Q.1 Price elasticity of demand depends on various factors. Explain each factor with the help of an example.
A behavioral relationship between quantity consumed and a person's maximum willingness to pay for incremental increases in quantity. It is usually an inverse relationship where at higher (lower) prices, less (more) quantity is consumed. Other factors which influence willingness-to- pay are income, tastes and preferences, and price of substitutes. Demand function specifies what the consumer would buy in each price and wealth situation, assuming it perfectly solves the utility maximization problem. The quantity demanded of a good usually is a storng function of its price. Suppose an experiment is run to determine the quantity demanded of a particular product at different price levels, holding everything else constant. Presenting the data in tabular form would result in a demand schedule. Elasticity of demand is the economist’s way of talking about how responsive consumers are to price changes. For some goods, like salt, even a big increase in price will not cause consumers to cut back very much on consumption. For other goods, like vanilla ice cream cones, even a modest price increase will cause consumers to cut back consumption. Elasticity of demand is used to show the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good or service to a change in its price. More precisely, it gives the percentage change in demand one might expect after a one percent change in price. Elasticity is almost always negative, although analysts tend to ignore the sign even though this can lead to ambiguity. Only goods which do not conform to the law of demand, such as Veblen and Giffen goods, have a positive elasticity demand. Goods with a small elasticity demand (less than one) are said to be inelastic: changes in price do not significantly affect demand e.g. drinking water. Goods with large elasticity demand’s (greater than one) are said to be elastic: even a slight change in price may cause a dramatic change in demand. Revenue is maximised when price is set so as to create a ED of exactly one; elasticity demand‘s can also be used to predict the incidence of tax.

The price elasticity of demand for supermarket strawberry jam is likely to be elastic. if demand is inelastic a drop in price will decrease spending because the percent increase in quantity is smaller than the percent decrease in price. the more elastic the price elasticity of demand. including test markets. then a drop in price will increase spending. There is a neat way of classifying values of elasticity. An important relationship exists between the elasticity of demand for a good and the amount of money consumers want to spend on it at different prices. When the numerical value of elasticity is greater than one. The example illustrates how to determine price elasticity of demand for a good. A good's PED is determined by numerous factors. depending on how much quantity increases. demand is said to be “inelastic”. 3 . So “elastic” demand means that people are relatively responsive to price changes (remember the vanilla ice cream cone).ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . these include. The price elasticity of demand measures how responsive the quantity demanded of a good is to a change in its price. demand is “elastic”. This is due to consumers being more aware of small changes in price of expensive goods compared to small changes in the price of inexpensive goods. because the percent increase in quantity is larger than the percent decrease in price. The value illustrates if the good is relatively elastic (PED is greater than 1) or relatively inelastic (PED less than 1). If demand is elastic. Therefore. a decrease in price leads to an increase in quantity. When the numerical value of elasticity is less than one. This is because of large number of close substitutes and the good is not a necessity item. On the other hand. The larger the number of close substitutes. so if price falls spending may either increase or decrease. “Inelastic” demand means that people are relatively unresponsive to price changes (remember salt). Number of substitutes: the larger the number of close substitutes for the good.MB0042 Various research methods are used to calculate price elasticity. analysis of historical sales data and conjoint analysis. p times Q. consumers will easily respond to a change in price. Spending is price times quantity. In general. Price of the good as a proportion of income: It can be argued that goods that account for a large proportion of disposable income tend to be elastic.the easier household can shift to alternative goods if price increases.

sales for that model are typically lower than the sales for models on display. and quantitative methods. promotional events important causal factor in influencing demand. such as the use of historical sales data or current data from test markets.planning literature about how to measure and represent historical demand. 4 . The effects that inventory levels have on sales.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS .MB0042 Q. eaggregate intelligence using collaboration with Sales & Marketing function. since the historical demand forms the basis of forecasting. There is a lot of debate indemand . Often forecasting demand is confused with forecasting sales. sales of that item are diminished. But. And in fashion retailing. Demand forecast modeling considers the size of market and dynamics of market share versus competitor and its effect on firm demand over period of time. in assessing future capacity requirements. these forces need to be factored into planning and managed within demand forecast. or because the desired sizes are no longer available. such as educated guesses. How will the company forecast demand for it? Methods. Stock effects. Regardless of the stimuli. In the manufacturer to retailer model. Demand for an item will likely rise if a competitor increases the price or if you promote item in your weekly circular.2 A company is selling a particular brand of tea and wishes to introduce a new flavor. once the stock level of a particular sweater falls to the point where standard sizes are no longer available. For example.. demand coming into your store is not converted to sales due to a lack of availability. Demand is also untapped when sales for an item are decreased due to a poor display location. The resulting sales increase reflects a change in demand as a result of consumers responding to stimuli that potentially drive additional sales. Demand forecasting may be used in making price decisions. The main question is whether we should use the history of outbound shipments or customer orders or a combination of the two as proxy for the demand. In the extreme case of stock-outs. when a consumer electronics retailer does not display a particular flat-screen TV. failing to forecast demand ignores 2 important phenomena. Market response effect : The effect of market events that are within and beyond a retailer’s control. or in making decisions to enter new market.

