Women of the Metis Nation

Editor: Lawrence J. Barkwell Third Edition 2014

A Nation cannot be defeated until the hearts of its women are on the ground.
Tsistsistas: Cheyenne proverb

This book is dedicated to the memory of Ann Ferguson Charter ( !"#$%&&'( ) *orraine Freeman ( !'"$%&&'(

© 2009 Lawrence Barkwell All rights reserved. o !art o" this reso#rce covered $% the co!%rights hereon &a% $e re!rod#ced or #sed in an% "or& or $% an% &eans'gra!hic( electronic( or &echanical' witho#t the !rior written !er&ission o" the !#$lisher. An% re)#est "or !hotoco!%ing( digiti*ing( recording( ta!ing( or in"or&ation storage and retrieval s%ste&s "or an% !art o" this reso#rce shall $e directed in writing to the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te. The !roceeds "ro& the sale o" this $ook s#!!ort the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te Little -etis Learning .ircle /rogra&s( the -ar% 0#il$a#lt -etis B#rsar% /rogra& and the work o" the -etis 1eritage 2 +eso#rce .entre.

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Women of the Metis nation / edited by Lawrence J. Bar well ! foreword by "haron Conway ! artwor by Leah Marie #orion. $"B% &'()*)&(*&&+,)-). +. M/tis women))Biogra0hy. $. Bar well1 Lawrence J.1 +&2.) $$. #orion1 Leah1 +&'*) $$$. Louis 3iel $nstitute 4C+*&.+.A+W52 ,*+* &'+.**26&'**&,, C,**&)&*'2.&)'

+econd ,dition %& %

.over art $% Leah 3orion( /rince Al$ert( 4askatchewan 5ont cover: 6/icking 4askatoons7 Back cover: 68ision 9#est7 5ro& the 6.o#ntr% :ives: -etis :o&en o" this Land7 series. 0ra!hic design $% Ji& Jero&e

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A !hotogra!h o" 8eroni)#e 3#&ont( 0a$riel and -adeleine 3#&ont;s ado!ted da#ghter. /hotogra!h co#rtes% o" Llo%d 1a&ilton( her grandson.

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Tea& 4askatchewan 4enior :o&en;s 8olle%$all tea&( silver &edalists at the 1992 A,0. This tea& won gold &edals d#ring the three !revio#s orth A&erican ,ndigeno#s 0a&es= the% retired "ro& active co&!etition a"ter the 1992 0a&es. L to +: Angela >3orion? 4inclair( 4and% 0. La"reniere( Angela /ina%@3esAarlais( Elaine La"reniere( atalie L#kiw( Leah 3orion( Lindsa% Bo*lowski( -elan% >L#kiw? To&%n( 4#san Beighle%( J#d% La"reniere >&issing? and Lewanna 3#$ra% >&issing?.

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:o&en o" the -c/herson "a&il% at Lake o" the :oods. /#$lic Archives o" -anito$a( Breland 5a&il% .ollection 1C( 1D<E4.

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-etis wo&en and children at T#rtle -o#ntain( orth 3akota /hoto co#rtes% Lin#s /oitras and the T#rtle -o#ntain 1eritage .entre.

-etis wo&en and children in 4askatchewan 4askatchewan Archives Board F<1<04@<D

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Women of the Metis Nation
Foreword
, grew #! in the T#rtle -o#ntains s#rro#nded $% &an% strong wo&en( s#ch as A#nt% 0lad%s .onwa%( A#nt% Jane >.anada? .onwa% and -rs. Alice +acine. These wo&en >and &an% others too n#&ero#s to &ention? were the $ack$one o" o#r -etis "a&il%. As a %o#ng girl( , re&e&$er visiting these ladies and listening to their stories o" the old da%s. As , grew older( &% "irst Ao$ was thanks in !art to a new generation o" strong wo&en( na&el% &% &o&( -ar% .onwa% and relative( .elia Blassen( who were the leaders o" the T#rtle -o#ntain local and strong !olitical advocates "or o#r "a&il% "or %ears. :hen , le"t ho&e( , &oved to :inni!eg and $eca&e a teacher in the ,nner .it%( tr%ing to give $ack to &% -etis co&&#nit%. A"ter working in the classroo&( , $eca&e an A$original .#rric#l#& :riter "or the :inni!eg 4chool 3ivision and wrote the B@4 4ocial 4t#dies c#rric#l#&. -% in"l#ences as a teacher and c#rric#l#& writer have s#!!orted $oth teachers; and st#dents; #nderstanding o" the -etis !eo!le. As a &other and grand&other( it is now &% res!onsi$ilit% to $e a leader "or o#r ation and , do so with the s#!!ort o" the strong -etis wo&en in &% li"e( s#ch as Leah La/lante and 0eorgina Li$ert%. , "irst $eca&e involved in the -anito$a -etis 5ederation( $% Aoining the Binew Local o" the :inni!eg +egion. , now work "or the -anito$a -etis 5ederation as the /rovincial Ed#cation .ons#ltant working on -etis Ed#cation /olic% and initiatives to s#!!ort -etis st#dents across -anito$a. As a -etis wo&an( , a& $oth !ro#d and c#rio#s as , read The Women of the Metis Nation. This collection o" $iogra!hies chronicles the stories o" historic wo&en( s#ch as 4ara +iel( "or&er leaders( s#ch as .onnie E%ol"son and c#rrent %o#ng ladies who are !ositive role &odels( s#ch as 3oris Jones. Thro#gh these stories( readers are given a #ni)#e !ers!ective o" -etis li"e and shown the acco&!lish&ents o" wo&en. This collection o" stories is a wonder"#l reso#rce "or schools. ,t can $e #sed as earl% as 0rade 4 when st#dents learn a$o#t the histor% o" -anito$a( in 0rade C and D when the% learn a$o#t the histor% o" .anada. ,t can also $e #sed in 0rades 9 and 11 when st#dents eG!lore in the 1istor% o" .anada in greater detail( s!eci"icall% looking at A$original !eo!le. , a& hono#red to $e asked to write the "oreword to this $ook. , a& !ro#d o" the acco&!lish&ents o" these wo&en( a$o#t who& the stories are told. , look "orward to "#t#re collections and those additional wo&en who will $e so right"#ll% hono#red. +es!ect"#ll%( 4haron .onwa%

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-ntroduction
Women of the Metis Nation is intended to give the reader an overview o" -etis histor% thro#gh the $iogra!hies o" a ver% diverse cross section o" orth A&erica;s -etis wo&en. :e atte&!t to correct the oversight o" !revio#s historical treat&ents which have "ailed to doc#&ent the lives o" -etis wo&en. The ancestors o" toda%;s -etis ation were the children o" the #nions $etween orth A&erican A$original &others and E#ro!ean "athers. The% develo!ed into a distinct !eo!le with a gro#! conscio#sness necessar% to !ro&ote their collective ca#ses. A -etis was not a 5rench@.anadian( nor a .anadian( nor a 4cot. either were the% 5irst ations or ,n#it. The% created "or the&selves and "#t#re generations a #ni)#e c#lt#re( a gro#! identit% and declared the&selves a 6 ew ation.7 The -etis "orged treaties and declared a Bill o" +ights that &arked this identit% as a 6 ew ation.7 -etis wo&en were integral to all endeavo#rs. -etis wo&en !la%ed i&!ortant roles in co&&ercial and do&estic !rod#ction and in the !olitical li"e o" what was to $eco&e the .anadian and A&erican orthwest. -etis wo&en were the clothing designers( doctors( !har&acists( &idwives( !eacekee!ers( teachers( artists and agric#lt#ralists. -etis wo&en were the children;s teachers and kee!ers o" the -etis lang#ages. The -etis were essential in co&&erciali*ing $oth the "#r trade with the invention o" the Hork $oat( and the $#""alo h#nt with the invention o" the +ed +iver cart. -etis wo&en ta#ght the newl% arrived E#ro@.anadian and E#ro!ean wo&en to !re!are and !reserve wild ga&e and other "oods which were needed to s#rvive the harsh winters. 4i&ilarl%( the% !rovided the clothing technolog% and ta#ght the newco&ers the techni)#es and &aterials necessar% to &ake war& and co&"orta$le clothing. :ithin this vol#&e( well@known -etis !ersonalities s#ch as writers Lo#ise Erdrich and -aria .a&!$ell as well as the #ns#ng heroes o" -etis co&&#nities and "a&ilies are doc#&ented. 3a%@to@da% events as well as historical t#rning !oints are reco#nted. Achieve&ents in the arts( s!orts and literat#re are incl#ded. The acco#nts herein cover the !ast as well as conte&!orar% -etis "ig#res s#ch as world record holding teen@age archer 3oris Jones. -an% #nna&ed individ#als have contri$#ted "a&il% stories to this co&!endi#& th#s &#ch oral histor% o" the -etis !eo!le has $een incor!orated into this $ook. The $iogra!hies are arranged al!ha$eticall% #nder the na&e o" each wo&an.
Lawrence Barkwell :inni!eg( -B

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.iographies
Augustine /ermette Abraham >$. 191I?
B% 0a$riel 3#"a#lt
A#g#stine was $orn on the <1st o" Jcto$er in 191I on a "ar& in 4aintK/ierre Jol%s -anito$a( the eldest o" a -etis "a&il% o" ten children. 1er "ather was A#g#stin 8er&ette and her &other /hilo&ene 0lad#e( a da#ghter o" E#lalie +iel a sister o" Lo#is +iel. A#g#stine;s ele&entar% schooling at Ecole 4aint@/ierre orth was "ollowed $% her attending the convent o" the 4isters o" the 1ol% a&es also in 4aint@/ierre. 4he had as!iration o" $eco&ing a schoolteacher. 1er !lans soon changed when she "ell in love with Jose!h E&ile A$raha&. The% were &arried in J#ne o" 19<D. The% settled in Jtter$#rne where her h#s$and worked at -ain on 4aint Jose!h "or ten %ears. The% then &ade 0rande /ointe their ho&e where the% raised a "a&il% o" twelve children. There the% sta%ed "or thirt%@siG %ears. Their children did well in school and several went to Lniversit%. Event#all%( a"ter a ver% di""ic#lt winter and having the o!!ort#nit% to do so the% &oved to the cit% where &an% o" her children had alread% settled. Ln"ort#natel%( a"ter onl% three %ears o" living in the cit% her h#s$and !assed awa%. The% had $een &arried "or "ort%@siG %ears. 4he eG!erienced Ao%s and sorrows: the Ao% o" a ver% !ro#d "a&il%( a care"ree %o#th( and a ha!!% &arriage. ,n s!ite o" $eing !oor( she was wealth% in having a ver% $#s% ho#sehold "illed with la#ghter and 6Aoie de vie7'Ao%s o" li"e'along with the sadness o" loosing two sons and her h#s$and. 5ollowing the &an% eGa&!les learned in her %o#th( she re&ained ver% interested in histor% either oral or written. 4he !icked #! the torch a"ter the !assing o" her "ather. 4he was elected !resident o" the Union National Metisse Saint-Joseph du Manitoba where again she t#rned her e""orts to !ro&oting not onl% the histor% o" the -etis ation $#t also that o" Lo#is +iel who was her great #ncle and to who& she alwa%s has a great res!ect and &#ch con"idence. A#g#stine was &#ch involved in the Lo#is +iel .entenar% in 19IC as well as coordinating &#ch o" the activities &arking the 100th anniversar% o" Union National Métisse in 19IE.

Anne Carri0re Acco. >$. 1940?
Anne Acco is &an% things ' a -etis wo&an( a traveller( a &other and wi"e( a researcher( a social worker( an environ&entalist( a singer( a !er"or&ance artist( and( at her ver% core( a stor%teller. 4he is &oved to tell stories.1 -etis a#thor( !oet( oral historian and ed#cator Anne Acco( is "ro& .#&$erland 1o#se( 4askatchewan. Anne was $orn on 4e!te&$er 2( 1940( the da#ghter o" Agnes ora -cBen*ie and /ierre .arriMre. 1er "ather was a h#nter( "isher and worked in nat#ral reso#rces. 1e was also a :orld :ar ,, veteran. 1is !arents were Agnes -orin and Lionel .arriMre >"ro& 0rand +a!ids?. 1er &other;s !arents were 3o#gal -cBen*ie( whose &other was "ro& JG"ord 1o#se( and 8irginia Jo#rdin "ro& ,sle N la .rosse.

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Baren 0reen( 6Looking Back: 4tor%teller 3raws on -e&or%.7 /rairie Books( o. C2( 4!ring( 2010: 1C.

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Anne has "o#r sons( two da#ghters and eleven grandchildren. 1er $est@known work is Ekosi( !#$lished in 19I9. 1er !oe& 6Eli*a$eth7 a!!eared in Canadian Woman Studies / Les cahie s de la femme. OEli*a$eth.O .anadian :o&an 4t#dies 8ol.10( 22< >4#&&erP5all 19I9?: E4. 4he was a contri$#tor to 1art&#t L#t*;s( $ook( Contempo a ! Challen"es# Con$e sations %ith Canadian Nati$e &utho s >4askatoon: 5i"th 1o#se /#$lishers( 1991?( 1art&#t L#t* >Ed.? 'ou 'eathe s# (oems and Sto ies b! Canadian Nati$e &utho s >Jsna$rQck( 0er&an%: 8. 8elags@.oo!erative( 1992. Anne edited a ative writers antholog%( )oices f om *ome >Jttawa: Agawa /ress( 1994?. ,n addition to the listings a$ove she has contri$#ted work to +pen Set# & T,EE &ntholo"! >1eather 5erg#son REditorS: 1#ll: Agawa /ress( 1990? and S!mbiosis# &n -nte cultu al &ntholo"! of (oet ! >L#ciano 3Ta* REditorS: Jttawa: 0irol Books( 1992?. ,n 2001( she wrote 6Bi@naanUhow( Bi@ghis@skan( ni@tUha&howin eko Bi@tUhaski@nhow: i@naan -#ska%@gh#n ,niniwok eko A!ti@ ghosan ,niniwok( .#&$erland :aski@gh#n ochi7 >6Traditional Bnowledge and the Land: The .#&$erland 1o#se -Vtis and .ree /eo!le7?( a cha!ter on traditional wo&en;s knowledge "or Metis Le"ac!# & Metis *isto io" aph! and &nnotated .iblio" aph! >:inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications ,nc.?. This $ook won the Saskatche%an .ook &%a d fo (ublishin" in Education. Anne was a cons#lting elder "or Metis Le"ac!/ )olume --# Michif Cultu e/ *e ita"e and 'olklo e >4askatoon: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 200E?. 4he co@a#thored three cha!ters and !rovided !oetr% and !rose "or this $ook. Metis Le"ac! -- was short@listed "or the Ma "a et McWilliams &%a d "or writing in histor%.

Leah 3orion and Anne Acco at /rince Al$ert( 4askatchewan >circa. 200C?. /hoto $% +o$erta 3orion

Anne Acco and icki 0arwood !rovided .ha!ter 12( 6:alk a -ile in 4ocial :ork 4hoes: The Jne on the +ight ,s a -occasin and the Le"t ,s a 4ensi$le 5lat: A$original .rossc#lt#ral 4ocial :ork Ed#cation7 "or Walkin" in a 0ood Wa!# &bo i"inal Social Wo k Education ( ,ngrid Tho&!son .oo!er and 0ail 4tace% -oore >Eds.? Toronto: .anadian 4cholar;s /ress( 2009.

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Anne Acco co&!leted her Bachelor o" Arts at the Lniversit% o" Jttawa at age C4. Anne has also served on the ,nter!rovincial( -anito$a@4askatchewan 4t#rgeon -anage&ent Board. Anne previously worked for Muskeg Media in Montreal and was a consultant for the APTN program on the Cree language. She has also worked as an editor and cultural advisor for Pemmican Publications Inc. She was a sessional lecturer for the Social Work Program at McGill University. 4he has attended Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te in :inni!eg and the 5irst ations Lniversit% >4askatoon? as an invited g#est lect#rer on -etis c#lt#re. 1er latest $ook= Ekosi# & Métisse ,et ospecti$e of (oet ! and ( ose has A#st $een released $% 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te >4askatoon?.

1anice Acoose2 /h. 3. >$. 19C4?
Janice Acoose( the da#ghter o" 5red Acoose and 1arriet Bea#din( is an Anishinaa$ekwe@ -Vtis@ ehiowV ed#cator whose roots ste& "ro& the 4aki&a% >4a#ltea#G? 5irst ation and her &other;s inankawe -arival -etis .o&&#nit%. 2 4he was $orn in Broadview( 4askatchewan in 19C4= she attended the .owessess ,ndian +esidential 4chool in the earl% 19D0;s( and was raised c#lt#rall% in $oth the 4a#ltea#G and -etis c#lt#res. 4he co&!leted her BA 1on. and -.A. at the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan and has now co&!leted her /h.3. at the sa&e #niversit%. 4he is an Associate /ro"essor in the English de!art&ent at the 5irst ations Lniversit% in +egina. 1er -ichi"@.hi!!ewa >/lains JAi$wa( 4a#ltea#G? ancestors were !art o" a h#nting $and that d#ring the late 1E00s and earl% 1I00s ranged "ro& the 1air >/e&$ina? 1ills and the Assini$oineP9#;A!!elle +iver $asins to h#nt so#th@west o" the T#rtle -o#ntains along the $ig $end o" the 4o#ris +iver down thro#gh the -isso#ri +iver 0rand .otea#. 1er 3esAarlais ancestors were esta$lished at 4a#ltea#G 8illage on the Assini$oine +iver and assisted 5ather Antoine Belco#rt to $#ild his +... -ission there in 1I<<.< ,n J#l% o" 1I<2 5ather Belco#rt selected a site "or his &ission along the Assini$oine +iver where a large n#&$er o" ,ndians and -etis gathered in the s!ring. The &ission was to $e na&ed #nder the !rotection o" 4aint /a#l( A!ostle o" the 0entiles. Belco#rt then ret#rned in the s!ring o" 1I<< with Bisho! /rovencher;s a!!roval. 1e erected a cha!el d#ring the s#&&er( $#t in 4e!te&$er the site( siGt% kilo&eters west o" +ed +iver was attacked $% a gro#! o" 0ros@8entres ,ndians "ro& the so#th. Bisho! /rovencher( concerned "or the sa"et% o" the !riest and the contin#ed s#ccess o" his work( had the &ission re@located closer to 4t. Boni"ace. 4 Acoose has written a$o#t her "a&il% $ackgro#nd:C Be"ore settling at -arival( &% &other;s "a&il% ca&e "ro& the +ed +iver area. 0reat@ grand"ather Ji&&% >Jac)#es? 3esAarlaisD @ known to &e as -oosh#& Ji&&% @ was $orn
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1er "atherUs &other was -adelaine J;4o#!( the ado!ted da#ghter o" Lo#is J;4o#!( .hie" o" the Anishinaa$e at J;4o#! +eserve in 4askatchewan. 1er !aternal grand"ather was /a#l Acoose( "ro& the 4aki&a% +eserve. /a#l was the son o" 4a&#el Acoose( an estee&ed $#""alo r#nner( and 4a&#el was descended "ro& 9#ewich( who travelled with .hie" :a%wa%seeca!!o.
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Two 3esAarlais "a&ilies assisted 5ather Belco#rt. 5ranWois 3esAarlais( Janice Acoose;s ancestor $ack "ive generations was one o" the &en who assisted 5ather Belco#rt. 1e was $orn on 14 Jct 1EDI in +iviere@d#@Lo#!( /.9. was a 5rench .anadian &arried to a -etis wo&an( he worked on the +... -ission land as a hired hand. 5ranWois &arried 5rancoise +o%. The% had the "ollowing children: 5rancois Xavier 3esAarlais( $. 1E9C( &arried -arie Jtshikkan J#tehi)#e Bottinea#. 5rancois then &arried -adeleine +o%. Their son Antoine( $. 1I1I( &arried Lo#ise +ichard. Lo#ise was $orn 1I2D( the da#ghter o" 5rancois +ichard and -arg#erite >4a#ltea#G?. Their son( Bernard >$. 1IC1? &arried -arie /errea#lt dit -orin( >her grand&other was -arie 0rant( .#th$ert 0rant;s sister? she was the da#ghter o" Xavier /errea#lt dit -orin and -arie Bonnea# and their son Jac)#es >$. 1IE9? is Acoose;s great grand"ather.
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The eGact location o" the "irst &ission( known as 4t. /a#l des 4a#ltea#G( is di""ic#lt to !in!oint. Two rel iable sources locate it on the left bank of the Assiniboine, some eighty to ninety-five kilometres from St. Boniface. If measured in river distance, the site would have been situated somewhere near St. Eustache, but if measured as-the-crow-flies, it would have been located in the vicinity of Portage la Prairie.
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Janice Acoose( 6Bnowing +elations is Bnowing Jnesel"(7 Windspeake ( 8ol. 11( o. 24( 1994: 4. Jac)#es 3esAarlais was $orn on A#g#st 2E( 1IE9 at 4t. E#stache( the son o" Bernard 3esAarlais and -arie /errea#lt dit -orin.

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to Bernard 3esAarlaisE and -arie -orin in 1IE9 at +ed +iver in the 4t. E#stache /arish. :hen he ca&e :est( da#ghter o" /hilo&ene /ittwawedane!itt >.ree? and 3osithe /elletier >+ed +iver -etis?. -oosh#& Ji&&% was a h#nter and tra!!ed and &% 3own@ Booch#& -arie Theresa a &idwi"e with a !heno&enal #nderstanding o" !lants and &edicinal her$s. Their da#ghter( &% &aternal grand&other( -arie /hilo&ene 3esAarlais( &arried 5idele Bea#din( a %o#ng 5rench or!han raised $% the !riests at the Le$ret Boarding 4chool. Altho#gh 5idele was $orn to c#lt#rall% 5rench !arents( he assi&ilated to the wa%s o" the -etis and th#s when &arried( 5idele and -arie settled at -arival. -% &other( 1arriet >Bea#din? Acoose( who still !ro#dl% s!eaks -ichie"( grew #! with 10 other si$lings. -% deceased "ather( 5red Acoose( grew o#t o" a ver% !ro&inent and disting#ished 4a#ltea#G "a&il% known "or their s#!erh#&an r#nning a$ilities. /rior to the Treaties( &% 0reat@0reat 0rand"ather 9#ewich >or +olling Th#nder? travelled "reel% with :a%wa%seeca!oUs Band aro#nd the 0reat Lakes and thro#gh the 3akotas. According to oral histor%( $oth 9#ewich and his son Ekos >5l%ing Bird? were 6e&!owered $% the .reator with s!ecial !owers to r#n.7 Edo;s son( &% -oosh#& /a#l Acoose( was a world@cha&!ion r#nner who de"eated To& Long$oat in the 1910 +edskin +#nning .ha&!ionshi! o" the :orld. /a#l &arried -adeline J;4o#!( a red@haired ,rish or!han who was ado!ted $% .hie" J;4o#! o" the J;4o#! +eserve >now known as the .owessess.? :hen &% !arents &arried at .rooked Lake in 194E( the% $ro#ght with the& the strengths( $elie"s( val#es and traditions o" $oth their c#lt#res. As is o#r right as h#&an $eings( &% "ive $rothers and "ive sisters inherited $oth those c#lt#res. -s. Acoose is a writerPscholarP!rod#cer who has #tili*ed !rint( video( radio and television to enlighten &ainstrea& societ% a$o#t the $ea#t%( strength( and !ower o" 5irst ations and -etis !eo!les. As a writer( she was 4askatchewanUs "irst ative A""airs .ol#&nist "or the Saskatoon Sta (hoeni1. ,n addition to the 4askatoon news!a!er( she also reg#larl% contri$#ted to the ,e"ina Leade (ost( the ( ince &lbe t *e ald( &bo i"inal )oices( Ne% . eed Ma"a2ine( and Windspeake . 4he has also worked as a scri!twriter and co@!rod#cer "or Bati! A%i& -edia /rod#ctions and .B. +adio. Acoose is interviewed in the 200D ational 5il& Board doc#&entar% 'indin" 3a%n( a$o#t &#rdered and &issing A$original wo&en in .anada.

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Bernard 3esAarlais( $orn 1IC1( was the son o" Antoine 3esAarlais and Lo#ise +ichard. A widower( he was "irst &arried to +ose 4a%er >the da#ghter o" the "a&o#s 0#illa#&e 4a%er o" the 1I49 4a%er Trial? and then &arried -arie /erra#lt dit -orin the da#ghter o" Xavier /erra#lt dit -orin and -arie Bonnea#.

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Janice as a grad st#dent in 1999.

Janice Acoose

1<

0reat@0reat 0rand"ather( 9#ewich >6+oll o" Th#nder7? in 190I( /A-( Ed&#nd -orris .ollection C4< 9#ewich s!oke "l#ent 5rench( 4a#ltea#G( /lains .ree and -ichi".

The Janice Acoose reading list: Acoose@/elletier( Janice( 6.rescent Lake 1o&eco&ing .ele$rations.7 Ne% . eed Jou nal/ J#l%@ A#g. 19I9: 10. Acoose( Janice. 65a&il% 1istor%.7 Ne% . eed Jou nal. 8ol. 22 >11?( 1991: 1I@19. Acoose re&e&$ers her relatives( and living at her &other;s -etis co&&#nit% at -arival and her "ather;s ho&e on 4aki&a% +eserve. YYYYYYYYYY 6,n -e&or% o" Booch#& -adeline JU4o#! Acoose.7 Canadian Women4s Studies# 0 o%in" -nto &"e/ )ol5 67/ 1992: IE@II. YYYYYYYYYY >-ishko@BZsikNwihkwM?. 6All -% +elations.7 ,n 5reda Ahenakew( Brenda 0ardi!%( and Bar$ara La"ond >Editors?: Nati$e )oices. Toronto: -c0raw@1ill +%erson Ltd.( 199<: 1C0@1C1. YYYYYYYYYY 63econstr#cting 5ive 0enerations o" :hite .hristian /atriarchal +#le.7 ,n Linda Jaine >Editor?: ,esidential Schools# The Stolen 8ea s . 4askatoon: The Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan /ress( 199<: <@E.

14

YYYYYYYYY 6Bnowing +elations is Bnowing Jnesel"(7 Windspeake ( 8ol. 11( o. 24( 1994: 4 __________ “/ost 1al"$reed.7 Lookin" at the Wo ds of +u (eople: First Nations Analysis of Literat#re. Jeannette Ar&strong >Ed.?. /enticton: The%t#s /ress( 1994: 2I@44. __________ “A +evisiting o" -aria .a&!$ellUs 1al"$reed.7 Looking at the 3ords of 4ur 5eople. Jeannette Ar&strong >Ed.?. /enticton: The%t#s /ress( 1994:1<I@1C0. YYYYYYYYYY( and Brenda [e&an. OAcoose: -an 4tanding A$ove 0ro#nd.O )oices of 'i st Nations. The 4enior ,ss#es .ollection. Eds. 5reda Ahenakew( Brenda 0ardi!%( and Bar$ara La"ond. Toronto: -c0raw 1ill@+%erson( 199C: 112@124. YYYYYYYYYY -sk%e%ak 9 :ah; 8a% Ni Wahkomakanak# Neithe -ndian ( incesses no Eas! S<ua%s5 Toronto: :o&en;s /ress( 199C. This $ook is an eGtension o" her -.A. thesis with the sa&e title and is her &aAor written work to date. 4he arg#es that: \canadian >sic? literat#re is an ideological instr#&ent. As s#ch( it !ro&otes the c#lt#res( !hiloso!hies( val#es( religion( !olitics( econo&ics( and social organi*ation o" the white( e#ro!ean >sic?( christian( canadian >sic? !atriarch%( while at the sa&e ti&e it "osters c#lt#ral attit#des a$o#t ,ndigeno#s !eo!le that are $ased on #nrealistic( derogator%( and stereot%!ic i&ages >!. <4?. Acoose $egins with a !ersonal narrative and )#estions o" identit%( then deconstr#cts stereot%!ic i&ages o" ,ndigeno#s wo&en. .ha!ter three de&onstrates that these i&ages have !er!et#ated racis& and seGis& "ostering attit#des that enco#rage violence against indigeno#s wo&en. ,n cha!ter "o#r she eGa&ines how these i&ages eGist and are !ro&oted in the writing o" two o" .anada;s &ost in"l#ential writers( -argaret La#rence and :illia& /atrick Binsella. ,n cha!ter "ive she disc#sses -aria .a&!$ell;s *alfb eed as a watershed in .anadian literat#re in ter&s o" challenging eGisting stereot%!es and $% conteGt#ali*ing writing "or ,ndigeno#s !eo!le in a wa% that aids the decoloni*ation !rocess. The "inal cha!ter reviews the work o" several conte&!orar% ,ndigeno#s writers and the c#lt#rall% diverse $asis on which the% write. YYYYYYYYYY 6,n -e&or% o" Bohk#& -adeline.7 ,n 0reg Ho#ng@,ng and 5lorence Bel&ore >Editors?: 0athe in"s/ )ol5 =/ 'all 6>>># The En;o%kin Jou nal of 'i st No th &me ican (eoples. /enticton( British .ol#&$ia: The%t#s Books( 1999: 2I<@2I4. YYYYYYYYYY 6The /ro$le& o" ]4earching; 5or A!ril +aintree.7 ,n Beatrice .#lleton -osioner >Edited $% .her%l 4#*ack?: -n Sea ch of &p il ,aint ee# C itical Edition. :inni!eg: /ortage and -ain /ress( 1999: 22E@2<D. YYYYYYYYYY and . Beeds. 6.ree@ativel% 4!eaking.7 ,n 3.1. Ta%lor >Ed.? Me 'unn!. 8anco#ver( 3o#glas and -c,nt%re( 200C: I<@9E. YYYYYYYYYY 6/a#l Acoose7 ,n The Enc!clopedia of Saskatche%an( +egina: .anadian /lains +esearch .entre( Lniversit% o" +egina( 200C: 2D. 6666666666 Lisa Brooks( Tol 5oster( Leanne 1owe( 3aniel 1eath J#stice( /a#l .arroll -organ( Bi&$erl% +o!!olo( .her%l 4#*ack( .hristo!her B. Te#ton( 4ean Te#ton( +o$ert :arrior(

1C

and .raig 4. :o&ack. Reasoning Together: The Native Critics Collection. Lniversit% o" Jklaho&a /ress( 200I.

or&an:

YYYYYYYYYY 61ono#ring i;:ahko&akanak.7 ,n .raig :o&ack( 3aniel 1eath J#stice and .hristo!her Te#ton >Eds.? ,easonin" To"ethe # The Nati$e C itics Collection. or&an: Lniversit% o" Jklaho&a /ress( 200I: 21D@2<<. YYYYYYYYYY 6-inAii&endaa&owinon Anishinaa$e: +eading and +ighting All J#r +elations in :ritten English.7 Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan( /h.3. thesis( 2011. This thesis doc#&ents how Acoose;s Anishinaa$e ancestors !reserved -idewewin knowledge( cere&onies and $elie"s thro#gh the colonial !eriod on the !lains o" the Jld orthwest. ,ndnotes: Jac)#es 3esAarlais $orn 1IE9( Janice;s 0reat 0rand"ather( while living at .rooked Lake in Assini$oia 3istrict( :T( &ade a!!lication "or his -etis 4cri! in 1900: 3esAarlais( Jac)#es= address: .rooked Lake= clai& no. E9I= $orn: 4e!te&$er 1II0 at Baie 4t. /a#l= "ather: Bernard 3esAarlais >-Vtis?= &other: -arie /errea#lt >-Vtis? +01C ( ,nterior ( 4eries 3@,,@I@c ( 8ol#&e 1<44 ( +eel .@149D4 1owever( this a!!lication was t#rned down $% the orthwest 4cri! .o&&ission $eca#se he was a 6-anito$a 1al"$reed7( see the letter $elow in the endnotes. Antoine 3esAarlais >$orn 1I1I?( Janice;s 0reat@0reat@0reat 0rand"ather( did receive -etis 4cri! when he a!!lied on $ehal" o" his wi"e Lo#ise >+ichard? see $elow.

0rand"ather: /a#l Acoose >$. 1II<?

1D

1E

Letter to Jac)#es 3esAarlais regarding -etis 4cri!.

Two -ichi"s: Lo#is J;4o#! .ardinal >1I<C@191<? and 0a&$ler Tanner. 0a&$ler was one o" the Treat% 5o#r negotiators in 1IE4 and event#all% signed the adhesion to the Treat%.

1I

+e"erence: Barkwell( L.J.( Leah 3orion and 3arren /rV"ontaine. 6Janice Acoose(7 in Metis Le"ac!# & Metis *isto io" aph! and &nnotated .iblio" aph!5 4askatoon: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( :inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications and Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te( 2001: 2E4.

Anne 7airdner Anderson$-rvine2 C.8.2 **.9. >190D@199E?
At the ti&e o" her !assing( the 91@%ear@old Anne Anderson@,rvine was a grand&other( a retired n#rse( a teacher and a ling#ist who a#thored &ore than 90 $ooks on -Vtis histor%( .ree lang#age( her$s( legends and children;s coloring $ooks. The late 3r. Anne Anderson was $orn on a river lot "ar& "o#r &iles east o" 4t. Al$ert( Al$erta. 4he was one o" ten children o" a -etis@.ree &other Eli*a$eth .allihoo and -etis@ 4cottish "ather :illia& Jose!h 0airdner. I The .allihoo "a&il% has its roots in the 1a#denosa#nee >,ro)#ois? .on"ederac%. Anne;s earl% schooling was at the Bellrose 4chool. At age ten she was sent to the 0ra% #ns .onvent A#st a "ew &iles "ro& her ho&e. 4he "o#nd this to $e a lonel% eGistence and ret#rned ho&e a"ter three %ears. 4he le"t the Bellrose 4chool a"ter grade ten $eca#se her !arents tho#ght that she had eno#gh ed#cation. At the age o" 1D her "ather died and she hel!ed her &other s#!!ort the "a&il%. A"ter &arr%ing :illia& .allihoe in 192C( she &oved to a "ar& "ive &iles north o" 4!r#ce 0rove where the% raised two children. Anne lived in Jregon "or several %ears( and later &arried Jose!h Anderson "ro& 5rog Lake in 194E. 4he worked there as a s#!ervisor o" the 5ishing Lake -Vtis 4ettle&ent. ,n 194E( she took a t%!ing co#rse( which she "elt was instr#&ental in &aking it !ossi$le "or her to write the &an% $ooks and legends she #sed to teach .ree in 4he &arried AleGander ,rvine "ro& 4elkirk( -anito$a 19E9 and "or&ed her own co&!an%( C ee ( oductions. 4he "o#ght a long and hard with the schools in Ed&onton and the Lniversit% o" Al$erta to incl#de .ree lang#age instr#ction in their c#rric#la. 4he also develo!ed the 3r. Anne Anderson ative 1eritage and .#lt#ral .entre( won the Al$erta Achieve&ent Award 19EC( the Jrder o" .anada in 19E9( !l#s an 1onorar% 3octorate "ro& the Lniversit% o" Al$erta( and the Ed&onton 5e&ale .iti*enshi! Award. Ed&onton also na&ed a !ark a"ter her. This !ark is located at 10C Aven#e and 1D2 4treet and hosts a $ea#ti"#l li"e@si*e $ron*e $#""alo sc#l!t#re.

in

4he started writing her "irst $ook at age D4( a"ter retiring "ro& her Ao$ as a n#rse;s aid. Be"ore her death in 199E( she had written 9< $ooks on the
I

Anne;s !aternal grand!arents were 0ar% :ishart 0airdner and -arg#erite Bo#vier. -arg#eite Bo#vier;s !arents were Jose!h Bo#vier and .atherine Bea#lie#. Jn her &aternal side her grand!arents were Jean 5eliG .allihoo >$. 1ICC at Lac 4te. Anne? and Adele ias :a%andi >$. 1IED at 5ort 4i&!son?. 1er &aternal great@grand!arents were Jean Ba!tiste .allihoo and Angeli)#e Br#nea#.

19

.ree lang#age and -Vtis histor%. 4he collected arti"acts and an eGtensive li$rar% o" ative $ooks which are ho#sed $% the -Vtis ation o" Al$erta. A!art "ro& her lang#age ta!es( 3r. Anne was !ro$a$l% $est@known "or her .ree 3ictionar% and her $ook( The 'i st Métis 5 5 5 & Ne% Nation.
+e"erence: Terr% L#st%: &lbe ta S%eet" ass( -a% 12( 199E.

1osephte 8c:ay Arcand. >$. 1I4I?
Jose!hte was the da#ghter o" ,gnace -cBa% and Jose!hte Bercier. 4he &arried Jose!h Arcand on Jan#ar% I( 1ID1 at 4t. 5rancois Xavier. The% were en#&erated at :hite 1orse /lain in the 1IE0 cens#s and then settled at 4t. La#rent on the 4o#th 4askatchewan in 1II2. 1e "o#ght "or the -etis in the 1IIC +esistance. 1is na&e a!!ears as F2CC on /hili!!e 0arnot;s list o" +esistance !artici!ants and .lo#tier;s Ao#rnal notes that Jose!h was !resent at 3#ck Lake stationed along the road.9 Jose!hte lost two children d#ring the 1IIC +esistance. 5irst their da#ghter -arie +osalie died in A!ril at age siG( then their da#ghter .aroline died in -a% at age nine. Jose!h said that he $eca&e involved in the 3#ck Lake "ight $eca#se he had gone to the store to get cotton to dress his deceased da#ghter -arie +osalie. +iel then ordered Jose!h to go to Battle"ord to !revent the ,ndians "ro& killing an% o" the "a&ilies or !riests. 1e did save all o" the ca!t#red tea&sters. 10

1oanne Arnott. >$. 19D0?
Joanne Arnott >nVe [enthoe"er? was $orn on 1D 3ece&$er 19D0 in :inni!eg( -anito$a. 4he is a .anadian -Vtis writer. Arnott;s works are inti&ate with an activist slant( eG!loring the iss#es "aced $% a &iGed@race girl and wo&an in !overt%( the "a&il%( danger( love and child$irth. 4he writes a$o#t these to!ics "ro& !ersonal eG!erience( as a -Vtis and a &other o" siG. 4he received the 0erald La&!ert Award "or her 1991 collection o" !oetr% Wiles of 0i lhood. 1er work also a!!ears in the antholog% M! Weddin" 3 ess# T ue-life Tales of Lace/ Lau"hte / Tea s and Tulle >8intage Books( 200E? 1er !#$lications incl#de:
• • • • • •

Wiles of 0i lhood >8anco#ver: /ress 0ang( 1991? M! 0 ass C adle >8anco#ver: /ress 0ang( 1992? Ma Mac3onald/ ill#strated $% -ar%anne Barkho#se. >Toronto: :o&enUs /ress( 199<? . eastin" the Wa$es# +n W itin" and *ealin" >/ress 0ang( 199C? Steep! Mountain# lo$e poet ! >.a!e .ocker: Begedonce /ress( 2004? Mothe Time# (oems Ne% ? Selected >8anco#ver: +onsdale /ress( 200E?

,efe ence AB. Bookworld www.a$c$ookworld.co&

8arie *ouise .ottineau .aldwin. >1ID<@19C2?
,n 1914( -arie Lo#ise( a &e&$er o" the T#rtle -o#ntain .hi!!ewa Band $eca&e :ashington .ollege o" Law;s "irst ative A&erican >-etis? st#dent to grad#ate. -arie Lo#ise
9

0a$riel .lo#tier( /.A.( 8.0. Jou nal de l;abbé Cloutie / )ols5 6 and 7( 1IIC. Archives de l;Archev^chV de 4aint@Boni"ace >AA4B?( 8ol. 1( !. EE. 10 4B14 Belevea# 4eries( Boite 1I( "ile <C9( En)#ete Evene&ents 1IIC.

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was the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste Bottinea#( enrolled T#rtle -o#ntain Band &e&$er and law%er "or the $and. 1er &other was -arg#erite +enville >$. Jan. 1<( 1I42 at /e&$ina?( the da#ghter o" 5ranWois +enville and -arg#erite 3#&as Belgarde. The% &arried on ove&$er 1E( 1ID2 at 4t. Jose!h. The "a&il% was iss#ed 1al" Breed 4cri! #nder the a&end&ents o" the 1ID4 Jld .rossing Treat%. The children listed are -arie Lo#ise $orn 1ID<( Lillian $orn 1IDE and Alvina .le&enta $orn 1IDI. -arie Lo#ise Bottinea#@Baldwin was the "irst wo&an o" color to grad#ate "ro& the :ashington .ollege Law 4chool. The :.L st#dent organi*ation raises "#nds to s#!!ort the -arie Bottinea# Baldwin 4cholarshi!( which honors her achieve&ent. -arie Lo#ise went on to $eco&e a !ro&inent advocate o" ative A&erican ,ndian ca#ses in the J""ice o" ,ndian A""airs. 1er a!!oint&ent to a !osition with the B#rea# o" ,ndian A""airs was a!!roved $% /resident Theodore +oosevelt in 1904. 4he was an acco#ntant in the Ed#cation 3ivision o" the B#rea# and Treas#rer o" the 4ociet% o" A&erican ,ndians. -arie Lo#ise was ad&itted to the $ar in 1914( having co&!leted the three %ears o" co#rses d#ring two %ears o" attending evening classes. 4he also grad#ated with highest distinction5 The @ua te l! Jou nal of &me ican -ndians noted that 6-rs. Baldwin( who is Treas#rer o" the 4ociet% o" A&erican ,ndians( has o""ered hersel" to the :ar 3e!art&ent "or services overseas. 4he s!eaks 5rench as "l#entl% as English( and her skill as an acco#ntant will &ake her val#a$le to the acco#nting sta"".7 :1,TE 1JL4E( 5e$r#ar% 2E( 1904. -rs. -arie L. Baldwin( whose na&e a!!ears #!on the -innesota clerk register( &a% $e certi"ied "or a!!oint&ent as clerk at _900 in the J""ice o" ,ndian A""airs witho#t regard to the !rovisions o" .ivil@4ervice +#le 8,,. T1EJ3J+E +JJ4E8ELT. 1er great grand"ather( .harles RJose!hS Bottinea# 4r. was with the Lewis and .lark eG!edition R1I0<@1I0DS. 1er !aternal grand!arents were 0enevieve 6Jennie7 Larence( $orn 1I1I in the orth :est Territories( and /ierre Bottinea#( son o" .harles Bottinea# and -arg#erite -ache)#a%*aince 4on@ga$o@kiche@te >.lear 4k%?. /ierre was $orn Jan#ar% 1( 1I1E( at Bear /oint( T#rtle +iver. 1er grand!arents were &arried on 3ece&$er 1( 1I<D at +ed +iver 4ettle&ent.

.ernadette *avall;e .allantyne. >$. 19<C?
B% Bernadette Ballant%ne( and +a%&ond -. Bea#&ont. Bernadette was $orn on ove&$er <( 19<C at the -etis co&&#nit% o" /ine Bl#""( -anito$a( the %o#ngest child o" -`ise Lavallee and -arie 3#char&e. /ine Bl#"" was located a$o#t E0 &iles down the 4askatchewan +iver "ro& The /as. At the ti&e there were a$o#t "i"teen -etis "a&ilies who lived there( working at tra!!ing and "ishing and so&e li&ited &iGed "ar&ing. Bernadette relates that:

21

:hen , was a child( when , was $ro#ght #! in /ine Bl#""( what , re&e&$er is we had a good li"e. :e had $ig gardens... it was an island in the &iddle o" the river. -% dad had a garden o#t there. :e had another garden close to the ho#se. :e #sed to have all kinds o" things... vegeta$les( straw$erries and rh#$ar$\. :e #sed to have a cellar in o#r ho#se #nderneath. That;s where we #sed to kee! o#r !otatoes. The% !#t ha% aro#nd the !otatoes( ca$$age and all the other vegeta$les we didn;t can. :e canned in Aars. :e also had cows and !igs. :e #sed to have crea& se!arators. That;s one thing the% don;t have nowada%s( the% don;t &ake crea& an%&ore. /ine Bl#"" had a one@roo& school $#t no ch#rch. Bernadette recalls that the sisters R #nsS were the teachers there. :hen the #ns le"t there was no school and &an% o" the "a&ilies then relocated to The /as. 1er "a&il% &oved there a"ter her "ather;s death in 194<. Those witho#t children had to leave /ine Bl#"" a"ter h%droelectric develo!&ent "looded &ost o" the co&&#nit%5 Bernadette le"t school a"ter grade siG and started to work at The /as. 4he then &oved to :inni!eg where she worked "or .onsolidated 5r#it. At the re)#est o" her $rother 5rank and his wi"e Joanne( Bernadette then &oved to .edar Lake to hel! their "a&il% when Joanne was eG!ecting their siGth child. ,t was there that she &et and &arried 4olo&on Ballant%ne( who was "ro& 0rand +a!ids $#t was a tra!!er at .edar Lake. 4olo&on $#ilt their "irst ho&e at 0rand +a!ids with the hel! o" his "riend AleG 0eorge 3aniels. 1owever the% did not sta% there on a %ear@ro#nd $asis. 4olo&on $egan tra!!ing and she acco&!anied hi& on his tra!line. 4he did this #ntil their son +onnie was "ive and had to $egin school. J" this eG!erience Bernadette sa%s: -aril%n and +onnie are onl% a %ear a!art. , re&e&$er once we were co&ing ho&e >"ro& the tra!line? "or .hrist&as. ,t was the twent%@third o" 3ece&$er( and we went over at aha!awin Ba%( A#st &e and 4olo&on and the two kids. \ we were short o" ever%thing. o &ilk "or -aril%n( no cereal. The onl% thing we had was a !iece o" $annock and so&e s#gar( not even an% tea. 4o neGt &orning we got #! and oh( it was A#st $lowing. ,t was reall% wind% and snowing. 4o we took o"" "ro& over there. 4olo&on &ade a trail in the "ront "or the dogs with snowshoes. , was on the sleigh( like( in the $ack( and -aril%n and +onnie were inside the carr%all RcarioleS( it was called. +onnie started to get restless. :e sto!!ed over there and , changed -aril%n;s dia!er there $% the "ire. And that was 3ece&$er( eha 4olo&on held the $lanket $ehind &e so the heat wo#ld co&e where , was sitting\ Then we le"t there and we ate a little o" that $annock. \:e got to .ross Lake. ,t sto!!ed snowing. +onnie was getting restless\ tr%ing to get &ad\like he was a$o#t close to two %ears old\ he wanted to get o#t. 4o 4olo&on took hi& o#t o" the sleigh and &ade hi& stand o#t there\7," %o#;re going to get &ad( walk.7 Ho# co#ld see hi& r#nning\ in his little green !ants. 1e looked so "#nn%. :ell( we weren;t !lanning on leaving hi&( $#t A#st to show that he sho#ld $e satis"ied that he was riding. :e le"t that !lace R aha!awin Ba%S at a$o#t eight o;clock in the &orning( and we didn;t get here #ntil a$o#t ten o;clock that night. Jh it was ro#gh. B#t "#nn%( we weren;t h#ngr%( and -aril%n didn;t have &ilk. :hen we le"t there , !#t $oiling water in the $ottle with a little $it o" s#gar. That;s all she had all the wa%. J#st that one $ottle. B#t she didn;t cr% or an%thing. And she didn;t even "inish that $ottle when we got here. , reall% enAo%ed this !art o" &% li"e.

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:hen her %o#ngest child was "o#r %ears old( Bernadette $eca&e chie" o" the 0rand +a!ids Band( as "ar as she knows the "irst wo&an to do so. The ladies o" the co&&#nit% had asked her to r#n "or chie". 4he served as chie" "ro& 19E2 to 19E4( she "elt that was long eno#gh in the Ao$. 1owever( she did serve as co#ncilor "or another two %ears. Altho#gh she $elieves in &odern schooling( Bernadette and her h#s$and $oth worked to ens#re that their children s!oke .ree as well. , #sed to s!eak 5rench when , was s&all. :hen , get aro#nd &% sisters and $rothers , talk 5rench &iGed #! with .ree Rthe -ichi" lang#age o" the -etisS. , kind o" lost &% 5rench $eca#se there was no$od% "or &e to talk to here. :hen , got &arried there was no$od%. 4o that;s when , learned to talk .ree. , never talked .ree $e"ore that. -e and 4olo&on wo#ld alwa%s talk .ree to the kids. 4o now the% know how to talk .ree. 4olo&on "ished and tra!!ed= he had also worked on the S5S5 :eno a $e"ore their &arriage. 1e drove taGi "or 1C %ears and was a $#s driver "or 22 %ears. Ln"ort#natel% he was a dia$etic and !assed awa% in 1994. Bernadette has twent%@two grandchildren.
+e"erence: Ballant%ne( Bernadette and +a%&ond -. Bea#&ont( >Editor?( 0 and ,apids Sto ies( 8ol. ,. :inni!eg: 5rontier 4chool 3ivision o. 4I( 199D: 2@14.

Annie 8c9ermot .annatyne. >1I<0@190I?
B% Todd La&irande Annie;s "ather was $orn in ,reland( Aoined the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% and arrived at Hork 5actor% in 1I12. Aro#nd 1I14 he &arried( N la "aWon d# !a%s( 4arah -c a$( the da#ghter o" Tho&as -c a$ and a 4a#ltea#G wo&an. The co#!le had nine da#ghters and siG sons who s#rvived in"anc%( o" which Annie was the "i"th da#ghter. ,n 1IC0( she &arried Andrew Bannat%ne( a 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% e&!lo%ee who went on to $eco&e a ver% wealth% &erchant. 4he $eca&e a leading "orce in earl% !hilanthro!% at +ed +iver. 1er ladies association did eGtensive "#ndraising "or ca#ses s#ch as the :inni!eg 0eneral 1os!ital. 4he is !erha!s $est known "or horsewhi!!ing Toronto writer and !oet .harles -air as a conse)#ence "or the dis!araging re&arks he had &ade a$o#t 1al"@ Breed wo&en and +ed +iver societ% in letters !#$lished in the Toronto 0lo$e. The da#ghter and wi"e o" two o" the &ost !ro&inent &en d#ring the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent era( Annie Bannat%ne;s horsewhi!!ing o" .harles -air( an act still re&e&$ered $% so&e !eo!le to this da%( !roved that she was not a &ere a!!endage to the &en in her li"e. /redating the +iel +esistance $% al&ost a %ear( this act also s%&$oli*ed the g#l" $etween the old settlers and the $rash newco&ers "ro& .anada. -rs. Bannat%ne certainl% ac)#ired g#&!tion in a h#rr%. Born in 1I<0( she grew #! in a !ioneer environ&ent lacking &an% o" the a&enities "o#nd $ack east( and eG!erienced a cli&ate that varied widel% $etween eGtre&es o" hot and cold. Annie

2<

-c3er&ot;s earl% #!$ringing was not all a li"e o" !rivation $eca#se she grew #! as the da#ghter o" the wealthiest &an in +ed +iver. Andrew -c3er&ot was $orn in ,reland( .o#nt% o" +ossco&&on( in 1E91( the son o" -%les -c3er&ot( a descendant o" ,rish ro%alt%. A"ter the death o" his "irst wi"e( -%les had a "a&il% with the 65air Bitt%7 J;.onnor( a &arriage which was never consecrated $% the .atholic .h#rch. Andrew was the !rod#ct o" this illegiti&ate #nion( which &ight eG!lain his weak adherence to the .atholic "aith and the "act that several o" his children( incl#ding Annie( were &arried o#tside o" the .h#rch. 1e event#all% le"t the .h#rch in 1IDD. -c3er&ot;s illegiti&ac% wo#ld likel% have li&ited his o!!ort#nities and it &ost likel% was a &aAor contri$#tor to his decision to leave ,reland. Andrew -c3er&ott was the +ed +iver e&$odi&ent o" the 1oratio Alger &%th. A"ter a do*en %ears in the service o" the 1B.( he retired to the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent in 1I24 and str#ck o#t on his own. B% that ti&e he co#ld s!eak several A$original lang#ages( 6r#n like a deer and end#re cold like an Eski&o dog( and there was no $etter A#dge o" &en and horses in +ed river( or an% &an who was his e)#al in address and acco&&odating )#alities( in h#&or and shrewdness and the !ower o" &aking &one%.7 11 4tarting o#t with b40 to bC0( he had a&assed a s&all "ort#ne o" $etween bI(000 to b10(000 $% the 1I40s. 12 1is s#ccess is starkl% revealed in the Assini$oia 3istrict cens#s: in 1I<2 he owned 12 carts( C $#ildings( E oGen( 4 horses( and had 11 acres #nder c#ltivation= $% 1I49 he had 20 carts( 11 $#ildings( 40 oGen( <2 horses( a wind&ill( a sho! o" &erchandise( and 40 acres #nder c#ltivation. 1< This was "ar &ore !ro!ert% than the average resident o" +ed +iver owned at the ti&e. AleGander +oss wrote one o" the $est descri!tions o" -c3er&ot and his &#lti"ario#s interests: 6R-c3er&otc is at once a &erchant( a "ar&er( a horse Aocke%( and a dealer in cattle. ,n $arter( tra""ic( and $argain &aking( he stands #nrivalled. 1e has tried ever%thing and ever%thing he has tried "ort#ne has t#rned to his advantage \ the !oor &an;s "riend and the rich &an;s co&!anion.714 +oss was !ro$a$l% ind#lging in a $it o" hagiogra!h%. 4tories that s#rvived down to the 0reat 3e!ression s#ggest that -c3er&ot;s !arsi&on% hel!ed his $#siness s#ccess= "or eGa&!le( he wo#ld !#t #sed tea $ack in the tea chests to later $e sold to #ns#s!ecting c#sto&ers. 1C Even when he worked "or the 1B. as a trader( -c3er&ot was not a$ove shortchanging the ,ndians: 6he\deceived the& so o"ten that the% !#t no "aith in his word.7 1D +egardless o" how he acc#&#lated his wealth( it no do#$t !rovided a relativel% co&"orta$le li"e "or his "a&il% and a relativel% !rivileged #!$ringing "or Annie. /art( i" not all( o" her childhood wo#ld have $een s!ent at E&erald Lodge( 1E also known as E&erald 0rove( the residence and store $#ilt a "ew h#ndred %ards north o" 5ort 0arr% $% -c3er&ot. :.J. 1eal% records a descri!tion o" the ho#se $% one o" his grandda#ghters: ,t was a ver% large two@store% ho#se( $#ilt o" logs( with weather$oard on to!. ,t was !lastered inside. A hallwa% ran down the &iddle( with two large roo&s on each side o" it at
11 12

:.J. 1eal%( Women of ,ed ,i$e >:inni!eg( 19DE?( 129@1<0. Elaine Allen -itchell( 6A +ed +iver 0ossi!(7 The .ea$e >4!ring 19D1?( I. 1< /.A.-.( Assini$oia 3istrictK.ens#s( 1I<2( 11= 1I49( 9@10. 14 +oss( <99. 1C /.A.-.( .harles a!ier Bell /a!ers( $oG 1( FE<4@<D. 3o#glas :a#gh to Bell( ove&$er 1<( 19<<. 1D 1.B...A.( B 122PeP1( :illia& Brown( ,epo t of the Manitoba 3ist ict fo 6A6A ? 6A6>. 1E E&erald Lodge was also known as -c3er&otown. The collection o" $#ildings owned $% -c3er&ot "or&ed the n#cle#s o" the "#t#re :inni!eg. Barr% E. 1%&an( 6Andrew -c3er&ot(7 3ictiona ! of Canadian .io" aph!( vol. X,( 1II1@1I90 >Toronto( 19I2?( C4D.

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the "ront. There were "ire!laces o" &#d( which were a"terwards o" $rick( in each o" those roo&s. The $edroo&s #!stairs were heated $% .arron $oG@stoves. There was good waln#t "#rnit#re in the living roo&Kso&e heav% chairs and other things\ 1I Annie lived in what was &ost likel% one o" the &ost !restigio#s $#ildings in the co#ntr%( $#t it was not #! to eastern standards. Jose!h Ja&es 1argrave co&&ented on the state o" ho#sing in +ed +iver when he visited in the 1ID0s: 61o#se $#ilding is in a ver% !ri&itive state\. Even the residences o" &an% o" the co&!arativel% !ros!ero#s( evince a gross ignorance o" the essentials o" co&"ort on the !art o" their designers(7 he sco""ed. 19 ,ndeed( i&ages o" E&erald Lodge dating "ro& the 1IC0s give so&e credi$ilit% as to the h#&$le state o" the -c3er&ot a$ode. one@the@less( their !roGi&it% to 5ort 0arr% and the !ro&inence o" Annie;s "ather ins#red that she was eG!osed "ro& an earl% age to the $est cos&o!olitan &ilie# that +ed +iver co#ld o""er. The 5ort was the centre o" co&&erce and social li"e "or &ost o" the settle&ent. ,t was a 6livel% and attractive station( "#ll o" $#siness and $#stle. 1ere all the a""airs o" the colon% are chie"l% transacted( and here ladies wear their silken gowns( and gentle&en their $eaver hats. ,ts ga% and i&!osing a!!earance &akes it the delight o" ever% visitor= the rende*vo#s o" all co&ers and goers.720 -an% travellers "ro& across the continent s!ent the night at E&erald Lodge( the 6#no""icial7 hotel o" +ed +iver. 1ere the% wo#ld tell stories o" danger and advent#re that

likel% &ade an i&!ression on the %o#ng Annie and which !ro$a$l% contri$#ted to her wanderl#st. The -c3er&ot "a&il%;s hos!italit% wo#ld &ark a !recedent that the later -rs. Bannat%ne wo#ld e&$race heartil% when she $egan her own career o" entertaining g#ests.
,t is di""ic#lt to s!ec#late &#ch a$o#t her childhood $eca#se their "a&il% was not a s#$Aect that interested conte&!orar% writers s#ch as AleGander +oss. 1owever( the re&iniscences o" Andrew -c3er&ot;s grandda#ghter( 1arriet Tr#thwaite( o""er a "ew insights into Annie;s childhood. 4he recalled that -c3er&ot showed an a""ectionate and rog#ish side to his grandchildren: 1e was alwa%s "ond o" teasing( and , re&e&$er that when he was )#ite old and #sed to sit in his s)#are chair s&oking his !i!e( with his hands resting on the oak stick he alwa%s liked to have( %o# co#ld never $e s#re what trick he wo#ldn;t !la% on %o# i" %o# got within reach o" hi&. :hen we were going so&ewhere and all dressed #!( with the trains we #sed to wear( we #sed to have to hold o#r trains and kee! well awa% "ro& hi& or he wo#ld s#ddenl% !#t o#t his stick and tr% to hold the train o" a dress to the "loor with it. 21 -c3er&ot;s store( with its eGotic ite&s and aro&as( was a 6!lace o" wonder7 "or his grandchildren. 1e wo#ld o"ten 6h#&oro#sl%7 search the children;s !ockets to &ake s#re the% hadn;t a$sconded with an% l#&!s o" s#gar a"ter soAo#rning in the store. 22 1e #ndo#$tedl% wo#ld have shown the sa&e a""ection "or his own children when the vigo#r o" %o#th wo#ld have &ade hi& even &ore i&!ish. Annie -c3er&ot;s #!$ringing wo#ld not have $een as rigoro#s as &an% o" the other &iGed@ $lood children in the settle&ent. .ertainl%( it was not as severe as the -etis children who
1I 19

1eal%( 1<E. Jose!h Ja&es 1argrave( ,ed ,i$e >Altona( 19EE re!rint?( 4DI. 20 +oss( 14<. 21 1eal%( 1<<. 22 ,$id.( 1<4.

2C

acco&!anied their !arents on the se&i@ann#al $#""alo h#nts( where the% wo#ld !artici!ate in the dressing o" $#""alo ro$es and the &aking o" !e&&ican. B% the ti&e she was eight or nine %ears old( and #! to the ti&e o" her &arriage( a "e&ale servant was co#nted a&ong the occ#!ants o" E&erald Lodge.2< ,n a ho#sehold that o"ten contained #! to a do*en !eo!le( a servant wo#ld not &ean that Annie was entirel% "ree "ro& chores. ,n a "rontier setting( she wo#ld not esca!e cooking( cleaning and other dr#dger% that constit#ted 6wo&en;s work.7 Het this !ioneering li"est%le did not &ean she was "ree to avoid going to school. Again( so&e s!ec#lation is necessar%. An eGisting short $iogra!h% s#ggests that her ed#cation was higher than that received $% &an% girls in the settle&ent. 24 Jne o" +iel;s $iogra!hers( -aggie 4iggins( states that the %o#ng -c3er&ot was ed#cated at the 0re% #n;s .onvent(2C!ossi$l% #nder the ass#&!tion that -r. -c3er&ot was a .atholic. The 0re% #ns( however( did not start a school "or girls #ntil J#l% 11( 1I44( three weeks a"ter the% arrived in +ed +iver. B% this ti&e( Annie wo#ld have $een a$o#t 14 %ears old. Altho#gh she was !ro$a$l% $orn into the .atholic "aith( it is #nlikel% that the 0re% #ns ed#cated her( es!eciall% since the% schooled their !#!ils in 5rench. 4he &ore likel% attended the +ed +iver Acade&%( a $oarding school that was "o#nded in 1I<< $% the Anglican -issionar% 3avid Jones and his wi"e -ar%. The Acade&% was an atte&!t to trans!ort the &orals and val#es o" Britain into the !rairie wilderness( altho#gh it was largel% "or the $ene"it o" the #!!er classes o" the "#r trade in +#!ert;s Land. Jones wrote to 0overnor 4i&!son that a school was needed 6"or the &oral i&!rove&ent( religio#s instr#ction and general ed#cation o" $o%s= the sons o" gentle&en $elonging to the "#r trade.72D Al&ost as an a"tertho#ght( 4i&!son s#ggested that !rovision $e &ade "or the ed#cation o" girls as well. Jones agreed( and a two stor% wooden $#ilding was erected near 4t. John;s .h#rch( a$o#t three kilo&etres north o" 5ort 0arr%. ,t is di""ic#lt to know with certaint% whether Annie attended the $oarding school or &ade dail% tri!s "ro& E&erald Lodge. :hereas $o%s received schooling heav% in the classics( the %o#ng Annie received a &ore general ed#cation that e&$raced 6reading( writing( arith&etic( geogra!h%( the #se o" glo$es( histor% and catechical in"or&ation.72E Beca#se the Acade&% served +ed +iver;s #!!er cr#st( Andrew -c3er&ot wo#ld #n)#estiona$l% have sent his da#ghters there. 5inding a school&istress was !ro$le&atic. Between 1I<< and 1I40( several wo&en ca&e and le"t the Acade&%( &ost o"ten in order to $e &arried. -ar% Low&an( "or eGa&!le( le"t in the &iddle o" a school %ear to &arr% .hie" 5actor Ja&es Bird( leaving the girls to the 6harsh disci!line7 o" the $o%;s instr#ctor( John -acall#&. 5ro& 1I40 to 1I4C( the likel% dates "or Annie;s attendance( a -iss Allan ta#ght the girl;s section. 4he was descri$ed as careless and la*% and event#all% dis&issed in 1I4C. 3es!ite these !ro$le&s the school;s ed#cation t#rned o#t reasona$le "acsi&iles o" 6!ro!er English ladies.7 1istorian 4%lvia 8an Birk has !ointed o#t that the Acade&% &ade considera$le !rogress in !rod#cing wo&en with the grace and !olish eG!ected o" %o#ng 8ictorian ladies. 2I ,ndeed 1B. .hie" Trader( Ja&es 1argrave told -c3er&ot in 1I<9( that one o" his older da#ghters( who !ro$a$l% attended the Acade&%( was &ore like a British lad% 6than an% other ,
2< 24

Assini$oia .ens#s( 1I<I( 1I49( <<(10. -anito$a Li$rar% Association( (ionee s and Ea l! Citi2ens of Manitoba >:inni!eg( 19E1?( 11. 2C -aggie 4iggins( ,iel# & Life of ,e$olution >Toronto( 1994?( IE. 2D :illia& J. 5raser( St5 John;s Colle"e/ Winnipe" 6ABB-6>BB# & *isto ! of the fi st *und ed 8ea s of the Colle"e >:inni!eg( 19DD?( 12. 2E -bid.( 1<. 2I 8an Birk( 1C1.

2D

have &et in this land.729 This kind o" !#$licit% &ade the girls desira$le &arriage !artners. Annie -c3er&ot;s &atch ca&e in the "or& o" a %o#ng 4cots&an who wo#ld event#all% rival and s#r!ass Andrew -c3er&ot in "ort#ne and !ro&inence. Andrew 0raha& Ballenden Bannat%ne was $orn in the Jrkne% ,slands a %ear $e"ore the $irth o" his "#t#re wi"e. 1e "ollowed his grand"ather and great@grand"athers into the service o" the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% at age "o#rteen. ,nitiall% !osted to 4a#lt 4te. -arie( he was trans"erred to +ed +iver two %ears later. 1e soon witnessed how "ree traders like Andrew -c3er&ot and or&an Bittson enAo%ed &ore &aterial wealth than that o" the co&!an% e&!lo%ees. The o#tco&e o" the 0#illa#&e 4a%er trial in 1I49( with its cries o" 6Le co&&erce est li$rea 8ive la li$ertVa(7 !ro$a$l% added "#el to his a&$ition( and he event#all% le"t the 1B. in 1IC1. This s!lit with the 1B. was not an a&ica$le !arting. Bannat%ne was not invited to the $on vo%age !arties held "or 3r. John +ae. 1e later wrote to 1enr% 5isher a$o#t $eing sn#$$ed: 6, was not invited to their great dinner. , a& still in Rthe 1B.;sS $lack $ook. , wish the whole o" the& were now in -cBen*ie;s +iver living on nothing $#t Jack 5ish.7<0 Het( his ti&e at +ed +iver &#st have $ro#ght hi& to the attention o" $oth Andrew -c3er&ot and his da#ghter Annie. The )#estion arises as to whether Andrew Bannat%ne &arried Annie -c3er&ot o#t o" love. 5irst( altho#gh she wo#ld have so&e choice( this was li&ited to &en o" a certain class and s#$Aect to !arental a!!roval. 4econd( "#r@trading "a&ilies o"ten inter&arried with one another to strengthen $#siness ties. -c3er&ot;s oldest da#ghter -arie &arried a co&!an% clerk( +ichard Lane= Ellen &arried Tho&as Bird son o" a "or&er .hie" 5actor= -ar% 4all% &arried 0overnor -acTavish= and Annie &arried a "or&er co&!an% clerk. Bannat%ne;s letter to 5isher in 1IC0 and 1IC1 give no inclination o" !lans to &arr%. 1owever( it was co&&on "or e&!lo%ees to reveal little a$o#t their !ersonal lives. earl% one %ear later he $egins a letter to 5isher: 64ince , had the !leas#re o" seeing %o# last , have got &arried 2 le"t the .o&!an%;s service 2 settled down a -erchant. , now live with -r. -c3er&ot 2 "eel )#ite ha!!%.7 <1 The tone o" the letter s#ggests a )#ick co#rtshi!( $#t the !roGi&it% o" 5ort 0arr% to E&erald Lodge &eant that Bannat%ne #ndo#$tedl% had "re)#ent contact with the -c3er&ot;s and over ti&e co#ld have $eco&e s&itten with Annie. The &arriage o" Andrew Bannat%ne to Annie -c3er&ot took !lace on A#g#st 19( 1IC1. This date is so&ewhat odd $eca#se Bannat%ne was a /res$%terian( and the settle&ent;s "irst "#ll@ ti&e ordained /res$%terian &inister( +everend John Black( <2 did not arrive #ntil eGactl% one &onth later. :h% the %o#ng co#!le did not wait #ntil his arrival is #nknown. /res$%terians within the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent had $een witho#t their own clerg%&an "or its "irst "o#rt% %ears. The Anglican .h#rch had &ade so&e acco&&odations( $#t $% the &id 1I40s these had disa!!eared and /res$%terian worshi!ers were !etitioning $ack East "or their own &inister. This religio#s division ca&e to a head when one o" the Anglican clerg% !roclai&ed "ro& the !#l!it( 6no /res$%terian wo#ld ever enter the kingdo& o" heaven.7 << ,t is there"ore #nlikel% that the co#!le &arried in the .h#rch o" England. ,n the earl% %ears o" the 4elkirk .olon%( a /res$%terian .h#rch elder( Ja&es 4#therland( had $een a#thori*ed to !er"or& &arriages and $a!tis&s and it is !ossi$le the sa&e !ractice was still in !lace $% the ti&e o" the Bannat%ne;s &arriage. /erha!s( +ed +iver historian AleGander +oss( the acknowledged leader o" the /res$%terian co&&#nit%( !er"or&ed the cere&on% hi&sel".

29 <0

9#oted in 8an Birk( 1C1. A.A.4t.B.( 5onds 5isherKd;Escha&$a#lt( 5@0C0C@0C<I( Bannat%ne to 5isher( -arch 12( 1IC1. <1 J!. cit.( Bannat%ne to 5isher( 5e$r#ar% 21( 1IC2. <2 Black was &arried to a da#ghter o" AleGander +oss. :hen she died he &arried La#renda 0. Bannat%ne( Andrew Bannat%ne;s sister. << +oss( <4D.

2E

The "irst co#!le o" %ears o" &arriage $ro#ght tri#&!h and traged% "or the new -rs. Bannat%ne. A little over one %ear a"ter the wedding a son John was $orn. 4hortl% therea"ter( a "a&il% tradition was $eg#n with the Bannat%ne;s. Altho#gh he wo#ld s!end the rest o" his li"e in +ed +iver( Bannat%ne $eca&e what wo#ld later $e ter&ed a 6snow$ird.7 1is "irst o!!ort#nit% to avoid the harsh -anito$a cli&ate ca&e d#ring the winter o" 1IC<@C4 when he took his wi"e and in"ant son to 4cotland. The tri! was no do#$t a co&$ination hone%&oon and a chance to show Annie the co#ntr% o" his $irth. Tragicall%( the %o#ng John Bannat%ne died d#ring the Ao#rne% on ove&$er 24( 1IC<. 1e was $#ried in Edin$#rgh( 4cotland. Altho#gh it was co&&on to have large "a&ilies with the eG!ectation that a "ew children wo#ld not s#rvive to ad#lthood( Annie Bannat%ne wo#ld end #! o#tliving seven o" her ten children. These deaths &#st have $ro#ght great sadness thro#gho#t her li"e. 1owever( she soldiered on and never let the& a""ect her !#$lic !ersona( which develo!ed into that o" a "riendl% and gracio#s host. 1er skills as an entertainer( learned in the -c3er&ot "a&il% ho&e( tending to travelling dignitaries( were !#t to good #se as her h#s$and rose in !ro&inence. Lnder the t#telage o" Andrew -c3er&ot( Bannat%ne s#r!assed all o" the other sons@in@law when it ca&e to $#siness ac#&en. 1e soon had his own store $#ilt on a river lot right neGt to that o" his "ather@in@law. Bannat%ne;s s#ccess as a "ree trader soon $ro#ght hi& to the attention o" the co&!an% he so loathed. ,n 1ICE( he went north to orwa% 1o#se to trade $#t he was arrested and sent $ack to +ed +iver "or violating the 1B.;s trading &ono!ol%. 1owever( there wo#ld $e no re!eat o" the 4a%er trial $eca#se 0overnor -acTavish released Bannat%ne soon a"ter his arrival. 1e was now a$le to contin#e his trading !ractices #n"ettered and he contin#ed his rise in !ro&inence. B% 1IDE( Bannat%ne;s skill and $#siness sense had $ro#ght hi& to the to! o" the +ed +iver &erchant hierarch%. A traveller who had Ao#rne%ed thro#gh the settle&ent in 1IDE later co&&ented: 5ew !eo!le ever !assed thro#gh +ed +iver at that ti&e witho#t eG!eriencing the kindness and hos!italit% o" -r. Andrew 0. Bannat%ne( the leading &erchant o" the ]town.; :e were no eGce!tion( and were &ost !leasantl% entertained at his co&"orta$le a$ode( which was "#rnished in a &anner s#r!rising to see a"ter the !lain "#rnishings !rovided $% the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% "or the )#arters o" their o""icers. <4 J" co#rse as &istress o" the ho#se( Annie wo#ld have $een the one who &ade the 6a$ode7 co&"orta$le and who !rovided &ost o" the hos!italit%. B% this ti&e( she was renowned thro#gho#t +ed +iver "or her hos!italit% and "riendliness. 6-rs. Bannat%ne had a .hrist&as RtreedS last Th#rsda% and she ca&e down hersel" and invited &%sel" and Annie\ neGt T#esda% the% are to have another grand gathering. The% will go thro#gh so&e cere&onies and have a grand dinner a"ter( all the ladies o" the "ree&asons and a "ew others >&%sel" incl#ded? will $e !resent(7 wrote 1enrietta Black >nVe +oss? to her $rother Ja&es d#ring the .hrist&as season o" 1ID4.<C 1er role as hostess in the dinner to cele$rate the esta$lish&ent o" a 5ree&ason;s Lodge <D was A#st one eGa&!le o" how Annie Bannat%ne;s !osition was to $e "o#nd "ir&l% a&ongst the c Cme de la c Cme o" the settle&ent. 4he did not( however( #se her !osition to &erel% !#t on a!!earances. ,n the late 1ID0s -rs. Bannat%ne involved hersel" in charita$le "#nctions and $eca&e a leading "orce in earl% e""orts o" +ed +iver !hilanthro!%( this activit% was to $eco&e a li"e@long
<4 <C

,saac .owie( The Compan! of &d$entu e s >Toronto( 191<?( 1C4. /.A.-.( +oss /a!ers( F2E<( 1enrietta Black to Ja&es +oss( 3ece&$er 24( 1ID4. <D According to .harles -air( 5ree&asonr% had $een esta$lished to 6heal the "ierce antagonis&s o" the ti&e and !lace( $#t "ailed in its o$Aect and "ell to !ieces.7 9#oted in :illia& 3o#glas( ' eemason ! in Manitoba >:inni!eg( 192C?( 4E@4I. ,ts "ail#re was !ro$a$l% d#e to the di""erence in o#tlook on the )#estion o" anneGation as re!resented $% the lodge;s two leading &e&$ers: John .hristian 4ch#lt*( the chie" !ro!onent o" +#!erts Land anneGation( and Andrew Bannat%ne( who ended #! siding with Lo#is +iel.

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!assion. 3#ring the 1IDD .hrist&as season( Annie and several o" the other !ro&inent wo&en o" the settle&ent organi*ed a $a*aar where the% raised and distri$#ted bD0 or bE0 to the !oor. These $a*aars $eca&e an ann#al event. Ja&es 1argrave co&&ented: 6A si&ilar e""ort( assisted $% an a&ate#r concert in 1IDE !rod#ced a$o#t b100( and gave occasion to a series o" ver% large and !leasant gatherings o" !eo!le "ro& all )#arters d#ring the .hrist&as week.7 <E ,n "act( the 1IDE $a*aar was held in -r. Bannat%ne;s new $rick store on what $eca&e :inni!eg;s -ain 4treet. The Ba*aars hel!ed a n#&$er o" charita$le ca#ses( $#t Annie $eca&e !artic#larl% involved in esta$lishing :inni!eg;s "irst hos!ital in the earl% 1IE0s. Jn 3ece&$er 1I( 1IE2( Andrew Bannat%ne chaired an in"l#ential &eeting 6co&!osed o" &en o" all classes7 to consider esta$lishing a hos!ital(<I one can onl% s!ec#late on the a&o#nt o" in"l#ence his wi"e &a% have had( given that at this ti&e the% had lost a "ive %ear old son and in"ant da#ghter. These tragedies &a% have s!#rred Annie to $egin "#nd raising and &otivated Andrew to donate the land "or a hos!ital. ,n 1IEC( -rs. Bannat%ne;s Ladies Association was a$le to hand over _1(<4C.I0 to hel! "#nd the :inni!eg 0eneral 1os!ital.<9 This Ladies Association event#all% evolved into the :o&en;s 1os!ital Aid 4ociet%( which hel!ed to raise &one% and sec#red the donation o" goods "or &an% %ears to "ollow. The a$ove noted activities were t%!ical "or wealth% wo&en o" that ti&e( $#t earl% one da% in 1ID9( Annie ste!!ed o#tside her gender role and co&&itted a single act o" resistance that "ired the i&agination o" a %o#ng Lo#is +iel( an act which is still re&e&$ered $% &an% -anito$ans to this da%. The incident $egan with the arrival o" .harles -air into the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent. The .anadian -inister o" /#$lic :orks( :illia& -c3o#gall( sent John 4now and a gro#! o" &en to s#rve% and $#ild a road "ro& Lake o" the :oods to 5ort 0arr%. -air #sed his "riendshi! with -c3o#gall to sec#re a Ao$ as !a%&aster on the !roAect. J#st $e"ore arriving( -air and a "ew colleag#es had "or&ed a gro#! called 6.anada 5irst(7 advocating the anneGation o" the orth@ :est $% .anada. at#rall% he "ell into leag#e with 3r. John .hristian 4h#lt*( who also desired this anneGation and was &aking this view known thro#gh his news!a!er( the No ;Weste . 4ch#lt* had also $eco&e +iel;s chie" ne&esis d#ring the +esistance. -air( who had !#$lished a well@received $ook o" !oetr%( and considered hi&sel" an ac#te o$server o" the h#&an condition( also tho#ght o" hi&sel" as !art o" the vang#ard o" a wave o" settlers who wo#ld one da% &ake the orth :est a !art o" the Jntario "rontier. -air;s arrogance and $elie" that the c#rrent inha$itants wo#ld need to &ake wa% "or the &ore #!standing and ind#strio#s settlers soon to co&e "ro& Jntario did not &ake hi& &an% "riends a&ongst the older settlers.40 4o&e o" these senti&ents are a!!arent in his corres!ondence. -air;s letter( ostensi$l% written to his $rother( was !#$lished in the Toronto 0lobe( and $ro#ght hi& the hostilit% o" the settle&ent and( in !artic#lar( raised the ire o" Annie Bannat%ne. -air a!!arentl% did not reali*e( or care( that the 0lobe was event#all% delivered to +ed +iver. ,n the third letter o" a series re!rinted in the !a!er > ove&$er 19( 1IDI? -air ca#sed a real sensation. Altho#gh a dro#ght and in"estation o" grassho!!ers had r#ined the 1IDI harvest and ca#sed 61al"@Breed7 "a&ilies to $e in want( -air $la&ed their !redica&ent on their re"#sal to
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1argrave( 421. Manitoba 0a2ette( 3ece&$er 2C( 1IE2: 2. <9 /.A.-.( 4essional /a!ers'-anito$a'Legislative Asse&$l%PThe Treas#rerP,n acco#nt with the :inni!eg 0eneral 1os!ital "ro& -a% 14th 1IEC to <1st 3ece&$er 1IEC. 40 AleGander Begg #ncharita$l% !ortra%ed -air in his novel( 3ot it 3o%n( as a 64to#t d#&!% little "ellow( who a!!eared to think hi&sel" o" &ore i&!ortance than the whole o" those in the roo& !#t together.7 AleGander Begg( 3ot it 3o%nD & Sto ! of Life in the No th-West( >Toronto( 1IE1?( 2C2.

