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Age Calculation ABS AND AutoSum shortcut key AVERAGE BIN2DEC Brackets in Formula CEILING CELL CHAR CHOOSE CLEAN CODE COMBIN CONCATENATE CONVERT CORREL COUNT COUNTA COUNTBLANK

COUNTBLANK COUNTIF DATE DATEDIF DATEVALUE DAVERAGE DAY DAYS360 DB DCOUNT DCOUNTA DEC2BIN DEC2HEX DELTA DGET DMAX DMIN DOLLAR DSUM EDATE EOMONTH ERROR.TYPE EVEN

EXACT FACT Filename Formula FIND FIXED FLOOR FORECAST FREQUENCY GCD GESTEP HEX2DEC HLOOKUP HOUR IF INDEX INDIRECT INFO Instant Charts INT ISBLANK ISERR .

ISERROR ISEVEN ISLOGICAL ISNA ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISODD ISREF ISTEXT LARGE LCM LEFT LEN LOOKUP(Array) LOOKUP(vector) LOWER MATCH MAX MEDIAN MID MIN MINUTE .

MINUTE MMULT MOD MODE MONTH MROUND N NA NETWORKDAYS NOT NOW ODD OR Ordering Stock Percentages PERMUT PI POWER PRODUCT PROPER QUARTILE .

QUARTILE QUOTIENT RAND RANDBETWEEN RANK REPLACE REPT RIGHT ROMAN ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP SECOND Show All Formula SIGN SLN SMALL Split Forename Surname STDEV STDEVP SUBSTITUTE .

SUM SUM as Running Total SUM using names SUM with OFFSET SUMIF SUMPRODUCT SYD T TEXT TIME TIME Calculation TIMEVALUE TODAY TRANSPOSE TREND TRIM TRUNC UPPER VALUE .

VALUE VAR VARP VLOOKUP WEEKDAY WORKDAY YEAR YEARFRAC OMs .

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D6) What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates and expresses the result as a decimal fraction.000 £6.000 =YEARFRAC(B34. 1 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 365.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but can be formatted as a percent.C34+1. Syntax =YEARFRAC(StartDate.4)*D32 31-Mar-98 £12.D4) =YEARFRAC(C5.25 1 25% =YEARFRAC(C4.000 £3. 4 : European 29 or 30 or 31 days divided by 360. 0 : or omitted USA style 30 days per month divided by 360. The Start and End dates of the contract are entered. The Pro Rata Salary which represents the annual salary is entered.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H YEARFRAC Page 34 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Start Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Date 1-Apr-98 31-Dec-98 1-Apr-98 Fraction 0. Start 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Pro Rata Salary Actual Salary 31-Dec-98 £12. Example The following table was used by a company which hired people on short term contracts for a part of the year.C33+1. 2 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 360.000 =YEARFRAC(B32.000 £12.000 =YEARFRAC(B33. the End date. The =YEARFRAC() function is used to calculate Actual Salary for the portion of the year.4)*D33 30-Jun-98 £12. Formatting The result will be shown as a decimal fraction. .D5) =YEARFRAC(C6. but not including.4)*D34 Note The extra 1 has been added to the End date to compensate for the fact that the =YEARFRAC() function calculates from the Start date up to.C32+1. 3 : 29 or 30 0r 31 days per month divided by 365.EndData.Basis) Basis : Defines the calendar system to be used in the function.

. Syntax =YEAR(Date) Formatting The result is shown as a number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J YEAR Page 35 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Date 25-Dec-98 Year 1998 =YEAR(C4) What Does It Do? This function extracts the year number from a date.

E25. Example The following example shows how the function can be used to calculate delivery dates based upon an initial Order Date and estimated Delivery Days.Days.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Order Date Mon 02-Feb-98 Tue 15-Dec-98 Holidays Fri 01-May-98 Fri 25-Dec-98 Wed 01-Jan-97 Thu 01-Jan-98 Fri 01-Jan-99 Delivery Days 2 28 Delivery Date Wed 04-Feb-98 Tue 26-Jan-99 =WORKDAY(D25.E4) =WORKDAY(D5.Number.D28:D32) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year . The function excludes weekends and holidays and can therefore be used to calculate delivery dates or invoice dates.Cells.Holidays) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which can be formatted to a normal date by using Format.E5) What Does It Do? Use this function to calculate a past or future date based on a starting date and a specified number of days.Date.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H WORKDAY Page 36 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Days 28 28 Result 35836 10-Feb-98 =WORKDAY(D4. Syntax =WORKDAY(StartDate.

Custom and set the Type to ddd or dddd. Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number.1) =WEEKDAY(C7.Type) Type : This is used to indicate the week day numbering system. Example The following table was used by a hotel which rented a function room. To show the result as the name of the day. 3 : will set Monday as 0 through to Sunday as 6.2) =WEEKDAY(C8.3) What Does It Do? This function shows the day of the week from a date.C39:D45) Booking Rates Day Of Week Cost 1 £50 2 £25 3 £25 4 £30 5 £40 6 £50 7 £100 . The Actual Day is calculated. 1 : will set Sunday as 1 through to Saturday as 7 2 : will set Monday as 1 through to Sunday as 7. If no number is specified. use Format. The Booking Cost is picked from a list of rates using the =LOOKUP() function.00 =LOOKUP(WEEKDAY(C34).2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H WEEKDAY Page 37 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Date Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Weekday 5 5 5 4 3 =WEEKDAY(C4) =WEEKDAY(C5) =WEEKDAY(C6. Cells. Excel will use 1. Syntax =WEEKDAY(Date. The Booking Date is entered. Booking Date Actual Day Booking Cost 7-Jan-98 Wednesday £ 30.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The hotel charged different rates depending upon which day of the week the booking was for.

they are part of the illustration. Unfortunately. The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require.ColumnToPickFrom. it then scans across to pick a cell entry. TRUE for yes.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VLOOKUP Page 38 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 The column numbers are not needed. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. It then calculates the position of the month in the list. Formatting No special formatting is needed. col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6 Jan Feb Mar 10 80 97 20 90 69 30 100 45 40 110 51 50 120 77 Type a month to look for : Which column needs to be picked out : The result is : Feb 4 100 =VLOOKUP(G11. Bob Eric Alan Jan 10 20 30 Feb 80 90 100 Mar 97 69 45 .FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item. The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name. Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the row headings are not sorted. When the item is found. because the list of months is not as wide as the lookup range.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.RangeToLookIn. The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from. The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and picks out the correct cell entry.C6:H8. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require.G12. FALSE for no.

D49:F49. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C Carol David D 40 50 E 110 120 F 51 77 eric mar G H I J VLOOKUP Page 39 of 223 K Type a name to look for : Type a month to look for : The result is : 69 =VLOOKUP(F56. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names down the side of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the side of the Discount Table the =VLOOKUP will look across to find the correct discount.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0)+1.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1. The functions use the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol . the function will produce an error. The =VLOOKUP() scans down row headings in column F for the spare part entered in column C.F75:I79. =VLOOKUP(C126. When the make is found. the ranges for =VLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change.G74:I74. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. using the result of the =MATCH() function to find the position of the make of car. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.200 =VLOOKUP(C81. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. Wood and Glass.C50:F54.MATCH(F57.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =VLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.MATCH(B81. If the Quantity Ordered does . The name of the Item is typed in column C of the Orders Table.0)+1.2. the =VLOOKUP() then scans across to find the price. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values down the side of the Discount Table are sorted. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost Lookup Table £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. If a match is not found.C114:D116.

the next lowest value is used.FALSE) Discount =VLOOKUP(D126. and the discount from the 100 row is used.G113:I113.C114:D116.MATCH(C126.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TRUE) Total =(D126*E126)-(D126*E126*F126) .TRUE) Discount Table Wood Glass 0% 0% 0% 6% 3% 12% 8% 5% 15% J VLOOKUP Page 40 of 223 K Unit Cost Table Brick £2 Wood £1 Glass £3 Brick 1 100 300 Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.0)+1.0)+1.2.G113:I113. =VLOOKUP(D126.2000 Peter Noneley A 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H I not match a value at the side of the Discount Table. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100.MATCH(C126.F114:I116.F114:I116.275 Formula for : Unit Cost =VLOOKUP(C126.

Syntax =VARP(Range1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.1875 =VARP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.5 1. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).4 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VARP Page 41 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Values 10 10 9 10 0.0125 The smallest variance is : 0. A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced.H32:H34.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).H32:H34. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.5 1. .1875 =VARP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.0050 1.5 1.5 0.6 1. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value.8 0.Range2.5 0. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.4 1.6 1.25 =VARP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the variance of a list of values.0019 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VARP(D32:G32) =VARP(D33:G33) =VARP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.H32:H34. The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run. The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.7 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.0019 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.0)) find the machine name.

0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.H34:H36.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36). Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.5 1.H34:H36.6 1. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.25 =VAR(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.6666667 =VAR(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.25 =VAR(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.4 1.H34:H36.8 0.5 1.5 0.7 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 1. The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.0025 1.5 0. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.4 1.Range2. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VAR Page 42 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Values 10 10 9 10 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.5 1. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0067 1.0)) find the machine name. . Syntax =VAR(Range1.0167 The smallest variance is : 0.6 1.0025 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VAR(D34:G34) =VAR(D35:G35) =VAR(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.

0. =MID(). There was a 50% increase in sales. Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function.SEARCH("??:??". If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored.SEARCH("??:??". errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long." ".0625 1:30 10:30 0:30 ")).SEARCH("??:??". To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text. The winning time was 1:30 seconds. There is no way to identify the beginning of the value.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H VALUE Page 43 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C4. The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract. Explanation of formula shown above.02 0.5)) =VALUE(MID(C17.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14. To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length. The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign. The same will be true for other recognised formats. There was a 100% increase in sales. 50% There was a 100% increase in sales. two or three digits long.C4). The winning time was 0:30 seconds. based upon the original text.5)) =VALUE(MID(C15. it can be either one. There was a 2% increase in sales. If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH().C17).C15).C14). 0. 2% Approx 50% increase in sales.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 1 Only a 2% increase in sales.SEARCH("??:??".SEARCH("???%".SEARCH("£".5)) =VALUE(MID(C16.99)) There was a 2% increase in sales." The winning time was 1:30 seconds. =LEFT() or =RIGHT(). 100% * See explanation below. If the % sign is included in the text. =FIND().C16). as alphabetic characters will be included.SUBSTITUTE(C11. The winning time was 10:30 seconds. Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 1 .5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value. other than it is preceded by a space. 0. 0. the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage.5 A 100% increase was achieved. =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11. =SUBSTITUTE." ". If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign. The result will be shown as a value. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time.02 There was a 50% increase in sales." ").

" .4)) VALUE Page 44 of 224 I ")." ".SUBSTITUTE(C52.SEARCH("???%".2000 Peter Noneley A B 53 54 C =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52." ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ." D E F G H ")).

.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H UPPER Page 45 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example See the example for FREQUENCY.

47589 1.47 =TRUNC(C8. it does not actually round the number.4 =TRUNC(C7.48 What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number.D5) 2 1.D10) -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.D9) -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.48 13643.47589 -1.D11) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47 =TRUNC(C6.47589 13643.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TRUNC Page 46 of 223 K 1 2 Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4.47589 -1.D7) 2 -1.48 13643.4 =TRUNC(C5.Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D6) 1 -1.47589 1.D8) -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9. Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate.D4) 1 1. .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely. Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TRIM Page 47 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7) What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text. .

800 3 -£4. The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.709 16 -£1.B5:B10.750 5 -£4.500 7 -£4. The months to predict were entered. such as Months.500 5 £3.B5:B10.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10. The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values. The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.B41:B52. months 1 to 12. Example The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to make a profit.551 9 £6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.000 8 -£3.E5:E10)} What Does It Do ? This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values. Syntax =TREND(KnownYs.774 11 £7.193 18 -£935 19 -£676 20 -£418 21 -£160 22 £98 23 £356 24 £615 {=TREND(C41:C52.386 12 £7.E8:E13)} {=TREND(C5:C10. the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility.451 17 -£1.163 10 £6. To prove to the bank that.B5:B10. such as Months.500 4 £3.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.E41:E52)} The same function used in all cells as an array formula .RequiredXs. The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data.600 4 -£4. The historical data for the past year was entered.000 2 £2.500 12 -£2. based upon the past years performance.000 11 -£2.B8:B13. 13 to 24.800 Predicted Values Month Profit 13 -£2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TREND Page 48 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Historical Data Month Sales 1 £1.000 3 £2.KnownXs.B5:B10. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Predicted Values Month Sales 7 £4.Constant) The KnownYs is the range of values. such as Sales Figures. Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the end of the next year.968 15 -£1. the company would start to make a profit at the end of the next year. the =TREND() function was used.300 10 -£2.940 8 £5. The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction. Historical Data Month Profit 1 -£5.997 {=TREND(C8:C13.800 9 -£3.B5:B10.226 14 -£1.800 6 -£4.800 6 £4.000 2 -£4.

