This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Introduction to Nano-materials
**

As part of ECE-758 – Introduction

to Nanotechnology

2

Outline

• What is “nano-material” and why we are

interested in it?

• Ways lead to the realization of nano-materials

• Optical and electronic properties of nano-

materials

• Applications

3

What is “nano-material” ?

• Narrow definition: low dimension semiconductor

structures including quantum wells, quantum

wires, and quantum dots

• Unlike bulk semiconductor material, artificial

structure in nanometer scale (from a few nm’s to

a few tens of nm’s, 1nm is about 2 mono-

layers/lattices) must be introduced in addition to

the “naturally” given semiconductor crystalline

structure

4

Why we are interested in “nano-material”?

• Expecting different behavior of electrons in their

transport (for electronic devices) and correlation

(for optoelectronic devices) from conventional

bulk material

5

Stages from free-space to nano-material

• Free-space

SchrÖdinger equation in free-space:

Solution:

Electron behavior: plane wave

,... 3 , 2 , 1 , / 2 = = l L l k

t

1

) / (

Et r k i

k

e

÷

= ¢

0

2 2

2

| |

m

k

E

=

t r t r

t

i

m

, ,

2

0

)

2

(

¢ ¢

c

c

= V ÷

6

Stages from free-space to nano-material

• Bulk semiconductor

SchrÖdinger equation in bulk semiconductor:

Solution:

Electron behavior: Bloch wave

t r t r

t

i r V

m

, , 0

2

0

)] (

2

[

¢ ¢

c

c

= + V ÷

) ( ) (

0 0

R l r V r V

+ =

r

e

r V

c

2

0

) ( ÷ =

k n e

Et r k i

k n

) / ( ÷

= ¢

eff

m

k

E

2

| |

2 2

=

7

Stages from free-space to nano-material

• Nano-material

SchrÖdinger equation in nano-material:

with artificially generated extra potential contribution:

Solution:

t r t r nano

t

i r V r V

m

, , 0

2

0

)] ( ) (

2

[

¢ ¢

c

c

= + + V ÷

) (r V

nano

k n r F e

k n

iEt

k n

) (

,

/ ÷

= ¢

8

Stages from free-space to nano-material

Electron behavior:

Quantum well – 1D confined and in parallel plane 2D

Bloch wave

Quantum wire – in cross-sectional plane 2D confined and

1D Bloch wave

Quantum dot – all 3D confined

9

A summary on electron behavior

• Free space

– plane wave with inherent electron mass

– continued parabolic dispersion (E~k) relation

– density of states in terms of E: continues square root

dependence

• Bulk semiconductor

– plane wave like with effective mass, two different type of

electrons identified with opposite sign of their effective mass,

i.e., electrons and holes

– parabolic band dispersion (E~k) relation

– density of states in terms of E: continues square root

dependence, with different parameters for electrons/holes in

different band

10

A summary on electron behavior

• Quantum well

– discrete energy levels in 1D for both electrons and holes

– plane wave like with (different) effective masses in 2D parallel

plane for electrons and holes

– dispersion (E~k) relation: parabolic bands with discrete states

inside the stop-band

– density of states in terms of E: additive staircase functions, with

different parameters for electrons/holes in different band

• Quantum wire

– discrete energy levels in 2D cross-sectional plane for both

electrons and holes

– plane wave like with (different) effective masses in 1D for

electrons and holes

– dispersion (E~k) relation: parabolic bands with discrete states

inside the stop-band

– density of states in terms of E: additive staircase decayed

functions, with different parameters for electrons/holes in

different band

11

A summary on electron behavior

• Quantum dot

– discrete energy levels for both electrons and holes

– dispersion (E~k) relation: atomic-like k-independent discrete

energy states only

– density of states in terms of E: o-functions for electrons/holes

12

Why we are interested in “nano-material”?

Electrons in semiconductors: highly mobile, easily

transportable and correlated, yet highly

scattered in terms of energy

Electrons in atomic systems: highly regulated in

terms of energy, but not mobile

13

Why we are interested in “nano-material”?

Electrons in semiconductors: easily controllable

and accessible, yet poor inherent performance

Electrons in atomic systems: excellent inherent

performance, yet hardly controllable or

accessible

14

Why we are interested in “nano-material”?

• Answer: take advantage of both semiconductors

and atomic systems – Semiconductor quantum

dot material

15

Why we are interested in “nano-material”?

• Detailed reasons:

– Geometrical dimensions in the artificial structure can be tuned to

change the confinement of electrons and holes, hence to tailor

the correlations (e.g., excitations, transitions and

recombinations)

– Relaxation and dephasing processes are slowed due to the

reduced probability of inelastic and elastic collisions (much

expected for quantum computing, could be a drawback for light

emitting devices)

– Definite polarization (spin of photons are regulated)

– (Coulomb) binding between electron and hole is increased due

to the localization

– Increased binding and confinement also gives increased

electron-hole overlap, which leads to larger dipole matrix

elements and larger transition rates

– Increased confinement reduces the extent of the electron and

hole states and thereby reduces the dipole moment

16

Ways lead to the realization of nano-material

• Required nano-structure size:

Electron in fully confined structure (QD with edge size d), its allowed

(quantized) energy (E) scales as 1/d

2

(infinite barrier assumed)

Coulomb interaction energy (V) between electron and other charged

particle scales as 1/d

If the confinement length is so large that V>>E, the Coulomb interaction

mixes all the quantized electron energy levels and the material

shows a bulk behavior, i.e., the quantization feature is not preserved

for the same type of electrons (with the same effective mass), but

still preserved among different type of electrons, hence we have

(discrete) energy bands

If the confinement length is so small that V<<E, the Coulomb

interaction has little effect on the quantized electron energy levels,

i.e., the quantization feature is preserved, hence we have discrete

energy levels

17

Ways lead to the realization of nano-material

• Required nano-structure size:

Similar arguments can be made about the effects of

temperature, i.e., k

B

T ~ E?