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take #! "ar&ing.41 A"ter &oving o#t o" the 3#tch&an;s 1otel( into 3r. 4ch#lt*;s ho#se -air also co&&ented: 6The change was co&"orta$le( , ass#re %o#( "ro& the racket o" a &otle% crowd o" 1al"@Breeds( !la%ing $illiards and drinking( to the )#iet and solid co&"ort o" a ho&e.7 42 This re&ark #!set the hotel;s owner( 0eorge E&&erling( who vowed( 64ho#ld the a#thor o" these !hili!!ics Rantagonistic wordsS ever enter the ho#se he had &aligned( he sho#ld $e eG!elled.7 4< 1owever( it was -air;s re&arks a$o#t the ladies o" +ed +iver that ca#sed the &ost co&&otion. A"ter a !art% held $% -r. and -rs. AleGander Begg( he wrote: Altogether( , received hos!italities to &% heart;s content( and , le"t the !lace thoro#ghl% !leased with &ost that , had &et. There are Aealo#sies and heart@$#rnings( however. -an% wealth% !eo!le are &arried to hal"@$reed wo&en( who having no coat o" ar&s $#t a 6tote&7 to look $ack to( &ake #! "or the de"icienc% $% $iting at the $acks o" their 6white7 sisters. The white sisters "all $ack #!on their whiteness( whilst the h#s$ands &eet each other with des!erate co#rtesies and hos!italities( with a view to "ilth% l#cre in the $ackgro#nd. 44 -air;s #nkind re&arks drew the anger o" the dinner !art%;s host( who had o$vio#sl% $een o""ended $% the h%!ocris% o" so&eone whose $oorish $ehavio#r did not &ake hi& $e%ond re!roach.4C ,n Begg;s( 3ot it 3o%n( a dinner !art% takes !lace where -air is reincarnated as an ill@ &annered sot who ins#lts a 1al"@Breed wo&an( and receives a sla! in the "ace "ro& her. Th#s( Begg savages what little re!#tation -air had in the settle&ent. This also see&s to have $een a &eta!horical re!resentation o" the horsewhi!!ing that Annie Bannat%ne ad&inistered to -air. There are several versions o" -air;s co&e#!!ance. Ja&es 1argrave reco#nted that three wo&en had assa#lted hi&: one 6.on"ined hersel" to words7 $#t 6one lad% !#lled the !oet;s nose( while another #sed her "ingers r#del% a$o#t his ears.7 4D There is no &ention o" -rs. Bannat%ne;s involve&ent( altho#gh another conte&!orar% acco#nt descri$ed how she 64la!!ed his "ace then str#ck hi& several ti&es with a riding whi!\7 4E B#t the $est version co&es co#rtes% o" 4t. Boni"ace !riest( 0eorges 3#gas: -air( having co&&itted the indelicac% o" writing( in Jntario news!a!ers( so&e c#tting words a$o#t the wo&en o" :inni!eg( s#""ers the h#&iliation o" $eing horsewhi!!ed in the cit%U; !ost o""ice( $% -rs. Bannat%ne( the wi"e o" one o" the townU; &ost nota$le citi*ens. 4he had read -airU; writing( and she !ro&ised hersel" to &ake hi& !a% "or it. 4he ordered the clerk o" Rher h#s$andU;S store( where the !ost o""ice was located( to co&e and warn her when -air arrived to collect his letters and news!a!ers( as he did ever% 4at#rda%. There"ore( one 4at#rda%( at "o#r in the a"ternoon( while the store was "#ll o" !eo!le( 3aniel -#lligan( the clerk( having seen -air;s arrival( ran to tell -rs. Bannat%ne. 4he )#ickl% throws a shawl on her head and $#rsts into the !ost o""ice= holding a large whi! in her hand. :itho#t hesitating( she advances on -air( sei*es his nose $etween her "ingers and gives hi& "ive or siG strokes
41 42

Letter re!rinted in AleGander Begg( .e"";s ,ed ,i$e Jou nal( edited $% :.L. -orton >Toronto( 19CD?( <9C@<99. -bid.( <9C. 4< 1argrave( 4CD. 44 .e"";s ,ed ,i$e Jou nal( <9D. 4C Begg dedicated his "irst and onl% novel to the Bannat%ne;s >Andrew was his $#siness !artner at the ti&e o" this incident?. ,ndeed -air a!!arentl% &otivated the $ook. ,n the dedication Begg writes( 6it has ca#sed &e &#ch tro#$le and indignation to see the kind@ hearted !eo!le o" +ed +iver vili"ied $% scri$$lers in the !#$lic !ress\7 4D 1argrave( 4CD. 4E /.A.-.( +oss /a!ers( F<D4( A.:. +oss to his $rother( 5e$r#ar% 1C( 1ID9.

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o" the whi! on di""erent !arts o" his $od%. 6Look(7 she sa%s( 6this is how the wo&en o" +ed +iver treat those who ins#lt the&.7 The scene lasted onl% hal" a &in#te. B#t it a!!eared longer to -air who le"t )#ickl%( daring neither to s!eak nor seek revenge. B% evening( the incident was known all across the co#ntr%. 4I eedless to sa%( -air had a stor&% &eeting with the h#s$ands in the !ost o""ice that sa&e 4at#rda% night( where he tried to eG!lain that his letter had not $een &eant "or o#tside readers. As !art o" the da&age control( he wo#ld later write a rather $ackhand a!olog%. 6, had received &#ch kindness in +ed +iver and certainl% $ore no "eelings o" dislike or ill@will to an%one. B#t !olitical and &ono!olistic antagonis&s ran high( and\ this letter\ a&ongst sensi$le !eo!le( at an% other ti&e wo#ld have onl% !rovoked a s&ile.7 49 Altho#gh the whi!!ing ca#sed an i&&ediate sensation aro#nd the settle&ent( it also had so&e longer lasting e""ects. 5or .harles -air( the h#&iliation o" $eing horsewhi!!ed was still $eing "elt a decade later. B% that ti&e( he had $eco&e a !ro&inent citi*en in /rince Al$ert( where he raised the anger o" Lawrence .larke( the .hie" 5actor o" the local 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% !ost. Both &en soon $eca&e engaged in a war o" words that the% cond#cted in the local news!a!er. ,n re$#ttal to an article -air wrote in the Saskatche%an *e ald( where he critici*ed the 1B.( .larke vir#lentl% attacked -air;s !ersonal credi$ilit%. 1e acco&!lished this "eat $% dredging #! -air;s !ast eG!eriences at +ed +iver. 1ere was a &an whose integrit% co#ld not $e tr#sted and whose word co#ld not $e $elieved= a"ter all( he had $een 6!ersonall% chasti*ed $% a lad% in :inni!eg( a native o" the co#ntr%( "or the wicked( &alicio#s( l%ing re&arks he had &ade on the 1al"@Breed race(7 wrote .larke.C0 -air( nevertheless( wo#ld event#all% $eco&e a relativel% wealth% &an thro#gh land s!ec#lation in /rince Al$ert and later in Belowna( B...( $#t he wo#ld lose his wealth in a $#st c%cle and $e again "orced to work "or a living at an advanced age. Annie Bannat%ne;s whi!!ing also &ade an i&!ression on a %o#ng &an who had recentl% ret#rned to +ed +iver "ro& the east. ,t is interesting to s!ec#late on how &#ch Annie;s resistance to -air( the arrogant .anadian $eca&e a s%&$olic catal%st "or Lo#is +iel. 3id it in so&e wa% ins!ire hi& to sto! the anneGation o" +#!ert;s Land $% .anadad +iel had arrived in 1IDI to a +ed +iver ri"e with r#&o#rs o" !olitical change( and according to his "riend( Lo#is 4ch&idt( the local anneGationists had !lans &ade( $#t nothing in !lace( !re"erring to wait #ntil the .anadian govern&ent acted "irst. C1 Het( the horsewhi!!ing o" -air had &ade an indeli$le i&!ression on +iel. An act( which he inter!reted as one o" resistance to the c#rrent !olitical agitation. Jn 5e$r#ar% 2C( 1ID9( Le Nou$eau Monde !rinted a letter "ro& a 1al"@Breed which was signed 6L.+.7. +iel #ndo#$tedl% wrote this letter( one in which he savagel% takes -air to task "or his o$servances on +ed +iver li"e and es!eciall% its ladies: 6Ho# s!eak o" a great &an% things that %o# have not had ti&e to see or know= that wo#ld $e worth as &#ch as the re&ainder o" %o#r letter= as &#ch as the scarcel% co#rteo#s ter&s( , will even sa% $arel% civili*ed( which %o# #se in s!eaking o" the ladies o" the co#ntr%\7 C2 J#st two !aragra!hs a$ove this re&ark( +iel res!onded to -air;s i&!lication that the 6"#t#re o" the co#ntr%7 was its inevita$le anneGation to .anada. 6R+ed +iverS will have so&e kind o" "#t#re( $#t not that which -r. -air !redicts "or it(7 re!lied +iel. C< 4o&e ti&e in 1ID9( +iel wrote a !oe&
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L;A$$V 0. 3#gas/ *istoi e )éidi<ue des faites <ui ont ( épa é le mou$ement des Metis a la ,i$iC e- ou"e en 6AB> >-ontrVal( 190C?( 2E@2I. 49 .harles -eair )#oted in 0regg 4hallida%( editor( Manitoba 67E# & *isto !/ $olume one >:inni!eg( 199<?( 204. C0 Lawrence .larke )#oted in or&an 4hrive( Cha les Mai # Lie a ! Nationalist >Toronto( 19DC?( 1C0. Jne sho#ld also $e aware that Lawrence .larke;s wi"e was -etis. C1 Lo#is 4ch&idt( 6Les -V&oires de Lo#is 4ch&idt(7 (at iote de L;+uest( Jan#ar% 2C( 1912. C2 Letter re!rinted in .e"";s ,ed ,i$e Jou nal( 401. C< -bid.

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entitled 6At Jak /oint(7C4 in which he ri!!ed a!art -air;s character( and( thro#gh a clever !la% on his na&e( characteri*ed hi& as a chien de Me >sea dog?. The ke% stan*as closel% associate .anada;s thirst "or land with the resistance o" Annie Bannat%ne. :e sa% on o#r lands La@i@to#@tra@laa Bis. :e sa% on o#r lands 1e wants to $e the &aster Jver thereaaa 4end #s $ack )#ickl% La@i@to#@tra@laa Bis. 4end #s $ack )#ickl% That sea dog #nder water Jver thereaaa The at&os!here is too dr% La@i@to#@tra@laa Bis. The at&os!here is too dr% 5or hi& to sta% there Jver thereaaa Let;s !#t o#t to dr% La@i@to#@tra@laa Bis. Let;s !#t o#t to dr% The noses o" the sea dog Jver thereaaa ,t;s a lad% that will show #s La@i@to#@tra@laa Bis. ,t;s a lad% that will show #s 1ow we sho#ld treat the& Jver thereaaaCC As shown in the &e&oirs o" Jean@Ba!tiste Ladero#te( $% the end o" A!ril 1ID9( +iel was associating Annie Bannat%ne;s stand against -air with his own stand against the take@over o" +ed +iver $% the .anadian govern&ent. A"ter work one da% that A!ril( Ladero#te went to -oncha&!;s saloon "or a drink and &et arcisse -arion( 3r. :alter Brown and .harles -air. Jose!h 0enthon and +iel arrived shortl% therea"ter( and a"ter $eing introd#ced to each other( the &en sat down "or a "riendl% chat. Brown had recentl% taken over ownershi! o" the No ;Weste ( the settle&ent;s onl% news!a!er( "ro& 3r. 4ch#lt*( and he solicited the gro#!;s o!inions regarding his editorshi!. -arion was di!lo&atic and said there was nothing $etter in +ed +iver( $#t +iel was )#ick to re&ind Brown that he was 6not alwa%s correct in RhisS news!a!er(7 !ointing o#t the r#de re&arks that had a!!eared a$o#t +ed +iver wo&en. Brown rightl% denied that he had co&&itted s#ch an o""ence( $#t +iel dared Brown to acco&!an% hi& on a visit to -rs. Bannat%ne and have her !rove the veracit% o" his re&arks. CD The conversation )#ickl% t#rned to the
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Jak /oint( later known as 4te. Anne des .h^nes( was where -air worked as !a%&aster on the constr#ction o" 3awson +oad. /oe& re!rinted in The Collected W itin"s of Louis ,iel/ $olume F( edited $% 0len .a&!$ell >Ed&onton( 19IC?( ID. CD :ritten so&e 4< %ears a"ter the event( Ladero#te;s recollections o" the +esistance will #ndo#$tedl% $e lacking in acc#rac%. As !ointed o#t !revio#sl%( -air;s letters were !rinted in the Toronto 0lobe not the No ;Weste . +iel( there"ore( sho#ld not have acc#sed Brown o" having !rinted the&. 1owever( +iel wo#ld not have !assed #! a chance to needle -air on his $reech o" eti)#ette. J$lats de

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i&!ending trans"er o" sovereignt% o" the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent to .anada. +iel declared that the !olitical change was not going to ha!!en as had $een "oreseen. 3r. Brown and -air asked( 6:ho is going to sto! itd7 +iel answered( 6,t is , who is going to sto! it.7 CE .learl%( Annie;s act had $eco&e a s%&$ol "or +iel( $eca#se he closel% associated her resistance with his own !lans. Beca#se she le"t no record o" her own( Annie;s reason "or attacking -air will never $e known !recisel%. ,t is #nlikel% that her attack on -air was "or !olitical reasons and it see&s &ore likel% that she was de"ending her stat#s as an elite &iGed@$lood wo&an against a ver% r#de and #nct#o#s !erson who condescendingl% "elt hi&sel" to $e a c#t a$ove the local inha$itants. As 1ID9( events &oved to o!en resistance= Andrew Bannat%ne $eca&e )#ite activel% involved on the -etis side. ,t is an o!en )#estion as to how &#ch his wi"e in"l#enced his s%&!athies to the -etis ca#se. The n#&$er o" incidents and events where Andrew Bannat%ne was involved d#ring the +iel +esistance are too n#&ero#s to doc#&ent here( $#t his !artici!ation was nearl% alwa%s s#!!ortive o" +iel and the !rovisional govern&ent. ,ndeed( earl% in the resistance( acc#sers charged Bannat%ne with !rovisioning the 5rench and -etis "or their o$str#ction o" :illia& -c3o#gall entr% into the co#ntr% and assisting the& in having the &ail o!ened( charges that( at the ti&e( Begg vehe&entl% denied.CI Altho#gh he &a% not have $een directl% involved in these acts( Bannat%ne &ade his !osition on the +esistance known in a letter to Bisho! TachV: 6-% "eelings are with /resid. +ielle >sic? 2 , don;t hide it while , know he is working "or the good o" the .o#ntr%.7C9 This s#!!ort( however( did not !revent +iel "ro& arresting Bannat%ne "or atte&!ting to visit 0overnor -cTavish and 3r. .owan( $oth o" who& were #nder ho#se arrest. Event#all%( their di""erences were resolved and the% were #nder "riendl% ter&s. 1aving a -etis wi"e did not necessaril% g#arantee e&!ath% "or +iel. ,n "act( Annie;s "ather( the cr#st% old Andrew -c3er&ot a!!arentl% tried to convince his da#ghter( -ar% 4all% -cTavish( to assassinate +iel. D0 ,t is t%!ical o" the wa% that histor% has treated wo&en that &ost o" the activities that Annie &a% have !artici!ated in d#ring the +esistance went #nrecorded. onetheless( 1er sister( -rs. -cTavish( did acco&!an% her on a visit to 5ather Lestanc in an e""ort to save the li"e o" -aAor Bo#lton.D1 Also in an atte&!t to discredit +iel( the esca!ed 3r. 4ch#lt* s!read the r#&o#r that he had al&ost ca#sed -rs. Bannat%ne and -rs. Begg to $e a!!rehended on s#s!icion o" es!ionage. D2 An% "#rther involve&ent in events $% Annie ended when she and so&e o" her children acco&!anied her sister and 0overnor -cTavish >who was s#""ering "ro& t#$erc#losis? on the stea&er( the -nte national( when it le"t +ed +iver on -a% 1E( 1IE0. The reasons she le"t are #nclear= it &a% have $een that her h#s$and was concerned "or her sa"et%( es!eciall% a"ter the eGec#tion o" Tho&as 4cott. 1e hi&sel" le"t in A#g#st. 1e wrote to TachV that he was a!!rehensive as to his own sa"et% d#e to the agitation o" the L!!er .anadian
-arie ,&&ac#lVe( /rovince d# -anito$a( dossier Lo#is +iel( Jean@Ba!tiste Ladero#te( Mémoi es des T oubles du Manitoba( 1ID9@E0( !. <. CE -bid.( !. C. CI .e"";s ,ed ,i$e Jou nal( <19. C9 A.A. 4t.B.( 5onds TachV( A.0.B. Bannat%ne to Bisho! TachV( A#g#st D( 1IE0. D0 J" co#rse( this anecdote &a% $e a!ocr%!hal( $#t a!!arentl% -rs. -cTavish and a co&!anion 6$oth looked horri"ied7 when -c3er&ot showed the& how to #se a g#n and s#ggested that the% kill +iel with it( hinting that 6no $la&e wo#ld ever attach to the&7 and the settle&ent wo#ld $e $etter o"" $eca#se al the tro#$les he had ca#sed wo#ld $e over once and "or all. Manitoba ' ee ( ess( -arch E( 1914: 4. D1 Bo#lton had $een conde&ned to death "or his role in tr%ing to overthrow +iel;s !rovisional govern&ent. This is the incident that res#lted in the illegal a!!rehension o" or$ert /risien and s#$se)#ent deaths o" 1#gh 4#therland and /arisien. Altho#gh 3onald A. 4&ith is #s#all% given credit "or having Bo#lton;s sentence co&&#ted( 4#therland;s &other !lead !assionatel% with +iel not to #se her son;s death as an eGc#se "or "#rther $loodshed and !ro$a$l% had the greater in"l#ence. 1eal%( 22D@22E. D2 .e"";s ,ed ,i$e Jou nal( <19.

<<

!eo!le( who were eGcited over 4cott;s eGec#tion. D< Annie had !ro$a$l% le"t to assist her older sister care "or her invalid h#s$and. 0overnor -cTavish died on J#l% 2<( 1IE0( in Liver!ool( two da%s a"ter dise&$arking. Andrew Aoined Annie in 0reat Britain and the% then ret#rned to .anada. 4he &#st have $een ill d#ring the Ao#rne% $eca#se a letter "ro& +iel received #!on their ret#rn( eG!resses ho!e that her health has i&!roved. D4 The strait@laced con@ ventions o" 8ictorians o"ten do not allow one to &ake insights into &atters o" the heart( $#t there is so&e evidence to s#ggest that the Bannat%ne;s &arriage was one $ased on love and co&!anionshi!. 4o&eti&e a"ter the +ed +iver +esistance( -r. Bannat%ne wrote to +iel to a!ologise "or not ret#rning a wagon $orrowed "ro& +iel;s &other. 1is eGc#se was Annie;s illness 6\ &% good wi"e was taken so ver% #nwell that , have $een at her side all the ti&e 2 , "orgot it. , a& thank"#l to $e a$le to sa% she is a little i&!roved( $#t ver% weak %et. , tr#st this will in so&e wa% eGc#se &% r#deness 2 neglect.7DC Altho#gh Annie;s illness &a% have $een A#st a #se"#l eGc#se( the two o" the& were close co&!anions on their vo%ages( with Andrew o"ten de"erring to his wi"e. :hile wintering in 1ot 4!rings( Arkansas( in 1II2( Bannat%ne was #ndecided as to whether to go on and visit .hicago and ew Hork( altho#gh 6the good wi"e RwasS ver% anGio#s to go.7DD ,t was likel% that Annie did convince her h#s$and to visit these cities( and she &a% have convinced Andrew to !roceed with a tri! to Britain the "ollowing a#t#&n( des!ite the
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A.A. 4t.B.( 5onds TachV( A.0.B. Bannat%ne to Bisho! TachV( A#g#st D( 1IE0. Lo#is +iel to A.0.B. Bannat%ne( 3ece&$er 29( 1IE0. +e!rinted in The Collected W itin"s of Louis ,iel/ $olume 6 ( edited $% +a%&ond 1#el( 12E. DC /.A.-.( Lo#is +iel /a!ers( FDD( A.0.B. Bannat%ne to Lo#is +iel( n.d. DD /.A.-.( A.0.B. Bannat%ne /a!ers( F<( A.0.B. Bannat%ne to Andrew 4trang( Jan#Iar% 22( 1II2.

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colla!se o" his wealth as the -anito$a land $oo& ca&e to a crashing th#d. 6The onl% thing &% creditor;s can;t take is &% tri! to E#ro!e(7 he Aoked. DE The descri!tion o" this tri! in one o" his letters &akes it so#nd like a tr#e vacation( or even a second hone%&oon. The co#!le went to the theatre( rode the 6#ndergro#nd railwa%7( reviewed the troo!s on their ret#rn "ro& Eg%!t( &ade an #ns#ccess"#l atte&!t to get inside the 1o#ses o" /arlia&ent( had Annie !resented in .o#rt $e"ore 9#een 8ictoriaDI and got ca#ght in a London throng. Tragicall%( Annie and a "ew o" her children acco&!anied Andrew on a "inal tri! intended to i&!rove his health. Andrew Bannat%ne !assed awa% in the -erchant;s 1otel in 4t. /a#l Jn -a% 1I( 1II9( while ret#rning "ro& TeGas. 1is health and "ort#ne had $oth declined d#ring the 1II0s( and his !assing was there"ore 6sad( tho#gh not entirel% #neG!ected news.7 D9 Annie no do#$t acco&!anied the $od% $ack to :inni!eg where a lavish "#neral( the 6largest that RhadS $een seen "or %ears7 was held at Bannat%ne;s castle. E0 The long !rocession &ade its wa% "ro& Ar&strong;s !oint to Bildonan .e&eter%( where several Bannat%ne children were alread% $#ried. Annie lived another nineteen %ears a"ter his death and ke!t a relativel% low !ro"ile.

1udith 7. .artlett2 >$. A#g. 19C2? -3( -4c( ..5/( 5.5/
J#dith 0. Bartlett is a .anadian -etis !h%sician( researcher and health ad&inistrator with over 20 %ears o" eG!erience. 3r. Bartlett worked "or a decade in 5irst ations health( and "or the !ast decade has "oc#sed her research and health ad&inistration work in her own -etis co&&#nit%. 4he has an active research !rogra& in -anito$a and internationall%. 3r. Bartlett was honored as the 200< reci!ient o" the ational A$original Achieve&ent Award "or 1ealth and -edicine. 3r. Bartlett was $orn in 5lin 5lon( -anito$a= the da#ghter o" AleGander Bartlett and .laire Bartlett >nee .ote?. Both o" her !arents are descendants o" -etis "ro& 4t. La#rent( -anito$a >"ather;s ancestr% @ .hartrand( &other;s ancestr% K 3#char&e= $oth sets o" ancestors ca&e "ro& the "e&ale Lavallee ancestr%?. J#dith lived in 1er$ Lake Town( -anito$a >on :ek#sko Lake? #ntil age "ive( and then in The /as( -anito$a a"ter which ti&e >in her late teens? she &igrated on her own to :inni!eg( -anito$a. 3r. Bartlett co&!leted her -3 in 19IE and 5a&il% -edicine .erti"ication >..5/? in 19I9. :orking in the north( then in health !rogra&s ad&inistration "or a decade( she co&!leted a -aster o" 4cience in .o&&#nit% 1ealth in 2004( and additionall% was designated as a 5ellow o" the .ollege o" 5a&il% /h%sician o" .anada >5.5/?( also in 2004. E&!lo%&entP/ro"essional: 1. 3irector( 1ealth and :ellness 3e!art&ent at the -anito$a -etis 5ederation since 200C= 2. Associate /ro"essor( 3e!art&ent o" .o&&#nit% 1ealth 4ciences( 5ac#lt% o" -edicine( Lniversit% o" -anito$a since 2004= <. AdA#nct 4cientist( -anito$a .entre "or 1ealth /olic%( 3e!art&ent o" .o&&#nit% 1ealth 4ciences( 5ac#lt% o" -edicine( Lniversit% o" -anito$a since 2009=
DE

Bannat%ne )#oted in J.E. +ea( 6Andrew 0raha& Ballenden Bannet%ne(7 3ictiona ! of Canadian .io" aph!/ $olume =-/ 6AA6-6A>G >Toronto( 19I2?( 4E. DI Altho#gh Annie;s grandda#ghter &entioned the &eeting with the 9#een( she did not give a date( $#t this is &ost likel% the ti&e $eca#se o" the !ro&inence o" the Bannat%ne;s. D9 Manitoba 3ail! ' ee ( ess( -a% 20( 1II9( 1. E0 ' ee ( ess( -a% 22( 1II9( 4.

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4. 5a&il% /h%sician( A$original 1ealth and :ellness .entre o" :inni!eg( since 199I= and C. .EJ and .o@owner o" JA3E Enter!rises( aeros!ace &an#"act#ring co&!an%( since 1999. /ast E&!lo%&entP/ro"essional: 1. .o@3irector( .entre "or A$original 1ealth +esearch( 3e!art&ent o" co&&#nit% 1ealth 4cience( Lniversit% o" -anito$a K 200I@2009 2. Associate 3irector( /rogra&s( .entre "or A$original 1ealth +esearch( 3e!art&ent o" co&&#nit% 1ealth 4cience( Lniversit% o" -anito$a K 2001@200C <. +esearch Associate( .entre "or A$original 1ealth +esearch( 3e!art&ent o" co&&#nit% 1ealth 4cience( Lniversit% o" -anito$a K J#ne @ Jct 2001 4. 4ta"" /h%sician( Addictions Lnit( 3e!art&ent o" /s%chiatr%( 1ealth 4ciences .entre( :inni!eg +egional 1ealth A#thorit% K f ti&e 1999@200<= C. 5a&il% /h%sician( -o#nt .ar&el .linic( :inni!eg( -anito$a K !art@ti&e 199<@199C D. 3irector( 1ealth /rogra&s( -edical 4ervices Branch >now na&ed 5irst ations and ,n#it 1ealth?( 1ealth and :el"are .anada( -anito$a +egion K 1991@199D E. 5a&il% /h%sician( J. A. 1ildes orthern -edical Lnit( 5ac#lt% o" -edicine( Lniversit% o" -anito$a( clinical service in 4t. Theresa /oint and :asaga&ak( northern -anito$a 19I9@ 1991. Boards and .o&&ittees: .#rrent: 1. -e&$er o" Advisor% /anel "or -id /oint Eval#ation o" 4askatchewan 1ealth +esearch 5o#ndation Ten Hear 4trateg% >Jan@ J#n 2010? 2. ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation > A1J? >$oard &e&$er 200D@2012?= <. ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation -etis .entre 0overning .o&&ittee >200D@2010? 4. -anito$a 1ealth +esearch .o#ncil >200E@2010?= C. :inni!eg /overt% +ed#ction .o#ncil >200E@2009? and D. Lnited :a% o" :inni!eg A$original +elations .o#ncil >200C@0I? /ast 1. ,ndigeno#s /h%sicians Association o" .anada >$oard &e&$er 200D@0I?= 2. ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation >$oard chair 2000@04?= <. ,nstit#te on A$original /eo!les 1ealth >advisor% $oard &e&$er 2001@0D?= 4. Lnited :a% o" :inni!eg >$oard &e&$er 199I@2004 and chair( 2002@0<?= C. .anadian 1ealth etwork >co@chair advisor% $oard 2002@0C?= D. A$original 1ealth and :ellness .entre o" :inni!eg >Board .o@.hair 199<@2002?= and E. ,nter@!ro"essional Ed#cation "or .olla$orative /atient .entred /ractice >national eG!ert co&&ittee &e&$er 200<@0D?

,lsie <ourie .ear2 --5 4enator. >1921@2002?
B% Lorraine 5ree&an and A#dreen 1o#rie Elsie Bear was $orn on 3ece&$er 1<th( 1921 in 0rand -arais( -anito$a( the da#ghter o" /eter and -ar% 1o#rie. /eter was a "isher&an and -ar% was a &idwi"e as was her &other $e"ore her. Elsie had siG $rothers and three sisters. 5ro& the age o" eighteen Elsie worked in "ishing ca&!s cooking( which not &an% girls did $ack then. :hile working in the ca&!s she &et a %o#ng &an( 4a& Bear "ro& 4elkirk. Elsie and 4a& later &arried and had "o#r $o%s( 3o#g( 0ar%( -arlo and 0erald. :hen the $o%s reached school age( 4a& and Elsie &oved to 4elkirk( -anito$a. Elsie worked in town cleaning o""ices "or twent% %ears while raising her "a&il%( and also vol#nteered "or the ,ndian and -etis 5riendshi!

<D

.entre and the -anito$a -etis 5ederation. Elsie and 4a& reall% loved children and together the% hel!ed raise over "ort% children. The &ost children the% had in their ho#se at one ti&e was nine. Elsie stated that 6the% were a lot o" hel! tooa7 4a& also enAo%ed looking a"ter the children while she was at work. .hrist&as was a s!ecial ti&e o" sharing "or Elsie and her "a&il%. The da% wo#ld start earl% when the children woke to see what was le"t #nder the tree $% 4anta. ,t then $eca&e $#sier when "a&il% started to arrive "or a !ancake and sa#sage $reak"ast. 5a&il% tradition was that the little ones &ade the !ancakes. As soon as $reak"ast was over( !re!arations "or .hrist&as dinner started with ever%one !itching in. Elsie and 4a& o!ened their ho&e to "eed need% "a&ilies in the co&&#nit%. Elsie said( 6, never reall% co#nted the n#&$er o" !eo!le we shared o#r .hrist&as with $#t , g#essed it was aro#nd 100 !eo!le.7 4he also added with !ride( 6There was never a shortage o" "ood on .hrist&as( no &atter how &an% !eo!le we had.7 ,n 19E2( Elsie and 4a& &oved the .hrist&as dinner "ro& their ho&e to the ,ndian and -etis 5riendshi! .entre in 4elkirk to serve over <00 .hrist&as dinners. /eo!le ca&e together on this s!ecial da% with donations o" "ood and hel!. 4a& !assed awa% in 19I9( and Elsie contin#ed her work in the co&&#nit% and with her "a&il%. 4he sa%s( 6,t;s es!eciall% i&!ortant "or wo&en to $e involved in ever%thing( to show their interests and to have a voice "or the&selves and their children.7 5ollowing her eGtensive involve&ent with the 4elkirk 5riendshi! .entre( the -anito$a -etis 5ederation and the 4t. /eter;s Anglican .h#rch( her list o" a""iliations grew. L!on her retire&ent( she )#ickl% $eca&e involved with the -anito$a Association o" 5riendshi! .entres >-A.?( the ,ndigeno#s :o&en;s Alliance( the 4elkirk 2 3istrict Arts .o#ncil ( the 4elkirk Branch o" the 3/ and a 4enator o" the ational Association o" 5riendshi! .entres > A5.? and the -anito$a -etis 5ederation >--5?. 1owever( it was her work with the 4elkirk 5riendshi! .entre where Elsie;s contri$#tions were &ost noticea$le. 4enator Elsie Bear was involved with the 4elkirk 5riendshi! .entre "or nearl% 2C %ears and initiated so&e o" the .entre;s &ost i&!ortant events. As noted a$ove( "or &an% %ears( she coordinated the Ann#al .hrist&as 3inner "or the eed% K an event she originated. Jver 2C0 !eo!le avoided going h#ngr% d#ring that s!ecial ti&e o" the %ear thanks to the H#letide -eal. 4he alwa%s worried that so&e !eo!le wo#ldn;t get a good dinner on .hrist&as 3a% and this was her wa% o" ens#ring that the% never did. To hono#r this work( the -anito$a -etis 5ederation ho&e o""ice at 1C0 1enr% Ave. in :inni!eg has na&ed its ca"eteria 6Elsie Bears Bitchen7. Elsie received &an% hono#rs in her li"e $#t the ones she was &ost !ro#d o" were received in 19IE. 4he was designated as :o&an o" the Hear( was also selected to $e on the :all o" 1ono#r at the :inni!eg ,ndian and -etis 5riendshi! .entre and was &ade 4enator o" the -anito$a -etis 5ederation. The &ost !restigio#s hono#r she received was in 1992( when she was given 6The Jrder o" The B#""alo 1#nt(7 -anito$a;s highest hono#r given "or co&&#nit% service. Elsie was ver% !ro#d o" the "act that she is -etis. 4he sa%s( 6Ho# have to $e !ro#d o" what %o# are.7 Elsie Bear died on -arch C( 2002 a"ter a length% illness= she was I0 %ears o" age. 4he will $e re&e&$ered as one o" the original !ioneers o" the 5riendshi! .entre -ove&ent.

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Christi 8arlene .elcourt. >$. 19DD?
.hristi Belco#rt( -etis !ainter( cra"ts!erson( and writer( was $orn in 4car$oro#gh( Jntario in 4e!te&$er( 19DD( the da#ghter o" Ton% Belco#rt and J#dith /ierce@-artin >nVe 4treatch?. 1er si$lings are gra!hic designer 4#*anne Belco#rt and "il&&aker 4hane Belco#rt. 1er "ather was the "o#nding !resident o" the ative .o#ncil o" .anada >19E1@19E4?. /revio#s to that he was vice@!resident o" the -Vtis Association o" Al$erta >19D9?. 1e recentl% retired "ro& his !osition as !resident o" the -Vtis ation o" Jntario. Belco#rt is recogni*ed within the -Vtis co&&#nit% as one o" the !ree&inent -etis artists in .anada. ,n 2001( art c#rator .atherine -attes incl#ded .hristi in her review o" -etis art and artists sa%ing: 6E&erging -etis artist .hristi Belco#rt has $een re"ining the&es within her !aintings( which re"lect( renewed -etis !ride and a strong sense o" A$original heritage. 1er the&es are in three to!ic areas( 5lorals K ins!ired $% -etis $eadwork !atterns= :ater K hono#ring the sacred relationshi! o" all creat#res to water= and -etis 1istor% K de!icting -etis !eo!le and events.7E1 .hristi is the a#thor o" Medicines to *elp Us# T aditional Metis (lant Use# Stud! ( ints and ,esou ce 0uide >4askatoon: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 200E?. The !rints and co&!anion $ooklet are $ased on .hristi Belco#rt;s !ainting o" the sa&e na&e. There are contri$#tions to the teGt on traditional !lant #se $% -etis Elders +ose +ichardson and Jlive :hit"ord. The $ook;s -ichi" lang#age translations are $% +ita 5la&and with ,le N la .rosse dialect translations $% La#ra B#rno#".

+o 8uch 9epends =pon 3ho <olds The +hovel (detail view( Acr%lic on .anvas( 4IO G 9DO( 200I /er&anent .ollection o" the ,ndian and ,n#it Art .entre

.hristi !resented at the 9th Ann#al ew 4#n .on"erence on A$original Arts: Somethin" Else &"ainH which took !lace at .arleton Lniversit% 5e$r#ar% 2E( 2010. 1er "loral &#ral' M! *ea t I-s .eautifulJ'was #sed "or the con"erence !oster. 1er work has $een co&&issioned $% the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te( the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( the at#re .onservanc% o" .anada and
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.atherine -attes. 6-etis /ers!ectives in .onte&!orar% Art.7 Metis Le"ac! >Eds.? Barkwell( Lawrence J.( Leah 3orion and 3arren +. /rV"ontaine. :inni!eg( -B: /e&&ican /#$lications( 2001: 192.

<I

the .entre "or Traditional Bnowledge 2 -#se#& o" at#re( and is "o#nd in the !er&anent collections o" the Th#nder Ba% Art 0aller%( the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te( the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te and .anadian -#se#& o" .ivili*ation( 5irst /eo!le;s 1all. .hristi is a !ast reci!ient o" awards "ro& the .anada .o#ncil "or the Arts( the Jntario Arts .o#ncil( the .hal&ers 5a&il% 5#nd( and the -Vtis ation o" Jntario.
+e"erence: www.christi$elco#rt.co&

8adeline 8ercredi .ird. >$. 1I99?
,n the $ook( Li$in" :indness# The 3 eam of M! Life# The Memoi s of a Métis Elde . >Hellowkni"e( orthwest Territories: J#tcro!( 1991?( -adeline Bird( nVe -ercredi( a res!ected -etis Elder $orn at 5ort .hi!ew%an in 1I99( tells the stor% o" her li"e in this a""ectionate $iogra!h% asse&$led with the hel! o" 4ister Agnes 4#therland. Jne o" nine children( -adeline was the da#ghter o" -etis !arents whose ancestors ca&e originall% "ro& -anito$a. -rs. Bird relates the hardshi!s and Ao%s o" her li"e and has !artic#larl% kind words "or the 4isters and their assistance and s&all kindnesses. 4he !artic#larl% notes the hard li"e and !overt% which was the lot o" the 4isters who were their teachers and the role o" the ch#rch in caring "or -Vtis or!hans. The a#thors incl#de &an% !hotogra!hs de!icting li"e in northern Al$erta and the orthwest Territories as well as a !eo!le and !laces indeG.

+u>anne .ird >$. 1949?
B% Edgar 3esAarlais -etis singer@songwriter and recording artist 4#*anne Bird is a s#rvivor( a s#rvivor o" n#&ero#s "oster ho&es and &#sical Ao#rne%s. 4he was $orn in 4tein$ach( -anito$a( and $egan her li"e in a s&all shack on Boko&o +oad $etween La Bro)#erie and -archand( -anito$a. The second %o#ngest o" eleven children( a"ter a "ew %ears( she was taken $% the .hildren;s Aid 4ociet% and !laced in "oster care. 4he grew #! in the 5ranco!hone co&&#nities o" 4t. /ierre Jol%s( Letellier( 4t. Jose!h and 4t. Boni"ace where she eGcelled as a st#dent o" the 5rench lang#age. 4he won !rovincial ling#istic awards and re!resented her co&&#nit% vocall% at the /la%ho#se /antages Theatre. 3#ring her teen %ears( she discovered her talents as a singer. 4he wo#ld "re)#ent the ative .l#$ and Aa& with the original 5eather&en Band. 4he had three da#ghters( $#t li"e was not kind to her. 4he was "orced to relin)#ish c#stod% o" her "irst two children( $#t was deter&ined to &ake a go o" it with her %o#ngest. 1owever( when her da#ghter $eca&e #na$le to care "or her own children( the res!onsi$ilit% o" !roviding care "or the children "ell to the single@!arenting 4#*anne. ,t was ver% di""ic#lt to $alance a li"e as a traveling entertainer and care@!rovider at the sa&e ti&e. .o&!o#nding &atters were the e!ile!s% she alread% s#""ered "ro&( and the onset o" an anGiet% disorder. 4he "o#ght hard to kee! things together and &an% ti&es "o#nd hersel" ho&eless and !oor( $#t to save her sanit% she was "orced to !lace the grandchildren in care. The $o% and girl are now in the care o" a ver% loving "a&il%. Ever% once in a while( an individ#al tries to &ake a na&e "or the&selves in the &#sic ind#str% who si&!l% re"#ses to "it into an% eas% categor%. 4#ch a !erson is 64ong /ainter7 4#*anne Bird. ,t is when record &#sic eGec#tives tr% to categori*e her &#sicall%( that +a%ne recording artist( 4#*anne kee!s $reaking o#t o" their !rede"ined $oGes and shows the& new as!ects o" her talent and eG!erience. 3e&onstrating n#&ero#s st%les and vocal ranges( she cannot

<9

$e 6!igeon@holed.7 The categor% she certainl% "its is that o" a ver% talented and #ni)#e individ#al( who will stretch and challenge the li&its o" ever% other categor%. 8ocall%( 4#*anne Bird has $een co&!ared to /ats% Bline( Joni -itchell and :%nona J#dd and her &#sical st%les cover a $road range o" in"l#ences= whether its $l#es( co#ntr%( "olk( rock or Aa**( she can do the& all. 4#*anne $egan !er"or&ing !ro"essionall% in 19EE and has covered a lot o" gro#nd since then\ literall%. 1er travels have taken her across .anada( where she has !er"or&ed at the 5irst .anadian :o&en;s -#sic 5estival( the Toronto .ross@c#lt#ral 5estival( the +egina( Tho&!son( and 8anco#ver 5olk 5estivals( the -anito$a 3e!art&ent o" c#lt#ral A""airs; orthern To#rs( as well as singing lead "or a n#&$er o" local $ar $ands. 4he has shared &ain stages with with the likes o": +ita -c eil( 1eather Bisho!( Baren 1owe( /a& Tillis( ,an T%son and Joanne 4henandoah o" #!state ew Hork. ,n ew London( .onnectic#t( she !er"or&ed at a show e&ceed $% the i&&ortal :ol"&an Jack. 4he has $een re"erred to as 6one to watch(7 6a singing and songwriting talent to $e reckoned with(7 and 6-anito$a;s $est well@ke!t secret on the &#sic scene.7 /resentl%( 4#*anne lives in /ortage la /rairie( -anito$a and shares her li"e and ho&e with another well@known !er"or&er once known as 6The -etis .ow$o%.7 4he is in her retire&ent %ears and travels to :inni!eg a "ew ti&es a week where she r#ns her ho#se@cleaning $#siness. 4o&e o" her ho$$ies incl#de: singing and writing( gardening and traveling to local destinations in search o" the $est anti)#e sale and "leaP"ar&er;s &arkets. 1er literar% a&$itions incl#de a $ook o" her &e&oirs as a child in the child@care s%ste&. 4#*anne is the great@grandda#ghter o" Edwin Tho&!son 3enig. The A&erican $orn 3enig >1I12@1ICI? was a "#r traded e&!lo%ed $% the A&erican 5#r co&!an%( stationed at 5ort Lnion on the L!!er -isso#ri +iver "or 2C %ears. 1is &an#scri!ts are considered to $e the &ost co&!lete and a#thentic descri!tion o" akota >Assini$oine? ,ndian c#lt#re in &id@nineteenth cent#r% ethnolog%. 1e was &arried to 1ai@kees@kak@wee@%ah >3eer Little :o&an? an Assini$oine ,ndian( the da#ghter o" ,ron Arrow /oint( chie" o" the +ock Band o" Assini$oine.

+andra *ouise .artlette .irdsell. >$. 1942?
4andra was $orn 22 A!ril 1942 in 1a&iota( -anito$a. 4he is a .anadian novelist and short stor% writer o" -Vtis and -ennonite heritage. 4he attended the Lniversit% o" :inni!eg and the Lniversit% o" -anito$a( where she st#died #nder +o$ert Broetsch. ,n A!ril 200E( Birdsell co&!leted a "o#r &onth ter& as the .arol 4hields writer in residence at the Lniversit% o" :inni!eg. .ibliography of .irdsell writing: • Ni"ht T a$elle s( 19I4 >winner o" the 0erald La&!ert Award? • Ladies of the *ouse( 19I4 • &"assi2 Sto ies( 19IE • The Missin" Child( 19I9 >winner o" the 1990 Books in .anada 5irst Award? • The Ch ome Suite( 1992 >shortlisted "or a 0overnor 0eneralUs Award? • The T%o-*eaded Calf( 199E >shortlisted "or a 0overnor 0eneralUs Award? • The To%n That 'loated &%a!( 199E • The ,usslKnde ( 2001

ovel

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Child en of the 3a!( 200C >longlisted "or the 200E ,-/A. Award?

8arguerite .;rard .oisvert. >1IC1@1920?
B% 1enri LVto#rnea#. -&e. Jose!h Boisvert( nVe -arg#erite BVrard( &orte N Lorette( -anito$a en 1920. -&e. Boisvert Vtait ggVe de D9 ans. Ve ici N la +iviMre +o#ge en 1IC1( "ille de .harles BVrard( &Vtis( et de -arg#erite Lagi&odiMre( "ille de Jean@Ba!tiste >La /rairie? Lagi&odiMre( canadien( et de -arie 1arrison( &Vtisse. -&e. Boisvert ai&ent N !arler de sa Ae#nesse. Elle avait acco&!agnV ses !arents N la co#rse a# $ison. Elle disait )#e son !Mre( .harles BVrard( &ontait #n cheval "o#g#e#G et )#e le#r charrette Vtait attelVe non !as d;#n $oe#" &ais d;#ne vache et en !l#s d;#ne vache N laita Alors( soir et &atin( sa &Mre tra%ait la vache et les BVrard Vtaient les se#ls d# ca&! &Vtis )#i avaient d# lait N $oire. En 1IC9( -arg#erite avait alors h#it ans. Lors de la chasse a# $ison K la chasse d;VtV( son !Mre !erdit la vie dans #n accident. .;Vtait la derniMre chasse )#e -arg#erite et sa &Mre s#ivirent. ,ls de&e#rMrent N 4aint@Boni"ace che* son grand@!Mre Lagi&odiMre don;t la "er&e Vtait sit#Ve le long de la 4eine. L; VtV de 1ID<( -arg#erite "#t trMs &alade( elle e#t #ne grosse "iMvre et )#and elle devint &ie#G sa Aa&$e ga#che Vtait trMs "ai$le. Elle Vtait o$ligVe de se servir d;#ne $V)#ille et sa Aa&$e resta !etite et $ea#co#! !l#s co#rte )#e l;a#tre. Les gens disaient 6)#e c;Vtait ca#sV !ar #n dV!ht de "iMvre.7 .;Vtait !ro$a$le&ent la !olio de nos Ao#rs( inconn# N l;V!o)#e. 1ID<. .;est l;annVe )#e les 4io#G d# -innesota arrivaient N 4aint@Boni"ace. ,ls arrivMrent D0 loges( !rMs de C00 !ersonnes. ,ls s;Vtaient en"#is d# -innesota N ca#se d# &assacre de 1ID2. La cavalerie a&Vricaine N le#r tro#sse( ils arrivMrent &o#rant de "ai&. -arge#rite se so#venait de les avoir v#s )#and #ne !artie de la $ande so#s le che" /etit 4iG o# 4ko""ie arrivMrent che* son grand@ !Mre. .;Vtait dans les dV$#ts de dVce&$re: -arg#erite !o#vait laisser son lit !endant )#el)#es he#res !ar Ao#r. /ar la "en^tre elle regardait les 4io#G. 3e#G des che"s !arlaient N son grand@!Mre )#i s;en alla N l;Vta$le et revint avec #n $oe#" )#;il donna a#G 4io#G. Les 4io#G "irent $o#cherie i&&Vdiate&ent. 3ans )#el)#es &in#tes l;ani&al Vtait saignV( la !ea# enlevVe( la carcasse netto%Ve. 9#atre !otea#G "#rent !lantVs dans le sol. La carcasse A#chVe s#r les !otea#G( #n grand "e# de $ois all#&V et les 4io#G co&&encMrent N &anger avant )#e l;ani&al soit c#it. -arg#erite disait )#e le sang co#lait cha)#e chtV de le#rs $o#ches. Le "estin ter&inV( elle vit son grand@!Mre )#i venait N la &aison acco&!agnV d;#n che". Elle co#r#t N son lit( se co#cha et se co#vrit le visage de la co#vert#re( !rVtendant dor&ir. L;,ndian arr^ta !rMs d# lit et leva la co#vert#re !o#r la voir. .;Vtait le /etit 4iG( le che"= il avait entend# dire )#e La /rairie avait #ne !etite "ille &alade et il vo#lait la voir. -arge#rite( elle avait do#*e ans( disait ne !as avoir en tro! !e#r. Le "ait )#e son grand@!Mre Vtait !rVsent et )#e le che" n;avait !as l;air d;^tre &Vchant la rass#rait.
,efe ence LVto#rnea#( 1enri. *en i Létou neau ,aconte( :inni!eg: Editions Bois@BrilVs( 19I0: ED@EE.

7ertrude ?@itkala +haA +immons .onnin. >1IED@19<I?
0ertr#de 4i&&ons Bonnin( [itkala 4ha >+ed Bird?( was a talented and ed#cated ative A&erican wo&an who str#ggled and tri#&!hed in a ti&e when severe !reA#dice !revailed toward ative A&erican c#lt#re and wo&en. 1er talents and contri$#tions in the worlds o" literat#re( &#sic( and !olitics challenge long@standing $elie"s a$o#t ative A&ericans. Bonnin ai&ed at creating #nderstanding $etween the do&inant white and ative A&erican c#lt#res. As a -etis wo&an o" &iGed white and ative A&erican ancestr%( she e&$odied the

41

need "or the two c#lt#res to live coo!erativel% within the sa&e $od% o" land. 1er works critici*ed dog&a( and her li"e as a ative A&erican wo&an was dedicated against the evils o" o!!ression. Bonnin was $orn on 5e$r#ar% 22( 1IED( on the /ine +idge Hankton +eservation in 4o#th 3akota. 1er "ather was a white &an na&ed 5elker( a$o#t who& little is known. 1er &other was Ellen Tate ,%ohinwin >4he +eaches "or the :ind? 4i&&ons( a "#ll@$looded 4io#G. Bonnin was 4i&&ons; third child. At eight %ears o" age( Bonnin decided to leave her &other and the reservation to attend :hiteUs -an#al La$or ,nstit#te in :a$ash( ,ndiana. This was a school "#nded $% the 9#akers. A"ter "o#r %ears she ret#rned ho&e( $#t then enrolled( against her &other;s wishes( at the 4antee or&al Training 4chool. 4he chose this school $eca#se it was close to her &other. ,n 1I9C( she decided to &ove on and acce!ted entrance and scholarshi!s to Earlha& .ollege in ,ndiana. Tho#gh &ost noted "or her literar% and !olitical geni#s( Bonnin was an acco&!lished violinist and even won a scholarshi! to st#d% at the Boston .onservator% o" -#sic. ,n 191<( she and classical &#sic co&!oser :illia& 1anson wrote an o!era called 4#n 3ance. The creation was a!!reciated $% a "ew ative A&ericans( $#t since 19<E has gone #nnoticed. either $e"ore nor since has there $een an o!era written $% a ative A&erican. -#sic was Bonnin;s real love( %et she "elt it &ore i&!ortant to "ight "or the rights o" her !eo!le thro#gh literat#re and !olitics. A"ter her st#dies at the Boston .onservator%( Bonnin acce!ted a teaching !osition at the .arlisle ,ndian 4chool. 1er sta% at .arlisle ,ndian 4chool lasted two %ears. As a writer( she ado!ted the !en na&e O[itkala 4haO and in 1900 $egan !#$lishing articles critici*ing the .arlisle ,ndian 4chool. 4he resented the degradation st#dents #nderwent( "ro& "orced .hristianit% to severe !#nish&ent "or s!eaking in native lang#ages. 4he was critici*ed "or this $eca#se &an% "elt she showed no gratit#de "or the kindness and s#!!ort that white !eo!le had given her in her ed#cation. 0ertr#de &arried .a!tain +a%&ond Bonnin. 1e was a &iGed $lood akota living on the reservation and working "or the B#rea# o" ,ndian A""airs. Ln"ort#natel%( the &arriage did indeed !rove detri&ental to her career as she was "orced to "ollow her h#s$and;s career as the% &oved "ro& reservation to reservation. The Bonnins had one son na&ed Jhi%a >:inner?. Jn a reservation in Ltah the Bonnins $eca&e !art o" the 4ociet% o" A&erican ,ndians( o" which she was elected secretar% in 191D. The Bonnins &oved to :ashington( 3...( where 0ertr#de contin#ed her work with the 4ociet% and $egan editing the &me ican -ndian Ma"a2ine. A strong !olitical voice "or ative A&ericans( Bonnin wrote +klahoma4s (oo ,ich -ndians# &n + "! of 0 aft ( E1ploitation of the 'i$e Ci$ili2ed T ibes ( Le"ali2ed ,obbe !. This work( !#$lished in 1924( with two white co@a#thors( eG!osed the ro$$eries and &#rders in Jklaho&a o" ative A&erican !eo!le and led to the ,ndian +eorgani*ation Act o" 19<4( reesta$lishing a tr#st "or ,ndian lands. Bonnin was also !ivotal in gaining the rights o" citi*enshi! and the vote "or ative A&ericans. 4he did this $% seeking #nit% $etween all tri$es in a !an@

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,ndian !olitical !ower. Th#s $egan the ational .o#nsel o" A&erican ,ndians( in 192D. Bonnin died in 19<I( and is $#ried in Arlington ational .e&eter%.
4o#rce: Arlington ational .e&eter%: htt!:PPwww.arlingtonce&eter%.netPgs$onnin.ht&

AngeliBue ?4manukweA.ottineau. >1I<I@190<?
Angeli)#e 6J&an#kwe7 Bottinea# was $orn Jcto$er I( 1I<I at 4t. 5rancois Xavier( the da#ghter o" Jose!h Bottinea# >$. 1I1C? and Angeli)#e .ardinal >$. 1I1D?. 1er !aternal grand!arents were -argaret -ah Je 0wo* 4ince or Ah@dik@4onga$ >.lear 4k%?E2( and a 5rench@ .anadian h#nter grand"ather( .harles Jose!h Bottinea#. E< ,n 1EIE( .harles Jose!h Bottinea# ca&e into the orthwest Territor% .hi!!ewa co#ntr% with other 5rench "#r traders. Between 1I0<@ 1I0I( .harles 4r. was a vo%age#r and h#nter with AleGander 1enr% in the /e&$ina area. Jn J#ne 1C( 1ICE at /e&$ina Angeli)#e &arried Antoine J#ellette( also known as Antoine +atte( Ellette or :allette. 1e was $orn on 3ece&$er 29( 1I<4 at 4t. 5rancois Xavier( the son o" Jose!h J#ellette >$. 1E99? and Therese Eli*a$eth 3aniels dite 1o#le. Jose!h was the son o" Jose!h J#ellette 4r. >$.1EDC? and Angeli)#e >Assini$oine?. Theresa 1o#le >$. 1I0C? was the da#ghter o" Antoine 1o#le >$. 1EI1? and Jose!hte La#*on. Angeli)#e;s sisters were &arried to Antoine;s $rothers. -arie Bottinea#( $orn in 1I<4 &arried ,sidore J#ellette( $orn 1I<0. Jose!hte Bottinea#( $orn in 1I<D &arried 5rancois J#ellette $orn 1I<2. Antoine and Angeli)#e had the "ollowing children: • • • • • • • • • • • • Jose!h( $. Jan#ar% 29( 1IC9. +ose( $. A!ril <0( 1ID1. 4he &arried or&an -arion. -oise( $. J#l% 2( 1ID< at Lewistown. 1e &arried Elise ,sa$ella 3#&ont. .elina( $.c. 1IDC. 5rancois 65rank7( $. Jcto$er 14( 1IDI at 3evil;s Lake. 1e &arried -arie AleGina :elsh >:ells? -arie Elise( $. c. 1IE0 at :ood -o#ntain. -arie /hilo&ene( $. 5e$r#ar% 2C( 1IE2 at Le$ret. 4he &arried John :ills. Jose!h Jean -arie( $. 5e$r#ar% 4( 1IE4 at :ood -o#ntain. 1e died Jan#ar% 1IEC. Al$ert( $. Jan#ar% 14( 1IED at :ood -o#ntain. 1e died in 1IEE at 5ort :alsh. Jean Ba!tiste( $. 5e$r#ar% 2( 1IEI at .%!ress 1ills. -arie Eli*a$eth( $. -arch 19( 1II0 at Lewistown. 4he &arried Jose!h 3o&ini)#e 3#char&e. Jdilon( $. 1II4. 1e &arried Eli*a A*#re.

Antoine was an inde!endent -etis trader o!erating $ack and "orth to 4t. /a#l in the -innesota Territor% and was heavil% involved in the -etis@3akotaPLakota trade. :ith the advent
E2

Also shown as -argaret 4on ga$o ki che ta( the sister o" .hie" +ed Bear >-is@co@&#k@)#oh?. 1er "ather >3elonais? was a 3akota ca!t#red $% the .hi!!ewa and her &other was an #nknown .hi!!ewa wo&an. A&ong those who signed the /e&$ina and +ed Lake .hi!!ewa Jld .rossing Treat% o" 1ID< were her $rother +ed Bear( .hie" o" the /e&$ina( her son@in@law Jose!h -ontre#ille( :arrior o" the /e&$ina >&arried to their da#ghter ,sa$ella or -iAigisi? and their son /ierre Bottinea#. E< .harles Jose!h Bottinea# dit -ende&o%a >1EED@1I24? &arried -argaret in 1I1<( her third h#s$and( he was the son o" /ierre Bottinea# >1E<0@1E90? and -arie@Angeli)#e 5o#rnaise dit La$o#cane.

4<

o" the orth :est -o#nted /olice he $eca&e a sco#t and g#ide "or the&. :hen 4itting B#ll ca&e #! to :ood -o#ntain in 1IE0 he was reliant #!on trade with Antoine J#ellette and Lo#is Legare who was working "or J#ellette o#t o" :illow B#nch >Talle de 4a#les? as well as Jose!h -cBa%. Jose!h -cBa% was trading o#t o" 5ort Ellice and Ba!tiste Bo#rassa who was working "or hi& was relieved o" their whole trading o#t"it $% the 4io#G near the -ilk +iver. ,saac .owie re!orted that Antoine was trading li)#or to the ,ndians at :ood -o#ntain( /into 1orse B#tte and Eagle 9#ills.E4 ,n 1IEE( to#rists /erc% 1e$er and his wi"e hired Antoine 6:allett7 as their sco#t and g#ide. EC The% had three carts "o#r &en incl#ding Antoine and thirteen horses. The% descri$e the 5rench s!eaking -etis as Antoine their g#ide( 0eorge( a cook( and 8illene#ve( !l#s an English s!eaking 4io#G. The "irst !er&anent settlers in 4!ring .reek( what is now Lewistown( -ontana were the -etis. ,n 1IE9 three $ands co&!rising o" a$o#t "ort% "a&ilies ca&e in their +ed +iver .arts. A "ew o" the na&es that $eca&e ver% "a&iliar to all were Berger( :ells( Laverd#re( J#ellette( and Ben Bline who down thro#gh the %ears was looked #!on as their s!okes&an and leader. The% i&&ediatel% "iled on ho&esteads. The J#ellette addition to the cit%( "or eGa&!le( located near the 0ar"ield 4chool( and known as 6B#ckskin 5lats(7 was Antoine J#ellette;s original ho&estead. ,n 1IEI( Antoine and other -etis $#""alo h#nters at .%!ress 1ills wrote a !etition asking "or a s!ecial -etis reserve o" land. 1is "ather( Jose!h 4r.( and $rothers( Jose!h Jr. and Jean Ba!tiste also signed this !etition. This !etition re)#ested a re@o!ening o" the $#""alo h#nt $etween ove&$er 14th and 5e$r#ar% 1Cth each %ear and the granting o" -etis 6reserve7 land >A stri! o" land 1C0 &iles long along the A&erican $order $eginning where the /e&$ina +iver crosses the $order?. This stri! was to $e "i"t% &iles "ro& so#th to north. 1is $rother Jean Ba!tiste J#ellette also signed this !etition. Antoine and his $rother -oise also signed the !etition "or a -etis reserve in -ontana( sent $% Lo#is +iel to 0eneral elson A. -iles on A#g#st D( 1II0. Angeli)#e died on 4e!te&$er 14( 190< at :illow B#nch.

Caroline *esp;rance .oucher. >1I42@1910?.
.aroline was the da#ghter o" AleGis Bona&i Les!Vrance and -arg#erite 0renon. 1er "ather was a leader o" the 1B. La Loche $oat $rigades and was a strong +iel s#!!orter in the 1ID9@E0 +esistance. Altho#gh not active in 1IIC( AleGis was a +iel s#!!orter. AleGis died at 4t. 5rancois Xavier on 3ece&$er 11( 1I90( age 94. .aroline Les!erance was the a#nt o" Lo#is 4ch&idt( a $o%hood "riend o" +iel( who sent n#&ero#s !etitions o" -etis grievances to Jttawa "ro& 4t. Lo#is in 1II<@I4( and "irst s#ggested that the -etis send "or +iel in -ontana. .aroline &arried Jean Ba!tiste Bo#cher. 1e was a &e&$er o" +iel;s EGovedate. .aroline acco&!anied her h#s$and( .harles olin( -aGi&e Le!ine( 0a$riel 3#&ont( Ba!tiste Bo%er and Lo#is +iel to the "irst &eeting with the English -etis at the Lindsa% 4chool 1o#se. 1er h#s$and was wo#nded at the Battle o" Batoche. Their da#ghter -arie -arg#erite &arried -aGi&e Le!ine Jr. .aroline died at 4t. Lo#is on -a% 11( 1910.
E4 EC

,saac .owie. The Compan! of &d$entu e s5To onto: :illia& Briggs( 191<: 4<<. /erc% 1e$er( Jou nal of t%o E1cu sions in the . ittiish No th West Te ito ! of No th &me ica/ 6ALL/ 6AAA. -arket 3ra%ton( England: Bennion 2 1orne( 1IE9: 4. The% retained Antoine thro#gh Ja&es -cBa% at 4ilver 1eights.

44

,mma .oucher2 +ister +t. 8arcien. >1IE1@19CI?
E&&a and her sister .aroline >4r. Bona&i( $. 1ID9? were "ro& the Batoche area( the da#ghters o" Jean Ba!tiste Bo#cher 4r. and .aroline Les!erance. The% entered the Jrder o" the 0re% #ns in the 1II0s. The% were grandda#ghters o" the "a&o#s La Loche Boat Brigade leader AleG Bona&i dit Les!Vrance who s#!!orted Lo#is +iel d#ring the 1ID90E0 +esistance. E&&a !ersevered in the order where her talents as an artist and sea&stress were highl% val#ed. 4he s!ent the last 4C %ears o" her li"e at the -other 1o#se in -ontreal. .aroline however &issed her "a&il% to the !oint that she le"t the order. Their "ather( Jean Ba!tiste( was a &e&$er o" +iel;s 1D@&an .o#ncil >EGovedate? at Batoche d#ring the 1IIC +esistance. Jean Ba!tiste was also a .a!tain o" one o" the 19 co&!anies led $% 0a$riel 3#&ont d#ring the 1IIC -etis +esistance. 1e &oved to -ontana a"ter 1IIC and resided at 5ort Assini$oine. Their $rother was -etis !olitician .harles@E#gene 6Boss7 Bo#cher who $eca&e an elected -LA "or the Batoche district in 1I92(

Colette .ourgonCe. >$. 19D2?
,n 2012( .olette was na&ed an A$original .ha&!ion $% 4ask 4!ort ,nc. and serves as a role &odel in the A$original co&&#nit%. /aral%&!ic ga&es &edalist .olette Bo#rgonAe( a -etis( was $orn on Jan#ar% 1E( 19D2 at 4askatoon( 4askatchewan. 4ince 1992( she has attended nine di""erent /aral%&!ic ga&es @ in Barcelona( Tignes@Al$ertville( Lilleha&&er( Atlanta( agano( 4%dne%( 4alt Lake .it%( Torino and 8anco#ver @ and has won ten &edals. 4ince 2000 she has "oc#sed on sit@ski( $#t she co&!eted in $oth s#&&er and winter events !rior to that. A car accident in 19I0( while she was in her "inal %ear o" high school( le"t Bo#rgonAe !aral%*ed "ro& the waist down. 4he went on to #niversit% and $% 19I4 she had ac)#ired a racing chair and was co&!eting in her "irst 10 kilo&etre race against &ore than 200 r#nners.

4C

4he has attended /aral%&!ic ga&es in Barcelona( Tignes@Al$ertville( Lilleha&&er( Atlanta( agano( 4%dne%( 4alt Lake .it%( Torino and 8anco#ver @ and has won ten &edals. 4ince 2000( she has "oc#sed on sit@ski( $#t she co&!eted in $oth s#&&er and winter events !rior to that. Bo#rgonAe won two $ron*e &edals at the s#&&er /aral%&!ics in Barcelona( two &ore in Atlanta also in wheelchair athletics( and in 199I in agano she won two silver &edals in sit@ski. ,n Torino in 200D she won another two $ron*e &edals( and in 2010 she won a $ron*e and a silver &edal on ho&e soil at the 8anco#ver 0a&es. At the closing cere&on% to the 8anco#ver ga&es she was awarded the :hang Ho#n 3ai Achieve&ent award( which is a solid gold &edal( recogni*ing !aral%&!ians who eGe&!li"% the s!irit o" the ga&es. .o&!eting o#tside o" the /aral%&!ics( Bo#rgonAe has an e)#all% long list o" world cha&!ionshi! titles in sit@ski. Tho#gh there have $een too &an% highlights in her athletic career "or Bo#rgonAe to !ick one( she !oints to her silver &edals in agano and 8anco#ver as !artic#larl% s!ecial. ,n agano( the% were her "irst &edals in ordic events and &arked her as a &edalist in winter and s#&&er events( and the silver in 8anco#ver was the "irst ever .anadian /aral%&!ic &edal to $e won at ho&e.

Dita ,. .ouvier.
-etis !oet and ed#cator +ita Bo#vier was raised $% her grand!arents in ,sle N la .rosse( 4askatchewan. 4he has a B.Ed. and a -aster;s o" Ed#cation degree. ED +ita has !artici!ated on the Board o" the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te. 4he held a senior !osition with the 4askatchewan Teachers 5ederation and is c#rrentl% .oordinator( A$original Learning Bnowledge .entre .anadian .o#ncil on Learning .ollege o" Ed#cation at the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan. -an% o" her !oe&s are $ased on stories handed down $% her grand"ather. .ree and -ichi" words are #sed in her !oetr% to ca!t#re the &eanings and "eelings. 4he has !#$lished a collection o" !oetr%/ .luebe ! Clouds >Thistledown /ress( 1999? and a !oe& "ro& that vol#&e( 6-edicine -an(7 was selected to a!!ear in the antholog% Sundo" *i"h%a!9 W itin" f om Saskatche%an( >Larr% :arwar#k( editor( .otea# Books( 2000?. +ita Bo#vier has served in !#$lic ed#cation "or thirt% %ears in var%ing ca!acities: as a classroo& teacher( as 3irector o" the 4askatchewan Lr$an ative Teacher Ed#cation /rogra&( as sessional lect#rer at the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan( and as a c#rric#l#& develo!er. -s. Bo#vier has also served as a vol#nteer with vario#s organi*ations. -s. Bo#vier descri$es hersel" as a teacher with a $ent on social A#stice iss#es. 4he has traveled nationall% and worldwide to ew [ealand( A#stralia( 1awaii and other !arts o" the L.4.( 4t. L#cia( 0eneva( and ,ndia. Bo#vier( +ita E. .luebe ! Clouds5 4askatoon: Thistledown /ress( 1999. Bo#vier( +ita E. (apM!Nhtak5 4askatoon: Thistledown /ress( 2004. Bo#vier( +ita E.( translated $% -argaret 1odgson= ill#strated $% 4herr% 5arrell +acette. .ette That Wa!5 4askatoon: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 200E.

,lise /ivier .oyer. >1IDI@19ED?
B% or&an 5le#r%
ED

4ee +ita E. Bo#vier. 64!eciali*ed Training in the 4askatchewan Lr$an ative Teacher Ed#cation /rogra&: A .ase 4t#d%. 4askatoon: ,ndian and orthern Ed#cation Thesis >-.Ed.?(Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan( 19I4.

4D

Elise 8ivier was $orn on J#l% 24( 1IDI in orth 3akota and $a!ti*ed on A!ril 1( 1IE0 at Teton +iver( -ontana. 1er !arents were -ichel 8ivier $orn at 4t. 5rancois Xavier in 1I4E and Elise 3escha&!s $orn 1IDE( also at 4t. 5rancois Xavier. Elise &arried or$ert Bo%er( .ha;@.ha; >.at?( the son o" Jose!h Bo%er EE and 5elicite /atena#de( on Jan#ar% 1D( 1921 at 4t. La*are >5ort Ellice?. 1er sister( ,sa$elle 8ivier( was &arried to or$ert;s %o#nger $rother( John Bo%er. Elise was a ste!@&other to her h#s$and;s children $eca#se she did not have children o" her own. or$ert was $orn at ,ndian 1ead on Jan#ar% <1( 1ID2. or$ert Bo%er;s #ncle( ,sidore Bo%er( "o#ght and died d#ring last da% o" "ighting at Batoche( -a% 12( 1IIC. 1e is $#ried at 4t. Antoine de /ado#e .e&eter%( Batoche. or$ert was "irst &arried to J#lie 4wain( the da#ghter o" :illia& 4wain and Angeli)#e Br%ere in 1II< at 5ort Ellice. J#lie died on -arch 22( 1I9< at 5ort Ellice. Elise( -rs. .ha@.ha as she was known $% one and all was a &id@wi"e and traditional &edicine wo&an. 4he treated t#$erc#losis !atients( and wo&en;s &iscarriages and he&orrhages. 4he and or$ert "ar&ed east o" 5ort Ellice neGt to Jose!h Bell 4r. 4he &ade her livelihood $% c#tting cord wood and "ence !osts( tra!!ing and h#nting( tanning hides and &aking ro$es. 4he also earned &one% !icking $#""alo $ones. 4he was a great $eliever in the +o&an .atholic "aith $#t also !racticed traditional ,ndian wa%s o" worshi!. 4he attended 4#n 3ances( 4weat Lodges and 4haking Tent cere&onies. -rs. .ha@.ha s!oke o" the Lo#is +iel +esistance and o" &eeting +iel when she was "i"teen. -ost o" her !eo!le ca&e "ro& the Lnited 4tates to Aoin the "ight d#ring the +esistance. ,t was a"ter the 1IIC +esistance that the% settled aro#nd 5ort Ellice. /revio#s to this the% were transient workers descended "ro& the !lains $#""alo h#nters. 1er own clothing was &ade "ro& hides( tanned to &ake gloves( &itts( dresses( vests( coats and &occasins. The thread she &ade "ro& sinew. 4he &ade c#tter ro$es "ro& horse and cow hides. ,t is said that she raised cats and also asked "ar&ers and towns!eo!le "or stra%s. A"ter receiving a good n#&$er o" cats she killed the& and tanned their hides( then sewed the& together to &ake c#tter ro$es. The ro$es were color"#l( war& and #se"#l= o"ten these ro$es sold "or _C0.00 or _EC.00 each. -rs. .ha@.ha dried &eat which ke!t "or &onths. 4he &ade her own !e&&ican( and dried saskatoons "or "#t#re #se. 4he $aked her $annock and &ade her own !reserves and Aa&s. -rs. .ha@.ha co#ld skin an% ani&al( a Ao$ she !er"or&ed "or &an% tra!!ers. 1er entertain&ent was old ti&e dances( card ga&es( !la%ing checkers( going to 4!orts 3a%s and visiting neigh$o#ring reserves "or /ow :ows. 4he s!oke several lang#ages( -ichi"( .ree( 4a#ltea#G( 4io#G( 5rench and English. 4he was inde!endent( a charita$le !erson willing to hel! an%one. 4he "ostered &an% -etis and 5irst ations children. 1er livelihood was $ased aro#nd her c#lt#ral and traditional val#es. , !ersonall% knew -rs. .ha@.ha when , was %o#ng and called her 0rand&a. 4he ca&e to visit #s at .hina Town. ,n her elder %ears she lived with a variet% o" relatives $#t &oved to the senior citi*en;s ho&e at 4t. 1e$ert( 4askatchewan then to otre 3a&e des Lo#rdes a"ter $reaking her

EE

Jose!h;s son( Jose!h Bo%er Jr.( /tchi ]o&&e >Little -an?( or$ert;s $rother( $eca&e .hie" o" Jkanase now Beeseekowenin +eserve. Jose!h Jr. was $orn circa 1ICE and &arried Angeli)#e Bone .

4E

hi!. Jn Jcto$er 22( 19DE she was !resented with The Jrder o" the .roc#s "or her contri$#tions to .anada. 4he died at age 10I and is $#ried at otre 3a&e des Lo#rdes.

Dose 8c:ay .oyer
+ose Bo%er co&es "ro& a large -etis "a&il%. :ith 1E children in the "a&il%( +ose( the "irst girl( !la%ed an i&!ortant role in hel!ing to raise her %o#nger si$lings. 1er "ather( .olin -cBa%( was originall% "ro& the +ed +iver settle&ent area in -anito$a. 1er &other( -arAorie /lant( ca&e "ro& ,reland and was ado!ted $% a -etis "a&il% when she was onl% "ive &onths old. +ose Aoined the 4askatchewan ative :o&en;s Association >4 :A? in 19E1. 4he served as local !resident "or three ter&s and as !rovincial !resident in 19E4. :ith +ose;s hel! the /rince Al$ert 4 :A o!ened Bikinow +esidence a ho&e "or ative wo&en who re)#ired acco&&odation and assistance. As director o" the 4: A +e"erral .entre "or atives +ose delivered .o&&#nit% Awareness !rogra&s and worked with the wo&en in the /ineview .orrectional .entre "or :o&en. 4he was also active in the /rince Al$ert ,ndian and -etis 5riendshi! .entre. ,n 19EC she was the /rince Al$ert 4: A 6:o&an o" the Hear.7 +ose !ro#dl% calls hersel" a Oroad allowance 1al"@BreedO "ro& the 0len -ar% 3istrict in 4askatchewan. 0len -ar% was a co&&#nit% "or&ed $% o#sted -etis tr%ing to re@esta$lish ho&es on land set aside "or "#t#re road develo!&ent. O,t was a caring and loving ho&e(O +ose eG!lained. O:e wo#ld sa% o#r !ra%erUs in the &orning and at night. -o& and 3ad !assed on the i&!ortance o" res!ect and having &orals in the ho&e.O +ose lived in what she calls a OshackO on the road allowance #ntil she was 14 %ears old. At this ti&e( the !rovincial govern&ent decided to relocate "a&ilies living on road allowances to a -et @is colon%@"ar&ing !roAect at 0reen Lake( 4ask. +ose re&e&$ers the terri$le disa!!oint&ent -etis "a&ilies eG!erienced when the 4askatchewan govern&ent said -etis "a&ilies co#ld have a ho#se( 40 acres and a cow. :hen the% arrived at 0reen Lake( +ose re&e&$ered( OThere was no ho#se. /eo!le lived in a $ig $oG@like $#ilding with no windows.O ,t wasnUt long $e"ore the "a&il% &oved to -eadow Lake( 4ask. +ose lived there "or 1E %ears. O,t was hard $#t it was a good li"e(O re&e&$ered +ose. +ose enAo%s !re!aring traditional -etis "ood. 4he started &aking $annock when she was eight. +ose now has nine o" her own children( <9 grandchildren( and 2E great@grandchildren. 4he val#es children( eG!laining Ochildren are on loan to #s "or a short ti&e.O 5or &an% %ears +ose and her "a&il% !re!ared all o" the &eals "or the Elders at the 6Back to Batoche(7 5estival. 4he is now retired and s!ends her ti&e crocheting( knitting( and looking a"ter grandchildren. +ose Bo%er and her &other were good "riends. 3#ring the school %ear she lived with her a#nt and #ncle. 4he learned &an% things "ro& $oth o" the wo&en in her li"e. ,n The Wo ds of +u &ncesto s# Métis *ealth and *ealin".+ose tells #s: -% a#nt looked a"ter #s d#ring the school &onths and we wo#ld go $ack on holida%s to sta% with &% &o& and dad in the $#sh ca&!s. ,t was &% a#nt who ta#ght &e how to iron( to e&$roider( and &ake $reak"ast. -% $rothers( two o" &% $rothers and &%sel"( went to live with &% a#nt and #ncle. , was eight( and &% two $rothers were seven and siG %ears old. :e went to live with the&. The $o%s had to saddle and harness the horse in the &orning to a $#gg% or a c#tter in the winterti&e. The% were onl% siG( seven %ears old. , had to &ake the !orridge and the l#nches. 3#ring those %ears o" growing #! in school( learned to sew on &o&;s sewing &achine. ,t was given to &% &other when she t#rned DC

4I

and &% grand&other was 10C. That sewing &achine was ver%( ver% old then. -% &other gave &e that sewing &achine. , learned to &ake a !air o" !illow cases and , gave those to &% a#nt. Those were &% two &ost i&!ortant teachers( &% a#nt( who was like a second &other to &e( and &% &other who was so dear( so dear to &e. , o"ten tell &% children( when &% &o& !assed awa%( , lost &% $est "riend( , lost &% &other. 4he was ever%thing to &e. , don;t ever re&e&$er raising &% voice in &% entire li"e to &% &other. ,n "act( , wo#ld take her !art( , was so "ort#nate to have a "riendshi! with &o&. ' +ose Bo%er +ose Bo%er re&e&$ers how children &ade contri$#tions to the ho#sehold at a %o#ng age: , live here in 4askatoon $#t , co&e "ro& the +oad Allowance /eo!le( one o" the clans( "ro& the 0len -ar% district. -% &other died at the age o" DE. 5ort#natel%( right now 1< o" #s are living and the oldest is E4( &% $rother. , re&e&$er &% $rothers going o#t to work in the $#sh at the age o" 11 and 12 %ears old( c#tting logs in 0reen Lake. The% wo#ld go o#t at "o#r o;clock in the &orning( to go and work in the $#sh c#tting wood. The% were &en at the age o" twelve. As the oldest da#ghter( , hel!ed raise &% $rothers and sisters. , learned to &ake $annock( to iron and wash at the age o" seven and eight %ears old. Toda% %o# wo#ld never see a child that age $eing a$le to do that. The% wo#ld never s#rvive. :e s#rvived those kinds o" things $eca#se we had to( we had to do it. , never co&!lained( %o# never co&!lained. There were "ive girls and we;d "ight over the "lo#r $ags. ,t;s &% t#rn to get one( to get whatever. This !artic#lar one st#ck in &% &ind. ,t was called B#cke%e "lo#r( and %o# co#ldn;t get the !rinting o#t. -% &o& &ade !anties( $loo&ers( and it had B#cke%e in the $ack. -o& #sed to go o#t and snare ra$$its. :e alwa%s had ra$$it or so&ething on the ta$le. 4he &ade a $ig garden. ' +ose Bo%er +e"erence: ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation( -etis .entre at A1J( /ro"iles o" -etis Elders. 200C. htt!:PPwww.naho.caPdoc#&entsP&etiscentrePenglishP/ro"ileso"-etisEldersY000.!d" -Vtis .entre( ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation( -n The Wo ds of +u &ncesto s# Métis *ealth and *ealin"5 Jttawa: ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation: 200I. htt!:PPwww.naho.caPdoc#&entsP&etiscentrePenglishPTBY,nthe:ordso"J#rAncestors-etis1ealtha nd1ealing.!d"

-sabelle .ranconnier (/andal(. >1ICD@19<D?.
,sa$elle was $orn on A#g#st 20( 1ICD( the da#ghter o" A&a$le Branconnier and Eli*a$eth 4tevenson. 4he was "irst &arried to +oger 8andal at 4t. Agathe in 1IE<. 3#ring the $attle "or Batoche 6she co#ld see and hear the shells going overhead.7 4tra% ri"le "ire 6c#t o"" a !iece o" one wo&an;s hair( and two innocent little $a$ies were so closel% gra*ed $% $#llets that a scratch was le"t on their skin.7EI 1er h#s$and( +oger( was )#ite ill in 1IIC and did not !artici!ate in +esistance "ighting. The% event#all% ret#rned to -anito$a in 1III and reAoined their relatives at 4t. Jean@Ba!tiste. +oger died in 4t. Boni"ace on Jcto$er <0( 1III. ,sa$elle later &arried Etienne 3es&arais on 4e!te&$er E( 1I90 at 4t. Jean Ba!tiste.
EI

.ited in athalie Ber&oal. 6Les roles et les so#""rances des "e&&es &Vtisses lors de la +Vsistance de 1IE0 et de la +V$ellion de 1IIC.7 ( ai ie 'o um( 8ol. 19( o. 2( 5all 199<: 1D0.