E41:E52). but do not press Enter. Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I J TREND Page 49 of 224 K How To Enter An Array Formula Select all the cells where the array is required. Press Enter to enter the formula as an array.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as F41 to F52. Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down. .B41:B52.

turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it. The transpose range must be the same size as the original range. the entire array has to be highlighted. Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. If changes need to be made to the formula. such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5). The function needs to be entered as an array formula. and places in it in a new range. Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed. . Next type the formula.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TRANSPOSE Page 50 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Alan Bob Carol Total 0 Jan Feb Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160 {=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)} As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range. and the data originally in rows is in columns. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required.

Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5737 5516 =TODAY()-C28+1 =TODAY()-C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000. Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format. Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5736 5515 =TODAY()-C20 =TODAY()-C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day. To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G TODAY Page 51 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Today Is 15-Sep-12 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date. Year 2000 ########## Days Until -4641 =C36-TODAY() .

Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It is useful when data is imported from other applications.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G TIMEVALUE Page 52 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0. which convert all values to text.604849537 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time. such as from mainframe computers. . Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6.Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style. If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day.D5.Minute.E4) =TIME(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TIME Page 53 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0.D4. Syntax =TIME(Hour.E5) =TIME(C6. .E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.60485 =TIME(C4.

3 =TEXT(C4."0") =TEXT(C7.00") =TEXT(C6."0.FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0") =TEXT(C9. The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TEXT Page 54 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10."£0.25 10.25 Converted To Text 10.0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text.3 £10. ."£0."0."£0") =TEXT(C8.00 £10. Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert.00") =TEXT(C5.00 10 £10 10.

then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the value is text. The function is not specifically needed by Excel. Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J T Page 55 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cell To Test Hello 10 1-Jan-98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not. the result is a blank.

3) =SYD(F3.5 0.3) As % Of Total Depreciation 0.000 £4.F5. 5. 17% being £1500.4) =SYD(F3.500 £3.000 6 £3.1. £1500.1) =SYD(F3.E41. Year 3 is 50% of 6.F4.2.500 ===> =SYD(E39.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits. 2. year 1 is $4500.500 ===> £3.286 £1. 3. 4. £9000/6=£1500.F5. What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ? The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life.F5. Multiply 3.6) £12. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits.333333 0.F4.000 ===> £1.000 £8. A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6. The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life.F5. Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years.429 £2. £3000.F5.F4. A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500. £9.166667 1. 1+2+3=6.000 =SUM(F7:F12) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life. Invert the year digits.000 3 £4. these values are the depreciation . using the sum of the years digits.000 £1.500 1 2 3 17% 33% 50% As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are inverted.2. 33% being £3000. The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages. 1. £10000-£1000=£9000. year 2 is 33% of 6. year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500.F4.857 £2.1 by £1500 to get £4500.2) =SYD(F3.F4.3 becomes 3. year 1 is 17% 6.000 £1.714 £1. Example 1 Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : £10.143 £571 =SYD(F3.5) =SYD(F3.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SYD Page 56 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Deprecation in year 1 Deprecation in year 2 Deprecation in year 3 Deprecation in year 4 Deprecation in year 5 Deprecation in year 6 Total Depreciation : £20.F4.2. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation.F5.E40.

SalvageValue.607 £1.929 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : Depreciation in Year 4 : Total Depreciation : £10.000 4 £3. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 £10.000 As % Of Total Depriciation 0.600 £2. 100% .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F values for each of the three years in the life of the item.286 £964 £643 £321 As % Of Total Depriciation 25% 21% 18% 14% 11% 7% 4% £9.000 7 £2.4 0.000 £1.700 £1.1 100% G H I SYD Page 57 of 223 J Example 3 This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10. Example 2 The same example using 4 years.000 £1.3 0.000 Syntax =SYD(OriginalCost.Life.PeriodToCalculate) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2 0.800 £900 £9.250 £1.

350 =E44-E43 .D35:D39) £9. and the potential value of the stock when it is sold.50 25% =D39/E39 Bottle Selling Price £15. The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock.790 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price. Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.40 £3. takinging into account the markup percentage.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUMPRODUCT Page 58 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.E4:E6) Total Sales Value : What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values.00 20% £2. Range.00 25% £33.00 £2.33 80% £2. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.H35:H39) £2. Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100 Case Price £120 £130 £200 £24 £30 Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12 Bottle Cost Markup £12. to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold.00 25% £13.E35:E39.00 £16. The total of all the values is the result of the calculation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 £60. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1. Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock.13 =F39+F39*G39 Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit : £7.

"Tyres".E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12.CriteriaToBeMatched.E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12.">=100") Formatting No special formatting is needed. Total of item typed in following cell."Brakes".">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12. Total cost of all Tyres bought.RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12. It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 This examines the values in E4:E12. . It then identifies the entries for Brakes.E18. Total of items costing £100 or above.E4:E12) Total cost of all Brakes bought.E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12. Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined. If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total. =SUMIF(E4:E12."Brakes".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUMIF Page 59 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12. What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user.

such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date. 3. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things.2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed.0. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29.0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SUM_with_OFFSET Page 60 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled. The result is the range F51:G51 which is then totalled. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45. the second by 2 columns. An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate.1):OFFSET(E45. 1500 10 400 500 600 700 .0. 1.0.0. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset.0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0. 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.0. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled. but this would be time consuming and open to human error. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point. the first offset is offset by 1 column.1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered.1):OFFSET(E51. 2. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function.

The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled.0.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets.MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79.0. the first offset is offset by 1 column.2) : OFFSET(D79.0.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79. the second by 3 columns.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled.MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user. Type in the End month. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function.1):OFFSET(E57. Total 900 1020 Jan-98 10 15 Feb-98 Mar-98 Feb-98 400 20 Mar-98 500 1000 Apr-98 600 2000 May-98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79. J SUM_with_OFFSET Page 61 of 223 K L Example The following table shows five months of data.0.2000 Peter Noneley A 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B C D E F G H I =SUM(OFFSET(E57.0. The formula displayed below are only dummies.0.0. but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72.3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function.0. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used. Type in the Start month. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79. .0. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.0.

It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static as the formula is copied down.0)) =SUM(IF(D12.0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D.0)) =SUM(IF(D8. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUM_as_Running_Total Page 62 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM($D$7:D7) =SUM($D$7:D8) =SUM($D$7:D9) =SUM($D$7:D10) =SUM($D$7:D11) =SUM($D$7:D12) =SUM($D$7:D13) =SUM($D$7:D14) =SUM($D$7:D15) =SUM($D$7:D16) =SUM($D$7:D17) =SUM($D$7:D18) Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table. .$D$7:D12.$D$7:D8.$D$7:D11. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down.$D$7:D9.0)) =SUM(IF(D11. The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function.0)) =SUM(IF(D10.$D$7:D7.0)) =SUM(IF(D9. Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(IF(D7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .$D$7:D10.

Syntax =SUM(Range1. 100 200 300 600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) Wrong! Correct . This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols. Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly. ranges are from other functions.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50). through to Range30). The formula is actually doing more work than needed..D14. It can be used either horizontally or vertically.E17:E19) 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25)..MAX(E23:E25)) What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers.E13) 400 500 600 4800 Functions =SUM(C17:C19.Range3. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The numbers can be in single cells.Range2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SUM Page 63 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4) =SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 300 600 =SUM(C13.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 B C D E =C48+C49+C50 F G Correct H I J SUM Page 64 of 224 K .

Table 2 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Region Area Region Area Updated Text Northern Area Northern Area . Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution. Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER().D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.D7) Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10. Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText.InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional.TextToInsert.D5) =SUBSTITUTE(B6.D10.D4) =SUBSTITUTE(B5. =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place. if it is omitted all instances will be substituted.C4. or a specific instance.C10.E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11.D6) =SUBSTITUTE(B7.C7.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H SUBSTITUTE Page 65 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCDEF CD hello ABCDABCD CD hello Northern Region Region Area Sand and Cement and & Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Updated Text ABhelloEF ABhelloABhello Northern Area S& & Cement Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 =SUBSTITUTE(B4.C6.D11. It can either replace all occurrences of the text.C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The function is case sensitive.TextToRemove.C11. Formatting No special formatting is needed.E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text. Table 1 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Updated Text Region Area Northern Area Region Area Northern region region Area Northern Region Region area Northern area region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39.C39.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .PROPER(D50)) H SUBSTITUTE Page 66 of 224 I .2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 B Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region C D E F G region Area Northern Area Region area Northern Area region area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50).PROPER(C50).

5 0.H32:H34. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.5 1. . Syntax =STDEVP(Range1.Range2.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.433013 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.H32:H34.5 1. A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.0433 1. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).4 1. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value. The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.433013 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.7 1.0707 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .6 1. ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.H32:H34.5 1.0)) find the machine name. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.6 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J STDEVP Page 67 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Values 10 10 9 10 0.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).5 0.5 1.4 1.8 0.118034 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.1118 The smallest variance is : 0.

H34:H36.6 1. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.5 0. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine. .0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.H34:H36.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.0)) find the machine name.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.8 0.5 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).2909944 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.7 1. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.Range2. Syntax =STDEV(Range1.5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.H34:H36.1291 The smallest deviation is : 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J STDEV Page 68 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Values 10 10 9 10 0.5 0. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.5 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.6 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.4 1.0816 1.5 1.5 1. The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.0500 1.4 1.

Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine.500 £12.000 £5.000 Feb £6.000 £7.2) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £10.500 £3.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SMALL Page 69 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8.1) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £2.4) =SMALL(C4:C8.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £6.000 £2.2) =SMALL(D24:F27.000 £2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Sales North South East West Jan £5. Highest Lowest £12.000 £4.1) =SMALL(D24:F27.800 £3.000 =SMALL(D24:F27.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.3) Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions. Feb and Mar.000 £3.500 Mar £4.000 £3.3) =SMALL(C4:C8.

specifying 2 years ownership as 24 months will give an SLN per month.500 =SLN(F3.000. be for that time. However. The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20.F5) Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Annual Straight Line Depreciation £20.000 4 £2. then kept it for 6 years. .SellingPrice.LengthOfOwnership) The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period.000 £2.000.000. At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8.000 £8.000 / 6 which is £2.F10. days.F4.£8.F11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item. Syntax =SLN(OriginalCost. the SLN which is calculated will.000 which is £12.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SLN Page 70 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Cost Salvage Life Straight Line Depreciation £12.000 =SLN(F9.000 .000.000 6 £2. months or years. An example would be if you bought a new car for £20. The result is a uniform depreciation value. (Also known as Fixed Instalment method). Because you owned the car for 6 years. The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific period of time. the SLN is calculated as £12. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SIGN Page 71 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Value 10 20 0 -10 -20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 -1 -1 =SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation. If the value is negative the result is -1. If the value is positive the result is 1. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.5) . Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call.01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H SECOND Page 72 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Number 15/Sep/12 12:49:38 12:00:00 PM 0.50 0. Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59. The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated. The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5. The Cost of the call is then calculated.70 2 5 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 1 50 £1.10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36).51 Second 38 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number.51 1. The Duration of the call is entered. Cost Per Second : £0. The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes.

D4) 1 1.48 =ROUNDUP(C6. If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D8) -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9.D7) -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8.5 =ROUNDUP(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ROUNDUP Page 73 of 223 K 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .47589 1. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D5) 2 1.D6) -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound.48 13643.48 13643.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.47589 1.47589 13643.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.

D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D6) -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7.D8) -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5. Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound.48 13643.D4) 1 1. If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number.47589 13643.47589 1.D7) -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6.D5) 2 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .47589 1.48 13643. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ROUNDDOWN Page 74 of 223 K 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4.

47589 13643.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 =ROUND(C5.48 =ROUND(C6.D5) 2 1.D4) 1 1.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1. .47589 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places.D6) -1 13640 =ROUND(C7. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.47589 13643.D8) -3 14000 =ROUND(C9. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ROUND Page 75 of 223 J 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4.47589 1.47589 13643.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.47589 1.D7) -2 13600 =ROUND(C8.

