Chemicals in Food Food additives

Dr. Harminder Singh

• To understand the different sources of food additives. Dr. • To understand the different roles and functions of food additives in food.Learning objectives • To identify the reason(s) why food additives are used. Harminder Singh .

Why using food additives (PAT) Preserving Attractive Tastier Dr. Harminder Singh .

flavour and sweetness to food for interest and variety. •preserving.e. i. These functions include: •adding colour. Dr. Harminder Singh . increasing shelf-life or inhibiting the growth of pathogens.What are food additives? Food additives are substances added to products to perform specific technological functions.

Flavourings 4. Nutrients Dr. Acids. bases and buffers(Control the pH value of food) 6. Preservatives 3. Sweeteners(To sweeten food without using sugar) 7. Harminder Singh . Emulsifiers and stabilizers(Stabilize oil-water mixtures like ice-cream) 5. Colourings 2.Main classes of food additives (Big 7) 1.

Harminder Singh .Introduction • Food additives can be divided into two major groups – Intentional additives • Chemical substances that are added to food for specific purpose • Are regulated by strict governmental controls – Incidental additives • We have little control over incidental or unintentional additives Dr.

Harminder Singh .Intentional Additives • Chemicals that are intentionally introduced to foods to aid in processing • to act as preservatives • or to improve the quality of the food – are called intentional additives • Their use is strictly regulated by national and international laws Dr.

Harminder Singh .Intentional Additives • The purpose of food additives – To improve or maintain nutritional value – To enhance quality – To reduce wastage – To enhance consumer acceptability – To improve keeping quality – To make the food more readily available – To facilitate preparation of the food Dr.

spoilage.Intentional Additives • In the following situations additives should not be used: – To disguise faulty or inferior processes – To conceal damage. or other inferiority – To deceive the consumer – If use entail substantial reduction in important nutrients – If the desired effect can be obtained by economical. good manufacturing practices – In amount greater than the minimum necessary to achieve the desired effects Dr. Harminder Singh .

used as a preservative in some dairy products and in semolina and tapioca puddings.Types of additives Additives may be: • Natural – found naturally. • Artificial – produced synthetically and not found naturally. used as a colouring agent. Dr. such as extracts from beetroot juice (E162). such as benzoic acid (E210). used as a preservative. Harminder Singh . such as nisin (E234). • Manmade versions – synthetic identical copies of substances found naturally.

Why not keep to natural additives? Some artificial colours have almost disappeared from foods as companies realised that many consumers prefer food products to contain natural colours. Dr. Manmade additives may prove more efficient at preserving. At present there is not the variety of natural additives required to perform all the functions of additives necessary. Harminder Singh . and some natural colours fade in some products.

is the order of 1 to 100 Dr. whether natural or added. including such common nutrients as amino acids and salts. are toxic at certain levels. but harmless or even nutritionally essential at lower levels • The ratio between effective dose and toxic dose of many compounds. Harminder Singh .• Toxicity – is the capacity of a substance to produce injury • Hazard – is the probability that injury will result form the intended use of the substance • It is now well recognized that many components of our foods.

g.Colours Colours aim to: • restore colour lost during processing or storage. e. • ensure that each batch produced is identical in appearance or does not appear ‘off’. Dr. • reinforces colour already in foods. enhance the yellowness of a custard. • give colour to foods which otherwise would be colourless (e. e. Harminder Singh . soft drinks) and so make them more attractive. marrowfat peas.g.g.

tartrazine (E102) and ponceau 4R (E124) have been linked to a negative effect on children’s behaviour. quinoline yellow (E104). Harminder Singh .Colours Certain combinations of the following articifical food colours: sunset yellow (E110). Dr. allura red (E129). These colours are used in soft drinks. The Food Standards Agency suggest if signs of hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are seen in a child. carmoisine (E122). these additives should be avoided. sweets and ice cream.

e. Harminder Singh .g. Ingredients lists will say if flavourings have been used. Dr. Monosodium glutamate (E612) is added to processed foods. but individual flavourings might not be named. are added to a wide range of foods. sauces. usually in small amounts to give a particular taste. salad dressing and sausages. on the other hand. These do not have E numbers because they are controlled by different food laws. For example some soups. (Prolonged eating cause numbness in a portion of brain) Flavourings.Flavour enhancers Flavour enhancers bring out the flavour in foods without imparting a flavour of their own.

(non caloric.g.Sweeteners Sweeteners include: • intense sweeteners. soft drinks. Dr. sweetening tablets. control obesity but causes bladder tumours) • bulk sweeteners. e. Harminder Singh . sorbitol. Infants under 6 months should not be given cordial drinks. have a similar sweetness to sugar and are used at similar levels.g.g. e. it is important to dilute them more than for adults. e. If concentrated cordial drinks that contain sweeteners are given to children between the ages of 6 months to 4 years. have a sweetness many times that of sugar and therefore are used in small amounts. in diet foods. saccharin.