49

,n 19<<( ,sa$elle gave the "ollowing dictation to -rs. E. +o$inson R0eorgina nVe 1o!cra"tS o" -orris -B. This was !reserved $% 5ather 3avid +o% who added "ootnote in"or&ation "ro& !arish registers. This was !assed on to the a#thor $% Lionel Bernier( a 8andal descendant. ,n later %ears a"ter , was &arried( we &oved to 5ish .reek( 4askatchewan. -% h#s$and &%sel" and "o#r children. ow( in 1IIC the tro#$le started again at Batoche. E9 , ha!!ened to $e there again( so it see&ed that tro#$le was "ollowing &e. The "irst $attle was at 3#ck Lake( the second at 5ish .reek( and the third at Batoche. 4o there we were'at Batoche'"or !rotection( and in the &iddle o" tro#$le. The leader o" the +e$ellion ordered all "a&ilies into Batoche "or sa"et%. 5or o#rselves( &% h#s$and did not take !art in the re$ellion with the others as &% h#s$and was sick. The $attle went on "or three da%s( starting at E:00 A- and leaving o"" at siG /-. The soldiers got orders to "ight and take Batoche as the re$els were getting o#t o" a&&#nition. :hen the soldiers entered we were all hidden alongside the river $ank >the village $eing on to! o" the hill?. All the "a&ilies and children were ca&!ed there. :e co#ld hear the leaders co&&anding the soldiers( and $#llets were going over o#r heads into the river A#st like hail. 4o&e o" the tents were shot thro#gh. Jnce we went "or water "or the children and , saw so&ething strange in the &#d. All , co#ld see was so&ething like a handle. 4o &% sister and , !#lled it o#t and "o#nd it was a cannon$all( as the% shot across the river at the ho#ses on the other side( and this one had not got across. The soldiers took Batoche and all the "a&ilies had to r#n awa% "or sa"et%. :e all started along the river= there were with #s a$o#t two h#ndred children( &a%$e &ore( with their !arents. The river had risen and gone down again( and had le"t a $ank o" ice which was a !rotection "or #s against the $#llets. :hile we were walking( a little dog was killed right in "ront o" #s $% a $#llet. ,t co#ld have $een one o" #s as well. :hen the govern&ent $oat ca&e #!( we were hidden in a little slo!e watching it !ass. :e saw it when it gat ca#ght $% the ca$le. ,t was twisting aro#nd as i" there was nothing to g#ide it. B#t &% real worst eG!erience( to &e at least( was when , nearl% lost &% little girl. There was an ,ndian "a&il% that we #sed to "eed $e"ore the re$ellion. , was reall% "rightened o" the&( $#t when we were getting awa% with o#r children( , had one in &% ar&s and had one $% the hand( the others $eing $ig eno#gh to "ollow &e. The sa&e ,ndian wo&an ha!!ened to !ass &e( and she saw that , was in di""ic#lt% handling the children( so she gra$$ed one o" &% little girls and &ade signs she was going to hel! &e. /#tting the child on her $ack she started o"". , hadn;t looked( and when , did( she was al&ost a )#arter &ile ahead o" &e. , le"t the other children with &% sister and started to r#n a"ter her. :hen , got to her( , gra$$ed &% little girl and told her: 6Ho# are r#nning awa% with &% girl.7 The R,ndian wo&anS said 6Hes7( and she took o#t so&e $annock and gave it to the little girl. , never saw the Rwo&anc again. 5ro& there we went on to a s&all &o#ntain where we sta%ed three da%s. :e had ver% little to eat and o#r clothes were $adl% torn. :hile we were there( +iel ca&e to #s. All his &occasins were torn( and &% sister( -rs. .Jose!h 8andal RJ#lienne BranconnierS gave hi& a !air o" &occasins. Thorn he took two &en( -r. -odeste 8andal and -r. -odeste Bo%er( and wrote o#t his s#rrendrance !a!ers( and the three went to &eet the soldiers to give the&selves #!. 1e said he took those two &en to !rove he was s#rrendering hi&sel"( and RsoS that no one wo#ld get the reward "or his ca!t#re.

E9

j 4tarted again k is a re"erence $ack to the 1ID9@E0 +esistance she talks a$o#t earlier in the dictation.

C0

A"ter all was over all the &en had to give #! their ar&s to the govern&ent at Batoche( so all the "a&ilies co#ld go $ack ho&e( that is( the ones that had ho&es le"t. -an% ho&es were $#rnt. J#rs was not $#rnt( $#t all o#r clothes and stock were gone. -% h#s$and had $een a vol#nteer in the /rovince o" -anito$a I0( $#t had his discharge when leaving "or the west. A ca!tain o" the govern&ent ar&% ca&e to o#r ho#se and )#estioned #s. -% h#s$and showed hi& his discharge and told hi& he hadn;t taken !art in the re$ellion( $#t he was there and co#ldn;t hel! hi&sel". J" co#rse the% co#ldn;t "orce hi& as he was sick. The ca!tain said all right( sta% here( and he wo#ld co&e "or #s the neGt da%. The neGt da% he arrived with two soldiers in an eG!ress( and took #s to .lark;s .rossing where all the ar&% troo!s were. :hen we got there the% had ca&! read% "or #s( so&e good soldiers ca&e and covered &% children with woolen $lankets( as the% saw we had nothing. , was )#ite nervo#s to $e alone with strangers with &% children and sick h#s$and. B#t( , soon "o#nd o#t the% were good "riends to #s. :e were there three weeks= , was the cook. The% gave #s s#!!lies "or a %ear and we went $ack ho&e to 5ish .reek. :e sta%ed there #ntil 1III. 3#ring that ti&e , worked all , co#ld and earned a tea& o" !onies and an eG!ress wagon. , was working "or the soldiers. The one , es!eciall% re&e&$er who hel!ed &e to get work was .a!tain Be$iMre.

1emima 8c:ay .ray. >1IC9@19<D?
Je&i&a was $orn Jan#ar% 1( 1ICC at 5ort Ellice( the da#ghter o" Edward -cBa% and .aroline .ook( a $#""alo h#nting "a&il% "ro& the 9#;A!!elle 8alle% who &oved to the 5ort :alsh area in 1ID0. Je&i&a;s grand"ather was the "a&o#s 1B. 5actor( John +ichards -cBa%. Je&i&a &arried John 1enr% 0resha& Bra% a orth :est -o#nted /olice J""icer at 5ort :alsh in 1IED. The% then lived at 5ort -cLeod and /incher .reek( where 4ergeant Bra% took his discharge in 1II<. The% then retired to -edicine 1at where Je&i&a died on -arch <1( 19<D at age EE. 4he was recogni*ed as one o" the "irst :-/ 6wives7 in the !rovince and the $irth o" their da#ghter 5lora was considered a "irst "or the "orce.

4live *yonnais .rown. >1I49 @ 1II4?
Jlive was $orn at La4alle +iver( the da#ghter o" Jose!h L%onnais dit 3ela#na% and Jose!hte 1enr% >Aller%?. Jlive &arried 6Bootenai Brown(7 an ,rish@$orn advent#rer on 4e!te&$er 2D( 1ID9( at 4t. Jose!h;s .h#rch near /e&$ina. Brown served in the British ar&%( then e&igrated to .anada where he worked as a gold !ros!ector( "#r@trader( L4 Ar&% &ail carrier and sco#t "or the orth :est -o#nted /olice. A"ter their &arriage the% &oved to 5ort Totten. Brown and Jlivia >as he called her? then Aoined the $and o" -etis h#nting in the area delineated $% the -ilk and 4askatchewan +ivers "or three %ears. The% wintered twice on the -ilk +iver and once #!on the -aria in L4 territor%. Brown then earned a living as a 6wol"er7 in -ontana( $#t le"t the L4A a"ter kni"ing a &an to death. The% then esta$lished the&selves $etween the L!!er and Lower :aterton Lakes. Jlive died in 1II4. The co#!le had three children. A"ter his wi"e;s death Brown !laced his son Leo in the &ission school at 4t. Al$ert thro#gh the hel! o" 5ather Laco&$e. Brown is credited with having the govern&ent &ake the :aterton Lakes into a national !ark.

.arbara .ruce
This -ichi"@s!eaking -etis entre!rene#r was $orn in 4t. La#rent( -anito$a. 4he is the da#ghter o" Jeanne /erra#lt and Arth#r Br#ce( the &iddle child o" eleven children. 1er "ather
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Lionel Bernier sa%s that this was likel% the 4t. Jean Ba!tiste ,n"antr% .o&!an%.

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!rovided "or his "a&il% $% tra!!ing( "ishing( and gathering &edicine >4eneca root? and thro#gh work as a constr#ction worker. 1er &other Jeanne sta%ed ho&e( raising the children #ntil in her later %ears she $eca&e the /ost&istress o" the co&&#nit%( a !osition she held "or several %ears. As a %o#ng girl( Bar$ara entered a +o&an .atholic@r#n ed#cation s%ste& >a &ission school? that did not s#!!ort -etis c#lt#re or traditions. 1owever( her A$original ancestr% was !art o" who she was and her !ride contin#ed to grow to &ake her who she is toda%. At age "i"teen( Bar$ara contracted t#$erc#losis( a disease that has killed &an% A$original !eo!le since its introd#ction to orth A&erica. Bar$ara had the disease in the $ones and( "ollowing a one %ear sta% in what was then the +eha$ilitation .entre in :inni!eg( s!ent several %ears rec#!erating. As a %o#ng wo&an( she attended the Lniversit% o" :inni!eg and as well( +ed +iver .ollege. 4he worked "or several %ears with the -anito$a -etis 5ederation >--5?( where she held several !ositions( incl#ding EGec#tive 3irector o" the organi*ation. :ith her work( she travelled to &an% -etis and other A$original co&&#nities across -anito$a and .anada. :hile on her travels( she noticed that the artwork !rod#ced in these co&&#nities had no &arket. This reali*ation led her to her neGt vent#re( when she co@"o#nded a retail store known as orthern Traditions( and then orthwinds Art :holesale .o&!an%( $oth o" which s!eciali*ed in selling A$original art and hand&ade cra"ts. 1er eG!erience in art co&$ined with her event !lanning skills led her in 199E@9I( to $e a &e&$er o" a tea& o" I to organi*e 64!irits in the 4#n(7 the "irst .anadian A$original Arts 5estival( to $e held in the Lnited 4tates( in 4cottsdale( Ari*ona. ,n attendance at this signi"icant and o#tstanding event were 120 A$original arts and cra"ts vendors( 40 .anadianPA$original galleries and close to 90 !er"or&ers. Bar$ara;s -etis identit% and entre!rene#rial s!irit hel!ed deter&ine her career !ath. 4he is c#rrentl% a "o#nding and &anaging !artner o" A-+ /lanning 2 .ons#lting ,nc.( "o#nder o" All -% +elations ,nc. and !art owner o" Br#ce Boivin .ons#lting 0ro#! ,nc. 4he was "or&erl% e&!lo%ed as 8ice /resident o" J!erations 2 -arketing at Tri$al .o#ncils ,nvest&ent 0ro#! o" -anito$a Ltd. >T.,0? and was the /resident o" the T.,0 .harita$le 5o#ndation( "ro& 200D K 200I. 1er !revio#s !ro"essional !ositions incl#de: .o@Jwner and 3irector o" Bl#e 4k% /lanners and .ons#ltants( /resident o" :inds o" .hange .ons#lting( and .o@owner o" orthern Traditions and orthwinds Art :holesale .o&!an%. ,n addition( her co&&it&ent to co&&#nit% has led her to !artici!ate on &an% Boards. ,n 2004( Bar$ara was a!!ointed as a &e&$er o" the ational A$original Econo&ic 3evelo!&ent Board. ,n 2009( she was a!!ointed to the $oard o" the -anito$a 0a&ing .ontrol .o&&ission and in 2010 was a!!ointed to as a A#r% &e&$er "or the /A+ !rogra& "or the .anadian .o#ncil "or A$original B#siness. 5or several %ears( she was a $oard &e&$er o" the /rovince o" -anito$aUs .o&&#nities Econo&ic 3evelo!&ent 5#nd and event#all% was a!!ointed .hair. 4he has also served on over two do*en other $oards or co&&ittees incl#ding as a $oard o" director "or the !restigio#s To! 40 Lnder 40 ational Awards and the ational Board o" the .anadian .o#ncil "or A$original B#siness and as a A#r% &e&$er o" the ational A$original Achieve&ent Awards.

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-etis Elder -ae@Lo#ise .a&!$ell( centre( da#ghter Jai&e le"t( and Bar$ara Br#ce( "ar right.

Bar$ara has $een given the na&e 65lies 1igh Th#nder Bird :o&an.7 4he is #nwavering in her co&&it&ent in walking in the traditional wa% o" li"e and ]walks the walk;( incor!orating s!irit and cere&on% into her dail% !ersonal and !ro"essional li"e. ,n addition to g#iding her !ersonal !ath( this has also at ti&es led her to her neGt !roAect or #ndertaking. 5or eGa&!le( one o" her &aAor acco&!lish&ents which res#lted "ro& her co&&it&ent to hel! wo&en heal "ro& residential school led her to work with the -etis :o&en o" -anito$a $% organi*ing several retreats( and develo!ing a "acilitation !rocess which $ro#ght together close to one h#ndred -etis wo&en "or "o#r sessions. The end res#lt was a "inal re!ort titled 6 eeds Assess&ent o" +esidential 4chool EG!eriences o" -etis :o&en in -anito$a7. ,n 199<( she received the -anito$a 1#&an +ights Achieve&ent Award "or her work in e&!lo%&ent and cross@c#lt#ral training. 4he was also recogni*ed $% 4agkeeng 5irst ation "or her work in econo&ic develo!&ent "or A$original !eo!le and was !resented with an eagle "eather at that honoring cere&on%. 1er co&&it&ent to social A#stice was acknowledged internationall% when in 1994( she was asked to $e !art o" a tea& o" !eace &onitors and election o$servers d#ring the 4o#th A"rica elections. 1er work in the area o" c#lt#ral ca!acit% $#ilding $ro#ght her to work in s#ch diverse locations as 5iAi and A#stralia( s!eaking and !roviding worksho!s. ,n her leis#re ho#rs( she earned a second degree Black Belt in Tae Bwon 3o and was one o" the "irst A$original wo&en to instr#ct that disci!line. Bar$ara received the :a Ni :anichihk Bee!ing the 5ires B#rning Award on J#ne 14( 2012. This award hono#rs +kiiOida -k%e or 6Big 1earted :o&en.7 Big 1earted :o&en eGe&!li"% the seven sacred laws o" honest%( co#rage( res!ect( h#&ilit%( sharing( caring and love $% sharing their knowledge( talents and eG!erience to hel! kee! their "a&ilies and co&&#nities strong.

8ary Cocking .udd. >1EI0@1IC0?
B% +a% Bea#&ont( 5rontier 4chool 3ivision F4I.

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-ar% .ocking was the &other o" 1enr% B#dd( the "irst ordained ative &inister in the .h#rch o" England in orth A&erica( and grand&other o" &other o" the "a&o#s -etis inter!reter /eter Eras&#s Jr.( who was e&!lo%ed $% the .ree as their inter!reter "or Treat% 4iG negotiations. -ar% .ocking( :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew >Agath#s or -ar% B#dd?( was the -etis da#ghter o" -atthew .ocking a 1B. "actor and Bahna!awanakan >or Be@che@cho@wick?( a northern .ree wo&an >.ocking;s second wi"e?. Bahna!awanakan was !art o" the 61o&eg#ard .ree7 co&&#nities at Hork 5actor% and orwa% 1o#se. -ar% event#all% &oved the +ed +iver. 4he &arried a -#skego .ree -etis $% the na&e o" B#dd( he died aro#nd 1I11. Their children were: Ja&es B#dd >The .ask? $orn c. 1E99( +e$ecca B#dd $orn c. 1I00( .atherine B#dd $orn c. 1I0C( 4arah B#dd > ehowgati& or 5o#r Legs? $orn c. 1I09( the +everend 1enr% B#dd >4akach#wesc#& or 0oing L! the 1ill? $orn c. 1I10( and anc% B#dd $orn c. 1I0D. .atherine B#dd &arried /eter Eras&#s 4r. and was the &other o" "a&o#s -etis inter!reter /eter Eras&#s Jr.( anc% B#dd &arried 1oratio elson .alder and this "a&il% $eca&e !art o" the -etis gro#! which Ja&es 4inclair led to the .ol#&$ia +iver in Jregon Territor% in 1I41. The na&e chosen "or -atthew .ocking;s second da#ghter( who was 1enr% B#dd;s &other( is revealing. 6:ash@e@soo@E;4)#aw7 is derived "ro& Wa shisoo 6she is $right( she shines7 and isk%ao 6wo&an(7 and in this "or& &eans( 6she shines in her $rightness( shines in her glor%.7 The #se o" Wa shisoo rather than the &ore co&&on Wa sisoo is an i&!ortant cl#e to the origin o" the na&e. Sh is a so#nd in .ree "o#nd historicall% onl% along the 1#dson Ba% .oast( not in the interior. .onse)#entl%( its !resence here s#ggests her !eo!le were coastal .ree. I1 A slight change in the s!elling o" the na&e in later %ears allows the !ossi$ilit% o" an even &ore s!eci"ic location. Beca#se 6:ash@e@soo@E;4)#aw7 is the na&e #sed in her "atherUs will( it is !ro$a$l% the correct one( $#t later re"erences give the na&e as 6:ash@e@hoo@E;4)#ew(7 which has a di""erent &eaning. Wa sahoo is the .ree na&e "or 64evern(7 there"ore( 6:ash e hoo E;4)#ew7 &ight &ean 6the wo&an "ro& 4evern.7 I2 Altho#gh her "ather;s s!elling !ro$a$l% indicates the tr#e &eaning( later changes in the na&e &a% have ass#&ed it re"erred to her !lace o" origin'a logical error( i" indeed she ca&e "ro& 4evern. And she &a% have( as her "ather was there "ro& 1EEE to 1EI1( the a!!roGi&ate ti&e o" her $irth. :hile the acco#nt $ooks and her "ather;s will !rovide i&!ortant in"or&ation a$o#t her( re"erences to :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ewI< also a!!ear in corres!ondence "ro& ti&e to ti&e. Two letters are ver% in"or&ative. The "irst was written $% AleG +o$ertson at orwa% 1o#se to +o$ert -iles( Hork 5actor%. ,t reads as "ollows: orwa% 1o#se < 5e$ 1I2C -r. +. -iles 3ear 4irP Jn the Ann#itants List "orwarded to this there is a Balance o" b<2.C.4 in "avor o" -athew .ockings Three children 2 o" bI4.11.2 in "avo#r o" Thos ,sha&s Three children @ i"( $% re"erence to doc#&ents o" "or&er %ears( it co#ld $e ascertained what !ortion o" these
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OUShU( a so#nd heard onl% a&ong the .rees o" 1#dson Ba%(...an%one in 1#dson Ba% will discover that Sesep in the interior $eco&es Sheshep on the coast. ,t is the ]4hi$$oleth; which disting#ishes the Eastern .ree "ro& the :estern .ree ,ndian.O 4ee +. 5aries 2 E.A. :atkins( & 3ictiona ! of the C ee Lan"ua"e >Toronto: Anglican Book .entre( 19<I( 19ID? v.
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, a& inde$ted to Ben /a#!anekis( .ree .ons#ltant( 5rontier 4chool 3ivision( "or his s#ggestions on the !ossi$le &eaning o" the na&e. 4ee also +. 5aries 2 E.A. :atkins / & 3ictiona ! of the C ee Lan"ua"e >Toronto: Anglican Book .entre( 19<I( 19ID? !. C02. Altho#gh there are a variet% o" alternatives( :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew is the !re"erred s!elling #sed thro#gho#t this essa%. ,t is close to the original in -atthew .ocking;s will( the onl% change $eing 6E;4)#ew7 in !lace o" 6E;4)#aw.7 64)#aw7 has taken on a derogator% &eaning and a harsh( &onos%lla$ic so#nd. 1o!e"#ll%( 6E;4)#ew7 is a closer a!!roGi&ation o" the .ree ,skwao( &eaning wo&an( with the 6a7 !rono#nced as in 6&ade7 and the 6o7 as in 6snow.7

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s#&s each Legatee is entitled to %o# will o$lige &e $% "orwarding a 4tate&ent o" the 4a&e in the 4!ring @ -rs. 1ol&esPBees e cow e c#& a cootP sa%s that "or the "o#r %ears o" 1I1DP1E( 1I1EP1I( 1I1IP19( and 1I19P20 4he received no !art o" her Ann#it%. or did her 4isterP :asihoes)#ewP an% !art o" hers "or the %ear 1I1IP19. AgathaP-rs. .ookP it is !res#&ed has invaria$l% received her Ann#it% in "#ll. :ith res!ect 5ro& %o#r J$et. 4ervnt AleG +o$ertsonI4 This letter indicates the con"#sion connected with sorting o#t the acco#nts o" the ann#itants( !artic#larl% when the% &oved "ro& !lace to !lace. ,t also s#ggests that Bees@e@ cow@e@c#&@a@coot was at orwa% 1o#se in 1I2C( and other evidence con"ir&s this. IC 4ince she was knowledgea$le a$o#t the acco#nt o" her sister( she &#st have $een in contact with her. .ertainl% :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew did go to +ed +iver in the 5all o" 1I22( $#t she &a% have travelled $ack to orwa% 1o#se "ro& ti&e to ti&e( !ossi$l% to visit a da#ghter and a son who resided there.ID The "ollowing letter "ro& :illia& 1e&&ings .ook !rovides evidence that she was indeed at orwa% 1o#se in -a% 1I2C( and adds in"or&ation which hel!s to eG!lain wh% she and her %o#nger sister( -rs. .ook( were $oth called OAgathasO in the 1#dsonUs Ba% .o&!an% records. +ed +iver 2C -a% 1I2C -% 3ear 4ir .o#ld , ask the "avor o" %o# to in"or& &e the state o" the Ann#itantsU Acco#nts who are designated $% the na&es o" Agathas( :ashihow Es)ow 2 Beshechow e c#&&icoot @ &% !artner is one o" these >Agathas? 2 her arrears o" < %ears acc#&#lation were last 4#&&er b10.1I.10 @ instead o" the net s#& o" b1I @ so&e wrong !a%&ent o" this ann#it% &#st have taken !lace owing to the 0ent& at the 5actor% not $eing a$le to identi"% the !arties @ the na&e o" Agathas $eing an A!!elation s#ita$le to an% o" the 1al"@Breed Ladies @ -r. Jones in"or&s &e that a BoGIE !roc#red $% -r. :est on $ehal" o" :ashehoEs)ow was &arked with the na&e Agathas @ "ro& which , concl#de that the Arrears o" Ann#it% taken $% -r. :est "or :asheho Es)ow was de$ited to Agathas @ 2 th#s the de"icinenc% in &% wi"es Acct &a% have occ#rred @ :ashehow Es)ow on the other hand co&!lains o" the de"icienc% o" her acco#nt $#t she $eing a resident at orwa% 1o#se 2 no do#$t "re)#entl% a!!l%ing to the
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1B.A( B.2<9PcP1( "o.1I1( Hork 5actor%( .orres!ondence ,nward( 1I0I@1I2I( AleG +o$ertson( 5e$r#ar% 1I2C.

orwa% 1o#se( to +o$ert -iles( <

+esidents listed at orwa% 1o#se in 1I22P2< #nder 61ol&es7 incl#de one wo&an( two $o%s( two girls( with the notation 61#s$and retired to E#ro!e.7 >/A-( 1B.A( B.1C4PdP2( "o.11d( !.1I( orwa% 1o#se +e!ort 1I2<? ,n 4e! 1I2<( the eldest son went to England. >..1P100( 4hi!s; Logs @ /rince o" :ales 1I2<( "o.<d? ,n the winter 1I2<P24( #nder 61ol&es7 are listed one wo&an( one $o% #nder "o#rteen( and two girls #nder "o#rteen. >1B.A( B.1C4PeP<( "o.CdPD( +e!ort "or orwa% 1o#se 1I2C? 6J. /. 1ol&es wi"e( Beese cow e c#&aco#t7 also &ade !#rchases $etween 1I2E and 1I29. >B1C4PdP29( "o.C1d= B.1C4PdP<0( "o.Cd( !.I= B.1C4PdP<<( "o.D( !.E?
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Evidence that :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew visited orwa% 1o#se in later %ears co&es "ro& her son;s corres!ondence. ,n a letter dated I A#g 1I4E( +ivier d# /as( to 1oratio . .alder( 1enr% B#dd &akes the "ollowing re&ark concerning his &other( 6...and &% old -other >who is $% this ti&e at orwa% 1o#se? she was ver% well( too when she le"t this= she is gone there to see &% sister who resides there.7 >/AB.( APEP+E<1P.12PBIC? ,n a letter "ro& .#&$erland 4tation( 10 A#g 1I49( to his sister anc%( 1enr% B#dd sa%s( 6...o#r -other was )#ite well when , le"t her at orwa% 1o#se( , have A#st arrived "ro& orwa% ho#se and taken o#r -other there....7 >/AB.( APEP+E<1P:921.91? ,n a letter written at .hrist .h#rch( .#&$erland( dated 11 A#g 1IC1 to the .alders( /eter Eras&#s tells his a#nt( 6%o#r &other and 4isters are all well in health and strength %o#r 4ister at orwa% ho#se is )#ite in good health....7 >/AB.( APEP+E<1P:921.91?
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.ook was correct. J#st s#ch a $oG had $een sent "ro& Hork 5actor%. 4ee B.2<CPdP20( !.19D( "o.1Ed( +etired 4ervants Book 3e$ts( +ed +iver 3istrict( 8ol. 2( 1I24P1I2C( which records the "ollowing: 6 ov 24( B% Trade .harges !r "ret o" 1 !iece goods "ro& H5 to ++4( "all 1I2<( $eing Ann#it% "or Aggathas( b1P1EPD.7

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4tore "or s#!!lies o" /rovU etc &a% have overr#n her reckoning $e"ore she was aware o" it( "or like the rest she is no da$ster at arith&etic 2 wo#ld have no ,dea o" the li&it to which she co#ld !roceed with the a&!le or rather enor&o#s s#& o" bD ann#all%. An% little in"or&ation %o# can a""ord on the "oregoing &atter will greatl% o$lige. 3ear 4ir %o#rs sincerel% :. 1. .ookII This letter contri$#tes signi"icantl% to the !ict#re e&erging regarding the identit% o" 1enr% B#dd;s &other. :hile she and her sisters were at or near Hork 5actor%( there was no con"#sion a$o#t their na&es( $#t !ro$le&s arose later when the% &oved to orwa% 1o#se( then +ed +iver( where the% were #nknown.I9 4ince all 61al"@Breed ladies7 co#ld $e called 6Agathas7'a s&all $#t signi"icant detail @ the acco#ntants at +ed +iver si&!l% #sed that na&e "or :ash@e@soo@ EU4)#ew( and o!ened the door "or con"#sion with her sister( who had $een called Agathas in the acco#nt $ooks at Hork 5actor% "or %ears. This $eco&es clear as the na&e changes are traced in :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew;s acco#nt "ro& 1I24( when the 6:o&an on -issionar% Esta$lish&ent7 was the e)#ivalent o" 6Aggathas(7 to 1I2E when she was &ore s!eci"icall% identi"ied as 6:ahahes)#ew.7 -oreover( .ook in his letter clearl% links :ash@e@soo EU4)#ew to John :est and the &ission( and A#st as clearl% disting#ishes her "ro& Aggathas( who is his wi"e. Evidence "ro& other so#rces s#!!orts the linkages alread% &ade $etween 6The :o&an on -issionar% Esta$lish&ent7 and the +ev. 1enr% B#dd. The $a!tis& o" 6:aso@e%es)#ew7 in 1I2I also gives her new na&e( 6-ar% B#dd.790 Later( scri! a!!lications "or two o" her children( 1enr% and his sister .atherine( con"ir& that 6-ar%7 was indeed the &other o" $oth. 91 /ast con"#sion over the identi"% o" :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew ste&s in !art "ro& a $iogra!hical sketch o" /eter Eras&#s( B#ddUs ne!hew( written at a &#ch later date $% 0eorge 0ooderha&. ,n it he states that /eterUs &other .atherine was a grandda#ghter o" .hie" 5actor :illia& 1e&&ings .ook92. There"ore( $% i&!lication 1enr% B#dd wo#ld have $een a grandson o" .ook( or so ,rene 4!r% ass#&ed in her $ook on /eter Eras&#s. 4he tried to reconcile 0ooderha&Us in"or&ation $%
II I9

1B.A( B.2<9PcP1( "o.201( Hork 5actor% .orres!ondence ,nward( 1I0I@1I2I( :illia& 1e&&ings .ook to +o$ert -iles( 2C -a% 1I2C. -rs. 1ol&es lived at orwa% 1o#se "or a "ew %ears $e"ore "ollowing her sisters so#th to the .olon%. 4he see&s to have died at +ed +iver in 1I<C. >/A-( +eel -2EE( -0E( BE@1( 4t JohnUs .athedral( B#rials( 1I21@1900( o. 1DE( and 1B.A( +eel 4-C( E.4P1$( "o. <01d( o. 1DE.?
90

Jn 11 -a% 1I2I( :aso@e%s)#ewPalias -ar% B#dd( a 1al"@Breed :o&an( who lived at the .h#rch -ission 1o#se was $a!tised $% :illia& .ockran. >/A-( +eel -2EE( -0E( BE@1( 4t. John;s +egister o.1( Entr% o D4C( !. 94? The transcri!t o" her $a!tis& in the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% register onl% gives the na&e -ar% B#dd. >1B.A( +eel 4-4( E.4P1a( o. E44( "o. D9d?
91

.atherine B#dd o" /ortage la /rairie( was identi"ied as the widow o" /eter Eras&#s( $orn 1I0C( da#ghter o" B#dd( an ,ndian or 1al"@Breed( and -ar%( a 1al"@Breed. >/A-( .@11IEI( +01C( 8ol.1C0E( !.12( 63e!art&ent o" the ,nterior( 0eneral ,ndeG to -anito$a and orth :est Territories 1al"@Breeds and Jriginal :hite 4ettlers( 1al"@Breed 1eads o" 5a&ilies( -anito$a7? The scri! a!!lication "or the deceased +ev. 1enr% B#dd states he was $orn in 1I19( "ather #nna&ed( &other -ar% -istaBanash( and &arried in 1I<C to Eli*a$eth :ork. The a!!lication( no do#$t "iled $% his da#ghters a"ter his death( errs on his $irth and &arriage dates. 4cri! was iss#ed to his da#ghters 5lora Ballendin( E. L. 3escha&$a#lt( and E. J. .ochrane. >/A-( .@11IE2( +0.1C( 8ol.14EC( !.10C( 63e!art&ent o" the ,nterior( orthwest 1al"@Breed .o&&ission( 1IIC. Al!ha$etical List( known as Book E in the re!ort.7? Altho#gh his children knew their grand&other;s na&e was -ar%( the% a!!ear #nclear as to the s#rna&e( i" indeed it was s#ch. There is no e)#ivalent &eaning "or 6-istakanash.7 6-istak#%a;sew7 &eans 6a large English&an(7 there"ore( her na&e &ight have so&e re"erence to her E#ro!ean $ackgro#nd. ,t &ight also have $een a nickna&e o" so&e sort. 6-iseke;%ask7 is the .ree "or the 1erring 0#ll. >+. 5aries and E.A. :atkins( & 3ictiona ! of the C ee Lan"ua"e >Toronto: Anglican Book .entre? !!.91( <29?
92

0len$ow@Al$erta ,nstit#te( /eter Eras&#s( 1I<<@19<1:1. 0ooderha& also wrote that /eterUs &other was 6an JAi$wa% &iGed@$lood7 when in "act her native heritage was .ree.

CD

s#ggesting that :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew had at least one child $% .ook na&ed Aggathas and this child was the &other o" the B#dd children.9< The evidence( however( does not s#$stantiate this h%!othesis. There is no s#!!ort an%where "or the contention that an intervening "e&ale eGisted $etween :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew and the B#dd children. There was onl% one 6:o&an on -issionar% Esta$lish&ent7 at +ed +iver in the %ears in )#estion( and she was :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew. 94 -oreover( her age does not allow "or an eGtra generation. 4ince she was $orn so&e ti&e $etween 1EEC and 1EI<( she co#ld have $een no &ore than twent%@"o#r %ears old when The .ask or Ja&es B#dd( the eldest known child( was $orn aro#nd 1E99( hardl% eno#gh ti&e "or her to have $een his grand&other. 9C As has $een !ointed o#t a$ove( 6Aggathas(7 a 6hal" caste7 widow( 6The wo&an on -issionar% Esta$lish&ent(7 was descri$ed in the .-4 corres!ondence as the &other( not the grand&other( o" 1enr% and 4all% B#dd. 6Aggathas7 was A#st as clearl% identi"ied as :ash@e@soo@ EU4)#ew( the da#ghter o" -atthew .ocking( in the records o" the 1#dsonUs Ba% .o&!an%( th#s con"ir&ing her &iGed race stat#s. And( as will $e shown $elow( these sa&e records !rovide evidence that she was a widow "ro& a$o#t the winter o" 1I10@1I11. 1ow else then can we reconcile the 0ooderha& state&entd There is no do#$t :illia& 1e&&ings .ook was $rother@in@law to :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew( as he event#all% &arried her hal"@ sister -ith@coo@coo@&an@E;4)#aw alias Aggathas alias -ar% .ocking. ," a child o" one o" his da#ghters had $een raised as .atherine B#dd $% :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew( that wo#ld have &ade the latter her 6&other(7 1enr% B#dd her 6$rother(7 and she wo#ld have $een grandda#ghter to .ook as well. 1owever( in her 1al"@Breed scri! a!!lication .atherine descri$es hersel" as $orn in 1I0C( the da#ghter o" B#dd( an ,ndian or 1al"@Breed( and -ar%( a 1al"@Breed. 9D Th#s( she con"ir&s what the records have i&!lied= :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew or -ar% B#dd was in "act her &other( not grand&other( and :illia& 1e&&ings .ook no &ore than an #ncle $% &arriage. There is also no evidence indicating .ook was "ather to an% other o" the children o" :ash@e@ soo@EU4)#ew. ,n 1I12 -iles -acdonell clai&ed two wives were living with .ook at Hork 5actor%( while another( !res#&a$l% the "irst( had $een re!#diated $% that ti&e( a!!arentl% $eca#se o" old age.9E .o#ld :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew have $een one o" those wivesd :hile the Hork 5actor% records rarel% na&e the .ree h#nters( when the% do( as in 1I11 and 1I14( :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew and her "a&il% were living awa% "ro& the "ort. There is no hint the% ever lived there.

9< 94

4ee inside the $ack cover o" 4!r%Us $ook on /eter Eras&#s "or a "a&il% chart.

.-4 records indicate there was onl% one 6:o&an on -issionar% Esta$lish&ent7 in Jcto$er 1I22 and 1 J#l% 1I24. The 1I2E .ens#s o" +ed +iver 4ettle&ent con"ir&s this in"or&ation. >1B.A( +eel 4-4( E.CP1( "os. IdP9( 64tatistical 4tate&ent o" +ed +iver 4ettle&ent <1 -a% 1I2E7?
9C

B#ddUs $#rial record in 1I29 indicating his age as <0. 6Ja&es B#dd( +ed +iver 4ettle&ent( $#ried 21 Jan#ar% 1I29( s#!!osed a$o#t <0 %ears( $% :illia& .ockran.7 >/A-( +eel AID( .-412( .lass 6.(7 .1P0( 6Jrig. Letters( Jo#rnals 2 /a!ers ,nco&ing( 1I22@1II0(7 6B#rials in the Territor% o" the 1#dsonUs Ba% .o&!an%( orth A&erica( in the %ears 1I2IP9(7 o.44.
9D 9E

/A.( .@11IEI( +01C( v. 1C0E( !. 12.

/A-( +eel 1E1( -02PA1( 8ol 1( !.<C4P<CC( 4elkirk /a!ers( -iles -acdonell( elson Enca&!&ent( to 4elkirk( <1 -a% 1I12( 6- r .ook a!!eared anGio#s to kee! all the new co&ers "ro& the 5actor% scarcit% o" "irewood was given o#t as the ostensi$le ca#se @ ,t &a% easil% $e s#!!osed that a chie" who occ#!ies hi&sel" the -ess +oo&( with a s)#aw occ#!%ing an a!art&ent on each side o!ening into it( wo#ld not $e ver% desiro#s o" having his "a&il% arrange&ents deranged $% visitors.7 And on 29 -a% 1I12( 8ol. 2( !.<EDP<EE( -acdonell to 4elkirk( 6The% Rtraders along the Ba%S have al&ost #ni"or&l% taken #! with ,ndian wo&en( so&e have a !l#ralit%( 2 even to these their c#!idit% is not alwa%s con"ined. The !resent .hie" o" H5 has three wives $% who& he has a n#&ero#s iss#e. Jne he has discarded "or $eing old @ the other two are %o#nger 2 live with hi& at the 5actor%.7 /A-( +eel 1IE( -0 2PA1= 8ol DE( !!.1EIDI@9( 4elkirk /a!ers( +ev. .harles Bo#rke;s Jo#rnal( 1 -a% 1I12( s#ggests there were three wives at the "ort. 60overnor .ook s#!!orts a 4eraglio like the 0rand seignor. 1e &aintains < wi"es locked #!( he kee!s the Be%s hi&sel"( 2 , a& in"or&ed he is so eGha#sted that a -an who saw hi& $#t a "ew %ears ago( wo#ld not a"ter so&e a$scence RsicS know hi& to $e the sa&e.7

CE

4he was certainl% not the "irst wi"e. :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew was $orn no later than 1EI<( the %ear "ollowing -atthew .ockingUs ret#rn to England( and &#st have $een a &ere child when :illia& 1e&&ings .ook arrived at Hork 5actor% in 1EID. 9I .ookUs "irst wi"e is likel% to have $een Bahna!awanakan( descri$ed in 1I21 as 6a deceased ,ndian wo&an(7 the &other o" his eldest da#ghter anc%(99 who was hersel" $orn in the late 1EI0s.100 or is she likel% to have $een .ookUs second wi"e. Like :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew( she has $een descri$ed as 6hal"@caste(7101 $#t there are a n#&$er o" co&!elling reasons wh% the two wo&en are #nlikel% to have $een one and the sa&e. ,n 1I12( .ook a!!arentl% had two wives living with hi& at Hork 5ort. Altho#gh there is no s!eci"ic !roo" "or that %ear( :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew lived awa% "ro& the "ort at those ti&es when the records !rovide details. ,n 1I1C( .ook clai&ed to $e the "ather o" ten children( all acco#nted "or( 102 while :ash@e@soo@EU4)#ew had at least siG $% that ti&e.10< .ook;s children( one or two o" who& !ro$a$l% $elonged to the second 6hal"@caste7 wi"e( were $eing $orn at a$o#t the sa&e ti&e as those o" :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew. .onse)#entl%( it a!!ears )#ite clear that .ook;s second wi"e and :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew were two di""erent wo&en. -oreover( no evidence has $een "o#nd to s#ggest that :illia& 1e&&ings .ook clai&ed an% o" :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ewUs children as his own( or that the% acknowledged hi& as their "ather. Het he a!!arentl% acknowledged children $% two( and !ossi$l% three( co#ntr% wives( 104 and a review o" his acco#nt at +ed +iver shows his children and grandchildren were given s#!!ort "ro& ti&e to ti&e.10C The B#dds( on the other hand received none. There"ore( while 1enr% B#dd was grandson to a .hie" 5actor( it was to -atthew .ocking( not :illia& 1e&&ings .ook. The connection to .ook was that o" #ncle( altho#gh /eter Eras&#s &ight have correctl% addressed hi& as grand"ather witho#t violating .ree !ractice. /erha!s this is where the con"#sion arises. Eras&#s re"erred to his +hein and .alder "irst co#sins as 6$rothers7 10D( a t%!icall% .ree c#sto&
9I 99

1B.A( B.2<9PaPID( "o. CE.

anc%;s scri! a!!lication states she was the da#ghter o" :illia& 1e&&ings .ook and Bahna!awanakan. >/A-( .@11IEI( +01C( v. 1C0E( !.2<?. 1er $a!tis&al record in 1I21 adds that her &other was a deceased ,ndian wo&an. >1B.A( 4-4( E.4P1( "o.<<d( o. 111.?
100

1er scri! a!!lication states anc% was $orn in 1EIC( while her $#rial record in 1IEC clai&s she was one h#ndred %ears old. >/A-( +eel -<2( -0E B<( !.1C( 4t. -ar%Us( /ortage la /rairie( B#rials? either is acc#rate. :hen she was $a!tised in 1I21( anc% had alread% $een the co#ntr% wi"e o" Ja&es 4#therland deceased( was c#rrentl% &arried to :illia& 0arrioch( and was the &other o" seven living children. ,t is likel%( there"ore( that she was $orn shortl% a"ter her "atherUs arrival at Hork 5actor% in 1EID.
101

,rene 4!r% descri$es the second wi"e as hal"@caste( $#t does not cite her so#rce. :&. 1. .ookUs 1B. Biogra!h% does the sa&e. 4till( it is !ossi$l% tr#e. 4a&#el( who was $orn c. 1E9E( was descri$ed as the son o" a Ohal" casteO wo&an( and the &other o" .harles( c. 1I04( was descri$ed as OAgathasO. 4ince neither o" these &en is ever descri$ed as the son o" -ar% .ocking( the% &a% have $een children o" the second wi"e. >/A-( +eel 4-4( E.4P1a( "o.44( o.2I0 and "o.4Dd( o.<1C= /A-( .@11IEI( +0.1C( v.1C0E( !.21?
102

B% 10 4e!te&$er 1I1C( :illia& 1. .ook had ten children( >1B.A( E.IPC( "o.12I? altho#gh his 1B. Biogra!h% lists onl% "o#r sons and "ive da#ghters( !erha!s $eca#se +ichard see&s to have died %o#ng. 4ee his will >1B.A( A.<DPC: "os. C0@C1?. Their na&es were Nanc!( $orn 1EIE@II >&arr. 1. Ja&es 4#therland( 2. :&. 0arrioch?= Joseph c. 1E92 >.atherine 4inclair?= Samuel c. 1E9E >,sa$ella 0add%?= Jane( c. 1E90@1I00 >1. John -c a$ 2. John 5lett( <. 1enr% 1ecken$erger?= Je emiah c. 1I02@1I04 >Eleanor 4!ence?= Cha les c. 1I04@1I0C >1. anc% 2. .atherine Anderson?= ,icha d c. 1I0C >4ee 1B.A( B.2<9PaP11C( "o. 1Ed?= Ma "a et 1I0I >:&. 4andison?= Ma ! c. 1I10 >:&. Leask?= Cathe ine 1I1C >1. Ja&es L%ons 2. Jos. Birton?. There &a% have $een another son na&ed John/ c. 1E90s( as John and Jose!h .ook o$tained !rovisions at Hork 5actor% < Jct 1I04. >1B.A( +eel 1-DEE( B.2<9PdP12E( "o. ICd? John &#st have died $e"ore 1I1D.
10<

:ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew;s son The Cask >Ja&es B#dd? was $orn c. 1I00E da#ghters Cathe ine( wi"e o" /eter Eras&#s( $orn 1I0C= Nanc!( wi"e "irst o" -ichel +hein( second o" 1oratio elson .alder( $orn c. 1I0C@1I0E= Neho%"atim >4arah B#dd?( wi"e o" AleGander Birston( $orn a$o#t 1I09= and Sakachu%escum >1enr% B#dd?( $orn no later than 1I11. Another da#ghter at orwa% 1o#se was !ro$a$l% $orn aro#nd 1I00@1I0C.
104 10C

Jnl% Bahna!awanakan and AggathasP-ar% .ocking have $een clearl% identi"ied as &others to an% o" .ook;s children.

:illia& 1e&&ings Acco#nt at 5ort 0arr%. B.2<CPdP1( !. DC( "o. <4= B.2<CPdP<( "o. CDd( !. 112= B.2<CPdP1I( "o. D0( !. 109= B.2<CPdP20( "o. <<d( !. 22I= B.2<CPdP22( "o. C2d( !. CD= B.2<CPdP2I( "o. <D( !. D<= B.2<CPdP<4( "o. <0( !. C1= B.2<CPdP<I( "o. 2Id( !. 4D= B.2<CPdP41( "o. <C( !. CI.

CI

$etween !arallel co#sins. There"ore( it is )#ite !ossi$le he called :illia& 1e&&ings .ook 6grand"ather7 as a ter& o" res!ect. Altho#gh the "oregoing reveals &#ch a$o#t :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew( &ore can $e gleaned "ro& the Ao#rnals( waste$ooks( etc.( o" Hork 5actor% $e"ore 1I20. +e"erences in the& to the .ree $% na&e are in"re)#ent !rior to 1I10 and a"ter that it is generall% onl% &ale heads o" "a&ilies or h#nting !arties who are so identi"ied. 4till( there are a "ew wo&en na&ed( wo&en who o"ten a!!ear to have $een heads o" "a&ilies in their own right. The reason "or this is not di""ic#lt to s#r&ise. The li"e o" a .ree h#nter was !recario#s( and so&e ca&e to #nti&el% ends( leaving $ehind widows and s&all children who either relied on the 1#dsonUs Ba% .o&!an% !ost "or s#!!lies or attached the&selves to relatives and "riends. 4#ch see&s to have $een the circ#&stance in the case o" :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew. The earliest known re"erences to her in the Hork 5actor% !ost Ao#rnals occ#r in A!ril 1I11. The% indicate she lived north o" the "ort( $#t close eno#gh to co&e in reg#larl% "or s#!!lies( and "#rther s#ggest she had recentl% $eco&e a widow. :inters along the 1#dson Ba% .oast were o"ten ard#o#s( $#t according to -iles -acdonell( who was there the "ollowing %ear( the winter o" 1I10P1I11( 6was the severest ever known in those !arts(10E ga&e disa!!eared( 2 &an% o" the i&!rovident RsicS natives !erished thro cold 2 want.710I Jthers were ke!t alive with !rovisions given the& $% the 1#dsonUs Ba% .o&!an% which "or !#rel% econo&ic reasons( )#ite a!art "ro& co&&on h#&anit%( had to ass#re the s#rvival o" the 1o&e 0#ard .ree. 3#ring the earl% &onths o" 1I11 a n#&$er o" "a&ilies( incl#ding a co#!le which &a% have $een headed $% wo&en( Ao#rne%ed to Hork 5actor% "or "ood. Jn 5e$r#ar% E( "or instance( 6Two :o&en "ro& the orthwd ca&e in "or a s#!!l% o" Jat&eal etc "or their "a&ilies(7 109 and a week later !rovisions were given o#t 6to 2 "a&il% o" orthward ,ndians7 and 6B% -r. A#lds Jrder to anc% Je""erson7 as well. 110 At the $eginning o" -arch( 62 ,ndians who ca&e in "ro& a 3istressed 5a&il% to the orthward7 received $isc#its 2 oat&eal( 111 and two weeks later( 6Two ,ndian wo&en ca&e $egging in the &ost #rgent &anner a s#!!l% o" Jat&eal etc. their "a&ilies $eing in a ver% distressed sit#ation.7 112 Altho#gh none o" these !eo!le are na&ed( other than anc% Je""erson(11< it is evident that at least two wo&en "ro& the north were a&ong those who ca&e in "or "ood. :hile their identit% is #ncertain( the% &a% have $een the two widows who had attached the&selves to a h#nter na&ed Th#that( a &an 6"ro& 4a&s .reek on the orth side o" elson +iver7 who occasionall% acted as 6-aster o" the 0oose Tent7 there. Jn -arch 24 he ca&e to the "ort to o$tain oat&eal "or his own "a&il% and those o" two widows 6$elonging to atives latel% deceased.7114 :hether :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew was one o" these widows is di""ic#lt to deter&ine(
10D 10E 10I 109 110 111 112 11< 114

4ee /AB.( APEP+E<1P.12PEr12( Letter "ro& /eter Eras&#s Jr. to 1oratio elson .alder( 2E J#ne 1IC0. orth side o" elson +iver in the vicinit% o" 4eal ,sland. -acdonell was writing "ro& Hork 5actor%.

/A-( +eel 1E1( -02PA1( 8ol 1( !!. C4PCC( 4elkirk /a!ers( Hork 5actor%( letter "ro& -iles -acdonell to Lord 4elkirk( 1 Jct 1I11. 1B.A( B.2<9PaP119( "o.49 and B.2<9PdP1CC( "o.Dd. 1B.A( B.2<9PdP1CC( "o.E( entr% "or 14 5e$ 1I11. 1B.A( B.2<9PaP119( "o.C0( entr% "or C -ar 1I11. 1B.A( B.2<9PaP119( "o.C0d( and B.2<9PdP1CC( "o.9d. 1B.A( B.42PdPE1( "o.10d( .h#rchill Acco#nts( 1E9<P1E94( 6:a!!% 2 anc% -r. Je""erson;s :i"e 2 3a#ghter.7

1B.A( B.2<9PaP119( "o.C0d( entr% "or 24 -arch 1I11 6An ,ndian -an arrived "ro& 4a&s .reek on the orth side o" elson +iver @ craving a s#!!l% o" Jat&eal etc @ in conse)#ence o" two widows 2 their children $elonging to atives latel% deceased @

C9

$#t her na&e is associated so o"ten with Th#that in the "ollowing two &onths that the circ#&stantial evidence at least s#ggests a connection o" so&e kind. The "irst re"erence to her occ#rs A!ril E when !rovisions were given o#t to "o#r 6,ndians7 "ro& the 6distressed "a&ilies to the orward.7 Three o" these !eo!le( na&el% 6:ashehow E)( kewnish( and Twaoot#&(7 are listed in a &arginal notation( 11C 4kewnish $eing the da#ghter o" the late .a!tain Jonathan 5owler( 11D and Twaoot#& a local h#nter who later &oved to JG"ord 1o#se where he was descri$ed as a chie" in the 1I20s. 11E The "o#rth "a&il% head is not indicated( $#t as &entioned earlier( eGisting evidence !oints to Th#that. 11I There are other !ossi$ilities( too( as several "a&ilies gathered together at 4a&s .reek when Th#that was !laced in charge o" the orthern 0oose Tent there on A!ril 1I. 119 5a&il% heads incl#ded -eha#& and :etass#&( whose na&es were also associated with :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew in later records. evertheless( in the earl% &onths o" 1I11 the linkages to Th#that are &ore co&!elling. ,n late -arch( he was descri$ed as a 6northward ,ndian7 in distress( s#!!orting two widows and their "a&ilies in addition to his own. Two weeks later( :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew( 4kewnish( Twaoot#&( and one other !erson arrived "ro& the northward to o$tain !rovisions "or their "a&ilies. Being na&ed in their own right( the wo&en were !ro$a$l% heads o" "a&ilies( 120 and )#ite !ossi$l% the two widows &entioned earlier in association with Th#that. 4everal re"erences to :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew and Th#that together in the "ollowing weeks adds !la#si$ilit% to this arg#&ent. ,ndeed( the eGisting evidence s#ggests she was a widow( whose "a&il% was de!endent at ti&es "or their s#stenance on "riends and relatives a&ong the 1o&eg#ard .ree( as well as the charit% o" the 1#dsonUs Ba% .o&!an%.

8arilyn .uffalo. >$. 19C0?
rel%ing on hi& "or s#!!ort.7 B.2<9PaP11E( "or the sa&e date !rovides the additional in"or&ation( 6who occasional% acts as -aster o" the 0oose Tent.7 Jn 2C -ar( B.2<9PdP1CC( "o.10( 6To Th#thrat < 5a&il%Us 12 )ts oat&eal.7
11C

1B.A( B.2<9PaP119( "o.C1( entr% "or E A!ril 1I11( 65o#r ,ndians arrived "ro& distressed "a&ilies to the northward. 4ent to each "a&il% 1 0all Jat&eal 2 1 goose.7 ,n &argin: :ashehow E)( 4kewnish( Twaoot#&. B.2<9PdP1CC( "o.11( entr% "or D A!ril( 6To 4 5a&il%s o" orthward ,ndians( 1D )ts Jat&eal( 4 0eese.7 11D 1B.A( B.42PdPE1( "o.10d( .h#rchill Accts( 1E9<P1E94( 64k#nish( 3a#ghter o" the late .a!t n. Jonathan 5owler.7 1er &other was !ro$a$l% :a!!%( co#ntr% wi"e to .hie" 5actor% :illia& Je""erson o" .h#rchill. 1B.A( B.42P$P44( "oC0( states( 6:e have received b1<.< o" -r :& Je""erson "or the #se o" his children at %o#r 5actor% as last Hear vi*t. To :a!!ee bC To her da#ghter Ann bC 2 to 4)#anish b<.<.7 .o&!are to 5ootnote C<.
11E 11I

1B.A( B.2<9PdP1C<( "o.1Dd( ,ndian 3e$ts 1I10P1I11( lists 6T#ot#&7 with the note 6:ent to J.1.7 B.1CDPaP11( lists hi& as a chie" at JG"ord 1o#se. 4ee 1B.A( B.2<9PdP1CC( "o.1<( 14( and 14d "or entries dated A!r <0 and -a% 12( 14 and 1I( 1I11 res!ectivel%. Altho#gh Anch#ck#ck was listed in the -a% entries( he is #nlikel% to have $een the "o#rth h#nter. Between A!ril 19 and -a% 1( he was with 6:etas#&7 taking a !acket to .h#rchill. :hile he was awa%( Th#that and :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew o$tained !rovisions on the <0th. 1is close association with Th#that a"ter -a% 1 &a% $e eG!lained $% a relationshi! o" so&e sort. ,n 3ece&$er 1I10( "or eGa&!le( Th#thratt and his son received !rovisions( and two da%s later Ancheeck#ck also received $isc#its and oat&eal. 4ee B.2<9PdP149( "o.DI( entries "or 3ec 1I and 20. /erha!s Th#that was "ather to Anch#ck#ck( whose e&!lo%&ent as a !acketeer s#ggests a %o#ng &an. Jn the other hand( Th#that;s Ao$ as &aster o" the goose tent i&!lies age and &at#rit%. Th#that;s na&e disa!!ears "ro& the records $% 1I12.
119

1B.A( B.2<9PaP119( "o.C1( notes a -r. -cLa#ghlin was sent to 4a&s .reek on A!r 10 to !re!are "or the goose h#nt and on A!r 1I( Th#that was e&!lo%ed 6to conve% 4alt 2 a&&#nition to the orthd. 0oose Tent 2 engaged... to cond#ct the $#siness there.7 B.2<9PdP1CC( "o. 11d( records on A!r 12 that "ive "a&ilies a$o#t to leave "or 4a&s .reek were given salt venison. Jn A!r 19( Th#thatt and D "a&il%s o" ,ndians at 4a&;s .reek received !rovisions. >"o.12? 4#!!lies were given to -eha#& 2 "ive "a&ilies o" ,ndians "ro& 4a&;s .reek on A!ril 29( to Th#that and :asheho Ess)#oas on A!ril <0( and to :etas#& and Anch#ck#ck -a% 1. >"o.1<?
120

Jne has to $e ca#tio#s a$o#t ass#&ing that all wo&en na&ed in the stewards; $ooks were widows. Jenn% Johnson received !rovisions in her own na&e( even tho#gh Bechecowethin( descri$ed as the "ather >or was he "ather@in@lawd? o" her son( was living. >4ee B.2<9PaP124( "o.EI? And :ash@e@soo@E ]4)#ew and 4k#nish &a% have $een &entioned $eca#se the% were ann#itants and th#s had their own acco#nts. 4till( Th#cotch( -r. Jaco$s; da#ghter( was also an ann#itant( and the onl% re"erence to her "o#nd o#tside the acco#nt $ooks so "ar is a note that her ann#it% was taken to her $% /i&&e. >B.2<9PdP1D1( inside "ront cover.? ,t is the co&$ination o" in"or&ation that s#ggests :ash@e@soo@E;4)#ew and 4k#nish were widows $% 1I11.

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-aril%n is o" .ree and -etis descent. 4he was raised on the 4a&son .ree ation o" 1o$$e&a( so#th o" Ed&onton( Al$erta. Jn the -etis side( she is a direct descendant o" "a&o#s Al$erta -etis leader Joe 3ion and on the "irst ations side she her ancestr% incl#des chie"s /o#nd&aker and Big Bear. As a single !arent she raised three $o%s and two girls. 4he is the "or&er /resident o" the ative :o&en;s Association o" .anada. As the leader o" this gro#! she alwa%s &ade a !oint o" hono#ring her -etis roots. 5or over 40 %ears( -aril%n has $een active in iss#es related to indigeno#s wo&en( %o#th( and children. Chatelaine &aga*ine recogni*ed -aril%n in 3ece&$er 2000 as .anada;s 6+ole -odel o" the Hear.7 4he received the 4o#thern .hie"s o" -anito$a;s Eagle 5eather Award in 2002 in recognition o" her contin#ed dedication to .anada;s 5irst ations Land and Treat% +ights. The ative :o&en;s Association o" .anada gave her its 60olden Eagle Award7 in -arch 2004 "or her li"eti&e contri$#tions to .anada;s native wo&en. -aril%n is active in .ree traditional cere&onies and carries the na&e 6-orning 4#n :o&an7. 4he raised her D children and c#rrentl% has 9 grandchildren and < great grandchildren.

+u>anne Dochon $ .urnett2 C.8. >19<C @ 200D?
4#*anne +ochon@B#rnett was a "o#nding &e&$er o" The -Vtis ation o" Jntario( the "irst 8ice@.hair o" the - J and a $oard &e&$er o" the -Vtis ation o" Jntario .#lt#ral .o&&ission. 4he was na&ed to the Jrder o" .anada and the Jrder o" Jntario. 4he was a &e&$er o" the .anada .o#ncil and the Board o" 3irectors o" T8 Jntario. 4he was awarded an 1onorar% 3octorate $% Brock Lniversit%( served on BrockUs Board o" Tr#stees and the 3eanUs Advisor% .o#ncil "or the 5ac#lt% o" B#siness. 4he was a reci!ient o"" the Li"eti&e Achieve&ent Award $% the ational A$original Achieve&ent 5o#ndation and was the "irst wo&an ind#cted in the A$original B#siness 1all o" 5a&e. 4he s!ent her li"eti&e !ro&oting A$original artists and was a "iercel% !ro#d -Vtis wo&an. 4#*anne was $orn on -arch 10( 19<C in 4t. AdMle( 9#e$ec. ,n 19DC( she &arried 0ordon :. B#rnett. The% had one child( -ichMle@llise. 4#*anne was the "irst A$original !erson in .anada to own and o!erate a !rivate co&&ercial radio station. This also &ade her the "irst -etis wo&an in .anada licensed $% the .anadian +adio and Television .o&&ission to o!erate a !rivate radio station. ,n 199C( she !#rchased .@1J: 14E0 in the iagara /enins#la >:elland?. +ochon entered $roadcasting when she was 19 and soon she was !rod#cing and hosting a dail% wo&en;s !rogra& and $eca&e !#$lic relations director o" .BJL in 4aint@Jero&e( 9#e$ec( "ro& 19C4@19D0. As a "reelance Ao#rnalist and $roadcaster( she worked "or radio stations in .anada and in E#ro!e. ,n the 19E0s( she was a "re)#ent g#est on .B.s Mo nin"side. 4he also acted as $roadcaster "or 6.hanson a la 5rancais(7 s%ndicated and aired weekl% on 22 A- and 5- stations in Jntario. ,n 199I( .@1J: &oved to the 5- dial. 4#*anne has served on the $oards o" T8 Jntario( the Jntario Arts .o#ncil( .anada .o#ncil "or the Arts( the .ra"ts .o#ncil( and the .anadian .o#ncil "or A$original B#siness. 4he was a &e&$er o" the -etis ation o" Jntario and served on their .#lt#ral .o&&ission. 4he was reci!ient o" the 0overnor 0eneral;s -edal( the Jrder o" Jntario( the Award "or -eritorio#s 4ervice "ro& the Jntario ative 5riendshi! .entres and was a!!ointed to the Jrder o" .anada in 2002. 4he "or&ed Bakekalanicks ,nc.( a native artPiss#es cons#lting co&!an% and hel!ed to la#nch the careers o" n#&ero#s s#ccess"#l A$original artists. 4he esta$lished a scholarshi! "or A$original st#dents in .o&&#nications at Brock Lniversit%( and was awarded an A$original Achieve&ent Award "or -edia and .o&&#nications in 2004. ,n

D1

5e$r#ar% 200D( she was ind#cted as the "irst A$original wo&an to the .anadian A$original B#siness 1all o" 5a&e. 4#*anne !assed awa% on A!ril 2( 200D. 4#$se)#entl%( the -Vtis ation o" Jntario na&ed 4#*anne as the "irst reci!ient o" the Suzanne-Rochon Burnett Volunteer of the Year Award in recognition
of her outstanding service to the !tis "ation.

5earl Calahasen2 8.*.A.
B% A&anda +o*%k /earl was "irst elected to the Al$erta Legislative Asse&$l% "or the riding o" Lesser 4lave Lake in 19I9 and in 2001 was re@elected to her "o#rth ter&. 4he was the "irst -etis wo&en ever elected in that !rovince. 4he was s#$se)#entl% a!!ointed Al$erta;s -inister o" A$original A""airs and orthern 3evelo!&ent. /earl was $orn and raised in 0ro#ard( Al$erta. 4he has an Ed#cation degree "ro& the Lniversit% o" Al$erta and a -. Ed. 5ro& the Lniversit% o" Jregon. 4he also teaches as an AdA#nct /ro"essor at the Lniversit% o" Al$erta( 5ac#lt% o" Ed#cation. 4he is a longstanding &e&$er o" the -etis ation o" Al$erta. /earl has cha&!ioned a n#&$er o" A$original iss#es thro#gho#t her li"e( incl#ding ed#cation and the rights o" children and "a&ilies. /earl has served as a -LA since 19I9( re!resenting one o" the largest constit#encies in Al$erta. 4he received a ational A$original Achieve&ent Award "or /#$lic 4ervice in 2004.

/ictoria Anne .elcourt Callihoo. >1ID1@19DD?
8ictoria was $orn on ove&$er 19( 1ID1 at Lac 4te. Anne( the da#ghter o" AleGis Belco#rt121 and anc% +owand122. 8ictoria &arried Lo#is Jero&e .allihoo >$. 1ICI?( in 1IEI. 1e was the son o" Jean Ba!tiste .allihoo >$. 1I<2? and Angeli)#e Br#nea#. 8ictoria was re!#ted to $e the $est Aigger o" the area. 1istorical re!orts tell o" her winning Aigging contests at the h#nting ca&! at B#""alo Tail .reek in the 1IE0s. At age E4 she won the "irst !ri*e "or the +ed +iver Jig at a co&!etition s!onsored $% the orthern Al$erta /ioneers and Jld Ti&ers Association. 60rann%7 .allihoo was still winning contests at ative gatherings at 10< %ears o" age.

121 122

AleGis >$. 1I2D? was the son o" Jose!h Belco#rt >$. 1E91? and .atherine L;1irondelle. anc% was the da#ghter o" Antoine +owand and Archange e!issing.

D2

Their children were: • :illia&( J. >1II1@19C4? &arried Anne English. • Alvina Alice( >1I9C@19EC? &arried .harles Baird. • Annie >1IE9@19D9? &arried Jean Ba!tiste Lo%er( then Lo#is 3aniel Lo%er( then 4tone% Boris. • 3io Leon( >1II0@1944?. • 1er&ine 6Li**ie7( >1II1@19ED? &arried BenAa&in 8andal. • Adol!h#s( >1IIC@19DE? &arried .hristine Breland. • 8ital 8ictor( >1III@19E2? &arried .lothilde -aria 1odgson. • 1enr%( >1II9@19<9? &arried .lara 1a*el Lo%er. • Alvina Alice( >1I9C@19EC? &arried .harles Baird. • -elvina( >1I9E@1I9I? • .aroline( >1I9E@1I9E? • John( >1I9I@191C? • J#lia -ar%( $orn 1901( she &arried :il"red John Ladero#te. • Bertha 8ictoria( $orn 190<( she &arried +oderick Letendre.

D<

Jn 4e!te&$er 2<( 1IEI( Lo#is .allihoo;s #ncle -ichel .allihoo >$. 1I24? signed Treat% D on $ehal" o" his $and o" .ree( ,ro)#ois and -etis relatives. This $and was given a reserve o" 40 s)#are &iles northwest o" Ed&onton on the 4t#rgeon +iver. This reserve 6-ichel ,.+. 1<2O was con"ir&ed $% Jrder in .o#ncil /. 11C1 on -a% 1E( 1II9. 8ictoria and Lo#is Jero&e had &oved to the -ichel Band +eserve in 1II0( at the ti&e the% had two children. Lo#is .allihoo was registered as Band F 29. A"ter his #ncle -ichel .allihoo;s death in 1911( Lo#is Jero&e .allihoo was elected .hie" o" the -ichel Band. /revio#sl% a"ter &an% !ro$le&s with ,ndian A""airs the $and had !etitioned to $e !#t on an 6,nde!endence List7 and in 190D had written a re)#est to leave treat% in eGchange "or clear title o" one section o" land "or each "a&il%. Lo#is Jero&e .allihoo served as .hie" "or "o#r %ears. 1is co#sin 4olo&on .allihoo s#cceeded hi& in 191E. -an% $and &e&$ers s#$se)#entl% le"t #ntil 19CI when the $and &e&$ers were

D4

en"ranchised and lost their ,ndian stat#s.12< B% 19D2 all lands and assets had $een distri$#ted to the en"ranchised $and &e&$ers. The award winning124 -etis a#thor .ora Ta%lor has done an eGcellent $iogra!h% o" 8ictoria: )icto ia Callihoo# &n &ma2in" Life >200I?: she sa%s: 8ictoria was $orn $e"ore .anada was a nation and $% the ti&e Al$erta $eca&e a !rovince she was a grand&other. 8ictoria .allihooUs li"e s!anned &ore than a cent#r% "ro& travel $% +ed +iver carts to a#to&o$iles= "ro& !e&&ican to "ast "ood and "ro& the vast herds o" !rairie $ison she saw on "a&il% $#""alo h#nts as a %o#ng girl to the ti&e when the onl% $#""alo to $e see were in !arks and *oos. 4he "reighted "or the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% and saw the introd#ction o" c#rrenc% take over "ro& "#r $artering. 4he talked to Al$erta heroes like 5ather Laco&$e and Lie#tenant 0overnor 0rant -cEwan( $#t never lost her love o" her -Vtis heritage( cele$rating her 100th $irthda% $% de&onstrating how the +ed +iver Aig sho#ld $e danced. :hen 8ictoria was 91 %ears o" age she dictated her &e&oires which were translated into English and !#$lished. The interested reader sho#ld see: .allihoo( 8ictoria. 6Earl% Li"e in Lac 4te. Anne and 4t. Al$ert in the 1IE0s.7 &lbe ta *isto ical ,e$ie%( 8ol. 1( o. <( 19C<: 21@2D. .allihoo( 8ictoria. 6The ,ro)#ois in Al$erta.7 &lbe ta *isto ical ,e$ie%( 8ol. E( no. 2( 19C9: 1E@1I. .allihoo( 8ictoria. 6J#r $#""alo 1#nts.7 &lbe ta *isto ical ,e$ie%5 8ol. I( o. 1( 19D0: 24@2C. +e"erence: .ora Ta%lor( )icto ia Callihoo# &n &ma2in" Life. Ed&onton: Eschia $ooks ,nc.( 200I.

8aria Campbell2 4.C.2 +.4.8. >$. 1940?
-aria was a!!ointed as an J""icer o" the Jrder o" .anada on J#l% 01( 200I. 4he !revio#sl% had received the 4askatchewan Jrder o" -erit on Jcto$er 11( 200C and the 22nd Ann#al 3isting#ished .anadian Award( !resented $% the 4eniors Lniversit% 0ro#! and the 4eniors Ed#cation .entre o" the Lniversit% o" +egina on -a% 1I( 200D. ,n 199D( she was !resented with a ational A$original Achieve&ent Award. 4he has $een also $een ind#cted into the -argaret :oodward 4askatchewan Theatre 1all o" 5a&e >2000?.
12<

,n 19CI( the -ichel Band is 6en"ranchised7 $% ,ndian A""airs( and the reserve is dissolved. This is the onl% case o" an entire $and >save a "ew individ#als? $eing invol#ntaril% en"ranchised.
#$%

.anada .o#ncil .hildren;s Literat#re /ri*e >now 0overnor 0eneral;s Award?( 19IC +. +oss Annett Award( :riters 0#ild o" Al$erta( 19IC +#th 4chwart* .hildren;s Book Award( .anadian Booksellers( 19ID( short@listed J#r .hoice( .anadian .hildren;s $ook .entre( 19ID( 19II( 1992( 199C( 199I Book@o"@the@Hear( .anadian Li$rar% Association( 19ID( 19II >1ono#ra$le -ention?( 199C

DC

-aria .a&!$ell was $orn in A!ril o" 1940( on a tra!line in northern 4askatchewan. 4he is the da#ghter o" John >3an? .a&!$ell12C and ,rene 3#$#)#e12D. The area where the% lived was known as Nukee%in $#t is now called /ark 8alle%. Their traditional tra!!ing and h#nting territor% was across the (uktaha% Sipi > et@Throwing +iver?( now called 4t#rgeon +iver. -aria grew #! s!eaking the .ree( -ichi" and 4a#ltea#G lang#ages. -aria .a&!$ell event#all% $eca&e one o" a growing n#&$er o" !eo!le to s!eak o#t against the o!!ression o" A$original !eo!le. ,n 19D<( .a&!$ell worked to esta$lish a hal"wa% ho#se in Ed&onton "or wo&en who were destit#te or eG!eriencing other !ersonal crises.

3#ring her career as a writer .a&!$ell has ed#cated the general !#$lic( and A$original !eo!le a$o#t the -etis !eo!le o" .anada. .a&!$ell;s 19E< novel( *alf-. eed( is one o" the &ost highl% regarded works o" -etis literat#re. This $ook was one o" the "irst works to challenge eGisting stereot%!es o" ,ndigeno#s wo&en. .a&!$ell writes o" her eG!eriences with discri&ination and !overt% while growing #! as a -etis wo&an in :estern .anada. *alf-. eed can $e "o#nd on the c#rric#la o" n#&ero#s high schools( :o&en;s 4t#dies( ative 4t#dies and .anadian Literat#re co#rses. The National (ost in an article( 6The Best o" the .ent#r%7 >4at#rda% Jcto$er 2( 1999( 4ection B4?( chose this $ook "or its list o" the twent% .anadian $ooks o" the cent#r%.

12C 12D

Born J#ne 2<( 191E( at Big +iver( d. 199E. Born 1919 at -ont e$o( d. 19C1.

DD

/icking &edicine d#ring a visit to the Bannock /oint /etro"or&s( A!ril( 2009 /hoto $% L. Barkwell

/icnic at Bannock /oint( !hoto $% 4hirle% 3elor&e +#ssell( A!ril 2009.

,n 1991( -aria was a contri$#tor to 1art&#t L#t*;s( $ook( Contempo a ! Challen"es# Con$e sations %ith Canadian Nati$e &utho s >4askatoon: 5i"th 1o#se /#$lishers( 1991?. ,n 199C( she !#$lished Sto ies of the ,oad &llo%ance (eople= a $ook containing translations o" -etis stories $ased on the !eo!le;s rich oral tradition. 1er "irst children;s $ook Little .ad"e and the 'i e Spi it >Toronto: -c.lelland and 4tewart? was written in 19EE $eca#se her grandson wanted to know where we got "ire.

DE

.a&!$ell has &ade n#&ero#s contri$#tions to &aga*ines s#ch as Maclean;s and is the a#thor o" The ,ed 3 ess( a "il& released $% the ational 5il& $oard o" .anada in 199E. 4he was reci!ient o" a ational A$original Achieve&ent Award in 199D. -aria has served as :riter in +esidence at the Ban"" 4chool o" 5ine Arts and ta#ght ative 4t#dies at the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan and was recentl% >2009? the .arol 4hields :riter in +esidence at the Lniversit% o" :inni!eg. Jver the %ears she has done n#&ero#s c#lt#ral !resentations "or /arks .anada at the Batoche ational 1istoric 4ite. 4he is alwa%s in great de&and to do readings "ro& her work at -etis c#lt#ral events. Jver the %ears she has worked with n#&ero#s %o#ng -etis wo&en to !ass on -etis wo&en;s oral knowledge and teachings. Jn -a% <0( 2004( -aria was the reci!ient o" the -olson Award "or the Arts( acknowledging her s#$stantial contri$#tions to the c#lt#ral and intellect#al heritage o" .anada.

4haron .onwa% and 0eorgina Li$ert% !resent a -etis 4hawl to -aria at -anito$a -etis 5ederation( A!ril 2009. /hoto $% 4hirle% 3elor&e +#ssell.

-aria .a&!$ellUs "irst !ro"essionall% !rod#ced !la%( 'li"ht( was the "irst all A$original theatre !rod#ction in &odern .anada. :eaving &odern dance( stor%telling and dra&a together with traditional A$original art !ractices( this earl% work set a st%listic tone that her &ost recent !rod#ctions contin#e to eG!lore. Two o" her !la%s have to#red eGtensivel% within .anada and a$road to 4cotland( 3en&ark and ,tal%. 5ro& 19IC to 199E -s. .a&!$ell owned and o!erated a !rod#ction co&!an%( 0a$riel /rod#ctions. 4he has written andPor directed "il&s $% the ational 5il& Board o" .anada > 5B? and .anadian Broadcasting .or!oration >.B.?( incl#ding M! (a tne s M! (eople( which aired on .T8 "or < %ears. 4he was coordinator and &e&$er o" Sa"e Ensemble( a co&&#nit% theatre gro#! "or A$original elders( and is activel% associated with the Saskatche%an Nati$e Theat e Compan! in 4askatoon as a c#lt#ral advisor.