4) =ROMAN(C15.2) =ROMAN(C13. 0 is Classic.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0) =ROMAN(C11. Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal. This is used if no format is specified. 1 is more Concise. 4 is Simplified.TRUE) =ROMAN(C16.3) =ROMAN(C14.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats.1) =ROMAN(C12. . 2 is even more Concise. 3 is even more Concise still. TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber.RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ROMAN Page 76 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Number 1 2 3 5 10 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Roman I II III V X MCMXCVIII MCMXCVIII MLMVLIII MXMVIII MVMIII MVMIII MCMXCVIII MVMIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10.

The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D7) =RIGHT(C8.C30)) .D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text.D4) =RIGHT(C5. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RIGHT Page 77 of 223 J 1 2 Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 =RIGHT(C4.LEN(C30)-FIND(" ".NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28. The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name.D5) =RIGHT(C6.C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30. The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.D6) =RIGHT(C7.LEN(C29)-FIND(" ".LEN(C28)-FIND(" ".C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29. Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.

D7) What Does It Do ? This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times. You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it. =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats. Syntax =REPT(TextToRepeat. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £3.000 £5.D5) =REPT(C6. Clock Hour |||||||||||| 12 Minute ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 49 Second |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 38 =REPT("|".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I REPT Page 78 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Text To Number Of Repeat Repeats A 3 AB 3 10 | 10 Repeated Text AAA ABABAB ---------|||||||||| =REPT(C4.D4) =REPT(C5.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()). The time functions of =HOUR()."00") =REPT("|".D29/100) Example 2 The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW())."00") ."00") =REPT("|".Repetitions) The maximum number of repetitions is 200. Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Sales £1. but this is divided by 100 to scale down the number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200. To update the clock press the function key F9. Example 1 The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures.000 £2.000 |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| =REPT("||".MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()).D6) =REPT(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales.

Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I REPLACE Page 79 of 223 J 1 2 Start Characters New Modified Text Original Text Position To Replace Character ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4.F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7.D7.E5.NumberOfCharactersToReplace. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 .D6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5.D4.E6.F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6.NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed.F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text.F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5.E4. how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be.E7.StartPosition. You need to specify where the replacement should start.

both 20's are ranked as 2.B34:B37) =RANK(B37. 30 is ranked as 1. Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4 =RANK(B34.C4:C8) =RANK(C5.C18:C22) =RANK(C19. If the numbers 30. but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates.C18:C22) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list. (This is optional.C11:C15.B34:B37) Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank.C11:C15.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RANK Page 80 of 223 J 1 2 Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Values 7 4 25 8 16 =RANK(C4. If there are duplicate values in the list.1) =RANK(C12. The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis. Formatting No special formatting is needed.C11:C15. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner.RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.C18:C22) =RANK(C20.C4:C8) =RANK(C8.ListOfNumbers. 20 and 10 were ranked.1) =RANK(C14.C11:C15.1) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Values 10 30 20 30 40 Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1 =RANK(C18.B34:B37) =RANK(B36. leaving it out has the same effect).B34:B37) =RANK(B35. Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top.C4:C8) =RANK(C7. they will be assigned the same rank.C11:C15.1) =RANK(C13.C18:C22) =RANK(C22. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C18:C22) =RANK(C21. Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top.C4:C8) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Values 7 4 25 8 16 Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4 =RANK(C11.C4:C8) =RANK(C6.1) =RANK(C15. 20. and the 10 would be ranked as 4.

1) =RANK(C54.1) .2000 Peter Noneley A 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I RANK Page 81 of 223 J Example The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race.C53:C58. The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.1) =RANK(C55.1) =RANK(C57.1) =RANK(C56.C53:C58.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C58. Athlete John Alan David Brian Sue Alex Time 1:30 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 Race Position 4 6 1 5 3 2 =RANK(C53.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C53:C58.C53:C58.C53:C58.

Example The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six numbers to use for the National Lottery.HighLimit) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique. =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Syntax =RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit.D5) What Does It Do ? This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."All OK")} This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different."Duplicates! Spin again".D4) =RANDBETWEEN(C5. the same number could be generated twice or more. It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter. The Winning Ticket! 9 18 25 16 32 10 36 Lottery Numbers 1 49 Press function Key F9 to recalculate. The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RANDBETWEEN Page 82 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Low 5 1 High 10 49 Random 7 32 =RANDBETWEEN(C4.$D$24) Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Bonus ball All OK {=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30.E24:E30))<>7.

706776649 0. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates.204638037 0. Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed.302967164 0. or when F9 is pressed. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data.02465 0.673023082 0.833901 0.131951 0.899218 0.589352 0. Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Diamond 6 Random 0.189004 0.016856369 0.612185 0.696135144 =RAND()*(10-5)+5 What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1.795145 0.819234463 0.949401708 0.980734354 0.768869 0.805995 0.089809038 0.940616 0.436612692 0.729753 0.87198 0. Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled.903874121 0.266344008 0. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information.468203 0. and =RAND() in column D.715462549 =RAND()*10 Random between 5 and 10.32035 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 3 Random 0.263210275 =RAND() Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 9.367889214 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RAND Page 83 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.520476 0.576737221 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers. 0.245714299 0.29696695 0. 6.69627 0.174264019 0.233811 0.239849235 0.890633831 . A list of cards has been entered in column C.378541 0.

349722 0.314659 0.266034 0.749240716 0.392832 0.431005 0.552990027 0.40021951 0.472233932 H I RAND Page 84 of 223 J .458573966 0.798821 0.096157 0.640346 0.691061833 0.948136955 0.481901 0.281155 0.929449543 0.009345 0.378976 0.067954835 0.488417 0.910540444 0.985337 0.953391227 0.581103919 0.892642 0.098498 0.66829968 0.059657275 0.414785 0.385952825 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Clubs 5 Spades 1 Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.47476 0.674972 0.937848587 0.929068 0.097634 0.301609 0.694976 0.822291472 0.948958 0.740319354 0.135284 0.976744485 0.119506475 0.291182837 0.539421913 0.375205243 0.774006 0.48838 0.187751 0.762262 E F 45 47 49 35 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.520932 0.408528 0.180348188 0.558540862 0.336135514 0.742038012 0.016146573 0.100537 0.533818 0.957367692 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .691138469 0.

Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock. It ignores any remainder.5 25 3.5 =D28/E28 Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result. This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed.D5) =QUOTIENT(C6.75 12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The merchant can only sell full crates. Table 2 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12 =QUOTIENT(D39.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G QUOTIENT Page 85 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4.E39) . Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number.D4) =QUOTIENT(C5. only showing the whole number. Table 1 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10. Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided.

75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. which can be obtained using the =MAX() function. .H12) 1 285.E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.3 or 4.2. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value.1.QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0. Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.E8) Values 817 748 372 487 140 104 756 993 384 607 640 369 294 185 894 767 703 261 491 182 Quarter No.H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. which can be obtained using the =MIN() function.E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. 3rd and 4th quarters of the data. Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined.E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K QUARTILE Page 86 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No.H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.H16) What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st. 2nd.H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.

.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PROPER Page 87 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase. and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case. Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Number3. It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PRODUCT Page 88 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Numbers 2 5 3 3 10 7 Product 6 50 210 6300 =PRODUCT(C4.Number2...Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Number2.) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Range. through to Number30) or =PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers) or =PRODUCT(Number1. Syntax =PRODUCT(Number1. which results in 6300.10) =PRODUCT(C4:D6) What Does It Do ? This function multiples a group of numbers together... .D4) =PRODUCT(C5:D5) =PRODUCT(C6:D6.

D4) =POWER(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I POWER Page 89 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Number 3 3 5 5 Power 2 4 2 4 Result 9 81 25 625 =POWER(C4.Power) Formatting No special formatting is needed. It is the same as using the ^ operator. which result is 81.D7) What Does It Do ? This function raises a number to a user specified power. Example To calculate the area of a circle.D5) =POWER(C6. Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3.D6) =POWER(C7.50 =PI()*POWER(C22. Radius 5 25 Area 78.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2) . Syntax =POWER(NumberToBeRaised. such as 3^4.54 1963.

14159265358979 =PI() What Does It Do ? This function is equal to the value of Pi.50 =PI()*(C21^2) . Example To calculate the area of a circle. it is a self contained function.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PI Page 90 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 p 3. It does not need any input. Syntax =PI() Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It is correct to 15 decimal places. Radius 5 25 Area 78.54 1963.

Example The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet.928. ABCD Password 1 Password 2 Password 3 Password 4 Password 5 Password 6 AB AC AD BC BD CD Password 7 Password 8 Password 9 Password 10 Password 11 Password 12 BA CA DA CB DB DC . It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9.600 =PERMUT(C4.990. Syntax =PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom.D4) =PERMUT(C5. so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H PERMUT Page 91 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Pool Of Items 4 4 10 26 Items In A Group 2 3 4 6 Permutations 12 24 5040 165. C and D.D5) =PERMUT(C6. The internal order is significant. Letter In Alphabet 26 Password Size 8 Permutations 62. the following twelve permutations would be possible.ItemsInAGroup) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items. B.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) =PERMUT(C7.000 In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A.765.

625 1.500 1.000 22.260 £ 1.350 £ 1.750 .500 21.295 1.665 2. The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.305 1.510 1.500 6.500 9.710 £ 1.000 4. (Expressed in Days) : Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : Output Ordering Interval In Days 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Annual Orders Admin Per Year Cost 365 £ 9.500 30.150 37 £ 925 31 £ 775 27 £ 675 23 £ 575 21 £ 525 19 £ 475 17 £ 425 16 £ 400 15 £ 375 14 £ 350 13 £ 325 12 £ 300 11 £ 275 11 £ 275 10 £ 250 10 £ 250 Annual Ware house Costs £ 45 £ 90 £ 180 £ 270 £ 360 £ 450 £ 540 £ 630 £ 720 £ 810 £ 900 £ 990 £ 1.000 28.300 61 £ 1.440 £ 1.530 £ 1.5 2 200 750 1% 5% 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Quantity Per Order 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Order Value 750 1.675 1. there is a fixed administrative cost.000 Order Discount £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 150 £ 165 £ 180 £ 195 £ 210 £ 225 £ 240 £ 255 £ 270 £ 285 £ 300 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Annual Total 9.350 1.525 46 £ 1.480 1. Objective Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs.000 19.500 27.170 £ 1. Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs.795 1. (As a % of the stock value) : Quantity of Exhausts used per day : Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : Ordering Intervals to evaluate.450 1. The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis.335 1. Each time an order is made for new stock.315 1.000 10.000 16. The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 25. Scenario A garage fits exhaust systems.500 24.500 15.000 7.500 12. Input Data Cost of a single Exhaust system : Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock.550 1.170 4.375 1.800 The Best Ordering Interval Best £75 12% 10 £25 0.620 £ 1.575 92 £ 2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I Ordering Stock Page 92 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock.400 1.500 18.080 £ 1.225 1.125 183 £ 4.500 3.250 1.000 13.300 1.

500 39. Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay Column C Order Value This is the value of the Order before any discount.0)) If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break. then the first Price Break discount is used.B29<$G$25). Column B Quantity Per Order This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered.$H$25. Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number. Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.800 1. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.IF(B29>=$G$25.2000 Peter Noneley A 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 B 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 C 31. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.$H$24.500 42.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 36.500 45. The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the Price Break values set by the supplier. but below the second Price Break. Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions. The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create a list of values of the same interval. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.075 2.B29<$G$25).000 37.160 2.250 2.000 34. zero discount is used.150 2.520 2.0)) If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount.350 2.875 1.925 2.980 2.070 2.610 2. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust Column D Order Discount The discount which can be subtracted from the order value.340 2.$H$25.000 D 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 E 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 F £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 225 225 200 200 200 200 175 175 175 175 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ G 1. which would require stock to be ordered every day.425 I - Ordering Stock Page 93 of 223 J 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Things To Try Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.000 2.890 1.$H$24.IF(B29>=$G$25. Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30.700 H 1. The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table. This is the smallest ordering period.IF(B29>=$G$25. the second Price Break discount is used.430 2.$H$24.500 33.0)) .000 40.275 2.B29<$G$25). If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break.$H$25. Explanation Column A Ordering Interval In Days The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it.200 2.000 43.