inadequate rainfall. supply decreases. What are the other factors that will affect the supply of a product. imposition of high taxes. if the cost of production rises.For ex. may cause decline in production and contradiction in supply. due to higher wages.3 The supply of a product depends on the price. interest and price of input supply rises 4. granting of subsidy development rebates tax concession extra. droughts. Apart from price. 5 . primitive techniques are responsible for lower and hence lower supply. earthquakes. for example withdrawal of all concessions and incentives. 2. Natural factors: Favourable natural factors like gud climatic conditions . many factors bring about changes in supply. 5. Cost of production: Given the market price of a product. introduction of controls and quota systems extra. pests etc.. timely.. Consequently supply expands.untimely ill distributed. interest and price of inputs.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . 3. the seller of a given commodity offer more units in the market even though the price of his product has not gone up. Change in techniques of production: An improvement in techniques of production and use of modern highly sophasticated machines and equipments will go a long way in raising the output and expansion in supply. On the contrary. on the other hand output and supply cripples when the government adopts a negative policy. Government policy: When the government follows a positive policy it encourages production in the private sector. on account of lower wages.MB0042 Q. Prices of related goods: If prices of related goods fall. Opposite will be the case when the price of related goods rises. Among them the important factors are 1. well distributed rainfall results in higher production and expansion in supply. adequate.If the cost of production falls. On the other hand adverse factors like bad weather conditions .

Thus many factors influence the supply of a product in market. Discovery of new source of inputs: Discovery of new source of inputs helps the producers to supply more at the same price and viseversa.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . Monopoly power : Supply tends to be low when the market is controlled by monopolists or a few sellers as in the case ofoligopoly.If rate or speed of production is high supply expands. Future rise in prices: When seller anticipate a further rise in price.Similarly production and supply tends to be more when production is organized on large scale basis. 7. Number of sellers or firms: Supply would be more when there are a large number of sellers. Complementary goods: In case of joint demand the production and sale of one product may lead to production and sale of other product also.MB0042 6. 10. 9. A firm should have a thorough knowledge of all the factors because it helps in preparing its production plan and sale strategy.opposite will be the case when number of sellersis lesssmall scale production and low rate of production 8. Opposite will be the case when the seller expect a fall in price. Improvements in transport and communication: This will facilitate free and quick movement of goods and services from production centers to marketing centers. 11. in that case current supply tends to fall.Generally supply would be more under competetive conditions. 6 .

As firms become larger and their scale of operations increase they are able to experience reductions in their average costs of production.MB0042 Q. In many industries. Increasing returns to scale results in 7 . The firm is said to be experiencing increasing returns to scale. A localized industrial cluster can solve this problem by bringing together many firms that provide a large enough market to support specialized suppliers. Economies of scale external to the firm (or industry wide scale economies) are only considered examples of network externalities if they are driven by demand side economies. An individual company does not provide a large enough market for these services to keep the suppliers in business.4 Show how producers equilibrium is achieved with isoquants and isocost curves. Knowledge spillovers: Knowledge is one of the important input factors in highly Innovative industries: The specialized knowledge that is crucial to success in innovative industries comes from    Research & development Reverse engineering: Informal exchange of information and ideas. Workers: They are less likely to get unemployed.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . This phenomenon has been extensively documented in  The semiconductor industry located in Silicon Valley  Labour market pooling  A cluster of firms can create a pooled market for specialized skilled workers. the production of goods and services and the development of new products requires the use of specialized equipment or support services. It is an advantage for Producers: They are less likely to suffer from labour shortages.