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The -aria .a&!$ell !#$lications list:

.a&!$ell( -aria. Sto ies of the ,oad &llo%ance (eople/ translated $% -aria .a&!$ell= !aintings $% 4herr% 5arrell +acette. +evised Edition. 4askatoon( 4ask.: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 2010.
-Vtis Electoral .ons#ltation /anel >4ask.?. Métis "o$e nance in Saskatche%an fo the 76st centu !# $ie%s and $isions of the Métis people# a epo t p epa ed b! the Métis Electo al Consultation (anelD submitted to the Saskatche%an Ministe of 'i st Nations and Métis ,elations5 +egina: -Vtis Electoral .ons#ltation /anel( 200C. Sto ies of the oad allo%ance peopleD translated $% -aria .a&!$ell= !aintings $% 4herr% 5arrell +acette. /enticton( B..: The%t#s Books( 199C. .a&!$ell( -aria and 1arr% 3aniels +ne Mo e Time. 4askatoon( 4askatchewan( .anada: A#thor( 199C. 0i$e back# 'i st Nations pe specti$es on cultu al p actice5 -aria .a&!$ell( et al5 8anco#ver: 0allerie /#$lications( 1992. orth



0ri""iths( Linda and -aria .a&!$ell. The book of Jessica# a theat ical t ansfo mation5 Toronto: .oach 1o#se /ress( 19I9( /la%wrights .anada /ress( 199E. This !la% won the .hal&ers Award "or Best ew /la% and a 3ora -avor -oore Award. .a&!$ell( -aria. &chimoona. 4askatoon( 4askatchewan: 5i"th 1o#se( 19IC. .a&!$ell( -aria. *alfb eed5 1ali"aG( .4 : 0oodread Biogra!hies( 19I<( c19E<. .a&!$ell( -aria. (eople of the buffalo# *o% the (lains -ndians li$ed5 ,ll#strated $% 3o#glas Tait 2 4hannon Two"eathers5 1st !a!er$ack ed.( rev. 8anco#ver: 3o#glas 2 -c,nt%re( 19I<. .a&!$ell( -aria. Cheechum4s Enkelin# &utobio" aphie eine kanadischen *albindiane inD PQbe set2t aus dem :anadischen $on ,os%itha McCoppinR5 1. A#"l. @@ -Qchen : 5ra#eno""ensive( 19I<( c19I1. .a&!$ell( -aria. ,iel4s people# *o% the Métis li$ed5 ,ll#strated $% 3avid -acLagan. 1st !a!er$ack ed. 8anco#ver: 3o#glas 2 -c,nt%re( 19I<. .a&!$ell( -aria. *alfb eed55 1st Bison $ook ed. Lincoln: Lniversit% o" 19I2( c19E<. e$raska /ress(

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.a&!$ell( -aria. ,iel4s people# *o% the Métis li$ed5 ,ll#strated $% 3avid -aclagan5 8anco#ver: 3o#glas 2 -c,nt%re( 19EI. .a&!$ell( -aria. Little .ad"e and the 'i e Spi it5 ,ll#strated $% 3avid -aclagan. Toronto : -c.lelland and 4tewart( 19EE. ,ll#strated $% 3avid -aclag

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.a&!$ell( -aria. *alfb eed5 Toronto: -c.lelland and 4tewart@Banta&( 19E9( c19E<.

-aria;s "il& and video credits incl#de:
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Jou ne! to *ealin" >:riterP3irector? >199C? La .eau Sha Sho >:riterP3irector? >1994? Joseph;s Justice >:riterP3irector? >1994? & Cent e fo .uffalo Na o%s >:riterP3irector? >19IE? M! (a tne s M! (eople >.o@/rod#cer ? >19IE? Cumbe land *ouse >:riterP3irector? >19ID? ,oad to .atoche >:riterP3irector? >19IC? Sha in" and Education >:riterP3irector? >19IC? The ,ed 3 ess >:riter? >19EE? Edmonton;s Un%anted Women >:riterP3irector? >19DI?

-aria .a&!$ell( in earlier ti&es( attended the residential school at Bea#val( 4askatchewan "or one %ear( she has gone on to earn an -A in ative 4t#dies "ro& the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan. 4he has received hono#rar% doctorates "ro& the Lniversit% o" +egina >199C?( Hork Lniversit% >1992? and Atha$asca Lniversit% >2000?. 4he has ta#ght -Vtis histor% and the st#d% o" oral traditions at #niversities in 4askatchewan( -anito$a and Al$erta. 3r. .a&!$ell is a visiting acade&ic at the .entre "or :orld ,ndigeno#s Bnowledge and +esearch( Atha$asca Lniversit%. 8aternal 7enealogy: • • • • • • • • • • 0rand"ather: /ete 3#$#)#e 0rand&other: /hilo&ene -orissette( $. A!ril <( 1I9D. 0reat@0rand"ather: or$ert 4#rgil -orissette( $. Jcto$er 10( 1ICI( at Beard%;s +eserve. 0reat@0rand&other: J#dith 4tar$lanket( $. 1ID0 at 4and% Lake. 0reat@great@0rand"ather: Antoine Ba&i%oahcahkwcw Ahtahkakoo! 4tar$lanket.12E 0reat@great@0rand&other: J#dith Belanger -istawasis( $. 1I4<( 0reat@great@great@0rand"ather: /ierre Belanger -istawasis. 0reat@great@great@0rand&other: Anne Awasis -ashe ah 4ho :ishk. 0reat@great@great@0rand"ather: or$ert Jean -orisette( $. 1I<I at 4t. Boni"ace. 0reat@great@great@0rand&other: Bets% Braconnier( $. 1I4I.

8etis +crip: -orisette( or$ert @ .oncerning his clai& as a head o" "a&il% and as heirs to his two deceased -Vtis children( Bets% $orn 1ICI( died 1IE1 and A&$roise $orn 1IDC( died 1IEI @ Address( 5ort .arlton @ Born( 1I<I at 4t. Boni"ace @ 5ather( Arsel&e -orisette( >5rench .anadian? @ -other( ThVrMse( >,ndian? @ -arried( 1ICD at +ed +iver to Bets% Braconnier @ .hildren living( eight >na&es on declaration? @ .hildren deceased( "o#r @ 4cri! "or _1D0.00 @ 4cri! "or _4I0.00 @ .lai& 1<<4. +01C ( ,nterior ( 4eries 3@,,@I@$ ( 8ol#&e 1<<0 ( +eel .@14940

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>1I<E@1I9D?

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-orissette Jr.( or$ert @ .oncerning his clai& as a child @ Address( .arlton @ Born( 1IC9 @ 5ather( or$ert -orissette 4r.( >-Vtis? @ -other( Bets% Braconnier( >-Vtis? @ -arried( 1IEE at .arlton to J#dith( 4tar$lanket Ahtahkakoo! >,ndian? @ .hildren living( three >na&es on declaration? @ .hildren deceased( one @ 4cri! "or _240 @ .lai& 140I. +01C ( ,nterior ( 4eries 3@,,@I@$ ( 8ol#&e 1<<0 ( +eel .@14940 -oricette( or$ert= heir to his deceased da#ghter( J#dith= -oricette= address: 3#ck Lake( 4ask= $orn: 21 4e!t.( 1IE9 at .arlton( 4ask= died: 5all( 1II9 at -#skeg Lake( 4ask= "ather: or$ert -oricette >-Vtis 2 de!onent?= &other: Bets% Braconnier >-Vtis?= scri! cert.: "or& 3( no. CC1 "or _240.00= clai& no. 2C1. +01C ( ,nterior ( 4eries 3@,,@I@c ( 8ol#&e 1<D0 ( +eel .@14992

Tantoo Cardinal
Tantoo .ardinal was raised in the -etis town o" An*ac in r#ral northern Al$erta. 4he had to &ove to Ed&onton to "inish her high school ed#cation. Tantoo .ardinal is one o" the &ost renowned A$original actresses in the world( $est known "or her role as Blackshawl in 3ances %ith Wol$es. 4he has a&assed a long list o" awards "or her work in television( theatre( and "il&. 4he has received a Best Actress Award "ro& the A&erican ,ndian 5il& 5estival( the Al$erta -otion /ict#re ,nd#str% and "ro& international "il& "estivals in /ort#gal and [i&$a$we "or her role as +oseanne in the "il& Lo!alties. 4he was listed on the Maclean;s Ma"a2ine 1ono#r role in 1991 and received an 1ono#rar% 3octorate o" 5ine Arts "ro& the Lniversit% o" +ochester in 199<. 1er strength ste&s "ro& her #!$ringing in her -etis c#lt#re and her a$ilit% to overco&e racist ta#nts and other hardshi!s in the #n"a&iliar cit% o" Ed&onton. 4he in"#ses her characters with war&th and honest%( and has o"ten asked directors to rewrite scri!ts i" she "elt the% were dishonest in their !ortra%al o" A$original !eo!le. ,n 199I she was the reci!ient o" an A$original Achieve&ent Award "or 5il& and Television. >:ritten "ro& notes !re!ared "or the A$original Achieve&ent Awards.?

8arguerite 9umas Caron. >$. 1I4<? 4!o#se( Jean .aron 4r. >1I<<@190C?.
-arg#erite was $orn on ove&$er 22( 1I4< at 4t. 8ital( the da#ghter o" -ichel 3#&as 4r. and 1enrietta Landr%. 1er $rother -ichel Jr. was one o" the &en who travelled to -ontana to get Lo#is +iel. -arg#erite &arried to Jean .aron 4r. at 4t. Boni"ace on 5e$r#ar% C( 1ID1. The% had ten children. Both her h#s$and and sons Jean Jr.( Theo!hile and /atrice were involved in the +esistance. -arg#erite recalls the $attle o" 3#ck Lake:

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6:hen the shooting started(7 said -rs. .aron( 6, had A#st $eg#n to wash &% "loor= , contin#ed( altho#gh , was )#ite worried $eca#se &% h#s$and was over there= it was all over $e"ore , had hal" the "loor washed.712I ,t was -arg#erite .aron who &otivated the &en at Batoche to go and resc#e the -etis &en who were s#rro#nded and o#t o" a&&#nition at To#rond;s .o#lee. 3#ring the $attle at the co#lee( Jean .aron;s wi"e wasn;t at the ca&! near Batoche( $#t she had sta%ed at /ierriche /rentea#;s ho&e. .aron;s wi"e had heard the shooting like the others. 1er h#s$and and her sons were at the co#lee. 4he ca&e to the ho#ses to get the news( and when the% arrived ]1ow co&e %o# are hered; 4he asks o" +iel. ]3o %o# have newsd; K ] o news@ Are %o# going to get so&ed'The% aren;t all dead since we can hear the& "iring. Aren;t %o# going to seea; Another soldier arrived( -aGi&e /oitras']:here are %o#r !eo!led Are the% co&ingd Jh noa The% are s#rro#nded like that in the co#lee >&aking a circle with her th#&$ and indeG "inger? ]:hat are %o# !icking #! hered'A&&#nitiond; 4he said to +iel: ]:h% aren;t %o# going to seed :ho will $ring the& a&&#nitiond ot A#st one %o#ng &an. :hat are %o# all doing hered' A gang who !asses their ti&e looking aro#nd. 0o "ind the&. Ho# wo#ld do $etter to go %elling on the other side'%o# wo#ld get strength.; +iel said']3o not get angr% witho#t reason= %o# wo#ld do $etter to !ra% "or the&'go #! to the cha!el and !ra%.; 4he answered: ], don;t wan;t to !ra% the wa% , a& now( ,]& too angr%.; The !eo!le "ro& the .o#ncil were there'she said to the&( ]0et dressed to go hel! the&. Ho# were &ore read% to charge ahead and loot stores than going to hel! o#r !eo!le that are in risk there. ," %o# don;t want to go( tell &e( , will go to see i" the% are alive( %es or no.; Jean 3#&ont;s wi"e >3o&itilde 0ravelle? o""ered her wagon to Jean .aron;s wi"e and also o""ered to acco&!an% her. Jld /ierre /arentea# said: ]0o ho&e', will go see( &e.; \ and &an% went to the resc#e o" those s#rro#nded in the co#lee.129 The .o#ncil &in#tes o" A!ril 2E( 1IIC show a &otion that 6-ada&e .aron $e rewarded and receive a %earl% salar% "or her services and cooking( and that the s#& $e _2I.7 >.arried #nani&o#sl%?. A"ter the $attle o" 3#ck Lake -arg#erite kills their seven dogs to &aintain a$sol#te silence. /rior to the $attle o" Batoche the "a&il% le"t their ho#se a"ter the 4#nda% -ass which !receded the $attle. The !riests told -arg#erite to leave the hol% !ict#res on the walls to !rotect the ho#se. 6Alasa7 said -arg#erite( 6:hen , went ho&e( , "o#nd nothing $#t a $ase&ent with onl% scra!s o" iron and stoves $roken to !ieces l%ing in it.7 1<0 :ie$e and Beal give the "ollowing acco#nt o" -arg#erite;s assertiveness. 3#ring the $attle and even several da%s later( the wo&en wo#ld change !laces constantl% so as to avoid the "ire o" the ene&%. The% wo#ld hide $ehind trees or in da&! holes. A "ew da%s a"ter the s#rrender o" Batoche( Jean .aron and his "a&il% were at A*arie 0arnea#;s in Bellev#e A#st east o" Batoche. As an English col#&n !asses thro#gh( -rs.
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41-( !. D. Jo#rnal o" A$$V .lo#tier t%!escri!t ( 8ol. 2( !. 21( translation $% +ose@-arie .are%( /arks .anada( Batoche 1istoric 4ite. 1<0 5onds sociVtV histori)#e &Vtisse. Boite 1<4D( che&ise 0DD: <C.

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.aron recogni*es one o" her $est &ares( which had $een le"t so&e distance awa%( is now ridden $% a &edical o""icer. 4he goes straight #! to the horse( #nsaddles it and sei*es it. The English( d#&$"o#nded( do nothing.1<1

Jean .aron 4r.( seated( wi"e -arg#erite >nee 3#&as?( with son Al$ert and grandda#ghters E&&a and -arie on their "ar& at Batoche( circa 1I9C. /A-

+enator Thelma /illeneuve ChalifouF. >$. 1929?
Thel&a 8illene#ve .hali"o#G is the "irst -etis wo&an to $e a!!ointed to the 4enate o" .anada. Thel&a was $orn at .algar%( Al$erta in 1929( the da#ghter o" /a#l -ichel 8illene#ve >$.c. 1I92? and( 1elene ,ngwersen( a 3anish@A&erican. 1er !arents &et when her dad was $reaking $roncs on the B#rns ranch near .algar%( where her &other worked as a cook. Thel&a is !art o" a "a&il% that goes $ack to Al$erta;s earl% -etis roots. 1er "ather( grand"ather( and great@ grand"ather( /a#l( 5ranWois1<2 and 4evere 8illene#ve1<<( and grand&other J#lia Bo#cher( were "ro& the earl% -etis strongholds o" 4t. Al$ert and Lac 4te. Anne( Al$erta. -ilitar% service ran in the "a&il% and Thel&a;s "ather "o#ght in $oth :orld :ars. Thel&a Aoined the reserves and worked in a 4alvation Ar&% canteen d#ring the 4econd :orld :ar. 1er si$lings served in the .anadian Ar&% and av%.
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:ie$ and Beal( 19IC: 1<2. 5ranWois 8illene#ve dit la 5o#rche was the son o" A#g#stin 8illene#ve and -arg#erite .le&ent 1<< 4evere 8illene#ve was $orn circa 1IC4 at Ed&onton( the son o" 5ranWois 8illene#ve dit la 5o#rche and 1elene 8allee. ,n 1IE< he &arried anc% .o#rteoreille( da#ghter o" Jac)#es .o#rteoreille and -arie 1a&elin. Jn Jan#ar% 12( 1I91 at 4t. Al$ert he &arried J#lie Bo#cher( the da#ghter o" Tho&as Bo#cher and La+ose 0lad# >$. Lac 4t. Anne?. Tho&as was $orn circa 1I<C at Lac 4t. Anne( the son o" Jose!h Bo#cher and -arg#erite 3#!#is.

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Thel&a;s eG!erience as a single &other raising seven children >she now has <0 grandchildren and 1C great@grandchildren? has given her a dee! interest in wo&en;s iss#es. At age 2C( her a$#sive h#s$and a$andoned her. :ith onl% a grade nine ed#cation( she raised her children( ret#rned to school( and co&!leted co#rses at the .hicago 4chool o" ,nterior 3esign( the 4o#thern Al$erta ,nstit#te o" Technolog% .onstr#ction and Esti&ating( and Leth$ridge .o&&#nit% .ollegeP4ociolog%. 4he was the "irst A$original wo&an to $roadcast on co&&ercial radio with .BXL +adio /eace +iver. 4he has develo!ed co&&#nit% gro#!s in northern Al$erta( s!eciali*ing in ative ho#sing( "or the -etis 1o#sing .or!oration and the Al$erta 1o#sing .or!oration. ,n 1994( she "o#nded and $eca&e 4enior /artner o" .hali"o#G and Associates Ed#cational and Econo&ic .ons#lting( s!eciali*ing in the develo!&ent and a!!lication o" -etis s!eci"ic cross@c#lt#ral training co#rses. 4he owns 4ecret 0ardens Jriginals( which sells cra"ts and "loral designs. 4he has served as 8ice@/resident o" the A$original :o&en;s 3evelo!&ent .or!oration and was the "irst -etis wo&an ever a!!ointed to the 4enate o" the Lniversit% o" Al$erta. 4he has $een an active &e&$er o" the -etis ation o" Al$erta since 19D1. 4he was the "irst -Vtis wo&an to receive a ational A$original Achieve&ent Award in 1994( and the "irst -etis wo&an to $e a!!ointed to the Lniversit% o" Al$erta 4enate. 4he was the "irst -Vtis to chair the ational -Vtis 4enate and the 4enate .onstit#tion .o&&ission( .o@chair o" the Al$erta -Vtis 4enate( an A!!eal /anel -e&$er with Al$erta 5a&il% and 4ocial 4ervices( and a -Vtis Elder "or echi ,nstit#te. .hali"o#G served as a Land .lai&s egotiator( was a "o#nder o" the 4lave Lake ative 5riendshi! .entre( was instr#&ental in develo!ing the -Vtis Association o" Al$erta Land and :el"are 3e!art&ents. 4he devoted several %ears to Al$erta ative .o&&#nications 4ociet%( and was a deter&ined social activist at the height o" the co&&#nit% develo!&ent &ove&ent with the .o&!an% o" Ho#ng .anadians. 4he was a!!ointed to the .anadian 4enate in 199E. ,n 2004( at age EC( she "aced &andator% retire&ent. 4he is now the !atron and director o" the -ichi" .#lt#ral ,nstit#te in 4t. Al$ert( an organi*ation devoted to the histor% and ed#cation o" the -Vtis. ,t has initiated a collection o" -Vtis s!eci"ic ite&s as well as a !ictorial histor%( and works to !rotect( !reserve and !ro&ote the -Vtis o" 4t. Al$ert and Al$erta. Thel&a was awarded an 1onorar% 3octor o" Law 3egree "ro& the Lniversit% o" Toronto( J#ne 1C( 2004. Thel&a was an active !artici!ant in the -anito$a -etis 5ederation;s -etis Elders .on"erence o" 1991. 4he &ade the s#&&ar% co&&ents "or her Elders gro#! at the closing o" this con"erence. 1er re&arks are !#$lished on !ages 20<@20E in (ast ,eflects the ( esent# The Metis Elde s Confe ence >5red 4hore and Lawrence Barkwell REds.S :inni!eg: -anito$a -etis 5ederation( 199E?.

Ann Ferguson Charter. >194D@200C?
4ocial :ork !ro"essor Ann .harter >-edicine :ol" :o&an? was the da#ghter o" +ene 5erg#son o" :akaw( 4askatchewan and :ini"red 4haw o" 4#rre%( England >a war $ride?. 1er h#s$and was :es .harter( a akota( "ro& .arr% the Bettle 5irst ation. Ann was $orn in 194D at ew -alden( 4#rre%. 1er "ather Aoined the .anadian Ar&ed 5orces as a teenager at the start o" :orld :ar ,, and he served in the 4ignal .or!s. 1e ret#rned to :akaw in 194D. :ini"red and Ann "ollowed when Ann was three or "o#r &onths old. :hen the%

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arrived +ene was awa% and the% "o#nd their dwelling was a shack( which had 14 !eo!le living in it. There was a lean@too on the $ack with an o!en "ire !it where the "a&il% !atriarch Jose!h ,sidore 5eg#son >/etit 0rand@/Mre? lived. The "irst thing the "a&il% did was to take the& to Jose!h. :ini"red was shocked to &eet this ,ndian looking &an with his hair in long $raids and a large kni"e at his side. 1e s!oke -ichi" and did not #nderstand English. 1er "irst "ear was that the% wo#ld $e killed and scal!ed $% this ,ndian. The "irst &eal she was served was corn on the co$ and $alogna= this was a great ins#lt( $eca#se in England cornco$s were #sed as cattle "eed. +ene 5erg#son was the son o" Jose!h 5erg#son >$#ried at Batoche? and J#stine /arentea#. 1is &aternal grand!arents were -athias /arentea# >$. ov. 1( 1IDE? and -arie Levina 5e$rine Bo#cher the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste Bo#cher and .aroline Les!erance. >Altho#gh Ann co#ld not recall her na&e as the% alwa%s called her Book#&?. -athias was the son o" /ierre /arentea# >$. 1I4<? and 1elene or&and >$. 1I42 at 4t. or$ert?. Ann 5erg#son grew #! s!eaking -ichi" Ann 5erg#son grew #! s!eaking the -ichi" lang#age. 4he lost this lang#age d#ring the %ears she attended residential school at 4t. Lo#is( 4askatchewan. She said that she was shocked to learn she did not s!eak 5rench when she was al&ost la#ghed o#t o" the ele&entar% school at :akaw( 4askatchewan "or s!eaking her -ichi" lang#age. Ann;s great grand"ather( -athias /arentea# was Lo#is +iel;s g#ide and cart driver d#ring the 1IIC +esistance. Later( he worked as a g#ide "or +ed +iver carts travelling "ro& 5ort 0arr% to the Battle"ords and to .#&$erland 1o#se. Ann;s great@grand"athers( Leon 5erg#son and -athias /arentea# were $oth active d#ring the 1IIC -etis +esistance at Batoche. 3#e to a lack o" other e&!lo%&ent +ene ke!t re@enlisting in the .anadian "orces( as a res#lt( Ann grew #! at the $ases o" +ivers and 4hilo in -anito$a. 4he recalls that her "ather was the "irst one in the "a&il% to own an a#to&o$ile. A"ter an 1I@ho#r tri! to :akaw( 4askatchewan "ro& +ivers( -athias asked how long it took the& and when told said >do#$t"#ll%? 6Ho# &#st have a good tea& o" horsesa7 :hen the% took hi& "or his "irst car ride he was at "irst scared( $#t then reali*ed the% reall% had covered the distance in 1I ho#rs. 1e did not know where +ivers was $#t when the% descri$ed the
Ann .harter( at a $ead work class ta#ght $% Jennine Bra#chi( !hoto $% Jac)#ie -cLeod

sand d#nes and )#icksand sinkholes he re&e&$ered the !lace "ro& his carting da%s. Ann recalls that no one wo#ld ad&it that the% were -etis "ro& Batoche $eca#se o" the stig&a that was still attached to this. :hen she was %o#ng the religio#s services at the grotto at Batoche were a "ront "or the -etis to &eet. The real ,ndian services were held $ack in the $#sh. The% all "eared the +...-./.=

EC

her "ather told her that it was dangero#s to go to 4#n 3ance cere&onies $eca#se the !olice wo#ld shoot %o# i" the% ca#ght %o#. 4he was told o" incidents o" !eo!le $eing killed "or this reason. Ann was one o" the "irst -etis to o$tain a 4ocial :ork degree when she grad#ated "ro& the Lniversit% o" +egina with a B4: in 19E9. 4he had !revio#sl% co&!leted her BA at +egina in 19E4. 4he worked as a 4ocial 4ervices worker "irst with the +egina /#$lic 4chool Board >19E<@ 19EE? then with the 4askatchewan 3e!art&ent o" 4ocial 4ervices >19EI@19E9?. 4he holds the distinction o" $eing the "irst -etis social worker in 4askatchewan. 4he then went on to co&!lete her -.Ed. at 4t. 5rancis@Xavier Lniversit% in 1994. 4he $egan teaching at the Lniversit% o" -anito$a in 19I< and was the "o#nding director o" the Lniversit% o" -anito$a;s orthern 4ocial :ork /rogra& in Tho&!son( -anito$a and also ta#ght at the :inni!eg Ed#cation .entre satellite !rogra&. 4he was a /ro"essor at the 5ort 0arr% ca&!#s o" the Lniversit% o" -anito$a #ntil illness "orced her to leave teaching. Ann is the co@a#thor o" &bo i"inal (eople and Social Wo k >:inni!eg: Lniversit% o" -anito$a( .ontin#ing Ed#cation( 3istance Ed#cation( 199D.?. 4he &ost recentl% co@a#thored( 6.o#nselling A$original 4t#dents: Bridging o" .on"licting :orldviews.7 This a!!eared in B./. Binda and 4harlil%n .allio#;s $ook &bo i"inal Education in Canada# & Stud! in 3ecoloni2ation >-ississa#ga: .anadian Ed#cator;s /ress( 2001? and 6An A$original :orldview o" 1el!ing: E&!owering A!!roaches7 in the Canadian Jou nal of Counsellin" /,e$ue canadienne de counselin" / 2001( 8ol. <C:1( !!. D<@E<. Ann was a traditional -etis wo&an whose s!irit na&e was -edicine :ol" :o&an. 4he was also a !i!e carrier. 4he and h#s$and :es .harter had &an% c#sto& ado!ted children and grandchildren. Their ho&e was the 5rida% night !ractice location "or the Birds 1ill 4#n 3ance 3r#& 0ro#!. Ann was a cons#lting Elder "or the Metis Le"ac! series o" $ooks. Ann died on -arch 1( 200C in :inni!eg.

1ane *illey Canada Conway
.y 8ary Conway
Jane Lille% was $orn in 190C at 4o&erset( -anito$a( the D th o" 11 children $orn to Ja&es and Anne 4tevenson Lille%. 1er "a&il% ho&esteaded at 4and% Lake( -anito$a in 190E. 4he went to 4and% Lake 4chool. 1er grand!arents( Ja&es Lille% 4r. and -arie .atherine /errea#lt dit -orin were $orn at 4t. 5rancis Xavier. ,n 192C( Jane she &arried Andrew .anada( $orn 1I9I at .ar&an( -anito$a the son o" /ierre and Lenore .anada. Jane and And% had seven children( one died o" !ne#&onia. ,n 19<E( And% was killed in a car accident. Jane $#ried And% in the ce&eter% west o" 4and% Lake and ret#rned ho&e with her "a&il%( to live with her !arents on the "a&il% ho&estead. ,n 19<9( Jane $o#ght the ho&estead "or $ack taGes. 4he lived there #ntil 1944( then &oved her "a&il% to the T#rtle -o#ntain( so#th o" 3eloraine. ,n 194C she sold the "ar&. ,n 19C0 Jane &arried 1oward .onwa%. The% $o#ght a s&all "ar& and $#ilt a large log ho#se with an #!stairs "or their growing "a&il%. ,n 19D4 the% $#ilt a ho#se on the +oad Allowance o" /T1. 4C0. The% lived there #ntil 19EI and then leased a lot at Lake -etigoshe. 1oward died in 19I< and Jane in 19ID. Jane was a great ho&e&aker. 4he canned( gardened and sewed. 5or &an% %ears she dressed #! in an orange h#nting s#it and went with 1oward as he shot her deer "or her and she tagged it. 4he cared "or her &other d#ring her last %ears( and !rovided a ho&e "or an% "a&il% &e&$er needing hel!. Jane( &ore a""ectionatel% known as 0rand&a .onwa% or A#ntie Jane "o#nd great delight in her children( grandchildren( her &an% nieces and ne!hews and her "riends. 4he enAo%ed

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their &an% visits $#t 0rand&a es!eciall% enAo%ed the reg#lar $all ga&es at 1olida% 1ills +esort where her children and grandchildren were !artici!ants. 4he was an eGcellent role &odel "or her children( grandchildren( nieces( ne!hews and da#ghter@in@laws. 1er ho&e was the h#$ o" the "a&il%( all holida%s and cele$rations were held in her ho&e. 5or a n#&$er o" %ears she attended the weekl% service at the T#rtle -o#ntain .ha!el. 3earl% loved and greatl% &issed.

9r. Catherine *. Cook2 892 8+c.2 CCF52 FCF5
3r. .ook is a -etis "ro& -atheson ,sland( -anito$a. 4he is the Associate 3ean "or 5irst ations( -etis and ,n#it 1ealth at the Lniversit% o" -anito$a. 3r. .atherine .ook received her &edical ed#cation at the Lniversit% o" -anito$a >19IE?( certi"ied in 5a&il% -edicine in 19I9( with a -4c. thro#gh the 3e!art&ent o" .o&&#nit% 1ealth 4ciences( in 200<.

/rior to her a!!oint&ent in -arch 2010( as 8ice /resident o" /o!#lation and A$original 1ealth "or the :inni!eg +egional 1ealth A#thorit% >:+1A?( she was the EGec#tive 3irector o" A$original 1ealth /rogra&s at the :+1A( where she was res!onsi$le "or the ongoing develo!&ent and i&!le&entation o" the A$original 1ealth 4trateg%. ,n J#l% 2009( she was a!!ointed $% the /rovince o" -anito$a as the A$original 1ealth Advisor on 11 1 iss#es "or -anito$a. 3r. .ook !racticed as a "a&il% !h%sician in re&ote northern n#rsing stations "or several %ears $e"ore "oc#sing on !#$lic health !ractice. 4he has held !ositions o" Associate 3irector o" the J.A. 1ildes orthern -edical Lnit= +egional 3irector o" 1ealth /rogra&s "or 5irst ations and ,n#it 1ealth( -anito$a +egion= +egional -edical J""icer o" 1ealth "or the or@ -an and :inni!eg +egional 1ealth A#thorities= 3irector o" the .enter "or A$original 1ealth Ed#cation= .o@3irector o" the -anito$a 5irst ations .entre "or A$original 1ealth +esearch= and .o@.hair o" the U.hanges "or .hildrenU ,&!le&entation Tea& @ a !rocess "or s%ste&ic change within the .hild :el"are s%ste& in -anito$a ste&&ing "ro& the AJ,@.:, ,nitiative and a series o" reviews o" the child wel"are s%ste&. 3r. .ook received her &edical ed#cation at the Lniversit% o" -anito$a >19IE?( was certi"ied in 5a&il% -edicine >19I9?( and earned an -4c thro#gh the 3e!art&ent o" .o&&#nit% 1ealth 4ciences >200<?.

8arie Therese 7oulet Courchaine. >1912@19E0?:

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-arie Therese 0o#let was $orn in 4t. Boni"ace on -a% 2E( 1912. 1er !arents were +oger 0o#let1<4 and -arie Ernestine Jl%&!ia 0a#thier. +oger &arried L#&ina /hilo&ene 0a#thier( the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste 0a#thier and +osalie 0er&ain on 3ece&$er C( 1I9D at 4t. Boni"ace. -arie Therese 0o#let;s grand&other +osalie 0er&ain was the "irst teacher at 4te. Anne -anito$a in 1ID2. -arie Therese was the grand da#ghter o" 1elene Jero&e and El*Var 0o#let( the close colla$orator o" Lo#is +iel in 1IE0( the sa&e El*Var who was stoned to death $% .olonel :olsele%;s soldiers. -anie@To$ie >her !en na&e? was noticed earl% in school at 4t. Adol!he .onvent "or her )#ick a$ilit% "or lang#ages. 4he received her secondar% ed#cation at 4t. Jose!h;s Acade&%. -arie received a $#rsar% "or having the highest &arks in 5rench thro#gho#t the !rovince. 4he received her teacher;s degree "ro& the or&al 4chool o" -anito$a. 4he ta#ght "or a ti&e $e"ore she &arried Jose!h 1. .o#rchaine "ro& 4t. Adol!he( -anito$a. The .o#rchaines raised a "a&il% o" "o#r da#ghters and one son. -arie Therese ta#ght when she co#ld thro#gh the 3e!ression o" the 19<0s to hel! relieve the hardshi! o" the ti&e. -arie ta#ght in the !#$lic school s%ste& "or ten %ears. Later( she s!ent another twelve %ears teaching in the ,ndian and -etis schools directed $% the J$late 5athers. 4he later worked "or .5+. @ a radio station in 0ravel$o#rg( 4askatchewan. B% 19DD( -arie lost a leg to dia$etes and was losing her e%esight as well. :ith the loss o" her e%esight she devoted her ti&e to writing articles in English and 5rench news!a!ers s#ch as La Libe te( L;&mi du 'o!e ( Le T a$ailleu ( The -ndian ,eco d( Sunda! *e ald and the :amsack Times. 4o&e o" her articles were: 6-anito$a ( .;est toi )#e A;ai&e(7 >-anito$a( its %o# that , love?( 6La -itsasse +o#ge(7 >The +ed Leggings?( 6Le +a&asse#r de .hi""ons(7 >The +ag .ollector?( and 6La 8eillee(7 >The 4ocial 0athering?. La Li$erte( a weekl% news!a!er !#$lished her articles "or %ears. Jne o" the last articles "ro& -anie@To$ie was 6.o&&ent A;ecris sans &es %e#G(7 >1ow , write witho#t &% e%es?. -anie@To$ie( her &ost "itting !en na&e( died in 19E0. ,t was said that -arie Therese 6wrote with her heart.7 4he le"t a heritage to her "a&il% that the% still !ro#dl% share with those who will listen. And( to -etis !eo!le and all .anadians( she teaches love o" lang#age and learning. >.o&!iled with contri$#tions $% the -etis +eso#rce .entre.?

Dita /ivier Cullen. >$. 19<D?
+ita was $orn at /ortage la /rairie( -anito$a in 19<D( the da#ghter o" 0ordon 8ivier and Beatrice 4anderson. The "a&il% lived in a road allowance ho#se at 1igh Bl#"" #ntil her &other se!arated "ro& 0ordon and took the children with her to live in /ortage la /rairie. There she s#!!orted the "a&il% $% doing ho#sework "or s#ch nota$les as 3r. Ar&strong and J#dge 5orne%. ,n 19C4( +ita &arried To& .#llen and the% had "ive children.
1<4

+oger 0o#let >1IDE@194D?. +oger was $orn on Jan#ar% 14( 1IDE at /e&$ina( +ed +iver( the son o" El*Var 0o#let and 1elene Jero&e. 1e was ed#cated at the .ollege de 4aint@Boni"ace. 1e then received a BA and -A "ro& the Lniversit% o" -anito$a. 1e &arried L#&ina /hilo&ene 0a#thier( in 1I9D. The% had eleven children. ,n 1900( he $eca&e the ins!ector o" $iling#al schools "or -anito$a and !rinci!al o" the 4t. Boni"ace or&al 4chool. 1e was also an historian !rod#cing the re!orts: 6+e!ort +es!ecting .lai&s $% 1al"@Breeds.7 .anada 4essional /a!ers( 12 Jan#ar% 1IIE= and( 6Les -Vtis 5ranWois dans l;J#est canadien.7 .ongrMs de 9#V$ec( Le 3evoir( A#in 1912. ,n 1909( he was elected !resident o" the Lnion ationale -Vtisse.

EI

+ita;s dad was $orn at :alhalla( orth 3akota in 1I9E. 1er !aternal grand!arents were Andrew 1enr% 8ivier and /hilo&ene >:hite?.1<C Andrew or A&$oise 8ivier was the son o" AleGandre 8ivier >$. 1I42? and J#lie :ells( the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste :ells and Angeli)#e .hali"o#G. The "a&il% &oved to 1igh Bl#"" when the A&erican a#thorities took all o" their children and !laced the& in the ,ndian residential school. ,n res!onse( her grand"ather went to the school( kidna!!ed the children and &oved to .anada. +ita;s "ather and grand!arents were all -ichi" s!eakers. 1er &other Beatrice was $orn in 190D at 5air"ord( -anito$a. 4he was the da#ghter o" 5rank 5rancis 4anderson and Lo#isa 4anderson >two #nrelated 4anderson "a&ilies?. The "a&il% lived at +eed% .reek where 5rank was a "ar&er and li&e&aker. 1e was also a la% Ba!tist !reacher >s#$se)#entl% /entecostal?. 5rank s!oke the -ichi"( .ree( 4a#ltea#G and 4io#G lang#ages and was in de&and "or his a$ilit% to !reach in the ative lang#ages. +ita recentl% retired "ro& a long career in ad&inistration with the Brandon 4chool 3ivision. 4he served on the Board o" 3irectors o" the -anito$a -etis 5ederation and re!resented 4o#th :est +egion on the $oard "or ten %ears. 5ro& 19I< to 199I she served on the $oard o" the Brandon( ,ndian and -etis 5riendshi! .entre= she was the !resident o" the $oard "or 1< o" those %ears. As chair!erson +ita organi*ed c#lt#ral activities like %o#th dro!@in !rogra&s and -etis &#sic and dance gro#!s. The -etis co&&#nit% recr#ited her "or these !ositions $eca#se o" her long service histor% as a co&&#nit% vol#nteer on things like the -arch o" 3i&es and the local co&&#nit% centre >where she ran the $ingo "#ndraisers "or &an% %ears?. 4he was a!!ointed chair!erson "or the $oard o" the -etis .hild and 5a&il% 4ervice A#thorit% in 200D.

+ita and her si$lings at their road allowance ho#se near 1igh Bl#""( -anito$a.

1<C

4cri! clai&: 8ivier( /hilo&ene -a%= address: :inni!eg= $orn: 1C A#g.( 1II1 at 3#ck Lake= "ather: .harles :hite >-Vtis?= &other: Jose!hte or 4#*ette Lec#%er= >-Vtis?= &arried: 1I9D at 4t. E#stache to Andrew 8ivier= clai& no. 1E94

E9

+ita .#llen: /hoto co#rtes% o" 4hannon Allard.

Jn J#ne 1D( 2011 :a Ni :anichihk !resented a Bee!ing the 5ires B#rning Award to +ita. This award hono#rs +kiiOida -k%e or 6Big 1earted :o&en.7 Big 1earted :o&en eGe&!li"% the seven sacred laws o" honest%( co#rage( res!ect( h#&ilit%( sharing( caring and love $% sharing their knowledge( talents and eG!erience to hel! kee! their "a&ilies and co&&#nities strong.

1osephte 9esCarlais 9elorme. >1ID<@19<D?.
Jose!hte 3esAarlais was $orn 5e$r#ar% 12( 1ID< at 4t. 5rancois Xavier( the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste 3esAarlais and Jose!hte 5le#r%. Jn A#g#st 9( 19I1 she &arried :illia& 3elor&e at 4t. 8ital. :illia& was $orn at 4t. 5ranWois Xavier( the son o" or$ert 3elor&e and .harlotte 0ervais. 1e was "irst &arried to Adelaide .a%en dit Bea#drea#( the da#ghter o" chie" Beetoowa%how >AleGandre .a%en? and -arie -c0illis in 1IEI. :illia& and Jose!hte had "ive children. :illia& died in 1II9 and Jose!hte s#$se)#entl% &arried AleGandre +o$illard dit 1a%den. Jose!hte gives the "ollowing acco#nt o" the events at Batoche on -a% 12( 1IIC: , re&e&$er seeing the soldiers co&ing down the hill( the% were all in red #ni"or&s. , co#ld hear the $#llets "l%ing all aro#nd &e and , !#t &% $a$% 4arah in a wash t#$ so , tho#ght that wo#ld !rotect her li"e and &% h#s$and ca&e to &e( 6Ho# $etter r#n awa% $eca#se we are going to get killed.7 Then , took &% $a$% and ran to the river $ank. And , looked at the water( A#st like it was raining heav%. ,t was the $#llets "ro& the soldiers( and , seen all kinds o" &en killed aro#nd &e and , went thro#gh witho#t a scratch. The 1al"@ Breeds and the ,ndians $roke little trees and h#ng their coats and ca!s there and the white&en "o#ght the coats and ca!s all da%. :e were sitting down the river $ank. And , think that da% we got &an% soldiers killed( there were thirteen ,ndians killed and three 1al"@ Breeds( and we lost ever%thing we had. The% took all o#r horses >a$o#t <C?( all the wagons(

I0

all $#t &% little $lack &are that #sed to $e wild( her na&e was Jess%. 4he $roke her ro!e and ran into the $#sh and hid hersel" and the white&an co#ldn;t "ind her. 1<D And on -a% 1<( 1IIC= 4o the neGt da% &% h#s$and went $ack JB and he ha!!ened to see the little $lack !on% and he called her $% na&e( Jess%. 4he ca&e $ack right to hi& and he A#&!ed on her and he ca&e $ack to where we were hiding. Ho# &#st re&e&$er this is the !on% we le"t /rairie /hea*e >now -elville( 4askatchewan? with. Then we decided we wo#ld r#n $ack to the +ock% -o#ntains >where the% had lived at 4!okane :ashington( earlier?. :e were onl% three "a&ilies. :e A#st tied two !oles across the !onies; $acks and there were "ive kids riding on the !oles. :e walked all night( the wo&en and the &en walking. ,n the da%ti&e we hid in the $#sh.1<E

.arbara 9esCardins >$. 19CE?
B% Lorraine -a%er.
Bar$ara 3esAardins was $orn 4e!te&$er 2( 19CE in 3eloraine( -anito$a. 1er !arents Ella >+acine? and Lawrence .anada live in the T#rtle -o#ntain area where the% activel% !artici!ate in tra!!ing li"est%le. 1er &aternal grand!arents were Lo#is and Alice >0odon? +acine and her !aternal grand!arents were Jane >Lillie( .anada? .onwa%( and Andrew .anada. 1er -Vtis roots can $e traced all the wa% $ack to the earl% 1D00s. 4he was raised in the T#rtle -o#ntain area where she attended a co#ntr% school "ro& 19D2 K 19DC( #ntil her school was closed. 4he then attended school in 3eloraine "ro& 19DC K 19E4. 1al" wa% thro#gh grade ten her !arents were in called in to the /rinci!le;s o""ice where the !rinci!le advised against kee!ing her in school. 1e told the& she reall% had no "#t#re in school. 3isco#raged she decided to )#it school. 4he $elieved her onl% "#t#re was to get &arried and have kids( according to Bar$( 6what else was there to do( , had no ed#cationd7 4he was eighteen when she "irst &arried in 19ED. 4he then &oved to Bottinea#( orth 3akota( where she gave $irth and raised 2 wonder"#l children( a son and da#ghter. 4he sta%ed &arried "or 21 %ears. 3#ring that ti&e she co@owned and o!erated a ver% s#ccess"#l resale sho! in Bottinea#. -ost winters however she wo#ld ret#rn to T#rtle -o#ntain. There she enAo%ed riding with and hel!ing her 3ad on his tra! line. As soon as her children were old eno#gh to travel $% snow &o$ile she took the& with her and the% like their &other "ollowed the tra! line with their grand"ather. 1er li"e took a &aAor t#rn in earl% 199E when her co#sin( Leah La/lante started a &aAor !olitical ca&!aign "or 8ice /resident in the 4o#th :est +egion o" -anito$a. Bar$ $eca&e an active &e&$er o" Leah;s ca&!aign tea&. Bar$ ad&its that it was $eca#se o" the strength and n#rt#ring o" her co#sins Leah and ,v% >and a "ew others? that hel!ed $ring her $ack ho&e to her -etis roots. Beca#se o" these !ower"#l -etis wo&en Bar$ also $egan walking as
1<D 1<E

:ie$e and Beal( 19IC: 12D. -bid.: 12I.

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a !ro#d -Vtis wo&an. 4he le"t her tro#$led &arriage in Bottinea# in 199E( &oved to Brandon -anito$a and has never looked $ack. Bar$ ret#rned to school to co&!lete an ed#cation long denied her. At the age o" 40 she co&!leted her grade twelve ed#cation along with co&!leting .aregiver .o#rse at the -anito$a -etis 5ederation and was s!onsored thro#gh the local &anage&ent $oard. 0iving $ack to the co&&#nit% she has $een a $oard &e&$er "or the Local -anage&ents Board hersel"( since ove&$er o" 200I. 4he grad#ated in 199I "ro& her .aregiver co#rse and in Jcto$er 199I she $eca&e an e&!lo%ee o" the Brandon 5riendshi! .enter where she worked in vario#s care giving !rogra&s. Then in 1999 she advanced to .oordinator o" the /renatal #trition /rogra& where she "#l"ills a drea& o" working with &others and their children. Jn a c#lt#ral level( she has $een involved with the -Vtis :o&en o" the 4o#th :est +egion "or over 2C %ears. .#rrentl% she holds the !osition o" treas#rer "or the -Vtis wo&en o" Brandon which she took on in 200E. 4he is also an active vol#nteer in the %earl% -etis 4t#dents c#lt#ral grad#ation.

<eather 9evine2 5h. 9.
1eather 3evine is a historian s!eciali*ing in .anadian ative 1istor%( A&erican ,ndian /olic%( and :estern .anadian ethnic histor%. 4he has !#$lished n#&ero#s articles on "#r trade social histor%( and is a "re)#ent g#est s!eaker at genealogical se&inars. At the !resent ti&e she has a Aoint acade&ic a!!oint&ent at the Lniversit% o" .algar% as Assistant /ro"essor in the -#se#& and 1eritage 4t#dies /rogra& in the 5ac#lt% o" .o&&#nication and .#lt#re( and as .#rator o" ,ndigeno#s 1eritage at the ickle Arts -#se#&. 1eather is a -etis with roots in the 9#;A!!elle 8alle% and 4a#ltea#G 8illage >Baie 4t. /a#l? in -anito$a. 1eather 3evine;s great grand!arents were Tho&as 3esAarlais $orn 3ece&$er 12( 1IC0 at 4t. 5rancois Xavier and -adeleine Bl%ne >$. 1I20? the da#ghter o" -ichel Bl%ne >$. 1I11? and -adeleine -illet dit Bea#che&in. Tho&as 3esAarlais was the son o" Jean Ba!tiste 3esAarlais >$. 1I11? who &arried -arie -artin( the da#ghter o" 5rancois -artin and -arge#rite +acette. Jean Ba!tiste was the son o" 5rancois 3esAarlais >$. 1EDI? and -adeleine +o%( his second wi"e. This "a&il% was en#&erated at 4a#ltea#G 8illage in -anito$a in 1I40 as 5a&il% F 2. 2. 5ranWois 3esAarlais. Born on 14 Jct 1EDI in +iviere@d#@Lo#!( /.9. 5ranWois died in 4t. 5ranWois@Xavier /arish( +ed +iver. 5rancois 3esAarlais( was a 5rench .anadian &arried to a -etis wo&an( he worked on the +... -ission land as a hired hand. 5ranWois &arried 5rancoise +o%. The% had the "ollowing children: • 5rancois Xavier 3esAarlais( $. 1E9C( &arried -arie Jtshikkan J#tehi)#e Bottinea#. 5rancois then &arried -adeleine +o%. The% had the "ollowing children: • -arie( $. 1I0C( &arried Jose!h -orissea#. • .harles( $. c. 1I09. • 4#*anne( $. 1I10( &arried Lo#is 0lad#. • Jean Ba!tiste( $. 1I11( &arried -arie -artin. • Antoine( $. 1I1I( &arried Lo#ise +ichard.

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Andre( $. 1I22( &arried Jose!hte 5agnant. The% had nine children. 1e was active in the 1IIC -etis +esistance at Batoche along with his son@ in@law( Lo#is 3avis who had &arried their da#ghter Therese. 1is son /a#l 3esAarlais >$. 1IC<? "o#ght in the +esistance in .a!tain Edo#ard 3#&ont;s co&!an%. Jose!hte( $. 1I2<( &arried Antoine 0lad#.

-ichel Bl%ne >1I11@1IEC? was $orn at 5ort des /rairies >5ort Ed&onton?( the son o" -ichel Bline 4r.1<I >$. 1EI1? and 4#*anne La"rance >-etisse( $. 1E90?. Bl%ne 4r.;s "ather( Jean Ada& Bl%ne( was a !rivate in the 0er&an A#Giliar% Troo!s in .anada( the 61esse 1ana# .hasse#rs(7 and had "o#ght in the :ar o" 1I12. 1e was &arried to a -arie 0eneviMve Bisson( also o" 9#e$ec. -ichel 4r. signed on as a vo%age#r with the orth :est .o&!an% at 1E %ears o" age( 5e$. 2I( 1E9I. ,n the earl% 1I00s( 6$% c#sto& o" the co#ntr%(7 he &arried another teenager( 4#*anne La"rance >$. 1E90?( a -etisse. -ichel 4r. was known to $e /ost&aster at Jas!er 1o#se in 1I29. The% a!!arentl% retired "ro& the "#r trade !rior to 1I<I and this was a $#""alo h#nting "a&il% who was o"ten o#t on the !lains. The% had &oved !er&anentl% to 5ort 9#;A!!elle $% 1IE1. Their son( BenAa&in Bl%ne( went on to $eco&e one o" the "o#nding "athers o" 4!ring .reek >Lewistown?( -ontana. -ichel Jr. &arried -adeleine Bea#che&in( >-etis( $. 1I20? on Jan#ar% 9( 1I<I at 4t. 5rancois Xavier. 4he was the da#ghter Andre -illet dit Bea#che&in( >$.1EEI? and .harlotte /elletier >-etis( $.1EIC?. A h#nting "a&il%( the% had thirteen children and the% lived vario#sl% at 4t. 5rancois Xavier( /oint 3o#glas( 4t. Jose!h and( 3evil;s Lake. Their son( BenAa&in Bl%ne >$. 1I4E? was one o" the "o#nders o" the -etis co&&#nit% o" 4!ring .reek( -ontana now Lewistown. -ichel died in 1IEC at :ood -o#ntain( 4askatchewan. -ichel;s sister( Jane Bl%ne@-c3onald >$. 1I0I? was &arried to Archi$ald -c3onald a chie" "actor o" the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an%. 1is $rother 0eorge Bl%ne >$. 1I2I? $eca&e an -LA "or 4te. Agathe +iding in -anito$a >1IE1@1IE4?. ,n 1IIC( when -adeleine( his wi"e a!!lied "or -ichel;s -etis 4cri! she states: The late -ichel Bl%ne( was a 1al"$reed head o" a "a&il%( and resided in the orth@ :est Territories !revio#s to the 1Cth J#l% 1IE0. The said late -ichel Bl%ne was te&!oraril% a$sent "ro& the Territories in 1IE0( $#t ret#rned to the Territories and took #! his !er&anent do&icile at 5ort 9#;A!!elle in the 5all 1IE1. The said -ichel Bl%ne was the son o" a :hite &an $% the sa&e na&e and o" an ,ndian wo&an K he was $orn at Ed&onton K in 1I11. The said -ichel Bl%ne died at 5ort 9#;A!!elle on the 9 th 3ece&$er 1IEC and , !rod#ce his $#rial certi"icate. Besides his widow he le"t the "ollowing children: 1. Andre Bl%ne( aged 44 %ears( living at "ort 9#;A!!elle. 2. -ichel Bl%ne( 4< %ears( at !resent a$sent 5ort 9#;A!!elle $#t do&iciled here.
1<I

-ichel Bl%ne 4r. entered the e&!lo%&ent o" the orth :est .o&!an% in the late 1E90s as a "#r trader A"ter the 1I21 &erger o" the :. and the 1B.( he was !#t in charge o" Jas!er 1o#se. 1e served as !ost&aster "or 11 %ears( "ro& 1I24 to 1I<C. Al$erta;s .line +iver and -o#nt .line were na&ed in his honor.

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<. 4. C. D. E. I. 9. 10. +eading List: Books

-arie Bl%ne( wi"e o" Jose!h Bellegarde( o" 5ile 1ills( aged 41. 0#illa#&e Bl%ne( aged <9 %ears( a resident o" :ood -o#ntain. Elise Bl%ne( wi"e o" Tho&as Bavanagh o" 5ort 9#;A!!elle( aged <E %ears. BenAa&in Bl%ne( <C %ears( o" -ilk +iver. Theo!hile Bl%ne( << %ears( o" 5ort 9#;A!!elle. 8eroni)#e Bl%ne( <1 %ears( wi"e o" Tho&as Bell%( o" 5ort 9#;A!!elle. -adeleine Bl%ne( aged 29 %ears( wi"e o" Tho&as 3esAarlais( o" 5ort 9#;A!!elle. a!oleon Bl%ne( 21 %ears( o" 5ort 9#;A!!elle.

1eather 3evine( ed. Everett 4oo!: Jo#rnalist( .artoonist( Activist >eGhi$ition catalog#e?. .algar%: The ickle Arts -#se#&( 200E. 1eather 3evine. The /eo!le :ho Jwn The&selves: A$original Ethnogenesis in a . anadian Family2 ##& !&&. .algar%: Lniversit% o" .algar% /ress( 2004.1<9 .ha!ters in Books: 1eather 3evine O/roso!ogra!hical A!!roaches in .anadian ative 1istor%O.B.4.B. Beats@ +ohan( ed. /roso!ogra!h% A!!roaches and A!!lications: A 1and$ook. /roso!ogra!hica et 0enealogica @ Jccasional /#$lication( vol. 1<. Linacre .ollege( JG"ord: Lnit "or /roso!ogra!hical +esearch( 200E( <D1@<ID. 1eather 3evine. OThe 1istorical .onteGt o" Everett 4oo!Us :ork.O ,n 1eather 3evine( ed. Everett 4oo!: Jo#rnalist( .artoonist( Activist >eGhi$ition catalog#e?. .algar%: The ickle Arts -#se#&( 200E:<I@D1. 1eather 3evine. O ew Light on the /lains -Vtis: The B#""alo 1#nters o" /e&$ inah( 1IE0@E1O. 3avid :. -c a$ and Lte Lischke( eds. The Long Jo#rne% o" a 5orgotten /eo!le: -Vtis ,dentities and 5a&il% 1istories. :aterloo( Jntario: :il"red La#rier Lniversit% /ress( 200E: 19E@21I. 1eather 3evine. OUEcono&% -#st ow Be the Jrder o" the 3a%U: 0eorge 4i&!son and the +eorgani*ation o" the 5#r Trade to 1I2DO. 3on :etherell( .atherine .avana#gh( and -ichael /a%ne( eds. Al$erta 5or&ed @ Al$erta Trans"or&ed >Al$erta .entennial 1istor% antholog%?. Ed&onton: Al$erta 200C .entennial 1istor% 4ociet%( 200D: 1D1@1EI. 1eather 3evine. OLes 3esAarlais: The 3evelo!&ent and 3is!ersion o" a /roto@-Vtis 1#nting BandO. ,n Ted Binne&a( 0erhard Ens( and +od -acleod( eds. 5ro& +#!ertUs Land to .anada: Essa%s in 1ono#r o" John E. 5oster. Ed&onton: Lniversit% o" Al$erta /ress( 2001: 129@1CI. 1eather 3evine. OArchaeolog% in 4ocial 4t#dies: An ,ntegrated A!!roachO >re!rint?. ,n +oland .ase and /enne% .lark( eds. The .anadian Antholog% o" 4ocial 4t#dies: ,ss#es and 4trategies "or Teachers >8anco#ver: /aci"ic Ed#cational /ress( 1999?: C9@DC. Jriginal article !#$lished in The 1istor% and 4ocial 4cience Teacher 8ol. 24( o. < >4!ring 19I9?: 140@14E.

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This $ook was awarded a 1arold Ada&s ,nnis /ri*e @ .anadian 5ederation "or the 1#&anities and 4ocial 4ciences "or $est English@Lang#age $ook in the 4ocial 4ciences( >2004@0C?.

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1eather 3evine. OArchaeolog% in 4ocial 4t#dies: An ,ntegrated A!!roachO >re!rint?. ,n B.L. 5eder( ed.Lessons 5ro& the /ast: An ,ntrod#ctor% +eader ,n Archaeolog%. -o#ntain 8iew( .ali"ornia: -a%"ield /#$lications( 1999: 11< @ 11I. Jriginal article !#$lished in The 1istor% and 4ocial +cience Teacher 8ol. 24( o. < >4!ring 19I9?: 140@14E. 1eather 3evine. OA&$ition 8ers#s Lo%alt%: -iles -acdonell and the 3ecline o" the orth :est .o&!an%O. ,n Jo@Anne 5iske( 4#san 4lee!er 4&ith and :illia& :icken( eds. ew 5aces o" the 5#r Trade @ 4elected /a!ers o" the 4eventh orth A&erican 5#r Trade .on"erence@1ali"aG( ova 4cotia( 199C. East Lansing( -ichigan: -ichigan 4tate Lniversit% /ress( 199I: 24E@2I1. 1eather 3evine. OArchaeolog%( /rehistor%( and the ative Learning +eso#rces /roAect.O /eter 4tone and Brian -ol%nea#G( eds. The /resented /ast: 1eritage( -#se#&s and Ed#cation. Jne :orld Archaeolog% 4eries. London: +o#tledge Ltd. 1994: 4EI@494. 1eather 3evine. O+oots in the -ohawk 8alle%: 4ir :illia& JohnsonUs Legac% in the orth :est .o&!an%O. Jenni"er 4.1. Brown( :illia& J. Eccles( and 3onald /. 1eld&an( eds.The 5#r Trade +evisited: 4elected /a!ers o" the 4iGth orth A&erican 5#r Trade .on"erence. East Lansing( -ichigan: -ichigan 4tate Lniversit% /ress( 1994: 21E@242. 1eather 3evine. OArchaeolog% in the Al$erta .#rric#l#&: An Jverview.O /. 4tone and +. -acBen*ie( eds.The EGcl#ded /ast: Archaeolog% in Ed#cation. Jne :orld Archaeolog% 4eries. London: Lnwin 1%&an Ltd. 1990: 190@200.

4live 5. 9ickason2 C.82 5h.9.2 9. *itt. >1920@2011?
Jlive 3ickason is a renowned historian( Ao#rnalist( a#thor( teacher and &entor. 4he was an acco&!lished Ao#rnalist who won n#&ero#s writing awards at the 0lobe and Mail( the retired Lniversit% o" Al$erta histor% !ro"essor ca&e to acade&ia late in li"e. Jlive was $orn in :inni!eg( -anito$a to an English "ather( 5rank :illia&son( and -etis &other( /hoe$e /hilo&ena .ote( who traced her roots to the $#""alo h#nters o" the 3akotas. 3ickason took her high school $% corres!ondence( $eca#se the "a&il% was then living north o" :inni!eg. 4he then st#died at otre 3a&e .ollege at :ilcoG( 4askatchewan co&!leting her B.A. in 194<. 4he then worked "or three decades as a Ao#rnalist "or a n#&$er o" !a!ers incl#ding the ,e"ina Leade (ost( the Winnipe" ' ee ( ess( the Mont eal 0a2ette and the Toronto 0lobe and Mail. 3ickason was dis&a%ed $% what she "o#nd when delving into .anada;s !ast. :hile there was !lent% written a$o#t .anadian !oliticians( hardl% an A$original "ace or voice was to $e "o#nd in the historical record. At the age o" C0 and with her children nearl% grown( Jlive ret#rned to the acade&ic "ield to st#d% the histor% o" the relations $etween 5rench settlers and A$original !eo!le. 4he received her -A in .anadian 1istor% "ro& the Lniversit% o" Jttawa in 19E2 and /h3 in 19EE. 1er dissertation( 6The -%th o" the 4avage and the Beginning o" 5rench .olonialis& in the A&ericas7 was s#$se)#entl% !#$lished $% the Lniversit% o" Al$erta /ress. 4he s#$se)#entl% !rod#ced the !rodigio#s( Canada;s 'i st Nations# & *isto ! of 'oundin" (eoples . This $ook went to its "orth edition in 2009. 5or her work in .anadian historiogra!h% she has $een awarded the -acdonald /ri*e. 4he is a reci!ient o" a Li"eti&e Achieve&ent Award $estowed $% the ational A$original Achieve&ent 5o#ndation in 199E( and a &e&$er o" the Jrder o" .anada. :hile teaching at the Lniversit% o" Al$erta she was a &e&$er o" the -etis ation o" Al$erta and the :o&en o" the -etis ation o" Al$erta. 3r. 3ickason was also awarded the title o" /ro"essor E&erit#s at the Lniversit% o" Al$erta. 3ickason "iled s#it against the Lniversit% o"

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Al$erta( clai&ing its &andator% retire&ent !olic% was a violation o" the .anadian .harter o" +ights and 5reedo&s. 3ickason won her case in the lower co#rts $#t lost in a C@4 s!lit at the 4#!re&e .o#rt o" .anada. ,n( addition( she has served on the -Vtis ation o" Jntario .#lt#ral .o&&ission. >:ritten with the assistance o" notes !re!ared $% the A$original Achieve&ent 5o#ndation.?

,li>abeth Cunningham 9ion.
The Eli*a$eth -etis 4ettle&ent in Al$erta is na&ed a"ter Eli*a$eth 3ion( the wi"e o" "a&o#s -etis leader( Joe 3ion. Eli*a$eth .#nningha& and Joe 3ion were &arried in 1912. The% had "o#r da#ghters( two o" who died at an earl% age. Three %ears a"ter their &arriage the% &oved to Behiwin +eserve where Joe ta#ght school "or 24 %ears. :hen he $eca&e !oliticall% active Eli*a$eth assisted in an% wa% she co#ld. 4he s#""ered greatl% $eca#se her h#s$and was awa% "ro& ho&e so &#ch leaving her with the res!onsi$ilit% o" raising the children and looking a"ter their livestock. 4he #sed to sell crea& to hel! !a% "or her h#s$and;s travelling eG!enses.

*eah 8arie 9orion. >$. 19E0?
Leah was $orn at i!awin and grew #! in /rince Al$ert( 4askatchewan. 4he is the da#ghter o" Lo#is and +o$erta 3orion= a -etis "a&il% with roots in .#&$erland 1o#se( 4askatchewan. Leah entered co&!etitive swi&&ing with the /rince Al$ert Lions 4wi& .l#$ as a %o#ng girl. Between ages 10 and 1< she won n#&ero#s !rovincial cha&!ionshi!s in the 100 and I00 &etre "reest%le and the 100@&etre $reaststroke. 4wi&&ing allowed Leah to travel all across .anada and &eet other %o#th. ,n 19ID( while she was !la%ing volle%$all at .arlton .o&!rehensive 1igh 4chool in /rince Al$ert( her coaches enco#raged her to tr% o#t "or the 4askatchewan :o&en;s /rovincial Tea&. 4he &ade this tea& and s#$se)#entl% !la%ed "or the& "ro& 19ID to 19I9. ,n 19I9 the /rovincial tea& traveled to E#ro!e "or the :orld J#nior 8olle%$all .ha&!ionshi!s. The 4askatchewan tea& won the silver &edal( !lacing second to gold &edalist 0reece. ,n the sa&e %ear the tea& !ro#dl% won the gold &edal "or 4askatchewan in the Je#G .anada 0a&es. 5ro& 19I9 to 1994( Leah 3orion !la%ed "or the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan 1#skies :o&en;s 8olle%$all Tea&. ,n the 1990@1991 season the tea& won the silver &edal in the .,AL ational 8olle%$all .ha&!ionshi!s. ,n 199<( Leah !la%ed volle%$all in the orth A&erican ,ndigeno#s 0a&es held at /rince Al$ert. This tea& won a gold &edal "or 4askatchewan. 6,t "elt wonder"#l to have s!orts co&!etitions at an international level availa$le "or A$original athletes(7 she sa%s. This tea& also won gold in the neGt two orth A&erican ,ndigeno#s 0a&es. 4he notes that s!ort has enco#raged her to $e the $est !erson she co#ld $e in all areas o" her li"e. 4he again !la%ed "or the 4askatchewan 4enior :o&en;s 8olle%$all tea& in the 2002 orth A&erican ,ndigeno#s 0a&es held at :inni!eg( the% were silver &edalists( the tea& then retired "ro& active co&!etition.. 4he $elieves that her !artici!ation in s!ort has hel!ed her to lead a !ositive( health% li"est%le. ,n recognition o" this she was chosen as one o" 4askatchewan;s A$original Ho#th +ole -odels. ,t has also ta#ght her a$o#t goal setting( deter&ination and co&&it&ent. Leah is also ver% connected to the Elders o" the -etis co&&#nit% and never &isses an o!!ort#nit% to interact and learn "ro& the&. Leah co&!leted her grade twelve at .arlton 1igh 4chool in 19I9 and then attended the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan where she was awarded a Bachelor o" Ed#cation 3egree in 1994 and

ID

a Bachelor o" Arts 1ono#rs 3egree in ative 4t#dies in 1999. -ore recentl% she co&!leted her -aster o" Arts >,ntegrated 4t#dies? at Atha$asca Lniversit%. 140 Leah 3orion was .#rric#l#& and /#$lishing .oordinator "or the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te. 4he has ta#ght ative 4t#dies at the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan( 4t. -ichael;s .ollege >3#ck Lake?( 4t. /eter;s .ollege >-#enster? and at the 4askatchewan ,ndian 5ederated .ollege. 4he has also !artici!ated as a coach "or the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan 1#skies :o&en;s 8olle%$all Tea&( and has $een a 8olle%$all .a&! !rogra& develo!er in co&&#nities s#ch as 4t#rgeon Lake +eserve and La Loche.

Leah 3orion and Lawrie Barkwell at Batoche ove&$er 2009 /hoto $% Lo#ison 3orion.

,n 199<( Leah worked with /ro"essor 5rank To#gh to research and write( SThe claims of the *alf-b eeds ha$e finall! been closedT# & Stud! of T eat! Ten and T eat! 'i$e &dhesion Sc ip ( a research re!ort co&&issioned $% the +o%al .o&&ission on A$original /eo!les. Leah has edited or co@edited several $ooks and contri$#ted articles to other !#$lications. 4he was co@editor and contri$#ted a cha!ter to ,esou ces fo Métis ,esea che s >1999? and has si&ilarl% !artici!ated in the $ook Metis Le"ac!( a -illenni#& /roAect o" the Lo#is +iel and 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#tes. This $ook won the Saskatche%an .ook &%a d fo (ublishin" in Education. /e&&ican /#$lications ,nc. !#$lished Leah;s children;s $ook( The Sno% Tunnel Siste s. 1er &other( +o$erta( ill#strated this $ook. ,n 2000( 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te;s interactive .3@+J- The Metis# +u (eople +u Sto ! was released= Leah was one o" the three !eo!le working on co&!iling this &aAor ed#cational reso#rce "or -etis st#dies. :hile working "or 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te in 4askatoon she has !rod#ced several videos on -etis c#lt#re and histor% "or eGa&!le=
140

1er thesis is entitled 6J!ikinawasowin: The Li"elong /rocess o" 0rowing .ree and -etis .hildren7 >4e!te&$er <0( 2010?.

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John & cand and *is Métis 'iddle >2001?( The Sto ! of the C escent Lake Metis# +u Life on the ,oad &llo%ance >2002?( and ,icha d Laffe t!# The Muske" 'iddle >2002?. 4he has worked "or the ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation and has ta#ght -etis .#lt#re and 1istor% at the 5irst ations Lniversit%( 4askatoon .a&!#s( $e"ore ret#rning to teach at the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 4L TE/ !rogra& at /rince Al$ert( 4askatchewan. 4he also acted as an editor and !hotogra!her "or Metis Le"ac!/ )olume --# Michif Cultu e/ *e ita"e and 'olklo e >4askatoon: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 200E?. 4he also co@a#thored a n#&$er o" the cha!ters. Metis Le"ac! -- was short@listed "or the Ma "a et McWilliams &%a d "or writing in histor%. +ecentl% she has written and ill#strated another children;s $ook The 0i$in" T ee >4askatoon: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 2009?. This $ook was no&inated "or the 2010( :illow Awards in the 4hining :illow categor%. 1er &ost recent $ook ,elati$es With ,oots# & Sto ! &bout Métis Women;s Connection to the Land >-ichi" translation $% +ita 5la&and >4askatoon: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 2011? has $een shortlisted "or the 2012 *i"h (lains .ook &%a ds in the Art and /hotogra!h% categor%. Leah is an e&erging -etis artist= her art is availa$le thro#gh the 5eather .hild A$original Art 0aller% in +egina. 1er art is featured on three healthy (arenting

(osters for the )abano *entre for Aboriginal +ealth in ,ttawa. -hrough the assistance o" the 4askatchewan Arts Board( ,ndigeno#s /athwa%s
,nitiative( Leah is also develo!ing an art show to hono#r 0rand&other T#rtle. As !art o" this art show Leah will $e $#ilding a giant t#rtle rock e""ig% on her land.
,efe ence www.leahdorion.co&

8arie de la -owa 9orion. >1EID@1IC<?
B% Leah 3orion -arie de la ,owa &arried( according to the c#sto& o" the co#ntr%( /ierre 3orion Jr. -arie was acknowledged $% so&e a#thors as $eing o" hal" ,owa ,ndian and hal" 5rench@.anadian >4hirle%( 199C?. The !ractice o" -Vtissage was $eco&ing an eGce!ted &arriage !ractice $% the 3orion "a&il% in the 4t. Lo#is area. -arie and /ierre Jr. had three children together( Jean Ba!tiste( -argaret and /a#l. As was the local c#sto& this &arriage sec#red !eace( di!lo&atic relations and trade with the ,owa ,ndians. 3#ring 1I11@12 -arie acco&!anied her h#s$and on the Astoria eG!edition overland "ro& 4t. Lo#is to the &o#th o" the .ol#&$ia +iver. 4he walked &ost o" the wa% while !regnant and with two %o#ng children. 4he gave $irth on the trail $#t the child did not s#rvive. Th#s -ada&e -arie 3orion is known as the 6-adonna o" the Jregon Trail.7 Jn Jan#ar% 1I14( -arie was at a /aci"ic 5#r .o&!an% /ost when she received word that a $and o" Bannock ,ndians was heading "or her h#s$and;s ca&! with &#rdero#s intentions. 4he $#ndled #! her %o#ng sons >Jean Ba!tiste and /a#l? and set o#t to warn the &en. The tri! took three da%s on horse$ack. As she a!!roached the ca&!( a &an na&ed Le.lerc( a!!eared( he was wo#nded and indicated that his co&!anions had $een killed. -arie ca!t#red two horses that had $een le"t loose( hoisted Le.lerc on one horse and with her sons on the other( headed $ack to the !ost >near what is now .aldwell( ,daho?. Le.lerc died that night "ro& loss o" $lood. Jn ret#rning to the !ost she "o#nd that the tra!!ers there had $een &#rdered as well. 4he collected so&e "ood and headed o#t to what is now Jregon. B% the ti&e she reached the Bl#e -o#ntains in northeastern Jregon one o" her horses had given o#t. 4he decided to wait o#t the winter there. 4he sla#ghtered the horses and s&oked the &eat( $#ilt a shelter o" the horse hides and cedar and

II

grass and waited o#t the re&aining two &onths o" winter. ,n -arch she contin#ed on with her children $#t was ca#ght in a $li**ard "or three da%s. A"ter 1C da%s the% reached the !lains $#t their "ood was gone. 5ort#natel% the% were near a ca&! o" "riendl% :alla :allas enca&!ed on the .ol#&$ia +iver. 4hortl% therea"ter a /aci"ic 5#r .o&!an% search !art% "o#nd the&. ,n 1I1I( -arie re&arried to Lo#is Jose!h 8anier. The co#!le had a da#ghter( -arg#erite. ,ndians also killed 8anier. -arie &arried "or the third ti&e in 1I24 to Jean Ba!tiste To#!in a -etis who was an inter!reter "or the 1B. at 5ort e* /erce. The "a&il% &oved to the :illa&ette 8alle% in the 1I40s. The% had two children( 5rancis and -arie Anne. -arie lived o#t the rest o" her li"e at 5rench /rairie near !resent da% 4ale&( she died on 4e!te&$er C( 1IC0. 1er !ro&inent role in Jregon histor% is re"lected $% the "act that she was alwa%s addressed $% the honori"ic( -ada&e. 4o&e called her 6-ada&e ,owa7 a"ter her &other;s tri$e. 4he was $#ried 6#nder the stee!le7 o" the 4t. Lo#is .atholic .h#rch.
,efe ence +oss( AleGander. &d$entu es of the 'i st Settle s on the + e"on o Columbia ,i$e / .ein" the Na ati$e of the E1pedition fitted b! John Jacob &sto to Establish the (acific 'u Compan! \. London: 4&ith@ Elder( 1I49.

Amelia Connolly 9ouglas. >1I12@1I90?
B% Todd La&irande141 Lad% A&elia .onnoll% 3o#glas( a +ed +iver -etis( was the wi"e o" Ja&es 3o#glas the 0overnor o" 8anco#ver ,sland and the British colon% o" British .ol#&$ia. A&elia .onnoll%;s "ather was 1C %ears old when he entered the service o" the orth :est .o&!an% and was still ver% %o#ng when he &et and &arried( N la "aWon d# !a%s( a .ree wo&an( known as 4#*anne 6/as de no&.7 d#ring the winter o" 1I0<@4 at +at +iver 1o#se. The% had siG children( with A&elia( the eldest da#ghter( $eing $orn in 1I12( either a "ew &iles "ro& 5ort .h#rchill 142 or 6!ossi$l%7 at 5ort Assini$oia.14< 4he went on to &arr% Ja&es 3o#glas the "o#nding "ather o" British .ol#&$ia and was re&e&$ered as Lad% 3o#glas "or decades a"ter her death. A&elia .onnoll%( like so &an% other wo&en o" her era( co#ld have lived her li"e in relative o$sc#rit%( living and d%ing a&ongst other 1al"@Breeds in the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent. 4he no do#$t wo#ld have $een ha!!% to live and sociali*e in a societ% where the &aAorit% o" the residents were &iGed@$loods s#ch as hersel". Altho#gh( like &an% o" her conte&!oraries( she &arried a 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% "#r trader( #nlike the& she ha!!ened to wed Ja&es 3o#glas. 1is re&arka$le career wo#ld take the& to orth A&erica;s west coast( where the% wo#ld s!end the &aAorit% o" their lives( and where 3o#glas wo#ld rise "ro& lowl% clerk to the "ather o" a !rovince. Event#all% her h#s$and;s knighthood wo#ld $estow on A&elia the title o" Lad% 3o#glas( which is how she was re&e&$ered "or decades a"ter her death. 1owever( the s!otlight that shone on her $eca#se o" her h#s$and;s !ro"essional s#ccess o"ten $#rned too $rightl% "or the sh% and reserved wo&an.

141

Todd is a long@ti&e Ao#rnalist with the &bo i"inal (eople;s Tele$ision Net%o k and a "or&er .o&&#nications 3irector with the -anito$a -etis 5ederation. Todd is the anchor "or APTN National News 3a!time5 1e contri$#ted the cha!ter 6+esistance Activist El*Var 0o#let7 to Metis Le"ac!# & Metis *isto io" aph! and &nnotated .iblio" aph! >L. J. Barkwell( L. -. 3orion and 3. +. /rV"ontaine REds.S. :inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications and Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te( 2001: E9@92. 142 . de Bertrand L#grin( The (ionee Women of )ancou$e -sland/ 6AFU-6ABB >8ictoria( 192I?( 10. 14< -arion B. 4&ith( 6The Lad% o$od% Bnows(7 . itish Columbia# & Centennial &ntholo"!( +eginald E%re :atters( ed.( >Toronto( 19CI?( 4E<.

I9

5or so&eone who s!oke English with di""ic#lt% all her li"e and who never "orgot her ,ndian heritage( li"e s#rro#nded $% British traders and settlers( with their racial $ar$s( &#st have $een h#rt"#l and di""ic#lt at ti&es. 3es!ite the denigration &an% !eo!le &ade o" her &iGed@$lood ancestr%( Ja&es 3o#glas re&ained "aith"#l to her( whereas A&elia;s own "ather event#all% 6t#rned@o""7 her &other to &arr% a white wo&an. ,n "act( 3o#glas; a""ection "or her was i&&ortali*ed in a sentence( !art o" which( historian 4%lvia 8an Birk ado!ted "or the title "or her $ook. 6To an% other $eing less )#ali"ied the va!id &onoton% o" an inland trading /ost( wo#ld $e !er"ectl% #ns#""era$le >sic?( while ha$it &akes it "a&iliar to #s( so"tened as it is $% the &an% tender ties( which "ind a wa% to the heart(7 he wrote. 144 A&elia .onnoll%;s $irth!lace and her earl% %ears are di""ic#lt to even conAect#re a$o#t $eca#se her "ather( :illia&( worked "or the orth :est .o&!an%. Lnlike the 1B. the :.;s Ao#rnals and records have not s#rvived. :e do know that :illia& .onnoll% was $orn in Lachine( near -ontreal( in 1EID to ,rish !arents. The &en at one o" the "orts where the "a&il% resided nickna&ed A&elia 6Little 4now$ird7 $eca#se o" her "air co&!leGion. 61er hair was dark( her e%es were gra%. -% &other was a ver% $ea#ti"#l girl( so also was her sister J#lia(7 recalled one o" A&elia;s da#ghters. 14C Jne o" A&elia;s other sisters died when she was onl% three %ears old. 3isliking having to wear the war& woolen d#""els( she $egged to !#t on a "li&s%( !ink( cotton "rock sent "ro& London( $#t while she danced !ast the "ire!lace( the "la&&a$le &aterial ca#ght on "ire. 14D The other &aAor event in her li"e was when the 5ranklin eG!edition ca&e to the "ort she was c#rrentl% living at when she was a$o#t seven %ears old. 1aving $een &ade a "#ll !artner o" the :. in 1I1I( :illia& .onnoll% was in charge o" .#&$erland 1o#se'not to $e con"#sed with the near$% 1B. !ost o" the sa&e na&e'when John 5ranklin;s "irst eG!edition arrived late in 1I19. Beca#se 5ranklin needed the hel! o" $oth co&!anies in !rovisioning his overland Ao#rne%( he showed no "avo#ritis& $% wintering in a ca&! set #! $etween the rival !osts. evertheless( 5ranklin;s !art% s!ent ew Hear;s $% dining with -r. .onnoll%. 6R:eS were regaled with a $eaver( which we "o#nd eGtre&el% delicate. ,n the evening his &en were entertained with a dance( in which the .anadians eGhi$ited so&e grace and &#ch agilit%= and the% contrived to in"#se so&e !ortion o" their activit% and s!irits into the ste!s o" their "e&ale co&!anions(7 wrote 5ranklin. 14E A&elia re&e&$ered how one o" the eG!edition;s %o#ng artists( Lie#tenant 0eorge Back( !la%ed with her and J#lia and &ade the& !ose "or hi&. 14I The eG!edition;s co&&ander also &ade o$servations a$o#t the $ois@$r#lVs children o" .#&$erland 1o#se. 5ranklin re&arked that their ed#cation was lacking( $eing le"t to ,ndian relations( and that the girls( even tho#gh ta#ght a E#ro!ean lang#age( #nder their ,ndian in"l#ence 6ver% earl% give #! all !retensions to chastit%.7 149 1is ethnocentric co&&ents were directed &ore at the children o" the 5rench .anadians who &ade #! the $#lk o"
144

0. /. de T. 0la*e$rook( ed.( The *a " a$e Co espondence/ 6A76-6AFU >Toronto( 19<I?( Ja&es 3o#glas to Ja&es 1argrave( -arch 24( 1I42( <I1. 14C :alter . 4age( Si James 3ou"las and . itish Columbia >Toronto( 19<0?( 4C. 14D L#grin( 11. . de Bertrand L#grin;s in"or&ation a$o#t A&elia 3o#glas; li"e ca&e &ostl% "ro& the letters and recollections o" A&elia;s da#ghter( -artha 3o#glas 1arris. 14E John 5ranklin( Na ati$e of a Jou ne! to the Sho es of the (ola Sea/ in the 8ea s 6A6>/ 7G/ 76/ and 77 >London( 1I2<?( C<. 14I L#grin( 12. The other artist on the eG!edition( +o$ert 1ood( &ade a !ainting o" three bois-b ulés children( two o" the& were girls( $#t the% were onl% identi"ied $% .ree na&es. ,t was !ossi$le that these were also A&elia( J#lia and one o" their $rothers. 149 5ranklin( IC.

