niggardly. close. and in the military sense atixiliaries are troops of one nation uniting with the arraies. or patriotism as well. penurious. the covetous man to get something away from its possessor. liberal. Antonyms: bountltal. Mercenaries serve only for pay . an auxiliary in a good cause AVARICIOUS. Oreedy and stingy are used not only of money. . and penurious to expenditure. stingy. opposer. i hinderer. as far as they dare. miserly. the stingy child. wasteful. opponent. generous. Synonyms) niggardly. The greedy child wishes to enjoy everything himself . greedy.avarlclons capacity. and put it in practise in some form. "' .

Compare revenge. which one takes as his own. could not be said To retaliate may be necessary for self=defense. he would be said to confess it yet there is always the suggestion that some will be ready to challenge or censure what one avows . admit. disavow. Avenge meaning. the doctrine of his church. --. . revenge Revenge. vrltness. or to uphold and illustrate the right by the suffering or destruction of the wicked. Avow has usually a good sense what a person avows he at least does not treat as blameworthy. To avow is to declare boldly and openly. disclaim. profess. A man acknowledges another's claim or his own promise he admits an opponent's advantage or his own error he declares either what he has seen or experienced or what he has received from another he avers what he is siu-e of from his own knowledge or consciousness he gives his assurance as the voucher for what he avouches . Antonyms contradict. visit. . in order to vindicate the righteous. . vindicate. Ignore. retaliate. . STATE. testify. great or small. Acknowledge. disown. according to present usage. as. deny. Avenge is unselfish. . aver. confess. 24. good or bad. and revenge. protest. to ourselves. avers that he was present. or defend. . . he avows openly a belief or intention that he has silently held. and smote the Egyptian. commonly as something one is ready to justify. once close synonyms. "And seeing one of them suffer wrong. . (rarely. admit. without the idea of revenge. criminal. maintain. of God. Synonyms: adcncw^ledge. declare. revenge. o\<rn. Avcyw and avouch take a direct object aver is followed by a conjunction a man avows his faith. . : . repudiate. Compare confess action. avoucli. avouches a deed. and declare refer either to oneself or to others all the other words refer only to one's own knowledge or . To revenge is to inflict harm or suffering upon another through personal anger and resent- ment at something done is selfish.w" Synonyms: punish. proclaim. Prepositions Avenge on or upon avenge oneself of) a wrong»doer." Acts vii. are now far apart in To avenge is to visit some offense with punishment. the clergyman avowed his dissent from Ovm applies to all things. or shameful if he did. avenge avow AVEHTOE. he avenged him that was oppressed.

lowly. dread. sboclzing. We speak of an awhward predicament. it was anciently used of a is off'ward. imposing. stately. a majestic cathedral. an awhward scrape. teggarly. ungainly. as in the presence of a superior power as. mean. inferior. Thus. or the human frame may be clumsy in shape or build. clumsy. the awful hush before the battle. an august assembly. Awful should not be used of things which are merely disagreeable or annoying. from awh (kindred with off. That which is awful arouses an oppressive. direful. from the Norwegian). fearful. We speak of an exalted station. stiffened with cold this is the origioal meaning of clumpy fingers. bungling. appalling. clumsy limbs. frightful. . AlVKITARD. and perhaps recoiling force a statement that contains Unassorted and incongruous material in iU= chosen language is clumsy. but only of such as bring a solemn awe upon the soul. orriWe. a noble mein. on the other hand (from elumse. An awhward statement has an uncomfortable. nolile. ynlgar. a grand mountain. . terrific. A tool. contemptible. undignified. etc. An awhward excuse commonly reflects on the one who offer's it. . unhandy. clumsy to condition. solemn. . The finest untrained colt is awhward in harness a horse that is clumsy in build can never be trained out of awkwardness. of squinting eyes. turned the wrong way back=handed or left=handed blow in battle.70 Synonyms: alarming. unskilful. portentous. an imposing presence. Awhward. despicable. but the awhward man may not be naturally clwmsy. uncouth. Synonyms rough. Antonyms > base. The clumsy man is almost of necessity awkward. fraud. majestic. paltry. signifies benumbed. also through the Norwegian). dreadful. a solemn litany. that which is august an admiring reverence we speak of the august presence of a mighty monarch. Clumsy. . terrible. We say the admitted facts have an boorisb. hmnble. commoD place. clo'wnisb. a stately 7narch. awhward in motion. a vehicle.. . august. dire. awkward primarily refers to action. nor of aU that are alarming and terrible. the awful scene of the Judgment Day. the awful presence of death. _ maladroit. .

applied to movements that seem as unsuitable as those of benumbed and stiffened limbs. cackle. clever. as " all fools are out of theirwits. but without special purpose. useful. blurt out. handy. but in an axiom there is progress of thought. . the babble of a running stream. Antonyms absnidity. demonstration. Chatting is the practise of adults. which might have been overlooked if not stated.71 axiom babble awhward used. blurt. A dancing bear is both clumsy and awltward. To prate is to talk idly. . pleasant way. gabble. tattle. cbatter. not without sense. Prepositions The raw recruit is awkward in action . while the truism simply says the same thing over again. jabber. of pasTo chat is to talk in an easy. . and the mind Hence the axiom is valuable and is left just where it started. nonsense. cbat. the gabble of a goose. truism. paradox. Blab and blurt (commonly blurt out) refer to the letting out of what the lips can no longer keep in blab. while the truism is weak and flat. Both the axiom and the truism. Synonym AXIOM. are instantly seen to be true. sionate feeling. Clumsy Antoayms adroit. of a secret blurt out. palaver. and need no proof . sMlfal. BABBLE. murmur." Compare peoverb. the chatter of a magpie. prate. twaddle. appearance. sopliism. The cackle of a hen." the former and the latter part of the sentence are simply identical. dexterous. indicate a rapid succession of what are to the listener meaningless sounds. as appUed to human speech. Most of these words are onomatopoetic. contradiction. or says what is too manifest to need saying. at the business. truism that " a man can do all he is capable of. gossip. The axiom that "things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another" unfolds in the latter pai-t of the sentence the truth implied in the In the first part. In none of these cases could clumsy be is. Synonyms 'blab. prattle. prattling that of children. unless the form of statement makes it striking or racy. however.

To jabber is to titter a rapid succession of unintelligible sounds. . dlscbarge. edge. John the Apostle was Synonyms beacb. strand. as. especially as a place for landing or embarking . One may expatriate or exile himself he is banished by others. eject. . . the Banks of Newfoundland. oust. the keel grates on the strand. a person may be banished. A beach is a strip or expanse of incoherent wave^worn sand. lake.banlsb bank __ 72 presTimptuously. or foolishly. sbore. To murmur is to utter suppressed or even inarticulate sounds. BANK. or ocean as. Prepositions Cataline was banished banished to Patmos. which is often pebbly or full of boulders we speak of the beach of a lake or ocean a beach is sometimes found in the bend of a river. or of complaint. . From a country. To expel is to drive out with violence or rudeness. the Synonyms BAIVISH. . brim. a more poetic term for a wave=washed shore. Bank is a general term for the land along the edge of a water course it may also denote a raised portion of the bed of a river. . drive out. evict. to compel by authority to leave a place or country. or the sound of a running stream. . expatriate. exile. as for pastime or mischief. marge. coast. dislodge. : dismiss. or expatriated . but expatriated or exiled only from his own. the crowd babbles o/ a hero . Banish is a word of wide import one may banish disturbing thoughts care may banish sleep. primarily to put under ban. bound. Strand border. and is used figuratively of the half sup- pressed utterances of affection or pity. rim. Compare speak. but not necessarily incoherently. generally more noisy than chattering. and so often with disgrace. margin. ostracize. resentment. To twaddle is to talk feeble nonsense. where he may happen to be. from Borne . Banish. exiled. To gossip is to talk of petty personal matters. is . brink. suggesting the notes of a dove. etc. Prepositions sick Babies babble /or the moon man babbles of home. . perhaps with restriction to some other place or country. expel. banished from any country ban.

Banter is the touching upon some fault. cliafr. All the other words have a hostile intent. or fancied secret of another in a way half to pique and half to please badinage is delicate. and to revolting acts. uncivilized. say barbarous nations. Shore is any land. and may include mimicry and personal violence. derision. whether cliflf or sand. barbarian. nor of the banks of the ocean. perhaps meriy. the . the saying one thing that the reverse may be understood. or marsh.mtt •<* banter barbarous The whole hne of a country or continent that borders the sea is a coast. We may. Synonyms atrocious. Mockery is more studied. A . . but is usually good«humored and well meant. a barbarous deed. Raillery has more sharpness. barbarous tribes. Edge is the line where land and water meet as. cruel. the satire is plainlyuttered. such as a civilized man would not be expected to do as. . Whatever is not civilized is magnificence. ing anything more than want of civilization and culture. without imply. ing water. tho there may be banks by or under the sea. irony. satire is a formal composition a sarcasm may be an impromptu sentence. Irony. Ridicule makes a person or thing the subject of contemptuous merriment derision seeks to make the object derided seem utterly despicable ^to laugh it to scorn. as. border. rude ridicule. satire. Savage . . savage. Brink is the place from which one may fall. untamed. weakness. sarcasm. the brink of ruin. — . uncultured richness uncoutb. barbarian. may be either mild or bitter. brutal. as. BARBAROUS. refined banter. jeering:. sarcasm is covert. ridicule. barbaric splendor. inhuman. oftener malicious jeering is loud. barbaric. BAIVTER. Synonyms badinage. raillery. the brink of a precipice . We do not speak of the coast of a river. without inquiiing whether it will do good or harm . Chaff is the coarse witticism of the streets. rude. The satire shows up follies to keep people from them the sarcasm hits them because they are foolish. as well as scornful speech. Barbarous refers to the worst side of barbarian life. especially of cruelty. mockery. as of a hostile crowd or mob. a barbaric melody. barbaric indicates rude merciless. however. the river's brink . the water's edge.

nice. obstacle. restraint.. where it signifies the raised side of a ship above the upper deck. refined. such a wall for the protection of troops a rampart is the embankment surrounding a fort. . road. A mountain range may be a barrier to exploration but a mass of sand across the Discovered falsehood is a entrance to a harbor is called a bar. affair. . parapet. transit. : opening. strife. a barrier between nations. but is not neccell the bars of a wood=lot. bar to confidence. . . One continuous conflict between entire armies is a battle. BARRIER. . encounter. than those to which bar is ordinarily applied. nrbane. conflict. entrance. graceful. engagement. ordinarily with intent to prevent entrance or egress as. Synonyms. Antonyms admittance. 74 more distinctly bloodthirsty than barbarous. in military use. blndrance. cnitured. BATTIiE. topped by the rail. barricade. flgnt. as about the edge of a roof. action. A bar is something that is or may be firmly fixed. problbltion. way. passage. A parapet is a low or breast=high wall. Conflict is contest.barrier battle _. rampart. skirmish. whether individuals or hosts. ftumane. especially. bout. delicate. Bulwark is a general word for any defensive wall or rampart. elegant. and. against invasion. Compai-e boundary. In this sense speak of a savage beast and of barbarous usage. Prepositions A barrier to progress. Barrier is used of objects more extensive essarily impassable. etc. courtly. impediment. as dashed together. tender. is we Antonyms: civilized. is usually so understood. its only technical use at present is in nautical language. Another battle may be fought upon the same field after a considerable interval. Synonyms bar. obstruction. polite. a general word which describes opponents. on which the parapet is raised the word rampart is often used as including the parapet. the bars of a prison A barrier obstructs. thoroughfare. imless in some way modified. Barricade has become practically a technical name for an improvised street fortification. bul-wark. breastwork. passage of arms. teiTace. or a new battle . combat. restriction.

to beat on the soles of the feet . cudgel. strike. as. The metaphorical sense of beat. To beat a combatant is Hence beat be- . scourge. BEAT. may be a stubborn contest. A skirmish is between small detachments or scattered troops. trace. a battle for Ufe. a battle may last for days. conquer. flog. Strike is the word for a single blow . An action is brief and partial. pound. Fight is a word of less dignity than battle. a weight) is to beat with a heavy. bruise. as bastinado. swltcli. I was in the thick of ihe fight. dus. the battle of (more rarely at) A Marathon. originally a hostile encounter between individuals. overcome. tbrasbj vancLUisb. cbastlse. An encounter may be either purposed or accidental. worst. as. the armies meeting upon a new field. cudg^el. as wheat was beaten out with the old hand=flail . that is baffered which is broken or defaced by repeated blows on the surface (compare synonyms for shatter). against invaders . suspension of hostilities. and yet not be said to be beaten. To batter and to bruise refer to the results of beating . pommel. to inflict a comprehensive and exhaustive beating. unless where the word is used in the sense of fighting. that is bruised which has suffered even one severe contusion. to beat is to strike repeata bird beats the air with its wings. however. castigate. as . to pound (akin to L. is now used also for extensive engagements. A protracted war. belabor.75 beat may follow immediately. between individuals or armed forces. surpass. it was the commander's purpose to avoid a general engagement. including many battles. concord. to beat with a stick thrash. ponedly. Others of the above words describe the manner of beating. peace. smite. so far pref)onderates that one may be very badly bruised and battered. Synonyms bastinado. Combat. to disable or dishearten him for further fighting. spanlE. instrument. fight. battle between armies . and pommel with a blunt. Prepositions battle of giants . defeat. we should not ordinarily speak of Waterloo as a. unless he has got the worst of the beating. batter. whip. Antonyms armistice. a battle to the death . belabor. Engagement is a somewhat formal expression for battle.

into submission. Compare conquer. Burrender. words by the use of the auxiliary be beaten.beautiful ''* comes the synonym for every word which implies getting the advantage of another. get the worst of. go nnder. go down. : fall. Almost 6e . and can be formed indefinitely froin the conquering as. cbarming. Antonyms fail. . be-defeated. . etc. Prepositions Beat with a stick over the head beat hy a trick . end of town beat to the ground . be conquered. all antonyms in this class are passive.

ruous. in spu'lt " beautiful /or situation. deformed. That is which would make a striking picture. hideous. Since. That is suitable which is adapted to the age. unattractive. . grim. a natural inference or result. thus. I will accompany you. Because. beseeming. I abandon the claim. notwithstanding. fit. decent. BECOMIIVO. That is meet. ghastly. fitting. and other circumstances of the wearer coarse. implying by just so much. ungainly. implying less constraint. clumsy. thus. signifies a succession in a chain of reasoning. suitable. either may introduce the reason before the main statement. grraceful. yet. coug. Prepositions Beautiful to the eye . unpleasant. horrid. frightful. comely. station. repulsive. giving often mere suggestion or indication rather than reason or cause . inasmucli as. unlovely. as is weaker than since . nevertheless. I will come. uncouth. situation. becoming in dress which That is suits the complexion. Inasmuch as is a formal and qualified expression. a comely matron. grotesque. proper. parallel. -wortby. odious. Synonyms! as. Synonyms befittins. produce on the whole a decent which does not offend modesty or propriety. rather than I wiU come because you request it. however. it is morning. For is a loose connective. for (not because) the birds are singing. coordinate. so as to and other pleasing effect. of its kind. figure. Since is weaker than because . decorous. Antonyms altho. disgusting. inasmuch as the debtor has no property. for example. 2 . Often the weaker word is the more courteous. and no more. as you request it. ugly. .^^ « short of the beautiful . As indicates something like. heavy qualities of the wearer." Ps. for. because becoming pictureaqm as. beautiful o/ aspect. notwithstanding. since. grisly. Antonyms: awkward. beautiful in appearance. neat. since or as you are going. BECAUSE. xlviii. seemly. shocking. as. is the most direct and complete word for giving the reason of a thing. literally by^caxise. originally denoting succession in time. Compare synonyms for bttt .

often involving. nnl)ecoming. Fit is a compendious term for whatever fits the person. inception. nneuitable. etc. An origin is the point from which something starts or sets out. at a funeral Uvely. as. . fit place. Meet. outset. origin. Indecent. In conduct much the same rules apply. we should be understood to refer to the enterprise and its initiatory act if we were to refer to the roadway we should say " Here is the beginning of the Pacific Railroad. start. a government. the source of a river a source of knowledge a source of inspiratioii state. If we were to speak of the commencement of the Pacific Railroad. . "In the beginning was the word. sumptuous display would not be suitable for a poor person. meet for heaven. A source is that which furnishes a first and continuous supply. Fitting. occasion. nnaeemly. material. Antonyms: awkward. The dignity and gravity of a patriarch would not be becoming to a child . . a juvenile style of dress is not suitable for an old lady. spring. as. expresses a moral fitness . implying a nicer adaptation." In the great majority of cases begin and beginning are preferable to commence and commencement as the simple. to the wearer. always accurate and expressive. place. while beginning has no restriction. fit person a fit abode a. rise. source. while noisy hilarity would not be decent . fount. the origin of a nation. ill-fitting. is commencement ning. Such conduct was be- Synonyms arising. is somewhat more elegant. improper. and always suggesting causal connection . or befitting. Compare beauthttl . as. is enumeration. Prepositions The dress was becoming coming in him. that which flows forth freely or may be readily recurred to. time. The Latin inauguration. or to whatever else may be conceived of as having a first part. the origin of evil . opening. The letter A is at the beginning (not the commencement) of every alphabet. a." 1 John 1. idiomatic English words. fountain. a somewhat archaic word.beginning ''S boots are suitable for farm^work . nnfit. . ill'becoming. . more formal than the Saxon beginmore formal than begin. initiation. Gomrmencement is for the most part restricted to some form of action. point. but may be applied to action. extent. as the verb commence. . as. cheery sociability would not be decormis. indecorone. > commencement. BEOIIOfllVG. etc. . or a family. degree.

A Prepositions The behavior of the pastor io or toward his people.anners are always pleasing. in then. not only of feelings. To incline or influence to persuade is to is to bend another's wishes toward our own . to bend a bow. or in the church. with the godly. bearing.figurative senses. manner. as. demeanor. person's m. BEHAVIOR. unless with some adverse limitation. or with the worldly. bend the mind humbly to another's wishes. Antonyms: See synonyms for end. . especially in sitting or walking. BEIVD. Demeanor is the bodily expression. life. land of as in . deviate. as. warp. was alike faultless. as when it is said of a lady " she has a Bearing refers to the bodily expression of feeling or disposition. but of moral states as. incline." Fount. s .wo '" fertile behavior bend is a source (not an origin) of wealth. manners.an' ner may be that of a moment. Motley wrote of "The Rise of the Dutch Republic. yield. Synonyms action. Compare CAUSE. especially in matters of etiquette and politeness . Behavior is our action in the presence of others conduct includes also that which is known only to ourselves and our Maker. In some cases a thing is spoken of as bent where the parts make an angle but oftener to bend is understood to be to draw to or through a curve as. Synonyms: bias." Deportment is behavior as related to a set of the pupil's deportment was faultless. a haughty bearing. twine. or toward a single person . carriage. turn. keep close to their literal meaning. his manners are his habitual style of behavior toward or before others. persuade. twist. before the multitude. mold. curve. denotes that manner and conduct which result from good fine carriage. Carriage expresses simply the maimer of holding the body. deportment. breeding. or that the river takes its rise from the lake. Breeding. influence. bu-th training. rules . conduct. bow. a devout demeanor. and spring. stoop. on or upon the streets. fountain. . and as. submit. deflect. diverge. good m. . A rise is thought an action we say that a lake is the source of a certain river. a noble bearing. To submit or yield is to crooli.

pbilanthropy. . a herd bow sists the constraint we mold something plastic entirely to some desired form. We should not now speak of benevolence which did not help. liberality. Benignity suggests some occult power of blessing. . the generosity of forgiveness. . . kindness. as a board in the sun. sympathy. good-'wlll. which originally . benevolence the wishing or willing well to others but benevolence has come to include beneficence. genial kindly views. Deflect. henefl/xnce is the doing well. and diverge are said of any turning away deviate commonly of a slight and gradual movement. in prosperity or in distress. and 'is much more limited in meaning than benevolence. or even to the dead. . whether men or animals. To hias is fiber. Humanity is so much kindness and tenderness toward man or beast as it would be inhuman not to have. is now almost universally applied to some form of aVmsgiving. . almsgiving:. deviate. such as was formerly ascribed we may say a good man has an air of benignity. and to displace it. . Liberality indicates broad. feeble. BEIVETOLrElVCE. diverge of a more sharp and decided one. Bounty applies to ample giving. . and needy. . kindliness. Mold is a stronger work than tend . the liberality or munifi. "common humanity requires it. which on a larger scale is expressed by munificence. charity. We speak of the bounty of a generous host. bounty. meant the purest love for Grod and man (as in 1 Cor. to bend silently through the To crooh is to hend irregularly.benevolence SO To warp is draw them whole quite over. as a crooked stick. in figurative use to cut across the texture. Tenderness especially goes out toward the young.cence of the founder of a college. humanity. xiii). benignity. unless where there was no power to help even then we should rather say good=will or sympathy. to the stars Kindness and tenderness are personal benevolence and charity are general." Generosity is 8elf= forgetful kindness in disposition or action it includes much besides giving as. we may iend by a superior force that which still reas. munificence. whether manifested in gifts or otherwise. unselfishness. or incline to one side always with an unfavorable import. Kindness extends to all sentient beings. According to the etymology and original usage. or of the liberality of a theologian toward the holders of conflict. we say of some act of care or kindness. Charity. Synonyms: kind-heartedness. generosity. beneficence.

barsb. restrict. or a door by a lock. selffshneBS. to a service . Belf-seeking. as a board by nails. tie. unto an altar . nnkmdneBS. fasten. a splint is bound upon a Umb . i greedinesB. pungent. Synonyms: acerb. Compare mercy. shackle. around. acidulous. stinging. involving large expenditures in charity or benevolence. we speak of the ties of affection. they are bound at both ends and in the middle one is bound by a contract. untie. acrid. often. one is bound by a contract . restrain. . . on the part toward the poor. bind one urith chains or in chains . or from the wealthy. bind a wreath about. tart. BIND. sour. . cutting. oblige. unfasten. fetter. acetous. virulent. or . Antonyms barbarity. . HarshneBS. ill-will. illiberality. alent. acidulated. but not always. fix. set free. inhumanity. BITTER. malevolence. sbarp. secure. The verbs tie and fasten are scarcely used in the flgujrative sense. savage. twigs are bound in or into fagots for military purposes. of. sour. 6 . churlislmeBS. . caustic. niggardlmeBS. viuegarlsb. using the noun. or round the head . acid. engage. Bind has an extensive figurative use. Antonyms free. i loose. stinginess. irate. tho. bind bitter Philanthropy applies to wide sohomes for human welfare. and Utter agree in being contrasted with sweet. as a cord or bandage drawn closely around an object or group of objects. unloose. malignity. Aeid. the arms may be bound to the sides or behind the back . Prepositions Bind to a pillar bound under a penalty to fulfil a contract. Prepositions Benevolence of. but acrimonious.a » ing beliefs. Binding is primarily by something flexible. unbind. to or Synonyms: compel. brutality. "We bind a sheaf of wheat with a cord we tie the cord in a knot we fasten by any means that will make things hold together. One is bound by conscience or honor he is obliged by some imperious necessity engaged by his own promise compelled by physical force or its moral equiv. . as when we bind up a wounded Umb. biting.

flaw. BliEmiSH. the latter being the more deeply malicious. the latter either permanently (as. the former permanently. whiten. bitter complaints. deformity. blur. Tart and sharp utterances may not proceed from an intention to wound. stls:ma. sharp words. as in the satire of Juvenal or Cervantes. brand. We say a sour face. Harsh carries the idea of intentional a stinging taunt. To whiten is to make white in general. biting sai-casm. a flaw or taint is in structure or substance. The caustic utterance is meant caustic wit. V.bleach. to burn. dishonor. effect of some strong chemical. as linen . sweet. judgment. defacement. especially by false approval. To whitewash is to whiten superficially. as the pits of smallpox. imperfection. to blanch celery) or temporarily (as. soil. cutting irony. disfigurement. Add or sour is the taste of vinegar or lemon=Juice . . Caustic indicates the corroding . tarnish. smirch. these In a figurative words are very closely allied.. and biting speech indicates more or less of hostile intent. Antonyms dulcet. honeyed. harsh and severe unkindness. Baccharlne. taj&t. Compare moeose. Whatever mars the beauty or completeness of an object is a blemish. or the result of accident or disease. defect. blancb. fault. daub. bleinlsb §2 the two former are sharply distmguished from the latter. nectared. v. Synonyms blot. stinging. but commonly it means to overspread with white coloring=matter. a pungent odor. quinin. to blanch the cheek with fear). The bitter speech springs from the sore heart. color. Bleach and blanch both signify to whiten by depriving of color. a tart reply. Acrid is nearly allied to Utter. sense. Pungent suggests the effect of pepper or snuff on the oi-gans of taste or smeU as. stain. spot. or strychnin. stain. whitewash. Injury. soil. luscions. bitter of a severity that arises from real or supposed ill treatment. dye. crack. as applied to language or character. Synonyms BLiEACH. bitter that of quassia. perhaps wholesomely. as nitrate of silver. In the moral . whether origiual. reproach. as squinting eyes. speck. blemish is super- A ficial . Antonyms: blacken. etc. dlssrace. but merely from a wit recklessly keen cutting. darken. make wMte. dent.

Synonyms t abrupt. violent. thong. Figuratively. A A . the brand of infamy. Imock. of the arm in swimming. uncivil. rap. as. the stroke of a sword. or the like . The bluff man talks and laughs loudly and freely. polite. . bold. as. stroke for sweeping disaster. of an oar. thus a sudden dislocation or displacement of geological strata is called a fault. urbane. genial. or from the pleasure of tormenting. a flaw or taint in character. lasb. staggering calamity or sorrow. cuff.IJFF. We say a stroke of paralysis. and prostrating we speak of a shock of electricity. frank. A shock is the sudden encounter with some heavy body . is something that fails of an apparent intent or disappoints a natural expectation . BL. as axe frank and open. and also for sweeping achievement and success. Shock is used of that which is at once sudden. discourteous. or a stroke of genius. The blunt man says things which he is perfectly aware are disagreeable. fault. cut. unmannerly. bloiv bluff we speak of a blot or stain upon reputation. a whip. primarily a failing. the shock of an amputation. inconsiderate. open. rude. BLOW. generally with the open hand . Antonyms Uand. a blemish comes from one's own ill=doing . and with no thought of annoying or giving pain to others. In the metaphorical sense. brusk. a stroke is a sweeping movement . A buffet or cuff is given only with the hand a blow either with hand or weapon. a lash with shock of battle. as. blustering. blow is used for sudden. A A . rough. says and does whatever he pleases with fearless good nature. reserved. tliump. a cuff or box on the ear. Bluff is a word of good meaning. concussion. Synonyms 'box. the slap is given with the open hand. leflaed. i misfortune. stunning. cuff is a somewhat sidelong blow. as. We speak of the buffets of adverse fortune. couiteous. slxock. blunt. disaster. a brand or stigma is inflicted by others . we speak also of the cut of a whip. stroke. buffet. stripe is the effect or mark of a stroke. a shock of surprise. as of a fist or a club . calamity. Compare BEAT. plain-spoken. coUiding railway =trains meet with a shock . stripe.so ** sense. A defect is the want or lack of something . either from a defiant indifference toother's feelings. polished. blow is a sudden impact. coarse. Impolite.

and without reference to any previous thought or mention. limit. of . Compare company. bound. landmarlE. margin. Carcass applies only to the body of an animal. or i/ie twain. as. every. expresses a closer unity. out of any number. Compare evert. considered as a man or animal form looks upon it as a thing of shape and outline. frame. frontier. i confines. Intelligence. BOVIVDARY. son]. bourn. and system may be either dead or living . or had in mind. ynonyms barrier. frame. both men fired at once " two men fired " might mean any two. BOTH. marcbes. remains. clay and dust are sometimes so used in religious or poetic style. viewed or acting in connection . i two. term. We would say both men rushed against the enemy . denotes the entire physical structure. Bpirit. system. Corpse and remains are used only of the dead. enclosure. perhaps of beauty . line. Body. border. Both refers to two objects previously mentioned. edge. Synonyms asbes. neither. as. Body whole. mind. none. The bound is the . The boundary was originally the landmark. verge. is practically equivalent to both . regards it as supported by its bony framework . marge. The two. form. trunli. carcass. system views it as an assemblage of many related and harmonious organs. bourne.body boundary 84 BOBT. form. corpse. dust. tho ordinarily these words are used only of the dead. no one. either. its Corpse is the plain technical word for a dead body still retaining unity remains may be used after any lapse of time the lat. Twain is a nearly obsolete form of two. termination. friends are view the remains. ter is also the more refined and less ghastly term . the two men flew at each other. not any. invited to Antonyms: intellect. Antonyms: eacb. both. i clay. that which marked off one piece of territory from another. or of a human being regarded vidth contempt and loathing. . Synonyms twain. however. frame.

undismayed. Edge is a sharp terminal line. as. dauntless. Limit is now used almost whoUy in the figurative sense . at the call of duty the gallant are brave in a dashing. marked or unmaxked. etc. gallant. adding a moral element steadily encounters perils to which he may be keenly sensitive. undaunted. boundary for the limiting line only. children. region.. reckless. the difference between the two words has come to be simply one of usage. Boundary looks to that which is without . A A A Antonyms: center. we say the students were forbidden to go beyond the bounds. estate. the venturesome may be ignorant. we speak of the boundaries of a nation or of an estate . . or jurisdiction. estate . citadel. of a subject. venturesome. barrier is somebarrier may be a boundary. the bounds of a college.85 brave Kmit. courageous. The fearless and intrepid fools. Bounds may be used for aU within the limits. border is a strip of land along the boundary. as. BRATE. as was the Great "Wall of China. interior. of the universe. the limit of discussion. the courageous man is more than brave. within the lines. of an army. simply heedless. fearless. and criminals are venturesome. daring. dougbty. Now. . i adventurous. valiant. Compare barriee . territory. showy. a ball=grovmd. inside. The adventurous find something romantic in dangerous . end. confidence with resolution in presenceof danger the chivalrousman puts himself in peril for others' protection. Eeroic. Courageous possess unshaken nerves in any place of danger. Hence we speak of the bounds. The daring step out to defy danger the dauntless will not flinch before anything that may come to them the doughty wiU give and take limitless hard knocks. etc. of time. bound only to that which is within. . intrepid. thing that bars ingress or egress. . of Line is a military term . clilvalric. and enterprises . however. land. an. As regards territory. Bourn. the boundary bet^Deen neighbor- Synonyms bold. through the lines. or have been adventurous . . Prepositions: The boundaries of ing territories. or bourne. as where river or ocean meets the land. The adventurous man goes in quest of danger the bold man stands out and faces danger or censure the brave man combines cbivalrous. AU great explorers : . is a poetical expression for bound or boundary. not the boundaries.

to burst in a door. burst. or in pieces. pusUlanimouB. destroy. . but it is used also for the result of violent force otherwise exerted . into several pieces (when the object is thought of as divided rather than shattered ) break teith a friend from or away from a suppliant break into a house . fractured limb. fracture. Compare rend. demolisb. tho both portions ai-e shattered still retained within the common muscular tissue. timM. faint-hearted. to split a convention or a party. fearfnl. and is applied to any other case where a natural tendency to separation is enforced by an external cause . eecure. . building. timorous. out of prison break across one's knee break through a hedge . bind. glass is broken into numerous minute. sublimely courageous. To break is to divide BREAK. mentally. as a mound. object is broken suddenly and in numerous directions . unite. sharply. needle=like fragments. . rupture. smasb. To split is to cause wood to crack or part in the way of the grain. . a watch once smashed will scarcely be worth repair. against the rocks. To crush is to break by pressure from without. with severance of particles. sbatter. truly chivalrous. weld. a vase shivered is shattered by a blow.. the shore. sunder. break on at upon . . fortress. join. sever. . Compare FOETiTtTDB. split. as. crin^g. . as by a blow or strain. slirinking. where the door yields as if to an explosion. A A Antonyms attach. a building by an earthquake. To burst is to break hy pressure from within. To smash is to break thoroughly to pieces with a crashing sound by some sudden act of violence . Synonrms banlzrupt. rive. To demolish is to beat down. break in upon one's retirement break over the rules . casbier. as an egg=shell. crusb. etc. the ends of the broken bone may be separated. as a bombshell. to destroy an army is so to shatter and scatter it that it can not be rallied or reassembled as a fighting force. solder. mend. the valiant not only dare great dangers. transgress. fasten. Prepositions Break to pieces. frightened. Antonyms afraid. as. as. To crack is to break without complete severance of parts a cracked cup or mirror may still hold together. Fracture has a somewhat similar sense.break 86 splendid way. to destroy is to put by any process beyond restoration physically. In a. but achieve great results . the heroic are nobly daring and dauntless. crack. rend. sblver. or morally . cowaraly.

set fire to. are superficial. coarse. Bestial. insensible. and to char usually so. Intellectual. noble. Ignorant. to bum wood in the fire . beastly drunkenness. Cremate is now used specifically for consuming a dead body by intense . but cauterizes with some corrosive substance. brute. as silver nitrate. heat. stifle. base. for the same thing. cauterize. love. A brutish man Compare ammal. bestial. Both kindle and burn have an extensive figurative use . BRVTISH. to kindle strife : to burn with wrath. smotlieT. or of intense heat so as to effect either partial change or complete combustion . extending even to the heating of metals to a state of incandescence without burning. flame. BVRIV. grand. to 6m™ one's hand on a hot stove . as. stolid. cremate. Compare light. kindle. sottisb. stupid. Imbruted. exalted. flasb. scorcb.' intelligent. brute to that of force. leflneo. the sun bums the face. ignite. devotion. strlnlsb. eztingniBh. . carnal. . without special inclination to do harm the brutal have always a spirit of malice and cruelty. lascivious. except as indicating what a brute might possess much the same is true of animal. enlightened. vile. erate is to reduce to ashes it is the sense differs little cremate. consume. Any supremacy of the animal or brute instincts over the intellectual and spiritual in man is base and vile. unlntellectual.§7 'brntlsU burn Synonyms animal. Eamane. To burn is to subject to the action of fire. unspirltual. but as if in less popular use. sensual.. as. . in modem usage. singe. set on fire. except that animal leans more to the side of sensuality. cbar. One brands with a hot iron. pnt ont." Hunger is an animal appetite a brute impulse suddenly prompts one to strike a blow in anger. great. Beastly refers largely to the outward and visible consequences of excess . Antonyms! cool. with a candle ignite is the To kindle is more learned and scientific word To scorch and to singe To incinfrom that of to set on fire. simply follows his animal instincts. i brutal. as appears in the famiUar phrase " brute force. brand. Incinerate. curiosity. as. enbdoc- . Brute has no special character. Antonyms: elevated. implies an intensified and degrading animalism. . beastly. Synonyms i blaze.

joli. including all activities . An avocation is what caUs one away from other work . or the result thus secured thus. A business is what one follows regularly an occupation is what he happens at any time to be engaged in trout=fishing may be one's occupation for a time. the arts. profession. is called by some special fitness or sense of duty . while the occupation as. . employment. trading. business . collectively. in the special sense. concern. bum into the soil. . - practical result . or the roof . barter. occupation. thus. avocation. may be a matter of schol- learning. the exchanging of one business. but trade is capable of a more limited application . etc. The plural affairs has a distinctive meevn. this little affair . Trade and commerce may be used as equivalents. as. affair has a similar. trade. and ordinarily paid for as such. a vocation or calling. rather than a Trade or trading is. Art in the industrial sense is a system of rules and accepted methods for the accomplishment of some . etc. trade. energy to secure a result. we speak of the trade of a village. but lighter meaning as. etc. that to which one arship . we speak of the worlc of God. duty. we speak of the gospel ministry as a vocation or calling. as a relief from business . a man of affairs. vocation. is ordinarily for profit. philanthropy. . traffic. bum to the ground . skill A craft is some occupation requiring technical or manual dex- . I commerce. occupation. a trade is an occupation involving manual training and skilled labor . single action. Synonyms affair. or otherwise . A profession implies the learned jjrofessions. bum to ashes bum through the Bkin. the ancient Jews transaction is a held that every boy should learn a trade. the art of printing . A job is a piece of work viewed as a single undertaking. Work is any application of jng. thing for another . Pursuit is an occupation which one follows with ardor.business SS Prepositions t To burn in the fire . as. Barter is the direct exchange of commodities business. the commerce of a nation. calling:. . an important transaction. diplomacy. or religion. work. whether in business. bills of exchange. bandlcraft. as. in general. and commerce are chiefly transacted by means of money. A where men deal with one another on any considerable scale . Business. bum vnth fire . may be what one does independently employment may be in the service of another. art. transaction. craft.

or condition . Synonyms BT. compare NOTWITHSTANDING. i with. as. provided. concerning. hut adds something different. as. hut (on the other hand) content to stay he is not an honest man. I am wUling to go. e. to the instrument. engaged in the weaver's craft. save. only. collectively." But never becomes a full synonym for an^ . For the concessive use. nevertheless. no injury except some painful bruises. or the persons. . stUl. exercise . be applied to any object pioneers with axes. except and excepting are slightly more emphatic than hut .. . BUT. "Doubt hut" is now less used than the more logical " doubt that. By refers to the agent . we say. through. . or. or in regard to certain Synonyms and. hut with your father's consent" (*. however. "provided you have. doing business for his father . The road having become impassable through long disuse. to the means. business about." etc."** by its terity. " you may go. "brave and tender" implies that tenderness is natural to the brave. Prepositions: The business of a druggist . to things . as. no injury hut a scratch . The contrast may be with a sUent thought . cause. " it never rains hut it pours.). that. I bowever. moreover. So may the use of hut in the sense of unless . a way was opened hy By may. through may refer to either. through." To the same head must be referred the conditional use . But ranges from the faintest contrast to absolute negation as. hut let us go (it being understood that we might stay longer). and adds something like. except. by means of. "brave hut tender" implies that bravery and tenderness are rarely combined. as. merely. tho. Such expressions as "words are hut breath" (nothing hut) may be referred to the restrictive use by eUipsis. with. besides. notwithstanding. the metal by dint of. yet. hut (on the contrary) a villain. as. have you business vMh me ? business in New York property. just. which is viewed as partaking of action and agency ." "except that you must have. in business with his father . By commonly refers to persons with. unless. In restrictive use. barely. . further.

We CABAIi. conclave. Compute allows more of the element of probability. quently to the future ing. ordinarily. estimate. conspiracy. i consider. which is still more strongly expressed by estimate. Compare esteem. have always an nite in plan. the generic term. reckon. count. cast. as. deem. but of is used in a closely similar sense. the senses. unfavorable sense. Synonyms: crew. we reckon or count a thing precious or worthless. and more intervening Material objects are perceived by the mind through elements. Prepositions It is vain to calculate on or upon an uncertain result. To rate is to estimate by comparison. . and may have honorable comliinatloii. Cabal commonly denotes a conspiracy of leaders. less formal in organization. Synonyms account. larger numbers. . . law. etc. as. confederacy. division. faction. or Conspiracy is a distinct crime under the act of so combining. is To count to number one by more complicated processes.. and generally under statutory. factious. A faction is more extensive than a conspiracy. To enumerate is to mention item by item as. Through implies a of communicating with a person by letter. A conspiracy is a combination of persons for an evil purpose. more distant connection than by or with. We compute the slain in a great war from the number known to have fallen in certain great battles compute refers to the present or the past. As applied to the present. enumerate. Junto. the conclave of cardinals. . CAIiClJLiATE. is number. than a cabal. rate. common.cabal calculate AA •"' speak was corroded by the acid . estimate more freTo calculate to use plication. Number one. use . sangr. to estimate the cost of a proposed build. . to enumerate one's grievances. skill is gained by practise. as multimore rapid but not less exact. compute. less defiFaction and its adjective. . as if the object were one of a series. A gang is a company of workmen all doing the same work under one leader the word is used figuratively only of comhinations which it is meant to stigmatize as rude and mercenary crew A conclave is secret. is sum up. We count upon a desired future we do not count upon the undesired.

or ejaculate with no thought of others' presence . calm 8f nonjnus bawl. to shriek or to yell refers to that which is louder and wilder still. i>. dispassionate. cry out. regret. or by connected words. The sense is extended to include summons by bell. to cry is to express grief or pain by weeping or sobbing. as of a child in pain or anger. bnsh. tho somewhat. petition. undisturbed. To shout is to call or exclaim with the fullest volume of sustained voice to scream is to utter a shriller cry . hearken. or their young Animals a man calls his dog. clamor. is to attract another's attention. serene. list. . . is to give forth a louder and more excited utterance than in exclaim. To ejaculate is to throw out brief. but always by some articulate utterance. by word or by mates. exclaim. composed.ing or calling . roar. but coherent utterances of joy. it To cry out . In the most common colloquial usage." . . Bellow and roar are applied to the utterances of animals.Qf "* call. disconnected. in the physical sense. To clamor is to utter with noisy iteration it applies also to the confused cries of a multitude. and only contemptuously to those of persons. when he calls. sbout. Imperturbable. tranquil. Antonyms: be sti]]. Synonyms: collected. and especially of appeal. at- tention. noisy cries. auiet. In exclaiming. . yell. hark. cry (out). prayer the use of such devotional utterances has received the special name of " ejaculatory prayer. cool. still. one often exclaims with sudden joy as well as sorrow if he cries out. bellow. shriek. above the ordinary tone and pitch we may exclaim by mere interjections. his horse. One may exclaim. vociferate. free from violent motion or action in the mental That is . listen. it is oftener in grief or agony. calmwhich is free from disturbance or agitation. "We shout words in screaming. exertion of voice. placid. the utterance may not be stri. CALm. unruffled. smootb. either call their etc. kingly. peaceful. self=possessed. scream. or any signal. to send out the voice in order to attract another's inarticulate utterance. or yelling there is often no attempt at articulation. To vociferate is commonly applied to loud and excited speech where there is little besides the . Toe Bilent. To hawl is to utter senseless. To call is ejaculate. shrieking. sedate.

as of an inscription . cross off or out. LoNGOT." "smooth sailing. Tranquil refers to a present Bta. violent. a gwiet home. nullify. as was done by revers- rubbing out with the rounded end what had been written with the point on the waxen tablet. heated. a speak. Cancel. The serene spirit dwells as if in the clear upper air. speak of a calm sea. disturbed. The star of tlie nnconqiiered will. passionate. Of mental conditions. raging. feeling. as if it had never been. and stiH. abrogate. to expunge. and obliterate have as their first meaning the removal of written characters or other forms of To cancel is. what is obliterated is gone forever. He rises in my breast.cancel 92 or spiritual realm. to a prevailing tendency. coal. In ing the Roman stylus. ruffled. one is calm who triumphs over a tendency to excitement . repeal. a quiet day. We speak of a tranquil mind. a. excited. expunge. furious.i. literally. rescind. to erase is to scratch out." which are different modes of expressing freedom from manifest agitation. smooth away the face. AntonTinsi _^ . CAKCELr.placid. blot out. One is ccmiposed who has subdued excited feeling . flerce. quasb. to efface is to ruh off. remove. scratcb out.i. waters. obliterate. discliarge. a placid lake. erase. wrathful. Synonymfst aboUsh. may perhaps still be traced. record. also. expunge. above all storm and shadow. to make a lattice by cross=lines. annm. efface. boisterous. One may be calm by the very reaction from excitement. expunged. and resolute. frenzied. so as to show that the words are no longer part ate is of the writing . as we speak of the calmness of despair. erase. commonly for the purpose of writing something else in the same space . Serene. placid disposition. 7. What has been canceled. a serene sky. and eeif^possessed. or by the oppression of overpowering We We emotion. and . make void. if he scarcely feels the tendency. efface. revoke. of "still still night. stormy. free from excited or disturbing emotion or passion. wild. turbulent. to obliter- to cover over or remove. roused. exactly our English cross out . vacate.oTr Light qf Stars st. as a letter. And cairn. rub off or out.te. erased. he is collected when he has every thought. is to punch out with some sharp instrument. frantic. or perception awake and at command.

innocent. open. wily." One who is frank has a fearless and unconstrained truthfulness. diplomatic. honest. There may be transparent integrity or transparent fraud. . subtle. when a debt is discharged by payment. bousings. Compare abolish. CANDID. The figurative use of the words keeps close to the primaiy sense. Harness was formerly used of the armor of a knight as well as of a horse it is now used almost exclusively of the straps and appurtenances worn by a horse when attached to a vehicle the animal is said to be " kind in harness. . knowing. establish. unbiased. deceitful. Open and unreserved may imply unstudied truthfulness or defiant recklessness . simple. caparison many establishments. as being aU that one's words would imply. tranli. especially imder saddle. guileless. trutbful. and unsophisticated express the goodness which comes from want of the knowledge or thought of evil. tricky. crafty. shrewd. bamess. We . sustain. Antonyms adroit. perpetuate. open admiration. Sincere applies to the feelings. "a fair field. as. intriguing. A . reenact. unprejudiced. conflrm. straigbtfor-ward. On the other hand. trappings. enact. Honest and ingenuous unite in expressing contempt for deceit. sly. fo^. . candid vnth friend or foe to be candid about or in regard to the matter^ ." The other words apply to the ornamental outfit of a horse. naive. insincere.An * "'* candid. "to be candid ynth you." " to be perfectly frank. artful. Prepositions Candid in debate candid to or toward opponents. unsopbisticated. candid statement is meant to be true to the real facts and just to all parties a fair statement is really so. and no favor. impartial. open robbery. ingenuous. record. naive. nphold. Fair is applied to the conduct candid is not as. candid and frank have often an objectionable sense. simple. As truth is not always agreeable or timely. maneuvering. enforce. Antonyms: approve. sharp. cunning. Synonyms artless. ." are regarded as sure preludes to something disagreeable. transparent. fair. artless. guileless. CAPARISON. sincere. designing. fair treatment. the record is cancelled. write. . t aboveboard. Synonyms accouterments. maintain. unreserved.

not expressed in anxiety. direction. attention. as a sharp warning. and trappings quite contemptuously. a man rides a dangerous horse with care . Care inclines to the positive. speak also of the accouterments of a rarely . Care has also the sense of responsibility. bit and bridle. for showy human apparel. the capital in the political sense. caution largely in not doing. Watchfulrtess recognizes the possibility of danger. wariness. The capital of an American State is rarely cliief city. trouble. it is now largely displaced by attention and care. caution to the care is shown in doing. is its CARE. A parent feels constant solicitude for his children's welfare. Care concerns what . Heed implies attention without disquiet .. . "Take care!" Caution has a sense of possible harm and risk only to be escaped. in view of possible harm as. solicitude. prudence with caution. as. and of hopefulness. circumspection. Compare akms deess. A man who is not influenced by caution to keep out of danger may display great wariness in the midst of it. we possess. the chief city in the commercial. milder than anxiety . The metropolis metropolis. often. precaution. and somewhat sUghtingly. what we do anxieties. with care to guard against them. by careful deliberation and observation. Synonyms CAPITAL. as expressed in charge. Circumspection is watchful observation and calculation. : seat of government. oversight. and all that may make the rider secure. . perplexity. Concern denotes a serious interest. worry. metropolis. concern for the safety of a ship at sea. prudence. forethought. heed. negative . but without the timidity implied in caution. anxiety. Solicitude involves especially the element of desire.capital care Q^ ''* Caparison is used soldier. SynonymfR> anxiety. wariness the probability. . management. charge. not implied in care. caution will keep him from mounting the horse . vigilance. management. many cares poverty brings many Care also signifies watchful attention. with possible control. caution. watch fulness. " " Take care of yourself " or. " This side up with care . not riches bring concern. precaution looks to the saddle=girths. Precaution is allied with care. anxiety as to dangers that threaten it. if at all.

• embrace. flatter. Prepositions Caressed by or vHth the hand . recklessness. . Compare business. Synonyms i burlesque. Antonyms See synonyms for aJ'FEONT. omission. CAREER. Prepositions Take care of the house . generally of a person a burlesque treats any subject in an absurd or incongruous manner. The four horsemen [n. Fondling is always by touch caressing may be also by words. heedlessness. anxiety prudence. for the future . pamper. than to embrace . honorable achievement. early applied to the charge you will use the" lance. flight. public life. court. about the matter. or. CARICATURE.] In its figurative use career signifies spicuous work. is less fondle. inattention. but keeps. A parody changes the subject. lilss. mimicry. met in full career. imitation. Antonyms: carelessness. course. usually a life=work. for a knight's charge in toiu-nament or battle whence career was . To caress . 14. raee. ground for your career. disregard. . oversight.99 oversight to . exaggeration. line of achievement. caressed by admirers. especially. the style a travesty keeps is . travesty. A If career was origtnally the ground for a . these children are under me in care of the firm. indifierence. 194. parody. rush. A caricature . or other tender and pleasing attentions. take-off. . . Synonyms charge. extravaganza. p. remissness. & co. take itself. career caricature as. more dignified and less familiar than to fondle. some continuous and conand most frequently one of Synonyms coddle. send the money Compare alaem . CAREISS. passage.onIy in sketch or picture. negligence. . pet. race. neglect. A visitor caresses a friend's child a mother fondles her babe. Scott Quentin Durward ch. slight. a grotesque exaggeration of striking features or peculiarities. p. my care . . at court. A burlesque is written or actted a caricature is more comm.

with no reference to holding or moving . . we say carry . or out of. but changes the style . transmit. or narrative. it would not be admissible to say carry it to me. move. carry (in the sense of capture) a fort. etc. dramatic. to carry an election. A when in motion glass and scythe . must have an original . tho but for an instant. carry a stock of goods. remove. signifies to transport take that letter to the office. mimicry is either intentionally or uninten- tionally comical. carry the country. a scar. around or round the comer . we say bring. by personal strength. as.carry 96 the subject. but is content with a general resemcaricature. sustain. one may be able to lift what he could not carry. Synonyms bear. a person may be said either to bear or to carry upon him whether in motion or at rest. Antonyms: drop. a burlesque does not hold itself to either subject or style . throw down. . house . or travesty blance to what it may imitate. If an object is to be moved from the place we occupy. if to the place we occupy. swiftly moving Time carries the hours lift. vsdthout reference to the direction . parody. To lift is simply to raise from the ground. An account of a schoolboys' quarrel after the general manner of Homer's IHad would be a burlesque . giveap. musical. let go. fall under. CARRT. A messenger carries a letTake is often used ter to a correspondent. even so. Imitation is serious . since it is in this sense in place of carry ' . this sea. A a burlesque may be an independent composition. as. The stooping Atlas bears the world on his shoulders . throw off. through the woods. that is more than he can carry . over the bridge. beyond the river . The figurative uses of carry are very numerous . or carry it here in such case we must say bring. as. An extravaganza is a fantastic composition. the cable was caxiied under the . he carried these qualities into all he did . KEEP . . the real story of the niad told in newspaper style would be a travesty. Carry often yet. Compare CONVEY . and brings an answer. or at rest he person may bear a load either carries it only when in motion. convey. tiring. carry an audience. SXTPPOET. carry across the street. I transport. Prepositions To carry coals to Newcastle carry nothing from. take. BliakeoS.

to catch a criminal in the act . Preposition s The catastrophe of a play . upon). to catch an idea. success. 7 We . lence than calamity or disaster. Compare aerest. we grip or gripe with the strongest muscuclasp in the lar closure of the whole hand possible to exert. we grasp with a firm but moderate closure of the whole hand . cataclysm. tahe. and usually a surprising arms. a defeat in battle. In calamity. In the figurative sense. sudden. (on. capture. in the sense of apprehend or comprehend. misfortune. or disaster. secure.ent. will always involve much individual disaster and misfortune. catch is used of any act that brings a person or thing into our power or possession . if not a calamity to it may not be a calamity. We We We snatch with a quick. favor. as. Pestilence is a calamity. privilege. comfort. tho Yet such an event. failure to meet a friend is a mischance . runaway horse. sequel. to a person. grasp.__ 97 catastrophe catch CATASTROPHE. In history. a mouse in a trap. seize. comprehend. or a failure in business is a disaster. Synonyms: calamity. rarely. of a siege . denouemeztt. clasp. prosperity. sickness or loss of property is a misfortune . a flydeparting. ensnare. It has been held by many geologists that numerous catastrophes or cataclysms antedated the existence of man. gripe. the final event of a drama is the catastrophe. clutch. cataclysm or catastrophe is some great convulsion or momentous event that may or may not be a cause of misery to man. boon. etc. pleasure. help. fugitive. tenacious ing bail. Synonyms apprehend. mischance. mishap. snatch. overtake. the thought of human suffering is always present. clutch with a swift. In literature. or illusive. discover. a shipwreck. lay hold of To catch is to come up with or take possession of something catch a. the break- A ing of a teacup is a mishap. the end of every great war or the faU of a nation is a catastrophe. or denoueMisfortune ordinarily suggests less of suddenness and viom. and is especially applied to that which is lingering or enduring in its effects. entrap. Antonyms beneflt. I Wessing. the race. disaster. motion. grip. take hold of. CATCH. movement of the fingers .

with or without any agency in producing it as. former. Prepositions > The cause of the disaster. fountain. to catch patient m . autbor. effect. is occasion. end. . An occasion is some event which brings a caitse into action at a particular moment gravitation and heat are the causes of an avalanche the steep incline of the mountain=8ide is a necessary condition. The done. throw away. origin. . but does not produce it. t bring to an end. CEASE. efficient cause." Every man instinctively recognizes himself acting through will as the cause of his own actions. motive. Synonyms . outgrowth. causation the action or working of causes. antecedent. relcaee. refrain. Prepositions To catch at a straw to catch a fugitive by the collar a ball with the left hand he caught the disease from the the thief was caught the act the bird in the snare. CAUSE.cause cease _„ "^ I Antonyms fail of. . leave off. power. give over. The Creator is the Great First Cause of aU things. may A . cause /or interference. source. desist. reason. terminate. conclude. Monday is the invariable antecedent of Tuesday. and the shout of the traveler may be the occasion of its fall. miss. condition. while that of antecedent is consequent. outcome. reason. Synonyms abstain. > lose. of the word. man on the instant he may discontinue a practise grad. end. give np. pause. but not the cause of it. restore. Compare design . spring. discontinue. come to an end. actor. agent. product result. development. The direct antonym of cause is effect. creation. Antonyms conseqeunce. causality. finlsb. let go. issue. as in the saying without a cause. fall short of. quit. throw aside. Strains of music quits work gradually or suddenly cease. stop. . creator. . originator. that which makes anything to be or be designer. precedent. the common meaning effect "There is no . event fruit. An antecedent simply precedes a result. Causality is the doctrine or principle of causes. A condition is something that necessarily precedes a result. intermit. causation.

. ignore. surrounding objects. we celebrate or observe the Lord's Supper in which believers commemorate the sufferings and death of Christ rites or We Antonyms: contemn. eest= Bet Autonyms: begin. solemnize a marriage. we commemorate by any solemn and thoughtful service. We celebrate the birth.99 ually . he quits suddenly and completely he stops short in what or may not resume he pauses in what he will probably resume. keep. The center is a point the middle may be a line or a space. set in operation. start. . set about. etc. Synonyms. . inaugurate. despise. We celebrate a national anniversary with music and song. profane. with fluring of guns and ringing of bells . end . Preposition: Cease from anger. or from the opposite boundaries on each axis of a parallelogram. Prepositions We celebrate the day with appropriate ceremonies was celebrated by the people. ceremonies as it properly demands. forget. CELEBRATE. set going. institute. for amid. vnth rejoicing. peilmeter. the middle is more general and less definite. as a he may . dishonor. The center is equally distant from every point of the circumference of a circle. or to perform such public . middle. observe. enter upon. rim. We say at the center . celebrate center . commemorate the death of one beloved or honored. keep the Sabbath. To celebrate any event or occasion is to make some demonstration of respect or rejoicing because of or in memory of it. Antonyms bound. We speak of the center of a circle. the victory CENTER. boundary. Compare abandon die . originate. overlook. neglect. or by a monument or other enduring UEiemorial. fe-ver that intermits. What intermits or is intermitted returns again. . disregard. the middle of the street. Compare synonyms circumference. commence. observe an anniversary . the midst of a forest. the middle of a room. midst. on foot. violate. Eolemnlze. Synonyms: commeniorate. initiate. in Midst commonly implies a group or multitude of the middle.

v. ordinarily in external qualities. to change in an exalted and glorious spiritual way. rejoicing. tho sometimes used for that word. veer. . commute. but often in structure. and his face did shine as the sun. ness of fault. qualify. as of a caterpillar into a thing else in place make different in . . xvii. to one or more particulars. esinltatlon. Change is often used in the sense of exchange . to exchange to put or take someits . V. humiliation. and is often used in a spiritual sense as transmute could not be "Be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind. the exposure will cover him with shame. and his raiment was white as the light. A rainy day may bring disappointment . as. . To transform is to change form or appearance. To metamorphose is to make some remarkable change. transfigure. in To change is distinctively to make a thing other than it has some respect at least .chasrln cbange. Prepositions! He felt deep chagria at (because of. 1. shift. Antonyms! delight. confusion. IVV CHAGRIN. to exchange city for country property. Transfigure is." Matt. with or without deeper and more essential change it is less absolute than transmute. dismay. or impropriety . transmute. Chagrin unites disa^ointment with some degree of humiliation. CHANOE. "Jesus . . A consciousness that one has displayed his own ignorance will cause him mortification. Synonyms sbame. mortification. Shame involves the conscious. disappointment. 2. . was transfigured before them. as in its Scriptural use. diversify. To exchange is often to transfer ownership as. guilt. metamorphose. To transmute is to change the qualities while the substance remains the same . however worthy his intent if there was a design to deceive. to alter is ordinarily to change partially. or harm to reputation. exchange. trlmnpb. vary. as. substitute. on account of) failure. Synonyms! alter. 2. use. to transmute the baser metals into gold. or chemical constitution. been. glory. xii. discomposure. convert. vexation. to change horses. transform. chagrin of failure of judgment." Rom. turn. modify. needless failure in some enterprise brings chagrin.

. transformation. through a wide range of relations iron is converted into steel. CHAIVOE. Prepositions To change a home toilet for a street dress to change from a caterpillar to or into a butterfly . a sinner into a saint. renewal. stay. "We modify or qualify a statement which might seem too strong we modify it by some limitation. Novelty is a change to what is new. perBist. n. the variation of the etc. conversion. mutation. innovation. n. passing from one state or form to another. A change is a Revolution is specifically and most commonly a change of government. hold. . but especially in position or action Variety is a succession of magnetic needle or of the pulse. or the change that had taken place was manifest. character. bide. diversity. tm-n) is to primarily turn about. revolution. often capriciously. . and is always elty. being often equivalent to alter. con. Mutation is a more formal word for change. he was perpetually desirous of nov. continne. and signifies to change in form. transform. or the newness of that to which a change is made .. Antonyms abide. often suggesting repeated or continual change. joy into grief. . transmute.. Synonyms: alteration. or in some way more favorline structure of rocks. as. qualify it by some addition. etc. and verto. as. vyith. which is commuted . the mutations of fortune. or of the crystalhence called " metamoi-phic rocks. retain. transmutation. renewing. Variation is a partial change in form." as when a limestone is metamorphosed into a marble. of the c]iang:e. meaning of exchange. or the unlikeness so produced we say a change was tar king place. any act or process by which a thing becomes unlike what it was before. To commute is to put something easier. to commute capital punishment to imprisonment for hfe to commute daily fares on a railway to a monthly payment. lighter. quaUties. . remain.101 butterfly. To ccmvert (L. vicissitude. changes or an intermixture of different things. milder. variety. as. variation. to change clothes with a beggar. To turn is a popular word for change in any sense short of the able in place of that . stamens of a plant into petals. novelty. keep. endnre. use. regeneration. . To vary is to change from time to time. etc. convert. as. transition.

. genius. and figuratively. . nature. always thought of as surprising and often as disturbing or Transition is change distressing as. the change of a liquid to or into a gas . identity.. persistence. . or from youth to manhood. especially in a natural. invariability. personality. temperament. One's nature includes all his original endowments or propensities character includes both natural and acquired traits. firmness. an innovation in religion or politics. thy brethren. or orderly way. nnctiang^eablenesB. As a rule. . summer. steadiness. Compare characteristic. disposition.character lO» thought of as agreeable. constitution. We speak of one's physical constitution as strong or weak. a man's record will substantially express his character . of his mental or moral constitution. continuance. a change in quality a change hy absorption or oxidation. his reputation may be higher or lower than his character or record will justify. fixity^ Antonyms: constancy. sudden. what he is thought to his record is the total of his known action or inaction. reputation." In popular use conversion is the most conunon word to express the idea of regeneration. the vicissitudes of politics. " when thou art converted. reputation. or from a lower to a higher spiritual state as. fixedness. permanence. An innovation is a change that breaks in upon an established order or custom . in Luke xxii. In the religious sense regeneration is the vital renewing of the soul by the power of the divine Spirit. For the distinctions between the other words compare the synonyms for change. 32. by passing from one place or state to another. or violent change. record. Prepositions The witness has a character for veracity suspicion th§ character of the applicant. temper. spirit. strengthen . . regular. Vicissitude is sharp. v. uniformity. Repute is a somewhat formal word. the transition from spring to . his character is above . Synonyms CHARACTER. as. as. Prepositions i We have made a change for the better the change from winter to spring . etc. always with the adjective. Character is what one is . be . with the sam? general sense as reputation. conversion is the conscious and manifest change from evil to good.

characteristic belongs to the nature or character of the per- A son. purify. A observer . That is charming or bewitching which is adapted to win others as by a magic spell. Castigate and chastise refer strictly to corporal punishment. but of delightful anticipations." 1 C&r. as a serpent its prey we can captivating. That which is fascinating may win without delighting. CHASTEN. CHARACTERISTIC. euphemisms in preference tive in sense . CHARHIWO. Indication. xi. character. CHARACTER. soften. Mark is some times used in a good. feature. Synonyms: afiOict. and straight. ATTEIBXJTE . punish. . chastise. Synonyms: be-witclilng. quality. entrancing represent the influence as not only supernatural. . enrapturing. beaudress. 33. but irresistible and delightful. or class. correct. enrapturing. fascinating. external to oneself .103 cbaracterlstlc chasten Synonyms attribute. . a mark or a characteristic may be more difficult to discover an insensible person may show signs of life. chasten. a charming Compare amiable . mark. enchanting.. drawing by some unseen power. we speak of a charming manner. Enchanting. sign. while sometimes only close examination will disclose marks of violence. and chiefly of the visitation of God. dellgbtful. Charming applies only to what is delightful may apply to personal experiences or emotions as well . discipline. Tli'LHi. refine. distinction. peculiarity. high cheek=bones. singularity. thing. humble. entrancing. Chasten is Prepositions "We are chastened of the Lord. try. speak of horrible fascination. chastise. but in some brave natures it is ordinarily a mark of fear simply a characteristic of intense earnestness. tho both are somewhat archaic correct and punish are often used as . winning. "they . black hair are characteristics of the American Indian. • . a copper^ colored skin. wholly corrective. partly retributive. . and serves to identify an object as. Compare Pallor is . Punish is distinctly retribuand partly corrective . trace. subdue. the mark of a villain. but often in a bad sense we speak of the characteristic of a gentleman. to either. used exclusively in the spiritual sense. trait. sign is manifest to an . castigate. property.

select. an act of will. Among objects so neai'ly alike that we have no reason to prefer any one to another we may sim- ply choose the nearest. leave. sympathy. Synonyms cbeer. cast out. To nourish is strictly to sustain and build up by food to nurture includes careful mental and spiritual training. In a gar- den we cull the choicest flowers. pick out. Prepositions Choose from or from among the number . with something of love and tenderness to foster is simply to maintain and care for. elect. . as infants. throw aside. as by support. comfort in sorrow. Mere unexpressed esteem would not be cherishing. the opinion one cherishes he holds. . or the sick or wounded. . elect is popularly confined to the political sense as. to bring up a /oster=child will be nourished. foster. xii. : Antonyms: See synonyms for abandon . 7 chasten viith pain hy trials and sorrows. as well as to select. iv. and cherish. honor. . not with mere cold conviction. In the marriage vow. Synonyms cull. protection." Ps. but He/or our profit. ~^ iw* chastened us after their own pleasure. but with loving devotion. Select implies a careful consideration of the reasons for preference and choice. sbelter. Antonyms castaway. repudiate. encourage. but may not be as tenderly nurtured or as lovingly cherished as if one's own. choose out of the . disclaim. but we could not be said to select it. pick. care in sickness. from the Latin col. nurture. To nurse is to tend the helpless or feeble. reject. treasure. ligere. CHERISH. Prefer indicates a state of desire and approval choose. a free people elect their own rulers." the word cherish implies all that each can do by love and tenderness for the welfare and happiness of the other. prefer. In the figurative sense. . and help of every kind. Prudence or generosity may lead one to choose what he does not prefer. nourlsb. 10 "chasten in thy hot displeasure. cllne to. nurse. " to love. dismiBS. refuee. chasten." Heh. To cherish is both to hold dear and to treat as dear. barbor. comfort. entertain. . Aside from theology. CHOOSE. bold dear. protect. Cull.cherlsb clioose . value. commonly means to collect. decline.

detail. periphrasis the more technical word. as. compresBioii.i«. CIRCimSTANCi:. redundancy. A an occasion. . overflow. modifying or throwing light upon the princi- A pal matter without affecting its essential character an aceompaniment is something that unites with the principal matter. +'»™. Pleonasm is the expression of an idea already plainly implied . aroimd. eircum. TediousTiess is the sure result of any of these faults of style. tautology. concomitant of virtue. snccinctneBB. army choose between (or betieixt) two the purpose. tautology is the restatement in other words of an idea already stated. Item. CIRCIJlILiOCtJTION. but in a subas. wordiness. is something existing or occurring in connection with or relation to some other fact or event. nor usually. prolislty. . Antonyms: brevity. Incident. condition. surplusage. verbosity. tedlousness. event. condenBation. plainness. effect. . both of words and thought redundancy is an verbiage.~IvO ctrcumlocatlon circumstance . pleonasm. Verbosity and wordiness denote an excess of words in proportion to the thought. stand). . tautology is always a fault. Ciroumlocution and periphrasis are roundabout ways of expressing thought cireumlooution is the more common. Constant circumlocution produces an affected and heavy style occasionally. diffuseness is a scattering. Verbiage is the use of mere words without thought. and sto. among many . directness. Prolixity goes into endless petty details. conciseness. circumstance (L. Pleonasm may add emphasis. fact. choose /or Synonyms dlSUseness. or perhaps in contrast circumstance is not strictly. or a useless repetition of a word or words. without selection or perspective. occurrence. . compactness. position. " all the members agreed unanimously " is tautology. not necessary to it . point. perlplirasis. concomitant. or result. Synonyms accompaniment. the piano accompaniment to a song a concomitant goes with a thing in natural connection. "I saw it with my eyes " is a pleonasm . Etymologically. feature.. redundance.io=. situation. Bhortness. particular. . cheerfulness is a ordinate capacity. (See these words under . skilful periphrasis conduces both to beauty and to simplicity. tho .

attributes. Grade hereditary . the coarser and finer grades of wool a man of an inferior grade. occasion." That a man wore a blue necktie would not probably be the cause. The rich and the poor form separate classes . are consolatory eireumstanees.'' we often is say. clique is always fractional.ue. we may refer in a general way to the higher ranks. order. . . caste.) say. or concomitant of his committing murder but it might be a very important circumstance in identifying him as the murderer. or characteristics. certain disease is the cause of a — We .. clan. Clique has always an . coterie. AJl the circumstances make up the situation. purposes. A coterie is a small company of persons of similar tastes. A mon class is a number class club. is Compare event. yet individuals are constantly passing from each to the other the classes in a college remain the same. A man's death his suffering is an incident . implying some greater gathering of which it is a part the association breaks up into cliques. by accommodation. With the same idea of subordithat. A caste is be independent of lineage or descent membership in a caste is supposed to be for life membership in a class may be very transient a religious and ceremonial sacredness attaches to the ca^te. that he is in his home. some inherent qualiwhich a person or thing is placed higher or lower in the scale as. rather for social enjoyment than for any serious purpose. nation. • Prepositions " Mere situation affected is performed ' expressed by ' in the circumstances ' under the circumstances. Persons unite in a coterie through simple liking . " This is not a circumstance to So a person said to be in easy circumstances. We speak of rank among hereditary nobility or military officers . that he has good medical attendance. of various orders of the priesthood . as not to the class. own etc. or body of persons or objects having com- pursuits. rank. .class 106 CAUSE. but their membership changes every year. a may implies some regular scale of valuation. careful nursing. condition. grade.unfavorable meaning. company. set. cliq. "My decision vnll depend upon circumstances " ^not " upon incidents.' " [M. .] action Synonyms: association. (See under ACCIDENT. .) Nor is the circwmstoJice properly an mcidewi. and ties for . A . the lower orders of any society. circle. who meet frequently in an informal way.

and impresses the mind . or sponge etc. the senior class at (sometimes of) Harthe classes in college. primarily refers to that through the eye with a Clear (L. deprave. besmirch. purify. disinfect. Synonyms! InteUlgllile. unequivocal. bright. the room was cleansed by the attendants unth soap and water. mop. Compare AMEND. impurities. an instrument . clean. "We brush clothing if or sponge off a spot. but of wider apphcation we speak of scientific and religious as well as of social sion to outsiders. and more to do. metallic utensUs are scoured .1 AW *'"^ cleanse clear . Hercules cleansed the Augean stables. soiled garments Cleanse and purify purified. dusty. taint. etc. pellucid. stain. limpid. sponge it. rinse. if . unadorned. clarus. defile. lave. sweep. To clean is to make clean by removing dirt. evident. debase. books. while exclusive. soil. Antonyms befoul. stralglitforward. translucent. transparent. or soil any kind. explicit. for one another they withdraw into a clique largely through averA set. unmistakable. perspicuous. Synonyms brusb. pollute. contaminate. lucid. and chiefly of persons who are united by common social station. are washed are dusted . a room is . corrupt. Cleanse is especially applied to purifying processes where liquid is of used. scour. unamliiguous. spoil. than clean. floors are is are used extensively in a moral sense wash ia that sense is archaic. Circle is similar in meaning to set. obvious. foul air or water mopped or scrubbed swept . as in the flushing of a street. it off. sponge. dust. bespatter. apparent. wipe. CLiEAR. manifest. brilliant) which shines. vitiate.. is more extensive than a clique. . Prepositions A class of merchants vard . . CLEANSE. Cleanse implies a worse condition to start from. etc. soiled . Prepositions Cleanse of or /rom' physical or moral defilement cleanse urith by an agent . Furniture. besmear. -wasb. scrul>. drcles. diaphanous. sully. plain. distinct. .

as of crystal. . Antonjius: ambfgaonfl. clear to the substance itself. planation. or meaning. . obstruction. . without reference to anything to be seen through it we speak of a stream as clear when we think of the water itself we speak of it as transparent with reference to the ease with which we see the pebbles at the bottom. as. . lAbdd and pellucid refer to a shining clearness. Transparent refers to the medium through which a substance is seen. not confused. in the sense here considered. level to the thought. unintelligible. the word is used for that which is free from any kind of obstruction as. offers 10§ A substance is said to be clear that no impediment to vision is not dim. That is plain. dulness. . plain language a plain statement a clear ex- no uncertainty as to . the outlines of the ship were clear against the sky a clear view . distinct enunciation enables the hearer to catch every word or vocal sound without perplexity or confusion a distinct statement is free from indefiniteness or ambiguity a distinct apprehension of a thought leaves the mind in no doubt or uncertainty regarding it. so that we can say the style is perspicuous tho highly ornate. . as it were. vague. or blurred . opaque. ground glass is transluLimpid refers to a liquid clearness. limpid streams. . . ^^^^Yj Indistinct. a clear note . it as. Prepositions Clear to the mind annoyances. each part or object standing or seeming apart from any other. turbid. so that there is its exact form. indefinite. or obscure. " clear as a beU" a clear. frosty air a clear sky a clear statement hence. obscure. Clear is also said of that which comes to the senses without — . when we could not call it at once ornate aadplain. . Perspicuous is often equivalent to plain. . . clear of or from . so that one goes straight on without difficulty or hindrance as. clonal dlm^ dubious. or obscurity. character. clear in argument . mysterious. with something of the brightness or brilhancy implied in the primary meaning of the word clear . or that which suggests cent. A . transparent body allows the forms and colors of objects beyond to be seen through it. . dark. Compare evident. but may not permit forms and colors to be distinguished plate glass is transparent.clear sense of luster or splendor. but plain never whoUy loses the meaning of unadorned. especially in outline. . a translucent body allows light to pass through. dimness. which is. a clear field. That which is distinct is well defined.

two railway»trains come into collision. The discriminating use of such words as able. sharp. apt. continuous and permanent collision is sudden and violent contact. ingenious. Compare acumen . more rarely of opinions or interests conflict is used in. concussion. witless. meeting. Concussion is often by transmitted force rather than by direct impact. Meeting is neutral. and may be of the dearest friends or of the bitterest foes of objects. encounter. idiotic. especially implies an aptitude for smart. keen. differently of all. and for excellent the not preeminent mental achievement. knowing. adroit. happy. the impact of the cannon=shot upon the target. an explosion of dynamite shatters neighboring windows by concussion. we speak of clashing of views. concert. In the figurative use. bungling.. whei-e it has never been much in favor. study or learning. impact. stupid. is the result of motion or action. . conflict. which makes its use a doubtful compliment. is greatly preferable to an excessive use of the word clever. as used in England. . foolish. unity. COIiLISIOlV. Impact is the blow given by the striking body as. and be . . : coincidence. etc. clomsy. : concord. : Antonyms awkward. POWER. gifted. of persons. . harmony.1AQ elcvci- Synonyms: able. Synonyms clash. and is sudden and momentary contact clashing. the act or fact of striking violently together. gifted. amity. and generally hostile. dull. talented. concurrence. collision of persons. An encounter is always violent. opposition. talented. intelligent. skilful. shock. quick. Opposition is used chiefly of persons. is now coming to have a suggestion of unscrupulousness. ASTUTE . Collision of one object with another of or between opposing . indicating dashing ability. bright. CLrETER. Smart. similar to that of the word sharp. Prepositions objects. senseless. The early New England usage as implying simple and weak good natm-e has largely affected the use of the word throughout the United States. slow. Shock is the result of collision. unison. Clever. Collision. or of opinions of two or of a multitude. dexterous. intellectual. expert. capable. . ignorant. contact. CLuick^witted. conformity. may be a condition of rest. Antonyms agreement. tMck-lieaded.

entrust. cbeery. with. A little additional brightness makes He is and measura- him cheerful. comfortable in body when free from pain. commit to prison for trial without bail in default of bail on suspicion. or the persons so associated. COMmiT. Religiously. trust. quiet. bost. at rest. bread. . satisfied. assembly. usually with the suggestion of sufficient means to secure that result. convention. Synonyms assign. intrust also of material things we assign a duty. concourse. . convenient. relegate. wretched. contented. conclave. discontented. for business. group. • . forlorn. consign. intrust a treasure we commit thoughts to writing commit a paper to the flames. Synonyms: agreeable. cro'wd. . in the sense here considered. multitude. Compare do. to consign jail.ntonyms cheerlesB. . atease. Commit. at ease. friends. convocation. tbrong. is to give in charge. confide. COMPANY. Prepositions Commit to a friend for safe=keeping in law. cbeerful. we consign the body to the grave. or in comfortable circumstances. -welloirovided. confide a secret. congregation. Synonyms assemblage. at rest. uncomfortable. and hence is widely extended to include any association of those united permanently or temporarily. commit the soul to Grod. vrell'to-do. A person is comfortable in mind when contented bly satisfied. . . . collection. genial. miserable. distressed. snug. .comfortable company no COMFORTABLiE. when things about him are generally agreeable and satisfactory. conference. dreary. disagreeable. A. commoilious. goods to an agent. put into care or keeping to confide or intrust is to com/mit especially to one's fidelity. . He is comfortable in circumstances. pleasure. dissatisfied. table=companions. Company. satisfactory. from the Latin cum. pleasant. well-off. a body to the earth a prisoner is committed to Consign is a formal word in mercantile use aa. denotes primarily the association of those who eat at a common table. messmates. meeting. confide being used chiefly of mental or spiritual. and panis. gatbering.

the unorganized and promiscuous character of the assemblage . constrain. absolutely subduing all resistance. the American seces- contended that the Federal government had no right to Constrain implies the yielding of judgment and will. and multitude have time.** compel festivity. be of persons or of objects an assembly is always of persons. Antonyms dispeieion. v. travel. to an overmastering power as. Antonyms See synonyms for hinder. now . COMPEL. make. the ized . 14. drive. secure its performance by the use To compel one to an act is to of irresistible physical or moral force. commonly of numbers.. force. Gathering refers to a coming together. : preferably with the . Prepositions The soldiers infinitive. lonelinees. and in some cases of inclination or affection. . crowd. misfortune. influence. Congregaalmost exclusively religious m. A conclave is a secret assembly. from far and near . and united in some common purpose." S Cor. other terms tion is come under the general idea of assembly. or by sorrow. seclaBion. letiiement. Compare drive .eeting is often so used. coerce. group. An assemblage is promiscuous and unorganized an assembly is organ. imphes the actual or potential use of so much force as may be necessary to secure the surrender of the will . A group is small in number and distinct in outline. as we may speak of a meeting of armed men. necessitate. An assemblage may . in the military sense a company is a limited and definite number of men company implies more unity of feeling and pirrpose than crowd. A convocation is an assembly cailed by authority for a special piu^se the term convention suggests less dependence upon any superior authority or summons. sionists coerce a State. clearly marked ofE from all else in space or Collection. were compelled to desertion compelled to desert. the gathering of the Scottish clans. or wrong. but is less restricted. Force implies primarily an Coerce actual physical process. privacy. company may denote an indefinite number (ordinarily more than two). as. gathering. etc. Synonyms oblige. but less than a multitude.. and is a less formal and more familiar word than assemblage or assembly. solitade. " the love of Christ constraineth us. .

One complains of a real or assumed grievance . is true of the commend. . COMPLiEX. or so combined. globed together) is said of a confused mingling of masses or lumps of various substances. Prepositions Complain of a thing to a person of one person to another. Antonyms: applaud. remonstrate. with vain distress. Synonyms abstruse. complicated. noun complaint. composite. compound. repine. . involved. at the irrev- ocable or the inevitable.ur through mere peevishness or ill temper . That is compound in which the parts are not merely connected. In a composite object the different parts have less of unity than in that which is complex or compound. mingled. present a spe. is growl. the same approve. beterogeneous. find fault. In a complex object the arrangement and relation of parts may be perfectly clear in a complicated mechanism the parts are so numerous. manifold. conglomerate. The New England pudding»stone is a conglomerate rock. . laud. . or otherwise combined into a single substance. murmur. of or against a person for an act to an officer before the court about a thing.AI]V. but maintain their distinct individuality. multiform. ate (literally. signifying to make a formal accusation. . obscure. That is complex which is made up of several connected pares. One may complain of an offense to the offender or to others he remonstrates with the offender only. To complain to give utterance to dissatisfaction or objection. eulogize. but fused. mixed. praise. that the mind can not readily grasp their mutual relations in an intricate arrangement the parts are so intertwined that it is difficult to follow their windings things are involved which are rolled . . express a sense of wrong or ill treatment. intricate. grunt. grumble. 112 Synonyms: croalE. confused. entangled. Complain has a formal and legal meaning. which the other words have not. cific charge . he repines. Complaining is by speech or writing m. tangled.complain complex COIttPL. lie may m. often without apparent order or plan.urmuring is commonly said of half=repressed utterance repining of the mental act alone. In a heterogeneous body unlike parts or particles are Conglomerintermingled.urm. . .

either in thought or in fact things which are tangled or entangled mutually hold and . the legal word sentence is now more common than condemM . denounce. simple. by open and formal utterance. a complex conception. in legal usage one dict of is said to be convicted only by the ver- In stating the penalty of an offense.1** condemn together so as not to be easily separated. [h. he was sentenced to imprisonment but it is good usage to say. The conception of a material object is usually complex. . as an assassin. 137. ordina- To condemn rily pass judicial sentence or render judgment or . . and other elements a clock is a complicated mechanism the Gordian knot was intricate . To doom is to tion or to predetermine to . doom. . which see under per- suade). a tangled skein. Synonyms: blame. speak of an abstruse statement. Compare aebaign reprove. A . reprobate. censure. 8 . . convict. person others . Antonyms clear.n . CONDEMN. : homogeneoiiB. especially in a violent and threatening manner. of covnposite architecture. an involved sentence of the complicated or intricate accounts of a great business. uncombined. To denounce is to make public or ofiicial declaration against. We may censure silently we condem. is made is clearly manifest to said to be convicted in somewhat archaic a person when guilt is brought clearly home to his ovsti conscience (convict in this sense being allied with convince. uncompoimaed. sentence. a condemned criminal has had his trial a condemned building can not stand a condemned ship can not saU. the twining serpents of the Laocoon are involved. an intricate problem . obvious. CorpiN BuUding the 10. is to reprove. draw upon each We . is convicted when his guilt use. Condemn is more final than blame or censure .] condemn solemnly and consign to evil or destrucan evii destiny an inferior race in presence of a superior is doomed to subjugation or extinction. unraveled. . plain. he was condemned to imprisonment. the entangled accounts of an incompetent or dishonest bookkeeper. other. From the pulpits in the northern States Burr was denounced Nation ch. as. involving form. direct. color. a jury. '83. decision against. a confused heap. a heterogeneous mass. size. p. nniform.

