This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Faculty Of Engineering
Designed By: Bassam AL Saqqa
Lectures Page: Lecture 1: Lecture 2: Lecture 3: Lecture 4: Lecture 5: Lecture 6: Lecture 7: Lecture 8: Lecture 9: Lecture 10: Lecture 11: Lecture 12: Lecture 13: Lecture 14: Lecture 15: Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 Successful Writing ……………………….…………………………………………………….. 6 Mechanics………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Abstract Writing ………………….…..……………………….………………………………. 13 Laboratory Report………………………………………………….………………………….. 18 Proposals………………………..……………………………………….………………………… 22 Resume……………………..………………...…………………………………….……………… 28 Memorandums……………….………………..………………………………………………. 34 Writing Letters …………..…………………….…………………….………………………… 41 Formal Report…….…………………………………………………………………………….. 50 Job Interview………………………………………...……………………….…………………. 61 Oral Presentation….…………………………………...…………………….………………. 66 Progress Report……….………………………………..………………….………………….. 73 Research & Internet……………………………………...……………….…………………. 76 Presentation On Ethics.……………………………………...…………………….………. 80
These slides, which are used in graduate and undergraduate engineering courses at Virginia Tech, come from Chapters 1, 16, and 17 in The Craft of Scientific Writing (3rd ed., SpringerVerlag). If you would like a 60-day evaluation copy of The Craft of Scientific Writing, please go to the following web page: http://www.springer.de/textbooks/textbook_inspect.html This first slide is a title slide for an introductory lecture about writing in engineering and science. The purpose of this presentation is two-fold: (1) to inspire students to invest time into learning how to write and speak well, and (2) to show students where to begin the process of writing a scientific or engineering document. With this title slide, you have the opportunity to give your own testimony as to the importance of writing in engineering and science. This slide is also an opportunity for you to mention two references (the shown web site and textbook) that students have for improving their writing. Note that these slides use the term “scientific writing” to encompass the writing done by engineers and scientists and the term “scientific documents” to encompass the documents written by engineers and scientists. If you prefer the more general term “technical,” you can use the Replace command to replace “scientific” with “technical” throughout. Likewise, if you desire a term more specific than “scientific,” you can use the same command to insert your preferred term (“engineering” or “biological” would be two examples). Note that all future references to chapters and pages are for The Craft of Scientific Writing (3rd edition). Mapping slide for this introductory presentation on scientific writing. This presentation has two divisions: (1) a discussion of the importance of scientific writing, and (2) a discussion of key principles. These principles include analyzing the situation, distinguishing between style and form, and making the process efficient. Reference for picture: Report to the President on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: Presidential Commission, 6 June 1986), p. 33. With this background slide, I try to convince students of the importance of scientific writing. This slide presents three surveys that show different points about the importance of writing for engineers. The first survey was performed by Richard M. Davis of the Air Force who surveyed 245 distinguished engineers. This survey not only found the result presented on this slide (25% of work week spent on writing), but also found that those surveyed attributed their success in part to their ability to communicate. Source: Richard M. Davis, Technical Writing: Its Importance in the Engineering Profession and Its Place in the Engineering Curriculum, AFIT TR 75-5 (WrightPatterson AFB, Ohio: Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 1975). The second survey was performed by Dean John Bollinger from the College of Engineering at the University of Wisconsin who contacted 9000 engineers who had graduated. The slide shows an important result of that survey (that the engineers found writing to be their most useful subject). Interestingly, the second most useful skill cited was the ability to speak. Source: Dean John G. Bollinger, “Alumni Survey Results,” Perspective (Madison: College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Summer 1994), p. 2. The third survey was performed by the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech. Here, recruiters to Virginia Tech were polled. The purpose of the survey was to determine what skills that engineering graduates needed most improvement upon. Source: Virginia Tech, College of Engineering, “Summary Report of Employer Focus Group” (October 2000). With this background slide, I try to convince students of the importance of scientific writing. The photograph shows the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger. Engineers were deeply 3
D. 33. This slide introduces the second part of the presentation: a discussion of key principles. Reference for parachute photo: Peterson. p. the photograph in the upper left is from Rosalind Franklin’s x-ray work that greatly influenced the discovery of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. In teaching scientific writing to engineers and scientists.Technical Writing concerned about the O-ring design on the booster rocket before the launch. purpose. This news is hard for many engineering and science students to accept. I try to impress upon the students the differences between scientific writing and other types of writing that they have studied. Repeat of mapping slide for this presentation on scientific writing. Reference for picture: Report to the President on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. and D. students have to be critical thinkers as far as taking advice that may pertain to literary writing or journalism and applying it to scientific writing. but they also face several different audiences. but were unable to convince managers at NASA of that concern. The aspect of format is also discussed in Chapter 16 and in the “Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students. Richard Feynman’s paper from Physics Today (February 1988) gives a good account of this case study. not impossible. vol. 6 June 1986). My experience has been that professional engineers and scientists recognize the importance. Feynman.. 1986). 26-37. Will the student write as an individual or part of a group? Does the 4 . and occasion are discussed in Chapter 1.C. Not only are they called upon to write different types of documents and speak in different occasions. (Chapter 1) By the way. For that reason. Johnson. 6 June 1986). convincing them about the importance of scientific writing is probably the single most important argument that you will make.: Presidential Commission.W. pp. and making the process efficient. SAND86-8006 (Albuquerque: Sandia National Laboratories. These principles include analyzing the situation. which presents other viewpoints. the most important goal of language is precision--a goal that poets sometimes subordinate for the sake of rhythm. This slide makes the point that engineers and scientists have to communicate in many different situations.” Physics Today (February 1988).W. Engineers and scientists therefore have to learn to analyze each situation and decide upon the best way to communicate in that situation. this slide tells students where they should begin the writing process (an assumption here is that the students understand the content of their document and now must communicate that content). C. Source: Richard P. but take a look at the Norton critical edition. While the students will draw upon many of the things that they have learned in other writing courses. coming up with a set of rules to handle every situation is difficult. Given this variety. with students. 33. I spend more time on this argument. With this slide. “An Outsider’s Inside View of the Challenger Inquiry. D. distinguishing between style and form. Reference for picture: Report to the President on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident.C. The story is an interesting one from both a communications perspective and an ethical perspective. 1 (Washington. in scientific writing. The constraints of audience. Advanced Parachute Design. 1 (Washington. This slide is perhaps the most important slide of the set because it shows what constraints students are under as they begin writing a scientific document.: Presidential Commission. For instance. In other words. vol. p. including the one that Rosalind Franklin deserved considerably more credit than Watson or Crick gave to her in their original article. while students do not. Watson has documented it in The Double Helix.” The aspect of process refers to how the student actually puts words onto paper.
Reference for parachute photo: Peterson. Students should note that unlike most terms in engineering and science. Discussion of making the process of writing more efficient to perform can be found in Chapter 17.W. I try to distinguish these three terms. structure. and form is the appearance of the message (grammar. punctuation. language. The slides that follow elaborate on each of the constraints. These students might equate a small aspect of form such as using a contraction with a serious mistake in content such as leaving out important information. Recently. Formality refers to the expectations that the audience has as far as mechanics. Students should assess the audience. are format. most terms in writing do not have universal definitions. usage. Advanced Parachute Design. and format). Style comprises three perspectives: structure. 2000). and other constraints of the situation before committing words to paper. and the major parts of speech. then style is what the engineer or scientist does control. past tense. For that reason. Content is the message given. language. I have begun incorporating discussions of it throughout the course. style. One of the best ways to improve one’s writing is to select strong models. such as not emphasizing the most important result. Both of these subjects are discussed in separate presentations. a reason that so many engineers and scientists write so poorly is that they select poor models. style is the way that message is presented (structure. 1986). and D. passive voice. SAND86-8006 (Albuquerque: Sandia National Laboratories. Interactive exercises for mechanics can be found in the “Writing Exercises for Engineers and Scientists. I have seen discussions about writing become unproductive because people invoke terms that others either do not understand or have different definitions for. spelling. Two excellent models of scientific writing are Maria Goeppert Mayer. While there certainly is overlap among these terms. or style. C. but not often understood by students. format. 5 . and illustration). Information about the mechanics of scientific writing can be found in Appendices A and B (and in The Craft of Editing (Springer-Verlag. who won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on covalent bonds.Technical Writing student have a fixed deadline? Chapter 17 discusses this aspect in more detail. active voice. and Appendix B. you and your students should agree upon a few definitions so that your discussions about writing make sense. particularly just before assignments are due. and illustration (all three are defined in Chapter 1). formality. language. Johnson. Conversely. These are defined in the textbook’s glossary. When I first started teaching. Both were excellent communicators of their work. Conclusion slide to this presentation.W. Information about the format of scientific writing can be found on pages 6-7 and in Chapter 16. So often. With this slide. their definitions are distinct. I discussed the process of writing towards the end of the course. Appendix A. who won the Nobel prize in Physics for her work on the structure of the nucleus and Linus Pauling. you should make it clear to the students that no simple recipes exist for the challenging documents that they will have to write.. which is also discussed in Chapter 1. (Chapter 1) If the constraints are what the engineer or scientist does not control in the writing process. Terms often used in discussions of writing. tone.” On this slide. One problem that many students have is that they don’t have a sense of hierarchy about aspects of writing. illustration.
Technical Writing Lecture 2 Successful Writing 6 .
Writing the draft 5. Ø Identifying your reader. Preparation 2. The first two steps will help you to decide what to include and not to include in your writing. What are your readers need in relation to your subject? What does your reader already know about your subject? Ø Determining the scope of your coverage.Research: To understand your subject do search in the library. Organization 4. 2.Writing a Draft: Expand your notes from outline to paragraph Concentrate on converting outline into sentences and paragraphs 5. and interview 3. Revision 1. Preparation: Ø Establishing your objective. Research 3. internet.Technical Writing Five Steps to Successful writing: 1. Simply determine what do you want your readers to know? Or be able to do when they have finished reading your report.Organization: To make topic understandable by the reader. follow the following steps: l Outline l Illustration l Layout and design 4.Revision: l Structure l Grammar 7 .
Technical Writing Lecture 3 Mechanics Writing a Sentence 8 .
