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Calculus one and several variables 10E Salas solutions manual ch15

Calculus one and several variables 10E Salas solutions manual ch15

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Calculus one and several variables 10E Salas solutions manual
Calculus one and several variables 10E Salas solutions manual

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P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU

JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
758 SECTION 15.1
CHAPTER 15
SECTION 15.1
1. dom (f) = the first and third quadrants, including the axes; range (f) = [0, ∞)
2. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y) with xy ≤ 1; the two branches of the hyperbola xy = 1 and all
points in between; range (f) = [0, ∞)
3. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y) except those on the line y = −x; range (f) = (−∞, 0) ∪ (0, ∞)
4. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y) other than the origin; range (f) = (0, ∞)
5. dom (f) = the entire plane; range (f) = (−1, 1) since
e
x
−e
y
e
x
+e
y
=
e
x
+e
y
−2e
y
e
x
+e
y
= 1 −
2
e
x−y
+ 1
and the last quotient takes on all values between 0 and 2.
6. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y) other than the origin; range (f) = [0, 1]
7. dom (f) = the first and third quadrants, excluding the axes; range (f) = (−∞, ∞)
8. dom (f) =the set of all points (x, y) between the branches of the hyperbola xy = 1;
range (f) = (−∞, ∞)
9. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y) with x
2
< y —in other words, the set of all points of the plane
above the parabola y = x
2
; range (f) = (0, ∞)
10. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y) with −3 ≤ x ≤ 3, −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 (a rectangle);
range (f) = [0, 3]
11. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y) with −3 ≤ x ≤ 3, −2 ≤ y ≤ 2 (a rectangle);
range (f) = [−2, 3]
12. dom (f) = all of space; range (f) = [−3, 3]
13. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y, z) not on the plane x +y +z = 0; range (f) = ¦−1, 1¦
14. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y, z) with x
2
,= y
2
—that is, all points of space except for those
which lie on the plane x −y = 0 or on the plane x +y = 0; range (f) = (−∞, ∞)
15. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y, z) with [y[ < [x[; range (f) = (−∞, 0 ]
16. dom (f) =the set of all points (x, y, z) not on the plane x −y = 0; range (f) = (−∞, ∞)
17. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y) with x
2
+y
2
< 9 —in other words, the set of all points of the
plane inside the circle x
2
+y
2
= 9; range (f) = [ 2/3, ∞)
18. dom (f) = all of space; range (f) = [0, ∞)
19. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y, z) with x + 2y + 3z > 0 — in other words, the set of all points in
space that lie on the same side of the plane x + 2y + 3z = 0 as the point (1, 1, 1); range (f) = (−∞, ∞)
20. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y, z) with x
2
+y
2
+z
2
≤ 4 — in other words, the set of all points
inside and on the sphere x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= 4; range (f) = [1, e
2
]
21. dom (f) = all of space; range (f) = (0, 1]
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SECTION 15.1 759
22. dom (f) = the set of all points (x, y, z) with −1 ≤ x ≤ 1, −2 ≤ y ≤ 2, −3 ≤ z ≤ 3 (a rectangular
solid); range (f) = [0, 3]
23. dom(f) = ¦x : x ≥ 0¦; range (f) = [0, ∞)
dom(g) = ¦(x, y) : x ≥ 0, y real¦; range (g) = [0, ∞)
dom(h) = ¦(x, y, z) : x ≥ 0, y, z real¦; range (h) = [0, ∞)
24. dom (f) = the entire plane, range (f) = [−1, 1]
dom (g) = all of space, range (g) = [−1, 1]
25. lim
h→0
f(x +h, y) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
2(x +h)
2
−y −(2x
2
−y)
h
= lim
h→0
4xh + 2h
2
h
= 4x
lim
h→0
f(x, y +h) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
2x
2
−(y +h) −(2x
2
−y)
h
= −1
26. lim
h→0
f(x +h, y) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
xy +hy + 2y −(xy + 2y)
h
= lim
h→0
y = y.
lim
h→0
f(x, y +h) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
xy +xh + 2y + 2h −(xy + 2y)
h
= lim
h→0
(x + 2) = x + 2
27. lim
h→0
f(x +h, y) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
3(x +h) −(x +h)y + 2y
2
−(3x −xy + 2y
2
)
h
= lim
h→0
3h −hy
h
= 3 −y
lim
h→0
f(x, y +h) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
3x −x(y +h) + 2(y +h)
2
−(3x −xy + 2y
2
)
h
= lim
h→0
−xh + 4yh + 2h
2
h
= −x + 4y
28. lim
h→0
f(x +h, y) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
xsin y +hsin y −xsin y
h
= lim
h→0
sin y = sin y.
lim
h→0
f(x, y +h) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
xsin(y +h) −xsin y
h
= x lim
h→0
sin(y +h) −sin y
h
= xcos y
29. lim
h→0
f(x +h, y) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
cos[(x +h)y] −cos[xy]
h
= lim
h→0
cos[xy] cos[hy] −sin[xy] sin[hy] −cos[xy]
h
= cos[xy]
_
lim
h→0
cos[hy] −1
h
_
−sin[xy] lim
h→0
sin hy
h
= y cos[xy]
_
lim
h→0
cos[hy] −1
hy
_
−y sin[xy] lim
h→0
sin hy
hy
= −y sin[xy]
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JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
760 SECTION 15.2
and
lim
h→0
f(x, y +h) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
cos[x(y +h)] −cos[xy]
h
= lim
h→0
cos[xy] cos[hx] −sin[xy] sin[hx] −cos[xy]
h
= cos[xy]
_
lim
h→0
cos[hx] −1
h
_
−sin[xy] lim
h→0
sin hx
h
= x cos[xy]
_
lim
h→0
cos[hx] −1
hx
_
−x sin[xy] lim
h→0
sin hx
hx
= −x sin[xy]
30. lim
h→0
f(x +h, y) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
(x
2
+ 2xh +h
2
)e
y
−x
2
e
y
h
= lim
h→0
(2x +h)e
y
= 2xe
y
.
lim
h→0
f(x, y +h) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
x
2
e
y+h
−x
2
e
y
h
= x
2
lim
h→0
e
y+h
−e
y
h
= x
2
e
y
.
31. (a) f(x, y) =Ay (b) f(x, y) = πx
2
y (b) f(x, y) = [2 i (xi +y j)[ = 2[y[
32. (a) f(x, y, z) = xy + 2xz + 2yz
(b) f(x, y, z) = cos
−1
(i +j) (xi +y j +z k)
|i +j||xi +y j +z k|
= cos
−1
x +y

2
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
(c) f(x, y, z) = [i (i +j)] (xi +y j +z k) = z
33. Surface area: S = 2lw + 2lh + 2hw = 20 =⇒ w =
20 −2lh
2l + 2h
=
10 −lh
l +h
Volume: V = lwh =
lh(10 −lh)
l +h
34. wlh = 12 =⇒ h =
12
wl
; C = 4wl + 2(2wh + 2lh) = 4wl +
48
l
+
48
w
35. V = πr
2
h +
4
3
πr
3
36. A =
1
2
[2(12 −2x) + 2xcos θ] xsin θ = (12 −2x +xcos θ) xsin θ
SECTION 15.2
1. an elliptic cone 2. an ellipsoid
3. a parabolic cylinder 4. a hyperbolic paraboloid
5. a hyperboloid of one sheet 6. an elliptic cylinder
7. a sphere 8. a hyperboloid of two sheets
9. an elliptic paraboloid 10. a hyperbolic cylinder
11. a hyperbolic paraboloid 12. an elliptic paraboloid
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SECTION 15.2 761
13. 14. 15.
16. 17. 18.
19. 20. 21.
22. 23. 24.
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JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
762 SECTION 15.2
25. elliptic paraboloid
xy-trace: the origin
xz-trace: the parabola x
2
= 4z
yz-trace: the parabola y
2
= 9z
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.5
26. ellipsoid
xy-trace: the ellipse 9x
2
+ 4y
2
= 36
xz-trace: the ellipse x
2
+ 4z
2
= 4
yz-trace: the ellipse y
2
+ 9z
2
= 9
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.1
27. elliptic cone
xy-trace: the origin
xz-trace: the lines x = ±2z
yz-trace: the lines y = ±3z
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.4
28. hyperboloid of one sheet
xy-trace: the ellipse 9x
2
+ 4y
2
= 36
xz-trace: the hyperbola x
2
−4z
2
= 4
yz-trace: the hyperbola y
2
−9z
2
= 9
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.2
29. hyperboloid of two sheets
xy-trace: none
xz-trace: the hyperbola 4z
2
−x
2
= 4
yz-trace: the hyperbola 9z
2
−y
2
= 9
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.3
30. hyperbolic paraboloid
xy-trace: the lines y = ±
3
2
x
xz-trace: the parabola x
2
= 4z
yz-trace: the parabola y
2
= −9z
surface has the form Figure 15.2.6
31. hyperboloid of two sheets
xy-trace: the hyperbola 9x
2
−4y
2
= 36
xz-trace: the hyperbola x
2
−4z
2
= 4
yz-trace: none
see Figure 15.2.3
32. hyperboloid of one sheet
xy-trace: the hyperbola x
2
−9y
2
= 9
xz-trace: the circle x
2
+y
2
= 9
yz-trace: the hyperbola z
2
−9y
2
= 9
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.2,
rotated 90