C!ompare . and more specific than ovm . firm) upbold. Testimony is corroborated by concurrent testimony or by circumstances confirmed by established facts. one confesses to a weakness for confectionery. acquit. repudiate. sustain. disown. fls. . A treaty is ratified . is to add firmness and corroborate presuppose something aheady existing to which the confirmation or corrobois added. . recognize. That which is thoroughly proved is said to be established . concede.confess confirm m 114 m-m Antonyms: absolve. aclaio^^ledge. . accept another's statement us acknowledge what we have said or done. admit. cover. Synonyms: assure. approve. disavow. bide. secrete. disclose. Synonyms: accept. dissemble. . . to confess Christ before men. grant a request own our faults or obligations recognize lawful authority concede a claim. together. justify. : exonerate. an appointment confirmed. . CONFESS. Antonyms cloalc. allow. disguise. a person admits a mistake acknowledges a fault confesses sin or crime. . is sanctioned by any person or authority that passes upon it . ITie continents are fixed. . deny. . strengthen. grant. pardon. We endorse. The chief present use of the word. sanction. establisli. AVOW. certify. con. avow. or give stability to. as. applaad. Confirm (L. substantiate. the established government. . COSTFIRIH. certify to facts within our knowledge confess our own faults endorse a friend's note or statement . admit any point made against APOLOGY. own. praise. . is in the sense of making known to others one's own wrong=doing in this sense confess is sti'onger than acknowledge or admit. Prepositions The bandit was condemned to death. veil. screen. corroborate. waAfirmus. ratify. It may have also a playful sense (often with to). prove. Confess has a high and sacred use in the religious sense as. . : conceal. good or bad avow our individual beliefs or feelings. dissimulate. however. An act ration . the established church. settle. for his crime. Both confirm. so is that which is ofiBcial and has adequate power behind it as. mask.

which is less natural. . in conquer respect. weaken. annnJ. down. confirm a person in a belief. worst. The beneficent A statement is substantiated . discomfit. Conquer. win. . Felicitate is cold and formal. Antonyms capitulate. npaet. Synonyms beat. vanqulsb. prevail over.ATE. subdue. destroy. resign. master. overtbrow. yield. overpo^rer. Compare beat. overtlirow. Antonyms condole with. settled results of Christianity confirm our faith in it as a divine reve- Antonyms abrogate. subject. tall. Prepositions: Clonflrm a statement by testimony . An army is defeated when forcibly driven back it is routed when it is converted into a mob of fugitives. lose. "We say one felicitates himself tho to congratulate oneself. succumb. cancel. cbeclonate. to sympathy in his joys or hopes. sahmit. fail. bumble. peace. lation. crusb. cede. subjugate. is becoming is To felicitate is to pronounce one congratulate to express hearty . shake. etc. shatter. final. reduce. overmatcb. retreat. carries the idea of possession as. fly. retire. happy or wish one joy . . A country is conquered when its armies are defeated and its territory is occupied by the enemy it may be subjected to indemnity or to various disabilities it is subjugated when it is held helplessly and continuously under military control it is subdued when all resistance has died out. affection.II **** approvingly. surrender. put down. effectually that the victory is regarded as . overcome. a report confirmed . to . congratulate conquer a controversy a higher. console. prevalent. To defeat an enemy is to gain an advantage for the time to vanquish is to vnn a signal victory to conquer is to overcome so . the decision of a lower court sustained by Just government should be upheld. defeat. Prepositions Congratulate one on or upon his success. . rout. many cases. forfeit. cosrqiJER. Synonym CONGRATlJi:. overmaster. nnsettle. surmount. i felicitate. .

natural. The end is the actual outcome without determination of its relation to what has gone before it is ordinarily viewed as either the necessary. what he is aware at. e. One is aware of that which exists without him he is conscious of the inner workings of his own mind. effect commonly relates to intention . consequence. come) is primarily exactly the same in meaning as outcome . outgrcwtb. i. and the agitation of effect. insensible. assured. dead. sequel. result is. the exact sense of conscious. or it may partake of both the senses mentioned above. any effect. but in use it is more nearly equivalent to upshot of steam in the cylinder. depending on . A . or logical outcome. the reboimd of is that which jQows forth directly the result of a campaign. to say a culprit is sensible of his degradation is more forcible than to say he is conscious of it. gard to human actions. Preposition On the stormy power. . apprised. deaf. the water under the paddle»wheelB a consequence of the expansion hteraUy. . cognizant. many 'elements the issue we say the issue of a battle. the end of such a course must be ruin. The event (L. . Sensible has still more what he is conscious of. or sure of something false or non=existent . consequent commonly is that which follows simply in order of time. the effect intended. nnconscious. In re. but less directly than the A The motion of the piston is the effect. consequence is that which follows an act naturally. as. certified. the shot took effect.. unaware. man is conscious of the limitation of human Synonyms: consequent. The an act. end. outcome. ignorant. aware. or result being termed an end . upshot. Effect is Issue. must be fact. or by logical inference. . event. as. certain. sea. sure. Synonyms t sensiUe. Sensible may be used in advised. out. " Every must have an adequate cause " (compare cause). rectly produced effect by the action of an efficient cause we say. Antonyms: cold. informed. the strongest of these words it is that which is di. result. and venio. One may be sensible of his own or another's person may feel assured error he is conscious only of his own. e. A often a reference to the emotions where conscious might apply only to the intellect .conscious consequence 11<i »«" COSfSCIOVS. effect.

s distress. tronble. hurt. . unvarying.-g^^ 117 signifying the results of console continual sum and substance of aU effects. wound. perpetual. effluvia. continuous. "We sympathize vnth others. Continuous describes that which is absolutely without pause or break continual. constant. grieve. consequences. as by the assurances and promises of the gospel he encourages him by the hope of some relief or deliverance he comforts him by whatever act or word tends to bring mind or body to a state of rest and cheer. CONSOlrE. . ical medThe best usage now limits contagion to diseases that are transmitted by contact with the diseased person. invariable. unceasing. by breath. The incessant discharge of firearms makes Constant is sometimes used in the the ceaseless roar of battle. etc. PITT. Synonyms men. A continuous beach is exposed to the continual beating of the waves. and a course of action. reg:iilar. Synonyms comfort. not only in sorrow. sense of continual . either directly by touch or indirectly by use of the same articles. . uninterrupted. COKTiafUALi. malarious. Compare alleviate . . condole 'with. but where common climatic. but its chief uses are mental and moral. but as regularly begins again. unbrolien. Infection is applied to diseases produced by no known or definable influence of one person upon another. Antonyms annoy. . or other wide=spread conditions are believed to infection. even by be chiefly instrumental. that which often intermits. but in joy. COIVTAGIOIV. Compare accjidbnt cause . unremitting. Synonyms ceaseless. A similar distinction is made between in. CIRCfUMSTANCE END EVENT. cessant . sadden. Infection is frequently confused with contagion. disturb. encourage. incessant. and ceaseless. . sympathize -with. One condoles vnth another by the expression of kindly sympathy in his trouble he consoles him by considerations adapted to soothe and sustain the spirit.

these words involve at least two parties. A undone some specified act or acts. tho an engagecontract is a formal ment or promise may be the act of but one. compare. and par. discourse. is. agreement. To compare (L. to contrast (L. parley. Synonyms chat. A consideration. A covenant in law Covenant is frequent in reUgious is a written contract under seal. at least momentarily. cartel is a military a single item in an agreement or contract. A hargain is a mutual agreement for an exchange stipulation is of values. We nnust compare them. engagement. Mutual promises may have the force of a contract. conference. converse. Talk may be . contra.couversation contract -a^a JtlH CONTRACT. discriminate. CONTRAST. an inter- change of ideas with some other person or persons. compact. A A Synonyms in order to against. communion. > differentiate. promise. even to know that they are different. and stand) is to set in opposition in order to show unlikeness. Synonymai stipulation. is essential to convert an agreement into a contract. CONVERSATION. Preposition: We contrast one object loith another. pledgre. or compensation. I coUoauTj communication. Compact is essentially usage. We contrast objects that have been ah-eady compared. covenant. We contrast them when we observe their unwe differentiate them. pact. dialogue. the same as contract. when we note the difference exactly and point by point. tallc. We differences. likeness or unlikeness . agreement between two or more parties for the doing or leaving All arrangement. as contract is in law and business. oppose. bargam. otiugatiou. distinguish objects when we note a difference that may fall short of contrast . Conversation (Latin con. confabulation. and is ordinarily in writing. we discriminate them when we classify or place them according to their Ukeness in a general way. intercourse. without the formality of a contract. agreement for the exchange of prisoners or the lite. but is applied to international agreements. A contractmsij be oral or written. con. with) etymologically. etc. together. treaties. cartel. equal) is to place together show sto.

items may be transferred from one account to . about a matter. remove. There may be intercourse without conversation. Discourse is now applied chiefly to public addresses. communion is of hearts. transport the horse carries his mane and tail. whether with or without true faith a convert is always understood to be a believer. the appearance remaining his own. I will transmit the letter. sblft. air conveys carry. The antonyms apostate. transmit. Many brilliant talkers have been incapable of conversation. I will convey the information to your friend. sound A A them. Synonyms: disciple. transmit. A colloquy is indefinite as to number. and generally somewhat informal. son . com. proselyte. cbange. Convey. Dialog denotes ordinarily an artificial or imaginary conversation.m. A conference is more formal than a conversation. as by looks. the impression being given to another. .119 convert convey wholly one=sided. move. neopbyte. not yet fully indoctrinated. empty talk. etc. and transport aU imply delivery at a destination. Compare behavior. . Prepositions Conversation mth friends. (to a listener). A . conveys often does not admit of it. words with little thought thus. Transfer may or may not imply delivery to another peranother as. we say idle talk. generally of two persons. CONVEY.unication is often by writing. an impression. Synonyms transport. COIVVERT. signs. and man carries an appearance. as. transfer. sell. with or without words . The name disciple is given to the follower of a certain faith. but does not convey goods. carry does not necessarily imply delivery. between or among the guests. without reference to any previous belief or allegiance a convert is a person who has come to one faith from a different belief or proselyte is one who has been led to accept a from unbelief. . give. rather than idle or empty conversation. and renegade are condemnatory names applied to the convert by those whose faith he forsakes. religious system. but sometimes of more. A neophyte is a new convert. or not admitted to fuU privileges. pervert. and may be uninvited Talk may denote the mere utterance of and unreciprocated.

convene. transmit intelUgence. vile. or its pres- some eminent leaders the del- egates are assenibled or convened in a certain place. Prepositions: Convey to a friend. convey ideas.convoke or a criminal inn *-*" word transferred to the following line. ident. Congress assembles. are criminal to trespass man . offenses against private rights are merely illegal or unlaivful. witnesses and jurymen are summoned. scatter. Synonyms: culpable. call. convey from the house to the station convey by express. but not to indictment. preserve. at a certain hour. transfer. hold. Compare cabbt. keep. A convention is called by some officer or officers. Ttricked. A flagitious crime is one that biungs ment or both. but do not . Synonyms assemble. discharge. . retain. Par- liament is convoked . CRimXAIi. by . but it is not criminal. Antonyms adjourn. > disband. In law. but illegal or unlatuOffenses against public law are in view of the law. nefarious. dissolve. immoral. a purchaser. vicious. all acts punishable by fine or imprison- or unlawful. criminal. etc. which can not be moved. Transport usually refers to material. sinful. Every criminal act is illegal ful acts may not be criminal. Convoke implies an organized body and a superior authority . real estate.. wrong. is conveyed by simply transferring title and possession. or imprisonment. etc. As a general rule. and convey may refer to immaterial objects we transfer possession. unlawful. call togetlier. proroguCi separate. iniquitous. transport them. illegal. its executive committee. assemble and convene express more independent action . which is punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary or by death. as summon. gatber. muster. abominable. A felonious act is a criminal act of an aggravated kind. the trespasser is hable to a civil suit for damages. possesB. hy hand. break np. In the case of convey the figurative sense predominates. guilty. fine. CONVOKE. felonious. It is illegal for a on another's land. Troops are mustered . now Antonyms: cling to. transmit. collecT. dismiss. disperse. aaeitious.

vicious acts are not necessarily criminal. or a government. t noc^nrnal. tific the Saxon and popular. contrary to equity. however. we or illegal. a fortune. a man tried upon a capital jeopardy of life. Synonym diurnal. applying to the placing of a dish. peril. violence.. which may be either near and probable or remote and doubtful peril is exposure to imminent and sharply threatening evil. Insecurity. I inunonity. daily is the antonym of nightly as diurnal is of nocturnal. certainty Antonyms defense. but forms of law. . lawfol. or speak of a vicious horse. a physician makes daily visits if he calls at some time Diurnal is more exact within each period of twentyrfour hours. life. or passions even . hypocrisy is vncJeed. neither is criminal illegal. i. a disJeopardy is nearly the same as but involves. while a daily motion is much less definite. Synonyms bazard. a diurnal flower opens or blooms only in daylight Daily is term. DAIVOER. aafety* eecnrlty. danger Vieioiis refers to the indulgence of evil appetites. held strictly to this use. neither is punishable by human law . An invalid may be armed peril. Danger is exposure to possible evil. birds. in danger of consumption . tiielter. Antonyms innocent. or the possibilities of a Compare hazasd. Daily is not. TOtnona. Jeopardy. distinction to nocturnal flowers. jnet. safeguard. soldier is ia peril of death. A Antonyms nightly. especially to such as results from . habits. moral. Compare sin. hence. in all its uses . protection.131 public odium. e. but exceedingly broad. etc. more of the element of chance or uncharge is said to be put in . lega]. merltorlons. risk. ristit. That which is iniquitous. may sometimes be done under the Ingratitude is sinful. a diurnal bird or animal flies or ranges only by day : in contra- diurnal motion exactly fiUs an astronomical day or the time of one rotation of a planet on its axis. like risk. Insecurity is a feeble word. diurnal the Latin and scienIn strict usage.

l Sot is . obscuke. from distance. . but maybe instantly decomposed. sliado-wy. Dushy is applied to objects which appear as if viewed in fading light . gloomy. A substance is decomposed when resolved into its original elements by any process it is decayed when resolved into its original elements by natural processes it decaj/s gradually. 1. soxalier." Prov. is blaoJc is sat>Ie. that murky. See mysterious . common speech. darkness. or even verging toward black. light. Antonyms briglit.ue. as smoked glass. iDrilliant. swarthy. transparent. as water into oxygen and hydrogen to say that a thing is decayed may denote only a partial result. obscure. are used almost exclusively of animal matter in a state of decomposition. Compare synonyms for light. as are swart and swarthy. shadowy. shining. as. as. glowing. putrefy. corrupt. however. that which absolutely destitute of color which is darTc is absolutely destitute of light. but on occasion capable of approved emphatic use. and gloomy . etc. Murky is said of that which is at once dark. a dark deed. . Dim refers to imperfection of outline. Putrefy and the adjectives putrid auA putrescent. clear. dismal. DARK. dim. lucid. i crystalline. In Strictly. ordinarily esteemed coarse. or shady from which the light is more or less cut off. etc. dusby. decompose. opaq. "the name of the wicked shall rot. the word is often used. tho the stars shine. decompose ax& now common euphemisms. luminons. Figuratively. dark is emblematic of sadness. molder. sbady. and the nouns putridity and putrescence. or vegetable substances. gleaming. white. also of moral evil . the more general word decay being used of either a-niTnn. swart. Synonyms. mist. . spoil. agreeing with somber. dark is now rarely used in the old sense of a dark saying. dismal. dazzling.decay 122 Synonyms black. a strong word. or from some defect of vision. Opaque objects. mysterious. of the human skin when quite dark. but to say it is decomposed ordinarily implies that the change is complete or nearly so. as. . radiant. That is obscure. rot. are impervious to light. is blacTc. Of intellectual matters.n6. y decay a. ]>e:€at. obsciire. gloomy. a coat tho not optically colorless the night is dark.. x. a murky den a murky sky. ijlnmined.

flight. gailelessneBa. finesse. traits of animals. but it is a somewhat milder and more dignified word than lie. deceitfulness. The novel or drama is not a lie. deceit. vindication. sincerity. common Antonyms candor. proas actual dangers. prevarication. imposition. The weak may speak or act in defense of the strong A . guile. Falsehood and lying are in utterance deceit and deception may be merely in act or implication. none but defense is ordinathe powerful can assure others of protection. implying always lack of veracity. and even unintentional. . FICTION FRAUD HYPOCRISY. guard. safeguard. lying. because not then known to be false. Synonyms apology. Compare aetifice . deception de reuse DECEPTION. . guile applies to the which deceit and deception grow. double ^dealing. Untruth is more than lack of accuracy. Dissimulation is rather a concealing of what is than a pretense of what is not. rily against actual attack protection is against possible as well speak of defense against an assault. fraDkness. resistance. Vindication is a triumphant defense at character and conduct against charges of error or wrong. fraud. Craft and cunning have not necessarily any moral quality they are . protection. troth. justification. We tection from the cold. trickery. Ue. as in the case of an optical illusion deceit always involves injurious intent. cunning. . DEFEIVSE. duplicity. Deception may be innocent. Finesse is simply an adroit and delicate management of a matter for one's own side. . the habit. but stand rather low in the human Duplicity is the habitual speaking or acting with intent to scale. bulwarli. untruth. honesty. simplicity. rampart. fortress. openness. because not meant to deceive. and also to their actual practise. appear to mean what one does not. or falsehood. Antonyms a1>andonment. the ancient teaching that the earth was flat was not a lie. fair dealing. betrayal. Com- pare APOLOGY. fabrication. lying. desertion. surrender. dissimulation.123 Synonyms craft. shelter. . capitalation. veracity. A lie. falsehood. shield. not necessarily involving deceit. Eypocrisy. delusion. is the uttering of is Deceit disposition out of what one knows to be false with intent to deceive. deception the act .

disinfect. explanation. contaminate. interpretation. infect. a description may include only some general features an eocplana^ tion may simply throw light upon some point of special difficulty.„. . . Prepositions The temple was defiled deeds. Synonyms tiefoul. . in law. Interpretation is ordinarily from one language into another. rendering. commentary. exact. A definition is formal. A soiled garment maybe cleansed by washing a spoiled garment is beyond cleansing or repair. spoil. wash. an explanation general a definition is . s corrupt. infected meat contains germs of disease. . cleanse. DEFIIiE. . description." John xviii. or an ordinance. . Prepositions: Defense against assault or assailants action. a description pictorial. hollow. Antonyms clean. Pollute is used chiefly of liquids as. DEFIBTITIOIV. Pollute has also a reference to sacrilege as. tarnlsli. defiled by sacrilegious Synonyms: comment. as. sanctify. Bright metal is tarnished by exposure a fair sheet is sullied by a dirty hand. or from the language of one period into that of another it may also . fraud vitiates a title or a . as the human body or mind. suUy. The innocent are often contaminated by association with the wicked the vicious are more and more corrupted by their own excesses. lest they should be defiled. The hand may be defiled by a touch of pitch swine that have been wallowing in the mud are befouled. In figurative use. defense to an from the testimony. contaminateiefers to deep spiritual injury. soil. to pollute a sanctuary. an exposition of Scripture.deflle . vitiate. an altar. We speak of a. exposition. " they themselves went not into the judgment haU. ceremonial sense . taint. definition must include all that belongs to the object defined. 28 . stain. Contaminate and infect refer to something evil that deeply pervades and permeates. A An exposition undertakes to state more fully what is compactly given or only implied in the text . vitiated taste or style . vjith blood. pnrlfy. roinfed meat is repulsive. contract. translation. pollute. defile may be used merely in the . water ^oMuied with sewage. and exclude aU that does not .

Deliberate. consult. reflect. the interpretation of a dream. consider. or information. . Synonyms DELIBERATE. Debate implies assembly deliberates. as does debate. reflects.ate deliberate be a statement giving the doubtful or hidden meaning of that which is recondite or perplexing. exposition. we can speak of a hasty consultation. deliberate. prosy. he weighs a matter in his own mind. representatives are legally elected to Congress and the various legislatures. while consult is ordinarily limited to a few a committee consults . a riddle. is also the word for a great number. confer. These words agree in designating one who acts in the place of others. which may also include description. consulting is compatible with haste . Synonyms deputy. but does not confer with it. by himAn individual self . with lawmaking power. consult indicates almost exclusively the receiving of man confers with his associates about a new investment it. which can be applied to a single individual. unless expressly Umited as above. He consults a dictionary. substitute. In the United States informal assemblies send delegates to nominating conventions with no legislative authority . A comment is upon a single passage a commentary may be the same. ponders. ponder. and is sometimes said even to debate with himself. many persons combine to choose a delegate or representative. i legate. or of some difficult passage. A he consults his physician about his health . explanation. A single officer may have a deputy . debate. he may confer with him on matters of general interest. meditate. and interpretation are ordinarily blended in a commentary. as. Confer suggests the interchange of counsel. Definition. opposing views . weigh. but is usually understood to be a volume of comments. an .lot *'*' de]es. considers. not of a hasty deliberation. advice. Consult and confer always imply two or more persons. representative. In usage the deputy or delegate closely more limited in functions and more bound by instructions than a representative. some other or The strict legate is an ecclesiastical officer repreis sentiag the Pope. meditates. Deliberating always carries the idea of slowness . simply a gathering and balancing of .

vivacity. Delightful maybe appUed to the higher gratifications of sense. hateful. bitter. and and smell . and make the possessor an A . this is delicious ! Compare delightful. delicious. as. That is which affords a gratification at once vivid delicate to the senses. repnlsive. loatlisome. worthy of acceptance . miserable. while meditation may be quite purposeless. an acceptable offering. palnfnl. That is welcome which is received with joyful heartiness . luscious. i acceptable. an agreeable perfume. woful. indicating whatever awakens a feeling akin to gratitude. horrible. welcome Compare beautiful . pleasant face and pleasing manners arouse pleasurable sensations. inclining toward a cloying excess of sweetness or richness. as. grateftil. savory. a delicious bit of poetry .delicious delightful all facts taA !'*«' and reasons. also about the first two are preferable. luscious fulsome meaning. Satisfying denotes anything that is received with calm acquiescence. nnsavoiy. as. agreeable. but scarcely delightful. distressing. Agreeable refers to whatever gives a mild degree of pleasure Acceptable indicates a thing to be as. satisfying. Antonyms I depressing. has a kindred but more Antonyms acrid. pleasant. delicious esquisite. rebreslilng. a delicious odor . tidings. as. nauseous. but is chiefly used for that which is mental and spiritual. eaddenuig. such a person's society will be delightful. delightful. and goodness. Criminals agreeable companion may find each other's company congenial. disappointing. especially to those of taste delicious fruit . pleasurable. Delicious has a limited use in this way . Synonyms DELIOHTPVIi. We consider or deliberate with a view to action. or concerning a matter Prepositions We deliberate on or upon. . as delightful music. gratifying. Grateful is stronger than agreeable or gratifying. nnpaiatable. Synonyms! dainty. as. wretched. if possessed of intelligence. congenial. pleasing. delicious. or established truth. chaeminq . as substantial food. Savory is applied chiefly to cooked food made palatable by spices and condiments. paelancholy. DEIilCIOVS. the word is sometimes used ironically for some pleasing absurdity . welcome. moamful.

proof. bnild. tepalr. or admissions point. and gives the most absolute certainty. outside of the disordered mind. deduction. as when in a mirage distant springs and trees appear close at hand. an illusion a mistaken perception or inference.1TSIOIV. DEmOIilSH. constitute a demonstration. Synonyms destroy. it is destroyed when its structural unity is gone.fnv DEL. insanity. in conclusion is matters that do not admit of demwistration. it is ruined when. but of the delusions of the insane. Evidence is that which . Antonyms actaality. create. reality. is the highest form of proof. or other structure is tation. sbeae. the hallucinations of delirium tremens. as. Compare aboijsh . pbantasm. Antonyms: mslke. Inference. but can not be applied outside of pure mathematics or other strictly deductive reasoning there can be proof and certainty. A . A Compare deception . testore. In an optical illusion the observer sees either what does not exist. however. : certainly. > raze. consequence. it has become unfit for human habi- A overtlirow. fallacy. or what exists otherwise than as he sees it. a A delusion always involves some mental error. evidence. sound premises. in the strict and proper sense. Synonyms t certainty. conclusion. monument. hallucination. verity. an inference is a probable conclusion toward which knowi] facts. overturn. ruin. but which they do not absolutely establish . An edifice is destroyed by fire or earthquake . demolished when reduced to a shapeless mass . delusion is a mistaken conviction. by violence or neglect. "We speak of the illusions of fancy or of hope. An illusion may be wholly of the senses . conetmct. delusion Synonyms error. fact. hallucination is a false image or belief which has nothing. building. Demonstration. illusion. whether or not its component parts remain. together with their necessary eonehmon. statements. it is demolished by bombardment . to suggest it . DEMOIVSTRATIOIV. the absolute and necessary result of the admission of certain premises . trafb. induction. it is razed when leveled with the ground .

inclination. intent or intention refers especially to the state of mind of the actor .design desire . or even when we speak of a . and action. Intention is simply the more familiar form of the legal and philosophical intent. purpose to the result of the action. or of separate acts. to produce a result . . The plan of a campaign may be for a series of sharp attacks. conouplsence. induction. idea . intention. irresistible evidence . it is a quiet. scheme. a design for a statue. the design of a building. Even propensity. and fasten on the end itself. in themselves . we speak of the purpose rather than the intent or intention of Grod. proclivity. hence. stretching forth toward an object . wisn. in the widest sense. Design refers to the adaptation of means to an end. BESIOIV. model. purpose. proposal. design considers these same details all as a means to an end. longing. while not so Compare hypothesis . appetite. hankeringr. as. project. purpose simply the placing it before oneself . Compare aim . structure. intent. cause . but not amounting to proof of guilt. the correspondence and coordination of parts. device. aim. as the law can not read the heart. aspiration. Intention contemplates the possibility of failure . Synonymsi object. Moral certainty is a conviction resting on such evidence as puts a matter beyond reasonable doubt. kiU his enemy . purpose looks to assured success . the mildest of these terms a vague or unconscious. as including selt'evidence or consciousness. it is the basis of all knowledge. it can only infer the intent from the evidences of design. with the design of then compassing his death . with the design of thus surprising and man comes to a fixed intention to overpowering the enemy. A We Prepositions The design of defrauding. final cause. plan. Synonyms: appetency. coveting. Plan relates to details of form. Inclination is DESIRE. intent and purpose overleap all particulars. end. tendency. hold that the marks of design in nature prove it the work of a great Designer. 1S«8 „ tends to show a thing to be true . he forms a plan to entrap him into his power. irresistible as demonstration. craving. Proof in the strict sense is complete. there was much evidenoe against the accused. Intent denotes a straining.

despair may produce a stony calmness. Hopelessness is negative. skill. bopefolness. or near in thought. accomplish. corn-age. Antonyms: anticipation. ing something readily and well. I desperation. craving may be the imperious and reasonable demand of the whole nature. despondency. A. adroitness. assaiance. cheer.>Q * *«' despair dexterity Btrong or decided inclination we do not express the intensity of desire. Desperation is energized despair. a wish may be for what is remote or uncertain. desire is for an object near at hand. or taking advantage of another in controversy dexterity conveys the idea of doing. or it may lead to desperation. Longing is a reaching out with deep and persistent demand for that which is viewed as now distant but at some time attainable . hopelessness. encouragement. from the liighest objects to the lowest . Discouragement is the result of so much repulse or failure as wears out courage. or checking some hostile movement. aptitude. confidence. Craving is stronger than hankering . to. and droit. Synonyms DESPAIR. Discouragements too frequent and long continued may produce a settled hopelessness. despair is the utter abandonment of hope. discouragement. right-hand) might each be rendered " right-handedness". bope. right. a desire /of excellence. Coveting ordinarily denotes wrong desire for that which is another's. despondency and despair are more emphatic and decided. cleverness. expectation. readiness. ezpertness. but adroitness carries more of the idea of eluding. Adroitness (F. Despondem^ is an incapacity for the present exercise of hope . vigorous in action. and may result from simple apathy . or even for what is recognized as impossible. dexter. Prepositions The desire of fame . without reference to any action 9 . parrying. right) and dexterity (L. Compare appetite. reckless of consequences. trnst Synonyms: DEXTERITT. Despondency relaxes energy and effort and is always attended with sadness or distress . and viewed as attainable . Desire has a wide range. as.1 . expectancy. hankering may be the result of a fitful and capricious appetite . the captive's longing for release. elation. Antonyms See synonyms for antipathy.

in the use of tools..diction die „_ 130 _ speak of adroitness in. line. all that makes up the clothing of thought in words . rhetorical figures such as metaphor and simile. skill to a very great extent can be imparted. phrase. expression. the effect of an . the author's language is well (or ill) chosen. fit. with the pen . verbiage. in action. . Die. life. of management . Compare ADDRESS . expire. to go out of decline. wording is limited we speak of the diction of an author or of a work. which by practise may be developed into dexterity. weapons. oftentimes can not even be explained by its possessor. Synonyms DICTION. at cards. of a resolution. Skill is more exact to of others. etc. language. or others. fitted) is a natural readiness. in military phrase. Prepositions Dexterity of hand. depart. of a figurative style. a frigid or an argumentative style. wording. the wording of a proposition. of his personal traits in short. fencing. of movement. POWER . "skilled workmen" in various trades are niunbered by thou^nds. An author's vocabulary is the range of words which he brings into his use. SKILFUL. — we speak etc. or debate of dexterity in horsemanship. Verbiage never bears this sense (see circumlocution. thus. Compare LANauAQE. wither. Style includes diction. Tocabulary. eapression. . fade. rule. boxing. style. i decease. Prescott. Diction is general . or of the style of Macaulay. and. in manipulating men . perisb. pbraseclogy. CUBiVEB . author's prevailing tone of thought. Synonyms cease. i. in legal phraseology . Aptitude (L. apttis. etc. or the word may denote his use of that language. as. DIE. Phrase and phraseology apply to words or combinations of words which are somewhat technical . as. become destitute of vital power and . Dexterity can not be communicated. An author's diction is strictly his choice and use of words. the EngUsh or French language .) The language of a vmter or speaker may be the national speech he employs as. with no special reference to thought expression regards the words simply as the vehicle of the thought. We and method than dexterity.

divergence. To perish (literally. limit figuratively of things that cease to exist . BIFFERENCE. as. diversity. art and empires. to breathe out) is a softer word for die. flonrisli. variation. Prepositions t To die of fever . There is a discrepancy in accounts that fail to balVariety involves more than two objects . as. of death by violence.uality. etc. there may be a difference between those almost alilse. dissimilitude. die to the world. to go through. to die at sea . ance. Knowledge and fame. of agreement . 15) . Antonyms be born. implying that one thing falls far below another . sometimes. but the opposite. in agony . image of them. Ineq. the word denotes utter destruction and decay. UTe. a distinction is in our definition or description or mental. a tempest. discrimination is in our judgment of them . a topic. difference is sometimes used in the same . uulllEeuess. Inconsistency. dies. Dissimilarity is between things sharply contrasted . the time has eocpired. vnth the sword. Expire (literally. in general. rise grow. Tbhhtbon Zockekff EaU Bt 4a a strain of music. it is used An echo. variation is a difference in the condition or action of the same object at different times. iy violence . it is a mild word for opposition and conflict .. by reaching a natural a lease expires .131 action. Disagreement is not merely the lack. Difference is the state or quality of being unlike or the amoum difference is in the things compared . so. an issue. in one's bed . discrepancy. contrast. vii. come to life. riseag^. "the fire goes out ") is ofteuest used of death by privation or exposure . distinction. disparity. Careful A diserimination of real differences results in clear distinctions. " I perish with hunger. Where the dying night-lamp flickers." Luke xv. may be said to perish. dissimilarity. {Ezelc. famine. i come into being. begin. eoiviTe. rarely. does diversity . disagreement. esist. as in English we say. as. a of such unlikeness. the disparity of our achievements when compared with our ideals. Synonyms contrariety. in Latin. 17 . is figuratively applied to anything difference which lias the appear- ance of life. Disparity is stronger than inequality. to die for one's country . from the dead. variety. discrimination. beimmorta].

steep) Eignifies primarily so steep and lofty as to be difficult of ascent. differences among . Arduous is always active. comes naturally to mean the direction of the road or path. pleasant. breaking stone on the road would be called hard rather than diffiadt work . (less frequently) a difference (controversy) unth a person . Eesponsibility may be onerous even when strain it involves eaey. . light. Arckums (L. hard. considered from our own actual or mental standpoint. Identity.cult to solve. Anything is hard that involves tax and whether of the physical or mental powers. i aim. That which is onerous (L. harmony. severe.T. be hurd to do or hard to bear. course. Difficult is not used of that which merely taxes physical force . sagacity. nniformilyi unity. or the hne in which the object is moving. consonance. trying. trifling. Prepositions Difference between the old and the new . of Btyle . a difference in character . laborious. Inclination. a geometrical problem may be diffl.difficult - direction „„ Irf^ Antonyms agreement. no special t exertion. Synonyms arduous. Blight. literally the road or path. toilsome is the stronger word. i Hkeness. DIFFICinL. a thing may difficult to ascend. Synonyms DIRECTION. That which is laborious or toilsome simply requires the steady application of labor or toil tiU accomplished . or address. a burden) is mentally burdensome or oppressive. toilsome. a dead lift is called hard rather than difficult . great learning can only be won by arduotia toiL Hard applies to anything that resists our endeavors as a scarcely penetrable mass resists our physical force. way. Bimilarity. and hence applies to that which involves great and sustained exertion and ordinarily for a lofty aim . with or without a considerable expenditure of physical force . eamenees. onerous. that is difficult which involves skiU. teeeinblance. tendency. onus. arduus. esliaustlng. a difference of men one thing /roflt (incorTectly to) another. a tangled skeui to unravel . The direction of an object is the line of motion or of vision toward it. bearing. Antonyms facile. of action . a mountain Hard may be active or passive . trivial. Way.

in a bad sense . disclose. Antonyms See synonyms for hide. distinguisb. and especially with reference to the points of the compass. as. descry. a slight fluttering of the pulse could be detected. find. is . tendency. descry. when yet we can not clearly distinguish one from another. Morse invented the electric telegraph. or finds his own which he is searching for. . tendency is stronger and more active than inclination. ORDER . DISCOTER. Invent. Columbus discovered America . "What we discern we see apart from all other objects . recognize. anything stretches or reaches out . detect is used. "We discriminate by real differences . which way did he go? or. Objects may be dimly discerned at twilight. Find is the most general word for every means of coming to know what was not before certainly known. OVERSIGHT. ferret out. the direction toward which conversationally. Compare DISCOVER . detect. or recognize by some special mark or manifest difference. that toward which a stationary object leans . A man finds in the road some stranger's purse. what we discriminate we judge apart . The expert discovers or detects an error in an account. signs Synonyms: ascertain. Synonyms behold. perceive. detect used of delicate indications that appear in course of careful watching . Of human actions or character. "We descry (originally espy) what is difficult to discover. LOOK.1 <l!I *"** discern discover way is almost a perfect synonym of direction . Course is the direction of a moving object . discriminate. in which direction i Bearing is the direction in which an object is seen with reference to another. the auditor finds the account to be correct. see. we distinguish by outward . an officer is readily distinguished from a common soldier by his uniform. "We discover what has existed but has not been known to us we invent combinations or arrangements not before in use . . discover may be used in either the good or the bad sense. real merit is sure to be discovered. as. Compare discern. find out. expose. discern. what we distinguish we mark apart. In scientific language. CARE . inclination. almost without exception. oftener in the good he was detected in a fraud . observe. Compare atm .

healing all manner of siehness and all manner of disease among the people.. distemper. Compare slaxdeb. We speak of trifling ailments.. malady. indisposition. it is used only of things. complaint. lower. 14. i sickness. unsoundness." S Kings xni. . of things such as qualities. sUght or severe. a tendency to restrict the words sick and sickness to nausea. To disparage is to belittle by damaging comparison or suggestion . undervalue. disorder and affection are rather partial and limited . Synonyms belittle. Infirmity denotes a chronic or lingering weakness or disability. To decry is to cry down. etc. etc. where sick and sickness have the earlier and wider usage. his motives depreciated. disorder. strength. a slight indisposition.disease disparage «<»« 1<>4 Synonyms DISEASE. the currency is depreciated . his professions discredited . as. Disease is the general term for any deviation from health . derogate from. he himself is calumniated. as abundantly appears in the English Bible : " Jesus went about . a serious or a deadly disease . for every form of physical disorder. 23 . detract firom. or "sickness at the stomach. till the close of the eighteenth century at least. iv. There is now. mSPARAOE. carp at. i discredit. in England. we may underrate or undervalue in statement to others. A witness or a statement is discredited . in affection. robuetness. " Elisha was fallen sick of a more limited sense whereof he died. dlsbonor. which may be applied to any degree of iU health. decry. sonndness. a slight or severe illness . a nervous affection. pubUc." Matt. unbealtbiness. vigor. underestimate. Sickness was generally used in English speech and literature. a painful sickness. a disorder of the digestive system. depreciate. or conspicuous manner. stnrdiness. illness.. a good name is dishonored by unworthy conduct we underestimate in our own minds . infirmity. his sickness intonyms health. A Antonyms See synonyms for praisk. These words are used. with few exceptions. as blindness or lameness. Complaint is a popular term. underrate. This distinction has received but a very limited acceptance in the United States. merits. ailment." and to hold ill and illness as the only proper words to use in a general sense. it denotes some definite morbid condition . in some noisy. slandered. man's achievements are disparaged. attainments.

fulfil. effect and consummate to one's own designs as. as. to discharge the duties of the oflSce. bring about. a son fulfils a father's is . Effect includes all that is done to accomplish the intent consummate is limited execute refers rather to the final steps quite sharply to the concluding act. One may realize that which he has done nothing to bring about . perpetrate. expected. bring to pass. An officer executes the law when he proceeds against its violators a purchase is consum. Exehopes. a statue do what . to finish there the fine details . is consummate. out. place. DISPL. what he has mislaid he can not locate. set In Older. dispose. Jumble. complete. or required as. . assort classify. " Well done ! " Finish and complete signify to bring to an end what was previously begun frequently the difference in usage that finish is applied to and is superficial. the commander effected the capture of the fort. because his officers and men promptly executed his commands. gronp. actualize.mated when the money is paid and the property delivered. remove.135 displace do Synonyms confuse. Antonyms adjust. while complete is comprehensive. to complete a scheme of philosophy. is "It is done. unsettle. effect. misplace. mislay. worl: out. dlscbarge. effect. being applied to the whole ideal. expected. Do class. To fulfil is to do or to be what has been promised. Achieve ^to do something worthy of a chief . carry out. — . Synonyms i accompllsb. realize. cute refers more commonly to the commands of another. carry tbrougb. crowd derange. finisb. One may know where to find what he has misplaced . . the one comprehensive word which includes this whole We may say of the least item of daily work. disarrange. he may realize the dreams of youth by inheriting a fortune but he can not effect his early designs except by doing the utmost that is necessary to make them fact. array. DO. and execution as." and of the grandest human achievement. or desired .ACE. hoped. order. . Objects are displaced when moved out of the place they have occupied they are misplaced when put into a place where they should not be. execute. acbleve. put In order. transact. perform. given in charge. t disturb. To discharge is to Realize. commit. plan. sort. . put in place. and consummate aU signify to embody in fact what was before in thought. execute.

As between complete and accomplish. Commit.mate a bargain or a crime. whether grave or trivial perpetrate is used chiefly of aggravated crimes or. wilful. Dogma has . gentle. We finish a garment or a letter. is used only of those that are bad. fmstrate. yielding. Synonyms: article of belief article of faith. TRANSACTION. c&l " teaching. consum. a trespass. principle. the decision of the church. complete considers rather the thing as done . disdiarge a duty.. compliant. i come short. Doctrine primarily signifies that which is taught principle. miBB. epolj. realize an ideal. or a murder . resolute. A doctrine is reasoned out.!!. perform could not be substituted without great loss. accomplish thy labor. In Longfellow's lines. precept. is tractable is who one who is pliant is easily bent in any direction . tractable. stubborn. . effect a purpose. docile is easily taught . miscarry. a dogma rests on authority. pliable. the fundamental basis on which the teaching rests. Synonyms: amenable. teachable.docile doctrine 136 signifies always to perform some great and generally some worthy exploit. One who easily led . — A Antonyms baffle. as of direct revelation. a creed is a summary of doctrines or dogmas. obstinate. manageable. fail. dogma. " Patience . somewhat humorously. opinionated. and may be defended by reasoning . Compare dxjtt. complete an edifice or a lif e»work. Perform and accomplish both imply working toward the end . fulfil a promise. is pliant. tenet. dogged. doctrhve. of blunders. neglect. perpetrate an outrage or a felony. mar. accomplish a design." etc. firm. but jjer/orm always allows a possibility of not attaining. defeat. iDtractable. unyielding. achieve a victory. tame. lief . man may commit a sin. cojw- pliard rpiresents one as inclined or persuaded to agreement with another's wiU. while accomplish carries the thought of full completion. perform our daily tasks. inflexible. belief. Antonyms: determined. as applied to actions. the whole process of doing it. A doctrine or dogma is a statement of some one item of beetc. DOCIL. mln. one submissive. execute a command. self'willed. accomplish. destroy. Compare transact. obedient.

rely upon. we speak of the doctrines of precept relates not our own church . is To doubt cline to lack conviction. belief arrogantly asserted. magisterial." gives definite propositions. at the present day. Antonyms: confide in. Synonyms distrust. dictatorial. positive. depend on. if ever. but only of motives. I distrusted that man from the start. Compare synonyms for doubt. an oflEensive Bignification. Dogmatic theology. playfully. and may be more partial than the term systematic would imply. a dogmatic statement is one for which the author does not trouble himself to give a reason. which it holds to be delivered by authority . of the tenets of others.UT commonly. he suspects others. n. DOGMATIC. used of persons. called also " dogmatics. doubt. systematic. suspect. dogm. Dogmatic is technically applied in a good sense to that which is formally enunciated by adequate authority . doctrinal to that which is stated in the form of doctrine to be taught or defended. to belief. Mistrust is may compel one to him to. Compare faith . V. Incompleteness of evidence some perverse bias of mind may inexpress simply a lack of confidence as. or it may be nearly equivalent to suspect . mistrust is often used CJompare suppose. DOUBT. intenDistrust is always serious. depend upon. allied whom he addresses thus dogmatic with arrogant and kindred words. . t mistrust. believe. or Distrust may now rarely. self-opinionated. imperious. Outside of theology. it is a neutral word. or because of his contempt for those in common use. V. but to conduct. law. A Synonyms arrogant. dogmatic doubt. overbearing. neither approving nor condemning . . as of a Tenet is simply that which is held. systematic theology considers the same propositions in their logical connection and order as parts of a system . one may distrust himself or others . surmise. Mistrust and suspect imply that one is almost assured of jjositive evil . either because of the strength of his convictions.atic has generally an offensive sense . authoritative. and is applied to a single item of belief . as. I distrust my own judgment . etc. tions. reiy on. domlneeiing. opinionated. trust. doctrinal. is. a doctrinal statement is less absolute in its claims than a dogmatic treatise.

and is eager and anxious uncertainty may relate to any period. scruple. plies to the As regards practical matters. unbelief. Perplexity presses toward a solution. indecision. roBOlntlon. lead. . conviction. coDfldence. misgiving. incredulity. tho they may be sustained from falling. and are due oftener to infirmity of will than to lack of knowledge. evidence. doubt may be content to linger unresolved. hesitation. uncertainty. attract. to drag a sled over bare ground. hesitancy. DRAW. and be quite indifferent. Scruple relates to matters of conscience and duty. all obtoward the earth. Synonyms: allure. I disbelief. Inclin Induce. indecision. draTT n. As regards belief. teeolve. manifest truth. In theological usage unbelief and skepticism have a condemnatory force„as implying wilful rejection of . perplexity. uncertainty apunknown or undecided doubt implies some negative . suspense. whether adequate or inadequate tends to draw. 13S Synonyms DOVBT. determination. Perplexity is active and painful doubt may be quiescent. belief. distrust. entice haul. Any improbable statement awakens incredulity. hesitation. and irresolution have reference to something that remains to be decided or done. character. tho jects are attracted . while doubt is lack of conviction disbeli^ is conviction. whether slight or powerful. One object draws another when it moves it toward itself or in the direction of its own motion by the exertion of adequate force. decision. skepticism. etc. tug. suspicion. n. pull. To pull is to exert a drawing force. Suspense regards the future. generally accompanied with opposition of heart. or a carriage up a steep hiU. question.doubt. of others. tew. and are more decidedly adverse than doubt. irresolution. to the contrary unbelief refers to a settled state of mind. Misgivirig is ordinarily in regard to the outcome of something already done or decided . lure. drag. Antonyms assnrance. To attract is to exert a force that it may produce no actual motion . To drag is to draw against strong resistance as. > Gertainty.. Distrust and suspicion apply especially to the motives. Doubt is a lack of conviction that may refer either to matters of belief or to matters of practise.

dream is strictly a train of thoughts. often in the fullest exercise of its powers. : fact. Antonyms certainty. rebuff. to haiil a seine . we speak of dreams of fortune. draw air into the lungs draw loith the water. vision. iOCRAY . Synonymsi day-dream. a day-dream that which passes before the mind in such condition. under the influence of mental images . attract is more nearly akin to incline. of non^^existent objects. to the barn. visions of glory. presented to the mind. whether in sleep or wakefulness. through the woods. a trance is an abwhich is different from nonual sleep or wakefulness. a dentist ^Z7s a tooth. To tug is to draw. ballucmatlon. the wagon is drawn by horses. draw to induce. a resisting object witla a continuous straining motion . In the figurative sense. To hatil is to draw somewhat slowly a heavy object . repel. a vision may occur when one is awake. draw the boat through . Prepositions To draw water /rom or out of the well . and in clear exercise of the senses and mental powers vision is often applied to something seen by the mind through supernatural agency. . with little difference of meaning except that the vision is thought of as fuller and more vivid. : estrange. along the road. as La insanity or delirium. dream the fish puUs on the line . to the shore cords of love. reverie. fancy. We speak of a trance of delight when the emotion almost sweeps one away from the normal exercise of the faculties. romance. . conceived and authoritative than a dream . as. A reverie is a purposeless drifting of the mind when awake. and images passing through the mind dttting sleep . or try to draw. to TmuI logs. to tug at the oar. reject. draum to his ^de. influ- ESOE. verity. fantasies. realization. repulse. One vessel tows another. teaatatsy. In the figurative sense. Compare allube . K fancy is some image as A more real normal state. over the stones. Hallucination is the seeming perception. See synonyms for drive. "We are attracted by one's appearance. Antonyms alienate. reality. substance. as. across the field. trance.139 as.

taken as a whole. array. tho in Scripture we read of riding in a chariot (3 Kings ix. nudity. Array. we sometimes speak of a national costume. or the like . DRIVE. clothing. nakedness. etc. evening dress. certain conventional modern usage. as. clothes and garments view it as composed of separate Clothes. raiment. all the other words in the list (with possible rare exceptions in the case of raiment) refer to the outer garments. costume. To drive is to move an object with some force or violence before or away from oneself it is the direct reverse of draw. lead. drives him with whip . Repulse is stronger and more conclusive than repel . exposnre." Dress may be used. 16 Jer. A^yparel and attire are most frequently used of somewhat complete and elegant outer clothing. the garb of a priest. complete. and appropriate to some social or public occahabit. except in technical use to denote . requires us to say that we drive in a carriage. Costume is chiefly used for that which befits an assumed character . court dress. repulsed except by the direct refusal or ignoring of his suit. etc. resist. uniform. and in that sense may be either rich or shabby but in the general sense it denotes outer clothing which is meant to be elegant. garments. xvii. as. for a woman's gown.) . ride. except in ecclesiastical use. etc. man leads a horse by the halter. attire. : disarray. clotbing. drive a synonym equally for compel or for repel or repulse. A rein.- raiment. grarb. so. Garb denotes the some class. apparel. especially in England. fiablllments. Dress has now largely displaced apparel and attire. undress. push. clotbes. as. one may be repelled by the very aspect of the person whose favor he seeks. habit. vestments. the Shakespeare speaks of "poor and mean attire. and vesture are archaic or poetic. robes. a lady's riding=c?ress. profession. is parts.drive 140 Synonyms. propel. etc. full dress. DRESS. vesture. repulse. ride upon a horse . One may be driven to a thing or from it hence. too. but is not and is . The word vestments is now rare. clothing characteristic of Antonyms bareneBB. sion . Clothing denotes the entire covering of the body. repel. impel. specifically. urge on. a threatrical costume . A good examples of the same usage may be . tbrust. and garments may be used of inner or outer covering . 35. diBhabille. Synonyms compel.

. . The propriety of a perhe is going to drive when he is simply to be conveyed in a cai-riage. . pattern. with. D1TPI. Compare BiNiSH compel. counterpart. authenticated by the signer ture of the proper ofiB. A facsimile of a key might be quite useless . to despair . . . and by the seal of the appropriate court. Antonyms. . as the coachman. facsimile.cer. door . drive into exile . a carbon copy of a typewritten document must be a duplicate . transcript. from one's drive hy. . A copy is as nearly Uke the original as the copyist has power to make it .141 duplicate found abundantly in the older English. libeness. a copy of an instrument has in itseH no authority . ^ » * prototype. influence. may be copied . as. does all the driving. While strictly there could be but one duplicate. model. we may have an inaccurate copy. while a copy is intentional. Prepositions Drive to market presence . an imitation of Milton. into the bam . or under the lash drive hy or past beautiful estates . a duplicate is the same as the original in substance and effect . Many good authorson's saying that ities to be supported prefer to use ride in the older and broader sense as signifying and borne along by any means of conveyance. original. imitation. out of the sunshine. where some one else. . containing the same provisions and signed by the same persons. replica. but perhaps without design. In law. A facsimile is like the original in appearance . a duplicate is really an original. a facsimile of the Declaration of Independence is not a duplicate. so that it may have in all respects the same force and effect . along the beach heside the river through the park . See synonyms for draw. the signatures. . reprodactlon. out of the city . is exceedingly questionable. a duplicate will open the lock. A replica is a copy of a work of art by the maker of the original. around the square to the . as well as other matters.I€ATE. An imitation is always thought of as inferior to the original . A counterpart exactly corresponds to another object. a duplicate is exactly like the original . Synonyms copy. a transcript is an oflScial copy. the word is now extended to an indefinite number of exact copies. across the field . but never an inaccurate duplicate. Reproduction is chiefly applied to living organisms. -litomyms: archetype.

Duty and responsibility are thought of as to some person or persons . responsibility. tmconcemed. function. Prepositions Eager for (more rarely pursuit. zealous. dispassionate. obligation. obligation. oflace. right is impersonal. impetuous. right. earnest to something patriotic soldier is earnest in hia devotion to his country. uninterested. that which owed or due . stupid. Righteousness is right incarnated in action. and constant . that for which one must answer. Compare straight. resolute. honor. one is anxious with a desire that foresees rather the pain of disappointment than the delight of attainment. right. earnest. fervent. cool. etc. regardless. not. phlegmatic. his obligations and responsibilities are to others. and a parent's responsibility for the child's welfare. frigid. is by which one is bound . but more deep. Antonyms apathetic. a debtor's obligation . Indifierent. as by one's own promise. unmoved. or by the acceptance of a trust. is accountability. and the debtor's duty to pay. or of a child's duty of obedience. intense. desirous. One is eager for the gratification of any appetite or passion . ardent. Importunate. one is glowing. duty that to or is BrTY. or in the direct line of truth BUSINESS. In a more limited sense. obligation and responsibility may be created by circumstances. the to satisfaction. right may be used of what one may rightly claim. Duty arises from the nature of things . entbusiastic. business. longing.eager 14!S Synonyms Etymologically. eager in . purpose. Synonyms anxious.. after) favor. i calm. We speak of a parent's duty. that which correct. EAOER. or character. vebementi yearning. eager for a decisive battle. cold. Eager usually refers some specific and immediate permanent and enduring . responsibility. Right is that which accords with the moral system of the universe. burning. : animated. etc. intent. It is the creditor's right to demand payment. One's duty may be to others or to himself . pnrposeless. Bnmindfnl. needless. and so be the converse of duty. careless. One is eager who impatiently desires to accomplish some end j earnest with a desire that is less impatient. negligent. he is earnest in conviction. and goodness. keen. stolid. impatient. rigbteousness. stony.

any appliance is in readiness for use. development. Antonyms annoyance. instruction. Education (L. Instruction. knaclc. facility always implies practise and skiE any one can press down the keys of a typewriter with ease . Training refers not merely to the . . readiness of wit . when ity . I breeding.'" John Lubbock The Use of Life ch. training. . 'has two educations. perplexity. difficulty. readiness may be active or passive . constraint. culture. only the skilled operator works the machine with /aci7ii2/. . reading. action or of expected action.' says Gibbon. instruere. leaming. whether we will or not 'Every person.] . 111. Ease may be either of condition or of action facility is always of action readiness is of . Ease of action may imply merely the possession of ample power . Easiness applies to the thing done. discomfort. discipline. Teaching is the more familiar and less formal word for instruction. Expertness applies to the more mechanical processes of body and mind . educere. we speak of the readiness of an orator. scbooling. It continues through Uf e. expertness. ing cares one stands at wholly without constraint. vexation. facility. Ease in the sense here considered denotes freedom from conscious or apparent effort. rather than to the doer. One lives at ease who has no pressease. others (L. worry. dexter. It begins in the nursery. '94. readiness. teaching. but of the expertness of a gymnast. moves or speaks with ease. and goes on at school. . knowledge. Synonyms EDUCATION. cultivation. iJeadiJiess in the active sense includes much of the meaning of ease with the added idea of promptness or alertness. POWER. Compare comfortable . uneasiness. which he gives himself. nurture. information. tuition. often the smallest part. the impartation of knowledge by [Macm. tax. to lead or draw out) is the systematic development and cultivation of the mind and other natural pow" Education is the harmonious development of all our facers. the speaker has facility of expression. vii. Facility is always active . or sti-ain. ulties. but does not end there. EASE. and one more important. study. to build in or into) is but a part of education. trouble.i/iQ *** ease education Synonyms easiness. awkwardness. one which he receives from others. p. irritation. disquiet.

audacity. but always carrying the thought of the personal risk that one disregards in such defiance the merely impudent or shameless person may take no thought of consequences. and nothing whatever of that moral development which is included in education in its fuUest and noblest sense learning. a studious pursuit. but to the exercising of one in actions with the design to form habits. too. Study is also used in the sense of the thing studied. persevering study is one of the best elements of training. eefinement . . Breeding and nurture include teaching and training. training. . "We speak of the teaching. Compare knowledge . Insolence. sbamelessness. claims. boldness. impudence. training. and remove obstacles. . Tuition is the technical term for teaching as the business of an instructor or as in the routine of a school tuition is nai-rower than teaching. including training. hardUiood. Antonyms ignorance. Audacity. especially as directed by and dependent upon home life and personal association . Synonyms. Discipline is systematic and rigorous training. public opinion. not overlooking the physical and mental. Study is emphatically what one does for himself. Knowledge and learning tell nothing of mental development apart from the capacity to acquire and remember. decency. approaching the meaning of impudence or shanwlessness. assurance. is a reckless defiance of law. may be acquired by one's unaided industry. EFFRONTERY. in the sense here considered. the audacious person . vigorous. or views. like the latter word. a subject to be mastered by study. breeding having reference largely to manners with such qualities as are deemed distinctively characteristic of high birth nurture (literally nourishing) having more direct reference to moral qualities. but any fuU education must be the result in great part of instruction. i Uliteracy. or discipline. with the idea of subjection to authority and perhaps of punishment. but not of the education or tuition of a dog or a horse. or personal rights. wisdom. Study is emphatically what one does for himself. brass. Compare synonyms for ignorant. encourage the student to advance. and in which instruction and tuition can only point the way. and personal association.em-ontery 144 impartation of knowledge. not.

There is a worthy self-confidence which springs from consciousness of rectitude and of power equal to demands. timidity. Self-assertion at times becomes a duty . except as it. modesty. Hardihood defies and disregards the rational judgment of men. self-assertion. is anxious question of what others will think. Effrontery (L. or manner of what one believes to be his due . Iitunility. Conceit is a briefer expression for selfconceit. spoken of with reference to the presence and observation of others . > basMulness. duty. BKAVE. modesty. but the word is frequently used in an unfavorable sense to indicate a lack of proper sensitiveness and modesty. Self-consciousness is the keeping of one's thoughts' upon oneself. self-conceit. in the good sense. Compare ASSUHAN CE . ego- tism. deference. nnobtmsivenesB. Self-assertion is the claim by word. Compare ASStrKANCE . conceit arouses resentment. but self-conceit is always a weakness. craving equal admiration from others.•'•S egotism recognizes and recklessly braves them. EOOTISm. Antonyms cojneBS. shyness. pbide. self-consciousness. barefaced. and respect for othei-s. self-confidence. 10 . effrons. shynesB. Boldness is forward=stepping courage. with always an offensive implication . boldness. act. Antonyms: baslifalness. diffidence. but is ordinarily a weakness. shameless) adds to audacity and hardihood the special element of defiance of considerations of propriety. diffidence. self-consciousness is commonly painful to its possessor. and never has the worthy sense of self-confidence. > egoism. Synonyms conceit. self-distrnst. vanity. Impudence disregards what is due to superiors shamelessness defies decency. fails to receive its supposed due. Egotism is sometimes used in the sense of egoism. with the constant Egoism self-esteem. self-conceit is ridiculous or pitiable . shrinking. self-conceit is an overestimate of one's own powers or deserts. or supreme regard for oneself. eensltiveness. is courage viewed from the outside . is giving the "I" giving the " I " undue prominence in speech. yet not to the extent implied in impudenee or shamelessness. undue supremacy in thought . selMorgetfiilnesa. Vanity is an overweening admiration of self. Self-esteem is more solid and better founded than self-conceit . vanity always a source of satisfaction. nnostentatiousness.

signifying the English form of emblema. a check. A . a symbol represents. sign. . The Greek word symbolon denoted a yictor's wreath. a Latin word of Greek a figure beaten out on a metallic vesse] by blows also. a ring. 146 image.E1I. as in the case of animal or vegetable types. a figure inlaid in wood. An emblem has some natural fitness to suggest that for which it stands . the token is voluntary . or sculpture. figure. with or without natural fitness a sign does actually suggest the thing with or without reason. kind looks may be signs of regard. stone. a gift is a token. . token. . symbol may be also an emblem. a. type. . On the other hand. A token is something given or done as a pledge or expression of feeling or intent while the sign may be unintentional. a letter of the alphabet is a sign which indicates a sound but letters are often used as mathematical. John as an emblem of lofty spiritual vision. thus the elements of bread and wine in the Lord's Supper are both appropriate emblems and his own chosen symbols of suffering and death. as in drawing. thus the eagle is the attribute of St. painting. whether there was or was not anything in the objects compared to suggest the comparison. or astronomical symbols. from within rial as . as representing a future reality. and also its accepted symbol. chemical. Thus an emblem resembles. . or other matea copy of some natural object. tically the same as a type. having or supposed to have a close resem- blance to that which it represents. type is in religion a representation of a greater reality to come we speak of one object as the type of the class whose characteristics it exhibits. Emblem is origin. or found to correspond with another.emblem EKIBL. especially in sculpture. or any object that might be compared with. Synonjrms attribute. symbol. An image is a visible representation. the same thing may be both a sign and a symbol . A . Compare sign. A statement of doctrine is often called a symbol of faith but it is not an emblem. A figure in the sense here considered is something that represents an idea to the mind somewhat as a form is represented to the eye. a symbol has been chosen or agreed upon to suggest something else. is frequently given as a token of friendship or love. An attribute in art is some accessory used to characterize a figure or scene the attribute is often an emblem or symbol. and with or without intention or choice. which is a natural emblem of eternity. figure may be prac.

the two w^ords are used distinctively of human beings. In general terms it make use of. or in familiar employed . expression common in some religious circles "that Grod would Mse me " is not to be commended . it has also the fatilt of representing the himian worker as absolutely a passive and helpless instrument . Hence the "We phrase used up . use. according to present usage. and to many birds and animals. a pastor is properly said to be called. a mercenary adventurer is hired to fight a tyrant's battles. as. use up. A . To migrate is to change one's <iwelliiig=place. A EMPLiOY. and apply to the same person and the same act. indeed. and hire now implies that the one hired works directly and primarily for the pay. the Scripture says. wandering tiibes of men. Prepositions person emigrates /rom the land he leaves. as expressed in the noun " hireling". we used twenty tons of coal last winter . to use is to render subservient to one's purpose what is iised is viewed as more absolutely an instrument than Synonynis: call. "The laborer is worthy of his hire". ehiorate. may be said that to employ what paper is . the conspirators used him as a go=between. to speak of hiring a pastor the Scripture." That which is used is often consumed in the using. or of periodical retm-n it applies to . . according to the side from which the action is viewed. but this sense is archaic. person may be ew ployed in his own work or in that of another in the latter case the service is always understood to be for pay. sense . or when the business side . except in a degrading as. he uses pen and as a rule. use is not said of persons. usually with tha idea of repeated change. It is unsuitable. the phrase is altogether unsoriptural . engross. and immigrates to the land where he takes up his abode. Emigrate and immigrate carry the idea of a permanent change of residence to some other country or some distant region . is to devote to one's purpose. a merchant employs a clerk . I migrate. are laborers together with (co= workers with) God.a . hire. in such cases we could not substitute employ. In this connection employ is a w^ord of more dignity than hire .ly **• einlKi-ate employ Synonyms Immigrate. engage. says of the preacher. a general is employed in his country's service .

the statue is finished. period.i for a purpose . he terminated his remarks abruptly. at Prepositions Employ in. Intent. i conclude. concluded. terminate. acblevement. uttermost. etc. iv. or possibly employed. as. 7. bound. expiration. but to perfect in all the minute details. close. on." S Tim. in such a case. To terminate may be either to bring to an arbitrary or to an appropriate end as. consummation. desist. at a stipulated salary. outcome« extremity. That ends. is 148 referred to. goal. accompUsbinent. not merely to complete in the essentials. Issue. finis. purpose. Antonyms See synonymns for BEani. terminationt terminus. concluded. that is closed. in the strict sense. stop. the picture. . the spire terminates in a cross. completion. upon. the speech is neither closed. To finish is to do the last thing there is to do . completed. " I have finished my course. Synonyms cease. engaged. conclusion. finlsb. boundary. extent. or about a work. tip. Synonyms. cessation. complete. or action of any kind. A . or the motion stops or ceases when the object comes to rest . nor finished. effect. speech may be ended almost as soon as begun. as in the expression "to add the finishing touches. because of the speaker's illness. expire. OT finished which has come to an expected or appropriate end." The enumeration is completed. A thing stops that comes to rest from motion . whether or not more was intended or needed . result. break off. point. utmost. step frequently signifies to bring or come to a sudden and decided cessation of motion. close. consequence. of which there is no more. the poem. Finish has come to mean. desien. Compare DO TRANSACT. finale. fulfilment. business. or is ended. An argument may be closed with nothing px-oved . quit. nor. completed. limit. finlsb. progx-ess. when an argument is concluded all that is deemed necessary to prove the point has been stated.end of the transaction a certain salary. wind up. or of tumult in the audience .

the southern end of South America includes all Patagonia. but is said of small or slight and tapering objects . Eocpiration signifies the coming to an end in the natural course of things . Term. . to endeavor is to attempt strenuously and with firm and enduring purpose. the limits of an estate (compare boundaey). To attempt expresses a single act . as. with a view of testing our own powers. To undertake is to accept or take upon oneself as an obligation. undertakings. we say I wiU endeavor (not I will attempt) while I live. essay. or privilege . as. the southern extremity or point is Cape Horn. undertalce. it is used of things of some consequence . or by extension the town or village where it is situated. or abstractions of any kind. Synonyms ENDEATOR. right. as the point of a needle. words. attempt. Limit implies some check to or restraint upon further advance. Terminus is chiefly used to designate the end of a line of travel or transportation : specifically.149 endeavor. as in a race. or some mean or standard position. goal is an end sought or striven for. a continuous exertion . a fork. we do not speak of the extremity of a needle. compare the synonyms for the verb end. i D. or a sword . conseqence. try. as. or of a lease . design.ination is the Latin and more formal word for the Saxon end. we do not ordinarily speak of the eocpiration of an hour or of a day. To attempt is with the view of accomplishing . as. labor. For the figurative senses of end and its associated words. extremity is said of something considerable . A Antonyms See synonyms for beginning. point in such sonnections is said of that which is drawn out to exceeding fineness or shai-pness. The end is the terminal part of a material object that has length . to essay. Tip has nearly the same meaning as extremity. To attempt is to take action somewhat experimentally with the hope and purpose of accomplishing a certain result . or trust . and may thus be but part of the end in the general sense of that word . also for aim . the furthermost station in any direction on a railway. the extremity is viewed as that which is most remote from some center. but is chiefly used of time. V. to endeavor. strive. the word often implies complete assurance of success . as some business. the extremity is distinctively the terminal jpoiraf. the eoepiration of a year. the tip of the finger .

permit. endeavor less strenuous but more continuous. . pass by. attempt. annoyance. . n. if the thing is not accomplished at a stroke . An effort is a single act. Compare endeavor. afford. . Allow and permit involve large concession of the will put up with and tolerate imply decided aversion and reluctant withholding of opposition or allow. to try implies using means and studying out other ways if not at first successful. but not every exertion is an effort. essay. drop. effort. neglect. the ship to her course. I will spare no labor and exertion to do it. overlook. throw over. or repining. endare ^ ^^ low I will undertalce to produce the witness. e. sir I Antonyms: abandon. I will strive to fulfil your wishes. bear. tlirow away. brook.. Eveiy effort is an exertion. An essay is an attempt. without sinking. or of Christian Effort. strugg^le. Effort denotes the voluntary putting forth of power to attain or accomplish some specific thing. submit to. effort. give up. The oi-iginal idea of testing or experimenting is not thought of when a man says " I will try. bear up under. suffer. much of toil. A Synonyms abide. or the like. or endeavor made as a test of the powers of the one who makes it. omit. Endeavor is more mild and formal the pilot in the burning pilot= house does not say " I will endeavor" or "I will attempt to hold other . and contest. bear witb. Try is the most comprehensive of these words. strain. trial. put up witb. exertion. lamenting. but of Christian Endeavor. in seeking it . Synonyms: ElVDEATOR. pain. i. and may be lifelong . let go. exertion is a putting forth of power without special reference to an object. grief. support. tolerate. Attempt is more experimental than effort." but " I'll try. n. To strive suggests little of the result.endeaTor. struggle is a violent effort or strenuous exertion. an endeavor a continued series of acts . dismiss. we do not have a society of Christian Attempt. it reaches toward a definite end . an endeavor is sustained and enduring. tiirow up." To attempt suggests giving up. sustain. Bear is the most general of these words it is metaphorically to hold up or keep up a burden of care. undergo. EXDURE. v.

falter. droop. succumb. opposed actively and with intensity of effort an opponent. e.151 interference . „ ^ tnend.. . for AMBITION. give up. rival. • j v helper. Bink. and largely restricted to the hostile sense an adversary is ordinarily one who not only opposes another in fact. surrender. antagonist. . Adversary was rarely avoid inimical feeling. . . yield. one in whom the attitude of resistance is the more prominent a competitor. Antonyms abettor. To brook is quietly to put up with i. accomplice. foe. or perhaps out of pure malignity as. Compare synonyms . . competitors in business. . the great Adversary. as. . enemy whispering is allowed by the school=teacher who does not forbid nor censure it one puts up with the presence of a disagreeable visitor a state tolerates a religion which it would be glad to suppress. I will abide the result. ally. fail. . give out. . provocation or insult. which is rather a poetical and literary word. endure conveys a fuller suggestion of contest and conquest than bear. One may choose to endure the pain of a surgical operation rather than take anesthetics he permits the thing to come which he must brace himself to endure when it comes. one who seeks the same object for which another is striving antagonists in wrestling. etc formerly much used in the general sense of antagonist or opponent. fall. Antonyms break. ^ Prepositions He was the enemy of my friend in the contest. ambition. . opponents in debate may contend with no personal ill will rivals in love. but does so with hostile spirit. to be able to bear it. Synonyms : adversary. Compare abide support. opponent. . breakdown. implies intensely hostile An antagonist is one who opposes and is spirit and purpose. . Abide combines the senses of await and endure . but is now less common. : despair. supporter. . : accessory. faint. competitor. To afford is to be equal to a pecuniary demand." where no personal animosity may be implied foe. . but with conscious power. To endure is to hear with strain and resistance. An enemy in private life is one who is moved by hostile feeling vnth active disposition to injure but in military language all who fight on the opposite side are called enemies or collectively "the enemy.

where no injustice or wrong is felt. as. but often less enduring and determined. maUgnlty. To beguile is. recreate. interest. alliance. spite. as between two competing authors or merchants. gratify our . Antagonism. Synonyms amuse. but deeper and more persistent. To entertain. is to engage and pleasantly occupy the attention . acrimony is a kindred feeling. occupy. for the gratification of some evil passion . kindness. to cheat into cheer and comfort by something that insensibly draws thought or feeling away from pain or disquiet. animosity. the term hostilities between nations destate of antagonism. often with that which excites merriment or laughter . entertahv. notes a feeUng more active and vehement. hatred. tdndllness. malice. at least. To divert is to turn from serious thoughts or laborious pm-suits to something that lightly and agreeably occupies the mind. divert. and may arise from the crossing of one's wishes or plans by another. armed collision. is to nothing serious or laborious from which to bediverted. hostility. but ordinarily suggests a shade. delight. concord. t acrimony. We beguile a weary hour. Enmity is the liIttemeBS. enliven a dull evening or company. action . one may be entertained or amused who has ate. Bitterness is a resentful feeling from a belief that one has been wronged . as it were. literally to re=create. beguile. lU'will. enliven. please. Compare synonyms for ACEmoNY . malignity is intense and violent enmity. being an enemy or the feeling and dispoAnimosity desition characterizing an enemy (compare enemy). to amuse is to occupy the attention in an especially bright and cheerful way. 1»^ __ Synonyms EXMITY. To recreengage mind or body in some pleasing activity that restores strength and energy for serious work. friendEhlp. or malice. malevolence. to be met or dealt with accordingly. ai^geb . Hostility is enmity in. emlty. Bympatby. rancor. gratify. than enmity. batred. regard. notes actual arising Antonyms: agreement. does not necessarily imply enmity. cheer. harmony. of hostile feeling. in the sense here considered. divert the preocoupied. disport. cheer the despondent. Malice is a disposition or intent to injure others. Enmity distinctly recognizes its object as an enemy.enmity entertain . hatred. he entertained us with an amusing story.

diversion. excitement. bnsy. fim. each according to his taste. frenzy. . weary. occupy idle time. and usually does. apart from its special senses of a public performance or a social party. Amusement is a form of enjoyment. vebemence. intensity fanaticism. The old meaning of enthusiasm implies a ysendonnspiration. many slight things may be pastimes which we should hardly dignify by the name of amuseSports are almost wholly on the physical plane. disturb. and baseball are sports. meaning so high as never sport. disport ourselves when merry. fun and frolic are apt to be boisterous. toil. merriment is with UveUness and laughter . latter probably the lighter word .erriment. sport. rapture. warmtn. to be approached by any meaning of very quiet. Antonyms annoy. Cheer may be Compare synonoyms for entertain. m. combine the mental with the A7nusem. devotion. but entertainment and recreation are capable of a racing. recreation. enjoyment. as the cheer of a bright fire to an aged traveler . tho in an agreeable. Certain sports may afford entertainment or recreation to certain persons. transport. weariness. Antonyms: ennui. interest. according to their individual tastes . Synonyms ardor. horse=^ . £rolic. but enjoyment may be too keen to be called amusement. ecstacy. extravagance. eagerness. earnestness. please _ entertainment enthusiasm a listening audience. and predominantly even there. deliglit. tiro. entertain. Entertainment. the physical. cbeer. EKTHIJSIASni. passion. pastime. pleasure. fervor. is used of somewhat mirthful mental delight recreation may. they are therefore words of a high order. disquiet. work. we amuse ourselves or others with whatever pleasantly passes the time without special exertion. fervency. Entertainment and recreation imply thought and mental occupation. fatigue. i bore. distract. labor.lua friends' wishes. tho ments. refreshing way. recreate when worn with toil . lassitude. inspiration. zeal.ent and pastime are nearly equivalent. involving a certain grade of mental action fox=hunting. Synonyms amusement.

secure. or at least to opportunity afforded by some one's act or neglect. accession. An unworthy favorite may prevent even those who gain admittance to a king's audience from obtaining any real access to the king. departure. or becoming a member. dulness. exit. Entrance is also used figuratively for setting out iipon some career. Am intruder may gain admittance to the hall of a soci- ety who would not is proach be allowed adm. deadness. Zeal is burning earnestness. portal. etc. privilege. tho often without its hopefulness. win. prudence. wariness. courage. friend- We ship.ission to its membership. admission refers also to position. favor. cantlon. Enthusiasm has now chiefly the meaning of an earnest and commendable devotion. admittance. may effect or force an entrance. rejection. door. ElVTRABfCE. admission and admittance refer to entering by or with some one's consent.entrance IS4 an almost frantic extravagance in behalf of something stipposed to be an expression of the divine will.action with all the devotion of enthiusiasm. exclusion. calculation. procure. Antonyms. nothing great and good can be carried without a certain fervor.nd vehemence . a. the gates on or upon a work or course of action by or through the door within into or among the company. w^e speak of one's entrance upon college life. i access. those we gain. . Indlilerence. lukewammess. doorway. . Against the hindrances of the world. office . Synonyms adit. Compare eagee. recognition. and consideration.of some organization . coldness. refusal. entree entry. This sense remains as the controlling one in the kindred nonn enthusiast. calmness. into battle . gateway. expulsion. or of entrance into the ministry. ingress. ejection. obtain. . Entrance. egress. Antonyms. always tending to vigorous. Admittaneereteisto place. admission. policy. Inlet. Prepositions Entrance into a place into or upon . timidity. intensity. Apa movement toward another . an intense and eager interest. penetration. as. refers merely to the fact of passing from without to within some enclosure . the act of entering. access is coming all the way to his presence. approacli. Introduction. opening. and hopefulness make enthusiasm. these joined with faith. but not admittance or admission. gate. withdrawal.

Equivocal enigmatical. satisfied. he is jealoiis of intrusion upon that which is his own. welMIsposed. suspicious. because of. indefinite. That which is enigmatical must be guessed like a riddle a statement may be purposely made enigmatical in order to provoke thought and study. Indeterminate. i ambiguous doubmil. obscure. uncertain. envious of his wealth or power . Ambiguous (L. obscure or doubtful through indeflniteness of expression. A person is envious of that which is another's. equal. according to its object and tendency. questionable. right or claim. That is doubtful which is fauly open to doubt . (L. possessions. perplesing. suspicious. around. aml>i. A statement is either of clear thought or of adequate expression. i friendly. enigmatic.f-. or the lite. envious of hiTn for. Antonyms contented. A free people must be jealous of their liberties if they would retain th^. indistinct. endowments. and ago. trastfnl. equus. which would fit the language equally well it is equivocal w^hen it would naturally be understood in one way. t jealous. a jealous spirit may be good or bad. dubious. as a rule. lead) sigfnifies lacking in distinctness or certainty. . kindly. ambiguous when it leaves the mind of the reader between two meanings. voice. on account of his wealth or power. while an ambiguous utterance may be simply the result of a want or hearer to fluctuate . Synonyms JCQVIVOCAL. Compare doubt. and to which he himself has no right or claim . is envious who cherishes selfish ill wiU toward another because of his superior success. word) denotes that which may equally well be understood in either of two or more ways. but is capable of a different interpretation an equivocal expression is. Ambiguous is applied only to spoken or written statements . that is dubious which has become the subject of doubts so grave as . An envious spirit is always bad . . *"«» envious equlvoeal Synonyms One Enrriovs. and vox. One is suspicious of another from unfavorable indications or from a knowledge of wrong in his previous conduct. or to which he maintains a. or even without reason. equivocal has other applications. drive. Prepositions': Envious of (formerly at or against) a person . intentionally deceptive.

denotes a imion of respect and kindly feeUng and.esteem. as a picture. as a family heirloom. set a certain mental value and mercantile than calculate or estimate. plain. manifest. used in this sense. as. a favor. i V. perspicuous. look at. a suspicious temper is inclined to suspect the motives and intentions of othbrs. indisputable. Questionable may be used nearly in the sense either of dubious or of doubtful . reason to be suspected . beyond all price. or worth . To say that one's honesty is questionable of saying that in the opinion of the speaker he is Equivocal is sometimes. the word is similarly. is less estimate. importance. we estimate it to be worth so much money. Synonyms ESTEEIH. I regard him as a friend . deem. obvious. one whom I highly esteem . observe) is to have a certain mental view favorable or unfavorable . be alive to its value. without at all appreciating its artistic merit or commercial value. One may value some object. a shell greatly esteemed for inlaid work. To appreciate anything is to Esteem and estimate alike imply to precise upon. prize. I esteem. the word may be used in a similar sense of material things or abstractions . To regard (F. indubitable. used of persons. as. in the highest sense. as. or may prize it as the gift of an esteemed friend. To prize is to set a high value on for something more than merely commercial reasons. calculate. to see its full import. as said of persons. appreciate. as. regard. . We esteem a jewel precious . Antonyms certain. and in certain conventional phrases . value. a questionable statement is one that must be proved before it can be accepted. as. I regard him as a villain regard has a distinctively favorable sense as applied to institutions . as. unquestionaole. is a mild way likely to prove dishonest. to appreciate one's services in a cause . This sense of esteem is now chiefly found in literary or oratorical style. tho more suspicious character gives manifest rarely. or. t evident. tho rarely. Jacid. In popular usage esteem. clear. it an honor. of moral approbation. but esteem be deeply or keenly sensible of or sensitive to its qualities or influence. wither without reason. A Compare cleab. to appreciate beauty or harmony . a dubious reputation. regarder. unequivocal. bold. i). unambiguous. consider. ISO scarcely to fall short of condemnation . unquestioned. tlilnlE. one whose friendship I esteem. distinct.

never>ending. hatred. estimation. regard. Regard for a person is the mental view or feeling that sjirings from a sense of his value. loathing. Estimation involves the idea of calculation or appraisal with that of esteem or regard. Antonyms abhorrence. Eternal strictly sense it without beginning or end. eternal is also used in this more limited sense . as. without end. eouian. eternal n. fa. immortal. never^falllng. ESTEEm. respect in the fullest sense is given to what is lofty. we have a regard for the person. my estimate of the man. timeless. dislike. duties. regardless of personal qualities. Respect may be wholly on one side. respect is a more distant word than esteem. contempt. in which alone . n. endless. an endless chain. Synonyms ETERlVALi. he stood high in public estimation. v. but will never cease . everlasting. and adds a special kindliness . Estimate has more of calculation . imperishable. is . unfailing.. especially in mechanics. Compare ESTEEM. respect. n. but endless applies to God constantly used in inferior senses. unceasing. interminable. as. unfading.. indefinite. excellence. we may pay an external respect to one of lofty station.tut " esteem. and honorable. friendship. Everlasting and endless are both used in a limited sense of protracted. or of his abilities. or superiority. repngnanoe. but does not share the use of the noun regard as applied to persons . proprieties. etc. is not distinguishable from everlasting . Compare esteem. with a cordial and hearty friendliness. Regard is more personal and less distant than esteem. in its utmost reach. and is especially used of the feeling entertained by numbers of people . witbout end. while regard is more often mutual . ever^living.vor. unending. or to a person of such qualities . endless. we regard the Sabbath . signifies perennial. is very high. especially of moral worth. perpetual. joined with a feeling of interest in and attraction toward the person. antipathy. showing respect for the office. fadeless. Esteem for a person is a favorable opinion on the basis of worth. I deathless. everlasting applies to that which may or may not have beginning. Lote. as in the phrases an endless screw. worthy. we regard a person's feelings. Synonyms: estimate. aversion. undying.

etymologically. either. the event of a war is victory or defeat . eternal death. event comes to have the meaning of a contingency . The end may be simple cessation . endless debates . EVERY. " incidental evidence " would be some evidence that happened unexpectedly to touch it. in the event of his death. the event is what has been accomplished . and eternal may be applied to that which has no life . connection or tendency. AU and both. so we speak of interminable quarrels. Synonymai all. perhaps. and not to be measured by it. Incident. Eternal holds quite and sacred meaning in which it is applied to the Divine Being and the future state. immortal applies to that which now has life. the Saxon.event every 1 xa ***" but not infinite duration . outcome. episode. as. sequel. " circumstantial evidence" is evidence from seemingly minor matters directly connected with a case . fortune. and is forever exempt from death. An occurrence is. al connection. endless. as. each. possibility. COKSEQIXENOB . EXD. Since the future is contingent. end. fact. the event that which comes out . Compare circumstance . i contingency. without thought of its origin. come is original idea. but is of more independent interest and importance. that which we run against. Etymologically. and event the Latin for expressing the same Consequence or result would express more of logic- and be more comprehensive. the fullest idea of eternal. incidents of daily Ufe. both are collective . any. An episode is connected with the main course of events. endless night. event is thus greater and more signal than incident . but implies a more direct connection with the principal matter . the end of the war is reached when a treaty of peace is signed. EVEWT. Timeless strictly to the vast carries. everlasting chains. Everlasting. occurrence. Out- cbance. consequence. like an incident or circumstance. as. as above and beyond time. issue. each. result. the incident is that which falls in. the policy will at once fall due. events of history. the everlasting hills . and evei-y are distrlbu- . any. we speak of trifling incidents. great events . Sfnonrms case. circumstance. Circumstance agrees with incident in denoting a matter of relatively slight importance.

. all sweeps in the units as part of a total. it would be better to say BO. and on comparison with the original its inferiority was manifest. open. if the meaning is on hoth sides. Each is thus more individual and specific than every . distinct. The use of either in the sense of each or hoth. patent. directly in the tion of the way so that it can not be missed . one by one. obvious. indefinitely. transparent. if a certain sum is given to each of two persons. manifest. as touch is more absolute than sight that the picture was a modern copy of an ancient work was evident. That is manifest which we can hand upon. the applica- remark was obvious. mind as soon apparent which clearly appears to the senses or to the as the attention is directed toward it that is evident . perceptible. as. His friends sat on either side of the room would naturally mean on one side or the other . to the exclusion of the other. of which the mind is made sure by some inference that supplements the facts of perception . and the finding of a mutilated body and a lified purse made it evident that robbery and murder had been committed. Discernible applies to . EVIMENT. every classifies. overt. unmistakable. Either properly denotes one of two. hoth (together) must receive twice the amount both must be aware of what has been separately communicated to ea^h . manifest is thus stronger than evident. a promise made to each is made to the individuals personally. glaring. palpable. discernible. a man may fire hofh barrels of a gun by a single movement if he fires eaxih barrel. tho sustained by good authority. a promise made to every one is so made that no individual shall faU to be aware of it . hofh unites . each and every make no exception or omission. plain. whether the noonday sun. Synonjms clear. conspicuous. a ship on the horizon. That is obvious which is lay the . or a microscopic object. i mdubitable. tangible. evident Any makes no selection and may not reach to the full limits . the marks of a struggle were apparent in broken shrubbery and trampled ground. . is objectionable because ambiguous. each and every proceed through the units to the total.159 tive. Visible applies to all that can be perceived by the sense of sight. and must extend to all . he discharges them separately. That is apparent. visible. A promise made to all omits none a promise made to any may not reach all . each individuaUzes. Each divides. of all .

in a given case. on the one hand of a pattern or model. model than to the necessary exactness of the pattern . exactly imitate the best example. may be raore than a sample or specimen of any class . and. That is conspicuous which stands out so as necessarily or strikingly Palpable and tangible express more to attract the attention. Ensample is the same as example. type. Invisible. extravagance. for which exemplar is not used as. sample. An exemplification is an illustrative working out in action of a principle or law. precedent. prodigality. Impenetrable. waste. surplus. redundancy. pattern. — . dissipation. as when Christ is spoken of as being an example or leaving an example for his disExample comes nearer to the possible freedom of the ciples. Ideal. nnimaglned. ensample. secret. model. an example guides. Synonyms EXCESS. profusion. exemplification. often we can not. one sets a good (or a bad) example. Antonyms concealed. bidden. or of what is to be shunned. occult. Impalpable. as. without any reference to its being copied or repeated . undiscovered. exemplar can scarcely be distinguished from exam-ple . i dark. superabundance. obscure. superfluity. but is practically obsolete outside of Scriptural or theological language. imperceptible. From its original sense of sample or specimen (L. prototype. but example is most frequently used for an act. exemplar. covert. latent. requiring Btrain and effort in order to be seen . In its appUcar tion to a person or thing. Synonyms I warning:. exemplum) example derives the seemingly contradictory meanings. unseen. an exemplifir arcbetype.example excess 160 that which is dimly or faintly wsjbte. emphatically the thought of manifest. i redundance. cation illustrates or explains. and on the other hand of a warning a sample or specimen of what is to be followed. intemperance. since this in lavisliness. wastefulness. specimen. standard. or course of action. An example. overplus. . Excess is more than enough of anytliing. it may be the very archetype or prototype to which the whole class must conform. however. sample. ontbought of. Compare model . but only adapt Its teachings to altered circumstances. exorl)itance. the ship was discernible thi-ough the mist. nnknown.

we may have also extravagance ot language. actual or potential. having none of the unfavorable meaning that often attaches to excess .. marshal. to enforce is to put into effect by force. as. to administer is to conduct as one holding a trust. Redundance or redundancy refers chiefly to literary style. or amiable excess . Excess in the moral sense is expressed by dissipation. failote. defect.. and especially in pecuniary demands upon others. Overpltts and superabundance denote in the main a satisfactory. Careless expenditure in excess of income is extravagance. Enforce signifies also to present and urge home by intellectual and moral force . intemperance. Surplus is neutral. medicine. As extravagance is excess in outlay. . lavishness and profusion. denoting an excess of words or matter. a charity. constable. the trustee administers an estate. the sheriff executes a writ. kill . want. •deficiency. administer passes by a natui-al transition to signify inflict. the many cases word Antonyms dearth. make. To administer the laws is the province of a court of justice . scantiness. mete out. and superfluity an undesirable. as a minister and not an originator. etc. fying to superintend officially some application or infliction. a generous. poveny. to execute the laws is the province of a sheriff. excess . as. i destitntlon. put into absolute and final effect in action . and blows. lavishness of hospitality. EXECUTE. etc. do. etc. a profusion of fair hair . to execute the law is to put it in force . execute is caxry out. for this enforce From signiis the more general word. shortcoming. insnfflciency. lac^ need. professions. economy. perform. Compare do 11 . exorbitance is excess in demands. to follow through to the end. or other executive officer. execute the more specific. to enforce a precept or a duty. prodigality. fragallty.161 very execute indicates a lack either of is judgment or of selfa used frequently in an unfavorable sense. etc. dispense. a surpluit is that which remains over after all demands are met. control. inadeqaacy. bountiful. to administer the law is to declare or apply it . are said to be administered a usage thoroughly established and reputable in spite of pedantio objections. Synonyms To i administer. enforce.

relaxation. or even unconsciously . Inactivity. in the ordinary sense. Drill is systematic. the eapense of making up. outgo. retoms. EXPEIVSE.exercise explicit 16a EXERCISE. receipts. but the practise of it is better. Antonyms: Inaction. See PBicE. " "I know it to my cost . intentionally or unintentionally. The cost of Antonyms: gain. outgo of a steady drain or of incidental expenses. exertion. Synonyms cost. ing adjectives tion . : performance. Exercise. employment. maintaining. occupation. "he won his fame at the cost of his life . activity. expense is what is laid out by calculation or intention. profits. as. we speak of a joke at another's expense . profit. expenditure. is the easy natural action of any power . and commonly enforced practise under a teacher or commander. or merely for enjoyment . or takes time for practise on the piano. return. product. is systematic exercise with a view to the acquirement of facility and skill in some pursuit . a profession of religion is good. or increasing power. Outlay is used of some definite expenditure. outlay. practise. is Both explicit and express are opposed to what merely im- . at another's cost would seem to make it a more serious matter. we may violent exercise. as for the purchase of supplies . Synonym: express. EXPLICIT. drill. use. action. income. We say. Synonjrms act. There is a tendency to use cost of what we pay for a possession. Practise is also used of putting into action and effect what one has learned or holds as a theory . Compare habit. exertion is the putting of any power to strain and tax. the practise of law or medicine . operation. receipt. proceeds. as. a thing is whatever one surrenders or gives up for it. rest. a person takes a walk for exercise. application. expense of what we pay for a service . practise. But by qualifybring exercise up to the full sense of exerExercise is action taken at any time with a view to employing. we speak of the cost of goods. An exercise=Aiive for a liorse is so much as will develop strength and health and not appreciably weary. rigorous.

etudied. premeditated. extirpate. out. **»«» „^ or implied. root) is . Indeterminate. derstood . . Eradicate (L. denoting something that springs from the instant. and only the language and incidental treatment left to the suggestion of the moment. Implicit. offband. denoting absolute want" of preparation. Synonyms EXTEiniPORAWEOVS. but is rather too heavy a word to be applied to such apt. implied. and terminus. ready utterance as is generally designated by impromptu. the extemporaneous speech may chance to be prosy. impromptu. Compare A^ntonyms: ambiguous. so that it be obscure. doubtful. EXTERinilVATE. doubtful. nncertaln. that which is exit plicit may not press uttered or stated so decidedly that may not be forgotten be misun- nor overlooked. . direct. primarily applied to numbers or groups of plants which it is desired to remove effectually from the soil a single tree may be uprooted. written. An explicit statement is too clear to is an express command ci^eae. -wipe out. extempore. e. unpremeditated. Synonyms annlbilate. has come to mean done or made with but little (if any) preparation. extemporary. the impromptu utterance is generally brief. and more formal. too emphatic to be disregarded. ex. originally signifying of ai from the time or occasion. Offhand is stUl more emphatic as to the readiness and freedom of the utterance. a boundary) signified primarily to drive beyond the bounds or limits of a country the word is applied to races of men or animals. and radix. impromptu keeps its original sense. and is now chiefly applied to addresses of which the thought has been prepared. root out. Exterminate (L. eradicate. prepared. and vigorovis .. and is now almost exclusively used for removal by death individuals are now said to be banished or expelled. so that an extemporaneous speech is understood to be any one that is not read or recited. or ambiguous . read. is extemporaneons exterminate That which is explicit is unfolded. destroy. out. Improvised. we labor to eradicate . uproot. recited. expel. banlsb. but is not said to be eradicated. Indeftnlte. Antonyms elaborated. Extemporaneous.. overtbrow. Unpremeditated is graver. remove. vague.