A run-on is two or more independent clauses that are not joined properly. 2. 9 . and Day Elements of Grammar REQUIREMENT OF A WRITTEN SENTENCE: l A capital letter at the beginning l A period. for instance. George was a successful engineer. with insertions possible at several points in the sequence l An independent core idea that can stand alone ( main clause) Combining Sentences: Example: 1. A fragment being a group of words that either is missing a subject or a verb or does not express a complete thought. The most important aspect of grammar is understanding what a sentence is: Sentence: Fragment: Run-on: A sentence is group of words with a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought. a question mark. He won the prize. McMahan. the regular sequence is Subject + Verb + Object.Technical Writing Avoiding Common Errors of Grammar: One of the most important skills a writer can have is the ability to compose clear. complete sentences. Funk. The sentence is the basic unit of communication in all forms of English. a common mistake is to have a comma between the clauses. Dr. or an exclamation point at the end l A subject. stated only once l A complete verb phrase l Standard word order: In English.
For example. is more common in the earth than zinc. however. or nickel. copper. but it is more common in the earth than zinc. nitrogen sniffer systems. however. Note that there are several ways to correct each of these errors: Rubidium has no major uses. or run-ons (RO)? 1. 10 . it is more common in the earth than zinc. or nickel. it is more common in the earth than zinc. or nickel. 3. fragments (F). Several systems can detect plastic explosives. Examples include thermal neutron activation systems. however. and enhanced x-ray systems. Rubidium has no major uses. man has dramatically increased its concentration this past century. Rubidium has no major uses. RO Although carbon dioxide occurs naturally. Although carbon dioxide occurs naturally. copper. This metal. S / F Shown in Red are corrections to the errors from previous : Although rubidium has no major uses. man has dramatically increased its concentration this past century.Technical Writing Which are sentences (S). 2. or nickel. it is more common in the earth than zinc. copper. thermal neutron activation systems. and enhanced x-ray systems. nitrogen sniffer systems. S Several systems can detect plastic explosives. or nickel. copper. copper. Rubidium has no major uses.
They tell him when to slow down and when to stop. 1 m/s 15 percent $3000 5 million When to write out numbers : Counting (one or two words) Informal measurements First word of sentence twenty-three gages two hours Thirty-three. and neither do writers or editors.Technical Writing Avoiding Common Errors of Punctuation Punctuation marks are the traffic signs and signals placed along the reader’s road. Bernstein The Careful Writer Use numerals when referring to measurements: When to use numerals : Specific measurements Percentages Monetary figures Large numerals 3 volts.. and sometimes they warn him of the nature of the road ahead.. 2 seconds. Traffic engineers do not always agree on what signs should be used and where they should be placed. Theodore M. 11 .
*Applying that set of constraints is a (most unique / unique / very unique) way to approach the problem. number) of autos this year. *(Regrettably / Regretfully). *The serum had serious side (affects / effects). the work will stop because of the strike. *Whichever design you choose is (alright / all right) with me. *(Irregardless / Regardless) of the shipping delay. Combining Sentences l Coordination and Subordination l Subordinating conjunctions and dependent clauses l Avoiding fragments with subordinate clause l Clauses with although 12 . like) the Department of Energy will choose the third option. *Reduced weight was the (principal / principle) reason for choosing aluminum. *The talk centered (around / on) the (principal / principle) of virtual work. even (fewer. *It appears (as if.Technical Writing Certain words are commonly misused *We produced a small (amount. *The serum had (alot / a lot) of side effects. less) than last year. the launch was delayed because of thunderstorms. *The new material is (composed / comprised) of plastic and iodine. *A company’s success depends on (its / it's) employees. *You need not proceed any (farther / further) on your test.
Technical Writing Lecture 4 Abstract Writing 13 .
l In a technical report. and most dissertations.Technical Writing Abstracts Ø Abstract summarized and highlight the major points of a longer piece of writing. some papers in the sciences and social sciences require abstracts Abstracts l An abstract is a short informative or descriptive summary of a longer report. great deal of literature in a short time. although it is intended to be read first. Abstract primary purpose Ø To enable readers to decide whether Ø They enable researches to review a to read the work in full. the abstract appears on a separate page after the table of contents and list of illustrations Abstract Classification Ø Descriptive Ø Informative 14 . journal articles. especially if each chapter has a different author l Library reference tools. Ø Abstract should contain no information not discussed in the original. such as Biological Abstracts l For presentations at scientific meetings (often the "published abstract" is the only written record of such a presentation) l Dissertations. Abstract for reports and articles Ø Abstract must accurately but concisely describe the original work so that researchers in the field will not miss valuable information. When are abstracts used? l Ordinarily part of a research article in a journal l For chapters in a book. Ø Abstract are written for many formal reports. l It is written after the report is completed.
or paper's results. or paper. article. or paper. The relevant information for this study came from the open literature. consideration are discussed. The report discusses the extent to which engineering expertise is made available and the alternative models of providing such expertise. and governmental and nuclear utility reports. l Provide the report. article. who must then read the report. or paper to find out the author's results. or paper. article. or recommendations. l Include the purpose. article. and recommendations. l Are always very short.from a paragraph to a page or two. article. l Are short -.S. or paper l Do not provide results. methods. conclusions. or recommendations Example Of Descriptive Abstract: Purpose and scope: This report describes the practices selected foreign countries for providing engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants. Usually informative abstracts are 10% or less of the length of the original piece. article. l Allow readers to decide whether they want to read the report. depending upon the length of the original work being abstracted. Informative Abstracts l Communicate specific information from the report. and scope of the report. l Introduce the subject to readers. article. interviews with utility staff and officials. or paper contains l Include the purpose. 15 . conclusions. conclusions.Technical Writing Descriptive Abstract l Tell readers what information the report. The implications of foreign practices for U. methods. and scope of the report. usually under 100 words. with particular reference to the shift Methods used: technical advisor position and to a proposed shift engineer position.
S. consideration are discussed. with particular reference to the shift technical advisor position and to a proposed shift engineer position. and retention and system implementation. Methods used: The relevant information for this study came used from the open literature. the alternative models are likely to affect crew relationships and performance. and governmental and nuclear utility reports. labor supply. Recommendation: Of the two systems. The comparison of these two models did not indicate that one system inherently functions more effectively than does the other for safe operations. 16 . The report discusses the extent to which engineering expertise is made available and the alternative models of providing such expertise. The implications of foreign practices for U. Finding: The countries used two approaches to provide engineering expertise on shift: (1) employing a graduate engineer in a line management operations position and (2) creating a specific engineering position to provide expertise to the operations staff. interviews with utility staff and officials. recruitment. General Conclusion: However.Technical Writing Example of Informative Abstract Purpose and scope: This report describes the practices selected foreign countries for providing engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants. the nonsupervisory engineering position seems more advantageous within the context of current recruitment and career-path practices.
and figure out how they do it. the examples where the abstract makes the article easier to read. read the article. If your word limit is 200 but you only write 95 words. Go to the library and look at engineering journals. even in refereed journals. you probably have not written in sufficient detail. Ø Aim at the needs of the principal readers of your document. but the more abstracts you read. Length of Abstracts: Ø A long abstract defeats the purpose of an abstract. of course. l Read the abstract. Abstracts are often too long because people forget to count their words ® Too much detail: Abstracts that are too long often have unnecessary details. The abstract is not the place for detailed explanations of methodology or for details about the context of your research problem ® Too short: Shorter is not necessarily better. Assignment: Write Abstract for your Formal Report 17 . the easier it is to spot the good ones. ® Failure to include important information: You need to be careful to cover the points listed above. Abstract Should Includes: Ø The subject of the study Ø The scope of the study Ø The purpose of the study Ø The methods used Ø The results obtained (informative abstract only) Ø The Recommendations made. Which Type Should you Write? Ø The answer depends on the organization or publication for which you are writing. if any (informative abstract only) COMMON PROBLEMS: ® Too long: If your abstract is too long. it may be rejected. Pick the best ones. For this reason abstracts usually no longer than 150 to 250 words. Ø Descriptive abstracts may be considerably shorter. or look at electronic journals on the web.Technical Writing Where to find examples of abstracts: l The best source of example abstracts is journal articles. l Not everyone writes good abstracts.
Technical Writing Lecture 5 Laboratory Report 18 .
and initials. 19 . year) Example: Circuit Theory I Experiment number 1 Verification of Ohms’ Law By Bassam AL Saqqa Submitted to Eng. acronyms. Mohammed Hussein Islamic University Gaza March 1.Technical Writing Cover Page: • Course Title • Experiment Number • The Experiment Title • By: (name of performer) • The title and address of the performer • The name of the supervisor • Title and address of the supervisor • Date: (month day. 2007 Title: n Reflect the factual content with less than ten words in a straightforward manner n Use keywords that researchers and search engines on the Internet will recognize n Avoid abbreviations.
n Results: Write down your results Introduction: A few paragraphs or a few pages. 20 .Technical Writing The format of the report: AIMRAD Abstract Introduction Methods Results Analysis Discussion +Conclusion Abstract (informative): One short paragraph n Aims: Concise but informative One or two sentences should be sufficient Example: To determine the relative molecular mass of an unknown dibasic acid n Methods: Explain in short the method or methods you used to get the results. Includes: n Background n Theories. equations. and rules used in calculations n Brief about the work (hypotheses) and expectations Remember to quote your sources (you should include a bibliography of your references after the conclusions section).
i. n Figure 1 shows that the activity.e. include a legend explaining symbols. showing each step Discussion: How relevant are your results ? What errors are there ? Did something go wrong ? Try to be positive Write your ideas to improve the experiment Conclusion: Did you meet the aims of the experiment ? Example: The relative molecular mass of the unknown was determined to be 146.Technical Writing Method: q Concise but sufficient for someone to repeat the work. The conclusion should echo the Abstract and be as short as possible. q Describe special pieces of equipment. or special methods n Number figures and tables separately and refer to them in the text by their number. abbreviations.. how were they used..5.. q List materials used.05 mg of barium chloride was mixed with 100 cm3 water Results: n Tabulate the numerical data when possible n Make sure that you divide tables by measurements units such that you write only number inside the table n Title all figures and tables. n The activity decreases after five minutes (Figure 1) Analysis: Calculations and graphing Interpretation of results go into this section Remember to layout your calculations clearly. q Use third person past tense Example: A solution of barium chloride (0.05 mg in 100 cm3) was prepared in water and titrated against silver nitrate. References: All references should be listed Quiz 1: Name the Abstract Classification. q Avoid starting a sentence with a number Example: 0. and what are the differences between them? 21 .