3 This decimal will cause problems. However. the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some of the overheads. It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts. It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H. due to the fact that the number of orders must always be a whole number.OrderDiscount =F29+G29-D29 Column I The Best Ordering Interval This shows the Best ordering interval. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost =(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18 Column H Annual Total This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts. otherwise a dash is shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Best". as the manager only wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and storing the exhaust systems. giving the lowest annual overheads."-") I Ordering Stock Page 94 of 223 J 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 . Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval This calculation may give results which are decimal. With an interval of 1. based upon how frequently the orders are made. =CEILING(365/A29. Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost =E29*$G$20 Column G Annual Warehouse Costs This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse. there will have to be 365 orders. such as 2. The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to the next highest whole number.1) Column F Annual Admin Costs This is the administration costs involved in making the orders. =IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59). Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts . If the two values match the word Best is shown. It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the quantity ordered.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Column E Orders Per Year This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval.

0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.E7="Delta").5.E27="Delta").E6="Delta").Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5. Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ =IF(OR(E27="Visa". AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ £ 5 £ £ 5 =IF(OR(E4="Visa".0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa". The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 . A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.5.E4="Delta").5.5. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. Syntax =OR(Test1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J OR Page 95 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Order No.0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa".E5="Delta").0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa".0) £ 5 £ £ 5 Order No. Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.

Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .4 2.9 =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ODD Page 96 of 223 J 1 2 Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number 2 2.4 3.9 3 3.

The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet. . If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H NOW Page 97 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 The current Date and Time 9/15/2012 12:49 =NOW() 41167. Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .53447 =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time.

the result is TRUE."Overdue". by adding the Loan value to the Taken date. The date the book was Taken out is entered."Overdue"."OK") =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34). The period of the Loan is entered. If the test fails."OK") =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J NOT Page 98 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails. (A type of reverse logic). The date the book was returned is entered. If the test is met."Overdue". The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time. then the result is FALSE. otherwise OK is shown."OK") .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed. Taken 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5-Jan-98 OK 15-Jan-98 OK 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33). Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation.

=NETWORKDAYS(Start.C28.EndDate. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F NETWORKDAYS Page 99 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Start Date 1-Mar-98 25-Apr-98 24-Dec-98 End Date 7-Mar-98 30-Jul-98 5-Jan-99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4.Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created. To correct this add 1 to the result. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. Start Date Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 27-Apr-98 End Date Fri 06-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 Fri 01-May-98 Holidays 1-May-98 25-Dec-98 1-Jan-97 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28. It will exclude weekends and any holidays.Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation. Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate. such as Xmas and Bank holidays.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6.D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5.C30.End.C29.D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29. Note The calculation does not include the last day.

the Wage is still calculated.NA(). Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee. any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA. The Salary and Tax percentage are entered.C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7). On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid. It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet. The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage. Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39-C39*D39 =C40-C40*D40 =C41-C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered. Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .NA(). Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required.C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8). Table 2 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A 20% Pay 750 #N/A 800 =C49-C49*D49 =C50-C50*D50 =C51-C51*D51 . It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation.C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available.NA().2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J NA Page 100 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 #N/A Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =NA() =IF(ISBLANK(C6). When the =NA() is used.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I N Page 101 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3. due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally.5 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.50% 0.5 =N(C5) 3. Excel does not really need this function.5 =N(C6) 3. .035 =N(C7) 25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value. Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero.

D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.D4) =MROUND(C5. Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound.MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MROUND Page 102 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 =MROUND(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) =MROUND(C6. .D7) =MROUND(C8.D6) =MROUND(C7.

but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G MONTH Page 103 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Original Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Month 1 January =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number. Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday.Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm.Number.Cells. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) .

.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A."12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : . the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used.."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.Range2. For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Dress Skirt Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1. When there is more than one set of duplicates.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MODE Page 104 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 20 10 #N/A =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers. Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop.Range3."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H I J MODE Page 105 of 224 K Note If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! 9.7 .

Syntax =MOD(Number.D4) =MOD(C5.D8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MOD Page 106 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4.D5) =MOD(C6.D6) =MOD(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D7) =MOD(C8.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .

Example 2 Size Giant Standard Economy .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce. Example The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates. The types of chocolate produced were Milk. The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2. (but not yet entered). The formula =MMULT(C32:E32. Dark and White. The formula then showed the correct result.500 {=MMULT(C32:E32. The ranges do not have to be of equal size. The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders. The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array.C26:E28)} In all three cells How It Was Done Cells C36 to E36 were selected. The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk.000 25. Getting The Dimensions Correct The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges. Chocolates in the box Milk Dark White 50 50 50 30 20 10 20 5 5 Customers Orders Giant Standard Economy 300 400 500 Quantity To Produce Milk Dark White 37.500 21. The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce. The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1. Dark and White. It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination. In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box.Range2) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =MMULT(Range1.C26:E28) was typed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MMULT Page 107 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 What Does It Do ? This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values. The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges.

. Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B C D E F G H The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate. then change a single value in each. Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1. each of which has to order enough Butter.G69:I70)} In all cells Hint To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates. I MMULT Page 108 of 223 J K The company has four factories. Range 2 contains the amount Butter. Eggs and Sugar to ensure they can meet production targets. set all values in Range1 and Range2 to zero 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and the width of the Result is the same as the width of Range 2. The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to meet the production target. Range 1 Milk Dark 20 0 20 1 10 5 20 10 Result Eggs 60 62 40 80 Range 2 Eggs 3 2 Production Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Ingredients Milk Dark Butter 1 2 Sugar 10 5 Ingredients To Order Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Butter 20 22 20 40 Sugar 200 205 125 250 {=MMULT(C69:D72. Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain.

The time functions of =HOUR().Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.75 3:45 3:00 =F49/24 =INT(F49)/24 . =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats. Clock Hour |||||||||||| 12 Minute ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 49 Second |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 38 =REPT("|". Enter a time in hh:mm format : The same time converted to a decimal : To extract the hours as a decimal : To extract the minutes as a decimal : 2:45 2."00") =REPT("|".HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()).52 Minute 49 15 28 28 28 =MINUTE(D4) =MINUTE(D5) =MINUTE(D6) =MINUTE(D7) =MINUTE(D8) What Does It Do? The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number.02 0. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day. To update the clock press the function key F9. Syntax =MINUTE(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW())."00") Related Information To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format.1) To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format.52 1.75 2 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H MINUTE Page 109 of 224 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Number 9/15/2012 12:49 9:15:00 PM 0.75 =F38*24 =INT(F38*24) =MOD(F38*24. Enter a time in decimal format : The same time converted to hh:mm format is : To extract the hours in hh:mm format : 3.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW())."00") =REPT("|".

Cells. Time command. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Number.1)/24 MINUTE Page 110 of 224 I J The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using the Format.2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 B C D E To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : F 0:45 G H =MOD(F49.

000 £4.000 £2.000 £5.500 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MIN Page 111 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data. Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5.000 Mar £4.000 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4.000 £4. 4-Jul-98 =MIN(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region.Range3. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed..000 £2.000 £3..000 £7.000 £6.000 £2. Syntax =MIN(Range1.000 =MIN(C23:E26) .000 Overall MIN £2.000 £3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3.500 Feb £6.500 £3. month and overall.800 £3.Range2.000 £10.

D5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C50)+1.PositionToStartPicking.5.E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5.C50)+1)-FIND("/".3) =MID(C9. Branch ID DRS-CF-476 DRS-WA-842 HLT-NP-190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35.D6. only the available characters will be picked.5.FIND("/".FIND("/".12.5.2) WA =MID(C36. It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions. Full Branch Code Postal Region DRS/STC/872 STC HDRS/FC/111 FC S/NORTH/874 NORTH HQ/K/875 K SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50.5.FIND("/".3) =MID(C10.2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length.99) =MID(C14. Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company.5. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format.C50)-1) .5. The function needs to know at what point it should start. other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols.E6) =MID(C8.3) =MID(C12.12.D4. and how many characters to pick.NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E5) 2 ED =MID(C6. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available.99) =MID(C13.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H MID Page 112 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC-100-DEF ABC-200-DEF ABC-300-DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4. Syntax =MID(OriginalText.2) NP =MID(C37.12.99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.C50.

2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H MID Page 113 of 224 I Find the first /. occurring after the first / Calculate the length of the text to extract. by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second / . plus 1 for the Start of the code.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Find the second /.

through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .Range2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .. The median is not the average.Range3. If there is no exact median number in the group. Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1. the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median. it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MEDIAN Page 114 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values..

000 £4. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £10.000 £10.000 £5.500 £12.. Syntax =MAX(Range1.000 £7..Range3.000 Mar £4.000 £12.000 =MAX(C23:E26) .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MAX Page 115 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.000 £10.000 Feb £6.000 £6.000 £2. month and overall.500 £3.000 Overall Max £12.000 Month Max £12. 4-Jul-98 Maximum 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region.000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7.Range2. Sales North South East West Jan £5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .800 £3.000 £7.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I

MATCH Page 116 of 224 J K

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value :

Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000

The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9,E4:E7,0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position. It can be used with text and numbers. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match. Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor,WhereToLook,TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0, 1 or -1.

Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9,I4:I7,1)

Using 0 will look for an exact match. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown. Using 1 will look for an exact match, or the next lowest number if no exact match exists. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. Using -1 will look for an exact match, or the next highest number if no exact match exists. If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match. The Ascending list gives the exact match. The Descending list gives the exact match. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match, so the #NA is shown. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45,G40:G43,0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A

Example 2 Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match. The Ascending list gives the exact match.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F The Descending list gives the #NA error. The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number.. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A G H I

MATCH Page 117 of 224 J K

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 2 =MATCH(G62,G57:G60,1)

Example 3 Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match. The Ascending list gives the #NA error. The Descending list gives the exact match. The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 #N/A Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79,G74:G77,-1)

Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours. They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers. The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered. The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats. If the number of passengers is not an exact match, the next biggest bus will be picked. After the =MATCH() function has found the bus, the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99,MATCH(H94,D95:D99,-1),0)

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5

Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils. The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list. The pupils scores were entered in another list. The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G If an exact match is not found, the next lowest breakpoint is used. The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade. Exam Score Grade 0 Fail 50 Pass 90 Merit 95 Distinction H I

MATCH Page 118 of 224 J K

107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115

Pupil Score Grade Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114,MATCH(G114,C111:C114,1),0)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

LOWER Page 119 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123

Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123

=LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8)

What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case. Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Formatting No special formatting is needed. either as #N/A or incorrect results. Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors.F4:F10) What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list.C38:C43.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4:G10. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names. and then picks an item from a second range of cells. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LOOKUP (Vector) Page 120 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : =LOOKUP(F12. and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values.RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. otherwise errors will occur. RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor.RangeToLookIn.E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. . The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin. If the name Carol is used.

The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table.D4:G10) What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. When a match is found. Example 1 Example 2 .RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list. as in the description above. If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for. If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J LOOKUP (Array) Page 121 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : =LOOKUP(F12. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors. the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column. and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column. (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP). It always picks the data from the end of the row or column.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . When a match is found.

Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically. Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 LOOKUP (Array) Page 122 of 223 K Jan David 100 Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88.B80:E86) 45 =LOOKUP(H88. Table 2 shows the same data. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct. Jan Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Eric 100 Fred 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure. Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : E F G H I J In this table there are more columns than rows. Sometimes the results will be correct. but not sorted. otherwise errors will occur.G80:J86) . Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. so the column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. so the row heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D In this table there are more rows than columns. either as #N/A or incorrect results.

C24)) This is just the second name.C24) This is the length of the second name. Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed. Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name.LEN(C24)-FIND(" ". =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ". =RIGHT(C24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . including spaces and numbers. Carol Williams 8 . Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ". Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LEN Page 123 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters. in a piece of text.C24) This is the position of the space. Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space.

The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.FIND(" ".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LEFT Page 124 of 223 J 1 2 Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 =LEFT(C4.FIND(" ".C27)-1) =LEFT(C28.C28)-1) =LEFT(C29.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.C29)-1) . The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name. Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name.D4) =LEFT(C5. Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan Bob Smith Bob Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C27. Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText. The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space.D6) =LEFT(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D7) =LEFT(C8.D5) =LEFT(C6.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text.FIND(" ".

D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculate the Least Common Multiple.D4) =LCM(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Number2. Syntax =LCM(Number1.Number3. which is the smallest number that can be divided by each of the given numbers. .D5) =LCM(C6. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed...2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LCM Page 125 of 223 J 1 2 Least Common Multiple 60 36 1632 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Numbers 6 20 12 18 34 96 =LCM(C4.

800 £3.000 Feb £6. Feb and Mar.000 £6.4) =LARGE(C4:C8.1) =LARGE(C4:C8.500 £12.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.000 =LARGE(D24:F27.000 £2.000 £7.3) =LARGE(C4:C8.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 £3.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) . Highest Lowest £12.000 £10. Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan. Sales North South East West Jan £5.000 £2.000 £4.000 £5. Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LARGE Page 126 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £7.2) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £12.000 Mar £4.1) =LARGE(D24:F27.