90

the la$o#rers. 1e "#rther noted that these girls were o"ten $rides at the age o" twelve and &others at "o#rteen.1C0 A&elia( !erha!s $eca#se she was the da#ghter o" a chie" "actor and not a .anadian( esca!ed this scenario and did not &arr% #ntil the relativel% ri!e age o" siGteen. A"ter the a&alga&ation o" the two rival co&!anies in 1I21( .onnoll% $eca&e a chie" trader "or the 1.B.. and a chie" "actor in 1I2C. A %ear earlier he had $een !#t in charge o" the ew .aledonia district( with its head)#arters at 5ort 4t. Ja&es on 4t#art Lake in northern British .ol#&$ia. 1e had crossed the +ock% -o#ntains with his "a&il%( s#!!lies and 24 &en $ro#ght "ro& orwa% 1o#se. B% 1I2I( the siGteen %ear@old A&elia( who was descri$ed so&ewhat ro&anticall% as 6sh%( sweet and ]&odest as a wood violet(;7 1C1 &arried Ja&es 3o#glas on A!ril 2Eth o" that %ear. 1e was nine %ears older than A&elia( and had co&e to know her over a relativel% long !eriod o" ti&e( arriving at 5ort 4t. Ja&es two %ears $e"ore their &arriage. The date and !lace o" 3o#glas; $irth are not known !recisel%. 1is "ather John 3o#glas had interests in a s#gar !lantation in British 0#iana( where Ja&es was likel% $orn in 1I0<. 1is &other;s na&e is #nknown( $#t she was $elieved to $e a .reole wo&an. :hether this &eant she was a native or was si&!l% $orn in a tro!ical !lace is also #nknown( altho#gh Ja&es was known in "#r@trading circles as a 64cotch :est ,ndian7 1C2 and a 6&#latto.71C< ,t wo#ld see& his "ather also &arried a local wo&an V la faWon du pa!s $eca#se he "athered three children $etween 1I01 or 1I02 to 1I12( two sons and a da#ghter. 1e also showed eno#gh interest in these children to send Ja&es and his $rother to a !re!arator% school in Lanark( 4cotland. J#st like :illia& .onnoll%( 3o#glas was ver% %o#ng when he entered the service o" the orth :est .o&!an%. :hen he was siGteen he sailed "ro& Liver!ool on -a% E( 1I19 and $egan his "#r@trading career a "ew &onths later at 5ort :illia&. ,n 1I20 he was trans"erred to ,le@N@la@.rosse( where he "o#ght a d#el with an 1B. e&!lo%ee( giving credence to 0overnor 0eorge 4i&!son;s later assess&ent that 3o#glas was 6"#rio#sl% violent when ro#sed.7 1C4 3es!ite the a&alga&ation o" the two rival co&!anies in 1I21( he was still !osted there "o#r %ears later. Earl% in his career( and )#ite !ossi$l% while at ,le@N@la@.rosse( 3o#glas wrote an eG!osition on the orth A&erican ,ndian( o" which a !ortion reads: The orth A&erican ,ndians( like all other $ar$aro#s nations( !ro"ess a $od% o" traditionar% >sic? histor%( or !erha!s( &ore !ro!erl% s!eaking( a !atched &edle% o" a$s#rd "a$les interwoven with real events= so&e o" these traditions , have collected( as the% eGhi$it the #naided workings o" the h#&an &ind( and ill#strate the &oral and social "eelings o" &an in the earliest stage o" savage li"e( when the #nt#tored reason( darkened $% ignorance( is overco&e $% the "ierce i&!#lses o" the !assions( and the &ere ani&al instincts given "or the s#!!ort and !reservation o" li"e hold a$sol#te swa%. 1CC 1is attit#de towards ,ndians was t%!ical o" his ti&e( and one cannot hel! $#t wonder what in"l#ence his new wi"e &a% have had $eca#se his !ers!ective on the& event#all% $eca&e( altho#gh still !aternalistic( &ore tolerant than the &aAorit% o" his conte&!oraries. 1owever( shortl% a"ter his &arriage to A&elia( he nearl% lost his li"e to a gro#! o" .arrier ,ndians.

1C0 1C1

-bid.( ID. +o$ert 1a&ilton .oats and +. E. 0osnell( Si James 3ou"las >Toronto( 190I?( 10<. 1C2 1.B...A.( A.<4P2( 4i&!son;s .haracter Book( Ja&es 3o#glas. 1C< -argaret Arnett -acLeod( ed.( The Lette s of Letitia *a " a$e > ew Hork( 19D9? Rre!rintS( Letitia 1argrave to -rs. 3#gald -acTavish( 3ece&$er 2 to 9( 1I42( 1<2. 1C4 1.B...A.( A.<4P2. 1CC 3o#glas; essa% eGcer!ted in 3erek /ethik( James 3ou"las# Se $ant of T%o Empi es >8anco#ver( 19D9?( 1<@14.

91

The 6Bwah ,ncident7 o" which 3o#glas was a central character has $een told( retold and eGaggerated to s#ch a degree that several di""erent versions now eGist. The events leading #! to it were relativel% straight"orward. The stor% $egan in 1I2< at 5ort 0eorge( a !ost on the con"l#ence o" the 5raser and B#lkle% +ivers( where two .arrier &en killed two 1B. &en while the !ost;s &aster( Ja&es -. Hale( was awa%. Jne o" the .arrier was event#all% "o#nd and !#t to death( whether $% so&e 1B. &en( his own !eo!le or another gro#! o" ,ndians is not known !recisel%( while the other one esca!ed and re&ained a "#gitive "or the neGt "ive %ears. 3o#glas( while his "ather@in@law was a$sent and he was te&!oraril% in charge o" the "ort( see&ingl% "o#nd o#t that the renegade was in the near$% ak;a*dli .arrier village. 63eter&ined that the $lood o" the white &an sho#ld not $e #navenged7 3o#glas !roceeded to the village( acco&!anied $% two &en( 6and eGec#ted A#stice on the &#rderer.7 1CD Another version( co#rtes% o" A. 0. -orice( has the "#gitive( who& -orice wrote as $eing na&ed T*oelhnolle( $eing ca!t#red and $ro#ght $e"ore 3o#glas who had hi& h#ng while declaring( 6the &an he killed was eaten $% the dogs= $% the dogs he &#st $e eaten.71CE 3o#glas never talked &#ch a$o#t this event #ntil "ort%@"ive %ears later when he re&inisced a$o#t his &ore $ra*en( %o#nger sel" in a letter in the 8ictoria 4tandard that was a res!onse to another news!a!er;s !iece on hi&: ,n another col#&n %o# will "ind a letter "ro& the ]Jttawa 5ree /ress(; do read it( and see how it treats &e( the% wish to &ake &e( who a& as %o# know a )#iet old gentle&an eno#gh( a sort o" 3are devil( "earing nothing. Tr#e , sei*ed the ,ndian( a noted &#rderer( as stated( and sec#red hi& a"ter a des!erate str#ggle( $#t , did not shoot hi& with &% own hands= he was a"terwards eGec#ted "or his cri&es. ,t was a des!erate advent#re( which nothing $#t a high sense o" d#t% co#ld have ind#ced &e to #ndertake. 1CI Beca#se the &#rdered .arrier was his distant relation( an enraged .hie" Bwah and a n#&$er o" his &en conse)#entl% stor&ed into the "ort( cornered the %o#ng clerk and was a$o#t to have hi& !#t to death when an individ#al( or individ#als( negotiated with the old chie" and saved 3o#glas; li"e. 4everal di""erent acco#nts descri$ed how 3o#glas act#all% had his li"e s!ared. The &ost ro&antic version( again co#rtes% o" -orice and with shades o" the /ocahontas legend( has the "ort;s inter!reter;s wi"e( anc% Bo#cher( and A&elia 3o#glas screa&ing and cr%ing to Bwah in the ho!es o" s!aring his li"e. The two wo&en ran #!stairs and $egan throwing to$acco( clothing( handkerchie"s and other goods into the asse&$led throng. 6Then Bwah( who never had an% real intention to kill the clerk( signi"ied his acce!tance o" the gi"ts as a co&!ensation "or T*eolhnolle;s death( and $ade his "ollowers )#ietl% ret#rn to their ho&es( as the ]incident was closed;7 wrote -orice.1C9 . de Bertrand L#grin recorded that d#ring the incident A&elia 6was ca#ght $% her long "lowing hair( her head drawn $ack( and her throat $ared to the kni"e7 when her $rother :illia& resc#ed her "ro& death. 1D0 4till another rendition has her other $rother 1enr% saving the da%: -% sister J#lia aged a$o#t twelve %ears got hold o" &% "ather;s sword( which was in the $edroo&. 4he was going into the $ig roo& to slash the ,ndians right and le"t. 5ort#natel% &% -other &et her and asked what she was going to do. 4he re!lied( 60oing to Bill so&e o" the ,ndians(7 $#t &% -other told her to !#t the sword $ack.\ -% "ather had le"t his "ire $ag in the $edroo& with so&e to$acco in it( which , took and went thro#gh the crowd( , &anaged to reach
1CD 1CE

:. 4. :allace( ed.( John McLean;s Notes of a T%ent!-'i$e 8ea s Se $ice in the *udson;s .a! Te ito ! >Toronto( 19<2?( 1D2. A. 0. -orice( The *isto ! of the No the n -nte io of . itish Columbia >Toronto( 1904?( 1<I@9. 1CI :. Ba%e La&$( 6Letters to -artha(7 . itish Columbia *isto ical @ua te l! >194<?( 4<@4. 1C9 -orice( 140. 1D0 L#grin( 14.

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the "irst .hie"( -al de 0orge( and o""ered hi& the to$acco which he acce!ted. 1e took !it% on &e as , was cr%ing( and told his $rother to leave o"". 1e o!ened the gate and ordered the ,ndians to go( and then told his $rother to go also( and in a ver% short ti&e the "ort was clear. 1D1 And still another version is in the .arrier oral tradition and lives on thro#gh one o" Bwah;s descendants( ick /rince( who states that Bwah clearl% entered the "ort to kill 3o#glas. 1owever( two o" Bwah;s grandsons !revented hi& "ro& "ollowing thro#gh on his intention. The% told hi& that it was the d#t% o" the warrior chie" to kill hi&( and i" he did the deed hi&sel"( then his grandsons wo#ld not $e a$le to inherit his title so&eda%. 1D2 o &atter who saved hi&( 3o#glas lived to see the contin#ation o" his career in the 1B.. 3o#glas; !ro"essional li"e had stagnated slightl% in ew .aledonia. Altho#gh he had $een le"t in charge o" the "ort on occasion( his &ain d#t% had $een to look a"ter the "isheries that "ed the "ort. 1e had Ao#rne%ed with his "ather@in@law to 5ort 8anco#ver on the .ol#&$ia +iver. The "ort was an i&!ortant de!ot as all the "#rs on the !aci"ic slo!e were "#nneled thro#gh there. A "ew &onths a"ter the Bwah incident 3o#glas; "ather@in@law s#ggested that he $e trans"erred there. 63o#glas;s li"e is &#ch eG!osed a&ong these .arriers( he wo#ld readil% "ace a h#ndred o" the&( $#t he does not &#ch like the idea o" $eing assassinated( with %o#r !er&ission he &ight neGt %ear $e re&oved to the .ol#&$ia( wherever he &a% $e !laced he can not "ail o" $eing essentiall% #se"#l7 wrote .onnoll% in 5e$r#ar% 1I29. 1D< 3o#glas( however( had to live with the !ossi$ilit% o" $eing &#rdered "or nearl% another %ear $e"ore $eing trans"erred to the .ol#&$ia. -rs. 3o#glas( however( wo#ld not acco&!an% her h#s$and "or several &ore &onths. 4he was d#e to give $irth to the co#!le;s "irst child and co#ld not travel. According to one acco#nt when she did &ake her wa% to 5ort 8anco#ver in the co&!an% o" her "ather( she traveled 6in state.7 A!!arentl%( A&elia Ao#rne%ed so#th 6astride a $ea#ti"#l little horse( whose tra!!ings were $right with colo#red )#ills( $eads and "ringes and little $ells. 4he wore a skirt o" "ine $roadcloth with e&$roidered leggings( and her &occasins were sti"" with the &ost costl% $eads.71D4 This stor% is no do#$t eGaggerated. -rs. 3o#glas was #nlikel% to have !artici!ated in s#ch an ostentatio#s dis!la%( $eca#se she wo#ld have $een &o#rning the recent death o" her "irst child( A&elia. Like Annie Bannat%ne( A&elia 3o#glas wo#ld o#tlive the &aAorit% o" her children. J" her "irst "o#r children( A&elia( AleGander( John and -aria( none o" the& wo#ld live to see their "o#rth $irthda%. Jnl% "o#r o" A&elia;s thirteen children wo#ld event#all% o#tlive her. The other twelve ca&e close to never $eing $orn( $eca#se on the tri! to the .ol#&$ia( A&elia and her horse were ca#ght in the swi"t c#rrent o" the 5raser +iver and she nearl% drowned. A servant in the gro#!( which was acco&!an%ing her and her "ather( &anaged to resc#e $oth the "#t#re Lad% 3o#glas and her horse and lead the& to the o!!osite shore. Tradition has it that once -rs. 3o#glas "inall% arrived in 5ort 8anco#ver her h#s$and was disa!!ointed that his 6Little 4now$ird7 had $eco&e tanned thro#gh her weeks o" travel. 1DC This slight was( nevertheless( nothing co&!ared to the !reA#dice she event#all% enco#ntered while she lived in what is toda% the state o" :ashington. Altho#gh 3o#glas ca&e to 5ort 8anco#ver to A#st $e the !ost;s acco#ntant( he had co&e to the 4hangri@La o" British@held( /aci"ic territor%. A length% descri!tion o" the "ort gives so&e

1D1

1enr% .onnoll% )#oted in 5rieda Esa# Bli!!enstein( 6The .hallenge o" Ja&es 3o#glas and .arrier .hie" Bwah(7 ,eadin" .e!ond Wo ds# Conte1ts fo Nati$e *isto !( eds. Jenni"er 4. 1. Brown and Eli*a$eth 8i$ert( >/eter$oro#gh( Jntario( 199D?( 1<<. 1D2 -bid.( 141. 1D< E. E. +ich( ed.( Simpson;s 6A7A Jou ne! to the Columbia >London( 194E?( :illia& .onnoll% to 0eorge 4i&!son( 5e$r#ar% 2E( 1I29( 24<@4. 1D4 L#grin( 1C. 1DC -bid.( 1D.

9<

colo#r to the !lace A&elia 3o#glas called ho&e( her h#s$and occasionall% le"t on Ao#rne%s along the /aci"ic to cond#ct the .o&!an%;s $#siness( "or nearl% two decades. The "ort was not "or&ida$le in a!!earance. ,t consisted o" a strong stockade a$o#t twent% "eet high( witho#t $astions( e&$racing an area o" two h#ndred and "i"t% $% one h#ndred and "i"t% %ards. :ithin this enclos#re( aro#nd three sides( were ranged the dwellings and o""ices o" the gentle&en in the co&!an%;s service. ,n the centre( "acing the &ain entrance or great gate( was the residence o" 3octor John -cLo#ghlin( the governor $% co#rtes% o" the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% in Jregon( a 5rench .anadian str#ct#re( !ainted white( with !ia**a and "lower $eds in "ront( and gra!e@vines trained along a r#de trellis.\ There were no galleries aro#nd the walls "or sentries( nor loo!holes "or s&all ar&s( no a!!earances( in "act( indicating a dangero#s neigh$o#rhood. ear the centre o" the enclos#re rose the co&!an%;s "lagsta""( and ever%thing a$o#t the !lace was orderl%( neat( and $#siness@like.\ A $ell large eno#gh "or a co#ntr% ch#rch was s#!!orted $% three sto#t !oles a$o#t twent% "eet high( covered with a little !ointed roo" to kee! o"" the rain.\ 4at#rda%;s work ended at "ive in the a"ternoon( at which ti&e the !h%sician o" the esta$lish&ent served to the &en their week;s rations( consisting in winter o" eight gallons o" !otatoes and eight salt sal&on( and in s#&&er o" !ease and tallow= no $read or &eat $eing allowed( eGce!t occasionall%. The ,ndian servants o" the ,ndian wives h#nted and "ished "or additional s#!!lies. 1DD

3a#ghters Agnes( .ecillia and Alice 3o#glas ca. 1ICI

As s#ggested a$ove( -rs. 3o#glas; li"e &#st have $een relativel% !leasant( with servants to hel! with the workload( altho#gh her diet was !ro$a$l% si&ilar to the la$o#ring &en $eca#se rations "or .o&!an% o""icers wo#ld not have $een signi"icantl% $etter. -ost o" the o""icers( incl#ding -cLo#ghlin( had ,ndian or &iGed@$lood wives who lived within the "ort. A&elia wo#ld have had &an% wo&en o" a si&ilar $ackgro#nd with which to sociali*e. -cLo#ghlin;s wi"e( "or eGa&!le( was an JAi$wa% 1al"@Breed( who& he showed great a""ection "or and treated 6in !#$lic and in !rivate\as i" she had $een a da#ghter o" 9#een 8ictoria.7 1DE 4ince their h#s$ands were two o" the ranking &en in 5ort 8anco#ver( it was likel% that -rs. 3o#glas $eca&e a good "riend with -rs. -cLo#ghlin. Like Ja&es and A&elia;s &arriage( the liaisons $etween white &en and ,ndian or &iGed@$lood wo&en at the "ort were all co#ntr% &arriages and had never $een sole&ni*ed in a ch#rch. This state o" a""airs wo#ld ca#se considera$le tro#$le when a clerg%&an "inall% arrived at 5ort 8anco#ver.
1DD 1DE

1. 1. Bancro"t( *isto ! of + e"on >4an 5rancisco( 1I90?( E@I( re!rinted in /ethick( 24@C. 1. 1. Bancro"t( *isto ! of . itish Columbia >4an 5rancisco( 1I90?( <00( re!rinted in /ethick( 2<@4.

94

The +everend 1er$ert Beaver and his wi"e Jane arrived on the .ol#&$ia on 4e!te&$er D( 1I<D. The% ca&e straight "ro& England( and there"ore( the% had no introd#ction to the realities o" a "#r@trading li"e in what was a "ar@"l#ng o#t!ost o" E&!ire. The Beavers e!ito&i*ed !io#s sno$$er% at its worst= rigid( dog&atic and !reA#dicial( the% were #ndo#$tedl% a!!alled at the 64odo& and 0o&orra7 and the &eager living conditions the% wo#ld have to end#re. 6 o legal &arriage( no reg#lar Ba!tis&( no acc#sto&ed rites o" B#rial= &en( "or the &ost !art( not !racticing( and wo&en totall% ignorant( o" the d#ties o" religion. B#t , a& not witho#t reasona$le ho!e( that $% the $lessing o" 0od( this de!lora$le scene o" vice and ignorance will s!eedil% ass#&e a "airer as!ect(7 Beaver wrote in his "irst re!ort to 1B. s#!eriors in London A#st a "ew &onths a"ter his arrival at the !ost. 1DI 1is co&!laints a$o#t the lodging hi& and his wi"e had to inha$it and the lack o" l#G#ries( es!eciall% in the rations( ca#sed -cLo#ghlin to re!l% in his re!ort to London: , intend doing ever% thing to -ake -r. Beaver as co&"orta$le as the .irc#&stances o" the .o#ntr% will Ad&it( and , consider !eo!le >sic? right to satis"% the&selves with s#ch things as the co#ntr% a""ords'and , a& Adverse to the ,ntrod#ction o" an% thing in the co#ntr% which &a% lead to #nnecessar% EG!ense. -r. Beaver;s ho#se is the Best in the 5ort. ," he is Allowed car!ets and i&!orted "#rnit#re'has not ever% 0entle&an in the !lace a +ight to the sa&e ,nd#lgence' his EG!endit#re o" :ine and Brand% is &#ch 0reater than the Allowance and , wrote hi& that we had certain Li&its $e%ond which we co#ld not EGceed. 1D9 As shall $e seen( -cLo#ghlin and Beaver wo#ld never have the !retence o" a cordial relationshi!( $#t 3o#glas and the reverend initiall% cond#cted the&selves in )#ite a "riendl% &anner. ,n "act( 3o#glas allowed Beaver to 6o""iciall%7 &arr% hi& and A&elia on 5e$r#ar% 2I( 1I<E. Beaver was elated at this &ove and wrote to BenAa&in 1arrison'an in"l#ential &e&$er o" the co&&ittee in London res!onsi$le "or the direction o" the 1B. that: 3o#glas( 6residing i&&ediatel% at the 5ort and in a state o" .onc#$inage( last week consented to $e &arried= and , !er"or&ed the cere&on%( , ass#re %o# with heart"elt "eelings o" Ao% at this #neG!ected &ove in the ca#se o" religion.71E0 otwithstanding this a!!arent tri#&!h( the rest o" the !ost;s co#!les did not "eel the need to re&arr% their s!o#ses( altho#gh -cLo#ghlin did consent to a civil cere&on% that 3o#glas !er"or&ed hi&sel". 3o#glas also tried to work with Beaver $% translating the Anglican Lit#rg% into 5rench "or the "ort;s la$o#ring "orce( even tho#gh the &aAorit% o" the& were .atholic. 3o#glas; !atience with the o$stinate clerg%&an did have its li&its( es!eciall% when it ca&e to Beaver;s sectarian views and his o!inion o" the wo&en in the "ort. A %ear and@a@hal" a"ter his arrival( the reverend;s intransigence showed no signs o" dissi!ating. ,n a -arch 19( 1I<I( letter to 1arrison( Beaver gr#&$led a$o#t the $ehavio#r o" the "ort;s chie" trader'3o#glas had since $een !ro&oted( &aking hi& second in co&&and o" the "ort. 6Jne 4#nda%( R3o#glasS( i&&ediatel% a"ter a$senting hi&sel" "ro& o#r -orning 4ervice( at which( with the evening( he is $#t an inconstant attendant( read( altho#gh a /rotestant .o&&#nicant( a +o&an .atholic one to the 5rench&en in their own lang#age(7 wrote Beaver. 1E1 Alwa%s the !edantic *ealot( Beaver wondered i" he co#ld allow 3o#glas $ack into his congregation a"ter this clear la!se o" "aith. ,n the sa&e letter to 1arrison( he revealed how 3o#glas threatened to $#r% an #n$a!ti*ed hal"@$reed girl hi&sel" a"ter Beaver re"#sed to do so. 61e did not do so( $#t he attended the "#neral with .hie" 5actor -cLo#ghlin( who read the
1DI 1D9

Tho&as E. Jessett( ed.( ,epo ts and Lette s of *e be t .ea$e / 6AUB-6AUA >/ortland( Jregon( 19C9?( ove&$er 10( 1I<D( 2. E. E. +ich( ed.( The Lette s of John McLou"hlin/ 'i st Se ies/ 6A7E-6AUA >Toronto( 1941?( ove&$er 1D( 1I<D +e!ort( 1ED. 1E0 Jessett( 1er$ert Beaver to BenAa&in 1arrison( -arch 10( 1I<E( <C. 1E1 -bid.( Beaver to 1arrison( -arch 19( 1I<I( E4.

9C

4ervice o" England. , s#!!ose it was intended to honor her &other( who is de!raved a&ong the de!raved( having lived with several o""icers and others( and $eing a s#s!ected &#rderess o" in"ants in her ca!acit% as &idwi"e(7 he scri$ed. 1E2 As this )#otation s#ggests( Beaver had a ver% ethnocentric o!inion o" the ,ndian and &iGed@$lood wo&en who lived at the "ort that was eGtre&e even "or the ti&e and !lace he lived in. These wo&en( 6tho#gh ver% res!ecta$le wo&en in their wa%s( are little calc#lated to i&!rove the &anners o" societ%( which will , a& decidedl% o" o!inion never ass#&e a higher tone( #ntil &eans $e "o#nd "or the introd#ction o" &arried "e&ales in the several classes o" li"e( and ed#cated accordingl%(7 he said. 1E< Beaver in !artic#lar dwelled on the lack o" &orals these wo&en had with the conco&itant evil in"l#ence it had on their children. 6Besides( it is o" little #se to inc#lcate( $% da%( in the school( lessons o" &oralit%( which are contradicted( in the night( at ho&e( $% dia&etricall% contrar% $ehavio#r(7 he ad&onished. 1E4 1e also $elieved that 6#n&arried7 wo&en sho#ld not live in !#$lic $#ildings( $e given rations( allowed &edical attention or 6recogni*ed as the wives o" the &en( with who& the% are living.7 1EC Altho#gh A&elia 3o#glas a!!eared to $e eGcl#ded "ro& this $listering criticis& $eca#se o" her &arital stat#s( she was alread% dee!l% sensitive a$o#t her native heritage and wo#ld certainl% have $een h#rt $% the sni!ing o" Beaver and his wi"e. Their *eal to $ring the &oralit% o" 0reat Britain to 5ort 8anco#ver had a s!eci"ic target( however( and that was -cLo#ghlin;s wi"e. .riticis& directed in this area wo#ld $e a gross tactical error and event#all% contri$#te to the !re&at#re and hast% de!art#re o" the Beavers. 1er$ert Beaver saved his &ost o#ts!oken vitriol "or 3r. John -cLo#ghlin( who& he $elieved( as the !ost;s &aster sho#ld set an eGa&!le "or the rest o" the &en living in de$a#cher%. 5or Beaver( -rs. -cLo#ghlin was no &ore than a sl#t s!reading the contagion o" i&&oralit% like it was a co&&#nica$le disease= she was a 6notorio#sl% loose character7 who was corr#!ting the "e&ale children o" the "ort. 6:hile , see the ke!t &istress o" the highest !ersonage in %o#r service at this station !#t "orward to associate with( and entertain( res!ecta$le &arried and #n&arried "e&ales "ro& the Lnited 4tates o" A&erica( to the scandal o" religion( to the retarding o" &oralit%( and to the indeli$le disgrace o" all concerned in the transaction(7 he also s!ewed. 1ED Beaver wrote these co&&ents in a re!ort that he ass#&ed wo#ld onl% $e read $% ad&inistrators in London= the% were also written A#st da%s $e"ore -cLo#ghlin was to de!art "or a tri! to England( and Beaver o$vio#sl% did not think the% wo#ld get $ack to hi&. :hen -cLo#ghlin decided to disc#ss the &atter in the &iddle o" the "ort;s gro#nds $% la%ing a $eating on Beaver( he #ndo#$tedl% reali*ed how care"#ll% his corres!ondence was scr#tini*ed $e"ore $eing sent to London. 5ort#natel%( !eo!le intervened $e"ore -cLo#ghlin ad&inistered an% serio#s har&. 1e &a% have warned Beaver to $e on his $est $ehavio#r while -rs. -cLo#ghlin was le"t alone at the "ort. 1owever( the inde"atiga$le Beaver let loose another $arrage while -cLo#ghlin was awa%. 1e !rotested the "act that she contin#ed to live in the chie" "actor;s a!art&ents and again dis!araged her virt#e in his Jcto$er 2( 1I<I( re!ort. This latest attack was too &#ch "or 3o#glas who wrote a $listering re$#ttal to this latest re!ort. 6RBeaverS also #s#r!s a sort o" !rescri!tive right( to li$el( $% his discolo#red state&ents the character o" ever% !erson with who& he associates. The dire"#l !assages designed( as the% re!ort( not to re!rove vice= $#t to $last re!#tations and !roc#re eG!#lsion "ro& the service( are noised a$o#t thro#gho#t the settle&ent( the% $eco&e an #ns#ccess"#l n#isance and highl% !reA#dicial to the service(7 3o#glas wrote in a re!ort on the Beaver a""air.1EE ,t has $een s#ggested that Beaver was so "iGated on this iss#e
1E2 1E<

-bid. -bid.( Beaver to 1arrison( -arch 10( 1I<E( <C. 1E4 -bid.( Beaver;s Third +e!ort( -arch 19( 1I<I( CE. 1EC -bid.( Beaver;s 5i"th +e!ort( Jcto$er 2( 1I<I( 11E@I. 1ED -bid.( -arch 19( 1I<I( CI. 1EE +ich( McLou"hlin Lette s( 1st series( 3o#glas re!ort( Jcto$er 1I( 1I<I( 2DD@E.

9D

$eca#se his wi"e was #nha!!% associating with wo&en who had not $een wed according the rites o" the .h#rch o" England.1EI +everend Beaver soon le"t 5ort 8anco#ver "or England. 1e was de"iant to the end and wo#ld contin#e to wail that -cLo#ghlin was an agent o" !o!er%. 1is desire to see the death o" co#ntr% &arriages and the rise in the virt#o#s dis!ositions e&$odied $% British wo&en was reali*ed $% 3o#glas a "ew %ears a"ter his de!art#re. 6There is a strange revol#tion( in the &anners o" the co#ntr%= ,ndian wives were at one ti&e the vog#e( the 1al"@Breed s#!!lanted these( and now we have the lovel% tender eGotic torn "ro& its !arent $ed( to !ine and lang#ish in the desert(7 re&arked 3o#glas when congrat#lating Ja&es 1argrave on his &arriage to Letitia -cTavish( a white wo&an. 1E9 4till( 3o#glas re&ained devoted to A&elia as his career contin#ed #!wards. ot long a"ter -cLo#ghlin;s ret#rn 3o#glas was !ro&oted to chie" "actor. A week a"ter his arrival -cLo#ghlin wrote his s#!eriors in London to !raise the Ao$ he had done in his a$sence( 6which does the #t&ost credit to -r. 3o#glas.71I0 A %ear later -cLo#ghlin again lavished !raise on 3o#glas( whose 6*eal to !ro&ote the interest o" his e&!lo%ers his assid#o#s a!!lication to $#siness and his st#d% >sic? correct cond#ct have entitled hi& to &% estee& and regard.7 1I1 As the 1I40s $egan( it $eca&e a!!arent to 1B. o""icials that the "lood o" A&erican !ioneers into the Jregon territor% &eant that 5ort 8anco#ver &ight "ind itsel" so#th o" an% !ro!osed $order. As a contingenc% !lan 3o#glas was co&&issioned with the task o" Ao#rne%ing to the so#thern ti! o" 8anco#ver;s ,sland to select a new site "or the /aci"ic head)#arters. ,n 1I42( he sailed there to ins!ect several !otential sites( one o" which was called .a&osack. A %ear later 3o#glas ret#rned to .a&osack and le"t this descri!tion in a letter written to Ja&es 1argrave: 6The !lace itsel" a!!ears a !er"ect ]Eden;( in the &idst o" the drear% wilderness o" the orth west coast( and so di""erent is its general as!ect( "ro& the wooded( r#gged regions aro#nd( that one &ight $e !ardoned "or s#!!osing it had dro!!ed "ro& the clo#ds into its !resent !osition.7 The site also see&ed !er"ect "or "ar&ing( with the soil 6&ore l#G#riant( than in an% other !lace( , have seen in A&erica(7 and as i&!ortant( 6not a &#s)#itoe that !lag#e o" !lag#es did we "eel.71I2 The 3o#glas "a&il% did not trans"er to 5ort 8ictoria #ntil the s!ring o" 1IC0( where $oth o" the& wo#ld s!end the rest o" their da%s'in A&elia;s case( another 40 %ears. B% this ti&e( Ja&es 3o#glas had long since taken over John -cLo#ghlin;s !osition: -cLo#ghlin had retired in 1I4D. A %ear a"ter arriving on 8anco#ver ,sland 3o#glas $eca&e( in addition to his 1B. d#ties( governor o" the "ledgling colon%. This circ#&stance created a con"lict o" interest "or the new governor= his d#t% to !ro&ote coloni*ation was at odds with his role to !ro&ote the $#siness o" "#r trading( $eca#se settlers and "#rs don;t generall% &iG. +everend +o$ert John 4taines( who arrived at 5ort 8ictoria in 1I49 to $eco&e the "ort;s school&aster( !ointed o#t this con"lict( th#s setting #! an antagonis& $etween the two &en that #ndo#$tedl% gave the 3o#glas;s a sense o" dVAN v#( re&inding the& o" the stri"e with +ev. Beaver. 4oon a"ter the arrival o" +ev. 4taines and his wi"e( 3o#glas re!orted that he was 6ha!!% to in"or& %o#( Rthe%S are attentive and give &#ch satis"action as Teachers.71I< 1owever( -rs. 3o#glas did not get along with -rs. 4taines( who& she "o#nd condescending no do#$t $eca#se she looked down her nose at A&elia;s ,ndian heritage. :hether this slight o" his wi"e $egan to alter 3o#glas; o!inion o" 4taines is highl%
1EI 1E9

-arion 4&ith( 4EC. *a " a$e Co espondence( Ja&es 3o#glas to Ja&es 1argrave( 5e$r#ar% 2D( 1I40. 1I0 E. E. +ich( The Lette s of John McLou"hlin/ Second Se ies/ 6AU>-6AFF >Toronto( 194<?( Jcto$er 24( 1I<9( <. 1I1 -bid.( ove&$er 20( 1I40( re!ort( 21@2. 1I2 *a " a$e Co espondence( 3o#glas to 1argrave( 5e$r#ar% C( 1I4<. 1I< 1artwell Bows"ield( ed.( 'o t )icto ia Lette s/ 6AFB-6AE6 >:inni!eg( 19E9?( Ja&es 3o#glas to 0overnor( 3e!#t% 0overnor and .o&&ittee o" the 1onora$le 1.B...( Jcto$er 2E( 1I49( C9.

9E

s!ec#lative( $eca#se he wrote a %ear later to still !raise -rs. 4taines( $#t called her h#s$and 6la*%7 and "#rther noted( 6had , a selection to &ake he is not eGactl% the &an , wo#ld choose= $#t it &#st $e ad&itted we &ight "ind a &an worse )#ali"ied "or the charge o" the school.7 1I4 4taines did not( however( kee! to the shadows o" his classroo&. ,nstead( he signed a !etition that !ointed o#t 3o#glas; con"lict o" interest( and he led o!!osition cries o" ne!otis& when 3o#glas a!!ointed his $rother@in@law( 3avid .a&eron( .hie" J#stice o" the 4#!re&e .o#rt o" .ivil J#stice( when he had no legal training. 4taines was so dissatis"ied with the state o" the colon% that he le"t "or England in 1IC<( $#t he lost his li"e when his $oat( $o#nd "or 4an 5rancisco( sank with ever%one !erishing save "or one &an. Jne wo#ld eG!ect so&e &agnani&it% in light o" this traged%( $#t 3o#glas; ranco#r was s#ch that nine &onths a"ter 4taines; death he wrote that 6-r. 4taines( #n"ort#natel% "or hi&sel"( was a violent !art% &an( and was !r#dent neither in his cond#ct nor associations.71IC 5or A&elia( the 4taines a""air was !ro$a$l% so&ewhat $alanced $% the "act that a"ter living in "#r@trading !osts "or her entire li"e( she "inall% had a ho#se o" her own to live in and a ho#sehold to r#n. The $#ilding o" the 3o#glas ho#se was $eg#n in 1IC1. 4oon a"ter arriving in 5ort 8ictoria( 3o#glas &arked o"" a 10@acre lot near the !ost. :ith the hel! o" three 1B. servants and a !art% o" native la$o#rers( 6who !ro&ise to $eco&e #se"#l as ro#gh car!enters(7 3o#glas $egan work on an i&!ressive two stor% $#ilding. 1ID This dwelling wo#ld $e where the 3o#glas;s s!ent their re&aining da%s. ,t was near the &#d "lats where the E&!ress 1otel wo#ld event#all% $e $#ilt( and B...;s legislative $#ildings wo#ld $e $#ilt across 0overn&ent 4treet( so it was a centrall% located !lace close to the seats o" govern&ent. 3o#glas s#!!lied the ho#se with "#rnit#re and other s#!!lies that was &ore eG!ensive than allowed $% the 1B. 0overnor and .o&&ittee( $#t he eG!lained that so&eone in his !osition and who held his o""ice was 6re)#ired to &aintain a res!ecta$le a!!earance.71IE ,t was no do#$t a )#ant#& lea! "ro& having to live in o""icer;s )#arters in the vario#s "orts the 3o#glas;s lived in "or so &an% %ears. 4o!hia .racro"t( the niece o" John and Lad% 5ranklin( descri$ed the ho#se( d#ring a visit in 1ID1( as 6standing in a large old "ashioned garden with $orders o" "lowers enclosing s)#ares o" "r#it trees 2 vegeta$les.\The ho#se is a s#$stantial !lain $#ilding( with ver% "air si*ed co&"orta$le roo&s.7 1II Jne da#ghter( -artha 3o#glas 1arris( and her "a&il% wo#ld live in it "or an additional ten %ears a"ter A&elia;s death in 1I90( $#t it wo#ld soon $e torn down a"ter that. ,ts site is now occ#!ied $% 8ictoria;s +o%al -#se#& and the !rovincial archives. ,n addition to $eing governor o" 8anco#ver ,sland( he added the additional d#ties o" $eing na&ed governor o" the &ainland colon% o" B... in 1ICI. This high !ro"ile &eant that A&elia 3o#glas was &ore in the !#$lic e%e( a !osition she was o"ten not co&"orta$le with( and her h#s$and;s !osition &eant that criticis& was o"ten lo$$ed his wa%( with several critics o"ten &aking ha% that his choice o" &ates &ade hi& s#s!ect as governor. A !rivate letter( $% Annie 3eans to her $rother and sister( "ro& 1IC4 shows the tone o" the co&&entar%: 5or the 0overnor o" 8ancRoS#vers ,sland has $een in the .o&!an% o#t here ever since he was a Bo% a$o#t 1C %earRsS o" age and now he is a -an #!wards o" D0 now'so %o# &a% sa% he has $een all his li"e a&ong the orth A&erican ,ndians and has got one o" the& "or a wi"e so how can it $e eG!ected that he can know an%thing at all a$o#t 0overning one o" Englands >sic? last
1I4

0. 1ollis 4later( 6+ev. +o$ert 4taines: /ioneer /riest( /edagog#e and /olitical Agitator(7 . itish Columbia *isto ! @ua te l! >19C0?( Ja&es 3o#glas to A. .. Anderson( Jcto$er 2I( 1IC0( 201. 1IC 3o#glas )#oted in 4later( 22D. 1ID 'o t )icto ia Lette s( Ja&es 3o#glas to Archi$ald Barcla%( 4e!te&$er 1( 1IC0. 1IE -bid.( 3o#glas to Barcla%( ove&$er 24( 1IC1. 1II 3oroth% Blake% 4&ith( ed.( Lad! ' anklin )isits the (acific No th%est# .ein" E1t acts f om the Lette s of Miss Sophia C ac oft/ Si John ' anklin;s Niece/ 'eb ua ! to & pil 6AB6 and &p il to Jul! 6ALG >8ictoria( 19E4?( 24.

9I

.olon%;s >sic? in orth A&erica( -r 3o#glas 0ovornor >sic? has a!!ointed a Brother in law o" his to $e s#!eri&e >sic? J#dge who is in no wa% )#ali"ied "or the o""ice. 1I9 The "or&er Bill 4&ith'he had changed his na&e to A&or de .os&os >lover o" the #niverse?'arrived on 8anco#ver ,sland in -a% 1ICI. 1e $egan !rinting the . itish Colonist that winter and $eca&e a nois% critic o" the governor. 1e also &entioned 3o#glas; choice o" &ate when he reall% "elt the need to "ashion hi&sel" as a %ellow Ao#rnalist. 6:ere a good ,ndian agent re)#ired( over who& co#ld $e eGtended ]a reign tri#&!hant;( it wo#ld not $e too di""ic#lt to discover a s#ita$le inc#&$ent( )#ali"ied $% long eG!erience and inti&ate association >&% italics?(7 de .os&os wrote in 1ID0. 190 :hat &#st have reall% h#rt -rs. 3o#glas is that !reA#dicial re&arks attacked her children. The letters o" Ed&#nd 1o!e 8erne% reveal the $igotr% that &#st have $een whis!ered "re)#entl% aro#nd the ta$les and !arlo#rs o" 8ictoria;s high societ%. 6The 0overnor is a great drag on the colon%\a re"ined English gentle&an is sadl% wanted at the head o" a""airs\"or -rs. 3o#glas and her da#ghters( the less said the $etter: , do not conceive that , can do an% good $% reco#nting instances o" their ignorance 2 $ar$aris&(7 he re&arked. 191 8erne% did tr% to $e so&ewhat charita$le in individ#al descri!tions o" A&elia and her da#ghters( $#t &odern readers will still "ind his characteri*ations o""ensive $eca#se the%;re $ased on race: he called .ecilia a 6"ine s)#aw7= Alice was 6alwa%s correcting her sisters "or not $eing s#""icientl% lad%@like( $#t the% can hardl% $e worse than hersel"7= Agnes was a 6"at s)#aw( $#t witho#t an% !retence to $eing an%thing else= ver% good nat#red and a""ectionate( $#t not a""ected7= and -rs. 3o#glas was 6a good creat#re( $#t #tterl% ignorant: she has no lang#age( $#t Aa$$ers 5rench or English or ,ndian( as she is hal" ,ndian( hal" English( and a 5rench .anadian $% $irth.7 192 A conte&!orar% o" 8erne%;s( .harles :ilson( also wrote c#tting re&arks a$o#t -rs. 3o#glas; da#ghters: -ost o" the %o#ng ladies are hal"@$reeds 2 have )#ite as &an% o" the !ro!ensities o" the savage as o" the civili*ed $eing. Two o" the -isses 3o#glas >Alice and Agnes?( the 0overnor;s da#ghters( had their heads "lattened whilst the% were %o#ng $#t it is scarcel% visi$le. The% had A#st had so&e hoo!s sent o#t to the& 2 it was &ost a&#sing to see their atte&!ts to a!!ear at ease in their new cost#&e. 19< ot ever%one who visited the 3o#glas;s had s#ch h#rt"#l co&&ents a$o#t the&. ,ndeed( Arth#r B#sh$% visited the 3o#glas residence on ew Hear;s 3a%( 1IC9( and was i&&ediatel% s&itten with Agnes. 6:e !la%ed cards Brew Bo$ -iss Aggie 3o#glas 2 &%sel"'the% sa% she looks with no savage e%e on &e'2 tr#e she is a st#nning girl. Black e%e 2 hair 2 lark% like the devil hal" a &ind to go in "or her(7 he wrote in his Ao#rnal. 194 evertheless( the gossi! and inn#endo a$o#t her children &#st have reached A&elia 3o#glas; ears and have $een es!eciall% !ain"#l.

1I9 190

Annie 3eans to her $rother and sister( 5e$r#ar% 29( 1IC4( letter re!rinted in 4later( 22<. 3e .os&os )#oted in Jan 0o#ld( Women of . itish Columbia >4aanichton( B...( 19EC?( CD. 191 Allan /ritchard( ed.( )ancou$e -sland Lette s of Edmund *ope )e ne!/ 6AB7-BE >8anco#ver( 199D?( Ed&#nd 1o!e 8erne% to 1arr% 8erne%( A#g#st 1D( 1ID2( I4. 192 -bid.( Ed&#nd 1o!e 8erne% to 1arr% 8erne%( J#l% 20( 1ID2( E4@C. 19< 0eorge 5. 0. 4tanle%( ed.( Mappin" the ' ontie # Cha les Wilson;s 3ia ! of the Su $e! of the F>th (a allel/ 6AEA-6AB7/ %hile Sec eta ! of the . itish .ounda ! Commission >Toronto( 19E0?( A#g#st 2( 1ICI( 2I. 194 3oroth% Blake% 4&ith( 6The Jo#rnal o" Arth#r Tho&as B#sh$%( 1ICI@1IC9(7 . itish Columbia *isto ical @ua te l! >19CE@CI?( Jan#ar% 1( 1IC9( 122. B#sh$% asked "or Agnes; hand in &arriage in J#l% 1IC9( es!eciall% a"ter she $roke o"" her 6#nderstanding7 with John :ork. Ja&es 3o#glas declined( sa%ing the% were too %o#ng and B#sh$%;s inco&e too s&all. A"ter B#sh$% got a govern&ent Ao$ and $#ilt a ho#se( the co#!le "inall% &arried on -a% I( 1ID2.

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4he reacted $% kee!ing a low !#$lic !ro"ile d#ring &ost o" her h#s$and;s ten#re as governor( rarel% going o#t in !#$lic and "re)#entl% t#rning down dinner invitations. J""icial !ortra%als o" A&elia a"ter Ja&es $eca&e governor deli$eratel% concealed her ,ndian heritage. 19C 1er re"#sal to attend dinners a!!eared to eGtend to even her own ho&e. Altho#gh he visited the governor;s ho#se several ti&es d#ring his earl% co#rtshi! o" Agnes 3o#glas( B#sh$% did not act#all% &eet -rs. 3o#glas #ntil three weeks a"ter "irst &eeting her da#ghter. 6-rs. 3o#glas ca&e to dinner. 4ee&s a good old so#l(7 he noted. 19D :hile Lad% 5ranklin19E and her niece( 4o!hia .racro"t( were to#ring the /aci"ic northwest( the% sto!!ed in 8ictoria and !aid -rs. 3o#glas a visit on 5e$r#ar% 2I( 1ID1.19I 6:e were engaged toda% to take l#ncheon with the 0overnor;s wi"e -rs 3o#glas( in !lace o" !a%ing her a "or&al visit. 1ave , eG!lained that her &other was an ,ndian wo&an( 2 that she kee!s ver% &#ch >"ar too &#ch? in the $ackgro#nd= indeed it is onl% latel% that she has $een !ers#aded to see visitors(7 wrote .racro"t. 199 4he noted "#rther that( 6she has a gentle( si&!le 2 kindl% &anner w h is )#ite !leasing( $#t she takes no lead whatever in her "a&il%( 2 the l#ncheon arrange&ents 2 cond#ct( rested onl% with Agnes 2 - r 2 -rs Ho#ng( in the a$sence o" the 0overnor.7200 .learl%( A&elia 3o#glas was #nco&"orta$le !la%ing the role o" a governor;s wi"e( and !re"erred the co&!an% o" her "a&il% and s#ch close "riends as Josette :ork( the da#ghter o" /ierre Legace and a e* /erce wo&an. 0overnor 3o#glas( instead( relied on his da#ghters to acco&!an% hi& on !#$lic social occasions. All negative co&&entar%( however( ceased "or a while when her h#s$and retired. ,n 1ID4 -rs. 3o#glas heard onl% !la#dits as Ja&es 3o#glas ended his career as a colonial ad&inistrator. Be"ore his retire&ent 3o#glas received a knighthood "or his %ears o" service( there$% the title o" Lad% 3o#glas was $estowed #!on A&elia. ,n -arch 1ID4 a $an)#et was held in 8ictoria to hono#r 3o#glas( and a second $an)#et held a "ew da%s later in the &ainland colon%;s ca!ital o" ew :est&inster had Lad% 3o#glas as the hono#red g#est( where she was !resented with a &e&orial &edallion o" her h#s$and. As B... historian -argaret Jr&s$% !ointed o#t the titles and 3o#glas; wealth co&&anded new res!ect and !restige( and a kinder attit#de was shown to Lad% 3o#glas= ever% act o" !rivate charit% !er"or&ed $% her was recalled( and 6ever% %o#ng British settler eG!ressed his grate"#l thanks "or the hos!italit% o" her dinner ta$le and the !leas#re o" an evening s!ent in her "a&il% circle.7 201 This s#!!osedl% t#rning o" a new lea" $% the colon%s; settlers did not ca#se A&elia to s#ddenl% $eco&e a socialite. 1er da#ghter .ecilia died s#ddenl% in 1IDC. Also( a new co&!lication a "ew %ears a"ter her h#s$and;s retire&ent ca#sed her to re&ain in the $ackgro#nd( $eca#se her legiti&ac%( and in her &ind the legiti&ac% o" all her children( ca&e #nder !#$lic scr#tin% when her $rother s#ed :illia& .onnoll%;s estate. A&elia;s "ather had le"t ew .aledonia not long a"ter the 3o#glas;s &oved to 5ort 8anco#ver. That there was an estate to s#e was d#e to .onnoll%;s "r#galit%. 6, have $een ver% care"#l o" &% co!!ers. A s%&!to& which leads &e to eG!ect that in ti&e , will $eco&e( i" not a &iser( at least a wonder"#l econo&ist(7 he told Ja&es 1argrave in 1I29. 202 1e le"t ew .aledonia to oversee the Bing;s /osts in Lower .anada( $eing a$le to live in -ontreal not "ar "ro& where he was $orn. 1e retired in 1I42 when he re"#sed to $e !osted $ack to +#!ert;s Land at 5ort
19C 19D

Jean Bar&an( The West be!ond the West# & *isto ! of . itish Columbia >Toronto( 1991?( 4D. 6Arth#r B#sh$% Jo#rnal(7 Jan#ar% 20( 1IC9( 1<1. 19E Lad% 5ranklin was the widow o" 4ir John 5ranklin( whose third vo%age to "ind the northwest !assage ended in catastro!he with the loss o" the E ebus and Te o and all lives a$oard. 5ranklin;s "irst eG!edition was the sa&e one that A&elia and her sister J#lia enco#ntered &an% %ears $e"ore at .#&$erland 1o#se. 19I This date was the twent%@"o#rth anniversar% o" the 3o#glas; &arriage $% +ev. Beaver. 199 Lad! ' anklin )isits the (acific No th%est( 22@<. 200 -bid.( 24. 201 -argaret A. Jr&s$%( . itish Columbia# & *isto ! >Toronto( 19CI?( 19E@I. 202 *a " a$e Co espondence( :illia& .onnoll% to Ja&es 1argrave( 5e$r#ar% 2I( 1I29( 2I.

100

Al$an%. At this !oint in his li"e( he clearl% did not need to work "or a living as he was alread% living 6in great st%le7 in -ontreal. 20< A&elia;s &other( however( was not living in great st%le( $#t was st#ck in a convent in +ed +iver( where she died in 1ID2( having $een s#!!orted there $% .onnoll%( and then a"ter his death( .onnoll%;s second wi"e. The $asis "or the laws#it $egan when .onnoll% ret#rned to Lower .anada with 4#sanne and their children. ,n 1I<1 the% ca&e to 4t. E#stache( where two o" A&elia;s sisters were $a!ti*ed( $#t onl% a"ter .onnoll% ass#red +ev. T#rcotte that 4#sanne was his law"#l wi"e and the children were legiti&ate. A"ter "o#r or "ive &onths the% &oved to -ontreal and $oarded with .onnoll%;s sister( -ada&e /ion. /erha!s his new wealth &ade hi& asha&ed o" having a "#ll@$looded .ree ,ndian "or a wi"e( so&eone whose $ackgro#nd co#ld never &atch the new station he now had. 1e evidentl% received advice that a co#ntr% &arriage was not a legall% $inding one= there"ore( he &arried his second co#sin( J#lia :oolrich'7a lad% o" good social !osition and o" high res!ecta$ilit%7 204'on -a% 1D( 1I<2( while 4#sanne was still $oarding with his sister. 1is 6eG@ wi"e7 was #nderstanda$l% #!set $% this t#rn o" events( scolding .onnoll% and telling hi& 6he wo#ld regret it.720C 1owever( she was sent to +ed +iver and .onnoll% never lived to regret it and neither did 4#sanne. A"ter his death the estate went to J#lia .onnoll% and the children "ro& his second &arriage. A&elia;s $rother was !ro$a$l% not s#ing A#st "or a !iece o" the estate $#t to esta$lish that he was a legiti&ate child "ro& .onnoll%;s &arriage. The %o#nger .onnoll% won the case $ased on several ke% !oints. 4everal witnesses testi"ied that 4#sanne was introd#ced as -rs. .onnoll% and that the &arriage had end#red "or twent%@eight %ears $eca#se &ost English "#r traders "ollowed English law( th#s their children were acknowledged as 6law"#l iss#e7. The de"ense tried to arg#e that co#ntr% &arriages were not $inding( that re!#diation( or 6t#rning o""7 was )#ite co&&on( with the "or&er wi"e $eing le"t $ehind with her "a&il% or another "#r trader. ,t was arg#ed that .onnoll% co#ld not 6carr% with hi& this co&&on law o" England to +at +iver in his kna!sack.7 20D J#stice -onk( however( $ased his decision largel% on the "act that .onnoll% $ro#ght 4#sanne $ack to -ontreal( giving the &arriage legiti&ac% once the% had le"t "#r@trading co#ntr%. -onk r#led: ," this .ree &arriage was dissolva$le at !leas#re( -r. .onnoll% co#ld !erha!s have re!#diated his ,ndian wi"e( had he done so while residing a&ong the .rees( or where s#ch a $ar$aro#s #sage !revailed. 1e &ight have done so then i" he co#ld do so at all'$#t when he ca&e to .anada( that right ceased.\The ,ndian wo&an was his wi"e here( and wo#ld re&ain so( #ntil the &arriage was dissolved $% &eans known to the law.\The evidence shows concl#sivel% that her stat#s was that o" a law"#l wi"e( and not that o" a harlot( till .onnoll% re!#diated her.20E -onk awarded .onnoll% one@twel"th o" his "ather;s estate( $#t &ore i&!ortantl% his $irth was now legiti&i*ed $e"ore the law. The decision was a!!ealed $e"ore the .o&&ittee o" the /riv% .o#ncil( $#t the case was settled o#t o" co#rt $e"ore a A#dg&ent was reached. The .onnoll% case did not set an% legal !recedents. ,n 1IID( Jones vs. 5raser declared that a co#ntr% &arriage did not constit#te a legal &arriage( which re"lected the trend against &iGed &arriages. 20I Jnce the case was "inall% "inished in 1ID9( A&elia 3o#glas; s!irits !icked #! considera$l%. 4he $eca&e &#ch &ore socia$le( her health i&!roved and she now $elieved her children co#ld
20< 204

-bid.( -#rdock -c/herson to Ja&es 1argrave( -arch 1C( 1I42( <ED. 6.onnoll% $s. :oolrich( 4#!erior .o#rt( -ontreal( 9 J#l% 1IDE7( Lo%e Canada Ju ist( X,( 200. 20C -bid.( 2<I. 20D -bid.( 21C. 20E -bid( 2CC@D. 20I 4%lvia 8an Birk( SMan! Tende TiesT# Women in 'u T ade Societ!/ 6BLG-6ALG >:inni!eg( 19I0?( 242.

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now &ove &ore easil% a$o#t societ%. 209 The change in her dis!osition and her willingness to !la% the hostess was noticea$le when Lad% 5ranklin and her niece !aid a second visit to -rs. 3o#glas on A!ril <0( 1IE0: Lad% 3o#glas onl%( was at ho&e( 2 s#r!rised o#r co&!anions( >.a! tn 1ankin 2 -r -#sgrove R-#sgraveS ? $% ad&itting #s( as she ver% rarel% sees an%one. , dare sa% %o# &a% not re&e&$er that she was a hal" caste ,ndian ver% sh%( awkward( 2 retiring as &#ch into the $ackgro#nd as she can !ossi$l% do. -r -#sgrave had never $e"ore seen hera 4he was ver% cordial( 2 , a& s#re &#ch !leased to see &% A#nt( 2 veGed that 4ir Ja&es was o#t. 210 :hat &#st have !leased A&elia A#st as &#ch was 4ir Ja&es; renewed interest( since his retire&ent( in his children. 1is %o#ngest da#ghter( -artha( $eca&e the o$Aect o" his a""ection( no do#$t d#e to her onl% $eing 10@%ears@old when he retired. :hen she was eighteen( 3o#glas sent her to England to contin#e her ed#cation. This close relationshi! contin#ed #ntil his death in 1IEE. A"ter her h#s$and;s death( A&elia "o#nd satis"action in her children and grandchildren( and a renewed !ride in her ,ndian heritage. -artha and her "a&il% &oved into the 3o#glas ho&e a"ter 4ir Ja&es; death. 1er grandson( ].hes; 1arris( later re&inisced a$o#t his grand&other d#ring his ti&e living there: 4he wasn;t at all "rail'in "act ver% livel%= she went o#t driving three or "o#r a"ternoons a week. :e alwa%s went to sa% good@night to 0rann% $e"ore we went to $ed'we looked "orward to it= she told s#ch wonder"#l stories( &ostl% ,ndian legends. There was an old chie" o" the 4onghees who #sed to visit and tell stories to #s( too. 0rann% was ver% kind( es!eciall% to !oor !eo!le and ,ndians. The% #sed to co&e in $ig canoes with venison or "ish or d#cks or $erries to sell and lnad at the $otto& o" the garden. 4he alwa%s $o#ght ever%thing the% had and gave it to the !oor= then she wo#ld $ring o#t g#nn% sacks "or the ,ndians to load #! with "r#it and vegeta$les. 211 -artha 3o#glas 1arris wo#ld !a% tri$#te to her &other $% incl#ding a hal" do*en o" her stories in a $ook o" .owichan legends she co&!iled in 1901. 6As a little girl , #sed to listen to these legends with the greatest delight( and in order not to lose the&( , have written down what , can re&e&$er o" the&. :hen written the% lose their char& which was in the telling. The% need the )#aint songs and the sweet voice that told the&( the winter gloo&ing and the $right "ire as the onl% light'then were these legends $ea#ti"#l(7 she wrote in the short introd#ction to the .ree stories incl#ded in the 1istor% and 5olklore o" the .owichan ,ndians. 212 one o" these stories is short eno#gh to $e incl#ded here. 1owever( -artha did tell the a#thor( . de Bertrand L#grin( a shorter one a$o#t the re"#sal o" a wi"e to i&&olate hersel" on her h#s$and;s "#neral !%re( which was incl#ded in the 192I $ook( The /ioneer :o&en o" 8anco#ver ,sland: Lad% 3o#glas #sed to tell a stor% o" one !oor wo&an who was )#ite %o#ng and attractive( and who re$elled at this treat&ent. 1er h#s$and had $een old and #nkind( and she did not &o#rn hi&. 4he gathered together what "ood she co#ld get and hid it awa% #ntil she "elt that she had eno#gh to start on a long Ao#rne%. ,n the &eanti&e she had &ade "riends with the dogs and knew the% wo#ld not give the
209 210

-arion 4&ith( 4E9= 0o#ld( CI= 8alerie 0reen( &bo$e Stai s# Social Life in Uppe Class )icto ia 6AFU-6>6A >8ictoria( 199C?( <0. Lad! ' anklin )isits the (acific No th%est( 11I. 211 ].hes; 1arris )#oted in -arion 4&ith( 4I1. 212 -artha 3o#glas 1arris( *isto ! and 'olklo e of the Co%ichan -ndians >8ictoria( 1901?( CE.

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alar&. ,n the &iddle o" the night she stole o#t o" the h#t( threw her h#s$and;s $ones awa%( and ran to the river. 1ere she waded along #ntil &orning( so that the% co#ld not trace her. Then she hid #nder the $ank. 4he heard the th#nder o" !onies; "eet( and the sho#ting o" the ,ndians as the% searched the woods and the trails "or her. The h#nt lasted "or &an% da%s. B#t she was not discovered. 4he traveled $% night alwa%s along the rivers. 4he wanted to reach a 1#dson;s Ba% "ort( where she knew she wo#ld $e given shelter. Event#all% she did so( $#t not till a"ter weeks o" travel( when she was al&ost worn o#t "ro& h#nger and "atig#e.\the 1#dson;s Ba% ret#rned her to her own !eo!le( who welco&ed her $ack with the greatest Ao%. 21< Lad% 3o#glas; stor%telling ca&e to an end when she died in 1I90 and was $#ried $eside her h#s$and in 8ictoria;s +oss Ba% .e&eter%. A writer once tied the !rogress o" the !rovince o" British .ol#&$ia to Lad% 3o#glas= $oth had advanced 6"ro& !ri&itive wilderness to !ros!ero#s civili*ation.7214 The title and the wealth were onl% s#!er"icial tra!!ings( as the 6!ri&itive wilderness7 still $eat in A&elia;s heart whenever she told her grandchildren a stor% she had #ndo#$tedl% heard "ro& her .ree &other. Altho#gh her heritage o"ten ca#sed her !ain thro#gho#t her long li"e( she had eno#gh o" an indo&ita$le s!irit to not "orget her !ast. Het sho#ld she $e incl#ded with the other -etis $iogra!hiesd 4he certainl% identi"ied with her .ree heritage and had no conscio#s $elie" that she $elonged to a 6new nation7. A&elia;s earl% histor% is si&ilar to &an% &iGed@$lood wo&en and their children who ended #! in +ed +iver( where a 1al"@Breed c#lt#re indeed took root. ," her h#s$and had not !#rs#ed a career on the west coast( she certainl% wo#ld have $een a conte&!orar% o" John B#nn( El*Var 0o#let and Annie Bannat%ne. 1er incl#sion does( however( !rovide &an% contrasts and si&ilarities to the other lives looked at( the &aAor si&ilarit% $eing how whites constantl% re&inded her she was A#st a 1al"@Breed.
&dditional ,efe ence# Ada&s( John. +ld S<ua e-Toes and *is Lad!# The Life of James and &melia 3ou"las . 8ictoria: 1orsdal 2 4ch#$art /#$lishers Ltd.( 2001.

,li>abeth 9umont. >1E90@1IC0?
Eli*a$eth is $est@known as the a#nt o" Lo#is +iel;s 0eneral 0a$riel 3#&ont Jr. who led the -etis +esistance at Batoche in 1IIC. -ar% Eli*a$eth >Lisette? 3#&ont >$. 1E90?( was the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste 3#&ond dit 3#&ont and Jose!hte >Josette?( a Ts## T;ina >4arcee? wo&an. The 3#&ont "a&il% were &e&$ers o" the /esew Band o" -o#ntain .ree headed $% Lo#is Jose!h /iche. The 3elor&e;s( .ardinal;s and Br#nea#;s were also !art o" this Asini :achi :i ,niwak Band. 1er si$lings were: 0a$riel $. 1E9C who &arried 4#*ane L#ssier= 4#*anne $ 1EIC who &arried Tho&as 4&ith= Jean Ba!tist dit Larkin 3#&ont $. 1 5e$. 1I0C dd. 2E Jct. 1IIC &arried -arg#erite La"ra&$oise= ,sidore 3#&ond dit 3#&ont $. 20 -arch 1I1I( d. 1IIC who &arried Angele Landr% and Lo#ise La"ra&$oise= and .ecile 3#&ont $. 1I00 who &arried Jose!h 3es&arais. Jn ove&$er 14( 1I2D at 4t. Lo#is -isso#ri Eli*a$eth "or&all% &arried Antoine .le&ent >$. 1EDC?.21C The% had the "ollowing children: Antoine -ichel( $orn 1I11= /ierre( $orn 1I1D= Jose!h(
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L#grin( 19@20. -arion 4&ith( 4E<.

21C

.lV&ent was in the co&!an% o" Jac)#ot .ardinal d#ring the eG!loration o" the +iviMre la Biche and 4askatchewan +iver. .lV&ent was the -etis son o" a .ree &other and a 5rench@.anadien "ather. 1e was re!ortedl% a crack shot whether #sing a ri"le or the $ow and arrow. ,n 1I04( he was working "or the :.

10<

$orn 1I21( Basil( $orn 1I24= twins -arie and -arg#erite $orn 1I2D= Eli*a$eth( $orn 1I2E and 5rancois Xavier( $orn 1I29. A"ter the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% $o#ght o#t the orth :est .o&!an% >1I21?( the co#!le had &oved to a s&all "ar& in 4t. 5erdinand de 5lorrisant( A#st to the northwest o" 4t. Lo#is. Either in .anada or 4t. Lo#is( twin girls( -arie 2 -arg#erite( were $orn on in 1I2D. Later( 5rancois and Batherine were $orn in 5lorrisant. 5rancis Xavier( the %o#ngest( was $orn A#g#st 1I29. /revio#s children( Antoine Ba*ile Jac)#e -arie21D $. c. 1I2<( and Eli*a$eth were $a!ti*ed in the 4t. Lo#is cathedral. Antoine died ca. 1I4I and Li*ette died a"ter a re&arriage( ca. 1IC0. -ost o" the children were &arried in the 4t. Lo#is area.

9omitilde 7ravelle $ 9umont. >$. 1I<C?
3o&itilde was the da#ghter o" -ichel 0ravelle and anc% Bi!ling dit Be!lin. 1er "ather was killed $% the Black"oot in the "all o" 1I<C while tra!!ing along the -ilk +iver. 3o&itilde;s ste!"ather( AleGis La$o&$arde( had $een a 4io#G inter!reter "or 5ather Andre and was a +esistance !artici!ant. 4he &arried Jean 6/etit7 3#&ont >1I<<@1I99? and the% had twelve children. Jean 6/etit7 3#&ont was $orn at 4t. Boni"ace( the son o" Jean Ba!tiste 3#&ont and -arg#erite La"ra&$oise. The% &oved to the 3#ck Lake( 4t. La#rent area "ro& 4t. 5ranWois Xavier in the earl% 1IE0s. 1er son AleGis was also an 1IIC +esistance !artici!ant. 3o&itilde was the wo&an who o""ered to go with -arg#erite .aron to check on the &en tra!!ed d#ring the "ighting at To#rond;s .o#lee.

8adeleine 3ilkie 9umont. >1I40@1IID?
-adeleine was the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste :ilkie and ,sa$ella A*#re( $orn in 1I40. 1er "ather was known as .hie" o" the -etis at 4t. Jose!h( orth 3akota. Their "a&il% was !art o" the /e&$ina .hi!!ewa ,ndian gro#!. The% a!!ear #nder Band F 1E9 on the Ann#it% +oll "or Little 4hell;s Band in 1IDD and as Band F 144 on the 1IDE Ann#it% +oll "or :a%@ke@ge@ke@*hick;s Band. 1er "ather( Jean Ba!tiste :ilkie( took 1al"@Breed 4cri! >F 1E2? #nder the +ed Lake and /e&$ina;s Bands o" .hi!!ewa Treat% o" A!ril 12( 1ID4. -adeleine &arried 0a$riel 3#&ont >1I<E@190D? in 1ICI at 4t. Jose!h > orth 3akota?. 4oon a"ter( the% &oved to the 4t. La#rent area o" 4askatchewan. -adeleine gained a re!#tation "or $eing hos!ita$le and co&!assionate to those less "ort#nate than hersel". There is evidence that she and her h#s$and had a ver% close relationshi! and he greatl% res!ected her. The co#!le had no children $#t ado!ted a da#ghter( 8eroni)#e 3#&ont who was an or!haned niece and a $o%( AleGandre 5a%ant. As well as co!ing with ever%da% d#ties( -adeleine "re)#entl% acco&!anied 0a$riel on long tri!s $% snowshoe( +ed +iver cart and horse$ack. ,ndeed on several occasions she traveled alone
at 5ort des /rairies >now Ed&onton( Al$erta?. Two %ears later( he acco&!anied 3avid Tho&!son on the tri! thro#gh the +ock% -o#ntains "ro& 5ort Bootena%. 21D Ba*ile went #! the -isso#ri in 1I40 as a +ock% -o#ntain. 5#r .o. e&!lo%ee. 1e had "o#r 4io#G wives. 1e &arried( -ar% 4ar!%( the da#ghter o" a 4io#G wo&an( 1er 0ood 0ro#nd :o&an( and Tho&as Lestang 4ar!%. The% had ten children( incl#ding( John B..la%&ore >the 5rench 6.le&ent7 $eca&e 6.la%&ore7?.

104

"ro& Batoche to :inni!eg to sell the "#rs that 0a$riel had ac)#ired. The a$ilit% to s!eak English gave her an advantage 0a$riel did not have( altho#gh he s!oke 5rench and "ive ative lang#ages. -adeleine also acted as a teacher "or the children o" Batoche. 3#ring the 1IIC +esistance she hel!ed re&ove the inA#red "ro& the $attle"ield( n#rsed the wo#nded and distri$#ted the &eager rations and s#!!lies. 0a$riel saw to -adeleine;s sa"et% $e"ore crossing the $order into the Lnited 4tates a"ter the Battle o" Batoche. 4he soon Aoined hi& $eca#se she co#ld not tolerate the res#ltant sit#ation in the Batoche area. The% lived in the J#dith Basin at Lewistown with her sister J#dith and h#s$and /ierre Berger. The Berger;s lived $eside another -ontana -etis leader( Ben Bl%ne 1er health s#""ered severel% in -ontana. -adeleine died in Jcto$er 1IIC at Lewistown( -ontana( "ro& cons#&!tion and co&!lications arising "ro& a "all "ro& a $#gg%.

8arilyn 9umont. >$. 19CC?
-aril%n 3#&ont is o" .reeP-etis ancestr%. 4ince 19IC( -aril%n has $een !#$lished in n#&ero#s .anadian literar% Ao#rnals and her work has $een widel% anthologised as well as $roadcast on radio and television. -aril%n 3#&ont >$. 19CC? is a descendent o" 0a$riel 3#&ont;s $rother. 4he was $orn at Jlds( Al$erta( the da#ghter o" Jose!h A&$rose 3#&ont >191EK1992? and .ecile -arie 8anasse >191EK2000?. 1er "ather( A&$rose 3#&ont was a great( great grandson o" ,sidore 3#&ont the "irst -etis killed at 3#ck Lake( 4askatchewan at the $eginning o" the +iel +esistance o" 1IIC. A&$rose was( in@t#rn( a great( great ne!hew o" 0a$riel 3#&ont( $rother to ,sidore. -aril%n;s &other( -ar%( is the da#ghter o" Anna 3#"resne and 3aniel 8anasse >or Anasse?. 3aniel Anasse was $orn on J#l% 19( 1IIC at .algar%( the son o" Jean Ba!tiste 8anasse and E&elie .alder. -ar%;s grand"ather was 5rancois 3#"resne( $orn Jan#ar% 1IC0 at 5ort /itt. 1e &arried .atherine /iche dit -orin. -ar% 3#&ont assisted organi*ing Treat% 3a%s at Jnion Lake and she was a co&!etitive +ed +iver Jigger. 3aniel 8anasse was the ,ndian Agent and ,nter!reter "or the 5ederal 0overn&ent at the Jnion Lake +eserve( 4askatchewan. 3aniel;s &other( E&elie( died at Jnion Lake on A!ril 1( 194E at I9 %ears o" age. 5rancois 3#"resne the "ather o" Anna 3#"resne was a 4co#tP,nter!reter "or 0eneral 0. -iddleton who& led the British against the -etis in 1IIC. 5rancois 3#"resne was ca!t#red $% Big Bears warriors >:andering 4!irit? and held "or A#st over 2 &onths $e"ore esca!ing. -aril%n co&!leted her B.A. in 1991 and has a -aster o" 5ine Arts degree "ro& the Lniversit% o" British .ol#&$ia >199I?. 4he has $een writer@in@residence at the #niversities o" Al$erta( :indsor( Toronto( and was at 0rant -acEwan .o&&#nit% .ollege in Ed&onton while teaching English. 4he ta#ght .reative :riting thro#gh Atha$asca Lniversit%( was the Ed&onton /#$lic Li$rar%;s :riter in +esidence "or 200I( and is working on a doc#&entar% a$o#t her "a&il%;s connection to 0a$riel 3#&ont.

10C

-aril%n writes in a variet% o" "or&s to eG!licate the e&otions o" living $etween two worlds. -aril%n 3#&ont has $een !#$lished since 19IC in literar% Ao#rnals s#ch as: .lue .uffalo( C)--( & ,oom of +ne;s +%n( Ne%est ,e$ie% and "o#r anthologies: W itin" the Ci cle > e:est /ress 1990?( The ,oad *ome >+eid&ore Books 1992?( The Colou of ,esistance >4ister 8ision /ress 1994?( and Misce"enation .lues >4ister 8ision /ress 1994?. 4he is $est known "or her $ook o" !oetr%( & ,eall! 0ood . o%n 0i l. >London( Jntario: Brick Books( 199D?. 1er work has also $een $roadcast on radio and television. 1er "irst collection( & ,eall! 0ood . o%n 0i l( won the 199E 0erald La&!ert -e&orial Award ( !resented $% the Leag#e o" .anadian /oets( "or the $est "irst collection o" !oetr% $% a .anadian writer. 0lobe and Mail reviewer J#dith 5it*gerald has descri$ed 3#&ont as 6a !reternat#rall% gi"ted artist in !ossession o" a world@class $ag o" !oetic tricks.7 1er second $ook o" !oetr%( g een "i l d eams Mountains >Jolichan( 1992? won the 2002 4te!han 0. 4te!hansson Award "or /oetr% "ro& the :riter;s 0#ild o" Al$erta. 1er third $ook o" collected !oe&s is that ton"ued belon"in" >.a!e .roker +eserve: Begedonce /ress( 200E?. This $ook received the -c all% +o$inson A$original Book o" the Hear award in 200E. -aril%n ta#ght .reative :riting at 4i&on 5raser Lniversit% and Bwalntlen Lniversit%@ .ollege in 8anco#ver and at the Lniversit% o" Al$erta( Ed&onton.. 4he has worked in video !rod#ction and as an intern at the ational 5il& Board. ,n 2000@2001 she occ#!ied the :riter@in@ +esidence !osition at the Lniversit% o" Al$erta. ,n 200D she was &entor "or the wired :riting /rogra& K Ban"" .entre "or the Arts. -aril%n;s $rother( Br#ce 3#&ont >$. 1944?( is c#rrentl% serving his third ter& as /resident o" the -etis ation@British .ol#&$ia

+ophie *etendr; 9umont. >$. 1I4D?
4o!hie was the da#ghter o" -arie J#lie 1allett and Lo#ison LetendrV dit Batoche. 4he &arried Edo#ard 3#&ont in 1IDC. Edo#ard was one o" 3#&ont;s &ilitia ca!tains. Their da#ghter Lo#ise $orn Jan#ar% 1C( 1IE1 at To#rond;s .o#lee died in 3ece&$er 1IIC at age 14. A"ter the "ighting had sto!!ed at Batoche Edo#ard $ro#ght his "a&il% $ack ho&e( goes into hiding( $#t works on his !otato "ields once the !olice have le"t. A"ter a &onth he leaves "or -ontana= his "a&il% Aoins hi& in the "all. 1er horse was eGha#sted when she &et #! with /atrice 5le#r% and his wi"e along the wa%. /atrice gave her a "resh horse and the% travelled together to the -ilk +iver where 0il$ert Breland told her that Edo#ard was at 5ort Assini$oine. 4he then reAoined hi&( there. 21E

/eroniBue 8arie 9umont. >1ID4@191<?: Ado!ted da#ghter o" 0a$riel and
-adeleine 3#&ont.
8eroni)#e was $orn and $a!ti*ed at Big Lake near 4t. Al$ert on A!ril 1E( 1ID4. 1er 0od!arents were Antoine 3ion and Angeli)#e Bra$ant. 8eroni)#e was the da#ghter o" Jac)#es 3#&ont >$. 1I<I( the son o" 0a$riel 3#&ont 4r.? and -arianne 6Annie7 Br#nea# >$. 1I<9 at Lac la Biche?. 8eroni)#e;s &other( -arianne( died on ove&$er 24( 1IDC. Jac)#es and his second wi"e -arianne Breland died in the s&all!oG e!ide&ic in the "all o" 1IE0. Th#s( 8eroni)#e was le"t an or!han at age siG.
21E

41-( !. 9E.