where the long run average cost curves are at their lowest point.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . Thus initially the firm's long run average cost curve slopes downward as the scale of the enterprise expands. These are cost reductions accruing to the firm as a result of the growth of the firm itself. As a consequence its average costs fall. Types of internal economies of scale types Financial The farm has been able to gain loans and assistance at farm has been able to preferential interest rates from the EIB. continued expansion means that its average costs may start to rise as the firm now experiences decreasing returns to scale. (An external economy of scale is a benefit that the firms experience as a result of the growth of the industry. This occurs because the firm is now experiencing internal diseconomies of scale. The long run average cost curve therefore starts to curve upwards. The firm enjoys benefits called internal economies of scale. These large scale farms are attracting a considerable amount of overseas development aid funding from organization such as the world bank and the European union as they are seen as being an integral part of the export earning capacity of the country.) After the firm has reached its optimum scale of output. 8 . world bank and the EU Marketing It has managed to dedicate resources to its strategy of niche marketing Technical The access to finance has allowed it to invest in sophisticated Israeli irrigation Managerial It large size enables it to employ specialized personnel such as estate managers Risk Bearing The farm has used some of its land to diversify into producing fresh vegetables for export as well as continue producing maize.MB0042 the firm's output increasing at a great proportion than its inputs and hence its total costs.

it makes a profit. profit is maximized when MR = MC Profit Maximization model means a scenario where the business is runned by the motive of profit making and keep the cost low.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . Summing up (ii) and (iii). and the second to the rule that marginal cost should equal marginal revenue. but it is at the core of microeconomics. Much of this material is quite technical. In order to achieve maximum profit the firm needs to find out the point where the difference between total revenue and total cost is the highest. The rules that apply for profit maximization are: i. Firms may maximize profit by maximizing sales. 9 . stock price. increase output as long as marginal profit increases ii. When the firm successfully deals with these constraints. It then explores how the rules of maximization apply to the firm. Profit will decline if MR < MC iv.5 Discuss the full cost pricing and marginal cost pricing method. Profit will increase as long as marginal revenue (MR) > marginal cost (MC) iii. pointing out some of the ambiguities of this assumption. It considers two ways in which the maximization principle can be used: to determine the proper levels of inputs or to determine the proper level of output. In order to survive. and the supply of its inputs. The first leads to the rule that marginal resource cost should equal marginal revenue product. the production function. Explain how the two methods differ from each other The profit maximization principle stresses on the fact that the motive of business firms to maximize profit is solely justified as being a method of maximizing the income of their shareholders. The business firm is the productive unit in an exchange economy. These readings explore the assumption that firms maximize profits. a firm must deal with three constraints: the demand for its product.MB0042 Q. market share or cash flow. The readings show that these two rules are equivalent and simply represented different ways of using the information from the three constraints that a firm faces.

Therefore. So the 2 statements are equivalent. if MR > MC. If I can increase profit when MR < MC.maximizing. is just an application of the marginal principle (MB = MC). the profit maximization rule. my revenues increase by more than my costs. I can increase profit by decreasing output.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . If I produce 1 more unit. and the profit maximization rule is specific to the firm production decision. The marginal principle is more general. 10 . MR is the MB. my revenues decrease by less than my costs decrease. Why? Suppose MR > MC. I must choose a quantity q such that MR = MC.MB0042 Profit is maximized where MR = MC. Profit maximization rule: Produce until the point where the change in revenue from producing 1 more unit equals the change in cost from producing 1 more unit. then when producing where MR > MC can't be profit. So. producing more will increase my profit. if MR < MC. in order to maximize profit. Suppose MR < MC. then choosing q such that MR < MC cannot be profit-maximizing. Therefore. If I produce 1 less unit. This rule. If I can increase my profit by changing how much I produce. Why? This MB of producing an extra unit is the extra revenue you get. MR = MC is an equilibrium in the sense that it is the only place where there is no incentive to change the production level.