about the x-axis.
33. elliptic paraboloid
xy-trace: the parabola x
2
= 9y
xz-trace: the origin
yz-trace: the parabola z
2
= 4y
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.5
34. elliptic cone
xy-trace: the lines x = ±2y
xz-trace: the origin
yz-trace: the lines z = ±3y
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.4,
rotated 90

about the x-axis.
35. hyperboloid of two sheets
xy-trace: the hyperbola 9y
2
−4x
2
= 36
xz-trace: none
yz-trace: the hyperbola y
2
−4z
2
= 4
see Figure 15.2.3
36. elliptic paraboloid
xy-trace: the parabola y
2
= 4x
xz-trace: the parabola z
2
= 9x
yz-trace: the origin
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.5,
but opening along the positive x-axis.
37. paraboloid of revolution
xy-trace: the origin
xz-trace: the parabola x
2
= 4z
yz-trace: the parabola y
2
= 4z
surface has the form of Figure 15.2.5
38. ellipsoid
xy-trace: the ellipse 4x
2
+y
2
= 4
xz-trace: the ellipse 9x
2
+z
2
= 9
yz-trace: the ellipse 9y
2
+ 4z
2
= 36
the surface has the form of Figure 15.2.1,
rotated 90

about the x-axis.
39. (a) an elliptic paraboloid (vertex down if A and B are both positive, vertex up if A and B are both
negative)
(b) a hyperbolic paraboloid
(c) the xy-plane if A and B are both zero; otherwise a parabolic cylinder
40. The xz-plane and all planes parallel to the xy-plane.
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SECTION 15.2 763
41. x
2
+y
2
−4z = 0 (paraboloid of revolution)
42. c
2
x
2
+c
2
y
2
−b
2
z
2
= b
2
c
2
(hyperboloid of revolution, one sheet)
43. (a) a circle
(b) (i)
_
x
2
+y
2
= −3z (ii)

x
2
+z
2
=
1
3
y
44. (a) the ellipse b
2
x
2
+y
2
= b
2
(b) ellipse approaches parallel lines x = ±1 in the plane z = 1
(c) paraboloid approaches parabolic cylinder z = x
2
45. x + 2y + 3
_
x +y −6
2
_
= 6 or 5x + 7y = 30, a line
46. 3x +y −2(4 −x + 2y) = 1, or 5x −3y = 9, a line
47.
x
2
+y
2
+ (z −1)
2
=
3
2
x
2
+y
2
−z
2
= 1
_
(z
2
+ 1) + (z −1)
2
=
3
2
; (2z −1)
2
= 0, z =
1
2
so that x
2
+y
2
=
5
4
48. z
2
+ (z −2)
2
= 2 =⇒ 2(z −1)
2
= 0 =⇒ z = 1 =⇒ x
2
+y
2
= 1, a circle.
49. x
2
+y
2
+
_
x
2
+ 3y
2
_
= 4 or x
2
+ 2y
2
= 2, an ellipse
50. y
2
+ (x
2
+ 3y
2
) = 4 =⇒ x
2
+ 4y
2
= 4, an ellipse.
51. x
2
+y
2
= (2 −y)
2
or x
2
= −4(y −1), a parabola
52. x
2
+y
2
=
_
2 −y
2
_
2
=⇒ 4x
2
+ 3y
2
+ 4y = 4, an ellipse.
53. (a) Set x = a cos u cos v, y = b cos u sin v, z = c sin u. Then:
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
+
z
2
c
2
= 1.
(b)
-2
0
2
-4
-2
0
2
4
-2
-1
0
1
2
-2
0
2
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764 SECTION 15.3
54. (a) Set x = a sec u cos v,
y = b sec u sin v,
z = c tan u
(b) -10
-5
0
5
10
-10
0
10
-20
0
20
10
0
10
55. (a) Set x = av cos u,
y = bv sin u,
z = cv
-2
-1
0
1
2
-4
-2
0
2
4
0
2
4
6
1
SECTION 15.3
1. lines of slope 1: y = x −c 2. lines of slope 2 : y = 2x −c
3. parabolas: y = x
2
−c 4. parabolas: x −y
2
=
1
c
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SECTION 15.3 765
5. the y-axis and the lines y =
_
1 −c
c
_
x with
the origin omitted throughout
6. the x-axis and the parabolas y = cx
2
with the
origin omitted throughout
7. the cubics y = x
3
−c 8. the coordinate axes and the hyperbolas xy = ln c
9. the lines y = ±x and the hyperbolas
x
2
−y
2
= c
10. pairs of vertical lines x = ±

c and the y-axis
11. pairs of horizontal lines y = ±

c and the
x-axis
12. the lines x = 0, y = 1 and the hyperbolas
y =
c
x
+ 1
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766 SECTION 15.3
13. the circles x
2
+y
2
= e
c
, c real 14. the parabolas y = e
c
x
2
with the origin omitted
throughout
15. the curves y = e
cx
2
with the point (0, 1)
omitted
16. the coordinate axes and pairs of hyperbolas
xy = ±

c
17. the coordinate axes and pairs of lines
y = ±

1 −c

c
x, with the origin omitted
throughout
18. the curves y = e
cx
with the point (0, 1) omitted
19. x + 2y + 3z = 0, plane through the origin
20. circular cylinder x
2
+y
2
= 4 (Figure 15.2.8)
21. z =
_
x
2
+y
2
, the upper nappe of the circular cone z
2
= x
2
+y
2
(Figure 15.2.4)
22. ellipsoid
x
2
4
+
y
2
6
+
z
2
9
= 1 (Figure 15.2.1)
23. the elliptic paraboloid
x
2
18
+
y
2
8
= z (Figure 15.2.5)
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SECTION 15.3 767
24. hyperboloid of two sheets
x
2
(1/6)
2
+
y
2
(1/3)
2
−z
2
= −1 (Figure 15.2.3)
25. (i) hyperboloid of two sheets (Figure 15.2.3)
(ii) circular cone (Figure 15.2.4)
(iii) hyperboloid of one sheet (Figure 15.2.2)
26. (i) hyperboloid of two sheets
(ii) elliptic cone
(iii) hyperboloid of one sheet
27. The level curves of f are: 1 −4x
2
−y
2
= c. Substituting P (0, 1) into this equation, we have
1 −4(0)
2
−(1)
2
= c =⇒ c = 0
The level curve that contains P is: 1 −4x
2
−y
2
= 0, or 4x
2
+y
2
= 1.
28. (x
2
+y
2
)e
xy
= 1
29. The level curves of f are: y
2
arctan x = c. Substituting P (1, 2) into this equation, we have
4 arctan 1 = c =⇒ c = π
The level curve that contains P is: y
2
tan
−1
x = π.
30. (x
2
+y) ln(2 −x +e
y
) = 5
31. The level surfaces of f are: x
2
+ 2y
2
−2xyz = c. Substituting P (−1, 2, 1) into this equation, we
have
(−1)
2
+ 2(2)
2
−2(−1)(2)(1) = c =⇒ c = 13
The level surface that contains P is: x
2
+ 2y
2
−2xyz = 13.
32.
_
x
2
+y
2
−ln z = 4
33. (a)
-4
-2
0
2
4
-4
-2
0
2
4
-50
0
50
-4 -2 0 2 4
-4
-2
0
2
4
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768 SECTION 15.3
(b)
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
0
5
10
15
-4 -2 0 2 4
-4
-2
0
2
4
34. (a) the level surfaces are planes (b)
35. (a)
3x + 2y + 1
4x
2
+ 9
=
3
5
(b) x
2
+ 2y
2
−z
2
= 21
36. (a)
-2 -1 0 1 2
-2
-1
0
1
2 (b)
37.
GmM
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= c =⇒ x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=
GmM
c
; the surfaces of constant gravitational force are
concentric spheres.
38. Circular cylinders around the positive y-axis: x
2
+z
2
=
k
2
c
2
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SECTION 15.4 769
39. (a) T(x, y, z) =
k
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
, where k is a constant.
(b)
k
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= c =⇒ x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=
k
2
c
2
; the level surfaces are concentric spheres.
(c) T(1, 2, 1) =
k