D27:E31. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.C27:E31.000 £15.VLOOKUP(E33. If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE. If the entry is text is shows TRUE. Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.3.000 £12.000 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISTEXT Page 127 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Cell To Test Hello 1 25-Dec-98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10. The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.FALSE). and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.2.000 £8.FALSE)) .000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33). The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . ID No.000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £ 8.VLOOKUP(E33.

as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function. Its a bit of an odd one. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISREF Page 128 of 223 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISREF(A1) =ISREF(B99) =ISREF(Hello) =ISREF(10) =ISREF(NOW()) =ISREF("A1") =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address. but when used on the worksheet. . and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet. it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell. Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. or FALSE for any other type of value.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Odd TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE #VALUE! TRUE FALSE =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISODD Page 129 of 223 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Number 1 2 2. Note that dates can be odd or even.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE.6 3. Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required. Note that decimal fractions are ignored.5 3. .5 2.

2.VLOOKUP(E35. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee. Formatting No special formatting is needed.D29:E33.000 £12.FALSE)) .000 £8.VLOOKUP(E35. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10. If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown.3.000 £12.000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £ 12. If the cell or calculation is not numeric.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . ID No. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform. The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35).FALSE). Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation. the result FALSE is shown. or is blank. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.C29:E33.000 £15.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISNUMBER Page 130 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Cell Entry 1 1-Jan-98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value.

rather than text which looks like a number.D40*E40. Table 2 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price Mark-up Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 300. Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Mark-up 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 #VALUE! =D32*E32 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation. such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0. Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up. Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting."Retype the Price") .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G ISNONTEXT Page 131 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Item To Test 10 Hello 1-Jan-98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number. rather than text. The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function. is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0. It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations.

The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ISNA Page 132 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Number 1 Hello 1-Jan-98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A. The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function. Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data. . but will be used for data entry in the future.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the cell does not contain a logical value.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISLOGICAL Page 133 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1-Jan-98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical. The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE. the result TRUE is shown. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result FALSE is shown. . If the cell does contain a logical value.

Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISEVEN Page 134 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Number 1 2 2.5 3. An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE.5 2. Note that decimal fractions are ignored.6 3. .6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Even FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE #VALUE! FALSE TRUE =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error. Note that dates can be even or odd.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISERROR Page 135 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated. Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : Error in data entry =IF(ISERROR(D40-D39).D40-D39) . Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates. Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format."Error in data entry". Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : #VALUE! =D31-D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

"Try again!". Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E40/E41) . Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function. Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISERR Page 136 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell. or if the error is the #NA message. Formatting No special formatting is needed. which Excel does not do. Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation. The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0. Table 2 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41). by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate. It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error.

The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not.E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36).0. Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co.0) Totals 550 1050 . When the cheque is cleared the date is entered. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6-Jan-98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36). Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank. When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked. chq5 J Smith Date Received 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 3-Jan-98 4-Jan-98 Date Cleared 2-Jan-98 7-Jan-98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E36. but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISBLANK Page 137 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE 25-Dec-98 FALSE Data 1 Hello =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell. It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors. Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE. Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company.

Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8.25 7. A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old.8678987 7. Table 2 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38-C38)/365. Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 3 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8 7 8 =INT((D49-C49)/365.5 2.25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started.504449008 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.75 -1.668035592 =(D27-C27)/365.25) .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I INT Page 138 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Number 1.3 10. This has the effect of increasing the child age.570157426 8. The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47589 Integer 1 2 10 -2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number.

. The number of days is then divided by 365.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C 1-Mar-81 D 1-Sep-88 E 7 F G H I INT Page 139 of 223 J Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days.25 The reason for using 365.25 is to take account of the leap years.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

0 pcdos =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer. Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E INFO Page 140 of 223 F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system.01 Automatic 14. (PC or Mac) System Information C:\Users\user\Documents\ #N/A #N/A #N/A 156 $A:$A$1 Windows (32-bit) NT 6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.

such as South : South Type the start cell of the range. such as North : Type the cell to pick data from. such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference. The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet. SOUTH and EAST. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 #REF! =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. Type the name of the sheet. Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet. such as C7 : C7 The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : #REF! =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J INDIRECT Page 141 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table. such as C5 : C5 Type the end cell of the range. The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH. Type the name of the sheet. but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells.

It can be used with a single block of data. 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34.2 or 3 for statistics : .2. Country England France Germany Spain Currency Population Capitol Sterling 50 M London Franc 40 M Paris DM 60 M Bonn Peseta 30 M Barcelona 2 3 Type 1.G11. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I INDEX Page 142 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Holiday booking price list. Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row. but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal. 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34.ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns. People Weeks 1 2 3 1 £500 £600 £700 2 £300 £400 £500 3 £250 £300 £350 4 £200 £250 £300 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9. Both of the examples below use the same syntax. Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function.RowCoordinate.D36) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .3 or 4 for the country : Type 1.H36) Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.G12) How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns. The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range. or non-continuos blocks.

000 Qtr4 £4.500 Qtr3 £3. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : =INDEX(EastAndWest. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.000 £12.500 £6.000 Qtr3 £3.500 £5.500 £9.500 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E The result is : F Paris G H =INDEX(D45:F48.500 £10.MATCH(F101.MATCH(F100.AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas.1. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.000 £6. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.0).500 Type 1.000 £7.500 Qtr2 £2. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.D90:G90.IF(F102=C95.F76.500 £7.0).000 Qtr1 £1. 2.000 £8.000 £10.000 Qtr1 £1. The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.500 Qtr2 £2.000 £6. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : Example This is an extended version of the previous example.000 £11.500 £9.000 £12.500 Qtr3 £3. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.000 £8.F77.C91:C93.F78) Qtr4 £4. NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.500 £5.000 Qtr2 £2.500 £8.F50.000 Qtr3 £3.500 Type 1.500 £11.ColumnColumnCordinate.000 £11.500 wood qtr2 west 6500 Qtr4 £4.500 £8. These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.000 £5.000 Qtr2 £2.500 £12.500 £7.000 £10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2))) . 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.500 £6.F51) I INDEX Page 143 of 223 J Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn.RowCoordinate.000 £9.IF(F102=C90. In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth.000 £7.500 £11.000 £9. 2.500 £10.000 Qtr4 £4.000 £5.500 1 3 2 3500 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.

Formatting No special formatting is required.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells. Depending upon the result. If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown.ActionIfTrue."Achieved"."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32."Achieved".C44*10%. one of two actions will be carried out.C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function. the Commission is 10% of Sales. This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated. Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved"."Achieved".C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43.C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5. Each has their own target which they must reach."Achieved".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the Commission is only 5% of Sales. .C45*10%. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers."Achieved". Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I IF Page 144 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4. If the Sales do not reach Target. The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown. such as A1=A2. A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines. If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE. Syntax =IF(Condition."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE.C43*10%."Achieved". If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition. text or calculations.

D61*10%. The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000. Special Offer Yes No Yes Yes Order Value £ 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 B C D E F G H The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer.800 £ £ 2. when the Order Value is £1000 or above.D61>=1000).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £ 500 £ 3.000 £ 2.000 £ £ 500 £ 300 £ 2.700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes".0) .000 I IF Page 145 of 223 J Product Wood Glass Cement Turf Discount Total £ 200 £ 1.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number. Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I HOUR Page 146 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Number 21:15 0.

The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind.Jan. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month. If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require.RowToPickFrom. Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Bob Eric Alan Carol David . even though to us the order of Jan.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.Mar is correct.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J HLOOKUP Page 147 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed. FALSE for no. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry.D3:F10.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item.Feb. TRUE for yes. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : =HLOOKUP(F10. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name. they are part of the illustration. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from.RangeToLookIn. When the item is found.F11. Unfortunately. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range.Mar. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. It then calculates the position of the name in the list. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top.

D47:F54. The name of the Item is typed in column C. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E F feb alan G H I J HLOOKUP Page 148 of 223 K Type a month to look for : Type a name to look for : The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54. Wood and Glass.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .G72:I77.MATCH(F55. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders. =HLOOKUP(C127. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.E111:G112. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. the function will produce an error. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $.2. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values across the top of the Discount Table are sorted. When the make is found. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount.0)+1.0)+1. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function.MATCH(C79.C48:C52. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change. the next lowest value is used. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars. If a match is not found.F73:F77. and the discount from . The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.200 =HLOOKUP(B79.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127. =HLOOKUP(D127.MATCH(C127.0)+1.275 =HLOOKUP(C127.MATCH(C127.E115:G118.2.E111:G112.TRUE) .D116:D118.E115:G118.2000 Peter Noneley A 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H the 100 column is used.D116:D118.0)+1.TRUE) Unit Cost Table Wood Glass £1 £3 I J HLOOKUP Page 149 of 223 K Brick £2 Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.

813.887 -549.888 -1 -2 -3 =HEX2DEC(C4) =HEX2DEC(C5) =HEX2DEC(C6) =HEX2DEC(C7) =HEX2DEC(C8) =HEX2DEC(C9) =HEX2DEC(C10) =HEX2DEC(C11) =HEX2DEC(C12) =HEX2DEC(C13) =HEX2DEC(C14) What Does It Do ? This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent. Example The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together. Syntax =HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.813.755.755.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G HEX2DEC Page 150 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 1A 1B 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 26 27 549. Hexadecimal F 1A 29 Value 1 Value 2 Result =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30)) .

Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Sales £3.E28) =GESTEP(D29. Syntax =GESTEP(NumberToTest.000 Target £4. the result of 1 will be shown.000 £2.NumberToTestAgainst) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £2. If the number is greater than or equal.000 £8.E31) =SUM(F27:F31) Targets Achieved .000 £7.000 £4.000 £5. The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target. otherwise 0 is shown.000 £1.000 GESTEP 0 1 0 1 1 3 =GESTEP(D27.D7) 101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8.E30) =GESTEP(D31. and the results are totalled.D4) 50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5.E27) =GESTEP(D28.E29) =GESTEP(D30. Example The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets.D8) 2 1 =GESTEP(C9.D6) 100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7.000 £2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J GESTEP Page 151 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Number1 Number2 GESTEP 10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) 99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6.D9) 2 0 =GESTEP(C10.D10) What Does It Do ? This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.

.Number2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) =GCD(C5. The result is always a whole number. Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E9) =GCD(C10. Decimal fractions are ignored.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J GCD Page 152 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Numbers 6 15 28 49 5 99 Greatest Divisor 3 7 1 =GCD(C4.D10. Syntax =GCD(Number1.E10) =GCD(C11.D11.D6) Greatest Divisor 6 100 2 18 300 2.5 Numbers 72 500 4 96 200 6 =GCD(C9..D5) =GCD(C6.Number3..E11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the values specified.D9.

the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38. P or D.999 What Does It Do ? This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals. Example 1 The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children.74 10. The function is entered in the cells as an array.15 Kg 2 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4 Above 20 Kg 3 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38. The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose weights fell between specified intervals.000 £6.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.000 Sales above £4.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I FREQUENCY Page 153 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 North South East West Jan £5.000 4 5 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7. A. A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.000 £7.000 up to £6.ListOfIntervals) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Unfortunately. that is why it is enclosed in { } braces.000 £5. Syntax =FREQUENCY(RangeOfData.000 £999. Weight Kg 20.000 £10.000 Mar £4. £4.000 £4.000 £6.C41:C43)} Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Child 5 Child 6 Child 7 Child 8 Child 9 Kg Weight Intervals 15 20 100 Example 2 This example uses characters instead of values. E.80 8.800 £3.01 Number Of Children: Between 0 .500 £3.36 16.E9:E11)} Sales £4.66 17.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 Feb £6. so how can the frequency of text be calculated? .83 15. The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.000 Sales above £6. V.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.28 20.47 22. The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category.000 £2.000 and below.500 £12.67 18. The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter.

The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E F G H I FREQUENCY Page 154 of 223 J The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . As this code is a numeric value. the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used! Rating E V A P D Frequency 6 8 9 8 9 Excellent Very Good Average Poor Disgusting {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} Customer Ratings V V A A V D P V E e V a E d P A D P V P p A p D A A P E P V D V D a E D d A E D .