Depending on PED. Revenues from a business's primary activities are reported as sales. In many countries. Some companies receive revenue from interest.MB0042 Q. it would record that revenue as “other revenue” and disclose it separately on its income statement to show that it is from something other than its core operations. such as the United Kingdom. non-operating revenue) is revenue from peripheral (non. revenues or revenue is income that a company receives from its normal business activities. revenue is income received by an organization in the form of cash or cash equivalents. do not use the same process for measuring revenue. Generally any change 11 .sales revenue or net sales. usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. Two common accounting methods. Other revenue (a. In more formal usage. This excludes product returns and discounts for early payment of invoices. one may raise revenue either by increasing prices and sacrificing quantity or by reducing them and outputting more. a company that manufactures and sells automobiles would record the revenue from the sale of an automobile as "regular" revenue.a. If that same company also rented a portion of one of its buildings. This is included in revenue but not included in net sales. revenue is referred to as turnover. dividends or royalties paid to them by other companies. Most businesses also have revenue that is incidental to the business's primary activities. A firm considering a price change must know what effect the change in price will have on total revenue. Tax revenue is income that a government receives from taxpayers.6 Discuss the price output determination using profit maximization under perfect competition in the short run. revenue is a calculation or estimation of periodic income based on a particular standard accounting practice or the rules established by a government or government agency.core) operations. In general usage. There is a predictable relationship between revenue and elasticity. For example. cash basis accounting and accrual basis accounting.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . Corporations that offer shares for sale to the public are usually required by law to report revenue based on generally accepted accounting principles or International Financial Reporting Standards. Sales revenue or revenues is income received from selling goods or services over a period of time.k. Sales revenue does not include sales tax collected by the business. such as interest earned on deposits in a demand account.

the percentage change in quantity demanded is smaller than that in price. the relationship between PED and revenue can be described for any particular good: When the price elasticity of demand for a good is perfectly inelastic (Ed = 0). Hence. no matter how small.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . In this way. the percentage change in quantity demanded is greater than that in price.MB0042 in price will have two effects: the price effect: an increase in unit price will tend to increase revenue. and vice versa. will cause demand for the good to drop to zero. the percentage change in quantity is equal to that in price and a change in price will not affect revenue. any increase in the price. the total revenue of producers falls to zero. and vice versa. Hence. while a decrease in price will tend to decrease revenue. a firm ought to operate close to its unit-elasticity pric. When the price elasticity of demand for a good is unit elastic (or unitary elastic) (|Ed| = 1). When the price elasticity of demand for a good is perfectly elastic (Ed is infinite i. In short. When the price elasticity of demand for a good is elastic (|Ed| > 1). the total revenue of producers falls. while a decrease in unit price will tend to lead to more units sold. 12 .e. raising prices will cause revenue to increase. Hence. undefined). when the price is raised. Hence. the percentage change in revenue is equal to the change in quantity demanded plus the percentage change in price. to maximize revenue. Elasticity provides the answer. in determining whether to increase or decrease prices a firm needs to know what the net effect will be. Because of the inverse nature of the price-demand relationship the two effects offset each other. the total revenue of producers rises. When the price elasticity of demand for a good is inelastic (|Ed| < 1). changes in the price do not affect the quantity demanded for the good. The quantity effect: an increase in unit price will tend to lead to fewer units sold. when the price is raised. when the price is raised.

equal to zero and negative. higher would be the demand and vice versa.5 Generally speaking Ey is positive. Or Where      Ey is income elasticity of demand D is change in demand D is original demand Y is change in income Y is original income Example Original demand=400 units New demand =700 units Change in demand= 700-400= 300 Hence Original income= 4000 units New income= 6000 units units change in income=6000-4000=2000 Ey=300/2000*4000/400=1. less than one. The concept of Ey helps us in classifying commodities in to different categories. higher the income. On the basis of the numerical value of the co-efficient. The following formula helps to measure the income elasticity (Ey).MB0042 ASSIGNMENT SET 2 Q. i. it indicates the extent to which demand changes with a variation in consumer‘s income. Ey is classified as greater than one.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS .1 Income elasticity of demand has various applications. In short. Income elasticity of demand may be defined as the ratio or proportionate change in the quantity demanded of a commodity to a given proportion change in the income. equal to one. This is because there is a direct relationship between income and demand. 13 . Explain each application with the help of an example.e.