1
2
+ 2
2
+ 1
2
= 50 =⇒ k = 50

6 =⇒ T(x, y, z) =
50

6
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
Now, T(4, 0, 3) =
50

6

3
2
+ 4
2
= 10

6 degrees
40. x
2
+y
2
= r
2

k
2
c
2
; circles about the origin, for [c[ >
k
r
.
41. f(x, y) = y
2
−y
3
; F 42. D. 43. f(x, y) = cos
_
x
2
+y
2
; A
44. B. 45. f(x, y) = xye
−(x
2
+y
2
)/2
; E 46. C.
PROJECT 15.3
1. 2.
3. 4.
SECTION 15.4
1.
∂f
∂x
= 6x −y,
∂f
∂y
= 1 −x 2.
∂g
∂x
= 2xe
−y
,
∂g
∂y
= −x
2
e
−y
3.
∂ρ
∂φ
= cos φcos θ,
∂ρ
∂θ
= −sin φsin θ
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
770 SECTION 15.4
4.
∂ρ
∂θ
= 2 sin(θ −φ) cos(θ −φ),
∂ρ
∂φ
= −2 sin(θ −φ) cos(θ −φ)
5.
∂f
∂x
= e
x−y
+e
y−x
,
∂f
∂y
= −e
x−y
−e
y−x
6.
∂z
∂x
=
x
_
x
2
−3y
,
∂z
∂y
=
−3
2
_
x
2
−3y
7.
∂g
∂x
=
(AD −BC)y
(Cx +Dy)
2
,
∂g
∂y
=
(BC −AD)x
(Cx +Dy)
2
8.
∂u
∂x
=
−e
z
x
2
y
2
,
∂u
∂y
=
−2e
z
xy
3
,
∂u
∂z
=
e
z
xy
2
9.
∂u
∂x
= y +z,
∂u
∂y
= x +z,
∂u
∂z
= x +y 10.
∂z
∂x
= 2Ax +By,
∂z
∂y
= Bx + 2Cy
11.
∂f
∂x
= z cos (x −y),
∂f
∂y
= −z cos (x −y),
∂f
∂z
= sin (x −y)
12.
∂g
∂u
=
2u
u
2
+vw −w
2
,
∂g
∂v
=
w
u
2
+vw −w
2
,
∂g
∂w
=
v −2w
u
2
+vw −w
2
13.
∂ρ
∂θ
= e
θ+φ
[cos (θ −φ) −sin (θ −φ)],
∂ρ
∂φ
= e
θ+φ
[cos (θ −φ) + sin (θ −φ)]
14.
∂f
∂x
= (x +y) cos(x −y) + sin(x −y),
∂f
∂y
= −(x +y) cos(x −y) + sin(x −y)
15.
∂f
∂x
= 2xy sec xy +x
2
y(sec xy)(tan xy)y = 2xy sec xy +x
2
y
2
sec xy tan xy
∂f
∂y
= x
2
sec xy +x
2
y(sec xy)(tan xy)x = x
2
sec xy +x
3
y sec xy tan xy
16.
∂g
∂x
=
2
1 + (2x +y)
2
,
∂g
∂y
=
1
1 + (2x +y)
2
17.
∂h
∂x
=
x
2
+y
2
−x(2x)
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
=
y
2
−x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
∂h
∂y
=
−2xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
18.
∂z
∂x
=
x
x
2
+y
2
,
∂z
∂y
=
y
x
2
+y
2
19.
∂f
∂x
=
(y cos x) sin y −(x sin y)(−y sin x)
(y cos x)
2
=
sin y(cos x +x sin x)
y cos
2
x
∂f
∂y
=
(y cos x)(x cos y) −(x sin y) cos x
(y cos x)
2
=
x(y cos y −sin y)
y
2
cos x
20.
∂f
∂x
= e
xy
(y sin xz +z cos xz),
∂f
∂y
= xe
xy
sin xz,
∂f
∂z
= xe
xy
cos xz
21.
∂h
∂x
= 2f(x)f
/
(x)g(y),
∂h
∂y
= [f(x)]
2
g
/
(y)
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
SECTION 15.4 771
22.
∂h
∂x
= f
/
(x)g(y)e
f(x)g(x)
,
∂h
∂y
= f(x)g
/
(y)e
f(x)g(y)
23.
∂f
∂x
= (y
2
ln z)z
xy
2
,
∂f
∂y
= (2xy ln z)z
xy
2
,
∂f
∂z
= xy
2
z
xy
2
−1
24.
∂h
∂x
= 2[f(x, y)]
3
g(x, z)
∂g
∂x
+ 3[f(x, y)]
2
[g(x, z)]
2
∂f
∂x
∂h
∂y
= 3[f(x, y)]
2
[g(x, z)]
2
∂f
∂y
,
∂h
∂z
= 2[f(x, y)]
3
g(x, y)
∂g
∂z
25.
∂h
∂r
= 2re
2t
cos(θ −t)
∂h
∂θ
= −r
2
e
2t
sin(θ −t)
∂h
∂t
= 2r
2
e
2t
cos(θ −t) +r
2
e
2t
sin(θ −t) = r
2
e
2t
[2 cos(θ −t) + sin(θ −t)]
26.
∂u
∂x
=
1
x
−yze
xz
,
∂u
∂y
= −
1
y
−e
xz
,
∂u
∂z
= −xye
xz
27.
∂f
∂x
= z
1
1 + (y/x)
2
_
−y
x
2
_
= −
yz
x
2
+y
2
∂f
∂y
= z
1
1 + (y/x)
2
_
1
x
_
=
xz
x
2
+y
2
∂f
∂x
= arctan (y/x)
28.
∂w
∂x
= y sin z −yz cos x,
∂w
∂y
= xsin z −z sin x,
∂w
∂z
= xy cos z −y sin x
29. f
x
(x, y) = e
x
ln y, f
x
(0, e) = 1; f
y
(x, y) =
1
y
e
x
, f
y
(0, e) = e
−1
30. g
x
= e
−x
[−sin(x + 2y) + cos(x + 2y)], g
x
(0,
1
4
π) = −1
g
y
= 2e
−x
cos(x + 2y), g
y
(0,
1
4
π) = 0
31. f
x
(x, y) =
y
(x +y)
2
, f
x
(1, 2) =
2
9
; f
y
(x, y) =
−x
(x +y)
2
, f
y
(1, 2) = −
1
9
32. g
x
(x, y) =
y
2
(x +y
2
)
2
, g
x
(1, 2) =
4
25
g
y
(x, y) =
−2xy
(x +y
2
)
2
, g
y
(1, 2) = −
4
25
33. f
x
(x, y) = lim
h→0
(x +h)
2
y −x
2
y
h
= lim
h→0
y
_
2xh +h
2
h
_
= y lim
h→0
(2x +h) = 2xy
f
x
(x, y) = lim
h→0
x
2
(y +h) −x
2
y
h
= lim
h→0
x
2
h
h
= lim
h→0
x
2
= x
2
34. f
x
(x, y) = 0, f
y
(x, y) = 2y
35. f
x
(x, y) = lim
h→0
ln
_
y(x +h)
2
_
−ln x
2
y
h
= lim
h→0
ln y + 2 ln(x +h) −2 ln x −ln y
h
= 2 lim
h→0
ln(x +h) −ln x
h
= 2
d
dx
(ln x) =
2
x
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
772 SECTION 15.4
f
y
(x, y) = lim
h→0
ln
_
x
2
(y +h)
_
−ln x
2
y
h
= lim
h→0
ln x
2
+ ln(y +h) −ln x
2
−ln y
h
= lim
h→0
ln(y +h) −ln y
h
=
d
dy
(ln y) =
1
y
36. f
x
(x, y) = −(x + 4y)
−2
, f
y
(x, y) = −4(x + 4y)
−2
37. f
y
(x, y) = lim
h→0
1
h
_
1
(x +h) −y

