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PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN MODELS FOR CYLINDERS: 1. Thick-walled Cylinders 2. Thin-walled Cylinders THICK-WALL THEORY • Thick-wall theory is developed from the Theory of Elasticity which yields the state of stress as a continuous function of radius over the pressure vessel wall. The state of stress is defined relative to a convenient cylindrical coordinate system: 1. σ t — Tangential Stress 2. σ r — Radial Stress 3. σ l — Longitudinal Stress • • Stresses in a cylindrical pressure vessel depend upon the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius ( ro / ri ) rather than the size of the cylinder. Principal Stresses ( σ 1 , σ 2 , σ 3 ) 1. Determined without computation of Mohr’s Circle; 2. Equivalent to cylindrical stresses ( σ t , σ r , σ l ) • Applicable for any wall thickness-to-radius ratio.

Cylinder under Pressure Consider a cylinder, with capped ends, subjected to an internal pressure, pi, and an external pressure, po,

σr σt σl σ r σl

pi ri

σt

po

ro

FIGURE T4-15-1

Text Eq. refers to Mechanical Engineering Design, 7th edition text by Joseph Edward Shigley, Charles R. Mischke and Richard G. Budynas; equations and figures with the prefix T refer to the present tutorial.

†

σ l ) can be computed at any radial coordinate value. 4-50) Longitudinal Stress: • • Applicable to cases where the cylinder carries the longitudinal load. nonlinearities and stress concentrations are not significant. and will be characterized by the ratio of radii.The cylinder geometry is defined by the inside radius. These cylindrical stresses represent the principal stresses and can be computed directly using Eq. the stresses in the cylindrical pressure vessel ( σ t . Internal Pressure Only ( p o = 0 ) 2. the outside radius. such as capped ends. r. 4-50) Radial Stress: σr = pi ri2 − po ro2 + ri2 ro2 ( po − pi ) / r 2 ro2 − ri2 for ri ≤ r ≤ ro (Text Eq. σl = Two Mechanical Design Cases pi ri2 − po ro2 ro2 − ri2 for ri ≤ r ≤ ro (Modified Text Eq. Tangential Stress: σt = pi ri2 − po ro2 − ri2 ro2 ( po − pi ) / r 2 ro2 − ri2 for ri ≤ r ≤ ro (Text Eq. In general. ri . the largest value of each stress component is found at the inner surface: σ t (r = ri ) = σ t . External Pressure Only ( p i = 0 ) Design Case 1: Internal Pressure Only • • Only one case to consider — the critical section which exists at r = ri . σ r . 4-50 and 4-52. 4-52) 1. ζ = ro / ri . Thus we do not need to use Mohr’s circle to assess the principal stresses. and the cylinder length. ro . within the wall thickness bounded by ri and ro . (4-50) and incorporating ζ = ro / ri . l. Only valid far away from end caps where bending. Substituting p o = 0 into Eqs. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 2/10 .max ro2 + ri2 ζ 2 +1 = pi 2 2 = pi 2 = pi Cti ζ −1 ro − ri (T-1) Shigley.

(4-50) for each case: r = ri σ r (r = ri ) = 0 Natural Boundary Condition 2ro2 2ζ 2 = − po 2 = − poCto ζ −1 ro2 − ri2 (T-4a) σ t (r = ri ) = σ t .max = − po where. ζ 2 − 1 ro − ri σ r (r = ro ) = σ r .max = − pi • Natural Boundary Condition (T-2) Longitudinal stress depends upon end conditions: pi Cli Capped Ends Uncapped Ends (T-3a) (T-3b) σl = 0 where Cli = 1 . ζ −1 2 Design Case 2: External Pressure Only • The critical section is identified by considering the state of stress at two points on the cylinder: r = ri and r = ro. where Cti = 2 ζ − 1 ro2 − ri 2 σ r (r = ri ) = σ r .max = − po Natural Boundary Condition (T-5a) σ t (r = ro ) = − po ro2 + ri2 ζ 2 +1 = − po 2 = − poCti ζ −1 ro2 − ri2 (T-5b) • Longitudinal stress for a closed cylinder now depends upon external pressure and radius while that of an open-ended cylinder remains zero: − poClo Capped Ends Uncapped Ends (T-6a) (T-6b) σl = 0 Shigley. Cto = r = ro (T-4b) 2r 2 2ζ 2 = 2 o 2. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 3/10 . Substituting pi = 0 into Text Eqs.ζ 2 + 1 ro2 + ri 2 = is a function of cylinder geometry only.