Synonyms FAIWT. Faint. so that the race can never be restored we speak of eradicating a disease. purposeless. -vigorous. out. and stirps. conviction. or energy. increase. of extirpating a . resolute. ness. lute or because faint-hearted threaten. propagate. . through and timid in view of perils that want of mental energy and dim. build up. covers . faded. energetic. w^earled. an intellectual process. breed. confidence. faint in color. with the general sense of lacking strength or effectivea wide range of meaning. balf-bearted. belief.faint faltb 164 or root out noxious weeds. populate. or because half=hearted in the cause he may be a faltering supporter because naturally irreso. voices. or lacking in purpose. we seek to eradicate or extirpate all vices and evils. hearty. faltering. cherish. brilliant. signifying overcome with physical weakness or exhaustion. a listless worker. cancer. Written characters may he faint or originally written with poor ink. Antonyms: augment. credence. irresolute. ex. replenish. FAITH. weak. Prepositions Faint with hunger . esbausted. strong. doctrine. Antonyms bright. as said of persons or lacking deflniteness or distinctness of color or sound. listless. assurance. languid. courage. dim. stock) is not only to destroy the individuals of any race of plants or animals. clear. or person may be faint when physically wearied. fresh. reliance. lU'deflned. faint-hearted. fatigued. worn. Belief. either because purpose. A or when overcome with fear he may be a faint adherent because naturally feeble or purposeless. daring. or because they have become faded by time and exposure. worn down. plant. foster. Compare abolish. feeble. sturdy. conspicuous. Indistinct. is the acceptance of some . credit. stem. exterminating wild beasts or hostile tribes . To extirpate (L. timid. opinion. but the very stock. trust. settle. worn out. as creed. as said of written characters. beget. musical notes. Synonyms: assent. develop. colonize.

Faith is chiefly personal belief may be quite impersonal we speak of belief of a proposition. incorruptible. whether with or without power to aid or serve . faith in a promise. infidelity. or upon a person as worthy. sure. and seems to imply somewhat more of volition we speai of giving credence to a report. unbelief. We than belief. distrnst. the Christian's assurance of salvation. friendship. a creed is a summary statement of doctrines. Belief is stronger than credence . unwavering. faith. true. Prepositions Have faith in God . . but not of giving belief. firm. credence is a more formal word perience. In religion it is common to distinguish between intellectual belief of reUgious truth. person is faithful who will keep faith. Synonyms > trusty.165 faltliful thing as true on other grounds than x>e'sonaI observation and exgive credence to a report. . and belief of the heart. involving the heart as well as the intellect. . incredulity. disbelief. as. Conviction is a belief established by argument or evidence assurance is belief beyond the reach of argument . Goods are sold on credit . Confidence a firm dependence upon a statement as true. Antonyms! denial. devoted. An opinion is a general conclusion held as probable. kindness. But belief in a person is often used with no appreciable difference from faith. or saving point is . credence might be descxibed as a prima facie "belief. miggiving. donbt. standi. loyal. In religion. Bosplcion. or promises of a person . the integrity. the faith of the gospeL FAITHFUI.. a person or thing is trusty that possesses such qualities as to justify the fullest confidence and de- A . we have trust in God. tho without full certainty a persuasion is a more . assent to a proposition oi to a proposal. Faith is a union of belief and trust. dissent. skepticlBm. we give one credit for good intentions. . confident opinion. Reliance is confidence on which we act or are ready to act unquestioningly we have a calm reliance upon the uniformity of Trust is a practical and tranquil resting of the mind upon nature. trustworthy. a doctrine is a statement of belief regarding a single . because the promise emanates from a person. rejection. as any other truth might be believed.

laurels. wavering. repute. Bigotry has not the . . or abilities. . intolerance is severe. "We may speak of & faithful but feeble friend a trusty agent. we speak of local celebrity. FANATICISM. station. but is a general readiness to believe without sufficient evidence. to duty . obscurity. fickle. Fame in its best sense maybe defined as the applause of numbei's renown. or character. infamy. : discredit. to comrade or commander i among the faithless. I c« *"" we say Antonyms capricionB. Prepositions faithful Faithful in service . the patriot's renown. . untrue. I credulity. oblivion. Fame is the widely disseminated report of a person's character. glory. Notoriety is evil repute or a dishonorable counterfeit of fame. fanaticism and bigotry usually include intolerance. fame:. superstition is ignorant. Synonyms 'bigotry. i nnfaitUul. Antonyms contempt. and may be either good or bad. Celebrity is limited in range . with a proneness to accept the marvellous. superstition. celebrity. glory has a more exalted and often a sacred sense. reputation. eminence. credulity is weak. Synonyms I notoriety. superstition is ignorant and irrational religious belief. but it is always given as something good and worthy . disgrace. Glory and honor are of good import honor may be given for qualities or acts that should not win it. or world=wide fame. . renow^u. fanaticism is fierce. humiliation. faithless. distinction. dishonor. intolerance. deeds. disrepute. : false. Fanaticism is extravagant or even frenzied zeal bigotry is obstinate and unreasoning attachment to a cause or creed .fame fanaticism pendence. as such applause worthily won we speak of the conqueror's fame. shame. a trusty steed. bonor. credit. Bigotry is narrow. Credulity is not distinctively religious. ignominy. which is unwillingness to tolerate beliefs or opinions contrary to one's own . we can speak of an evil fame. but not of evil honor . contumely. Eminence and distinction may result from rank. . Reputation and repute are more limited than fame. nntraBtworthy. a trusty sword. and is oftenest used in the favorable sense.

predilection. mood. IMAGINATION. (Compare reason. idea. fantastic. grotesctue. idea . 'Whim. a fantastic arrangement is striking. The fanciful swings away from the real or the ordinary lightly and pleasantly. while a conception always has. superstition has not the knowledge and mental discipline. reasonable. fanaticism. conceit or fancy may be wholly unfounded. prosaic. . Synonyms belief. fanciful arangement of objects is commonly pleasing. vagary. a visionary scheme is erroneously supposed to have a basis in fact. tme. That is fanciful which is dictated or suggested by fancy independently of more serious considerations the/anmsficisthe/awciful with the added elements of whimsioalness and extravagance. A A Antonyms accurate. fanciful theory or suggestion may be clearly recognized as such . a conceit has less of the pictui'esque and more of the theoretic than a fancy . conceit. Antonyms cynicism. supposition. sensible. visionary. i commonplace. imaginative. calcalated. a grotesque arrangement is laughable. . regular. Bigotry. picture founded upon shght or whimsical association or resemblance . a droll or odd conceit. FANCY. An intellectual fancy is a mental image or caprice. latitudlnarianism. solid.. liliing. Compare synonyms for dream . real. fanaticism has not the patience.) be pleasing or amusing. An emotional or personal /arecy is a capricious liking formed with shght reason and inclination. image. Synonyms FANCIFUL.167 fanciful fancy capacity to reason fairly. conception. literal. we speak of a mere fancy. the grotesque ridiculously. or is believed to have. intolerance has not the disposition. and siiperstition are perversions of the religious sentiment credulity and intolerance often accompany skepticism or atheism. sounds sure. A . a conceit is somewhat aside from the common laws of reasoning. Indifference. I chimerical. desire. ordinary. the fantastic extravagantly. but is never worth serious discussion . calculame. some answering reAn intellectual fancy or conceit may ality. imagination. as a fancy is lighter and more airy than the common mode of thought. humor. free-thinking.

FAREWEIili. Valevaledictory is diction is a learned word never in popular use. terror. or (without preposition) I bade my comrades farewell . Synonymsi adieu. Adieu. tremor. also from the French. in the latter sense dread is oftener used. awe. the fancy signifies the faculty by which fancies or mental images are formed. it is fear mingled with abhorrence. Fear may overwhelm. is commonly contemptuous or supercUious. farewell the formal English word at parting. parting salutation. dismay. and Antonyms! actuality. Prepositions I bade farewell to my comrades. congi. timidity. fright. truth. Compare synonyms for dream . FEAR. fright and terror render one incapable of defense . "I looked upon him with horror.fareTvell tear „a Iw* ." Where horror includes fear. Horror (etymologically a shivering or shuddering) denotes a shuddering /ear accompanied with abhorrence or such a shock to the feeUngs and sensibilities as may exist without fear. as when one suddenly encounters some ghastly spectacle . and in actual presence of that which is terrible. in view of present. I took a sad farewell of my friends. (See ABHOR. consternation. and equivalent to dismissal. valediction. cong6. Oood'by is the homely and hearty. fact. idea.) Affright. Prepositions To have a fancy /or or take a fancy to a person or thing. fear may be controlled by force of . good>'by. horror. or may nerve one to desperate defense . associated. trepidation. misgiving. leave-taking. apprehension. In a broader sense. Synonyms affiTigbt. verity. Fear is the generic term denoting an emotion excited by threatening evil with a desire to avoid or escape it . valedictory. from the French. reality. disciuletude. panic. is stiU more ceremonious than farewell . or of distant and only possible danger. A a public farewell to a company or assembly. and terror are always sudden. trembling. of imminent. imagination. no exercise of judgment. fear may be sudden or lingering. we say of a desperate but fettered criminal. dread. certainty. or combined. liable to fade as lightly as it was formed. triglit.

fright and terror overwhelm the will. . Synonyms bonds. gyves may be for either. leather. Awe is a reverential /ear. but not to dismay. the hands. . fright may cause one to fly. Dismay is more reflective. Irons. and despamng than fright. feminine to the quaUties. sbackles. a feminine voice may Antonyms i See synonyms for mascdune. and restraining a clasp. or braceletdike fastening for encircling : limb commonly one of a pair. We apply /eniaZe to the s&s. effeminate. The word effeminate is always used reproachfully. to scream. and only of men as possessing womanly traits such as are inconsistent with true manliness. cbalns.1 Aa **•" feminine letter will .e overwhelming peril or sorrow. FETTER. bondage. Handcuffs. FEMIBflHTE. fear of the intellect and the imagination terror of all the faculties. especially the finer physical or mental qualities that distinguish the female sex in the human famUy. . or any other substance that can bind chains are of linked metal. or to swoon. and chains are used in a general way for almost . manacles. Manacles and handcuffs are for custody. Compare alakm. female. duress. fetters. an .. fetters are primarily chains or jointed iron fastenings for the feet . I gyves. imprisonment. Bonds may be of cord. pecially employed by them. affecting numbers at once vast armies or crowded audiences are liable to panic upon slight occasion. a horse is subject to fright or terror. terror pai-alyzes. bodily and mental. Dismay is a helpless sinking of heart in view of som. enduring. used either for hands or feet. womanish tears a touch of contempt. durance. In a like sense we speak of a financial panic. Fright is largely a matter of the nerves . Panic is a sudden /ear ov fright. Womanish denotes the undesirable. Womanly tears would suggest respect and sympathy. 'womanisli. Synonyms. womanly the admirable or lovely qualities of woman. Bonds. or to the objects appropriate for or es- A female voice is the voice of a wombelong to a man. A shackle is a metallic ring. womanly. Antonyms: See synonyms for fobtitude.

. a feud is long=enduring. the prisoner was put in irons. strife extends from verbal controversy to the contests of armies. Dissension is used of a nimiber of perof hostility mutually retaliated Bitterness is in feeling only .fend. Controversy is commonly in words . mytb. contention and strife may be in word or deed . is now chiefly used of a prose work in narrative form which the characters are partly or wholly imaginary. never of nations. contention and strife very rarely so. brawl. F£VI>. and is commonly slight and transient. used in the metaphorical sense. dispute. FICTION. Synonyms affray. figment. or both. novel. story. fable. Affray. fabrication. as a mere fiction may not do novel is a general name for any con- Fiction in . and often hereditary. . brawl. sons. are words of inferior dignity. A Synonyms allegory. and which is designed to portray human life. apologue. Contest is often used in a good sense. the brawl or broil may be confined to violent language. especially a love-story . or parties. quarrel. broil. contest. as we speak of childish quarrels . fiction 170 any form of restraint. chains. strife. animosity. and the oth«* words are mostly restricted to the literary style handcuffs is the specific and irons the general term in popular usage as. of a party or other organization. with acts and avenged feud is rarely used of individuals. Oyves is now wholly poetic. tinuous fictitious narrative. controversy. An affray or broil may arise at a street corner . like quarrel. enmity and hostility involve wiU and purpose to oppose or injure. hostility. romance. Invention. contention. except that novel characterizes a work in which the emotional element is especially . enmity. and broil. quarrel is in word or act. falsebood. Bonds. the affray always involves physical force . with or without a practical lesson a romance portrays what is picturesque or striking. and shackles are frequently . A feud is enmity between families. /ray. clans. bitterness. fiction and novel are used with little difference of meaning. contest ordinarily involves some form of action. dissension. legend. While all the other words of the group may refer to that which is transient. .

or liable to intense and sudden excitement. is the same as fable. vHld delight. a fierce passion. a myth grows vip without intent. fabrication is designed to deceive . tender. verity. . a fierce coim-tenance may express habitual fierceness. but is reaUy stronger. . and not at aR ferocious. while a fabrication is a series of statements carefully studied and fitted together in order to deceive . and covers the various senses of aU the words in the group. That which is wild is simply unrestrained the word may imply no anger or harshness as. more commonly the latter. literalnees. raging:. A. or only the sudden anger of the moment. submissive. the falsehood is aU false . that which is ferocious steadily burns . is inwrought. but can not be historically verified .I'M *** fierce prominent. it is a less odious word thsio. I fact. Apologue. ferocious animal. a myth has been received as true at some time. docile. untrained. Fierce signifies having a. tmth." The story may be either true or false. . FIERCE. uncultivated. we say. violent. furious. mild. . legend may he true. gentle. " That statement is & figment of his imagination. kind. It applies to that which is now intensely excited. Compare atTiKGORY. the lesson of the: fiction. wild alarm. tame. furious and cruel nature. The moral of the fahle is expressed formally . savage. we speak of a. A fiery spirit with a good disposition is quickly excitable in a good cause. fiery. that which ia fierce flashes or blazes . intensely cruel. A. Ferocious always denotes a tendency to violence it a person is more distinctly bloodthirsty than the other words maybe deeply. Savage signifies untrained. bistoiy. as a falsehood may be a sudden unpremeditated statement. fiction is studied . . Synonyms: ferocious. 'wild. if any. sweet. Ferocious refers to a state or disposition . but is now known to be false. falsehood. patient. Hob fabrication may mingle the true with the false. a ferocious countenance expresses habitual ferocity. impetuous. peacefol. figment is something imaginary which the one who utters it may or may not believe to be true . Earmlese. uncultivated. a word simply transferred from Greek into English. but may not be^rce or ferocious. Antonyms affectionate. or being in a furious and cruel mood. reality. A A Antonyms certainty.

or expenditures. nanoial apphes especially to governmental revenues or expendi- monetary These words . receipts. but less directly . all relate to . we speak of a pecuniary reward. . coin. the monetary system a monetary toansaction is one in which money is transferred. currency as. we speak of one's pecuniary affairs or Fiinterests. or to private transactions of considerable moment . money. Monetary relates to actual money. a financial enterprise .financial fine 1 »a **-* FIHTAHfCIAIi. Synonyms fiscal. tures. we give a needy person pecuniary (not financial) assistance. i pecuniary. with no special reference to the handUng of cash. It is common to speak of the fiscal rather than the financial year. Pecuniary refers to that in which money is involved.

as well as heat . animals. . such as those by which the heat of the human body is maintained. herd is confined to the larger animals . designate the mingled light and heat of afire. I burniug*. and figuratively of any bright and lively group of women or children. brood is sometimes applied to a family of young children. set. and extending from slow processes. Fire is always attended with light. or undulate . FLOCK. flame. a litter of puppies . . fire the popular term. a frightened steed swerves A . A FliUCTIJATE. Comhustion is the scientific.. Synonyms bevy. Bevy is used of birds. group. vary. The individuals in a brood or litter are related to each other. pack. fluctuate (L. Compare light. as in a blast=f urnace. but rarely of men. etc. FIRE. waver. buffaloes. conflagration. hor-ses. or on the surface of the sun. vacillate. oscillate. swerve. a wave) is to move Uke a wave with pendulum oscillates. flame. a li^ht or a flame wavers . a pack of wolves. driven or gathered for driving is called a drove. collection of animals a pack of hounds. a swarm of bees. blaze. or elephants. whether of persons. Combustion is the essential fact which is at the basis of that assemblage of visible phenomenon which we call fire . combustion. as oxygen. or a fl^ck of sheep. litter of certain quadrupeds which bi-ing forth many young at a birth . drove. lot. we speak of a bevy of quail.B ° ' "* ^*> fire fluctuate Synonyms blaze. litter. veer. evolving heat. Eat herd. we speak of a brood of chickens. Synonyms To I besltate. Brood is used chiefly of fowls and birds. combustion being the continuous chemical combination of a substance with some element. to the processes producing the most intense light also. or inanimate things. fluctus. undulate. A conflagration is an extensive fire. waYea fluctuate alternate rise and fall. „ aatcb. Floch is applied to birds and to some of the smaller animals . a herd of cattle. Cfroup is the general word for any gathering of a small number of objects. > covey. those in the other groups may not be. brood. a flock of blackbirds. sw^arm. a covey of partridges.

turns upon actions. leaver Compare shake. like air or water. and now another . need. imitate. cbase. pursue. he who hesitates its way. so after. Synonyms: accompany. keeping the same volume. Water at the ordinary temperature is at once a. a victorious general may follow the retiring enemy merely to watch and hold him in check he chases or pursues with intent to overtake and attack the chase is closer and hotter than the pursuit. but not all fluids are liquids . or in time. persist. as by cold and pressure. Synonyms gas. tho capable of being reduced to a liquid form by special means. one vacillates between contrasted decisions or tion . liquid. he may waver between inaction. a liquid is any a body in that which the particles move freely among themselves. (Compare synonyms for hunt. vacillate. fluctuates. a tool or weapon swerves from the mark or line the temperature varies . decision and indecision. he who vacillates decides now one way. attend. or be. the wind veers when it suddenly changes That which veers may steadily hold the new direcits direction. FOLiLiOW. air and all the gases are fluids.fluid follow ~. or wavers reAs regards mental states. ensue. is A fluid state in a substance that. adhere. come after. Persons hesitate. All liquids axe fluids. tween action and tee&a^ fluctuate or vary. copy.) One event may follow another either with or without special connection if it . succeed. A . l'* . from that which oscillates. but they are not liquids under ordinary circumstances. stand fast. obey. but remain in one mass. bold fast. a liquid is an inelastic fluid a gas is an elastic ^tiid that tends to expand to the utmost limits of the containing space. sticks (L. stick. fluid and a liquid. he who wavers does not stick to a decision . . result. Antonyms: abide. his course . servant follows or attends his master. but taking always the form of the containing vessel . practise. undulates. yields to its force that tends to change form . hcerere) on the verge of decision . observe. eta^. Anything that comes after or goes after another. either in space is said to follow it. .

Diet refers to the quantity and quality of food habitually taken. but in a. follows or copies his exam^ pie. nourishment. homely word for whatever may be eaten'. nutrition have more of scientific reference to the vitalizing principles of various foods . viands. but applies more widely to the whole ordering of life. we say of a convalescent. Feed. Victuals is a plain. i aliment.175 ensues. victuals. is. the incoming succeeds the outgoing officiaL A A FOOO. we speak of choice viands. feed denoting anything consumed. plant food. there is if it results food some orderly connection . straw. The compositor followi copy . or the like. provender is dry feed. wretched fare. and sustenance. with reference to preservation of health. sumptuous/are. unwholesome. aa. more whatever. or inference. Nutriment and scientific sense . whether grain or hay. regimen. conse quence. ia the popular sense. wheat is said to contain a great amount of nutriment. imitates his speech and manners. sustenance. nutriment. there is some relation of effect. good or bad . etc. fodder denoting hay. serves to build up structure or supply waste may be termed /ooc? . of Food wholesome. whatever one eats in contradistinction to what one drinks. is a general word for all table supplies. Nourishment and sustenance apply to whatever can be introduced into the system as a means of sustaining life . Regimen considers /ood as taken by strict Fare rule. we speak of liquid food. cold victuals. but more commonly grain. thus.. nourishment. etc. the word is extended to plants to signify whatever taken in any way into the organism serves similar purposes thus. fodder. and provender are used only of the food of the lower animals. clerk observes his employer's directions child obeys his parent's commands. Synonyms diet. the ensuing year from another. country. or indigestible food. as. feed. . fodder. pabulum. corn- sometimes called " long feed " . we speak otfood and drink. he is taking nourishment. Forage denotes any kind of food suitable for horses and cattle. nutrition. in this wider sense food is closely synonymous with nutriment. Thus. fare. when taken into the digestive organs. forage. especially an enemy's stalks. primarily as obtained by a military force in scouring the country. provender.

Fort is the common military term for a detached fortified building or enclosure of moderate size occupied or designed to be occupied by troops. ^tt *'" Bynouymst dangerous. for etrongliold. loaded gun is dangeroiis . and the silent pressure In the ocean depths. in strength . Prepositions Formidable by or in numbers enemy. weak. citadel. and needs watching . the force of ocean waves in a storm. a. endurance. . formidable is less overwhelming than tremendous. fortification within a city. strong) the strength or firmness of mind . a. whether made so by nature or by art. Fortification is the general word any artificial defensive work . belpless. Synonyms. a charge of cavalry is terrible the full shock of great armies is tremendous. Any defensible place.fortis. resolution. or to which the defenders may retire if the outer works are captured the medieval castle was the fortified residence of a king or baron. A dangerous man is likely to do mischief. is berolsm. A. or the a city or fortress. are tremendous. fastness. a park of artillery is formidable . within which a garrison may be placed to overawe the citizens. That which is FORMIDABLE. terrible. a formidable man may not be dangerous if not attacked an enraged maniac is ferrible . fort or fortification may be temporary . The fortifications of a modern city usually consist of a chain of forts. and suggests more calm and collected power than terrible . . formidable is worthy of fear if encountered oi opposed. fortress is a. i feeble. courage. a ordinarily an independ- a city. a.i'ormidable lorlitude . fortification of especial size fortress is regarded as permanent. formidable to the Synonyms: castle. as. fortress. fastness or stronghold. and is ent work . formidable array of troops. is a and strength . tremendous. Fortitude (L. redou'bted. A citadel is fortified inner part of . powerless. or of evidence. hannlesa. a fortification may be but part of a defensive system . we speaJs of the fortifications of a. FORTIXrDE. rORTIFICATION. Formidable is a word of more dignity than dangerijus. despicable. fort. Antonyms i contemptible.

fallen. as we speak of the fortunate. issue of a great battle . deception. A deceit or deception may be designed merely to gain some end of one's own. swindling. FORTUHTATE. Antonyms > broken. Fortitude might be termed "still courage. '''P'l'f lU'Started. signifies possessed of the means of happiness. fortunate is more naturally applied to the graver matters. he is known as a successful man if he has achieved or gained worthy objects of endeavor . imposture. fortitude to stand stiU under an enemy's fire. endurance to resist hunger and cold. but not complete. or against which one has no adequate defense . a lucky guess. cbeat. treason. prosperous. or of one as " bom under a lucky star. v FRAITD. Happy. iuiluc%. Luchy is the more common and colloquial. dlsbouesty. euccessful. he is fortunate or hicky if advantages have come to him without or beyond his direct planning or achieving." wliich is a good definition. . lucky more strongly emphasizes the element of chance. treachery. PATIENCIE. rather than the luicky. as when we speak of a lucky hit. Synonyms favored. A man is successful in any case if he achieves or gains what he . One is said to be happy or prosperous whether his prosperity be the result of fortune or of achievement . implying that one is the object of divine favor. in this connection. it is that quality which is able not merely to endure paia or trial. imposition. but steadily to confront dangers that can not be actively opposed. it takes courage to charge a battery. Happy.ntr» l7» . unhappy. fortunate the more elegant word ." Favored is used in a religious sense. to take . I lucky. it requires resolution to resist temp' tation. cbeatmg. trick." or " enduring courage . A fraud is an act of deliberate deception with the design of securing something by taking unfair advantage of another. cmeliea. deceit. Fortitude has been defined as " passive courage. swindle. mlseraWe. with no intent of harming another an imposition. Synonyms i artifice.. seeks prospered. Resolution is of the mind endurance is partly physical . anfortnnate. prospered rather denotes the action of a superintending Providence. duplicity. fortunate fraud or soul to endure paJn or adversity patiently and determinedly. Compare brave .

and is not ordinarily open to legal redress. cheating and swindling are for the most part out of the reach of legal proceedings.friendly 178 some small advantage of another. Fraud is conimonly actionable at law . treachery may be more harmful than fravd. or war. but is not so gross. An imposture is designed to obtain money. credit. Antonyms fdmess. social relations. to deceitful practises which are not directly criminal. Fraud includes deceit. good faith. or simply to make another ridiculous. and may be practised by a All action that is street beggar or by the pretender to a throne. . and is definable and punishable at law. Synonyms 1 . a cheat is of the nature of fraud. but deceit may not reach the gravity oi fraud . honesty. Treachery is chiefly used of dishonesty in matters of friendship. nprlghtnesB. Treason is a specific form of treachery of a subject to the government to which he owes allegiance. but of a petty sort .. but the term dishonesty is generally applied in business. a swindle is more serious than a cheat. deception. troth. integrity. govern- ment. etc. not honest is dishonesty. Compare artifice . or position to which one is not entitled. inyolving larger values and more flagrant dishonesty. politics.

friendliness. love often rises to intensest passion . Antonyms adverse. . or the friendship between them. one may have friendly feelings toward an enemy.. Friendship is more iutellectual and less emotional than love . founded upon Friendship is always mutual . . belligerent. but while there is hostility or coldness on one side there can not be friendship between the two. .") Compare acquaintance. Friendliness is a quality of friendly feeling. as. not necessarily implying special friendliness . excessive. Friendship implies some degree of equality. distant. devotion. is esteem. nnfrlendlr. . Christ was called "the friend of sinners. with care of each other's right. (There is more latitude in the use of the concrete noun friend. antagonistic. Compare friendship. Inimical. contentions."^ devoted. warlite. affection. or amity between neighboring countries. enduring affection. frlendslilp Affectionate. we can not speak of the passion oi friendship. Antonyms: See synonyms for battle enmity feud hatred." iMke i. but never unreciprocated or unrequited friendship. or at least appears. gooawfU. nnlsind. friendship is more cahn and quiet. love does not we can speak of man's love toward God. Prepositions The friendship of one person for or toward another. it is easier to give reasons for friendship than for love . attacnment. cold. Abraham was called "the friend of Grod". Comity is mutual kindly courtesy. the comity of nations. favor. affection that becomes. love. without the deep and settled attachment implied in the state of friendship. a devoted friend " the tender mercy of our Grod. or even unrecognized and unappreciated devotion. indiSerent. FRnSNDSHIP. . quiet. alienated. as. estranged. there may be unreciprocated affection or attachment. Affection may be purely natural . and amity a friendly feeling and relation. 78. love. regard. . IU«dlsposecl. friendship is a growth. disaffectnd. hosUle. frigid. unrequited love. consideration. love more fervent . s belUcoBe. comity. not of his friendship for God. amity. and tender are almost always used in a high and good sense . an affectionate son . a deep. while Friendship mutual respect and esteem.

to terttfy is to awaken fear that is overwhelming. Employers may intim. Prudence and providence look far ahead. FRITOAL. wealth. prudence. threatening. co^. scare. and sacrifice the present to the future. Intimidate. the quiet levelsavage beast is ining of a highwayman's pistol intimidates. Miserliness is the denying oneself and others the ordinary comforts or even necessaries of life. One is A timidated by the keeper's whip. providence plans. sparing. for the mere sake of hoarding money. opulence.idate their employees from voting contrary to their will by threat of discharge . riches. miserliness. with a view to wholesome and profitable expenditure at a fitting time. t alarm.) Thrift seeks not merely to save. scrimping. thrift at once earns and saves. frugality . tbrift. or even a brave spirit. The sudden rush of an armed madman may frighten. extravagance. bounty. To browbeat or cow is to bring into a state of submissive fear . Synonyms economy. he is intimidated by an apprehension of contingent consequences dependent on some act of his own to be done or forborne . or paring of supphes or provision. (See prudence. frightened by a cause of fear addressed directly and suddenly to the senses . dismay. daunt. providence. appal. Synonyms afnrierlit. parsimony. Economy is a wise and saves.ITT. To scare is to cause sudden. luxury. one's disposal careful administi'ation of the means at frugality is a withholding of expenditure. Frugality exalted into a virtue to be practised for its own sake. Economy manages. saving as much as may be necessary for that end. but to earn. terrify. to davnt is to give pause or check to a violent. unnerving fear . Antonyms: abundance. the means of intimidation may act througli the senses. liberality. parsimoniousness. becomes the vice oi parsimony. parsimony is excessive and unreasonable saving for the sake of saving. or may appeal only to the intellect or the sensibilities. a mother may be intimidated through fear for her child. to a noticeable and often to a painful degree . . See ABSTINENCE.fi'lgliten frugality 180 FRIOHTEN. instead of as a means to an end. affluence. saving:. browlieat. waste. Compare alarm.

a talkative child. and unintelligible. petty. a verbose writer. chattering is often used of vocal sounds that may be intelligible by themselves but are ill understood owing to confusion of many voices or other cause. Seos is teristic OEIVDER. loquacious. freciuent. and those that maintain it are often quite arbitrary in its application. Chatter- ing signifies uttering rapid. public.tterances more formal than conversation. We Autonyms: laconic. a talkative or loquacious woman. . which are of no sex. as resemble them . either may be lively and for a time entertaining. sounds. Synonyms t cbatterlng. thei-e are in some languages. Garrulous signifies given to constant trivial talking. the loquacious person has an abundant flow of language and much to say on any subject suggested . veiliose. normal. popular. commonplace. Synonyms common. reserved. noisy. tacitiuu. three genders. Synonym ses. or scarcely intelligible. speak of a chattering monkey or a chattering idiot. Edient. OElVERAIi. as in English and German. among living beings : a distinction it is also the charac- by which most living beings are distinguished from inanimate things. the male or female sex. The talkative person has a strong disposition to talk. - reticent. babitual.|e| garrulous general GARRVIiOVS. Compare circumlocution. a garrulous old man. gender is a distinction in language partially corresponding to this distinction in natm-e while there are but two sexes. universal. prevalent. ordinary. familiar. "We speak of the masculine or feminine gender. as to writings or public addresses. Common signifies frequently occurring. taUiative. epeechlesg. and self=absorbed. the garrulous person is tedious. The French language has but two genders and makes the names of aU inanimate objects either masculine or feminine some languages are without the distinction of gender. Verbose is applied to r. not out of the regular . customary. everyday. or many ideas . whether articulate words or such. repetitious. with or without an abundance of words. usual.

Blojtnlat. free and abundant in giving. free^bearted. a general rule. while a general statement is not invalidated even by adducing many exceptions. general applies to aU with plies to possible or comparatively slight exceptions very is majority. he can be generous only with his own. a universal It is is one from which no human being is exempt. as. and animus. etc. great. of one's hearty interest in another's welfare or happiness. liberal to the A (L. a millionaire makes a liberal donation . generous. munificent. nnconuiion. a universal law. liberal. One may be free with another's money . is commonly thought of as both ample and hearty. munificent gift is vast in amount. Generous (L. a race) primarily signifies having the qualities worthy of noble or honorable birth. open^bearted. may show himself amount of the gift . free. a genercyus gift. and thus above resentr . soul) that rises above all that is mean. not excellent or distinguished. unknown. One is magnanimous by a greatness of soul heartiness of the giver. but very commonly signifies pertaining to the greater number. Infreqaent. poor. As regards giving.. inferior. common apmany without deciding whether they are even a A commmi remark is one we often hear . free^bantlecl. sorrow is common to the race. and self=sacrificingly. however. Disinterested suggests rather the thought of one's own self-denial. not exceptional . common experience. but not necessarily to all. magnus. common also signifies pertaining to or participated in by two or more persons or things . since that can be negatived by a single exception. noble. magnanimous. or weak. hence. heartily. Compare i^ynonyms for nokual. i bountiful. Universal applies to all without exception .generons 1§2 course. Antonjms exceptional. OSUAI. a chQd generous In the gift of an apple. a general fex- perience experience one that comes to the majority of people . dangerous for a debater to afSrm a universal proposition. cMvalrous. hence. onnsnaL Bynonyms GEIVEROVS. raro. General may signify pertaining equally to aU of a class. or even low . whatever the motive of its bestowal. . generous refers rather to the seU-saci-iflcing disinterested. open^banded. general truth. race. giving freely. especially above every petty or ignoble motive or feeling pertaining to one's self. genus. not above the average. We say a common opinion.

for some special mental work or athigher than talent. an equivalent of labor for. . Yet the genius that has won the largest and most enduring success has been joined with tireless industry and painstaking. gain. expression. . Oet is a most comprehensive word. a fever he gains what he comes to by effort or striving the swimmer gains the shore . cloBe. greedy. A person gets whatever he comes to possess or experience. what he axiquires A person earns what he gives aa slowly and gradually resulting. acquire. discovery. iUlberal. parsimomonB. what he gains is viewed as desirable. more spontaneous. expectation. ignoUe. he may get what he has not earned . secure. in such iise. Antonyms aTariciouB. . acquire. covetous. foUy. Btmgy. a particu- Genius is lar and uncommon aptitude Oenius is tainment. penurions. one acquires a foreign language. senBeleBsness. he incidentally gains some knowledge of foreign countries. niggardly. appropriate. he acquires by association with others a correct or incorrect accent he acquires a bronzed complexion by exposui-e to a tropical sun. A I)erson is sometimes said to gain and often to acquire what has not been an object of direct endeavor in the pursuits of trade.""* 1§3 genius get ment of injury or insult . invention. a man acquires by continuous and ordinarily by slow process . . exalted intellectual power capable of operating independently of tuition and training. one is generous by a kindness of heart that would rejoice in the welfare rather than in the punishment of the offender. rapaclons. obtain. mean. Synonyms OET. i talents. less amenable to training . earn. petty. achieve. and marked by an extraordinary faculty for original creation. On the other hand. a fall. adapt oneself to demand. etc. Btapidity. or desire he gets a bargain. Synonyms talent. the temptation . miserly. receive. Imbeciiity. less dependent upon instruction. attain. whether with or without endeavor. Talent is marked mental ability. and in a special sense. . procure. tho he may not get it. POWEK. ivin. talent is largely the capacity to learn. Antonyms: dulnesB. Compare synonyms for MIND . obtaseness. a blow. as.

present. and viewed as of enduring value. one is strictly passive . but in legal phrase he is said to gain his suit. as to a cause or to a person representing a cause. or cause.e procures a dinner or an interview he secures what has seemed uncertain or elusive.uest." Prov. MAKE REACH. whether he has gained or earned it or not. h. as an endowment for a college. generally of large amount. or to win in a suit at law. bribe. largess. a person is often said to vnn a lawsuit. grant. Win denotes contest. . gratuity. and given as to an equal or a superior no one's pride is hurt by accepting what is viewed as strictly a present. In receiving. he may get an estate by his own exertions or by inheritance . Synonymsi benefaction. xxix. a donation to a pastor. given usually on some pubhc ground. One obtains a thing commonly by some direct effort of his own . never of trivial value.girt 1S4 to all dishonesty is the desire to get a living or a fortune without earning it. bribe is A always in the evil sense to signify payment for a dishonorable service under the semblance of a gift. . but not necessarily of value beyond the immediate present as. A boon is a gift that has . . he is said to obtain it. and as of favor. he procures it commonly by the intervention of some one else . Compare synonyms for attain . case. donation. In Scriptural language " The king by judgment establisheth gift is often used for bribe. with a suggestion of chance or hazard in popular language. See synonyms for ABANDON. not of right as. a gratuity to a waiter. Antonyms: . gift is in the popular. in the latter case he is said to receive it. 4. . . or conciliation. when he gets it firmly into his . A donation is something. as among the heralds at ancient tournaments. the land but he that receiveth gifts overthrowelh it. A benefaction is a charitable gift. When one gets the object of his desire. usually to be distributed among many. A present is a gift of friendship. bounty. boon. perhaps of great. A gratuity is usually something of moderate value and is always given as to an inferior. and also in the legal sense that which voluntarily bestowed without expectation of return or compensation. Largess is archaic for a bountiful gratuity. GIFT. Oift is now almost always used in the good sense. possession or under his control. beq.

. to put into another's possession by any means and on any terms whatever. Congress grants lands to a raih-oad corporation. information. furnisb. .. mold. OIVE. To bestow . restrain. reign over. etc. curb. To grant is to put into one's possession in some formal way. . communicate. and I will give you the money " we speak of giving answers. earnings. need we Prepositions: to give that of bestow alms. retains the teacher imparts instruction. for a purpose. a term of such general import as to be a synonym for a wide variety of words. medicine. wages* Synonyms cede. etc. Synonyms command. exercise of authority that Govern carries the idea of authoritative administration or some conis at once effective and continuous . reproof. . sway. To speak of granting a favor carries a claim or concession of superiority on the part of the one by whom the grant may be made to confer has a similar sense as. (or without proposition. this book was given me. penalty. remuneration. reign. to confer a degree or an honor we grant a request or petition. . manage. or by authoritative act as. . confer. or something freely given that meets some great desire. impart. To it is give ship without compensation primarily to transfer to another's possession or owner. direct. Give thus becomes. and often of giving what is not agreeable to the recipient. rule. supply. is which the receiver stands in especial We give money to a person for a thing. . grant is commonly considerable in amount and given by public authority' j as. a buyer may say " Give me the goods. guerdon. give is always understood in its primary sense as. Antonyms i compeDBation. grant. control. give a person a sum of money) we give a thing to or into one's care or keeping the weary fugitive gave himself up to his pursuers. but do not confer it. To impart is to give of that which one still. i bestcw. but when there is nothing in the context to indicate the contrary. like get. . . as blows. influence. to a greater or less degree. a grant' oi public A lands for a coUege. in its secondary sense in popular use. . is deliver. OOTERN.*"" govern been desired or craved or perhaps asked.

a skilful horseman controls a spirited horse a person controls his trols . temper . 186 but may be momentary or occasionaL One conwhat he holds or can hold at will absolutely in check . Graceful commonly suggests motion or the possibility of motion beautiful may apply to absolute fixity a landscape or a blue sky is beautiful. the right to make that other do his will. attitude. yield. Govern implies the exercise of knowledge and judgment as well as power. be in eubjection. Antonyms. as when we speak of a commanding influence. by gentle means. with ease of action. to Tnold is not only to influence feeling and action. sways the feelings and molds the lives of her children to be able to manage servants is an important element of good housekeeping. ORACEFVl. . we say to one who is excited. with or without effective power . a parent may command a child whom he can not govern or control. to sway is to move by quiet but effectual influence ." A per- son commands another when he has. but to shape character. comply.graceful trol is effective. " control yourself. he controls another whom he can effectually prevent from doing anything contrary to his will he governs one whom he actually does cause. or control their pupils largely by other means. a fortress commands the region when no enemy can pass against its resistance. The word reign. or claims. regularly or constantly. a wise mother. the Queen of England reigns .. to obey his will . or delicacy of form. the Czar of Bussia both reigns and rules. obey.anage is to secure by skilful contrivance the doing of one's will by those whom one can not directly control. however. but govern Command is. . GracefuJ commonly applies . with power of inflicting penalty if not obeyed . snbmlt. To rule is more absolute and autocratic than to govern . be subject. The best teachers are not greatly prone to command. to m. . once so absolute. Synonym beautiful. or posture. now simply denotes that one holds the official station of sovereign in a monarchy. as well as requiring^ submission or obedience. but neither is graceful. often used in the sense of securing. a man commands the situation when he can shape events as he pleases . That which is graceful is marked by elegance and harmony. as.

Graceful applies to the perfection of motion. which convey no poem or a suggestion of stress or strain. saaness. or other ill>defined cause . graceful denotes a pleasing harmony of outUne. tribulation. tho we often speak of a graceful graceful compliment. especially of the lighter motions. Compare beautiful be. a Hercules is massive. it is common to observe thirty days of mourning on the death of an affliction. rule. Synonyms ORIEF. dition. sadness may be momentary .IS*^ to ^a'Sft beauty as addressed to the eye. attitude. melancholy is more enduring. distress. spontaneous. sorrcnr. officer of state. as. routine. wont. or a conOustom is the uniform doing of the same act dition so induced. Antonyms! See synonyms for AWKWABn. usage. from a low state of health. and may become chronic. for a friend. HABIT. Synonyms' custom. Sorrow and gm'e/ are for definite cause . or the public expression of such sorrow as may reasonably be expected. troulile. Affliction expresses a deep heart=sorrow and is applied also to the misfortune producing such sorrow. etc. system. Habit is a tendency or inclination toward an action or conwhich by repetition has become easy. or an action or regular series of actions. Apart from the thought of motion. xegret. practise. or deep disappointment. mourning most frequently denotes sorrow publicly expressed. mourmiig. use. sadness and melancholy may arise from a vague sense of want or loss. proportion. with a certain degree of delicacy . fasblon. or even unconscious. i melancboly.. Grief is acute mental pain resulting from loss. Prepositions i Grief at a loss . \ro. misfortune. and are in harmonious curves. graceful drapery. Antonyms! See synonyms for happiness. . Grief is more acute and less enduring than sorrow. an Apollo is graceful. speak of We a graceful coming. habitude.

as. Betideia especially used for anticipated evil. practise is the voluntary and persistent attempt to make skill a habit . we speak of one person's Mse of language. it is the rule of the house . Habit always includes an involuntary tendency.bappen 188 in the same circumstance for a definite reason. wo betide him I One event supervenes upon another event. something external or actual happens to one . we do not speak of 13:^. Habitude is habitual relation or association. betide. happen is intransitive . supervene. chance. Educationally. the habits of an individuaL Fashion is the generally recognized custom in the smaller matters. routine is ilie doing of customary acts in a regular and uniform sequence and is more mechanical than custom. [" Transpire. or even unconscious. to pass. Use and usage denote the manner of using something . or none it appears to be the result of accident (compare synonyms for accident). rule is prescribed either by some external authority or by one's own will . acts or things into is almost always a habit. a lawyer's or a physician's practise. befall. Befall and betide are especially thought of .6 practise. is manifest. a use I make it my invariable rule. Practise is the active doing of something in a systematic way . natural or acquired. and to follow a regular routine of business until closing=time. and may be uncontrollable. we speak of a tradesman's custom. but of the habit of going to sleep . as. come faU. . occur. fall out. Chistom is chiefly used of the action of many . greatly strengthened by frequent repetition of the act. Wont is blind and instinctive habit like that which attaches an animal to a locality • the word is now almost wholly poetic. It is the custom of tradesmen to open at a uniform hour. a thought or fancy occurs to him. etc. An incident happens or occurs . or usage Synonyms: becbance. but of the ULsage of many . thought of as waiting and coming at its appointed time : as. habit of the action of one we speak of the customs of society. or. A thing is said to happen when it is no design said to diance when transitive . one disease upon another. Compare DRESS. and is more and better than routine. something befalls or betides a person or happens to him. A System is the coordination of lAany a unity. especially in dress. practise in penmanship. HAPPEN. take place." in the sense of happ&i.

we speak of used. while he may be far from a state of enjoyment. enjoyment. . gratification. satlsfacuon. . Pleasure is still more vivid. Happiness is the positively agreeable experience that springs from the possession of good. being the agreeable consciousness of having all that our faculties demand or crave . but the plural of happiness ia scarcely Happiness. As referring to a mental state. discovery. a-nd is . i blessedness. etc. a person happens on or upon a Synonyms Dllss. Gratification is the giving any mental or physical desire something that it craves . is mental or spiritual or both. being an arousing of the faculties to an intensely agreeable activity satisfaction is more tranquil than^^eosure. HAPPENESS. rapture. triumpb. may be almost wholly negative. happiness is abiding. delight. gratification is used to denote a mild form of happiness resulting from some incident not of very great importance . and may be eternal . satisfaction is the giving such a desire all that it craves. mirtb. gladness. but as intellect or sensibiUties of a low order may find satisfaction in that which is very poor or unworthy.] Prepositions An event happens to a person fact. we speak of pleasures. more complete. cneer.**" is bapplnesEl is not authorized by good usage : a thing that has Ttappened properly said to transpire when it becomes known. pleasure. contentment) enjoyment. Enjoyment is more positive. the sympathy of a true friend affords comfort in sorrow. Comfort being found in security or relief from that which pains or annoys . when a worthy pleasure is past. but scarcely as in possession of happiness . satisfaction should properly express a happiness deeper. thus. there is comfort by a warm fireside on a wintry night . and more abiding . a worthy satisfaction remains. rejoicing. ecstasy. always implying something to be definitely and consciously delighted in a sick person finds comfort in relief from pain. viewed as resulting from some worthy gratification or satisfaction . felicity. gaiety. the gratification or satisfaction of the desires or the relief from pain and evil. we may speak of a'brute as experiencing comfort or pleasure. Happiness is more positive than comfort. or satisfaction. in the fuU sense. Joy. merriment. comfort. the word has come to be feeble and tame in ordinary use. pleasure is of necessity transient . more serene and rational than pleasure .

sunny. smiling. when it becomes almost equivalent to blessed. prosperous. Gaiety is more superficial than Joy. etc. ecstasy is a state of extreme or extravagant delight so that the one affected by it seems almost beside himself with joy . but is more serene. achievement. mlrtlifiil. success. Blessedness is at once the state and the sense of being divinely blessed . exalted. piness. Behold. festivity. TEmnrsoif In Memoriam Ixiii. manner.) Happy has. Rejoicing is happiness or joy that finds utterance in word. voice. deeper than gladness. as. felicitous. and the associated Happy words. and action. And grasps the skirts of happt/ chance. successful. sprightly. Delight is vivid. joy as results from victory. overflowing happiness of a somewhat ti-ansient kind . colder and more formal than hap- Gladness is happiness that overflows. happy is the man whom God correcteth. to which it is akin. Bliss is ecstatic. he has a happy w'it. lucky. when it becomes a synonym for dexterous. In its most frequent present use. Compare comfort. the hliss of heaven. Triumph is sach. rapturous. In this sense happy is closely allied to fortunate and luehy. or joy.Iiappy 190 vicious pleasure. Felicity is a philosophical term. 17. more demonstrative than gladness. but not of vicious happiness. (See FORTUNATE. and enduring. Job v. or to that by which happiness is expressed." a chance that brings prosperity. benefit. delight. perfected happiness . rejoiced. Joy is more intense than happiness. happy at retort (compare clever). or is even excluded by direct reference to the divine will. 2. the blessedness of the righteous. expressing itself in countenance. merry. as. rapture is closely allied to ecstasy. is also applied to the ready dexterity or skill by which favorable results (usually in minor matters) are secured. . song. so far diverged from this original sense as to apply to advantages where chance is not recognized. or success. st. pleasea. Antonyms t See synonyms for gbiep. happy is applied to the state of one enjoying happiness. rejoicing:. nobler and more enduring than pleasure. Happy primarily refers to something that comes "by good hap. as. however.

consistency. borne up by joy and hope. agreement. BARIHONT. or patched=up agreement. or feelings. combine to form a consistent and pleasing whole. symmetry. but harmony is wider in range. the attempt to secure conformity to an established religion. or use . or acts which are brought into comparison. happy (compare synonyms for happikbss). a cheering word is more distinctly planned to cheer and encourage. When tones. individually different. A vrith his friends. a happy face . union. Harmony is deeper and more essential than agreement . may speak of being in accord with a person on one point. the discovery. amity. forced. there is harmony. their views were found to be in perfect accord . or. buoyant spirit is. as. accordance. by conference concord was secured . but never a superficial. as. Concord implies more volition than accord . a happy heart . Conformity is correspondence in form. the word often signifies submission to authority or necessity. uniformity. congruity. AntonymsCompare synonyms for grief. concurrence. statements. unanimity. forced. happy laughter . and may be as far as possible from harmony . over his success. conformity.Ill * _ barmouy tears as. happy at a reply . Concord is less full and spiritual than liarmony. Congruity involves the element of suitableness consistency implies the absence of conflict or contradiction in views. thoughts. Cheerful applies to the possession or expression of a moderate and tranquil happiness. as in the different statements of the same person or the different periods of one man's life . A cheery word spontaneously gives cheer to others . happy in his home. Oay applies to an eflEusive and superficial happiness (often not really worthy of that name) perhaps resulting largely from abundant animal spirits we speak of gay revelers or a gay horse. or patched=up harmony. Prepositions happy event /or him . as it were. consonance. Synonyms' accord. but discover it. unanimity is the complete hearty agree- We . consent. concord. unity. among bis children happy at . manner. A sunny disposition has a constant tranquil brightness that irradiates all who come within its A influence. we may have a superficial. we do not secure accord. unison.

" John iv. 35. signified originally "autumn. barvest=festival. proceeds. rowth. return. Product is a word of wider application than produce . but the laborers are few. not the TpotatO'harvest we may say either the wheat=crof) or the yrhesMiarvest. consent and cotwurrence refer to decision or action. whether summer or autumn. Antonyms antagonism. _arvest:feast. one speaks by general consent when no one in the assembly cares to make formal objection . Harvest is applied almost wholly to grain . The word proceeds is chiefly used of the return from an investment . the act or process of gathering a crop or crops. but we should not speak of his selling his harvest . conflict. Ingathering.barvest 192 ment of many . and hence a crop gathered or ready for gathering . eggs. and is. result. battle. disnnion. but of the proceeds of the money invested in farming. product. or the prodiici obtained by multiplying one number by another. the word came to its present meaning of the season of gathering ripened grain or fruits. dissension. we speak and as that of an ample or abimdant harvest. . product. friendship. vegetables. schism. variance. arvest^feast. from the Anglo=Saxon. we say a man sells his crop. 2. the products ot thought. separanon. Harvest. opposiUou. inconsistency. barvestins. produce." Jjuke x. Harvest is the elegant and literary word . controversy. HARVEST. barvest-tlde. MELODY. for they are white already to harvest. we speak of the produce of a farm. truit. crop applies to almost anything that ia gathered in . crop is the common and commercial expression . frowth. " The harvest truly is " Lift up your eyes great. coutenuon. warfare. we speak of the potato=cj*pp. but of a product ov various j)roduets. t contest. reaping. may be termed farm= produce. and look on the fields. a decision of the Supreme Court depends upon the eoncurrence of a majority of the judges. Synonyms crop. fruits. disproportion. discord. almost wholly restricted to this sense we speak of produce collectively. yield." is the usual season of gathering ripened crops in Northern lands. Produce is a collective word for all that is produced in farming or gardening. Increase. difEerence. Incongrnlty. hostnitjr. barvest=tlae. haxvest^tlnie. Compare agree . butter. barvest=Iiome. but consent is more passive than concurrence . etc. we speak of the products of manufacturing. disagreement. also. In modem usage. or the products of the farm.. a good crop.

Spite is petty malice that delights to inflict stinging pain . tho often impotent to act . such as crop more rarely permits . it is sinister and bitter grudge. 16. As applied to things. Synonyms abhorrence. anger is sudden and brief. spite. a highwayman would be said to entertain malice toward the unknown traveler whom he attacks. hatred of evil is a righteous passion. srudge. resentment. but of the yield of corn or oats. akin to abhorrence. rancor. malevolence. rancor (akin to rancid) is cherished malignity that has soured and festered and is virulent and implacable. Harvest has also a figurative use. and from which he instinctively draws back. revenge. antipathy. repugnance. grudge is deeper than spite . is intense and continued aversion." Tennyson Pelleas and Ettarre st. usually with disposition to injure . Harvest'home ordinarily denotes the festival of harvest. Malice is direct. always holds itself to be 13 . or from some course of action. nate. or hatred. harvest'tide. detestation. we term a religious revival a haj^vest of souls . the best word of the three. Malice involves the active intent to injure in the legal sense. Aversion is the turning away of the mind or feelings from some person or thing. malignity. malignity is deep. as applied to persons. and harvest* time alike denote the period or season when the crops are or should be gathered (Mdti being simply the old Saxon word for time). even tho with no personal ill mil . lingeriag. and venomous. Sate. etc. 111 will. HATRED. resentment. Bpeak of the return from an expenditure of money or labor. with desire to destroy or remove . As regards time. such as harvest and harvest'time by themselves do not express. revenge may denote also the retaliatory act resentment. Repugnance appUes to that which one feels himself summoned or impelled to do or to endure. hatred is intense aversion. an^er. harvest. as. aversion. " Her wrath became a hate. and revenge are all retaliatoiy. grudge being the disposition. malice is the intent to injure. pressing toward a result . animosity. dislike. r&venge the determination to repay real or supposed offense with injury . and when used to denote simply the season always gives a suggestion of festivity and rejoicing. bostlllty. hatred is lingering and enduring]. enmity. malice.193 The yield is what the land gives hatred up to the fanner's demand we . the result of lax enforcement of law is a harvest of crime. but more vehement.

casualty. risk. in chance and venture . contingency. have that right in actual exercise. be possessed of. chance. while to 6e in possession denotes simply the fact with no affirmation as to the right. or securely in one's control a man holds his friend's coat for a moment. HATE.hazard justifiable. penl. iovb. or holds an office. danger. 1®^ but looks less certainly to action than grudge or revenge. antipathy . the possibility of loss or harm for the danger may have no compensating alterna- In hazard the possibilities of gain or loss are nearly balanced . To have reason is to be endowed with the faculty . To otvn is to have the right of property in to possess is to . a fortune or an opinion. own. to be in possession of one's reason denotes that . with some degree of permanency. venture. Compare abomination . To be in possession differs from possess in that to possess denotes both right and fact. the foolhardy take great risks in mere wantonness . fortuity. they will be moved to revenge only by what they deem an injury or afiront. . . with or without ownership. To hold is to have in one's hand. Simple goodness may arouse the hatred of the wicked . or he holds a struggling horse . and is applied -to whatever belongs to or is connected with one a man has a head or a head< ache. HAZARD. to occupy is to have possession and use. . enmity. To possess a thing is to have the ownership with control and enjoyment of it. he has time. possess. a friend or an enemy . a man may own a farm of which he is not in possession because a tenant occupies it and is determined to hold it the proprietor owns the property. or has need . Synonyms I accident. but the tenant is in possession. in risTe the possibility of loss is the chief thought . what he has borrowed. A man occupies his own house or a room in a hotel . anger . Sfuonrms i occupy. what has been entrusted to him. be In possession ox^ Hold. Antonyms i See synonyms for fbiendship . the faculty is in actual present exercise. he holds a promissory note. he may be said to have what is his own. Have is the most general word. Hazard is the incurring possibility of benefit tive. jeopardy. or what he has stolen.

necesdfy. sound. salubrious. "^ worn. as. befriend. "We can speak of helping the helpless. 'wbolesome. Synonyms I bale. tatetf. worn down. a salutary lesson. certain to happen to some. pated . Tn extremity we say " Grod help me I " rather than " God aid me I In time of danger we cry " help ! help ! " rather than " aid t aid I" To aid is to second another's own exertions. A Antonyms asGcrance. ealubrlous. be arty. aid. but uncertain as to whom or how many.195 Iiealthy help the hope of good predominates . which may or may not be attended with danger or rislc. Synonyms abet. contingency is simply an indeterminable future event. HEAL. cooperate. vlgrorous. byglentc. but of an insurance company's i^k . Antonyms] delicate. Salutary is now chiefly used in the moral sense . In law to aid at (Compare synonyms for accessory. assist. one may be driven by cir* cumstances to run a ruik .. sanitary. safeguard. danger. sustain. wasted. and is chiefly applied to air or climate. the hazard or risk of losing.tliful.) . tending or adapted to confer. Healthful signifies promotive of health. strong. See accident . nnhealth. With healthful are ranged the words hygienic. or promote health . support. while the other words are associated with healthy. famtmg.THT. 01. certainty. are incalculable. as. and wholesome. emaciated. protection. salutary. HELP. sick. Tie. Help includes aid^ but aid abet may fall short of the meaning makes one a principal. ' worn oat. encourage. safety. a healthy person . Accidents casualties may be to a certain extent anticideath and wounds are casualties of battle. we speak of a merchant's venture. diseased. t^Sag. he freely seeks a venture . as. second. Healthy is most correctly used to signify possessing or enjoying health or its results . plan. Salubriotis is always used in the physical sense. salutary. sanitary. secimty. well. Wholesome food ia a healthful climate makes a healthy mao. onsonnd. we speak of the chance of winning. but not of aiding them. exhausted. preserve. stand by. npboUL Help expresses greater dependence and deeper need than aid. a healthy condition. foster. succor. a healthful ciimate. of help. bea].

Prepositions the enemy. discourage. succor the endangered. a schismatic differs in doctrine or practise. a schismatic introduces divisions. differs in doctrine from the religious body with which he is connected . «o« Iwo To cooperate is to aid as an equal to assist implies a subordinate and secondary relation. and heretic is often used playfully. heresiarch is the author of a heresy or the leader of a heretical party. a heretic is one who takes or chooses his own belief. dissimilar. hence. unlike. as uphold now usually does . resist. or party . the religious sense of the word is the predominant one . heretic may be reticent. Etymologically. as A A A Russia. scbismatlc. Dissenter and nonconformist are terms specifically applied to English subjects who hold themselves aloof from the Church of England . uSLhomoeeneaas. nonibomogeaeous. mixed. promote. against Synonyms HERETIC. a heretic itfone who denies commonly accepted views. or who holds opinions contrary to the recognized standard or tenets of any established religious. support the weak. withstand. Help in an enterprise vjith money . i dissenter. mlscellaneouB. the former term is extended to non=adherents of the established church in some other countries. variant. thwart. bereslarch. i confused. < oppose. or even silent . discordant. Encourage refers to mental aid. or other system. encourage the timid or despondent. or in both. various. mingled. succor and support. We Antonyms counteract. oftenest . the odious sense once attached to these words is largely modified. and is thus at once a heretic and a schismatic. help to success . philosophical. school. nonconformist. With advancing ideas of religious Uberty. to material assistance. instead of the belief of his church . uphold those who else might be shaken or cast down. conglomerate.licrcUc hetcrogenious . Compare abet. a schismatic is heretic primarily one who produces a split or rent in the church. A heterogenious Substances quite unlike are heterogenious as regards each other. mixture is one whose constituents are not only . Synonyms HETEROOEWEOVS. One assists a fallen friend to rise he cooperates with hun in helping others.

but unevenly distxibuted . sand. dissemble. form. Antonyms alike. Buppretw. a bar of iron that contains flaws. or by the faculties of the one from whom it is hidden.. . screen. not be heterogeneous . heterogeneous . use. or from their conceal. entomb. etc. same. and is used chiefly of such material objects as may be ordinary surroundings. by accident. tdeatical. maslc. cover. face in anger. overwlieUn. signifying to approach . nnllonn. secrete. . I conceal. cement is composed ol substances such as lime. t» ecmeeal is always intentional . disguise. etc. bkd'snest . but the cement is said to be homogeneous If the different constituents are evenly mixed throughout. prospect by one may As an act of persons. slmuar. air»bubble8. the collection is miscellaneous . Synonyms biinr clo^te. . such a mixture is also.. a cloud hides the sun.197 hide unlike in kind. inter. so that subany one portion of the mixture is exactly like any other. tho no foreign substance be mixed with the iron. quality. and clay. Even an unconscious object may hide another thing else building hid^s some part of the as. children hide the sUpper. and more strictly. a pile of unassorted lumber is miscellaneous . HIDE. A house is hidden by foUage Secrete is a stronger word than is artfully concealed. perfection of themselves from in their games. or for any other reason is not of uniform structure and density throughout. if the objects differ in kind. See complex. if the objects are alike in kind. or hide man unconsciously hides a picture from another by each other a laying somestanding before it. pure. the contents of a schoolboy's pocket are commonly miscellaneous and might usually be termed heterogeneous as well. separated from the person. a put out of right or beyond ready observation Or the imthing may be hidden by intention. and without special order or rela- A A tion. grief. or hides a thing from himself by over it. or abstraction he conceals his hide his face the when he fears recognition. including all the rest. Bide is the general term. -which are heterogeneous as regards each other. in which case it is said to be noru'homogeneous or unhomogenecms . veU. I Iiomogeneoiia. or a intervening between it and the observer's position. is said miscellaneous mixture may or may to be nowhrnnogeneous. but different in size. like. stance may fail of being homogeneous and yet not be heterogeneous.

Antonyms admit. but there are many ways of hiding or concealing a thing without burying it. a paper is buried under other documents.blgU 19S and put in unlooked=for places . s . etc. a man conceals a scar on his face. A thing is covered by putting something over or aroimd it. Anything which is effectually covered and hidden under any mass or accumulation is buried. it is screened by putting something before it. a thief secretes stolen goods . etc. a person may hide honorable feelings . attack. an officer may also be said to secrete himself to watch the thief. entomb and inter only of a dead body. Whatever is buried is hidden or concealed. Money is buried in the ground a body is buried in the sea . in study. and not buried under them. inconvenience. but does not secrete it . one may be said to be buried in business. So a person may be covered with wraps. palliate. Figuratively. whether by accident or design . Compare immerse . Bury may be used of any object. censure. always with some purpose of protection from observation. In the figurative use. he conceals an evil or hostile intent.

in the good sense. Ulndor lofty. stay. an amendment..*"" platform is less . An action is prevented by anything that comes in before it to make it impossible . A railroad=train may be hindered . mean. resist being the stronger term and having more suggestion of physical force obstructed roads hinder the march of an enemy. but in the figurative A . or as expected or intended. or possibly to prevent by directly conti-ary or hostile action. To obstruct is to hinder. clog. An action that is hindered does not take place at the appointed or appropriate time that which is prevented does not take place at all to hinder a thing long enough may amount to preventing it. high ambition may be merely selfish a lofty ambition is worthy and noble. hamper. aims. etc. To retard is simply to make slow by any means whatever. prevent. tho there may be no force strong enough to oppose it one opposes a measure. Synonyms: baffle. . however. Compare steep. a towering ambition disregards and crushes all opposing considerations. looks. action. In the figurative sense. stonted. a motion. embarrass. cbeck. is impede. or the like it is a criminal offense to resist an officer in the discharge . . low. as. tbwart. oppose. or elevated thoughts. . . frustrate. and this less than exalted . inferior. block. bar. HIBTDER. deep. motion. short. however rational. . foil. of his duty . progress. or holy. or to encumber. To hinder to keep from action. we speak of high.. but some- times of high feelings. obstruct. retard. words. delay. dwarfed. the progress hindered. depressed. an eminent promontory. elevated than eminent. balk. it is hindered by anything that keeps it from either beginning or ending so soon as it otherwise would. lovely. by a snow=storm from arriving on time it may by special order be prevented from starting. stop. a towering passion. or growth. etc. Towering. progress. its use is almost always invidious . in the literal sense compares with lofty and majestic . resist. motion. Antonyms base. in the invidious sense of haughty or arrogant. sense. It is more common. or possibly to prevent advance or passage by putting something in the way to oppose or resist is to hinder. to say that the start is delayed. degiaded. the physical system may resist the attack of dis- . counteract. or gi-owth later in be- make such giiming or completion than it would otherwise have been. interrupt.

set apart. Compare CONQUBE . Prepositions Hinder one in his progress opposition. Antonyms: See synonyms for fiction. HOIiY. selecting and grouping events on the ground of interest or importance. which may be annals. Compare becobd. t account. register. single eminent life. narration. etc. their mutual relations. annals. clironlcle. and perspective. story. their causes and consequences. t devoted. and with complete subserviency to their succession in time. is hallowed. Annals axe yearly records . from acting promptly . OBSTEUCST. History is usually apph'ed to such an account of events affecting communities and nations. distinctively a written account of one person's life and actions an autobiography is a biography written by the person whose life it records. selection. consecrated. memorial. and so which :^8 to be regarded as inviolable not restricted to divine things. or chronicles. saintly. tho sometimes we speak of the history of a A . muniment. therefore lower applications it is less than holy. Both necessarily lack emphasis. Archives are pubUc records. . archives. and memoirs and other records fm-nish the materials of history. archives. by Synonyms HISTORY. Sacred in its on any account. divine. or chronicles relate events with deeds of property. recital. record. Annals. History recounts events with careful attention to their importance. sacred. a systematic record of past events. Annals and little regard to their relative importance. autobiograpby. Memoirs generally record the lives of inbiography is dividuals or facts pertaining to individual Uves. narrative. chronicles follow the order of time. memoir. History is blograpliy. That which is sacred applied to that is . IMPEDIMBNT i Antonyms See synonyms for qdiceen. Synonyms lilessed. biographies. chronicles.ease or the action of a remedy.

Synonyms abode. as if the very a spiritual or divine presence were imparted to the place or object. since we have other words to denote the mere dwelling=place . Divine has been used with great looseness. and and eternal dwelling* . " the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. as the soul's peaceful any place of rest and peace. residence. as. pcee.ean an endeared dwelling as the scene of domestic love and happy and cherished family life. secnlar. Some is where affection calls Where its shrine the heart has bnilded. beartbstone. worldly. polluted. nnconsecrated. qualities of Antonrms abominable. may be made so by institution. domicil. his and. iii. or association . absolute moral perfection." or more formally " my residence. nnboly. we say "The wretched tenement could not be called home. unhallowed. came to m. fireside. nnsanctifled. a sense to which there is an increasing tendency to restrict the word desirably so." — Home^B not merely four square walls. that which possessing intrinsic moral purity. Ex. in the line either of goodness or of mere power. is holy is so by its own nature. as designating that which belongs to or is worthy of the Divine Being. God is holy commands are sacred.. wicked. i cnrsed.201 home decree. music. hoihe:. beartb. to signify especially heaven. Holy may be applied also to that which is hallowed . Tbo with pictures hung and gilded. Abode. but there is a commendable tendency to restrict the word to its higher sense. dwelling." Home. from the Anglo=Saxon. Impnie. Compare perfect . and habitation are used with little difference meaning to denote the place where one habitually lives . bouse. as applying to anything eminent or admirable. of habitation. as to eloquence." " my home. dwelling. 5. Even dwelling is not used in familiar speech. Thus the word comes place. a person says "my house. abode and habitation belong to the poetic or elevated style." In such use holy is more than sacred. common. in the highest sense. etc. Ingleslde. denoting originally a dwelling." or "The humble cabin' was dear to him as the home of his childhood.

trnfaithfal. dishonest. a level road." We speak of a horizontal bne. Just. disingenuous. In this sense honest differs from honorable as having regard rather to absolute truth and right than to even the highest personal honor. according to its derivation from the Anglo= Saxon ^ei. the honorable man wiU not take an unfair advantage that would be allowed him. . fair. & plain country. as we speak of " a wide plain. trusty. perfidious. and. upright. The honest man does not steal. especially in matters of business or property one who is honorable scrupulously observes the dictates of a personal honor that is higher than any demands of mercantile law or pubUc opinion. Synonyms even. Plane applies only to a surface. a floor.bonest borlzontal „_~ Jn^ HONEST. Flat. a plane surface . as. genuine. tho level. a fioor is flat . For practical purposes level and horizontal are identical. or will make a sacrifice which no one could require of him. and will do nothing imworthy of his own inherent nobility of soul. hypocritical. cheat. treacherous. lying. untrue. when his own sense of right demands it. tranlc. Antonyms: deceitfal. mendacious. is now rarely used except in the figurative senses. ^^^i trustworthy. or defraud . originally the same word as plane. HORIZOSiTAIi. aflat morass. . is more loosely used of that which has no especially noticeable elevations or inequalities . a level road. flat is also applied in a derived sense to any plane surface without irregularities or elevations. level. as the more popular word. One who is honest in the ordinary sense acts or always dis- posed to act with careful regard for the rights of others. Horizontal signifies in the direction of or parallel to the horizon. I flat. faithful. false. straigbtforward. One who is honest in the highest and fullest sense is scrupulously careful to adhere to all known truth and right even in thought. plain. ingenuous. traitorous. is sincere. Honorable. and is used with more mathematical exactness than flat. . unscrapulous. but the original sense appears in the noun. in the first and most usual sense. faithleee. equitable. appUes to a siu^face only. to a surface that is horizontal or level in all directions a line may be level. good. plane. as a picture may be painted on the^af surface of a perpendicular wall.' fradulent. The adjective plain. Compare candid justice. Synonyms candid.

Antonyms i See synonyms for baebarous. fitl. The compassionate man sympathizes with and desires to relieve actual suffering. and the chase till it is hunted down. . and is especially applied to a locality we make a search of or through a house. . a level may Inclinea. Inquisition. as to its forgiving. rugged. searcli. A chase or pursuit is after that . A hunt may be either the act of pursuing or the act of seeking. or crimes. Figuratively. sloping. compassionate. pitying. jVntonyins: broken. we speak of human . slanting. klnd^Iieaxted. 'benig:nant. Synonyms cbase. for an object. or of the pursuit of knowledge a search for . Humane denotes what may rightly be expected of mankind at its best in the treatment of sentient beings a humane enterprise or endeavor is one that is intended to prevent or relieve suffering. tender. as. Synonyms: benevolent. human follies. while one who is humane would forestall and prevent the suffering which he sees to be possible. a combination of the two. where it includes both search and chase . rolling. clement. cbantable. in which connection it would be colloquial to say a hunt. we speak of literary pursuits. hilly. virtues. or excellences. tender=Iiearted. the human race /iwraan qualities achievements. . PITI. and that which is even may not be be very rough . Compare mercy . nneren. symp^uetlc. the search till the game is hunted out. lough. pursuit. Hunt never quite loses its association with fleld=sports. gracious. is level be even. Human denotes what pertains to mankind. PITT. with no suggestion being good or evil . merciful. gentle. buman. iitegolar. The humane man will not needlessly inflict pain upon the meanest thing that lives a merciful man is disposed to withhold or mitigate the suffering even of the guilty. or i hunting.201 '«''<$ hunt That which level . . vices. Icind. which is fleeing or departing a search is for that which is hidden a hunt may be for that which is either hidden or fleeing a search is a minute and careful seeking. . a slope may be even. humano may road not (especially in the scientiiic sense).

or sect. Synonyms clieat. Compare DECEPTION. impostor. cantus. pretense commonly signifies the offering of something for what it is not. but. tmtli. affectation. a song). without corresponding feeling or character. i sanctimony. formalism. Pretense (L. etc. alone and unlimited. proetendo) primarily signifies the holding something forward as having certain rights or claims. rites. dissimulation. so sanctimoniousness is hypocrisy in appearance. in the good sense. without corresponding earnestness of heart sham (identical in origin with shame) is a trick or device that puts one to shame. the chase of fame or honor as. or that shamefully disappoints expectation or falsifies appearance. there can be no pretense that this is due . denotes the mechanical and pretentious use of religious phraseology. sincerity. dissembler. pretender. IngeniionBiiess. originally a word of good import. but with more of dash and aggressiveness . as. transparency. pbarlsalsm. actor. I gennineneBB. sham. and ceremonies. taste. Deceiver is the most . it is now rarely used except with a negative . tmtlirulneBS. opennesB. Synonyms HYPOCRISY. sanctimoniousness is the assumption of a saintly manner vtdthout a saintly character. a false pretense implies the xwssibility of a true pretense. much what hypocrisy is in morals and religion . or real. an one who acts a false part. as in looks. Pietism. Cant (L. one a mimic actor) is assumes a character other than the who answers on the stage. . . in figurative use. hunt. school.bypocrlsy Iiypocrlte reasons *04 . tones. HYPOCRITE. cant. especially hypohrites. or for the sake of the credit and advantage attaching to virtue. whether truly or falsely . As cant is hypocrisy in utterance. A hypocrite (Gr. pretense. in- clines to the unfavorable sense of inquisition. I deceiver. sanctimoniousness. either as a cover for actual wrong. Honesty. . Affectation is in matters of intellect. is now chiefly used for an unregulated emotionalism formalism is an exaggerated devotion to forms. frankness. affectation might be termed petty hypocrisy. Hypocrisy is the false pretense of moral excellence. a hunt for heresy. pietism. Antonyms candor.. etc. primarily the singsong iteration of the language of any party.

one that may answer for present practical purposes. Theory is used of the mental coordination of facts and principles. ingenuous. and which is assumed as true tiU there has been opportunity to bring all related facts into comparison. The deceiver seeks to give false impressions of any matter where he has an end to gain the dissembler or hypocrite seeks to give false impressions in regard to liimself The dissembler is content if he can keep some base conduct or evil purpose from being dis. that may or may not prove correct a machine may be perfect in theory. A guess is a swift conclusion from data directly at hand. A conjecture is more methodical than a guess. and often sinister as. if the hypothesis ex- plains aU the facts. and held as probable or tentative. which is meant to include all other facts of the same class. surmise. possibly true. with a view of reaching truth not yet surely known . honest. . but is more frequently applied to proposed action. but useless in fact. Scheme may be used as nearly equivalent to theory. . . sincere. etc. system. A hypothesis may be termed a comprehensive guess. The cheat is the inferior and more mercenary. of if supposition. guess. while one confessedly lacks material for absolute certainty. is prehminary and tentative a supposition is more nearly final a surmise is more floating and visionary. Compare hypocrisy. true. resting upon . A hypothesis is a statement assumed and reasoned upon as what is deemed certainly true. including . . speculation. as the thimble=rig gambler the impostor may aspire to a fortune or a throne. A speculation may be wholly of the brain. hypothesis all the other words of the group. The cheat and impostor endeavor to make something out of those they may deceive. scheme. a surmise that a stranger may be a pickpocket. in the sciences. theory. and in the sense of a somewhat visionary plan. it is regarded as verified tOl then it is regarded as a working hypothesis."wa comprehensive term. a hypothesis is a comprehensive tentative explanation of certain phenomena. . HYPOTHESIS. . like a guess. . covered the hypocrite seeks not merely to cover his vices. but to gain credit for virtue. while a supposition is still slower and more settled a conjecture. especially. Antonyms: The antonyms of hypocrite are to be found only in phrases embodying the adjectives candid. . Synonyms conjecture. that is.

Antonyms: certainty. as a belief. notion. IDEA. tho something of the original meaning still appears concept^ conception. pattern. fact. standard. theory. . this coincides with the primitive sense at but a single point that an idea is mental as opposed to anything substantial or physical thus. Idea. ideal. evidence. Antonyms actuality. or doctrines into an orderly and consistent whole we speak of a system of theology. of the Copernican system of the Tiniverse. thought. original. having most of assurance and fixity a system unites many . I Compare fancy reality. prototype. Compare system. etc. model. no facts worthy of consideration system is the highest of these terms. ideal. demonstration. 206 . according to which any existing thing is constructed istence the prototype has or has had actual exin the derived sense. The archetype is the primal form.. supposition. impression. phenomena. fantasy. judgment. plan. called an idea. as in metrology. fact. fancy. discovery. — . > apprehension. imagination. design. This high sense has nearly disappeared from the word idea. actual or imaginary. The word signified in early philosophical use the archetype or primal image which the Platonic philosophy supposed to be the model or pattern that existing objects imperfectly embody. . image. conceit. pattern. substance. n. archetype. . IDEAL. purpose. almost any mental product. Synonyms helief. conception. a prototype may not be the original form. but one having equal authority with that as a . Synonyms! archetype. considered as an object of knowledge or thought .. An ideal is that which is conceived or taken as the highest typo of excellence or ultimate object of attainment. proof. sentiment. and has been largely appropriated by ideal. opinion. . when in theological or philosophical language we speak of the ideas The present popular use of idea makes it to signify any product of mental apprehension or activity. facts. model.Ideal. opinion. Idea is in Greek a form or an image. design. may now bft of God.

folly. The standard may be below the ideal. Antonyms: . necessarily results . acliievement. development.Idiocy standard. not merely the thing that has been attained or is to be . all copies. but is at least such as to incapacitate for the serious Idiocy quite to total absence of understanding. IDIOCY. embodiment. Stupidity is dulness and slowness of mental acts. The artist's ideal is his own mental image. the incapacity of a minor to make a contract. and ordinarily attainable. The idea of virtue is the mental concept or image of virtue in general the ideal of virtue is the mental concept or image of virtue in its highest conceivable perfection. which may or may not be as complete as that of idiocy. imbecility. as. senselessness. attained. incarnation. but more frequently signifies conceited and excessive foolishness or folly. realization. attainment. reality. is Incapacity. being a measure to which all else of its kind must conform as. . performance. a state of mental unsoundness amounting almost or Imbecility is a condition of mental weakness. of corn. . Compare insanity. as from insanity or from age. but the best conceivable thing that could by possibility be attained. good or bad the original of a master is superior to . The ideal is imaginary. An ideal may be primal. action which may range all the way from lack of normal readiness to absolute imbecility. or may be slowly developed even from failures and by negations an ideal is meant to be perfect. or of cotton. act action. Fatuity is sometimes used as equivalent to idiocy. Antonyms > accomplishment. stupidity. execution. fact. practise. and ordinarily unattainable the standard is concrete. duties of Ufe. the standard of weights and measures. Compare EXAMPLE . . etc. Synonyms fatuity. Idiocy or imbecility is weakness of mind. or lack of legal qualification for certain from imbecility. sex. I foolistuiess. IDEA. The original is the specimen. Folly and foolishness denote a want of mental and often of moral balance. Incapacity. doing. but may also result from other causes. of which his finished worlj first is but an imperfect expression. while insanity is disorder or abnormal action of mind.

untaught. unlearned. knowledge that has become generally diffused in the world the tgireorawi savage may be well insti'ucted in matters of the field and the chase. Slothful belongs in the moral reahn. it grieveth him to bring it again to his mouth. . vacant. unenligbtened. "The slothful hideth his hand in his bosom . . uneducated. or lacking knowledge or information it is thus a relative term.E. lOlVORAIVT. unlnstructed. A may chance to loves inaction. unskilled. sluggisli. 15. Illiterate is without letters and the knowledge that comes through reading. the most active person may sometimes find the bodily or mental powers sluggish. but less absolute the unlettered man may have acquu-ed the art of reading and writing and some elementary knowledge the uneducated man has never taken any . the idle schoolboy may be very actively whittling his desk or tormenting his neighbors. Lazy signifies indisposed to exertion. it is his own fault. Doing nothing whatever is the secondary meaning of . uninformed. persons are spoken of as ignorant who have not the. Idle thus denotes not primarily the absence of action. xxvi.Idle Ignorant SOS IDL. be employed in useful work. but vain action —the absence of useful. and is thus more properly untutored than ignorant. laziness is in disposition or inclination. . lazy. averse to labor . Synonyms illdntormed. powerless to move the sluggish moves heavily and toilsomely . indolent. trifling. denoting a self=indulgent aversion to exertion. Antonyms: active. busy. untutored. Unlettered is similar in meaning to illiterate. Synonyms t inactive. The inert person seems like dead matter (characterized by inertia). as derived the Anglo=Saxon idel. the indolent man lazy person acts without energy or impetus. useless. occupied. unemployed. effective action. One may be temporarily idle of necessity if he is habitually idle. . Compare tain. . unlettered. Ignorant signifies destitute of education or knowledge. unoccupied. worUng. The most learned man is stiU ignorant of many things . slothful. illiterate. diligent." Prov. InduEtrions. which signifies vain. idleness is in fact . but he We speak figuratively of a lazy stream. . from Idle in all uses rests upon its root meaning. idle. empty. inert. employed. Indolent is a milder term for the same quaUty the slothful man hates action .

or odd mental images. imagination is the broader and higher term. fantasy. . and intoxication. or erratic fancy. sage. — Both fancy and imagination imagination in its lower form. wise. no statistics of ignorance axe possible. while fancy is the act or jwwer of forming pleasing. instructed. but also as purposeless and unsystematized as the visual images in a kaleidoscope such fantasy (often loosely called imagination) appears in dreaming. Cynonyms fancy. or of combining them with little regard to rational processes of construction. presents numerous and varied images. Phantasy or fantasy.^09 Imagination systematic coTirse of mental training. well-informed. Jgnorance is relative. yet without any true constructive power. spiritual. Wordsworth. Imagination and fancy differ from /awiae?/ in bringing the images and their combinations under the control of the will . including /anc?/. The old psychology treated of the Be^rroduetive Imagination. blindly and passively following the laws of association. we have statistics of illiteracy . as appears in the adjective /amtosiic. . somnambulism. so understood. which simply reproduces the images that the mind has in any way acquired. of combining the products of knowledge in modthe creative or constructive power new. skilled. or ideal forms of the mind . often combining them into new forms with exceeding vividness. learned. who was the first . whimsical. revery. pliantasy. graceful. . and the Productive Imagination which modifies and combines mental images so as to produce what is virtually new. IlIAOINATIOiy. recombine and modify mental images either may work with the imagination may glorify the tiniest flower other's materials fancy may play around a mountain or a star the one great distinction between them is that fancy is superficial. Fantasy in ordinary usage simply denotes capricious . Antonyms educated. . imagination is the act or power of imaging or of reimagiag objects of perception or thought. 14 . ified. To this Reproductive Imagination President Noah Porter and others have given the name of phantasy or fantasy (many psychologists preferring the former spelling). illiteracy is absolute . and with reason and will in torpor the mental images being perhaps as varied and as vivid. but with the mind adrift. essential. while imagination is deep. trdned.

and will well repay careful study. clear. and compare an image drawn from the external world with some spiritual truth bom in the mind itself. and imagination always uses the material object as the minister of something greater than itself.Imagination clearly to 210 distinction : draw the it between the fancy and the imag- ination. in Milton. oflSlB. but in the various features. states as follows To aggregate and to asBOCiate. individually. less upon casual and outstanding than upon inherent and internal prop- — — — erties. she does not tell you that her gigantic angel was as tall much less that he was twelve cubits or twelve hundred cubits high. the ijofaney to describe Queen Mab as coming: pliant. of which Shakspeare CoLBBiDQB Tabk Talk June 83. it is enough for her purpose if it he slight. '51. and evanescent. and if they were a million times as high. to evoke and to combine. and for a different purpose. a sense of the truth of the likeness from the moment that it is perceived grows and continues to grow upon the mind. . and gives unity to variety. [t. & h. When the imagision is. and demands of the im^agination.. or that his dimensions equalled those of Teneriffe or Atlas. Pref. app. the perfection of which the absolute master. grifiins and chimaeras.* Poetical Works. . 646. but either the materials evoked and combined are different. Directly the reverse of these are the desires recoils from everything but the plastic.. modifies images. to Ed. There is the epic imagination. The expresas Pompey's Pillar. fiends and demons. and where they admit of modification.] So far as actual images are concerned. . but for it. But imagination can transcend the work of fancy. * His stature reached the sky! the illimitable firmament! nation frames a comparison. or infuse a series of images with such a spiritual truth. or they are brought together under a different law. the human mind has never invented one organ or atti-ibute that is not presented in human or animal life the lion may have a human head and an eagle's wings and claws. are bounded. . '34. p.. Fancy does not require that the materials which she makes use of should be susceptible of changes in their constitution from her touch. discussion from which the quotation is taken is worthy of. theresemblance depending less upon outline of form and feature than upon expression and effect. molding them as needed for its more vivid expression. and the dramatic. there is absolutely nothing new. She leaves it 'In shape no bigger than an agate stone On the forefinger of an alderman. both fancy and imagination are limited to the materials furnished by the external world it is remarkable that among all the representations of gods or demigods. limited. .' Having to speak of stature. Mong as well to the imagination as to the fancy . . because these. Fancy keeps the material image prominent and works not only with *The whole it. She and the indefinite. is it sees all things in is . The imagination one. it would be the same.

directly. and mechanical invention have little use for fancy. Directly. and practical. Antonyms*. even the briefest. meangroup. forthwltli. instantly. tion the architect sees the unity of a building not yet begun. this Instant.. hence without the intervention of any. now means after some little while presently no longer means in this very present. By imagina. even a unity that no human eye ever can when the machine is in actual motion. hereafter. The strong and general human tendency to procrastination is shown in the progressive weakening of the various words in this presently. and sees them all within the circle of one grand law. but before very long. miMEDIATELiY. ir the future. xig:Iit away. one part may hide the connecting parts. now. since and varied interactions of a and machine never yet constructed. after a while. ing at some (perhaps remote) future time. straiglitway. and seeks always and everywhere for es. so that we when we would make promptness States. without delay. instantly. . and for which alone she values it. Science. and stars into unity with the earth and the apple that is drawn irresistibly to its surface. and the condition of vance and success. serious.411 •""^ and often almost Imniedlatel)' loses the object in the spiritual idea with which she has associated it. gproe time . By and by. planets. By imagination a Newton sweeps sim. which was once a synonym. emphatic. Immediately primarily signifies without the intervention of anything as a medium. penetrative power of imagi- nation is to them the breath of life. by and by. philosophy. Imagination is not only poetic or literary. and yet aU keep the unity of the inventor's thought. riglit off. and is deep. earnest. Instanter. Even immediately is sliding from its instantaneous. Fancy flits about the surface. Fancy delights and entertains im<igination moves and thrills. sometimes petty and sometimes false imagination goes to the heart of things. all ad- Synonyms at once. variegates. the inventor sees the unity see. which once meant with no intervening time. tion transforms . but scientific. interval or lapse of time. are fain to substitute at once. has become an antonym of immediately. See also fancy idea. but the creative. and is airy and playful. philosophical. Eight away anr" right off are vigorous conversational expressions in the United ness. Fancy sets off. etc. iiential truth. and decorates imaginaand exalts.