10D

8eroni)#e also lost her 1E %ear old $rother A&$roise 3#&ont to this e!ide&ic. :hen 8Vroni)#e was released "ro& the 0re% #n;s or!hanage at age 14( 0a$riel and -adeleine 3#&ont ado!ted her as one o" their own since she was the da#ghter o" his "irst co#sin. 0a$riel alwa%s called 8ernie 6Annie7 $eca#se she looked like her &other -arianne 6Annie7 3#&ont. Later( the &#lti@ling#al Annie 3#&ont was hired $% +ichard 1ardist%( 1B. 5actor at Ed&onton and !#t in charge o" all trading goods at the store. 8eroni)#e &arried :illia& 1a&ilton on 3ece&$er 11( 1III.21I :illia& 1a&ilton >1I49@1941? was $orn in a covered wagon at /rinceton( -isso#ri. 1is "ather John was killed in the .ivil :ar at the Battle o" /ea +idge in 1ID2. A"ter that an Jsage@ 5rench -etis $% the na&e o" Lo#is La$rosse took care o" the "a&il%. 1e ta#ght :illia& and his $rother how to "iddle( Aig( and ste! dance. :illia& also $eca&e !ro"icient as a s)#are dance caller. Th#s( altho#gh :illia&;s !arents were "ro& the lowlands o" 4cotland( &ost !eo!le considered hi& to $e -etis. ,n 1IEC( :illia& $eca&e one o" the "irst oG@tea& drivers "or ,.0. Baker .o&!an% ha#ling s#!!lies "ro& 5ort Benton( -ontana to 5ort .algar%. Later he worked inde!endentl% ha#ling cargo "ro& 5ort -acleod( 5ort .algar%( and 5ort Ed&onton. ,t was at this ti&e he $eca&e a good "riend o" Jerr% /otts.

8eroni)#e -arie 3#&ont

3#ring the 1IIC +esistance( :illia& 1a&ilton took a Ao$ with -aAor A. John /err% > .:.-./.? as a sco#t to g#ide a section o" the Al$erta 5ield 5orce o#t o" 5ort -acleod.

-eanwhile( 8eroni)#e;s ado!tive "a&il% was ca#ght #! in the "ighting at Batoche.
A"ter the "ighting at Batoche( 8eroni)#e re!orted:
21I

The in"or&ation on 8eroni)#e was !rovided $% Llo%d 1a&ilton o" .algar%( Al$erta( a grandson o" 8eroni)#e >!ersonal co&&#nications( 200E?.

10E

1e >0a$riel? wasn;t a"raid( and didn;t #nderstand wh% an%one else wo#ld $e a"raid either( a"ter going tho#gh hell\ and co&ing o#t alivea To hi&( it was eGhilarating to $e #na"raid( $#t terri$le to have "ear. 1e had a hole in his head and vario#s $#llet holes all over his $od%( $#t at Batoche( he onl% worried a$o#t #s. The kids. 219 A"ter 1IIC( :illia& was $ased in Ed&onton and that was where he &et and co#rted 8eroni)#e. The% were &arried in 1III( altho#gh the% alread% had a child( -arie .laire. The% then &oved to the 3#ha&el -etis 4ettle&ent near .a&rose Al$erta( then in 1I90 &oved to "ar& at :ol" .reek near /onoka( Al$erta. :illia& neGt went to work "or +o$ert Logan at the Beaver Lake 4tock +anch near Lac la Biche. 8ernie set #! ho#sekee!ing at Beaver .reek. Traged% str#ck the& in 1I92 when their ho&e was accidentall% set on "ire $% their two children while 8ernie went to the near$% store to "etch their other da#ghter. Jne o" the $o%s( :illia& died and 0eorge( s#""ered third degree $#rns. The "a&il% was then "orced to live in a s&all shack near the Ed&onton high@level $ridge a"ter the% lost their ho&e. The "a&il% neGt headed "or the /orc#!ine 1ills to ranch in the area near B#""alo 1ead@ s&ashed@,n J#&!. 5ro& there( the% "re)#entl% visited Jerr% /otts at 5ort -acleod #ntil his death in 1I9D. :illia& worked "or the ./+( $#ilding the line thro#gh the .rowsnest /ass. ,n 1I9I he ret#rned to ranching. 3#ring the severe winter o" 1I99( 8ernie had a condition which si&#lated death >a s#s!ended ani&ation?. :illia& !re!ared a co""in lined with a -etis )#ilt( her $od% was !laced in the co""in set on two kitchen chairs "or viewing. Little 0eorge +a%( age eight( stood on an a!!le $oG to view his &other when he saw her e%es $link. 4he sat #!( wondering what was ha!!ening to her. 5ollowing 8ernie;s death in 191<4( :illia& &oved to 5ort -acleod then headed north to .algar%. 1e was living co&&on@law with a wo&an called ,sa$el when he died o" $ronchial !ne#&onia in Jan#ar% 1941. .
This in"or&ation was !rovided $% Llo%d 1a&ilton o" .algar%( Al$erta( a descendant o" 8eroni)#e 3#&ont 1a&ilton. Llo%d is a &e&$er o" the -etis ation Al$erta and the -etis 8eterans Association.

Claudette Courchaine ,k.
B% 0a$riel 3#"a#lt .la#dette Ek was $orn in the 5rench s!eaking co&&#nit% o" 4t. Adol!h( -anito$a. 4he was one o" siG children. 1er &other was a "a&o#s -anito$a -etis( $% the na&e o" -arie ThVrMse .o#rchaine -anito$ie. -arie ThVrMse .o#rchaine -anito$ie was a schoolteacher( !oet( a#thor( and a -etis activist. 1er "ather was Jose!h .o#rchaine who worked as a $ridge constr#ctor and a gardener. .la#dette co&!leted her schooling at the 4t. Adol!h .onvent. At age 1E( she &arried and $egan her "a&il%. 4he relocated to the cit% o" :inni!eg and raised her children. 4he was e&!lo%ed "or 2D %ears at the 1ealth 4cience .enter in the 3ial%sis Lnit and retired in 199D. 4ince then she has !assionatel% !#rs#ed &an% vol#nteer o!!ort#nities within the -etis .o&&#nit%. The "ollowing are a list o" her endeavors:  -e&$er o" the Elder;s Local K -anito$a -etis 5ederation
219

.h#ck Tho&!son( ,ed Sun# 0ab iel 3umont the 'olk *e o( :inni!eg( a#thor( 199C( !. 2<E. Based #!on a .h#ck Tho&!son interview with 8eroni)#e 3#&ont 1a&ilton in .algar%( 1942. An earlier version o" this $ook entitled *ome Son" was !rod#ced in 19EE. Also( .h#ck Tho&!son !ersonal co&&#nications with the a#thor in 2009. ,n 19D2( Tho&!son was co&&issioned $% Elie 3#&ont Jr.( 0a$riel;s ne!hew to do 0a$riel;s $iogra!h%.

10I

      

8ice@.hair "or the -anito$a -etis :o&en Active &e&$er o" the /e&$ina .e&eter% +ecover% !roAect in /e&$ina( orth 3akota .o#nselor o" the L;Lnion ational -etis de 4t. Jose!h -e&$er "or the +esidential 4chool /rogra& thro#gh the A$original 1ealing 5o#ndation -e&$er o" El*Var 0o#let .o#nsel K -anito$a -etis 5ederation Local Traveling &e&$er o" the +ed +iver .art Jo#rne% +ecentl% chosen as an Elder attached to the A$original .ha!ter o" the .anadian .o#nselors o" .anada

4he descri$es her interests and activities in these words: 6, a& ver% !ro#d o" &% involve&ent over the !ast %ears with the -etis .o&&#nit%. -% interests are &% "a&il%( &% c#lt#re( art and the %o#th in the co&&#nit%. , can;t think o" not $eing involved in !ro&oting the -etis !eo!le. , enAo% $eing active. , a& not a rich !erson in dollars and cents( $#t , a& rich in &% c#lt#re( &e&ories and in &% heart.7

*ouise ,rdrich. >$. 19C4?
-ichi"@.hi!!ewa !oet and novelist Lo#ise Erdrich has roots at the T#rtle -o#ntain -ichi"@ .hi!!ewa +eservation in orth 3akota where she is a $and &e&$er. 4he was $orn in Little 5alls( -innesota and grew #! at :ah!eton( orth 3akota where her !arents $oth ta#ght at the :ah!eton ,ndian 4chool. 4he is the grandda#ghter o" /atrick 0o#rnea# "or&er .hair&an o" the T#rtle -o#ntain Tri$al .o#ncil.220 Ne% 8o k Times $estselling a#thor Lo#ise Erdrich( was a /#lit*er@/ri*e "inalist "or The (la"ue of 3o$es. Lo#ise is the a#thor o" n#&ero#s novels( incl#ding the ational Book .ritics .ircle Award winning Lo$e Medicine. This novel was the "irst o" a series o" novels in which Erdrich de!icts conte&!orar% -ichi" and .hi!!ewa ,ndian A&erican and -idwestern li"e. ,t is set in orth 3akota in the vicinit% o" the T#rtle -o#ntain +eservation. Along with her novels( The .eet @ueen/ T acks( and The .in"o (alace( this series is known as the orth 3akota 9#artet. 4ections o" this novel had wide !rior eG!os#re in &aga*ines s#ch as The &tlantic Monthl!( Chica"o Ma"a2ine/ :en!on ,e$ie%( Mississippi )alle! ,e$ie% and The No th &me ican ,e$ie%. 4he has !#$lished !oetr%( children;s $ooks( and a &e&oir o" earl% &otherhood( The .lueOa!;s 3ance. 1er short "iction has won the ational -aga*ine Award and is incl#ded in the J. 1enr% and Best A&erica .ollections. 4he lives in -innesota with her children( who hel! her r#n and inde!endent $ookstore called the Birch$ark. 1er recent novel( The Last ,epo t on the Mi acles at Little No *o se > ew Hork: 1ar!er.ollins /#$lishers( 2001?( contin#es the saga o" the characters "irst introd#ced to the reader in the orth 3akota 9#artet. The Last ,epo t on the Mi acles at Little No *o se was a "inalist "or the

220

/atrick -oses 0o#rnea# was $orn in 1904( the son o" Jose!h 0o#rnea# >Bishki@&#n@eshiw? and Eli*a -cLeod. Jose!h was a Band co#ncilor in the 1II0s. 1is grand"ather( Jose!h 0ornan >&arried to J#dith 3elor&e? signed the Jld .rossing Treat% with the /e&$ina and +ed Lake Bands o" .hi!!ewa ,ndians. /atrick was Tri$al .hair&an o" the T#rtle -o#ntain Band $etween 19C4 and 19CI( when he had to resign $eca#se o" ill health. 1e is a#thor o" a $ook on the histor% o" the T#rtle -o#ntain Band.

109

ational Book Award. -ost recentl%( The (la"ue of 3o$es won the Anis"ield@:ol" Book Award and was a "inalist "or the /#lit*er /ri*e. The Lo#ise Erdrich reading list:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Lo$e Medicine >19I4? Jackli"ht >19I4? The .eet @ueen >19ID? T acks >19II? .aptism of 3esi e >19I9? The C o%n of Columbus Rwith -ichael 3orrisS >1991? The .in"o (alace >1994? The .lue Ja!;s 3ance# & .i th!ea >199C? 0 andmothe 4s (i"eon >199D? Tales of .u nin" Lo$e >199E? The &ntelope Wife >199I? The .i chba k *ouse >1999? The Last ,epo t on the Mi acles at Little No *o se >2001? The ,an"e Ete nal >2002? .ooks and -slands in +Oib%e Count ! >200<? The Maste .utche s Sin"in" Club >200<? + i"inal 'i e# Selected and Ne% (oems >200<? 'ou Souls >2004? The (ainted 3 um >200C? The 0ame of Silence >200C? The (o cupine 8ea >200I? The (la"ue of 3o$es >200I? The ,ed Con$e tible# Collected and Ne% Sto ies 6>LA-7GGA >2009? Shado% Ta" >2010?

Constance Thomas ,yolfson. >19<D@2002?
.onnie was the da#ghter o" a co&&ercial "isher&an( Jose!h >Josie? Tho&as and Eli*a$eth -a#d >Jennings?. 4he was $orn at Traverse Ba%( -anito$a in 19<D. At siGteen she le"t school to earn a living as a ho#sekee!er( "irst in :inni!eg( then at /ine 5alls. 5ro& 19C4 on( she served "or three %ears with the +o%al .anadian Air 5orce as an aircra"t@ re"inishing technician. At age 21( she &arried 0erald E%ol"son and the% s#$se)#entl% had nine children. :hen "irst &arried the% &oved to /ine 5alls where she $egan working at the hos!ital. 3#ring 19DE@E0( she was e&!lo%ed at a clothing "actor%( then at .hildren;s 1o&e o" :inni!eg at their s#&&er ca&! at 1illside Beach. Later( when .hildren;s 1o&e closed this ca&!( .onnie $o#ght it to serve as the site "or 4trong Earth :o&an;s Lodge. .onnie was alwa%s a co&&#nit% activist. ,n 5e$r#ar% 19E1( in res!onse to the !oor ho#sing conditions o" the -etis at Traverse Ba%( she "or&ed the Traverse Ba% -etis Association( to serve as a non@!ro"it ho#sing cor!oration. 4he was then elected as 4ecretar%@Treas#rer o" the Association. ,n J#ne o" the sa&e %ear elected as 8ice@/resident o" the 4o#th@:est +egion o" the --5. 4he was re@elected $% accla&ation "or two "#rther ter&s in 19E2 and 19E< >a two@%ear ter&?.

110

.onnie was a!!ointed as Acting /rovincial /resident o" the --5 in -a% o" 19E<( to serve d#ring the ti&e that Ang#s 4!ence was granted a leave o" a$sence. This a!!oint&ent( initiall% &ade $% the Board o" 3irectors( was rati"ied at the "ollowing Ann#al 0eneral Asse&$l% o" --5. 4he was also a "o#nding &e&$er o" the Traverse Ba% >"isher&an;s? .o@o!. Lntil her retire&ent( .onnie was a long@ter& e&!lo%ee o" the .anada 4ecretar% o" 4tate de!art&ent. 4he was involved as a vol#nteer "or &an% other co&&#nit% gro#!s. 4he served on the Board o" 3irectors o" the 5a&il% /lanning Association o" -anito$a= the EGec#tive .o&&ittee o" the /regnanc% 3istress 4ervice= the 5isher&an;s License A!!eal Board= and the +e&ote 1o#sing .o&&ittee. A"ter retire&ent she ran 64trong Earth :o&an;s Lodge(7 a healing center so#th o" 0rand -arais( -anito$a.

9eborah *. 9elaronde Falk. >$. 19CI?
This -etis a#thor o" several children;s $ooks is a Li$rar% TechnicianP 4!ecialistP .o&!#ter .oordinator at the 3#ck Ba% 4chool in the -etis co&&#nit% o" 3#ck Ba%. ,n 2002 she was awarded the Lie#tenant 0overnor;s Literac% -edal "or her innovative school !rogra&&ing and &ost recent children;s $ook 'lou Sack 'lo a >:inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications?. 1er &edal citation reads: 3e$orah 3elaronde@5alk has worked at 3#ck Ba% 4chool as a Li$rar% Technician and -edia 4!ecialist since 19ID. ,n 19IE she initiated the Book Bag /rogra& "or children aged siG to ten %ears and their !arents in which children take $ooks ho&e "ro& the school li$rar% in !atchwork $ags &ade $% A#nior high st#dents "ro& donated deni& Aeans. A !rogra& was added in the !ast two %ears "or children "ro& ages one to "ive who take ho&e d#ra$le !re@n#rser% $ooks with thick card$oard t%!e !ages. -s. 5alk co@ordinates the ,nternet 4tor% :riting /roAect( which $egan in 199D to connect children and teachers aro#nd the world in a reading and writing activit%. 4iG schools wrote a stor% together $% each contri$#ting a !aragra!h. The !roAect has &otivated st#dents to write and teachers to integrate other lang#age arts activities. As a li$rarian with 5rontier 4chool 3ivision( -s. 5alk o""ers a "a&il% literac% !rogra& on two 4#nda%s !er &onth. The ani&ated literac% co&!onent where a letter o" the al!ha$et is introd#ced thro#gh stories( action songs and a drawing activit% has do#$led attendance. +ecogni*ing the lack o" stories that incl#de a -etis !rotagonist or are written $% a -etis a#thor( the reci!ient $egan writing #nder the na&e 3e$orah L. 3elaronde to hono#r her -etis heritage. 1er "irst two $ooks were: & Name fo a Métis >:inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications ,nc.( 1999? and Little Metis and the Metis Sash. >:inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications ,nc.( 2000?.

Dosalie *aFlesche Farley. >1ID1@1900?
+osalie was $orn on the J&aha +eservation( the da#ghter o" Jose!h La5lesche >-etis? and -ar% 0ale >-etis?. +osalie;s &other( -ar% 0ale was the da#ghter o" &ilitar% o""icer and s#rgeon( 3r. John 0ale and his J&aha wi"e( ico&i >8oice o" the :aters?. ,t is interesting to

111

note that 4#san;s "ather( Jose!h( $eca&e a chie" o" the J&ahas. As -etis( his children were all given land grants on the 0reat e&aha 1al" Breed Tract= however( &ost o" the& sold this land and lived on the J&aha reserve. +osalie was ed#cated at the reservation school. :hereas three o" her sisters attended !ost@ secondar% schools in the East( +osalie sta%ed on the reserve. +osalie and her h#s$and Ed 5arle% her "ather and sisters other than 4#sette $eca&e active in the &ove&ent "or sel"@govern&ent "or the J&aha;s. A govern&ent that wo#ld $e inde!endent o" $oth the 4tate o" e$raska and the "ederal govern&ent. 4#sette and her h#s$and( Tho&as Ti$$les were in o!!osition as the% were advocates "or assi&ilation. To hel! the $and $eco&e inde!endent( +osalie and Ed $eca&e &anagers o" a large tract o" #nallotted land that the% leased to white cattle&en to generate reven#e. The% also &anaged the allotted lands o" so&e ,ndians who were not interested in working their own !ro!ert%. +osalie handled &ost o" the $#siness( negotiations with govern&ent and tri$e( individ#al acco#nts( and contracts. 4he vigoro#sl% de"ended the tri$e;s interests against white s)#atters and land s!ec#lators. The sel"@govern&ent iss#e was settled in 1IIE when the J&aha;s were &ade citi*ens and ca&e #nder 4tate A#risdiction.
,efe ence /arins( Ja&es :. 6+osalie La5lesche 5arle%(7 in 0retchen -. Bataille >Editor?. Nati$e &me ican Women# & .io" aphical 3ictiona !. ew Hork: 0arland /#$lishing( 199<: 14D@14E.

Dosalie Favell.
B% .atherine -attes -etis artist +osalie 5avell has a Bachelor o" A!!lied Arts in /hotogra!hic Arts@-edia 4t#dies "ro& +%erson /ol%technical ,nstit#te and an -.5.A. "ro& the Lniversit% o" ew -eGico( Al$#)#er)#e. 1er work has $een eGhi$ited in .anada and internationall%. 1e eGhi$ition( Lon"in" and Not .elon"in"( a!!eared at the ,ndian Art 0aller% in 1#ll( 9#e$ec( and the Bitchener@ :aterloo Art 0aller%( Jntario and has $een eGhi$ited in lands as "ar as Tai!ei( Taiwan. 1er work has also $een eGhi$ited at the Bl#e -oon 0aller% in Edin$#rgh( 4cotland= the 5loating 0aller% and Lr$an 4ha&an 0aller% in :inni!eg and the Art 0aller% o" 1a&ilton( Jntario. +osalie 5avell;s work conA#res #! e&otions a$o#t the e""ects o" c#lt#ral denial. As &an% -etis were $ro#ght #! to do( 5avell was #nco&"orta$le with her -etis sel". 5ro& re"#sing to s!eak -ichi"( hiding the $annock when non@-etis visit( to atte&!ting to r#$ o"" one;s s#&&er tan( c#lt#ral denial creates con"#sion a$o#t who we are as individ#als( and as a !eo!le. As 5avell;s s#$Aect &atter shows( c#lt#ral denial can create alienation( and even sel"@loathing. ,n her series Lon"in" and Not .elon"in"( #sing i&ages o" 6warrior wo&en7 s#ch as Xena K :arrior /rincess together with "a&il% !hotos( 5avell "inds the strength to assert her -etis sel". 1er work welco&es viewers to "reel% eGa&ine the co&!leGities( Ao%s( and !ro$le&s o" $eing and $eco&ing -etis in conte&!orar% ti&es. 1er art is held in the collections o" the :inni!eg Art 0aller%( the -anito$a Arts .o#ncil Art Bank and -o#nt 4aint 8incent Lniversit%( 1ali"aG. +osalie !resentl% is a /ro"essor o" /hotogra!h%( 3igital -edia and conte&!orar% ative Art at the :hite -o#ntain Acade&% o" the Arts in Elliot Lake( Jntario.

112

*i>a Dita Flamand. >$. 19<1?
+ita was $orn in .a&!erville( -anito$a( the da#ghter o" /eter >.hi;!it? 5la&and >$. 1IID? and 4te.@Anne de Li&a 5agnan >$. 190C?. /eter was $orn at 4t. John;s( orth 3akota >near T#rtle -o#ntain?( the son o" Jose!h 5la&&and >$. 1ID0? and Agath 5le#r% >$. 1ID2?. /eter was an eGcellent ling#ist and s!oke -ichi"( 5rench( English( 4a#ltea#G and Lkrainian. 1er &other was $orn in .a&!erville= &aternal grand!arents were Jose!h 5agnan >$. 1II<? and .atherine .hartrand >$. 1II2?. .atherine was "ro& -ontagne de Li&a >5ile 1ills?. 1er !aternal grand!arents were Jose!h 5la&and and -arie Thorn( $oth "ro& Baie 4t. /a#l( -anito$a. A"ter the 1IE0 +esistance &an% -etis "a&ilies had le"t -anito$a. Aro#nd 1IIE( the 5la&ands went to the L.4.A. where the% had relatives and this is how her "ather ca&e to $e $orn in orth 3akota.

+ita 5la&&and: !hoto co#rtes% o" 4hannon Allard. +ita hersel" is an eGcellent ling#ist and s!eaks( -ichi"( 5rench( /lains .ree( 4a#ltea#G and English. At one ti&e she ta#ght -ichi" and 4a#ltea#G at .a&!erville and also ta#ght -ichi" at the -etis +eso#rce .entre in :inni!eg. 4he was an in"or&ant "or 3r. /eter Bakker 221 when he did his se&inal st#d% o" the -ichi" lang#age. 4he contri$#ted cha!ters to La La%n"# Michif (eekishk%e%in# The *e ita"e Lan"ua"e of the Canadian Metis ( vol. 1.222 1er -ichi" lessons a!!ear on the -etis +eso#rce .entre we$site >with strea&ing a#dio? and have served as the eG!os#re o" &an% !eo!le thro#gho#t the world to this #ni)#e lang#age >-etis +eso#rce .entre and +ita 5la&and. Michif Con$e sational Lessons fo .e"inne s5 :inni!eg: -etis +eso#rce .entre( 2002?. As a n#rse( +ita &oved aro#nd -anito$a and across the co#ntr% "ro& Ja&es Ba% to 8anco#ver. 4he is a !ast !resident o" the -etis :o&en;s Association and had develo!ed the -etis Acade&% a "orer#nner o" the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te. 4he also held a!!oint&ent as a -agistrate in .a&!erville. +ita had eight children( her son Beiron is a noted -etis a#thor( ill#strator and artist. ,n her later %ears she attended +ed +iver .ollege and took the A$original Lang#age 4!ecialist !rogra& a !rogra& designed to train "l#ent Algon)#ian s!eakers >.ree(
221

/eter Bakker. & Lan"ua"e of +u +%n# The 0enesis of Michif/ the Mi1ed C ee-' ench Lan"ua"e of the Canadian Metis( JG"ord Lniversit% /ress( 199E. 222 L. Barkwell( >Ed.? :inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications( 2004: <C@4D.

11<

JAi$we( JAi@.ree and -ichi"? in translating and inter!reting in a variet% o" settings. As a res#lt o" this $ackgro#nd +ita develo!ed a do#$le@vowel s%ste& "or writing the -ichi" lang#age ,n 19EC( +ita was "eat#red in the $ook( Speakin" To"ethe # Canada;s Nati$e Women >Jttawa: 4ecretar% o" 4tate?. +ita has $een a role &odel( teacher( co&&#nit% vol#nteer and c#lt#ral !reservationist "or &an% %ears. ,n 2001( +ita !rovided the -ichi" translation "or Li Minoush( written $% Bonnie -#rra%. This $ook is !art o" /e&&ican /#$lications Michif Child en;s Se ies. 4#$se)#entl% +ita !rovided -ichi" translation "or the rest o" the $ooks in this series.22< +ita has !artici!ated as &e&$er o" the ational -ichi" 4!eakers Association > -4A? 4teering .o&&ittee. 5or a n#&$er o" %ears +ita has !artici!ated in a -ichi" lang#age i&&ersion !rogra&( !erha!s the onl% one in .anada. This #ni)#e !rogra& has $een i&!le&ented in .a&!erville( -B. Lang#age activist 1eather 4o#ter and two co&&#nit% elders( 0race [old% and +ita 5la&&and( &odelled the !rogra& on the -asters@A!!rentice /rogra& conce!t( an innovative and s#ccess"#l lang#age !rogra& originating in indigeno#s co&&#nities in .ali"ornia. ,t is a co&!lete i&&ersion !rogra& where the s!eakers( #s#all% elders( co&&it to teaching the lang#age on a one@on@one $asis in the ho&e and in the co&&#nit%. ,t is a co&&#nit%@centred a!!roach that allows s!eakers to e""ectivel% !ass on their lang#age to learners witho#t classroo&s( $ooks or lang#age eG!erts. +ecentl%( Trish Logan( an e&!lo%ee o" the ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation K -etis .ircle a!!renticed in this !rogra&. -ore recentl% +ita !rovided -ichi" translation "or .hristi Belco#rt;s $ook Belco#rt( .hristi. Medicines to *elp Us# T aditional Metis (lant Use# Stud! ( ints and ,esou ce 0uide >4askatoon: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 200E?. ,n 2009( she !rovided an essa% "or the A$original 1ealing 5o#ndation. This is re"erenced i&&ediatel% $elow.
+e"erence: 5la&and( +ita. 6Tr#th A$o#t +esidential 4chools and +econciling this 1istor%: A -ichi" 8iew.7 ,n 0reg Ho#nging( Jon 3ewar and -ike 3e0agnV >Eds.? ,esponse/ ,esponsibilit!/ and ,ene%al Canada;s T uth and ,econciliation Jou ne!. Jttawa: The A$original 1ealing 5o#ndation( 2009: E<@I1. ,n this essa% -ichi" Elder +ita 5la&and tells o" her eG!eriences as a -ichi" s!eaking school@girl in .a&!erville( -anito$a. 4he concl#des with reco&&endations "or reconciliation with the -etis and !reservation o" the -ichi" lang#age.

Agathe 3ilkie Fleury. >1I44@1941?. 4!o#se( /atrice Jose!h 5le#r%( >1I4I@194<?.
Agathe was the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste :ilkie and ,sa$ella A*#re( her sister was -adeleine( &arried to 0a$riel 3#&ont. Their "a&il% was !art o" the /e&$ina .hi!!ewa ,ndian gro#!. The% a!!ear #nder Band F 1E9 on the Ann#it% +oll "or Little 4hell;s Band in 1IDD and as Band F 144 on the 1IDE Ann#it% +oll "or :a%@ke@ge@ke@*hick;s Band. 1er "ather( Jean Ba!tiste :ilkie( took 1al"@Breed 4cri! >F 1E2? #nder the +ed Lake and /e&$ina;s Bands o" .hi!!ewa Treat% o" A!ril 12( 1ID4. Agathe &arried /atrice 5le#r% on 3ece&$er 14( 1ID2 at Ass#&!tion /arish( /e&$ina. 1er h#s$and was on the $and list o" :a%@ke@ge@ke@*hick;s Band in 1IDI. 1er h#s$and was one o" 3#&ont;s &ilitia ca!tains. A"ter 1IIC the% "led to -ontana and Aoined the 4!ring .reek -etis Band.

8ary ,rnestine 3ells Fleury.
B% 3r. -artha 5oster
22<

Li Saennchu 'leshii di Michif >Tho&as and the -etis 4ash?= Tho&as and the -etis .art P Tumaas ek%a li Michif Sha e!= and Li (a$i!on di Michif >Tho&as 2 The -etis 5lag?.

114

-ar% Ernestine 5le#r% :ells( the da#ghter o" Edward :ells( &arried Antione 5le#r%( Jr. in the late s!ring o" 1IE9 or 1II0. Together the% had nine children( and a"ter the earl% death o" her h#s$and( -ar% Ernestine ado!ted one &ore. 4he s#!!orted her children $% cooking "or ranchers( #sing her knowledge o" &edicinal her$s to !rovide &edical services( and $% acting as #ndertaker when necessar%. /roviding "ood "or her children in the traditional -Vtis &anner( -ar% Ernestine dried &eat that she received as !a%&ent or that her sons $ro#ght ho&e "ro& h#nting( ke!t a large garden( and collected $erries( roots( and her$s( which she #sed $oth as "ood and &edicine. Beca#se -ar% Ernestine was known as a healer( she was o"ten a$le to add to her "a&il%;s "ood s#!!l% with !rovisions given her in ret#rn "or her services. 4he also worked hides and created $ea#ti"#l e&$roider%. 4o&e o" these !ieces and her hide working tools are still treas#red !ossessions o" the "a&il%. +eso#rce"#ll%( -ar% Ernestine took advantage o" a variet% o" o!!ort#nities to s#!!ort her "a&il%. :hen T#rtle -o#ntain allot&ents $eca&e availa$le( she a!!lied $#t( like &ost o" the 4!ring .reek $and( was r#led ineligi$le. 4hortl% therea"ter( taking advantage o" the 1o&estead Act( -ar% Ernestine ho&esteaded her own !lace near 4!ring .reek >Lewistown( -ontana? as 6head o" "a&il%.7 >-artha 1arro#n 5oster( 6;:e Bnow :ho :e Are;: -#ltiethnic ,dentit% in a -ontana -etis .o&&#nit%7 >/h.3. diss.( Lniversit% o" .ali"ornia Los Angeles( 2000?.

Dose Fleury. >$. 192E?
B% 4hirle% 3elor&e +#ssell -etis Elder +ose 5le#r% has worked "or decades to !reserve -etis histor% and c#lt#re. 4he is the Elder "or /arks .anada( Batoche 1istoric 4ite. +ose is a stor%teller( genealogist and historian. 4he is &#ltiling#al s!eaking -ichi"@.ree( .ree( 5rench and English. +ose;s &other( llise >/a#l? La"ond was $orn on J#l% 10( 1914 and was an onl% child. This &eant that +ose had no co#sins or a#nties and #ncles on her &other;s side. /a#l is the last na&e o" Elise;s $iological "ather >her !arents were not &arried? and La"ond is the last na&e o" the "ather who raised Elise and &arried Elise;s &other. The /a#ls co&e "ro& the orth .o#ntr%( which is this side o" /ark 8alle% >s!eaking "ro& Batoche?. ,t has a $ig river and it is "#ll o" trees and lakes. 1er &aternal grand!arents $#ilt a ho&e on the road allowance northwest side o" 3#ck Lake. Their neigh$o#rs were the 4&iths and the /arentea#s. +ose was raised $% her &aternal grand!arents and descri$es the& as no&ads( she recalls that the% wo#ld !ack #! the rig and ca&! o#t in the $#sh( h#nting deer( "ishing( $err% !icking( 4eneca root digging\ alwa%s on the road. 1er grand"ather was a horse trader( h#nter and also worked on a &ink ranch. +ose descri$es her great grand&other as .ree( ]like the Trottiers; &ostl% s!eaking .ree and 5rench. 1er grand&other was a &edicine wo&an and &idwi"e. Jn her "ather;s side she is related to +esistance !artici!ants /hili!!e and /ierre 0ariV!%. +ose;s h#s$and( Ernest 5le#r% !ro!osed to +ose when she was 14 %ears old in 1941( $#t +ose &ade hi& wait. 4he went to work in "ish ca&! "or three %ears $eginning that %ear. +ose did not want to $e a %o#ng $ride and re!eat her &other;s !attern. +ose;s &o& was 12 when +ose was $orn and her "ather was 1I. 1er !arents were not &arried. Later on however( +ose;s &other did get &arried( $#t not to +ose;s "ather( to his $rother. +ose;s #ncle was now her ste!"ather.

11C

+ose;s !arents were not e)#als in their &arriage= +ose;s "ather a$#sed her &other and drank. :hen +ose got &arried( she set o#t the r#les "or their &arriage( one which incl#ded no drinking. +ose;s h#s$and a!!reciated that r#le "or he onl% drank three ti&es d#ring their D< %ear &arriage. As a %o#ngster +ose attended the sisters o" the /resentation o" -ar% convent school. 4he learned to write English( 5rench and .ree s%lla$ics. The% weren;t ta#ght .ree in school( +ose learned .ree "ro& the h%&n$ooks in ch#rch. 4he )#it school in 1941 then she worked in a northern "ish ca&! $#t went $ack to school in 19DE. 4he was involved in the -etis wo&en;s Association and co&!leted her grade 12 at /rince Al$ert in a -etis 4ociet% !rogra&. 4he then $eca&e a social worker and with a $etter !a%ing Ao$ was a$le to $#% two lots at 3#ck Lake and 4he and her h#s$and $#ilt their ho&e there. Later a"ter an illness she took dra"ting training $% corres!ondence >,nternational .orres!ondence 4chool?. As a res#lt she was a$le to sell ho#se !lans to /ine 0rove ,nd#stries. 4he also worked "or the !rovision $oard o" the -etis 4ociet%. ,n 3#ck Lake +ose was involved in the revival o" -etis c#lt#re and was the "orce $ehind the esta$lish&ent o" a -etis -#se#& and genealog% centre in 3#ck Lake.

+ose 5le#r% at the .aron 1o&e J!ening( Back to Batoche( 200E. /hoto $% 3avid -orin( 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te.

+ose was the s#$Aect o" a doc#&ent@ ar% "il& Su les T aces de ,iel !rod#ced in 200< $% 4%lvie 8an Bra$ant o" Les /rod#c@ tions d# +a!ide@Blanc o" -ontreal= it "oc#ses on +ose;s ins!iring li"e stor%. +ose also assisted /arks .anada historian 3iane /a%&ent >now retired? with her co&&#nit% histor% o" the -etis co&&#nit% o" Batoche The ' ee (eople 9 Li 0ens Lib es >Lniversit% o" .algar% /ress( 2009?. 4he told 3iane: 6Ever%thing , know , learned "ro& &% grand&other.7 4he told her that kok#& llise /a#l >nVe Trottier? had ta#ght her the .ree( -ichi"@.ree and 5rench lang#ages and told her &an% stories a$o#t her !ast li"e at the old -etis settle&ent so#th@east o" 4askatoon at /rairie +onde. -V&Mre /a#l was strict $#t strong and s#!!ortive. 4he instilled the val#es o" co#rage( enter!rise and sel"@ reliance in her grandda#ghters. llise /a#l was !aral%*ed in one leg and had di""ic#lt% walking. 1owever( she tanned hides "or &occasins and $eaded clothing. +ose wo#ld acco&!an% her grand&other when she worked as a &idwi"e and together wo#ld gather &edicinal her$s. 1er grand&other was also a -etis nationalist( "ollowing in the tradition o" her grand"ather .harles Trottier who was a -etis leader in the "ighting d#ring the 1IIC orthwest +esistance.>/a%&ent 2009: 2C<@2CC?
+e"erences:

11D

/ersonal co&&#nication( interview at Batoche 1istoric 4ite( ove&$er 1C( 2009. Brenda Arna#lt( 03, interview transcri!ts -arch 14( 19I4. 3iane /a%&ent( The ' ee (eople 9 Li 0ens Lib es5 .algar%: Lniversit% o" .algar% /ress( 2009.

*orraine 8cTavish Freeman. >19C4@200C?
Lorraine was the "o#nder( !ast !resident and eGec#tive director o" the -Vtis +eso#rce .entre ,nc. in :inni!eg. A -etis c#lt#re conservationist( Lorraine was $orn Jan#ar% 2( 19C4 in -innedosa( -anito$a( the da#ghter o" 3el&er Benneth -cTavish and +ita -arie La+ose. Lorraine( along with Theresa Breland( 3oreen Breland and 4hirle% -einGner( was a "o#nding $oard &e&$er o" the -etis +eso#rce .entre >-+.?( now called the -etis .#lt#re and 1eritage +eso#rce .entre( in :inni!eg in 199C. 4he then served as eGec#tive director #ntil illness "orced her to ste! down "ro& this !osition. The -+. esta$lished the "irst western -etis s!eci"ic we$site in 199D. ,t is one o" the "irst -etis reso#rces that !eo!le #se in doing ,nternet searches. -+. started a -etis genealogical service in 199E and o!ened a store( -etis Traders( in 199I. 5or &an% %ears Lorraine &ade !resentations on -etis .#lt#re to the schoolchildren o" -anito$a and other interested gro#!s. 4he literall% s!oke to h#ndreds o" tho#sands o" school children over the %ears. The eGtensive li$rar% and other &aterials that she collected &ade the -+. an essential sto! "or researchers "ro& across .anada and the Lnited 4tates. The -+. we$site is the onl% reso#rce( which !rovides -ichi" lang#age lessons and !rovides strea&ing a#dio so that one can hear the lang#age s!oken. The -+. has also develo!ed a $roch#re Su le Sentie des Métis( which g#ides !eo!le to 20 o" the &ost i&!ortant -etis historical sites in -anito$a. Lorraine credited her &other with instilling -etis !ride in all her children. 1er &other alwa%s said that Lorraine( $eing one o" the lighter co&!leGioned "a&il% &e&$ers alwa%s wore who she was 6on her sleeve.7 Lorraine was !resented with the 6Jrder o" the 4hawl7 on ove&$er 19( 200C. -an% o" the testi&onials at this event credited Lorraine with giving individ#als !ride in their -etis heritage thro#gh !roAects s#ch as 6.lai&ing J#rselves( 0enealogical /roAect.7 Ever%one s!oke o" her #nass#&ing kindness and her !ro&otion o" -etis &#sic( dance( $eadwork and histor%. Lorraine;s &ost nota$le c#lt#ral !roAects were: !#$lication o" La La%n"# Michif (eekishk%e%in# The Canadian Michif Lan"ua"e 3ictiona !( $% or&an 5le#r% >:inni!eg: -+.( 2000?( !rod#ction o" the video( The 3ances of the Metis# Li da%ns di Michif >:inni!eg: -etis +eso#rce .entre( 2001? and Michif Con$e sational Lessons fo .e"inne s >:inni!eg: -etis +eso#rce .entre( 2002?( $% +ita 5la&and. 4he also initiated the -+. newsletter B uffalo Tales and T ails. Lorraine also colla$orated with 3r. L%nn :hidden on the video( & Metis Suite( Brandon: All -edia -#sics( 199@. This eG!loration o" -etis histor% and c#lt#re thro#gh traditional -etis &#sic incl#des a video cassette( a#dio cassette and teachers reso#rce g#ide. :ritten and /rod#ced $% 3r. L%nn :hidden o" Brandon Lniversit%. The set "eat#res +a% 4t. 0er&ain( arration( 3erek -or!h%( .ond#ctor and +on 1alldorson( -#sic 3irector. Another video !roAect( Metis Summe was !rod#ced $% Lorraine 5ree&an and 3oreen Breland@5ines. ,t !resents the Ao% and cele$ration o" a -etis 4#&&er and shows a traditional -etis :edding( 8o%age#rs( Bannock &aking and 4ash 3ancing.

11E

Lorraine had a long@ti&e colla$oration with -etis Elders A#dreen 1o#rie and Jeanette 4wain 0oert*en as well as the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te in !reserving and !ro&oting -etis .#lt#re.

Dosalie 5arenteau 7ari;py. >$.1I<E?.
+osalie was $orn at +ed +iver( the da#ghter o" Jose!h 3odet /arentea# and AngVli)#e 0odon. 4he &arried /hili!!e 0ariV!% who was one o" 3#&ont;s &ilitia ca!tains. 4he was one o" the heroines o" Batoche in 1IIC. 4he &elted down the lead linings o" tea tins to &ake $#llets. 6The wo&en &ade the lead that was #sed to &ake $#llets. R+osalieS !re!ared these "or her s!o#se. 4o&eti&es the cast or &o#ld was too $ig and the sl#gs too $ig. 1e had to red#ce it with a kni"e. Also( to avoid wasting( 0a$riel 3#&ont &ade the& !ick #! the #sed sl#gs.7 224 /hili!!e was arrested on J#ne 1( 1IIC( tried "or treason@"elon%( and on A#g#st 14( 1IIC at +egina sentenced to seven %ears and did serve a !art o" this sentence. 1er h#s$and /hili!!e was the son o" 5ranWois 0ariV!% and Lo#ise 0lad#e. The% were all &e&$ers o" the T#rtle -o#ntain Band. The co#!le &arried at /e&$ina and the% initiall% lived at 4t. 5ranWois Xavier. The% were living there in 1IED when he a!!lied "or scri!( listing hi&sel" as a trader and !lains h#nter. The 0ariV!% "a&il% &oved to 4t. Lo#is de Langevin in 1II2 and lived on Lots <( 4 and D >T4C@1@<?. +osalie( $orn 1I44 in 4t. or$ert( was the da#ghter o" Jose!h 3odet /arentea# and AngVli)#e 0odon The co#!le had ten sons and three da#ghters. /hili!!e and .aliGte La"ontaine went to -ontana in 1II4 to visit "a&il% at Lewistown and acco&!anied 0a$riel 3#&ont;s !art% !art wa% on their Ao#rne% to recr#it Lo#is +iel.

,leanor Thomas 7arneau. >1IC2@1912?.
Eleanor >1elene? Tho&as was $orn A#g#st 12( 1IC2( a 0aelic( .ree s!eaking -Vtis o" 4wa&!% 8illage( +ed +iver. 4he was the grand&other o" -etis !atriot Ji& Brad%. 4he died on J#l% 1<( 1912 at 4t. /a#l des -Vtis( Al$erta. Lawrence then &arried E&il% 1a&elin( da#ghter o" -Vtis vo%age#r AleGander 1a&elin and Angeli)#e 1o#le. Ji& Brad% co&&ented on his grand&other;s !artici!ation in the +esistance: ,iel and his council had sent lette s to m! " andfathe and )andal in<ui in" as to the local situation and the de" ee of suppo t that could be e1pected f om the local Métis5 M! " andfathe ILa% enceJ kept this lette to ead to some of the Métis s!mpathi2e s %ho %e e illite ate5 M! " andmothe IEleano J %as in the kitchen %hen a se "eant and fou constables of the No th West Mounted (olice "alloped into the !a dX IThe! had a %a ant fo 0a neau;s a est and a sea ch %a ant fo the p emisesJ5 The se "eant bounded up the stai s to place m! " andfathe unde a est5 The othe police immediatel! ansacked the house5 +ne policeman %ent to the actual spot %he e the lette had been hidden5 -t %as e$ident the! %e e actin" on info mation f om an info me 5 .ut the! found nothin"5 M! " andmothe had acted %ith " eat p esence of mind5 She had been launde in" %hen the! came into the !a d/ and she eached up/ placed the lette and othe inc iminatin" mate ial in the %ashtub/ and calml! dest o!ed them b! ubbin" them on the %ashboa d until the! %e e completel! disinte" ated5
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athalie Ber&oal. 6Les roles et les so#""rances des "e&&es &Vtisses lors de la +Vsistance de 1IE0 et de la +V$ellion de 1IIC.7 ( ai ie 'o um( 8ol. 19( o. 2( 5all 199<: 1C9.

11I

Eleanor and Lawrence 0arnea#

1eannette +wain 7oert>en >$. 1940?
Jeannette is the da#ghter o" Evel%n Bone and Jose!h 4wain. 4he was $orn at Beeseekoowenin with her grand&other acting as &idwi"e. 1er &other was a &e&$er o" Beeseekowenin 5irst ation and lost her Treat% 4tat#s when she &arried a -etis &an. The% lived A#st o#tside the west side o" the reserve on the -etis ho&estead land that her "ather got "ro& his dad( :illia& 4wain. Jeannette s!eaks the 4a#ltea#G lang#age o" her &other and grand&other. 1er "ather s!oke -ichi"( 4a#ltea#G( 5rench and .ree( her &other s!oke JAi$wa and so&e -ichi" >in order to s!eak to grand!a?. Jeannette;s grand!a( :illia& 4wain s!oke onl% -ichi". This "a&il% consisted o" 1< children( eight $o%s and "ive girls. :hen Bill .@<1 ca&e in her &other decided not to a!!l% "or stat#s. Jther than Jeannette and her $rother Ed 4wain >a "or&er EGec#tive 3irector o" --5? her si$lings all regained treat% stat#s. Jeannette went to school in El!hinstone and le"t in 19CE to "inish grades eleven and twelve at 4#ccess in :inni!eg( where she took training in o""ice work. :hile in school she worked at 3eer Lodge 1os!ital >kitchen aid?. ,n Jcto$er 19D0 she &arried John 0oert*en( a long ha#l tr#cker and noted &#sician. The% have "o#r children( three girls and one $o%. Jeannette worked $etween the $irths o" 3oroth% and 0err%. Jeannette has $een involved with the "or&ation o" -anito$a -etis 5ederation since 19DE. 1er "ather was in :inni!eg "or the "irst &eeting to disc#ss a -etis s!lit "ro& -,B. 1e asked her to $ake $annock and take tea "or those at the &eeting. Jose!h then ret#rned ho&e and started a local in El!hinstone and 4trathclair( the +iding -o#ntain Local. Jeannette ret#rned ho&e once a &onth "or the &eetings o" the local and held the !osition o" 4ecretar%PTreas#rer. Event#all% she and John &oved $ack to 4trathclair. Jeannette served as 8/ "or -etis :o&en "or "o#r %ears when La#ra 0#i$oche was /resident. 4he then attended ew .areers training "or two %ears when the --5 trained 12 .o&&#nit% 4ervice workers( and she $eca&e the worker "or El!hinstone 4chool >19EC?.

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,n the late 19E0s John -orrissea# was looking "or 1o#sing and B#dgeting .o#nselors( so Jeannette took the !osition "or 4o#thwest and 3a#!hin +egions. 4he le"t this !osition $eca#se the% tho#ght she was involved with the .on"ederac% $reak#! &ove&ent that :alter -enard and her $rother :all% were lo$$%ing "or. ,n 19E9 she ran "or 4o#thwest +egion 8/ and won against 0eorge 5le#r%. 4he then )#it work to $e a "#ll@ti&e 8/. 4he served two ter&s as 8/ >#ntil 19I4?. Jeannette le"t !olitics a"ter electoral de"eat and $eca&e an inter!reter "or .254 co#rt cases in Brandon. 4he also did .254 research "or --5 and was a &e&$er o" the Bi&&el&an .254 .o&&ission. 4he then worked on setting #! regional .254 co&&ittees "or --5( and worked on a 1igh +isk Ho#th /rogra& "or --5. 4he $eca&e a 4!ecial Assistant to Jerr% 4torie( -inister o" .254( $#t "elt $#rnt o#t a"ter two %ears and altho#gh the -inister asked her to "ollow hi& to Ed#cation she declined and &oved to the A$original A""airs 3irectorate and re&ained there #ntil her retire&ent in 200E. 1er da#ghter 3oroth% has carried "orward her &other;s concern "or -etis children and "a&ilies. 3oroth% is a social worker and was the "irst EGec#tive 3irector o" -etis .hild and 5a&il% 4ervices >-anito$a?.
Jeannette 0oert*en( !hoto co#rtes% o" 4hannon Allard

,n 19IC( Jeannette worked with Ed +o% and Bar$ara Br#ce to set #! the -etis /avilion "or 5olklora&a. 4he served as a -etis /avilion 5olklora&a coordinator "or ten %ears. 4he chaired the :inni!eg +egion Local -anage&ent Board "or seven %ears and served on the 5olk Arts .o#ncil "or two %ears. 4he served on the ational ative :o&en;s $oard "ro& 19ID to 200<. ,n 19I9 she received the 6Jrder o" the 4hawl and in 200E :a Ni :anichihk !resented a Bee!ing the 5ires B#rning Award to Jeannette. This award hono#rs +kiiOida -k%e or 6Big 1earted :o&en.7 Big 1earted :o&en eGe&!li"% the seven sacred laws o" honest%( co#rage( res!ect( h#&ilit%( sharing( caring and love $% sharing their knowledge( talents and eG!erience to hel! kee! their "a&ilies and co&&#nities strong. Jeannette has served on the -etis +eso#rce .entre Board "or "ive %ears and s#$se)#entl% has chaired this $oard "or the last "ive %ears.

8aria Ann 7ood. >1IDI@19E<?
-aria Ann Bo#rke was $orn J#ne 9( 1IDI in 4t. Ja&es( the %ear o" the grassho!!er !lag#e( th#s her nickna&e 61o!!%.7 4he was the eldest da#ghter o" siG children >three $o%s and three girls? $orn to -etis !arents Edwin Bo#rke and ,sa$ella 1allett. 1er !aternal grand"ather was John /al&er Bo#rke( an ,rish&an who ca&e with the 4elkirk 4ettlers working !art% in 1I12= he was a s#rvivor o" the 4even Jaks .on"lict and was e&!lo%ed with the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an%. 1er !aternal grand&other( anc% .a&!$ell( was a -etis lad% whose "ather was an English trader with the XH .o&!an% and whose &other was a 4io#G "ro& the ,llinoisP:isconsin area. 1er &aternal grand"ather was :illia& /eter 1allett( who was leader o" the -etis sco#ts "or .olonel 5rench and son o" 1enr% 1allett and .atherine >.ree?. 1er &aternal grand&other was -aria

120

/r#den( the -etis da#ghter o" John /r#den and his wi"e was a &e&$er o" the "irst -anito$a Legislat#re.

anc%. 1o!!%;s "ather( Edwin Bo#rke(

1o!!% s!ent &ost o" her li"e in 4t. Ja&es( $eing $a!ti*ed( con"ir&ed and &arried at the Jld 4t. Ja&es Anglican ch#rch which was recentl% a victi& o" arson. 1er "a&il% ho&e was where 4t. Ja&es .ollegiate now stands. Jn -arch 1D( 1I92( she &arried Ja&es 0ood whose "a&il% had also $een earl% settlers and !ro&inent &e&$ers o" the ch#rch. All "o#r o" her children were also $a!ti*ed at 4t. Ja&es. The% lived in the area "or ten %ears( r#nning a &arket garden $eside their &other( -ar% Ann 0ood >Birton? who !lanted the "a&o#s :olsele% El&s. Jld 0rann% o"ten told o" how she and 6.hi&7 !#t all their !ennies together and &anaged to collect 2C cents( so the% got $#s%( &ilked the cow( &ade #! $#tter and 6/a!a7 went to town "or groceries. 1e ca&e ho&e with a $ell% "#ll o" $oo*e $#t no groceries. 1ow she la#ghed a$o#t this latera ,n 190C the% &oved to :oodlands with their children to start "ar&ing. 1er h#s$and died 4e!te&$er 10( 19<0 and she re&ained there with her &other -ar% Ann #ntil -ar% Ann;s death in 19<2. Again 1o!!% &oved $ack to 4t. Ja&es. ,n 19E1 she ret#rned to :oodlands to live with her grandson and his wi"e( B#d and Lill% /roctor. Jld 0rann% as , knew her died on 5e$r#ar% 10( 19E< at the ri!e old age o" 104 %ears. Jld 0rann% #sed to love to tell stories o" her eG!eriences $#t she hated ta!e recorders. /en and !a!er were o#t o" the )#estion as well $eca#se she wanted #s to sit and listen with 6$oth ears.7 4he was an acco&!lished horsewo&an( a ver% gi"ted sea&stress who had a sense o" st%le( and an eGcellent cook. 4he was once descri$ed as a 6ver% $ea#ti"#l lad% with thick( c#rl%( a#$#rn hair and $right $l#e e%es(7 ver% di""erent "ro& one o" her sisters who was nickna&ed 3arkie $eca#se o" her gorgeo#s dark e%es. :hen asked a$o#t her love o" &#sic( she wo#ld re!l% that she liked &#sic $#t not as &#ch as her h#s$and liked it !la%ed on the "iddle. 6, wo#ld send hi& with two !airs o" &occasins as he danced the "irst !air o#t.7 4he was noted "or her cr#st% ,rish $read and the $annock that she $aked in her o#tdoor oven. Jld 0rann% eG!erienced &an% changes. ,n her earl% %ears she traveled $% +ed +iver cart to 4t. /a#l( -innesota and later in li"e rode in a $#sh !lane with her ne!hew +eg Br#ce as !ilot. 4he saw /ortage Aven#e as an oG trail( develo! into the eight@lane thoro#gh"are o" toda%. 4he went "ro& candle to electric light( "ro& wood stove to electric range( "ro& hardshi! to co&"ort with a grace and !ride that is not o"ten seen toda%. 4he was a ver% religio#s lad% who read her Bi$le dail% and when her e%esight "inall% started to di&inish( she had &% $rother read to her dail%. 4he never drank in her li"e and had said on her 100th $irthda% that she wo#ld have a $eer. :hen the "a&il% held her $irthda% !art% she still re"#sed( sa%ing she was too %o#ng to drink. Tr%ing to get her to take her hos!ital $rand% &edicine was a chore that no one ever acco&!lished( as she co#ld s&ell it a &ile awa%. 4he le"t a great &an% descendants: "o#r children= 1I grandchildren= thirt% great@ grandchildren( and seventeen great great grandchildren. 4he was hono#red d#ring -anito$a;s .entennial %ear >19E0? as the 1ono#rar% -a%or o" 4t. Ja&es. 4he was ver% !ro#d o" this as her co#sin= John 1allett had $een hono#red as 1ono#rar% -a%or o" 4t. Ja&es in .anada;s .entennial %ear >19DE? when he was 100 %ears old. >.ontri$#ted $% great@grandda#ghter A#dre% L#cier R/roctorS and the -etis +eso#rce .entre.?

8ary Ann 7ood ?The Tree *adyA. >1I41@19<2?
-ar% Ann Birton was $orn on 3ece&$er 1( 1I41 to Jose!h Birton and his wi"e 4#sanna. 1er &other died when she was an in"ant and she was raised $% her ste!&other .atherine .ook( the -etis da#ghter o" :illia& 1e&&ings .ook and and -ar% .ocking. -ar% Ann &arried Jose!h :illia& 0ood( the son o" Ja&es 0ood and 3elila 4car"( on J#ne 21( 1ID0 at 4t. Ja&es.

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The% had three sons( all o" who& &arried -etis wo&en= /eter >$. 1ID1? &arried 1arriet 5idler( AleGander >$. 1ID4? &arried 8ictoria Bo#rke and Ja&es >$. 1IDE? &arried -aria Ann Bo#rke whose $iogra!h% a!!ears in the entr% a$ove. 5ro& an earl% age -ar% Ann was constantl% trans!lanting trees to her "a&il%;s %ard. 4he was !artic#larl% "ond o" !lanting &a!les and el&s. A"ter their &arriage the 0ood;s &oved to the :olsele% area o" :inni!eg and esta$lished a &arket garden along the Assini$oine +iver near what is now the corner o" ew&an and :olsele%. -ar% Ann is credited with !lanting what $eca&e known as the 6:olsele% El&7. The% then "o#ght the .it% o" :inni!eg when the% "irst wanted to c#t the tree down in 1910. Later in 19CE( another gro#! o" wo&en linked ar&s aro#nd the tree to save it "ro& destr#ction. -ar% Ann died on Jan#ar% 9( 19<2 at I9 %ears o" age and is $#ried in 4t. Ja&es at 4t. Ja&es Anglican ch#rch.

8arcile 7ratton. >1IEC@1IIC?
The tragic end to -arcile;s short li"e is doc#&ented in the diar% o" :alter 5. 4tewart( one o" 0eneral -iddleton;s soldiers at Batoche. 4he is descri$ed in -etis writings as a 4io#G@-etis girl. The entr% "or -a% 12( 1IIC reads: There were &an% incidents o" note d#ring this "inal charge o" the 12 th da% o" -a% 1IIC. Jne was where little -arcile 0ratton( a 5rench 1al"@Breed girl aged ten( ran across o#r line o" "ire and was shot dead on the doorste! o" one o" the stores. 4he wanted to $e with her &other. J#r $o%s gathered ro#nd the little dead thing as she la% in her "rantic &other;s ar&s( who kneeling on the ste! rocked her as she had when a $a$%( tr%ing to get her to s!eak. 4he co#ldn;t $elieve that her child was dead. 4#ddenl% a "ig#re was seen to $reak awa% "ro& a&ong the gro#! o" !risoners( then #nder g#ard( "arther #! the street. Bareheaded and in shirtsleeves he $o#nded like a !anther thro#gh the crowd( !#shing o#r &en right and le"t #ntil he ca&e to the &other and the little dead girl. 1e stood "or a &o&ent looking down at the&( his long $lack hair hal" covering his "ace. Then dro!!ing to his knees he stroked his little da#ghter;s hair gentl%( reverentl%. 6J#r !oor little -arcile @ est &ort.7 1e !assed his other ar& a$o#t his wi"e;s sho#lder and the tears welling in his e%es dro!!ed on the little girl;s dead hand. The gro#! o" soldiers looking on were dee!l% to#ched $% the scene that was $eing enacted at their "eet. 6,;d sooner let the& kee! Batoche than to have h#rt one hair o" that !oor little girl(7 one soldier was heard to sa%. The "ather rose slowl% to his "eet( assisting his ,ndian wi"e to hers. 1e took his little -arcile in his ar&s and the% slowl% &ade their wa% towards the setting s#n and the ravine( where a "ew ho#rs ago we were "ighting o#r wa% toward the "inish o" the ca&!aign. 4#ch is li"e. 4#ch is death.

8arguerite 7renon (7ourneau(. >1I0<@1IE1?
-arg#erite was the da#ghter o" Jose!h 0renon >$. 1EDC? and owananikkwee >$. 1EE4?. 4he &arried AleGis Bona&i Les!Vrance22C on J#ne 0D( 1I2C in 4t Boniface Parish Church, in the Red River Settlement (Manitoba); they were first married
22C

AleGis was $orn on ove&$er 20( 1E9E( the son o" /ierre Les!erance and -arg#erite A#coin. 1e was a La Loche Boat Brigade leader and !ro&inent g#ide and $oat !ilot on the -acken*ie $etween the 1I20s and 1I40s. Jn J#ne D( 1I2C( at 4t. Boni"ace( he &arried -arg#erite 0renon >$. 1I0<?( the% had thirteen children. -arg#erite was the da#ghter o" Jose!h 0renon and a 4a#ltea#G wo&an. AleGis s#!!orted +iel in the 1ID9@1IE0 +esistance at +ed +iver. 1e event#all% retired to 4t. 5ranWois Xavier and s#!!orted +iel in the 1IIC +esistance at Batoche altho#gh he was too old to !artici!ate activel%.

122

according to the custom of the Country before benefit of clergy)#

!"

(without the

Their da#ghter .aroline22D was &arried to Jean Ba!tiste Bo#cher. 1e was a &e&$er o" +iel;s EGovedate at Batoche in 1II4@IC. .aroline acco&!anied her h#s$and( .harles olin( -aGi&e Le!ine( 0a$riel 3#&ont( Ba!tiste Bo%er and Lo#is +iel to the "irst &eeting with the English -etis at the Lindsa% 4chool 1o#se. 1er h#s$and was wo#nded at the Battle o" Batoche. Their da#ghter -arie -arg#erite &arried -aGi&e Le!ine Jr. .aroline died at 4t. Lo#is on -a% 11( 1910. Their da#ghter -arg#erite Les!Vrance was $orn on -arch 02( 1I2D in 4t Boni"ace /arish 3istrict( +ed +iver 4ettle&ent and died on 5e$r#ar% 04( 190C in 4t. Lo#is( 4askatchewan. 4he &arried Al"red O+a$ascaO 4ch&idt >$: 1I2C in 4lave Lake 3istrict( in the orth :est Territories and d: A!ril 0E( 1901 in Battle"ord 3is trict) in !$% in St# &oniface Parish Church, in the Red River Settlement# -arg#erite;s son was Lo#is La"ertV dit 4ch&idt who was $orn on 3 ecember '$, !$$ in the (ld )ort, near )ort Chi*ewyan, on +a,e -thabasca in the .orth /est 0erritories (d1 .ovember '2, 345 in St# +ouis, Sas,atchewan)# 0hus, their grandson Lo#is 4ch&idt dit La"ertV $eca&e secretar% o" +iel;s /rovisional 0overn&ent in +ed +iver. Their da#ghter Adelaide >$. 1I<0? &arried -ichel 3#&as ,,( the son o" -ichel 3#&as and Jose!hte 4anchea# .ontree. Their oldest son -ichel 3#&as ,,, was one o" the three &en sent to -ontana in 1II4 to $ring Lo#is +iel to Batoche. Th#s( -arg#erite 0renon had "o#r grandchildren who were heavil% involved in the -etis +esistance o" 1IIC. 1er great@grandson -VdVric -c3o#gall was a "o#nder o" the -etis 4ociet% o" 4askatchewan and received the Jrder o" .anada in 19ID. Their grandda#ghters( E&&a and .aroline( entered the Jrder o" the 0re% #ns.

1acBueline 7uest. >$. 19C2?
Jac)#eline is a -etis writer who lives at Bragg .reek in the +ock% -o#ntain "oothills o" Al$erta. 4he is a descendant o" the To#rond "a&il% "ro& To#rond;s .o#lVe( 4askatchewan( a "a&il% which was active in +iel;s +esistance o" 1ID9@E0 and the 1IIC orthwest +esistance. 1er children;s $ooks are #ni)#e in that &an% o" the &ain characters co&e "ro& di""erent ethnic $ackgro#nds incl#ding 5irst ations( ,n#it or -etis. 1er well@drawn characters "ace iss#es co&&on to ever% child s#ch as $#ll%ing( $lended "a&ilies and !h%sical challenges and are strong role &odels "or toda%Us %o#th. Jac)#elineUs historical novels "or %o#ng readersU !resent .anadaUs vi$rant !ast as an eGciting read ever% child will enAo%. 1er %o#ng ad#lt &%steries address teenage !ro$le&s in a sensitive wa% while still !roviding a great !age@t#rner. Jac)#elineUs interactive !resentations a!!eal to st#dents in all grade levels and are o" interest as the% incor!orate her own $ackgro#nd as she shows how the -etis !eo!le are a strong !art o" the "a$ric o" .anadaUs histor%.
22D

.aroline Les!Vrance( >Bo#cher? >1I42@1910?. 4!o#se( Jean Ba!tiste Bo#cher 4r. >1I<I@1911?. .aroline was the da#ghter o" AleGis Bona&i Les!Vrance and -arg#erite 0renon. 1er "ather was a leader o" the 1B. La Loche $oat $rigades and was a strong +iel s#!!orter in the 1ID9@E0 +esistance. Altho#gh not active in 1IIC( AleGis was a +iel s#!!orter. AleGis died at 4t. 5rancois Xavier on 3ece&$er 11( 1I90( age 94. .aroline Les!erance was the a#nt o" Lo#is 4ch&idt( a $o%hood "riend o" +iel( who sent n#&ero#s !etitions o" -etis grievances to Jttawa "ro& 4t. Lo#is in 1II<@I4( and "irst s#ggested that the -etis send "or +iel in -ontana.

12<

,n addition( she also teaches writing how@toUs and enco#rages children to "ollow their own literar% drea&s. Jac)#eline has !artici!ated in Mama%eni"( the 4askatchewan A$original Literac% 0athering( where she hel!ed sha!e the direction o" ative literac% "or the !rovince o" 4askatchewan. ,n addition( she has !er"or&ed !ro@$ono worksho!s at the Ed&onton Ho#ng J""enders .entre( !resented "or the .#lt#ral 3iversit% ,nstit#te( Lniversit% o" .algar%( and !artici!ated in Back to Batoche 3a%s( the *i$e nant ,ende$ou1 and 5ort .algar%Us -etis .#lt#ral 5estival. Jac)#eline has also !resented at the -anito$a Association o" Teachers o" English( the Al$erta Association o" Li$rar% Technicians as well as n#&ero#s :ritersU .on"erences and worksho!s. Jac)#eline has $een no&inated "or a National &bo i"inal &chie$ement &%a d and the !restigio#s Es<uao &%a d "or o#tstanding achieve&ent $% an A$original wo&an. 4o&e o" her !#$lished works are listed $elow: Wild ,ide2 Jrca /#$lishers( 200C Belle of Batoche2 Jrca /#$lishers( 2004 Racing Fear2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( 2004 At Risk2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( 2004 Soccer Star!2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( 200< A Goal in Sight2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( 2002 Rink Rivals2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( /#$lishers( 2001 Rookie Season2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( /#$lishers( 2000 Lightning Rider2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( /#$lishers( 2000 Free Throw2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( /#$lishers( 1999 Triple Threat2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( /#$lishers( 1999 Hat Trick2 Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( /#$lishers( 199E 5ive o" these titles have received the .anadian .hildrenUs Book .entre +u Choice &%a d5

8ary .owers 7uilbault. >19<0@201<?
-ar% and her late h#s$and Ernie 0#il$a#lt are considered to $e !ivotal in the "o#nding o" -anito$a -etis 5ederation. -ar% served on the --5 Board o" 3irectors "ro& 19EC to 19EI and held the Ed#cation /ort"olio. 3#ring 19ID@19II( her da#ghter -%ra Lara&ee served on the --5 $oard. -ar% was $orn on J#ne 19( 19<0 in 5isher +iver( -anito$a( the da#ghter o" EliAah and /riscilla Bowers. 4he grew #! s!eaking .ree on the 5isher +iver 5irst ation. 4he s!ent &an% o" her childhood %ears on the land with her !arents and grand!arents( tra!!ing( h#nting and "ishing. ,n the "all o" 194<( the ,ndian Agent whisked her awa% to +esidential 4chool( "irst at Brandon "or several %ears( then to Birtle -anito$a where she co&!leted high school. ,t was at this ti&e that she $eca&e convinced that ed#cation was o" great i&!ortance in order to co&!ete within the larger societ%. 4he is a retired social worker "ro& the -anito$a 3e!art&ent o" 1ealth and 4ocial 4ervices. 4he worked in this !osition "or twent% siG %ears. -ar% &et Ernie 0#il$a#lt shortl% a"ter co&!leting school and the% &arried on J#ne 2<( 19C0. Ernie 0#il$a#lt was $orn and raised in 5ann%stelle. The% settled in :inni!eg and raised "ive da#ghters( all o" who& co&!leted !ost secondar% ed#cation and o$tained e&!lo%&ent in vario#s

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!ro"essional "ields( "ro& ed#cation to social work. 4he is the grand&other o" nine grandchildren and thirteen great@grandchildren. ,n 200I( the Ma ! 0uilbault Metis .u sa ! was esta$lished in her hono#r at the Lniversit% o" :inni!eg.

-ar%;s contri$#tions co&&#nit% incl#de: •

to

the

• • • •

The ho#sing st#d% that res#lted in the Lord 4elkirk /ark 1o#sing 3evelo!&ent • An #!grading !rogra& that $eca&e nationall% recogni*ed and ado!ted $% .anada -an!ower • 5or&ing the A$original .o#rt .o&&#nicators /rogra& with J#dge J. +ice( J#dge ,an 3#$ienski and 3oroth% Bet*. • The esta$lish&ent o" the /rince o" :alesP/rincess Ann $#rsar% "or -etis st#dents • The esta$lish&ent o" co#nseling and t#toring services "or the "ac#lties o" #rsing( Ed#cation and social :ork at Brandon Lniversit% and the Lniversit% o" -anito$a The esta$lish&ent o" satellite #niversities in northern -anito$a res#lting in Assini$oine .ollege and Beewatin .ollege The esta$lish&ent o" the -edian .redit Lnion /resident o" the Board o" Binew 1o#sing in 19E0 -e&$er o" the Board o" directors on -etis :o&en o" -anito$a

,n recent %ears she has $een sitting on the "ollowing $oards: • The Eli*a$eth 5r%e 4ociet% o" -anito$a • The All ations Traditional 1ealing .entre ,nc. • The Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te( as an a!!ointee o" the -inister o" Advanced Ed#cation and Literac% 5or the last "ew %ears she has also $een a !resenter and Elder at the Sha%ane 3a"osi%in# &bo i"inal Education ,esea ch 'o um s in :inni!eg. Th#s she contin#es to !rovide g#idance to vast n#&$ers o" A$original %o#th and ad#lts. ,n !ro&oting the traditional c#lt#ral val#es o" the ancestors( she sa%s 6"or &e( the revitali*ation o" &% c#lt#re and traditional identit% &an% %ears ago has assisted &e with iss#es that have tra#&ati*ed &e in the !ast. Lnderstanding the wisdo& and s!irit#alit% o" o#r ancestors $rings &an% $ene"its into the ever%da% lives o" o#r !eo!le.7

12C

The -ar% 0#il$a#lt B#rsar%( a -etis st#dent $#rsar% has $een set #! to assist -etis %o#th in attending !ost@secondar% ed#cation in -anito$a.

8argaret 8onkman <alcro. >$. 1ICC?.
B% -arion 1ackworth Lo#is +iel gave a !resentation sash to -argaret 1alcrow o" the 1alcro 4ettle&ent "or hiding and "eeding hi& a"ter the "ighting ended at Batoche. A"ter the resistance "ighting had ended at Batoche on -a% 12( 1IIC( -rs 1alcrow had hid Lo#is +iel in her root cellar #ntil he s#rrendered to -iddleton;s sco#ts. 6The 1alcrow;s held onto the sash thro#gh the $irth o" eight da#ghters and two sons. The sash went to their da#ghter Eli*a$eth who &arried a well@known Anglican &inister $% the na&e o" +everend /... 1ackworth. The sash was then le"t to their son Jack who is the "ather o" -arion 1ackworth;s late h#s$and .ollin 1ackworth.722E Jn Lo#is +iel 3a%( 5e$r#ar% 1I( 200I( -arion 1ackworth !resented the +iel sash to the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te o" the -anito$a -etis 5ederation at the 4t. Boni"ace -#se#&. -argaret -onk&an@1alcro was $orn J#ne 1ICC at 4t. Andrews( +ed +iver( the da#ghter o" Jose!h -onk&an and Eli*a$eth 1enderson. 4he &arried :illia& 1alcro( son o" Tho&as 1alcrow >1alcro? and .harlotte Bnight on 5e$r#ar% 1D( 1IEE at Bildonan. 4he died on J#ne 1<( 1940 at 1alcro( 4askatchewan. 4#$se)#ent to news o" the +iel sash a!!earing on .B. +adio -arion 1ackworth was contacted $% or&a /arsons also o" 3awson .reek B. .. and the% &et to co&!are "a&il% oral histor% regarding the sash. -rs. /arsons "a&il% sa%s that -argaret 1alcro had "ed and ho#sed not onl% +iel $#t two o" his co&!anions d#ring the +esistance. The% also con"ir& that $% wa% o" thanks she had $een !resented with a -etis sash. or&a /arsons had received this stor% "ro& her 0rand&other( 4o!hia 1alcrow .ook >1ID1@19<1?. 4o!hia 1alcrow was $orn A#g#st 29( 1ID1 at /o!lar /oint( the da#ghter o" Jose!h 1alcro and 4o!hia .ook. 4o!hia was &arried to BenAa&in .ook. Jose!h 1alcro was the %o#nger $rother o" Tho&as 1alcrow( "ather o" :illia&. 4o!hia 1alcro .ook died on A!ril 21( 19<1 at Birch 1ills( 4askatchewan. The 1alcro "a&il% oral histor% "its with other conte&!oraneo#s re!orts. 0eneral -iddleton had &oved north o" Batoche to LV!ine;s .rossing on -a% 14( 1IIC. 22I A"ter dinner that da% he was in"or&ed that Lo#is +iel was so&ewhere in the vicinit%. The neGt da% he sent o#t !arties o" &o#nted &en #nder -aAor Bo#lton to sco#t the woods and the near$% -etis settle&ents. ,t was on the a"ternoon o" -a% 1C( 1IIC that Lo#is +iel and his two co&!anions s#rrendered to Ar&strong and 1o#rie( two o" Bo#lton;s sco#ts who had &oved o"" "ro& the &ain gro#!. 229

8artha 9ouglas <arris.
-artha 3o#glas was the da#ghter o" A&elia .onnoll% and Ja&es 3o#glas( a 1B. .hie" 5actor and later the 0overnor o" 8anco#ver ,sland. -artha 3o#glas 1arris wo#ld !a% tri$#te to her &other $% incl#ding a hal" do*en o" her stories in a $ook o" .owichan legends she co&!iled in 1901. 6As a little girl , #sed to listen to these legends with the greatest delight( and in order not to lose the&( , have written down what , can re&e&$er o" the&. :hen written the% lose their
22E 22I

Andrew Bergland( 3awson .reek 3ail! Ne%s( ov. 22( 200E: 1@2. LV!ine;s .rossing >the 4t. Lo#is 5err%? is A#st so#th o" 1alcro and +ed 3eer 1ill. 229 .harles Arkell Bo#lton. ,eminiscences of the No th-West ,ebellions. Toronto: 0ri! /rinting 2 /#$lishing .o. 1IID: 4I<@4I4.

12D

char& which was in the telling. The% need the )#aint songs and the sweet voice that told the&( the winter gloo&ing and the $right "ire as the onl% light'then were these legends $ea#ti"#l(7 she wrote in the short introd#ction to the .ree stories incl#ded in the 1istor% and 5olklore o" the .owichan ,ndians.2<0 -artha told the a#thor( . de Bertrand L#grin( one o" her short stories( the one a$o#t the re"#sal o" a wi"e to i&&olate hersel" on her h#s$and;s "#neral !%re( was incl#ded in the 192I $ook( The (ionee Women of )ancou$e -sland.

.landine ?.lancheA Doss <enry. >1ICE?.
Blanche was $orn at 4t. 5ranWois Xavier on 4e!te&$er 1I( 1ICE. 4he was the da#ghter o" 3onald >3aniel? +oss and .atherine 3elor&e. 4he was "irst &arried to Jose!h .ha$ot on Jan#ar% 10( 1IDE at 4t. 5rancois Xavier. Blanche was then &arried to -a#rice 1enr% on 5e$r#ar% 1I( 1II4 at Batoche. -a#rice was the son o" AleGis 1enr% and -arie 3a#nais dit L%onnaise o" 4t. or$ert. 1e &arried ,sa$elle 8andal in 1IE2. 4he died in 1II2 at Le$ret and he then &arried Blandine +oss in 1II4 at Batoche. -a#rice was a &e&$er o" .a!tain Jonas -o#rea#;s co&!an%( one o" the 19 di2aines led $% 0a$riel 3#&ont d#ring the 1IIC -etis +esistance. Blanche was one o" the heroines o" Batoche( she lost ever%thing. The soldiers even stole the wedding $and "ro& her "inger. 1er "ather was on the .o#ncil o" the /rovisional 0overn&ent "or&ed $% Lo#is +iel at 4t. Anthon% on -arch 19( 1IIC. 3#ring the "ighting at Batoche her "ather shot and killed .a!tain 5rench and was s#$se)#entl% killed $% one o" 5rench;s sco#ts on -a% 12( 1IIC( the last da% o" "ighting at Batoche. 1e was "irst "atall% wo#nded and was "inall% killed with a $a%onet.2<1

Audreen <ourie. >$. 194<?
A#dreen 1o#rie is a -Vtis( $orn in the -Vtis co&&#nit% o" 0rand -arais( -anito$a( on the so#theast side o" Lake :inni!eg. A#dreen was a "o#nding $oard &e&$er o" /e&&ican /#$lications >19I0? and $eca&e -anaging Editor in -arch 2000. 4he retired "ro& this !osition in J#ne o" 2004. 4he had !revio#sl% worked "or the -anito$a -Vtis
A#dreen at the :a Ni :anichihk !resention o" the 6Bee!ing the 5ires B#rning Award7

5ederation in vario#s ca!acities "or well over 2C %ears( &ainl% in the areas o" research( ed#cation and c#lt#ral develo!&ent. A#dreen alwa%s #sed her eG!erience to involve -Vtis !eo!le in the arts and was a leader in !roviding training to -Vtis !eo!le in the $ook !#$lishing ind#str%. A#dreen 1o#rie is the -etis da#ghter o" Edward -iles 1o#rie >$. 190C at 0rand -arais? and -a% 5rances Jrvis >$. 1910 at Balsa& Ba%?. A#dreen was $orn at 0rand -arais( -anito$a(
2<0 2<1

-artha 3o#glas 1arris( *isto ! and 'olklo e of the Co%ichan -ndians >8ictoria( 1901?( CE. The acco#nts o" his death var%( one news!a!er sa%s: 6A&ong the killed is +oss( the noted recalcitrant( the 0atling c#t hi& to !ieces. ,n one little thicket three la% dead.7 >Brandon 4#n( -a% 21( 1IIC?