5 mm Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 4/10 Shigley. respectively. Assume the cylinder is capped. Draw Mohr’s Circle for both states of stress and determine which provides the critical section. Eq. (T-6a) may be applied to calculate the longitudinal stress developed. Mischke & Budynas . The cylinder has a 25 mm ID and a 50 mm OD. As the cylinder is closed and exposed to external pressure only.where Clo = ζ2 . σ l ) at each radius. 5. (T-4) and (T-5) for the inner and outer radii. ζ 2 −1 Example T4. we need to compute the state of stress ( σ r . σ l ) at both the inside and outside radius in order to determine the critical section. 2. 4. Assess the principal stresses for the inner and outer radii based upon the magnitudes of ( σ r . 2. 3. 1. Solution Methodology: Since we have an external pressure case. the state of stress ( σ r .5 mm 2 2 Compute the radius ratio. 3.1: Thick-wall Cylinder Analysis Problem Statement: Consider a cylinder subjected to an external pressure of 150 MPa and an internal pressure of zero. the Mohr’s Circle plot for the inside and outside cylinder surfaces. Assess the radial and tangential stresses using Eqs. Use the principal stresses to calculate the maximum shear stress at each radius. the critical section based upon the estimate of τ max .15. Solution: 1. Find: 1. respectively. This result represents the average stress across the wall of the pressure vessel and thus may be used for both the inner and outer radii analyses. σ t . Longitudinal Stress Calculation: ro = OD 50 mm = = 25 mm . σ l ) at the inner and outer cylinder surfaces. σ t . ζ ζ = ro 25 mm = = 2.0 ri 12. σ t . 2 2 ri = ID 25 mm = = 12.

max = − po 2 2 = − poCto = (−150 MPa)(2.min = − po σ t (r = ro ) = −250 MPa Compressive σ r (r = ri ) = − po = −150 MPa Natural Boundary Condition 3. Define Principal Stresses: Inner Radius (r = ri ) Outer Radius (r = ro ) σ 1 = σ r = 0 MPa σ 2 = σ l = −200 MPa σ 3 = σ t = −400 MPa 4.Then.3333 mm 2 2 2 ζ − 1 (2) − 1 ζ2 = − poClo = (−150MPa)(1. ζ2 (2) 2 = = 1.3333 mm 2 ) σ l (r = ri ) = σ l (r = ro ) = − po 2 ζ −1 σ l = −200 MPa Clo = 2.6667 ζ − 1 (2) 2 − 1 2ro2 σ t (r = ri ) = σ t .6667) ro − ri σt (r = ri ) = −400 MPa Compressive σ r (r = ri ) = 0 Natural Boundary Condition for pi = 0 Outer Radius (r = ro) Cti = ζ 2 + 1 (2)2 + 1 = = 1.6667) ro2 − ri 2 σ t (r = ro ) = σ t . Maximum Shear Stress Calculations: Inner Radius (r = ri ) τ max (r = ri ) = σ 1 = σ r = −150 MPa σ 2 = σ l = −200 MPa σ 3 = σ t = −250 MPa σ 1 − σ 3 0 − (−400) = = 200 MPa 2 2 5/10 Shigley. Radial & Tangential Stress Calculations: Inner Radius (r = ri) 2ζ 2 2(2) 2 Cto = 2 = = 2. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design .6667 ζ 2 − 1 (2) 2 − 1 ro2 + ri 2 = − poCti = (−150 MPa)(1.

Outer Radius (r = ro ) τ max (r = ro ) = σ 1 − σ 3 (−150) − (−250) = = 50 MPa 2 2 5. Mohr’s Circles: Inner Radius (r = ri ) τ FIGURE T4-15-2 τ max = 200 MPa σ 3 = -400 MPa σ 2 = -200 MPa σ 1 = 0 MPa σ Outer Radius (r = ro ) τ FIGURE T4-15-3 σ 3 = -250 MPa σ 1 = −150 MPa • τmax = 50 MPa σ σ 2 = -200 MPa Critical Section τ max ( r = ri ) = 200 MPa ⇐ Critical Section is at Inside Radius! Shigley. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 6/10 .