1
x −y
_
= lim
h→0
1
h
_
−h
(x +h −y) (x −y)
_
= lim
h→0
−1
(x +h −y) (x −y)
=
−1
(x −y)
2
f
y
(x, y) = lim
h→0
1
h
_
1
x −(y +h)

1
x −y
_
= lim
h→0
1
h
_
h
(x −y −h) (x −y)
_
= lim
h→0
1
(x −y −h) (x −y)
=
1
(x −y)
2
38. f
x
(x, y) = 2e
2x+3y
, f
y
(x, y) = 3e
2x+3y
39. f
x
(x, y, z) = lim
h→0
(x +h)y
2
z −xy
2
z
h
= lim
h→0
y
2
z = y
2
z
f
y
(x, y, z) = lim
h→0
x(y +h)
2
z −xy
2
z
h
= lim
h→0
xz(2yh +h
2
)
h
= lim
h→0
xz(2y +h) = 2xyz
f
z
(x, y, z) = lim
h→0
xy
2
(z +h) −xy
2
z
h
= lim
h→0
xy
2
= xy
2
40. f
x
(x, y, z) =
2xy
z
, f
y
(x, y, z) =
x
2
z
, f
z
(x, y, z) = −
x
2
y
z
2
41. (b) The slope of the tangent line to C at the point P (x
0
, y
0
, f(x
0
, y
0
)) is f
y
(x
0
, y
0
)
Thus, equations for the tangent line are:
x = x
0
, z −z
0
= f
y
(x
0
, y
0
)(y −y
0
)
42. f
x
(x, y) = 2x, f
x
(1, 3) = 2, equations for the tangent line are: y = 3, z −10 = 2(x −1).
43. Let z = f(x, y) = x
2
+y
2
. Then f(2, 1) = 5, f
y
(x, y) = 2y and f
y
(2, 1) = 2;
equations for the tangent line are: x = 2, z −5 = 2(y −1)
44. f(x, y) =
x
2
y
2
−3
, f
y
(x, y) =
−x
2
2y
(y
2
−3)
2
Tangent line: x = x
0
, z −z
0
= f
y
(x
0
, y
0
)(y −y
0
) =⇒ x = 3, z −9 = −36(y −2)
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
SECTION 15.4 773
45. Let z = f(x, y) =
x
2
y
2
−3
. Then f(3, 2) = 9, f
x
(x, y) =
2x
y
2
−3
and f
x
(3, 2) = 6;
equations for the tangent line are: y = 2, z −9 = 6(x −3)
46. f(x, y) = (4 −x
2
−y
2
)
1/2
, f
x
(x, y) = −x(4 −x
2
−y
2
)
−1/2
, f
y
(x, y) = −y(4 −x
2
−y
2
)
−1/2
(a) f
y
(1, 1) = −

2
2
=⇒ x = 1, z −

2 = −

2
2
(y −1)
(b) f
x
(1, 1) = −

2
2
=⇒ y = 1, z −

2 = −

2
2
(x −1)
(c) l
1
and l
2
have direction vectors j −

2
2
k, i −

2
2
k respectively. The normal to the plane is
_
j −

2
2
k
_

_
i −

2
2
k
_
= −

2
2
i −

2
2
j −k, so the tangent plane is


2
2
(x −1) −

2
2
(y −1) −(z −

2) = 0, or (x −1) + (y −1) +

2(z −

2) = 0
47. (a) m
x
= −6; tangent line: y = 2, z = −6x + 13
(b) m
y
= 18; tangent line: x = 1, z = 18y −29
48. (a) m
x
=
7
25
; tangent line: y = 2, z =
1
25
(7x −12)
(b) m
y
= −
1
25
; tangent line: x = 1, z = −
1
25
(y + 3)
49. u
x
(x, y) = 2x = v
y
(x, y); u
y
(x, y) = −2y = −v
x
(x, y)
50. u
x
= e
x
cos y, u
y
= −e
x
sin y, v
x
= e
x
sin y = −u
y
, v
y
= e
x
cos y = u
x
51. u
x
(x, y) =
1
2
1
x
2
+y
2
2x =
x
x
2
+y
2
; v
y
(x, y) =
1
1 + (y/x)
2
_
1
x
_
=
x
x
2
+y
2
Thus, u
x
(x, y) = v
y
(x, y).
u
y
(x, y) =
1
2
1
x
2
+y
2
2y =
y
x
2
+y
2
; v
x
(x, y) =
1
1 + (y/x)
2
_
−y
x
2
_
=
−y
x
2
+y
2
Thus, u
y
(x, y) = −v
x
(x, y).
52. u
x
=
y
2
−x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
, u
y
=
−2xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
, v
x
=
2xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
= −u
y
, v
y
=
y
2
−x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
= u
x
53. (a) f depends only on y. (b) f depends only on x.
54. (a) a
0
=
_
b
2
0
+c
2
0
−2b
0
c
0
cos θ
0
_
1/2
= 5

7
(b)
∂a
∂b
= (2b −2c cos θ)
_
1
2
_
(b
2
+c
2
−2bc cos θ)
−1/2
=

7
14
(c) a

= a
0
+

7
14
(b −b
0
) = 5

7 +

7
14
(−1) decreases by about

7
14
inches.
(d)
∂a
∂θ
= 2bc sin θ(
1
2
)(b
2
+c
2
−2bc cos θ)
−1/2
=
15
7

21
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
774 SECTION 15.4
(e) Differentiate implicitly: 0 = 2c
∂c
∂θ
−2b
∂c
∂θ
cos θ + 2bc sin θ
∂c
∂θ
=
bc sin θ
b cos θ −c
= −
15
2

3
55. (a)
75

3
2
in.
2
(b)
∂A
∂b
=
1
2
c sin θ; at time t
0
,
∂A
∂b
=
15

3
4
(c)
∂A
∂θ
=
1
2
bc cos θ; at time t
0
,
∂A
∂θ
=
75
2
(d) with h =
π
180
, A(b, c, θ +h) −A(b, c, θ)

= h
∂A
∂θ
=
π
180
75
2
=

24
in.
2
(e) 0 =
1
2
sin θ
_
b
∂c
∂b
+c
_
; at time t
0
,
∂c
∂b
=
−c
b
= −
3
2
56. By theorem 7.6.1, f(x, y) = Ce
kx
where C is independent of x. Since C may depend on y, we write
C = g(y).
57. (a) y
0
-section: r(x) = xi +y
0
j +f(x, y
0
)k
tangent line: R(t) = [x
0
i +y
0
j +f(x
0
, y
0
)k] +t
_
i +
∂f
∂x
(x
0
, y
0
)k
_
(b) x
0
-section: r(y) = x
0
i +yj +f(x
0
, y)k
tangent line: R(t) = [x
0
i +y
0
j +f(x
0
, y
0
) k] +t
_
j +
∂f
∂y
(x
0
, y
0
)k
_
(c) For (x, y, z) in the plane
[(x −x
0
)i + (y −y
0
)j + (z −f(x
0
, y
0
))k].
__
i +
∂f
∂x
(x
0
, y
0
)k
_

_
j +
∂f
∂y
(x
0
, y
0
)k
__
= 0.
From this it follows that
z −f(x
0
, y
0
) = (x −x
0
)
∂f
∂x
(x
0
, y
0
) + (y −y
0
)
∂f
∂y
(x
0
, y
0
).
58. Fix y and set F(x) = f(x, y). Then, for that value of y, h(x, y) = g(F(x)) and thus
h
x
(x, y) =
d
dx
[g(F(x))] = g
/
(F(x))F
/
(x) = g
/
(f(x, y))f
x
(x, y).
The second formula can be derived in the same manner.
59. (a) Set u = ax +by. Then
b
∂w
∂x
−a
∂w
∂y
= b(a g
/
(u)) −a(b g
/
(u)) = 0.
(b) Set u = x
m
y
n
. Then
nx
∂w
∂x
−my
∂w
∂y
= nx
_
mx
m−1
y
n
g
/
(u)
¸
−my
_
nx
m
y
n−1
g
/
(u)
¸
= 0.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
SECTION 15.5 775
60.
∂x
∂r
∂y
∂θ