Technical Writing Lecture 6 Proposals 22 .
if the Department of Energy desires research on reducing nitrogen oxide emissions from diesel engines. FOR SPECIFIC TOPIC RFP’s: Need to convince sponsoring agency that you understand the problem. Instead. an engineer on his or her own initiative recognizes a client's problem. Topics some sponsor wants to see done: Respond to RFP What should the proposal accomplish? 1. TWO MAIN TYPES OF FUNDED RESEARCH: 1. Research you really want to do: Find sponsor! 2. 2. that could be implemented. Try to foresee and counter any arguments against the solution. FOR SCIENTIFIC AGENCIES: Need to convince reviewers of scientific merit. The goal of a proposal is to persuade readers that the job needs doing and that you are the one to do it. Solicited Proposal: q Company or agency advertises that it desires the solution to a problem. q The writing involves individual as well as teams. so be sure to include all the benefits as well as the limitations of your solution. q Proposals range from 1000 pg report to 1 pg form. q Most cases. q Often occur within a company. Overview: q A proposal is a strategy for solving a problem. Unsolicited Proposal: q There is no request. an engineer or scientist may write a proposal to his or her division supervisor suggesting a new computer system to handle that division's work 23 . and of your qualifications and ability to successfully make an important contribution to the state-of-the-art. that presents a problem which needs addressing For example. and then presents a plan for solving that problem. q Two types: q Solicited q Unsolicited q Proposal purposes are to persuade not inform. that you have a realistic approach that is likely to succeed. For example.Technical Writing What is a proposal? A proposal is document which outlines a problem and proposes a detailed plan to solve it. then the Department announces its request. often called an RFP. and that you will deliver results that will make them look good. this company or agency sends out a request for proposals. writes a proposal that first makes the client aware of the problem. often in periodicals such as the Commerce Business Daily.
q Managers review proposals to see if the plan for solving the problem is cost effective. and professionals who will critically review your drafts. not the passive voice wherever possible. Format Of Proposal: q Headings q Body Heading: To: Name of your advisor From: Your name Subject: The subject of your proposal Date: date of submission Example Of Heading: A PROPOSAL Research the Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel at Yucca Mountain Prepared for Walter E. l Use tables. q Engineers and scientists. review proposals to see if the plan is technically feasible. and side-headings to divide/organize/format your text. 1996 24 . l Write clear. MA 01040 By Holohan Consulting 72 Triangle Street Amherst MA 01002 December 12. Proposal Writing: l Make sure your proposal is letter perfect and in full compliance with the application guidelines. Foerster. concise sentences. charts. Jr. l Find both expert readers in your field.Technical Writing Aim of the proposal q Explain your plans q Why this work is worth while While preparing: v focus on your work v Get early feedback Audiences of Proposals: includes both managers and engineers. l Use the active. President of New England Etching 23 Spring Street Holyoke. on the other hand. These audiences view proposals in different ways.
1989]. a schedule for completing the review. References I. the process used to create this large amount energy. This proposal includes my methods for gathering information. such as uranium and plutonium [Roush. some power plants will be forced to shut down.Technical Writing Body: Divide your body to sections: I. test report. II. Statement of the problem III. Introduction: q Summarize your project q Explain why you are proposing it Example of Introduction: Nuclear power plants produce more than 20 percent of the electricity used in the United States [Murray. nuclear fission. Introduction II. Because of the build-up of this waste. creates significant amounts of high level radioactive waste. Statement of the Problem: What is current state of technology? What is The need or problem? Why do you want to address this problem? Why is it significant? Who should care and why? Provide examples and/ or supporting evidence Including references Briefly review current work Proposed project and purpose: q State your proposed project q Its goals q Your approach IV. The proposed review will discuss the economical and environmental aspects of a national storage facility. Proposed project and purpose IV.000 metric tons of nuclear waste have arisen from U. or running computer programs 25 .S. Unfortunately. commercial reactors as well as high level nuclear weapons waste. 1995]. a safe and economical place to keep this waste is necessary. q q q q q q q III. and my qualifications. Plan of activities with deadlines V. This document proposes a literature review of whether Yucca Mountain is a suitable site for a nuclear waste repository. Plan of Activities with deadlines: q List your major activities q Make a schedule for your work q List specific items you will produce as part of your project device. Evaluation VI. More than 30. instructions. To avoid losing an important source of energy.
q If you have a strong idea.Technical Writing V. Evaluation: Proposals will be evaluated in two ways: from a management perspective and from a technical perspective Also considered in the evaluation of the proposal will be the quality of the writing Management Evaluation: q Is the review worth doing? q Does the proposal either show an important problem that needs addressing or arouse the reader's curiosity in the topic? q Does the proposal show what readers will be interested in the review? q Does the proposal show objectivity? Technical Evaluation: q Are the boundaries of the review logical? q Does the review take on too much or too little? q Are the limitations clear? q Is there something unique about the proposal's perspective? q Does the writer convince the proposal reviewers that he or she can gather the information? q Is the schedule believable? q Does the writer justify himself or herself as the one to perform the review? VI. References: q List all your references q Glossary If any Acronym/Abbreviation dpi GHz GB HD ppm Definition Dots per inch Gigahertz Gigabyte Hard drive Pages per minute Recommendations: q For a proposal to succeed. or to make a unique contribution that others could not attain within the same time frame? q Be constructive (diplomatic) in reviewing others’ work. Chances are they are reviewing your proposal. don’t be dismissive and definitely don’t single out anyone with scorn. you need a good idea. No amount of crafted writing can make up for a weak idea. then crafting the writing of that idea to meet the constraints will improve your proposal's chances for acceptance. 26 . q What is it that you have that will allow you to succeed where others may have failed. don’t blast all previous work.
Assignment: Write a proposal for your formal report 27 . Ours is the first study to address this question correctly. BETTER: Previous studies have made important contributions to this challenging problem. however none of the published studies appear to have completely accounted for the effect of X on Y. A pioneering effort in this direction is described by Chen and Smith (1998). Chen and Smith (1998) tried but their approach was simply wrong. highlighting the need for additional investigation of the system properties when the full set of interacting factors are incorporated in the model.Technical Writing Be constructive: BAD: All previous studies are worthless because they failed to recognize the effect of X on Y.
Technical Writing Lecture 7 Resume 28 .
If you are just starting college.REFERNCE Objective: To obtain a ______ position in the area of ______ (write this infinitive phrase to target the audience of this resume) This infinitive phrase is often reworked by the author to target different audiences and purposes. § The more thoroughly you prepare your resume now. experience. and responsibilities you had. names and locations of schools. ask yourself questions like these: – Have I invented. you can include high school as well. if any. coordinated. and skills. Characteristics of Resume: Resumes must do their work quickly. HONORS. EXPERIENCE: § Includes full-time paid jobs. college and university. academic research projects. § § § § EDUCATION: usually means post-secondary. internships or co-op positions. discovered. As you describe your experiences. part-time jobs. EXPERIENCE. the more likely someone is to read it later. § Its main task is to convince prospective employers to contact you. A brief summary of important courses you've taken might also be helpful. § your resume must quickly convey that you are capable and competent enough to be worth interviewing. § A resume has one purpose: to get you a job interview. major and minor. education. § List the month/years you worked. position. List degrees and month/year obtained or expected. or volunteer work. EDUCATION..SKILLS. name and location of employer or place.ACTIVITIES.Technical Writing What is Resume: § A resume is a brief summary of your abilities. organized. grade point average. Steps to write the Resume: § Gather and check all necessary information § Match your experience and skills with an employer's needs § Highlight details that demonstrate your capabilities § Organize the resume effectively § Consider word choice carefully § Ask other people to comment on your resume § Make the final product presentable § Evaluate your resume Gather and Check All Necessary Information: Write down headings such as : OBJECTIVE. or directed anything professionally for my community? – Do I meet deadlines consistently? 29 .
a second outside interest. or knowledge think would interest the Third Most Relevant Course Sixth Most Relevant Course Experience Most Recent Position. Month § POSITION: What kind of position do youYear (if applicable) want for this job-search? Make notes. University Overall GPA: X. specific skills. Company. Location (Month/Year–Month/Year) Verb phrase that identifies key activity that you performed Second verb phrase that identifies key activity that you performed Third verb phrase that identifies key activity that you performed (if appropriate) Third Most Recent Position.XX/4.address/ SKILLS List computer languages and software. leadership. professional awards or recognition. § EMPLOYER: For a certain position. Targeted GPA (if beneficial): X. § List professional and community activities. experience. for athletic skills). or community awards (i.e. resume) ACTIVITIES § List academic. professional. ads.XX/4.Technical Writing Name – – Street Address Am I a good communicator? City. or your own research). or skills Relevant Courses will be most attractive to that employer? List SPECIFIC coursework. State. Location (Month/Year–Month/Year) Verb phrase that identifies key activity that you performed Second verb phrase that identifies key activity that you performed Third verb phrase that identifies key activity that you performed (if appropriate) Next Most Recent Position.00 § Listing hobbies is optional.XX/4. Location (Month/Year–Month/Year) Verb phrase that identifies key activity that you performed Second verb phrase that identifies key activity that you performed Third verb phrase that identifies key activity that you performed (if appropriate) Honors/Awards Most Impressive Honor or Award Second Most Impressive Honor or Award Third Most Impressive Honor or Award Fourth Most Impressive Honor or Award Most Impressive Activity Second Most Impressive Activity Third Most Impressive Activity Fourth Most Impressive Activity Activities Outside Interests One outside interest. perhaps a third outside interest 30 . Objective communication. Zip Code Do I enjoy teamwork? Phone Number HONORS FAX (if applicable) List any academic awards (scholarships. Most Relevant Course Fourth Most Relevant Course Second Most Relevant Course that you Fifth Most Relevant Course employer.00 Targeted that (if actually available (postings. Expected Month/Year Education Name of a member.XX/4. including volunteer work. (if applicable) http://web. what aspects of your education. Company. Now University or College match your wishes up with positions GPA arebeneficial): X. area of ______ (write this infinitive phrase to target the audience of this To obtain a ______ position in the among others.00 Match Your Skills and Experience with an Employer's Needs Name of Next Most Recent Degree. or community organizations in which you hold office or are currentlyDegree on Which You Are Working. laboratory. research. teaching or tutoring. or athletic.00 Overall GPA: X. Address Email fellowships. Company. honors list). areas of specialty. personal contacts.