Syntax =FORECAST(ItemToForeCast. The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered.000 £2. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £2.RangeY. If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6. such as Sales figures. (or past).997 Sales £1.E39:E41.500 £3.F4:F9.E4:E9) What Does It Do ? This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value.RangeX) ItemToForecast is the point in the future. RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data.500 £3.667 =FORECAST(E43. RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis of the forecast.000 30 £8. Example The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team. such as Month number. (Jan to Jun).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D39:D41) Size Of The New Sales Team : Estimated Forecast Of Performance : .000 20 £8.800 £4. you can use the function to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month.000 =FORECAST(E11. for which you need the forecast. The size of the New Sales team is entered.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I FORECAST Page 155 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type the month number to predict : The Forecast sales figure is : 12 £7. The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales team based upon a linear trend. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Year 1996 1997 1998 Size Of Known Sales Team Performance 10 £5.500 40 £10. The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend. The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values.

Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales.500 £56.5 2.3 2.000 £230 £56.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed.1) =FLOOR(C5.50) =FLOOR(C9.1) =FLOOR(C6.50) =FLOOR(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H FLOOR Page 156 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Number 1. Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23.890 £18.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23.9 123 145 175 Rounded Down 1 2 2 100 100 150 =FLOOR(C4.1000) . The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000.000 £560 £18.1) =FLOOR(C7.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29. which is then used as the basis for Commission. Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound.

000 =FIXED(C13.25 10.25 =FIXED(C11.0) 10 10.00 =FIXED(C7.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J FIXED Page 157 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Original Converted Number To Text 10 10.2) 1000 1.000.25 10.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000.3 =FIXED(C10. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places.25 10.Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.TRUE) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Note that any further formatting with the Format. Number command will not have any effect.25 10 =FIXED(C9.0 =FIXED(C6. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE.0.000's.1) 10 10.1) 10.0) 10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .23 1000 =FIXED(C14.0) 1000. Cells.2) 10.23 1. and commas can be inserted at the 1.DecimalPlaces. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas.25 =FIXED(C8) 10. .

Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor. StartPosition : This is optional.StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character. TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.C5) =FIND(D6.C9) What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text. An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number.C6) =FIND(D7. If the letter is not found in the text. . it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin. Formatting No special formatting is needed.TextToLookInside. thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter. the first occurrence is used.6) =FIND(D9. the result #VALUE is shown. the result will be shown as a number.C4) =FIND(D5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G FIND Page 158 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4.C7) =FIND(D8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the text contains more than one reference to the letter.C8.

176.628. Decimal fractions of the number are ignored.432.000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G FACT Page 159 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 3 3. . The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4.008.640.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5. which results in 120. No special formatting is needed.800 2.5 5 10 20 Factorial 6 6 120 3. Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting..902.etc.

The case of the password is important. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown. which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though.D4) =EXACT(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K EXACT Page 160 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4. The password is the name of a colour.D5) =EXACT(C6. You need to guess the correct password. If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown. Example Here is a simple password checking formula.Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. The case of the characters is taken into account. either red blue or green. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No (To stop you from cheating. the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions. . Syntax =EXACT(Text1.D6) What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess. only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7) What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number. Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs.2 2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EVEN Page 161 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Original Value 1 1. The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures. Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars. Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot Wipers To Order 5 9 7 Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered. Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G ERROR.TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred. Syntax =ERROR. Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number.TYPE(E7) What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula.TYPE Page 162 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! ################ Error Type 2 5 4 #N/A =ERROR.TYPE(E5) =ERROR.TYPE(E4) =ERROR.TYPE(E6) =ERROR. .

Date command.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EOMONTH Page 163 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 StartDate 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 Plus Months 2 2 -2 End Of Month 35885 31-Mar-98 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C4. .Cells. Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate.Number.D5) =EOMONTH(C6.D6) What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date.D4) =EOMONTH(C5.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.

Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff.D31) =EDATE(C32.Date command.D30) =EDATE(C31. Syntax =EDATE(StartDate. The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date.2)-5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EDATE Page 164 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Start Date 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 Plus Months 3 3 -3 End Date 1-Apr-98 2-Apr-98 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C4. The Start date is entered. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract.Number. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 Fri 08-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Fri 17-Apr-98 Fri 24-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 =EDATE(C48.D29) =EDATE(C30.D6) What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future.D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 Sat 09-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Sun 19-Apr-98 Sun 26-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C27.D4) =EDATE(C5.2)>5. (Sat or Sun). this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.D5) =EDATE(C6.Cells.D33) The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.D48).D32) =EDATE(C33.D27) =EDATE(C28.D28) =EDATE(C29. The company needed to know the end date of the employment.D48). If the week day number is 6 or 7. then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.0) .Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number. The contract Duration is entered as months.

25 10 4 £50. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £0. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DSUM Page 165 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.80 25 6 £120. Product Brand . such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.80 10 5 £40. or names.00 £2.50 10 3 £15.00 £0.00 £2.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.00 =DSUM(B3:I19.00 £0.50 £0. Horizon £248. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £1. Syntax =DSUM(DatabaseRange.20 25 2 £10. or 100 as the wattage. The FieldName is the name.25 10 5 £12.00 £5.00 £0.15 25 0 £0.I3.20 30 2 £12. of the values to be totalled.80 20 5 £180. such as Horizon as a brand name.FieldName.20 40 3 £24.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. The first set of information is the name.00 To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. or cell. which are to be selected. or records.00 £0.00 £0.10 20 5 £10. including the field names at the top of the columns. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.50 4 3 £54.50 15 0 £0.00 £1. Examples The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The stock value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the total. The second set of information is the actual record.00 15 2 £60.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

E60:F61) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.E49:F50) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.50 F sunbeam G H I J DSUM Page 166 of 223 K Total stock value is : =DSUM(B3:I19.E67:F68) ."Value Of Stock". Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £52.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £54.I3.00 Wattage <100 =DSUM(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50 Wattage 100 =DSUM(B3:I19."Value Of Stock"."Value Of Stock". £54. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £56.50 =DSUM(B3:I19.

25 10.2) =DOLLAR(C8) =DOLLAR(C9.25 10.3 $10. Syntax =DOLLAR(Number.00 $10.1) =DOLLAR(C11. DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number.25 Converted To Text $10.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I DOLLAR Page 167 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10. .DecimalPlaces) Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.00 $10 $10. Formatting No special formatting is needed.0 $10.25 10.25 $10 $10.1) =DOLLAR(C7.0) =DOLLAR(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The result will be shown as a text entry.2) What Does It Do? This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency.0) =DOLLAR(C10.25 =DOLLAR(C4) =DOLLAR(C5.

CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £0. Examples The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 £1. including the field names at the top of the columns. or names.80 20 5 £180. Syntax =DMIN(DatabaseRange.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DMIN Page 168 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MIN value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.I3.00 £0. Horizon £10.00 £5.50 4 3 £54.10 20 5 £10.50 £0.80 10 5 £40. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.FieldName.00 £2. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. The FieldName is the name. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. The first set of information is the name. The second set of information is the actual record.20 40 3 £24.00 To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. or 100 as the wattage. Product Brand . or records.50 £0.25 10 4 £50.00 =DMIN(B3:I19.15 25 1 £3.00 £0.80 25 6 £120. which are to be selected. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £1.75 £0. or cell.00 15 2 £60.00 £0.20 25 2 £10.00 £0.50 15 1 £37.00 3 2 £30.25 10 5 £12.00 £0. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £2.50 10 3 £15. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. of the values to pick the Min from.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as Horizon as a brand name.

"Value Of Stock"."Value Of Stock".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .75 F sunbeam G H I J DMIN Page 169 of 223 K The lowest value is : =DMIN(B3:I19.E60:F61) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.E49:F50) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock".I3.E67:G68) .50 Wattage 100 =DMIN(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £3.00 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DMIN(B3:I19. £3.75 =DMIN(B3:I19. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.

E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address. Horizon £60.00 £0.00 £0.50 15 0 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns.50 10 3 £15.25 10 4 £50. or names.00 =DMAX(B3:I19. Product Bulb The largest value is : £30. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.FieldName. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.50 £0.80 20 5 £180.I3.00 £0. which are to be selected. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MAX value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.10 20 5 £10. The FieldName is the name or cell.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =DMAX(DatabaseRange. or records.50 4 3 £54.I3.00 £0. of the values to pick the Max from.00 £2. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £0.00 £0.00 Brand sunbeam =DMAX(B3:I19.15 25 0 £0. The first set of information is the name. The second set of information is the actual record. or 100 as the wattage. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £0.00 £1. Examples The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 £1.20 25 2 £10.00 £5.00 £0.00 15 2 £60.00 To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. .00 3 2 £30.80 25 6 £120.80 10 5 £40.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K DMAX Page 170 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £2.25 10 5 £12. Formatting No special formatting is needed.20 30 2 £12.20 40 3 £24.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.

00 Wattage <100 =DMAX(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E £30.E60:F61) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.00 F G H I J K DMAX Page 171 of 223 L =DMAX(B3:I19. Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £24.E49:F50) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock".00 Wattage 100 =DMAX(B3:I19.E67:F68) . Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £40."Value Of Stock"."Value Of Stock".

20 40 3 £24. The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected.00 £0.00 £0.00 15 2 £60.H3.00 £2.50 £0. If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown.00 3 2 £30.75 £0.80 10 5 £40.50 £0.00 £0.00 £0. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown. including the field names at the top of the columns. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £5.00 £1.00 £0.15 25 1 £3. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. .FieldName. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The first set of information is the name.20 25 2 £10.25 10 5 £12. or 100 as the wattage.C23:F24) The number in stock is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces one result. or cell. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.10 20 5 £10.50 10 3 £15.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .20 30 2 £12.80 25 6 £120. or names.00 £0.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. Example 1 This example extracts information from just one record. such as Horizon as a brand name. The FieldName is the name.50 15 1 £37.25 10 4 £50.00 £1.00 How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19. of the values to Get.50 4 3 £54.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DGET Page 172 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. Syntax =DGET(DatabaseRange.80 20 5 £180.00 £2.

").Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .H3.C63:F64) Example 3 This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error. =IF(ISERR(F88). How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand The number in stock is : #NUM! =DGET(B3:I19.H3.".2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F G H I J DGET Page 173 of 223 K How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19.") .C51:F52) The number in stock is : Example 2 This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.H3.C85:F86) No such product.H3. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.C64:F65) Example 4 This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.TYPE(F88)/3."Duplicates products found.CHOOSE(ERROR."One product found."No such product.

It only works with numbers.D30) =DELTA(C31. text values produce a result of #VALUE. otherwise the result is 0. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17.D34) =DELTA(C35. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values. Number1 10 50 30 17.D8) =DELTA(C9.D7) =DELTA(C8.D6) =DELTA(C7.D31) =DELTA(C32.D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.D35) =DELTA(C36.D4) =DELTA(C5.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 18 0. The formatting of the number is not significant.D32) =DELTA(C33. Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list.D33) =DELTA(C34.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .175 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 #VALUE! 1 =DELTA(C4.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K DELTA Page 174 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Number1 10 50 17.5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 17.5 17.D5) =DELTA(C6. If the numbers are the same the result will be 1.D9) =DELTA(C10.

888 to 549.755.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I DEC2HEX Page 175 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 549. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.887 -549.888 -549.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.813.813.D23) =DEC2HEX(C24.D26) =DEC2HEX(C27.813.755.887. Formatting No special formatting is needed. although this is ignored for negatives. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -549.813.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .755.D25) =DEC2HEX(C26.889 Decimal Number 1 1 26 26 -26 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 19 1A 1B 1C FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFF 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 #NUM! #NUM! Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 =DEC2HEX(C4) =DEC2HEX(C5) =DEC2HEX(C6) =DEC2HEX(C7) =DEC2HEX(C8) =DEC2HEX(C9) =DEC2HEX(C10) =DEC2HEX(C11) =DEC2HEX(C12) =DEC2HEX(C13) =DEC2HEX(C14) =DEC2HEX(C15) =DEC2HEX(C16) =DEC2HEX(C17) =DEC2HEX(C18) =DEC2HEX(C19) =DEC2HEX(C20) Hexadecimal 1 01 01A 00000001A FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C23.755. .755.888 549. Syntax =DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber.D27) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent.813.755.813.D24) =DEC2HEX(C25.

D17) =DEC2BIN(C18.D20) =DEC2BIN(C21.D18) =DEC2BIN(C19. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional. . It can only cope with decimals ranging from -512 to 511. although this is ignored for negatives. Syntax =DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H DEC2BIN Page 176 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Decimal Number Binary Equivalent 0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4) 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5) 2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6) 3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7) 511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8) 512 #NUM! =DEC2BIN(C9) -1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10) -2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11) -3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12) -511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13) -512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14) Decimal Number 1 1 1 1 -1 Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 Binary Equivalent 1 01 001 000000001 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C17.D21) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent. Formatting No special formatting is needed.D19) =DEC2BIN(C20.