∂x
∂θ
∂y
∂r
= (cos θ) (r cos θ) −(−r sin θ) (sin θ) = r
61. V
∂P
∂V
= V
_

kT
V
2
_
= −k
T
V
= −P; V
∂P
∂V
+T
∂P
∂T
= −k
T
V
+T
_
k
V
_
= 0
62. R =
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
1
R
2
+R
1
R
3
+R
2
R
3
;
∂R
∂R
1
=
_
R
2
R
3
R
1
R
2
+R
1
R
3
+R
2
R
3
_
2
SECTION 15.5
1. interior = ¦(x, y) : 2 < x < 4, 1 < y < 3¦ (the
inside of the rectangle), boundary = the union of
the four boundary line segments; set is closed.
2. same interior and same boundary as in Exercise 1;
set is open
3. interior = the entire set (region between the two
concentric circles), boundary = the two circles, one
of radius 1, the other of radius 2; set is open.
4. interior = ¦(x, y) : 1 < x
2
< 4¦ = ¦(x, y) : −2 < x <
−1¦ ∪ ¦(x, y) : 1 < x < 2¦ (two vertical stripes with-
out the boundary lines), boundary = ¦(x, y) : x = −2,
x = −1, x = 1, or x = 2¦ (four vertical lines); set is closed.
5. interior = ¦(x, y) : 1 < x
2
< 4¦ =
¦(x, y) : −2 < x < −1¦ ∪ ¦(x, y) : 1 < x < 2¦
(two vertical strips without the boundary lines),
boundary = ¦(x, y) : x = −2, x = −1, x = 1,
or x = 2¦ (four vertical lines); set is neither open
nor closed.
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JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
776 SECTION 15.5
6. interior = the entire set (region below the parabola
y = x
2
), boundary = the parabola y = x
2
; the set
is open.
7. interior = region below the parabola y = x
2
,
boundary = the parabola y = x
2
; the set is closed.
8. interior = the inside of the cube; boundary = the
faces of the cube; set is neither open nor closed (upper
face of cube is omitted)
9. interior = ¦ (x, y, z) : x
2
+y
2
< 1, 0 < z ≤ 4¦
(the inside of the cylinder), boundary = the total
surface of the cylinder (the curved part, the top, and
the bottom); the set is closed.
10. interior = the entire set (the inside of the ball of radius
1
2
, centered at (1,1,1)),
boundary = the spherical surface; set is open.
11. (a) φ (b) S (c) closed
12. interior = the entire set, boundary = ¦1, 3¦; set is open.
13. interior = ¦x : 1 < x < 3¦, boundary = ¦1, 3¦; set is closed.
14. interior = ¦x : 1 < x < 3¦, boundary = ¦1, 3¦; set is neither open nor closed.
15. interior = the entire set, boundary = ¦1¦; set is open.
16. interior =¦x : x < −1¦, boundary = ¦−1¦; set is closed.
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
SECTION 15.6 777
17. interior = ¦x : [x[ > 1¦, boundary = ¦1, −1¦; set is neither open nor closed.
18. interior = φ, boundary = the entire set; set is closed.
19. interior = φ, boundary = ¦the entire set¦ ∪ ¦0¦; the set is neither open nor closed.
20. (a) φ is open because it contains no boundary points,
φ is closed because it contains its boundary (the boundary is empty).
(b) X is open because it contains a neighborhood of each of its points,
X is closed because it contains its boundary (the boundary is empty).
(c) Suppose that U is open. Let x be a boundary point of X −U. Then every neighborhood of
x contains points from X −U. The point x can not be in U because U contains a
neighborhood of each of its points. Thus x ∈ X −U. This shows that X −U contains its
boundary and is therefore closed.
Suppose now that X −U is closed. Let x be a point of U. If no neighborhood of x lies entirely
in U, then every neighborhood of x contains points from X −U. This makes x a boundary
point of X −U and, since X −U is closed, places x in X −U. This contradiction shows that
some neighborhood of x lies entirely in U. Thus U contains a neighborhood of each of its points
and is therefore open.
(d) Set U = X −F and note that F = X −U. By (c)
F = X −U is closed iff X −F = U is open.
SECTION 15.6
1.

2
f
∂x
2
= 2A,

2
f
∂y
2
= 2C,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= 2B
2.

2
f
∂x
2
= 6Ax + 2By,

2
f
∂y
2
= 2Cx,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= 2Bx + 2Cy
3.

2
f
∂x
2
= Cy
2
e
xy
,

2
f
∂y
2
= Cx
2
e
xy
,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= Ce
xy
(xy + 1)
4.

2
f
∂x
2
= 2 cos y −y
2
sin x,

2
f
∂y
2
= 2 sin x −x
2
cos y,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= 2(y cos x −xsin y)
5.

2
f
∂x
2
= 2,

2
f
∂y
2
= 4(x + 3y
2
+z
3
),

2
f
∂z
2
= 6z(2x + 2y
2
+ 5z
3
)

2
f
∂x∂y
=

2
f
∂y∂x
= 4y,

2
f
∂z∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂z
= 6z
2
,

2
f
∂z∂y
=

2
f
∂y∂z
= 12yz
2
6.

2
f
∂x
2
= −
1
4(x +y
2
)
3/2
,

2
f
∂y
2
=
x
(x +y
2
)
3/2
,

2
f
∂x∂y
=

2
f
∂y∂x
= −
y
2(x +y
2
)
3/2
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
778 SECTION 15.6
7.

2
f
∂x
2
=
1
(x +y)
2

1
x
2
,

2
f
∂y
2
=
1
(x +y)
2
,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
=
1
(x +y)
2
8.

2
f
∂x
2
= −
2C(AD −BC)y
(Cx +Dy)
3
,

2
f
∂y
2
=
2D(AD −BC)x
(Cx +Dy)
3
,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
=
(AD −BC)(Cx −Dy)
(Cx +Dy)
3
9.

2
f
∂x
2
= 2(y +z),

2
f
∂y
2
= 2(x +z),

2
f
∂z
2
= 2(x +y)
all the second mixed partials are 2(x +y +z)
10.

2
f
∂x
2
= −
2xy
3
z
3
(1 +x
2
y
2
z
2
)
2
,

2
f
∂y
2
= −
2yx
3
z
3
(1 +x
2
y
2
z
2
)
2

2
f
∂z
2
= −
2zx
3
y
3
(1 +x
2
y
2
z
2
)
2
,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
=
z(1 −x
2
y
2
z
2
)
(1 +x
2
y
2
z
2
)
2

2
f
∂z∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂z
=
y(1 −x
2
y
2
z
2
)
(1 +x
2
y
2
z
2
)
2
,

2
f
∂y∂z
=

2
f
∂z∂y
=
x(1 −x
2
y
2
z
2
)
(1 +x
2
y
2
z
2
)
2
11.

2
f
∂x
2
= y(y −1)x
y−2
,

2
f
∂y
2
= (ln x)
2
x
y
,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= x
y−1
(1 +y ln x)
12.

2
f
∂x
2
= −sin(x +z
y
),

2
f
∂y
2
= z
y
(ln z)
2
[cos(x +z
y
) −z
y
sin(x +z
y
)]

2
f
∂z
2
= y(y −1)z
y−2
cos(x +z
y
) −y
2
z
2y−2
sin(x +z
y
)

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= −z
y
ln z sin(x +z
y
),

2
f
∂z∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂z
= −yz
y−1
sin(x +z
y
)

2
f
∂z∂y
=

2
f
∂y∂z
= z
y−1
(1 +y ln z) cos(x +z
y
) −yz
2y−1
(ln z) sin(x +z
y
)
13.

2
f
∂x
2
= ye
x
,

2
f
∂y
2
= xe
y
,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= e
y
+e
x
14.