Gaza Strip) Technician May. repair and test precision electromechanical and electronic instruments in a team environment.3. Example : Bassam Al Saqqa 273 East Sixth Street Gaza.IUG. Example: Dean’s List. etc.2003 to May. dates. 2004 ASAI Scholarship 2003-2004. research. AWARDS/HONORS: Use reverse chronological order. Gaza Strip) Research Assistant intern. e-mail and/or fax addresses (optional). computers.Technical Writing Organize the Resume Effectively: PERSONAL INFORMATION: Top center of first page. Example: Islamic University Of Gaza (Gaza Strip) Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering (Expected June 2006) Major: Electrical Engineering Minor: Computer Science EXPERIENCE: Here.com EDUCATION: Often comes first in student resumes. using ACTION verbs § List the most important responsibilities or successes first § Emphasize collaborative or group-related tasks Example of Experience: Gaza Electric Company (Gaza. 2004 Use variety of test equipment to troubleshoot. cluster your experience under headings that highlight these skills: for ex. citizenship if applicable.IUG. Senior Honor Society. you can use one of two formats: Functional or Chronological § Functional To emphasize skills and talents. list jobs beginning with the most recent. Gaza Strip 47401 (970) 599-325698 al_saqqa@hotmail. Islamic University of Gaza. especially if it is a strong asset. addresses. Some hints: § Write all job descriptions in parallel phrases.: leadership. Summer and fall 2004 Assistant manager of corporate planning and developed computer model for long-range planning Ali Corporation (Gaza. places. Name (no title). This format can be helpful if you have little relevant job experience Chronological: To emphasize work experience.88 grade point average of possible 4. phone numbers. 31 . include titles.
sizes. § Examples: accomplish. Write a separate list of references. and telephone numbers for each individual. or boxes? § Is the information spaced well. potential employer. you need to sound positive and confident: neither too aggressive.C++. company name. balance. both in teams and in stand alone projects. will be learning Java Proven record of outstanding performance and dependability with increasing responsibility. Make the Final Product Presentable: Use a computer and high-quality (preferably laser) printer Evaluate Your Resume: § Hold your resume at arm's length and see how it looks. § TYPE each entry in a format close to the one you want to use for your resume. analyze. § For a list of typical verbs used in resumes see page 602 in your text. love all kind of sport. title. not crowded on the page? § Is there too much "white space"? § Is important information quick and easy to find? 32 . coordinate. Fortran. REFERENCES: You need not put these on your resume. In some cases. § LENGTH: for many resumes. achieve. or someone in your field critique your resume. two pages is the maximum length Consider Word Choice Carefully: § In a resume. speak & write French well Member Of IEEE.Pspice. or languages only if they relate to your job interests. Example: Available upon request CREATING YOUR DRAFT: § Look at other resumes written for positions within your field. Assembly.Technical Writing SKILLS & ACTIVITIES: Generally. Is the page too busy with different type styles. travel. communicate. you may wish to emphasize your willingness to travel or relocate Example: Computer: Verilog HDL & Matlab in unix environment. Willing to relocate. with complete name. list hobbies. compile … Ask Other People to Comment on Your Resume: It STRONGLY RECOMMEND that you have an advisor. nor overly modest. adapt. lines. collaborate. address.
text is indented § The dates of employment are easy to find and consistently formatted § Your name is printed at the top of each page FORMAT/DESIGN: § No more than two typestyles appear. past jobs are in past tense § Repetition of words or phrases is kept to a minimum § Capitalization. italics. current job is in present tense. are listed first § The page can be easily reviewed: categories are clear. typestyles are conservative § Bolding. Right justification creates awkward white spaces Assignment: Write your own resume 33 . punctuation. and capitalization are used minimally and consistently § Margins and line spacing keep the page from looking too crowded § Printing is on one side of the sheet only § The right side of the page is in "ragged" format. whether education. not right-justified. or skills. and verb tense is consistent.Technical Writing CONTENT: § Check Name and address § All entries highlight a capability or accomplishment § Descriptions use active verbs. and date formats are consistent § There are NO spelling errors ORGANIZATION: § Your best assets. experience.
Technical Writing Lecture 8 Memorandums (memo) Interoffice way of communication. 34 .
However. without the need for time-consuming meetings. conclusion. Purpose Of Memo: A business memo serves a very useful purpose. you do not sign your name at the bottom of your memo. A memo exists for a very specific purpose: to convey information to a colleague 35 . evidence. Like a business letter. you write your initials next to your name at the top of the memo. provide information. thesis. a business memo is a type of professional writing. (Memos solve problems) q It helps members of a business organization communicate. prove a point Abstract summary. q It lets someone know something they need to know in an effective and efficient manner. Instead.Technical Writing WHAT IS A BUSINESS MEMO? Basically. straightforward A series of short discussions followed by a summary ESSAY Ambiguous Intro. broad A series of paragraphs of finer detail followed by a conclusion. specific points. 2) Unlike a letter. which will be described later. it is an in-house business letter. List-like. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEMOS AND ESSAYS: MEMO Audience Format: Goal: Introduction: Body of the writing: Project: A particular person Intro. a business memo differs from an ordinary letter in several important ways: 1) It is written in a specific format.
Purpose- Example: q Mr. Howard has asked me to arrange a working lunch for all members of the writing staff, at the main office, sometime before the end of the month. q The purpose of this memo is to request authorization to purchase a sound card and a modem for the computer in the front office. q This memo confirms the details of your tour of the new processing plant, as we discussed over the telephone this morning.
Used for all kinds including: • • • • • • • Short note Exchange information Request information Instruct employees Report results Small reports Internal proposals
Memos’ Role: Play an important role in management: • • • Keeps employees informed Motivates employees Keeps their moral high
To achieve this goal: Memos Should Convey the message in a clear and accurate way
Memo Format I. II. III. IV. V. Heading Opening Discussion Closing Summary
I. Heading TO: (readers' names and job titles) FROM: (your name and job title) DATE: (Month day, year) SUBJECT: (what the memo is about, highlighted in some way) From Line It is a good idea to initial your name in handwriting. CC: (others who are involved) BCC: ( not directly involved)
Subject line: q Should summarize the reason of the memo. q Should be 10 words or less. q Is NOT a sentence - it is a long title.
II. Opening Three parts: 1. The context and problem 2. The specific assignment or task 3. The purpose of the memo. 37
1. The context Event, circumstance, or background of the problem you are solving. You may use An opening sentence, such as, “As Jane recommended, I reviewed the office reorganization plan" Include only what your reader needs, but be sure it is clear.
Task Describe what you are doing to help solve the problem.
If the action was requested, your task may be indicated by a sentence opening like, "You asked that I look at...." If you want to explain your intentions, you might say, "To determine the best method of controlling the percentage of rat extremities, I will...." Purpose Statement Are you announcing a meeting, welcoming a new employee, or asking for input on adopting a new policy about lunch hour length?V
III Discussion: In the discussion segment, give details about the problem, Don't ramble on incessantly, but do give enough information for decision makers to resolve the problem. Describe the task or assignment with details that support your opening paragraph (problem). IV Closing: q Close with a courteous ending that states what action you want your reader to take. q Make sure you consider how the reader will benefit from the desired actions and how you can make those actions easier. V Summary: If your memo is longer than a page, you may want to include a separate summary segment. This part provides a brief statement of the recommendations you have reached. These will help your reader understand the key points of the memo immediately. 38
Example Plankton Engineering To: From: Employees In Research and Development Team Mary Silvers, Project Manager
Date: January 15, 2002 Subject : New Flex-Time Policy Beginning March 1, 2002 Plankton Engineering is offering a new flex-time schedule to all employees. You MUST sign up for this plan by Feb. 20, 2002, in order to use it. Components of the Plan Employees must agree to: – – – – – – Work 40 hours a week Work a minimum of 4 days a week Arrive at work no later than 9:30 a.m. Leave work no earlier than 3:30 p.m.
Scheduling Considerations Employees may schedule work time as long as it fits the above criteria. Employees who sign up for this new flex time scheduling must declare their work hours during the previous week. The supervisor will take responsibility for recording each employees work schedule. Employees who wish to try this new plan must stay on it for three months before returning to the current policy. Employees who may want to start it later, must wait until January of the next calendar year to sign up.
Important Reminder Remember - Sign up by Feb. 20 to take advantage of the new Flex-Time schedule.
In which you will answer the following questions: What are the problems? Why are they problems? And what is your plans to solve it? Exercise: What are the differents between a memo and a business latter and What is the purpose of a memo.Technical Writing Assignment: Write a memo telling your professor about the problems you encounter or faced in IUG. and what is the different between them. Exercise: What are the types of proposal. 40 .
Technical Writing Lecture 9 Writing Letters 41 .
/Ms recipient last name: Body Complimentary close Space for Signature Typed name The recipient address Date Dear Mr.Technical Writing Types of Letters: n Cover Letter n Acceptance Letter n Acknowledgment letters n Adjustment letters n Application letters n Complaint letters n Correspondence … good news and bad news letters n Inquiry letters and responses n Reference letters ( Recommendation letter) n Refusal letters n Resignation letters n Technical information letters Letter Format: Two common Format: 1 . Prepare an outline 4. Determine your reader’s attitude and needs 3./Ms recipient last name: Body Complimentary close Space for Signature Typed name Modified Block Style: Your address Instructions: 1.Full Block Style 2 . Allow a cooling period 6. Establish your objectives 2. Write the first draft 5. Revise the draft 42 .Modified Block Style Full Block: Your address The recipient address Date Dear Mr.
Should provide the following information: 1. Cover Latter Example: n John Jackson 34 Second Street Troy. Refer the reader to your résumé 5. n State where and when you can be reached. skills. and refer the reader to your resume for additional details. and experience listed in your resume. Ask for interview Content of the Cover Letter: n In the first paragraph. n The cover letter also allows you to highlight the most important and relevant accomplishments. you should state what job you are applying for and how you learned about it. Identify an employment area 2. Point out your source of information 3. n Pick out the most relevant qualifications listed in your resume and discuss them in detail n Be as specific as possible. Summarize your qualification 4. n You should also state your general qualifications for the job. New Jersey 05876 43 . 1999 n Mr. New York 12180 October 4.Technical Writing Hints: Tone: Imagine the reader sitting across the desk Keep the language neutral Careful choice of words Cover Letter: q Identifies the item being sent q The person to whom it is being sent q The reason for sending it Letter of application (cover letter) is a sales letter Main Objective is to get the job interview. n Each letter should also make specific references to the company and indicate your knowledge of and interest in the work the company is currently doing. James Roberts Recruiting Coordinator Department DRR 1201 Database Corporation Princeton. and express your willingness to come to an interview or supply further information.