To speak of baptism by immersion as dipping now seems rude.liumerse imminent ai» . whUe immerse suggests if is wholly silent as to the removal. dip out. To dip and to im. sink. but somewhat less emphatic. Baptists now universally use the word immerse. Compare synonyms for buby. dangerous and close at hand. if at all. dip. Submerge implies that the object can not readily be removed. a submerged wreck. Immerse one also more absolute completeness of the action may dip his sleeve or dip a sponge in a liquid. he immerses it. Dip is Saxon. . from the Latin. nnlikel. To plunge is to immerse suddenly and violently. plunge. threatening. duck. donbtfnl. a threatening perU may be near or remote. Synonyms: bury. immerse the more elegant and dignified expression in many cases. Antonyms chimerical. douse. also. Imminent is more immediate. threatening more contingent. but dip implies that the object dipped is at once removed from the liquid. impending more remote. immerge. Preposition: The object is immersed in water.merse alike signify to bury or submerge some object in a liquid . cnespected. tho entirely proper and usual in early English. Impending. taprobaWe. as. but always with hope that it . An impending evil is almost sure to happen at some uncertain time. submerge. problematical. sigmfies liable to happen at once. Imminent. . to denote the putting of a hollow vessel into a liquid in order to remove a portion of it. Dip is used. contingent. for which douse and duck are colloquial terms. with the sense of projecting over. in this sense we say dip up. unlike the other words. Synonyms impending. and covers it vidtb the liquid. while immerse is Latin for the same initial act dip is accordingly the more popular and commonplace.«1^ inilERSE. may be averted. also from the Latin. as some calamity. perhaps very near an imminent peril is one liable to befall very speedily . he completely sinks it under. with the sense of hanging over. is closely akin to imminent. if he but touches the edge .

forward. '^^°S' Impudence Imitedlinent iiHPEniniEivT. continuous as. struction if it closes with hind. obstruction. a knapsack is an encumbrance. offlciousness. Impua dence is shameless impertinence. That which rests upon one as a burden is an encumbrance. bindrance. Impertinence primarily denotes what does not pertain or belong and hence comes to signify interference by word or act not consistent with the age. boxes and bales placed on the sidewalk are obstructions to travel an ioe=floe is an obstacle to navigation. and may become an ob. forwardness. behind) is . impertinence. IMPVDElVCi:. at least for a time. m . position. insolence. or meddlesome speech. presumption.313 Synonyms bar. An impediment is primarily something that checks the foot or in any way makes advance slow or difficult an obstacle is something that stands across the way. 'benefit. Antonyms: advantage. aid. What would be arrogance to the occasion or the person. relief. an impediment in one's speech. encumbrance. An obstruction is always an obstacle. An encumbrance is always what one carries with him an obstacle or an obstruction is always without. Synonyms assurance. presumptuous. a cliflf or a boulder across the way is an obstacle . efGrontery. difficulty. or difficulty in holding the attention of restless children. . obstacle. incivility. rudeness. Intrusiveness. A difficulty or a hindrance may be either within one or without a speaker may find difficulty iu expressing himself. succor. balmier. but an obstacle may not always be properly termed an obstruction . an inlet or channel A hindrance (kindred anything that makes one come behind or short of his purpose. saucluess. To a marching soldier the steepness of a mountain path is a diffi<Mlty. a fence is an obstruction. an obstruction something that is built or placed across the way. or relation of the person interfered with or of the one who interferes especially. pertness. Difficulty makes an undertaking otherwise than easy. assistance. help. . An impediment may be either what one finds in his way or what he carries with him impedimenta was the Latin name for the baggage of a soldier or of an army. boldness. The tendency is to view an impediment as something constant or. loose stones are impediments.

humility. or to more things that do not well together. are said to be incongruous a tiling is said to be incongruous that is not adapted to the time. meekness. Incompatible primarily signifies unable to sympathize or inconsistent means unable to stand together. We speak of thoughtless impertinence. Synonyms absurd. unsuitable to purpose or use two colors are inoongruov^s which can not be agreeably associated. INC0X0RV01JS. discrepant. . each other. either may be unsuitable for a person. the violation and courtesy. discordant. a room.. t ill^matclied. Offldousness is thrusting upon and undesired service. of customary respect others unasked . place. a subordinate to a superior. and incompatible in fact.. inappropriate. Rudeness is the behavior that might be expected from a thoroughly uncultured person. Insolence is literally that which is against custom. Antonyms baBlifulness. . Things are incompatible which can not exist together in harmonious relations. inapposite. diffidence. conflicting. and may be either deliberate and insulting or unintentional and even unconscious. inbarmonious. . things that jar in association like musical notes that are not in accord inharmonious has the same oiuginal sense. mismated. modesty. e.o/. . Compare akkogancb . Inconsistent applies to things that can not be made to agree in thought with each other. or an occasion. unsuitable.incongruous superior becomes 214 impertinence or impudence in an inferior. lowlinesB. Impertinence has less of intent and determination than impudewce. shameless impudence. and is often as well=meant as it is annoying. coyness. or impudence from. contradictory. or are not . or with some standard of ti'uth or right slavery and freedom are inconsistent with each other in theory. and whose action when associated tends to ultimate extinction of one by the other. incommensurable. incompatible. inconsistent. assubance effbonteey peetness. i. feel alike . fit mlsmatclied. Prepositions The impudence . contrary. BubmisslTenesB. but is a milder parts . repugnant. or occa- the term is also applied to a thing made up of iU=assorted Discordant is applied to ail or inharmonious elements. term. Jmcongruous applies to relations. Two adapted sion . Irreconcilable.

as when we say he is a busy man. hypothesk. Busy applies to an activity which may be say a man is iusy just temporary. more quantities that have no common measure or Antonrins accordant. engaged. induction can ordinarily give no more than a probable conclusion. employed. Industrious signifies zealously or habitually applying oneself to business. rather than an industrious. and suggests more say one is a diliof heartiness and volition than industrious. and aims to be complete. Preposition The illustrations were incongruous mth the theme Synonyms deduction. In deduction. now that is. he is industrious just now. the conclusion is certain . because we can never be sure that we have collated aU instances. EVD1JSTRIOUS. We also a disposition. compatible. Induction. proceeds from a number of collated instances. agreeing. Compare demonsteation. occupied.Of 5 Incommensurable is Induction Industrious a mathematical term. It would be ridiculous or satirical to say. INUIJCTIOIV. Buitable. But busy can be used in the sense of industrious. on the other hand. i busy. consistent. and the special case falls under the rule. inference. sedulous. applying to two or aliquot part. occupied at the moment with something that takes his full attention. Deduction proceeds from a general principle through an admitted instance to a conclusion. gent. induction is reasoning from the particular to the general. An induction is of the nature of an inference. The proof of an induction is by using its conclusion as the premise of a new deduction. Deduction is reasoning from the general to the particular . diligent. but while an inference may be partial and hasty. Diligent indicates any work or . to a general principle. reader of the Bible. through some attribute common to them aU. Thus what is ordinarily known as scientific induction is a constant interchange of induction and deduction. if the general rule is true. which is ordinarily habitual. In the use We . Synonyms active. assiduous. harmonious. industrious to a habit of life. an induction is careful.

while assiduity. refer to his continu- ance in the work. Diligence (L. Synonyms DfFIHIITE. action. persistence. fold) bends to its work and concentrates all one's powers upon it with utmost intensity . but not of plodding Compare active. eternal. inattention. numberless. boundless. unbounded. constancy. countless. heart and principle. s Antonrms See synonyms for idle. hence. choose) to a task invests exertion. diligence. intentness. patience. and sedeo. which should Infinite (L. diligence applied to some avocation. absolute. innumerable. neglect. I illimitable. interminable. measureless. Antonyms: changeablenesB. diligence. indolence. application can hardly be Constancy is a steady devotion of as unremitting as assiduity. not. TemiBsneBB. Patience works on in spite of annoyances perseverance overcomes hindrances and difficulties . time. diligo. ad. Countless. or number. Umit) signifies without bounds or any way. or profession. &ndi. we speak of plodding industry. steady. Industry is the quality. immeasurable. in. pains. ajpplioation (L. innumerable. inconstancy. industry. or habit of earnest. fickleness. business. and continued attention or devotion to any useful or productive work or task. idleness. and plieo. sedulousness. unlimited. limitless. limits in . persistence strives relentlessly against opposition. sits down until it is done. sit). perseverance. love. quantity. Industry is more effort and interest in its . perseverance. labor. to.. and numberless. persistence has very frequently an unfavorable meaning. attention. ad. exertion. effort. manual or mental. with love of the work or deep accomplishment . unfatbomable. as the etymology suggests.Indnstry Infinite of the nouns. implying that one persists in spite of considerations that should induce him to desist. unmeasured. to. S ynonym* i application. and may be applied to space. assiduity. finis. etc. Assiduity (L. unconditioned. slotlu negligence. Labor and pains refer to the exertions of the worker and the tax upon him.

but can not directly actuate another may be actuated to cruelty by hatred which another's mis- representation has aroused. • n. tho perhaps falling far short of infinite . small. we speak of the boundless ocean. So. as. restricted. evanescent. To excite is to arouse one from lethargy or indifference to action. Impel. stir. limitless. draw. To ify. measurable. too. tho it may be used of motives regarded as forces acting upon the will. excite. innumerable delays. impelled from within. but in thought . incline. and lead refer to the use of mild means to awaken in another a purpose or disposition to act. to spur or goad one to action. are in common usage vaguely employed to denote what it is difficult or practically impossible to count or number. moderate. in. sway. or moral power. incline. as. influence (L. subtle. transient. the . prompt. some gentle. illimitable. -STnonyms actuate. numberless battles. not only in fact. dispose. and unlimited are loosely used in reference to what has no apparent or readily determinable limits in space or time . modor act upon by physical. lead. narrow. persuade. We are urged from without. J circomaeribed. induce. but one One may influence. little. Drive and compel imply irresistible influence accomplishing its object. urge. differ in the fact that incite may be to good. To urge and impel signify to produce strong excitation toward some act. and gradual way as. one either is by his own passions or by external force or compelled only by some external power . flow) is to affect. drive. within. countless leaves. Acturate refers solely to mental or moral power impelling one from . mental. boundless. while instigate is always to evil (compare abet). and fiuo.217 Influence be the same as infinite. One may be driven urgency . Compare synonyms for eteknal. measureless. Instigate. limited. short. vegetation is influenced by light every one is influenced to some extent by public opinion influence is chiefly used of power acting from without. move. i compel. as. shallow. dra^^. Antonyms! bounded. infinite time is truly eternal. Incite and instigate. dispose. transitory. influence. Infinite space is without bounds. in or into. incite. the countless sands on the seashore. Prompt and stir are words of mere suggestion toward some course of action . especially in . • finite.

so that to speak of intrinsic excellence conveys higher praise than if we say inherent excellence. but inherent applies to qualities. superadded. inwrougbt.. that may be original with the inbred is inherited. inhibit. Com- Antonyms i deter. Inherent signifies permanently united as an element or original quality. changed.Inherent 21S sell his estate. Inherent and intrinsic may be said of persons or things . God is said to be immanent (not inherent) in Frequently intrinsic and inherent can be interthe universe. and legal use with special application to defects . intrinsic. subjective. casual. Immanent is a philosophic word. dissaade. native. which is inborn. and is usually thought of with reference to some outworking or effect as. superficial. . hinder. owner was compelled by his misfortunes to pare COMPEL. fortuitous. external. indispensable. while intrinsic applies to essence. preventi restrainr retard. natural. essential. but innate ispref erred in philosophic use. subsidiary. : extrinsic. inherent difficulty. internal. immanent. as when we speak of innate ideas . outward. inborn. inseparable. supplemental. naturally existent or incorporated in something so as to have become an integral part. Prepositions i Actuated to crime by revenga ISfHERElVT. and without reference to any working out (compare subjectivb). apply to living beings. inborn. inhering. but that which is Antonyms accidental. Synonyms i congenital. or innate individual. discourage. congenital. Innate and inborn are almost identical. innate. superfluous. inbred. impede. to denote that which dwells in or pervades any substance or spirit without necessarily being a part of it.and denotes that which is deeply wrought into substance or character. infixed. as. superimposed. indwelling:. ingrained. That which is inherent is an inseparable part of that in which it inheres. transient. inbred. inCongenital is frequent in medical nate. unconnected. an . Ingrained signifies dyed in the grain. incidental. DRIYB. congenital. congenital idiocy.

it may apply to body. . deterere. but far milder. remedy. as. . . injustice. utility. Mischief is disarrangement. often with the suggestion of fault on the part of the one causing it damage reduces value. operates to its detriment if again offered for sale. benefit. Prepositions: fire The injury of the cause an injury to the by or from collision. right. a slight hurt may be no real harm. injustice. the slightest use of an article by a purchaser blemlsli. . in. Injury is the general term including aU the rest. outrage. tho the article . . or harm usually caused by some voluntary agent. interference. or desirableness of anything is an injury to that thing of persons. . when rescued from the wreck his injuries were found to be very slight. harm. structure . Injury (L. or estate.S*ld Injury IXJIJRY. suggests suffering or sin. . wrong. CEiMrNAL . impairment. and jus. Damage is partial loss is properly absolute as far as it is predicated at aU the loss of a ship implies that it is gone beyond recovery the loss of the rudder is a damage to the ship but since the lossoi apart still leaves a part. etc. not. s amelioration. beauty. to rub or wear away) is similar in meaning. service. Detriment may affect value only damage always affects real worth or utility as a rule. physical or mental . utiUty. detriment. improvement. loss) is that which occasions loss to the possessor hence. we may speak of a partial or a total loss. . the word is especially used of whatever mars the integrity of the body or causes pain as. mind. loon. . juris. the soinjury . property. . prejudice. injury Tyy . Compare synonyms for blemish . the evils of poverty. mischief. evil. . Antonyms advantage. hurt. or reputation is an injury . loss. damage. help. any impairment of value. Evil commonly . law) signifles primarily something done contrary to law or right hence. An outrage combines insult and injury. while inhurt is an injury that jury may concern only estimated value. damnum. Synonyms s disadvantage. rights. vjrong is harm done with evil intent. utility. with or without injurious intent a child's thoughtless sport may do great mischief . whatever is so done as to operate adversely to one in his person. or both cial evil. but always affects real worth. blessing. may have received not the slightest damage. something contrary to some standard of right or good whatever reduces the value. or beauty . detriment (L. Harm is closely synonymous with A causes pain. trouble. Damage (L.

. signifies not tainted with sin . See candid pure. an innocent remedy. In legal usage a wrong involves injury to pei-son. virtuous. of evil intent . innoxious. in a specific case. property. . inte^ty. virtuous. an innocent babe. upright. rectitade. or character. even tho the total character may be very evil as. stainless. unrighteousness. expressing less than righteous. upright. as by misrepresentation of goods which does not amount to a legal warranty. guileless. and sinless may be used either of one who has never known the possibility of evil or of one who has perfectly and triumphantly resisted it. Eannless. guiltless. In popular usage. Innocent. larivocENT. interest. lawfnlneaa^-aitgkteoasiiess. Innocent is a negative word. spotless. Innocent. f^mesB. rigbt. which imply knowledge of good and evil. . while wrong always involves both . . signifies free from the guilt of a particular act. ^mpare synonyms for ckiminai. clear. . as. a tried and faithful man is righteous. Innocent is used of inanimate substances in the sense of harmless . is a want of or a deviaffon from equity^ but it is. honesty. not necessarily involving injury to person or property. t faitlifnlness. that is. in the original sense. injustice may involve no direct injury to person. an act or omission is contrary to equity or justice . Antonyms Compare synonyms for criminal. the thief was found to be innocent of the murder. as. the injustice of unequal taxes. injury. impartialitr. righteous. right. Immaculate. one not dangerous.Injustice Innocent „nQ ^^^ nvjvsTici:. Antonyms eqaity. faultless. immaculate. upright. injicsHee applies to civil damage or loss. pure. that or reputation. Iniquity. aptf^tnesB. A little child or a lamb is innocent . innocuous. in the f uU sense. inoffensive. or virtuous. with free choice of the good. as the resiiii. siN. even if not helpful. clean. honor. Synonyms: blameless. justice. fair play. Injustice is a violation or denial ofjiwtice. sinless. property. pure. and no harmful intent. not having done wrong or violated legal or moral precept or duty as. Synonyms t grlByance. one who attrib- utes another's truly generous act to a selfish motive does him an injustice. wrong. now applied in the widest sense to any form of iU^doing. uiiqulty. unfairness.

Prepositions Inquisitive about. heedleee. meddlesome. ways temporary. lunacy. frenzy. hallucination. luna) : the term is now applied in general and legal use to any form of mental unsoundness except idiocy. what is of interest in the affairs of another. now less for insanity in its widest sense. : indifierent. curious denotes a keen and rather pleasurable desu-e to knowfully something to which one's attention has been called. Inquisitive may be used in a good sense. and is specifically the insanity of disease. mania. Madness is the old popular term. but with suggestion of excitement. luqulMtive Insanity DfCtlJISITITE. or for conduct suggesting it. alienation. Dementia is a general weakening of the mental rangement . as in acute fevers. ingwrnYive implies. crazlness. madness what is insanely desperate. Delirium is alis a common euphemism for insanity. and hence is generally meddlesome and prying. but will not be inquisitive in trying to ascertain. inattentive. Synonyms INSAiyiTT. a well=bred person may be curious to know. : Antonyms apathetic. an inquiring mind. concerning. De- common. Craziness is a vague popular term for any sort of disordered mental action. but in its more frequent restricted use applied to those forms in which the mental disorder is persistent. peeplne soruttnlzln^ An inquisitive person is one who is bent on finding out all that can be found out by inquiry. unintereBted. monomania. In the derived sense.221 Synonymscurious. but without the active tendency that. madness. tho in such connection inquiring is to be preferred . delirium. akin to mania. careless. supposed to be dependent on the changes of the moon (L. as distinguished from those in which it is temporary or transient. Of these terms insanity is the most exact and comprehensive including in its widest sense all morbid conditions of mind due tc diseased action of the brain or nervous system. regarding trifles. nnconcemed. as. i aberration. dementia. Lunacy originally denoted intermittent insanity. As applied to a state of mind. in regard to. especially of Ijttle and personal matters. lunacy denotes what is insanely foolish. derangement.

as the seeing of specters or of reptiles in delirium tremens. A. Synonyms nvTERPOsi:. as. is intermeddle. usually as . interrupt. meddle always in a bad sense. interplace. in the matter. To intercede is to come between persons who are at variance. of the group imply that he steps in of his own accord. Intercept is applied to an object that may be seized or stopped while in transit . eccentricity of mental action due to an abnormal state of the perceptive faculties. with or without acknowledged right or propriety. withdraw. . Monomania is mental derangement as to one subject or object. . meddling commonly arises from idle curiosity . but is broken in upon (L. and interfere frequently so. the conversation was interrupted. interrupt is applied to an action which might or should be continuous. or be expected to take Intercede and interpose are used in a good sense . to intercept a letter or a m essenger . hold off.ntonym8i avoid. rumpere. stand aside. One may interpose with authority he intercedes by petition. and is manifested by error in is perceptions and rambling thought. intercede. Frenzy and mania are forms of raving and furious insanity. keep away. let be. keep clear. keep aloof. some disturbing power as. . " every fool will be meddling. keep out. Prepositions Interpose between the combatants . mediate. To interm. interfere. t arbitrate. and plead with the stronger in behalf of the weaker. 3 to interfere is to intrude into others' affairs with more serious pm-pose. Halluoination is the apparent perception of that which does not exist or is not present to the senses. stand off. hold aloof. tatlonalltT. Antonymsi cleamesB. retire. to break) by To interpose sons. the other words . Intercept.Interpose itZi powers the word is : Aberration specifically applied to senile insanity. One who arbitrates or mediates must do so by the request or at least with the consent of the contending parties . goodBense.eddle is to thrust oneself into the concerns of others with a petty officiousness. Compare synonyms for delusion idiocy. dotage." Prov. let alone. eanlty. to place or come between other things or per^ a means of obstruction or prevention of some efifect or result that would otherwise occur. stand away. meddle. stand back. xx. Incidity.

we speak of a day's Journey. daily) was primarily A journey (F. travel. as. implicate is always used in an unfavorable sense. Antonyms disconnect. A voyage. one is im/plieated in a crime. transit. denoting more complete entanglement. extricate. A tour is a Journey that returns to the bridal 8tarting=point. roll) is to roll or wind up with or in so as to combine inextricably or inseparably. but is naturally to be inferred . or perplexities. and volvo. not necessarily in a direct line or with fixed destination . imply. generally over a considerable distance . be in no direct course. See COMPLEX. or the Journey of life. embarrass. embroil. which we now describe as " a day's Journey " . but implicate applies only to that which is wrong. remove. separate. but may include many Journeys in different directions. a movement from place to place within one day.223 Synonyms journey Involve INVOLiTE. that which is implied is not stated. which was formerly a distance by Journey of any kind. Involve is a stronger word than implicate. as. . trip. and involve ordinarily so . i disentangle. the bookkeeper's accounts. that the roof shall be water-tight is implied. and direct Journey. include overwiielm. pilgrimage. explicate. or the writer's sentences are involved. expedition. is now a going to a considerable especially by sea . Travel is a passing from place to place. a slate roof is in(Huded in the contract. implicate. in its extended modern use a Journey is a direct going from a starting^ point to a destination. from L. Synonyms voyage. a day's work . excursion. entangle. or nearly so as. a tour. hence. in. a Journey through Europe would be a passage travel in to some destination beyond or at the farther boundary . while involve is more commonly used of that which is unfortunate . disUnguisli. Journie. As applied to persons. a voyage to India. misfortunes. that which is involved is necessarily to be inferred . Europe ma. A trip is a short water. To involve (L. As regards logical coimection that which is included is usually expressly stated . as. in. the nation is involved in war . involved in embarrassments. diurnus. JOVRSrEY. i complicate. ordinarily over a considerable distance. the contrary supposition involves an absurdity.

the judges at an agricultural fair. or a goodjudge of a horse.Judge 224 tour. war must now be the arbiter . a person is said to be a. as. In most games the judge is called an umpire . especially by water. on foot. Passage is a general word for a Journey by any conveyance. as. the umpire of a game of ball or cricket. has come to be used only in a high or sacred sense . the as. Pilgrimage. often by many persons at once as. or business tour. an excursion to Chautauqua. as. any person who has good capacity for judging is called a jtidge . literally the act of passing over or through. a judicial officer appointed or elected to preside in courts of law. retains in derived uses something of that sense . justices. referee is appointed by a court to decide disputed matters between litigants . in the widest sense. with its suggestion of final and absolute decision. Prepositions > A journey /rowi Naples to Rome . across the continent . are technically known as A . a rough passage across the Atlantic . eto. An excursion is a brief tour or journey. or at a race=track . legally constituted officers sometimes given to other the judges of election . as. . judge of pictures. i arbitrator. umpire. the Supreme Arbiter of our destinies. as. . a journey into Asia . etc. Justice. A judge. as. transit. is referee. on the cara. iy land. . Synonyms arbiter. in other re- name any person duly appointed to pass upon the merits of con- testants or of competing articles may be called a judge . taken for pleasure. avnong savages . In certain cases an umpire is apjjointed by a court to decide where arbitrators disagree. through Mexico . once always of a sacred character. The judges of certain courts. Arhiver. /or health. as the Uidted States Supreme Court. and is to decide legal questions duly brought before him lations. a pilgrimage to Strat. over the sea . in the legal sense. an arbitrator is chosen by the contending parties to decide matters in dispute without action by a court. fordon«Avon. is used specifically of the conveyance of passengers or merchandise rapid transit is demanded for suburban residents or perishable goods. &j/ rail.

wroDg. imreasonablenees. truth. or of doing justice to a subject. Lawfulness is an ambiguous word. positive law is construed and rational law is made by it. which may be very far ttora justice. The system of equity. or thought . right. ch. which is giving others that which is their due. faithfulness. privilege.. equity (the quality of being equal) is giving every one as much advantage. and thus necessarily include justice. uprightness. rectitude. but in its higher sense signifying accordance with the supreme law of right. iii. and thus including •gextect justice. righteousness and virtue denote conformity of personal conduct to the moral law. it is that which is equally right or just to all concerned ." "Equity. Antonyms: dishonest?. human or divine. lawfulness. faithful. In legal proceedings cases arise for which the law has not adequately provided. Justness letera rather to logical relations than to practical matters . unprejudiced. we speak of the justice of a statement. would work individual hardship. just in the main. honor. nntratli. or in which general provisions. Inequity. justice is the giving to every person exactly what he deserves. or consideration as is given to any other . is the soul and spirit of all law .. In its governmental relations. See JT7DGE. injustice. n. and imbiased adherence to essential truth or fact . whether in act. Synonrma equity. p. virtue.225 justice JVSTICB. to or for the oppressed . legality. rightfulness. as. integrity. right. faJmess. or literary work of any kind. In personal and social relations jzcsf ice is the render27. rectitude. but it has a philosophical and legal precision that those words have not. we speak of the justness of a statement or of a criticism. onlawfiilneea. partiality. . favorlttem. righteousness. Impartiality. Integrity. deals with cases " to which the Zaw by reason of its universality can not apply. word. equity is equal justice and is thus a close ^Tionym iov fairness and impartiality. devised to supply the insuEQciencies of law. Prepositions' The justice of the king 19 . in matters of reasoning. ing to every one what is due or merited. then. law. meaning in its narrower sense mere legality. 429. fair play. nnfaimesa. not necessarily involving any consideration of what any other may deserve. justness. justice is close." Blackstone bk.

the defense is effectual Compare ceIjEBRATE . a servant. massacre. preserve. or keep the faith. despatch. protect. defend. execute. execute. animal. keep or fulfil a promise. detain. ourselves. slaugbter. such words as preserve or maintain could not be substituted without loss. soldiers mown down in a . human. he keeps or carries a certain line of goods : we may keep or restrain one from folly. to murder is to kill with premeditation and malicious intent . restrain. to execute is to kill in fulfilment of a legal sentence to assassinate is to kill by assault this word is chiefly applied to the killing of public or eminent persons through alleged political motives. To slay is to kill by a blow. keep one's own counsel. or by a weapon. bold. etc. slay. carry on* celebrate. restrain. KEEP. keep the peace. Synonyms > assassinate. we keep or hold a prisoner in custody . from evil . . or celeactly discriminated by other words. preserve order preserve being We the more formal word . murder. In the expressions to keep a secret. signifying to kill them indiscriminately in large numbers . massacre is appUed primarily and almost exclusively to human beings. conduct. we keep or obey a commandment . with no suggestion of how or why. conducts or carries on a business .keep kill 2!26 Synonymsi carry. murder. Keep. in or within the house . witbbold. out of mischief . retain. observe. to massacre to butcher is said when there is no chance of successful resistance . keep to the subject . To kill is simply to deprive of life. obey. strong Saxon term for many acts which are more exkeep. we keep or maintain a horse. butcber. whether secretly or openly. keep faith. sustain. keep for a person. fulfil.Iv. we keep from or refrain from Keep in the sense of guard or defend implies that evil. crime. support. an occasion. puttodeatb. etc. or vegetable. in mind. we keep or preserve silence. a man supports his family . . brate a festival . A person keeps a shop or store. is the terse. when the killing is especially brutal . maintain. or violence . observe. refrain. Assassinate. apply only to the taking of human life . Butcher and slaughter apply primarily to the killing of cattle. Prepositions Keep in hand. KIl. guard. signifying generally to have and retain in possession.

comprehension. truths. with or without right. Information is knowledge of fact. either of these words may signify collectively all persons of the same blood or m. or by whatever process the aggregate of facts. with a dagger. pestilence. and to a certain degree complete. alUance. real or supposed. information. lore. scbolarsliip. perception. except those is Kind ship. aliens. been learned respecting phenomena. grief. that he has a fund of varied informaLore is used only in poetic or elevated style. or principles acquired or retained by the mind. Synonyms affinity. foreigners. etc. literature. since strangers. as of a people or age. recosrnltion.embers of the same family. There is a tendency to regard knowledge as accurate and systematic. denoting the most general relationwhole human species in mankind. lated knowledge. cognition. science. preferably the former. derived from persons. learning. Synonyms acquaintance. To despatch is to JciU swiftly and in general quietly. erudition. hxanaakind. broader than hin. from whatever source derived or obtained. for accumution. causes. KNoirLEDOi:. Knowledge is all that the mind knows. books. There are no true antonyms of kin or kindred. laws. family. Prepositions To kiU mth or hy sword. or in a more limited sense We speak of perception or external for learning or erudition. kiUed /or his money.. birtli. relatives or relations. light. intelligence. kin and kindred denote direct relationship that can be traced through either blood or marriage. relationship. kind. race. etc. and is regarded as casual and haphazard. KIN. care. principles. cognizance. or observation.. kindred. descent.nam **' kin knowledge hopeless charge are said to be slaughtered when no brutality on the enemy's part is implied. apprebension. intuition. always with intention. etc. wisdom. by a robber. or of an intelligent man of the world. We say of a studious man that he has a great store of knowledge. . consanguinity. t blood. and foes may still be kin or kindred. as of the made by negatives. experience. including alike the intuitions native to the mind and all that has . Affinity is relationship by marriage. famine. consanguinity is relationship by blood.

as. scienob. the result of long. or race. Inexperience. The great difficulty of translation is to give the thought expressed ia one language in the idiom of another. erudition is recondite learning secvired only by extraordinary industry. expression. apprehension of intellectual truth. people. mlsconcepttoiu misanderfitaaffiiigi rndeneea. misapprehenaon.language objects. not recognized as in accordance with the best usage . As regards the use of words. patois. 228 Simple perception gives a limited knowledge of external objects. we take cognizance of it. wisdom. but now in its widest sense it signifies expression of thought by any means . or race. Language (P. lingua. liANOVAGE. vernacular. dialect may be lised by the highest aa well as thfl A A A . speech. eiducation. Antonyms ignorance. Compare acqitaintanos . dialect is a special mode of speaking a language peculiar to some locality or class. or some usage akin to that. nnfamiliarity. in a more limited sense. dialect. Synonyms barbarism. Learning is much higher than information. vocabulary. Idiom. the words or combinations forming a means of communi cation among the members of a single nation. country. iUiteraey. the cognition of the same objects is a knowledge of them in some . but not of their speech. Intuition is primary knowledge antecedent to all teaching or rear soning . as. op- relation portunity. langage < L. tongue is the speech or language of some one people. a barbarism is a perversion of a language by ignorant foreigners. merely as such . Speech involves always the power of articulate utterance . cognizance is the formal or official recognition of something as an object of knowledge. a child's experience that fii-e will bum. experience is knowledgethat has entered directly into one's own life . the language of flowers. and abilily. motber tongue. tongue. the language of the eyes. and the way of forming or using words . assiduous study . Idiom refers to the construction of phrases and sentences. it is the peculiar mold in which each language casts its thought. the tongue) signified originally expression of thought by spoken words. beiag preeminently wide and systematic knowledge. we can speak of the language of animals. and. diction. language in its broadest sense denotes all the uttered sounds and their combinations into words and sentences that human beings employ for the communication of thought.

a patois is distinctly illiterate. the Scriptures were translated into the vernacular. belonging to the lower classes. those who speak a patois understand the cultured form of their own' language. of one's native language. as in the case of the Italian lazzaroni or the former negro Vernacular. or that of a people .329 large law lowest within Its range . but speak only the degraded form. as. Compare diction. same general sense as the Saxon mother tongue. from the Latin. has the slaves in the United States. .

army regulations. Law is also used as a collective noun for a system of laws or recognized rules or regulations. as. legislation. is the science of law. municipal ordi- up nances. jurisprudence planetary distances. Law is often used. as. the laws of business. primarily the act of legislating. oikonomia. and interpreted . it Independence. in usage it differs from economy as applying rather to the system. liberty relative. liberty is primarily the removal or avoidance of restraint . license. In general terms. Polity (Gr. British legislation. church. or the law of nations. of which they form a part . it is may be said the state of being exempt from the domination of others . constitution. firoedom. in its broadest sense. or a system of laws scientifically considered. for a recognized principle. whose violation is attended with injury or loss that acts like a penalty. especially the latter.liberty ' 230 its to send specific law. denotes also the body of statutes enacted by a legislative body. with the entire system. Kepler's laws of code is a system of laws . the Mosaic economy. an economy might be termed a polity considered with especial reference to its practical administration. hence commonly with special reference to details or particulars. An economy (Gr. while A economy applies especially to method. including not only all special laws. state. that freedom is absolute. from polis. political or religious. We records. also. but the word is extended to the administration or government of a state or people. the laws of nature. primarily the management of a house) is any comprehensive system of administration . as. while polity has more reference to broad principles. and we speak of the English common law. military orders. Statute is the recognized legal term for a enactment is the more vague and general expression. The Mosaic economy is known also as the Mosaic law. the code of Draco. domestic economy . ecclesiastical canons. or to the system as admin. a natural law is simply a recognized systeni of sequences or relations . politeia. as. a city) signifies the form. Boman juri^arudence. or method of government of a nation. In more strictly scientific use. signifying a body of laws and regulations. or other institution . freedom is the absence of restraint. classed. istered Synonyms : emancipation. but tho principles on which they are based. speak of algebraic or chemical formulas. the rules of a business house.

but transient or intermittent . Light. glimmer. if it contains few solid particles it will yield little light. a glitter refer to . glare. in its limited sense. thraldom. a permission or privilege granted by adequate authority. sudden gleam of light came through the half=open door . the slave is set at liberty. . sparkle. illumination. glistening. a bounded liberty . slavery. shimmer. the glare of torches the glow of dying embers. twinkle. the flash of gunpowder. shine. a The glare and flash of lightning. but freedom is the nobler word. Incandescence. obligation. glistering. as. glow. necessity. denote wavering light. constraint^ sendom. LIOHT. brila wavering ^ame or blaze. liant flame. flash. as in A A blaze is an extensive. Independence is said of states or nations. Freedom and liberty are constantly interchanged . flare. shining. gutter. of the shimmer of waves in sunlight or moonA gleam is not wavering. Compare Aiiow . strictly denoting a form of radiant energy. Synonyms! blaze. a steady or continuous emission of light . permission. sheen is a faint Glimmer. glow are steady. tho it may afford intense heat. — Antonyms: captivity. gleaming. gleam. flame. twinkling. in the wider sense. we speak of freedom from annoyance or intrusion. luster. and a reckless doing of aU that individual a base and dangerous councaprice or passion may choose to do terfeit ot freedom. sheen. license is an ignoring and defiance of all that should restrain. usually by reflection. hnprisoDment. compalsion. from the faintest phosphorescence to the blaze of the noonday sun. License is. the independence of the United States did not secure liberty ov freedom to its slaves. scintillation. is used as a general term for any luminous effect discernible by the eye. freedom takes a wider range.231 light or from restricting circumstances. saperstition. applying to other oppressive influences thus. the glare painfully bright. We speak of the glimmer of distant lamps through the mist . the glow subdued . as. Liberty keeps quite strictly to the thought of being clear of restraint or compulsion . oppression. flame is both hot and luminous . glitter. servltade. a light. or gains his freedom . A flare is . flicker. Shine and shining the case of a hydrogen=^ame. and shimmer shining. a flash is a light that appears and disappears in an instant. freedom and liberty of individuals .

) To hear is . dablone. or tentative judgment a thing is presumable which. may be taken for granted in advance of proof. is a thing conjectural which is Antonyms donbtfnl. Likely refers to a contingent event regarded as very probable. an impetuous person is apt to speak hastily. as. from what is antecedently known. nnlikely. reasonable. probable. as. brilliant light. gtoomlnesa. Apt implies a natural fitness or tendency . dnak. (Compare synonyms for LOOK. questionable. an industrious worker to is likely to succeed. conceivable. harken. Between listen and hear is a difference like that between the words look and see. as when all the windows of a house or of a street are lighted. as. hark. scintillaTwinkle and twinkling are used of the tions of wit or of genius. the glitter of burnished arms. Illumination is a wide=spread. Liable refers to a contingency regarded as unfavorable . heed. Compare appabent. onreamiabla Synonyms attend. dimness. likely in such connection A is used ironically to signify the reverse . also the figurative term for what suggests such emission . and usually. sudden light. Incredible. tho not always. Credible signifies readily be believed . as.Itkely listen „„„ »<»'« A sparkle is a is a hard light . as of sparks thrown out . Bfaadow. liable. from a -wet surface. Synonyms apt. i credible . I darkness. favorable . Reasonable in this connection signifies such as the reason can be satisfied with. Antonyms blackness. Glistening is a shining as intermittent light of the fixed stars. obscnrity. that seems a reasonable supposition. dark. conjectural. the ship was liable to founder at any moment. LISTEN. gloom. a credible narrative . independently of external grounds for belief or disbelief . scintillation is the more exact and scientific term for the actual emission of sparks. liiKEi^ir. The light of incandescence is intense and white like that from metal at a white heat. list. a likely story thing is conceivable of which the mind can entertain the possibility I . as. conjectured as possible or probable without other support than a conjecture. > Improbable. beav. as. shade. as. presumable.

i. the literature of the Augustan age . SCIENCE. referring to aU that has been belles'lettres. Synonyms: burden. as. fiction. encumbrance. writings. books. history. ecom. the literature of Greece . as the orations of Demosthenes. denotes what has been called "polite literature" or helles'lettres. Ignore. lis. without hearing. slight. Literature. To heed is not only to attend. Synonyms t literary productions. freigbt. is nearly obsolete. Prepositions We listen for what we expect or desire to hear we listen to what we actually do hear listen /or a step. wliich is what one has to bear. the literature of politics or of art. Antonyms be deaf to. A burden (from the Anglo=Saxon byrthen.. Harken neglect. sense. cargo. we can speak of the literature of science in the narrower sense. as the " Republic " of Plato. may hear without listening. lading. or in some department of human knowledge . incubus. is collective. bear) is n. and dramatic compositions. literary w^orks. pack. ten to the debate. ' ^ or occupations . as poetry. to devote one's life to literature. as. feeling. and purity and beauty of style. a signal. and the word is used always of that borne by a living agent. but to remember and observe. listen . Literature is also used to signify literary pursuits . we speak of literature and science as distinct departments of knowledge. In listening the ear is intent upon the sound in attending the mind is intent upon the thought. including also much of philosophical writing. as to a distant speaker. tho listening implies some attention to the meaning or import of the soimd. publications. e. A load (from the Anglo=SaxoD . used absolutely. . clog. Compare KNOWIiEDaE. the works collectively that embody taste. or in a more limited sense. Literature published in some land or age. loftiness of thought.noo -e"** literature load simply to become conscious of sound. from the verb beran. charge. a train . weigbt. as words suddenly uttered in an adjoining room or we may We . LiOAD. to listen is to make a conscious effort or endeavor to hear. and oratorIn the broad ical productions. including in the most general sense all the written or printed pro)luctions of the human mind in all lands and ages.

contemplate. scan. survey. L. or other device the bolt is the eslatch or catch is an accessible fastensential part of the lock. bolt. calculated to be secured by a padlock . may be movable or permanent . or it may be known as freight or lading." mule is called apacfc. as the clasp of a A A book. clasp.lock look lad. fastening. glance. a simple hook that fits into a staple is also called a hasp. We to may look without seeing. or what is customarily Weight measures the pressure so imposed as. see. a door held fast. discern. load to be fastened upon a horse or eaid to be "shipped. To gaze is to . which is. or carriage) . usually of considerable size. a bolt is a movable rod or pin of metal. carrying. what is laid upon a person. a two=horse load. -bar. etc. bar by which an opening is obstructed. to draw and hold the parts of some enclosing object firmly together. catcb. inspect. latcb. To behold is to fix the sight and the mind w^ith distinctness and consideration upon something that has come to be clearly before the eyes. animal. as ia pitch=darkness. stare. no J 234 is a way. or vehicle for conveyance. forward or backward by a key. A ship's load is called distinctively a cargo. A ing designed to be easily movable. . bar is a piece of wood or metal. the same weight that one finds a moderate load full strength becomes a heavy burden in weariness or weakness. cover. to To look is see is simply to become conscious of an object of vision make a conscious and direct endeavor to see. course. and simply to secure against accidental opening of the door. as in case of a flash of lightning. and the animal is known as a packshorse or when in his A pack^mule. L. clasp is a fastening that can be sprung into place. due to gravity . descry. and we may see without looking. Synonyms: bebold. sliding in a socket and adapted for securing a door or winlock is an arrangement by which an enclosed bolt is shot dow.OCK.OOK. view. Freight denotes merchandise in or for transportation and is used largely of transportation or of merchandise transported by rail. Synonyms: hook. A A A . hasp is a metalUc strap that fits over a staple. in commercial language. basp. watcb. gaze. regard. etc.

going out object. To glance is to casually or momentarily." ing that probably it never can be recalled (compare benevolence). the love that normally leads to marriage. Love is more intense. for mountains. and subsists throughout all happy wedded life. and tender xiii. as we speak of love for a horse or a dog. absorbing. regard. is to looh at minutely. tender. for inanimate objects. Love is an intense and aosorbing emotion. etc. The Eevised Version uses lovein place of charity in 1 Cor. but of deep or tender affection. lust. To scan. or other object of affection . truth. desire. a signal. and perhaps passionate than affection . to note every visible featm-e.8«» lo. to some person or . charity. or to advance the cause. attraction. kindly feeling. it is the yearning or outgoing of soul toward something that is regarded as excellent. Synonyms affection. One may properly be said to have love for animals. attachment. and elsewhere. or of close. more intense. suwej/ expressing the greater exactness of measurement or estimate.OVE. liking. the approach of an enemy. deep. movement Compare APPEAB. I. and constant. and to desire to please and benefit the person. delight in. than friendship. love may be briefly defined as strong and absorbing affection for and attraction toward a person or object. Love is used specifically for personal affection between the sexes in the highest sense. whether applied to persons or things. To stare is to looh with a fixed intensity such as is the efifect of surprise. devotion. friendship. strong friendship. study item by item. or desirable . Watch brings in the eleZoofc ment of time and often of wariness we watch for a or change. di-awing one toward a person or object and causing one to appreciate. To inspect is to go below the sui-face. long. or for abstract qualities that enlist the affections. being less fervent and ardent than love.e looh intently. firm. and steadily upon an object. Love can never properly denote mere animal passion. View and survey are comprehensive. tenderness. and crave the presence or possession of the person or object loved. Love may denote the sublimestand hoUest spiritual affection as when we are taught that "God Charity has so far swung aside from this original meanis love. which is expressed by such words as appetite. uncover. alarm. Affection is fondness. or rudeness. beautiful. impulsive. we speak of fervent love. .

To to exist. up. union. Synonyms: become. (make prisoner) arrest . break. enmity . matrimony. or compel him to do it. out of. spousals. occasion. hatred. compose. nuptials. shape. to the idea of caiise all its vari- be traced (compare synonyms for CAUSE). as love. Compare attachment friendship. Similarly. frame. mto a certain form. establlsb. (make ous senses may make is to cause known) announce avow confess (make up) add. as in Oen. compel. and love of virtue. Love of articles of food is better expressed by liking. . MAKE. 31. Synonyms espousal. for a certain purpose or person. made hy a prisoner. it was very good. in its full sense. w^eddlng. bring to pass. demolish. by hand. .make marriage <lt<i -eo" woods. (make void) cancel. bring Into being. 'wedlock. require. Matrimony denotes the state of those who are united in the . (make haste) quicken. with a jack-knife. and. as. . bring about. force." Make includes also the idea of compose. perform. construct. constitute. fasblon. love to God and man. . compel fixing the attention more on the process. (make better) amend. such as can have no place in connection with objects that minister merely to the senses. expresses something spiritual and reciprocal. constitute . render. execute. . get. conjugal union. Make is essentially causative. Antonyms See synonyms for antipathy . reach. Compare compel. the parts mMke up the whole. make on the accomplished fact. niARRIAGE. spousal. ox from certain materials. " And God saw everything that he had made. cause. fabricate. or to cause to exist in a certain form or in certain relations. Prepositions Make of. make make out. i. to cause a voluntary agent to do a certain act is to make him do it. or of love of nature. manufacture. effect. made vyith hands. Prepositions Love of country for humanity . espousals. inpluencb. create. constrain. Antonyms See synonyms for abolish. do. ocean. do. behold. the word thus includes the idea of create.

with any attendant festivities. and is thus an emphatic word for sturdy. manly decision . widowhood. masculine masnacre husbaad and wife is of so uniting. Synonyms male. virginity. Manlike may mean only having the outward appearance or semblance of a man. Antonyms i See synonyms for feminine. manlike. masculine has often the depreciatory sense of unwomanly. masculine to the qualities. manly. Wedding denotes the ceremony. the indiscriminate killing in numbers of the uu- . especially to the valor and prowess that become a man . celibacy. but marriage denotes primarily the act extensively used for the state as well. as opposed not only to feminine or womanly but to childish. Synonyms. MASSACRE. or the like . by which two persons are united as husband and wife. Manly refers to all the qualities and traits worthy of a man manful. We apply m. of one person another . we speak of a manful struggle. i manful. nuptials being the more formal and stately term to express the same idea. manulsb. hardier. etc. rude. intrepid.o*** ** relation of lock.asculine courage or decision. virile applies to the distinctive qualities of mature manhood only. or harsh .ale to the sex. a mannish boy or woman. butcbery. and more imperious qualities that distinguish the male sex . tho one may say in a conmiendatory way. or relation denoted Antonyms bachelorhood. especially to the stronger. is bavoc. she acted with m. Wed: a word of specific legal use. maidenhood. slaughter. we word could not say manful tenderness. mASCVLINE. Masculine may apply to the distinctive qualities of the male sex at any age . Prepositions Marriage of or between two persons . we say manly gentleness or tenderness Mannish is a depreciatory . or may be closely equivalent to manly. virile. as applied to women. referring to the mimicry or pa- rade of some superficial qualities of manhood . a masculine face or voice. as. to at with among the Greeks. is the Saxon term for the state by matrimony. divorce. as. A massacre carnage.

as a voice and a bell may Harmony is A . aoa JtSB hutehery is the killing of men rudely and ruthlessly as cattle are killed in the shambles. intrusive is used chiefly of persons. actions. meddling. but is more widely spread and furious ." Acts viii. upon Obtrusive is oftener applied to words. etc. flesh) refers to widely scattered or heaped up corpses of the slain slaughter is similar in meaning. Antonyms: modeBt. Carnage (Latin caro. Synonyms: harmony. than to persons . repulsed with great slaughter. Accordant notes of different pitch sounded simultaneously produce harmony . harmony is the pleasing correspondence of two or more notes sounded at once. etc. o£Sclous. the person thrusts his services. but refers more to the process. as well as to huSaul. interests. tho we speak of officious attentions. organizations. his opinions conceitedly officious . or of words. qualities. intsbfose. others and undesirably upon their notice . 'he made havoc of the church. as carnage does to the result these two words only of the group may be used of great destruction of life in open and honorable battle. Havoo may not be BO complete as massacre. retiring. there may be unison between sounds of very different volume and quaUty.meddlesome melody resisting or defenseless . unison is the simultaneous sounding of two or more notes of the same pitch. Compare iKQUisixro: . and may be applied to man life " as for . IHELODY. simultaneous . as is officious.. intrusive. intrusive remarks meddlesome 18 used indifferently of persons. music. ehy. . actions.E:sonn:. melody is successive . carnis. nor so coldly brutal as hutehery. Synonyms linpertiiient. or the carnage was terrible. reserved. unasked and undesired. etc. sympliony. obtrusive. as when we say the enemy was 3. it is destruction let loose. ]HEi>i>L. others. qualities. unison. nnobtrasive. When the pitch is the same. . melody the pleasing succession of a number of notes continuously melody may be wholly in one part following one another. interferes unasked in the affairs of the intrusive person thrusts himself uninvited into their company or conversation . nnasBnimng. the obtrusive person thrusts himself or The meddlesome person . harmony i^ust be of two or moi-e parts.

em. inEMORY. clemency. Music may denote the simplest melody or the most complex and perfect harmony. Pardon remits the outward penalty which the offender deserves forgiveness dismisses re. memory is a retention of knowledge within the grasp of the mind. tenderness. and pardon are exercised toward the ill»deserving. the mind making a distinct effort to recall something. gentleness. lenience. the same is true of memory. Reminiscence is a half=dreamy memory of scenes or events long past retrospection is a distinct turning of the mind is Memory . leniency. this usage arises from' the fact that bass and tenor voices in attempting to sound the same note as the soprano and alto will in fact sound a note an octave below. recalled in a . grace. or blessing shown to the undeserving forgiveness. Recollection involves volition. Retrospection rem. a thing is brought to remembrance or we call it to remembrance . benignity. kindness. sentment or displeasure frona the heart of the one offended. Synonyms Henevolence. as of many accordant voicep or instruments. memory mercy Tones sounded at the interval of an octave are is also said to be in unison. lenity. nnconsdouBneas. ftivor. remembrance. or in a more extended sense. A symphony (aparc from its technical orchestral sense) is any pleasing consonance of musical sounds. while remembrance is the having what is known consciously before the mind. mildness. pardon. bringing long jwriods under sm-vey. IHERCY. mercy. Synonyms: recollection. the faculty by which knowledge is retained or more general sense. Mercy is the exercise of forbearance. the granting of Tcindness or favor beyond what one may rightly claim. less severity than one deserves.239 sound in unison.brance. back upon the is past. oWivionsnesa. blessing. . reminiscence. pity. or fixing the attention actively upon it when recalled. Remembrance may be voluntary or involuntary . Or ace is favor. forgiveness. to reminiscence much what oversight. altho this not literally exact . Mndness. retrospect. compassion. recollection is to Antonyms forgeifalnesB. retrospection. . oblivion. vocal or instrumental.

but the word is often used as synonymous with stanza. rather than moral sanction it often denotes a habitual mildness of disposition on the part of the powerful. . as in the mitigation of sentence. Clemency is a colder word than mercy. to or toward sinners . either to prose or to poetry. euphony may apply to a Euphony the other words apply to rhythm and meter may be produced by accent only. There may be mercy without pardon. agreeable linguistic sound. is rliytlini. hardness. justice. sentences. etc. and denotes . Antonyms cruelty. as in Greek or Italian rhythm or measure may apply single single syllable etc. have mercy on or Synonyms! eupliony. dancing. . BtenmeBS. m^ter is more precise than rhythm. measure. verse. rigor. harshness.meter 240 mercy seeks the highest possible good of the offender. PITY. strophes. etc. severity. they besought the robber to have mercy. Compare . and rhythm denote agreeable succession of sounds in the utterance of connected words. stanzas. vengeance. . . . word or even a lines. Prepositions The mercy of God upon one. the clem. Verse. . or by accent and quantity combined. and is matter rather of good nature or poHcy than of principle. signifying mildness and moderation in the use of power where severity would have legal or military. . measure. .ency of a conqueror. however produced meter. punisliment. since it would encourage to repetition of the offense. a measured rhythm with regular divisions into verses. or in there may be cases all possible alleviation of necessary severity vrhere pardon would not be mercy. Leniency or lenity denotes an easy=going avoidance of severity these words are more general and less magisterial than clemency . Mercy is also used in the wider sense of refraining from harshness or cruelty toward those who are in one's power without fault of their own as. METER. in the general sense. and without its religious associations. as in English. . from which timely punishment might have saved. revenge. or to music. Compare melody poetry. applies only to poetry. A verse is strictly a metrical Une. we should speak of the leniency of a parent. denotes metrical writing without reference to the thought involved as. prose and verse. penalty. paragraphs. I implacability.

or it may denote the very life of anything Milton L' Allegro 1. kind. thinks. as. intelligence. "the hidden soul of harmony. not the eye. the soul denotes especially the moral. excitability.241 ^' mind Synonyms < brain. elves. even in its material signification. speak of soulful eyes . brain (colloquially brains) is often used as a synonym for m. the soul (not the mind) has fled. Spirit is used especially in contradistinction from matter . he is a man of sense. Intellect. intelligence. sense. as when we spirit. or power of thinking. and brownies of mythology might be termed spirits. perhaps impatience ." As the seat of mental activity. whether with . spirit denotes animation. we can conceive of spirits as having no moral nature the fairies. The instinct of animals is now held by many philosophers to be of the same nature as the intellect of man. as when we speak of the sense of hearing . An insHnct is a propensity prior to experience and independent of instruction. consciousness. and will beyond what is expressed by the -word mind. really hears. acumen . Palby Natural Phitosaphy ch. intellect. a lad of spirit . in a limited sense. or feels. includes all the powers of sentient being apart from the physical factors in bodily faculties and activities . knows. good judgment. really sees the mind. as. sensibilities. it may in many cases be substituted for soul. Consciousness includes all that a sentient being perceives. 18. thousbt. 144. . soul. in a general sense. he replied with Soul denotes energy and depth of feeling. but includes disposition. Thought. yet the apparent difference is very great. but inferior and limited . as. instinct. process. The soul includes the intellect. the act. or. but soul has commonly a fuller and more determinate meaning . thus denoting tendencies independent of reasoning or instruction. he showed good sense . In the figurative sense. from whatever source arising and of whatever character. we say of a dead body. reason. or the tendency toward action. spirit. must be reckoned among the activities of mind. . but sense is used also as denoting clear mental action. IS .ind. . In this sense we speak of human instincts. mind is nearly synonymous with intellect. is often used to denote the thinking faculty. the immortal nature . as appears in the phrase "to have a mind to work. Mind. sense. disposition." Sense may be an antonym of intellect. and especially the reason. understanding. tho dependent on bodily functions the mind. not the ear. he sang with spirit . or degree. but not souls.

and Buch as the sufferer is not deemed directly responsible for as. That is minute which is of exceedingly limited dimensions. reverse. any untoward event. precise. t adversity. visitation. detailed. of the savage. or willing . miKUTE. barm. . Synonyms IHISFORTimE. or which attends to matters of exceedingly slight amount or apparent importance . blow. Compare fine. esact. feeling.mlsfortnne mlnnte 242 or without distinct thinking. disappointment. an examination so extended is critical. fine. mlsbap. chastening. tribulation. particular. brute force. Hamilton has called "the faculty of relations and comparisons. diminutive. matter. as. iU. bereavement. An account extended to very minute particulars is circumstantial. small. afOictlon. comminuted referring more to the process. disaster. little. as. exact." Antonyms body. observation. cbastlsement. but is chiefly used of the reasoning powers the' understanding. tiny. as distinguished from emotion and volition. calamity. is sorrow. we speak of the consciousness of the brute. usually of lingering character or consequences. Synonyms circumstantial. Understanding is the Saxon word of the same general impoi't. i brawn.inute particles is said to be comminuted . detailed. 111 fortune. he . particular . precise. material Babstance. misadventure. which Sir Wm. truth. Iiardsbip. failure. The intellect is that assemblage of faculties which is concerned with knowledge. That which is broken up into m. comminuted. fine gravel but. a minute account m/inute . niln. stroke. fine sand . slender. . Misfortune adverse fortune or any instance thereof. critical. we say a substance is finely comminuted. as a grain of dust. distress. trial. trouble.. Antonyms: See synonyms for largi!. or of the sage." is distinguished by many philosophers from reason in that " reason is the faculty of the higher cognitions or a priori . misery. fine to the result. things may be termed fine which would not be termed comminuted . 111 lucl£. miscbance. in using the adverb.

Calamity and disaster are used of sudden and severe misfortunes. populace. We speak of an affliction. consolation.243 model mob had the mitfortune to be bom blind. MODEL. masses. pleasure. 'nie populace are poor and ignorant. Synonyms MOB. purposeless a mob may have effective desperate purpose. when long continued or attended with enduring consequences. Affliction. relief. failure. design. For the loss of friends by death we commonly use affliction or fcereaoement. and tribulation have aU an especially religious bearing. trial. in modern use. lo'wer classes. joy. canaille. . but may be rich and Influential. standard. Compare CATASTROPHE. triumph. but brief . dregs of tlie people. i rabble. and the Uke. We speak of the misery of the poor. the models in the Patent Office. but rarely of Antonyms Uessmg. tribulation is long and wear- a tribulation. Affliction may be keen and bitter. success. boon. Any considerable disappointment. good fortune. as regards outward circumstances. ing. panem. A crouxl may be drawn by mere curiosity some strong. since viewed as a continuous process. good luck. representation. or misfortune. The rabble is despicable. but may be law=abiding a TJiob is disorderly and lawless. disciplinary purpose of Gfod with beneficent design. a model its is usually in relief. suggesting some . . of lighter troubles and failures. orlgiiial. A pattern must be closely followed in minutest particulars by a . gratification. jiosition. focsimlle. tribulation is . it a mob. comfort. which may endure for years or for a lifetime but we speak of our daily trials. nappiness. Synonyms i archetype. tbe vulgar.. crowd. worthless. the hardships of the soldier. that which is to be copied may be made from it is commonly A superficial. often overwhelming ill fortune and ill luck. A pattern is always. chastening. example. type. C!ompare people. constitutes adversity. as loss of fortune. a model been tern mold. pervading excitement is needed to make . Imitation. as. either the thing to be copied or the copy that has pat. Image. prototype. copy. prosperity.

<*•«•« faithful copyist . his living actly copy in marble or metal the model . or paid in hand as. his workmen must exmadel he has made in clay. conceit.modesty money <i44. the cash account the cash price. ideal. medium of exchange coined money What are termed in England bank=»iotes is called coin or specie. loquaciousness. boldness. or failiire. while money. are in the United States commonly called hills . or with the demands of some undertaking. oneself aloof from others. mONEY. or. loquacity. the contempCompare abash. Cash is specie or money in hand. . impudence. casb. Bashfulness is a shrinking from notice without assignable rea/Coyness is a half encouragement. silver. a flve=dollar hill. coldness. assumption. Reserve may be the retreat of shyness. the stock was sold for $500 in money and the balance in merchantable paper. PEIDE. and mercial . constraint. timidity. sanciness. In the legal sense. and money is not property . as such. basbfulness. as. BOciabil%. half avoidance of oifered attention. currency. A sculptor may idealize Compare example . capital. bullion. unototruslveness. gold. the authorized funds. a disReserve is the holding tinct fear of criticism. freedom. reserve. property. coyness. Imugtitiness. self-'safficiency. on the other hand. arrogance. assurance. timidity. forwardness. a model may allow a great degree of freedom. confidence. Synonyms: bacliTrardiiess. egotism. as. indiscretion. a humble estimate of oneself in comparison with others. pertness. has but representative value. . coin. self-conceit. but they are not money . Synonyms! bills. tuous withdrawal of pride and haughtiness. or one's affairs from communication to others. Shyness is a tendency to shrink from observation . The notes of responsible men are readily transferable in comMoney is circles. MODESTY. for property is that which has inherent value. and may be real or affected. . diffidence. Antonyms abandon. notes. frankness. specie. Modesty has also the specific meaning of a sensitive shrinking from anything Indelicate. TACITURN. property is not money. error. or holding back one's feelings from expression. idea . sbyness. Diffidence is self »distrust modesty. son.

. of military movements. loving. but simply as nierchandise. genial. but of perpetual motion. The word capital is used chiefly of accumulated property or money invested in productive enterprises or available for such investment. The sullen and sulky are for the most part silent the morose growl The sullen . sympathetic. when its value as bullion may be very different from its value as money. crusty. transition. snappisli. gruff. Action is a more now rarely speak of mencomprehensive word than motion. We . thus we speak of a surly dog. . Motion may be either abstract or concrete. mdolgent. suUcy. MOTION. severe. tender. Move is used chiefly of contests or competition. benignant. in a state of latent anger. Synonyms acrimonious. good-natured. mild. surly. move. transit.«'•«> . cbange. _ morose motion intrinsic value. and disposed to vent their iU nature upon others. Synonyms. but of the laws of planetary motion . splenetic. cburllsli. pleasant. complaisant. bland. and sulky are discontented and resentful in regard to that against which they are too proud to protest. . The morose are bitterly dissatisfied with the world in general. Sullen and sulky moods may be transitory one who is morose or surly is commonly so by dis. movement. as in chess or politics . act. may or may not have silver uncoined. or the coined Bullion is either gold or metal considered without reference to its coinage. action. sulJcy more or resentful obstinacy. Ill-natured. Antonyms amiable. as. gentle. . gloomy. more frequently the former mcyvement is always concrete. ul-liumored. sour. and thing . considered in connection with the thing that moves or is moved thus. or consider aU protest vain sullen denotes more of pride. friendly. ready to take offense at any- position or habit. passage. Motion is change of place or position in space transition is a passing from one point or position in space to another. process. A surly person is resenting approach as intrusion. a shrewd move of the opposition. out bitter speeches. that is. dogged. IHOROSE. it is your move . sullen. kind. . we speak of vhe movements of the planets. crabbed.

That is common to which two or more persons have the same t or equal claims. or sorrow without a sound . lament. Many good writers hold it incorrect to say " a mutual friend. To mourn is to feel or express sadness or distress because oi some loss. grieve. Synonyms common. others). Antonyms be joyful. rejoice. because of the disagreeable suggestion that attaches to common. triumph. MlTTUAIi. rue. that is mutual (Latin mutare.„ 24W but rather of mental or spiritual acts or a formal proposal is termed a processes. Intercliaugeable." One deplores with settled sorrow which may or may not find relief in words. the reciprocal action of cause tion . joy. regret. He laments in plaintive or pathetic words. affliction. and effect. Scott. stillness. as the prophet Jeremiah in his " Lamentations. he bemoans with suppressed and often inarticulate sounds of grief he bewails with passionate utterance. where the effect becomes in turn a cause. reciprocal. repose. we speak of our common country. quiescence. Synonrms: bemoan. whether of inarticulate cries or of spoken words. Dickens. rue. correlative. or by some penalty or vengeance inflicted because of it. : exult. or in which they have equal Interest or participain the strictest sense. Joint. movRsr. bewail. but of action in a deliberative assembly motion. to .mutual tal or spiritual motions. sorrow. Antonyms: immobility. One is made to rue an act by some misfortune resulting. of ordinary or inferior. quiet. grief or regret may be transient. mutual affection. " Muis and tual friend" has high literary authority (of Burke. reciprocal obligations. mourn „. deplore." and insist that "& common friend" would be more accurate but " common . make merry. One regrets a slight misfortune or a hasty word . regret. friend" practically never used. or of the laws of mental action. or misfortune mourning is thought of as . prolonged. and a considerable usage of good society in its favor. Compare ACT. change) which is freely interchanged that is reciprocal in respect to which one act or movement is met by a corresjKjnding act or movement in return . One may grieve or . he sorrows over the death of a friend. mourn. . rest.

and is properly used to emphasize a characteristic but not to add information. incomprehensible. cognomen. Synonyms t abstruse. designation. Compare DABE. unfatbomable. on. appellation. from epi. in the more limited sense a name is personal. Antonyms: See synonyms for clbab. William is the man's name. . unluicwn. as in the . the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse. tSynonyms t agnomen. signifying the word by which a person or thing is called or known. but is given to mark some assumed characteristic. style. obscure. That is secret which is intentionally hidden. a dark providence. secret. especially of a religious kind as. An epithet (Gr. independently of any rank or achievement Conqueror is the appellation which he won by his acquisition of England . That is mystic or mystical which has associated with it some hidden or recondite meaning. Antonyms detached. land. mystical.. unreciprocated. King of Engis official. cabalistic. put) is something placed upon a person or thing the epithet does not strictly belong to an object like a name. sundered. especially if sadly perplexing as. denomination. an appellation is descriptive. severed. NAME. prenomen. mystic. title. friendship. . includes aU other words of this group in this sense every noun is a name . . enigmatical. good or bad an epithet is always an adjective. transcendental. which belongs to him personally. dark. . . something added. unsliared. a title In the phrase WUUam the Conqueror. inexplicable. surname. That is mysterious in the true sense which is beyond human comprehension. unconnected. as the decrees of God or the origin of life. or a word or phrase used as an adjective. . unrequited. unfatbomed. disunited. dissociated. recondite.„ ^ iVi mysterious name the expression being quite naturally derived from the thoroughly correct phrase mutual distinct. separate. 9ITSTJERIOUS. That is dark which we can not personally see through. inscrutable. epitheton. the title denoting his royal rank. separated. occult. and tithemi. King is Name in the most general sense. disconnected. epithet. bidaen.

Designation may be used much in the sense of appellation. Antonyms acquired. . When scientists name an animal or a plant. imnatnral. they give it a binary or binomial technical nam^ comprising a generic and a specific appellation. is given in infancy. ' Synonyms NATIVE. while an appellation may be fanciful. and that any word used opprobriously is an epithet is a popular error. the cognomen showed his family and was borne by all patricians. aEBumed. naval. natal. and the agnomen was added to refer to his achievements or character. the "nomen" designated the gens to which he belonged. the sum was in notes of the denomination of one thousand dollars. especially money or notes of a certain value . radioai. Among the Bomans the prenomen was the individual part of a man's name. also. Native denotes that which belongs to one by birth natal that which pertains to the event of birth natural denotes that which rests upon inherent qualities of character or being. . foreign. the cognomen or surname is the family name which belongs to one by right of birth or marriage..native nautical _ »4S _ phrase "the sounding sea". original. Marine (L. t . maritime. mare. Innate. native genius. and is often called the given name or Christian name. We speak of one's native country. a secondary derivative from the same root. or simply the first name (rarely the prenom^n) . ocean.. the name and style of Baring Brothers. as. as. Synonymst IVAUTICAl. artificial. bordering on or . but is more distinctive or specific in meaning . In modem use. or of his natal day of natural ability. natural. as John or Mary. Compare inherent primeval . maritime. a personal name. The term denomination is applied to a separate religious organization. without the opprobrious meaning attaching to the word ' sect" . a c?esignation properly so called rests upon some inherent quality. . marine. sea) signifies belonging to the ocean. oceanic. indigenous. Style is the legal designation by which a person or house is known in official or business relations . to designate any class of like objects collectively. the idea that an epithet is always opprobrious. (Compare tebli. alien.

natty. and hence with ships or navigation naval (L. for. as. a ship) refers to the armed force of a nation on the sea. naus. navis. Nautical (Gr. . . the superfluous appears in the phrases "aneat speech. implying value and beauty . often with supple- A . . we spealc of ocean currents. a dapper little feUow in a natty business suit. rongfi. formal. and is always a term of mild contempt . . soiled. a sailor) denotes primarily anything connected with sailors. tmcared untidy. affected nicety. ness and grace ." "a neat reply. Dapper Autonyms: dirty. . Nice is stronger than neat." "a neat clean cut has no ragged edges a turn. is Prim applies to a spruce with the suggestion of smallness and sUghtness natty. figure. disorderly. Gr. a trim . and. of an oceanic intellect. slovenly. to similar forces on lakes and rivers as. with a tendency toward the exquisite as. nautes. orderly. XEAT. a trim suit . . oceanic islands. That which is clean is simply free from soil or defilement of any kind. marine products marine animals maritime nations maritime laws. a spruce serving man. spruce. bIoqcIit. Spruce is applied to the show and affectation of neatness with a touch of smartness. Synonyms clean. rude. tidy. . but would not be termed nice. Ocean. Tidy denotes that which conforms to propriety in general an unlaced shoe may be perfectly clean. as when we speak of plain but neat attire the same idea of freedom from . nice. Things are orderly when in due relation to other things a room or desk is orderly when every article is in place a person is orderly who habitually keeps things so. perhaps. cleanly. as. dapper. coarse dress may be perfectly neat. but is not tidy. or which is similar to or suggestive of an ocean . as. a naval force a nautical almanac. Neat refers to that which is clean and tidy with nothing superfluous. Trim denotes a certain shapely and elegant firmness. oceanic may be used in the same sense. neat connected with the ocean . dowdy. conspicuous. trim. prim. precise. by extension. or. neat stroke just does what is intended.g^» . but is especially applied to that which borders on (or upon) or is connected with. a diminutive of neat. . negligent. a cheap. or showy. is applied to that which belongs to or is part of the ocean . suggests minute elegance. nnkempt." etc. used adjectively.

sine q. or be accepted as true. and evito. or be true. Antonyms casual. . but may not be so absolutely . Inevitable (L. That which is requisite (or required) is so in the judgin the nature of things can not be otherwise. IVECESSITY. death is inevitable . thus. . the requisite is more a matter of personal feeling than the indispensable.uisite. needlesB. reqiuisite. and plied to things. an mewtabfe conclusion silences opposition. a necessary conclusion satisfies a thinker. food is necessary. . undeniable. or the quality of that which can not but be. or be true which That which is essential belongs to the essence of a thing. inevitable. optional. . contingent. iVised! and want always imply a lack necessity may be used . want. needful. Synonyms compulsion. . required. unavoidable. both words are apsome at least would escape or prevent. which . wortiileBB. but it is one that can not be spared vigorous health is essential to an arctic explorer warm clothing is indispensable. extremity. fatality. destiny. Prepositions: Necessary to a sequence or a total for or to a result or a person unity is necessary to (to constitute) completeness decision is necessary /or command. while that which is necessary may meet with no objection . non. ment of the person requiring it.necessary necessity iSoV Synonyms: essential. strength. Necessity is indlspensableness need. respect an end to be attained we speak of a necessary inference necessary food is what one can not live without. SfECESSARY. infallible. requirement. or for & commander. exigency. shun) is primarily the exact equivalent of the Saxon unavoidable . occur. the quali ty of being necessary. emergency. indispensability. while needful food is that without which he can not enjoy comfort. . unavoidableness. in. indispensable. AainfaUible proof is one that necessarily leads the mind to a sound concluNeeded and needful are more concrete than necessary. req.'essential. fate. .ua non. and sion. essential. unnecessary. . nseleas. become. That is necessary which must exist. not. urgency. health. needed. so that the thing cannot exist in its completeness without it that which is imZ&pe»isa6Ze maybe only an adjunct.

Compare kecessaby . but in the higher philosophical sense neoessiiyBiiaply denotes the exclusion of any alternative either in thought or fact righteousness is a necessity (not a need) of the divine nature. as when Whittier speaks of "the negligence which friend- show such ship loves" . as by dust. tidiness. default. beedlessness. from being neglected by others the child was suffering from negligence would imply that he him- transitive.. friends. Neglect has a passive sense which negligence has not . or in any complete idea or statement of it. this is a necessity to me. or to denote the habit of neglecting that which ought to be done. or duties.251 neglect in this sense. the child was suflfering from neglect. possibility. and lego. as may be rightNegligence. to speak of a person's want of decision merely points out a weakness in his character . overslglit. a weary per- son is in need of rest . etc. remissness. is neglectfulness. uncertainty. etc.ence. necessity is more imperative than need . negllg. onussion slackness. care. inadvertence. Neglect (L. l!lli:OL<ECT. a necessity for action . disrespect. nee. thoughtlessness. indifference. etc. Need suggests the possibility of supplying the deficiency which want expresses . origin. dabionsneBS. negligence is intransitive .. but with a slighter force. SFnonyma s carelessness. in which cases we could not use negligenee . failure. scorn. not. that belongs to the essence of something else so as to be inseparable from it in its normal condition. but negligence is often used to denote the quality or which the act is a manifestation. negligence in dress implies want of care as to its arrangement. option. fortuity. disregard. which is the same in fully or reasonably expected. donbtinlness.. Inattention. as a quality. As applied to a deficiency. moths. doubt. Neglect is trait of character of . i. the failingto take such attention. gather) pay suchcoiurtesy. FBEBESTiNATioir. e. slight. neglect ot one's garments would imply leaving them exposed to defacement or injury. may be used in almost the same sense. or element. contingency. Antonyms: choice. fteedom. we speak of neglect of his books. An essential is something. Prepositions t The necessity of surrender . when rest becomes a necessity he has no choice but to stop work. to say that he has need of decision implies that he can exercise or attain it.

that which is youthful manifests the attributes of youth. that which . a novel experience is one that has never before occurred to the same person . modern architecture. and is still existing . one may be guilty of habitual neglect of duty . and on the part of one ordinarily careful and attentive . Modem denotes that which has begun to exist in the present age. the wife may suffer from her husband's constant neglect. Young and youthful are applied to that which has life that which is young is possessed of a comparatively new existence as a Living thing. is new-made. are not strikingly remote from the styles and types prevalent to=day. Freposltlons Neglect of duty. Synonyms fresh. while the negligence which causes a railroad accident may be that of a moment.new self ggg was neglectful. i modern. young:. That which is late is somewhat removed from the present. recent denotes that which has come into existence within a comparatively brief period.) Fresh applies to that which has the characteristics of newness or youth. lately upstart. That which new has come into or use . recent. juvenile. is but partially true . autonyms: See synonyms for CAEE. while capable of deterioration by lapse of time. The distinction sometimes made that neglect denotes the act. as a new copy of an old book. That which is novel is either absolutely or relatively unprecedented in kind . new-fasliioned. existence. modern literatiwe. and may or may not be existing still. youthful. but not far enough to be called old. novel. or in a more general sense is one that has just come into the possession of the present owner or occupant. of the child by the parent . in such cases the law provides punishment for criminal negligence.. possessing actual youth . there was neglect on the part of the teacher. Modern history pertains to any period since the middle ages . late. That which is recent is not quite so sharply distinguished from the past as that which is new. a new house is just built. etc. possession. new-fangled. and negligence the habit. recent publications range over a longer time than new books. (Compare youthful. that which is new may be of a familiar or even of an ancient sort. a novel contrivance is one that has never before been known.

genus. speedy. s-wift. The regular is etymologically that which is according to rule. auick.. heavy. or an ocean steamer is swift. svnft destruction. the normal color of the crow is black. normal. natural.253 is nimble normal unworn. modem to ancient. Alert. a dancer wtmbZe=footed an arrow. but one is as natural as the Typical refers to such an assemblage of quaUties as makes other. fresh sggs. . fresh flowers. with readiness to turn suddenly to any point sioift applies commonly to more sustained motion over greater distances a pickpocket is mm&Ze=flngered. symmetry is normal . as opposed to that which is fitful and changeable the normal action of the heart is regular. . . dilatory. . prompt. young to old. recent to remote. from the fact that the ready. sluggish. Antonyms: clnmsy. spry. BrilHBLrE. That which is common is shared by a . Synonyms active. or unfaded . Figuratively. hence that which is steady and constant. sprlgbtly. . etc. inert. we speak of nimble wit. Shakespeare's "^nimble lightnings" is said of the visual appearance in sudden zigzag flash across the sky. unspoiled. quick. Synonyms conunon. brislE. wide= awake person is likely to he lively. a race^horse. usual. a type of some more comprehensive group. ordinary. a fresh countenance. Compare active ALERT. lively. inactive. Antonyms See synonyms for old. IVORIHAL. smft intelligence. conies sometimes near the meaning of nimble or quick. That which is natural is according to nature that which is normal is according to the standard or rule which is observed or claimed to prevail in nature a deformity may be natural. as. color. size. regular. which is strictly a synonym for ready. freedom. and other characteristics. and quickness of motion within a somewhat narrow range. . Blow. etc. bustUng.. alert. . speedy. while normal is more commonly appUed to the parts of a single object the specimen was typical . nnready. Nimble refers to lightness. the specimen. . agile. while the normal color of the sparrow is gray. New is opposed to old. aged. typical. dull.

common. withstand the other as. swearing. uncommon. USUAL. : in spite of. . sworn statement. reprobanon. while quer. cursings. Bf Synonyms altlioCugli). . tlio(agli). and (like the archaic hov)nevertheless concedes hett) says " be that as it may. notwithstanding the force of the enemy is superior. [Synonyms adjuration. "tho we are guUty. justice. . profanity. Notwithstanding simply states that circumstances shall not be or have not been aUowed to withstand despite and in spite of refer primarily to personal and perhaps spiteful opposition as. . good. as it were. admits the one and its seeming contradiction to the other. Compare but yet. 254 disease is . affidavit. prep. incidentally. Tho and altho make as little as possible of the concession. "When despite and in spite of are appUed "in to inanimate things. bowbelt. still. but claims that what follows is none the less true notwithstanding marshals the two statements face to face. oonif. . . Synonyms despite. liowever. it is with something of personification spite of the storm " is said as if the storm had a hostile purpose to oppose the undertaking. vow.oath great ntimber of persons or things state of health is rare. yet. . execration. OATH. OTTTITHSTAHrDIJTG. a normal Compare general peculiar. . In the highest sense. exceptional. thou art good" to say "we are guUty. monstrouB. rare. tmt thou art but. Antonyms: abnonnal. profane swearing. irregnlar. ban. stronger than tut. as. blasphemy. . we shall conYet and still are weaker than notvnthstanding. malediction. nevertheless. imprecation. However simply waives discussion. blaspheming:. dropping it. as in a court of auatbema. singular. curse. this is true" the truth of what precedes. " an oath is a rev- . while insisting that it can not. WOTWITHSTAlVBISr©. nnnsnal. he failed notwithstanding his good intentions or. unprececlented." would make . denunciation. the concession of guilt more emphatic. after all. he persevered in spite of the most bitter hostility.

is obscure which the eye or the mind can not clearly dis- eem or see through. an affidavit is . but the obscure which is muddy pool. execration. profound. hidden . an oath may be mere blasphemy or profane swearing. and trudo.255 erent appeal to obscure what one says. the thought is remote. An oath is made to man in the name of God a vow. darksome. : . bidden. intricate. unintelligible. abstruse. xsrvi. In the lower sense. or because of mere defect of Ught. Anathema. but that may be not at aU complicated and scarcely complex.T. dim. complicated. blessiiig. of man. whether because of its own want of transparits depth or intricacy. diSBcult. in corroboration of God Law Diet. often without the knowledge. Compare complex . That which is complicated is likely to be obscure. 2. from. a less usual but very expressive word. MTSTEBIOITS. dase . Execration expresses most of personal bitterness and hatred imprecation refers especially to the coming of the desired evil upon the person against whom it is uttered. Malediction is a general wish of evil." Prov. in that which is obscwre there may be nothing to hide . deep. dark. dense. Curse may be just and authoritative as." Abbott a sworn statement made in writing in the presence of a competent oflBlcer an adjuration is a solemn appeal to a person in the name of God to speak the truth. and imprecation are modes of invoking vengeance or retribution from a superhuman power upon the person against whom they are uttered. to God without the intervention. curse. mysterious. . dbs. push) as if removed from the usual course of thought or out of the way of apprehension or discovery. OBSCITRE. indistinct. Anathema is a solemn ecclesiastical condemnation of a person or of a proposition. Antonyms See synonyms for oleab. That ency. . it may be wanton and powerless " so the curse causeless shall not come. is obscure. because of its depth. as a is abstruse (L. Incomprebenslble. Involved. dusky. it is hard to see to the bottom of ^e profound. turbid. the curse of God or. Compare TESTIMONY. : benison. cloudy. complex. . Synonyms ambiguous. In that which most shallow turbidness DIFFICUI. muddy.. . Antonyms benediction. enigmatical. doubtful.

amenable. we approve we call decided. complaiBant. Immovable. .obsolete obstinate o(>A '*'"' OBSOLETE. are few present instances of its reputable use. dutiful. obsolescent. The unyielding conduct which resolute . irresolute. on the other hand. that obstinate. pliant. teachable. > Antonyms docile. inflexible. mother. flzed. firm. pliable. undecided. • contumacious. heady. mulisb. stubborn. unflinching. Antonyms: See synonyms for HEW. . inflexible. Contumacious refers to a proud and inor right=minded person. having been obsolete. Synonyms ancient. unyielding. unconquerable. solent defiance of authority. obedient. determined. decided. the obstinate and siitbbommay simply refuse to stir. The headstrong act. stubborn. or. dogged. rears. anticLuated. tractable. disused. Some of father. the oldest or most ancient words are not obsolete. and kicks metals that resist ordinary processes of reduction are termed refractory. obdurate. . headstrong. wavering. old. rare. Compare OIJ). . etc. One is obdurate who adheres to his purpose in spite of appeals that would move any tender=hearted The headstrong person action. is taken up tentatively by writers or speakers of influence. indomitable. Compare perverse. pertinacious. opinionated. not to be stopped in his own course of is not to be driven to another's way. gentle. which we condemn we are apt to term headstrong. resolved. out of date. Synonyms OBSTINATE. as of the summons of a court. persistent. as word is obsolete which has quite gone out A of reputable use a word is archaic which is falling out of reputable use. refractory. intractable. stubborn resistance. yielding. . Refractory implies more activity the stubborn horse balks the refractory animal of resistance plunges. is resolute. so that it may perhaps regain its position as a living word a word is rare if there . firm. while the obstinate and stubborn . aubmissive. Stubborn is the term most frequently applied to the lower animals and inanimate things. Pertinacious demand is contrasted with obstinate refusal. . arcliaic. The most amiable person may be obstinate on some one point the stubborn person is for the most part habitually so we speak of obstinate determination. compliant.

On the other hand. impedes. as." "Tell me the old. buildings. forward. is near to contempt thus we say. stop. clear. persons. old story has been sung feelingly by millions " tell me that ancient story " would remove it out of all touch of human sympathy. the olden times are more remote. Compare hinder . structed cioke. an old coat. gray. hinder. aid. famiharity is akin to tenderness. is the more stately. elderly. impediment. immemorial. Olden is a statelier form of old. facilitate. not to places. pave the way Synonyms} aged. may hinder one's advance by following and clinging to him . old. literally to build To obstruct is by fallen trees We Antonyms accelerate. hoary. Anything that makes one's progress slower. up against. patriarctial. senile garrulousness. retard. " the old homestead." the " old oaken bucket. further. advance. open. the old times are not too far away for familiar thought and reference . noary. and thus old is a word of endearment .257 Synonyms arrest. senile upon the mind also . we obstruct his course by standing in his way or putting a barrier across his path. olden. on one side. or which existed long ago. and moldering refer to outward and visible tokens of age. thus. Gray. That is . interrupt. remote. an obstruction is always from without. the familiar are also the near . whether from within or from without. senile. decrepit. termed old which has existed long. To arrest is to cause to stop suddenly . Ancient. from the Latin. Aged apDecrepit. a decrepit frame. etc. OLD. the more familiar word. from the Saxon. oppose. cbeclc. obstructing the way may have the effect of arresting progress. . stay. '^B^' obstruct old OBSTRUCT. barricade. and is applied almost exclusively to time. and plies chiefly to long=extended human life. antiq. free. 1 gray. embarrass. for. clog. hoary refer to the effects of age on the body exclusively . . time-worn. antiquated. an old hat. as. As regards periods of time. Impede. time^Iiouored. the road is obthe passage of liquid through a tube is obstructed by solid deposits. Familiarity. ancient times still further removed.ue. but scarcely reached . Elderly is applied to those who have passed middle life. One may be aged and neither decrepit nor senile. venerable. ancient. through the French. promote.

force. execution often the wiU of another we speak of the performance of a duty.operation order old age. or sometimes. considered with reference to the actor or to that which he accomplishes . by polite hyperbole. performance accomplishing the will of the actor. Venerable expresses the involuntary reverence that we yield to the majestic and long=enduring. proUbition. without explanation or question an order in the commercial sense has the authority of the money which the one ordering the goods pays or is to pay. inefficiency. cution of a sentence. execution. Antonyms Compare synonyms for new. as well as highly authoritative. and may apply to the action of an intelligent agent or of a material substance or force . Synonyms action. influence. nua (L. but not always formal. . TisetegeneBS. perfonnance. mandate. Ineffectivenesa. Antonyms: failure. youthftjIj. Operation is action considered with reference to the thing acted upon. Inaction. Synonyms command. Compare act. reciuirement. . a teacher gives instructions to his pupils. procedure. sailors. Command is a loftier word. the operation of a medicine. move). still an employer gives directions to his . Performance and execution denote intelligent action. OPERATION. nor made by a personal agent it may be in the nature of things as. result. as. effect. . the exe. whether in the material world or in human life and character. more authoritative than direction soldiers. back or away. the requirements of the position. . ask of a friend. and moveo. at some remote period. less frequent in common life we speak of the commands of Grod. thority InBtruction implies superiority of knowledge. primabut is extended to that which is far off in time . as. powerlessness. "Have you any commands for me?" A requirement is imperative. injunction. primeval. . direction. re. direction of auon the part of the giver . Compare antique obsolete . . ORDER. ag^ency. Order is and rail- road employees have simply to obey the orders of their superiors. inutility. workmen. Remote rily refers to space. instruction.

the words pageant and pageantry have a suggestion of the transient and unsubParade fL. considered as worthy of the person or occasion in whose behalf it is manifested pomp is the noble side of that which as ostentation is considered as arrogant and vain. OSTENTATION. Antonyms aUowance. etc. and is louder . sbow. ostentation it is a command not to do . rich furnishings. a mUitary parade. Boasting is in direct statement. There may be gi-eat display or show with little substance ostentation suggests something substantial to be shown. a royal pageant . pending final legal decision. . prohibit. pageantry. as in grand and stately ceremonial. license. pompousness. permit. pomposity. consent. parade. and more vulgar than ostentation. and pomp refer principally to affairs of arms or state as. authority that certain action be suspended or refrained from. parade. Pomp is some material demonstration of wealth and power. the ostentation of wealth ui fine residences. denoting spectacular display designed to impress the public mind. lioastlng. injuncespecially as the requirement by legal now oftenest so used. as. Ostentation is an ambitious showing forth of whatever is thought adapted to win admiration or praise ostentation may be without words . a parade is an uncalled for exhibition. and suggests a lack of earnestness and direct or immediate occasion or demand hence. and is always offensive and . costly equipage. prepare) is an exhibition as of troops stantial. Synonsrms lioast. parade implies a desire to impress others with a sense of one's abilities or resources. vaunt. . in camp going through . ostentation is rather in manner than in direct statement as. or the like when in words. the evolutions that are to be used in battle. display.^*® Prohibition is wholly negative tion is . processions. leave. Compare array . liberty. in the more general sense. pomp.. pageantry. . class . Pageant. and so used is a more disparaging word than ostentation . rich clothing. the ostentation of learning. paro. Pageant and pageantry are inferior to pomp. pageant. . permission. law . . ostentation may spring merely from undue self=gratulation. and since the multitude is largely ignorant and thoughtless. flourisli. vaunting:. system.