When Ey is positive and greater than one. ( for example jowar.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . 3. the commodity is normal (used in day-to-day life) 2. the commodity is essential. Practical application of income elasticity of demand 1. When Ey is positive. If the growth rate of the economy and income growth of the people is reasonable forecasted. The knowledge of Ey is essential for production planning. 5. 2. Helps in the demand forecasting of a firm. in that case it is possible predict expected increase in the sales of a firm and vice versa. Proper estimation of different degrees of income elasticity of demand for different types of product help in avoiding over-production or under-production of a firm. Thus it helps a lot in managerial decisions of a firm. the commodity is luxury. Helps in production planning and marketing. E. Helps in ensuring stability in production. it helps in demand forecasting activities of a firm. Helps in determining the rate of growth of the firm. When Ey is positive but less than one. the commodity is neutral. 4. deciding advertising expenditures and nature of distribution channel etc in the long run. match box etc. 14 . Thus. It can be in estimating future demand provided the rate of increase in income and Ey for products are known. The rate of growth in incomes of people also helps housing programs in a country. When Ey is zero.MB0042 1. 5. 4. beedi etc) 3. One should know whether rise or fall in income is permanent or temporary. salt. Helps in estimating construction of houses. the commodity is inferior. formulating marketing strategy.g. When Ey is negative.

It is a comprehensive one covering almost all questions either directly or indirectly in a most intelligent manner. It is prepared by an expert body who are specialist in the field or marketing. why. The materials collected will be classified.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . the field surveys are conducted by the marketing research departments of the company or hiring the services of outside research organization consisting of learned and highly qualified professionals. consumer buyers are requested to indicate their preference and willingness about a particular product. They are about to reveal their future purchase plans with respect to specific items. The heart of the survey is questionnaire. edited and analyzed. If any bias prejudices. in what quantity. The next step is to collect the questionnaire from the consumers for the purpose of evaluation. It will be examined thoroughly. Consumers are requested to furnish all relevant and correct information. how much they are planning to spend etc. where. Generally. exaggerations. Survey of buyer‘s intention or preference is one of the important methods of demand forecasting. 15 .MB0042 Q. They are expected to give answer to question like what items they intends to buy. Inferences are drawn and conclusions are arrived at. The questionnaire is distributed among the consumer either through mail or in person by the company. Finally a report is prepared and submitted to the management for taking final decisions. what quality they expect. Under this method. artificial or excess demand creation are found at the time of answering they would be eliminated. The information so collected will now be consolidated and reviewed by the top executives with lot of experiences. It is also called “ Opinion Survey Method” .2 When is the opinion survey method used and what is the effectiveness of the method.

Nature of the product 5. The representative of the sample 4.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . 3. at right conclusion. Here the burden of forecasting is put on the customers. The management should not entirely depend on the result of survey reports t project future demand. However this method is not much useful in estimating the future demand of the household as they run in a large numbers and also do not freely express their future demand requirements. Consumer behavior 7. 16 . Techniques of analysis 8. It is expensive and so difficult. In order to arrive. Conclusion drawn etc. 2. field surveys should be regularly checked and supervised. This method is simple and useful to the producers who produce goods in bulk.MB0042 The success of the survey method depends on many factors: 1. . The ability of the surveyed. The nature of the question asked. Consumer may not express their honest and real views and as such they may give only the broad trends in the market. Characteristics of the market 6. Preparation of questionnaire is not an easy task. At best it can be used for short term forecasting.

Thus neither the upper blade nor the lower blade taken separately can cut the paper both have their importance in the process of cutting. It is a position of rest characterized by absence of change. by using forces of equilibrium. Market Equilibrium There are two approaches to market equilibrium vi z. Thus it explains a multi market equilibrium position. Earlier to Marshall. He compared supply and demand to a pair of scissors –“We might as reasonably dispute whether it is the upper or the under blade of a pair of scissors that cuts a piece of paper. Marshall gave equal importance to both demand and supply in the determination of value or price. It is a state where there is complete agreement of the economic plans of the various market participants so that no one has a tendency to revise or alter his decision. 17 .3 Show how price is determined by the forces of demand and supply.. Thus demand of consumers and supply of all firms together determine price of commodity in the market. the general equilibrium approach explains the mutual and simultaneous determination of the prices of all goods and factors. But relative importance of the two may vary depending upon time under consideration. there was a dispute among economists on whether the force of demand or the force of supply is more important in determining price. both are equally important in the determination of price. The partial equilibrium approach to pricing explains price determination of a single commodity keeping the prices of other commodities constant. The word equilibrium is derived from the Latin word aequilibrium which means equal balance. On the other hand. It means a state of even balance in which opposing forces or tendencies neutralize each other. Likewise neither supply nor demand alone can determine price of a commodity. In the words of professor Mehta:” Equilibrium denotes in economics absence of change in movement”.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . partial equilibrium approach and the general equilibrium approach.MB0042 Q. as whether value is governed by utility or cost of production” .