Joseph Smith Acceptance Letters: This letter is written in order to accept a received job offer. hamed: I am very happy to accept your offer for a position as a computer engineer at a salary of $1200. I look forward to work for you and join a great team. The format is as follow Acceptance Letters Example: 230 Elnaser St. I was drawn to the ad by my strong interest in both software design and Database.00. Sincerely yours. Palestine 1/3/2007 Dr. Since graduation in July 25. which details my qualifications and suggests how I might be of service to Database. Palestine Dear Dr. Roberts: Your advertisement for software engineers in the January issue of the IEEE Spectrum caught my attention.Technical Writing Dear Mr. I plan to move to Gaza from Khan Younes this month. Gaza. I can make a direct and immediate contribution to your department. Gaza. please contact me at the above address or by telephone at (518) 271-9999. August 26th. If you wish to arrange an interview. Because of this experience. Sincerely. per a month. and I also have substantial experience in the design of interactive CAD software. It should be written within a week of receiving the offer. I should be locating to a suitable living accommodation within a week and be ready to report for work on Saturday. I would like very much to meet with you to discuss your open positions for software engineers. Ahmed Ali 44 . Please let me know if this date OK to you. I have enclosed a copy of my resume. I have worked with a CALMA system in developing VLSI circuits. Thank you for your time and consideration. Basil Hamed General Manager Mechatronics Company 22 Omer Al-moktar St.
Ahmed Ali.Technical Writing Acknowledgment Letters: In this letter you acknowledge receiving an item (letter. 112 Jamal Abed Nasser St. After the multimeters passing our tests. Thank you for sending it on time. Palestine Dear Mr. they write complaint letters asking for fixing these situations. 45 . In this letter you mention what and when items are received in a short and polite manner. Ayman Majeed. In order to be more effective. Palestine March 1. the shipment seems To be complete and in good shape. box. or something). You should state your claim supported by factual evidence and ask for adjustment. It serves as a good public relation practice. In order to obtain a positive response. the tone of the letter should not be angry. 2007 Mr. Acknowledgment Letters Example: Rocky Tech Corp. Salesman 102 Mannara Square Ramalla. General Manager Complaint Letters: When customers are not satisfied with goods and services that are offered by businesses. Gaza. we will send you a check with the last payment covering the cost of this purchase. Majeed: I received your shipment of ten digital multimeters today. you should not vent your anger in the letter. Sincerely.
I immediately contacted the department with a note explaining my situation.. We all were very favorably impressed with you during the interview 46 . Goodwill example: Everyone here at IUG is looking forward to working with you.Technical Writing Complaint Letters Example: June 25. Palestine Attention: ECE Department Head On June 16. Not only I received no explanation but also I was advised to just forget about it. I filed for an incomplete grade in the Power Systems course. Explanation: if the terms we discussed in the interview are acceptable to you. at that time we will ask you…. Good news 2. Palestine Correspondence Letter: The Correspondence Latter Can be: q Good news Letter q Bad news Letter Good News Letter: 1. medical prescription. Gaza... Sincerely. 2003 Islamic University of Gaza PO Box 108. Goodwill Good News Letter Example: Good News: Please accept our offer for the position of electrical engineer at IUG. Explanation or facts 3. Please either send me a explanation for the denial or else advise me with the steps and procedures that I need to take to fix this problem. Majed Imran 5th year Computer Engineering student PO Box 1004 Kan Yunis.m. please come in at 9:30 a. and the hospital check out papers. on September 5. On June 23 I received a denial for my incomplete application without any explanation. All the supporting items were attached which included a medical doctor report.
Provides benefits to the writer Example: Asking the public utility for information on energy-related project you are developing Objective: to obtain. Provides benefit to the reader Example: Asking about a product the company recently advertised 2. we have selected an applicant with over ten years of experience. 47 .Technical Writing Bad News Letters: n Buffer n Bad news n Goodwill Bad News Letters Example: Buffer : Thank you for your time and effort in applying for the position of electrical engineer at IUG Bad News: Since we need someone who can assume the duties here with a minimum of training. answers to specific questions. Inquiry Letter: Two types: 1. within a reasonable period of time. Goodwill: I am sure that with your excellent college record you will find a position in another office.
245.com 48 . Holly not only made the extremely tight deadline. n Sincerely. She is punctual and typically exceeds expectations. technically-accurate addendum for the standard user manual. please don't hesitate to contact me. Even our CEO was impressed. and I highly recommend hiring her. jdoe@xyzco. n Holly is an innovative self-starter. marketing. but beat it. For example. and will voluntarily work overtime and take work home to meet a deadline. edits and proofs her documents. While I wish her only the best and fully understand that she must advance her career. Technical Communications Ext. technical training. formats. n Holly is a professional technical writer of the highest caliber. n [Signature] John Doe Manager. This is just one example among many of Holly's superior skills and admirable work ethics. She handles pressure well. and our customer was ecstatic. Management and personnel in tech support.Technical Writing Sample Letter of Recommendation: n XYZ Company 123 XYZ Way • New York City • NY • 12345 (123) 555-0000 • Fax (123) 555-0001 n February 1. It has been a pleasure having her on my team. Sales. engineering. who rarely needs supervision. If you'd like to discuss her attributes in more detail. yet she still produced a stellar. training and engineering were quite pleased with Holly's performance in this crunch. I'm truly sorry to see her go. and other departments praise her work. n Holly is an invaluable asset to any technical communications department. 2000 n To Whom it May Concern: n I've been Holly Smith's manager for over six years. I've received many compliments from customers who rely on Holly's documentation. who meticulously researches. including critical user documentation. we received a rush order from one of our customers for a complex product modification.
book. effective [date./Ms. newspaper. please let me know. The associations I've made during my employment here will truly be memorable for years to come. two weeks from date above]. I have enjoyed working for the agency and appreciate the support provided me during my tenure with the company.…) announced job. electronic instrument) from the internet. n I hope a two-week notice is sufficient for you to find a replacement for me. I will miss working for the company. If I can be of any assistance during this transition. n Thank you for the opportunities for professional and personal development that you have provided me over the years. n Thank you very much for the opportunity to work here. You bought something (computer. n [Sign here] n [Your name. Zip Code Your Phone Number Your Email n Date n Name Title Organization Address City. effective August 1. Last Name: n I would like to inform you that I am retiring from my position with Smith Agency. n While I look forward to enjoying my retirement. If I can help to train my replacement or tie up any loose ends. 49 . State. when you received it was not in good shape.Technical Writing Resignation Letter Sample: [Your Name] [Street • City • State • Zip Code] [Phone # • Fax phone # • Messages phone # • Email] [Date today] [Recipient's name] [Company name] [Address] n Dear [Recipient's name]: n Please accept this letter as my formal notice of resignation from [Company name]. Write a cover letter for any (from internet. Zip Code n Dear Mr. Write a complaint letter to the company. n Your Signature n Your Typed Name Assignment: I. title] Retirement Letter Sample: n Your Name Your Address Your City. n Sincerely. please let me know. State. II.
Technical Writing Lecture 10 Formal report 50 .
… -. 5.must use at least 12-point font. Margins: u Left and right 2.uses 13-point size. Font Style Any standard office font style is acceptable -. bold.Courier.Arial.use 10 ( 10 character per inch). u Text Pages.not script. … -. Font Style 7. Font Size: u Text must be a minimum of 12-point. u Fonts 10-point not acceptable for body of report. u Times Roman -. italic. u Single space: table/figure caption u Single space appendix materials and tables. Font Types: u Use proportional font -. u Allow additional space above and below the equation to separate it from the text. u Back Mater. Page Number 1. Basic Page Layout: 1.or 10-point may be used for tables and appendix to accommodate the margins u 5.not script.Technical Writing Contents: u Basic Page Layout. Margins 2. characters with slant or different sizes. Line Spacing for Equations 4. Line Spacing: u Single space the text. bold.5 cm 2. u Italic fonts may be used when appropriate. 4.5 cm u Top and bottom 3. Font Types 5. u Font size and style are the same for text and page number. 3.uses 13-point size. characters with slant or different sizes. italic. u Fonts 8-. u Fixed fonts -. Line Spacing 3. Font Size 6. Courier New. Font Style: u Any standard office font style is acceptable -. 51 . u Preliminary Pages. u Times Roman -.9-. u Font size and style are the same for text and page number. u Italic fonts may be used when appropriate. Times New Roman.
Abstract: u Type the word ABSTRACT u Single space all lines u Must have • statement of the problem • exposition of methods & procedures • summary of the finding u Usually 200 to 250 words. Acknowledgment Page: u Optional u Type the word ACKNOWLEDGMENT u Insert two double spaced blank lines and begin the text-double spacing all lines. Front matter: u Front cover u Title page u Dedication page (optional) u Acknowledgment (optional) u Abstract u Table of Contents u List of Tables u List of Figures u List of Abbreviations u Foreword (optional) u Preface (optional) Title Page: u Title of document u Your name u Degree title .Technical Writing 6. lower right. u The Introduction should begin with 1. country u Date (month. with numbers located in the upper right.Course title u Major Subject u University name. but does not appear u Back of title page is empty Dedication Page: u Optional u Type the word DEDICATION u Insert two double spaced blank lines and begin the text-double spacing all lines. u Before Introduction. city. use Roman numerals. 52 . or lower middle of the page. year) u Assign numeral i. Page Number: u Pages should be numbered consecutively.