.need it. supervision. Bbould. but less emphatic. control. sometimes used of abstractions or inanimate things as indicating what the mind deems to be imperative or logically necessary in view of all the conditions as. .oversight ouKbt noA -**»*' . superintendence." i. cbarge. inspection. there is no high character without self=co»itro^ Surveillance is an invidious term signifying watching with something of in its entirety. somewhat contemptible as. oversight has thus two contrasted senses. A person may look over a matter in order to survey it carefully may look over it with no attention to the thing because his gaze and thought are concentrated on something beyond . he will. timidity. should in such connections would be correct. . or sometimes of imperative logical should may have the sense of moral obligation or may apply merely to propriety or expediency. in the latter sense denoting inadvertent error or omission. One ought to do that which he is under moral obligation or in duty bound to do. manag:enient. suspicion. surveillance. command. commonly implying constant personal presence superintendence requu-es only so much of presence or communication as to know that the superintendent's wishes are carried out . Synonyms: care. as in the proverb. aflfectation of Pomposity and pompousness axe the pomp. Antonyms: diffidence. w^atchfolness. modesty. and In the former denoting watchful supervision. holding most closely to the sense of moral obligation. a parade of wealth or learning. e. OTERSIOHT._ unobtrnsivenesfl. neglect. watch. direction. "The Ought is liar should have a good memory. necessity . or he itself . shrinking. . Compare care . Control is used chiefly with reference to restraint or the power of restraint a good horseman has a restless horse under perfect control. . Compare duty. . these goods ought to go into that space these arguments ought to convince him . retirement. Ought is the stronger word. qnietnees. Synonym OVOHT. reserve. the superintendent of a railroad will personally oversee very few of its operations the railroad company has supreme direction of aU its affairs without superintendence or oversight.

to cloak a sin is to attempt to hide it palliate. p. throe. Agony and anguish express the utmost pain or suffering of body or mind. TAroe is a violent and thrillingjsam. -woce. twinge. torment. resulting from some injurious external interference (as from a wound. for. We speak of the pangs of hunger or of remorse. pang. Suffering is one of the severer forms of pain. sharp. gloss over. Agony of body is that with which the system struggles anguish that by which it is crushed. faults we do not seek to cloke them altogether. but cloak insLj carried about the person. distress. enjoyment. suffering. pain is a disturbing sensation from which nature revolts. ache. Paroocysm apphes to an alternately recurring and receding pain. etc. extenuate. Synonyms apologize cloalz. comes as it were in waves the paroxysm is the rising of the wave. or cherishes (as. solace. Antonyms: comfort. PAIiLiIATE. . but we should scarcely speak of it as suffering. but only to extenu. which . ate the guilt of them in part. PAIN. Torment and torture are intense and terrible sufferings. . 'palliate. Ache is lingering j)atM. too feeble for the intensest suffering. or it may but partly veil the figure. relief. delight. or from some abnormal action of bodily or mental functions is Pain (as. and perhaps repeated. veil. making the outlines less distinct . are the have diverged in meaning a be used to hide completely the person or some object . angulsn. cover. including all the others . The prick of a needle causes pain. cloak is used in the former. hide. intense. or of a destitute family. Cloak. the pain of hunger or bereavement). the distress of a shipwrecked crew. from the Latin. screen." Trench Study of Words lect. or discontent).). Distress is too strong a word for little hurts. the most general term of this group. paroxysm. and same in original signification. a harsh word. torture. but coiAmonly applied to some continuous or prolonged trouble or need. from the French. raptant. a pain short. conceal.261 palUate Synonyms agony. the pains of disease. to palliate it is to attempt to hide some part of "When we palliate our own or others' its blameworthiness. ease. envy. as. a bruise. peace. vi. or from some lack of what one needs. more or less severe pang. mitigate. in the latter sense from discovery . craves.

oblivion. M. while to palliate is to disguise the fault hence. the pardoned sinner is exempt from punishment . as a fault or sin. absolution. correct. Synonyms PARDOIV. condone. but a part of a penalty may be remitted and the remainder inflicted. To pardon is the act of a superior. Synonyms absolve. after trial. pnnish. and is the act of a private individual. . God at once forgives and pardons . acquit. Either to palliate or to extenuate is to admit the fault but is rather to apologize for the offender. To excuse is to overlook some slight offense. thus. acguittal. Antonymii castigate. overlooli:. In reference to diseases. visit. or breach of etiquette . Compare absolve . Forgive has reference to feelings. pass over. or punishment. PARDOIV. amnesty. sconrge. To pardon to let pass. since circumstances can not change the inherent wrong of an act. pardon is often used by courtesy in nearly the same sense. sentence. implying the right to punish. Compare alleviate hide. the forgiven sinner is restored to the divine favor. 262 . mercy. the executive may pardon. without resentment. but not of pardoning himself. chasten. to forgive is the privilege of the humblest person who has been wronged or offended. to palliate is really to diminish their violence. is forg^lve. we speak of extenuating but not of palliating circumstances. but has nothing to do olficially viritb. To condone is to put aside a recognized offense by some act which restores the offender to forfeited right or privilege. tho they may lessen the blameworthiness of him who does it palliating a bad thing by to extenvate . Personal injury may be forgiven by the person wronged . giving it . A person may speak of excming or forgiving himself. recompense. as where the penalty includes both fine and imprisonment. forgrlveness. a mild name does not make it less evil. forbearance.l>ardon 266. or partly to relieve the suflEerer. without legal formaUties. forgiving. condemn. to remit the whole penalty is equivalent to pardoning the offender . chastise. In law. Acquittal is a release from a charge. convict. remission. error. excuse. PARDON. . . doom. blame. as not guilty. n. pass by. remit. pardon to consequences hence. V.

to part /rom is to reUnquish companionship . Amnesty brings the same idea through the Greek. is part Acquittal pardon is the act of the executive. all offenses . Oblivion. Pardon supjury . V. part between contestants . victed. and miUtary affah-s. . from the Latin. Part into shares . in general. the pardon PART.ission of Remission is a discharge from penalty as. he may be said also to part from his native shore . so that the offender stands before the law in all respects as if it had never been committed.363 Pardon guilty. the re- a fine. Prepositions n. part . commonly of a poses an offense yet. . a man parts with an estate. but part with is sometimes used by good writers as meaning simply to separate from. insurrection. amnesty and oblivion are said of great numbers. an employer "parts mth a clerk or servant . retribation. An innocent man may demand acquittal. or rebellion . for ABSOLVE). to grant a pardon is sometimes the only way to release one who has been wrongly con. vengeance. Antonyms penally.(archaic) . An amnesty is issued after war. Pardon affects individuals . a removal of penalty from one who has been adjudged is by the decision of a court. and need not plead for pardon. to part leith we part from. part teith may be applied to a person thought of in any sense as a possession . a traveler parts from his friends . a copyright . signifies overlooking and vir' tuaJly forgettmg an offense. Prepositions A pardon to or for the offenders . part in the middle part one from another among the claimants . Synonyms: Compare synonyms for pabt. it is often granted by " an act of oblivion. for of offenders or offenses." and includes a full pardon of all offenders who come within . a horse. Pardon is oftenest applied to the ordinary administi-ation of law amnesty. a person or from someis to relinquish possession thing thought of with some sense of companionship . m. to national its provisions. ponishment. as our laws stand. Absolution is a religious word (compare synonyms . retaliation.

part l>artlcle .

patience with (rarely toward) opposers or offenders . leniency. m.. fortitude. . force. total. Compare part. evil. wbole. earth. etc. is the quality or habit of mind shown in bearing pasand uncomplainingly any pain. composure. the elem. sum total. an elestituent parts . . as ' ' . made up of as used by physicists. . ard is regarded as separable into its cona vwleoule is the smallest conceivable part which retains all the characteristics of the substance thus. far hardship that may Endurance hardens itself against suffering. Synonyms t calmness. Antonyms See synonyms for anqbr. is . a substance regarded as simple. Patience may also have an active force denoting uncomplaining steadiness in doing. qnanlity.ent gold may be represented by an ingot or by a particle of gold=dust. snm.ent universe any essential constituent the ancients believed that the was made up of the four elements. mass. forbearance patience is keeping is abstaining from retaliation or revenge kindUness of heart under vexatious conduct long-suffering is oontinuei patience. Compare industry. forbearance. entiirety. long^sufrerlng. In popular language. a storm is spoken of as a manifestation of the fury of the elements. Antonyms aggregate. a molemle of water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. as in tilling the soil. We speak of corpuscles of blood. and water . patience under afflictions . i. Prepositions Patience in or amid sufferings . when we speak of passive endurance " patience is riot so hard as endurance nor so seM^eflfacingas submission. one incapable of being resolved by any known process into simpler substances . . flre. without reference to quantity. Submission is ordinarily and resignation always applied to matters of great moment.265 cule is patience atoms. may be merely stubborn fortitude is endurance animated by courage endurance may by modifiers be made to have a passive . e. (rarely) patience of heat or cold. . submission. resignation. As regards our relations to our fellow men. Patience sively PATIENCE. sufferance. while patience may apply to slight worries and annoyances. air. and fall to one's lot. Element in chemistry denotes. endurance.

common government. hire. earnings. An A Synonyms conuuonwealtlx. the earnings of capital. A people is the aggregate of any public community. payment. Hire is distinctly mercenary or menial. Pay is commercial and strictly signifies an exact pecuniary equivalent for a thing or service. A government as. as when we speak of "high pay" or "poor pay. except when the contrary is expressly stated. either in distino' . earnings. but may be used with reference to the real value of work done or service rendered. recLultal. remuneration. Stipend has become exclusively a literary word. and even applied to inanimate things as. or of money to a child or ward. state. recompense. the community may De very . a compositor receives wages. Salary is for literary or professional work. salary. pay. but as a noun has gone out of popular use. a commx>nwealth is ordinarily of considerable extent. -wages. and wages are forms of compensation and may be included in compensation. Compare requite. as of food to besieged soldiers. A community is in general terms the aggregate of persons inhabiting any territory in common and viewed as having common interests a commonwealth is such a body of persons having a . with less suggestion of calculation and market value there are services for which affection and gratitude are the sole and sufficient recompense . fees.'ecompense is a still wider and loftier word. community. compensation. population. salary. Earnings is often used as exactly equivalent to wages. small . allowance is a stipulated amount furnished at regular ina matter of discretion or gratuity. PAY. allcwance. or recoTOpense. stipend." Wages denotes what a worker receives. tho the verb to hire is common. a salary is regarded as more permanent than wages an editor receives a salary. l. tervals as . PBOPIiE. Remuneration is apphed to matters of great amount or importance. . bonorarium.people aoo Synonyms fee. Compensation is a comprehensive word signifying a return for a service done. tribe. wages for handicraft or other comparatively inferior service . race. nation. and is sometimes in the nature of a gratiuty. i n. fee is given for a single service or privilege. bire. remuneration. especially a republican commonwealth of Massachusetts.

seize." has been severely criticized. the Indian tribes . I perceive that thou art a prophet. As Dean Alford suggests. a legislative act is the act of the state . A . MOB. Tribe is now almost wholly applied to rude peoples with very imperfect political organization as. pos. none of the rights and being subject to none of the duties In American usage State signifies one commonwealth of the federal imion knovsTi as the United States. every citizen is nation is an organized entitled to the protection of the state. That which we apprehend we catch." state is an organized political community considered in its corporate capacity as "a body politic and corporate " as. as. conceive. nomadic tribes. Compare sessing of citizens. embrace wholly within the mind. take together. . PERCEIVE. the individual members of a state or nation posing it are called citizens or subjects. Synonyms: apprehend. "All people that on earth do dwell " to sing " All persons that on earth do dwell. comprehend. but is old and accepted English. Yet perceive is used in the figurative sense of seeing through to a conclusion. Many things may be appre- We We . The use of people as signifying persons collectively. whether through the senses or by any other means. "Sir. and often better than persons. prehend what is presented to the mind. perceive . tion from their rulers or as including them a race is a division of mankind in the line of origin and ancestry the people of the United States includes members of almost every race." John iv. that which we conceive we are able to analyze and recompose in our mind. grasp around. by reason of its collectivism. as it were. but not of the nation. we. a definite number of citizens. etc. it would make a strange transformation of the old hymn . as in the statement " The haU was full of people. understand. organization. or allegiance unnaturalized residents form part of the population. as with the hand . The population of a country is simply the aggregate of persons residing within its borders. that which we comprehend. 19. apperceive what is presented through the senses. A political community considered with reference to the persons com- as having certain definite boundaries. without reference to race. in a way for which usage would not allow us to substitute apprehend.267 . The members of a pecrple are referred to as persons or individuals . and may fitly be classed as idiomatic.

Inferior. KNOWLEDGE. INFINITE . Antonyms: fail of. . AntonymiB i ^ad. corrupt. insufficient. because they see always ideal possibilities not yet attained . ignore. or simply the Absolute. in its majesty. spotless. yet the philosopher can not comprehend it in its fulness. overlook. consummate. in this fullest sense God alone its is perfect. poor. . a vase may be called perfect when entire and unblemished. entire. misconceive. as 6elf=existent and free from all limitation or dependence. deformed. accurate. and perfection. . fallible. a human character faultlessly holy would be morally perfect tho finite. boly. vmrelated and unconditioned truth immediately known. defaced. marred. That is perfect to which nothing can be added. of the . miss. or detracting from its worth . even tho not artistically faultless . as his truth and justice but no finite intelligence can comprehend the Divine Nature. kind perfect. even the ideal is not perfect. absolute hoUness and love are attributes of Grod alone.perfect 268 hended which can not be eomprehended. God. ruined. aeeest. imperfect. scant. and from which nothing can be taken without impairing its excellence. undefiled. as intuitive truth. blemisnea. CATCH . perverted. maybe perfect flower a copy of a document is perfect when it is accurate in every particular . lose. Compare innocent . a child can apprehend the distinction between right and wrong. corrupted. or even from aU possible relations. sinless. correct. That which is absolute is free from admixture (as absolute alcohol) and in the highest and fuUest sense free from imperfection or limitation as. is absolute . stainless. immaculate. deficient. the best judges never pronounce a work of art perfect in as a. defective. by reason of the imperfection human mind . blameless. Compare anticopate. is called the absolute Being. spoiled. completed. unblemlslied. In philosophical language. . Synonyms: absolute. power. short. worthless. complete. meager. . RADICAL. . We can axiprehend the wiU of God as revealed in conscience or the Scriptures we can conceive of certain attributes of Deity. marring its symmetry. PERFECT. incomplete. Ideal. finlsbed. faultless. but in a limited sense anything . absolute signifies free from all necessary. misapprehend. faulty. not dependent or limited.

Antonyms: See synonyms for tkansient. and character give authority to their possessor a book of learned research has authority. hindrance. applied to that which resists both time and change as. lasting is said of either material or im- Immutable. durus. is . stable. . which constitutes an implied permission. m. prohibition. Invariable. steadfast. Compare allow. PERMAWEBfT. objection. we allow what we do not oppose. PERmiSSION. a. Authority gives a affected may be by the ac- be a failure to object. PerTnanent is a. . and is even called an authority. sion justifies another in acting without interference or censure. . a mutual approval or acceptance of something proposed. to solemnize marriages. uncbanglng. permit what we expressly authorize.word of wider meaning a thing permanent which is not liable to change as. lasting. The noun permit implies a formal written permission.nan '*"'' permanent permission Synonyms abiding. and usually implies some degree of approval. cbangeless. autborlzatlon. Synonyms allowance. autborlty. liberty.aterial things. Consent is permission by the concurrence of wills in two or more persons. enduring fame. fixed. durable. license is a formal permission granted by competent authority to an individual to do some act or pursue some business which would be or is made to be unlawful without such permission . hard) is said almost wholly of material substances that resist wear . or to sell intoxicating liquors. prevention. permit. resistance. persistent. Authority unites the right and power of control. enduring. license is permission granted rather than authority conferred . consent. leave. age. Enduring is a higher word. refusal. constant. . Durable (L. tho this is more properly expressed by allowance . opposition. certain right of control over all that tion. the sheriff has authority (not permission nor license) to make an arrest. permanent color buildings upon a farm are called permanent improvements. a license to preach. There may A Antonyms denial. perpetual. wisdom. Permis. license. uncbangeable. as.

Noxious (L. PERP1. cially to the sense of smell . Noisome now always denotes that which is extremely disagreeable or disgusting. has not the unsettling of the faculties implied in confusion. . it is not the magnitude of the things to be known. as referring to that which is injurious or destructive. useful. but is less overwhelming. evil. per. perpleocity. kill) signifies having the power of destroying or injuring. poisonous. but the want of full and definite knowledge. as. accordingly. insalubrious. harmful. deadly. from confundo. ruinous. The dividing of a woodland path may cause the traveler the ^eatesk perplexity. wiU make him unable to think Amazement results from the sudden and unimagined occmxence of great good or evil or . deleterious. profitable. injurious. as it were. hurt) is a stronger word than noisome. so that the and distinct action of the different powers. perverting. unbealtbful. plait) is the drawing or turning of the thoughts or faculties by turns in different directions or toward contrasted or contradictory conclusions .EXITY. thrown into chaos. favorable. noxious. detrimental. disturbance. pour together) is a state in which the mental faculties are. that causes perplexity. per. that which is injurious is capable of doing harm that which is pernicious is likely to be destrvxitive. pestiferous. un^vbolesome. and plecto. through. destructive. invigorating. nor the overwhelming of the faculties imamazement or astonishment . Healthful. which may become bewilderment when he has tried one path after another and lost his bearings completely. With an excitable person bevnlderment plied in may deepen into confusion that clearly or even to see or hear distinctly. noceo. doubt.pernlclouB perplexity „^^ Se7U Synonyms: bad. foul. espe. through. tending to hurt or kill. as of perception. Perplexity (L. noisome. confusion. astonisbment. PERNICIOUS. bewilderment. good. beneficent. pestilential. confusus. mlscMevous. and wiU is lost bewilderment is akin to confur sion. confusion (L. burtful. 'baneful. beneficial. and more readily recovered from clear . serviceable. embarrassment. memory. wholesome Synonyms amazement. Antonyms advantageous. Pernidous (L. Pernicious is stronger than injurious . reason. and neco. life-giving. salutary. the noisome stench proclaimed the presence of noxious gases. distraction. rejuvenating. helpful.

modest. DOUBT. Synonyms t allure. lead. pertness and savMness are always vivid and keen. Astonishment often produces heimlderment. . holdback. PERSUADE. smartness. usually with unfavorable suggestion pertness and sauciness are these qualities overdone. eliTiiess.. PERTIVESS. hniuUitj. influence. smartness is a limited and showy acuteness or shrewdness. Impertinence. convince. impel. one may be convinced of his duty without doing it. or he may be convincedot truth that has no manifest connection with duty or action.qa. Compare amazement. To persuade is to bring the will of another to a desired decision by some influence exerted upon it short of compulsion . Coax is a slighter word than persuade. Induce. with or without success . lestraln. flippancy. butpersuasion is so largely dependent upon conviction that it is commonly held to be the orator's work first to convince in order that he may persuade. Synonyms t lioldness.. Impertinence and impudence may be gross and stupid . Compare nwLtiBNCB. or prevailed upon by means not properly included in persuasion. move. One may be brought over. forwardness. diffidence. coas. denoting an effect upon the imderstanding only . a child coaxes a parent to buy him a toy. impudence. . which the word was formerly understood to imply. incite. Incline. binder. : dlaconrage. prevail on urge. as. seeking the same end by shallower methods. or upon. Liveliness and sprightliness are pleasant and commendable. liveliness. one may be convinced that the earth is roimd he may hepersuaded to travel round it . he is won over chiefly by personal influence. entice. repel. induced. disanade. Antonyms t basbfalnesB. win over. sauciness. Antonyms deter. dispose. sprlgbtllness. Ijrislaiess. Tiring over. and regardless of the respect due to superiors. as by bribery or intimidation . demoreness. Compare impudence. as of a mathematical proposition. Of these words convince alone has no direct reference to moving the win. ANXIETY. -* * persuade pertness the sudden awakening of the mind to tinthought=of=truth. largely by appeal to personal feeling.

amenable. but slight and usually transient. eplrltaal. i wayward. corpoi-al is now almost wholly restricted to signify applied to or inflicted upon the body . invleible. "Whatever is composed of or pertains to matter may be termed material . as. bodily and corporal both denote pertaining or relating to the body corporeal signifies of the nature of or like the body . but is wilfully intractable. . bodily. of material substances. Intractable. visible. the corporeal frame. stabbom. obstinate. resentment. compliant. irrltatlou. i corporeal. we speak of bodily sufferings. Synonyms PHTSICAI^. untoward circumstances. governable. Perverse (L. signifies primarily a prick or a sting. real or imaginary. Antonyms : accommodating.perverse plqne ava -e«^ Synonyms PBRVERSfi. from the French. froward. and corporeal apply primarily to the human body . hence. physical (Gr. froward is practically obsolete. The petulant person frets. nnsnbstantial. nature) applies to material things considered as parts of a system or organic whole . genial. but may comply the perverse individual may be smooth Wayward refers to a peror silent. corporal punishment. arising from some neglect or offense. perversus. petulant. turned the wrong way) signifies wilfully wrong or erring. Antonyms i hyperpb^sical. complaisant. bodily presence. lutellectnal. verse disregard of morality and duty . kind. contrary. physical forces. PIQITE. Pique. as of a nettle . moral. untoward. w^ilful. tangible. corporal. untoward is rarely heard except in certain phrases . sensible. ungoTemable. material. Synonyms: grudge. fractious. mental. intangible. displeasure. we speak Bodily. nnreal. corporal. umbrage. Compare obstinate. the word denotes a sudden feeling of mingled pain and anger. foctlous. obliging. physis. offense. unreasonably set against right. natural. immaterial. the perverse person will do anything contrary to what is desired or required of him. physical laws. authority. Umbrage is a deeper and more . reason. or The stubborn or obstinate person will not do what another desires or requires .

a shadow) or subjected to any treatment that one deems unworthy of him. exalted. gratification. however. contemptible. for what might awaken pity. a. glorions. piteous. he presented a pitiable appearance. Pity is a feeling of grief or pain aroused by the weakness. a piteous cry. as. pitiful being used chiefly for that which is merely an object of thought. lamentable. inferior to ourselves hence. Compare anger. base. Compare Pitiful originally signified full of pity as. . dignified. umbra. toucbing. . joined with a desire to help or reSympathy (feeling or suffering with) implies some degree lieve. superior. loft. of equality. pleasure. It may be said. Pitiful and pitiable now refer to what may be deserving of pity. 18 . or distresses of others. umbrage from wounded pride or sometimes from suspicion. " the Lord is very pitiful and of tender mercy.^. . beneficent^ commanding. a pitiful excuse . sorrowful. miserable. Antonyms aagnst. a pitiful story a pitiable object . and the meaning in question is appropriated by such words as merciful and compassionate." James v. PITY. . PITIFULi. pitiable condition. mighty. HXJMANE . paltry. or union pity is for what is weak or unforainate. pathetic. mercy. but in its derived sense applies to what really excites the emotion . as a general statement. by an easy transition.273 persistent pitiful Ptty di^leasure at being overshadowed (L. Synonyms tenderness^ sympatby. enblime. 11 but this usage is now archaic. MERCY . mournful. kindred. wretcbed. contentment. moving. pitiable. eatisfaction complacency. compassion. misfortunes. Piteous is now rarely used in its earlier sense of feehng pity. and so far. at least. Since pity. that pique arises from wounded vanity or sensitiveness. PITY. . . despicable. grand. woful. but does awaken contempt as. always implies weakness pr inferiority in that which is pitied. and is deep and persistent. noole. commiseration. pity ia . pitiable for that which is brought directly before the senses as. pitiful and pitiable are often used. Antonyms: approval. Buperb. Resentment rests on more solid grounds. condolence. Synonyms': abject. delight.

. rootnp. entreat. To plead for one is to employ argument or persuasion or botb in his behalf. usually with earnestness or importunity similarlj . for those in suffering or need . etc. but combines with the tenderness of pity the dignity of sympathy and the active quality of mercy. hardness.plant plead 274 often resented where sympathy would be welcome. set out. struggles of a giant or the ti-iumphs of a conqueror . PLANT. Compare MERCY. Land is seeded or seeded down to grass. cruelty. beg. inhumanity. beseech. argue. Synonyms seed. . Antonyms barbarity. set . but more remote and hopeless we have commiseration for sufferers whom we can not reach or can not relieve. in pleasure or pain. which we put in definite places. weed out. Tho by modem agricultural machinery the smaller grains are almost as precisely planted as corn. . set. : ferocity. Condolence is the expression of sympathy. press. Pity may be only in the mind. urge. with some care we sow wheat or other small grains and seeds which are scattered in the process. ask. is exercised only with respect to the suffering or unfortunate. O ye my friends. . pity only we may have sympathy with the we are moved with pity for the captive or the slave. solicit. sow. PrepoBltlona Pity on or upon that which we help or spare pity for that which we merely contemplate "have pity upon me. or set out sUps. truculence. etc. potatoes. sternness. the old word for broadcast scattering is retained." Tennyson In Memoriam bdi. as in hills. harshness. tho we also be said to jstani them . implore. Commiseration is as tender as compassion. brutality. Compassion. . at. t We may seed down. "We have sympathy with one in joy or grief. we plant com.. mercilessness.e:ai>. 21 "pity /or a horse o'er=driven. Antonyms eradicate. ruthlessness. . uproot." Job xix. pitilessness. hkepity. rigor. 1. hard*heartedness. advocate. young trees. cuttings. Synonyms: pl. iseverity. < extirpate. but mercy does something for those who are its objects.

Pleasant keeps always something of the sense of actually giving pleasure. £lnd. as. without reference to any action or intent in that which confers it .. . and under the influence of motives that may range all the way from cold self» interest to the highest and noblest impulses . A pleasing face has good feattires. plead against the oppresapx)eal to the feelings. sion or the oppressor the court . pleading always implies some may be One argues a case solely on rational grounds and supposably with fair consideration of both sides . as wctU as kindly feelings in actual exercise we can say of one usually qood'natwred. That is pleasing from which pleasure is received. a pleasing picture . sometimes by sordid or corrupt motives. to show kindness and do any reasonable favor. and thus surpasses the meaning of good=natured . with direct and tender appeal to personal considerations. Press and urge imply more determined or perhaps authoritative insistence. many persons are no longer in a. when inclined to make happy those with whom he is dealing. at the bar . PL>EASABIT. As applied to persons. in legal usage. pleasant breeze a. Solicit is a weak word denoting merely an attempt to secure one's consent or cooperation. a pleasant face indicates a kind heart and an obliging disposition. pleasant (not a. . a. Whatever has active qualities adapted to give pleasure is pleasant as. obliging. attractive. kindly. complexion. etc. one is pleasant. and implore imply impassioned earnestness. before Synonyms s agreeable. In this sense pleasant is nearly aMn to kind. pleasing) day. or pleads for a person with still more intense feeling. but in popular usage. or with a case . entreat. pleasant always refers to a disposition ready and desirous to please . . plead to the indictment in open comrt. etc. he advocates one side for the purpose of carrying it. expression. but hind refers to act or intent. pleading is argumentative. while pleasant stops with the disposition . or in a pleasant mood. Beseech. there are good^ natured people who by reason of rudeness and ill^breeding are not pleasant companions. Prepositions Plead vnth the tyrant /or the captive.^^^ one pleasant direct object. eood^natured. pleasant mood if asked to do a troublesome kindness. a pleasing landscape. "on . to plead said to plead for himself or for a cause. . he pleads a cause. . or may readily'be received. pleasurable. pleasing.

. bountiful. crabbed. Affluent and liberal both apply to riches. resources . bountiful. where plentiful can not well be used. Earsh. water. affluent." Ps. but harmony. Compare amiable . but not a large. Ixviii. liberal. but also without delay . and note . repelling. lavish. Synonyms abounding. means that we can reach our destination without haste. vnth. homely. merry. while SM^ctewf is in many cases the more its elegant or polite. fitness to a design. ttiat is abundard. ill-natured. enough usually and preferably follows. ample. and forcible word.. large. as. demand. "a. overflowing. full. luxuriant. but only of usage. We have time enough. not with reference to its extent. about a matter. with no perceptible diflEerence of meaning. copious. jocose (the sense Pleasant. ram. from the Latin. PI^EHTTIFUL. plenteona. profuse. disagreeable. or ideal. austere. denoting a supply equal teeming. enough being the more blunt. unpleasant Prepositions Pleasant to. with especial reference to giving or expending. nor plentiful can be used of time or soace. Affluent. (Compare synonyms especial reference to giving or expending. plentiful. Sufficient usually pre- noun . DEuaHTFuru ginm. replete. hateful. margin beyond a given demand . comfoetabie . repellent. arrogant. Neither affluent. not be understood outside of literary circles. bounteous. Complete expresses not excess or overplus. is an equivalent of the Saxon enough. a field is sometimes called plentiful." still in the sense of gay. neither is enough to melt iron. to a given enougb. affluent. referring especially to riches. offensive. feeling. forbidding.. if we have ample time. Enough is relative. etc. which is largely in excess of manifest need. exuberant. complete. or toward persons . copious. plentiful 9. repulsive. of enough to boil water . A temperature of 313° 70° Fahrenheit is enough for a living=room . liberal. ThsA is ample which gives a safe. but copious can be applied to thought.. we may move leisurely. and yet not mere sufficiency. gloom. 111-liumored. dreary. as of food. abundant. grim. language. adequate. may be used of thought. and would displeasing. ricb. generous. Ample and abundant may be applied to any subject. but to its productiveness. unkind. sufficient. etc. etc. proportion. is now rare. Antonyms. Sufflr dent. We may also say a copious rain . liberal.plentlfal that occasion 276 he did not meet me with a pleasant fEWje. retained in pleasantry). Plentiful is used of cedes supplies.

Lavish and profiise imply a decided excess. sense. drained. insnflicient. or to rest when weary. as. mean. oftenest in the ill "We rejoice in abundant resources. if we have abundant time. to view the scenery. and honor generous . Impoverished.277 poetry polite what is by the way . hospitality Antonyms: deficient. lavish or profuse expenditure suggests extravagance and wastefulness. Luaowriant is used especially of that which is abundant in growth . inadequate. exhanBted. miserly. a luxuriant crop. . we may pause to converse with a friend.

ill-behaved. conforming to all that is gi-acefiil. the courtly manners of the ambassador. that which befits a royal court. rude. ill-mannered. and if polite in the highest and truest sense. coarse. impolite. pare LAW. a church. and thoughtful in the intercourse of refined society. Policy and doctrine. raw. and is used of external grace and . which may be showy and superficial. untaught. impudent. Insulting. uncivil. or those agreeing in polity may differ in faith. form or system of government. which is coming to be the prevaiUng one. as.polity to avoid being rude 27S . Complaisant denotes a disposition to please or favor beyond what politeness would necessarily require. and the word is thus inferior to polite or courteous. impertinent. of which the external manifestation is the smallest part. own. rustic. Civil is a colder and more distant word than polite . Genteel refers to an external elegance. brusk. Polity is the permanent system of government of a state. and is used only in the good sense. stateliness without reference to the prompting feeling . to faith diflfer Com- . . a polished gentleman or a polished scoundrel cultured refers to a real and high devolopment of mind and soul. one who is polite (literally polished) observes more than the necessary proprieties. or a society . dealing often with greater Courtly suggests matters. untutored. unpolished. policy is the method of management with reference to the attainment of certain ends . he cares for the comfort and happiness of others in the smallest matters. boorish. many think honesty to be good policy. two churches identical in faith may in polity. Synonyms POLITY. courteous is fuller and richer. Polished refers to external elegancies of speech and manner without reference to spirit or purpose . insolent. uncouth. Polity used in ecclesiastical use serves a valuable purpose in distinguishing that which relates to administration and government from that wnich relates its is . simply because self =respect forbids him to be rude but one who is polite has at least some care for the opinions of others. blunt. Urbane refers to a politeness that is genial and successful in giving others a sense of ease and cheer. ill-bred. hluff. A man may be civil with no consideration for others. unmannerly. as. policy. becoming. : clownish. constitution. Antonyms awkward. of often used as equivalent to expediency as. the national ^oKt^ of the United States is repubhcan each administration has a policy . discourteous.

privation. cogency. want. according to his arbitrary and unreasonable caprice. POWER. sbare. streng:tli. energy. the portion allotted to a child by will may not be a fan. destitution is . proportlou. talent. or faculty or may laws. destitution. or result be. the jjower of the legislature to enact them the power of an acid . cleverness. skill. readiness. efficacy. Compare paet. might. several portions great or small. Power is. comfortable living privation denotes a condition of painful lack of what is useful or desirable. dexterity. tho the division may be by no fixed rule or relation a father may divide his estate by will among his children so as to make their parcel. property. pauperism. charity. indigence. or of the executive to enforce the most general term of this group. so that the different parts bear a contemplated and intended relation or ratio to one another . produced . competency. Synonyms beggarr. portion powrer PORTIOIV. susceptibility. including every by which any change. and in part even of the necessaries of life penury is especially cramping poverty. When we speak of a part as a proportion. Poverty denotes strictly lack of property or adequate means of . force. thing. When any whole is . POVERTY. . divided according to some rule or scale. possibly not so sharp as destitution. Synonyms ability. need. but continuous. as. mendicancy. Proportion is often used where part or portion would be we think of the whole as more appropriate. subject. to .279 Synonyms lot. part. means of subsistence . divided iato parts. faculty. while that may be temporary pauperism is such destitution as throws one upon organized public charity for support beggai~y and mendicancy denote poverty that appeals for indiscriminate private . capacity. espertness. indigence is lack of ordinary lack of the comforts.proportion of the estate. thus. aptitude. but in dition to the extent of absolute distress . capability. tho not support. effect. common use is a relative term denoting any conbelow that of easy. qualification. any part that is allotted to some person. efficiency. or purpose is called a portion. distress. is quality. penury.

and talents. Our our natural capacity. weakness. and yet not possess ability to teach. Faculty is an inherent quality of mind or body .praise 2S0 corrode a metal . or of a number or multitude considered individually. the efficacy of a drug. abilities include . Applause is expressed in any way. as capacity is in receiving . SKILFUL. Efficiency is effectual agency. the power that actually does. incompetence. but does not reach the positiveness and vigor that may be included in the meaning of power. Dexterity and skill are readiness and faciUty in action. feebleness. plauiut. some special mental ability. as distinguished from active power . competent power . approval. applause. : . we speak of an exertion of power. impotence. compliment. the spontaneous outburst of many at once. incapacity. . DEXTERITY . maladroitness. waving of handkerchiefs. one may have great capacity for acquu'ing knowledge. imbecility. clapping of hands. ability often implying latent. Antonyms awkwardness. stupidity. Competency is equal to the occasion. by stamping of feet. receive . acclamation. talent. laudation. cheering. and readiness that can be acquired. Ability is nearly coextensive with power. and is expressed by spoken or written words applause. helplessness. as power that may be manifested in doing. inability. faculties. but not of an exertion of ability. dexterity and skill are largely acquired. Efficiency is active power to effect a definite result.. PRAISE. Compare address . approbation. skill. sycophancy. inefficiency. inaptitude. eulogy. as well as by the voice acclamation is the spontaneous and hearty approval . etc. flattery. adulation. readiness prompt for the occasion. uusKilfulness. with all the dexterity. cheers. Power and ability include capacity. Effi^ cacy is the power to produce an intended effect as shown in the production of it as. acclaim. which is power to but ability is often distinguished from capacity. dnlnesB. Synonyms. panegyric. Praise is the hearty approval of an individual. as distinguished from that which may do. encomium. having a special end talent is innate. the power of a polished surface to reflect light. efficiency is applied in mechanics as denoting the ratio of the effect produced to the power expended in producing it but this word is chiefly used of intelUgent agents as denoting the quality that brings aU one's power to bear promptly and to the best purpose on the thing to be done.

Invoke.2S1 pray of many at once. Haee Guesses at Truth first series. implore. even in these "please" is more common . Plaudit is a shout of applause. reproach. and strictly by the voice alone. his decision in a special instance receives his approval. Applause is also used in the general sense of praise. as " I pray you to come in." is now rare. petition. . To pray. ceuBoie.] Acceptance refers to an object or action approbation may refer to character or natural traits. . and in the fullest sense with thanksgiving and praise for the divine goodness and mercy the once common use of the word to express any earnest request. . entreat. '66. flattery is insincere and ordinarily fulsome praise. ignommy. blame. is devoutly to address the Supreme Being with reverent petition for divine grace or any favor or blessing. Synonyms' aslf. . animadversion. approbation may be silent. denunciation. Praise is always personal. obloquy. as "Pray sit down" . "Approbation speaks of the thing or action. implore and supplicate denote the utmost . Beseech and entreat express great earnestness of petition . . hissing. Antonyms abuse. W. the plaudits of a throng. scorn. plead.. . " I beg you " is also frequently used. Approval always supposes a testing or careful examination. disapproval. beseecli. as expressing a polite humility of request. repudiation. 549. a nation's acclaim. PRAY. . unless the contrary is expressly stated compliment is a light form ot praise that may or may not be sincere . call upon. and frequently implies official sanction approbation may be upon a general view. XtBg. and J. Acclaim is the more poetic term for acclamation. contempt. slander. request. certain phrases. and is commonly used in the plural as. commonly understood in a loftier sense as. The iadustry and intelligence of a clerk win his employer's approbation . . bid. . vituperation." A. disparagement. [macm. supplicate. condemnation. Tlius one ia chosen moderator by acclamation when he receives a unanimous viva voce vote we could not say he was nominated by applause. C. Approbation is a milder and more qualified word than praise . disapprobation. while praise is always uttered. imless in writings molded on older literature. Praise is always understood as genuine and sincere. Importune. in the religious sense. conjure. or in . reproof. vilification. p.

reaches on from eternity. PT. uncertain. unsteady. antecedent. Synonyms: fate. risky. precedent is an authoritative case. case. instance. pare ask . obiter dictum. a blind something in the nature of things binding the sUghtest action or motion in the chain of inevitable. one holds office by a. An obiter dictum. foreordination and predestination are Christian. Uncertain. Compare cause . is applied to things that human knowledge can not certainly determine or that human power can not certainly control .F. Cases decided by irregular or unauthorized tribunals are not precedents for the regular administration of law. incontestable. foreordlnation. is an opinion outside of the casein hand. by extension of meaning. unqnestionable. precarious originally meant dependent on the wiU of another. PRECARIOVS. warrant. dubious. precarious title the strong man's hold on life is uncertain. or instance. Synonyms PRECEDENT. an irresistible. actual. hazardous. sure. firm. with manifest unfavorable possibility verging toward probability as. undoubted. eq. undeniable. PREDE STES ATIOW. . stable. insecure. Antonyms. dependent on chance or hazard. real. example. supplicate implying also humility. pattern.uivocal. authority. which. unsettled. in the divine action. steady. unassured. forelmowledge. eternal sequence . . The communism of the early CSiristians in Jerusalem is a wonderful example or instance of Christian liberality. settled.An. immutable.precarlons predestination fervency and intensity. the invalid's . or land by a. but not a precedent for the universal church through aU time. denoting the rational and righteous order or decree of the supreme . is precarious. perilous. irrational power determining all events with no manifest connection with reason or righteousness necessity is philosophical. example. which can not be quoted as an authoritative prec- A edent. Predestination is a previous determination or decision. certain. example. nso -ev^ Coin> Synonrms doubtful. infallible. strong. necessity. Fate is heathen. and now. precarious tenure. assured. unstable.

is something advanced or displayed for the purpose of concealing the reality. fancy. in one's favor. conclusion. i bias. reason.USA prej n<1tc6 pretense and all=wise Grod. (literally. Synonyms prejudice:. demonstration. independence. choice. trick. A prepossession is always favorable. show. affectation. free will. subterfuge. so that the burden of proof is upon one who advocates a change. A prejudice against foreigners is Very common in retired communities. in favor of. proof. There is always a presumption in favor of what exists. semblance. usually grounded on some general principle. reasonmg. which some hold to be entirely separable from his foreordination. Antonyms certainly. free agency. PRETEKSE. mask. pretension. rarely. presumption. pretext. cloak. excuse. dlsslnvulatlon. Prepositions s Against . chance. A person makes a pretense of something for the credit or advantage to be gained by it he makes what is allowed or approved a pretext for doing what would be opposed or condemned a tricky schoolboy makes a pretense of doing an errand which he does not do. . freedom. jlntonyms accident. 'Wile. or he makes the actual doing of an errand a pretext for playing truant. color. Compare INJURY. I conviction. whUe others hold foreordination to be inseparably involved in foreknowledge. simulation. evidence. A prejudice or prepossession is grounded often on feeling. Foreknowledge is simply God's antecedent knowledge of all events. in the unfavorable. and always held subject to revision upon fuller information. partiality. unless the contrary is expressly stated. A pretense. unfairness. air. A ruse is something (especially some- assumption. etc. a prejudice always unfavorable. . which is also the usual sense. Prepo sltlo ns Predestination of believers to eternal life. is A presumption decision a taking beforehand) a partial formed in advance of argument or evidence. disguise. ruse. preconception prepossession. associations. uncertainty. Synonyms. . seeming.

Anticipate is now the only single word usable in this sense to forestall is to take or act in advance in one's own behalf and to the preju. by -sending the blessings . sincerity. PREVENT. or one anticipates a payment (by making it before the time). the completion or conclusion only being thought of as negatived by anticipation the enemy passed the outworks and were barely prevented from capturing the fortress. to stop the way of or remove from the way). which is now practically obsolete. reaJity. before the desire is formulated or expressed). so that something that would naturally withstand or disturb may be kept from doing so . guilelesBnees. simplicity. to close or shut in advance) is to prevent by anticipation or by logical necessity. 3. act in advance of. Prevent. has come to apply to the stopping of an action at any stage. and enable a person to gain some end that he would not be allowed to approach directly. : fact. Honesty. oTiviate. preclude. dice of another or others. to come before. e. addressed him first). Compare hinder . The original sense of prevent. A pretension is a claim that is or may be contested : the word is used in an unfavorable sense. as in the phrase " to forestall the maris very frequently used in the favorable thoughtful kindness anticipated my wish (i. candor. e. Jesas prevented him " (i. truth.. in neither of these cases could we use forestall or prevent. " When Peter was come into the house. Ps. xxi. Antonyms actuality. a necessity or difficulty is obwiafed. his sense . was still in good use when the authorized version of the Bible was made. met the wish before it was expressed): or we say. forestall.. e. Compare artifice now commonly . as appears in such passages as. which at first had only the anticipatory meaning. 25 " Thou 2}reventest him with the blessings of goodness" (i. ket. . prohibit. Matt.prevent 2§4 thing slight or petty) employed to blind or deceive so as to mask an ulterior design. Preposition: He was prevented by' illness /rom joining the expedition. to preclude. . To obviate (literally." But to anticipate as. walls and bars precluded the possibility of escape a supposition is precluded. (literally. hypocrisy. Synonyms I anticipate. xvii. openness. ingenuousness. "I was about to accost him when he anticipated me " (by speaking first). is to prevent by interception. . frankness.

a former chapter. not of can say former times. hindmost.ne<s •*s* previous price Synonyms PRETIOVS. vii. first in time is fii-st also in right used of time. posterior. is coming to be employed chiefly with reference to place as the anterior lobes of the brain. Antonyms after. forward. the foregoing statements. value. even when not fully expressed. these arrangements were made previous to my departure. Synonyms I cbarge. preceding. or of position in written or printed matter. preceding is limited to that which is immediately or next before . space in general. but not the former part of a garden . or sharp contrast. wortb. . Previous often signifies first by right as. . with something following the former always implies the latter. Former has a close relation. an antecedent event may have happened at any time before the preceding transaction is the one completed just before the one with which it is compared a previous statement or chapter may be in any part of the book that has gone before the preceding statement or chapter comes next before without an interval. foregoing. We . following. implying no direct connection between that which goes before and that which follows as. Acts i. hind. . front. as. . conclnding.] vious to is Preposition Such was the PRICE. antecedent. and commonly where that which is Former is as. {Prestate of things previous to the revolution. preliminary. . a }>revious engagement. earlier. precedent. latter. cost. former. Anterior. introductory. the striking of one clock may be always antecedent to the stariking of another with no causal connection between them. prior. . we should say the front part of the garden. expenditure. consegnent. expense. 1. while it can be used of time. . as in . 10. snbseqnent. later. etc. I . Foregoing is used only of that which is spoken or written as. a prior demand. in constructions where previously to would be more strictly correct . . hinder. Antecedent and previous may refer to that which goes or happens at any distance in advance. Prior bears . Antecedent may denote simple priority in time. succeeding. The cost of a thing is all that has been expended upon it. often used adverbially. exclusive reference to time. the forward car of a train. anterior. and Eccles. outlay.

. the intrinsic value is the inherent utility of the article considered by itself alone the market value of an old and rare volume may be very great. ostentation. assumption. traveling expenses. the seller's price on his wares must be more than their cost to him when goods are sold. the seller's jsr-ice is made the same as the cost of the goods to him. . estimated equivalent for an article. reserve. arrogance. expenses. always implies that an article is for sale what a man will not sell he declines to put a price on . In exceptional cases.pride 2*® whether in discovery. which regards the thing in and by itself . bauslitiness. thus. intrinsic value is a weaker expression than intrinsic worth. the price of a thing In regular business. hence the significance of the taunting proverb that " every man has his price. Pride is an absorbing sense of one's own greatness . Synonyms. as. refinement. transportation. haughtiness feels one's own superiority to others disdain sees contemptuously the inferiority of others to oneself. insolence. Insolence is open and rude expression of contempt and hostility. as from a servant to a master In the presence of superiors overweening pride or mistress. vanity self-esteem. presumption. selforespect. production. when goods are sold at cost. conceit. . for it. self^esaltatlon. the market value is what it would bring if exposed for sale in the open market . disdain. whether the article is for sale or not . manifests itself in xyresunuption or insolence . Haughtiness thinks highly of itself and poorly of others. Value has always more reference to others' estimation (literally. vainglory. superciliousness. expense to minor outlays . decoration. PRIDE." Value is the asks. household . generally from an inferior to a superior. the charges oi a lawyer or physician . self-conceit. self-complacency. the cost to the Price seller and the cost to the buyer becoming then identical. what the thing will avail with others) than worth. Charge has especial reference to services. as a rule. Presumption claims place or privilege above one's right pride deems nothing too high. to bring it to its present condition in the hands "of its present possessor is what the seller . while its intrinsic value may be practically nothing. . Arrogance claims much for itself and concedes little to others. or otherwise. in the presence of . the price the buyer has paid becomes their cost to himself.

primum. PRIMETAL. Superciliousness. is elated if they are rendered. native. Self'conceit is ridiculous . Aboriginal. primal. Antonyms hmnilify. self'esteem is a more generous estimate of one's own character and abilities than the rest of the world are ready to allow. supercilium. meekness. as its etymology suggests (L. pride with strength. primitive. or in either case often by cold reserve. primary. uncreated. autoclitbonic. only the earliest of which man knows or conceives. and pained if they are withheld. is . lowliness. ab. or has. modesty. is commonly founded on something real. vanity intensely craves admiration and applause.. immemorial. age). Vainglory is more pompous and boastful than vanity. Conceit may be founded upon nothing. pride could never solicit admu-aConceit is somewhat stronger than self'Conoeit. especially from the soil of one's native land. and primeval combine the meanings of ancient and original . autochthonic races. old. Aboriginal original. earth) signifies sprung from the earth. tho far slighter than would afford foundation for pride.287 inferiors. self. haughtiness. eyebrow. origin) signifies pertaining to the aborigines or earliest known inhabitants of a country in the widest sense. Assumption quietly takes for granted superiority and privilege which others would be slow to concede. Compare egotism . from. autos. origo. conceit is offensive. Indigenous. self-distrust. eyelid). superciliousness. immemorial. ancient. prime. Primeval (L. self-abasement. including not merely human beings but inferior animals and plants as well. and cevum. earliest in time. over and dlium. and ehthbn. aboriginal inhabitants. but often (L. primordial. (See reserve under modesty. and seeks them . Vanity is eager for admiration and praise. pride manifests itself by arrogance. pristine. as if by the uplifted eyebrow. too. Conceit and vanity are associated with weakness. Autochthonic (Gr. signifies strictly belonging to the first ages. silently manifests mingled haughtiness and disdain. ostentation. Self-respect is a thoroughly worthy feeling. from super.) Pride too self=satisfied to care for praise . autochthonic. disdain. pride is founded upon something that one is. Synonyms aboriginal. ' patrlarcbal. . or those primeval supposed to be inferior. tion or praise. first. or has done vanity.

that which is actually produced there is said to be native. needs. PROFIT. as to have the advantage of a good education it is frequently used of what one has beyond . Primal is ohiefiy poetic. pristine purity.itive chiu'ch. or Prime and primary may signify either first in more frequently first in importance primaryhas also the . returns. gain. .profit 28§ primeval forests. as. vigor. Primordial is first in an order of succession or development. proceeds. Synonyms advantage. . Immemorial refers solely to time. Compare synonyms for new. receipts. used almost exclusively in a good sense of that which is original and perhaps ancient . value. morals. . return. denoting. though it may be of foreign extraction humming-birds are indigenous to America canaries may be native. independently of quality. in the sense ot prime as. . as well as standing first in time as. exotic. Primitive also very frequently signifies having the original or early characteristics without remoteness in time. time. or receipts include all that lay or investment . but are not indigenous. either for coping with competitors or with difliculties. a. useful. Antonyms i adventitious. avail. " that whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary " as. Primeval simplicity is the simplicity of the earliest ages primitive simplicity may be found in retired villages now.. benefit. Primitive frequently signifies having the original characteristics of that which it represents. . or demands . in government. That which is both an original and natural product of a soil or country is said to be indigenous . theprimal cui-se. Compare old. recent modern. Pristine is an elegant word. fresh. Advantage is that which gives one a van- emolument. sense of elementary or preparatory we speak of apritne minister. etc. primordial \e^t. valuable. foreign. The returns improvement. helpful. late. Utility is chiefly used in the sense of some immediate or personal and generally some material good. service. new. . good. a primary school. in legal phrase. . . tage=ground. the prim. novel. innocence. usefulness. . is received from an outthe profit is the excess (if any) of the receipts over the outlay hence. as. expediency. an immemorial custom an immemorial abuse. the profit is what is really good. utility.

or to take advantage of another in a bargain. Prepositions The profit of labor . ument is profit. gro-wtli. progredi. or value accruing through official position. whether in space or in the mental or moral realm. PROORESS. proficiency includes the idea of skiU. destruction. admitting of pause. in actions having a moral character. Expediency has respect to profit or advantage. attainment." 19 may say without limitation. the development of new powers or organs . while progress lays the emphasis upon the forward movement we may speak of slow or rapid progress. restrict the words to this favorable sense. liurt. but more naturally of swift advance. using increase indiffer. Improvement. but always relatively with reference to the point from which the movement Advance admits the possibilstarted as. Synonyms advance. the progress of ideas progression fixes the attention chiefly upon the act of moving forward. this is a great advance. In a thing good in itself all advance or progress is improvement . to walk forward) is steady and constant forward movement. ity of retreat progress (L. go) is a moving onward or forward.'"^'' progress . ently of good or evil one advocate o{ progress. . waste. proficiency in music or languages. progression. Antonyms damage. : detriment. development. . increase. proficiency. gradior. and may be either mechanical. . another or secures at the expense of another as. advancement. considered apart from or perhaps in opposition to right. Advance may denote either a forward movement or the point gained by forward movement. real or supposed. Progress is more frequently used of abstractions as. to have the advantage of another in an argument. on capital . denoting some point of advantage or of comparative perfection reached by forward or onward movement we speak of attainments in virtue or scholarship. injary. Progress (L. or social. Emolreturn. disadvantage. in business. Compare inrruTT. Attainment. and proficiency are moreabsolute'than the other words of the group. . forward. there is a growing tendency to . Oain is what one secures beyond what he previously possessed. harm. " I am an . development. loss. individual. Benefit is anything that does one good. rain. but not of retreat advance suggests more clearly a point to be reached. pro.

relapse. . i . stoppage. falling back. falling off. decline. Propositions The progress of truth progress in vktue from a lower to a higher state. toward perfection j Synonyms PROHIBIT. . stop. stay. Antonyms check.problblt 290 delay. retrogression.

vengeance. the one who promotes keeping himself in the background. urge forward. foment.291 promote propitious Synonyms aid. help. That which is au^dous is of favorable omen propitious is of favoring influence or tendency as. benign. Expiation is the enduring of the full penalty of a an offering. favorable. s advance. reconciliation. and which he encourages. Compare abet . Synonyms: PROPITIATION. "We promote a person by advancing. condemnation. foster. furthers. eBtran_ offense. or exalting . chastisement. PROIHOTE. One who excites a quarrel originates it to promote a quarrel is strictly io foment and urge it on. Propitiation appeases the lawgiver . merciful. especially when he acts as the agent of the prime movers and supporters of the enterprise. wrath. forwards. satisfaction. PROPITIOUS. or the bringing into agreement of those who have been estranged. elevating. Atonement (at=one=ment). rank. penalty. Satisfaction in this connection denotes the rendering a full legal equivalent for the wrong done. To promote (L. sacriflce. kind. assist. suffering and death. or sacrifice that wrong or crime. originally denoting reconciliation. forward. Antonyms See synonyms for abase . Antonyms alienation. pro. . on. gracious. or dignity. pnnisliment. encourage. is now chiefly used. and moveo. A person promotes a scheme or an enterprise which others have projected or begun. that which is an auspicious . further. or suffering sufficient to win forgiveness or make up for an offense. clement. or urges on. in the sense of some offering. push. elevate. satisfaction meets the requirements of the law. atonement. friendly. cnrse. quicken. forward. as in theology. at. benignant. reprobation. retribution. push. raise. kindly. especially and distinctively of the sacrificial work of Christ in his humiliation. action. excite. expiation.TiAY. him to a higher position or dignity. . pushes. prefer. move) is to cause to move forward toward some desired end or to raise to some higher position. urge on. exalt. Propitiation is makes the governing power propitious toward the offender. Synonyms auspicious.

. I purpose to do right I propose to do this specific thing because it is right. But in the majority of cases what we purpose is more general. ill-disposed. " I propose to move immediately on your works. repellent. a. unpropitious. : forbidding. as. propose differs from purpose in that what -wB purpose lies in our own mind. . proposal being the more formal word a proposition sets forth truth (or what is claimed to be truth) in formal statement. proposition. a. Preposition May heaven be propitious to the enterprise. unfavorable. inauspicious. repnlse. : overtures of peace. . a. the jsroposaZ for action as. propitious breeze. In another use of the word. and the word is especially used of some movement toward reconoffer ox proposal puts . An . one proposes something to or by himself which may or may not be stated to others.. especially toward the suppliant auspicious is not used of persons. proposition in geometry. offer. a tid at an auction proposal is used in nearly the same sense. nnfriendly. something before one for acceptance or rejection. In the historic sentence. A hid is commercial and often verbal as. but An overture opens negotiation or conference. what we propose more formal and definite . purpose. refusal. In its most frequent use. and the two words have often been used interchangeably. . overture.proposal propose „„„ . The proposition is for consideration. a determination what we propose is offered or stated to others. Synonyms: bid. PROPOSAL.'' purpose would not have the same sharp directness. as what we purpose is not. In this latter sense propose is nearly identical with purpose. . . a proposition for the surrender of a fort. as a decisive act of will. Synonym: PROPOSE. In this use of the word. Propitious applies to persons. . antagonistic. disapproval. Antonyms: adverse. implying Jdnd disposition and favorable inclinations. rejection. ciliation . liostile. denial. is more formal. proposal of marriage but proposition is often used nearly in the sense of proposal when it concerns a matter for deliberation as.«w* morning . Antonyms acceptance. what we propose is open to deliberation.

the adage often pictorial. the apothegm prac. applying equally to the desirable or the undesirable. or to a certain day or hour. as defer also does. . liurry. protract a discussion. lengthen. . An aphorism partates of the character of a definition it is a summary statement of what the author sees and believes to be true. or postpone a matter intelligently and for good reason he procrastinates through indolence and irresolution. Compare hinder. conclude.„_ '•«'<* protract proverb Synonyms: PROTRACT. or until a late hour. apborism. hasten. dra\r out. an unreasonable Synonyms PROTERB. Postpone implies a definite intention to resume. . defer. maxim. One may defer. though less decidedly both are often used with some definite limitation of time as. . The proverb or adage gives homely truth in condensed. delay. contract. but defer and protract are not used of persons. abridge. to postpone till. or desirable. implying that the matter referred to is already unduly long." is an adage. i curtail. or would be so if longer continued . saw. dictum. Antonyms abbreviate. but only of material objects or extension in space protract is very rarely used of concrete objects or extension in space we elongate a line. through time. postpone. till. to. Elongate is not used of actions or abstractions. aphorism is philosophical. saying. are thought of as ancient and widely known. adage. limit. We de/er a negotiation which we are slow to enter upon we protract a negotiation which we are slow to conclude delay may be used of any stage in the proceedings we may delay a person as weU as an action. precept. Protract has usually an unfavorable sense. motto. but dares not wet her feet. . An apothegm is a terse statement of what is plain or easily proved. expected. . To protract is to cause to occupy a longer time than is usual. axiom. prolong. procrastinate. byword. continue is neutral. F repositions To protract a speech by verbosity. continue. . Both the proverb and the adage. until. truism. . but especially the latter. reduce. elongate. The. prac"Hope deferred maketh tical form. apotbegm. extend. delay. "The cat loves fish. the heart sick" is a proverb . shorten. .

foresiglit. frugality. maxim." that is old. intrepidity. heroism. Synonyms care. effeminacy. of the deep. "Fear God and fear naught. or the facing of censure or detraction for conscience' sake. Prudence may be briefly defined as good judgment and fore- . A Synonyms bravery. courage. spiritual. its utmost to conquer at any risk or cost prowess has power adapted to the need dauntless valor is often vain against superior Courage is a nobler word than bravery. caution. and enduring elements of character such an appreciation of peril as would extinguish bravery may only intensify courage. consideration. fear. judiciousness. a dictum of Ai-istotle. discretion. -esr* A dictum is a statement of some person or school. . and intrepidity may be silent. but somewhat worn and tiresome. Bravery. they may be exhibited by a martyr at the stake. FORTITUDE. phrase or saying used reproachfully or contemptuously. providence. . neroism. which is resistant and self^conquering courage applies to matters in regard to which valor and prowess can have no place. Compare bbave. The precepts of the Sermon on the Mount will furnish byword is a the Christian ^vith invaluable maxims or viottoes. Precept is a com- A mand "God to truth. on whom depends for authority as. the is duty motto or m. courag^e. a child. . the worse speed.pi-owess prudence tical. it «Q. deriving its authority from its manifest truth or good sense as. cowardliness. valor. "the more haste.axim is a brief statement of cherished maxim. foretbouglit. carefulness. as submission to a surgical operation. Antonyms: cowardice. ludgment. doing ferer. ' ." a . spiritual. forecast. pusillanimity. being more uniformly and directly practical love" may be a motto. wisdom. gallantry. involving more prowess. Prowess and valor imply both daring and doing we do not speak of the prowess of a martyr. or passive PROITESS. . it is an old saw is a saying saying. A saying is . or a passive sufValor meets odds or perils with courageous action. prudence:. . . impersonal. cuiTent among the common people. circumspection. timidity.

get. PURCHASE. heedlessness. guarding. rashness. wastefnlness. providence will strain every nerve to introduce supplies and to raise the siege. . . impmdence. wisdom. Antonyms: folly. dispose of. xxiii. . and may even lead to the recklessness and desperation to which prudence and providence are so strongly opposed. and in the higher ranges of thought . buy. .. etc. exchange. and seU it not " (Prov. Prepositions. signifying to obtain or secure as one's own by paying or promising to pay a price in numerous cases the two words are freely interchangeable. honor. improTldence. 23) would be greatly weakened by the rendering " Purchase the truth. favor. pnt to sale. purcbase and frugality ia practical affairs. prodigality. . . "Buy the truth. In a besieged city pinidenee wiU reduce the rations. secure. prudence and providence look far ahead and sacrifice the present to the future.- cash Purchase at a price at a public sale unth money on time. pleasure. Antonyms barter. Forethought is thinking in accordance with wise views of the future. saving. indiscretion. but with the difference usually found between words of Saxon and those of French or Latin origin. appeals more strongly to the feelings. thonghtlessness. Foresight merely sees the future. for . of or from a person . One may either buy or purchase fame. and is nearly equivalent to providence. Compare caee . Care only the present . recklesBness. Frugality is in many cases one form oi prudence. petty concerns of common life. and do not dispose of it. obtain.rljbought.•"" sis'?!. The Saxon buy is used for aU the homely and . but when our feelings are stirred we speak of victory or freedom as dea. Synonyms} acquire. Buy and purchase are close synonyms. bargain for. fkugality. providence planning. but It is a more popular and less comprehensive term we speak of man's forethought.*. . the French purchase is often restricted to transactions of more dignity yet the Saxon word buy is commonly more emphatic. doing. prudence watching. God's providence. barter for. and perhaps expending largely to meet the future demand. sell. procure. preparing." Compare business get pkice sale. inclining to caution may respect .

pure put .

Antonyms common. . in the sense here considered. to grotesque. uncommon. ordinary. and so off or aside from the ordinary and what is considered the normal course as. funny. comical. odd. whimsical. Erratic signifies wandering. unique. queer quicken QVEER. Israel was called Jehovah's "peculiar people. QVICKEIV. That which is grotesque in the material sense is irregular or misshapen in form or outline or ill»proportioned so as to be somewhat ridiculous . drive on." i. . extraordinary. as. promote. . genius is commonly eccentric. make haste. the Shakers are peculiar. regular. normal. Quaint denotes that which is pleasingly odd and fanciful. singular. Odd is unmated. bizarre. urge on. the quaint architecture of medieval towns. ridiculous. e. especially chosen and cherished by bim . What is singular is odd. erratic. though it may be shared by many as. Eccentric is off or aside from the center. A strange thing is something hitherto unknown in fact or in cause. the French bizarre is practically equivalent . ludicrous. anomalous. Synonyms drive. and so uneven. an an odd number. preposterous. To guiclcen. grotesque. a stronger and more censorious term than eccentric. hasten. unmatclied. . advance. eccentric. despatch. usaal. cuBtomary.297 Synonyms. but what is odd may not be singular . a drawerful of odd gloves. word than odd or queer. Eccentric is a higher and more respectful . quaint. unusual.. I familiar. droU. often with something of the antique as. crotchety. That which is funny is calculated to provoke laughter that which is droll is more quietly amusing. fantastic. speed. further. as an odd shoe. urge. the singular number. Queer is transverse or oblique. press forward. aside from the common in a way that is comical or perhaps slightly ridiculous. curious. strange. . lauglialjle. expedite. peculiar. facilitate. is to increase speed. That which is peculiar belongs especially to a person as his own as. in its ordinary use there is the implication that the thing peculiar to one is not common to the majority nor quite approved by them. A singular coincidence is one the happening of which is unusual a strange coincidence is one the cause of which is hard to explain. hurry. nainral. . Singular is alone of its kind as. i accelerate.

To quote. as in indirect quotation to cite is. Antonyms check. either exactly. To despatch is to do and be done with. recite. To quote is to give an author's words. neither the author's words nor his thought may be given. In exact location by chapter.quote v9S move or cause to move more rapidly. Despatch is commonly used of single items. a greater number of motions in the same time. as a witness is summoned. to hasten is To speed is really to secure swiftness whether successfully or Hurry always indicates something of confusion. In citing. plagiarize. advance unsuccessfully. prominence. despatch details of business. To facilitate is to quicken by making easy . comfort. . Synonyms cite. to get a thing off one's him outright and quickly him in haste to despatch a business is to bring it quickly to an end. expedite all preparations. To promote a cause is in any way to bring it forhands. obstruct. hasten supplies and perfect discipline to promote the general efficiency of the force. in the so that quoting. which becomes swifter with every second of time. it . in power. To despatch an enemy is is to kill to despatch a messenger to send . ward. The hurried man A army. in order to accelerate the advance and victory of his . I extract. the location may . repeat. To accelerate any work is to hasten it toward a finish. up a must be given. mologically. as in direct quotation. to call citing a passage its passage. to attempt it. can be promptly called into evidence in or may not be given. A motion wliose speed increases upon itself is said to be accelerated. page. as the motion of a falling body. as through more space or with. or otherwise. forgets dignity. impede. hurry has come to be the colloquial and popular word for acting quickly. etc. ety. or in substance. parapbrase. retard. it . hinder. but simply the reference to the location where they may be found. commonly by quickening all its operations in orderly unity toward the result. QUOTE. everything but speed he may forget something vital to the matter in hand yet. To accelerate is to increase the speed of action or of motion. appearance. drag. excerpt. clog. courtesy. but the words or substance of the passage must be given. good general will improve roads to faemitate the movements of troops. delay. to expedite is to quicken by removing hindrances. because reckless haste may attain the great object of speed.

Pungent denotes something sharply irritating to the organs of taste or smell. The widely divergent which the word radical is used. To redte or repeat is usually to quote orally. tho recite is applied in legal phrase to a particular statement of facts which is not a quotation a kindred use obtains . ingrained. in ordinary speech . whose words are eman author's thought more freely than in indirect quotation. flavorous. stimulating and agreeable pungent spices may be deftly compounded into a piquant sauce. . as . senses in perfect. Synonyms complete. original. Synonyms-. tborougli. less explanatory matter as if part of the orig- One may paraphrase a work with worthy motive for homiletic. t flat. essential. To plagiarize is to quote without credit. natural. Racy applies in the first instance to the pleasing flavor charac- teristic of certain wines. appropriating all that is valuable in another's thought. devotional. often attributed to the soil from which . positive. ammonia piquant denotes a quality similar in kind to pungent but less in degree. pleasing originality . pungent. forcible. spicy. with the hope of escaping detection by change of phrase. flavorless.uant. dull. but changing the language.. they come. prosy. total. primitive. insipid. As applied to Uterary products. stale. appropriating another's words or thought as one's own. as pepper.literal sense. and commonly to give credit to the author is To paraphrase to state interweaving more or inal writing. thorougbgolng. spirited. to recite one's misfortunes. vinegar. Antonyms cold. vapid. RADICAL. tasteless. or he may plagiarize atrociously in the form of paraphri se. ^iey to that which is stimulating to the mental taste. keeping the substance of thought and the order of statement. lively. racy refers to that which has a striking. entire. innate. organic.itaa *"*' racy radical is proper sense. as. RACY. rlcb. or other purposes (as in the metrical versions of the Psalms). native. stupid. fundamental. piq. spice is to the physical . ployed. extreme. constitutional. vigorous. piquant and pungent in their figurative use keep very close to theu.

organic. but reaches down to the very root. Rare has the added sense of precious. estraordiuary. ln£reiiuent. gain. Synonyms. a radical difference is one that springs from the root. particular fruit or coin may be rare . . usual. A blended with that above given as. original. uncommon. capable of a high and good sense or of an invidious. genius. . odd. are aU formed upon the one primary sense of having to do with or proceeding from the root (L. extraordinary genius necessai'ily. at the root of evil or need. and almost always to concrete things to speak of virtue. Antonyms: conservative. scarce applies to demand and use. but not . a rare old book a rare word to call a thing scarce implies that it was at some Unique .reacb 300 it by which can be at some time interchanged with any word in the above list. eoctraord'bnary . an extraordinary statement is incredible without overwhelming proof. Incomplete. wickedness an extraordinary assumption of power extraordinary antics . attain. . or heroism as scarce would be somewhat ludicrous. come to. . and is thus eonstit'Wtional. . Extraordinary. whether previously common or not as. Blight. time more plenty. inadequate. palliative. remarkable. RARE. snperflcial. radix). singular. To say of a thing that it is rare is simply to afSrm that it is now seldom found. as when we say food or money is scarce. are apt to be looked which strike upon as extreme. unprecedented. scarce. REACH. curious. strange. incomparable. trial. since the majority find superficial treatment of any matter the easiest and most comfort- able. in the sense here considered. which is sometimes. total . peculiar. is get to. opprobrious. Antonyms: See synonyms for general . " Paradise Lost " is unique. is a neutral word. radical measures. unparalleled. signifying greatly beyond the ordinary. moderate. to come to by motion ._ normal . essential. partial. a radical chaxi^e is one that does not stop at the surface. Synonyms arrive. thorough. land. or contemptuous sigrdflcation as. fundamental. precious. unlctue. . enter. a rare gem. To reach. unusual. is alone of its kind rare is infrequent of its kind great poems are rare. tentative. and is entire.

leave. but in fact. go away. or reported. essential. One comes in from his garden he reaches home from a journey. steamer arrives in port. or the existent as opposed to the nonsexistent. eigniiies the Antonyms. certain. Synonyms REAL.301 real . developed. depart. unqiuestlonalile. To arrive is to come to a desThe European tination. to the uncertain or doubtful developed. i actual. or comes to land. substantial. To reach is to come to from a distance that is actually or relatively considerable . to reach a point intended or proposed. or being in fact according to appearance or claim . authentic. the storms beaten ship at length attained the harbor. developed to that which has reached completion by a natural process of unfolding. denoting the thing as distinguished from the name. as. to stretch the journey. go. The developed is susceptible of proof . to- gether with trees. Real estate is land. set out.. Compare attain. not merely in thought. a thing) signifies having existence. When applied to concrete matters. positive. the wearied swimmer reaches or gains the shore. as. water. to attain success. one reaches an object by stretching out the hljid. start. conceived. Attain is now of tenest used of abstract relations as. Come is the general word for moving to or toward the place where the speaker or writer is or supposes himself to be. in its original meaning. weigh anchor. positive. veritable. the dismantled wreck drifts ashore. it commonly overcoming of hindrance and difficulty . the positive precludes the necessity for proof. proofs are positive when they give the mind certainty . To gain is to reach or attain something eagerly sought . minerals. to that which is undeveloped or incomplete. embark. Actual is in opposition to the supposed. so to speak. positive to that which is fixed or established. demonstrable. real is opposed to feigned or imaginary. and is capable of demonstration . and furnishes the proof of its existence in itself. real to a thing as existing by whatever means or from whatever cause. ills are real that have a substantial reason. across the distance. or progress. or other natural accompani- . Actual has respect to a thing accomplished by doing. The present condition of a thing is its actual condition. genuine.^ plant is developed when it has reached its completed stage. Real (L. set sail. res. or reaches the harbor . true.

Antonyms: conceived. or fact. to prove one innocent or guilty." Jvde 3. /or or against an . a debate is formal and orderly . argue. controvert. ground. reported. . A Prepositions reason with a person about a subject. visionary. etc. fanciful.. fabulous. it becomes a mere wrangle. argue. . estalilisb. and quatio. as commonly under- . debate. theoretical. or to iniluence or seek to influence others by reasoning or reasons. aim. not. n. While the cause of any event. imaginary. dispute. . we reason a person into or out of a course of action . adebate. show) is to make a matter clear by reasoning to discuss (L. question. or from the highest motives "That ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered to the saints. Reason is a neutral word. To argue (L. argument. principle. demonstrate. or we may reason down an opponent or opposition . untrue. To demonstrate is to force the mind to a conclusion by irresistible reasoning to prove is rather to establish a fact by evidence . consideration. apart. shake) is. Demonstrate strictly applies to mathematical or exact reasoning prove may be used in the same sense. which can give only moral and not absolute or mathematical certainty. structures that S02 man has built upon unreal. dis. fictitious. cause. REASOX. wrangle. opinion We Synonyms account. dispute may be personal.reason ments. to shake it apart for examination and analysis. end. motive. it. fractious. prove. purpose. and any permanent Compare authentic. and petty . hypothetical. Synonyms REASOIV. Persons may contend either from mere ill will or self interest. to prove by reasoning. illusory. supposititious. etymologically. suppoeed. . To reason is to examine by means of the reason. "We reason about a matter by bringing up aU that reason can give us on any side. as. naturally or necessarily implying contest. contend. but is often appUed to reasoning upon matters of fact by what is called probable evidence. «^ act. That which has been either demonstrated or proved so as to secure general acceptance is said to be established. feigued. if otherwise. oUect. like argue. design. discuss. one reasons from a cause to an effect. discuss. I ' V.

suppose two parties alleging reasons for and against a proposithe same idea appears figuratively when we speak of a tion debate or an argument with oneself. Argumentation and debate. argument. the reason for a REASOSriSTG. many arguments or reasons may be included in a single chain of reasoning. or the clear establishment of truth for oneself. mind . as denoting a process. Reasoning may be the act of one alone. is a broader term than reason or . in popular language. v. Reasoning may be either Argument or argumentation was fordeductive or inductive. whether for the in. the reason of or for it is the explanation given by the liuman mind but reason is. the sniddle term following the conclusion is called the reason .'' "Caesar was a tyrant" would in the strictest sense be called the argument ." the latter clause would be termed the reason. the confuting of opponents. as it is simply the orderly setting forth of reasons. In the statement of any reasoning. thus in the statement "All tyrants deserve death. Conoipare cause . or in logical strictness the middle term only by which the particular conclusion is connected with the general statement. or of a debate between reason and conscience. Therefore Caesar deserved death. debate. struction of inquirers. Caesar was a tyi-ant. Prepositions The reason of a thing that thing that is to be done. the argument may be an entire syllogism. argument and argumentation strictly imply logical form. reason. often used as equivalent to cause. especially in the sense of final cause. in the ordinary use of the words. Reasoning. ratiocination.303 stood. . but if we say " Caesar deserved death because he was a tyrant. is to be explained . But when the reasoning is not in strict logical form. or the premises considered together apart from the conclusion. is the reasoning power that makes it to be. merly used of deductive reasoning only. Synonyms argument. With the rise of the inductive philosophy these words have come to be appUed to inductive processes also but while reasoning may be informal or even (as far as tracing its processes is concerned) imconscious. REASONING. . axgrumeutatiou. .

Compare obstinate. and is even extended to inanimate things that resist conti-ol or adaptation to human use. Ungovernable applies . . whether successfully or unsuccessfully . Bnbaervient. RECORD. Rebellious signifies being in a state of rebellion (see rebellion under revolution). docHe. so. applying to any writing. the striae on a rock=surface are the record of count. A Antonym SI compliant. to that which partakes of or tends to excite a rebellious spirit. document. seditious suggesting more of covert plan. gentle. ungovernable. enumeration. While the unmanageable or ungovernable defies control. the rebellious or seditious may be forced to submission as. a monument. mark. the man has an ungovernable temper the horses became unmanageable he tamed . deferential. mutinous. enrolment. chronicle. seditious. scroll. . catalog(ue. insubordinate. Synonyms: account. yielding. . . Synonyms i coutumacious. inventory. uncontrollable. scheming. to that which successfully defies authority and power unmanageable to that which resists the utmost exercise of skill or of skiU and power combined rebellious.rebellious record 304 ri:bi:l. . inscription. entry. memorandum. refractory. _ . i manageable. or trace that serves as a memorial giving enduring attestation of an event or fact an extended ac. dutiful. roll. chronicle. bistory. obedient. scbedule. whether a writing.l. or other permanent thing that is designed or adapted to keep something in remembrance. instrument. controllable. may be a brief inventory or memorandum . Record is a word of wide signification. especially in the army. memorial. to open defiance of authority. . unmanageable. A memorial is any object. his rebellious spirit. arcbive. to that which is defiant of authority. or merchant marine. or conspiracy. disobedient.iovs. contumaeiovs act or spirit is contemptuous as well as defiant. the inscription on a tombstone is a record of the dead . seditious. register. Bubmiseive. navy. intractable. rebellious more of overt act or open violence. Prepositions Bebellious to or against lawful authority. Insubordinate applies to the disposition to resist and resent control as such mutinous. revolution. tractable. muniment. too. or history is a record .

repossess. The intransitive sense. process of cultivating the soil or growing crops. as. be restored. or misfortune. cultivation. elegant. retrieve. to recover health. are documents or records. Synonyms i civilization. recuperate. denoting the removal of what is coarse and rude. and a corresponding attainment of what is deliOultivatimi. munio. stoby. heal. is very common sink. . etc. and political attainments by which a community a people may be civilized while still is i-emoved from barbarism far from refinement or culture. reanimate. Synonyms cure. Compare histoey . he restored. recruit. fortify) are records that enable one to defend his title. economic. I grow worse. regain. which denotes a high develop. especially as. be cured.n~s '•''O a glacier's passage. in 2 RECOVER. made for preservation or reference a series of entries a register of births and deaths. terror. but in this usage is now largely superseded by the term culture. 6. rie- REFINEmEBiT. I Antonyms fail. resume. The transitive use of recover in the sense of cure. as Kings v. Civilization applies to nations. etc. and beautiful." is now practically obsolete. regain. in the sense here considered. Archives. Pr eposltlo ns From .. etc. denoting the social. Refinement applies either to nations or individuals. relapse. Muniments (L. restore. to recover from die. to recover stolen goods . often legal records. sickness. denoting primarily the cate.. elegance. . then the improved condition of either which is the result. politeness. repossess. heal. is applied in similar sense to the human mind and character. (Law) to recover judgment against. The chief transitive use of recover is in the sense to obtain again after losing. sum of those civil. I be cured or healed. but civilization is susceptible of various degrees and of continued progress. as. rarely of . to cover damages of or from a person. " That thou mayest recover him of his leprosy. the word archives is also applied to the place where such documents are regularly deposited and preserved. recover refinement A register is a formal or oflScial written record. preserved in a public or official deposito . culture.

trusty. rusticity. REFUTE. and others of the foremost of recent English writers. clownisnness. Gladstone. pare Com- HUMAHE Antonyms : . . tho differing in usage. and in the usage of good Trasty and trustworthy refer to inherent a high order. repel. while. and denoting moral integrity and truthfulness we speak qualities of . To refute a statement is . Culture in the fullest sense denotes that degi-ee of refinement and development which results from continued cultivation through successive generations . mdeness. POLITE. speakers and writers. but confute is in good use in this application a person is confuted when his arguments are refuted. savagery. confute. The objection to its use on the ground that the suffix -able can not properly be added to an intransitive verb is answered by the citation of such words as "available. grosBnees. with especial reference to the esthetic faculties and to graces of speech and manner. in the matter of usage. but seems to have established its place in the language. . a man's faculties may be brought to a high degree of cultivation in some specialty. disprove." " laughable. To refute and to confute are reply. in the writings of Shakespeare and Bacon. Mill." "conversable. boorlshness. Synonyms: trustwortliy." which is The word applied to persons in the authorized version of the Scriptures. brutality. reliable has been sharply challenged. RELrlABLiE. The objection to the application of reZmhle to persons is not sustained by the use of the verb "rely. but to arguments or opinions. Newman." and the like. . answer so as to admit of no to demonstrate its falsity by argimient or countervailing proof confute is substantially the same in meaning. trustworthy being especially applied to persons. Martineau. to overtlirow. Refute is not now applied to persons. vulgarity. coarseness. Irvmg.refute reliable „_„ SOto best qualities of man's mental and spiritual nature. reliable has the authority of Coleridge. while he himself remains ment of the uncultured even to the extent of coarseness and rudeness. Synonyms confound. regarded as the expression of arefined nature. Refute applies either to arguments and opinions or to accusations confute is not applied to accusations and charges. barbarism.