12E

the %o#ngest o" siG children. The -ichi" lang#age was once s!oken in the Jrvis "a&il% $#t died o#t with the generation o" A#dreen;s &other. A#dreen;s "ather was a co&&ercial "isher&an who also tra!!ed $#t did not like to h#nt. ,t was her &other( -a%( who owned all the g#ns in the ho&e did all the h#nting "or the "a&il% and ta#ght her $o%s to $e h#nters. 4he was also an eGcellent horsewo&an( she loved riding and wo#ld co&!ete in horse races and o"ten won. 1er &other gave A#dreen the gi"t o" &#sic and dance. Jver the %ears( A#dreen gave n#&ero#s se&inars and worksho!s to -etis %o#th on -etis &#sic and the art o" Aigging. A#dreen is the "or&er /rovincial Ed#cation co@ordinator "or the -anito$a -etis 5ederation and was interi& /resident o" -anito$a -etis 5ederation while John -orrisea# was on sick leave. 4he was also 8ice@/resident o" the ative .o#ncil o" .anada >19I1@19I2?. As a lead #! to the -anito$a -etis 5ederation land clai& co#rt case against the "ederal govern&ent( A#dreen worked on the land clai&s research tea& $oth in Jttawa and in -anito$a. ,n 19E9( A#dreen organi*ed and !artici!ated in sit@ins at the !rovincial legislat#re !rotesting the high #ne&!lo%&ent rates a&ongst A$original !eo!le. ,n A!ril o" 19E9( A#dreen and other !rotesters took over the E&!lo%&ent and ,&&igration .anada o""ices in :inni!eg and sta%ed there "or nine da%s. :hen the govern&ent didn;t "ollow thro#gh with their !ro&ises the% did a sit in at the legislat#re. There were eight leaders "ro& orwa% 1o#se and <D other s#!!orters. This !rotest lasted 2I da%s. :hen the govern&ent ret#rned to sit in session( the% !assed what was d#$$ed 6The orwa% 1o#se Law7 which changed the reg#lations "or !eace"#l sit@ins. A"ter this eG!erience( A#dreen took #! writing to tell the -etis stor% and she contin#es to $e active on the "ront line o" those s!eaking o#t "or the -etis !eo!le. Alwa%s active in the !reservation o" -etis c#lt#re( A#dreen worked with the -anito$a -#se#& on the develo!&ent o" the /arklands 0aller%. 4he travelled thro#gho#t
A#dreen working on the -anito$a -#se#&( /arklands 0aller% dis!la%( Jan. 1<( 199I.

-anito$a to do interviews and collect the arte"acts that are eGhi$ited in the 6-etis Bitchen7 dis!la%. Jver the %ears( A#dreen has vol#nteered to teach -etis c#lt#re to -etis %o#th and n#&ero#s other gro#!s. 4he was the &anaging editor o" /e&&ican /#$lications "ro& 2000 to 2004. Jn J#l% E( 2004 :a Ni :anichihk !resented a Bee!ing the 5ires B#rning Award to A#dreen. This award hono#rs +kiiOida -k%e or 6Big 1earted :o&en.7 Big 1earted :o&en eGe&!li"% the seven sacred laws o" honest%( co#rage( res!ect( h#&ilit%( sharing( caring and love $% sharing their knowledge( talents and eG!erience to hel! kee! their "a&ilies and co&&#nities strong.

12I

A#dreen was editor "or Metis Le"ac! --# Michif Cultu e/ *e ita"e and 'olklo e with Leah 3orion and Lawrence Barkwell >:inni!eg and 4askatoon: /e&&ican /#$lications and 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 200E?( this latter $ook was no&inated and short listed "or the 4askatchewan Book Award in two categories. The $ook also &ade the short list "or the -argaret -c:illia&s Award in the /o!#lar 1istor% categor%. A#dreen is now retired and living at Belowna( British .ol#&$ia.
/hotogra!h: A!ril 14( 19E9: A#dreen 1o#rie on g#itar at the E&!lo%&ent and ,&&igration .anada o""ices a"ter the "irst week o" the !rotest sit@in. /hoto $% Ji& :alker >The Winnipe" T ibune /hoto .ollection( Lniver@ sit% o" -anito$a. /. 1IP4D42P1I@<I<4@001?

,uphemia <alcro <ourie. >1I<9@191E?
E#!he&ia;s ado!tive !arents were .harlotte Bnight >the da#ghter o" 4o!hia 1allett and Ja&es Bnight? and Tho&as 1alcro. Tho&as was the son o" a 1B. Jrkne%&an and -ar% >$orn 1I0I?( a -etis( likel% the da#ghter o" Ja&es 4#therland and Jane 5lett. At age 1D( E#!he&ia &arried /hilli! 1o#rie >$orn 1I<<?= the% lived in the 1igh Bl#"" area alongside the original /ortage Trail. Their "a&il% ho&e( re$#ilt in 1I90( has $een donated to the 5ort la +eine -#se#& at /ortage la /rairie. The% had thirteen children( twelve o" who& s#rvived to &arr%. E#!he&ia #sed her$s as an ever%da% !art o" li"e( es!eciall% to treat the sick. 1er re!#tation as a healer was s#ch that !eo!le ca&e "ro& &iles aro#nd "or hel!= she was also the $est known &id@wi"e in the area. 4he $eca&e known as 60rann% 1o#rie7 thro#gho#t the !lains area.

+helley <ruska
+ingette star( 4helle% 1r#ska( has $een a +ingette :orld .ha&!ionshi! gold &edalist( a &e&$er o" Tea& .anada and Tea& -anito$a. 4he also !la%s "or the .anada ational :o&en;s Band% tea&( which ca!t#red the silver &edal in the 2009 :orld .ha&!ionshi!. ,n 2004( she was awarded a -anito$a A$original Ho#th Achieve&ent Award( at which ti&e the% stated: 4hell% 1r#ska is a 24@%ear@old -etis wo&an "ro& :inni!eg. 4he $egan !la%ing ringette at the age o" "ive( and nineteen %ears later 4hell% has !la%ed at all levels o" the s!ort.

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4hell% !la%ed a ke% role in Tea& .anada;s gold &edal !er"or&ance at the 2004 :orld +ingette .ha&!ionshi! in 4tockhol&( 4weden. The Tea& also took gold in 2002( and in 1999 4hell% !la%ed "or Tea& -anito$a( winning a silver &edal at the 1999 .anada :inter 0a&es. 1er athletic a$ilit% and "inesse have won her a s!ot on all@star tea&s "o#r ti&es. 4hell% is a certi"ied Level 2 ringette coach( and an instr#ctor at the Lisa Brown +ingette 4chool. 4hell% holds a degree in ed#cation and is a "#ll@ti&e teacher at .ecil +hodes 4chool in :inni!eg. 1er o!ti&istic o#tlook and enth#sias& has endeared her to $oth her !eers and the children who& she coaches and teaches. 1er ti&e s!ent teaching( coaching( and vol#nteering with children in the inner cit%( as well as her athletic achieve&ents( have !rovided her with the o!!ort#nit% to &ake an i&!act on the lives o" &an%. 4hell% sa%s( 6, take !ride in $eing a role &odel "or %o#ng !eo!le and , work hard at $#ilding a !ositive co&&#nit% within an% school that , a& involved with.7 4hell% dedicates co#ntless ho#rs within the A$original and non@A$original co&&#nities as a &otivational s!eaker( ins!iring her a#dience to get involved in their co&&#nit% and !ro&oting the $ene"its o" choosing a health% li"est%le. ,n 200C( 4hell% 1r#ska o" :inni!eg >+ingette? and 0arnet 3esAarlais o" :inni!eg >Ball 1ocke%? were na&ed winners o" the To& Long$oat Award as -anito$a;s A$original Athletes o" the Hear.

-sabelle 9orion -mpey. >$. 1944?
Bath% 1odgson@4&ith and Leah 3orion ,sa$elle was $orn in 1944( in .#&$erland 1o#se( 4askatchewan. 4he learned to do $eadwork "ro& her &other .ecilia( and other wo&en in the co&&#nit% o" .#&$erland 1o#se. 1er a#nties( 1elen( Anne( and -aria 3orion( were also in"l#ential in teaching her how to sew and do $eadwork on clothing. The teachings she received were trans&itted in the 4wa&!% .ree lang#age in which ,sa$elle is "l#ent. 4he re&e&$ers that traditionall% wo&en did $eadwork in s&all social gro#!s and to this da% she still does $eadwork with "a&il% &e&$ers s#ch as +osalie 4inclair "ro& /#katawagan( -anito$a. ,sa$elle sa%s that( 6-% "avo#rite designs are the -etis st%le "lower $eadwork and , enAo% $eading the northern "lowers.7 ,sa$elle !re"ers $right colo#red $eads on a ver% dark $ackgro#nd( which is a co&&on !re"erence a&ong &an% orthern -etis wo&en. 4he went to .harle$ois 4chool in .#&$erland 1o#se and co&!leted high school at J#r Lad% o" the /rovidence .onvent in /rince Al$ert. 4he went on to co&!lete a 4ocial work degree. ,sa$elle worked "or 22 %ears at the /rince Al$ert ,ndian 4t#dent Ed#cation .entre and $eca&e s#!erintendent o" st#dent services. 4he ta#ght "or the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te and the Lniversit% o" +egina 1#&an J#stice /rogra&. 4he also worked "or the 5irst ations 0overn&ent 4!ecialist Training /rogra& in /rince Al$ert( 4askatchewan. ,sa$elle and served as an Elder on the steering

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co&&ittee o" the A$original 0ang ,nitiative( a tea& o" A$original "acilitators working with those involved or a""ected $% A$original gangs. ,sa$elle was involved with the !rovincial and "ederal 1#&an +ights .o&&issions and is a !ast 3irector o" the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te.
,efe ence# Bath% 1odgson@4&ith( 6.arr%ing on the 3orion Traditions(7 Ne% . eed Ma"a2ine( J#l%Pa#g#st( 2002: <I@ 40.

8argaret .ear -sbister. >$. 1I42?. 4!o#se Ja&es ,s$ister >1I<<@191C?
-argaret Bear was the da#ghter o" :illia& Bear and -arg#erite Tait. 1er grand"ather was :hite Bear( an ,ndian and her grand&other .atherine was a -etisse. 4he &arried Ja&es ,s$ister on Jan#ar% 1( 1IC9( at 5ort N la .orne. -argaret and Ja&es esta$lished a "ar& on the Lower orth 4askatchewan +iver( J#ne <( 1ID2 and were the "irst settlers in this area( originall% known as the ,s$ister 4ettle&ent and later known as /rince Al$ert. Ja&es was $orn ove&$er 29( 1I<< at JG"ord 1o#se. 1e was the son o" John ,s$ister( an Jrkne%&an e&!lo%ed with 1B.( and 5rancis 4inclair an English -etisse. 1er h#s$and was a leader o" what were then known as the 6English 1al"@Breeds.7 1e o$tained his ed#cation at the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent and was a noted ling#ist( "l#ent in English( 0aelic( .ree( .hi!ew%an and -ichi" lang#ages. 1e entered 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% service in 1IC< and s!ent his entire working li"e in the .#&$erland and 4askatchewan districts( &ostl% aro#nd .#&$erland 1o#se and e!owewin. 1e &arried -argaret Bear in 1IC9 and the% had 1D children. 1e rose in the .o&!an% "ro& la$o#rer to inter!reter( to !ost&aster and "inall% clerk. 1e retired $rie"l% in 1ID2@D4( 1IDE@DI and "inall% in 1IE1. To a#g&ent his agric#lt#ral inco&e( ,s$ister ha#led "reight and worked on the govern&ent "ar& at the Ja&es 4&ith >-#skoda%? +eserve. Their /rince Al$ert !ro!erties were lots D2 and 1E. A"ter the 1ID9@1IE0 +esistance( and the dis!lace&ent "ro& their land( -anito$a -etis "locked to /rince Al$ert &aking it the largest English -etis settle&ent in the west( and those o" 4t. La#rent@ 0randin and Batoche the largest 5rench -etis settle&ents. The sa&e land iss#es arose in the /rince Al$ert area and Ja&es ,s$ister $eca&e a "o#nding &e&$er and took a leading role in the 4ettlers; Lnion( esta$lished Jcto$er 1D( 1II<( to !ress "or redress o" the co&&#nities grievances regarding land. This #nion re!resented the white &aAorit% as well as $oth the English and 5rench -etis co&&#nities. B% 1II4( $oth -etis co&&#nities were in agree&ent with 0a$riel 3#&ont that the% sho#ld send "or Lo#is +iel. ,s$ister was the English -etis re!resentative that acco&!anied 3#&ont to -ontana to ask "or Lo#is +iel;s assistance. ,n 1IIC( ,s$ister was i&!risoned "or "ive weeks at /rince Al$ert as a 6s#s!ected re$el7 #ntil the +esistance was cr#shed. L!on his release he !rotested the s#!!ression o" civil rights $% the govern&ent and "or his e""orts( was attacked in the ( ince &lbe t Times. ,s$ister clai&ed that it was Lawrence .larke who had incited the -etis to declare a !rovisional govern&ent $% telling the &en at Batoche that C00 !olice were on their wa% to arrest their leaders and that their !etitions wo#ld $e &et with $#llets. Like &ost -etis( he &ore or less disa!!ears "ro& !#$lic view a"ter 1IIC. 1e died in /rince Al$ert( Jcto$er 1D( 191C. 2<2

4live 9umas 1obin. 4!o#se( Lo#is a!oleon Jo$in( >1ID0@19<4?.
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3avid 4&%th. 6Ja&es ,s$ister.7 3ictiona ! of Canadian .io" aph!( 8ol. X,8 >1911@1920?. Toronto: Lniversit% o" Toronto /ress( 199I: C2<@C24.

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Jlive was the da#ghter o" .harles 3#&as and Jose!hte .o#rteoreille. 1er h#s$and was one o" the "ive Jo$in $rothers who !artici!ated in the 1IIC +esistance. A"ter 1IIC( the% "led to 4t. Al$ert and on to the Lesser 4lave Lake area. The% settled in the 0ro#ard area where the% raised eleven children.2<< 1er grand@da#ghter( -arlene Jlive Jo$in >Lan*? $eca&e a 8ice /resident o" the -etis ation Al$erta.

9oris 1ones. >$. 19II?
-etis archer( 3oris Jones( has set 12E .anadian +ecords( 1C :orld +ecords and is a < ti&e world cha&!ion in archer%. 3oris took #! the s!ort at age "o#r. 4he is now ranked "irst in J#nior and ranked "irst in 4enior 2 -aster wo&en ages in .anada "or J#tdoor 5,TA Target. ,n 200< she was na&ed Archer o" the Hear $% the Archers and Bowh#nter;s Association o" -anito$a. Jn -arch 14( 2004 she was a ational -etis Ho#th +ole -odel reci!ient "or athletic achieve&ent. 4he was again na&ed as a Ho#th +ole &odel in 200C. ,n 200E( she was a gold &edallist in the .anada :inter 0a&es and she was na&ed @ To& Long$oat 5e&ale A$original Athlete o" the Hear.

.ertha Clark 1ones2 4.C.
Bertha .lark was the "irst !resident o" the ative :o&en;s Association o" .anada "or&ed in 19E4. /rior to the "or&ation o" that gro#! she was the !resident and co@"o#nder o" the 8oice o" Al$erta ative :o&en;s 4ociet%. Bertha started her !#$lic service with istawa%o# and its ho#sing co&&ittees( then ewstart >an #!grading !rogra&?. Jne o" 14 children( Bertha was $orn at .lear 1ills Al$erta and grew #! in the Atha$asca region o" northern Al$erta. Altho#gh she wanted to $e a n#rse( she did not want to leave ho&e "or ed#cation. A"ter co&!leting grade nine she worked in a hos!ital. Then the war $roke o#t( and she went to live with her sister and $rother@ in@law at 0rande /rairie( and worked aro#nd there #ntil she Aoined the Air 5orce where she $eca&e a /h%sical Training and 3rill ,nstr#ctor. Bertha served in the +o%al .anadian Air 5orce( :o&en;s 3ivision d#ring the 4econd :orld :ar. Jn 4e!te&$er <0( 2002 at Ed&onton she was one o" 20 -etis 8eterans to $e awarded the 0olden J#$ilee -edals $% the -Vtis ational .o#ncil who were !rovided with the &edals $% the 0overnor 0eneral o" .anada to co&&e&orate the C0th anniversar% o" 1er -aAest%;s reign. Bertha also served on the ,nstit#te "or the Advance&ent o" A$original :o&en steering co&&ittee to! !rod#ce the $ook( +u Women in Unifo m# *onou in" &bo i"inal Women )ete ans of &lbe ta !#$lished in 200<.

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+p5 cit55

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Bertha .lark Jones on le"t.

/hoto co#rtes% o" the Institute for the Advancement of Aboriginal

omen

Bertha .lark@Jones >l?( reci!ient o" the Jrder o" .anada( with 1er EGcellenc% the +ight 1ono#ra$le -ichaelle Jean( 0overner 0eneral o" .anada( in Jttawa on 5e$r#ar% 22( 200I. /hotogra!her: 4gt. Eric Jolin( +idea# 1all( J""ice o" the 4ecretar% to the 0overnor 0eneral

A res!ected Elder( Bertha has $een a &e&$er o" the -Vtis J#diciar% and the A$original 8eterans 4ociet%( and has "o#ght all her li"e "or the rights o" the #nder!rivileged and disadvantaged. 4he re&ains a !ower"#l voice and a g#iding light "or the A$original co&&#nit% o" .anada. ,n 200E( she received the ational A$original Achieve&ent 5o#ndation;s Award "or

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Li"eti&e Achieve&ent. Jn -a% <( 200E Bertha was a!!ointed as an J""icer o" the Jrder o" .anada in recognition o" her li"eti&e achieve&ent in the categor% o" 4ocial 4ervice. The investit#re took !lace at Jttawa in 5e$r#ar% 200I.
,efe ence# .anada 4ecretar% o" 4tate. 6Bertha .lark7 in Speakin" To"ethe # Canada;s Nati$e Women5 Jttawa: 4ecretar% o" 4tate( 19EC.

1osette /ieau 1uneau. >1I0<@1ICC?
Josette was $orn at 4he$o%gan( :isconsin( one o" twelve children in the "a&il% o" Jac)#es 8iea# and his -eno&inee wi"e Angeli)#e. Angeli)#e was the da#ghter o" Jose!h Le +o%( a 5rench trader and his wi"e -arg#erite( who was the da#ghter o" Ah@ke@ne@!a@weh >4tanding Earth?( an i&!ortant -eno&inee tri$al leader "ro& the La Ba%e( :isconsin area. 1er "ather Jac)#es was a 5rench .anadian "#r trader. Josette was ed#cated at the 4t. 5ranWois Xavier &ission near 0reen Ba%( :isconsin and $eca&e "l#ent and literate in 5rench. 4he also s!oke -eno&inee( .hi!!ewa( /otawato&i( and :inne$ago. At age seventeen Josette &arried -etis trader 4olo&on L. J#nea# who was working #nder her "ather;s s#!ervision at -ilwa#kee. The% had at least 1E children( 14 o" who& lived !ast childhood. 1er son Jose!h went on to $eco&e the co@"o#nder and na&esake o" J#nea#( Alaska. Josette was known as an eGtraordinar% hostess and within her ho&e she !rovided n#rsing( and charit% as well as ed#cation in ho#sekee!ing and .hristian doctrine. Event#all%( she !ers#aded her h#s$and >who was also the "irst &a%or o" -ilwa#kee? to $#ild a r#ral ho&e at Theresa( :isconsin( so she co#ld $e near her -eno&inee kin"olk. A"ter 1IC2( this $eca&e their retire&ent ho&e. 1er charit% and good works were acknowledged $% a gi"t "ro& /o!e Leo X,, and she was #niversall% &o#rned and e#logi*ed $% the !ress #!on her death.
,efe ence Thiel( -ark. 6Josette J#nea#(7 in 0retchen -. Bataille >Editor?. Nati$e &me ican Women# & .io" aphical 3ictiona !. ew Hork: 0arland /#$lishing( 199<: 1<2@1<<.

8argo :ane. >$. 19C1?
-etis actress -argo Bane was $orn >near Ed&onton( Al$erta? $#t raised $% an ado!tive "ather and three di""erent ste!@&others. 4he grew #! as the onl% ative child a&ong seven children. 3es!ite $eing an hono#r st#dent( her c#lt#ral schi*o!hrenia led to a s#icidal teenage de!ression. L!on "inishing high school( alienated $% her ado!tive "a&il%( she ran "ro& ho&e. B% age 20( she had $eco&e de!endant on dr#gs and alcohol and was a single &other( a child she later gave #! "or ado!tion. :ith the hel! o" !s%chological co#nselling Bane $eat her addictions and enrolled in Ed&onton;s 0rant -cEwan .ollege "or /er"or&ing Arts. 1ere she eGcelled in dance( acting and singing. 4he won scholarshi!s to the Ban"" 4chool o" 5ine Arts and .ircle in the 4)#are Theatre 4chool in ew Hork 4he went on to $eco&e an actress( singer( and dancer( who has ta#ght dra&atic arts and &ade "il&s and co&&ercials. 4he is $est known "or her theatre !er"or&ances in The Ecstas! of ,ita Joe and "or a!!earing in the &ovie ,unnin" . a$e o!!osite +o$$ie Benson. ,n the 19I0s she $eca&e involved in the ative +ole -odel /rogra&. 1er !la%( Moonlod"e !re&iered at the :o&en in 8iew 5estival in 8anco#ver in 1990. 4ince then( the !la% has seen

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!er"or&ances in .anada the Lnited 4tates( E#ro!e( and A#stralia. ,t has also $een ada!ted "or .B. radio in 1994. -argo has $een involved in work "or the ational ative +ole -odel /rogra& and was the "irst ative artistic director o" the 4!irit 4ong ative Theatre 4chool in the 19I0s. ,n 1992 she "or&ed her own co&!an% 5#ll .ircle: 5irst ations /er"or&ance.

8ary *ouise :ennedy. >1ID1@194C?
-ar% doc#&ented the li"e o" the earl% settle&ent in the 4t. Andrews area thro#gh her art and her writing. -ar% was $orn in 1ID1( the da#ghter o" Eleanor .ri!!s Benned% and 6.a!tain7 :illia& Benned% >the son o" 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% .hie" 5actor AleGander Benned% and Aggatha( -ar% or 6-ar% Bear7 a 4wa&!% .ree wo&an?. 4he wrote o" her "ather;s search "or the &issing John 5ranklin EG!edition and his eG!eriences with 5ranklin who had sto!!ed with hi& at .#&$erland 1o#se in 1I1I@19. -ar% $egan her writing $% kee!ing a diar%. 1er "irst !#$lished article a!!eared in ,od and 0un in .anada in -a% 190C. Jne !iece( 6.a&!ing in Ban"" @ A 1olida% Tri!7 a""orded the o!!ort#nit% to also reco#nt her &e&ories o" %o#th at +ed +iver. 4he also wrote eGtensivel% a$o#t .hie" /eg#is. 1er oil !ainting o" a gro#! o" croc#s;s the !rovincial "lower( was eGhi$ited at the 190D !rovincial "air and now resides at the /rovincial Archives. 5ollowing her "ather;s death in 1I90( -ar% went to Toronto "or &#sic training and then &oved to 8irden with her &other. 4he $eca&e the ch#rch organist while there. 5ollowing her &other;s death she &oved to :inni!eg. 4he contin#ed to write short stories and historical re&e&$rances which were !#$lished in local !a!ers and &aga*ines. 4o&e were ill#strated with her own work.

*inda 8arie Ferguson :illian. >$. 1949?
B% Ann .harter Linda is the sister o" /ro"essor Ann .harter noted a$ove and the da#ghter o" +ene 5erg#son o" :akaw( 4askatchewan and :ini"red 4haw o" 4#rre%( England >a war $ride?. Linda was $orn in 1949( delivered $% a &idwi"e so&ewhere $etween +ivers and Brandon( -anito$a. 1er "ather Aoined the .anadian Ar&ed 5orces as a teenager at the start o" :orld :ar ,, and he served in the 4ignal .or!s. 1e ret#rned to :akaw in 194D. +ene 5erg#son was the son o" Jose!h 5erg#son >$#ried at Batoche? and J#stine /arentea#. 1is &aternal grand!arents were -athias /arentea# >$. ov. 1( 1IDE? and his 4io#G wi"e "ro& the L.4.A. -athias was the son o" /ierre /arentea# >$. 1I4<? and 1elene or&and >$. 1I42 at 4t. or$ert?. Linda took her ele&entar% school ed#cation at :akaw( +ivers and 4hilo. 4he then attended Br#nea# +esidential 4chool as a da% st#dent and was "#ll ti&e at residential school in /r#dho&&e( 4askatchewan to "inish high school. 4#$se)#entl%( she worked in sales at a dr#g store then at The Ba%. 4he &et and &arried John Billian and $eca&e a "#ll@ti&e ho&e&aker( raising two children( -ilissa and Aaron. The "a&il% &oved to -orinville( Al$erta where the% worked on the Billian "a&il% "ar&. Linda and her h#s$and then started Billian ,nd#stries( which $eca&e a ver% s#ccess"#l tr#st co&!an%. Jver thirt% %ears this co&!an% won awards "or ethical $#siness !ractices. 4everal %ears ago the% sold the $#siness and retired. The% have taken eGchange st#dents over the !ast "o#r %ears "ro& co#ntries s#ch as ,ndia and Ja!an. Linda has also $een active in the +otar% .l#$. >.ontri$#ted $% Linda;s sister( Ann .harter.?

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Damona Charette :lein2 Ed. 3.
+a&ona is -ichi" wo&an who is an enrolled &e&$er o" the T#rtle -o#ntain Band o" .hi!!ewa in orth 3akota. 4he is the da#ghter o" Bar$ara 64tella7 Jero&e and John Ba!tiste .harette( and the grand@da#ghter o" 4a&#el and -arie >-oran? .harette 2<4 and AleG and -arie Lo#ise >-orin? Jero&e.2<C +a&ona is an ed#cator and the !resident o" Eagle .ons#lting( ,nc. 4he is the "irst "e&ale "ro& the T#rtle -o#ntain +eservation to co&!lete a doctorate degree and to !resent her work in all C0 states. 3r. Blein shares her energ% and co&&it&ent to !ro"essional and !ersonal s#ccess with her clients. 1er a#diences have $een as "ew as two !eo!le to as large as E000. Jrgani*ations re)#est her to give &otivational and ins!irational !resentations to a variet% o" gro#!s ranging "ro& %o#th to !ro"essional gro#!s. 3r. Blein has the #ni)#e skill to engage her a#diences and the% will la#gh and cr% all in the sa&e !resentation. 4he s!eaks with her a#dience not to the&. This is )#ite an acco&!lish&ent "or 3r. Blein $eca#se she once was a sh%( ti&id high school dro!o#t. 3r. Blein $rings a wealth o" ed#cational eG!erience on all levels o" ed#cation. 4he has ta#ght st#dents in kindergarten thro#gh grad#ate school in Tri$al( B#rea# o" ,ndian A""airs( /#$lic and /rivate 4chools in orth 3akota and -innesota. 4he chaired the 3ivision o" Ed#cation and served as 3irector o" the Ed#cation 0rad#ate !rogra&s at a !rivate #niversit% in orth 3akota. 3r. Blein received a Bachelor o" 4cience in ele&entar% ed#cation( -aster o" Ed#cation in s!ecial ed#cation and 3octorate o" Ed#cation in ed#cation leadershi! with e&!hasis in s!ecial ed#cation. A "ew %ears ago she le"t a Lniversit% ad&inistrative !osition to start an ed#cational cons#lting "ir& where she co#ld "oc#s on all iss#es o" ed#cation $#t with a !ri&ar% "oc#s on ,ndian Ed#cation. 4he serves on an advisor% $oard "or the teacher ed#cation !rogra& at the Lnited Tri$es Technical .ollege in Bis&arck( orth 3akota. 1er role on the $oard allows her to $e in contact with the !re@service teachers who she then &entors.

1aime :oebel
B% Brian .%r Jai&e Boe$el grew #! in Lac La Biche( Al$erta. 5ro& the age o" 1C %ears old( Jai&e was a vocal %o#th advocate with the ational Association o" 5riendshi! .entres "or nine %ears and co@ chair "or the Lr$an -#lti@!#r!ose A$original Ho#th .entres ,nitiative "or three %ears. ,n 2004 she received a Bachelor o" Arts 3egree "ro& .arleton Lniversit% in .anadian 4t#dies and that sa&e %ear $egan a -asters o" Arts degree with a "oc#s on the healing and health $ene"its o" -etis c#lt#ral dance.
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4i&on 64a&#el7 .harette >$. 1IE2? son o" Jean Ba!tiste .harette and -arie Anne Laverd#re &arried -arie 3. -orin the da#ghter o" AleGandre -orin and Angeli)#e Br#nea# dit .hatelain in 1I9D. 2<C AleGandre 3avid Jero&e >$. 1IDE? son o" 3aniel Jero&e 4r. and -arie Bre&ner &arried -arie Lo#ise -orin da#ghter o" 4t. /ierre -orin and Elisa$eth 0onneville in 1I99 at /e&$ina.

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3#ring her %ears as a %o#th advocate( Jai&e was a!!ointed as an Adviser to the 4ecretar% o" 4tate "or -#ltic#lt#ralis& and 4tat#s o" :o&en thro#gh the 3e!art&ent o" .anadian 1eritage "ro& 1999@2002. ,n 2004@200C( Jai&e was an adviser to the -inister "or the 3e!art&ent o" .anadian 1eritage "or the Traditional Bnowledge 0atherings and in 2004@200C( Jai&e received a +ole -odel award "ro& the ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation where she contin#es to $e an active s!okes!erson. >/hoto on le"t $% Tia (hoto" aph! 7G6G5? As a s#ccess"#l vis#al artist( Jai&e;s works have $een showcased world@wide and held in &an% !restigio#s !ersonal and !#$lic galleries. 1er art re"lects her drea&s and !ers!ectives "ro& her ,ndigeno#s 1eritage and intangi$le nat#re o" the world. Jai&e was a dancer with the well@known tro#!e( Ji" on the 'l! "or "ive %ears #ntil 2010 where she started a new dance gro#! with "iddle !la%er Anthon% Brasco#!e. 4he has won &an% individ#al dance co&!etitions in .anada and the Lnited 4tates. -ost recentl% she clai&ed the ,nternational Aigging title when she won the o!en co&!etition at Metis 'est held A#g#st 2009 at the ,nternational /eace 0ardens. ,n addition to her artistic creative side( Jai&e has !#$lished literar% !ieces in a s&all n#&$er o" &aga*ines and has acade&ic !ieces in Ao#rnals and $ooks which "oc#s on engaging A$original %o#th and iss#es s#rro#nding ,ndigeno#s identit%. 4he contri$#ted 6-% 4tor%: +e"lections on 0rowing L! in Lac la Biche7 to The Lon" Oou ne! of a 'o "otten (eople# Metis -dentities ? 'amil! *isto ies >Lte Lischke and 3avid -c a$( eds. :aterloo: :il"red La#rier Lniversit% /ress( 200E: <49@ <ED?. ,n 3ece&$er o" 2009( +esearch and 3evelo!&ent J""icer Jai&e Boe$el was one o" a "ew delegates selected to acco&!an% 1er EGcellenc%( -ichael Jean= 0overnor 0eneral o" .anada on a 4tate 8isit to -eGico( 0#ate&ala and .osta +ica. The !#r!ose o" the visit was to enhance the relationshi! $etween .anada and the three co#ntries thro#gh the arts( $#siness( &#ltic#lt#ralis&( and wo&en;s iss#es. ,ndigeno#s iss#es held !ro&inent in the &an% "or#&s that the delegation attended. The 0overnor 0eneral hersel" initiated &an% conversations aro#nd the iss#e o" residential schools and the !rocess o" Tr#th and +econciliation in .anada. 1er co&&it&ent to the -etis !eo!le and $ringing to light the iss#es the% have "aced in .anada was knowledgea$le and gen#ine. .#rrentl%( Jai&e is also a +esearch and 3evelo!&ent J""icer with the -etis 4ettle&ents o" Al$erta at their 4atellite J""ice in Jttawa( J . 4he is also a ational Board -e&$er "or the Bo%s and 0irls .l#$s o" .anada and locall%( she is the co@chair "or .arleton Lniversit%;s A$original Task 5orce and Advisor "or the .it% o" Jttawa;s Arts( 1eritage and .#lt#re Advisor% .o#ncil as well as a $oard &e&$er "or the Jttawa A$original J#stice .o&&ittee.

1ennine 8eyer :rauchi. >$. 19CD?
Jennine was $orn -a% <( 19CD in :inni!eg( -anito$a o" a -Vtis &other and a 3#tch "ather. 4he initiall% learned $eadwork "ro& her &other and sewing "ro& her "ather( who ran a sho! &aking a variet% o" A$original clothing incl#ding &#kl#ks( &occasins( $eaded Aackets( "#r !arkas etc. 4he loves doing $eadwork and also !orc#!ine )#illwork and &aking clothing with a "oc#s on

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5irst ations and -Vtis design. Bra#chi has &ade coats "or several -etis leaders and 5irst ations .hie"s as well as "or the !revio#s /ri&e -inister o" .anada( /a#l -artin. 4he also has several ite&s in The -anito$a -#se#& as well as elsewhere. +ecentl% she worked with her &other( Jenn% -e%er( on a $eaded vest( which is now on dis!la% in Belvingrove Art 0aller% and -#se#& in 0lasgow( 4cotland. The% $oth !artici!ated in orth A&erican A$original &aterial c#lt#re worksho!s held at the -arischal -#se#& >Lniversit% o" A$erdeen( 4cotland? in A!ril 200E. ,n 200I( Jennine &ade a considera$le n#&$er o" !ieces o" her clothing creations and $eadwork availa$le to the +ed +iver .ollege( 4chool o" ,ndigeno#s Ed#cation "or 6A -etis 5ashion 4how.7 /ict#res "ro& the res#lting show a!!eared in a 2009 6-etis 5ashion .alendar7 which was sold as a "#ndraiser "or the A$original 4t#dent;s Association. Jver the %ears Jennine has $een active in !rod#cing historicall% acc#rate $eadwork and clothing "or /arks .anada >-etis( .ree( JAi$wa and 4io#G st%les? "or their inter!retive dis!la%s. 4he has also worked at +iel 1o#se ational 1istoric 4ite "or &an% %ears as an inter!reter( !roviding de&onstrations o" $ead working at the sa&e ti&e. 4he has o""ered &an% classes in introd#ctor% and inter&ediate $ead working to st#dents at the -etis +eso#rce .entre and at the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te. Jennine is recogni*ed as one o" the ver% "inest A$original clothing designers and $eaders in .anada. 4he and her &other and late "ather have ke!t the traditional A$original decorative arts alive $% teaching these arts. 4he also #nsel"ishl% assists those wishing to learn these art "or&s.

--5 /resident 3avid .hartrand wearing one o" Jennine;s coats.

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Jennine shows o"" one o" her recent designer creations( a wo&en;s $eaded deer hide Aacket.

Jennine has also &ade &an% o" the $ea#ti"#l !resentation shawls that are awarded to A$original wo&en at the :a Ni :anichihk= Bee!ing the 5ires B#rning Awards. This ann#al awards night hono#rs +kiiOida -k%e or 6Big 1earted :o&en.7 Jennine has activel% given $ack to the co&&#nit% $% donating her designer $eadwork to gro#!s to #se in "#ndraising !roAects within the A$original co&&#nit%.

Nancy :ipling (:eplin( *abombarde. >$. 1I10?. 4!o#se( AleGis La$o&$arde(
>$. 1I0<?.
anc% was the da#ghter o" Jack +a& Bi!ling dit Be!lin and -arg#erite Jkansese. 4he was $orn in 1I10 at +ed +iver. 4he "irst &arried -ichel 0ravelle in 1I2C 2<D then &arried AleGis La$o&$ard in 1I<C at 4t. 5rancois Xavier. anc%;s da#ghter( 3o&itilde 0ravelle( "ro& her "irst h#s$and -ichel 0ravelle( was &arried to +esistance activist Jean 6/etit7 3#&ont. 1er second h#s$and( +esistance activist AleGis La$o&$arde had $een a 4io#G inter!reter "or 5ather Andre in the L.4.A. a"ter the 4io#G +esistance o" 1ID2.

Catherine *acerte. >1I4<@1922?
.atherine Lacerte was $orn on Jcto$er 1C( 1I4< at mle@N@la@.rosse( the da#ghter o" Lo#is Lacerte Jr. and Jose!hte 8andal. 1er !aternal grand!arents were Lo#is Lacerte and -arie -artin= her &aternal grand!arents were Jose!h 8andal and -arie LachevrotiMre dit .harette. Lo#is
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0ravelle was killed $% the Black"oot while tra!!ing on the -ilk +iver in the "all o" 1I<C.

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Lacerte s#$se)#entl% &arried .harlotte Les!erance at 4t. 5rancois Xavier in 1IE9. 1e was a 4t. 8ital delegate to +iel;s co#ncil at the .onvention o" 24 in ove&$er 1ID9 and re!resented /ointe .o#!Ve at the 1IE0 .onvention o" 5ort%. ,n 1I4<( the "a&il% was en#&erated at 4t. Boni"ace and on J#ne 1E( 1I4C at orwa% 1o#se. B% 1IC0( the "a&il% was en#&erated at /e&$ina( Lo#is Lasert >sic? was shown as a $lacks&ith. The% then &oved with the rest o" the -etis to 4t. Jose!h to avoid the ann#al "looding at /e&$ina. Later( 1n 1ICC( 5ather Belco#rt sent .atherine and another -etis girl to Long#e#il( 9#e$ec "or instr#ction "ro& the 4oe#rs des 4aints o&s de JVs#s et de -arie and the% ret#rned three %ears later to enter the new gro#! Belco#rt had "or&ed( the 4oe#rs de la /ro!agation de la 5oi. This gro#! dis$anded $eca#se o" an #ndeter&ined scandal and .atherine $eca&e the school teacher "or the &ission at 4t. Jose!h. 4he contin#ed teaching there #ntil she &arried Jose!h -#laire on ove&$er 24( 1ID2. 1e was the son o" Jose!h -#laire 4r. and 1enriette /a#l de 4t. 3avid. 1er h#s$and was a &ail carrier $etween 5ort 0arr% and /e&$ina. The co#!le settled close to her !arents who were now living at /ointe .o#!Ve now known as 4t. Adol!he( -anito$a. 1er h#s$and died o" !ne#&onia in 1IE1. ,n 1IDD( .atherine $egan teaching again at the 4t. Adol!he 4chool and she contin#ed #ntil 1II2 a"ter which she ta#ght o#t o" her ho&e located $etween 4t. Ado!he and 4t. Agathe. 5ro& 1I9< to 1I9C she ta#ght at 4t. icholas and "inished her teaching "ro& ho&e( now at Jtter$#rne. At one !oint she was recogni*ed "or winning !ri*es at the London .olonial EGhi$ition "or so&e o" her !#!ils; acco&!lish&ents. .atherine died at her da#ghter;s ho&e on A!ril 22( 1922.
,efe ence# 3iane -ichelle Bo%d. 6The +ise and 3evelo!&ent o" 5e&ale .atholic Ed#cation in the ineteenth@ .ent#r% +ed +iver +egion: The .ase o" .atherine -#laire. :inni!eg: Lniversit% o" -anito$a( -.A. Thesis( 1999.

8agdelaine 8arcotte *aframboise. >1EI0@1I4D?
-agdelaine is considered to $e -ichigan;s "irst $#sinesswo&an. 4he was a -etis &atriarch o" earl% nineteenth cent#r% -ackinac( -ichigan where she traded in the s#&&er and 3ansville >now Lowell( -ichigan? where she o!erated a "#r trading !ost "ro& 1I0D to 1I21. -agdelaine La"ra&$oise was a $#sinesswo&an( who &anaged several $rigades o" -etis( .anadien( and ,ndian vo%age#rs. 4he was so a""l#ent that she owned slaves. -agdelaine was the da#ghter o" 5rench@.anadien "#r trader Ba!tiste -arcotte and his Jdawa wi"e -isigon the da#ghter o" Jdawa .hie" Bewina)#ot >+et#rning .lo#d?. 1er "ather died when she was %o#ng along a !ortage $etween the 5oG and :isconsin +ivers. 1er &other then raised the children in her co&&#nit% along the 0rand +iver. Altho#gh illiterate -agdelaine was ed#cated in 5rench $% the Jes#it !riests. Th#s she was "l#ent in the Jdawa( JAi$wa( 5rench and English lang#ages. ,n 1I9D( at age 14 she &arried Jose!h La"ra&$oise. The% had two children( Josette and Jose!h who she sent to -ontreal "or schooling. L!on

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ret#rning to -ackinak Josette &arried .a!tain BenAa&in /iece the .o&&andant o" 5ort -ackinak. 1er $rother@in@law 5ranklin /ierce $eca&e /resident o" the Lnited 4tates in 1IC2. Together -adeleine and Jose!h $#ilt a large "#r@trading $#siness= the% had !osts at -ackinac ,sland and 0rand +iver. ,n 1I0D( :hite JG( an Jttawa ,ndian( &#rdered -agdelaine;s h#s$and $eca#se he re"#sed to give hi& li)#or. Th#s at age 2D( -ada&e La"ra&$oise $eca&e sole !ro!rietor o" the $#siness. 4he was eGtre&el% co&!etent and was said to earn as &#ch as _10(000 !er %ear whereas other "#r traders considered the&selves s#ccess"#l i" the% earned _1(000. 4he retired in 1I22 and divided her ti&e $etween -ontreal and -ackinac ,sland. 1er son( Jose!h La"ra&$oise was a well known -innesota "#r trader and inter!reter "or the 3akota gro#!s that he was related to $% virt#e o" his &arriages to chie" 4lee!% E%es da#ghters. -adeleine died in -ackinac on A!ril 4( 1I4D.
,efe ence# Ti&&er&an( Janet. 6Jose!h La"ra&$roise: A 5actor o" Treaties( Trade( and .#lt#re7. -anhatten( Bansas: Bansas 4tate Lniversit% -.A. thesis( 2009.

Connie *aliberte >$. Jct. 21( 19D0?
.onnie Lali$erte( a -etis wo&an( was the "irst A$original wo&an to lead a tea& to victor% in the Ladies :orld .#rling .ha&!ionshi! in 19I4. .onnie Lali$erte and her c#rling tea& o" .hris >/id*arko@-ore? 4calena( .orinne Lali$erte( and Janet Lali$erte@Arnott were ind#cted into the -anito$a 4!orts 1all o" 5a&e in 19I4. ,t was their collective e""ort d#ring the 19I<'19I4 c#rling season that earned the& the 1all o" 5a&e no&ination. 4ki!!ed $% .onnie Lali$erte( the tea& swe!t thro#gh ever% challenge it "aced( won its district in 3ece&$er( the -anito$a cha&!ionshi! in 5e$r#ar%( the .anadian "inal less than one &onth later( and the world title in /erth( 4cotland at the end o" -arch( and in the !rocess $eca&e the "irst -anito$a and onl% second .anadian tea& to win a world title. .onnie and her sisters .orinne and Janet( all learned their cra"t "ro& their &other( Jean Lali$erte who was a .#rl .anada instr#ctor. ,n 19ED( A#st eighteen &onths a"ter she $egan !la%ing( Lali$erte earned her "irst !rovincial title( !la%ing lead "or /atti 8ande. 4he re!eated that "eat the "ollowing %ear and was a r#nner@#! in 19E9 as a third "or La#ra +ance. ,n 19I0( Lali$erte &ade the transition to lead in the wo&en;s ranks when( as lead "or 3onna Brownridge( she added a third !rovincial title to her collection. The "ollowing %ear( Lali$erte ski!!ed her own tea&( which incl#ded her twin sister .orinne and older sister Janet( and )#ali"ied "or the !rovincial cha&!ionshi!( a "eat that she re!eated "ro& 19I2@I4. Altho#gh 19I4 &arked her "irst world title( it was her "o#rth .anadian cha&!ionshi! and siGth !rovincial title. .onnie Lali$erte was ind#cted into the .anadian .#rling 1all o" 5a&e in 2000 and s#$se)#entl% retired "ro& co&!etitive c#rling.

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A$ove: .onnie Lali$erte and her tea& &ates .hris >/id*arko@ -ore? 4calena( .orinne Lali$erte( and Janet Lali$erte@Arnott

Catherine .eaulieu .ouvier *amoureuF. >c.1I2D@191I?
.atherine was -Vtis( o" -Vtis and 3ene ancestr%. 4he s!oke several lang#ages incl#ding -ichi"( .hi!ew%an( 4lave% and .ree. 4he was ed#cated at 4t@Boni"ace 0re% #n;s convent( and raised in oral traditions( which she ke!t alive. .atherine !racticed 3ene s!irit#alit% and c#lt#re( and was in"l#enced $% &issionar% n#ns and .hristianit%. .atherine co&!leted so&e schooling in the +ed +iver settle&ent in -anito$a( and there learned silk e&$roider% and $eadwork( which she ada!ted to a #ni)#el% -Vtis st%le #sing cari$o# and &oose hide. .atherine was the da#ghter o" 5ranWois 6Jld -an Bea#lie# ,,7 and his wi"e .atherine 4t. 0er&ain. This -etis &atriarch o" 5ort /rovidence was known $% her 4lave% na&e( Ehts# aats;, >60rand&other o" the :inds(7 65ast like the :ind7?( which &eant the s!eed and co#rage which she de&onstrated while driving with her dog@tea&. .atherine was $orn at 5ort 4i&!son( :T. As the onl% da#ghter( she was no ordinar% wo&an as she was the e)#al to &ost &en living in the north. 4he had learnt &an% o" the essential northern s#rvival skills "ro& the !eo!le in her li"e= her "ather= her "o#r $rothers and her &other. .atherine &arried Jose!h Bo#vier >1I10@1IEE?( son Jean Ba!tiste Bo#vier 4r. and -aeg#erite Lara#te( in 1I40 at 5ort 4&ith. ,n the 1ID0s( the% settled !er&anentl% at 5ort /rovidence. The% had "ive children= -arg#erite >1IC<?( Jose!h Jr. >1ICC?( Jean@Ba!tiste >c. 1ICE?( .atherine >1ICI? and -arie@-adeleine >1IC9?. Jose!h was e&!lo%ed as a heads&an on 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% Hork Boat and $arge crews. Jose!h died in 1IEE and in 1IE9 she &arried her second h#s$and( Jean@Ba!tiste La&o#re#G at 5ort /rovidence. 4he died at 5ort /rovidence in 191I( having o#tlived $oth h#s$ands. Jean Le-o#el( a -etis "ro& Hellowkni"e tells the "ollowing stor% a$o#t .atherine: 4he co#ld tra! and h#nt like a &an and was a great traveller $% dogtea& or canoe. A "ew o" her grandchildren who are living toda% re&e&$er and talk a$o#t the tri!s she #sed to &ake "ro& 5ort /rovidence to 5ort +ae d#ring the winter( a distance o" 1C0 &iles. :ith two or three other ative wo&en( witho#t the hel! o" &en( the% wo#ld set o#t with dogtea&s. 3#e to the road conditions( n#&$er o" dogs and load "or the long tri!( the% walked all the wa% on snowshoes( which took &an% da%s while ca&!ing o#t ever% night. A"ter visiting with their relatives and "riends in 5ort +ae( the% ret#rned to 5ort /rovidence with loads o" cari$o# &eat. .atherine also carried the &ail to and "ro& +ae and 5ort /rovidence. There were also &an% wolves in those da%s. The% were o"ten seen and their howling was heard thro#gho#t the night. B#t nothing see&ed to sto! hera The Bo#vier "a&il% at 5ort /rovidence wo#ld s#!!l% the trading co&!anies "ro& the res#lts o" their h#nting and "ishing. Also( the% were ver% hel!"#l to the +o&an .atholic -issionaries who greatl% a!!reciated their assistance( $oth &aterial and intellect#al. ,n this sense( the% were !rotectors and inter!reters( hel!ing the &issionaries with the lang#age and teaching. ,t is also said that d#ring the water"owl h#nting seasons great )#antities o" wild geese and d#cks were !rovided $% the Bo#viers to the +o&an .atholic -ission. .atherine is re!orted to $e the so#rce o" the .hi!ew%an oral histor% o$tained $% 5ather l&ile /etitot and 5ather 0ro#ard.

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,efe ences Jvervold( Joanne. >Editor?( +u Metis *e ita"e# & (o t a!al >Hellowkni"e: -etis Association o" the orthwest Territories? 19ED: 1D. /a%&ent( 3iane /. Cathe ine .eaulieu .ou$ie Lamou eu1 of 'o t ( o$idence ( orthwest Territories= Ln!#$. -4= /arks .anada( 1istoric 4ites and -on#&ents Board o" .anada 2002.

*aura *angstaff.
La#ra Langsta"" is a 4askatchewan@$orn -Vtis descended "ro& the historic +ed +iver -Vtis co&&#nit% o" 4t. Boni"ace( -anito$a. La#ra !er"or&s original conte&!orar% -Vtis "olk &#sic written in the $allad tradition o" /ierre 5alcon( who is a c#lt#ral icon o" -Vtis !eo!les across the -Vtis 1o&eland. La#ra Langsta""Us &#sic is a re"lection o" the -etis &#sic $orn o" the &arriage o" two c#lt#res. La#ra writes her songs in the $allad tradition o" /ierre 5alcon( an artistic icon to the -etis. :hile she has co&!osed &#sic "or the !ast <0 %ears( it was onl% within the last ten %ears( that La#ra $egan sharing her &#sic with &ore than her "a&il% and her i&&ediate -etis co&&#nit%. :hile !#$lic !er"or&ances #ntil now have $een rare( La#raUs list o" acco&!lish&ents is i&!ressive.

,n J#l% 199E( La#ra !er"or&ed with an A$original wo&enUs vocal ense&$le who !er"or&ed her co&!ositions at .arnegie 1all. 4he shared a stage with 8AL3,( To& Jackson( and 4arah -acLachlin. ,n A#g#st 1999( La#ra was 4arahUs g#est and !er"or&ed "or two da%s at the Toronto sto! o" Lillith 5air. To &ake her &#sic availa$le to &an%( La#ra as a .anada .o#ncil s!onsored artist( recorded a s&all selection o" her &#sic in O4#&&er 4ageO( released in 4e!te&$er 2002. La#ra Langsta"" is a 4askatchewan $orn -etis singer and songwriter. La#ra;s &#sic is characteri*ed $% ha#nting &elodies and l%rics artic#lating -etis c#lt#ral icons and s%&$ols. Jriginal co&!ositions s#ch as 4#&&ersage >a !ra%er song?( -istasini >&edicine o" the &o#ntain?( Jne 8oice >e&!hasi*ing #nit%?( and $allad( Brood He Black 1ills( have ca!tivated a#diences across orth A&erica.
,n 1994 La#ra Langsta"" co@wrote and recorded .o&ing 1o&e "or the doc#&entar% "il& .atoche +ne Mo e Time( !rod#ced and directed $% -arAorie Bea#cage. Moitie/ Moitie/4he released her de$#t .3 entitled 4#&&er 4age in 2002. ,n the s!ring o" 2009 an ill#strated children;s $ook and acco&!an%ing .3 were also released( and shortl% therea"ter( -edicine :inds( her c#rrent "#ll@length .3( which cele$rates the s!irit and c#lt#re o" -Vtis !eo!les living in .anada.

14<

4#&&er 4age is a conce!t created $% Langsta"" in 199E to re"lect the inherent gi"ts o" &at#re A$original wo&en in the Arts to an ind#str% "oc#sed on %o#th. 4#&&er 4age has enAo%ed a n#&$er o" &ani"estations since $eing ins!ired $% the A$original wo&en;s )#intet( Asani( whose "o#nding &e&$ers were Langsta""( 4herr%l 4ew!agaha&( 3onita Large( 3e$$ie 1o#le and the late .ath% 4ewell. Together the wo&en !er"or&ed at .arnegie 1all in 199E. ,n 199I( Langsta""( along with &#sical !artners 3e$ .o#lter and Janice 5riedel( de$#ted as 4#&&er 4age and !er"or&ed at the -#se#& o" .ivili*ation in Jttawa. The "ollowing %ear Langsta"";s 4#&&er 4age !er"or&ed at Lillith 5air $% invitation. The trio was Aoined $% .ath% Long "or that !er"or&ance.

4ince 2002( Langsta""( along with her sister -elissa 1all( have $een !er"or&ing and recording as 4#&&er 4age( entertaining a#diences with their geneticall% &atched har&onies and h#&oro#s -Vtis !ers!ectives and anecdotes. The sisters strongl% $elieve that h#&o#r and &#sic are two necessar% tools in $ridging ga!s and $#ilding $ridges o" #nderstanding a&ong diverse c#lt#ral gro#!s. Langsta"";s &#sical credits are i&!ressive and incl#de !er"or&ances at .arnegie 1all( as well as with Lillith 5air( and To& Jackson;s !rod#ction( 6Trickster( 20007( a !er"or&ance "or 1ealth .anada. 4ince 200E Langsta"";s activities incl#de !er"or&ing at the -Vtis ation B. ational 0overnance Asse&$l%( on the &ain stage "or ational A$original 3a% in 8anco#ver( B.( as well as at the orth A&erican ,ndigeno#s 0a&es >3#ncan( B.?. 4!ecial a!!earances at

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the ational -ichi" .on"erence >1arrison 4!rings( B.? and the -Vtis ational .o#ncil +etreat >Bear Lake( B.? were also on the roster. ,n 200E 0reg .o%es( !rod#cer o" television !rogra&( The -iG( "eat#red Langstsa"" and 4#&&er 4age in one o" the e!isodes( which has aired on A/T re!eatedl%.

*eah *a5lante (n;e Dacine(.
Leah La/lante is a highl% res!ected -etis !olitical leader "ro& so#thwest -anito$a. 4he was $orn and raised in the Lake -etigoshe@T#rtle -o#ntain area o" 4o#thern -anito$a. 4he $eca&e involved in the !olitics o" the -anito$a -etis 5ederation in the 19I0;s and $eca&e the Local .hair!erson. 4he has s!ent &an% %ears researching and st#d%ing -etis histor%. ,n 199E she was elected as 8ice@/resident o" the 4o#thwest +egion o" the --5 and &oved to Brandon. 4he is !resentl% in her "i"th ter& and is still co&&itted to the -etis !eo!le she re!resents. 4he has held &an% /rovincial /ort"olios over the %ears $#t has $een the -inister o" Ed#cation "or the --5 and the .hair o" the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te since 200<. 4he sits on other Boards and co&&ittees related to the --5 as well as &an% in the larger co&&#nit% as she $elieves in $eing involved in &aking !ositive change as well as #sing ever% o!!ort#nit% to learn so&ething new and to alwa%s have a -etis voice at the ta$le. 4he has a !assion "or !reserving and !ro&oting -etis c#lt#re and heritage. ,n 200E( Leah La/lante was Co$chair of the Canadian Conservation -nstitute ( ese $in" &bo i"inal *e ita"e# Technical and T aditional &pp oaches 4%&!osi#&. ,n 4e!te&$er 200E( a$o#t 400 !eo!le gathered in Jttawa "or 4%&!osi#& 200E K /ro"essional conservators and Elders( sta"" "ro& c#lt#ral centres and &#se#& &anagers( co&&#nit% leaders and st#dents( c#rators and historians( and international eG!erts "ro& orth and 4o#th A&erica( A#stralia( E#ro!e( and A"rica ca&e to share their eG!ertise( eG!eriences( stories( and co&&it&ent. A$o#t one@third o" the& were ,ndigeno#s !eo!les( &ainl% "ro& .anada >5irst ations( -Vtis( and ,n#it?.

Leah has served in the "ollowing !ositions: • • • 8ice /resident( --5 4o#thwest +egion -inister o" Ed#cation( --5 .hair o" the Board o" the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te

14C

• • • • •

Board o" Lo#is +iel .a!ital .or!oration Board o" 0overnors( -etis ational .o#ncil Lniversit% o" :inni!eg ,ndigeno#s Advisor% .ircle Brandon Lniversit% /.E. .T. >/rogra& "or the Ed#cation o" ative Teachers? Advisor% .o&&ittee Brandon Lniversit% 5o#ndation Board

Leah received the :a Ni :anichihk Bee!ing the 5ires B#rning Award on J#ne 14( 2012. This award hono#rs +kiiOida -k%e or 6Big 1earted :o&en.7 Big 1earted :o&en eGe&!li"% the seven sacred laws o" honest%( co#rage( res!ect( h#&ilit%( sharing( caring and love $% sharing their knowledge( talents and eG!erience to hel! kee! their "a&ilies and co&&#nities strong. Leah is a great@grandda#ghter o" Lo#is Lee +acine and 4elina -oren. Lo#is Lee +acine( the "o#rth o" the earl% -Vtis settlers in the T#rtle -o#ntains( was $orn in -ontreal in 1IC2. 1e lived there "or onl% a "ew %ears $e"ore his "a&il% &oved west. 1e &et his wi"e( 4elina -oren( in Bea#"ord( orth 3akota. The% &arried in the late 1I90s and had two children( Lo#is Jr. and Eli*a$eth( $e"ore &oving to T#rtle -o#ntain in 190I or 1910. The% clai&ed the so#thwest corner o" section 10@1@22 and $#ilt a log ho&e near 4har!e Lake >then known as Long Lake?. Lo#is !aid the taGes on their land $% tra!!ing &#skrats which were worth onl% "ive cents a!iece at that ti&e. ,n the 1920s 4elina s#""ered "ro& an illness which event#all% took her li"e. The "a&il% travelled $ack to Bea#"ord to $#r% her at the !lace where she grew #!( then ret#rned to T#rtle -o#ntain to live. Leah;s grand!arents are Lo#is +acine Jr. and Alice -adeleine 0odon >$. 1912?. Alice was a descendent o" Lo#is 0odon who was a vo%age#r with AleGander 1enr% and the orth :est .o&!an% at /e&$ina and at +at /ortage $e"ore the :. &erged with the 1B.. Lo#is had co&e with AleGandre 1enr% "ro& La /ointe on Lake 4#!erior. Lo#is had &arried 6according to the c#sto& o" the co#ntr%7 Lo#ise a akota >Assini$oine? wo&an. Lo#is 0odon also received 1al"$reed 4cri! #nder the 19D<@D4 +ed Lake and /e&$ina .hi!!ewa Treat%.
+e"erences: .onwa%( -ar%. The Lille! 'amil! *isto !# & Manitoba Métis 0enealo"!. :inni!eg: .ona&ara /#$lications( 2002. T#rtle -o#ntainK4o#ris /lains 1eritage Association. 6Beginning o" the -etigoshe .o&&#nit%.7 http:GGvantagepoints.caG

,mma *aDocBue. >$. 1949?
E&&a La+oc)#e is a -etis "ro& northeastern Al$erta( $orn in the s&all -etis co&&#nit% o" Big Ba%. 4he received her B.A. "ro& 0oshen .ollege >,ndiana? in 19E<( an -.A. in +eligion and /eace 4t#dies >19ED?( an -.A. in 1istor% at the Lniversit% o" -anito$a and co&!leted her /h.3. in 1istor% and English at the sa&e instit#tion in 1999. 1er widel% read ed#cation &onogra!h( 3efeathe in" the -ndian >Aginco#rt( Jntario: Book 4ociet% o" .anada( 19EC? was written o#t o" her desire to red#ce the violence done to ative st#dents in the .anadian ed#cation s%ste&. This $ook is a &aAor contri$#tion to A$original decoloni*ation e""orts. ,t contains three

14D

&aAor sections= ative heritage and c#lt#re( stereot%!es and &%ths a$o#t &edia !ortra%als o" ative !eo!le.

ative !eo!le( and

4ince 19EE( E&&a has $een a !ro"essor o" ative 4t#dies at the Lniversit% o" -anito$a. 4he is also a well@known !oet. 1er !oetr% has a!!eared in a n#&$er o" anthologies s#ch as: :.1. ew >Editor?: Nati$e W ite s and Canadian W itin" >8anco#ver: Lniversit% o" British .ol#&$ia /ress( 1990: 1<2@1C2?( Jeanne /erra#lt and 4%lvia 8ance >Editors? W itin" the Ci cle# Nati$e Women of Weste n Canada. > or&an( Jklaho&a: Lniversit% o" Jklaho&a /ress( 199<: 1<D@14I?( and in Joan T#rner >Editor?: Li$in" the Chan"es. >:inni!eg: Lniversit% o" -anito$a /ress( 1990: ED@90?. 4he was interviewed $% 1art&#t L#t* "or the $ook Contempo a ! Challen"es# Con$e sations %ith Canadian Nati$e &utho s >4askatoon: 5i"th 1o#se /#$lishers( 1991: 1I1@ 202?. ,n 200C E&&a received a 5o#ndation stated: ational A$original Achieve&ent Award >Ed#cation?. The

3r. E&&a La+oc)#e is a scholar( a#thor( !ro"essor( !oet and h#&an rights advocate. 4he grew #! in a .ree@s!eaking( h#ntingPtra!!ing -Vtis c#lt#re in northeastern Al$erta. Jverco&ing o$stacles o" &arginali*ation( !overt% and childhood $lindness( 3r. La+oc)#e went on to ac)#ire a Bachelor o" Arts degree in EnglishP.o&&#nications "ro& 0oshen .ollege( 0oshen( ,ndiana in 19E<= a -aster o" Arts in /eace 4t#dies "ro& the Associated -ennonite 4e&inaries( Elkhart( ,ndiana @ "or which she received the +ocke"eller 5ellowshi! @ in 19ED= an -A in 1istor% in19I0 and a doctorate in ,nterdisci!linar% 4t#dies in 1istor%PEnglish "ro& the Lniversit% o" -anito$a in 1999. A#thor o" 3efeathe in" The -ndian in19EC( a st#d% o" stereot%!es o" O,ndiansO in !#$lic schools( 3r. La+oc)#e has written &ore than D0 !#$lications( $oth scholarl% and !o!#lar( in areas o" coloni*ation( .anadian historiogra!h%( &isre!resentation( racis&( identit%( violence against wo&en and A$original literat#res. 3r. La+oc)#e has $een a leading "ig#re in the growth and develo!&ent o" ative 4t#dies as a teaching disci!line and intellect#al "ield o" st#d%. 4he develo!ed all the core co#rses in the 3e!art&ent o" ative 4t#dies at the Lniversit% o" -anito$a where she has $een teaching "or 2I %ears. 1er work "oc#ses on the deconstr#ction o" colonial &isre!resentation and on the advance&ent o" an A$original@$ased critical voice and theor% in scholarshi! and criticis&. 1er dissertation on A$original resistance literat#re was no&inated "or the 3isting#ished 3issertation Award >1999?( Lniversit% o" -anito$a. A role &odel "or A$original scholars and st#dents and a res!ected !oet( 3r. La+oc)#e is "re)#entl% cited in scholarl% $ooks( creative and learned Ao#rnals and !restigio#s anthologies. 4he is internationall% recogni*ed and has !resented acade&ic !a!ers and read her !oetr% in A#stralia( England( 1awaii and thro#gho#t orth A&erica. 4he has $een a g#est o" .B. +adio and a!!eared as a cons#ltant in the 5B "il& O:o&en in the 4hadowsO. 3r. E&&a La+oc)#e resides in :inni!eg and re&ains active as a !ro"essor( researcher( writer and h#&an rights advocate in the A$original and wider co&&#nities.
,efe ence 3onovan( Bathleen. 6E&&a La+oc)#e(7 in 0retchen -. Bataille >Editor?. Nati$e &me ican Women# & .io" aphical 3ictiona !. ew Hork: 0arland /#$lishing( 199<: 1C2@1C<.

Chelsea *avall;e
.helsea LavallVe( the da#ghter o" :il" and -%rna LavallVe( was $orn and raised at 4t. A&$roise -anito$a. 1er grand!arents are: 3el and Anita LavallVe and 1arold and 3elia -oggie( all "ro& 4t.

14E

A&$roise. .helsea received a ational A$original Achieve&ent Award >4!ecial Ho#th? in 2009. The 5o#ndation;s write@#! stated: A grade 12 st#dent "ro& 4t. A&$roise -anito$a( avid vol#nteer and &aster o" the +ed +iver Jig( .helsea LavallVe is a %o#ng and acco&!lished !ro&oter o" all things -Vtis. -e&$er o" the 4t. A&$roise Ho#th 4te!!ers 4)#are 3ance Tea&( she #ses dance as a &eans o" c#lt#ral !ro&otion across the !rovince o" -anito$a( hel!ing her to win -Vtis -iss Teen -anito$a in 200C. Asked to share her li"e stor% in 200D at the <Ith Ann#al --5 0eneral Asse&$l%( LavallVeUs -Vtis #!$ringing has hel!ed her earn a 200D ational -Vtis Ho#th +ole -odel Award( 200DP200E ational A$original +ole -odel Award and a 200E -anito$a A$original Ho#th Achieve&ent Award 3avid .hartrand( !resident o" the -anito$a -etis 5ederation >--5? noted in his s#!!ort "or .helsea;s no&ination( 6.helsea is an eGce!tional role &odel ( not onl% "or -etis and A$original %o#th( $#t to the whole -etis ation. 4he has a !assion and drive that is hard to "ind( and thro#gh her !ersonal e""orts she has $een s#ccess"#l in sharing o#r -etis c#lt#re with her !eers and with n#&ero#s !eo!le o" all ages thro#gho#t the !rovince o" -anito$a. At the age o" 1C( she #nsel"ishl% vol#nteered &ore than 100 ho#rs o" her ti&e to n#&ero#s ca#ses s#ch as the .hrist&as .heer Board. The 4o#thwest +egion --5 Ho#th etwork( and her school;s Teens Against 3rinking and 3riving organi*ation( while &anaging to consistentl% &aking the hono#r role at school in the neigh$o#ring co&&#nit% o" 4t. La#rent. Also( in 200C she gained the title o" -iss Teen -anito$a -etis. .helsea received the 200D ational -etis Ho#th -odel Award in the 6-etis Leaders7 categor%( and was also hono#red $% the ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation as a reci!ient o" the 200D@200E ational A$original +ole -odel Award. ,n 200D( .helsea was one o" "o#r -anito$a -etis %o#th selected $% --5 !resident .hartrand to !resent her li"e stor% to the 100@!l#s %o#th delegates in attendance at the <Ith --5 Ann#al 0eneral Asse&$l%. ,n 200E( she received the 6-anito$a A$original Ho#th Achieve&ent Award7 in the 6.#lt#ral 5e&ale7 categor%( the "irst -etis selected in that categor% "or an award that had traditionall% gone to 5irst ations %o#th in the 1C@%ear histor% o" the award. The "o#ndation "or .helsea;s dedication to the !er"or&ance and !reservation o" -etis c#lt#re has $een thro#gh her involve&ent and !er"or&ances with the 4t. A&$roise Ho#th 4te!!ers 3ance Tea&( and her n#&ero#s solo !er"or&ances. Ho#th 4te!!ers is a -etis 3ance !rogra& "acilitated $% the 4t. A&$roise .o&&#nit% .entre and "#nded $% the 4o#thwest +egion -anito$a -etis 5ederation. ,t has $een !er"or&ing "or three %ears. .helsea and the gro#! have !ro&oted -etis c#lt#re $% !er"or&ing at do*ens o" events across -anito$a( in co&!etitions and on television. 4he also assisted two older dancers in teaching the +ed +iver Jig and 1eel Toe /olka to a gro#! o" "o#r to seven@%ear@olds. .helsea ca!s her i&!ressive res#&e with a consistent acade&ic achieve&ent averaging in the high eighties.7

14I

Lavallee( at eighteen( was awarded the .ongress o" A$original /eo!leUs Ann#al Ho#th Achieve&ent Award in the categor% o" c#lt#re and heritage "or 2009. The LavallVe "a&il% o" 4t. A&$roise have another reason to $e !ro#d o" sisters .hanning( .helsea and .hristie( as the% received the Spi it +f The Ea th award "ro& -anito$a 1%dro d#ring ational A$original 3a% J#ne 21( 2009 at the +ed +iver EGhi$ition !ark in :inni!eg. .helsea and the 4t. A&$roise Ho#th 4te!!ers 4)#are 3ance Tea& attended and !er"or&ed at the J#no Beach >5rance? cere&on% to hono#r -etis :orld :ar ,, 8eterans with the o!ening o" a -etis -e&orial dis!la%.

/hotogra!h: a$ove( r to l= .helsea LavallVe( Evan 3#char&e( .hristie LavallVe( J#stin 3#char&e( /aige +icard( 4heldon 3#char&e( Batl%n 3#char&e and Branden LavallVe !er"or& at the J#no Beach .entre in J#no Beach( 5rance on ov. 11( 2009.

+ister -rene Christine *avall;e. >$. 1924?
B% 5ather 0#% LavallVe( J.-.,. 4ister ,rene LavallVe was $orn in 4t. La#rent( -anito$a on 3ece&$er D( 1924( the ninth o" "o#rteen children( nine girls and "ive $o%s( $orn to -adeleine Bea#cha&! and /ierre LavallVe. 4he was $ro#ght #! in 4t. La#rent and was ta#ght $% the 4isters o" the 5ranciscan -issionar%;s o" -ar% who were then in charge o" the 4t. La#rent 4chool. 3#ring her high school da%s she "elt the call to $eco&e a &issionar% 4ister. ,n 1941( she le"t 4t. La#rent "or a %ear o" st#dies with the 4isters o" the 5ranciscan -issionar%;s o" -ar% at +iga#d( 9#e$ec. ,n 4e!te&$er o" 1942( she entered their novitiate at 9#e$ec .it% "or two and one@hal" %ears training. 1er "irst assign&ent was to the /hili!!ines= however( d#e to visa dela%s she was given an interi& assign&ent at a .onvalescent 1o&e "or .ardiac children in Long ,sland( ew Hork. ,n Jan#ar% o" 194E( she and three other 4isters $egan their long Ao#rne% to the /hili!!ines. The% traveled $% train to 4an 5rancisco( then $% $oat to 4hanghai( 1ong Bong and -anila( /hili!!ines. At -anila she worked as Assistant to the 4#!erior at a 1(000@st#dent school with an a""iliated or!hanage with 1C0 children >#ntil 19C1?. 4he !rono#nced her "inal vows on -arch 19( 194I. 5ro& A#g#st o" 19C1 #ntil 5e$r#ar% o" 19CE 4ister ,rene was at 4aria%a( 9#eson( serving in a school with D00 st#dents and !roviding .atechetical ,nstr#ction in the s#rro#nding r#ral areas. 4he was 4ister 4#!erior "or the co&&#nit%;s 1C 4isters. ,n this ca!acit% she ta#ght +eligion in the high school as well as taking res!onsi$ilit% "or the co&&#nit%;s "inancial &anage&ent and ad&inistration. 3#ring 19CE to 19D<( 4ister ,rene was assigned to the Le!er .olon% at Tala( +i*al. 4he was 4#!erior at this location as well. The colon% had over 1(000 le!ers. Their Jrder was res!onsi$le "or all the children "ro& $irth to "ive %ears o" age. 1er neGt assign&ent was as 4#!erior at the school and $oarding school at .e$# .it%. This school had a$o#t 200 st#dents and also o!erated a co&&#nit% so#! kitchen. ,n late 19DD earl% 19DE( she &ade her "irst ret#rn ho&e to .anada in twent% %ears. ,n 19DE( she ret#rned to work at 9#e*on .it% in the /hili!!ines( then at 4inga!ore in 19DI and A#stralia in 19D9. 4he was 3irectress and Ad&inistrator at a retreat centre( .#rsillo 3a%s o" 4t#dies( in Bris$ane( A#stralia. ,n 19E2( she took a one@%ear sa$$atical leave to .anada and #sed this ti&e to co&!lete her 0rade X,, and o$tain a 3i!lo&a as a -edical 4ecretar% "ro& the 1er*ing ,nstit#te.

149

,n 19E4( 4ister ,rene ret#rned to Bris$ane to work at the Xavior 1os!ital "or 1andica!!ed .hildren as a s#!ervisor. 4he then o!ened a new convent at 3ece!tion Ba%( 9#eensland. ,n J#l% o" 19EE( she ret#rned to .anada. At /rince 0eorge( British .ol#&$ia she worked at a hal"@wa% ho#se "or alcoholics( and then ta#ght Theological co#rses at 4t. /a#l;s Lniversit% in Jttawa( and did !astoral work in Toronto and 4t. Boni"ace( -anito$a. ,n 19IE( she was assigned as assistant to the 4#!erior at 4te. Anne de Bea#!re( 9#e$ec( then &oved to Jttawa where she s#!ervised a da% care centre and handled the .o&&#nit%;s "inances. ,n 1991( she was assigned to the -other ho#se in +o&e( ,tal% and cele$rated her 0olden J#$ilee as a sister in 199<. 4he was !rivileged to attend the -ass cele$rated $% /o!e John /a#l ,,( received co&&#nion "ro& hi& and shake his hands. ,n -a% o" 199<( she ret#rned to 4t. La#rent( -anito$a a"ter C2 %ears o" a$sence. There she !er"or&ed !astoral work in the !arish and ta#ght +eligion at the 4t. La#rent 4chool. ,n 5e$r#ar% o" 1999( the .onvent was closed and sold to the .o&&#nit% 3evelo!&ent .or!oration who trans"or&ed it into the 4t. La#rent Living .entre and 4t. La#rent .o&&#nit% 1ealth .entre. 4he then ret#rned to Jttawa and then to 4te. Anne de Bea#!re( 9#e$ec.

Agnes 5arenteau *averdure. >1IC0@192<?.
Agnes was the da#ghter o" Jose!h 3odet /arentea# and AngVli)#e 0odon( two o" the original 4t. La#rent -etis settlers. 4he &arried /ierre Laverd#re in 1IDD. Agnes and /ierre were a T#rtle -o#ntain $#""alo@h#nting "a&il%. /ierre a!!ears on the -innesota Territorial .ens#s "or /e&$ina .o#nt% in 1IC0 as !art o" "a&il% FC1. Jn -a% 20( 1IE4 he received 1al" Breed 4cri! !#rs#ant to the 1ID4 Treat% with the +ed Lake and /e&$ina Bands o" .hi!!ewa ,ndians >4cri! F <9D?. /ierre( dit Bea#@$lV was $orn at /e&$ina in J#ne 1I<I( the son o" Jose!h Laverd#re and Therese 8ille$r#n at /e&$ina. Jose!h Laverd#re held 1B. lot 1<1< at +ed +iver( /ierre had lots 1<10( 1<11( 1<12( 1<1< and 1<1C. /ierre >FD<I?( his $rother Jose!h >FDC2?( and sons 4tanislas >FD40? and ,sidore >FD41? were signators to the T#rtle -o#ntain .hi!!ewa Treat% o" Jcto$er I( 1904. /ierre is noted in 0a$riel 3#&ont;s acco#nt o" the "ighting on A!ril 24( 1IIC at To#rond;s .o#lee. ,n .lo#tier;s Ao#rnal he is credited with killing one o" the cannoniers. Two o" Agnes; sisters were &arried to +esistance activists and siG o" her $rothers were involved in the "ighting. 1er $rother Ba!tiste /arentea# was !art o" +iel;s Evovidate. A"ter 1IIC the "a&il% "led to T#rtle -o#ntain +eserve. Jn 3ece&$er I( 1IIC( Ja&es Anderson wrote to Lie#t. 0overnor 3ewdne% and indicated that there were a$o#t 1D 1al" Breeds re"#gees living at T#rtle -o#ntain in orth 3akota and these "a&ilies were +esistance !artici!ants "ro& the 4o#th 4askatchewan. 1e na&es the Laverd#re $rothers and J#ellettes. 2<E Agnes died at Belco#rt .3.

8arie$Antoinette *amoureuF *emaire. >1IID@19I<?
B% 0a$riel 3#"a#lt. -arie@Antoinette La&o#re#G was $orn in 4aint@ or$ert( -anito$a in 1IID( da#ghter o" 1#$ert La&o#re#G and -arg#erite Joli$ois. 1er "ather( $orn in 4aint@J#de( 9#e$ec was the son o" Lo#is La&o#re#G having e&igrated "ro& 5rance. 1er &other( $orn in orth 3akota was the da#ghter o" a "#r trader with the 1#dson Ba% .o&!an%.
2<E

0len$ow ,nstit#te( Edgar 3ewdne% "onds( 4eries 22( +iel +e$ellion( Ja&es Anderson;s +e!orts K 1IIC( -<20.

1C0

 

4he $elonged to a "a&il% o" "ive >three $o%s two girls? Two o" her $rothers had died in their %o#th d#ring the di!htheria e!ide&ic o" 1I94. 4he was a descendant o" Jean@Ba!tiste Lagi&odiere;s "irst "a&il%.

4he $egan her st#dies at the 4aint@5ranWois de 4ales 4chool in a /olish .o&&#nit% "o#r &iles so#th o" 4aint@ or$ert. ,t was at this earl% age that she learns to s!eak $oth !olish and English. Eight %ears later she attended the 0re% #n .onvent in 4aint@ or$ert. 1er "ather "ar&ed land $elonging to her &aternal grand!arents in 4t. or$ert where she s!ent &#ch o" her %o#th. The "a&il% then &oved to town where her "ather was a co#rt $aili"" and a !olice&an in 5ort 0arr%. 1e also owned a resta#rant and a $illiards hall( which later $eca&e the To#rist 1otel. ,n 190C she entered or&al 4chool in 4aint@Boni"ace on -asson 4treet !resentl% sit#ated near the &otherho#se o" the J$late sisters. The director o" this teacher training school at the ti&e was +oger 0o#let. 1er "irst teaching contract was with the sa&e co#ntr% school where she $egan her st#dies( 4aint@5ranWois de 4ales. 4he has "i"t%@two st#dents who &ainl% o" English( 5rench@.anadian( -etis and /olish. 5ollowing this "irst two@%ear eG!erience she then s!ent seven %ears teaching &ainl% -etis st#dents at Lara&ee 4chool in 4aint@Adol!h. 4he then $eca&e a school !rinci!al and the 5rench teacher in a "o#r@classroo& school in 4aint@.la#de. This was "ollowed $% "o#r %ears in A#$ign% "or the /rovencher 4chool 3ivision. Jn ove&$er 2I( 191E she leaves the teaching !ro"essor to &arr% /a#l Le&aire. Born in 5rance( he was the son o" 3octor Jctave Le&aire o" 4aint@ or$ert. The% had three children= Jeanne( -arcelle and 1enri. 1er !ro"o#nd interest in ed#cation was not li&ited to her "a&il%. 4he was &#ch involved as a school tr#stee "or the Bark&an 4chool 3ivision "or eighteen %ears and a its secretar% "or twent% one %ears. ,t was with great !leas#re that she took in &an% schoolteachers with who& she enAo%ed sharing her eG!eriences. :hen her $eloved h#s$and /a#l died in 194I she ret#rned to the !ro"ession she loved so ver% &#ch. ,t was while teaching with the sisters o" -isericordia in 4aint@ or$ert that she ca&e #! with the idea o" esta$lishing kinder grade classes in her ho&e "or two %ears. 4he was then hired as a !ro"essor o" English at 4t. John;s +avensco#rt "or a %ear and a hal". 5ollowing s#rger%( she lost sight o" one e%e= this !revented her "ro& working "#ll ti&e. A"ter her convalescence( she directed the "irst kindergarten at lcole d# /recie#G@4ong >Then a !rivate school? where she ta#ght "or "i"teen %ears #ntil her retire&ent in 19DC. -arie@Antoinette Le&aire received a n#&$er o" tri$#tes recogni*ing her #ntiring *eal o" services thro#gho#t her li"eti&e. -arie@Antoinette Le&aire died on Jcto$er 11( 19I<.