8 3.…….…..v 1 SUMMARY ……………………… …. u May include background information 53 ....………..…………………………………………23 References ………………….…..20 5 CONCLUSION ……………….……...… 3 3 METHODOLOGY ………………… …...….……. …………………..…….... u Generally no more than three levels of heads are used..…..3 Time series analysis ……….………………………………..2 Description of study series……. ……….. Abbreviations): u List each one on a separate page with each table followed by dots and page number at the right margin.....1 2 INTRODUCTION ………………… …... u May discuss the purpose of the report.6 3.. u List Appendices next u The Bibliography Table of contents Example: Abstract ……………………………..Technical Writing Table of Contents: u Type TABLE OF CONTENTS List items followed with dotes and page number • Abstract • List of Tables • List of Figures • List of Abbreviations • and so on u Don’t list anything before the Table of Contents Table of Contents Continue: u Include all chapter heads-upper case • Subheads as they appear in chapter.....12 3. ….…. ….... u Number all tables/figures consecutively Foreword: u Optional introductory statement written by someone other than the author....1 Pilgrim 1 …………………….…22 APPENDIX A ……………...24 List of Tables (Figures.………………………………..….... ….. …....…….14 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION …... all headings of that levels must be listed...1 Selection of study area ……… …..……....iv List of Tables ……………………… ….…….. u Double space between each caption but single space captions longer than one line.....…... If heads in any levels is listed.…....…….2...……..iii List of Figures ……………………… ….……. ….10 3. …….
design and implementation. charts and figures where each should be mentioned and discussed. background. IV.Technical Writing Preface: u Optional written by the author. II. I. • Figures may be necessary. Materials and methods. u Each new chapter must start on a new page. or analytical derivations. u Avoid having a heading as the last line of text on a page. u Single space all heading. u Explanation of the results • The punch line • How did it turn out? • Was it as expected? • Did it turn out according to theory? • Were the results repeatable? • Do you understand the significant of the results? u The reader should know exactly what happened and why. 54 . and scope of the report. • Software simulation. Text Pages: I. u Theoretical Derivations. Introduction. or just underline any heading. III. • State your assumptions clearly. u Include the purpose. hand calculation. Results & Discussion: u Software documentation. just italic. u Should include • Statement of the problem • Motivations • Complete description of the project. • Step-by-step derivation. Conclusion Text Pages Continue: u Must be divided into chapters which could be sub divided and listed in the Table of Contents. • Mentioning each part of the report II. III. Introduction: u First paragraph should capture reader’s attention. u Specify the audience for whom the report to be given. Results and discussion. u Summary of the approach taken. u Analysis of plots. programming. u Use just boldface. Materials & Methods: u Literature Review.
but double space between entries.Technical Writing IV. Continuous And Discrete Signals And Systems. extrapolation and possible applications for technology Back Mater: u Page numbers continue as Arabic numerals u Appendix u Bibliography or References u Glossary u Index (optional) Appendix: u Labeled as Appendix A. u Use numbered reference list. and et al. u Include materials that are too long and technical or unnecessary in the appendix. Vol. u References include course notes. 8. u Observe the margins and the page numbering. and thesis. 1998 2. July 1997 55 . text books. Soliman and Mandyam D. No. Samir S.2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. conference proceedings. u Should include • restatement of the problem • restatement of the goals • restatement of the approach taken • restatement of the results & their relevance • future works. Bibliography: u Single space all lines of each entry. Appendix B. u Summarize the whole report.” IEEE Trans. Reference should include: • author • title of work • title of journal or text • volume number • date • page number • publisher • publisher’s city Bibliography Examples: 1. Khotandzal A. u At least three references should be given. 4. “ Neural Networks--Generation Three. Conclusion: u Tie together any loose ends. Neural Networks. Srinath. journal articles. so on.
Electrical Engineering Specialization in: Communication Islamic University of Gaza Gaza. Abbreviation Definition AM FM LAN HD SISO Amplitude Modulation Frequency Modulation Local Area Network Hard drive Single Input Single Output Index: u Alphabetical list of all the major topics discussed in the report. u Arrange alphabetically u Follow dictionary style.Technical Writing Glossary: u List of selected terms on particular subject that are defined and explained. Title page example: TITLE OF THE SENIOR PROJECT BY YOUR NAME Senior Project submitted to the Electrical & Computer Engineering In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree Bachelor of Science. u Cites the pages where each topic can be found thus allows readers to find information on topics quickly and easily. Gaza Strip July 2006 56 .
Technical Writing Title page example: DEDICATION: 57 .
……………………….…………..2 Controller Design……………………………………..……………………. especially my parents.…………………. COMPUTER PROGRAMS ……………………………..1 Background .1 1.Technical Writing To my parents and to my family who made this accomplishment possible: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: First and foremost. for their encouragement.………………………. THE FUZZY RULES OF SUGENO MODEL FOR INVERTED PENDULUM PROBLEM …...……………………………………………. and to the other members of my instructors.5 2.…………………………………..…17 3..…………………………………………. I am forever indebted to my parents... INTRODUCTION ……….…………………………….3 Nonlinear case .115 58 .. CLASSICAL CONTROL SYSTEM.14 3.….…….………..…112 C.….…….………...….….. ABSTRACT: Title of the senior project BY Your name The design of controllers for nonlinear systems in industry is a complex and difficult task.…….…..99 REFERENCES …………………….…. The development of nonlinear control techniques has been approached in many different ways with varied results. for his support.……. xxxxxxxx..……1 1.……….2 Literature Review …………………….….…. guidance and encouragement throughout my senior project.…….8 2... outstanding. I would like to thank my family.……………………………….……. DESIGNING PID CONTROLLER FOR NONLINEAR SYSTEM……….. xxxxxxx and Dr..11 3..…………. who have always kept me in their prayers..4 1.……….109 B.…………….15 3.………….………….103 APPENDICES A. Dr.…………………….……………………. THE FUZZY RULES OF MAMDANI MODEL FOR INVERTED PENDULUM PROBLEM…….2 Inverted Pendulum Problem .1 Introduction .9 2.……………………………………..1 Introduction ……. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH …….………………………………. xxxxxx.…19 7...……….... Dr.3 1.……………………….4 Outline of This Thesis………………. patience. I would also like to express my gratitude and appreciation to Dr..……………….………….3 Proportional-Integral-Derivative ….……………8 2.………….. One approach which has been shown promise for solving nonlinear control problems is the use of XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX Table of Contents: 1...3 Contribution ….……………….4 linearization case….14 3.. I would like to thank the chairman of my committee. and assistance over the years. xxx for all the help and guidance he provided throughout my education..……………….....
.23 The Venn diagram of a fuzzy set ………………………..54 Table 5.2 u Figure 4.5 Finding Parameters of First Rule Using Least Square Method ………………………………………….1 u Figure 4.Technical Writing D......…………………….1 u Figure 2.18 The Cart Position of the Inverted Pendulum (Nonlinear Case) ….....….31 A triangular membership function …………………….…………………..29 Complement of fuzzy set A …………………………….………………..….1 Inverted Pendulum Equations ……..…121 LIST OF TABLES: Table 3....………………….….….. …………………….…..2 u Figure 3.8 A PID Controller …………………………………………….……….…..4 u Figure 3.…31 59 .19 The Cart Position of the Inverted Pendulum (Linearized Case) .2 u Figure 3.3 u Figure 4....……29 Union of fuzzy sets A and B …………………………..…..…...5 u Figure 4..……………………….……70 Table 5.….4 u Figure 4.…..4 Set of Input-Output Data for First Rule ……....2 Inverted Pendulum Parameter Values ……..…12 PID Controller for Inverted Pendulum ………………..…………………………………….…..5 u Figure 4.22 The Position of the Inverted Pendulum (Linearize Case)………………..27 Intersection of fuzzy sets A and B ………………………………………….…..1 u Figure 3.70 Table 5.30 A bell-shaped membership function …………..….………………….53 Table 5.3 Fuzzy Associative Memory (FAM) ………….85 LIST OF FIGURES: u Figure 2.18 The Position of the Inverted Pendulum (Nonlinear Case)……………….6 GLOSSARY: Closed-Loop Controller ………………………….3 u Figure 3.6 The Eigenvalues of Sugeno Fuzzy Control Using State Variable Feedback …….…………..….1 Inverted Pendulum Parameter Values ……………21 Table 5.………. PHASE PLAINS ………..…………………………..…..59 Table 5....….…..…….......
This is a sentence to take up space . This is a sentence to take up space and look like text. 1. A. This is a sentence to take up space . This is a sentence to take up space and look like text. This is a sentence to take up space and look like text.1 This is a Section Heading This is a sentence to take up space and look like text.Technical Writing CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: 1. BIBLIOGRAPHY: APPENDIX: APPENDIX A THIS IS AN APPENDIX : This is a sentence to take up space and look like text.1.1 A Section Heading Inside an Appendix : This is how equations are numbered in an appendix: This is a sentence to take up space and look like text 60 .1 This is a Subsection Heading This is a sentence to take up space and look like text.
Technical Writing Lecture 11 Job Interview 61 .
Interview: The Interview can be divided into three stages: 1. But no career advisor can tell you exactly what to say during a job interview. During the interview 3. there are few canned answers.) 62 . so you can practice answering them ahead of time. But. About the best that career advisors can do. Before the interview 2.. is to give you some tips about the typical questions to expect. Interviews are just too up-close and personal for that. what kind? – How large is the firm? – Is it expanding? – Where will you fit in? • Know Interviewer himself (if possible) • It is good idea to try to anticipate the questions an interviewer might ask and to prepare your answers in advance Example of Interviewer questions: • Why Should We Hire You? • What are your short-term and long-term occupational goals? • What are your major strengths and weaknesses? • Do you work better alone or with others? • Why do you want to work for this company? • How do you spend your free time? • Why are you leaving your job? • What are you looking for in your next job? What is important to you? Interview Questions NOT to Ask: • What does this company do? (Do your research ahead of time!) • If I get the job when can I take time off for vacation? (Wait until you get the offer to mention prior commitments) • Can I change my schedule if I get the job? (If you need to figure out the logistics of getting to work don't mention it now.. After the interview Before The Interview: • Show that you are knowledgeable about the company and its operations – Learn about your potential employer before the interview – What kind of business is it ? – Is the company locally owned? – Is it a nonprofit organization? – If the job is public employment. They'll let you know.Technical Writing Job interviewing: Job interviewing is one of the most popular career topics on the Web. while there are many canned interview questions. The rest is up to you. and. at what level of government is it? – Does the business provide a service. if so.) • Did I get the job? (Don't be impatient.
Technical Writing During The Interview: • Be sure to arrive for an interview at the appointed time • Take along your resume • The interview will actually begin before you are seated • What you wear and how you act will be closely observed • Remain standing until you are offered a seat. • Bridle your thoughts • Listen with animation q Be mindful of physical appearance q Show Enthusiasm Approach the question of salary cautiously Do not talk too much Never create a situation where you keep Interviewer waiting Get the interviewer to like you Job Interview Tips and Suggestions: Job interviewing never seems to get any easier . Present a positive attitude Self confidence & Be modest Tell your interviewer about your recent accomplishments and future career plans Don't interrupt the interviewer. or other objects.it's perfectly acceptable to take a moment or two to collect your thoughts • Don't smoke. selling yourself and your skills. • • 63 . • Look directly to the interviewer • Don’t argue mentally • Rid yourself of visual distractions—glasses.even when you have gone on more interviews than you can count. • Unfreeze your face – smile ! “ A man without smiling face must not open a shop” Shake hands firmly ! Depends upon occasions Listen Attentively: • Listen is not hearing • Make sure you listen to the question and take a moment to gather your thoughts before you respond. pen. eat. Take your time . chew gum. You are meeting new people. or drink.