Godliness (primarily godlikeness) is a character and spirit like that of Grod. faith. pietism. or perhaps pecuniary ability a thoroughly trustworthy person might not be reliable as a witness on account of unconscious sympathy. piety. A reliable messenger is one who may be depended on to do his errand correctly and promptly a trusty or trustworthy messenger is one who may be admitted to knowledge of the views and purposes of those who employ him. primarily filial its liighest sense. or as a security by reason of insufficient means. skiU. in the fullest and highest sense. . Reliable is inferior in meaning. . religion is the reverent acknowledgment both in heart and in act of a divine being. Religion. tIieoIog. noliness. worsbip. sinless perfection of any spirit. which in its fullest sense is self»consecration. as the Heavenly Father duty. is often used to denote an act of worship. . tho often used for purity or for consecration.IGIO]V. righteousness. Theology is the science of religion. he is engaged in his devotions. Morality is the system and practise of duty as required by the moral law. some- times an affected piety . devotion. habit.y. as. . and who will be faithful beyond the mere letter of his commission. liuow ol . . Worship may be external and formal.S07 of . whether divine or human. and thus may be observed without spiritual rectitude of heart morality is of necessity included in all true religion. and a loving obedience and service to God pietism often denotes a mystical. or the study and scientific statement of all that the human mind C9:P. knowledge. and to speak of a warrior girding on his reliable sword would be ludicrous. . . We can speak of a railroad=train as reliable when it can be depended on to aiprivei on time but to speak of a reliable friend would be cold. as of children to parents. Synonyms: Piety hence. consisting chiefly in outward acts. morality. which involves both outward act and spiritual service. or it may be the adoring reverence of the human spirit for the divine. a reliable pledge reliable information. in is R£L. includes all the other words of this group. A man is said to be reliable with reference not only to moral qualities. rellglou a trusty sword. Holiness is the highest. a trusty servant we say the man is thoroughly trustworthy. but to judgment. seeking outward expression. Devotion. denoting merely the possession of such qualities as are needed for safe reliance as. especially prayer or adoration . godliness.

utterance. oral or written. as upon some passage ui a Uterary work or some act or speech in common Ufe. unbelief. REIHARK.reluctant remark tr^a tiUS God. blasphemy. observations. is something to call attention. loath. wickedness. reluctant to speak of it. favorable. comments being oftenest written. godleBsness. the Christian /ai(7i. REIiUCTANT. re. willing. lath. man is loath to believe evil of his friend. hence a brief written statement in correspondence. back. observation. : disposed. . indisposed. commonly made without much premeditation . slow. A note . turn) signifies turned away as with dislike or repugnance loath (AS. tho the adjective loath is not so strong as the verb loathe. the Mohammedan /ajfTi. and lucto. man rnay be slow or backward in entering upon that to which he is by no means averse. or remarks may be oral or writtesn. strictly the belief and trust which the soul exercises toward God. legislator may be opposed to a certain measure. a good student is disinclined to it when a fine morning tempts him out he is indisposed to it in some hour of weariness. is note. disinclined. dunce is always averse to study . absolutely unwUUng to use it to his injmy. ungodlineBS. Reluctant (L. a saying or brief statement. opposed. is often used as a comprehensive word for a whole system of religion considered as the object of faith . hateful) signifies having a repugnance. what one . evil. or is actually doing averse (L. commonly marginal. Antonyms: atheism. An observation is properly the A remark . strive. Inclined. un-willing. struggle) signifies is urged or impelled to do. a. comment. eager. eacrilege. Synonyms annotation. disgust. and remarks oftenest oral. irreligion. while not averse to what it aims to accomplish. profanity. Annotations are especially brief notes. A A A Antonyms desirous. Faith. as. Comments. Compare ANTIPATHY. a comment is an explanatory or critical remark. from. a note is briefer than a letter. struggling against . baclrward. Synonyms: averse. and closely following the text. impiety. A . and verto. or loathing for. A note upon some passage in a book is briefer and less elaborate than a comment.

lacerate. like abandon. back. join. . Renounce (L. re. rupture. disclaim. . is to divide along the line of a seam by cutting or breaking the stitches . tear being the milder. lacerate is more superficial. . rive. . as by the teeth of a wild beast . burst. abjure. RENOUNCE. re. Compare break. and revoke. To rip. Rive is a wood=workers' word for parting wood in the way of the grain without a clean cut. re. Rend and tear are applied to the separating of textile substances by force violently applied (rend also to frangible sub- rend the stronger word. back. Synonyms: abandon. solder. recall. nnlte. draw) is to take back something that one has said as not true or as what one is not ready to maintain as. torip open a wound. repudiate. and nuntio. tear. the other senses bear some resemblance or analogy to this as. Mangle is a stronger word than lacerate . Recant (L. disown. discard. mangle. sew. mangle more complete. retract. and traho. . rip. retract. Antonyms heal. mend. silt. refuse. as usually applied to garments or other articles made by sewing or stitching. back. bear a message) is to declare against and give up formally and definitively . sunder. renounce. he retracts what was di. Abjure. vreld. Remarks are more informal than a speech. discard. one recants what was especially his own. REKD. hurst denoting the greater violence as. a lacerated wound is distinguished from a wound made by a clean cut or incision. forswear. to hurst a gun to rupture a blood=vessel a steam=boiIer may be ruptured when its substance is made to divide by internal pressure without explosion. and canto. rennite. to retract a charge or accusation. recant. into parts cleave. Retract (L. as. stitch. disavow. to renounce the pomps and vanities of the world. stances). deny. recant. To lacerate is to tear roughly the flesh or animal tissue. recall. imply some previous connection. reject. as a belief that one has held or professed. sing) is to take back or deny formally and publicly. a remark may be the suggestion of the instant. Synonyms breali. revoke. sever.309 ""'* i-enounce result of fixed attention and reflection . forswear. To hurst or rupture is to tear or rend by force from within. eecnie.

native of the United States can not abjure or renounce allegiance to the Queen of England. Revolce (L. thus in general to put determined repulsion tionship . to revoke a command. swear) is etymologicaUy the exact equivalent of the Saxon forswear. away with emphatic and repudiate a debt. back. remorse. defend. or away. and voco. etymologically the exact equivalent of the English recall. eeU'Condemnatlon. A man abjures his religion. maint^n. hold. <»»v Repudiate (L. and complete turning from the sin. recants his abjures or renounces his allegiance. signature. disavow the act of his agent. avow.repentance rected against another. error. Compare ABANDON. as. . To deny is to affirm . Abjure (L. advocate. back. disown his child . call). re. or a condemned and detested person. to be not true or not binding as. To discard is to cast away as useless or worthless thus. Repentance is sorrow for sin with self' condemnation. retracts a false statement. contiiteness. cherisli. as an belief. one discards a worn garment a coquette discards a lover. To speak of regret for a fault of our own marks it as slighter than one regarding which we should express penitence. or evil practise. or a grant recall may be used in the exact sense of revoke. away. assert. may A Autonyms i acknowledge. . re. as for consequences . db. heresy. retain. compunction. regret. and may involve no change of character or conduct There may be sorrow without repentance. proclaim. under oath. he may repnjiidiate a just claim or a baso suggestion. vindicate. but is often applied to persons. penitence. but will promptly deny or repvdiate it. to hence to divorce. repeivtaivce:. and pudeo. disavow. we recall a messenger and revoke the order with which he was charged. Synonyms contrition. claim. his mother could not deny him what he desired. One is moved with penitence for wrong=doing. axxd juro. own. in to take back something given or granted as. a will. repudiates another's claim. as a wife. feel shame) is primai'ily to renounce as shameful. disown what has been truly or He may deny his falsely imputed to him or supposed to be his. disclaim. uphold. rela- or to refuse to grant as something requested as. A person deny. sorrow. as revoke is not . renounces his own. Penitence is transient. to deny a statement or a . signifying to put away formally and . . Regret is sorrow for any painful or annoying matter.

as its etymology implies. Blam^. rebuke. Belf'complacency. . censure. relation. criticism. comment. Prepositions Repentance of or in heart. condemnation. . . statement. complacency. story. before or toward God unto life. and disapproval may either be felt or uttered comment. reprimand. Comment and criticism may be favorable as well as censorious they imply no superiority or authority on the part of him who utters them nor do reflection or reprehension. Synonyms: disapproval. objurgation. or from the heart sins. Compunction is a momentary sting of conscience. A stateand properly to matters within the personal knowledge of the one who states them as. as against the divine holiness and love. admonition. reflection. reproval. bring). Compare allegory history RECORD. cbecli. as its derivation indicates. which . A description gives espicial scope to the pictorial element. reprehension. REPORT. cMding. reproach. narration. as by one sent to obtain information. recital. obstinacy. obduracy. re. stubbornness. . Remorse is. Contrition is a subduing sorrow for sin. The same is true of admonition and animadversion. a biting or gnawing back of guilt upon the heart. A report (L. rumor. . in view either of a past or of a contemplated act. impenitence. criticism. confined to essentials . description. comfort. censure. Account carries the idea of a commercial summary. and porto. self'Congriftalation. but not r^entance without sorrow. animadversion. and no suggestion of divine forgiveness. and may be concise and formal or highly descriptive and dramatic. reliearsal. an ante=mortem statement. . self-approval. and reproof are always expressed. repentance for Synonyms account. ordinarily with a view to please or entertain. Antonrms approval. tale. back. is something brought back. blame. with no turning of heart from the sin. narrative. reflection. i content. hardness.ent is definite. REPROOF. . record. m. reprehension. rebuke. upbraiding.311 report reproof only. A narrative is a somewhat extended and embellished account of events in order of time. denunciation.

but with more of personal bitterness and less of authority. remonstrate vrltb. reflection. admonition is Check is allied to reanticipatory. to reproach one for ingratitude reproach knows no distinc. condemn. To reproach is to censure openly and vehemently. Repis official censure formally administered by a superior to one under his command. REPROVE. Rebuke. blame and censure apply either to persons or acts. to some action or course of action reprimand is to reprove officially to . reproacli. as expressed in the phrase severe reprehension. however mild. we often speak of unkind or unjust reflections. To censure may rebuke. Rebuke may be given at the outset. reproof is administered to one intentionally or deliberately A^Tong . openly. and reprimand exclusively to persons. or in the midst of an action . authoritative. and is capable of great force. and somewhat formal kind. warn. eulogy. reprehension. and meant to be preventive. find fault witli. chasten. cbeck. a familiar word signifying to pass censure upon. approval. and with good intent it is therefore a serious matter. reprehend. and directly to the face of the person reproved . rimand Compare condemn . to reprove is to censure authoritatively. is administered to a forward or hasty person . censure.reprove 31^ are simply turning the mind back upon what is disapproved. as for a fault . expostulate 'with. buke. cblde. Animadversion is censure of a high. applause. reprove and rebuke are applied chiefly. is to pronounce an adverse judgment that may or not be expressed to the person censured . chiding is nearer to reproof. and direct expression of flection is often disapproval to the face of the person rebuked or reproved. Antonyms . usually in the midst of deemed censurable blame is . animadversion. . praise. Synonyms blame. both words imply authority in the reprover. approbation. i admonisli. take to task. to rebuke is to reprove with sharpness. make answerable. panegyric. Re- from mere ill feeUng. and is likely to be more personal and less impartial than reprehension . always follow the act . and given before or during action . Reprehension is supposed to be cahn and just. and often with abruptness. commendation. reproof. literally a stopping of the mouth. reprove. encomium. upbraid. reprimand. and with intense personal feeling as of grief or anger as.

urge on. retaliate. neglect. pay on. coantenance. pause. forget. approve. tranquillity. Impel. recreation. sligbt. whether .„ •**«* requite rest tion of rank or character. pay. Instigate. recompense. reciprocate. Compare CONDEMN . Synonyms avenge. quietness. When one is admonished because of wrong already done. Synonyms: calm. Requite is often used in the more general sense of recom/- pense or repay. ease. to punish or to reward. overlook. quietude. calmness. excuse. cessation. but not Christian. incite. revenge. slumber. quit. the expression gains force from the comparison of the actual with the proper and appropriate return. that he may not repeat or continue in the wrong. repose. encourage. the view is still future. of the original idea of full equivalent. a subject may reproach a king or a criminal judge. and reprove apply to wrong that has been done warn and admonish refer to anticipated error or fault. intermission. applaud. pass over. but always with the suggestion. To repay or to retaliate. Antonyms abet. Ease denotes freedom from cause of disturbance. satisfy. stop. peacefulness. quiescence. repay. when one speaks of requiting kindness with ingratitude. or the right or wrong done but to requite (according to its etymology) is to make so full and adequate a return as to quit . ' REQUITE. rewara. To expostulate or remonstrate with is to mingle reasoning and appeal with censure in the hope of winning one from his evil way. settle with. EEPEOOF. remunerate. and may even be used of giving a caution or warning where no wrong is implied. rehuke. stay. Compare PAT. expostulate being the gentler. punish. REST. or of simply reminding of duty which might be forgotten. Preposition • To requite injury unth injury is human. Admonish is the mildest of reproving words. conxpensate. peace. at least.„. oneself of all obligation of favor or hostility. Antonyms: absolve. of punishment or reward. Censure. forgive. pardon. return. quiet. sleep. remonstrate the severer word. acquit. may be to make some return very inadequate to the benefit or injury received. stillness. cheer.

rebellious. toil. stubborn. but to hold him in. restlessness. unrest." " standing stubbornly still. but a pleasing. work. restiff. as by bolting. RESTITE. or otherwise. a blacksmith finds a temporary rest while the iron is heating. a people restive . mulisli. flinging his rider. disquiet." A horse may be made restless by flies or by martial music. especially especially pleasing activity of certain organs or faculties that affords rest to other pai-ts of our nature that have become weary. The disposition to offer active resistance to control by any means whatever is what is commonly indicated by restive in the best English speech and literature. excitement. Synonyms: bailey. ajid those cited to support that meaning often fail to do so. fractious. . which is With this the metaphorical use always in the sense of such terms as and the like . fretful." is scarcely supported by any examples. . but with no refractoriness the restive animal impatiently resists or struggles to break from control. rest of mind. ftisky. or from annoying soimds. rebellious. unruly. strain. Sleep is the perfection of repose. obstinate. motion. a pause is a momentary cessation of activity . Dryden speaks of " the pampered colt" as " restiff to the rein ". impatient. Intractable. Antonyms agitation. rush. fidgety. the most complete rest . intractable. Repose is more complete than rest . movement. tranquil. : commotion. vicious. recalcitrant. disturbance. and figuratively a similar freedom from toil or strain of mind. is not mere cessation of activity. Eepose is a laying down. refiractory. stir.restlire ^^* Quiet denotes freedom from agitation. resentful. slumber is a light and ordinarily pleasant form of sleep. obstinate. Secreation is some external or internal. but the rein is not used to propel a horse forward. in a pause of battle a soldier rests on his arms after the battle the victor reposes on his laurels. the supposed sense of " tending to rest. and it is against this that he is " restiff. tranquil relief from all painful and wearying activity repose is even more deep. mutinous. primarily of the body. of the word agrees. Best is a cessation of activity of wearying or painful activity. impatient. Balky. restless. and complete. but he does not yield to repose . soul. sliittisli. conscience. In the figurative sense. and stubborn are synonyms of restive only in an infrequent if not obsolete use . mulish. tumult.

privacy denotes freedom from the presence or observation of those not concerned or whom we desire not to have concerned in our affairs. Antonyms aid. suppress.»| li under despotism are not disposed to " it I'estralil retirement rest " under it. submissive. to suppress a rebellion. Antonyms docile. but to resist and fling it off. in solitude no other person is present. proceeding. to hold back from acting. . As " private " denotes what concerns ourselves individually. it is a feebler word than restrain . gentle. Incite. seclusion. To restrain is by physical or moral is keep down. solitude may be enforced we speak of the solitude rather than the seclusion of a prisoner. so that it is under pressure even while it acts to restrict an action is to fix a limit or boundary which it may not pass. is to hold in check. constrain. cing. peaceable. RESTRAIN. as. Compare aerest . circumscribe. bridle. keep back. or advanhold. bold in. impel. as when we speak of putting one under restraint. obedient. either force. tho he may stiU be much in company. Synonyms loneliness. set free. passive. . aronee. To repress. and perhaps only temporarily. yielding. tractable. free. Constrain is positive constrained to an action he is restrained from an action. repress. suppress is a much stronger word than restrain . keep in. privacy. restrain frequently to physical force. . keep. but within which it is free. restrain negative one is . encourage. excite. curb. holdback. quiet. shuts himself away from the society of all except intimate friends or attendants . RETIREmENT. restrict. release. . In retirement one withdraws from association he has had with others . binder. keep. -withhold. To restrain an action is to hold it partially or wholly in check. let loose. i cbeck. bind . to suppress is finally and eflfectuaUy to put down . literally to press back. While seclusion is ordinarily voluntaiy. animate. that which is stUl very active . solitude. Constrain refers almost exclusively to moral force. emancipate. manageatle. Synonyms abridge. keep under. we speak of the retirement of a public man to private In seclusion one life. confine.

companionsliip. manifestation of the divine character and will. Revelation (L. apo. Synonyms REVELiATIOK. and solitude without loneliness. all Scripture is a revelation of the divine will. retribution. Revenge is the act of making return for an injury done to oneby doing injury to another person. and even if poor or unworthy is given as complete and adequate. as if to the very gaze of the seer the whole gospel is a disclosure of the mercy of God . Avenging and retribution give a solemn sense of exact justice. company. is the act or process of making known what was before secret or hidden. such as to quit one of obligation what has been received. Antonyms association. now signifies the most furious and unsparing revenge. sliroading. Revenge emphasizes self . Vengeance. retaliation.revelation revenge privacy is „_ „ tSlO seclusion . manifestation. more commonly temporary than of a moment's privacy. Apocalypse (Gr. Or we might say that nature is a . literally an unveiling. or what may still be future. re. mlstery. Antonyms: clond. and may be excessive. society. back. avenging being more personal in its infliction. comes into English as the name of the closing book of the Bible. t apocalypse. coDcealnient. converse. vengeance. cloudineBS. more the personal injury ance the ill in return for which it is inflicted. and lealypto. and velum. Retaliation may be partial revenge is meant to be complete. obscuraQon. The Apocalypse unveils the future. Retaliation and revenge are personal and often bitter. we speak There may be loneliness without solitude. which once meant an indignant vindication of justice. requital. cover). vengefor desert of those upon whom it is inflicted. A requital is strictly an even return. whether by God or man. literally an uncovering. as amid an unsympathizing crowd. veil). disclosure. fellowsliip. as when one is glad to be alone. from. Synonyms avenelni avenelng. of which Scripture is the fuller and more express revelation. the character of Christ is a manifestation of the divine holiness and love . lital reteivge:. hiding. veiling. and retribution the impersonal vis- .

rebellion. but always with the purpose of establishing some other . soldiers or sailors break out in mutiny . Sedition is the plotting. Prepofslttons To take revenge upon the enemy. subject prov- inces rise in revolt. Slaves make insurrection .:nr itation of the EEQUITB. Synonyms anarcliy. revolt. for the injury. rebellion the fighting. riot. but may not be anarchy. confusion. pity. reconciliation. Insubordination is individual disobedience. Compare avenge hatred. la-wlessness. against the existing government. forgiveness. otherwise than as provided by the laws of succession. REVOLiVTIOBf. sedition. The revolution by which Dom Pedro was dethroned. mercy. riot. Anarchy refers to the condition of a state when human government Lawlessis superseded or destroyed by factions or other causes. . election. tumult. Insurrection. and Brazil changed from an empire to a republic. and tumult are incidental and temporary outbreaks of lawlessness. existing authority without the comprehensive views of change in the form or administration of government that are involved in government in A revolution. while such change is apt to involve armed hostilities. Antonyms compassion. control. Anarchy. but there may be revolution without rebellion . revolt is an uprising against the English Bevolution of 1688. and almost without a shot. was accompUshed without a battle. pardon. disorder. revolution doom of righteous law. The essential idea of revolution is a change in the form of government or constitution. command. excuse. domination. . when more than temporary disorder. etc. revolution . ness is a temper of mind or condition of the commimity which may result in anarchy. insubordination. disintegration. as. these make no necessary part of the revolution. disorder. mutiny. Confusion. When rebellion is successful it is called its place. is a proposed disintegration of society. grace. Compare socialism. in which it is imagined that social order might exist without government. Antonyms authority. or a change of rulers.

ocean waves roll in upon the shore. chafe. signifies some question or statement in which some hidden and fanciful resemblance is involved. . as. about a center outside of itself. a man turns his head or turns on his heel the gate turns on its hinges. puzzle. o^ c •»** Synonyms roll. Synonyms RIDDL. or for any motion about a fixed point. RETOL. and rotates on its own axis . elide. appears absurd or contradictory a. parados. n. enigma. rotate.re rolve riddle. the earth is often said to revolve about its own axis. in popular usage. belt is drawn is said to roll as regards the belt. Conundrum. by which disputants opposed each other in the old philosophic schools. Any round body rolls which continuously touches with successive portions of its surface successive portions of another surface a wagon=wheel rolls along the ground.E. Blip. stand.TE. To rotate is said of a body that has a circular motion about its own center or axis to revolve is said of a body that moves in a curving path. revolving body may also either rotate or roU at the same time . tho it rotates as regards its own axis. as. conundrum. the answer often depending upon a pun an enigma is a dark saying. the riddle is . Objects whose motion approximates or suggests a rotary motion along a supporting surface are also said to roll . as a circle or an ellipse. turn. a paradox is a true statement that at first . grind. problem is something thrown out for solution puzzle (from oppose) referred originally to the . n. or the ship rolls in the trough of the sea. Antonyms bind. the earth revolves around the sun. the car rolls smoothly along the track. a word of unknown origin. A A . especially for a motion less than a complete " rotation "or " revolution". . Any object that is in contact with or connected with a rolling body is often said to roll . Turn is a conversational and popular word often used vaguely for rotate or revolve." but rotate and "rotation" cylinder over which an endless are the more accurate terms. problem. so as to return periodically to the same relative position that it held at some previous time. or to have a daily "revolution. The riddle is an ambiguous or paradoxical statement with a hidden meaning to be guessed by the intricate ai-guments mental acuteness of the one to whom it is proposed . stick.

. or of natural or positive law. license. rights of property. a privilege of hunting or fishing exemption from military service . explanation. problem may require simply study and scholarship. are individual and special. and often artificial. Synonyms t arise. solution. in the advantage. issue. exceptional. and for its . exemption. . Immunity. enigma conveying an idea of greater dignity. as the right of inheritance by primogeniture. latter case it is an exemption or immunity . etc.. and the pursuit of happiness " are the natural and " Life. A right is that which one may properly demand upon considerations of justice. Antonyms answer. the elective franchise . Aprivilege is always special. a puzzle may be in something other than verbal statement. natural or artificial. n. privilege may be of doing or avoiding .319 Hot so petty as the conundrum. equity. proceed. . A . prerogative. . especially one inherent in the royal or sovereign power in a wider sense it is an exclusive and peculiar privilege which one possesses by reason of being what he is as. . or only to be enjoyed on certain special conditions. artificial it is something not enjoyed by aU. privilege. inheritance. Compare duty . reason is the prerogative of man kings and nobles have often claimed _prerogiaiiVes and privileges opposed to the inherent and . puzzle applying to something more commonplace and mechanical there are many dark enigmas in human life and in the course of providence the location of a missing object is often a puzzle. favor.. axiom. spring.nd puzzle may be applied to any matter difficult of answer or solution. immunity from arrest. able rights of all men. . a peculiar benefit. proposition. inalien- liberty. rise may require much acuteness answer a. A franchise is a specific right or privilege granted by the government or established as such by governmental authority as. To rise is to move up or upward whether slowly or quickly. A prerogative is an official right or privilege. Both enigma a.tustice. as a problem in mathematics . liberty. . emanate. rights of the people. ascend. francliiBe. RISE. . A right may be either general or special. RIOHT. a railroad franchise. as. etc. morality. as a dissected map or any perplexing mechanical contrivance. flow. Synonyms claim.

royal raiment that which the king wears. Prepositions Rise from slumber . plunderer. rose ^Dith the lark. timidation depredator. substitutes where the Revised Version more correctly "two robbers. sink. as said of persons. Mugly. except in poetic or elevated style. burglar. Antonyms: decline. Smoke issues from a chimney and ascends toward the sky. . pillager. raider. ROBBER.. Synonyms bandit. rise at the summons we . as. ROYAL. fall. 38). pirate. fireebooter. descend. a sun or star rises when to our apprehension it comes above the horizon and begins to go up the sky. the waves rise .royal 320 least or greatest distance . or lying down . buccaneer. dress. The sun rises or arises . Kingly denotes that which is worthy of a king in personal quali. bigbwayman. ' majestic. set. The shorter form rise is now generally preferred to the longer form arise. I IdngUke. footpad. drop. the property of others by force or ina thief by stealth and secrecy. a subject may assume regal magnificence in residence. regal. marauder. the guests rose to depart is . I brigand. rise to duty . despoUer. and equipage. Light and heat emanate as I entered . princely. sitting. reclining. to rise from a sick=bed . the river rises after heavy rains . Royal denotes that which actually belongs or pertains to a monarch the royal residence is that which the king occupies. settle. Christ ascended to heaven. munificent. tbief. Regal denotes that which in outward state is appropriate for a king . so a deliberative assembly breaks up a session . xxvii. In early English thief was freely used in both senses. and is often used in a stately sense. A roVber seeks to obtain . as in Shakespeare ized Version of the English Bible. or a committee said to rise when it from the sun." Synonyms august. to rise is to come to an erect position after kneeUng. go down. To ascend is to go far upward. the river springs at a bound from the foot of the glacier and flows through the lands to the ocean. my friend rose whether through the the mists rise . forager. and the Authorwhich has " two thieves " (Matt. as. magnificent.

. counand may be alike defined as pertaining to. or dwelling In the country but in usage rural refers especially to scenes or objects in the country. Antonyms: accomplished. speak. but is a less pastoral poetry. especially . characteristic of. Any 21 religious act. which . a rustic lass. a'wkward. Pastoral refers beautiful as. plain. rustic sacrament of character and conduct as. hoidenish. polite. ordinance. outlandish. . a princely fortune. vUe. and to the shepherd's life with the pleasing associations suggested by the old poetic ideal of that life as. service. thus. etc. slavish. etc. and sometimes slightly contemptuous. uncoutb. rustic frequently an unfavorable one. : ceremony. sylvan. . contemptible. rural. poor. inelegant. a Princely is especially used of treasure. a kingly bearing . solemnity. verdant. clownish. rustic refers to their effect upon man or to their condition as affected by himaan agency . feast. pastoral. etc. Rustic simplicity. as denoting a lack of culture and refinement w^ell=ineant. rural simplicity. We tion. as. however. bucolic. a rural scene a rustic party . boorish. refined. urban. cultured. elegant. Lord's Supper. however. rite. untaught. rustic garb. rude. of the rural popula. eucharist. often used of a studied is pleasing and perhaps a rustic chair. eerrile. Antonyms.. Bucolic is kindred to pastoral. elevated term. country. a rustic cottage to the care of flocks. considered as the work of nature .„„. . is but awkward similar ideas are suggested by a rustic is. Rural and rustic are alike derived from the Latin rus. city«like. expendias princely muniflcence. but the tendency of the best usage is as here suggested. observance. well-bred. an artistic rudeness. artless. «»•* ties. hingly resolve. try. unsophisticated. RUSTIC. polished. communion. rustic politeness expresses that . unpolished. especially a public act. Synonyms: agricultural. beggarly. viewed as a means . Rural has always a favorable sense which . Synonyms SACRAIHEWT. ture. coarse. countrified. urbane. mean. gifts. where regal could not so well be used and royal would change the sense. The distinctions between these words are not absolute.

. In human affairs sagacious refers to a power of ready. religious service ordained as an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace is called a sacrament. sbarp. the cere- monies of a coronation. the ceremonies of polite society. the name communion was so applied. keen. x. even when viewed simply as a representation or memorial. viewed as established by authority. Synonyms able. and circles around till he strikes it again. . sbarp^witted. acute. as denoting the communing of Christians with their Lord. Sagacious is a broader . however. and accurate inference from observed facts perhaps in themselves very slight. 16). religious ceremonies. — . . SAGACIOUS. The terms sacrament and ordinance. . The term eucharist describes the Lord's Supper as a thanksgiving service . Sagacious refers to a power of tracing the hidden or recondite by slight indications. it is also called by preeminence the sacrament. judicious. apt. qulcksscented. while the sacrament possesses a sacredness due to something in itself. are often used interchangeably the ordinance derives its sacredness from the authority that ordained it. sbrewd. or at least respect we may speak of . as the ratifying of a solemn vow of consecration to Christ. an inauguration. it is a rite. The Lord's Supper is the Scriptural name for the observance commemorating the death of Christ the word communion is once applied to it (1 Cor. keen-witted. sensible. far=reaching. as by instinct or intuition it is not now applied to mere keenness of sense=perception. the word commonly includes the entire series of exercises of a single occasion of public worship. perspicacious. in the religious sense. or with one another. keen^siebted. quiclt of scent. that peems like a special sense or to a similar readiness to foresee the results of any action. Ceremony is a form expressing reverence. is called an ordinance . . viewed as an established custom. reaching or approaching a religious sacredness a stated religious observance. rational. especially upon human motives or conduct a kind of prophetic common sense. his conduct is said to be sagacious. An observance has obligation. as at the edge of a stream. clear=si^bted. We do not caU a hound sagacious in following a clear trail but if he loses the scent. wise. sage. • Intelligent. but not as a distinctive name at an early period.sagaclons 322 A of serving God is called a service . discerning. more than a formal . etc.

trade. irrational. as. .323 sample and nobler word than shrewd. deal. case. dull. A sample is a portion taken at random out of a quantity supposed to be homogeneous. but it frequently signifies simply a sale or exchange. nncUsceming. . Sale is commonly. . SALE. obtuse. A specimen is one unit of a series. stiipid. ezcbange. or contract to buy and sell. sottish. or transfer for the benefit of certain persons or parties against all others . or for something estimated at a money value or considered as equivalent to so much money in hand or to be paid. . a change secures something different in any way or by any means an exchange secures . so that the quaUties found in the sample may reasonably be expected to be found in the whole as. example. unintelligent. and more limited to matters of direct practical moment. ignorant. a sample of sugar a sample of cloth. and with increasing strictness. the word being used generally with reference to jjortTrade in the broad sense may apply to vast able commodities. . the nomination was the result of a deal . in business it may have a similar meaning. illustration. Barter is the exchange of one commodity for another. futile. barter. silly. substitution. foolish. Compare ASTUTE WISDOM. Antonyms absurd. A bargain is strictly an agreement something as an equivalent or return. A deal in the political sense is a bargain. applying only incidentally to the transfer of property or value . and not capable of the invidious sense which the latter word often bears on the other hand. when it becomes nearly synonymous with barter. but as denoting a single transaction is used chiefly in regard to things of moderate value. Synonyms bargain. businesses (as the hodk'trade). simple. a dealing . a heavy deal in stocks. tho not necessarily as payment for what is given. sagaciotts is less lofty and comprehensive than wise in its full sense. exemplification. exchange are words of wider signification. SAMPIiE. . tho the word is often used to denote the entire transaction and also Change and as a designation for the thing sold or purchased. senseless. cbange. Synonyms: specimen. limited to the transfer of property for money. instance. as.

with gifts. refuse. as. surfeit. SATISFY. exactly like the specimen. student. learner. To cloy or surfeit is to Olut is a strong but somewhat coarse word appUed to the utmost satisfaction of vehement appetites and passions . the word is generally understood in this latter sense. satiate. glut.eatlRfy sckolar or a fragment of a mass. or of architec- same essential qualities . or spiritual desire. Synonyms: disciple. . stint. Antonyms: clieck. as. content. starve. while ture. deny. and finally one who is thoroughly schooled. an erudite. mental. An instance Compare exampu!. Much less than is needed to satisfy may suffice a frugal or abstemious person less than a sufficiency may content one of a patient and submissive spirit. to glut a vengeful spirit with slaughter we speak of glutting the market with a supply so excessive as to extinguish the demand. savant. whole. master of what the schools can teach. all of ^ 324 which is supposed to possess the a specimen of coinage. restrain. a specimen of quartz. straiten. aggregate. Antonyms: abnormality. disappoint. Synonyms cloy. satisfy one (in the sense of or make upon satisfaction) for labors and sacrifices . exception. To satisfy is to furnish just enough to meet physical. The primary sense of a scholar is one who is being schooled thence the word passes to denote one who is apt in school work. gratify to the point of revulsion or disgust. may be supposed to be exa sample or specimen of total. pupil. as. Compare pay . or No other unit or portion rest is is aU the actly action. under the close personal supervision or instruction of a teacher or Those under instruction in schools below the academic . Prepositions Satisfy with food. monBtrosity. accomplished person when used without qualification. SCHOLAR. fill. tantalize. To sate or satiate is to gratify desire so fully as for a time to extinguish it. satisfy oneself hy inquiry. suffice. Pupil signifies one : tutor. etc. restrict. Uke the sample.. sate. requite. he is manifestly a scholar.

arithmetic or navigation. I knowledge. thus. make production its direct aim. which gain real value only when coordinated and arranged by the man of Art always relates to something to be done. yet its possible productive application in the arts is a constant stimulus to scien- . Art in the highest esthetic sense. does not reach the meaning of science .. etc. while it makes use of rules. fine arts are the province of the artist . Science does not. the college student often becomes the private pupil of some instructor in special studies. but art in the industrial or mechanical sense must be distinguished from art in the esthetic sense . The word pupil is uniformly so used in the Reports of the Commissioner of Education of the United States. collegiate. Antonyms dunce. as of weaving or printing. the former aims chiefly at utility.325 science grade are technically and oflSciaUy termed pupils. etc. but popular American usage prefers scholar in the original sense. scientific. or a poem like the Hiad. Student is applied to those in the higher grades or courses of study. known as having any mutual relations or as comprehended under any general law. something to be known. ignoramns. the esthetic or. as the academic. On the other hand. are governed by exact rules. the student being one who is learning. idler. idiot. no i-ules can be given for the " Transflgm-ation. science is knowledge reduced to law and embodied in system. Not only must art be discriminated from science. The knowledge of various countries gathered by an observant traveler may be a heterogeneous medley of facts. all the industrial arts." a statue like the Apollo Bellike RafEael's like the vedere. the latter at beauty. compare synonyms for ad- HEKENT. illiterate peison. science to i/ science. teachers and scholars enjoyed a holiday. Those under instruction in Sunday-schools are uniformly designated as Sunday=school scholars. student suggests less of personal supervision than pupil. the scholar one who has learned. Knowledge of a single or of many facts not fact. For disciple. not known as related to any other. Synonyms art. Student suggests less proficiency than scholar in the highest sense. s fool. transcends production of a painting all rule . mechanic arts. as. The mechanic arts are the province of the artisan.

Creative art seeking beauty for its own sake is closely akin to Compare pure science seeking knowledge for its own sake. A mother will care for a sick child with complete self-abnegatimi. while the art is perfected by the advance of the science. A Prepositions Security for the payment of a debt . is knowledge. security to the the prisoner. surety. as. SECVRITY. four words agree in denoting something given or deposited as an assurance of something to be given. merchandise. bonds. " the gage of battle. appearance in court. ." pledge or security may be wholly different in kind from that to be given or paid. are frequently offered and accepted as security. paid. pledge. An earnest is of the same kind as that to be given. 1 earnest. first gage. uteratube. a pledge is always of personal property or chattels. "to bind the bargain. as in all things else . Synonyms ball. Self-renunciation surrenders conscious rights and claims . for Synonyms: self:control. selMmmolatlon. self-renunciation." The A — . in the sum of a thousand dollars. as in the case of chemistry or elecurged on to higher development by the demands of the art. but without a thought of self-. There have been devotees who practised very Uttle self-denial with very much self-renunciation. etc. and may greatly exceed it in value. land. or done. etc. SEIiF^ABIVEOATIOlV. investigation . self-denial. person may become security or surety tar another's payment of a debt. according to the common expression. state. self^sacriflce.denial. Every pawnshop contains unredeemed pledges . chiefly in certain phrases . he is said to become bail tor that person . Gage survives only as a Uterary word. Security may be of real or personal property anything of sufficient value to make the creditor secure . in the latter case.*o the science.security selt'-abuegatlon tific lafi «*. Self-deootion is heart=con- . the person accused gives bail for himself. self-devotion. a portion of it delivered in advance. Self'Control is holding oneself within due limits in pleasures duties. as when part of the purcha8e=money is paid. tricity. the giving up of pleasures for the sake of duty. self-abnegation forgets that there is and anything to surrender. self-denlal.

327 secration of self to a person or cause with readiness for sacrifice. and contemplates the gift of self as actually made. Selpsacriflce is Antonyms 1 . send any needed the strongest and completest term of all. We speak of the self'sacriflce of Christ. where any other of the above terms would be feeble or inappropriate.

tions'] are positively agreeable or the opposite. susceptibility more per- Thus. sensibility to heat or cold . denotes the capacity of emotion or feeling. A Synonyms I feeling. as joy. Impressibility. 138. as hope or terror. feeling. Such/eeZmg^s are not infrequently styled sensations. receive. Sensation is the mind's consciousness due to a bodily affection. and. perception is the cognition of some external object which is the cause or occasion of the sensation . for instance. in the "sensitive=plant. sensitiveness. gusceptlblUty. are wholly of the mind. send a shell among the enemy." Porter Human Intellect % 112. as it were. the sensoitOJi of heat may be connected with the percepKora of a iire. (Compare synonyms for sensation. as by another magnet Its susceptibility is the degree to which it can be magnetized by a . as anger and envy. to contain feeling. Synonyms i sense. sometimes. grief. as displayed. and includes both sensation and emotion. in physics. which are acknowledged by all to belong exclusively to the spirit.sensation sensibility to raoe «>^S into banish- ment a fiiend hy a messenger or hy mail send a person . [s. Sensibility in the philosophical sense. and to involve no relation whatever to matter or the bodily organism. they are nearly akin to those emotions. as of heat or cold . p. a peculiar readiness to be the subject of feeling. as distinguished from the intellect and the will. vading.) In popular use sensibility denotes sometimes capacity of feeling of any kind .] Feeling is a general term popularly denoting what is felt. Sensitiveness denotes an especial delicacy of sensibility. sense is an organ or faculty of sensation or of perception. the sensibility of the artist or the poet . though improperly. emotions. ready to be excited by the slightest cause. so that a person of great susceptibility is capable of being not only readily but deeply moved . '90. as. the sensitiveness of a magnetic needle IB the ease with which it may be deflected. whether through the body or by the mind alone." Susceptibility is rather a capacity to take up. as. . sensitiveness is more superficial. or those passions. " As the most of them [the sensaetc. especially of the higher feelings . a person of great or flne sensibility. While sensations are connected with the body. emotion.. perception.

soft. i austere. Eidnlgent. or (in literature and art) devoid of unnecessary ornament. stringo. uncompromising. strict in self=restraint or discipline. bardness. resisting any eitort to change its shape a corpse is said to be rigid in death hence. and strict obedience. rigorous. ''arsh speech or a harsh voice. gentle. mild. rigid. and Antonyms affable. rigorous discipline. bound or stretched tight. suggests something authoritative Austere signifies severely simple or temperate. rigid rules. yielding. while a to person of great susceptibility his inmost soul. That is severe which is devoid of aU softness. unmitigated. stern. or winter. hard requirements. The austere character is seldom lovely. tense. Synonyms SEVEKE. stern commands. barsb. amplification. a severe style as said of anything painful. pliable. or embellishment of any kind as. lenient. fever. Strict (L. pathos. strict. So a person of great sensitiveness is quickly and keenly affected by any external influence. commanding. Rigorous is nearly akin to rigid. insensibility. easy. estimable. Inflexible. but moved Autonyms coldness. Strict discipline holds one exactly and unflinchingly to the rule . Prepositions The sensibility of the organism to atmospheric changes. Stem unites oi . Rigid signifies primarily stiff. rigorous discipline punishes severely any infraction of it. as rigid does to state or character a rigid rule may be rigorously enforced. strenuously exact. . unyielding. . inexorable. bard. sweet. relentless. strict injunctions. unrelenting. We speak of austere morahty. indulgence or levity. . and similarly unrelenting toward others. . as by music. as said even of inanimate objects. . deadness. stiff. but it is always strong and may be grand. tractable. tender. having reference to action or active qualities. a rigid person or character is one that resists all efforts to change the will or course of conduct a rigid rule or statement is one that admits of no deviation.329 given magnetic force or the amount of magnetism it will hold. bland. morose. but is a stronger word. or is ridicule. genial. severe punishment. in metaphorical sense. a severe pain. bind) signifies . harshness and authority with strictness or severity forbidding. tenderness. . severe signifies such as heavily taxes endurance or resisting power as. . numbness. stem. mildness. not only touched. nnconsclonsness.

flutter. .shake 330 Synonyms: agritate. fluctuate. brandlsli. flap.

wings flutter applies to a less pronounced and more irregular motion a captive bird or a feeble pulse flutters. To defend (L. to . . and the motion of which is less pronounced than swinging. to strike away) implies tho actual. . the swaying of a reed in the wind. thus.sibIa use of force or resisting power guard implies sustained vigilance with readiness for conflict we defend a person or thing against actual attack we guard or propowerful person may tect against possible assault or injury. defendere. Sway used transitively especially applies to motions of grace or dignity .331 . Flap. a drunken man reels . a quaking bog. ward. Bbelter feelings are agitated by distressing news his courage. and not necessarily constant as oscillating . flap generally to such as produce a sharp sound a . protegere. and by somewhat violent metaphor. cock^ops Synonyms cover. as. his . flutter. as. sliield. That which covers may also defend or protect . the ruffian brandishes a club. Earttor. < guard. Compare FLUCTUATE. but that secure. his credit. To reel or totter always implies liability to fall . smoother than vibrating. protect one who is weak by simply declaring himself his friend he defends him by some form of active championship. Anything is covered over which something is completely extended a vessel is covered with a lid the head is ccwered with a hat. brandish denotes a threatening or hostile motion a monarch sways the scepter . protect (L. tion. the roof shelters from the storm woods shelter from the heat. screen. reeling is more violent than swaying. SHELTER. troops interposed between some portion of their own army and the enemy are often called a covering party. An extended mass which seems to lack solidity or cohesion is said to quake . protect. To shield is to interpose something . An inanimate object may protect. Quaver is applied almost exclusively to tremulous sounds of the human voice. we speak of the tottering step of age or infancy. cover before) implies the pos. defend. and fluctuate refer to wave=like movements. . A . an is may be faithfully guarded which protected object or bravely defended in vain. . . or his testimony is shaken. as a garment from cold : defend is used but rarely. Protect is is more complete than guard or defend. Sway applies to the movement of a body suspended from above or not firmly sustained from below. . . his faith. in such connec. To shelter is to cover so as to protect from injury or annoyance as. tottering more irregular .

misdeed. pulse ai-e symptoms of pneumonia . smrender. natural or artificial. indication. Antonyms betray. but formerly might be an object having no connection with the business. A sign (L. descriptive. and may be intentional or accidental. maric. transgression. See cherish. and has a comparatively passive sense . confederates or sympathizers harbor a criminal . as "the sign of the trout" .. from attack. suggestive. Synonyms: crime. symbol. vice. expe. . a signal is always voluntary. immorality.. type. prognostic. evil. While a sign may be involuntary. guilt. wrong. signum) is any distinctive mark by which a thing may be recognized or its presence known. thus. and is usually concerted. a blush may be a sign of shame the footprint of an animal is a sign that it has passed . Compare synonyms for Hms. or shield him from a missile or a blow by interposing his own person. Harbor is generally used in an unfavorable sense . behind mthin the walls. criminality. so as to save from harm. wrong^doing. EMBLEM. SIX. a person harbors evil thoughts or designs. defense.sign sin 332 over or before that which is assailed. depravity. Compare . expose. but signals of distress are a distinct appeal for aid. delinquency. Sin is any lack of any defect of moral purity and . iniquity. ^venp. in the fortress. token. dulness of some portion of the lungs under percussion is one of the physical signs. the letters of the alphabet are signs of certain sounds. fault. omen. ungodliness. presage. . ill^dolng. a ship may show signs of distress to the casual observer. manifestation. holiness. unrighteousness. wickedness. reject. symptom. cast out. offense. symptom is a vital phenomenon resulting from a diseased condition in medical language a sign is an indication of any physical condition. viciousness. a hot skin and rapid Synonyms! emblem. refuse. signal. or wholly arbitrary thus. whether morbid or healthy . A . one may guard another by standing armed at his side. note. the sign of a business house now usually declares what is done or kept within. defend him by fighting for him. Prepositions Shelter under a roof from the storm or . AUGUK CHARACTERISTIC . and even unconscious.

is synonymous with depravity . BlnlesBness. Compare synonyms for virtue. Synonyms. but in the technical sense denotes specific violation of human law. and to warble (kindred with whirl) is to sijigr with trills or quavers. chirrup. To chant is to sing in solemn and chant is ordinarily applied to non= To carol is metrical reUgious compositions. whether of commissioner omission. purity. in the specific sense. as its etymology indicates. properly so called. The word has come to include any succession of musical sounds we say the bird or the rivulet sings . but in the broadSin may be either act or state . nor immorality ." 1 John v. gl„g whether in heart or life. Guilt is desert of and exposure to punishment because of sin. uprightness. mental or physical. Crime is often used for a flagrant violation of right. which is neither crime. the term may be synonymous with transgression. transgression is always an act. Imest sense. crime. chant. transgression. misdeed. 17. warhle. perhaps often repeated in the same key. but a perverted moral condition from which any act of sin may proceed. teakettle or the cricket sings. we speak of "t\ie: singing quahty " of an instrument. To chirp is to utter a brief musical sound. Integrity. carol. primarily and ordinarily to utter a succession of articulate musical sounds with the human voice. virtue. are sins . Transgression. as falsehood. whether of God or man. to sing joyously. Carol and warble are especially usually also with the idea of joy. Sin is thus the broadest word. and immorality next in scope. as denoting a state of heart. and by still wider extension of meaning we say the To sing .. is cbirp. applied to the singing of birds. all crimes. Compare CEnaNAL. somewhat uniform cadence . : Antonyms blamelessness. as in the expression a sin. excellence. as ingratitude. as by certain . righteousness. rectitnde. etc. hum. Depravity denotes not any action. and all immoralities. — jij innocence. and there may be im. Sin in the generic sense. but there may be sin. or may denote some moral activity that could not be characterized by terms so positive. nollness. in volition or desire. goodness.333 truth. morality. offense. ordinarily by overt act.morality which is not crime. "All unrighteousness is sin. morality denotes outward violation of the moral law. right. is the stepping over a specific enactment.

commonly intended to be preliminary to a more complete or extended treatment. Synonyms 1>rief. The lines of a sketch axe seldom so full and continuous as those of an outline. skeleton. sketch. ism. drawing. must of necessity be a sketch. and is understood to be One may make a drawing of any well-known mechanoriginal." he claims it as his own invention or composition. as of a building or machine. the hues of which change so rapidly. . machinery. " The design is mine. usually with closed lips . a full detail design is such a preliminary sketch as indicates the object to be accomplished or the result to be attained. we speak also of the hum of . Draft and plan apply especially to mechanical drawing. originally at the level of the ground. giving the lines of a horizontal section. on occasion. little more than indications or suggestions according to which a finished picture may be raade the artist's first representation of a sunset. In written composition an outline gives simply the main divisions. etc. &plan of the attic. . but shading and color. insects. being. a . suggestive presentation of anything. lawyer's brief is a succinct statement of the main facts involved in a case. somewhat fuller suggestion of illustration. . SKETCH. and style is given in a sketch. and in the case of a sermon is often called a skeleton . design. i draft. as. is outline. and drawing are also used view from above. and of the main heads of his argument on points of law. apian of the cellar. To chirrup is to utter a somewhat similar sound the word is often used of a brief. being sufficiently exact and complete to form. of which a plan is strictly a (ratline. but if he says. sharp sound uttered as a signal to animate or rouse a horse or other animal. the basis for the decision of A . now in a wider sense at any height. To hum is to utter murmuring sounds with somewhat monotonous musical cadence. with reference to authorities cited the brief has none of the vagueness of a sketch.skotcU 334 small birds. whether graphic or literary. A mechanical drawing is always understood to be in a draft is an incomplete or unfinished drawing . like the shading or color. picture. treatment. etc. but is hasty and incomplete. . plan. or a drawing from another man's design . A sketch a rough. An outline gives only the bounding or determining lines of a figure or a scene a sketch may give not only lines.

Antonyms believer. ability. skilled. The atheist denies that there is a Gfod the deist admits the existence of Grod. deist. Synonyms accompUsbed. and study have given him a thorough mastery he is dexterous in that which he can do effectively. adept.FUI^." Compare design. Infidel is an opprobrious term that might once .almost have been said to be geographical in its range. The Crusaders called all Mohammedans infidels. lation from him . unbeliever. doubter. in addition to his acquired knowledge and dexterity. but denies that the Christian Scriptures are a reve. expert. the unbeliever (in the the disbeliever and the more of intellectual dis- common acceptation) with indifference or with opposition of heart as well as of intellect. deft. trained. Compare CLEVER . experience. Infidel. freetbinker. SKIL. The skeptic doubts divine revelation uvheliever reject it. when the case is said to be "submitted on brief. and power of adaptation. a master of his branch of knowlA skilled workman is one who has thoroughly learned his trade. . Christian. Skilful signifies possessing and using readily practical knowledge and ability. Ingenious. . " an expert" denotes one who is ties. the agnostic denies either that we do know or that we can know whether there is a God. though he may be naturally quite dull a skilful workman edge. clever. with or without training. " experienced " in the fullest sense. adroit. having alert and welWrained faculties with reference to a given work. especially in work of the hand or bodily activiIn the case of the noun. . Synonyms agnostic. apt. . POWEE.oos «»35 skeptic skilful the court without oral argument. One is adept in that for which he has a natural gift improved by practise he is expert in that of which training. and were so called by them in return . has some natural brightness. DEXTERITY . dexterous. bandy. practised. the disbeliever with sent. atheist. disbeliever. proficient. bappy. SKEPTIC. the word is commonly applied to any decided opponent of an accepted religion. .

libel. to exhibit one's an odious light to revile or vilify is to To disparage is to represent one's admitted good traits or acts as less praiseworthy than they would naturally be thought to be. lielpless. by ascribing a man's benevolence to a desire for popularity or display. praise. mal&oit. denotes expressions that are either coarse and rude in themselves or chiefly current among the coarser and ruder part of the community there are also many expressions current in special senses in certain communities that may be char. extol. traduce. SLAIVO. calumniates. A colloquialism." or vilify another to his face he asperses. To slander a person is to utter a false and injurious report concerning him to defame is specifically and directly to attack one's reputation to defame by spoken words is to slander. with injurious charges real or . eulogize. secretly to one's injury . which they would avoid in writing or public speaking. to libel. calumniate. leith unhandy. or traduces him behind his back. One may "abuse. printed. a work. vilify. untaught." "assail. Synonyms: cant. Slang. vindicate. nnsldlled. in the primary sense. defame. but below the literary grade educated pei'sons are apt to allow themselves some colloquialisms in familiar conversation. land. vulgarity. bungling. nntrained. clnmsy. To libel or slander is to make an assault upon character and repute that comes within the scope of law the slander is uttered. is to circulate studied is and malicious attacks upon character to traduce . depreciate. collocLuialism. slanders. inexpert. vulgarism.slander slang. . decry. backbite. . . to calumniate is to invent as well as utter the injurious charge. Antonyms defend. a pen or tool of any kind. . as it were. by wi-itten words. to malign . to bespatter . To asperse is. Bhiftless. is an expression not coarse or low. malign. disparage. Synonyms i asperse. 3'>o AntoUTms: awkward. . as for instance. or pictured. the libel written. To backbite is to speak something traits in assumed attack with vile abuse. revile. Prepositions Skilful at or in. and perhaps not incorrect.

tardy. slacli. moCk.„„^ <><*• acterized as slang . racing slang. a watch or a clock is said to be slow when its indications are behind those of the standard time. especially in doing a w^ork or arriving at a place. as of muscle or of will. Blow sneer as. or with a relatively small number of motions in a given time slow also applies to that which is a relatively long while in beginning or accomplishing something . tho the latter may be used also of things. Synonyms fling. Cant. club slang . . Slow signifies moving through a relatively short distance. necessary or required action both words may be applied either to undertaking or to . inactive. Gradval (L. moderate. scoff. Tardy is applied to that which is behind the proper or desired time. or puts off as long as possible. gradual. delaying. sluggish to action that seems as if reluctant to advance. Jeer. procrastinating. and the use of which is a mark of ignorance or low breeding. Deliberate and dilatory are used of persons. and refers to slow but regular Antonyms See synonyms for nimkle. language. A it sneer may be simply a contemptuous facial contortion. sluggisli. taunt. lingering. denotes the barbarous jargon used as a secret language by thieves. gradus. drowsy. as of a stream a person is deliberate who takes a noticeably long time to consider and decide before acting or who acts or speaks as if he were deliberating at every point a person is dilatory . a depreciatory implication may be given in a sneer such 32 . as used in this connection. SLiOW. Slack refers to action that seems to indicate a lack of tension. or may be some brief satirical utterance that throws a contemptuous side»light on what it attacks without attempting to prove or disprove . Compare diction. doing. In the evolution of language many words originally slang are adopted by good writers and speakers. . A vulgarism is an expression decidedly incorrect. inert. gl1>e. Synonyms: dawdling. a step) signifies advancing by steps. dilatory. dull. who lays aside. and ultimately take their place as accepted English. and sure progression. tramps. deliberate. etc. college slang .

applying to landownershipand productive capital. . in the most general sense noise and sound scarcely differ. . v. . Who can refute a sneer f commonly pettish a taunt is intentionally A fling is careless and insulting and provoking the sneer is supercilious the taunt is defiant. including the profits of individual labor." or " I noise. cominunisni. should be raised upon their ruins. their system collectivism. . which undue importance : . ix. Synonyms collectivism. if anything. reverence. Preposition: Only an essentially vicious mind is capable of a sneer af virtue. as it would destroy. Synonyms: tone. as expressive of some feeling noise is sound considered without reference to musical quality or as distinctly unmusical or discordant. leaving the future to determine what. Sound is the sensation produced through the organs of hearing or the physical cause of this sensation. or worship. by violence if necessary. A sco^ may be in act or word. Compare banter. SOCIALISH. and the pubUc collective management of all industries. The jeer and gibe are uttered the gihe is bitter. soiisrn. all existing government and social order. and Communism would divide all things. note. applying to anything that is audiTone is sound considered as having some musical quality or ble. Thus. increase of wealth. Anarchism is properly an antonym of social. Palet Moral Philosophy bk. and is commonly directed against that which claims honor. ism. Sound is the most comprehensive word of this group. and often sly or covert the jeer is rude and open. . is a theory of civil polity that aims to secure the reconstruction of society. Socialism. Many socialists call themselves coUectivists. as defined by its advocates. Its aim is extended industrial cooperation socialism is a purely economic term. fabiaulBm. .socialism sound tits *'** as could only be answered would seem to give the attack by elaborate argument or proof. and a more equal distribution of the products of labor through the pubUo collective ownership of land and capital (as distinguished from property). " I heard a sound. ch. among members of the community many of its advocates would abolish marriage and the family relation. and we say almost indifferently.

but in the most careful usage the latter is now distinguished as the 'interval. conversational way to chatter is to talk in an empty. the word is similarly applied to the voices of birds and other animals. Syoonyms announce. cliat. but in loose popular usage it denotes the sound also.ulsltion. tone is chiefly applied to ' that quality of the human voice by which feeling is expressed as. speak on or upon a subject in parhamentary language." We speak of a fine. To speak is to give articulate utterance even to a single word the officer speaks the word of command. SPEAK. cbatter. speak of or about a thing (make it the subject of remark). but does not talk it. Speech is the general word guage. discourse. the question. as distinguished from singing. deliver. harangue is . utter. or a speech that has oration is an elaborate and prepared speech . Aside from its musical use. ceaseless way like a magpie." leaving tone to stand only for the sound. is discourse. declare. In music. As used of a musical instrument. articulate. . an audible sound. Prepositions Speak to (address) a person speak with a person (converse with him). he spoke in a cheery tone . To talk is to utter a succession of connected words. sx>eak to . simplest oration. language. Synonyms address. To speak is also to utter words with the ordinary intonation. barangue. and sometimes to inammate . ordinarily with the expectation of being listened to. . enunciate. dlsq. say. objects.339 llltcn heard a noise. sermon. dissertation. oratory. or pleasing sound. tone denotes the gen- eral quality of its sounds collectively considered. To utter to give forth as pronounce. Note in music strictly denotes the character representing a sound. articulate or not. . taui. musical. tone may denote either a musical sound or the interval between two such sounds. for utterance of thought in Zawone's sentiments in the A speech may be the delivering of way an . a a vehement appeal to passion. speaking. talk. tell. SPEECH. To chat is ordinarily to utter in a familiar. converse. but never thus of a noise. utterance. express. and becomes practically equivalent to tone. declaim.

. voluntary agreement. Btillness. scout. without special premeditation or distinct determination of the will that is voluntary which is freely done with distinct act of will that is involuntary which is independent of the will. but so completely dependent on sympathetic impulse that it would seem frigid to caU it voluntary. speechlessneBS. . etc. while to call it involuntary would imply some previous purpose . spontaneous sympathy.^ S^O is a set Com- Antonyms: hush. taciturnity. A discourse speech on a" definite subject. an involuntary start. In physiology the action of the heart and lungs is called involuntary . instinctive. of an enemy. £ree. movements. but without disguise . a spy enters in disguise . with no external compulsion and. intended to convey instruction. the action of swallowing is voluntary up to a certain point. That is spontaneous which is freely done. emissary. voluntary. The scout and the spy are both employed to obtain information of the numbers. The scout lurks on . the growth of the hair and nails is spontaneous . are both paitial synonyms of spontaneous. unbidden. . Synonyms automatic. silence. involuntary becomes an antonym. SPOWTANJEOrS. but with desire. ^tontaneous combustion. involuntary. impulsive. the outskirts of the hostile army with such concealment as the case admits of. A spontaneous outburst of applause is of necessity an act of volition. . or inclination not to applaud. in human actions. travoluntary servitude.spontaneous spy Bomething disputatious and combative in it. 'willing. i detective. pare CONVERSATION DICTION LANGUAGE. A babe's smile in answer to that of its mother is spontaneous . Thus voluntary and involuntary. not only of voluntary but of spontaneous . or compulsory. and perhaps in opposition to it a willing act is not only in accordance with will. We speak of spontaneous generation. Synonyms SPY. beyond which it becomes involuntary or automatic. an unhidden tear. the smile of a pouting child wheedled into good humor is involuntary. n . as. which are antonyms of each other. willing submission. In the fullest sense of that which is not only without the will but distinctly in opposition to it.

to capital punishment. Figm-atively. he is not only an emissary. tamisb.. disgrace. etc. Thus. but a spy. in case of capture. set forth. sully. assure. to. discolor. in the intransitive use. say. stand) is to set forth explicitly. temporary or permanent. certify. permanent. To dye is to impart a color intentionally and with a view to permanence. and especially so as to pervade the substance or fiber of that to which it is appUed. has the rights of held to have forfeited all rights. tinge. Synonyms afOrm. maintain. asseverate. To color is to impart a color desired or undesired. A a prisoner of war . inform. pronounce. a standard or a garment may be dyed with blood in honorable warfare . yam. ad. To tinge is to color slightly. testify. assert. state (L. STATE. signifying to state boldly and positively what . bind) To is strongly personal. a character ''dyed in the wool" is one that has received some early. color. dye. glass. formally. or. Stain is. express. sent rather to secretly influence opponents than to bring information concerning them . propound. An emissary is rather political than military . used of giving an intended and perhaps pleasing color to wood. allege. to assume a color in any way as. an assassin's weapon is stained with the blood of his victim. . he colored with shame and vexation. and sero. STAIK. if captured. claim. however. aver. and pervading influence . depose. or similar materials which are dipped into the coloring liquid. avow. and is liable. spot. within the enemy's scout. declare. avouch. or particularly in speech or writing. sto. and which may or may not be permandiit. so far as he does the latter. protest. tint. To stain is primarily to discolor._ <»'»1 stain stale lines. by an application of coloring^matter which enters the substance a Uttle below the surface. to impart a color undesired and perhaps unintended. or a slight admixture of one ingredient or quality with another that is more pronounced. dishonor. predicate. cloth. Assert (L. in distinction from painting. specify. tell. swear. a character stained with crime or guilt is debased and perverted. a spy is Synonyms: blot. in which coloring=matter is spread upon the surface dyeing is generally said of wool. soil. and may also be used of giving a slight flavor.

assert himself. vertical precipitous. we say a mere assertion. and tell have not the controversial sense of assert. To assert without proof is always to lay oneself open to the suspicion of having no proof to offer. what is One may Antonyms contradict. while a little hill may be accessible only by a . Almost every criminal will assert his innocence . which is to assert excitedly. refute. inform. the honest man will seldom lack means to vindicate his integrity. oppose. High cline is used of simple elevation steep is said only of an in- where the measurement great in pro- portion to the horizontal to make it difficult of ascent. state. Affirm has less of egotism than assert (as seen in the word self-assertion). assure right to cross the river . gainsay. t controvert. a bare assertion. Assure. To vindicate is to defend successfully what is assailed. In legal usage. SynonyniH t abrupt. a rise of 600 feet to the mile makes a steep wagon=road a roof is steep when it makes with the horizontal line an angle of . an ascent of 100 feet to the mile on a railway is a steep grade . he asserted his innocence has less force than he affirmed or maintained his innocence. Assert is combative . affirm. to the thing. dispute. contravene. Steep is relative . his unsupported assertion . and seems to arrogate too much to one's personal authority. but are simply declarative. . repudiate. or he may assert in discussion what he is ready to maintain by argument or evidence. . . or assert his right to what he is wilUng to contend for . To aver is to state positively within one's own knowledge or matter of deep conviction. I assert my my friend it is perfectly safe. affirm has a general agreement with depose and testify . I assure conciliatory. blgb. To assure is to state with such authority and confidence as the speaker feels ought to make the hearer sure. etc. it differs from swear in not invoking the name of God. and applies rather to written documents or legal processes. Affirm. disprove. and more composure and dignity than asseverate. certify. and hence in such cases both the verb assert and its noun assertion have an unfavorable sense . STEEP. coming nearer to aver. deny. apply to the person is . more than 45° A high mountain may be climbed by a winding road nowhere steep. sbarp. It has more solemnity than declare. waive. retract. is sufficiently sheer.steep S'iiB the one making the statement has not attempted and may not attempt to prove. Certify is more formal.

always attended with some precipitation. STORY. speak except that tempest commonly imphes greater intensity." Prov. do not teU tales . recital. snow. A traditional or mythical story of anA history is often somewhat poetically . narrative. mytli. incident. is no toZe=bearer. in prose or verse. storh.. somewhat archaic dote tells briefly some incident. legend. " where also. A Antonyms easy.„ „ <>*«» ste^ storm story path. snow=storm. level. magnetic storm. events. narration. and tempest are not closely discriminated. anecdote. with or without rain. serenitsr. In the moral and figurative use. A story is the telling writing . but it is used for an imaginative. gentle. If it passes an anecdote. precipitous appUes to that which is of the nature of a precipice. Antonyms calm. and by extension. record. as. cient times is a legend. and becomes a narrative or narration. low. a storm. peace. hnsh. fair weather. whether real or story. Synonyms agitatloii. tempest. or thunder and Hghtning. novel. for an idle or malicious report . especially if of ancient date . Synonyms account. of passion. a sheer ascent or descent is perpendicular. stillness. relationi tale. as. abrupt is as if broken sharply off. tempest is a storm of extreme violence. Compare HiGtH. disturbance of the atmosphere. as of rain. An anecthere termed a In children's Tale is . flat. and applies to either accHvity or declivity. etc. disturbance of mind. of some series of connected incidents or fictitious. tranqnlllltgr. ceases to be assumed to be fact. sharp ascent or descent is one that makes a sudden. 30. the strife ceaseth. of agitation of feeling. alight. a fairy tale . it close limits of brevity. horizontal. legendary. or nearly so . a stwy is a common euphenearly synonymous with story. orally or in or the series of incidents or events thus related may be talk. decided angle with the plane from which it starts . mism for a falsehood. from the atmosphere. and is used especially of a descent . gradual. storm. disturbance. xxvi. hall. or is fictitious recital. Thus we have rain=sf orm. a A storm is properly a A We tempest of rage.

and is due to failure of heart=action. alertness. stupefaction. drowning. slowness. Compare apathy . obtuseness of apprehension. Stupidity is sometimes loosely xised for temporary dulness or partial stupor. memoir. Synonyms apatby. folntlns. torpor. etc. STUPOR. HISTORY. s^^oon. quickness. but stupidity is inveterate and commonly incurable. sense. sensibility. Insensibility. unconsciousness. abnormal sleep. dulness. from which the patient can not be aroused. a state of morbid indifference lethargy is a morbid tendency to heavy and continued sleep. keenness. Insensibility is a general term denoting loss of feeling from any cause. from which the patient may perhaps be momentarily aroused. t biography. intelligence. as from sudden nervous shock or intense mental emotion. Asphyxia is a special form of syncope resulting from partial or total suspension of respiration. lethargy. and be dispelled by appeal to the feelings or by the presentation of an adequate motive. a state of profound insensibility. Antonyms acntenees. swooning. obtuseness. or is aroused only with difficulty. Stupor is especially profound and confirmed insensibility. as in strangulation. IDIOCfY. Synonyms coma. apatby. and is due to brain=oppression. as. with suspension of pulse and of respiration. asphyzia. intoxication. readiness. stupefaction. stupor. pare ALLEGORY. . cleverness. story . stertorous breathing. a condition of the body in which the action of the senses and faculties is suspended or greatly dulled weakness or loss of sensibility. properly comatose. STUPOR. chronicle. but chiefly for innate and chronic dulness and sluggishness of mental action. FICTION.Btnpldltr stupor called t544 a. Insensibility. perhaps with full pulse and deep. sagacity. Stupor is — . or injury. hlstotr. The apathy of disease is a mental affection. Com- Antonyms annals. brilliancy. or inhalation of noxious gases. as from cold. syncope. animation. Syncope or swooning is a sudden loss of sensation and of power of motion. STUPIBITY. Coma is a deep. slugglsliness. the story of the American civil war. Apathy may be temporary.

disappointment. Synonym objective. is subjective. That which has independent existence or authority apart from our experience or thought is said to have objective existence or authority thus we speak of the objective authority of the moral law. that which to one .„. as prosperity. that to the person who men. as when we compare our mental picture of the mountain with our it . etc. relating to the subject of mental states. of a writer is called objective when it derives its materials mainly from or reaches out toward external objects . are purely subjective . may idea of a plain or river.<*'•«* subjective substtly SIJBJECTITE. Compare INHERENT SIJBSIDT. the outward causes of these experiences. etc. Subjective being. A mountain. that to something outside the perceiving mind in brief phrase be said that subjective relates to something within the mind. is an objective fact the impression our mind receives. . hope. are objective. grief. experiences them is. most part. as a mass of a certain size. Synonyms . objective to something without. objective signifies relating to the object of tal states. strictly antonyms.. Different individuals may receive different subjective impressions from the same objective fact. the mental picture it forms of the mountain. fear. bereavement. color. for the and objective are synonyms in but one point of view. as joy. But this subjective impression may become itself the object of thought (called "subject=object"). it is called subjective when it derives its materials mainly from or constantly tends to revert to the personal experience of the author. contour. The style is a cause of hope being to another a cause of fear. Subjective signifies is. The direct experiences of the soul.

To supplant is more often personal. lose. fail. Synonyms destroy. or attains a desired object or result an enterprise or undertaking suAxeeds that has a prosperous result. for A . bring to ruin. fall short. A person succeeds when he accomplishes what he . but one may succeed where no one fails. prevail.subvert succeed aMU »4o nation may also grant a subsidy to its own citizens as a means of promoting the public welfare as. . is supersede. suppress. overturn. virln. uphold. Antonyms conserve. . Many students may succeed in study a few win the special prizes. attain. . A bounty is offered for something to be done a pension is granted for something that has . supplanted by a rival. extingulsli. short. . come Compare follow. To supersede implies to overthrow . usually by underhanded means one is superseded by authority. Synonyms: acbleve. which all compete. Governmental aid to a commercial or industrial enterprise other than a transportation company is more frequently called a bounty than a subsidy . Bostain. To subvert tion . from or as from the very foundaThe word is now generally as of moral or poUtical ruin. I overttirow. . utterly destroy figurative. preserve. miscarry. attempts. as. a subsidy to a steamship company. ruin. : beep. a bounty for enlisting in the army a bounty for killing wolves. . signifying to take the place of another. been done. perpetuate. The word bounty may be applied to almost any regular or stipulated allowance by a government to a citizen or citizens as. miss. SVBTERT. SUCCEED. the sugar bounty. tlirive. The somewhat rare term subvention is especially applied to a grant of governmental aid to a literary or artistic enterprise. Antonyms: be defeated. the putting of something that is wisely or unwisely preferred in the place of that which is removed to subvert does not imply substitution. Compare abolish. prosper. solitary swimmer succeeds in reaching the shore if we say he voins the shore we contrast him with himself as a possible loser. To unn implies that some one loses. supplant. flourlsli. .

or the like. Some hold that a miracle. above or superior to the recognized powers of nature the preternatural (preter. and even unconsciously. gesture. and is hence. so that the miraculous might he teimed " extranatural. and is always covert. God in his providence . in. intimation. SUPERIVATIJRAL." An intimation is a suggestion in brief A utterance. . an incidental allusion. as by a partial statement. Insinuation. or sometimes one's by ." rather than supernatural. Miraculous is more emphatic and specific than supernatural. is a direct suspension and even violation of natural laws by the fiat of the Creator. supernatural The supernatural . sometimes to the very person attacked an innuendo is commonly secret as well as sly. nod). All that is beyond human power is superhuman . an insinuation is a covert or partly veiled injurious utterance. as. others hold that the miracle is simply the calling forth of a power residing in the laws of nature. leaving consideration A suggestion (L. and dependent on a distinct act of God. Insinuation and innuendo are used in the bad sense . as when we say an author has " a suggestive style.. suggestion may be given unintentionally. but not within their ordinary operation. Suggestion is often used of an unobtrusive statement of one's views or wishes to another. Synonyms miraculous. to. as referring to the direct personal intervention of divine power. Implication. and any consequent action entirely to his judgment. significant act. prophecy . in. as the raising of the dead. as if pointing one out by a significant nod (L. SVOOESTION. a preternatural gloom. often in the sense of inauspicious as. above) is . an illustration. of it is meaning or wishes . or token. to give one a hint of danger or of opportunity. and hence is. in the strictest sense. a question. preternatural. Innuendo. superbuman. more limited in expression. beyond) is aside from or beyond the recognized results or operations of natural law. but frequently with good intent as. in the latter case often the act of a superior as. (super. under. in many cases. A hint is still gives us intimations of his will.ttMif Suggestion supernatural Synonyms: hint. bring) brings something before the mind less directly than by formal or explicit statement. and gero. sub. the most respectful way in which one can convey his views to a superior or a stranger. and nuo.

surpassing ordinary. . . maintain. keep up. betray. . keep. SUPPOSE. or by charity. surmise. To hear is the most general word. To prop is always partial. throw down. Support and sustain alike signify to hold up or keep up. desert. To support may be partial. Compare ABET ENDUEE KEEP. Antonyms common. signifying to add support to something that is insecure. To maintain is to keep in a state or condition. the family was Synonyms conjecture. human power. to m. Antonyms: alDandon. gives evidence of superhuman knowledge the word is sometimes applied to remarkable manifestations of all that is ordinary. upbold. . . on. prop. especially in an excellent and desirable condition as. break down. . . imagine. : commonplace. wreck. to prevent from falling or sinking but sustain has a special sense of continuous exertion or of great strength continuously exerted. to maintain health or reputation . . Synonyms: Ijear. denoting all holding up or keeping up of any object. . . usual. clierisli. as when we speak of sustained endeavor or a sustained note a flower is supported by the stem or a temple»roof by arches the foundations of a gi-eat building sustain an enormous pressure to sustain life implies a greater exigency and need than to support life to say one is sustained under affliction is to say more both of the severity of the trial and the cotopleteness of the upholding than if we say he is supported. drop. . whether in rest or motion in the derived senses it refers to something that as. . .snppoi-t . overthrow. cast down. or upon pillars supported on or upon a pittance. a man supportshis family a state maintains an army or navy. to maintain one's position to maintain a cause or proposition is to hold it against opposition or difficulty. sustain. carry. to bear a strain . To suppose temporarily to assume a thing as true. think. let go. demollBh.aintain is complete maintain is a word of more dignity than support . SUPPORT. to bear is a tax upon sti-ength or endurance pain or grief. suppose o^a <»*s . deem. is guess. destroy. everyday. Prepositions: The roof is supported by. either . natural. Iiold up.

To think. correspondent. his spirit is at least somewhat submonarch or a state cedes territory perhaps for a considdued. We sacrifice something precious through error.axn '**•' surrender synonymous with the expectation of finding it so or for the purpose of ascertaining what would follow if it were so. together. diBCoyer. yield. Synonyms abandon. winsome persuasion. strictly sig- interchangeable. be enre. or power. burw. corresponding. To imagine is to form a signer. Synonymous nifies (Gr. let go. similar. yield to convincing reasons. tho its actual existence may be unknown. name) being interchangeable names for the same thing. or a fortified place to a conqueror a military commander abandons an untenable position or unavailable stores. . surrenders an army. Synonyms aUke. SVRREIVDER. To surrender is to give up upon compulsion. sacrifice. To conjecture mental image of something as existing. in this application. is to put together the nearest available materials for a provisional opinion. eration . give up. give oneself up. design supposes the existence of a de. To yield is to give place or give way under pressure. as to an enemy in war. the most determined men may surrender to overwhelm- ing force when one yields. give. identical. and hence under compulsion. but I think this to be the fact a more conclusive statement than would be made by the use of conjecture or suppose. cede. or superior force. . like. a navy. I do not know. same. or duty. conclude. always with some expectation of finding the facts to be as conjectured. . or being one . Compare doubt HYPOTHESIS. SYIVONYMOFS. Yield implies more softness or concession than surrender . capitulate. will. To suppose is also to think a thing to be true while aware or conceding that the belief does not rest upon any sure ground. is to hold as the result of thought what is admitted not to be matter of exact or certain knowledge as. friendship. to suppose is to imply as true or involved as a necessary inference as. or even impossible. influence. synonymic. give over. equivalent. and onymn. passion. alienate. Antonyms: ascertain. hence to give up to any person. A . a stronger Compare abandon. rellnijLUlsh. prove. and may not accord with fact or yet again. syn. : .

rule. and rather with reference to statements than to words. SYSTEM. the rules by which assessments are made . 294. while outside of those limits they may differ very greatly in meaning and use. or the same in meaning . but a comprehensive plan in which all the parts are related to each other and to the whole as. are any two words in any language equivalent or identical in meaning where a difference in meaning can not easily be shown. with the perspicuity and prefittest cision that result from exact choice of the words to express . that language may have the flexibility that comes from freedom of selection within the common limits. Method denotes a process. but the use of synonymoun in this strict sense is somewhat rare. theology a railroad system . each shade of meaning outside of the common limits. Synonyms: manner. Order in this connection denotes the fact or result of proper arrangement according to the due relation or sequence of the matters arranged as. we have H. a method of collecting taxes. . To consider synonymous words identical is fatal to accuracy to forget that they are similar. is destructive of freedom and variety. . . so that the words are not interchangeable. terchangeably. It is the office of a work on synonyms to point out these correspondences and differences. '66. to some extent equivalent. or we . a system of . identical. metbod. a difference in usage commonly exists. and may hence within certain limits be used in- In the strictest sense. in alphabetical order. By synonymous words (or synonyms) we usually understand words that coincide or nearly coincide in some part of their meaning. an authoritative requirement or an established course of things system. To Bay that we are morally developed is synonymmis with saying that reaped what some one has sufiered for us. not merely a law of action or procedure. and sometimes interchangeable. the digestive system . . W. . and to those often as settled and characteristic we speak of a system of taxation. . these papers are in order . . order. to say that two words are synonymous is strictly to say they are alike. & p. mxinner refers to the external qualities of actions. mode. [t. a general or established way of doing or proceeding in anything rule.] synonymous words scarcely exist rarely.system 350 of two or more interchangeable names for the same thing . Bebohbr Boyal Truths p. regularity. equivalent. if ever.

confusion. One who is silent does not speak at all. but in a grudging way that repels further approach. is order oration. as in a fine essay or The same may be said of system. Order commonly implies the design of an inteUigent just tax . . silent and mute. talkative. one may be siteM^hrough preoccupation of mind or of set purpose but the taciturn person is averse to the utterance of thought or feeling and to communication with others. served toward inferiors. and sentences. and as applied to intelligent human affairs is less and more mechanical than order. i reserved. Compare peide. as when we say one is re. silent. speecliless. either from natural disposition or for the occasion. but is a somewhat stronger word. free. Regularity applies to the even disposition of objects or uniform recurrence of acts in a series. as in the arrangement of furniture in a room. dumb. Dumb. a nde the payments are heaviest at a certain time of year a may be made odious by the manner of its collection. . garrulous.. equivalent to uncommunicative. applying often to some one who is communicative regarding all special time or topic Reserved is thus closely else may be reserved about his business. . There is a regularity of dividing a treatise into topics. one who is taciturn speaks when compelled. The talkative person may be stricken dumb with surprise or terror the obstinate may remain mute. uncommunicative. HYPOTHESIS. Irregnlarlt. Compare habit . Synonyms close.»51 6ay. loquacioae. as in the recurrence of paroxysms of disease or insanity there may be order without regularity. Antonyms : commnnicative. The most perfect often secured with least regularity. Antonyms: cIiaoB. diBarrangement. . There may be regularity without order. agent or the appearance or suggestion of such design regularity appUes to an actual uniform disposition or recurrence with no . disorder. speechless refer to fact or state toci- turn refers to habit and disposition. TACITURN. unreserved. reticent. Reserved suggests more of method and intention than taciturn. often suggesting pride or haughtiness. as taciturn . suggestion of purpose. derangement. paragraphs. mute. where the objects are placed at varying distances. that is destructive of true rhetorical system.

more by itself. grotesque. denotes in literature and art that which is true to the higher and finer feelings and free from all excess or meretricious ornament. Synonyms: artistic. offensive.tasteful 352 TASTEFUIi. disgusting. elegans. rugged. (L. select) to that assemblage of which makes anything choice to persons of culture and refinement it refers to the lighter. elegant. wliile in elegant it is blended as part of the whole. a fine touch does something . exquisite. and is always used in a favorable sense . standing. Chaste (primarily pure). nice. especially from the philosophic point of view. . the bar of a balance can be said to be nicely or delicately poised as regards matters of taste and beauty. used colloquially in a similar sense. delicate is a higher and more discriminating word than nice. a delicate distinction is one worth observing a nice distinction may be so. as. . Dainty and delicate refer to the lighter and finer elements of taste and beauty. as it were. tawdry. deformed. or may be overstrained and unduly subtle . fine in such use. That which is elegant is made so not merely by nature. displeasing. dainty. coarse. Tasteful refers to that in which the element of taste is more prominent. . delicate. but would not ordinarily be termed elegant. cbaste. . is closely similar to delicate and nice. Nice and delicate both refer to exact adaptation to some standard . but by art and culture . delicious. a woodland dell may be beautiful or picturesque. Elegant qualities . fulsome. an exquisite lace. fine. a delicate constitution. mde. also delight appUed to intense keenness of any feeling as. Exquisite denotes the utmost perfection of the elegant in minute details we speak of an elegant garment. . narsh. exquisite exquisite pain. estbetical. gaudy. rongh. estbetic. finer elements of beauty in form or motion. See beadtiful . Inartistic. tasty. Esthetic or esthetical refers to beauty or the appreciation of the beautiful. meretricious. delicious fine. horrid. Antonyms clnmey. delicate is capable of the single unfavorable sense of frail or fragile . Inharmonious. dainty tending in personal use to an excessive scrupulousness which is more fuUy expressed hj fastidious. especially denoting that which exhibits faultless taste and perfection of finish. refers fastidious. distasteful. hideous. Tasty is an inferior word. but (tho capable of an imfavorable sense) has commonly a suggestion of positive excellence or admirableness . Exquisite is . fine perceptions are to some purpose .

scbool. temerity often of mental or social matters there may be a noble rashness. is inform. to train a horse to train the hand or eye. or to make an unworthy proposal to one sure to resent it in such use temerity is often closely allied to hardiVenturesomeness daUies on the hood. and. indoctrinate. but temerity is always used in a bad sense. rashness for want of reflection. discipline. Train is used in preference to educate when the reference is to the inferior animals or to the physical powers of man as. . fooUiardiness. in defiance of conventionalities. heedlessness for want of attention. enligbten. recklessness. We say it is amazing that one should have had the temerity to make a statement which could be readily proved a falsehood. in the sense here considered. Compare education. To teach . instruct. denotes a dashing and for somew^hat reckless courage. tutor. train. precipitancy. ^ educate. the moral powers as well. teherity. to build in or into. mental. To train is to direct to a certain result powers already existing. rasbness. give lessons. in the fullest sense. nurture. . . .353 Bynonrms. want of sense. instill. To educate is to draw out or develop harmoniously the mental powers. or presumption. venturesomeness. give instruction. and is often used as a euphemism for punish . Rashness applies to the actual rushing into danger without counting the cost temerity denotes the needless exposure of oneself to peril which is or might be clearly seen to be such Rashness is used cliiefly of bodily acts. soldiers must be disciplined as well as trained. recklessness from disregard of consequencas. audacity. To nurture is to furnish the care and sustenance necessary for physical. . presumption. To discipline is to bring into habitual and complete subjection to authority discipline is a severe word. (originally. Inculcate. bastiness. to be thoroughly effective in war. simply to communicate knowledge . initiate. Synonyms audaci^. precipitation. heedlessness. . hardibood. . to instruct put in order) is to impart knowledge with special method and completeness instruct has also an authoritative sense nearly equivalent to command. edge of danger and experiments with it foolhardiness rushes in . and moral growth nurture is a more tender and homelike word than educate. over^confidence. or of . Audacity. "^ili- teacli temerity TEACH.

TERIH. Intonyms care. under. Thus. compact. com^. often to the point of abruptness. condition. clrcamspection. sententious. short. The sum. plirase.ary is compacted to the utmost. a term is a word that limits meaning to a fixed point of statement or to a special class of subjects. word. laconic. or of what would be deemed probable consequences . Anything short or brief is of relatively small extent. together. with. I concise. con-. or we say. diction. Compare EFFRONTERY. — tific term. weighty and from sub-. condensed. that is a legal or scien. hesitation. Term in its figurative uses always retains something of its literal sense of a boundary or limit. together. and densus. eon-. That which is compendious (L. as it were. member. wariness Synonyms article. That which is concise (L.terse 354 other men's opinions. as when we speak of the definition of terms. and oingo. cowardice. I denomlnatlou. name. with. timidity. In logic a term is one of the essential members of a proposition. expression. or phrase . That which is terse (L. so as to include as much as possible within a small space. and ccedo. caution. out) is trimmed down. The articles of a contract or other instrument are simply the portions into which it is divided for convenience the terms are the essential statements on which its validity depends as it were. (L. rub off) has an elegant and finished completeness within the smallest possible compass. that is of the keyswords in any discussion . TERSE. Synonyms brief. a condition is a contingent term which may become fixed upon the happening of some contemplated event. from tergo. and that which is condensed (L. pithy. the landmarks of its meaning or power . the audacity of a successful financier. together. Compare boundary . tersus. expression. a matter into a few words. we speak of a summary statement or a summary dismissal. neat. as The succinct girded from action. the boundary of statement in some one direction. succinctus. weigh) gathers the substance of effective. as. compendious. andpendo. in general use term is more restricted than word. pressed together. succinct. thick) is. gird below) has an alert effectiveness as if girded for m. as. .

" Con- rarely used in the formal conclusions of logic or mathematics. Synonyms TESTIMOIVT. " Important matters inference. Therefore. may not be consequence it is often used in narration . oath. lengthy. affirmation. is the most precise and formal word for expressing the direct conclusion of a chain of reasoning . tedious. " The soldiers were eager and confident accordingly they sprang forward at the word of command. because. we have the testimony of a traveler that a fugitive passed this way . as. evidence. apart from the context . proof. A pithy utterance gives the gist of a matter effectively. therefore Caesar is mortal . then there is no more to be Consequently denotes a direct result.'' or. A sententioits style is one abounding in sentences that are singly striking or memorable. but marks rather the freer and looser style of rhe- sequently may Accordingly denotes correspondence. which " All men demand my attention is . his footprints in the sand are additional evidence of the fact. as. wherefore.ony of witnesses and all facts of every kind that tend to prove a thing true .„-<*"* if tesUmonr tberefore rubbed or polished down to the utmost." Thence is a word of more torical or . prolix. Compare demonstration ." of a practical than a theoretic kind . then carries a similar but slighter sense of it gives incidentally rather than formally . as. the deposition differs from the affidavit in that the latter is voluntary and without cross=examination. consequently I shall not sail to=day. signifying for that (or this) reason. witness. . Testimony. in legal as well as in common use. signifies the statements of witnesses. Deposition and affidavit denote testimony reduced to writing . whUe the former is made under iaterrogatories and subject to cross-examination. "The contract is awarded. certification. wordy. < affidavit. which argument. deposition. thence. are mortal. but more frequently said. then. . Caesar is a man . attestation. long. whether in rude or elegant style. Synonyms THEREFORX:. verbose. consequently. the word may be used invidiously of that which is pretentiously oracular. Evidence is a broader term. bence. Antonyms: diflase. wbence. including the testim. t accordingly.

including the reasonable inferences that have not been formally stated. season. of vastness and dignity. eon. but there can not be a throng. t concourse. while suggesting less massing and pressure than is indicated by the word . events are contained in time as objects are in space. mass. Synonyms age. A throng. period.nite or eternal duration or succession. we can speak of infl. term. ering of many persons moved by a common impulse. and properly denotes an assembly Concourse signifies a spontaneous gathtoo orderly for crowding. Synonyms THRONO. Host and multitude both imply vast numbers. the Throng is a word total number in a crowd may be great or small. press. and still existing when the event is past. wlille. era. Duration and succession are more general words than tim. always implying that the persons are numerous as well as pressed or pressing closely together there may be a dense crowd in a small room. applying not merely to a single set of premises. crowd. crowd is a company of persons filling to excess the space they occupy and pressing inconveniently upon one another . TIME!. appending the inference or conclusion to the previous statement without a break. . but time Time is measured or is commonly contrasted with eternity. and whence of hence or thence. i duration. host is a military term. multitude. date. jam. Wherefore is the correlative of therefore. According to the necessary conditions of human thought. Sequence and succession apply to events viewed as following one another . measurable duration. measuring it as it passes. and has a suggestion of stateliness not found in the word crowd. secLuence. time and duration denote something conceived of as enduring while events take place and acts are done. but a multitude may be diffused over a great space so as to be nowhere a crowd . but often to all that has gone before.\Y^V^ 356_ sweeping inference than therefore. Compare synonyms for because. bost. epoch. time existing before the event.e . succession.

reduce strength in any degree by exertion one may be tired just enough to make rest pleasant. relieye. tition of the same act until . harass. Slant and slope are said of things somewhat fixed or permanent in a position out of the horizontal or perpendicular the roof slants. becomes increasingly diflScuIt or a horse is jaded by a long and unbroken it Antonyms: invigorate. but tary . repose. as. rest. so that further exertion is for the time impossible. . One is fagged by drudgery he is jaded by incessant repetire is to . slopes. etc. slope. jade. Careening is always toward one side or the other listing may be forward or astern as well. usually. he may be. becoming aware of the fact only when he ceases the exertion or._357 Synonyms. the words are closely similar. well=nigh impossible journey. cant. the painful lack of strength is the result of long=continued demand or strain one is exhausted when the strain has been so severe and continuous as utterly to consume the strength. . dip. slant. but tilt suggests more of fluctuation or instability. Incline. and must be distinguished from " keel over. .'' which is to capsize. . often momen- in many cases one tips a pail so that the water flows over the edge a mechanic cants a table by making or setting one side higher uhan the other. and also for slant or slope. according to the common phrase. wear out. tveary. Incline is a more formal word for set slantingly . from shifting of cargo. list. or even unconsciously tired. tip. lean. . from water in the hold. . on the other hand. restore. tilt. tip is tip and cant more temporary. TIRE. Ji?e_ TIP. telax. To heel over is the same as to careen. "too tired to stir " but for this extreme condition the stronger words are commonly used. . fag. To tilt or tip is to throw out of a horizontal position by raising one side or end or lowering the other. fatigue. beel over. Synonyms: exbaust. recreate. . refresh. A vessel careens in the wind lists. To cant is to might be interchanged. One who is fatigued suffers from a conscious and painful lack of strength as the result of some overtaxing an invalid may be fatigued with very slight exertion when one is wearied. the hiU . : To . careen.

A — or surgical apparatus . as. . the apparatus of a gymnasium . the word is of considerably wider meaning than tool . a chemical A . an agricultural implem. A utensil is that which may be used for some special purpose . instruments. 'weapon. farming utensils. those designed for warlike purposes being designated weapons. we speak of a surgeon's or an optician's instruments. tool is something that is both contrived and used for extending the force of an intelligent agent to something that is to be operated upon. denoting any combination of mechanical devices for united action. chisel by itself is a tool . utensil. the entire mechanism is called a machine . zaieclianism. in general usage. but they are not tools. but in more commonly accepted usage a machine is distinguished from a tool by its complexity. as. Implement. iJnpZemerai is a less technical and artificial term than tool. an apparatus may include many tools. macMne. and by the combination and coordination of powers and movements for the production of a result. the word is especially applied to articles used for domestic or agricultural purposes as. appliance. a mortising^nlachine. for a collection of appliances for some scientific purpose . i apparatus. A . a piano is a musical instrwment. Mechanism is a word of wide meaning. implements ot -wax. The paw of a tiger might be termed a terrible implement. as. An instrument is anything through which power is applied and a result produced. but the word is commonly used for a collection of distinct articles to be used in connection or combination for a certain purpose a mechanical equipment . especially. either independently or as subordinate to something more extensive or important every mechanical tool is an appliance. but not every appliance is a tool the traces of a harness are appliances for traction. An apparattis may be a machine. as.ent . Instrument is the word usually applied to tools used in scientific pursuits . instrument.tool 358 Synonyms TOOL. An appliance is that which is or may be applied to the accomplishment of a result. machine in the most general sense is any mechanical instrument for the conversion of motion in this sense a lever is a machine . An implement is a mechanical agency considered with reference to some specific pui-pose to which it is adapted . Implement is for the most part and . when it is set so as to be operated by a crank and pitman. kitchen utensils . as. Those things by which pacific and industrial operations are performed are alone properly called tools. as. or implements. but not a tool.