But k

B

T doesn’t change the electron eigen states, instead,

it changes the excitation, or the filling of electrons into

the eigen energy structure

If k

B

T>E, even E is a discrete set, temperature effect still

distribute electrons over multiple energy levels and dilute

the concentration of the density of states provided by the

confinement, since E can never be a single energy level

Therefore, we also need k

B

T<E!

18

Ways lead to the realization of nano-material

• Required nano-structure size:

The critical size is, therefore, given by V(d

c

)=E(d

c

)>k

B

T (25meV at room

temperature).

For typical III-V semiconductor compounds, d

c

~10nm-100nm (around

20 to 200 mono-layers).

More specifically, if d

c

<10nm, full quantization, if d

c

>100nm, full bulk

(mix-up).

On the other hand, d

c

must be large enough to ensure that at least one

electron or one electron plus one hole (depending on applications)

state are bounded inside the nano-structure.

19

Ways lead to the realization of nano-material

• Current technologies

– Top-down approach: patterning ÷ etching ÷

re-growth

– Bottom-top approach: patterning ÷ etching ÷

selective-growth

– Uneven substrate growth: edge overgrowth,

V-shape growth, interface QD, etc.

– Self-organized growth: most successful

approach so far

20

Electronic Properties

• Ballistic transport – a result of much reduced

electron-phonon scattering, low temperature

mobility in QW (in-plane direction) reaches a

rather absurd value ~10

7

cm

2

/s-V, with

corresponding mean free path over 100µm

• Resulted effect – electrons can be steered,

deflected and focused in a manner very similar

to optics, as an example, Young’s double slit

diffraction was demonstrated on such platform

21

Electronic Properties

• Low dimension tunneling – as a collective effect

of multiple nano-structures, resonance appears

due to the “phase-matching” requirement

• Resulted effect – stair case like I-V

characteristics, on the down-turn side, negative

resistance shows up

22

Electronic Properties

• If excitation (charging) itself is also quantized

(through, e.g., Coulomb blockade), interaction

between the excitation quantization and the

quantized eigen states (i.e., the discrete energy

levels in nano-structure) brings us into a

completely discrete regime

• Resulted effect – a possible platform to

manipulate single electron to realize various

functionalities, e.g., single electron transistor

(SET) for logical gate or memory cell

23

Optical Properties

• Discretization of energy levels increases the

density of states

• Resulted effect – enhances narrow band

correlation, such as electron-hole recombination;

for QD lasers, the threshold will be greatly

reduced

24

Optical Properties

• Discretization of energy levels reduces

broadband correlation

• Resulted effect – reduces relaxation and

dephasing, reduces temperature dependence;

former keeps the electrons in coherence, which

is very much needed in quantum computing;

latter reduces device performance temperature

dependence (e.g., QD laser threshold and

efficiency, QD detector sensitivity, etc.)

25

Optical Properties

• Quantized energy level dependence on size

(geometric dimension)

• Resulted effect – tuning of optical

gain/absorption spectrum

26

Optical Properties

• Discretization of energy levels leads to zero

dispersion at the gain peak

• Resulted effect – reduces chirp, a very much

needed property in dynamic application of

optoelectronic devices (e.g., optical modulators

or directly modulated lasers)

27

Applications

• Light source - QD lasers, QC (Quantum

Cascade) lasers

• Light detector – QDIP (Quantum Dot Infrared

Photo-detector)

• Electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) – to

obtain transparent highly dispersive materials

• Ballistic electron devices

• Tunneling electron devices

• Single electron devices

28

References

• Solid State Physics – C. Kittel, “Introduction to Solid State Physics”,

Springer, ISBN: 978-0-471-41526-8

• Basic Quantum Mechanics – L. Schiff, “Quantum Mechanics”, 3

rd

Edition, McGraw Hill, 1967, ISBN-0070856435

• On nano-material electronic properties – W. Kirk and M. Reed,

“Nanostructures and Mesoscopic Systems”, Academic Press, 1991,

ISBN-0124096603

• On nano-material and device fabrication techniques – T. Steiner,

“Semiconductor Nanostructures for Optoelectronic Applications”,

Artech House, 2004, ISBN-1580537510

• On nano-material optical properties – G. Bryant and G. Solomon,

“Optics of Quantum Dots and Wires”, Artech House, 2005, ISBN-

1580537618

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Nanomaterials & Nanotechnology Course
- Nanomaterials
- Nano Materials
- Nano Materials
- Density of States
- Density of States
- 04 Generation - Recombination
- Magnetic Anomaly in Black Hole Electrons by D. Di Mario
- Basics I Unit
- Module 3 Band Theory Part2
- AVISO SPET Therapy
- Semiconductors Bonds and Bands
- Thermionic Emission
- Chapter 3 Practice Test 4u1
- TEMP-RTD
- Mechanoluminescence 17 Summary 2
- Resul Curebal Lisans Tezi 2
- a1 2009 Jan Aqa Phya1 w Qp Jan09
- Fardi622014JSRR14434_1
- Ch 14. Electronic Spectroscopy.pdf
- CHM3010_Basic Quantum Theory 1 Sem 1 09-10
- Full Syllabus Test-1
- Light Emitting Polymer
- PHY 122
- Notes Quantum
- Notes Quantum 7
- The unified hypothesis of gravity, magnetism, gravitism, electromagnetic radiation, time and consciousness by Pal Sahota
- Thermal Radiation Processes
- Section 1
- CUSAT CAT Sample Paper-2 - Maths-phy-che
- NST 621 Nanomaterials.ppt