After The Interview: q Jot down pertinent information you learned during the interview. If you interview with multiple people send each one a thank you note. take some time to drive to the office ahead of time so you know exactly where you are going and how long it will take to get there STAY CALM: During the job interview try to relax and stay as calm as possible.you will be embarrassed if you forget the question! SHOW WHAT YOU KNOW: Try to relate what you know about the company when answering questions. Maintain eye contact with the interviewer. 64 .Technical Writing Job Interview Tips: q PRACTICE q PREPARE q BE TIMELY q STAY CALM q SHOW WHAT YOU KNOW q FOLLOW UP PRACTICE: Practice answering interview questions and practice your responses to the typical job interview questions and answers most employers ask. q A day or two later. When discussing your career accomplishments match them to what the company is looking for FOLLOW UP: Always follow-up with a thank you note reiterating your interest in the position. If need be. Take a moment to regroup. send the interviewer a brief note of thanks. Providing evidence of your successes is a great way to promote your candidacy PREPARE: Prepare a response so you are ready for the question "What do you know about our company BE TIMELY: Be on time for the interview. On time means five to ten minutes early. Listen to the entire question before you answer and pay attention . Think of actual examples you can use to describe your skills. End of the Interview: q Thank your interviewer q Indicate you are interested in the job q Tactfully get an idea of when expect to hear from the company.
seems to be a very good match for my skills and interests. Please extend my thanks to Mr. I will bring to the position strong writing skills. The job. I look forward to hearing from you soon. as you presented it. Last Name: It was very enjoyable to speak with you about the assistant account executive position at the Smith Agency. Philip Ming 65 . State. The creative approach to account management that you described confirmed my desire to work with you. Vallone: Thank you for the informative and pleasant interview we had last Wednesday. Zip Code Dear Mr. assertiveness and the ability to encourage others to work cooperatively with the department. I find the position to an attractive one feel confident that my qualifications would enable me to perform the duties to everyone’s advantage. I came away from the meeting most favorably impressed with Calcutex Industries. Sincerely yours.Technical Writing Sample Thank You Letter: Your Name Your Address Date Name Title Organization Address City. Follow-up Letter to job Interview: Dear Mr. My artistic background will help me to work with artists on staff and provide me with an understanding of the visual aspects of our work. In addition to my enthusiasm. Wilson of the Servocontrol Group as well./Ms.
Technical Writing Lecture 12 Oral Presentation 66 .
stimulate their curiosity. Know your audience: q What are the notable characteristics of this audience? Curious? Inhibited? Cautious? Eager? Expert? q Does this audience respect a formal or informal style? q Does this audience value simplicity or complexity? III. Outlining the presentation: q Opening (Introduction) q Body q Closing (Conclusion) The Opening: Your opening is the most important part of your speech. II. Developing (Organizing) the Topic: Select the best organizational strategy q Problem-solution method of development q Comparison method of development q Cause-and-effect method of development q Specific-to-general method of development q General-to-specific method of development q Increasing-order-of-importance method of development V. interviewing others.Technical Writing Oral Communication is different from written communication: Listeners have one chance to hear your talk and can't "re-read" when they get confused Important of Oral Presentation: q Oral presentation is part of the professionals Career. q Use all sources of information like brainstorming. and your own background IV. q List the important questions that you want to answer in your presentation. written material. q Presenting your talent and skills q Present your ideas clearly and persuasively with self-assurance and dynamic energy. 67 . and impress them. Define Your Task q Identify the topic of your presentation q Specify the kinds and amount of information q Identify many key points that you want the audience to understand. Preparing for your presentation: I. Collecting Data: q Gather information more than you need for the presentation to build confidence. It should catch the interest of your audience.
and examples to support your theme. logic.. highlight and emphasize .” Edmund Burke q A historical events Example: “Do you remember where you were when Neil Armstrong first set foot on the moon?” q A reference from literature or the holly book The Body: q Begin the body with a statement of your theme.) Background § Motivation and Problem Statement (1-2 slides) (Why should anyone care? Most researchers overestimate how much the audience knows about the problem they are attacking. statistic. Some speakers prefer to put this at the bottom of their title slide..Technical Writing Ways to start your opening: q A rhetorical question Example: “Will colonizing outer space ever be practical?” q A dramatic story Example: Terry Fox’s attempt to run across Canada to raise money for cancer research q A quotation from a famous person Example: “Good order is the foundation of all good things.) § Related Work (0-1 slides) Cover superficially or omit. q Use analogies. q The strength of your proof will sell your ideas. Most good speakers average two minutes per slide (not counting title and outline slides).. what does all of this mean? . benefits. The closing: § Plan your closing as you planned your opening. testimony. § Review. recommendations § Draw conclusions . what's the next step? A Generic Talk Outline: This talk outline is a starting point. because what you say in the closing is what your audience is most likely to remember.key points. q Then state all the evidence and proof necessary to support your theme statement.where are we? . refer people to your paper 68 § § § . (Audiences like predictability. stories. § It is as important as the opening. not a rigid template.. Methods (1 slide) Cover quickly in short talks. and thus use about a dozen slides for a twenty minute presentation A Generic Talk Outline Continue: § § Title/author/affiliation (1 slide) Forecast (1 slide) Give gist of problem attacked and insight found (What is the one idea you want people to leave with? This is the "abstract" of an oral presentation.) Outline (1 slide) Give talk structure. refer people to your paper.
) VI. cover key result well. pie graph. bar graph. This is main body of the talk. Its internal structure varies greatly as a function of the researcher's contribution.means of representing successions of events organizational chart . organizational chart q q q q q q q table .can represent numerical qualities line graph . Do not just present numbers. the end products will be more effective: 1) Make it BIG 2) Keep it Simple 3) Make it Clear 4) Be Consistent Select types of visual aids well matched to the needs of your audience with respect to specific portions of your presentation. (Likely question areas: ideas glossed over. Select Visuals Aid: Identify the purpose of your visual aid § to clarify a key point § to provide an illustrative example § to model § to summarize Select Visuals Aid Continue: If you pay attention to these four concept as you put the visuals together.Technical Writing § § § § Results (4-6 slides) Present key results and key insights. Do not put up large tables of numbers.effective for depicting the composition of a whole diagram .shows how one quantify changes as a function of change in another quantity pie graph . flow chart. Backup Slides (0-3 slides) Optionally have a few slides ready (not counted in your talk total) to answer expected questions. diagram. Examples: Table.usually depicts hierarchical arrangement 69 . and future work.good for presenting groups of detailed facts bar graph .similar to a drawing but relies upon symbols flow chart . shortcomings of methods or results. interpret them to give insights. (Do not superficially cover all results. line graph.) Summary (1 slide) Future Work (0-1 slides) Optionally give problems this research opens up.
Technical Writing Bar graph: 100 80 60 40 20 0 East West North Organizational chart: Pie graph: Production per year 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 Select presentation vehicles: q Overhead q Chalkboard q Hand-out q Slides q Model q Computer screen q Poster 70 .
Practice your presentation: q Maintain eye contact with the audience. 71 . slow down. § don't block visual aids Be sensible about transparencies: q The optimal number 6-10 per 10 minutes talk q Avoid transparencies with 1 or 2 lines. the more at ease they feel when they give their presentation.Technical Writing Critique your visual aid: q Is it large enough to be easily seen or is it too small and detailed? q Is the contrast/color effective or distracting? q Does it clarify a difficult concept or introduce confusion? q Is the visual aid necessary or superfluous? VII. colleagues. q Eye contact gives l self-confidence l feedback (speed up. This probably is not the proper forum for a debate but I’ll be happy to discuss the matter with you in private. q Avoid jam-packed transparencies q Text to be concise and self-explanatory Most people find the more they practice. Questions from the floor: q Let questioner finish the question q Be prepare to rephrase the question q Keep the answer short q Deflect hostile questions and Never argue with questioner Example: I am sorry. q Maintain appropriate voice volume. but it appears we have a difference of opinion. § taking deep breaths § distributing weight equally on both feet § Use Body Language Effectively: relaxed gestures. repeat your self) q Keep body movement quiet and natural. q Avoid wearing distracting clothing or accessories. eye contact. q Maintain a constant rate of speech Practice your presentation Continue: § won’t be able to duplicate the real audience stress. don't play with a pen or pointer. § Avoid being nervous by: § Practice in front of classmates. family or friends.
Discussion: Were questions answered accurately. carefully prepared? ___5. was necessary background given. was a course of action proposed? ___6. Visual Aids: Were visual aids used effectively and appropriately. Organization: Was there a clear organization. up to date? ___4. was the supporting material relevant. did the organization lead to a clear conclusion? ___3. expreesions used ___7. Conclusion: Were key points reinforced. did they speak clearly. Delivery: Were the speakers natural. was a sense of closure provided.Technical Writing Group Presentation Evaluation Form: Rate the Group Presentation (5= Excellent. Content: Did the group support their points. was a clear purpose conveyed ___2. were appropriate gestures. if appropriate. Group Number:____ Group Topic:________________________________ ____1. effectively? ___8. were transitions between sections clear and effective. 1= Poor NA= not applicable) Comments would be very helpful. Introduction: Did the introduction capture your interest. clearly. enthusiastic. posture. Overall Rating General Comments (use back): 72 .
Technical Writing Lecture 13 Progress Report 73 .
informal report to someone within your organization n Letter--A short. q A progress report describes the status of an ongoing project. the progress report can take the following forms: n Memo--A short. formal report sent to someone outside your organization 74 . your bosses will want you to keep track of the progress you are making on your work. however. informal report sent to someone outside your organization n Formal report--A long. and that you will finish on time.Technical Writing Progress Report: When you have a job with a company or any organization. They may have a form for this. what went wrong? How has the problem been corrected? How long will it take to get back on schedule? q Are there any unexpected problems (other than schedule problems)? q When do you anticipate completion? Basic layout: q 2 – 3 pages q Single spaced Format of Progress Report: Depending on the size of the progress report. or q to explain problems and to request assistance or guidance q Force you to establish a work schedule so that you'll complete the project on time. or they may expect you to complete a memo. are written upon completion of a certain stage Goal of Progress Report: q Progress reports are written to provide information about the way a project is developing q to convince your audience that you are making progress. One way for them to do this is to ask you to write a progress report. q Progress reports range in size from single-page blank forms to documents running to sixty or seventy pages. q Some progress reports are written when an unexpected breakthrough occurs or when a project falls under new administration q Most. and the recipient. Audience: n Instructors n Supervisor n Associates n Customers What Should progress Report Include: Successful progress reports answer the following questions q How much has been accomplished since the last report? q Is the project on schedule? q If not. the length and importance of the project. that it's the proper progress.