20 40 3 £24. or names.00 £0. The first set of information is the name.00 £1.15 25 1 £3. Formatting No special formatting is needed. including the field names at the top of the columns.50 4 3 £54.00 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £5. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £0.00 £1.00 £0.00 £0.20 30 2 £12.FieldName. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.80 20 5 £180. or 100 as the wattage. .25 10 5 £12.80 10 5 £40. but blank cells are ignored.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand. which are to be selected. The FieldName is the name.50 10 3 £15. of the values to Count.00 3 2 £30.80 25 6 £120. such as the category Brand or Wattage. or records. Examples The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value.50 £0. It counts values and text items. Horizon 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E3.50 £0. Syntax =DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange.00 £0.00 £2.00 £0. The second set of information is the actual record. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.50 15 1 £37.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DCOUNTA Page 177 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .10 20 5 £10.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.20 25 2 £10.25 10 4 £50. or cell.00 15 2 £60.00 £2.75 £0.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.

"Life Hours"."Product".E50:F51) The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand. 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19. Product Spot Neon The count is : 3 Brand Horizon Sunbeam =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E68:F70) .2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B C D E Product Bulb The number of products is : 1 F Life Hours unknown =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E61:F62) The count of particular products from specific brands. Product Bulb The count is : 5 Brand Horizon =DCOUNTA(B3:I19."Product".D3.E50:F51) G H I J DCOUNTA Page 178 of 223 K This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address.

00 £0. the text items and blank cells are ignored. such as the category Brand or Wattage.10 20 5 £10.50 4 3 £54.00 £0. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.50 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.20 30 2 £12. or 100 as the wattage.00 £0.00 £0. Syntax =DCOUNT(DatabaseRange. or names.00 £0.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.25 10 5 £12. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. with a specific number of boxes in stock. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.20 40 3 £24. or cell.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating. including the field names at the top of the columns.80 20 5 £180.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DCOUNT Page 179 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £0. It can only count values. The second set of information is the actual record.00 £1.00 £2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £5. The first set of information is the name. Formatting No special formatting is needed.25 10 4 £50.00 £0.50 10 3 £15. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 3 2 £30. The FieldName is the name.20 25 2 £10. which are to be selected.50 15 1 £37. of the values to Count. .FieldName.15 25 1 £3. or records. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.75 £0.00 £1. Examples The count of a particular product.80 10 5 £40. Horizon 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.00 15 2 £60.00 £2.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.50 £0.80 25 6 £120.D3.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E Product Bulb The number of products is : 3 F Boxes In Stock 5 G H I J

DCOUNT Page 180 of 223 K

=DCOUNT(B3:I19,H3,E50:F51)

This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address. 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E50:F51)

The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb The count is : 2 Wattage 100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E61:F62)

The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The count is : 4 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100

=DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E68:G69)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G

DB Page 181 of 223 H I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation :

£5,000 5 £200 Deprecation £2,375.00 £1,246.88 £654.61 £343.67 £180.43

=DB(E3,E5,E4,D8) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D9) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D10) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D11) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D12)

£4,800.58 * See example 4 below.

What Does It Do ? This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage. The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage. The second year uses the same percentage, but uses the original value of the item less the first years depreciation. Any subsequent years use the same percentage, using the original value of the item less the depreciation of the previous years. The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user, the function calculates the necessary percentage, which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user. An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was originally purchased. If the item was purchased part way through the financial year, the first years depreciation will be based on the remaining part of the year. Syntax =DB(PurchasePrice,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate,FirstYearMonth) The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the first financial year. This is an optional value, if it not used the function will assume 12 as the value. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation. Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone. Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation. Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation. The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used. Purchase Price : Salvage value : £5,000 £1,000

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 B C D Life in Years : Year 1 2 3 4 5 E 5 Deprecation £1,375.00 £996.88 £722.73 £523.98 £379.89 =DB(E47,E48,E49,D56) £3,998.48 % Deprc 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% F G

DB Page 182 of 223 H I

Total Depreciation :

Example 2 This example is similar to the previous, with the exception of the deprecation being calculated on a monthly basis. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Month 56 57 58 59 60 £5,000 £5 100 Deprecation £8.79 £8.24 £7.72 £7.23 £6.78 =DB(E66,E68,E67*12,D75)

Example 3 This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : First Year Ownership In Months : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5,000 5 £1,000 6 Deprecation £687.50 £1,185.94 £859.80 £623.36 £451.93 =DB(E74,E76,E75,D84,E77) £3,808.54 % Deprc 13.75% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50%

Total Depreciation :

Why Is The Answer Wrong ? In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129

DB Page 183 of 223 I

B C D E F G H This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated by the =DB() fumction. The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places. Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate, when applied to large values, the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as approximate values for the the depreceation. Example 4 This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real' percentage calculated manually. The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function. The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation. This is the 'real' deprecation percentage, calculated manually : 27.522034% =1-((E117/E116)^(1/E118)) Purchase Price : £5,000 = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). Salvage value : £1,000 Life in Years : 5 Excel Deprecation £1,375.0000 £996.8750 £722.7344 £523.9824 £379.8873 £3,998.48 Real Depreciation £1,376.1017 £997.3705 £722.8739 £523.9243 £379.7297 £4,000.00 £1.52 Excel % Deprc 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500%

Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation :

Error difference :

EndDate.D5.End.TRUE) What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months). FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems.TRUE) =DAYS360(C6. =DAYS360(C4.D6.TRUE)+1 . Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months. To correct this add 1 to the result.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F DAYS360 Page 184 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 EndDate 5-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 31-Mar-98 31-Dec-98 Days Between 4 30 89 359 * See the Note below. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.D4. Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TRUE) =DAYS360(C7. Note The calculation does not include the last day.TRUE) =DAYS360(C5.D7.TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems. =DAYS360(Start.

Cells. but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 25 =DAY(F21) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Number.Custom and using the code ddd or dddd.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G DAY Page 185 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Full Date 25-Dec-98 15-Sep-12 15-Sep-12 The Day 25 Sun 15 15 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date. Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday.

or 100 as the wattage. of the values to be averaged.50 4 3 £54.25 10 5 £12. Product Brand . including the field names at the top of the columns. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0.E23:E24) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces and average.80 10 5 £40.25 10 4 £50. or names.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DAVERAGE Page 186 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £2.00 15 2 £60.80 20 5 £180. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £0. The first set of information is the name. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £0.00 £1. which are to be selected. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.F3.00 To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb. such as the category Brand or Wattage.80 25 6 £120.00 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £1.00 £5.00 £0. The FieldName is the name. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. Syntax =DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange. or records.20 40 3 £24.00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £0.00 £2.FieldName.15 25 0 £0.00 3 2 £30.50 10 3 £15. Type the brand name : sunbeam The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1.50 15 0 £0.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £0.00 £0.20 30 2 £12. such as "Unit Cost" or F3.10 20 5 £10.50 £0. or cell.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.20 25 2 £10. The second set of information is the actual record. Examples The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.

E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E49:F50) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £1. Product Bulb Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.E67:F68) . £1.F3. Product Bulb Average of Bulb <100 is : £0."Unit Cost".17 Wattage <100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19."Unit Cost".16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19."Unit Cost".E60:F61) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage.53 Wattage 100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.16 F Horizon G H I J DAVERAGE Page 187 of 223 K The average of Horizon Bulb is : =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.

such as exports from mainframe computers. Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F DATEVALUE Page 188 of 223 G H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Date 25-dec-99 25/12/99 25-dec-99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 #VALUE! 36519 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date.Cells. probably after being imported from an external program. Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs.Number. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25-dec-99 -4648 10-july/99 -4816 13-sep-98 -5116 30/5/2000 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY() Property Ref. BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 .Date. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text.

months or years.TODAY().SecondDate."md")&" Days" ."md") What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates. "d" Days between the two dates.TODAY().D5."yd") =DATEDIF(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H DATEDIF Page 189 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 FirstDate 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 SecondDate 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 Interval days months years yeardays yearmonths monthdays Difference 3782 124 10 130 4 9 =DATEDIF(C4. Syntax =DATEDIF(FirstDate.D9.D8."md") You can put this all together in one calculation."y")&" Years.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 52 =DATEDIF(C8.D6. "m" Months between the two dates.D7. as if the dates were in the same year."y") 8 =DATEDIF(C8."ym") 14 =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY()."y") =DATEDIF(C7. It can show the result in weeks. Age is 52 Years. "yd" Days between the dates. "md" Days between the two dates.TODAY()."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY().TODAY(). 8 Months and 14 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. Formatting No special formatting is needed. which creates a text version. These are the available intervals."ym") =DATEDIF(C9. "y" Years between the two dates. "Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate. as if the dates were in the same month and year."Interval") FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates."m") =DATEDIF(C6.D4. "&DATEDIF(C8. SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates. as if the dates were in the same year."d") =DATEDIF(C5. "ym" Months between the dates.

D5.D6. 2000 =DATE(E6.Cells.Number.C4) 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5. Syntax =DATE(year.day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format. .D4.C6) What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . By using the Format.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DATE Page 190 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/99 =DATE(E4.Date command the format can be changed.C5) January 2.month.

How many items cost £100 or above. To match a specific number type the number. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways."Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12.100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G COUNTIF Page 191 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12."Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes.">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12.E18) How many Brake Shoes Have been bought. Type the name of the item to count. Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted. How many Tyres have been bought.">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5."Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. service What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5.

The response to the question could be Y or N.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I COUNTBLANK Page 192 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range. Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy."Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41. As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed."N") Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 N Y Y N Y Y N N N Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No : . The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned.

It will ignore blanks.. Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil.802466 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. Maths Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39) 1 Fail How many pupils sat each Exam. Syntax =COUNTA(Range1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J COUNTA Page 193 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0. A failure was entered as Fail.Range3. 2 or 3. Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39) . The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Each exam passed was graded as 1. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam.Range2.

000 £1. Item Jan Feb Bricks £1..000 Glass £2.000 Metal £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range3. Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month.766749 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J COUNT Page 194 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0..000 Wood £5. text and errors. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 .Range2. It will ignore blanks. Syntax =COUNT(Range1.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J

CORREL Page 195 of 223 K

1 2 3

Table 1 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400

Table 2 Advertising Costs £2,000 £1,000 £5,000 £1,000 £8,000 £1,000

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50

Sales £20,000 £30,000 £20,000 £40,000 £40,000 £20,000

Correlation 0.864 =CORREL(D5:D10,E5:E10)

Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10,H5:H10)

What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets. The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1. The larger the result, the greater the correlation. In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units. The correlation shows that there is an 0.864 realtionship between the data. In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data. Syntax =CORREL(Range1,Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

CONVERT Page 196 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Amount Converting To Convert From 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 1 1.5 0.5 yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec Converted Amount 2.54 =CONVERT(C4,D4,E4) 0.3048 =CONVERT(C5,D5,E5) 0.9144 =CONVERT(C6,D6,E6) 365.25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8,D8,E8) =CONVERT(C9,D9,E9) =CONVERT(C10,D10,E10) =CONVERT(C11,D11,E11)

What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit, to the same value expressed in a different type of unit, such as Inches to Centimetres. Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert,UnitToConvertFrom,UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system. Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.35301 =CONVERT(D28,"lbm","kg")+CONVERT(E28,"ozm","kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3.81 3 2.5146 2 1.5748 =CONVERT(D34,"ft","m")+CONVERT(E34,"in","m")

Weight

Height Length Width

Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems. Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Day Hour Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in.) Pressure Pascal

g kg sg lbm u ozm

m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica

yr day hr

Pa

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Minute Second Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU B C mn sec D E Atmosphere mm of Mercury Liquid Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F atm mmHg G H

CONVERT Page 197 of 223 I

C F K

N dyn lbf

tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l

J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU

HP W

Magnetism Tesla Gauss

T ga

These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure. Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated. Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1.00E+18 E 1.00E+15 P 1.00E+12 T 1.00E+09 G 1.00E+06 M 1.00E+03 k 1.00E+02 h 1.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1.00E-01 1.00E-02 1.00E-03 1.00E-06 1.00E-09 1.00E-12 1.00E-15 1.00E-18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

CONCATENATE Page 198 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol

Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =CONCATENATE(C4,D4) Williams BobWilliams =CONCATENATE(C5,D5) Davies CarolDavies =CONCATENATE(C6,D6) Jones Alan Jones =CONCATENATE(C7," ",D7) Williams Williams, Bob =CONCATENATE(D8,", ",C8) Davies Davies, Carol =CONCATENATE(D9,", ",C9)

What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item. Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1,Text2,Text3...Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined. Formatting No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as normal text. Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator. Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =C25&D25 Williams BobWilliams =C26&D26 Davies CarolDavies =C27&D27 Jones Alan Jones =C28&" "&D28 Williams Williams, Bob =D29&", "&C29 Davies Davies, Carol =D30&", "&C30

Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems.D4) =COMBIN(C5. so AB is the same as BA.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F COMBIN Page 199 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 The four letters : Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Pair 5 Pair 6 Combinations 6 ABCD AB AC AD BC BD CD =COMBIN(C25.D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black .D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items. but can only use three in any scheme.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required. How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41.D5) =COMBIN(C6. The decorator is given five colours to work with.D25) Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office. The internal order of the combination does not matter.