2
f
∂x
2
=
2xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
,

2
f
∂y
2
=
−2xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
=
y
2
−x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
15.

2
f
∂x
2
=
y
2
−x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
,

2
f
∂y
2
=
x
2
−y
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= −
2xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
16.

2
f
∂x
2
= 6xy
2
cos(x
3
y
2
) −9x
4
y
4
sin(x
3
y
2
),

2
f
∂y
2
= 2x
3
cos(x
3
y
2
) −4x
6
y
2
sin(x
3
y
2
)

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= 6x
2
y cos(x
3
y
2
) −6x
5
y
3
sin(x
3
y
2
)
17.

2
f
∂x
2
= −2 y
2
cos 2xy,

2
f
∂y
2
= −2 x
2
cos 2xy,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= −[sin 2xy + 2xy cos 2xy]
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
SECTION 15.6 779
18.

2
f
∂x
2
= y
4
e
xy
2
,

2
f
∂y
2
= e
xy
2
(2x + 4x
2
y
2
),

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= e
xy
2
(2y + 2xy
3
)
19.

2
f
∂x
2
= 0,

2
f
∂y
2
= xz sin y,

2
f
∂z
2
= −xy sin z,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= sin z −z cos y,

2
f
∂x∂z
=

2
f
∂z∂x
= y cos z −sin y,

2
f
∂y∂z
=

2
f
∂z∂y
= x cos z −x cos y
20.

2
f
∂x
2
= ze
x
,

2
f
∂y
2
= xe
y
,

2
f
∂z
2
= ye
z
,

2
f
∂y∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂y
= e
y
,

2
f
∂z∂x
=

2
f
∂x∂z
= e
x
,

2
f
∂z∂y
=

2
f
∂y∂z
= e
z
21. x
2

2
u
∂x
2
+ 2xy

2
u
∂x∂y
+y
2

2
u
∂y
2
= x
2
_
−2y
2
(x +y)
3
_
+ 2xy
_
2xy
(x +y)
3
_
+y
2
_
−2x
2
(x +y)
3
_
= 0
22. (a) mixed partials are 0
(b) mixed partials are g
/
(x) h
/
(y)
(c) by the hint mixed partials for each term x
m
y
n
are mnx
m−1
y
n−1
23. (a) no, since

2
f
∂y∂x
,=

2
f
∂x∂y
(b) no, since

2
f
∂y∂x
,=

2
f
∂x∂y
for x ,= y
24.
∂h
∂x
= g
/
(x +y) +g
/
(x −y),
∂h
∂y
= g
/
(x +y) −g
/
(x −y)

2
h
∂x
2
= g
//
(x +y) +g
//
(x −y),

2
h
∂y
2
= g
//
(x +y) +g
//
(x −y) =

2
h
∂x
2
25.

3
f
∂x
2
∂y
=

∂x
_

2
f
∂x∂y
_
=

∂x
_

2
f
∂y∂x
_
=

2
∂x∂y
_
∂f
∂x
_
=

2
∂y∂x
_
∂f
∂x
_
=

∂y
_

2
f
∂x
2
_
=

3
f
∂y∂x
2

by def.

(15.6.5)

by def.

(15.6.5)

by def.

by def.
26. (a) as (x, y) tends to (0, 0) along the x-axis, f(x, y) = f(x, 0) = 1 tends to 1;
as (x, y) tends to (0, 0) along the line y = x, f(x, y) = f(x, x) = 0 tends to 0;
(b) as (x, y) tends to (0, 0) along the x-axis, f(x, y) = f(x, 0) = 0 tends to 0;
as (x, y) tends to (0, 0) along the line y = x, f(x, y) = f(x, x) =
1
2
tends to
1
2
;
27. (a) lim
x→0
(x)(0)
x
2
+ 0
= lim
x→0
0 = 0 (b) lim
y→0
(0)(y)
0 +y
2
= lim
y→0
0 = 0
(c) lim
x→0
(x)(mx)
x
2
+ (mx)
2
= lim
x→0
m
1 +m
2
=
m
1 +m
2
(d) lim
θ→0
+
(θ cos θ)(θ sin θ)
(θ cos θ)
2
+ (θ sin θ)
2
= lim
θ→0
+
cos θ sin θ = 0
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
780 SECTION 15.6
(e) By L’Hospital’s rule lim
x→0
f(x)
x
= lim
x→0
f
/
(x) = f
/
(0). Thus
lim
x→0
xf(x)
x
2
+ [ f(x) ]
2
= lim
x→0
f(x)/x
1 + [ f(x)/x]
2
=
f
/
(0)
1 + [ f
/
(0) ]
2
.
(f) lim
θ→(π/3)

=
(cos θ sin 3θ)(sin θ sin 3θ)
(cos θ sin 3θ)
2
+ (sin θ sin 3θ)
2
= lim
θ→(π/3)

cos θ sin θ =
1
4

3
(g) lim
t→∞
(1/t)(sin t)/t
1/t
2
+
_
sin
2
t
_
/t
2
= lim
t→∞
sin t
1 + sin
2
t
; does not exist
28. (a) lim
x→0
x(0)
2
(x
2
+ 0
2
)
3/2
= lim
x→0
0 = 0 (b) lim
y→0
0 y
2
(0 +y
2
)
3/2
= lim
y→0
0 = 0
(c) lim
x→0
xm
2
x
2
(x
2
+m
2
x
2
)
3/2
= lim
x→0
m
2
x
3
[x[
3
(1 +m
2
)
3/2
= lim
x→0
m
2
x
[x[ (1 +m
2
)
3/2
; does not exist
(d) lim
θ→0
+
(θ cos θ)(θ sin θ)
2
[(θ cos θ)
2
+ (θ sin θ)
2
]
3/2
= lim
θ→0
+
cos θ sin
2
θ = 0
(e) lim
x→0
x[f(x)]
2
(x
2
+ [f(x)]
2
)
3/2
= lim
x→0
[f(x)/x]
2
(1 + [f(x)/x]
2
)
3/2
= lim
x→0
x
3
[f
/
(0)]
2
[x[
3
(1 + [f
/
(0)]
2
)
3/2
; does not exist
(f) lim
θ→
π
3

(cos θ sin 3θ)(sin θ sin 3θ)
2
[(cos θ sin 3θ)
2
+ (sin θ sin 3θ)
2
]
3/2
= lim
θ→
π
3

cos θ sin
2
θ =
3
8
(g) lim
t→∞
(1/t) (sin t/t)
2
_
(1/t
2
) + (sin
2
t/t
2
)
¸
3/2
= lim
t→∞
sin
2
t
_
1 + sin
2
t
_
3/2
; does not exist
29. (a)
∂g
∂x
(0, 0) = lim
h→0
g(h, 0) −g(0, 0)
h
= lim
h→0
0 = 0,
∂g
∂y
(0, 0) = lim
h→0
g(0, h) −g(0, 0)
h
= lim
h→0
0 = 0
(b) as (x, y) tends to (0, 0) along the x-axis, g(x, y) = g(x, 0) = 0 tends to 0;
as (x, y) tends to (0, 0) along the line y = x, g(x, y) = g(x, x) =
1
2
tends to
1
2
30. No; as (x, y) tends to (1, 1) along the line x = 1, f(x, y) = 1 tends to 1; as (x, y) tends to (1, 1)
along the line y = 1,
f(x, y) =
x −1
x
3
−1
=
1
x
2
+x + 1
tends to
1
3
31. For y ,= 0,
∂f
∂x
(0, y) = lim
h→0
f(h, y) −f(0, y)
h
= lim
h→0
y(y
2
−h
2
)
h
2
+y
2
= y.
Since
∂f
∂x
(0, 0) = lim
h→0
f(h, 0) −f(0, 0)
h
= lim
h→0
0 = 0,
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
SECTION 15.6 781
we have
∂f
∂x
(0, y) = y for all y.
For x ,= 0,
∂f
∂y
(x, 0) = lim
h→0
f(x, h) −f(x, 0)
h
= lim
h→0
x(h
2
−x
2
)
x
2
+h
2
= −x.
Since
∂f
∂y
(0, 0) = lim
h→0
f(0, h) −f(0, 0)
h
= lim
h→0
0 = 0,
we have
∂f
∂y
(x, 0) = −x for all x.
Therefore