σ r . This approximation for the longitudinal stress is only valid far away from the end-caps. Hoop Stress. Use restricted by wall thickness-to-radius ratio: t 1 ¾ According to theory. 4. σ r 0. σ l S S S • Exists for cylinders with capped ends. assumed to be uniform across wall thickness. Longitudinal Stress. • Analysis of Cylinder Section FIGURE T4-15-4 di t FV 1 FHoop Pressure Acting over Projected Vertical Area FHoop Shigley. 3.THIN-WALL THEORY • • Thin-wall theory is developed from a Strength of Materials solution which yields the state of stress as an average over the pressure vessel wall. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 7/10 . Thin-wall Theory is justified for ≤ r 20 t 1 ¾ In practice. ≤ r 10 State of Stress Definition: 1. σ l ) are principal stresses (σ t . σ t . typically use a less conservative rule. σ l ) which can be determined without computation of Mohr’s circle plot. 2. thus. Radial Stress is insignificant compared to tangential stress. Assumed to be uniformly distributed across wall thickness. σ r . These cylindrical stresses (σ t .

Find: The percent difference of the maximum shear stress estimates found using the Thick-wall and Thin-wall Theories.15.4-55) σl = pdi σ t = 4t 2 External Pressure Only pd o 2t σr = 0 σt = Hoop Stress By Definition Capped Case σl = pd o σ t = 4t 2 Example T4. 4-53) Comparison of state of stress for cylinder under internal pressure verses external pressure: Internal Pressure Only pdi 2t σr = 0 σt = Hoop Stress By Definition Capped Case (Text Eq. FV.2: Thin-wall Theory Applied to Cylinder Analysis Problem Statement: Repeat Example T1. FV = pA proj = p{( d i )(1)} = pd i FHoop = σ t Astressed = σ t {(t )(1)} = σ t t ¦ Fy = 0 = FV − 2 FHoop = pd i − 2σ t t Solving for the tangential stress. Shigley. pd i 2t σt = • Hoop Stress (Text Eq. FHoop. pi = 0.1 using the Thin-wall Theory (po = 150 MPa.The internal pressure exerts a vertical force. on the cylinder wall which is balanced by the tangential hoop stress. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 8/10 . OD = 50 mm). ID = 25 mm.

Longitudinal Stress (average stress. uniform across wall) −p d σ σ l = o o = t = −150 MPa 4t 2 3. Radial Stress σ r = 0 by definition c. a. Maximum Shear Stress Calculation: τ max = σ 1 − σ 3 0 − (−300 MPa ) = = +150 MPa 2 2 5. Use the principal stresses to assess the maximum shear stress. Compute stresses using the Thin-wall Theory to compare with Thickwall theory estimates. Calculate the percent difference between the maximum shear stresses derived using the Thick-wall and Thin-wall Theories. Identify Principal Stresses in terms of “Average” Stresses: σ 1 = σ r = 0 MPa σ 2 = σ l = −150 MPa σ 3 = σ t = −300 MPa 4. Check t/r ratio to determine if Thin-wall Theory is applicable.5 mm 1 = = ² r 25 mm 2 Solution: 1.and Thick-wall Estimates for the Critical Section: Shigley.5 mm) b. 2. 2. uniform across wall) − po d o − (150 MPa )(50 mm) σt = = = −300 MPa 2t 2(12. Hoop Stress (average stress.Solution Methodology: 1. t 12. Check t/r Ratio: 1 20 or 1 10 The application of Thin-wall Theory to estimate the stress state of this cylinder is thus not justified. Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 9/10 . 3. 4. Use the Thin-wall Theory to compute the state of stress Identify the principal stresses based upon the stress magnitudes. 5. Percent Difference between Thin.

Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 10/10 .Thick ∗100% τ max.Thick (+150) − (+200) ∗ (100%) = −25% (+200) Thin -wall estimate is 25% low! ⇐ Shigley.Thin − τ max.% Difference = = τ max.

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