. topic trace instrument. since it is or may be stated in interrogative form to be answered by each member with a vote of "aye" or "no". topos. remnant. . the labor question . question tbeme. token. footstep. footprint. Impression. sign. mark.ISO <*•»» Utensil is altogether restricted to the literal sense . . A memorial is that which is intended or fitted to briag to remembrance something that has passed away it may be vast On the other hand. especially of a practical nature an issue . question. and tool have figurative use. to enlarge on this topic would carry me too far from my subject . are vestiges of a former civilization. as. vestige. machine inclines to the unfavorable sense. a pleasant drive will suggest many topics for conversation. TOPIC. or heads of discourse as. . a political macMne. memorial. or some slight footmark. A vestige is always a part of that which has passed away a trace may be merely the mark made by something that has been present or passed by. etc. In deliberative assemblies a proposition presented or moved for acceptance is called a motion. points. trail. the temperance question. the chau-man puts the gwesflow. as. — . proposition. matter. motion. has come to be extensively used to denote a debatable topic. Synonyms: remains. scattered moimds containing implements. as implying that human agents are made mechanically subservient to some controlling will . plaoe) is for discussion is often stated in the a head of discoiuse. form of a question. point. Since a topic subject. . a member is requii-ed to speak to the question. A vestige is always slight compared with that whose existence it recalls as. and such a motion or other matter for consideration is known as the question. and that is still existing. bead. Issue. In speaking or writing the general subject or theme may be termed the topic. track. machine. tool always in a bad sense .. TRACE. weapons. A topic (Grr. Synonyms: division. tho it is more usual to apply the latter term to the subordinate divisions. instrument being used largely in a good. an instrur ment of Providence the tool of a tyrant . a cherished memorial of a friend either a concrete object or an observance may be a memorial. a slight token of regard may be and stately.

perform a vow. but he transacts business. act. Notes. transact. action. accomplish a task. nations may treat of peace without result. traces game were observed by the hunter. business. but both these words lay stress upon deliberation with adjustment of mutual claims and interests . the word so used covering not merely the preliminary consideration. treat. There are many acts that one may do. what he transacts is by means of or in association with others . treat . act. carry on. or brought to a conclusion. TRAIVSACTIOIV. but the Negotiate has more reference to execution than final settlement. the citizens of the two nations are then free to with one another. but transaxit business when a treaty. as. tho transaction often emphasizes the fact of something done. with mere abstracts of or extracts from the papers read. conduct. do. . negotiate. states execution only. Compare especially . peace is secured. business. perform. Synonyms: accomplisli. is something completed . one may do a duty. but since transaction is often used to include the steps leading to the conclusion. since that always involves the agency of others. the dividing line between the two words becomes sometimes quite faint.transact transaction evidence of of its laa <*w it presence or of the effect has produced. . Both transactions a. the Proceedings of the American Philological Association give in full the biisiness done. To negotiate and to treat are likewise collective acts. afClair. Compare chakacteristic. the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London give in fuU the papers read . One's acts or deeds may be exclusively his own . TRANSACT.iid proceedings axe used of the records of a deUberative body. his transaetransaction tions involve the agency or participation of others. Synonftus. is negotiated. bills of exchange. a proceeding is or is viewed as something in progress . while it may depend upon previous deUberation. act. or perforin unaided . loans. accomplish. and treaties are said to be negotiated. A when published strictly used. Compare DO. proceeding. the two are distinguished as. while proceedings may result in action. deed. doing.

flyingT Ivaiescent. as the ideas of space and time. STnonyms brief fugitive. fleeting. and eo. so the properties or affections of being have also been called transcendental. original. epbemeral. Emersonian school to the soul's supposed intuitive knowledge of known things divine and human. origTransient and transitory are both derived from the same that which quickly inal source (L. day) literally lasting but for a day. go).. Philos. including all withia the limits of thought that is not derived from experience. Vocab. a transient chamnan. as is looked upon as at once extinction . Transcendental has been applied in the language of the p. Compare mysterious. Vocdb. as that the whole is greater than a part. short. being neither what thereas an a posteriori nor a priori element of cognition fore transcends every category of thought. it agrees strongly than transient exceeding brevity destined to pass away. momentary. or that things which tive truths or beliefs are transcendental. denoting them a fine shade passes or is passing away. "Being is transcendental . are equal to the same thing are equal to one another. transcendent. intuitive. "wl transuendental transient Synonyms a I priori. existence is life is transitory. temporary. and tory lite a temporary marks more hemera. epi. not being derived from experience nor limited by it. but there is between fact is not lasting a of difference. primordial.=F. Ephemeral (Gr. but transcends them all. a butterfly's contempt. with transitory in denoting that its object is denoting not only its certain but its speedy but is stronger. thus that which is ephemeral and the word carries often a suggestion of slight and perishable. on." K. Intuitive truths are those which are in the mind independeutly of all experience.=F. of duration . as. All intuiBut transcendental is a wider term than intuitive. p. " Transcendent he [Kant] employed given to denote what is wholly beyond experience. this transibe made use of but a little while . TRAHrSIENT. joy . . with no solid qualities or worthy achievements a pre- . 530. A thing is transient which in soon pass away thing is transitory which by its very nature must tempus." K. time) which is intended to last or a thing is temporary (L. man's ephemeral . Philos. trans.. 531. As being can not be included under any genus. often .„^. passing. so far as they are capable of being — to man. transitory. over. flitting..

regular. > enduring. empty. accustomed. unity. everlasting. oneness. when a single pm-pose or ideal is so subserved by all that their possible separateness is lost sight of as. severance.usual tender is 362 may sometimes gain an ephemeral popularity. or the state or condition of things thus brought together in a union the separate individuality of the things united is never lost sight of . vain) as in the act of vanishing even while we gaze. Compare at. junction. juncture. use.t. as the fleeting hues of the sunset. attachment. or is habitually repeated in the life of the same person. Union Antonyms: analysis. we speak of the union of the parts of a fractured bone or of the union of hearts in marriage. public. Synonyms Unity I coalition. decomposition. ordo. persistent. Ordinary (L. But unity can be said of that which is manifestly or even conspicuously made up of parts. or of the unity of the church. the state of being one. division. divorce. disconnection. order) signifies ordinary. undying. fiigio. we speak of the unity of the human body. the unity of Grod or the unity a bringing together of things that have been distinct. . everysday. Antonyms abiding. out. habit. harmony. usus. oneness. comlilnation. so that they combine or coalesce to form a new whole. from e. according to an established order. unfading.. Synonyms: common.tance. contrariety. currence. w^onted. disjunction. human soul. customary. UBflOBf. evanesco. general. Eabltual. unification. prevailing. lasting.uent. and that which is fugitive (L. separation. dissociation. flee) as eluding attempts to detain it that which is evanescent (L. and vanus. normal. schism. fveq. wont) signifies such as regularly or often recurs in the ordinary course of events. prevalent. That which is viewed as in the act of passing swiftly by. disunion. is . common and general apply to the greater number of individuals in a class but both words are in good use as . VSIJAl. perpetual. imperisbable. Immortal. eternal. permanent. MARRIAQB. is conjunction. association.. Usual (L. familiar. which never has been divided or of that which can not be conceived of as resolved into parts of the . hence of everysday ocIn strictness. especially of that as.

or of actions that acter. utilis. still. empty. folly. foot . unoccupied. . Dncommon. or. nselessness. while utility may be so broadened as to cover aU existence through all time. tho ordinary or usual would in such case be preferable. out. is vacant has extensivs reference to rights or possibilities of occu- . anusnal. out-oi'the-way. on the other hand. profit. its utility is questionable. inadequacy. Synonyms avail. Infreonent. as in the proverb. more positive than expediency but narrower than utility. and is often employed to denote adaptation to pro- duce a valuable result. use. . benefit. while usefulness denotes the actual production of such result. We say of an invention. UTILITY. inexpediency. ex. t advantage. We contrast beauty and utility. or loss. singblar. its usefulness has been proved by ample trial. usefulness. Utility (L. empty which contains nothing that is vacant which That is without that which has filled or might be expected to fill it blanli. utility and usefulness are frequently interchanged. rare. vacuous. extraordinary. void. and especially with reference to avoiding danger. nnparalleled. Expediency (L. etrange. impoliqr. unemployed. wortblessneBs. and pes. Inutility. useful) signifies primarily the useful. difficulty. so that it is possible to speai of one pereon's comvion practise or general custom. expediency. as in the utilitarian theory of morals. Antonyms: exceptional. expediency denoting have a moral charimmediate advantage on a contracted view. Policy is often used in a kindred sense. unfilled. serviceableness. either expediency or utility may be used to signify profit or advantage considered apart from right as the ground of moral obligation. TACANT. futility. literally.o«» -- utility >**»"» vacant applying to the greater number of instances in a series. service. leisure. Antonyms: disadvantage. Synonyms untenanted. but is quaUty of being somewhat more abstract and philosophical than usefulness or use. Compare general normal. or I have found it of use . waste. the gettingthe foot out) refers primarily to escape from or avoidance of some difHculty or trouble . " Honesty is the best policy" Compare profit. nnprofltableness.

fruitless. but not of a waste city lot. . Antonyms: brimful. or an impression of desolation. is preferred in speaking of slight. 364 vacant room may not be empty. Vacuous refers to the condition of being empty or vacant. probably from association of the words waste and vast tion. Useless. empty) keeps the etymological idea through changes of meaning a vain endeavor is empty of result. a vacant or leisure hour. we speak of empty space. ineffectual. That which is useless. a vacant mind. as. as derived from the Latin. especially as combined with vastness. Vacant. baseless. if of considerable extent . brimmed. overflowing. in this connec- A may not . and an empty house be vacant. a vain person has a conceit that is empty or destitute of adequate cause or reason. jammed. a vacant office. an em. null. empty.vain pancy. ineffectual. useless. applies to that gives waste is applied also to uncultivated or unproductive land. delusive. or profitless fails to accomplish any valuable result. but for the most part confined to abstract relations. packed. we speak of a waste track or region. aliortlve. replete. or was supposed to be. Waste. full. trifling. trivial. the contract is void for want of consideration. Void and devoid are rarely used in the literal sense. futile. inhabited. unreal. unserviceable. an empty sleeve. a vacant lot. in the widest sense. unimportant. unsatisfying. unprofitable. vapid. fruitless. inconstant. or unavailing fails to accomplish a result that it was. or homely matters.pty heart. an empty dish. bootless. is apphed to things of some dignity empty. the article is devoid of sense . a vain pretension is empty or destitute of support. gorged. idle. or of adequate power to produce a result. That which is bootless. Synonyms. adapted to accomplish. tho it may be applied with special force to the highest . deceitful. occupied. VAIN. shadowy. unsubstantial. Vain (L. futile. an empty boast. filled. regarded as continuous or characteristic. which is made so by devastation or ruin. common. crowded. nugatory. or vain is inherently incapable of accomplishing a specified result. profitless. unavailing. and having with that addition the effect of a prepositional phrase . worthless. that which is abortive. crammed. devoid being followed by of. vanus. from the Saxon. ' busy. all . visionary. brimming.

hireling (AS. and honor of less account than gold or sordid considerations . the mercenary can be hired. e. powerful. (L. money or other consideration mercenary (L. profitable. sufflcient. and the venal are aUke in making principle. as applying to the sum or harvest of endeavor. valuable. vain lacks imaginable Compare vacant that which is ostentation . salable. corporation. substantial.365 veual signifies not of use for any valuable purpose. from venum. eerriceable. if he gives essential advantages for pay. a m. Jiyrling. venalis. a purpose . Mercenary has especial application to character or disposition . The hireling. t hireling. vote. but the mercenary and venal may be simply open to the bargain and sale which the hireling has already consummated . a spirit or motives to which money is the chief consideration or the moving principle. the mercenary. mercenarius. effective. That which PRIDE. mercenary motives i. Fruitless is more final than ineffectual. adequate. as. efficient. a public officer who makes his office tributary to private speculation in which he is interested is mercenary . valid. . beneflcia. competent. or the like. purchasable. faction. eoUd. mercenary. from hyr) signifies serving for hire or pay.. without subjecting himself . Antonyms . The mercenary may retain much show of independence hireling service sacrifices self=respect as weU as principle . Synonyms Venal TEBTAi:. conscience. expedient. or actually for sale . from merces. real. is useless lacks actual fitness for fitness. he is both hireling and venal . advantageo«8.ercenary spirit . neefnl. while the venal are openly influence.ercenary in making place and pay of undue importance while not venal enough to forsake his own communion for another for any reward that could be offered him. pay. or efforts for . sale) signifies ready to sell one's . Bound. worthy. Compare synonyms for unuTY. or having the spirit or character of one who works or of that which is done directly for hire or pay. etymologically. and is thus closely similar to valueless and ivorthless.. potent. a clergyman may be m. reward) signifies influenced chiefly or only by desire for gain or reward thus. if he receives a stipulated recompense for administering his office at the behest of some leader.

being said especially of aged persons. Synonyms adore. We adore with a humble yet free outflowing of soul. and of abstractions we venerate an aged pastor. revere. we do Antonyms contemn. and without that subjection of soul to the grandeur . is always Dread is a shrinking apprehension or expectation of possible harm awakened by any one of many objects or causes. tho the adoration. i reverence. scoff at. considered by itself. and is applied to objects less removed from ourselves than those we revere. honorable. there is no element of esteem or affection. aaa <»wo his com-se is venal. . reverence. Compare pay .venerate veneration to any direct domination. slight. disdain. but with more of chilliness and cowering. but not hireling. In the highest sense. Bnpurchasable. public-spirited. Synonyms VESTERATIOIV. Awe is inspired by that in which there is sublimity or majesty so overwhelming as to awaken a feeling akin to fear . the dust of heroes or martyrs. or grandeur in the object present. to reverence is often. TEIVERATi:. sense of vastness. . dishonor. Revere is a stronger word than reverence or venerate. as that of civil or religious not venerate God. awe. venial. . to give outward expression to the reverential feeling we revere or rever^ ence the divine majesty. as for that which while lovely is sublimely exalted and brings upon us by contrast a sense of our unworthiness or inferiority to revere is a wholly spiritual act . power. to revere or reverence is to hold in mingled love and honor with something of sacred fear. To venerate is to hold in exalted honor without fear. generous. respect. despise. honest. patriotic. of places or objects having sacred associations. scorn. from that which is overwhelmingly vast and mighty to that which is productive of momentary physical pain in its higher uses dread approaches the meaning of awe. . but revere or reverence him. or self-sacrifice. Antonyms: disinterested. tho not necessarily. or liberty . in awe. lofty virtue honor. i dread. • detest. IncorrnpUble. some great cause. spurn. disregard. Compare VENERATION.

Antonyms contempt. inexpiable. trutbfulness. and with more of the spirit of direct. . active. Aside from its technical ecclesiastical use. in common use. and joyful worship. scorn. Truth is verity. • dUdaln. venial offense is one readily overlooked . Synonyms excusable. is loftier than veneration. pardonable A more serious consideration. VEKIALi. Venial must not be confounded with the very different word VENAL. in its full sense. I honesty. pardonable. Excusable is scarcely applied to offenses. racity is properly a quality of a person. and. . capable of being readily pardoned. easily overlooked. so used. but on deliberation is found to be susceptible of pardon. Compare venax. unjustifiable. and personal nearness. primarily and verity is always a quality of thought or Vespeech. VERACITY. the habit of speaking and the disposition to speak the truth . a habitual liar may on some . Adoration. affection. Venial (L. We may feel awe of which we can not reverence. venial is always understood as marking some fault comparatively slight or trivial. as a grandly terrible ocean storm awe of the divine presence is more distant and less trustful than reverence. his action was excusable. that . trivial. Protestants do not recognize the distinction between venial and mortal sins. especially of speech. sUgbt. less restrained and awed than reverence. reality. Synonyms candor. but to matters open to doubt or criticism rather than offense requires direct censure as. and suggest something of esteem. it often falls little short of justifiable under those circumstances. venia. I think. Compare esteem venerate. pardon) signifies capable of being pardoned. franlaiess. Awe is preoccupied with the object that inspires it . Severence and veneration are less overwhelming than awe or dread. Veneration is coramonly applied to things which are not subjects of awe. trutb.*>gi>y **"' Tenlal veracity and worthiness of the object that is involved in awe. dread with apprehension of personal consequences. dishonor. Antonyms inexcusable. ingenuousness. unpardonable. as in exact conformity to fact. mortal. disregard. a.

or connected with words. oral ti'adition an oral examination. uttered or modulated by the voice. duplicity. a person of undoubted veracity may state (through ignorance or misinformation) what is not the of veracity truth. have become so fixed in the language that they can probably never be changed this usage is also in line with other idioms of the language as. OS. Candor. A . as indicating that which is by spoken rather than by written words. litera. while truthfulness may accord with either. Thus oral applies to that which is given by spoken words in distinction from that which is written or printed as. a word) signifies of. but verbal contract and verbal message. what is called "the letter of the law" is its literal meaning without going behind what is expressed by the letters on the page. a letter) sig- expressed by letters. and verity with truth. error. in the broader sense of the exact meaning or requirement of the words used. and ingenuousness are allied with veracity. ficflon. verbal (L. ." etc. on the other hand. literal (L. I know him Antonyms: deceit. and especially uttered with or OraJ (L. By this rule we should in strictness speak of an oral contract or an oral message. falseliood. verbum. vox. honesty. Truth in a secondary sense may be applied to intellectual action or moral character. soimding with f uU. resonant voice nifies consisting of or . lie. frankness. the voice) signifies of or pertaining to the voice. falsity. "I give you my word. . . verbal translation may be oral or written. the mouth) signifies uttered through the mouth or (in common phrase) by word of mouth . pertaining to. so that it is word for word a literal translation follows the construction and idiom of the original as well as the words a literal .verbal 36S occasions speak the truth. or according to the letter. deception. delusion. VERBAL. Compare synonyms for deception." " a true man's word is as good as his bond. . as. mendacity. Synonyms literal. fabrication. tmpostiue. but that does not constitute him a man .rd of mouth." "by w:. in the former case becoming a close synonym of veracity . guile. i oral. falseness. vocal. Truthfulness is a quality that may inhere either in a person or in his statements or beliefs. nntrutli. especially with words as distinguished from the ideas they convey vocal (L. to be a man of truth.

. danger or harm he may be alert or watchful for good as well as . of attending to words only. Tvary. trlumpb. obstacles. vocal sounds. an oral statement. one may be habitually alert by reason of native quickness of perception and thought. Antonyms defeat.«**'' oeo victory vigilant translation is more than one that is merely verbal. a verbal change. sleepless. . Vigilant implies more sustained activity and more intelligent volition than alert . retreat. disaster. meaning . careful. trickery. . 'wakeful. Compare conqtiee. view of suspected stratagem. Synonyms alert. success. mastery. the woods were vocal with the songs of birds oral is never so applied. because of some merely physical excitement or excitability. both verbal and literal are opposed to free. circumspect. -wide-awake. failure. complete. evils. cautious. vocal music . supremacy. origiaaUy denoting the public rejoicing in honor of a victory. on the alert. . but is limited to articulate utterance regarded as having a definite . has come to signify also a peculiarly exultant. Victory is the state resulting from the overcoming of an opponent or opponents in any contest. a person who is truly watchful must keep himagainst evil . advantage. VICTORY. or from the overcoming of difficonsidered as opponents or enemies. or sucIn conquest and mastery there is cess may be termed a victory. Triumph. advantage. etc. awake. on tlie lookout. A person may be wakeful . destmction. Vocal has primary reference to the human voice as. as through insomnia yet he may be utterly careless and negligent in his wakefulness. In the same sense. culties. overthrow. rout VIOILrANT. vocal may be applied within certain limits to inarticulate sounds given forth by other animals than man as. In the latter sense any haid=won achievement.. Synonyms: acbievement. miscarriage. watcbful. or one may be mo- mentarily alert under some excitement or expectancy one who One is vigilant against is vigilant is so with thoughtful purpose. he is wary in or treachery. and glorious victory. the reverse of watchful . we speak of verbal criticism. as. conquest. impUed a permanence of state that is not implied in victory. frustration. disappointment.

rectitude. as in the presence of an enemy. from vir. one is vigilant ot set purpose and for direct cause. honesty may be apphed to the highest truthfulness of the soul to and with itself and its Maker. and denotes much more than superficial or conventional honesty. virtus. duty. Goodness. Virtue (L. but vigilant has somewhat more of sharp definiteness and somewhat more suggestion of volition ." Purity ii freedom from all admixture. Honesty and probity are used especially of one's relations to his fellow men. honor. excellence. as lacking the strength that comes from trial and conflict. negligent. of mental quality. Compare alert. righteousness. as it often is. human . honesty. or it may be very much more than virtue. are almost exact equivalents . probity. oblivions. but of the life be- — . purity. truth. from the Latin. the being morally good. uprightness. faithfulness. especially in those things that are beyond the reach of legal requirement above the commercial sense.virtue self 3''* wakeful while on watch. rightness. goodness that is victorious through trial. dull. goodness. a man. from the Saxon. perhaps through temptation and conflict. virtuousness. Synonymst c&astity. . whether in matters concerning ourselves or others. worth. primarily manly strength or courage. as rising sublimely above the possibility of temptation and conflict the infantUe Virtue is distinctively as contrasted with the divine goodness. may be much less than virtue. one may be habitually watchful . VIRTUE. in the fvdl sense. neglectful. integrity. probity being to honesty much what virtue in some respects is to goodness . probity is honesty tried and proved. in which case wdkefvl has something Watchful. Integrity. a hero) is. whether with or without right principle. of contracts and dealings. it is chastity both of heart and life. Honor is a lofty honesty that scorns fraud or wrong as base and unworthy of itself. Inconsiderate. Antonyms: cai'elese. we do not predicate it of God. incautious. thonghtlesB. Honor rises far above thought of the motto that " honesty is the best policy. worthiness. heedless. inattentive. and vigilant. especially of that which debases . is moral wholeness without a flaw when used. drowsy. it has reference to inherent character and principle. morality. Morality is conformity to the moral law in action. in its full sense. . justice. nnwt^.

whether in heart or act . aside. but in its figurative use always somewhat contemptuous . from. and has no unfavorable implication to digress deviate. the ship veers with the wind. a way) is to turn from. righteousness is used especially in the religious sense. a prescribed or right way. apart. di. Compare synonyms for sin. . it is . rambling talk. . cattle range for food Roam and rove are often pui-poseless. distances of land or sea range commonly implies a purpose afl. swerve. Duty. ramble. . or m&rally. usually with unfavorable implication cattle stray from their pastures an author strays from his subject one strays from the path of virtue. in its literal use. mndan. .3'M -nrander cause from the heaxt. in the latter sense . wrong. is. To wander (AS. di. Virtuousness is a quality of the soul or of action . Uprightness refers especially to conduct. (L. religion. . . Stray is in most uses a lighter word than wander. and gradior. a hunting=dog ranges a field for game. to err is used of intellectual or moral and of the moral with primary reference to the intellectual. Range^ roam. . as. . tend) is to turn from a coiuse previously followed or that something else follows. Synonyms: go astray. de. and via. digress. vice. step) is used only with reference to speaking or writing action. . and rove imply the traversing of considerable. incline. the fulfilment of moral obligation. Rectitude and righteousness denote conformity to the standard of right. wickedness. and vergo. veer. and often but momentarily veer is more caprio'ous and repetitious the horse swerves at the flash of a sword the wind veers . To stray is to go in a somewhat purposeless way aside from the regular path or usual limits or abode. stray. physically. and always without defu?ite aim. usually in an unfavorable sense to diverge (L. rove. . often of vast. Compare innocent justice the essence of virtuous action. To swerve or veer is to turn suddenly from a prescribed or previous course. err. Antonyms evil. range. in this connection. apart. mentally. . the rendering of what is due to any person or in any relation. an error being viewed as in some degree due to ignorance. viciousness. . diverge. . Ramble. wind) is to move in an indefinite or indeterminate way which may or may not be a departure from a prescribed way to deviate (L. . roam. is always a word of pleasant suggestion.

street. always the latter unless the contrary a way suitable to be traversed only by foot= is expressly stated . a highway or highroad is public. discernment. . oughfare. pathway. eling with horses or vehicles. bridle-path. A road (originally a rideway) is a prepared way for travchannel. Wherever there is room for one object to pass another there is a way. road. broad. . skill are acquired. judiciousness. be private . passageway. knowledge. judgment. The other qualities are on the bovder^Jine. sense. passengers or by animals is called a path. foresight. discretion. as a city. reason. lane. Synonyms: attainment. sagacity. Wisdombaa and . information. skill. Enlightenment. when is in some center of habitation. avenue. A passage is between any two objects or lines of enclosure. profundity or depth. erudition. An avenue is a long. highway being a specific name for a road legally set apart for the use of the public forever . tho capable of increase by cultivation. or track road may as. thoroughfare. Compare air . a railroad=fracfc. learning. route. reason. A channel is a vraterway. reasonableness. passage. bridle-path. A thoroughfare is a way through a road or street temporarily or permanently closed at any point ceases for such time to be a tlwrvillage street. Information. A driveway is within enclosed grounds. enlightenment. driveway. the roads in that country are mere bridle-paths. prescience. sagacity. profundity. trach. depth. a highway may be over water as well as over land. . WAT. knowledge. sense. understanding. as by study or practise. as of a private residence. pass. Insight. prudence. and may be over many roads.Avisdom 372 Synonyms: alley. the track of a comet on a traveled road the line worn by regular passing of hoofs and wheels in either direction is called the track. a pass commonly between mountains. town. course. cipal street. a race=fracfc. direction. judgment. path. Insight. roadway. erudition. highroad. learning. and imposing or prinTrack is a word of wide signification we speak of a goat=(racfc on a mountain=side. or village it passes between rows of dwellings the country road becomes the A A A . and understanding are native qualities of mind. highway. street route is a line of travel.

Wit is the quick perception of unusual or commonly unperceived analogies or relations between things apparently unrelated. is broader and more positive than prudence. wagglsbness. There may be what is termed " practical toisdcwn " that looks only to material results but in its full sense. . 3oke. stupidity. . Wisdom is mental power acting upon the materials that fullest knowledge gives in the most effective way." loisdom thus presupposing knowledge for its very existence and exercise. raillery. error. and largely with a view of avoiding loss and injury wisdom transcends prudence. . Compare acumen astute knowledge Mnro prudence. eillineBS.. when the highest unsdom is in the disregard of the maxims of prudence. respecting outward and practical matters. wisdom implies the highest and noblest exercise of all the faculties of the moral nature as well as of the intellect. Skill is far inferior to wisdom. Synonyms banter. miscalculation. SAGACIOUS SKILFUIi . as in the exigencies of business or of war. waggery. . burner. consisting largely in the practical application of acquired knowledge. burlesgtue. . the power of forming decisions. drollery. but no wisdom. imprudence. facetiousness. Compare synonyms for absurd idiocy. folly. Judgment. and habitual processes. to say of one that he displayed good judgment is much less than to say that he manifested wisdom. and has been said to depend upon a union of surprise and pleasure . especially correct decisions. foolislmess. WIT. senselesBneos. imbecility. playfulness. so that while the part of prudence is ordinarily also that of unsdom. In the making of something perfectly useless there may be great skUl. . Antonyms: al)snriJity. . idiocy. nooBenee. jocularity.373 been defined as "theiighixiseotTcnowledge. Jest. leading one to do. pleasantry. . fatuity. Prudence is a lower and more negative form of the same virtue. entertaining. power. misjudgment. fun. or merrymaking surprise. it depends certainly on the production of a diverting." or "the use of the most important means for attaining the best ends. The analogies with which wit plays . indiBcretion. as readily as to refrain from doing but Judgment is more limited in range and less exalted in character than wisdom . cases arise. witticism. or in the ingenious contri- vance that makes such application possible.

with verbs often interchangeable we may say " while he when joined with as . product. are . and. physical or mental. business. . gravity. idleness. toil is straining and exhausting work. exertion. especially feeble as yet. "he is not gone yet" is nearly the same as "he is here still. Antonyms: ease. Work is the generic term for any continuous application of energy toward an end . relaxation." with scarcely appreciable difference of meaning. brief. as in mechanics. except that the former statement implies somewhat more of expectation than the latter. was yet a child. Synonyms: acblevement. stolidity. Pleasantry is lighter and less vivid than tvit. Wit is keen. repose. Antonyms dulnesB. humor deals with real analogies of an amusing or entertaining kind. thoughtful. we can say " he is feeble. or by any fortuitous occasion of mirth. often applies to past action or state extending to and including the many closely related senses. action. sustained. Boljriety. Yet and have of past time. bltberto. Compare act." Yet has a reference to the future which still aoes not share "we may be successful yet " implies that success may begin at some future time " we may be successful still' implies present time. like still. doing. and is pronounced and often hilarious. : Berioagness. or with traits of character that are seen to have a comical side as soon as brought to view. thus far. sudden. now. still YET. Synonyms: besides. solemnity." or " while he was still a child. toil. employment. still." or "he is still . Yet with a negative applies to completed action. and always kindly. recreation. occupation. performance. often replacing a positive statement with still . leiBiu:e. Labor is hard and wearying work . business. and often menial work. humor is deep. Fun denotes the merry results produced by mt and humor. production. vacation. work may be hard or easy. rest. furtlier. and sometimes severe . . TVORK." Yet. irksome.yet 374 are often superficial or artificial . which labor and toil do not share. Work is also used for any result of working. and has special senses. Drudgery is plodding. drudgery. labor. deed. stupidity.

Compare new. girlisli. and girlish are used in a good sense of those to whom they properly belong. for OLD. cMldisb. may have a favorable import as applied to any age. Antonyms Compare synonyms . vigorous. callow. light=hearted.. juvenile in such use would belittle the statement. childish. cMldlUce. . Boyish. Juvenile. boylsli. arrived at maturity. buoyant. young. Synony ms adolescent. vigor. or hopefulYoung ness . Juvenile and youthful are commonly used in a favorable and kindly sense in their application to those still young . but in a bad sense of those from whom more maturity is to be expected childish eagerness or glee is pleasing in a child. we YOIJTHFIJI. hence fresh. youthful in the sense of having the characteristics of youth. immature. as when we say the old man still retains his youthful ardor. is distinctively applied to those in the early stage of life or not . puerile. but unbecoming in a man puerile in modern use is distinctly contemptuous.^"^^ that youthful we may continue to enjoy in the future such success as are winning now.

speeches. but always upon the authority of an approves aicnon^ry. periodicals. the teacher should insist text. intended. wuereby that may be correct to-day which would not have been so at an earlier period. Such independent study will be found intensely interesting. unless on rare occasions to settle doubtful or disputed points. pupils should not be allowed to open it during recitation. Seasonable questions should be encouraged. The teacher should so study out the subject as to be distinctly in advance of the class and able to speak authoritatively. but going beyond the necessarily brief statements there given. and the order of synonyms given In Part I. It is not expected. before coming Into class. the preceding text in The following exercises hare been prepared which the dietinctione of — In answer to questions calling for definitive statement. not only mastering what is given in Part I. like the Hoyt. au appropriate word to fill each blank can always be found bv careful study of the corresponding group of synonyms. and no books brought into class. Definition by synonym should be absolutely forbidden. One great advantage of synonym study is lo exterminate colloquialisms. at the next recitation. In such study nothing can be worse than gness"Work. or desired that the questions should he answered or the blanks in the examples supplied off-hand. also quotations from the best newspapers. In such case. will be found very helpful. To secure the study of Part I.. if need be. and considered. The majority of them will not need to be referred to again. The class should be encouraged to bring quotations from first-class authors with blanks to be filled. and consulting the ultimate authorities the best dictionaries and the works of the best speakers and writers. suca quotations being held open to revision upon consultation of authorities. In a few instances. with words underlined for criticism. copied on the blackboard before recitation. This will often be found not easy to do. cither should be accepted as correct. should be carefully noted. either of two words would appropriately fill a blank and yield a good sense. expiesslj and eolely to accompany synonyms have been carefally pointed out. as the dlflBculties will simply represent an inferior usage which the dictionary will brush aside. but the resulting upon the very words of the — difference of meaning should be cleaily pointed out . Hence. though not infallible. The change of usage. The meaning of English words is not a matter of conjecture. with any others that may be added. leading questions have been avoided. and can be made delightful and even fascinating to any intelligent class. such quotations being held authoritative. Eence. The examnles have been in great part selected from the oest literature. and all others carefully prepared for this work.SUGGESTIONS TO THE TEACHER. etc. The very best method will be found to be to have the examples included in the lesson. The teacher should make a thorough study of the subject. but the class should not be allowed to become a debating society. unless the pupil can give in his own words what is manifestly as good. For the latter purpose a good cyclopedia of quotations. has frequently been departed from or reversed in Partn. and all disputed points should be promptly referred to the dictionary usually to be looked up after the recitation..

that no heed was paid to his message. but no* The officer who had Only the base in spirit will The messenger was so to the ranks. haughty and defiant. He came from the scene of his disgrace. Senator Conkling suddenly work. QUESTIONS. the men instantly office. and power. To provide funds. In the height of his power Charles V. himself by cowardice was themselves before wealth. the throne. .PART II. (page 1). Finding resistance vain. ABANDON 1. the fortress. rank. The soldiers -^—— his standard necessary to the enterprise. At the stroke of the bell. the king resolved to the coinage. the defenders agreed to his To the surprise of his friends. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS AND EXAMPLES. To what 'quit f resign f surrender ? f desert objects or classes of objects does abandon apply f abdicate f cedef 2. What does abarii- don commonly denote of previous relationship f forsalcef EXAMPLES. does aiase differ from delMsef humble from humUlatet degrade from EXAMPLES. in such numbers that the commander fonnd It France was compelled to Alsace and Lorraine to Germany. Is abandon used in the farorable or nnf avor- able sense favorable or unfavorable ? forsake f 3. ABASE How disgrace f (page 2).

I. Can one be dawnfed who is not abashed f 6. ABBRETIATION QUESTIONS. ablwr or despise f 2. ta . instigate. is naed both for Doctor and Debtor." ABET (page QUESTIONS. The spealcer was b At the revelation of snch depravity. the visitor was deeply . I was utterly When sensible of his error. Can we have an abbrtnAaBon of a book.abash abhor nvm <»/s ABASH What has (page 8). The treatise was already so brief that It did not admit of The Dr. Instigate: 4). Is a cotiiraMion always an aM?«xiaBont Give instances. What does detest express 1 S. Why conld not the words be interchanged ? 6. What do we mean when we say that a person is mortifled? 4. 3. he To a crime may be worse ^— than to originate the viceroy to rebel agidnst the king. Give an instance of the use of mortified where abasTied conld not be subBtitnted. Which of the three words apply to persons and which to incite. The prosecution was evidently malicious. and are rebels aU. What does dbJixrr denote ? t How does Archbishop Trench illustrate the difference between abhor and shunt 4. And you that do by envy and revenge. 1. actions? How does abet of the action ? Give instances of the nee of abet. EXAMPLES. B. an otfrreviotion always a ayniracVUm t 2. What does loathe imply It it . How does confust differ from abash t 3. The nnmerons questions for a moment. P. hbn In this ktod Oholsh rebellion. bad sense t 2. ABHOR (pageS). 1. it. To farther his own schemes. EXAMPLES. Is (page 4). as arguing less ezcltemen''- and more calculation and cowardice. Ahdt^ tnetie. an —— of f ^e title ** Fellow of the Boyal Socletjr. QUKSTIONS. but qnicWy recovered himself. the effect to make one abashed f 2. The peasant stood the witness. In the royal presence. or sentence f What can be abbreviated f and what abridged * EXAMPLES. Is embarrass or morlify the stronger word f Give Instances. S. to flie etronger word. which of these words are nsed In a good end which In a differ from incite and instigate as to the time 3. QUESTIONS. paragraph. Which 3.

And there were In the same coantry shepherds over their flock by night. by sD good "m^ — that which Is evil. — 8). *"'''' abolish 6. How does prohibit differ from abolish f 7. In a republic. Give illustrationa of the appropriate EXAMPLES. What terms do we nse for doing away with laws. was at last The law. retidef the meaning of scgoum f 3. What by dJAdet by l^'lgef by Hve. dwell. 3. limit of time Is expressed Is 3. and of the limited use of abide. keeping So great was the crowd of visitors that many were compelled to neighboring villages. and how do among themselves f 5. One generation passeth away and another generation Cometh. bot the earth forever. Should we say one is slapping or staying at a hotel . What does annihilate signify 1 abolish f 2. Give some antonyms of oMiaA/ those terms differ EXAMPLES. cleave to that which Is goa& ABIDE 1. — ABOliISH (page QUESTIONS. degradation as to be ntterly Snch weakness can only be • Talebearers and backbiters are everywhere He had eonk to snch —— . Of what Is It to it nsed 1 Give stronger or weaker than 4. Brfaitbbe— 'InUielaodof promise. and why i 4. the sale of intoxicating . The ancient never formally statute . Give examples of the extended. sorrow. —~— watch In the in the fleld. sedition should be promptly the adverse decision of the Inferior tribunal. or it may result In the of free institutions. T« atottali nsecl of persons or material objects f examples. which — — —— by the le^slatnre. as in a strange coaaBf. What other words of this class are especially referred to t 9. and svbcertf especially between the last two of those words f 6. What word do we especially nse of putting an end to a nuisance f 8. was found to bava been —— by later enactments. What EXAMFLES. suppress. He Is at the Albemarle. had long been by the revolutionists. settlement of VIneland.379 physical or moral In Its application » OSes of the above worda. He has for forty years in the same bonee. The one great endeavor of Buddhism Is to Modern science seems to show conclusively that matter is never . . QUESTIONS. 1. though The Supreme Court Even . (page 5). . From the original liquor has been New Jersey. What are the differences between overthrow.

To what was mind or to abomination originally applied » 2. iSSec from an outline or a synopsis f from an abstract or digestf 2. An Such The publishers determined to issue an writing or technical works. Does It refer to a state of some act or other object of thought f 3. Does an arialysis of a treatise deal with what is expressed. whether derived from a previons publication or not I EXAMPLES. The New Testament may be regarded There are several excellent as an of religton. of the decision of the court was published in all the leading papers. Man^s vriU and Intellect have ^ven him dominion over creatures on the earth. How does an abstract or digest differ from an ouiline or a synopsis? 3.VTI: I. To what are these words in such sense properly applied i 3. How does an obominaiitMi differ from an QfeTise T from crime in general ? EXAMPLES. God alone Is and The Czar of Bussia is an . Is arbitrary ever nsed in a good sense ! What is the chief use } Give examples. as V. of English literature. the fonlest (nevaient among the Greelss and Bomans of classic antiquity. After the ship began to pitch and It is roll. arbitrary? imperatlvt? timperiotiat peremptory? positive? authoritative? EXAMPLES. What words may we use to express a condensed view of a sabject. n— On all and questions of law in the United States the decision of tiM final. of their dictionary. How are they nsed in a modified sense i 4. (page 7). Court Is Learning of the attack on our seamen. (page 8). Bow does an abridgment. QUESTIONS.abomination absolute „_ 3sO ABOMINATIOIV QUESTIONS. or with what is implied f 4. Capital punishment was formerly inflicted in England for trivial In spite of their high attainments in learning and art. 1. so that they are either subjugated or exterminated. 5. we conld not look npon food withont shonld be abated. time that snob a were ABRIDGIHEBiT 1. How does abominaiion differ from aversion or disgust f 4. How does autocratic differ from arbitrary? both these words from despotic ? despotic from tyrannical ? 6. nnlesa in bastj ABSOL. Is irresponsible good or bad in its implication. power tends always to be In its exercise. for United States should be rarely need. (page 7). ruler. the government sent an for apology —— demand all other and indemnity. . What does absdutt In the strict sense denote f supreme f 2. S. QUESTIONS.

To what S. he was EXAMPLES. Intoxi- more than a century old. (page 9). to Tho have Jip stood on the table and barked at Traddles so persistently that he the conversation. when said of the mind. Can one who is preoccupied be said to be listless or thoughtless ? one who is absent-minded? • Note. ABSTRACT. When Is a flnld said to be absorbed? 2. 3. In setting steel rails special provision must be made for their expansion under the influence of the heat that they . (page 10). In all cases. What is the more exact term for the proper course regarding evil indulgences t EXAMPLES. What is temperance regarding things lawful and worthy i regarding things vicious and injnrions i 3. How does abstract. 6. and absorb in the fignrative sense. QUESTIONS.fiQi «*='* absolve abstract ABSOLVE . seemed to cost him no He was so moderate in his desires that his from all Among the Anglo-Saxons the idea of universal and total cants is little . QUESTIONS. ABSTRACTED QUESTIONS. may be said ABSTINENCE 1. is the difference between abstract and separate? between dismminaie and distinguish ?* St. How does ammme differ from absorb? 4. . How 3. See these words under discern as referred to at the end of the paraeraph on abstract in Part I. What (page 10. imbibe. How do abstracted. absorbed. differ from divert? from distract? 3.. (page 9). fwallow. very little heat was' the fnel was rapidly from the outer surface. a man from his personal responsibUltj. does What la it difEer from acguitf forgive/ jmtlfyf pardon f of absolve? What are the chief antonynu Ko power ander heaven can When the facts were known. The pupil should be instructed. ABSORB 1. Is the substance of the alieorbtng body changed by that which it absorbs? Give instances. What is the original sense QUESTIONS. does 1 it apply t its special sense when used with reference to sins 4. Bow does (Ulstlnence differ from abstemiousness? from self-denial? 2. of absolved 8. 11). v. of all blame. What is the diSerence between aisorb and emit? absorb and radiate? EXAMPLES. within the furnace. tolook up and read over the synonyms referred to by the words in small capitals at the end of the paragraph in Part I. ani preoccupied differ from absent-minded? 4. Give instances of the distinctive ases of engross.

QUESTIONS. It a conclusion that Carlyle delighted in hatred of the Jews In the Middle Ages led the populace to believe the slanders concerning them. fooUsh. How e. with these perpIexitleB as to be completely if . (page 11). and all who had formerly been his friends. intellectual gifts make the ACCESSORY. What bad f and pervert apply does abuse differ from damage (as In fbs 3. the ridiculous. QUESTIONS. He vraa bo totrndings. In the merely - one idea from all its associations and view it alone la the The power to mark of a philosophical mind. has man hie fellow man more cruelly than by him for his In no way religious belief. ABSURD 1. The tenant shall not the property beyond reasonable wear. does an associate compare In rank with a principal < .absurd accessory. and which in a bad sense ? 3. words of this group are used in a bad sense f 5. misuse. ABVSIE: To what does abmt apply f (page 12). Which words of this group are used in a good. dangerous villain. g. What are some chief antonyms of absurd t EXAMPLES. • The bnsy student may be excnsed intolerable. To what does aUy generally apply r colleague f 4 How . Do misemploy. may be disproved by deducing logically from utterances. What is the especial impiicaUon in unreamnabUf 4. A Is statement . How do momtraua and preposterma compare with absurd f 5. case of rented property. many of his arguments were so The — 1. «. In his rage he began to To be for doing right can never really a true man. How do persecute and oppress differ ? 7. (page IS). but found him altogethei I attempted to dissuade him from the » as to be positively — . QUESTIONS. occnpationg had made him Numerone toterraptions la the midst of almost . How does ofr>«« differ from harmf 4. What is the especial element common to the ludicrous. Is reproach. 1. 2. n. and eillyf 3. most plan. good or 6. What is the difference between absurd andparcuUxciealf Z. What are the distinctions between irrational. and the nonsensical t 6. osa «*»* EXAMPLES. Which are indifferently either good or bad f 3.)i to persons or things ? To which does abuse apply ? EXAMPLES.

What Is the special significance ot fortune f 4. The baion rode into town with a great array of armed . How is . In what sense axe follower. All persons. (page 15). Bttlo ACQUAIIiTAJfCE QUESTIONS. As he was not present at the actual commission only an of the crime. many who can not be admitted The enduring of school and college life often develop into the most beautiful and . To what is accomplice nearly equivalent f Which la the preferred legal term 1 used sor!/ EXAMPLES. How does fellowship differ iiom friendship ? EXAMPLES. he was held to be and not an . Between those most widely separated by distance station. The called to the for a fresh bandage. How does acquaintance tiom companionship ? acquaintance tiomfrientishipf iioia intimacy ? 3. Gambling clings almost inseparably Bruises and contusions are regarded to games oi . are ready promptly to claim with of life must bring us into The . QUESTIONS. as ordinary of the cavalry service too far. Ib assistant or attendant the higher word i How do both these words compare with associate f 6. there may yet be true of place and time. ACRIIHOIVY How (page 15).n^n "*''» acrimony accident 6. What is the legal distinction between a8««or and accesf 8. henchman. The prudent man is careful not to tempt The misplacement of the switch caused a terrible . France and Russia seem to have become firm . of soul. What differ does acqitaintance between persons imply ? 2. QUESTIONS. ACCIDENT (page 14). should take the greatest care In the choice of their . A public speaker becomes who within the inner circle of known to many persons wiiom he does not know. I. How are accident. but with him. and mishap distinguished t Is the difference between accident and chance f ? differ from both EXAMPLES. I. Great thoughts and high purposes keep one from being greatly disturbed by the of d^y life. What i. and retainer f partner f 7. How does It differ in usage from chance f 5 . and creed. misadventure. occupation. by language. but especially the young. How does incident 3. does acerbity differ from asperity? asperity from acrimony? 2. The Senator differed with his in this matter.

How do active and restless compare? 4. into a settled . acuteness. QUESTIONS. 384 acrimony ^trngaishedtroTa malignity f malignity from vlriUencef 3. What are some chief antonyms of active? EXAMPLES. 17).t\B shrewdness? Is it ordinarily good or evil r 6. and insigM compare with acumen ? 2. A constant sense of injustice may deepen justice. He who The docs the truth will need no Instruction aa to individnal is the truth of thought. ACTIVE 1. Wliich of the words in imply an external effect J Which may be wholly mental f EXAMPLES. he answered with sudden . Great will be patiently borne if the sn£erer Is convinced of its essential ACT 1. What is perspicacity? 5. He had his days and hours. but could never be properly said to be An attendant instantly seized upon my baggage. How do sharpmss. Wha. This smooth and pleasing address veiled a deep . What is the special characteristic of acumen ? To what orderof mind does it belong? 3. (page 18). QUESTIONS. (page 16). B. How Is act distlngnlshed this group necessarily from action? from deed? 2. Being of an tion. independently of its ACIJIIEIV 1 . With what two sets of words is active allied 1 2. . true student is from the mere love of learning. EXAMPLES. To what sort of activity does qffldous refer ? 6. (page QUESTIONS. The treatise displays great critical The Indians had developed a practical . What 1b Implied in the use of the word severity? EXAMPLES. How does active differ from bvsy? from induetrious? 3. penetration.acumen. What is sayaciiy^ Is it attributed to men or brutes f 4. disposition and without settled purpose or definite occupa- she became as a hornet. had become habitual with hhn. Give illustrations of the uses of the above words as regards the possessors of the corresponding qualities. A certain To this of speech ill-timed request. that enabled as the by scarcely perceptible signs almost as unerringly them to follow a hound by scent trail . The rewards. is done.

—^— would ADEQUATE (page 31). of doing doth expresse No other but the doer's willlngnesse. left nothing coorse. slightly handled. fit. QUESTIONS. what thou hast done by day. EXAMPLES. And In the morning what thou iiast to dc And every grin. . How does salute diSer from is it to apostrophize EXAMPLES. I His faithful dog the smiling guest. and sufficient alike signify f How does crnnmcTisurate specifically differ from the other two words f Give examples. commensurate. The I EXAMPLES. invent have very poor and unhappy brains for drinking. We know not of what we are Indeed. ye heroes heaven-bom band I Who fought and died in freedom's canse. suitable. To what does amplify apply ? 4. (page 30). n. What greet? hailf 2. and qualified refer? 3. What b tact/ 3. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. What do adequate. 1. ADDRESS. Wliat does augment signify } Of what is it ordinarily nsed t 3. in dls- . (page 19). 2. The pale snowdrop is springing To the glowing sun. In what ways may a disconrse or treatise be ampMed t EXAMPLES. What does accost always signify accost or greet/ address f f 3. What is qualities are address In the sense here considered. draws one ont ADDRESS. I.„„<*"«• add" adequate ADD Bow 1b add (page 18). V. merry. What And the tear that is wiped with a little — Hay be followM perhaps by a smile. indnded in address/ 2. To what do adapted. Is aile or capable the higher word ? Illustrate. Care to onr cofBn —^— up at night. till the trial comes. so a nail no doubt. Is satisfactory a very high recommendation of any work ? Why f 4. for your purpose untouched. QUESTIONS. related to Increase f How does it differ from midtlpXyt %. I conld wish some other custom of entertainment. to the Chief who in triumph advances.

The deposed monarch was found to have a strong body of ADJACENT (page 22). How I. to their eternal ADmiRE (page 23). What Is the difference between acfjacent and adjoining f contiguous t conterminous f 2. How does an adherent differ from a mpporterf from a disciple f 3> How do both the above words differ from allyf 4. men . At church. QUESTIONS. The beautiful are sure to be . at His looks The red breast To the ground where thou art laid. EXAMPLES. I It gives ten thousand motives to : Be it religions. arise speaking perverse things to draw away Woman is woman's natm:al Self-defense compelled the European nations to be s against Kapoleon. near. the venerable place. . 31). QUESTIONS. and you have nothing else to fear. home. value Science none can prize it more. Henceforth the majesty of God . With hoary moss. Is it well to speak of a supporter as a backer? EXAMPLES. — ADORN (page 23). s. QUESTIONS. and it bows the knee. In what sense does aifmire compare with revere/ venerate/ adore f Give instances of the use of these words. and gathered flowers. as it ought to be. and why ? 6. What does next always imply I 4. Shall kindly lend his little aid. with meek and unaffected grace. Has partisan a good or a bad sense. oft. What distance is implied in nea?' / neighboring f 3. Give antonyms of adjacent. was admire formerly used ? What EXAMPLES. Also of your own selves shall s after them. Fear him. I. evening hours. The heart it humbles. does It now express t 2. What le an adiierentf 2. wiser men become.adherent adorn nagt tSso ADHERENT (page QUESTIONS. How from decorate f does adorn differ from ornament f from garnish f from (feci or beOec/cf EXAMPLES. M they draw Stronger by weakness. I.

Who with no deep researches the brain. How does affwrU compare with InsuUt with iSeOM/ EXAMPLES. My poverty.naw «»»• aim aliVont AI'VROJiT 1. The declined to take the responsibility in the absenoe of the owner. How do end and object compare 1 3. 1. ACE]ST(page24). How does (Kwsde compare with co««c«<^ 3. What is design? Is . What is gardening f Jlorictillure f horticulture f Loan oft loses both itself and friend. Which the most general word of this group ? EXAMPLES. What Ib it to affrontt 2. . How ioea purpose compare with Intention f B. Oh. endeavor.TVRE QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. or purpose? 4. A woman's lot is made for her by the love she ——. (page 34). And borrowing dulls the edge of A field becomes ezhansted by constant AIM (page 26). How does it EXAMPLES. How do concur and coincide diSer in range of meaning ? How with reference to expression in action f 3. The petty dedre to is simply a perversion of the hnman love of power. How does What agent In the philosophical sense compare with nwoer or doert different sense has it in business usage f EXAMPLES. man must be held to be a free . What does agriculture Include ? (page difEer 35). It is safer to some people than to oblige them. To what does asplratUm apply f How does it differ in general from design. for the better a man do- Berves. but not my will. QUESTIONS. . Itom farming f 2. . the worse they will speak of him. rather give me commentators plain. QUESTIONS. They rushed to meet the foe. —— AORICVL. QUESTIONS. What an aim f How does It difEer from markf from goalf 2. AGREE is (page 25). That morality may mean anything.

'^ ^" What i» the sense of bearing? carriage? 5. (page. dieguietude. How does mien differ from air? 6. . to the train beneath. and purge off the baser Victorious. For mieerable air taa •*'"' It is not . Lies in his bed. O yet we trust that somehow good of 111. Will be the final How quicl£ly nature falls into revolt. I never. would soon expel Her mischief. .alarm EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. How does airy agree with the two words. In deeds of daring rectitude. on sands and shores and desert wllder- The mold flie. (page 27). the room up of my absent child. whispers breathe. Incapable of stain. dread. my children. and misgiving related to the danger that ttai fright express 1 derivation and distinctive . in ecom that end with self. needs but to be seen. When gold becomes her but ambition that is the mother of misery in man AIR 1. ance? 3. Aie avely and animatedMsedi in the favorable or unfavorable sense ! EXAMPLES. What does e^Acreoi signify f sprlghUy? 3. Society became And hopes my glittering bride. What do affright Give an illustration of the contrasted terms. What is air in the sense here considered f 2. 3. (page 28). with important In conversation overbear. - tongues that syllable men's names. Soft o'er the slirouds That seemed but zephyrs ALARm 1. and differ from aerial? Give instances of the uses ot 2. QUESTIONS. 27). What is What does demeanor include ? EXAMPLES. What is the meaning of alarm? 2. . AIRY 1. Howare apprelwnsUm. Vice Grief fills is a monster of so frightful As. walks Puts on his pretty repeats his words. to be hated. up and down with me. How does air difEer from appear the difference between aEp''^*"''*^^'^^^^.

How does ready differ from alert? tiom prepared f 3. never the Fashioned for himself. as he would overleap His destiny. (page 30). 1.L. to our natnie. a. is ALiIEir. (page 38). What are consternation. . Thus ending loudly. and bow are they related to the danger 5.oun '*"'•' excites alert allay them ? 4. nor something What is reli^on ? Not a which comes and takes up its abode in the soul. What Is timidity f ALERT 1. widcawalce. What Is (page 31). to-day will he less so to-morrow.) 4. How does aUke compare with similar ? with identical ? 2. sometimes awfnl. iSb n. What is the sense of analogtiusf (Compare synonyms for ANALOGT. QUESTIONS. Is a. What does prompt signify f 4. inhabitant. and ready refer? 2. the distinction between aMay and alleviate f Which word implies s par- . How can one residing in a foreign country cease to he an alien in that country f 5. J and terror. hands thy dying eyes were closed * * * hands thy humble grave adorned By By strangers honored and by strangers mourned. To he He who is for war not one of the most effectual ways of preserving peace. What is the secondary meaning of dUri? EXAMPLES. In what sense is AomoyeM^mj used? tion often EXAMPLES. By AL. fof two moments together. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. sometimes capricious. Sometimes gentle. How does alien f alien differ tiom/oreign ? 3.IK1: 1. QUESTIONS. Are the people of one country while residing in their own land foreigners or aliens to the people of other lands ? 4. foreigner by birth necessarily an 3. An AL. he stood.AT 1 . dismay. How do foreign and alien differ in their figurative use ? EXAMPLES. What is the distincmade between e^al and equivalent ? 3 . a bride. taken from his side. To what do alert. from the covenants of from the commonwealth of Israel and promise.

To what iBjiction now most commonly ap- EXAMPLES. What are the distinctions between allegory. document. I can not -^—— one thing and mean another. >- But.allege allevlato tlal nnA JwW removal of the canBe of enSering. signature. What are the special significations of atate ? assuage ? mitigate ? moderate ? 4. Is alleviate used of persons f 3 . How much of certainty is imgVi^ in aUegef 3. In argument -^^— are like songs in love: They much describe. sootht.l. (page SI). saying. or the like ? EXAMPLES. they nothing prove. How does alleviate compare with allay? (Compare synonyms for AILAT.i:«ORY 1. and the like f 3. QUESTIONS. How much does one ad mit when he speaks of an alleged fast.L. things unto them In . or an actual lightening of the bTirden T 2. To pity distress is but human. pacify. at random spoken Uay or wound a heart that's broken I —— AliliEGE I. Behold a sower went AL. O what mighty magician can A woman's envv ? . QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. (page 33). does aUeviate differ from relieve? from remmie / 2. And He spake many forth to BOW. Uany aword. And come like the benediction That follows after prayer. With whatwordsisffiife^jafeespeciallytobegroupedf (See synonyms for AIXEVXiTB.) EXAMPLES. Under whatgeneraj term are all these included ? 4.ETIATE How (page 83). allege or adduce? Why ? 2. to I it Is Godlike. Which Is the primary and which the secondary word.) EXAMPLES. With which of the above words are we to class appease. If I can't pray I will not make beIn lieve I AL. How does allegory compare with simile? plied? Simile with metaplwrf 2. etadparaile? 3. many cases of haunted houses. faMe. the spirits have not ventured to face an armed man who has passed the night there. Such songs have power to The restless pnlse of care.

How does award WS&x from aUot^ appoint. dissent. . The two nations formed an ofEenBtre and enemy. or person ? 2.1JI>i: (page 86). Till the detenBive —— against the common war'dimn tlirobhed no longer. QUESTIONS.L. WhatlsanoBioTMW/ how does It diHerftom parin^sMpf ttomcocditionf from league f 2. What instances can yon give of the use of these words. I. Business are the warrant for the existence of trade > ^— AIiL.'illing to AI. . saying: ** I name thee not. place. the of the world. Bow doesa cotifederacy or federation dlScr from a union/ EXAMPLES. 85). How do hint and insinuate differ f EXAMPLES. How do the above words compare with mention as to explicitness ? 3. going <lowt. Who may not wander from the Before bis work be done. lest so despised a name Shonld move a sneer at thy deserved fame.on< "*»* alliance allude AliLiIANCE (page 84). 1. and assign? EXAMPLES." . Whai does yield imply t permisof toler^ EXAMPLES. and the battlcflags were f nrled. Frederick on a field of his the Austrians to cross the mountdns that he might attack them own choosing. QUESTIONS. The cruelty and envy of the people by our dastard nobles. State churches have ever been unv. destine dlSer from appoint f 4. Man hath his daily work of hody or mind .OT How does (page 34). to Late in the eighteenth century Cowper did not venture to do more than the great allegorist [Bunyan]. the son knoweth hie The king is but as the hind . QUESTIONS. also ate and submit/ 3. He cth the moon for seasons. 1. flCid AULOW (page QUESTIONS. Does aSot refer to time. In the Parliament of man. who Have all forsook me. What Is the distinctive sense of cUludef of advert? ot rtfer? 2. To what does appoint refer t assign T 3. hath devonred the rest. What Is the difference between aSow and permit f between a permit and sion f 2.

. Whatlslt tooSMrs? Z. And by maldng rich. to thy friends ? . What is 2." AMASS (page 38). does coax express ? 4. to thy words. not making poor. 1. (page 38).amass allure „„„ av* ALiIiURE . (page QUESTIONS. Is u. Thine to work to pray. What is it to cajole f to decoy? to Inveigle 5. he a prodigious fortune. Clearing thorny wrongs away in. 87). interest amassed or accumulated ? 4. 'Bovi &oes allure AiSta fmm attract f iiom lure ? 3. is the difference between cTuace and altemative in the strict nse of lan? ? f guage 2. The ruddy square The of comfortable light him. QUESTIONS. How does *e(?Mce differ from tempt f 6. Is alternative always so severely restricted by leading writers choice^ j^f:^ electimi. How is amass distinguished from accumulate f 3. man of many . as the beacon blaze bird of passage. QUESTIONS. Which distinctly imply that what U added is like that to which it is added F EXAMPLES. What 3. He had a strange gift of AliSO 1. friends. synonyms for also naturally divided f 2. But Satan now is wiser than of yore.i» nsed in the favorable oi nnfaTOrable sense ? What EXAMPLES. By daring and successful speculation. and of the love of women. Letting heaven *8 warm sunshine ALTERNATITE QUESTIONS. The sum was the savings of an industrious and frugal life. How does hoard differ from stare ? it to artwss f EXAMPLES. what purpose dost thou That thou return'st no greeting O. Into what two groups are the (page 37). Which words simply add a fact or thought ? 3. Plucking up the weeds of sin. ajid pr^eremx imply regarding one^s wishes alternative? resources? What do Homer delights to call Ulysses " the EXAMPLES.

How do the two words differ? 3. What two senses has amMtion? 2. QUESTIONS. Has emvlatitm a good side ? aspiration/ How does it emulation? compare with aspiration/ EXAMPLES. What is the meaning of awe? of admiration? 4. (page 40). fling away the angels. QUESTIONS. fell By To prick the sides of . toiled him to be freed. Ib 1 have no spur that sin. What is the distinctive sense of 4. And gaping mouth that testified 'Twas while he And AIMIBITIOir 1 . my intent. 's iron trance. What do amazement and astonishmeM agree in expressing 1 2. How does amUtion differ from Which is the higher word ? 3. (page 39). I charge thee.<>a<> '*'* ambition atnateui* AMATEUR What is 3. and sculpture have not been done by He was The mere enjoy. ? Without our special The fool of nature stood with stupid eyes . from All Wycklif' s soldiers waked at once. and whose businesB is only to judge and AlIAZIliriEIVT 1. bat only Vaulting . in the leam'd or brave. That. painting. How does surprise differ from astonishment and amazement? S. (page 39). to which th' ignoble mind's a slave. the difference between amateur and connoisseur f between connoUseMr and critic? 2. And overcome us like a summer's doud. who produces notliing. Cromwell. Envy. with the rein to raise the steed. in Logic a great Profoundly skill'd in Analytic He could dlBtinguishf and divide A hair 'twixt Bouth and south-west side. The greatest worlm in poetry. ViTiicli word carries a natural implication of eaperflcialneBS J How do novice and tyro differ from amateur f EXAMPLES. What are the characteristics of wonder ? EXAMPLES. Can such things be.

I —— as the presence of woman is. What is parity oi reasoning ? 5. Betum ye now every man from hia evil way. . My enemy has long home me a feeling of Christ . better. with at the hypocrisy of the Jews. soft as a kiss. What Is it to amemtf 2. This was a manl The east is blossoming Yea a rose. and charming differ from amiable t Give exa good'naiured person necessarily agreeable f an amiable ? EXAMPLES. fonl. What are the especial characteristics of anger ? How does it differ from indig- nation? exasperation? rage? wrath? ire? EXAMPLES. not difficult to trace the of the home to the Btat«. or eyil f 4. attractive. . r*w* AIHEINO (page 41). QTIESTIONS. 1 . and improve differ from amend/ 3. To what does amiable always apply f 3. QUESTIONS. and the elements was So mixed in him. How do advance. Hoes coi?icide7ice necessaLTily involve reseniblaTwe or likeness ? 4. VTbsXia affinity t coincidence? 3. His life . What is the difference between amend and emend? EXAMPLES. amples. Is 3. The two boys bore a close It is to each other. Whaiie a similitude? G. A]VAI. and the text at this point has your doings. ANGER (page 44). that Nature might stand u^ And say to all the world. QUESTIONS. Vast as the heavens. QITESTIONS. and The construction here is difficult. been variously Human be- characters and conditions never reach such perfection that they can not AMIABLE (page 42). person? 4. I was overcome by a sudden feeling of was filled . What the specific meaning of analogy? 2.amend aiij^er „„.OOY(page43). 'Eovi do resemblance and is similarity differ from analogy ? EXAMPLES. Are these words applied to matters decidedly bad. To what does lovdy often apply How do agreeable.

of abuse and sarcasm. It is a paltry . 1. QUESTIONS. EXAMPLES. (page 45). The songs of birds and the wild flowers in the woodlands the coming of ANSITER 1 . What is the special quality of a response ? 6. lazy. aa animal f 3. sensual AiraroriVCE 1. I can no other . but thanks. To be a lawless.make. **•"* aiiima] aiisTFer AWIMAL. It is only within the last half century that societies have been organized for the 1 prevention of cruelty to . QUESTIONS. Is man. and he does find give thee of thy just demand. m Nature to every mood of his A man renowned for Nothing is and unprofitable Will seldom scmple to make free With friendship's honest feeling. pleasance. How does an answer to a charge. (page 46). transform onrselves into 1 Take a out of his instinct. In what wider sense is answer used ? 3. what you please. with life and death depending on the answer. Theirs not to make Theirs not to reason why. and applause. What isittoanKOKnce. Does it apply chiefly to the past or the future f To what is advertise chiefly applied f propound ? promulgate ? publish ? 3. revel. we O that men should put an enemy in their mouths to steal away their brains that should with joy.? 2. joys to loot. and you find him wholly deprived of underSpuming manhood and its standing. an argument. or the like. To mind. Through the rare fehcity of the times you are permitted to think what you please The Sphinx its riddles and to spring. He could not be content without finding a it.aaK. What is a reply? a ryoinder? 4. What is a verbal answer? 2. Upon thy princely warrant I descend. but so easy and inviting as the contest. . (page 46). What is implied it we speak of any particular man as an animal? a brute ? a beast? 4. QUESTIONS. WhaXiaaaardmal ? a brute ?& beast? 2. What is a retort ? How does it differ from r^artee f EXAMPLES. What forms of ezistence does the word crea^ur^ include 7 6> What are the animals of a country or region collectively called ? EXAMPLES. Theirs but to do and die. differ from a reply or r^oinder? 5.

anticipate, autlclnallon ^

anxiety

„„„ 396
(page
47).

ANTICIPATE, ANTICIPATIOBf
QUESTIONS.
1.

What are the two contrasted senees of anticipate? 2. Which is now the more common f 3. How does anticipate differ from expect f from Iwpef from apprehend?
4. How does am<iraj)a<iora differ liom presentiment? tiom apprehension? tiomforetx>ding ? 5. What special element is involved inforetaste? How do foresight anAforelhmght go beyond the meaning of anticipation?

EXAMPLES.
Then some leaped overboard with fearful As eager to their grave.
England
yell,

every man to do his duty. These are portents; but yet I , I hope, They do not point on me. If I know your sect, I your argument. The happy of a renewed existence in company with the

spirite

of the

jnst.

AMTIPATHT
1.

(page

48).

QUESTIONS.

How

is antipathy to be distinguiehed from dislike? from antagonism? from aversion? 2. WhatiB uncongeniality? How does it differ from ontipaMv/

Which is

positive

f

and

wUch negative f EXAMPLES.
all

Christianity

is

the solvent of
'tis

race

,

From my soul I
All affectation;

loathe
.

my perfect scorn,

object of

my implacable

ANTIQVi;(page48).
QUESTIONS.
1.

To what does

antique refer f antiquated? 2. Is the difference between them a matter of time ? Give examples. 3. Can a modem building be antiquated?

Can it be antique ? 4 What
.

is

the signiflcance of quaint ?

EXAMPLES.
copper lamps, at any rate, For being true I bought. I do love these ruins, We never tread upon them but we set Our foot upon some reverend history.
,

My

ANXIETY (page 49).
QUESTIONS.
I
.

What Is

anxiety in the primary eense aMrf«<y differ from anguish? 3.
?

f

Is

it

mental or physical

What kind

f 2. How doei of poBslbility does anxiety al
etc.,
ii

ways suggest
this regard
f

4.
5.

How does it differ from
is

apprehension, fear, dread,

What

worry? fretfulness? 6. Does perplexity involw

fl'>» ••'*

apathy
appetite

EXAMPLES.
Yield not to the future, weep not for the past. Superstition invested the sliglitest incidents of life with needless is harder than worls, and far less profitable.

APATHY
What

(page QUESTIONS.

50.)

is apathy f 2. How does it differ from the Saxon word wnfeeHngTiess f from indifference f from insenHbUity t from unconcern f 3. How does «toidsm differ from apathy f

EXAMPLES.
In lazy let stoics boast Their virtae fixed: 'tis fixed as in a frost came. At length the mom and cold Bank Into a from which it was impossible to arouse him.

He

APOLOGY (page 51).
QTIESTIONS.
1.

What change of meaning has opotogv undergone
always imply
these words
?

?

2. Whatdoesanapotog^now

How does an apology differ from an excuse? 4. Which of may refer to the future? 5. How does coTiJ'eeaion differ from
3.

apology?

EXAMPLES.
only account for that which they do not
for being. Beauty is its own but suicide There is no refuge from
;

alter.

and

suicide

b

.

APPARENT
1
.

(page

53).

QtTESTIONS.

What two
is

implied

do seeming?

contrasted senses arise from the root meaning of apparent ? Z. What when we speak of apparent kindness or apparent neglect f 3. How presumable and probaHe differ i 4. What implication is conveyed in

What do we

suggest

when we speak of " seeming innocence "t

EXAMPLES.
It is not It is
offense.

not yet

that the students will attempt to break the rules again. what his motive could have been in committing such an

It is

that something has been omitted which

was

essential to complete the

construction.

APPETITE
1.

(page

54).

QUESTIONS.
Of what kind of demands or impulses is appetite ordinarily usedf 2. What demands or tendencies are included in passion? 3. What is implied by po«aums and appetites when used as contrasted terms ?

army

apportion

<io& "*'"

EXAMPLES.
Govern well thy , lest sin Stirprise thee, and her black attendant Death. sway Take heed lest Thy judgment to do aught which else free will

Would not admit.

APPORTION
,

(page

54).

QUESTIONS.
What
is

the special significance of apportion

aUot, assign, disiribuie, or divide f

the transitive use

?

3.

What is
among

it

by which it is distinguished from 2. What is the significance of dispense in to appropriate?

EXAMPLES.
Representatives are
the several states accorcung to the population.

The

treasure

was

and

their shares duly

among the captors.
(page
55).

APPROXIMATIOSr
QUESTIONS.
1.

What

is an approximation, in the mathematical sense? 2. How close an approach to exactness and certainty does approximation imply? 3. How does approximation difEer from resemblance and similarity ? from approach ? 4. How does approximation, as regards the class of objects to which it is applied, differ from nmrness, neigliborhood, oi propinquity ?

EXAMPLES.

We have to be content with
Without
faith, there is

to a solution. to

no

real

God.

Wit consists

in

knowing the

of things

which

differ,

and the

difference of

things which are alike.

ARMS
1.

^age

55).

QUESTIONS. What
is

the difference between
in

arms and armor t 2. In what connection

is

armor used

modem warfare ? EXAMPLES.

There

is

on clashing brayed Horrible discord. constant rivahy between irresistible projectiles and impenetrable

.

ARMY (page
1
.

56).

QUESTIONS. What are the essentials of an army? 2. Is an army large or small f term would be applied to a multitude of armed men without order or
tion f

3.

What

organiza-

4. In what sense

is

host used

?

legion?

EXAMPLES.
For the is a school in which the miser becomes generous, prodigal; miserly soldiers are like monsters, but very rarely seen. and the generous.

The

still-discordant

wavering

,

399

ask

arraign

ARRAIGnr (page 66).
QUESTIONS.
To what kind
dieted f of proceedingB do indict and arraign apply
?

2.

How arraigned? 3. cusef ctnruref
The
criminal

How

do these words

differ

How is one from cliargef

iir ar-

EXAMPLES
was
for
trial

for his offenses.

Beligion does not

or exclude unnumbered pleaenres, harmlessly pnrsueda

ARTIFICE
1.

(page

58).

QUESTIONS. What is an artifice ? a deoice ? finesse ? 3 In what
and imposture always used
f

What

is

a fraud?

. sense are cheats maneuver, 3. In what sense is trick commonly used f 4. 5. Is wile used in a good or a bad sense ? 6. Does the

good or the bad sense commonly attach Wind, device, and finesse?

to the words artifice, contrivance, ruse.

EXAMPLES.
Those who can not gain their ends by force naturally resort to The enemy were decoyed from their defenses by a skilful Quips and cranks and wanton Nods and becks and wreathed smiles. Whoever has even once become notorious by base , even truth, gains no belief.
, .

.

if

he speaks the

ARTIST (page 58).
1.

What

is

an artist? |an artisan?

QUESTIONS. 2. What

is

an artificer?

How

related to

artist

and artisan ?

EXAMPLES.
The power depends on the depth
plates.

of the

's

insight of that object he contein-

professions of
into
If too

Infuse into the purpose with which you follow the various employments and life the sense of beauty, and you are transformed at once from an

an

.

many turn shopkeepers, the whole natural quantity of that business divided among them all may afford too small a share for each.

ASK (page 59).
QUESTIONS.
I. For what clasB of objects does one aslf?
entreat

For what does he Jeg'/ 2. How do compare with ask? 3. What is the special sense of implO}'e? ot supplicate? 4. Sovfaie crave and request distinguished? pray 5. What kind of asking is implied in demand? in require} eind petition ? How do these two words differ from one another?

and

beseech

cassurance

«w
EXAMPLES.
We, ignorant
of ourselves,
often our

Deny us

for our

good

own harms, which the wise powers so we find profit,
;

By

losing of our prayers.
is great,

Tlio harvest truly

but the labourers are few:

ye therefore the

Lord of the harvest that he would send forth labourers

into his harvest.

Speak with me, pity me, open the door,

A beggar
.

that never begg'd before.
;

Be not
,

afraid to
if

to

is right.
.

thou canst, with hope; but ever Though hope be weak or sick with long delay; in the darkness, if there be no light.

ASSOCIATE
,

(page

60).

QUESTIONS.
What does
guage
?

What when used In popular lanspeak of associates in crime or wrong f What words are preferred in such connection? (See synonyms for aocebsokt.) 3. Is comr pardon used in a good or bad sense ? 4. How does it differ in use from assoassociate imply, as used ofllcially f

2.

Do we

ciate f

6.

What is

the significance ol peer f comrade f consort/

EXAMPLES.
His best

And his best riches
The The

innocence and health, ignorance of wealth. accepted Napoleon's abdication. leader In the plot was betrayed by his -

assume:
.

(page 61)

QUESTIONS.
Does assume apply to that which is rightfully or wrongfully taken t 2, In what use does assume correspond with arrogate and usurp ? 3 . How do arrogate and usurp differ from each other 7 How does assume differ from postulate as regards debate or reasoning of any kind ?

EXAMPLES.
Wherefore do I These royalties, and not refuse to reign. a virtue if you have it not. For well we know no hand of blood and bono

Can gripe the

sacred handle of our scepter. Unless he do profane, steal, and ———.

ASSVRAIVCE:
,

(page

61).

What
3.

is

assurance in the

How does

aesuranse In the bad sense assurance compare with impudence? with effrontery t

QUESTIONS. good sense ? 2. What is

401
EXAMPLES.
Let ua draw near with a true heart in fuil of faith. Some wicked wits have libel'd all the fair. With matchless they style a wife The dear-bought curse, and lawful plague of With brazen he denied the most indisputable facts.

astute attain

ilf

ASTUTE
1
.

(page

63).

QUESTIONS. From what language is acute derived f What is its distinctive sense what language is keen derived f What does it distinctively denote

f f

2. From

3 . From what language is astute derived, and what was its original meaning ? 4. In present use what does astute add to the meaning of acute or keen ? 5. What
does astute imply regarding the ulterior purpose or object of the person credited with it f

who is

EXAMPLES.
You statesmen are so in forming schemes He taketh the wise in their own ncss. The most reasoner may be deluded, when he
I

practises sophistry upon

himself.

ATTACHMENT (page
QUESTIONS.
What

63).

is attachment? How does it differ from adJier&nce or adhesion? from c^feetionf from inclination? from regard?

EXAMPLES.
Talk not of wasted
,

never was waated.
for yonr family
it.

Ton do not weaken your
pale,

by cultivating

'

n

beyond

its

bat deepen and intensify

ATTACK, V. & n.
1.

(pages 63,

64).

QUESTIONS.
What
special element is involved in the
differ ?

meaning of attack?

3.
tliis

How do assaU
word compare

and assault

3.

What

is it

to encounter?

how

does

with attack?

How does attack differ from aggression? EXAMPLES.

We see time's furrows on another's brow.
And
death intrench'd, preparing his
;

How few themselves in that just mirror see!

Who ever knew Truth put to the worse in a free and open
Roger Williams
never his persecutors.

?

the spirit of intolerance, the doctrine of persecution, and

ATTAIN
1
.

(page 64)

QUESTIONS.
Whalt kind of a word
differ
is attain, and to what does it point ? 3. How does aitain from obtain f from achieve? 3. How does obtain differ from procure?

as

attitude

aTarlcIouB

liVx

EXAMPLES.
and kept men by sadden flight. But they, while their companions slept. Were toiling upward in the night. Onr doabts are traitors, And make us lose the good we oft might

The helghtB by Were not

great

By fearing to

attempt.

ATTITUDE
,

(page 65).

How

differ from attliucle, posture, or does position as regards pose t 3. Do the three latter words apply to the liTing or the dead 1 3 . What is the distinctive sense of attUude ? Is it conscious or nuconscions f 4. How does posture differ from attitude? 5. What is the distinctive sense of pose? How does it differ from, and how does it agree with attitude and posture?

QUESTIONS. the human body

EXAMPLES.
The The
assumed indicated great indignation because of the insult implied. was graceful and pleasing.

ATTRIBIJTi:,
What suggestion
from
rtfer
is

V.

(page

65).

QUESTIONS.
often involved in attrilmte?

and ascribe?

2. How does attrVmte differ 3. Is charge (in this connection) used in the favor-

able or unfavorable sense?

EXAMPLES.
He
ye greatness unto our God. unworthy motives which proved a groundless charge.

ATTRIBUTE, n.
QUESTIONS.

(page

66).

What

2. What Is an 3. Which of the above words expresses what necessarily belongs to the subject of which it is said to be an attribute or guality ? 4. What is the derivation and distinctive sense ot property ? 5. How does property ordinarily differ from quality. 6. In what usage do property and quality become exact synonyms, and how &ie properties then distinguished ?
is

the derivation and the inherent meaning of quality?

attribute?

EXAMPLES.
His scepter shows the force of temporal power.

The to awe and majesty. Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings.
Nothing endures but personal
s.

AVARICIOUS (page 68).
QUESTIONS.
\.

How

do avaricious and covetous

differ

from miserly, niggardly, parsimonious.

Aat ""*
and penurUms ? 2. Of what matterf art ireedy and they differ from each other f
1

avenge

awkivard
ettng]/

neeA

y

How do

am not
care I
It

for gold;

feed upon my cost; yearns me not if men my garments wear. It is better to he content with anch things as ye have than to become in accnmnlating.

Nor

who doth

and

ATENOE (page 69).
QUESTIONS.

What

avenge f 3. How does avenge differ from revenge f 3. Which word would he used of an act of God f 4. Is retaliate used in the sense of avenge or of revenge f
is It to

EXAMPLES.
O, that the vain remorse, which must chastise Grimes done, had but as loud a voice to warn

As

its

keen sting is mortal to

I lost mine eye laying the prize aboard, And therefore to it, shalt thou die.

AVO'W (page 69).
1.

QUESTIONS. Which words of tliis group refer exclusively to one^s own knowledge or action y 2. What is the distinctive sense of aver? of avouch? of avow? 3. How do
avouch and avow
or a br.d sense
f

differ

from aver
it

What does

in construction ? 4. Is avow used in a good imply of others' probable feeling or action? 5

How does avow compare with confess? EXAMPLES.
The child
his fault

And, but herself, no parallel and was pardoned by his parent.

AWFUL,
1.

(page

70).

QUESTIONS.
To what
matters should awful properly be restricted f 2. Is awful always interchangeable with alarming or terrible? with disagreeaMe or annoying?

EXAMPLES.
thing to die. Then must it be an The silent falling of the snow is to me one of the most
things in nature.

AWKWAKD
1.

(page

70).

QUESTIONS.
What
Is

what, therefore, does

the derivation and original raexam^oi awkwarS,? oi clumsy? 2. Tft awkward primarily refer 1 and to what clumsy? 3. Is

axiom
bank.
a draft-horse distinctively
uses of

mi\m 404

awkward

or

dvmsyf

4. Give some metaphorical

awkward f

EXAMPLES.
,

The

apprentice

Though he was was not only but
,

he was kindly.
,

and had to be taught over and

over again the

same methods. The young girl stood in a

vay, looking in at the showy shop-windows.

AXIOM

(page

71).

QUESTIONS.
1. In what do axiom and truism agree ; 2. In what do they differ they compare in interest and utility f
T

3.

How do

EXAMPLES.
almost an that those liberal for the heathen at home.
It is

who do most

for the heathen abroad

«k

most

Trifling

s clothed in great, swelling

words of vanity.

BABBL£
To what
called
differ
?

(page

71).

QUESTIONS.
class

do most of the words

in this group belong

?

Why

are they so

differ

How do they from each other in use? 3. What is chat? 4, How does prffiitfinj from chatting f 5, In what sense is jaSber used f How does it com2.

What

is

the special significance of bla^ and blurt?

pare with chatter/

EXAMPLES.
" The crane," I The dove may
said,

" may of the crane. of the dove."
one of them amusing a
ing babe.

Two women sat contentedly

ing,

BANISH
I
,

(page

72).

From what land may one By whom may one be
3.

QUESTIONS. be banished ? From what
said to be banished?
is

expatriated or

etciled ?

2.

by
f

whom expatriated or exiled f
Give examples of
its

WMch

of these words

of widest import

meta-

phorical use.

BABTK
I
.

(page

72).

QUESTIONS.
What
is

a beach ? a coast ?

2.

How

does each of the above words differ from

bank? 3. What Is the distinctive sense of strand? In what style of writing is it moat commonly used f 4. What are the distinctive senses of edge and
ii-ink

?

405 *""

banter
beautiful

BANTER
t.

(page

78).

QT3ESTI0NS.

What la banter f 2. How is badinage distlngalshed from banter f ratUery from both ? 3. Wbat is the distinctive sense of irony f 4. Is iran^ kindlj or the reverse f badinage? banter? 5. What words of this group are distinctly hostile ? 6. Is ridicule or derision the stronger word ? What is the distinction between the

two } between

satire

and sarcasm f between clufff, ieering.

ami mockery?

BARBAROVS (page
1.

78).

What

is the meaning of is the added slgniflcance ot barbaric? 3* How does barbarous in general use differ from both the above words ? 4. Wliat special element is commonly implied In savage? B. In what leas opprobrious sense may barbarous and savage be nsedf Give

QUESTIONS. barbarian? 2, What

instances.

EXAMPLES.

A mnltltade like which the populona North
Poured never from her frozen loins, to pasa sons Ehene or the Danaw, when her Came like a deluge on the south. Or when the gorgeous East, with richest hand. pearl and gold. Showers on her Ijings It is most true, that a natural and secret hatred and aversation toward beast. any man, hath somewhat of the Then art bought and sold among those of any wit lilce a -.——slave.

society, in

BARRIER
1.

(page

74).

QUESTIONS.

What

a bar? and wliat is its purpose 7 2. What Is a JarrJ«f ^ 3. WUct ordinarily applied to objects of great extent,? 4. Would a mountain range be termed a bar or a barrier? 5- What distinctive name is given to a mass of sand across the mouth of a river or harbor i
is

word

is

BATTI/E (page 74),
1.

QUESTIONS. What Is the general meaning of conflict? 2. What Is a batOe? 3. How long may a Jo<«e last ? 4. On how many fields may one da<fl« be fought f 5. How
does engagement difEer from batUe?

How

does combat differ

>

action? skir-

mish? fight?

BEAUTIFUL, (page 76).
QUESTIONS.
1.

What

necessary to constitute an object or a person beautiful ? 2. ful be said of that which is harsh and rugged, however grand f
is

Can beauti3>

How

is

becoming

beginning
beautiful related to onr powerg of appreclatlonf

4<*fc

Maa

with beautifvlt handtarmt esque f

6.

What

4. How doea pretty compare does /air denote ? comely t pictur-

EXAMPLES.

A

within. I pray thee, O God, that I may be and free. happy youth, and their old age is in their lives 'Twas sang, how they were And in their death had not divided been. How has the day been, how bright was the snn. How lovely and joyful the course that he run.

Though he rose in a mist when his race he began And there followed some droppings of rain I

BECOmiKO
1.

(page

77).

QtTESTIONS.

What is the meaning
is

of becoming f of decent? of mitaMef 2, Can that which worthy or beantiful in itself ever be otherwise than beamdng or euitable? G'.re instances. 3. What is the meaning otJUf How does it differ from Atting or batting f

EXAMPLES.

A merrier man.
Within the
limit of

mfrth,

1 never spent
Still

an hour^s talk withal.

govern thou my song, audience find, tho few. for your purpose Indeed, left nothing Untouched, slightly handled, in discourse. In such a time as this, it is not That every nice offense should bear his comment. How could money be better spent than in erecting a greatest library in the country f
Urania, and

^—— building for

the

BEOUOriKO (page
QXJESTIONS.

78).

1 . From what language is beginning derived f commencement t How do the two words differ in application and use ? Give instances. 2. What is an ong'in.^ a murce f a rise f 3 . How &k fount., fowntain, and spring used in the figurative sense?

EXAMPJjES.
For learning is the pure. Out from which all glory springs. every good to gods and men. Courage, the mighty attribute of powers above, By which those great in war are great In love;

Truth

is

the

——of

The of all brave acts is seated here. can not be that Besdemona should long continue her love to the Moor, nor he hie to her: it was a violent and thou shalt see an answerable sequestration. In the God created the heaven and the earth.
It
.

QUESTIONS. What words are commonly nsed for benevolence in the original sense f 4. What is the special significance of caustic? 4. sacrifices. QUESTIONS. What la the distinctive QUESTIONS. how are harsh and bitter distinguished ? 3. What f 3. What of humanity? generosity? liberaiity ? philanthropy EXAMPLES. We lot the years go: Leave them to wash them clean with out in the open day. 1. (page 80). secrets of life are not shown except to and likenees. (page 81). t Adjust onr lives to loss. say I'm sick. Which of the above three words EXAMPLES. In how general a sense iB/asten used is UBed in a figurative sense ? Shut. What is the special sense ol 3. What is the original distinction between lienevolence and beneficence? 2. Out thonghta and onr are our own. good Is the special meaning of tie? 4. tears. up the knocker. sense of bind? 3. all our shattered hopes and hid them bloom again. What was the original sense of charity? the present popular sense ? S. QUESTIONS. make friends with pain. In what sense is benevolence now most commonly used f 3. How do behavior and conduct differ ? 2. Whatis»7Miren«r/ marmersf ca/triagt t EXAMPLES. You can behold such sighte. How do bleach and Uanch differ from whiten ? from each other ? EXAMPLES. How may a(Ad. and not of the hands.**»« bleach BEHATIOR (page ot tearing? demeanor f 79). John fatigu'd. . When mine is cheeks. (page 82). Qood are made np of petty BEIVETOLEWCE QUESTIONS. And keep the natural ruby of your with fear. In metaphorical use. Give examples of these words in theii bitter^ BIiEA€H 1 . and acrid be distinguished ? pungent? caustic? 2. BITTER (page 81). I'm dead. I said. Is BIWD . The a virtue of the heart. various uses. I. shut the door.

How do these words differ from veniure- somef 4. Every page enclosing in the midst little . first No crime's so great as to excel. In sight with what the Muse imparts. What does valiant tell is especially f denoted by /emrtess and intrepid/ 6. . and which to character EXAMPLES. band And ever but in times of need. A- - man is also full Fir'd at of faith. How does brave dS&fittioiai courageous f 2. What is the EXAMPLES. In what sense are Uvff. So these lives .3 . A square of text that looks a The noble Brutos Hath told yon Csesar was ambitions If it were so. How does it differ from a. In worst extremes. QUESTIONS. BLUFF (page 83). whom my satire seems too Stout once a . it was a grievous . . Rnshed together at last.EIHISH . In what sense are Uuiit. (page 83). . Sliere are to EXAMPLES. frank. How does it differ innsagefrom and sense is bourn used f 4. rough. 85). fault f 2. What is the special sense of adven' turoua ? of bold f of chivalrous f. QUESTIONS. What la a defect f blemish f a. youth we tempt the heights of Arts Thy danger chiefly lies in acting well. bnt drawing nearer and nearer. flaw or taint? 3. month they march. BOVIVDARY (page 84). and open nsed brush. In what distinctive meaning of edgef 2. 1. QUESTIONS.brave 4W» BI. and one was lost in the other. Parted by s strong. and on the perilous Of battle. What ideas are combined in heroic f EXAMPLES. What is the original sense of bouTidary ? style bound or bounds t 3. 2. What is a 4. Which words of this group are naturally applied to rep? utation. 1. a at hand. ^— BRAVF (page QUESTIONS. What of results 6. and rude employed f .

Do we ever apply MUm and roar give more than one sense oteryf 4. culate. How does composed differ from c^m ? .ATE 1. What (in the strict sense) is an o«oco(ion/ 6. s die too. What is a transaction ? 8 How does is implied in profession f pursuit f trade ^SiectTom commerce? 9. QUESTIONS. so used ? for the robin redbreast caU? 2. CAL. QUESTIONS.. Of compute. - and the wren. turbulent. We ask them to approximately the cost of the building. exr quiet f placid? serene? still? transit? 2. estimate. also apply to the same f 3. How many of the trast applied to water ? S. There were 4046 men in the district. Put your helm . To what apply calmf collected t classes of objects or states of mind do we Do the antonyms boisterous. and. CA1. A man must serve his time to every We turn to dust. Are less expressive than call? 6 . by actual .CIJL. The time of the eclipse was to a second. 1 (page 91). we use cmvpute or estimate of numbers exactly known f 4.^ CAtJa. which is used with especial reference to the future Do cal- EXAMPLES. What is occupation? Is it broader than iminess? 4. . What to is the distinctive meaning of human sounds f 3. The pioneers could hear I the savages my servant and he came. What is an art In the the distinctive meaning of . captain The aporti" hard " In a voice of thunder to the helmsman. (page 90). What is Mrter? 2. Can you s/iout this and scream more or group are necessarily Which rarely. Which of the words hi and which ordinarily applied to articulate utterance ? EXAMPLES. WhatiBajJoca^ion? 5. Can you concited. What does hminesa add to the meaning of barter? 3. How do you distinguish between mate ? couni and calculate? compute.L. QUESTIONS. preceding adjectives can be ccdm and quiet? 4. if ever. (page QUESTIONS. and wild. What is wor*/ 10.409 . Which is nsed mostly with regard to future probabilities ? 3. outside. industrial sense/ a craft EXAMPLES. rechon and esti- 2. What 7 . ruffled.„ business calm BUSINESS (page 88). 91). and all our mightiest .

T. erase. To what do we apply ajbmeboardt candid? fair? frank? honest? siMCere? Iranspareni? 2. Tlie water is said to be always in tbe ocean depths. SiJii obliterate ? Z. What is circumspection? precaution? heed? special difference EXAMPLES. was so A. tbe inscription had become completely It Is practically impossible to so that it CAIVDID (page 93). CARE (page 94). . Is it possible to obliterate or ^aoe that which has been previously canceled or erased? EXAMPLES. The possession of a conscience is an estimable blessing. Take her np tenderly. Can you give some of the senses of care? 4. Is concern as strong a term as anxiety? 5. Which suggest the most complete removal of all trace of a writing f 3. 1 What is the between care and anxiety? 2. QUESTIONS. as much as bravery. Can you state the similarity between artless. simple. and unsophisticated? How do they differ as a class from the words above referred to? 3. expunge. With the aid of a sharp penknife the blot was quickly . By lapse of time and elemental action. guileless. What the difference In method involved in the verbs caned. she seems with artful care ASecting to he unaffected. ^ace. lift her with A military commander should have The Invaders fancied themselves so the to station sentinels. Stewart relied on sophistry The as to disgust the assembly. dealing as the secret of mercantile Buccesa An man will not steal or defraud. (page 92).cancel care •«mv 410 EXAMPLES. How do the figurative nees of these words compare is with the literal ! 4. secure against attack that they had not taken ." or " To be candid " often precedes the utterance of something disclass of things EXAMPLES. Wherein does care differ from caution? solicitude from anoAetyf watchfulness from wariness? 3. CASTCEL. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS. on the listening ear of night Fall heaven's melodious strains. naive. How does it happen that*' To be frank. dean a postage>stamp that has been properly can be used again. .