2
f
∂y∂x
(0, y) = 1 for all y and

2
f
∂x∂y
(x, 0) = −1 for all x.
In particular

2
f
∂y∂x
(0, 0) = 1 while

2
f
∂x∂y
(0, 0) = −1.
32. lim
h→0
[f(x
0
+h, y
0
) −f(x
0
, y
0
)] = lim
h→0
_
(h)
_
f(x
0
+h, y
0
) −f(x
0
, y
0
)
h
__
=
_
lim
h→0
h
__
lim
h→0
f(x
0
+h, y
0
) −f(x
0
, y
0
)
h
_
= 0
∂f
∂x
(x
0
, y
0
) = 0
33. Since f
xy
(x, y) = 0, f
x
(x, y) must be a function of x alone, and f
y
(x, y) must be a function of y
alone. Then f must be of the form
f(x, y) = g(x) +h(y).
34.
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-0.5
0
0.5
35.
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0
0.5
36.
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-0.5
0
0.5
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
782 SECTION 15.6
PROJECT 15.6
1. (a)
∂u
∂x
=
x
2
y
2
+ 2xy
3
(x +y)
2
,
∂u
∂y
=
x
2
y
2
+ 2x
3
y
(x +y)
2
x
∂u
∂x
+y
∂u
∂y
=
3x
2
y
2
(x +y)
(x +y)
2
= 3u
(b)
∂u
∂x
= 2xy +z
2
,
∂u
∂y
= 2yz +x
2
,
∂u
∂z
= 2xz +y
2
∂u
∂x
+
∂u
∂y
+
∂u
∂z
= 2xy +z
2
+ 2yz +x
2
+ 2xz +y
2
= (x +y +z)
2
2. (a) (i)

2
f
∂x
2
+

2
f
∂y
2
= 6x −6x = 0
(ii)

2
f
∂x
2
+

2
f
∂y
2
= (−cos xsinh y −sin xcosh y) + (cos xsinh y + sin xcosh y) = 0
(iii)

2
f
∂x
2
=
y
2
−x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
,

2
f
∂y
2
=
x
2
−y
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2

2
f
∂x
2
+

2
f
∂y
2
=
y
2
−x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
+
x
2
−y
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
= 0
(b) (i)

2
f
∂x
2
+

2
f
∂y
2
+

2
f
∂z
2
=
2x
2
−y
2
−z
2
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
5/2
+
2y
2
−x
2
−z
2
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
5/2
+
2z
2
−x
2
−y
2
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
5/2
= 0
(ii)

2
f
∂x
2
= e
x+y
cos
_

2 z
_
,

2
f
∂y
2
= e
x+y
cos
_

2 z
_
,

2
f
∂z
2
= −2e
x+y
cos
_

2 z
_

2
f
∂x
2
+

2
f
∂y
2
+

2
f
∂z
2
= e
x+y
cos
_

2 z
_
+e
x+y
cos
_

2 z
_
+
_
−2e
x+y
cos
_

2 z
__
= 0
3. (i)

2
f
∂t
2
=

2
f
∂x
2
= 0 =⇒

2
f
∂t
2
−c
2

2
f
∂x
2
= 0
(ii)

2
f
∂t
2
= −5c
2
sin(x +ct) cos(2x + 2ct) −4c
2
cos(x +ct) sin(2x + 2ct)

2
f
∂x
2
= −5 sin(x +ct) cos(2x + 2ct) −4 cos(x +ct) sin(2x + 2ct)
It now follows that

2
f
∂t
2
−c
2

2
f
∂x
2
= 0
(iii)

2
f
∂t
2
= −
c
2
(x +ct)
2
,

2
f
∂x
2
= −
1
(x +ct)
2
=⇒

2
f
∂t
2
−c
2

2
f
∂x
2
= 0
(iv)

2
f
∂t
2
= c
2
k
2
_
Ae
kx
+Be
−kx
_ _
Ce
ckt
+De
−ckt
_
,

2
f
∂x
2
= k
2
_
Ae
kx
+Be
−kx
_ _
Ce
ckt
+De
−ckt
_
It now follows that

2
f
∂t
2
−c
2

2
f
∂x
2
= 0
4.

2
f
∂t
2
−c
2

2
f
∂x
2
=
_
c
2
g
//
(x +ct) +c
2
h
//
(x −ct)] −c
2
[g
//
(x +ct) +h
//
(x −ct)
¸
= 0
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
REVIEW EXERCISES 783
REVIEW EXERCISES
1. domain ¦(x, y) : y > x
2
¦, range (0, ∞)
2. domain ¦(x, y) : x, y ∈ R¦, range (0, ∞)
3. domain ¦(x, y, x) : z ≥ x
2
+y
2
¦, dange [0, +∞)
4. domain ¦(x, y, z) : x + 2y +z > 0¦, range R
5. (a) f(x, y) =
1
3
πx
2
y;
(b) f(x, y) =
1
2
yx
2
;
(c) θ = arccos
x + 2y

5
_
x
2
+y
2
6. Assume one of the vertices is (x, y, z), x > 0, y > 0, z > 0.
V = 8cxy
_
1 −
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
7. ellipsoid
xy−trace: ellipse 4x
2
+ 9y
2
= 36
xz−trace: ellipse 4x
2
+ 36z
2
= 36
yz−trace: ellipse 9y
2
+ 36z
2
= 36
8. hyperboloid of two sheets
xy−trace: none
xz−trace: hyperbola 4z
2
−x
2
= 4
yz−trace: hyperbola 4z
2
−y
2
= 4
9. hyperbolic paraboloid
xy−trace: lines x = ±y
xz−trace: parabola z = −x
2
yz−trace: parabola z = y
2
10. elliptic paraboloid
xy−trace: parabola 4x
2
= y
xz−trace: (0, 0)
yz−trace: parabola 9z
2
= y
11. cone
xy−trace: lines x = ±y
xz−trace: lines x = ±z
yz−trace: (0, 0)
12. hyperboloid of one sheet
xy−trace: ellipse 9x
2
+ 4y
2
= 36
xz−trace: hyperbola z
2
= 9x
2
−36
yz−trace: hyperbola z
2
= 4y
2
−36
13. 14.
-2
0
2
2
4
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
4
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
784 REVIEW EXERCISES
15.
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
2
16.
1
2
0
2
0
17. c = 0, =⇒ 0 = 2x
2
+ 3y
2
=⇒ (0, 0)
c = 6, =⇒ 6 = 2x
2
+ 3y
2
, ellipse
c = 12, =⇒ 6 = 2x
2
+ 3y
2
, ellipse
18. c = 0, =⇒ 0 = x
2
+y
2
−4, circle
c = 1, =⇒ 5 = x
2
+y
2
, circle
c = 2, =⇒ 8 = x
2
+y
2
, circle
c =