At this price quantity demanded is equal to the quantity demanded. Thus the supply curve will have an upward slope. They depend on price. Demand and supply are dependent variables. a rise in price causes a rise in supply and a fall in price causes a fall in supply.MB0042 Equilibrium between demand and supply price: Equilibrium between demand and supply price is obtained by the interaction of these two forces.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . Thus the demand curve will have a downward slope indicating the expansion of demand with a fall in price and contraction of demand with a rise in price. Price is an independent variable. Demand varies inversely with price. On the other hand supply varies directly with the changes in price.At a point where these two curves intersect with each other the equilibrium price is established. This we can explain with the help of a table and a diagram 18 . a rise in price causes a fall in demand and a fall in price causes a rise in demand.

at this point price quantity demanded is P2D2. Excess demand for goods pushes up the price. Suppose the price OP2 is higher than the equilibrium price OP. At price OP1. Excess of supply over demand pushes the price downward until it reaches the equilibrium. This process will continue till the equilibrium price of Rs. the buyers will demand P1D1 quantity while the sellers are ready to sell P1S1. Demand exceeds supply. 19 . this is called equilibrium price. OP is the equilibrium price.30 the buyer will demand only 5 units while the sellers are ready to supply 25 units. this process will go until equilibrium is reached where supply becomes equal to demand. Since the price is agreeable to both the buyer and sellers. Thus the interactions of demand and supply forces acting upon each other restore the equilibrium position in the market.20 is reached.20 the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied. SS is the supply curve.5 the buyer will demand 30 units while the seller will supply only 5 units.MB0042 In the above table at Rs. Suppose the price falls to Rs. Sellers compete with each other to sell more units of the commodity. Excess of demand over supply pushes the price upward until it reaches the equilibrium position supply is equal to the demand. OQ is the equilibrium output. In the diagram DD is the demand curve. On the other hand if the price rises to Rs. Thus D2S2 is the excess supply which the seller wants to push into the market. there will be no tendency for it to change. competition among the sellers will bring down the price to the equilibrium level where the supply is equal to the demand.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . Demand and supply are in equilibrium at point E where the two curves intersect each other.

fixed costs in the short run remains constant because the firm does not change the size of plant and the amount of the fixed factors employed.4 Distinguish between fixed cost and variable cost using an example. equipments. insurance premium. These cost are to be incurred by a firm even output is zero. Marshall called fixed cost as supplementary costs. Fixed cost: These costs are incurred on fixed factors like land. They include such items as contractual rent payments. plants. Variable costs are directly and proportionately increases or decreases with the level of output. property and business taxes.head costs because these costs are to incurred whether there is production or not. fuel. building. license fees. but remains in business. superior types of labour. etc. they are called as indirect costs. Even if the firm close down its operation for some time temporarily in the short run. transport. these costs are independent of output and are referred to as unavoidable contractual cost. They are called as over. Fixed costs do not vary with either expansion or contraction in output. then it will not use the variable 20 . which directly vary in the short runs.MB0042 Q. Prof. depreciation and maintenance allowance. top management etc. power. These costs are to be distributed on each units of output produced by a firm. Hence. These costs are incurred on raw materials. Hence. these cost have to be borne by it. ordinary labour. interest on capital borrowed. administrative expenses like manager‘s salary or salary of the permanent staff. Variable Costs: The costs corresponding to variable factors are described as variable costs. water etc.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . If a firm shut down for some times in the short run.

However. even if a firm wants to close down its operation but wants to remain in the business. Marshall called variable costs as prime costs or direct costs because the volume of output produced by a firm depends directly upon them. It is clear from the above description that a production cost consists of both fixed as well as variable costs.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . Prof. In the short run. In the long run all costs become variable because all factors of production become adjustable and variable in the long run. Variable costs are incurred only when some amount of output is produced. it will have to incur fixed costs but it must cover at least its variable costs. the distinction between the fixed and variable costs is very important in the short because it influences the average costs behavior of the firm. Total variable cost increases with the level of increase in the level of production and vice-versa. The difference between the two is meaningful and relevant only in the short run.MB0042 factors of production and will not therefore incurs any variable costs. 21 .