References: n List all the references you used Assignment: Write a progress report for your formal report 75 . Introduction II. Discussion ( Project description ): 2 possibilities for subheadings in this section n Option #1-Chronological organization – Work Completed – Work in Progress – Work Remaining n Option #2-Topical organization – Task #1 – Task #2 – Task #3 Whichever organization you choose. n Reassure the reader that you are adhering to the schedule and that the project will be completed on time. n Emphasize the benefits of the final report. Discussion III. date the project is scheduled to be completed n People or organization working on the project n People or organization for whom the project is being done n Overview of the contents of the progress report II. provide a detailed discussion of your progress. Conclusion: n Briefly summarize your progress. III. Introduction: n Purpose of the project n Specific objectives of the project n Scope.Technical Writing Organization of the Progress Report: q Headings q Body I. of the project n Date the project began. n Relate back to the originally proposed schedule and deadline. Conclusion q References Heading: To: Name of your advisor From: Your name Subject: The subject of your proposal Date: date of submission Body: I. or limits.
Technical Writing Lecture 14 Research and the Internet 76 .
and Snap access the greatest percentage of the World Wide Web--only around 15-16%. © Use words like AND and OR to limit your search and get more specified information. © Refine your search whenever possible. but finding quality web materials and using them to your advantage in your writing can be challenging. ° Hotbot. 77 . © Google. ° Yahoo and AltaVista will help you to distinguish between different categories of web sites. © Unlike most print sources. © A collection of search engine links is available at the OWL web site: owl. Northern Light. © Dogpile will search through several search engines at once.Technical Writing Research and the Internet: © The Internet can be a great tool for research. Researching the Internet: © Use search engines to your advantage © Identify the web site © Examine for credibility © Determine depth and scope of information © Assess date of information Types of web pages: © Informative pages © Personal web pages © Political/interest group pages © Marketing-oriented pages © Entertainment pages What is a search engine? © A search engine is an Internet tool that locates web pages and sorts them according to specified keywords. Why do we need to evaluate web sources? © Virtually any person can publish almost anything on the Internet. Types of search engines: © Yahoo and Alta Vista are the most useful search engines for beginning searches. locates information based upon the popularity of the site.english.purdue. Limit your keyword search: © It is a good idea to read the directions for each search engine to get the most out of your search.edu Use search engines to your advantage: © Pick the right search engine for your research needs. web sources do not have to be professionally accepted and edited to be published. however.
gov . but not necessarily the facts.edu .net . ° some personal sites are used to express individual opinions about issues.au . © Who is the author of the site? © What is the authority or expertise of the individual or group? © What else comes up when you type the author’s name into a search engine? © Does the source have a political or business agenda? © Is the site sponsored by a political or business group? If so. try to locate the home page. and purpose of the web site. . © This is important because ° many web sources are not checked for accuracy. © Whenever possible. © Sometimes the actual purpose of the web site may not be clearly articulated.uk © Who is the creator of the site? © What is the purpose of the site? © Who is the audience of this site? © Can you purchase products at this site? © Is the site affiliated with a business or university? © Does the site offer idiosyncratic information about a particular person or group? Examine for credibility: © Credibility may be compromised by purposeful misinformation or by unintentional neglect. © Can be difficult to separate advertising from accurate information. © Credentials may be missing even if the author’s name is provided. what can you find out about that group? © Does the site provide a list of sources or a Works Cited page? © Can you locate any of the source material? How reliable is this material? © Are there links to other credible sites with additional information? © Does the site provide a link for emailing the author or webmaster? 78 .com .us . © Some marketing sites will offer misleading information in attempts to sell their products. © You can often do this by eliminating some information from the end of the URL.Technical Writing Identify the web site: © Assess the authorship.org . © Locating the name of the site’s creator may be challenging. content.
© Sometimes web sources may not be the right sources for the information you need.Technical Writing Determine depth and scope of information: © Does the material show signs of research. Assess date of information: © Can you locate a date on the web page? © Dates on web pages can mean: ° Date the author first wrote or developed the material ° Date site was first available on the Internet for public access ° Date site was most recently updated. colors. footnotes. hyperlinks. or subtractions to the material Evaluating web sources: © Use search engines to your advantage © Identify the web site © Examine for credibility © Determine depth and scope of information © Assess date of information Assignment: Write lab report using the format you learned in the lab report presentation 79 . additions. ° Material may be affected by marketing or political bias. ° Information may not provide sufficient depth or scope. or a reference page? © Does the author consider opposing points of view? © How closely does the site really match the information for which you are searching? © Corroborate information whenever possible! Are there a lot of flashy pictures. such as references to other sources. and logos designed to attract attention? Do these eye-catching images distract you from noticing a lack of credible information? Do they disguise an attempt to get you to buy something? © Different from print sources: ° Information covered on web pages is often presented for easy digestion and visual appeal. animated images. including revisions.
Technical Writing Lecture 15 Presentation on Ethics in Business and Society 80 .
effective. Non-Ethical Values are concerned with things that we like or find personally satisfying and/or important. Psychology professor Steven Davis says that cheating by high school students has increased from about 20 percent in the 1940’s to 75 percent today." "Ethics consists of the standards of behavior our society accepts. Integrity If integrity is second to any of the alternatives. Why talk about ethics? Why talk about ethics? In the aftermath of major corporate failures and questionable accounting practices. "What does ethics mean to you?" Among their replies were the following: "Ethics has to do with what my feelings tell me is right or wrong. then it is subject to sacrifice in situations where a choice must be made. Wealth B. “Students say cheating in high school is for grades. or desirable. a vital question must be asked: What is your highest aspiration? A. The ultimate true test of our character is when we are willing to do the right thing even when it is not in our best interest to do so." "Being ethical is doing what the law requires. Our values shape our attitudes and determines how we will behave in certain situations.” 81 . American Accounting Association President G. what has long been a mainstay of accountants’ reputation In a recent Wall Street Journal article.Technical Writing What Is Ethics? A few years ago. Such situations will inevitably occur in every person’s life. Fame C." "Ethics has to do with my religious beliefs. with no regard to the moral content. Knowledge D. Popularity E. cheating in college is for a career. the things we value the most. Peter Wilson said that in the classroom. and what it might look like. it's important to distinguish the difference between ethics and values . sociologist Raymond Baumhart asked business people. educators need to increasingly emphasize the value of integrity. These are the values that drive our principles. Ethics is about the way we treat one another and is an action concept that dictates how we choose to live our lives." "I don't know what the word means In order to understand what ethics is. When evaluating one’s goals and objectives. Ethical Values Vs. VALUES: Refers to our core beliefs or desires . Non-Ethical Values: Ethical Values directly relate to our beliefs concerning our moral duty as opposed to what is correct.
Convicted inside trader. faculty and staff have a responsibility for creating an academic environment that promotes honest academic inquiry and teaches students ethical behavior in the process.” In his best-seller. Principles Article I: In carrying out their responsibilities as professionals. Air Force Academy: "We Will Not Lie. The Closing of the American Mind.g. George Washington’s Farewell Address. in a Fortune magazine article wrote: Many institutions of higher education have instituted policies regarding ethics education. religion and morality are indispensable supports… Reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in the exclusion of religious principle. Allan Bloom says that the eternal conflict between good and evil has been replaced with “I’m okay. then there should be little surprise that they lack ethics in their careers. Nor Tolerate Among Us Anyone Who Does" -. September 17. “To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society. etc.” Students unthinkingly embrace a blind tolerance in which they consider it “moral” never to think they are right because that mean someone else is wrong. e. Steal Or Cheat. Dennis Levine.4.) 4.S. 1796 82 . [Allan Bloom.11 Note: Scores are based on a scale from 1: Strongly Agree to 5: Strongly Disagree American Institute of CPAs Code of Professional Conduct. moral and religious foundations of society.Technical Writing If students lack ethics in high school and college. members should exercise sensitive professional and moral judgments in all their activities. The basis for ethics and personal integrity should be discussed (e.” Only 36 percent thought that the nation’s problems were “primarily economic.g. The importance of ethics and personal integrity should be stressed in the courses I teach. the Faculty Handbook of the Mays Business School at Texas A&M University includes the following statement: “Therefore.75 2.” Can ethics be taught? Teddy Roosevelt said. Simon and Schuster. 187 professors responded to several statements about teaching ethics: 1. Is there an ethics crisis in America? One recent national election day poll indicated that 56 percent of voters thought that America’s problems are “primarily moral and social.Which do you think is the harder part: Line 1 or Line 2? Why? What do profs think? In a survey of college faculty. For example.” Educational Institutions have established ethics codes for their students. The Closing of the American Mind. you’re okay. Inc. 1987] Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity. benefit to society as a whole. New York. Greed and over-reaching ambition often end in disastrous personal consequences. the U.
" Where Do We Start? Upon What Can We Agree? Whether we derive a code of ethics from religious beliefs. respect for others. public spiritedness. and accountability. responsible citizenship. Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. they ignore the teaching of values. describes the “Ten Universal Values: “Honesty. in Chapter 1 of Ethical Issues in the Practice of Accounting. that among these are life. respect for others and for the law.Technical Writing “We have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. it was commonly accepted that universities were to provide students not only with knowledge and skills.” Business Prof Geoffrey Lantos 83 . promise keeping. President John Adams. however. 1789 “God who gave us life gave us liberty. Can the liberties of a nation be secure when we have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of God?” “Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just. Davy Crockett 1786-1836 A nation or a culture cannot endure for long unless it is undergirded by common values such as valor. For moral or ethical education to have meaning there must be agreement on the values that are considered “right. but also moral guidance based on the essentials of the our tradition. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights. Against the Night Michael Josephson. fairness. caring. integrity. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. fidelity. pursuit of excellence. Chuck Colson. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other. or personal experience and observation: We can all agree upon some basic values. James Brackner stated: The universities are responding with an increased emphasis on ethical training for decision making. that His justice cannot sleep forever. then go ahead.” Thomas Jefferson Declaration of Independence The second paragraph of America's founding document states: "We hold these truths to be self-evident. In an issue of Management Accounting. It cannot stand unless it is populated by people who will act on the motives superior to their own immediate interest. For the most part.” “Until about 50 years ago. that all men are created equal. a study of history and literature.” Be sure you are right.
Technical Writing If we want to produce people who share the values of a democratic culture.” Abraham Lincoln Do you think this relates to line 2 of the U. Cal Thomas.S. Japanese proverb 84 .A. they must be taught those values and not be left to acquire them by chance.F. The Death of Ethics in America Can you make a difference? “To sin by silence when they should protest makes cowards of men. Academy Code of Honor? The reputation of a thousand years may be determined by the conduct of one hour.