5, =⇒ 9 = x
2
+y
2
, circle
19. c = −4, =⇒ x = −4y
2
, parabola
c = −1, =⇒ x = −y
2
, parabola
c = 1, =⇒ x = y
2
, parabola
c = 4, =⇒ x = 4y
2
, parabola
the origin is omitted
20. c = 1, =⇒ x
2
+y
2
= 1 circle
c = 4, =⇒ x
2
+y
2
= 4 circle
c = 9, =⇒ x
2
+y
2
= 9 circle
21. c = 6, 2x +y + 3z = 6, plane 22. c = 16, x
2
+y
2
+ 4z
2
= 16, ellipsoid
23. (a) f(0, 0) = 1, level curve: f(x, y) = 1
(b) f(ln 2, 1) = 4, level curve: f(x, y) = 4
(c) f(1, −1) = 2e, level curve: f(x, y) = 2e
24. (a) f(2, 0, 1) = 4, level surface: f(x, y, z) = 4
(b) f(1, π, −1) = −1, level surface:
f(x, y, z) = −1
(c) f(4, π, 1/2) = 0, level surface: f(x, y, z) = 0
25. f
x
= lim
h→0
f(x +h, y) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
(x +h)
2
+ 2(x +h)y −x
2
−2xy
h
= lim
h→0
(2x +h + 2y) = 2x + 2y
f
y
= lim
h→0
f(x, y +h) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
x
2
+ 2x(y +h) −x
2
−2xy
h
= 2x
26. f
x
= lim
h→0
f(x +h, y) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
y
2
cos 2(x +h) −y
2
cos 2x
h
= y
2
lim
h→0
cos 2(x +h) −cos 2x
h
= y
2
cos
/
2x = −2y
2
sin 2x
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
REVIEW EXERCISES 785
f
y
= lim
h→0
f(x, y +h) −f(x, y)
h
= lim
h→0
(y +h)
2
cos 2x −y
2
cos 2x
h
= cos 2x lim
h→0
(y +h)
2
−y
2
h
= 2y cos 2x
27. f
x
= 2xy −2y
3
; f
y
= x
2
−6xy
2
28. g
x
= (x
2
+y
2
)
−1/2
−x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)
−3/2
; g
y
= −xy(x
2
+y
2
)
−3/2
29.
∂z
∂x
= 2xsin(xy
2
) +x
2
y
2
cos(xy
2
);
∂z
∂y
= 2x
3
y cos(xy
2
).
30. f
x
= ye
xy
ln(y/x) −
1
x
e
xy
f
y
= xe
xy
ln(y/x) +
e
xy
y
31. h
x
= −e
−x
cos(2x −y) −2e
−x
sin(2x −y) h
y
= e
−x
sin(2x −y)
32. u
x
= y
2
sec xtan x + 2xtan y u
y
= 2y sec x +x
2
sec
2
y
33. f
x
=
2y
2
+ 2yz
(x +y +z)
2
; f
y
=
2x
2
+ 2xz
(x +y +z)
2
; f
z
=
−2xy
(x +y +z)
2
34. w
x
= arctan(y −z) w
y
=
x
1 + (y −z)
2
w
z
=
−x
1 + (y −z)
2
35.
∂g
∂x
=
x
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
;
∂g
∂y
=
y
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
;
∂g
∂z
=
z
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
.
36. h
u
= ve
uv
sin uw +we
uv
cos uw; h
v
= ue
uv
sin uw; h
w
= ue
uv
cos uw
37. f
x
= 3x
2
y
2
−4y
3
+ 2, f
y
= 2x
3
y −12xy
2
−1;
f
xx
= 6xy
2
, f
yy
= 2x
3
−24xy, f
yx
= f
xy
= 6x
2
y −12y
2
38. g
x
= 2xln(y −x) −
x
2
y −x
, g
xx
= 2 ln(y −x) −
4x
y −x

x
2
(y −x)
2
;
g
y
=
x
2
y −x
, g
yy
= −
x
2
(y −x)
2
, g
xy
= g
yx
=
2x
y −x
+
x
2
(y −x)
2
39. g
x
= y sin xy +xy
2
cos xy, g
xx
= 2y
2
cos xy −xy
3
sin xy;
g
y
= xsin xy +x
2
y cos xy, g
yy
= 2x
2
cos xy −yx
3
sin xy,
g
xy
= g
yx
= sin xy + 3xy cos xy −x
2
y
2
sin xy
40. f
x
= 2xe
x/y
+
x
2
y
e
x/y
, f
xx
= 2e
x/y
+
4x
y
e
x/y
+
x
2
y
2
e
x/y
;
f
y
= −
x
3
y
2
e
x/y
, f
yy
=
2x
3
y
3
e
x/y
+
x
4
y
4
e
x/y
, f
xy
= f
yx
= −
3x
2
y
2
e
x/y

x
3
y
3
e
x/y
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
786 REVIEW EXERCISES
41. f
x
= 2xe
2y
cos(2z + 1), f
y
= 2x
2
e
2y
cos(2z + 1), f
z
= −2x
2
e
2y
sin(2z + 1);
f
xx
= 2e
2y
cos(2z + 1), f
yy
= 4x
2
e
2y
cos(2z + 1), f
zz
= −4x
2
e
2y
cos(2z + 1);
f
xy
= f
yx
= 4xe
2y
cos(2z + 1), f
xz
= f
zx
= −4xe
2y
sin(2z + 1), f
yz
= f
zy
= −4x
2
e
2y
sin(2z + 1)
42. g
x
= 4xyz
3
+yze
xyz
, g
y
= 2x
2
z
3
+xze
xyz
, g
z
= 6x
2
yz
2
+xye
xyz
;
g
xx
= 4yz
3
+y
2
z
2
e
xyz
, g
yy
= x
2
z
2
e
xyz
, g
zz
= 12x
2
yz +x
2
y
2
e
xyz
;
g
xy
= g
yx
= 4xz
3
+ze
xyz
+xyz
2
e
xyz
, g
xz
= g
zx
= 12xyz
2
+ye
xyz
+xy
2
ze
xyz
g
yz
= g
zy
= 6x
2
z
2
+xe
xyz
+x
2
yze
xyz
43.
∂z
∂x
= 4x + 6[
(1,2,8)
= 10 44.
∂z
∂y
= 3x[
(2,−1,2)
= 6
x = 1 +t, y = 2, z = 8 + 10t x = 2, y = −1 +t, z = 2 + 6t
45. (a) z
y
(2, 1) =
−6y
2
_
20 −2x
2
−3y
2
(2, 1) = −1; the equation for l
1
is:
x = 2; y = 1 −t; z = 3 +t
(b) z
x
(2, 1) =
−4x
2
_
20 −2x
2
−3y
2
(2, 1) = −
4
3
; the equation for l
2
is:
x = 2 −
3
4
t; y = 1; z = 3 +t
(c) The normal vector for this plane is: −i −
3
4
j −
3
4
k or 4 i + 3 j + 3 k;
an equation for the plane is: 4(x −2) + 3(y −1) + 3(z −3) = 0.
46. Neither.
interior: ¦(x, y) : 0 < x < 3, 2 < y < 5¦
boundary: ¦(x, y) : x = 0 or x = 3, 2 ≤ y ≤ 5¦ ∪ ¦(x, y) : y = 2 or y = 5, 0 ≤ x ≤ 3¦
47. Open.
interior: ¦(x, y) : 0 < x
2
+y
2
< 4¦
boundary: ¦(0, 0)¦ ∪ ¦(x, y) : x
2
+y
2
= 4¦
48. Closed.
interior: ¦(x, y) : x +y > 4¦
boundary: ¦(x, y) : x +y = 4¦
49. Closed.
interior: ¦(x, y, z) : 0 < x < 2, 0 < y, 0 < z, y
2
+z
2
< 4¦
boundary: the quarter disks x = 0, y
2
+z
2
≤ 4; x = 2, y
2
+z
2
≤ 4;
the squares z = 0, 0 ≤ x, y ≤ 2; y = 0, 0 ≤ x, z ≤ 2; and
the cylindrical surface y
2
+z
2
= 4, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2, y, z ≥ 0
P1: PBU/OVY P2: PBU/OVY QC: PBU/OVY T1: PBU
JWDD027-15 JWDD027-Salas-v1 December 5, 2006 16:40
REVIEW EXERCISES 787
50. Neither.
interior: ¦(x, y, z) : 0 < x
2
+y
2
< z < 4¦
boundary: the cone z = x
2
+y
2
and the disk x
2
+y
2
≤ 4, z = 4
51. (a) f
x
= yg
/
(xy), f
y
= xg
/
(xy); xf
x
−yf
y
= xyg
/
−xyg
/
= 0
(b) f
xx
= y
2
g
//
(xy), f
yy
= x
2
g
//
(xy); x
2
f
xx
−y
2
f
yy
= x
2
y
2
g
//
−x
2
y
2
g
//
= 0
52. f
x
= −
y
x
2
+y
2
, f
y
=
x
x
2
+y
2
; f
xx
=
2xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
, f
yy
=
−2xy
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
f
xx
+f
yy
= 0
53. No.

2
f
∂y∂x
= x
2
e
xy
,= y
2
e
xy
=

2
f
∂x∂y
54. (a) lim
x→0
f(x, 0) = lim
x→0
0 = 0 (b) lim
y→0
f(0, y) = lim
y→0
0 = 0
(c) lim
x→0
2x
2
mx
x
4
+m
2
x
2
= lim
x→0
2mx
m
2
+x
2
= 0 (d) lim
x→0
2x
2
ax
2
x
4
+a
2
x
4
=
2a
1 +a
2
lim
(x,y)→(0,0)
f(x, y) does not exist.

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