I. QUESTIONS. (page 98). and transport ? 3.411 __^ caricatui-o cause CARICATrRE (page 95). Is EXAMPLES. Napoleon always endeavored to the war into the enemy's territory. condition. transmit. irreparable to cause: 1. do we apply bear? carry? move? carry? EXAMPLES. Give some chief antonyms of the above. What kinds of force or power do we indicate by convey. a calamity. The failure of the crops of two successive years proved an the emigrants. 96). His laughable reproduction of the great actor's vagaries was a clever hit be not lying to say that a fox's tail Is four feet long. it is cert^nly a huge CARRY (page 1. War and I . To what is caricature mostly confined f 4. What a eatastn^Jie or cataclysm? 2. lift. VSTiat is the special difEerence between j)a™Sj/ and travesty f between both and burlesque? 3. Is an extravaganza an exaggeration? EXAMPLES. What is the distinction between bring and carry? between carry and bear? 4. Ky punishment is greater than I can .000 pounds with apparent ease. Is a catastrophe also necessarily a calamity or a disaster? 3.TSxswAown mishap compare with a catastrophe. while the loss of a battle but not a . can 1. Well had the boding tremblers learned to trace pestilence are properly may be a ) The day's in his morning face. or a disaster? 6. The of If it eagle nose of the general was magnified In every artist's . QUESTIONS. WTiat is the distinctive meaning of caricature f 2 . What is the central distinction between words cause. strong The man catastrophe: (page 97). To what sort of objects take? 2. antecedent and cause ? illustrated 2. Does mitforiune suggest as serious a condition as any of the foregoing. How are the and occasion by the (all of an avalanche I . S. It was found necessary to the coal overland for a distance of SOO miles. QUESTIONS. How do mimicry and imitation differ 1 5. What does lift mean? 5. disaster or calamity ? 4. Fortune is not satisfied with inflicting one . Which word has the broader meaning. Can you give some figurative uses of QUESTIONS.

CHAIVOE What is (page 100). QUESTIONS. How do yon distinguish between chagrin. 41 outgrowth? remit? 4. Misfortune may cause the loss of friends and reputation. And the antonyms coneeqtierwe? effect? What are carnality and causation ? How are origin and source related to cause ? EXAMPLES. follow. Which involves a sense of having done wrong f EXAMPLES. can blush from . elect. Delusive. and shame? 3. for 'tis their to. prefer. CHAGRIN 1. What are the shades of difference between choose. We often fail to recognize the actor who CHARACTER 1 . Hope tells a Ahl Lest let flattering tale. . there ie an effect there mnst be also a . (page 102). his music by introducing a few popular tunes. constitution QUESTIONS. vain. Can yon distinguish between modify and qualify? EXAMPLES. . humiliation. cull. his is superior to loss or change.cliagrln choose 3. 5 . yet if the man has not yielded to wrong. We requested the pianist to his costume between the acts. QUESTIONS. is often a great source of annoyance to him. The king's at the limitations He is not wholly lost who yet imposed upon him was painfully manifest. disappointment. whyf EXAMPLES. It is necessary to know something was found of the of a man before we can safely The of the river to What was given as the of the quarrel he a small lake among-the was really but the hills. (page 104). pick. Is nod/re abroader word than any of the preceding? 3. and QUESTIONS. The philanthropist's for charity CHOOSE 1. If so. How do you distinguish between character and reputation ? position? and dis- 2. equivalent. What feelings are comhined in chagrin? 2. the distinction between change and exchange? Are they ever used as and how f 2. and hollow. (page 100). not hope prevail. Let dogs delight to bark and bite. mortifleation. Where tmst him. The tailor offered to the armholes of the coat.

there hope for him. To what concomitant? circumclasses of things stance? event? fact? incident? occurrence? situation? 2.? f EXAMPLES. What New England the meaning of clever as used in England f 2. What is a coterie? How does it differ from a rfigwc . 3. QUESTIONS. With what meaning is clear used of an object apprehended by the senses. QUESTIONS. tho he was . does dear originally signify ? 2. . of one of the leading men of the city. Is it a word of broader meaning than incident? QUESTIONS. What was the early usage ? 3. What other words of this group are preferable to clever in many of its uses f is . What is plain? 6.**>» . CI. a struggle of the masses against the CLiEAR What (page 107). 106). ASS (page QUESTIONS. An A select There is was formed for the relief met at the residence of the poor and needy of the . What special sense does this word always retain f How does transparent differ from translucent ? T What do lucid and pellucid signify f 8 What is . the younger. How order? does a class differ from a caste ? 2. do we apply aax>mpanim«n^^ EXAMPLES. What does distinct signify ? 5. In what connection is rank used 3. What is to be said of the use of smart and sharp? 4. (page 105). Extreme provocation may be a mitigating that there had been a walls.^„ select? circumstance clever 2. Can you give some instances of the use of circumttance ? 3 . Also between the antonyms cast away^ decline^ dismisSj refuse. Does select imply more care or jadgment than choose? re- pudiate? EXAMPLES. is little When a man deliberately to do wrong. the special force of limpid ? CLEVER . (page 109). 1 . The prettiest flowers had all been Jacob was to Eeau. CIRCIiniSTANCE 1. The fire was proved by the smoke-blackened in a case of homicide. city. How does clear differ from transparent as regards a substance that may be a medium of vision ? 3. as an object of sight or hearing ? 4.

To what use is congregation restricted ? How does meeting agree with and differ from it ? EXAMPLES. (page 111). 4I« . but for the Even if secret ballot. room contained a large of miscellaneous objects. What is the difference hetween assemblage and assembly? 4. In the formal sense of the word f 4. . and which is limited to the mental act 3. What is a conclave? n convocation? a convention? 5. eweet maid. imply i In what favorable ? sense is it used EXAMPLES. sweet song. The dog gave a low which frightened the tramp awav. Be good. Which finds outward expression. From what is company derived ? What is its primary meaning ? 2.complain EXAMPLES. What Is the especial of coerce ? 4. company . For what are those associated who constitute a company f Is their association tempo. His brief experience in the department had made now assigned him. they possessed the power of ns to do justice. Their sober wishes never learned to stray. By what ie complaining prompted? murmuring f repining? t. To whom does one complain. rary or permanent^? 3. all day long . Mm very in the work She was especially in song. What are the characteristics of a group f 6. (page 113). Par from the madding The A fellow that makes no figure in had met. COMPABfY (page 110). What does force imply? 3. Do nohle things. and the vast foierer One grand. not dream them. it shall be determined In a law- COmPEL. 's ignoble strife. It is — . And so make life. W Itli vhom does one remonstrate? i EXAMPLES. A great If ful ye inquire anything concerning other matters. COmPI^AIlV I. 1. These considerations — — ns to aid them to the ntmost of our power. What Is It to significance QUESTIONS. death. not pleasant to live with one who is constantly ing. What does constrain. Employers may their employees into voting as they demand. QUESTIONS. we were not willing. and let who will he . compel? 2. but without organization or ofUcers. QUESTIONS.

(page 118). does conversation differ . (page 118). yon are ignorant is a great step to Imowledge. QUESTIONS.-« **" complex conversation COMPLiEX 1. No pestilence is so mnch to be dreaded as the feai COWTEW1JAL. Of what things Is one aware/ of what is he conscious f 2. QUESTIONS. compare? 2. To what is cmdaglon now limited by the best medlcaJ usage term infection applied ? » 2. CONTRAST 1.om involved f COKSCIOCS 1. They are now it would have been better to resist the first temptation. (page 117). that would not he expressed by conscious? EXAMPLES. He was of a stealthy step and a hulls dimly visible through the darkness. 1 . How does complex differ from compound? from composite f 2. inceesani from ceas'leM ? Give ex. 1 .. How does «cn«£W« compare with the above-mentioned words 1 3. (page 116). 1. What does sensible indicate regarding (he emotions. How is contrast related tiate^ to QUESTIONS. of the During the plague in London persons walked In the middle of the streets for from the houses. In what sense consequent nsed ? COIVTAGIOIS 1. catching an opinion like a cold The mob thinks by of bad example. How does eontlnwma dUfer from continual? amples. that To he COSrSEQVESrCi: QUESTIONS. To what is the EXAMPLES. How does conMQiience and lestie differ from ^ectf both from remit? 3. What are the special senses of differen- discriminate and distinguish ? COIVVERSATION QUESTIONS. How does complicated differ from intricate P f. (page 117X QUESTIONS. What Is hetero' geneauef cmiglomerate f 3. for the most part. What is the essential meaning of conversation ? 2 How . Is How do regult compare 1 3. (page 116)l QUESTIONS. (page 112).

To what class class of objects transport agree f of objects does transport refer i t What Is the dlstlnctlTe sense 3. Is an iniquitous act necessarily criminal f DAKOER (page 131). all the mg. Is decepium ever innocent f 4. 123). The flowers wither. the banqnet of the mind. S.convey deception tromtaHkf 3. What is the primary meaning of Iniquitous/ 4. How &k jeopardy and risk distinguished from dan^ EXiMPLBS. 1 . who does . QTIESTIONS. (page 120). What sort of things decay ? putrefy ? rot? 133). 1. Which Is do transfer. CONVEY (page 119). Do . What the essential dtfCerence between decay and decompose? EXAMPLES. transmit. QtTESTIONS. Belay always breeds . The Stir. Wiatia felonious ? flagitious f S. QUESTIONS. the tree's trunlc The water was by the electric cnrrent DECEPTIOIV . (page QUESTIONS. How 5 Ib dec^ distinguished from deception? all from guUe? fraud? tlfing? hypocHsy? 2. Mta «lo Bow Ib discourse telated to amveraatU>»r 4. transmit. What Is the distinctive meaning of crimindtf How does it differ from Ulegal <a unlawful f a. There can be no Nor wanted sweet with a great genius. In what do em/cdji. What are the ipecial BenBee of dUUogue and cMoquyt EXAMPLES. Have craft and cunning always a moral element How is dissiiiudalion distinguished from duplicity ? . and convey apply predominant sense of the latter words f the CRIMIIVAL. and of convey? 2. What is the distinctive meaning of evil ? danger? 2. of these apply to conduct as well as to speech T 3. To what 4. Does datigeroi peril snggestthe more immediate ger and peril? 3. careful rider avoids running — — Is at your ! DECAY (page QUESTIONS. 1.

Which Is th e more comprehensive *^ ? EXAMPLES. What mnst a < Hon Include. What is evidence t proqff 3 ... Do large gatherings of people consult. delibercUe.e2i&«7'a<«/<x»i^</ consid^f medliatef reflect f 2. and delusion t is QTTESTIONS. confer. and what mnst it exclude f 3. How many persons arc necessarily implied in consult. KXAMPLES. In the soft light the The DEmOlVSTRATION QUESTIONS. ? in is ponder. DELIBERATE (page 135).USI01V What is the essential sight. QTIESTIONS. consider. The legislatuie DEI. of the sick are sometimes pitifoL was complete. . What most a description include 4. in all its bearings. QTTESTIOira. or deliberate? 3< Do we reflect on thinprs past or things to come i 4.-. What are the chief distinctions between (. reflect} in meditate f What idea of time implied in deliberate f EXAMPLES. and debate as commonly nsed 5. To what kind of reasoning does demonstration in the strict sense apply t 2. '• deflnltlon Aemonstratfon EXAMMjBS. a d^niHon or a description f 2. The matter was carefully for several days. of the witness was so complete that no further The must be final and conclusive. Which Is the stronger term f 4. . or meditate. difference between iUusion 2. The of his condnct was patent to all. It was a matter of self* The judge decided It to be a case of . Which la the more exact. (page 127). A prompt The The seer gave an of the difflcnlty prevented a of scenery was admirable. (page 1S4). Which word How does hdJUiiinsed especially of objects of EXAMPLES. cination differ from both . was required. DEFINITION 1. In what respect has interpretation a wider meaning than <ran«2atu»i/ How does an explanation compare with an exposition/ i 5. (page 137). A mathematical 3ff . qnaneL Many a coutroTersy may he Instantly ended by a clear of tenna. of the dream.

design diction . dexterity? From what is rendered! How might each be from dexterity? 3. DI€TI01V 1 (page 130). What is style? How does it compare with is What is diction or language f EXAMPLES. He had a natural an imimltable for scientific investigation. Prom what is aptitude derived. or phraseology ? 2. of a written contract should be such as to prevent misunderstandings poetic of Milton is bo exquisitely perfect that another word cat scarcely ever be eubstitnted for the one he has chosen without marring the line. His in debate enabled him to evade or parry arguments or attacks which he could not answer. (page 129). The of the best trained workman can not equal the precision of a machine. QUESTIONS. DEXTERITY t . The atter In weak — ^^ of their condition was apparent. QUESTIONS. What element la prominent In Intention? purpose? plan? 3. . Hell is paved with It Is the good . desperation. adroitness derived f From what How does adroitness differ in use EXAMPLES. Which the more comprehensive word. discouragement. The The The of the discourse was plain and emphatic. of the Almighty can not be thwarted. How does despon- dency especially differ from despair? EXAMPLES. The architect's Involved much detail. QUESTIONS. . language. The The adaption of means to ends in nature clearly Indicates a and so provea DESPAIR (page 139). How does intent epeciflcally differ from purpose? Which term do we use with reference to the Divme Being ? EXAMPLES. and by long practise gained of manipulation. and /lopeleasnesa loUow. "Does purpose suggest more power to execute taan design? 4. of the voter that decides how his ballot shall De counted. diction. he abandoned all endeavor. How does sUU differ from dexieriiy ? Which can and which can not be communicated f 2. distinctive meaning of design? 2. QUESTIONS. and what does it signify f 4._ 41S DESIOX What Is the (page 128). In what Older might despair. the true meaning of verbiage? Should it ever be used as the equiva lent of language or diction? 3. each as the result of the previous condition f 2.

observe." The between black and white is self*evident. EXAMPLES. (page ISl). DO I (page 135). the early and general meaning of sick and sickness in English f 2. Is detect often used in a favorable sense f do di» EXAMPLES. distinguish. What is the most comprehensive word f 2. recovering from a slight not good manners to talk of one's . discern. QUESTIONS. —^ EXAMPLES. disparity. spread in the camp and proved deadlier than the sword. the dlstinctiva meaning of detect? discover f Inventf 2. QUESTIONS. . An ^Ing criminals. Tne was found to be contagious. of this group QUESTIONS. In what sense are n» . DISCERN (page 133). Whlcn pertain mostly to realities. QUESTIONS. How cover and Invent diSer } 3. or ineonetstenffy f 2. What Is the present reBtriction upon the nee of these words in England ? What words are there commonly substituted 1 4 What is the prevalent usage in the United States f How long did that usage prevail ? . what stars are double. The of our representatives' conduct with their promises Is unpardonable. experienced policeman acquires wonderful skill in the law of gravitation.a machlnea one must flrst understand the laws of mechanics. diatinetion. Newton . He Is just It IS a. What do tehold and distinguish suggest in addition to seeing f EXAMPLES. and which are matters of jnclgment—c^ijference. 3. W ith the aid of a great telescope we may tne upright man. To what sore of objects do we apply beMd. What do we mean by " a dUtltui(Ion without a dijference 'V The proper should be carefully observed in the nee of " shall " and " will. Lei OS mmately the color of the goods. QUESTIONS. and see i 2. Xo — —— DlSEASi: What was (page 134). DISCOTER What Is (page 133)..419 dureience DIFFfiREHiCE: 1.

plodding industry without . b of his guilt could to further the enterprise. the authority of the Scriptnies. objects do we apply dlsbelitff DOUBT. of the Every one should labor to his duties faithfully. (page 137). . n. or upon a decision d even A man may have nprlght whUe he disregards commonly received DOUBT.Is It useA in a favorable or an unfavorable sense 1 EXAMPLES. duty of the to make laws.„420 How and complete need. QtTESTIONS.1b dogma used favorably or unfavorably > EXAMPLES. Which is the more inclusive word t 3. a work of gratitude and affection Iiaa been wonderful how mnch can be by steady. We feel no -—^ In giving our approval. man from the outset I. So we or to motives apply dmiM. and execute f peiform and aceompliehf accomplish and complete f EXAMPLES. and tations of those who have committed to him any trust. We do not I that that the earth moves around the sun. dietrusti mrmlae. Is mistrust used of persons or of things F 3. The -^— rests either upon of the Church. QUESTIONS. and intentions f 2. Ith . TowhaiTosttetBdoweapplj the wotA creed fdoctritiet dogma f primiiple/ 2. A duty has heen It is brilliant talents. but stlU bad oor t u to the . and how are they dJBcriminated from each other 1 3. effect. (hen proved to be Vnna. (page QUESTIONS. realize. Which of these words doubt f ftesitattonf mtsgivlngf most commonly implies an unfavorable meaning? as applied to religions matters? 3. the just expec- DOCTRINE 1. To what ft. do we discriminate between fuyu. class of M. The work It is the is not only grand in design but legislators it Is with the most exquisite magistrates to delicacy in every detail. and suspect mostly to persona and things. (page 186). Nearly every law of nature was by 1 my own heart man first .doctrine doubt. 188). The jury had We did all we outcome. . What meaning has skeptidmi EXAMPLES. them. V.

We 1 go because It is recognize a my . but do we not a good influence over the children of others ? EAGER 1. and not retreat a I wUl not equivocate. and I will be heard 1 I to hear of your welfare. Do we nee duty and right of civil things ? or Imsiness and oSligathn of moral things 1 2. truth that It IB often said vrith equal In him alone 'twas natural to please. I will not excuse. nessf 5. Whatever he did was done with so much with great . and to what may it be limited ? 4. What does ease ? readiness? What ioeB/aeility imply t readi- QUESTIONS. QTTESTIONS. considered » Does ii apply to action or 3. the shrill trumpet sounds to horse I away for the fray. QUESTIONS. What Is the distinction between eager and earnest In in the objects toward which it is directed t the nature ot the feellne im2. condition f (page 148). The of an organ by the violinist was perfect Tills key is a . . QtTESTIONS. 1. and will open the lock. plied ? (page 143). To what is eaepertness limited f EXAMPLES. and of the prospects of the enterprisB. What does ease denote. and at imitation f i. in the sense here 3. Hark My I am am in . . EASE 1. The signatnie was meiely a printed ^— DUTY (page 142). How does anxious in this acceptation differ from both eager and earmstt EXAMPLES. for the also rest under some to society to exercise good conduct of our own children._. He plays the violin and delights an audience. Does re^xmsibilify imply connection with any other person or thmg! ^ EXAMPLES. Can you give the distinction between a copy and a duplicate/ a facsimile. ZafacUity active or passive imply. 1. soul's in arms. 4l!el duplicate ease DUPLICATE (page 141). we ought to take advantage of the — which children possess of learning. What sort of a copy is a transcript/ EXAMPLES. I will I single inch..

The true purpose of sown wltliin ns. What is se^'csieem? How does It differ from ssj^'conceji^ to from self'confidenxe f EXAMPLES. What to the distinctive meaning of education f Is Inslrucllon t teaching f Z. A branch of in EFFROXTERV (page 144> I.education egotism aA» -laa EDrCATlON (page 143). except they be bounded by experience. . la often pnt to on Improper nse. What is vanity f How does It differ from sdf-cmifidence) tiomp7idef 7. What special element does ^irmtery add to the meaning of audadty KoAhardihoodt 3. and how f 4. QUESTIONS. ns tenderness to can not return. Is self-assertion ever a duty 1 sif'concdtt 6. . How does ^n)n2«rv compare with these words f 5. to to cherish and nnfold the seed of immortality abeadj we do learn onrselves to know By And what to man. and writing an exact man. ing and nurture. 1 . Does cowtwii differ from sej/iawjcrfi. What to impudence t shameiessnessf 4. and what to God we owe. edge and learning related to education f differ What are breed- How are hnowl EXAMFI. How does training from teaching? 4. What to audadly t Imrdlhood f 3. Than to perform it first. for fear of ita being Idle. What Is discipline f tuition f S. 1 . . When they saw the of Peter and John. QUESTIONS. QUESTIONS.E3. How instruction or teaching related to education f 3. What is selficonfidenee f Is it worthy or unworthy ? S . and For natural ahlliijes are like natural ^plants that need pruning by B themselves do give forth dhrecflons too much at large. nnder the love which it may puff a man is as ill up. What to tetpassertlon } sdf'concdtt 3. at ease under indifference. with which political gentlemen in I am not a little snrprised at the easy and out of Congress take It upon them to say that there are not a thousand men in the North who sympathize with John Brown. but never prop liim up. conference a ready man. and how do they differ from each other t 6. and perceived that they were nn I ne'er :eamed and Ignorant men they marvelled. heard yet That any of these bolder vices wanted Less — to gainsay what they did. What is boldness f Is It nsed In a favorable or an nnfavorable sense T EXAMPLES. maketh a fall man. ^— — EOOTISm (page 145). (Vhat egoism and how does it differ from egotism ) 3.

refer to reaching i an arbitrary or an appropriate end ? What does stop signify . How do thetwo words compare as now used ? 4. then whirled oa . as Israel's deliverer. lieeping their garments whiter Walls on through life with steps aright. one ought to his might. What specially distinctive sen^e has finish? 4. EMBLEm (page 146)./lao *** emblem Olid. — me ^ Of those who. What Is the derivation and primary meaning of eymiol/ 3. What do close. (page 147). : a pastor.OY 1. complete. and whatever . (page 148). mostly from Gernuuiy. 2. are pouring into the United States often at the rate of half a million a EMPI. The ship was crowded with year. Does terminate 5. EXAMPLES. Tff what do they apply two words be used of the same person and the same act ? Bow f t Can the EXAMPLES. conclude. Bose of the An —— thon art to of stainless pnrlty. and fruits and was a falling of the leaves. Whatisatoie»/ ajigunf a/almagef Atypef EXAMPLES. V. QUESTIONS. (paga 147). —— EXAMPLES. signify as t<r expectation or appropriateness ? Give instances. 1. What does use often imply as to materials usedT 3. From what language is emilem derived I What did It origlnaBy signliy t a. An things are s : the external shows Of nature have their in the mind flowers Itoses. QUESTIONS. 3. Can the same thing be both an emblem and a si/mM f a «iffn aniasymiolf 6. What is it to end. of Christ EiniGRATE I. and Jinis/i. The life was suddenly long enongh The train for the passengers to get off. meaning of migrate f What Is its application T 2. desert. V. What Is the distincflve What do emigrate and immigrate signify f QITESTIONS. How does hlrt compare with employ f The young man hod been faithful in every respect. QUESTIONS. and what reference does end have to intention or expectation 2. What are the distinctive senses of employ and use f Give Ivtances. How does a mgm suggest something other than itself f S. by the firm for several months and bad proved The church was then ready to What one has.H« does be should do with all 'ESn.

M. What is a struggle? 4. first thyself. What is an essay. endure n. and the like T 2. old age a regret. the end. He that endureth to the — . How does try compare with th( other words of the group f EXAMPLES. Do not turn back when you are just at the — ^— ElVDEATOR. How does essay differ from attempt and endeavor in ih view of the results of the action f 3. What does endure add to the meaning of bear? 3. (page 148). v. How does ai tempt differ from ^ort? 3.„f*-*** END. What Is the meaning of bear as applied to care. QUESTIONS. What Is an e^ort? aa exertion? W^ch includes the other I 2. n. Nothing's so hard bat search will find it out. What k the end f 2. What is the meaning of termination. QUESTIONS. Seeing that death. What is an endeavor. What Is It to (page 149). What is a terminus? What specific meaning has the word in modem travel ? 7. and never stand to donbt. he abandoned all Youth Is ENDURE 1. and after call on God. and how is it distinguished from ^or^/ from attempt? EXAMPLES. j. How do piU up with and toUraU . a blunder. All rejoice at the successful shall be saved. will come when it will coma. (page 160). After a few spasmodic at improvement . How does extremity compare with end ? 4. 1. For to the worker God himself lends aid. What is implied in undertake? Give ai Instance. pain. attempt? QUESTIONS. to enter In at the strait gate. QUESTIONS. (page 150). How do allow and permit compare with the words just mentioned r 4. manhood a . to endeavor? To what sort of exertion does endeavor especially apply ? 3. and of whatisitcliieflynsed? expiration? limit? EXAMPLES. What does strive suggest ? S. What is the meaning of tlpf point? How does extremity differ in use from the two latter words 1 6.end. What reference is implied In extremity t 5. grief. 'Wliatfe the distinctive meaning of extremity f 3. So vast an reijuired more capital than he could command at that time. ENDEAVOR. a necessary of the vast undertaking. Others combining with him enabled him to succeed with it. 1. 4. and for what piupose is it made 1 5.

This friendship that possesses the whole son]. nessf acrimony f mentioned f How from enmity f 3. What is the special sense of ({yortf/ How does it come Into connection with the words of this group f 6. burnt with redoubled violence. The carnal mind is neither indeed can be. What between the aa antagonist f an oppodoes/o& compare with enemy t He makes no friend who never made a . What is the sense of irook / ?• Of what words does abide combine the meanings 1 EXAMPLES. He that wrestles with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens oar la our helper. the path Thou lead'st me. I follow thee. Make —^— of nations who had else. and evil speaking. • Like kindred drops been molded into one. (page 152). What is 4. distinction Is there is QUESTIONS.. How EXAMPLES. Mountidns interposed . Who God doth late and early pray More of his grace than gifts to lend the harmless day And With a religious book or friend. What is it to entertain mentally f ' divert T to amuse t 2. and anger. (page 163). What iaaaenemyf an adversary f 3. ElVTERXAIN I. can admit of no . skill. however good Minds are not ever craving for their food. with . QUESTIONS. charity all things. Charity long and is Isind . What is the distinctive sense of 3. for it Is not subject to the law of God. Books can not always . nent f a competitor f a rival t (page 151). —— ENEmY 1. and wrath. What Is enmity t 2. How does animosity hostility t What is meant by Aos^iiJScs between £. against God. and clamor. two words as to the purpose implied? 3. What Is It to recreate f to beguile f EXAMPLES. and to the hand of heav'n For there was never yet philosopher That could the toothache patiently.. safe guide. . What is Wiferdoes antagonism compare with the words above differ nations f EXAMPLES. all But their .425 *" enemy entertain compaieyMiallowaadpermU? S.. Our EafMITT 1. What 4. Let all from you. . be put away malice. QUESTIONS. tho smothered for awhile. CanonebeomKse!Zorentertaine«?whoisnot<?i»«rfei:?/ 4.

grew fa:t and furious. nnwoithy members sometimes gain EMTIOUS (page 155). ENTRAlVCi: 1. His was contagious and they rushed into battle. may bo guarded. To what does entrance refer? 8. No true heart can find —^— in another's pain or grief. accordingly.entertainment envious A^IG "»«" (page ESfTERTAIMMEKT QUESTIONS. ElVTHVSIASm (page 153). and desire to be so. What do entertainment and reereation imply f How. At Christmas play. but be- to the spectators. In what sense was en«A«sia«» formerly used } 3. qnl^ Innocent than angling. I . To what does a(imi«ance refer? Towhataddi. 153). The precept had its use . tional matters does admission refer ? Illustrate. -^-^ to fools to do mischief. amazed and curious. ence between envimis and jealous f Wliat is the diflei^ 3. As Tammie glowered. What Is the figurative use of entrance f EXAMPLES. How does zeal diffler from enlfmsiasmf EXAMPLES. And so. God never did make a more calm. 1. so engrossed Trith cares of state that the needy conld not have He was never to him. (page 154). 1. and a good hall. and make good For Christmas comes but once a year. do they rank among the lighter matters of life ? a. QTIESTIONS. 4. What do we mean when we say that a person is enviant f S. No . except on business. O^TJESTIONS. However ivill carefully church>membership . What Is now 1(8 prevalent and controlling meaning? 3. What do admittance and admission add to the meaning of en<ran««? 3. On what plane are sports f How do they compare with entertai'timent and reereation t 4. but it could never inspire them with an ^^— of hnmanlty. position secured In (he crowded was obtained by a side>door. QUESTIONS. How do amusement and pastime differ \ 3 . not because cause it gave —— it gave pain to the bear. The mirth and If I might be judge. it could make men feel it right to be hnnume. It Is as The Puritans hated bear-baiting. An ardent leads to great results in exposing certain evils. How do ammement and enjoyment compare i EXAMPLES. Is an envious spirit ever good ? 4' . .

Is eternot. What in popular use as said of persons 1 n. 1S7). 1. is the difference between esteem and esUrritet 2. It was preordained for thee from It were better to be eaten to death with a rust than to be scoured to nothing with —— notion. ever brought down t» such interior use f EXAMPLES. An statement may result from the thoughtless use of a single word that Is capable of more than one meaning — ESTEEH. 158). How do ««M( and tnddmt differ etvmoloeically f 3. Being strong on I>oth sides. Is esteem now used of concrete valuation ( 3. seeming blest. (page QUESTIONS. Whattsltsmeanmg EXAMPLES. are . (page QUESTIONS. are pleas'd. to sugar or to gall. (page QUESTIONS. What is tue meaning of eternal in the fullest sense f 2. To what being. may it be applied P 3. What is its chief present nse I 4. Till they give to get . a foot WUl ne'er wear out the EVENT . In what Inferior senses are everlasting and Interminable used ? 6. Neither be thou against the workers of iniquity. QUESTIONS. Truth crushed to earth shall rise again. These sentences. . Which Is the greater and .„„. Here comes the lady I Oh. In wlut sense gueeUonoMe need f suspidmtsf EXAMPLES. Whatever may befall thee. In that sense. In what does everlasting fall short of the meaning of eternal? 4. How do doubtful and dubious compare t 4. so light flint. What la the meaning of enigmatical f Is 3. in good speech or writing. In wbat sense le eus pldous nseii EXAMPLES. Th^ please. 427 Ja Jealous capable of being used In a good senee^r equivocal event S. What Is the derivation and the original signification of eqtiimcalf of anMguous f How do the two words compare In present use f 2. 157). they grow to what they seem. (page 155). sudden and quick in quarrel. In honor. How does endless agree with and differ from everlasting? 5. —— EQIJITOCAL. The years of God are hers. Ibe toes of consdence or honor is one that can not be » ETERNAL ..

alilse ? any. 3. ETERT (page 168). What meaning does evetU often have when applied to the fature 7 EXAMPLES. and every f 2.. my natore Is That I incline to hope rather than fear. who shonid instantly lay down their arms. compare ? 2. Where an eqnal poise of hope and fear Does arbitrate the . The And gladly banish sqnlnt snspicion. but only darkness ^^—. ETIDENT . I. shadows before. -^—. On a comparison of the two works the plagiarism was Tet from those flames . Fate shall yield and Chaos jndge the etiUa. privately to of his most person giving such information shall be dnly rewarded. What What does it imply as to the observer's action I 6. How does circumstarwe compare with InddetUf 4. How does discernible compare with visible f QUESTIONS.person In the room arose to his feet. In order to keep his secret Inviolate. What is the sense otdMam? 4. — absurdity or contradlctlorx his absence. Bow io each andeveryiWeiftorn aU? 4.. Coming cast their seem the sport of men. the Tictorioas troops stood In arms on It side of the way. What is the sense of palpable and tangible t conspleuousf EXAMPLES. No light. In what are ttH and loth. A free pardon was offered to As the garrison marched oat.e? 5. each. In what other sense is it often used? What is the objection to the latter nse t EXAMPLES. What does either properly denote. gross as a monntain. QUESTIONS. The prime minister was The statement is a by A paradox Is a real truth In the guise of an — absurdlly. How do apparent and evident Is the special sense of manifestt How does it compare In strength with ecldentt 3. open. (page 169). . . What is an epliodef 6.every evident . Bow does any HItextiom each aai every? 3.. To fickle when Men are the sport of . he revealed intimate friends. How does event differ from enaf 7. What Is the primary meaning of 0(!(rK7T«n<. i These lies are like the father that begets them. How does each compare with every f with boihf 5.^a ^-** more Important T Give ejcamples. How wide is the range of vlsiMef 5.

What is exceett la it used in the favorable or nnfavorable sense'! 2. What is Hie meaning words applied in has administer f special cases ? of execute f of administer f of enforce t It. QUESTIONS. — to deter others from the Hke The Gommandei was resolved to make an — oflenae. Saving requires self-denial. It is the place of the civil magistrate to The pasha gave a signal and three attendants seized the colprlt and promptly the bastinado. How does it compare with nmddt with pattern f 5.A2ft **" example execute EXAmPLii: 1. What Is exorbitance f 4. What secondary meaning EXAMPLES. Is surplus used in the favorable oi unfavorable sense f 6. How does exemplar agree with. What Is the etymological meaning of example? 2. QUESTIONS.moressive is sober statement EXECUTE 1. What is an txempHflcationf an ensamplet EXAMPLES. What kind of excess Ao overplus and superabundance denote? . the laws. (page 161). (page 160). 100). (page QUESTIONS. which was weaving We sleep. brings want . How does example differ from sample f 4. . EXCESS 1. History is an of philosophy. there nsnally follows correspondinir cause of covetonsness. How are the Give instances. The More of the present woes of the world are due to is ^— than m any otha single cause. and from others to take an for himself. What words are used as synonyms of excess in the moral sense 1 EXAMPLES. Where there is great — —^— of wealth Haste brings —— and is the death jf self-denlai. and of the demand caused unfeigned surprise. I can not Illustrate - mora! duty without at the same time tog « precept ol our reils^n. What Is extravagance f 3. but the loom of life never stops and the when the son went down is weaving when'it comes np to>moiTow. What two contradlctorj meanings does example derive from this primary sense ? 3.7o'»foAn««» and prqfuslonf 6. I hid him look into the lives of men as the himself a mbior. and difier from example f 6. To what do redundOTice and redundaney chiefly refer t 7. 3 . of langnage often weakens the impression of what would be '.

QUESTIONS. How may exercise be brought np to the full meaning of exertion ? 4. extemporaneous? 5. EXPEKTSE 1. loss to As a speaker. intending to build a tower. QUESTIONS. He carolled light as lark at mom. To wliat are explicU differ and express from each other t alike How do the two wordi EXAMPLES. What Is the meaning of outlay? of outgo f EXAMPLES. How are these words now commonly differentiated I 3. What is practise f How does it differ from exercise f 5. if the income can not be increased. What did extemporaneous originally mean f 2.exercise extemporaneous /ttA »»w (page 162). of yon. What has it now come to signify in common use? 3. What is drlM? EXAMPLES. God least regardeth. How does from exertion? 3. down first. How is praciise discriminated from snch theory or profession ? 6. (page 163). . Now the Sphit speaketh the faith. (page 163). he excelled in address. 1. How does the Impromptu remark often dlFer from the How does unpremeditated compare with the words EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. becomes second nature. and connteth The entire receipts have not equaled the When the is more than the income. it becomes an absolute necessity to reduce the EXPIilCIT 1. above mentioned t In prayer. present meaning f (page 163). What is the meaning of exerdse exercise in that sense diiler apart from all qualifying words f 2. What Is the original meaning of Impromptu? The 4. . ly that In the latter times some shall depart from EXTEIHPORAKEOUS QUESTIONS. Which the . No more on prancing palfrey borne. opposed? 2. sitteth not whether he have snfiBcient to finish it. Begnlar in time By constant mind In the best working order. to admit of doubt. while his opponent waa et s answer liim because not gifted in the same way. . the most dilBcnlt feats may be done with no apparent tends to keep body and . what men most admire. EXERCISE . came here at this critical juncture by the The language of the proposition was too I order of Sir John St. And poured to lord and lady gay The lay. What is cost f expense f 2. Clare.

What elements are combined ia faith ? 10. FAIIVT 1. What is eonr vietion? assuramx? 4. the evidence of things not seen. How is belief often nsed in popular language as a precise equivalent oi faith? 11. What are confidence and reliance? 8. the buffalo has been quite . whatever our speculative knows better than he practises. FAITH (page 164). What are the chief meanings ot faint f 2. What is an opinion? 5. faded. What is tcattf extirpate f the derivation. (page 164). arms combined^ can combat even with the brave. in Put not your is whom there is no help. and what the original meaning of exterminate f erad3. How does credence compare with lelitff 3. QUESTIONS.-a. How does a persuasion compare with a. 1. (page 163). In his right hani a tipped stafEe he held. nor in the son of man. For he was with cold. and recognizes a better law than he obeys There are few greater dangers for an army in the face of an enemy than undue . . What Is bdieff 2. opinion ? 6. No inveterate improver should ever tempt me to the dandelions from the my lawn. What is trust? 9. What is a doctrine? a creed? 7. - Is the substance of things hoped for. The evil of intemperance is one green carpet of exceedingly dUttcnlt to . largely Involuntary. How is faint a synonym otfeeUe ta purpoaeksaf of irresolute or timid? of dim. or indistinct f EXAMPLES. How is betitf discriminated ixomfaith in the strict rell^ous sense 1 EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. To vphat are these words severally applied ? EXAMPLES. Is Great the strength of And we With which his steps he stayed still.^•>l *** exterminate faith EXTERMINATE QUESTIONS. and weak with eld That scarce his loosed limbs he hable was to weld. Since the building of the Pacific raUroads hi the United States. in princes. Every one of us. a mathematical demonstration can not be doubted by a sane mind capable of understanding the terms and following the steps.

1 . FAME 1. Great Homer's birthplace seven rival cities dalm. of the that will believe nothing contrary to that will believe anything in favor of it. QUESTIONS. A good Do is more valuable than money. is a senseless fear of God. QUESTIONS. and wisdom. Blessing and and power and might. Too mighty such monopoly of . FA1VATICISIH (page 166). In what sense may one be 3. QUESTIONS. The fierce The blind Moslems was the mainspring of their early conquests. What are reputation. Vnmtia fanaticism? Mgotry? 2. a creed is often joined with a FANCIFUL. What is the special difference of meaning between the two Give examples. is eqnal to the deed: Thy pmpose Who does the best his circnmetance allows Does well. What &o fanaticism and Ugotry commonly Include? 3. What is the meaning otfanciful? 2. 1. (page 166).^^ God for ever and ever. may ? Be fhon —— EXAMPLES. nnto death. (page 167). What is credulity? Is It distinctively religions ? EXAMPLES. In what sense trusty f wordfl ? (page 165). What is the import of honor? of glory? EXAMPLES. How does celebrity compare with fame? 6. QUESTIONS. From what do eminence and distinetUm result f 5. and —. What is notoriety? 4. How does grotesque especially differ from tbsfaneifut or fa» How does visionary diEEer tmmfancy^? . Is faithful commonly said of things as well as persons ? is 4. What \afamet Is it commonly nsed in the favorable or nnfavorable sense I 3. 3. What does fantastie add ot fanciful ? taetle? to the meaning 4. Amen: . What is the distinctive meaning of superstition? 5. and repute. Seeking the bubble ^— Bven \a tiie camion's month.faltbful fanciful . angels could no mora. be nnto our Saying. and thanksgiving. called trusty a person be caWeA faithful f 2. good by stealth. How does renown compare with fame? 7. and I will give thee a crown of life.„„ 43» FAITHFUIj 1. What is intolerance? 4. and blush to find it . and in which sense commonly nsed ? 3. acts nobly.

1.UESTIONS.433 EXAMPLES. What is the special significance of congif 4. paper's out so nearly Pve only room for yours sincerely. AVhatare the characteristics of affright. and that is a vreong one. she would soon settle. What iafearf Is It sudden or lingering f In view of what class of dangers 1 3. Prom what language have adieu and congS been adopted mto English f 3. 1. and hath been— A Bound which makes us linger . What is fancy as a faculty of the mind ? Intellectnal /anc^? 3. To what longnage do farewell and good'by belong etymologically f How do they differ ? 2. What is the generic term of this group ? %. (page 168). How does a ccmcM co7icep<io» Tell EXAMPLES. Come see the north wind's masonty. . 1. me where is — bred. fancy f a from both f 3. yet — — » FEAR (page 168). Ub wild work. When falling leaves falter through motionless air Or numbly cling and shiver to he gone I Plays such tricks before high heaven As make the angels weep. fright. That fellow seems to me to possess but one . 80 savage. What is the etymological meaning of horror? What does the word signify in accepted usage ? 4. FAREIVELL. Or in the heart or in the head r Elizabeth united the occasional of her sex with that sense and sound policy in which neither man nor woman ever excelled her. . QUESTIONS. What is an differ from a. What is an emotional or personaI/(m<v/ 4. What is panic? does it What of the numbers affected by it ? 7. g'r"^ 80 . . nanght cares he For nnmher or proportion. . What tints the year puts on.^^— to anybody in the house. Q. What is dismay? How compare with right and terror? . and terror? 6. FAHTCY (page 167). If she were to take a . But Marmlon stopped to bid 1 a word that must be. What are val»dtctUm and vakaidory t —— my EXAMPLES. but not fill then. . The train from out the castle drew. contrasted with fright and terror In actual or possible effects ? How is fear 6. QUESTIONS.

tention f strife ? contest f 3 How does quarrel compare other words cited brawl or b7'oil f 4." . intended to fasten or hold devices i (page 169). What be confined? 5. QUESTIONS. Which of these words are nsed in the metaphorical sense f EXAMPU. EXAMPLES. Between my houBe and yours. oontentlOTi. FEUD What is a/««(f / (page 170). How are womanly and womif anieh discriminated in nse T EXAMPLES. how precious are these qualities In The demand for closet>room is no mere —^— &e sick room« fancy. Of what material are all these restraming commonly composed f are lionds By what general name are they popularly 1 known f S.feminine feud EXAMPLES. Bow aie female Bad feminine diBcriminated ? 2. Notice. Bound in those icy by the& Slaves can not breathe in England Thejr toncb onr conntiy. too. What are shackles and what are they 4. What is the difference between B female voice and a feminine voice } 3. 434 Swa the braveBt men may be swept along in a sudden With much more I view the fight than thou that mak'st the fray. Bex. and see Christ's chosen saint . Bnt first set my poor heart free. In triumph wear his Christ-like chain lest he should swerve or faint. The ghastlyspectacle filled every beholder with crept upon him as he waited in the darknesa A lingering No — — FEMIIVIIVE: (page QUESTIONS. contest. Look in. ." . controversy.„. Is a gwarre? in word or act ? contenin importance with the does an affray always involve 1 To what may a Of what is it . What are /«{fera In the primary sense f 2.S. . qTJBSTIONS. bnt the good sense of the FETTER I. What are manacles and Tiandc^ffs designed to fasten or hold ? gyveef 3. Could we forbear ** We should agree as angels do above. 160). " There is> Beware of entrance to a of five hundred years. I. What and of what material composed 6. used? 2. How do these words compare in dignity with and dissension? and practise love be answered. and thelt fall.

When first the thoughtful and the free. What is a story f Is it good or bad. and yet true. What does savage EXAMPLES. What Is of tlie word ? 2. lbs Ardent. 3. was the day. . QUESTIONS. and what is its original meaning f 2. many a sound business bouse goes dovra for want of power xeahze instantly on valuable securities. He was rejoiced to receive the In a panic. Our fathers. in the QUESTIONS. FEVAlVCIAIi To what differ (page 173).435 2^^"° FICTIOX 1. to-- FKVE (page 172). savages massacred the snrvivois to the last man. trod the desert land. (page 170). dear. How. What does fierce words differ T signify » qUESTIONS. strange is told of thee. does monetary directly refer f 3. Is fabrication or falsehood the more odious term f Which term is really the stronger S 6. true or false ? With what words of the group does it agree f &Jiction. How does a myth differ from a legend ? 4 . and dire. QUESTIONS. How from a novel? from a fable ? from a myth f S. How does pecuniary agree with and from monetary f 3. O scenes surpassing A . spring from no petty cause. 1 Delieve the whole account from beginning to end to be a puio thing sustained by such substantial evidence could not be a mere Imagination. From what Is /n« derived. The aid at a time when It was most needed. most common modem meaning does aJictUm differ EXAMPLES. year closes with the society out of debt. Scenes of accomplished bliss. How does it come into connection with clarifiief. A of the FIERCE 1 . r^j^c^f 1. the wintry sea Moaned sadly on New England's strand. la what connection is fiscai most commonly used ? EXAMPLES. (page 171). bora this primary meaning does fine become a synonym of eicceUent and beautiful fi 3. To what does signify f 'ierocious refer J How do the two 3. pure. Contentions . To what 6ae&flrMmAal especially apply? 4. . How do faliehooA and/a6Hca<«>» differ from the words ahove mentioned ? 6.

A trees. QUESTIONS. How does^M be a synonym for minute. (page 173). at the moment of com- —— . birds. AdA scattering wide the Jay. (page 17^ we call Href 4. What ie QTJBSTIONS. because so to a film of dust or a breath of air. in Heaven's array.fluctuate '436 How come connected with dainty. and of what may it be composed ? 3. What the essential fact underlying the visible phenomena which is comtnstionf 3. — — FI^OCK 1. feathers do not always make est balances must be kept under glass. To what class of animals does brood apply ? to what class does litter apply ? 4. To what is herd limited 1 6. What is the difference In mental action between hesitate and waver f between vacillate and waver f 4. Is It to EXAMPLES. What the most general word of this group ? 2. —— is winds slowly o'er the lea. of brightly clad women and children were enjoying a picnic under the s _____^_ FliUCTWATE 1 . Some people are more The to be than wise. s and the twitter of birds among the trees. In what one characteristic do swerve and from osdllate. What is not good for the He heard the bleating of the The lowing Excited Is not good for the bee. Which of the above-mentioned words apply to persons ? which to feelings f to the eye. sharp f Give instancea of the use of fine in its various senses. faith. What Is 2. What is a group. delicate. undulate. Wliat the meaning of flvctiwte t t!««rdi£Eer (page 173). The vessel suddenly from her course. and waver f 3. 2. He's gone. What is a drove t Is class of objects EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. Of what is pack used f 7. and exquisite f S. almost universally true that the human mind mitting a crime. comminuted f How for Jilmy. It is Thou almost mak'st me in my The surface of the prairies rolls and —— EXAMPLES. gathered at the comers discussing the affair. fluctuate. — — ly adjusted as FIRE 1. tenuouef for keen. and who knows how he may report Thy words by adding fuel to the f Lo I as he comes. How wide is its range of meaning ? a conflagration f EXAMPLES. Of what is bevy used Ijlockf 5.

differ from dtm EXAMPLES. Into what two sectionB are fluids divided f 3. " each be hero in his turn I Seven and yet one. (page 174). what is the difEerence between follow and en guef result f EXAMPLES. Wliat Is the meaning cX." FORiniDABLiE .FOLiLiOW . All delays are - in war.M9<f *' fluid I'ortlflcatiou FL. QUESTIONS. How does follow compare with duae and pursue f 8 As regards succession in time. A mighty A bulwark never failing. is liis is our God. What is a fluid f 2. Say. Are gases fiuidsf 6. siiail my little bark attendant sail. formidable f 3. Now nature paints her colors. What substance is at once a liquid asAst fluid at the ordinary temperatare and preBsnre ? EXAMPLES. sweet . The great fleet moved FORTIFICATIOaf QUESTIONS. Are gases ever liquids? 7. Are all liquids Jluids? 5. t the triumph and partake the gale When Youth and Pleapure meet to the glowing Hours with flying feet. tinctive (page 176). How ioes formtdaUe gerousf terriUef tremendous? Give examples. (page 174). the heart of Antwerp to overawe the city. like shadows in a dream. QUESTIONS. For a man's bonse Alva bnllt a In Oar helper He amid the flood Of mortal ills prevailing. (page 176).UID £. How does a fortress speciflcally differ from a fortification f meaning of citadel? 3. 2. extracting was once a haze of light. " Then me. slowly toward the forts. the Prince " I answered. What is the die What H fastness oi s^ etronglwldf EXAMPLES. QT3ESTI0NS. What Is a liquid f a gasf 4. . as an army with banners. how the bee Tills earth Sits on the bloom. What Is it to follow f 2. a array. What \Bafori? 4. t.

Whoever has once become notorious by base . and with what reference are/a«ora2 and prospered used P EXAMPLES. even if he speaks tmth gains no belief. The first and the worst of all is to cheat oneself. How docs /ortvnaie compare with successful ? discriminated 1 2. or as applied to acts f S. FRIESTDIiY 1. (page 177). QUESTIONS. what^s the reason ? Why. WhatdoesyW««(Sy signify as applied to persons. 2. and compassion join'd. t-Wbut iB/arUtudef 2. When I had decked the sea with drops fnll salt. Ah. How does the adjective friendly compare in strength with the noun fnendf . not a word this same ^^impOBSible" . What swindle f is the QtTESTIONS. fraud f How does it differ from deceit or deception ? ieAsa ot aaimpo%ture / S. FORTUWATE (page 177). doth never prosper . QtTESTIONS. — years 1 once more who wonid not be a boy f I have a mind presages me such thrift That I should questionless he It is — FRAUD 1. 1. How are lucky and fwlunate 3. ThoQ didst smile. How does lution and endurance compare ? It compare with coaraye / 3.for tltnde friendly mib *** FORTITUDE (page 176). How doresO' EXAMPLES. Tempering each other in the victor^s mind. no good comes of those that have it so often in their mouth. (page 178). Wh&t is dishonesty f a c?ieat? a do all How these fall short of the meaning of ? fraud f 4. In what special sens*. QUESTIONS. and I Have suffier'd like a girl. thon art a man. Unboanded Tell thy story If thine. What is a. prove the thousandth part Of my . consider^. Infused with a from heaven. Of what relations is treachery need treason t EXAMPLES. if it prosper none dare call it .

The load. QUESTIONS. There are but two ways of paying debt. Wb&t ie frugalily ? 3. not the heart of another. In what one quality does it differ from <?y«c<ion. peculiar boon of heaven. What is miserliness? S. Cpage 180). QUESTIONS. increase By close the little home was at last paid for and there was a great thanks- giving time. To all the lower world denied. a. Talk not of wasted If it enrich . loud winds. What does garrutam signify ? chattering ? How do talkative and loguacUna .439 friendship garrulous 3. He that hath friends A fellow feeling must show himself makes one wondrons . its waters returning Back to their springs. one JHg/Uened? by what intimidated? browbeat or cme f 3 • What is it to scare or terrify f EXAMPLES. What is parsimony ? How does itcOmTfaiev/ithfrug(^ity? "Wh&t is the motive ol parsimony ? 4. FRICHTEIV By what is (page 180). oMocAment. What la the special meaning of acceesiblef of companlonaile and toeiablef of cordial and genial f EXAMPLES.ITY EXAMPLES. devotion. To men and angels only given. like the rain. raising. increase of industry in of in laying out. .nd fi-iendlinees ? 3. What is the motive of economy? FRrGAL. What is the meaning of comity and amity f 4. 2. shall fill them full of refreshment. The noble mind's delight and pride. (page 179). (page 181). Mow does JHendsMpdiSertmm love/ EXAMPLES. What is it io QUESTIONS. Wkat is economy? 2. the bravest soul I 1. What is friendship? 2. OARRULOUS 1. 2. What is the special characteristic of prudence and protAdence? of thrift? 6. never was wasted. FRIEIVDSHIP 1. QUESTIONS. . that o'er the billows sweep Shake the firm nerve. The child was by the stories the nurse told.

A The conqueror proved friendship no cold medium knows. s either of the masculine or feminine the language sometimes very reason to indicate the of some person GENERAL 1. woman in While referred to. and charm her Guard against a feeble fluency. What is the distinctive meaning of magnanimous ? How does it differ from generous as regards dealing with insults or injuries ? EXAMPLES. What is sex? i. To cunning men I will be very kind. one may love the beauty of this. EXAMPLES. To tame a shrew. . . Burns with one love. How does generous differ from liberal ? 3 . QUESTIONS. in good bringing up. A feeling of unrest prevailed. and French every word is the indoor fails for that to and necessarily divides the work of the man. and To mine own children. and so on. What is the special applica- tion of tigr&o^^/ EXAMPLES. a facility of saying nothing. QUESTIONS. . (page 181). The maternal giving to relation naturally life. What is gender? To what does it apply ? Do the distinctions of geTider correspond to the disGive examples of languages containing three genders^ and of the classification in languages containing bnt two. What illustrations of the differences are given in the text ? EXAMPLES. . What is the distinctive sense of mmiflcent ? 4. What does general signify? 2. How does disinterested compare with generous? 6. What does munificent tell of the motive or spirit of the giver ? What does generous tell ? 5. How does general compare with universal with common ? 3. QUESTIONS. To what beings only does sex apply? 3.gender generous differ M/tn **v 1 from ga/n-uUms. law. prosiness. as in victory as he was terrible In battle. . tinctions of sex? (page 181). friendships will admit of division. the work of the outer world. all Death comes to by GENEROUS What is (page 183). the primary meaning of generous? the common meaning? 2. the good humor of that person. with one resentment glows. and from each other 3. OENDER 1. a tongue.

or not ? 4.? 6. What does one «oto. What is talent? 3. (page 184). Dominion absolute. What is the primary meaning of give ? the secondary meaning ? 2. What is a grant. fowl. and to whom given f 7. He gave us only over beast. and by whom made ? EXAMPLES. (page 183). genius give QUESTIONS. He a living as umbrella mender but a poor all living it is. What does obtain imply f Is the thing one lAtains an object of de^re f How does obtain differ from get f 7.441 GEIVIIJS (page 183). found His single well employ'd. that right we hold By his True love's the which God has given The alone beneath the heaven. To man cause without a OITE 1. GIFT . QUESTIONS. noble knights " cried the heralds. What does vAn imply ? How is one said to vAn a suit at law ? What is the correct term in legal phrase ? Why f 8. What is the special sense of boon ? 8. What is a person said to is g'«<. (page 185). QUESTIONS. What Is genius? 8. What is a gratuity^ and to whom given f 5. What is the sense and use of largess ? 6. What synonymous word is always used in the evil sense ? 3. wisdom and with all thy getting. Does a person always get what he earns or always earn what he gets f 6. his learning would not - him a dinner. Can we give gim what is undesired 1 3. fish. eternal Master The No great OET . What is especially implied in secure ? EXAMPLES. Which Which is the more dependent upon training ? is the higher quality f EXAMPLES. By what special element does procure differ from obtain? 9. What is a benefaction? a donation? What difference of usuge is recognized between the two words ? 4.? a-HowissreirelatedtoexiwctattonordeBhref How gain related to those words 1 3. What is a present. -. What is a gift? Is gift used in the good or the bad sense ? Does the legal agree with the popular sense ? 12 . was ever without some mixture of madness. How ifl . In the strange city he found that understanding. Can we give what we are paid for f 4. QUESTIONS. By what procesBes does one acqutref Is the thing acquired sought or desired. . courts of justice had fallen so low that it was practically Impossible to win a .

. What is the present meaning of ragn f How does it compare with niilet EXAMPLES. What does the word govern imply ? How does it difEer from control f 2. worketh for us a far mor« exceeding and eternal weight of glory. What is implied when we speak of granting a favor f 8. My God Jesus. How is it especially distinguished from teauHfulf EXAMPLES. What is to confer f 9. shall all yonr need according to his riches In glory by Christ to every man that asketh of thee. What is to grant? 7. For our light which is but for a moment. QUESTIONS. that publisheth peace." say that General Jackson meant to that his spirit is He greater than — ORACEFVL. How does yri^ compare with sorrow f with sadness? with Is tnelanc/ioly f in mourning. We glory in also. For some must follow. C}RI£F 1 . A head. alas I know not. What is the special signiflcance of sway f of moM t 5 . " I do not say that General Jackson did not mean to his country well. What most common acceptation ? Implied EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. the injunction. The king instruction to those who really de. feet of How upon the mountains are the myrtle rear'd its him that bringeth good tidings. Daniel Webster well described the character of " Old Hickory " In the sentence. What private they have. he that taketh a city. In Its What two chief senses has (([^iciion^ 4. (page 187). QTJESTIONS. What does graceful denote ! (page 186). turn not thou away. One of the pleasantest things in life is to sire to learn. GOYERIV 1. Is It correct to say " He gave it to me for nothing " f 6.govern grief **-* . but I do his country. What is especially implied in impart? in bestow f EXAMPLES. (page 185). 3. that made them do It I . and some Tho all are made of day. How do command and control differ f 3. What is it to manage t 6.„ always nnderstood when there is no limitation in the context ? 5. What Is grief f 2. and from him that would borrow of thee. How do rule taiA govern iiSet t 4. The court promptly upon him the honor of knighthood.

(page 187).443 habit taapplnesii HABIT 1. of love. brightens his crest Hope elevates and The storm raged without. HAPPHWESS I. but bear grain. What isfashion? rule f system ? £. What is happiness? 3. What vene? 6. QUESTIONS. may of wheat. but within the house all was brlghtnesB and There is no This is the very so sweet and abiding as that of doing good. thou shalt bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. Montaigne is wrong in declaring that ought to be followed simply because . What are -use and usagey and how do they differ from each other f 6. Is <ran«pir« correctly used in event be properly said to transpire ? and MMe differ is the meaning of superthe sense of happen? When may an EXAMPLES. What element ioeshoMt&iAiaemtom&ni routine? 3. How do both from happen in grammatical construction f 5 . it Thon sowest not that body or of some other grain. of rnnniug by running. Whatever at all as it should. What \apraetlsef 1. What does Aajipen signify ? 2. QUESTIONS. Lord Brougham says "The longer I live the more careful I . the graceless renegade that 1 If mischief ^— a secret treaty had been previously concluded between the powers. How does diSer from chance? ttefall 3. HAPPEIV 1. Should we preferably use custom or habit of a society 1 of an individual ? 4. How does 4. What is triumph? Uessedness? bliss? EXAMPLES. HI It that shall be. How does happiness compare with gratification. gratifmlianf satisfaction? 2. How doeapleamre compare with comfort and enjoyTtient? 6. and not because it is reasonable or just. What Is euetomf roatim f Which is the more mechanical f a." thing that I really care to do to the beneficent power of it is am to entrust every- makes Without perfect. What is the distinctive meaning of want? EXAMPLES. as the of walking by walking. What happiness differ from comfort ? ecstaoy? rapture? 9. and pleasure? with delight wAjoy? 8. What do gratification and satisfaction express f How do they compare with each other? 7. is Virtue alone below. little that is valnable is ever learned or done. comfort. (page it 188). . Sweet is after pain. What is the distinctive meaning of hetide ? 4. him. How does comfort differ from enjoyment ? with happlmss? fi. Every is preserved and increased by correspondent actions. What is delight? Is QUESTIONS. (page 189). satisfaction.

3. QUESTIONS. . 198). in the natural and in the political world. —— HARMOIVY 1. and she laughs with an abundant . made desperate efforts to secure outward In religious ohserv- of religions helief That action and counteraction which. aqreemerU.«/ How does it differ from pivtiuct? 4. But fell like autumn that mellowed long. The speaker was. What Is the »e«< its later meaning f 2. Of no distemper.Wha. What \i conformity ? amgruity ? S. . In what way is happy a synonym of bteaeedf 3. What Is harmony f 2. 190). and in what sense ? 6. What is the special meaning oi harvest'honw ? harvest-tide ? harvesl'time? original meaning of harvest f EXAMPLES.tmcontieteney? 6. What Is the meaning of happy in its most frequent present nse f EXAMPLES. How does harcompare with (»'()p/ 3. allowed to proceed. What is tho meaning of proceeds f yield? return? S. Tho twere to huy a world of days. How do concord and accord compare with harmony and with each other ? 4. Is harvest capable of figurative use. of no blast he died. f QUESTIONS. HATRED I (page QUESTIONS. (page 191). by general . from the reciprocal struggle of discordant powers draws ont tlie of the oniverse. What Is repugnance ? aversion ? How does hatred compare with aversbm as . I would not spend another such a night. What Is the sense f original meaning of happy f With what words Is It allied Inthia 2. To what A heart accident is it that we owe so unexpected a visit maketh a countenance. And the ripe of the newmown hay gives It a sweet and wholesome odor It soweth here with toll and care But the of love Is there. How do consent and concurrence compare ? EXAMPLES. What is unanim%/ 7. How does harrrumy compare with 3. HARVEST (page 193). Jnst tickle the earth with a hoe.liappy Uatred 444 HAPFV (page QUESTIONS. Whatispro(i!«. We have made a covenant with death and with hell are we at Tyrants have ances without . are they that monm for they shall he comforted.

What are the In what sense Is does salutary belong ? Are the words properly Inter synonyms of healthy? of healthful? 3. There is no known duty. How 3. for your own sakes. QUESTIONS. He occupies the house. salubrious nsed. To what realm ot healthful? chief EXAMPLES. Heaven has no like love to turned. Son. . What is spite f S. What are grudge.. QUESTIONS. from gallant foe. resentment. What does possess signify i 3. What Is the meaning of hedUhy? changeable 1 it. In books. and how do they compare with one another ? applied to persons EXAMPLES. thou art ever with me. How does be in possession compare vfi^ possess f 5* How does own compare with possess or with be in possession? 6. my life upon a cast. 194)l What Is flie meaning of luaard? 2. the law presumes for the man. does hazard compare with danger? . and I will stand the in doing of the die. and the statement that he is in possession of Ills reason } EXAMPLES.. or work. In all cases of wilful injury to person or property. from our first meeting an instinctive ance deepened into a settled . bnt does not is thine. yourselves of solid reasons. The slight put upon him filled him with deep . nature. sweetly cooperative.. . He ne'er Ta'en in bore fair flght for stalwart blow . What is the difference between the statement that a man has reason. Do yon think it necessary to provide for every before taking the first step > HEAIiTHT (page 195)./i **'* have healthy f as applied to things? 3. and all that 1 I earnestly entreat yon. To what Is Race applied i How widely inclnsive a word Is it f 2. not the self- distracting one. How do risk and venture compare with change and hazard. or Blessed is the play let my first years be passed. We must take the current when it serves or lose onr I have set . and to what is It applied f 4. I felt which on acquaint- HATE . and with each other ? 4 How do aoAdeni and casualty differ f 5 What is a contingency ? EXAMPLES. What is to hold? to occupy? 4. 1. It is the coherent. Wiat Is malice f malignity? 4. and revenge. to it. (page 194). HAZARD (page QtTESTIONS.

Men use Te little thought only as authority for their injustice. alike resisted the tyranny of James II. What is a heretic? a schigmatic? 2. 4. Give bistanoea of the iel« QUESTIONS. EXAMPLES. How does secrete compare with conceal? How is it chlefiy used f 5. Cpage 196). What kind of a term is high t What does it signify ? . QUESTIONS. reject. said to be heterogeneous? viit&i^ homogeneous? 3. He does not prevent a crime when he can Know then whatever cheerful and serene it. (page 196). and employ speech only to stars I their thoughts.? to scr^nf EXAMPLES. When is a mixture. HIOH . and patriot can not politics mix Their Without an effervescence.HELP . What is it to cover. after the first and second admonition. QUESTIONS. HIDE Which is (page 197). or in what other way or ways. Does conceal evince intention. often differ in action ? 4. How are the terms dissenter and fum'conformist usually applied. HETEROOENEOIJS . if any f 3. the mind the body too. Ishdp or ot<i the stronger term f 2. In what does a heretic differ from his church or religious body? a schismatic? 3. and what does It signify . Which ie ased in excitement or emergency ( 3. How does misceUaneous differ from heterogen&ms ? EXAMPLES. 2. Is an object hidden by intention. How do cooperate and aesiat differ i 6. as cement. QUESTIONS. To what do encourage and uptuM letex 1 succor and support ? EXAMPLES. (page 196). What is the special significance of non'homogeneous ? 4. When are substances heterogeneous as regards each other i 2. HERETIC I. Does hdp include aid or does aid include help? 4. How do a heretic and a schismatic. the most general term of this group. Which implies the seconding of another's exertions f Do we aid or hdp the helpless ? 6. A man that is an Ghmrchmen and . (page 198). your dlmhiished rays. My second son received a sort of Courtier education at home.

What is tmver- EXAMPLES. What contrasted nses has Itiffh in the figurative sense ing in the literal. How do the words above mentioned compare with eco/feei / may 7. HOIiY . What is the special significance of tall? 4. What Is 2. Which 4. What element does l<^ty add to the meaning of high or tall? 5. divinely What is and echoing walks between. and he will flee from you. (page 200). and most divinely fair. Etady of mankind to that advance of age or death which can not HISTORY . All sects axed churches of Christendom hold to some form of the doctrine of the inspiration of the Christian Scriptuiei. How does hinder compare with prevent? 4. What is the meaning of retard? 5. word. In what sense is divine loosely used ? What is its more Tlifl appropriate sense ? EXAMPLES. 2. How do elevated and eminent compare in the literal sense f in the figurative? 6. What Is history f How does apply f it relate events ? It 2« How does history differ from annals or chronicles? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. . A— ye bear. that which the breeze on the steep. overarched. A daughter of the gods. It Is the for every drop my needle and thread. What is the meaning of sacred? 2. To what class of events does QUESTIONS. What is it to obstruct? to resist ? How do these two words compare with each It to hinder? other —— be- EXAMPLES.447 tive use of the hinder holy jects . the Devil. Happy the peopie whose ^—— is little else is than a picture of human crimes and misfortunea philosophy teaching by example. half conceals. HIIVDER (page 199). burden is this life . How ? term do we apply directly to God does it compare with holy? 3. He knew Himself to sing. How does hinder differ from detaij? 3. — time is quiet as a nun breathless with adoration. My tears must stop. and in the figurative sense ? ? 8. are dulled. QUESTIONS. How does AJj'A compare with tfeep? To what obthese words be severally applied f 3. half discloses 1 As it fitfully blows. (page 300). and build the rime. A pillar'd shade.

The attempt to abolish the ideal woman and keep the ideal tinated failure. giddy and unsure Hath he that buildeth on the vulgar heart. 1. What Is Is the general sense of a&ode. Ample spaces o'er the smooth and pavement. What are the senses of plain and pla/ne ? what language EXAMPLES. dwelling. What does horlsontal signify 1 How does it compare with level? S. How are these words used in the figurative senses > . The prominent lines in Greek architecture were . HUBfT 1. does it differ from honorable? EXAMPLES. (page QUESTIONS. From what language is /umie derived What distinctive meaning f EXAMPLES. in this sense. and kabitation? f What difference there in the use of these words is its 2. (page 303). What is its original meaning f its most common present sense f In what derived sense is it often used f 4. but it Is not a liOve is the lite of ^. An ^— is a predes- A house without love may be a castle or a palace. QUESTIONS. undisguised murder will be any longer allowed to confomid warfare. An No Itself man's the noblest work of God. a true . Is it correct to use hunt when search only is contemplated f 5. and not vertical. What does huni ordinarily include ? 4. What is the meaning of honorable? 3. What Is a hunt? Z. with the necessities of HORIZONTAL. Sun and moon were in the sea sunk. - labor bears a lovely face. QUBSTIONS.hunt 4*S MOME 1. From \s flat derived? 3. Wliat la the meaning of honest in ordinary use ? 2. (page 303). For what is a chase or pursuit conducted f asearch? 3. HOXEST . What is honest in the highest and fullest sense f How. form of pure. Maw will the merely honest and the tnilj /umoraNe man differ in action ? 4. (page 201. QUESTIONS..

(page 304). but prays from his heart. (page 305). What implication does surmise ordinarily convey? What is a theory? a scheme? a speculation ? How do they ditfer ? EXAMPLES. What element is common to the cheat and the impostor ? How do the two compare with each hypocrite derived? is its What includes the other words of the group? other? EXAMPLES. and the of an end. and so did our for lodgings. than those of the human mind. It is the HYPOTHESIS 1. built on nothing firm. and what did originally mean J 2. laid claim to the English crown. but they shall know The stag at hay's a dangerous foe. What . ^^__^_^ . (page 306). delude the Latian feel- ings. HYPOCRISY 1 . All things have The is up. (page 304). weakest sort of politicians that are the greatest . The formed the principal amusement of our Norman kings. What is pietism? formalism. QUESTIONS. Among happiness.. and what does it signify f 2. How does affectation compare with hypocrisy? EXAMPLES. HYPOCRITE 1. an . From what language is What common term primary meaning ? 2. 3. is of proffered peace. Prom what language 15 iOea derived. How are hypocrite and dissembler contrasted with each other ? 4. which accommodates itself to human the weakness of men in order that it may gain Its own ends. tho widely accepted by men of many important points. named Perkin Warbeck. who for that purpose retained in their possession forests in every part of the kingdom. Iiypocrlsy Idea the Inalienable rights of man are life. it QUESTIONS. What is a guess? a conjecture? a supposition? a surmise? 3. What is cant? sanctimoniousness? 4. QUESTIONS. and flatters a fawning and flexible art.440 EXAMPLES. I dare swear he is no In the reign of Henry YII. There are no other limits to science fails of proof The development . fancies. What is hypocrisy? 3. What is a hypothems? What is its use in scientific investigation and study ? 2. Let not the Trojans. at IDEA 1. QUESTIONS. liberty. with a feigned prince. From what language is pretense derived.? sham? 5.

What does Ignorant signify ? How wide is its range ? 2. f What is its present popnlai and with wliat words is it now synonymous who it EXAMPLES. From what language is idle derived. IDEAIj (page QUESTIONS. is little cause. 1. What is Imbecility? How does it compare with Idiocy? 3. What does itwrt signify? sluggish? 5. All rests with those Is what each makes He who comes up to his own read. f MHA *»" 3. A work or must always have had a yery to himself. stream was covered with a green scum. (page 308). . Wh&tie fatuity ? stupidity? is EXAMPLES. 1. and what does it denote 1 6. of greatness . .' 7. How does imanity differ from idiocy or irribecHity ? 4. What is the standard? How does it compare with the ic2ea2. The lOlVORAWT 1 . What does idle in present use properly denote ? Does it necessarily denote the absence of all action? 3. QUESTIONS. How do foUy and foolishness compare with idiocy? 5. Never a moment. QUESTIONS. 'tis To expect an effect without a less to be wise. What is the meaning of illiterate ? 3 . so doth the turn upon his bed. As the door tumeth upon his hinges. I was as a beast before thee. How does unlettered compare with illiteraie ? EXAMPLES. How does indolent compare with slothful? EXAMPLES. and what is its original meaning ? Z. The mind's the Every man has at times in his mind the of what he should he. What Idiocy? 2. QUESTIONS. or the result of development? 5. So foolish was I and A boy is better unborn than . How are i(2ea and i(i«a2 conti'asted r EXAMPLES.ow standard of it in his mind. of the man. or attaiimient without application. but is not IDIOCY (page 307). 206). IDL. What Is an original? 6. Be a to others and then all will go well. Where ignorance is bliss. What does lazy signify? How does it differ from idle? 4. Is an ideal primal. In what realm does slothful belong. but thrifty and thoughtful of others. What is an archetype? a prototype? 3.Ideal Ignorant did Idea signify in early pliilosopWcal nse use. than . (page 208). Can a prototype be equivalent to an archetype ? 4. Whatis an ideal? 2.E 1 .

1. and at home. the poet's pen Turns them to shapes. Into in tlie old psycliology f 2. science. were the body In When food can not be swallowed. Bat an eternal does always last. . What h fantasy oi phantaey? In what what two parts was imagination divided is nsmc now mental actions is it manifested f 4. 2. What change has presently undergone ? 5 . Which word imply preferablyusedas to the of baptism What are (fous^ and duck? words do not share ? 6. Let the dead Past by the Merrlmac. and possess it . and nothing past. Is immediately losing anything of its force f What words now seem more emphatic ? EXAMPLES. . What did directly formerly signify. and how f EXAMPLES. And as bodies forth The forms of things unknown. nmaEDIATELY QUESTIONS. (page 213). (pageS QUESTIONS. 1 Let ns go up Obey me HHHERSE 1.451 immerse iitiaginatlon OIAGEVATIOIV . is still Runs the great circuit. for we are well able f o overcome it. ? QUESTIONS. What did ftyaretifty formerly signify ? What is its present meaning? 3. Nothing is there to come. What preferahly given to the so-cailed reproductive imagination by President Porter and otliers ? 3. (page 211). To what faculty of the mind do both of these activities or powers belong ? 7. What is fantasy in ordinary usage f 5 imagination defined? fancy? 6. While . and mechanical How is invention. In what other respects do imagination and/ancj/ agree f What is the one great distinction between them f How do they respectively treat the material objects or Images with which they deal 1 Which power finds use in philosophy. special sense has dip which the other ? 4. What does «M6m«rye EXAMPLES. From what language words is dip derived ? from what immerse ? How do the two ? differ in dignity ? How rite as to the completeness of the action How ? as is to the continuance of the object in or under the liquid 3. The ships of war. like the finger of a clock. Trust no Future. Congress and Cumberland. life may be prolonged by nutritive fluids. and what does it now commonly mean ? 4. What 5. and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name. howe'er pleasant 1 its dead. What fe the primary meaning of immediately f Its meaning as an adverb of time! 3.

fall.Incongruous Imminent 45!i IIHlIINEjyT From what language pending? Z. portents. Ib lea impediment what one finds or what he carries f Is it momentary or constant ? What did the Latin imp«<2i»ien^a signify ? 5. — ISrCOXORVOVS When are things (page 214). said to be incongruous ? 2. rudeness suggest i What is its common acceptation f What is crffldousness? 4. To what does inconsistent apply? 5. To what is discordant applied 1 inharmonious? 3. Is a diffloulty within one or it difier from an obstacle or obstruction? without ? EXAMPLES. And evils . "What is anencumirance? How does 6. imminent derived and with what primary eenee ? imdo imminent and impending differ in present nse ! 3. What does ? EXAMPLES. ~ And nodding Ilium waits the And these she does apply for warnings. is (page 212). QUESTIONS. Wimt is & hindrance? i. (page 213). Thus far into the bowels of the land Have we march'd without Demosthenes became the foremost orator of the world . What does incompatible signify f When are things said to be incompatible ? 4. QUESTIONS. and lawful plague of It is better life. QUESTIONS. IHPVDENCE I (page 213). What is the meaning of incommensurable? . How does tiom obstruction ? 3. inPEDimENT 1. What is impudence ? insolence? 3. What does impertinence primarily denote 2. What illustrations of the uses of these words are given in the text f 6. With matchless they style a wife The dear-bought curse. B overcome are the stepping-stones by which great men rise. A not to turn friendship into a system of lawful and unpunishable certain class of ill-natured people mistalse for frankness. does threatening differ from the two words above given ? How How EXAMPLES. What does impediment obstacle diSer primarily signify ? obstacle? obstruction f 2. Something between a and a help. QUESTIONS. in spite of an ^—^ in his speech.

What does assiduity signify as indicated by its etymology? diligence? 3. INDUSTRY 1. riches spring from economy. meas- . love. To what do ^ofto. (page 215). limitless. QUESTIONS. thou see^st how 1 am. What is what What 4. (page 216). in wickedness would have won him endoring honor if it had taken the in a better cause. induction? 2. and Intense . the proof of an induction? is Wliat is deduction? process is QUESTIONS. is that organisms grow. or sacramental bacchanal might be. How does an itiduction compare with an inference? EXAMPLES. How does application compare with assiduity? 4. illimitable. Look cheerfully upon me. What l8 industry? 2. How does bugy differ from induetiiom? 2. and numberless compare with infinite/ 3. The —^ Here. and with what meaning ? To what may be applied ? 2. (page 216). as scientific induction? How do deduction and induction compare as to the certainty of the conolu sion ? S. bow does industry compare with diligence? 7. Perhaps the widest and l)est Isnown of Biology. How do countless. have no time for tears. No Bolltnde is so solitary I liear Induction Infinite as tliat of companionsliip. There His form of no success in study without close. EVDUSTRIOVS 1. QUESTIONS. Honors come by 'Tis . continuous. (page 215). IWFIWITE 1. ordinarily followed in known 3. supports us is all. What is the Implication if we say one is industrious just now S 3.. Wb&tiaconstancy? patience? perseiierance? 5. What ie persistence? What implication does it frequently convey f 6. a strain as a merry dirge.and ^ain* especially refer? EXAMPLES. QUESTIONS. What is the use of boundless. innumerable. From what language it is infinite derived. The longer one studies a vast subject the more cautions in he becomes.453 EXAMPLES. What does dUigeni add to the meaning of indmtrious? EXAMPLES. larDlJCTION .

If not to Thee. liberty. INJURY . To what realm of thought does immanent belong i What does it signify f How does it differ from inJierenl f Which is applied to the Divine Being % 3. QtTESTIONS. Prom what language is QUESTIONS. An power in the lite of the world. is it to Irffiuence? is one influenced by external or internal force f 8. innate. and inborn apply as distinguished from inherent and intrinsic? difference in use between innate 4. What does inTiereni signify f 2. she can Fine thoughts are wealth. 6. QUESTIONS. The wrongs and abuses which of society as it are in the very structure and constitution now exists throughout Christendom. and how do these two words compare with each other ? EXAMPLES. the more I have. mim *^* 4. (page 319). What do drive and compel imply. What the and inl>om ? 7. With what f special is reference does congenital occur in medical and legal use 5. Many philosophers hold that God is Any stable currency must be founded at last upon something. that has value. All men have an right to life. INHERENT 1. stupidity that seemed almost tantamount to He evinced an in nature. to those they . and protection. idiocy. as gold or silver. (page 318). for the right use of which Men are and ought to be accountable. Wliat do prompt and stir imply 1 4. for hoth are Man's inhumanity to man makes thousands mourn. . What do incite and instigate signify f How do these two words differ f 6. and unlimited? the duration of What time ? are the dimensions of inflnUt epoceT What is ittfinite My bounty is as as the sea. What is it to excite f 5. injury derived f What is its primary meaning f Its . UVFliVEIVCE What (page 317). my love as deep. EXAMPLES. the more I give to thee. Does one person actuate or ijifluence another f 3. What does inired add to the sense of innate or iniom t What is ingrained ? EXAMPLES. What do urge and impel imply ? How do they differ in the source of the power exerted ? 7. violent passions to desperate crime. To what kind of power does actuate refer .Influence Injury urelesa. To what do congenital. He was And well by his own .

upright. mVqiJISITIYi: 1. Nothing can worli me about with me. : Jam as you. doing thee . For blessings ever wait on And tho a late. No man can mortgage his . What is mischitf? How caused. and a goodly babe the queen receives Much comfort m't says. Such an act is an upon humanity. In what two applications may immaculate. . IKIirOCEIVT 1. How does damage compare with loss? How can a loss he said to be partial ? 5 What is evil. . and with what frequent suggestion? 6. and sitiless he used 1 4. And won thy love. but the A daughter. and with what intent ? damage derived. and how does it differ from inquisitive/ .455 derived meaning ? . nVJVSTICi: I. (page 221). What Is Injustice f 2. I woo'd thee with my sword. The wicked flee where no man pnrsueth. Is Inquisitive used in a good sense ? what. My poor prisoner. What does innocent in the full sense signify ? 2. EXAMPLES. How does wrong differ from injustice in legal nso ? How in popular use ? 3* What is iniquity in the legal sense ? in the common sense? EXAMPLES. With what limited sense is innocent used of moral beings ? 5. What ever are the characteristics of an inguisltive person ? 2. are bold as a Bon. In what sense is innocent tive ? applied to inanimate substances ? EXAMPLES. What does curious signify. (page QtJESTIONS. (page! QUESTIONS. and never am a except myself. pure. War in men's eyes shall be a monster of as a pawn for his fidelilj. Is innocent positive or negaHow does it compare with righteous. They are aa as grace itself. deeds. a sure reward succeeds. the that I Bustidn I cany real soflerer bnt by my own fault Hippolyta. What is harm? hurt? How do these woi'ds compare with injury f 7.-- Injustice In^ulsfUve 2. From wliat Is and with wliat original sense? detriment? How do Uiese words compare in actual use? 4. How inclusire a word Is i-n^wryt 3. in that sense. QUESTIONS. or virtuous t 3. is ordinarily preferred I 3.

journey

insanity

436
EXAMPLES.

His was an anxiously Adrian was tlie most
I

mind, a scrapulonsly conscientious heart.

am

to

know

man that ever lived, and the most universal inquirer. the cause of this sudden change of purpose.

ISrSAKITY
,

(page 321).
use

QUESTIONS. What
is

Insanity in the widest sense

f

in its restricted

?

Which nse is the

more frequent ? 2. Fi'om what is lunacy derived ? What did it originally imply ? In what seuse is it now used ? 3. What is madness ? 4. What is derangement? ddiriwrnf 5. What is thespeciiic meaning of dementia 6. What is aberration f 7. What is the distinctive meaning of TiiMwAnaMonf 8. What ismomomoraia.? 9. What are/rsKsy and mania.?

EXAMPLES.
folly—you shall not chase All power of fancy over reason is a degree of .
it
,

Go—you may call

my gloom away.

interpose:
Whatisit tomferpose.? 2.
is it

(page %%%).

QUESTIONS.
to Intermeddle

f

How does te<eree(2e differ from info?5)o«c^ 3. What How does it differ from meddle f from interfere f 4.
?

What do

artntrate

and mediate involve

EXAMPLES.
Dion, his brother,
for

him and his

life

was saved.

Nature has

a natural barrier between England and the continent.

OiTOLiVE
,

(page 333).

QUESTIONS.
From what language

How does involve compare with implicate ? 3

and with what primary meaning f 2. . Are these words used in the favorable or the unfavorable sense ? 4. As regards results what is the difference between inxiludet imply, and involve ?
is

involve derived,

EXAMPLES.
Rocks may be squeezed
into

new forms,
a

bent, contorted,
their ruin.

and

.

An oyster^shell sometimes
in other men's affairs,

pearl.

he went down to

JOURSrEY
1
.

(page 233).

Prom what language
present meaning
?

QUESTIONS. is Journey derived 1 What is its primary meaning f Its 2. What is ^TO^e?.? How does it differ from^'oumey/ 3
4. What is passage f ol

What was the former meaning of voyage f its present meaning ? atHpf a lour? 5. What is the meaning ^nd common use of

457
iransitf

judge keep
6.

What

Is

the original meaning of

pUgrlmagef

How

Is it

now

used!

EXAMPLES.
-

makes

all

men countrymen.
life is

All the

of their
It

bonnd

in shallows

and

in miseries.

were a

lilie

the path to heaven.

To help you find them.

JVDOE
1
.

(page 324).

QUESTIONS. What is &Juage in the legal sense ? 2. What other senses has the v/oiijudge in common use f 3. What is a referee, and how appointed ? an arlAtrator? 4. What is the popular sense of umpire? the legal sense ? 6. What is the present use of arViterf 6. What are the judges of the United States Supreme
Court
officially called f

EXAMPLES.
The end crowns
all.

And that

old

common
it.

,

Time,

Will one day end

A man who Is no
The
the hand.
is

of poetry. only the mouth of law, and the magistrate who ponlshes

of law

may be a good

la

only

JUSTICE
What
is justice in

(page 335).
in social

QUESTIONS.
governmental relations
!

and personal

relations

!

in

To what do integriiy, rectiWhat do all these include f 3. What two contrasted senses has lawfulness? 4. To what does justness refer,
matters of reasoning or literary ti'eatment ? tude, right, righteousness, and virtue apply ?

2.

and

in

what sense

is it

used

1

EXAMPLES.
exalteth

a nation.
fame's best friend.
,

of

life is

He shall have merely

and

his bond.

KEEP
What
is

(page

326).

QUESTIONS.
the general meaning of
Iceep ?

fulfil?

maintain? guard or defend?

3.

What

i. How does keep compare with preserve P does keep imply when used as a synonym of

EXAMPLES.
the balance of the mind.

These make and

The good old rule

them,— the simple plan, That they should take who have the powei
Sofflceth

And they should - thy shoD. and thy shop will

——

who can.
thee.

language

«OB
Kllil. (page
336).

QUESTIONS.
1 Wbat hi
.

It to kUlf 2. To what are assassinate, execute, and murder Testrlcted f What is the specific meaning of murder? execute f assassinate f To what class of persons is the latter word ordinarily applied ? 4. What is it to slay? 5* To what is massacre limited ? With what special meaning is it used T 6t To what do butcher and slaughter primarily apply f What is the sense of each when so used ? 7. What is it to despatch t

3.

EXAMPLES.
have been . Hamilton was in a duel by Aaron Bmr. The place was carried by storm, and the inhabitants —
States

To look into her eyes was to Two presidents of the United

donbt.

without dlstlnctlan of

age or sex.

KIN
1.

(page 237).
denote

QUESTIONS. How does Hnd compare with lAn ? 2. What do lAn and kindred What is iffflnlty f How does it differ from cormmguinity t

t

3.

EXAMPLES.

A Uttle more than

,

and less than
-

.

Be held his seat,—a friend to the human

The patient bride, a little Leaving of home and

sad.
,

K]VOWL.£DC}E
,

(page QUESTIONS.

337).

What is knowledge f How

does it differ from information f 2. What is pen;^ tionf apprehension? cognizance? 3. What is intuition? 4. What is eaiperience, and how does it differ tiom intuition? B. Vfbat is learning? erudition?

EXAMPLES.

— comes, but wisdom lingers.
continually seeking
' ;

The child is

hence his endless qnestlong.

Tis the sunset of

life

gives

me

mystical

—8

And coming events
lie at

cast their
all

shadows before.

the very foundation of

reasoning.

liASTGVAOE
1.

(page

i

What is the derivation of

QUESTIONS. language ? What was its original slgniffcation ? How

wide is its present meaning f 3. As regards the use of words, what does language denote in the general and in the restricted sense ? 3. What does speech always involve t 4. Can we speak of the speech, of animals f of their language? 5. What is a dialect? a barbarism? an idiom? 6. What is upatois?

How does it differ from a dialect?

7.

What

is

a vernacular ?

459
BX&.MPLES.

large
latv

We must be free or die, who speak the
That Shakespeare spake: the
faith

and moraie hold

Which Milton
Is great;

held.

but silence

is greater.

An infant crying in the night, An infant crying for the light.
bnt a cry. And with no Thonght leapt out to wed with Thought, Ere Thonght could wed itself with