2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C Scheme 1 Red Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Blue Yellow D Scheme 2 Red Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Blue Black E Scheme 3 Red Green Black Scheme 8 Green Yellow Black F Scheme 4 Red Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Yellow Black COMBIN Page 200 of 223 G Scheme 5 Red Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using a unique number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =CODE(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € • ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ • Ţ • • Ř ř Ŗ ŗ • Ŕ 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ • ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . or the first character in a piece of text. 69 . There are 255 characters in the ANSI set. Example See the example for FREQUENCY.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J CODE Page 201 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Letter A B C a b c Alan Bob Carol ANSI Code 65 66 67 97 98 99 65 66 67 =CODE(C4) =CODE(C5) =CODE(C6) =CODE(C7) =CODE(C8) =CODE(C9) =CODE(C10) =CODE(C11) =CODE(C12) What Does It Do? This function shows the ANSI value of a single character. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : .70 . the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255.

70 F 21 46 .2000 Peter Noneley I 23 48 0 73 24 49 1 74 J A 25 B 50 2 C75 K 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 D 100 ] ^ _ ` a b c d 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 v w x y z { | }E 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 • • Ř ř Ŗ ŗ • Ŕ 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 F 175 ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 G 200 Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à H á 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú I CODE Page 202 of 224 J K 55 . 71 G Excel Function Dictionary 72 H 22 47 / © 1998 . 69 E 20 45 .18 43 + 68 D 19 44 .

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I CLEAN Page 203 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Dirty Text Hello He llo Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text. Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The result will show as normal text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes. .

"Gold"."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5."Silver".18%) =CHOOSE(C9.15%."Silver"."Alan".15%. Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue. The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete."Bronze").18%) =CHOOSE(C8."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3."Silver".15%.CHOOSE(D32.CHOOSE(D34.10%.10%."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7."Gold". Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3."Carol") =CHOOSE(C6. due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it."Gold". The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3. Item2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I CHOOSE Page 204 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% =CHOOSE(C4. Item1."Alan"."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3. as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear.CHOOSE(D33."Alan". The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal."Bronze").18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user. Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required. The Time for each athlete is entered."Bronze")."Bob"."Bronze").CHOOSE(D31."Gold"."Gold".CHOOSE(D30. Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race."Bob".10%.C30:C34) ."Silver"."Silver"."Bronze")."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3."Bob"."unplaced") =RANK(C34.

< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € 151 152 153 154 ‚ 155 ƒ 156 „ 157 … 158 † 159 ‡ 160 ˆ 161 ‰ 162 Š 163 ‹ 164 Œ 165 166 Ţ 167 168 169 Ř 170 ř 171 Ŗ 172 ŗ 173 • 174 Ŕ 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . Example The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters. 69 . these will be displayed as a small box.70 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U CHAR Page 205 of 224 V W X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 ANSI Number Character 65 A 66 B 169 © =CHAR(G4) =CHAR(G5) =CHAR(G6) What Does It Do? This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI character set used by Windows. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . Syntax =CHAR(Number) The Number must be between 1 and 255. Formatting The result will be a character with no special formatting.

2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Note Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Q R S T U CHAR Page 206 of 224 V W X .

D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents. The filename containing the cell. v for value.($#. 0 =CELL("color". Shown as b for blank. 0 =CELL("parentheses". Formatting No special formatting is needed.D3) =CELL("format".xls. The number format fo the cell. 0 for no. The width of the cell.D3) =CELL("contents". Nothing is shown for numeric entries. d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 .D3) =CELL("col". The row number.50% $D$3 4 3 0.00_). Codes used to show the formatting of the cell.00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. The type of cell protection.##0.00 $#.D3) =CELL("type". Shown as ' for left. The alignment of the cell.00) 0% 0.##0.##0.0 F2 .D3) 1 for yes. position and formatting.D3) Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values.##0_).2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8 .##0) $#. 0 for no.xls]CELL =CELL("filename".00_).D3) =CELL("prefix". The actual contents of the cell.D3) 12 P2 =CELL("width". \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_1\[109490126. The type of entry in the cell.D3) 1 for a locked.##0. l for text.##0.175 v =CELL("address".This is the cell and contents to test.##0 0.D3) 1 for yes. The column number.00 #. Numeric Format General 0 #. Formatted for coloured negatives.[Red]($#. Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired".00% 0.[Red]($#. The cell address.D3) =CELL("row".##0) $#. ^ for centre. 1 =CELL("protect".CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ".ms_office.00) $#.##0_). (See the table shown below) 17. 0 for unlocked. " for right.($#.

The name of the current file is : 109490126.xls =MID(CELL("filename").CELL("filename"))-1) .Example The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.FIND("]".FIND("[".ms_office.xls.CELL("filename"))+1.CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".

xls]CELL .6.ms_office.xls.

1) =CEILING(C5. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck.71 =D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number. and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed.7) Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site.MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation. Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments. Formatting No special formatting is needed. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed.9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4.30) =CEILING(C9.7) =CEILING(D29. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14 Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10 =CEILING(D28.33 5. Table 2 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 4 9 6 =CEILING(D54/E54.1) =CEILING(C7.1) =CEILING(D56/E56. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product.1) =CEILING(C6. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis. This results of the division are not whole numbers. and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck.7) =CEILING(D30.1) .1 1.30) =CEILING(C8.5 1.30) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user.33 8.1) =CEILING(D55/E55. Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound.Number 2.

Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.99 . Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters Box Qnty 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.1).62000 5. The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence.10 £28 Cost Per Item 1.99 2.75000 1.1) =CEILING(MOD(E83).75000 =D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence. The shopkeeper buys products by the box.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83.81818 2.99 5.99 1.0.25 £28. Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs. Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters In Box 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.81818 1.25 £28.60714 2. The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.99) Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83.60714 5. Calculates the decimal part of the price.62000 1.10 £28 Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1.99) Calculates the integer part of the price. Raises the decimal to 0.0.

Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber) The binary number has a limit of ten characters.Binary Number Decimal Equivalent 0 #REF! 1 1 10 2 11 3 111111111 511 1111111111 -1 1111111110 -2 1111111101 -3 1000000000 -512 11111111111 #NUM! =BIN2DEC(C4) =BIN2DEC(C5) =BIN2DEC(C6) =BIN2DEC(C7) =BIN2DEC(C8) =BIN2DEC(C9) =BIN2DEC(C10) =BIN2DEC(C11) =BIN2DEC(C12) =BIN2DEC(C13) What Does It Do ? This function converts a binary number to decimal. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. .

Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA().3333 =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.667 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1.667 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2.Range2. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the cell will be included in the average calculation. If the cell contains zero 0..667 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2.3333 =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp Rain Temp Rain Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28..571 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Mon 30 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.3333 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36) Temp Rain Temp Rain Further Usage . If the cell is blank or contains text. Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24.Range3. the cell will not be used in the average calculation.

Syntax =AREAS(RangeToTest) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. . These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists. If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected. The function is designed to be used in macros. Note To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used. Example The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green. If it is a single block the result will be 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H AREAS Page 214 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Pink Name Alan Bob Carol Name David Eric Fred Age 18 17 20 Age 20 16 19 2 =AREAS(PeopleLists) Green What Does It Do? This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data. When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range. or whether it is a multiple selection. then the Ctrl key was held down before selecting the green range. In the above example the pink range was selected as normal.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate selections which form the PeopleLists range.

D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100.D7<=52) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true.D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100. It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit.D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1. The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average. The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams. Syntax =AND(Test1. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE =AND(C38>=AVERAGE($C$29:$C$38).Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100. Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results.E38>=AVERAGE($E$29:$E$38)) Averages 47 54 60 .D38>=AVERAGE($D$29:$D$38).

FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.2.F3. When 4 the reference will be in the form A1.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. . This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet.F3.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4. The ColNumber is from 1 to 256.F3.F3. When 3 the reference will be in the form $A1.SheetName) The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384. The Absolute can be 1. column and row absolute. When 2 the reference will be in the form A$1.F3.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.TRUE. based on a row and column numbers given by the user. only the row absolute. The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference.1.F3. The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE.3.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.TRUE.2.Absolute. Syntax =ADDRESS(RowNumber.2.F3. neither col or row absolute.3. When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1.F3.F5) What Does It Do ? This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.3 or 4. only the column absolute. cols A to IV.3.A1orR1C1.F3.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.F3.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4. When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1.ColNumber.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TRUE.F3.F5) =ADDRESS(F4. The SheetName does not actually have to exist. the normal style for cell addresses.1.F3.4. the alternative style of cell address.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ADDRESS Page 216 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Type a column number : Type a row number : Type a sheet name : $B$3 B$3 $B3 B3 R3C2 R3C[2] R[3]C2 R[3]C[2] Hello!$B$3 Hello!B$3 Hello!$B3 Hello!B3 2 3 Hello =ADDRESS(F4.2.4.TRUE. When 1 the reference will be in the form $A$1.4.1.

25 1. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Error Percentage 0 0% 30 25% 30 25% =ABS(D45-E45) Difference . Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber. The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative.25 Absolute Value 10 10 1. Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Difference 0 30 -30 =D36-E36 Error Percentage 0% 25% -25% Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured. the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. Whether the wood was too long or short. Table 1 shows the original calculations. no special formatting is needed.25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7) What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number. the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value.25 -1.Number 10 -10 1. which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated. In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short. The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length. irrespective of whether it is positive or negative.

column or all cells and then press Alt and =. then press Alt and =. or Select a row. Jan 10 20 30 40 100 Feb 50 60 70 80 260 Mar 90 100 200 300 690 Total 150 180 330 420 1050 North South East West Total . you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result. Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column.Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar.

7 or 97."y")&" Years. If the age is 20."ym") =DATEDIF(C8. The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function.You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date. Age is 39 Years.TODAY().TODAY().TODAY(). the . 4 Months and 17 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY().5 represents 6 months."y") =DATEDIF(C8."md") You can put this all together in one calculation.71 =(TODAY()-C23)/365.TODAY(). but it is in 2000."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY(). which creates a text version.25 .5. Birth date : Age is : 1-Jan-60 52."md")&" Days" Another way to calculate age This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months. The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5. (Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!) Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 29-Apr-73 39 4 17 =DATEDIF(C8.

This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need. 10 20 2 60 =(C27+C28)*C29 By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calulation first. (also known as 'braces'). Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and . The * and / operations will be calculated before + and . in formula.. Example 1 : The wrong answer ! 10 20 2 50 =C12+C13*C14 You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30 And then 30 * 2 would equal 60 But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40 And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50 Example 2 : The correct answer. The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply.Sometimes you will need to use brackets.. resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60 .

109490126.xls.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Workbook name. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_1\[109490126.ms_office.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Worksheet name.255) .ms_office.FIND("[". This can be done by using the CELL() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . To just pick out the workbook or worksheet name you need to use text functions. Home1 =MID(CELL("filename").FIND("]". \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_1\ =MID(CELL("filename"). To pick the Path.xls.CELL("filename"))+1.FIND("]".xls =MID(CELL("filename").FIND("[".CELL("filename"))+1. shown below.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G Filename formula Page 221 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 There may be times when you need to insert the name of the current workbook or worksheet in to a cell.CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".1.xls]Home1 =CELL("filename") The problem with this is that it gives the complete path including drive letter and folders.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Instant Charts Page 222 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 whilst inside a range of data. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Click anywhere inside the table above.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Then press F11. .

Options. and the names change to Feb and Mar. This formula can be copied to D16 and E16. Accept Labels in Formula. . Try this example: Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan) The result will show. Calculation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . You can switch it on by using Tools. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Total If it does not work ! The feature may have been switched off on your computer.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G SUM_using_names Page 223 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations simply by typing the name into the formula.