cash reserve etc. Boumal.] In view of Marris the realization of these two functions would depend on the size of the firm. greater would be the realization of these functions and vice-versa. status.5 Discuss Marris Growth Maximization model ? Profit maximization is traditional objective of a firm. Sales maximization objective is explained by Prof. He further points out that both of them have two distinctive goals. Size of the firm according to Marris depends on the amount of corporate capital which includes total volume of the asset. owner and managers. market shares and sales maximization. i. market share.MB0042 Q. 22 . capital. Generally managers like to stay in a grouping firm. Marris points out that a firm has to maximize its balanced growth rate over a period of time. volume of profits.] Um= f [salaries. position. Utility function of the manager and that the owner are expressed in the following mannerUo= f [size of output. Higher growth rate of the firm satisfy the promotional opportunity of managers and also the share holders as they get more dividends.e. inventory level. Larger the firm. He further points out that the managers always aim at maximizing the rate of growth of the firm rather than growth in absolute size of the firms. On similar lines. volume of profit. status. Managers have a utility function in which the amount of salary. public esteem etc. power. job security etc.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . Marris assumes that the ownership and control of the firm is in the hands of two groups of people. prestige and security of job etc are the most import variable where as in case of are more concerned about the size of output. Prof. Marris has developed another alternative growth maximization model in recent years. prestige. power. It is a common factor to observe that each firm aims at maximizing its growth rate as this goal would answer many of the objectives of a firm.

It should result in the creation of real resources which are more important in accelerating the growth process. The government should borrow more money both in and outside the country. Higher the rate of interest is to be offered for government bonds and security. Hence. This would come in the way of stable and persistent growth. To act as an investor: Mere mobilization of financial resources is not an end in itself. Profit earning capacity of public sector units are to be raise substantially to mopup financial resources.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . fiscal policies have to be ensuring higher volume of investment in both private and public sectors. introduces new additional taxes. 23 .6 Explain how fiscal policy is used to achieve economic stability In order to achieve a stable economic condition. Extreme levels of both inflation and deflation would disrupt and disturb the normal and regular working of an economic system. The specific role to be played by fiscal policy can be discussed as follows: To act as optimum allocator of resources: As most of the resources are scarce in their supply. careful planning is needed in its allocation so as to achieve the set targets. Rational allocation would ensure fulfillment of various objectives. Taxation policy has to be modified to raise the rates of old taxes.MB0042 Q. Rapid economic growth depends upon the volume of investment. 3. To act as price stabilizer: Price stability is of paramount of importance in an economy. and extends the tax-nets. 2. Hence all measures are to be taken to check these two dangerous situations so as to create necessary congenial atmosphere to prepare the background for rapid economic growth. To act as a saver: 1. It should follow a rational consumption policy reduces the MPC and raises MPS. fiscal policy has to play a positive and constructive role both in developed and developing nations. 5. 4.

production. To act as an employment generator: Fiscal policy should help in mobilizing more financial resources. Hence all measure to be taken to ensure economic stability. Hence. If there is economic prosperity. demand and supply.MB0042 To act as an economic stabilizer: Price stability would create the necessary background for over all economics stability. Hence. fiscal policy is to be designed in such a manner so as to promote higher growth in an economy. inequality is reduced to the minimum. fiscal policy has to play a major role in promoting economic growth in a country. economic overhead capital and social overhead capital etc. Any sort of imbalance would result in either surpluses or scarcity in different sectors of the economy leading to fast growth in some sectors followed by lagging of some other sectors. convert them in to investment and create employment opportunity to absorb huge unemployed man power. If an economy is subject to frequent fluctuation in the form of trade cycle. To act as growth promoter: The basic objective of any economic policy is to ensure higher economic growth rates. This is possible when a rational taxation and public expenditure policy is adopted. employment and income. Upswing and downswing in the level of economic activities are to be avoided. contended and peaceful life. investment. To act as balancer: There must be proper balance between aggregate saving & aggregate investment. Thus. certainly. income and employment leading to higher purchasing power in the hands of common man. fiscal policy should help in creating more wealth in the economy. income and output and expenditure. Thus. Instability would come in the way of persistent and consistent growth in a country. This is possible when there is higher national savings.ASSIGNMENT MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS . it would undermine and disturb the growth process. This is possible when there is higher output. 24 . To act as in come redistribute: Fiscal policy has to minimize inequalities and ensure distributive justice in an economy. To act as stimulator of living standards of people: the final objective is to raise the level of living standards of the people. then it is possible to have a satisfactory. More money is collected from richer section of the society through various imaginative taxation policies and a larger amount of money is to be spent in favor of poorer sections of the society.

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