1osephte *avall;e *;pine >$. 1I<I?. 4!o#se( -aGi&e LV!ine( -.L.A. >1I<D@1I9E?.
Jose!hte was $orn in ove&$er 1I<I at 4t. Boni"ace( the da#ghter o" -artin Lavallee and -arie La&$ert. 4he was &arried to -aGi&e LV!ine and was one o" the heroines o" Batoche. The co#!le had "ive children: .elestine( &arried to Jctave +egnier( Jose!hte &arried to or$ert T#rcotte( -aGi&e Jr.( &arried to -arie -argaret Bo#cher( 8irginie &arried to AleG -c3o#gall Jr. and /atrice &arried to Alicie olin. -aGi&e served on +iel;s EGovedate. 1er grandson(

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-VdVric [V!hirin -c3o#gall( ..-.( was a "o#nder o" the -etis 4ociet% o" 4askatchewan and received the Jrder o" .anada in 19ID.

7ladys Dose *illey (Conway2 1ury(.
B% -ar% .onwa% 0lad%s +ose Lille%( was $orn in 1912 at 4and% Lake( -anito$a. 4he was the da#ghter o" Ja&es Lille% and Anne 4tevenson( who had co&e "ro& 4t. 5ranWois Xavier to ho&estead in 190E. 1er grand!arents( Ja&es Lille% 4r. and -arie .atherine /errea#lt dit -orin were $orn in 4t. 5rancis Xavier. 1er "ather( Ja&es Lille%>1I42@1919?( known in later %ears as -#shoo& B#cke%( was $orn in 1I42 and $a!ti*ed in 4t. John;s Anglican ch#rch at the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent. 1is "ather( 3aniel Lille% was an English&an who worked "or the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% as a car!enter and had co&e to -oose 5actor% in 1I22. 1e &arried -arianne +ichard and #!on retiring "ro& the 1B. he received Lot 1E1 at +ed +iver. 1e later !#rchased 1B. Lot 1E2. This co#!le had eight children. -arianne died in 1I4E and 3aniel in 1ICI. Ja&es was $a!ti*ed as a +o&an .atholic. 1e &arried -arie .atherine /erra#lt dit -orin in 1ID< at 4t. 5ranWois Xavier. 4he was the da#ghter o" Lo#is and -arg#erite -alaterre. The co#!le;s twelve children were $orn in that co&&#nit%. The %o#ngest( -ar% Jane( was $orn in 1IIC. At that ti&e conditions were di""ic#lt "or the -etis( as the Battle o" Batoche had taken !lace in the s!ring o" that %ear( and Lo#is +iel was h#ng in ove&$er 1IIC at +egina. Jntario settlers were !o#ring in to -anito$a "orcing the -etis to &ove "#rther and "#rther to the o#ter edges o" #nsettled land. Ja&es and his "a&il% &oved to the 4t. 3aniel area near his $rother :illia&( and in the s#&&er o" 1IIE( the% then relocated to the 4t. Al!honse area. ,n 1900( Ja&es 4r. and -arie .atherine &oved to .raw"ord /ark near .lear Lake and s)#atted along .lear .reek. The govern&ent ordered the& o"" the land and !aid the& _<00 to relocate. 5a&il% &e&$ers( 3aniel( and [ack &oved with their wives and children to 3#nseith( orth 3akota near relatives o" 3aniel;s wi"e( Esther -cLeod. The% "ar&ed near Bottinea#( orth 3akota "or a "ew %ears then ret#rned to ho&estead at 4and% Lake. ,n 190E( Ja&es Jr. &oved to 4and% Lake "ollowed $% Ja&es 4r.( 3an( and Lo#is and took ho&esteads in 190I. Ja&es 4r. died on -arch 14( 1919 and -arie .atherine on 5e$r#ar% I( 1922. ,n 19<1 0lad%s +ose Lille% &arried 1enr% .onwa%( son o" Ja&es and -innie .onwa% who had &oved "ro& Jntario to the T#rtle -o#ntains in 1I99. ,n 190E( Ja&es and -innie ho&esteaded in the T#rtle -o#ntain. 0lad%s and 1enr% raised their I children( siG $o%s and two girls on this land. 1enr% died in 19E1( and 0lad%s +ose then &arried To& J#r% who died in 19IE. 4he died in 199E. 0lad%s was a great ho&e&aker. 4he loved to cook( garden and &ade )#ilts "or &an% o" her children. 4he canned "ish( garden !rod#ce and wild $erries and sewed "or her children. 4he o"ten !rovided a s!ot "or an%one needing a ho&e( watching over nieces and ne!hews living near$% witho#t a &other. 4he ta#ght her older sons the art o" ho&e&aking. 4he enAo%ed having a lot o" !eo!le aro#nd her( the &ore the &errier. o$od% was ever t#rned awa% witho#t a co""ee or a &eal.

1ane *illey (Canada2 Conway(
B% -ar% .onwa%

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Jane Lille% was $orn in 190C at 4o&erset( -anito$a( the D th o" 11 children $orn to Ja&es and Anne 4tevenson Lille%. 1er "a&il% ho&esteaded at 4and% Lake( -anito$a in 190E. 4he went to 4and% Lake 4chool. 1er grand!arents( Ja&es Lille% 4r. and -arie .atherine /errea#lt dit -orin were $orn at 4t. 5rancis Xavier. ,n 192C( Jane she &arried Andrew .anada( $orn 1I9I at .ar&an( -anito$a the son o" /ierre and Lenore .anada. Jane and And% had seven children( one died o" !ne#&onia. ,n 19<E( And% was killed in a car accident. Jane $#ried And% in the ce&eter% west o" 4and% Lake and ret#rned ho&e with her "a&il%( to live with her !arents on the "a&il% ho&estead. ,n 19<9( Jane $o#ght the ho&estead "or $ack taGes. 4he lived there #ntil 1944( then &oved er "a&il% to the T#rtle -o#ntain( so#th o" 3eloraine. ,n 194C she sold the "ar&. ,n 19C0 Jane &arried 1oward .onwa%. The% $o#ght a s&all "ar& and $#ilt a large log ho#se with an #!stairs "or their growing "a&il%. ,n 19D4 the% $#ilt a ho#se on the +oad Allowance o" /T1. 4C0. The% lived there #ntil 19EI and then leased a lot at Lake -etigoshe. 1oward died in 19I< and Jane in 19ID. Jane was a great ho&e&aker. 4he canned( gardened and sewed. 5or &an% %ears she dressed #! in an orange h#nting s#it and went with 1oward as he shot her deer "or her and she tagged it. 4he cared "or her &other d#ring her last %ears( and !rovided a ho&e "or an% "a&il% &e&$er needing hel!. Jane( &ore a""ectionatel% known as 0rand&a .onwa% or A#ntie Jane "o#nd great delight in her children( grandchildren( her &an% nieces and ne!hews and her "riends. 4he enAo%ed their &an% visits $#t 0rand&a es!eciall% enAo%ed the reg#lar $all ga&es at 1olida% 1ills +esort where her children and grandchildren were !artici!ants. 4he was an eGcellent role &odel "or her children( grandchildren( nieces( ne!hews and da#ghter@in@laws. 1er ho&e was the h#$ o" the "a&il%( all holida%s and cele$rations were held in her ho&e. 5or a n#&$er o" %ears she attended the weekl% service at the T#rtle -o#ntain .ha!el. 4he was dearl% loved and will $e greatl% &issed.

.renda Dichard *ongclaws. >$. 19C9?
Brenda was $orn at the -etis co&&#nit% o" .a&!erville( -anito$a( the da#ghter o" 0eorge +ichard and 0race Bea#cha&! >$oth $orn at .a&!erville?. 1er !arents were 4a#ltea#G s!eakers( the older children in the "a&il% $eca&e "l#ent in the lang#age $#t the %o#nger ones( like Brenda( were not $eca#se o" the growing e&!hasis on learning English. 1er grand!arents s!oke( 4a#ltea#G( .ree( -ichi" and 5rench. 1er !aternal grand&other was a Treat% ,ndian "ro& +osea# +eserve. 4he recalls that her "ather;s $rother Johnn%( was a -idewewin !riest. 1er $rother( +on +ichard( is a "or&er vice@/resident o" -anito$a -etis 5ederation. Brenda co&!leted her Bachelor;s degree in Ed#cation at the Lniversit% o" -anito$a in 19ID and ret#rned to co&!lete her -.Ed. in 2000. 4he ta#ght school at :a%wa%seeca!!o in 19I1@I2 and "or :inni!eg 4chool 3ivision F1 "ro& 19IE@1991. 4he was a :inni!eg F1 .ons#ltant "ro& 1991@199< and then 8ice@/rinci!al o" 0ordon Bell 1igh 4chool "ro& 199< to 199E. 4he s#$se)#entl% worked "or three %ears at the Lniversit% o" -anito$a @ .ontin#ing Ed#cation( then ret#rned to :inni!eg F1 as 8ice@/rinci!al o" Ad#lt Ed#cation. 4he took the !osition o" 3irector o" the ative Ed#cation 3irectorate >-anito$a Ed#cation? in 2001.

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Brenda &arried L%le Longclaws( a social worker and "or&er 0rand .hie" o" 5irst .on"ederac%. The% have three children. The% c#rrentl% work as health cons#ltants.

ations

-sabella Clark <ardisty *ougheed. >1ID4@19<D?
,sa$ella 1ardist% was the &other o" Al$werta;s "irst -etis /re&ier( /eter Lo#gheed. ,sa$ella was the da#ghter o" .hie" 5actor :illia& L#cas 1ardist% and -ar% Ann Allen. 4he &arried 4enator Ja&es AleGander Lo#gheed on 4e!te&$er 1D( 1II4 in .algar%. 1er h#s$and( a law%er( was a!!ointed to the senate in 1II9. This was the res#lt o" the death o" ,sa$ella;s #ncle( 4enator +ichard 1ardist%. Lo#gheed was a!!ointed to "ill the vacant seat. 1e re&ained a 4enator "or thirt%@siG %ears. 3#ring his ten#re( he also served as .onservative Leader o" the 4enate "ro& 190D to 1921. /ri&e -inister 4ir +o$ert Borden a!!ointed hi& -inister witho#t /ort"olio in 1911( even tho#gh he was not an elected -e&$er o" /arlia&ent. 5ive %ears later( Borden na&ed hi& -inister o" the ,nterior and -inister o" .ivilian +e@esta$lish&ent >8eterans A""airs?. Lo#gheed held these !ort"olios #ntil -acken*ie Bing;s Li$eral !art% de"eated the .onservatives in the "ederal election o" 1921. 1e was knighted in 191D and ,sa$ella was then known as 6Lad% Belle.7 4he was the "irst !resident o" the 4o#thern Al$erta /ioneers and Jld Ti&er;s Association and was active in the .hildren;s Aid 4ociet% and the 8ictorian Jrder o" #rses. Their son /eter( was also !oliticall% active and $eca&e /re&ier o" the /rovince o" Al$erta. > This article was

written with contri$#tions "ro& +o$ert Lo#gheed( ,sa$ella;s great@grandson.?

1ane :lyne 8c9onald
B% 0eorge and Terr% 0o#let As the "#r trade eG!anded westward across the orth A&erican continent( 6co#ntr% wivesA !la%ed a &o&ento#s role in its !rogress and in the aid and co&"ort the% $ro#ght to their "#r@trading h#s$ands. ,n the earl% !art o" the 1I00s this was !artic#larl% evident west o" the +ock% -o#ntains where the% &ade #ni)#e contri$#tions to the develo!&ent o" British .ol#&$ia "ro& "#r trading o#t!osts to colon% and event#all% to !rovincial stat#s. A nota$le -Vtis co#ntr% wi"e in this area was Jane Bl%ne who entered into a co#ntr% &arriage in 1I2C with Archi$ald -c3onald( a 4cottish $orn "#r@trading o""icer o" the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% >1B.?.
Jane Bl%ne -c3onald >Li$rar% and Archives .anada?

Jane;s "ather -ichel Bl%ne was o" 3#tch@ .anadian ancestr%. A "or&er vo%age#r with the orth :est .o&!an% > :.?( -ichel was event#all% a!!ointed to the !osition o" /ost&aster at Jas!er 1o#se $% the 1B.. This was the highest !osition that a servant( who was not an o""icer( co#ld attain in the 1B.. -ichel &arried 4#*anne la 5rance( a -Vtis wo&an( in accordance with the c#sto& o" the ,ndian .o#ntr%. Jane Bl%ne was $orn on A#g#st 2<( 1I10 at Jas!er 1o#se( an 1B. !ost in the Atha$asca 3istrict in what is toda% the /rovince o" Al$erta. As a child Jane and

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her sisters acco&!anied their !arents on vario#s tri!s that their "ather -ichel took in !er"or&ance o" his d#ties in the "#r trade. 5rancis Er&atinger( a trader with the 1B.( reco#nted in one o" his letters a tri! that he took with the Bl%ne "a&il% "ro& Ed&onton 1o#se to Jas!er 1o#se. 1e noted that the gro#!( incl#ding %o#ng Jane( rode horses and traveled $% canoe and on "oot in order to reach their destination. As with other -Vtis girls( Jane ac)#ired the art o" &aking &occasins and netting thongs to &ake snowshoes. As she grew older she also assisted her !arents in looking a"ter her %o#nger si$lings. Jane &ade her "irst ac)#aintance with her "#t#re h#s$and Archi$ald -c3onald when she was a teenager. The% &et when her "ather -ichel took his "a&il% with hi& west o" the +ock% -o#ntains on one o" his .o&!an% tri!s. This enco#nter !ro$a$l% occ#rred at the Boat Enca&!&ent located at the A#nction o" the .ol#&$ia and .anoe +ivers. ,n ti&e the% "ell in love and were soon "ondl% re"erring to each other as Jenn% and Arch%. The 1C %ear old -Vtis girl &arried her handso&e "#r trader in 4e!te&$er( 1I2C V la faWon du pa!s. Arch% was then so&e twent% %ears older than Jenn%. 4he was Arch%;s second co#ntr% wi"e. 1e had !revio#sl% $een &arried V la faWon du pa!s in the Jregon .o#ntr% in 1I2< to /rincess +aven( one o" the da#ghters o" the !ower"#l and "a&ed .hinook .hie" .onco&l%. /rincess +aven died a$o#t one %ear a"ter her co#ntr% &arriage to Archi$ald -c3onald. 4he and Arch% had one son +anald who was $orn on the <4th $irthda% o" his "ather on 5e$r#ar% <( 1I24. Archi$ald -c3onald was $orn at Leechkenti#&( 4cotland on 5e$r#ar% <( 1E90. 1is "ather was Ang#s -c3onald and his &other was -ar% +ankin. Altho#gh he st#died so&e &edicine( likel% at the Lniversit% o" Edin$#rgh( he did not $eco&e a !h%sician. As a %o#ng &an he acted as a clerk and recr#iting agent in 4cotland "or Tho&as 3o#glas( 5i"th Earl o" 4elkirk. Lord 4elkirk was then the largest shareholder in the 1B.. ,n 1I11 the 1B. had granted 4elkirk a h#ge tract o" land in +#!ert;s Land e)#aling a$o#t 11D(000 s)#are &iles in what now is known as so#thern -anito$a and 4askatchewan( and the northern !arts o" orth 3akota and -innesota. 4elkirk wished to esta$lish an agric#lt#ral colon% and !eo!le it with !oor 4cottish and ,rish i&&igrants and their "a&ilies. The 1B. was then #ndergoing "inancial di""ic#lties. The .o&!an% had sto!!ed iss#ing dividends and the !rice o" its shares had signi"icantl% dro!!ed. ,n setting #! the 4ettle&ent 4elkirk was !ro&!ted $% his a&$itio#s &ercantile nat#re( the cor!orate designs o" the 1B. to eG!and its trade in the ,ndian .o#ntr% in o!!osition to the :.( and !erha!s $% h#&anitarian concerns. Beca#se o" the close connections $etween 4elkirk and the 1B.( his altr#istic &otives &a% have $een so&ewhat ten#o#s. According to 0l%ndwr :illia&s in an article in The .ea$e &aga*ine: 6\. the "irst recr#its "or +ed +iver signed "or service with the .o&!an% \. The distinction $etween colon% and .o&!an% was a "ine one.7 The overla!!ing interest o" the 4elkirk 4ettle&ent with that o" the 1B. is also &ani"ested in the a!!oint&ent o" -iles -acdonell as the "irst 0overnor o" the 4ettle&ent. ot onl% was he !ersonall% selected $% 4elkirk "or this !osition( -iles -acdonell was also given a co&&ission $% the 1B.. ,t was in 1I12 that Lord 4elkirk recr#ited the 22 %ear old Archi$ald -c3onald to "ind settlers "or the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent. The "ollowing %ear Arch% le"t 4tro&ness as second@in@ co&&and o" over 90 i&&igrants to the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent. The% wintered near 5ort .h#rchill and "inall% arrived at +ed +iver in the s#&&er o" 1I14.

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The esta$lish&ent o" 4elkirk;s colon% and the ar$itrar% dictates !roclai&ed $% 0overnor -iles -acdonell angered the :. and the -Vtis o" this area. The -Vtis saw these &atters as a threat i&!osed $% "oreign intr#ders to their econo&ic well@$eing and their traditional wa% o" li"e. The :. viewed it as a sche&e $% the 1B.( controlled $% 4elkirk and his $rother@in@law Andrew .olvile( to do serio#s da&age to the :.;s "#r@trading o!erations. The ani&osities that develo!ed led to an #n!re&editated o#t$reak o" hostilities in 1I1D in which the recentl% a!!ointed 0overnor +o$ert 4e&!le o" the 4elkirk .olon% and 20 o" his &en were killed $% the -Vtis. 4#$se)#entl% :. B. .olt&an was a!!ointed as a +o%al .o&&issioner to investigate this Battle o" 4even Jaks that occ#rred in the .olon%. .olt&an re!orted that 6neGt to certaint%7 the "irst shot was "ired $% 4e&!le;s &en. This occ#rrence >together with 4elkirk;s death in 1I20? was a "actor that led to the &erger o" the :. with the 1B. in 1I21 #nder the contin#ing na&e o" the 1B.. ,n 1I20( Archi$ald -c3onald $eca&e a clerk with the 1B.. A"ter a short ti&e at mle@N@la .rosse >in what is now 4askatchewan? he was !osted to 5ort 0eorge >"or&erl% 5ort Astoria? in the Jregon .o#ntr%. 5ive %ears later in 1I2C Jane Bl%ne $eca&e the co#ntr% wi"e o" Archi$ald -c3onald. The "ollowing %ear 0overnor 0eorge 4i&!son o" the 1B. !laced Arch% in charge o" the Tho&!son;s +iver 3istrict at 5ort Ba&loo!s in ew .aledonia. A "ew weeks a"ter giving $irth to her "irst child Ang#s at 5ort Jkanagan on A#g#st 1( 1I2D( Jenn% arrived at 5ort Ba&loo!s. Another son Archi$ald Jr. was $orn at 5ort Ba&loo!s on 5e$r#ar% <( 1I2I. Later that %ear -c3onald &ade a tri! with 0overnor 0eorge 4i&!son "ro& orwa% 1o#se to west o" the +ock% -o#ntains. The% traveled in the sa&e $oat down the 5raser +iver to 5ort Langle% where the% arrived on Jcto$er 11( 1I2I. Their g#ide was the eG!erienced AleGis L;Es!erance then stationed at orwa% 1o#se $#t !rior to that he had $een e&!lo%ed $% the 1B. in the .ol#&$ia 3istrict. According to the a#thor 3ennis 5. Johnson( L;Es!erance $eca&e a 6legendar% g#ide7 with the 1B.. L;Es!erance is the great great grand"ather o" 0eorge 0o#let( one o" the a#thors o" this cha!ter. 0overnor 4i&!son a!!ointed -c3onald to the !osition o" .hie" Trader and trans"erred hi& "ro& Tho&!son;s +iver to take charge o" 5ort Langle%. ,t was 4i&!son;s intent that -c3onald wo#ld &ake 5ort Langle% sel"@s#""icient and he eG!ected that there wo#ld $e 6.#ltivation and the rearing o" .attle7 at that location. The di&in#tive Ja&es -#rra% Hale( who was to $e -c3onald;s second@in@co&&and at 5ort Langle%( had also acco&!anied 4i&!son and -c3onald on their tri! down the 5raser +iver. At the ti&e o" Archie;s a!!oint&ent( Jane and the children were then at 5ort 8anco#ver. The% did not arrive at 5ort Langle% #ntil the "ollowing s#&&er o" 1I29. 1er h#s$and;s !osition o" co&&and and her taking #! residence at the 5ort &eant that she was now the 6Leading Lad% o" 5ort Langle%7. Jane $eca&e the -istress o" 5ort Langle% and a role &odel "or the co#ntr% wives at that 5ort. -c3onald has le"t a vivid descri!tion o" the 5ort as it then was. ,n (eace ,i$e # & Canoe )o!a"e f om *udson;s .a! to the (acific( -c3onald wrote in his Jo#rnal that the 5ort was 1<C "eet $% 120 "eet( had two good $astions and was s#rro#nded $% a galler% "o#r "eet wide. There was a $#ilding with three co&!art&ents to ho#se the servants and a s&all log ho#se o" two co&!art&ents "or the gentle&en. There were also two other ho#ses( one o" which had two s)#are roo&s with a "ire!lace in each( and an adAoining kitchen &ade o" sla$. 5ort Langle% had $een $#ilt in 1I2E #nder the leadershi! o" Ja&es -c-illan $%( a&ong others( -Vtis servants o" the 1B.. Toda% 5ort Langle% is designated as a .anadian ational 1istoric 4ite. Jne o" the !la)#es on the wall o" the 8isitor .entre at the 5ort reads in !art:

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,n 1I2E( a gro#! o" twent%@"ive &en K British( 1awaiian( 5rench .anadian( 8;tis and ,ro)#ois K were sent $% the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% to esta$lish 5ort Langle%.\. within a %ear relationshi!s were esta$lished thro#gh the &arriage o" the "ort;s &en to local 4tnl` wo&en. RE&!hasis added.S Jane Bl%ne;s h#s$and Arch% was a reso#rce"#l and intelligent steward o" the 5ort. 1e also &aintained in"or&ative Ao#rnals in which he gave acco#nts o" the atives( rivers( cli&ate( soil( $irths o" children and other &atters. Lnder his shrewd leadershi!( good relations were esta$lished with the ative tri$es in the area. As a conse)#ence 5ort Langle% soon !la%ed a signi"icant role in the develo!&ent o" the /aci"ic 4lo!e and the 5raser +iver( /#get 4o#nd and 8anco#ver ,sland. :ith the de!letion o" "#r@$earing ani&als in the area( 5ort Langle%;s "#nction was $eing diversi"ied "ro& that o" "#rs to !rovisions. 5ish( "ar& !rod#ce( cran$erries( and l#&$er $eca&e the "oc#s o" activities. The "ar& o!erations at 5ort Langle% were eG!anded to 2(000 $#shels o" !otatoes( do#$le its !rior o#t!#t. A"ter witnessing the large n#&$er o" sal&on $eing $ro#ght to the 5ort $% the atives to trade "or $#ttons and other trinkets( the !otential "or eG!orting "ish "ro& the 5ort was recogni*ed. ,n this res!ect a large scale !rocessing s%ste& "or c#ring sal&on was i&!le&ented( and a )#ali"ied coo!er to &ake $arrels "or shi!!ing the sal&on was $ro#ght to 5ort Langle% "ro& 5ort 8anco#ver. A storeho#se and coo!erage were erected at the 5ort and in d#e co#rse tho#sands o" tons o" !reserved sal&on as well as other goods were shi!!ed o#t o" 5ort Langle% to the 4andwich ,slands >1awaii?( Alaska and other locations s#ch as .ali"ornia. Jn Jan#ar% 1C( 1I<1 -c3onald wrote to John -cLeod o" the growing "isher% trade= 6J#r sal&on( "or all the conte&!t entertained "or ever%thing o#tside o" the ro#tine o" $eaver at Hork 5actor%( is close #! to <00 $arrels.7 This !eriod o" ti&e also saw the e&$r%onic $eginnings o" the l#&$er ind#str% in British .ol#&$ia incl#ding the active !artici!ation o" the -Vtis 1B. e&!lo%ees. 4taves were &ade o#t o" "elled trees and $arrels were &an#"act#red "ro& the& in the coo!erage $#ilding. Tho#sands o" cedar shingles and &an% !lanks were also !rod#ced. ,t was into this $#s% work at&os!here that Jane Bl%ne -c3onald and their children ca&e to 5ort Langle%. At that ti&e their children were Ang#s( Archi$ald Jr. and Jane;s ste!son +anald. ,n (eace ,i$e # & Canoe )o!a"e f om *udson;s .a! to the (acific there is a descri!tion given o" a dwelling ho#se descri$ed $% Arch% in his Ao#rnal as: \. a good dwelling ho#se( with an eGcellent cellar and a s!acio#s garret( a co#!le o" well "inished chi&ne%s are #!( and the whole inside now read% "or wainscoting and !artitioning( "o#r large windows in "ront( one in each end( and one with a corres!onding door in the $ack. ,n her $ook Jean -#rra% .ole states that this was the 6Big 1o#se7 intended "or the .hie" Trader and his "a&il%. This ho&e had a kitchen and $ake oven in which Jane wo#ld have #tili*ed her cooking skills. All was in readiness when Jane arrived at 5ort Langle% in the s#&&er o" 1I29. Jane had co&e "ro& &odest origins and grew #! with little ed#cation. Arch% was deter&ined that not onl% his children $#t also Jenn% sho#ld $e ta#ght to read and write. 1e !ersonall% t#tored the& at 5ort Langle% and later at 5ort .olvile. Edward Er&atinger had served with the 1B. west o" the +ock% -o#ntains "or a n#&$er o" %ears $e"ore retiring to 4t. Tho&as( L!!er .anada. A"ter his retire&ent &an% o" his "or&er 1B. cohorts carried on an active corres!ondence with hi&. This corres!ondence !rovides an insight

1CE

into &an% o" the !ersonal eG!eriences o" the $o#rgeois "#r traders and o" the activities o" the 1B. west o" the &o#ntains d#ring this ti&e !eriod. Arch%( "or so&e reason( #s#all% addressed Er&atinger as 64ir7 in his corres!ondence. Jn the other hand John :ork( another 1B. o""icer( addressed hi& as 6 ed7. Jn 5e$r#ar% 20( 1I<1 Arch% wrote "ro& 5ort Langle% to Er&atinger stating: 6 ow two words a$o#t Jenn% and the Bo%s \. 4he $ro#ght her third son RAleGanderS to this world on the 2Ith o" Jctr. last 2 that she is $eco&e an eGcellent 4collar RsicS.7 Even tho#gh she was $#s% with her %o#ng "a&il%( Jenn% contin#ed with her !#rs#it o" learning. Arch% wrote to his "riend John -cLeod on Jan#ar% 1C( 1I<2 a$o#t his e""orts to teach his "a&il%: 6:hat , regret &ost is the condition o" the Bo%s K "or there is nothing like earl% ed#cation K however , kee! the& at it -other and all. -% .hinook R+analdS now reads !rett% well and has co&&enced c%!hering Ran archaic word "or arith&eticS.7 Jane gave $irth to her "o#rth son( Allan( at 5ort Langle% on -a% 19( 1I<2. The "ollowing %ear Arch% wrote a$o#t her and his children: 6\. so that with hersel" and Toole at the head o" the class , a& in a "air wa% o" having a thriving school.7 Toole was the nickna&e "or Jane;s ste!son +anald. ,n that sa&e letter( -c3onald added that his d#ties wo#ld: 6\. !#t an end to this agreea$le and interesting !asti&e.7 1e indicated that in order to "#rther their ed#cation he wo#ld soon send his older $o%s to an acade&% that had recentl% o!ened in the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent. Jane;s ten#re as &istress o" 5ort Langle% was to end in 1I<<. 3#ring her ti&e there she had $ro#ght with her to the 5ort and its co&&#nit% the -Vtis heritage and c#lt#re that she had grown #! with in the Atha$asca area. ,n antici!ation o" a tri! to 0reat Britain in 1I<4( Arch% "irst went to 5ort 8anco#ver. /rior to his overseas tri! he was sent in -a% 1I<< to the /#get 4o#nd area to select a site "or 5ort is)#all%. ,t was to this area that the +ed +iver EG!edition >consisting o" &ostl% -Vtis i&&igrants and led $% Ja&es 4inclair? was sent $% the 1B. in 1I41. Be"ore he le"t "or 4cotland and England( Arch% arranged "or Jane and their "o#r sons to sta% with her !arents at their Jas!er 1o#se ho&e. En ro#te there( Jane gave $irth to her onl% da#ghter -ar%anne at +ock% -o#ntain 1o#se >in !resent da% Al$erta? on 5e$r#ar% <( 1I<4. 4he was now the &other o" siG -Vtis children incl#ding her ste!son +anald. Later that %ear Jane and the children traveled to the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent to enroll the older $o%s in school there. ,t is likel% that her !arents acco&!anied the& on this Ao#rne%( since that sa&e s#&&er her "ather -ichel Bl%ne relocated to the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent on his retire&ent "ro& the 1B.. At +ed +iver Jane and the children lived with the Anglican !riest +everend :illia& .ockran and his wi"e Ann. The older $o%s were enrolled in the +ed +iver Acade&%. Another Anglican &issionar% +everend 3avid Jones and his wi"e -ar% had o!ened the Acade&% in 1I<2. :hile sta%ing with the .ockrans( Jane &ade a decision to "or&all% Aoin the E!isco!alian "aith o" her h#s$and Arch%. +everend .ockran christened Jane( their "o#r sons( their da#ghter and her ste!son +anald on ove&$er 2( 1I<4. Jn his ret#rn "ro& his E#ro!ean Ao#rne% in J#ne 1I<C( Arch% &et #! with Jenn% and his o""s!ring at +ed +iver. :hile there( Jenn% and Arch% decided to "or&ali*e their co#ntr% &arriage $% #ndergoing a religio#s cere&on%. +everend .ockran !er"or&ed the service on J#ne 9( 1I<C. Arch% wrote to Edward Er&atinger on A!ril 1( 1I<D. A"ter "irst re"erring to the insanit% o" Trader John Tod;s English wi"e Eli*a( Arch% droll% added o" his own wedding: 6tho#ght the sa"est 2 least $otherso&e co#rse "or &e to !#rs#e was to close in with the old wo&an to#t de $on.7 ,n view o" his "aith"#l ten %ear &arriage to Jenn% and their &an% children( he wittil% added that in the !resence o" the 1B. .o#ncil >which had A#st co&!leted a &eeting at +ed +iver?:

1CI

6Arch% and Jenn% were Aoined in hol% wedlock \. RandS o" co#rse declared at "#ll li$ert% to live together as &an 2 wi"e 2 to increase 2 &#lti!l% as to the& &ight see& "it.7 ,n that sa&e letter Arch% revealed that he had "inished 6an A&erican 4ledge RsledS7( and that: 6\. in co&!an% with &% wi"e 2 little .hildren have enAo%ed &%sel" with last winter to &% hearts content.7 1is ret#rn "ro& 0reat Britain also witnessed a new assign&ent "or hi&. 1e was a!!ointed the head o" 5ort .olvile in the Jregon .o#ntr%. 1e and Jenn% &ade a heart"elt decision to leave the "ive older children >aged "ive to eleven? in the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent to carr% on with their schooling. This &eant that the% wo#ld likel% not see their !arents "or #!wards o" "ive %ears As events #n"olded( when Jane;s ste!son +anald was "i"teen %ear;s old he went to 4t. Tho&as to work "or Edward Er&atinger as a $ank a!!rentice "or a short ti&e. Later as an ad#lt( +anald !roved to $e an interesting character in his own right. :anting to see Ja!an( he arranged to $e &arooned there. 1e s!ent a %ear in Ja!an teaching English $e"ore he was #ncere&onio#sl% evicted. ,n the "all o" 1I<C( Arch% and Jenn% arrived at 5ort .olvile. This 5ort had s#$stantial "ar& and livestock o!erations. ,t was also the center "or the constr#ction o" $atea#G. These $oats were essential "or river "reighting along the 1B. "#r@$rigade trans!ortation s%ste& west o" the +ock% -o#ntains. Jenn% once again $eca&e the leading lad% and role &odel "or the wo&en o" a thriving "ort. ,n addition to the &ale servants o" the 1B.( there were do*ens o" wo&en and children then living there. Jane had sta"" to hel! her with her &an% d#ties at this 5ort. This was hel!"#l since she and Arch% entertained visitors( g#ests( and traveling 1B. o""icials on a reg#lar $asis. 4he took a lead role in !roviding hos!italit% to the&. The height o" Jane;s generosit% and o!enheartedness and that o" her h#s$and occ#rred at 5ort .olvile. :hen the &issionaries .#shing Eells and Elkanah :alker and their wives and a %o#ng $a$% .%r#s :alker arrived in the Jregon .o#ntr% in 1I<I( the dwellings that the% were to occ#!% were in a sad state o" disre!air. Jane and Arch% invited the& to reside in their ho&e at 5ort .olvile #ntil the ho&e "or the &issionaries co#ld $e &ade "it to live in. Jn 4e!te&$er 1E( 1I<I +everend :alker wrote in his Ao#rnal: 6+eceived a cordial welco&e "ro& -r. -c3onald and lad%.7 The% re"erred to Jane as 6a Aewel \. o" rare eGcellence7( and her children as 6living testi&on% to her &aternal e""icienc%7. ,n E1ile in the Wilde ness $% Jean -#rra% .ole( Jane is )#oted as writing to +ev. :alker and his wi"e -ar%: 6Altho#gh , have &ore attendants than %o# have( still the% leave &e )#ite eno#gh to do.7 3#e to Arch%;s increased d#ties at 5ort .olvile( it $eca&e necessar% "or Jane to ass#&e the ed#cation o" their %o#nger children that were with the&. :ithin a "ew %ears( her role had changed "ro& that o" a st#dent to that o" a teacher. This was a tri$#te to her innate intelligence and her a$ilit% to learn )#ickl%. ,n an article $% .ole in the 19E2 4#&&er iss#e o" The .ea$e &aga*ine there is a )#ote $% 0eorge Allan( an acco#ntant e&!lo%ed at 5ort 8anco#ver. 1e is )#oted concerning 5ort .olvile and the socia$ilit% o" Jane and Arch%: \. nothing , have %et seen in the ,ndian co#ntr% can e)#al the $ea#t% o" its sit#ation\. :hen seated at ta$le with -r. and -rs. -c3onald and their "a&il%( one cannot hel! thinking hi&sel" once &ore at ho&e enAo%ing a t^te@N@t^te in so&e do&estic circle. ,n dining with his wi"e and children( Arch% di""ered "ro& the #s#al !ractice o" 1B. o""icers having dinner onl% with other o""icials o" the "ort and not with their "a&ilies. :hen o""icials and g#ests visited the 5ort( Jane wo#ld s#!ervise the &eals and sit down to eat and chat with their g#ests.

1C9

,n the s#&&er o" 1I41 0overnor 0eorge 4i&!son o" the 1B. was traveling in the Jregon .o#ntr% on a leg o" his Ao#rne% aro#nd the world. Be"ore the 0overnor reached 5ort .olvile( Arch% and so&e o" his &en rode a distance "ro& the 5ort to &eet 4i&!son and his !art%. Arch% $ro#ght a delecta$le and n#tritio#s &eal to the&. Lndo#$tedl% Jane wo#ld have !la%ed a signi"icant !art in the arrange&ent and !re!aration o" this "estive $an)#et that was !re!ared "or 4i&!son and his ento#rage. ,n his Na ati$e of a Jou ne! & ound the Wo ld( 4i&!son wrote a$o#t this &eal: J#st "anc%( at the $ase o" the +ock% -o#ntains( a roasted t#rke%( a s#cking RsicS !ig( new $read( "resh $#tter( eggs( ale( 2c.= and then contrast all these dainties with short allowance o" !e&&ican and water. o wonder that so&e o" o#r !art% ate &ore than was good "or the&. J$vio#sl% this was an elo)#ent tri$#te to Jenn%;s c#linar% talents and organi*ational skills. Arch% was ver% !ro#d o" Jenn%;s do&estic and c#linar% a$ilities. Jn Jan#ar% 2C( 1I<E he wrote to Edward Er&atinger a$o#t Jane: 6At .olvile( the wi"e 2 &%sel" are in eGcellent !ractice @ her B#tter( .heese( 1a&( 2 Bacon wo#ld shine in an% ordinar% &arket\.7 ,n this letter he also re"erred to 5rank >Edward;s $rother? sta%ing with hi& and Jenn% at 5ort .olvile in 3ece&$er 1I<D. Be"ore .hrist&as( 5rank le"t the 5ort( $#t at the 4!okane 5orks he $eca&e ice $o#nd. 1e and his &en ret#rned to 5ort .olvile. J$vio#sl% the% arrived in ti&e "or a s#&!t#o#s .hrist&as dinner with the -c3onald "a&il% and their g#ests since Arch% stated in his letter that the% ca&e $ack again: 6\. A#st in ti&e "or the +oast Bee" 2 !l#& !#dding\. A"ter doing o#rselves 2 a$o#t "ive 2 thirt% &en all the A#stice \. o" good things at .olvile \. he 2 !art% again le"t\.7 A"ter the $an)#et with 0overnor 4i&!son in 1I41( -c3onald was eG!ecting the arrival o" Ja&es 4inclair and the +ed +iver EG!edition o" -Vtis i&&igrants to the Jregon .o#ntr%. Jne o" the& was Jane;s $rother Jose!h Bl%ne. The EG!edition did not arrive at 5ort .olvile #ntil the a#t#&n o" 1I41 as the% had taken a di""erent ro#te than eG!ected and also enco#ntered dela%s. 4o&e &onths later in -arch 1I42 in his letter to Edward Er&atinger( Arch% wrote a$o#t the +ed +iver EG!edition: 6Another &e&ora$le event is the &igration this wa% o" so&e o" the +ed +iver 4ettlers #nder the cond#ct o" -r. Ja&es 4inclair.7 The 1B.;s +ed +iver EG!edition was led $% the -Vtis Ja&es 4inclair. ,ts intent was to create a larger !o!#lation o" British s#$Aects in the dis!#ted Jregon .o#ntr% with a view to enhancing 1B. and British clai&s to the area. otwithstanding her -Vtis $lood( Jane was generall% acce!ted $% clerg% wives in the region. This di""ered "ro& the disdaining attit#des o" &issionar% wives at 5ort 8anco#ver >in what is now the 4tate o" :ashington? and 5ort 8ictoria. Altho#gh their h#s$ands were 1B. .hie" 5actors( two other !ro&inent -Vtis wo&en >-arg#erite :adin -cBa% -cLo#ghlin and A&elia .onnoll% 3o#glas? eG!erienced racial discri&ination "ro& the s!o#ses o" other &issionaries. ,n 1I<I the .ol#&$ia -aternal Association was "or&ed $% several wives o" the clerg% in the area o" 5ort .olvile. ,t was a .hristian organi*ation o" wo&en esta$lished "or !ra%er( conversation( to hel! the &e&$ers in their &aternal d#ties( and "or other activities. Jane was welco&ed $% these wo&en as a &e&$er o" this Association. Jane and Arch% lived at 5ort .olvile "ro& 1I<C to 1I44. ,n that !eriod the% heeded +everend .ockran;s words at +ed +iver 6to increase and &#lti!l% as to the& &ight see& "it7. To their great Ao%( siG additional -Vtis children were $orn to the& d#ring their ti&e at the 5ort. The% also eG!erienced trials and sorrows. Their son John died shortl% a"ter his $irth in A!ril 1I<D. Their neGt son( $orn the "ollowing %ear( was also na&ed John. Twins na&ed 3onald and Ja&es arrived on J#l% 2<( 1I<9 and 4a&#el saw the light o" da% on 4e!te&$er 2I( 1I41. Jose!h

1D0

was $orn in the a#t#&n o" 1I4< while the% were still &o#rning the death o" their "irst child Ang#s who had died earlier that %ear. Arch% was a!!ointed to the coveted !osition o" .hie" 5actor in 1I42. 1owever( he was now C2 %ears old and tiring o" the "#r trade li"e in the ,ndian .o#ntr%. 1e retired "ro& active d#t% with the 1B. in 1I44. ,n 4e!te&$er o" that %ear Arch%( the again !regnant Jenn% and their children that were with the& >three others were still awa% at school? le"t 5ort .olvile with the intention o" retiring in -ontreal. The "a&il% crossed the +ock% -o#ntains( intending to winter at Ed&onton 1o#se. :hile en ro#te a son BenAa&in was $orn in ove&$er( two &onths a"ter their de!art#re "ro& 5ort .olvile. ,n 1I4C &is"ort#ne str#ck Ed&onton 1o#se while the -c3onalds were there. ,n -a% o" that %ear scarlet "ever took the lives o" three o" their children K two %ear old Jose!h and the twins 3onald and Ja&es( who were not %et siG %ears old. These deaths were ver% di""ic#lt "or the "a&il%. Jane had alwa%s $een so !ro#d o" her twins. ,n his -arch <0( 1I42 letter to Edward Er&atinger( Arch% had re"erred to 6&% whole $rood o" ten7 and stated o" the twins 6\. the &other to a thread kee!s the& in the 4a&e kind o" gar$.7 The -c3onalds reached -ontreal later that %ear. Their last child( also na&ed Ang#s( was $orn there on ove&$er 2E( 1I4D. The "a&il% did not re&ain long in -ontreal. ,n 1I4E Arch% !#rchased a "ar& near 4t. Andrews East on the Jttawa +iver in .anada :est >"or&erl% L!!er .anada and now Jntario?. Altho#gh she and her children were -Vtis( Jane had no tro#$le "itting into 6white societ%7 in their new co&&#nit%. The -Vtis $lood in Jane;s veins was also strong in that o" her $rothers 0eorge and Ada&. The% were living in the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent at the ti&e o" the +ed +iver +esistance o" 1ID9@E0. ,n the initial stages the% $acked the notorio#s 3r. John 4ch#lt* and o!!osed the Lo#is +iel s#!!orters. At one !oint +iel even had 0eorge Bl%ne arrested "or a $rie" ti&e. 4hortl% a"terwards in Jan#ar% 1IE0( 0eorge Bl%ne was elected as one o" the 5rench >not English? delegates to the .onvention o" 5ort%. This .onvention( consisting o" 20 English@ s!eaking and 20 5rench@s!eaking re!resentatives( was "or&ed to disc#ss the ad&ission o" +ed +iver into the .anadian .on"ederation. ,t res#lted in the "or&ation o" a /rovisional 0overn&ent with Lo#is +iel elected as its /resident. A"ter the% settled in .anada :est( Jane and Arch% led a )#iet and a ha!!% li"e. Jn Jan#ar% 1C( 1IC< Arch% s#ddenl% !assed awa%. 1e was then A#st short o" his D< rd $irthda%. The co#ntr% &arriage &ade west o" the +ock% -o#ntains over a )#arter o" a cent#r% earlier $etween a %o#ng -Vtis wo&an and an as!iring 4cottish "#r trader had co&e to an end. /ro"essor :. L. -orton in the introd#ction to E1ile in the Wilde ness wrote o" Jane and Arch%;s &arriage: 6The "a&il% ties were close and end#ring( and the &arriage an eGe&!lar o" "#r trade &arriages.7 The widowed Jenn% lived o#t the re&ainder o" her li"e in .anada :est in a )#iet &anner. At so&e !oint Jenn%( her children and her ste!son +anald co&&enced s!elling their s#rna&e 6-ac3onald7 rather than -c3onald. ,n writing to Edward Er&atinger on ove&$er 14( 1ICD seeking a !osition "or her 19 %ear old son John( the widowed Jane signed her na&e 6Jane( Bl%ne( -ac3onald7. 1er letter contained well@str#ct#red sentences( a "ine voca$#lar% and no s!elling errors other than 6their7 instead o" 6there7. 1er clear handwriting is easier to read than Arch%;s scri!t. This letter !rovides tangi$le !roo" o" Arch%;s teaching skills &an% %ears earlier and Jane;s a$ilit% as a $right and intelligent st#dent. Jenn% died on 3ece&$er 1C( 1IE9. As a wi"e and &other she re!resented the role o" a co#ntr% wi"e in an eGe&!lar% "ashion. 1er death $ro#ght to an end the li"e o" this re&arka$le -Vtis wo&an( who has le"t her &ark on the histor% o" British .ol#&$ia and the /aci"ic orthwest.

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,efe ences# Brown( Jenni"er 4. 1. St an"e s in .lood# 'u T ade Compan! 'amilies in -ndian Count ! >Lniversit% o" British .ol#&$ia /ress( 8anco#ver( 19I0?. .ole( Jean -#rra% >1? 6EGile in the :ilderness: Archi$ald -c3onald;s ten %ears at 5ort .olvile7( The .ea$e ( 4#&&er( 19E2. 0eorge and Terr% 0o#let. 6Jane Bl%ne -cdonald: Leading Lad% o" 5ort Langle%(7 The Metis in British Columbia# ' om 'u T ade +utposts to Colon!5 8anco#ver( B. and .algar%( AB( 5a$Jo$( 200I:1D4@1I0.

.renda 8ac9ougall. >$. 19D9?
3r. -ac3o#gall was a!!ointed the .hair o" -Vtis 4t#dies at the Lniversit% o" Jttawa in Jan#ar% 2010( she is now engaged in Jntario@$ased -Vtis historical and co&&#nit% research. Brenda Aoined ative 4t#dies at the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan in 1999 and worked with -Vtis co&&#nities doc#&enting their histor% while eG!loring as!ects o" -Vtis indigeno#s knowledge related to "a&il%. Brenda has $een active with vario#s research !roAects( a colla$orative !roAect with 3rs. icole 4t@Jnge( .arol%n /odr#chn% and 1eather 3evine. 4he is co&!leting her research on -Vtis co&&#nities on the $order with the Lnited 4tates looking at how the ,nternational Border has i&!acted the a$ilit% o" -Vtis co&&#nities to de"ine the&selves as well as !#rs#ing a !roAect detailing earl% twentieth cent#r% A$original !olitical and c#lt#ral &ove&ents in western .anada. 1er "irst $ook( +ne of the 'amil!# Métis Cultu e in NineteenthCentu ! No th%este n Saskatche%an >2010?( was released $% the Lniversit% o" British .ol#&$ia and eG!lores the histor% o" -Vtis co&&#nities in northwestern 4askatchewan within a s%ste& o" "a&il% relationshi!s and as rooted in a !artic#lar !lace. As a !art o" that work( she is colla$orating with researchers "ro& the Lniversities o" Al$erta and 4askatchewan as well as the orthwest 4askatchewan -Vtis .o#ncil to !rod#ce an atlas o" the -Vtis eG!erience in northwestern 4askatchewan. The occasional !a!er= Yle V la C osse# famil!/ histo !/ and the eme "ence of communit! in No th%este n Saskatche%an/ 6LLB6>GL/ was !#$lished in 2010 as .L+A +tipmsuak discussion pape no5 U5
-ac3o#gall( Brenda. O]The .o&"orts o" -arried Li"e;: -etis 5a&il% Li"e( La$o#r( and the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an%.O Labou # Jou nal of Canadian Labou Studies 8ol. D1 >4!ring 200I?. -ac3o#gall( Brenda. :ahkootowin: 5a&il% and .#lt#ral ,dentit% in orthwestern 4askatchewan -etis .o&&#nities( Canadian *isto ical ,e$ie% vol. IE( no. < >4e!te&$er 200D?: 4<1@ 4D2. -acdo#gall( Brenda. 6mle N la .rosse: 5a&il%( 1istor%( and the E&ergence o" .o&&#nit% in orthwestern 4askatchewan( 1EED@190E( 3isc#ssion /a!er7 "or ?+tipimsuakZthe ' ee (eople# Métis Land and Societ! in No th%est Saskatche%an/T .o&&#nit%@Lniversit% +esearch Alliance( A!ril 200D. Brenda -acdo#gall( with 5rank To#gh and +o$ ,nnes( 6The 1istor% o" +eserve Econo&ies in 4askatchewan( 1I99 K 1901.7 B.,. 5#ng >Ed?. &tlas of Saskatche%an5

+ister 8ary 1ane 8c9ougall >1I44@1I9D?

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-ar% Jane was $orn at Lesser 4lave Lake in Jan#ar% o" 1I44( the da#ghter o" John 0eorge -c3o#gall and 0enevieve 6Jane7 Jas!ard >0as!ard?. 1er "ather( a 4cotts&an( was the "irst .hie" 5actor o" the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% "or the Ed&onton 3istrict. 1er &other( 0enevieve( was a -Vtisse "ro& the T^tes /lates 4alish tri$e. 0eorge -c3o#gall died in 1I49 and a"ter his death Jane >0enevieve? &oved her "a&il% o" seven children to 5ort Ed&onton. ,t was there that the children $egan to receive religio#s instr#ction "ro& the .atholic -issionaries. ,n 1IC<( Jane &oved the "a&il% to +ed +iver and her da#ghter -ar% Jane >$. 1I44? entered the .atholic Boarding 4chool. Jn 3ece&$er 2<( 1ID2( -ar% Jane $eca&e a novice in the Jrder o" the 0re% #ns and took her vows on -a% <( 1IDC. -ar% Jane worked "or the 0re% #ns at 4t. or$ert to esta$lish 4t. -ar%;s Acade&% and 4ister -c3o#gall oversaw their $oarding school. :hen she a!!lied "or her -etis land in 1IEC she listed hersel" as a #n at the 0eneral 1os!ital o" 4t. Boni"ace. ,n 1I90 she was na&ed s#!erior o" the $oarding school. Therea"ter she worked at 4te. Annes des .h^nes and 9#;A!!elle. 4he ret#rned to r#n /rovencher Acade&%. ,n 1I9C( she travelled to the Jrder;s &other ho#se in -ontreal and $eca&e ill while there and died in -ontreal on ove&$er <( 1I9D. ,n 1ICE( -ar% Jane;s $rother( 3aniel -c3o#gall( along with Lo#is +iel and Lo#is >La"ertV? 4ch&idt were attending school at 4t. Boni"ace with the 5rMres des lcoles .hrVtiennes when their &entor -gr. TachV decided to send the $o%s to Bas@.anada to co&!lete their st#dies in 9#V$ec in 1ICI. Lo#is +iel went to the .ollMge de -ontrVal( 3aniel -c3o#gall to the .ollMge de icolet and Lo#is 4ch&idt to the .ollMge de 4aint@1%acinthe. Jn J#ne 1I( 1IDD at 4t. Boni"ace( 3aniel &arried -arg#erite Br#nea# >$. 1I<9? the da#ghter o" 5ranWois Br#nea# and -arg#erite 1arrison. The co#!le were a&ong a n#&$er o" -etis "a&ilies who &oved "ro& 4t. Boni"ace to areas "#rther so#th s#ch as Lorette a"ter the tro#$les o" the 1ID9@E0 +esistance. 3aniel "irst esta$lished a ho&estead on the so#th side o" the 4eine +iver near Lorette in 1ID9@E1 and then o$tained land on the north $ank o" the 4eine !rior to his death in 1II0. 1e died as the res#lt o" a train accident in 4t. Boni"ace in which he lost a leg. 1e le"t his wi"e and two sons( 5ranWois 3aniel and AleGandre to s#rvive hi&.

/irginie *epine 8c9ougall.
8irginie was the da#ghter o" -aGi&e Le!ine and Jose!hte LavallVe. 4he &arried +esistance activist AleGandre -c3o#gall >$. 1ID9? on 5e$r#ar% 9( 1I91 at 4t. Boni"ace. 1e was a &e&$er o" .a!tain Ba!tiste Bo#cher;s co&!an%( one o" the 19 di2aines led $% 0a$riel 3#&ont d#ring the 1IIC -etis +esistance. AleGandre a!!ears on /hili!!e 0arnot;s list o" +esistance !artici!ants as F1E4. Their son( AleGandre Jr. &arried -aGi&e LV!ine;s da#ghter 8irginie. 1er "ather and "ather@in@law were $oth +esistance leaders. 1er grandson( -VdVric [V!hirin -c3o#gall( ..-.( was a "o#nder o" the -etis 4ociet% o" 4askatchewan and received the Jrder o" .anada in 19ID.

8ary Dose 9avis 8c7illis. >1IID@19I0?
-ar% +ose was the -etis da#ghter o" -ichel 3avis 2<I 6 #$#n@a%@gar@$on7 and 5lavett Aller% >1enr%?. 1er &other was 5lavie 1enr% dit Allar%( the da#ghter o" /ierre 1enr% dit Allar%
2<I

-ichel was $orn ove&$er 2( 1IC2( the son o" 6B#g@ka%@dwa%@wash@k#ng7( :illia& 3avis 4r. and -arie Enno.

1D<

and Angeli)#e /arisien. 1er h#s$and was /ierre -c0illis( $orn Jcto$er 2D( 1IE4 near Brandon( the son o" 64tar7 estor -c0illis2<9 and Elise B#rston.240 -ar% lived $oth in .anada and on a tract o" land north o" 4t. John( orth 3akota and &an% other locations since her "a&il% were tr#l% no&ads o" the !lains. The% roved "ro& the $anks o" the +ed +iver to those o" the -isso#ri +iver( "ro& h#nting enca&!&ents on the !lains to those o" their "riends( the .rees .hi!!ewas and so&eti&es 4io#G. 4he was !assionate a$o#t the treat% !rocess in the L4A and how it a""ected the -ichi"s down thro#gh the %ears. 1ow it was so long a ti&e to wait. 6:ith tears in her e%es she &entioned how her "a&il%( !arents( relatives( "riends( waited and waited "or so&ething that never ca&e.7 The land she sa%s( 6:as &ade "or all !eo!le and was not to $e "enced o"" "or one;s own #se. To the -etis @ to share and share alike was a val#e well res!ected.7 .ontrar% to what historians sa% a$o#t the na&ing o" the T#rtle -o#ntains( -ar% +ose said that the -ichi"s were then to call those hills the T#rtle -o#ntains. As a child she recalled the stories and t#rtle h#nting tri!s the -etis &ade "ollowing the -o#se +iver thro#gh its co#rse to the -isso#ri. There was an a$#ndance o" t#rtles @ t#rtles two and three "eet in dia&eter. 4he recalled how the% were killed "or "ood( how the t#rtle eggs were "o#nd in &#d holes along the river $anks @ how the &eat and eggs were dried o#t "or "#t#re #se @ she said that she had alwa%s known that !art o" the co#ntr% to $e called Les -ontagnes Tort#e >-o#ntains o" the T#rtles? $% the -ichi" $eca#se o" their a$#ndance.
,efe ence 4t. Ann;s .entennial .o&&ittee( St5 &nn;s Centennial 6AAE-6>AE. Belco#rt( .entennial .o&&ittee( 19IC: 4D<@4D4. orth 3akota: 4t. Ann;s

.ernice 3elsh 8c*aughlin. >1I91@19IC?
,n 19EE( Bernice :elsh -cLa#ghlin $eca&e the "irst -etis wo&an ind#cted into the Co%"i l *all of 'ame. Bernice was $orn in .anada and was raised on a working ranch. 4he and her h#s$and ho&esteaded in ew -eGico. ,n 1911 Bernice won the .anadian +odeo .ha&!ion 1igh J#&! contest( setting a new record. The "act that she did this on a $orrowed cow!on% is a tri$#te to her skills as a horsewo&an.

*etitia .ird 8c:ay. >$. 1I10?
Letitia was the da#ghter o" Ja&es .#rtis Bird and his second wi"e( Eli*a$eth. 4he was $orn 20 5e$ 1I10 in Ed&onton 1o#se. 4he was the hal"@sister o" the "a&o#s Je&&% Jock Bird and one o" the -etis e&igrants to the Jregon Territor% in 1I41. 4he &arried .harles -cBa% on Jcto$er 22( 1I2E at 4t. John;s( +ed +iver. .harles -cBa% >1I0I@1IE<? was $orn at Brandon 1o#se on the Assini$oine +iver. 1is notorio#s #ncle( 6-ad 3onald(7 had "o#nded Brandon 1o#se. -cBa%;s "ather John s!ent &ost o" his career there. 1is &other( -ar% 5avel( was the da#ghter o" an Al$an% +iver English trader and a 4wa&!% .ree wi"e. 1is &other died when he was A#st two %ears old and the res!onsi$ilit% "or his #!$ringing "ell to his older $rother( John +ichards -cBa%( who was then eighteen. ,n 1I2E( .harles &arried
2<9

4tar was $orn c. 1I49( the son o" AleGandre -c0illis and -arg#erite Bottinea#( the da#ghter o" .harles Jose!h Bottinea# and 6Techo&ehgood7 >Assini$oine?. 240 Elise B#rston was the da#ghter o" :illia& 0add% B#rston and -adeleine 0onneville.

1D4

Letitia Bird( the da#ghter o" .hie" 5actor Ja&es Bird. ,n t#rn( Letitia;s $rother John &arried .harles; sister -ar%.

Letitia Bird -cBa%( 1.L. 1i&e !hoto o" 1ICI >/A-?.

,n 1I41( .harles( Letitia and their "o#r children( Aoined $% another two o" Bird;s da#ghters and their h#s$ands and an #n&arried $rother Aoined the 4inclair !art% and traveled overland to the /#get 4o#nd area o" :ashington. 3#ring the winter o" 1I42@1I4<( .harles -cBa%( along with neigh$o#rs( hel!ed la% o#t the road to the :illa&ette +iver and a $ridge which crossed 3air% .reek. -cBa% later sided with those in the /aci"ic orthwest who "avo#red a""iliation with the Lnited 4tates. The% $eca&e A&erican citi*ens in 1IC1. .harles died at 0lencoe( :ashington .o#nt%( Jregon in -a% o" 1IE<. Letitia died on 5e$r#ar% 2D( 1I9E in :ashington .o#nt%( Jregon( L4A at age IE.

Dosemarie *avall;e 8c5herson. >$. 19C4?
B% A&% -c/herson +ose&arie was the 4!okes!erson "or the -Vtis :o&en o" -anito$a( an organi*ation which is dedicated to assisting -Vtis wo&en thro#gho#t -anito$a. 4he was also the /resident o" the -etis :o&en;s 4ecretariat o" the -etis ational .o#ncil. +ose&arie was raised in 3#ck Ba%( -anito$a $% her grand!arents( 0#idion LavallVe and -arie 6Ba$%7 >3#char&e? LavallVe. 1er grand"ather was a "isher&an and "ar&er. 0ideon s!oke 5rench and 4a#ltea#G= -arie s!oke English( -ichi"( 4a#ltea#G( /lains .ree( and 4wa&!% .ree +ose&arie was $orn in :inni!eg. 1er &other was diagnosed with t#$erc#losis at that ti&e and ad&itted to a sanatori#& "or the neGt "ive %ears. 4hortl% a"ter her $irth( her grand"ather had an #neas% "eeling a$o#t the $a$% in :inni!eg. 1e hitchhiked to :inni!eg where he then learned that .hildren;s Aid was a$o#t to a!!rehend their grandda#ghter. 1e then re&oved her "ro& the hos!ital and ret#rned to 3#ck Ba% with +ose&arie. The local /riest( 5ather 3e$ertine( then assisted the& in o$taining c#stod% o" +ose&arie. -arried to h#s$and 3o#g "or 2I %ears(

1DC

+ose&arie has raised three da#ghters= 4herr%( A&% and 4te!hanie( she also has one grandda#ghter. +ose&arie attended the local !arochial school( r#n $% #ns( "or her ele&entar% ed#cation. 4he received her 0rade 12 di!lo&a "ro& the 5rontier 4chool 3ivision residential school at .ran$err% /ortage( -anito$a in 19E2. 4he then earned her Ad#lt Ed#cation 3i!lo&a "ro& Brandon Lniversit%. 4he has also co&!leted n#&ero#s worksho!s and se&inars in leadershi! training and co#nseling skills develo!&ent. 5ro& 19E4 to 19EI( -s. -c/herson worked as a Training J""icer "or the -anito$a 3e!art&ent o" orthern A""airs in The /as( -anito$a. 4he then $eca&e a .oordinator "or an J#treach /rogra& #ntil 19I1. 4ince then( she has $een an A$original .o#rt :orker "or the 3e!art&ent o" J#stice in 3a#!hin( -anito$a. 4he is a &e&$er o" seven non@!ro"it organi*ations( and hel!ed esta$lish the -Vtis 5a&il% and .o&&#nit% ,nstit#te( an #&$rella organi*ation "or -Vtis .hild and 5a&il% 4ervices. -s. -c/herson is "l#ent in English( -ichi"( 4a#ltea#G( /lains .ree( and 4wa&!% .ree( and assisted in the design( develo!&ent( and i&!le&entation o" the -ichi" Lang#age /rogra&s o""ered thro#gh the -anito$a -Vtis 5ederation. 4he is a &e&$er o" 1eritage .anada;s Task 5orce on A$original Lang#ages and .#lt#res. >.ontri$#ted $% her da#ghter( A&% -c/herson.?

*ee 8aracle. >$. 19C0?
Lee -aracle( $orn on the west coast o" British .ol#&$ia( is o" 4alishP-etis heritage. 4he is the a#thor o" novels( non@"iction works( !oetr%( and short stories. 4he has !#$lished in over a do*en anthologies( and in n#&ero#s Ao#rnals and &aga*ines. Lee and her si$lings were raised $% their -etis &other( one o" the working !oor( in a orth 8anco#ver neigh$o#rhood. Earl% on( Lee reAected i&!osed racis&( dro!!ed o#t o" school and $eca&e !art o" the 6hi!!ie7 s#$c#lt#re $e"ore $eco&ing !oliticall% active in the 6+ed /ower -ove&ent.7 4he was one o" the "irst A$original !eo!le to $e !#$lished in the earl% 19E0s. 1er a#to$iogra!h%( .obbi Lee# -ndian ,ebel( was !#$lished $% the Li$eration 4#!!ort -ove&ent /ress in 19EC. 1er second $ook( - &m Woman >8anco#ver: :rite@on /ress( 19II?( is her literar% eG!ression o" the "ight "or li$eration and decoloni*ation. 4he is one o" the "o#nders o" the En4o%kin -nte national School of W itin" in /enticton( B.( a learning instit#te with an ,ndigeno#s 5ine Arts /rogra& and an Jkanagon Lang#age /rogra&. -aracle has ta#ght creative writing and held a visiting !ro"essorshi! with the :o&enUs 4t#dies !rogra& at the Lniversit% o" Toronto. 4he was the traditional c#lt#ral director "or the Cent e fo -ndi"enous Theat e and the &bo i"inal Mento in the Transitional Hear /rogra& at the Lniversit% o" Toronto. 4he has $een the 3istin"uished )isitin" ( ofesso of Canadian Cultu e at :estern :ashington Lniversit% and a :riter@in@+esidence at the Lniversit% o" 0#el!h. -aracle !#$lished her "irst !oetr% $ook( .ent .o1 in 2000. 1er literar% works incl#de: SoOou ne 4s and Sundo"s/ ,a$enson"/ 3au"hte s & e 'o e$e / Will4s 0a den/ .ent .o1/ - &m WomanD she is also the co@editor o" a n#&$er o" anthologies incl#ding the award winning !#$lication( M! *ome &s - ,emembe . 4he is a co@a#thor o" Tellin" -t# Women and Lan"ua"e &c oss Cultu e.

1DD

8arie Dosalie 7randbois dit .ouchard dit Dichard 8arion. >1I11@1IE4?
-arie +osalie Bo#chard dit +ichard was one o" the -etis 65irst Ladies7 o" the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent as were several o" her da#ghters who were &arried to !ower"#l +ed +iver &erchants.. -arie +osalie Bo#chard dit +ichard was $orn on -a% 11( 1I11( at Lac La!ine near Hork 5actor%( the -etis da#ghter o" 5rancois Bo#chard dit +ichard and an #nknown .ree wo&an. 4he &arried arcisse -a#rice >Xavier? -arion in 1I<0. arcisse was a 1B. $lacks&ith >$. 1I0C?. 1e was the son o" 5rancois -arion >$.c. 1EI1? and Lisette -artel. A n#&$er o" their children &arried into the T#rtle -o#ntain Band at Belco#rt( orth 3akota. .hildren o" -arie +osalie +ichard >Bo#chard? and arcisse -arion: ,lise 8arion was $orn on 3ece&$er 1I( 1I<1 at Hork 5actor%. Elise &arried or&an :ol"red :illia& Bittson >$: 1I14? in 1I4E in 4t Boni"ace /arish .h#rch. Elise was 14 and Bittson was <<. 1e was the son o" :illia& Bittson and 1elene -c3onald. .o&&odore or&an :. Bittson( was the &illionaire head o" the +ed +iver avigation .o&!an%;s "leet o" stern wheel stea&ers which served :inni!eg in the earl% da%s. Bittson( a "#r trader( hel!ed end the 1#dson Ba% .o&!an%;s "#r trading &ono!ol%. ,n1I49= he $eca&e a &e&$er o" the -innesota Territorial .o#ncils Eth 3istrict( "ro& 1IC2to 1ICC he was &a%or o" 4t. /a#l -innesota. 5ro& 1ICI to 1IC9= he o!erated stea&$oats on the +ed +iver "ro& -innesota north into :inni!eg in the 1IE0. 1e then worked with Ja&es J. 1ill to $#ild the 4t. /a#l( -innea!olis and -anito$a +ailwa% in 1IE9@I1. .o&&odore Bittson was << when he ca&e seeking a $ride at the ho#se o" arcisse -arion. Elise -arion was A#st "o#rteen. Bridegroo&s o" !ioneer da%s were o"ten older= $#t Bittson( who had &ade a "ort#ne in the "#r trade and another "ort#ne in the stea&$oat $#siness( had since he was a %o#ng &an carried a weight o" res!onsi$ilit% which( had $ro#ght earl% wrinkles and the as!ect o" age. ,douard was $orn o" 5e$r#ar% 24( 1I<4 in 4t. Boni"ace. Edo#ard &arried Eli*a -c3o#gall >$. 1I<<? circa 1I<< at +ed +iver. 4he was the da#ghter o" John 60eorge7 -c3o#gall and 0enevieve 6Jennie Jas!er >0as!ard?. The#ir son( J#les -arion >$. 1IDE? a!!eared in the 1II9 EG!osition Lniverselle >/aris :orld;s 5air? with B#""alo Bill .od%. The other -etis "ro& -anito$a in this show were( -aGio&e 0o#let( -aGi&e Le!ine and -ichel 3#&as. These &en were !resented as 5rench@.anadian tra!!ers with tea&s o" Eski&o sled dogs. 1osephte (1osette( was $orn on -a% 10 1I<D in 4t. Boni"ace. 4he "irst &arried Jose!h 0enthon >$. 1I<0? and then &arried 5rancois 0ingras( the son o" -etis trader Antoine Blanc 0ingras and 4cholasti)#e Trottier. 8aFime was born on -*ril "5, !4! in St &oniface# 5e died on May 5, 3 ' on the 0urtle Mountain Reserve, near &elcourt, .orth 6a,ota# Ma7ime married 8lise 8li9abeth St# Matte dit :erome (b1 :une 5, !$4) on Se*tember , !2" in the -ssum*tion Mission, near Pembina, .orth 6a,ota# She was the daughter of Martin St# Mathe dit S# Matte Sr# dit :erome and 8li9abeth ;sabelle <&ethsy= /il,ie# -aGi&e -arion was a g#ide "or the Bo#ndar% .o&&ission in 1IE2@E<( "or !ortion o" the s#rve% "ro& Lake o" the :oods to the +ed +iver.

1DE

*ouis was $orn on -arch 1E( 1I40( at 4t. Boni"ace. 1e &arried Androni)#e +oss( the da#ghter o" +oderick +oss and -arie 3elor&e. This was a !lains $#""alo h#nting "a&il% that ranged as "ar west as Black"oot .rossing and B#""alo Lake >Boss 1ill?. Jn the "a&il%;s scri! a!!lications o" 1IED( Lo#is is listed as a vo%age#r( trader and "ar&er. The -arion "a&il% "ro& 4t. 5rancois Xavier "ollowed the $#""alo and had esta$lished hivernant ca&!s in the 4o#ris +iver $asin. Lo#is $rothers A&a$le( arcisse( +oger( or&an and Ado!he settled aro#nd Jak Lake in the late 1IE0s. Lo#is s!oke 5rench and .ree. 1e acco&!anied 0a$riel 3#&ont on $#""alo h#nts in the 1IE0s. Lo#is Aoined the co&&#nit% aro#nd /etit 8ille( Batoche and 3#ck Lake. Lo#is and his $rothers -aGi&e >and wi"e Elise Jero&e? and Jose!h >wi"e Annie -c3er&ott? Aoined the T#rtle -o#ntain .hi!!ewa Band so&eti&e a"ter 1IIC. At the ti&e o" the 1IIC +esistance Lo#is and -arie were living at 3#ck Lake and he was working as the "ar&ing instr#ctor on Jne Arrow;s +eserve. Later( their da#ghter Elise wo#ld &arr% 5rancois -orea# the son o" +esistance .a!tain Lo#is was a &e&$er o" .a!tain Ba!tiste 8andal;s co&!an%( one o" the 19 di*aines led $% 0a$riel 3#&ont d#ring the 1IIC -etis +esistance. Lo#is did not want to Aoin the "ighting and was locked #! $% Lo#is +iel( who threatened to shoot hi& i" he did not Aoin. Lnder d#ress he agreed to !artici!ate( then #nder the !retence o" going ho&e "or a g#n &anaged to esca!e $e"ore the "ighting $egan. 1e gives the "ollowing state&ent : Jn the 1Eth -arch , was at :alter;s store at Batoche and a %o#ng &an ca&e and told &e there was going to $e tro#$le. eGt &orning we were re&oved to the ch#rch and the% had a &eeting and +iel told &e that , had ten &in#tes to consider i" , wo#ld Aoin the& or else he wo#ld have to do so&ething. , !ro&ised to Aoin $#t "irst chance , esca!ed\ , saw a son o" 0eorge 5isher and a son o" 4alo&on 8enne and %o#ng 0area#lt who had $een $ro#ght this wa%. , saw a n#&$er o" ,ndians there( so&e o" Jne Arrow;s $and( so&e o" Beard%;s $and and so&e 4io#G ,ndians. , heard that &an% were "orced to Aoin. Amable 8arion was $orn on J#l% 1D( 1I42. 1e never &arried his !artner 5rancoise -c0illvra%. 1e did &arr% Jose!hte Berard the da#ghter o" Lo#is Berard and .atherine 1#ghes in 1IEC. The% had one ado!ted son and two children o" their own. Dosalie 8arion was $orn on 4e!te&$er 14( 1I4C at 4t. Boni"ace( she &arried 1orace Belanger( the son o" Edo#ard Belanger and 4o!hie .asgrain. 4he died in 4t. Boni"ace in 1I<E at age 41. +osalie &arried 1orace Belanger on A#g#st 2E( 1ID1 and had 11 children. 1orace Belanger was $orn at +iviMre@J#elle( 9#e$ec on 11 J#ne 1I<D( the son o" ldo#ard BVlanger and -arie@4o!hie .asgrain. A"ter service at -ichi!icoten >-ichi!icoten +iver? "ro& 1ICC to 1ICE( BVlanger was !ro&oted clerk in 1ICI and stationed at 5ort Al$an%. ,n 1ID0 he trans"erred to the Lac La /l#ie district( an area o" co&!etition with "ree traders. There he dis!la%ed the necessar% initiative and end#rance to co#nter an% o!!onents( des!ite his &assive $#lk( "or he was a 6great $#rl% &an with Aet $lack c#rl% hair( "#ll $eard and &#st have weighed over <00 !o#nds.7 ,n 1IDE BVlanger &oved to .#&$erland 1o#se >4ask.?( where again the co&!an% "aced the threat o" "ree traders. As clerk in charge at 5ort@N@la@.orne in 1IDIKD9( he s#!ervised the s#&&er $oat $rigades( the vital trans!ortation link $etween .#&$erland 1o#se and its northern !osts. ,n 1IE0( still a clerk( he took charge o" the entire .#&$erland district. Two %ears later he was !ro&oted chie" trader and in 1IE< he was &ade "actor. ,n 1IIC he was a!!ointed .hie" 5actor o" the .#&$erland and 4askatchewan 3istricts and( "o#r %ears later( .hie" 5actor at orwa% 1o#se. 1e was a corres!onding &e&$er o" the -anito$a 1istorical 4ociet% d#ring this ti&e( donating several ite&s to its collections.

1DI

,n 1II9 BVlanger( two %ears a"ter +osalie;s death( was trans"erred to orwa% 1o#se >-an.?. :hile there( he was a!!ointed A#stice o" the !eace "or the Beewatin 3istrict and served #ntil 1I92. A widower since 1IIE( he !lanned to resign "ro& the 1B. in 1I9< to &ake a ho&e "or his children. Be"ore he co#ld do so( however( he drowned at 4ea +iver 5alls d#ring his 40th %ear o" service. .hildren • A#g#ste $orn 5e$r#ar% C( 1ID< • 1orace L#c( $orn Jan#ar% 20( 1ID9. 1orace L#c &arried -arie Adele -orin and had a child. • AleGander( $orn in .#&$erland 1o#se on 1 3ec 1IE2. • +oger( $orn in .#&$erland 1o#se on 5e$r#ar% 2C( 1IEC. 1e !assed awa% on 1I94 in 4t Boni"ace( -anito$a. • :illia&( $orn in .#&$erland 1o#se on Jcto$er 1D( 1IED 1e !assed awa% in the winter 1I9<. • +osalie Lo#ise( $orn in .#&$erland 1o#se on 20 Jct 1IE9. • .harles E#gene( $orn in .#&$erland 1o#se on 4e!te&$er 1I( 1II0 .hildren 3eceased >at ti&e o" +osalie;s scri! a!!lication?: • Jose!h Edo#ard( $orn on the 4askatchewan +iver A#g#st 2C( 1ID4( died A!ril <0( 1IIC. • -arie E#genie $orn on 3ece&$er <1( 1IDD. 4he !assed awa% on 1 A!r 1IE2. • 0eorge( $orn -arch 10( 1IE1( died Jan#ar% 2I( 1IEC. • arcisse $orn 4e!te&$er 10( 1IE<( died at E &onths in 1IE4. Doger 8arion2 8.5. >$. 1I4D?. +oger &arried J#lienne .arriere( on J#l% <1( 1IE<. 4he was the da#ghter o" 5rancois .arriere. The% had siG da#ghters( three o" who& $eca&e n#ns( and two sons. A !olitician( -arion was the .onservative -./. "or .arillon in 1IID and 1III( he was de"eated in 1I92 and re@elected in 1I9D. 1e was the &a%or o" 4t. Boni"ace "ro& 1IIE to 1II9. ,n 1I91( he was elected !resident o" the Lnion -Vtisse 4aint@Jose!h. +oger was $orn at Hork 5actor% and ed#cated at .ollMge de 4aint@Boni"ace. 1e worked "or several %ears at the trading !ost o" .harles Bottinea# in 3akota Territor%( a"ter the 1ID2. 1e worked "ro& 1IE2 to 1IED with the .#sto&s 4ervice then served as -anito$a License .o&&issioner "ro& 1IE9 to1IIC. 1oseph was $orn on A#g#st 1D( 1I4I at 4t. Boni"ace. 1e &arried Annie -c3er&ott the da#ghter o" Tho&as -c3er&ott and Elisa$eth .ollin. The% had "ive children. 1e died in 1I90. Narcisse 1r# was born in (ctober !5' in St &oniface Parish# arcisse was a$le to s!eak "l#ent English( 5rench and .ree. 1e also !icked #! so&e Black"oot( 4tone% and JAi$wa. arcisse Jr. &oved to Al$erta in the late 1IE0s or earl% 1II0s. 1e &arried -arie 0a#din -#nro( who had $een $orn at 4t. Al$ert( Al$erta in 1ID0. The% had two children( Lo#is and E&ilie( $oth o" who& !assed awa%. ,t is not clear i" these two children were $#ried in .algar% or whether the% were interred in the largel% @ "orgotten 5irst ations and -Vtis ce&eter% that is located on the sho#lder o" the orth 1ill( $elow the "or&er site o" 4t. Jose!h .onvent. ,n the &id@ 1II0s( the -arions &oved to the /o!lar +idge district( west o" +ed 3eer. arcisse was a$le to sec#re a ho&estead. 1owever( he did not do &#ch "ar&ing. 1e !re"erred to s#!!ort hi&sel" and his "a&il% $% h#nting( tra!!ing and acting as a land g#ide to new settlers co&ing into the district.

1D9

Norman ?NorbertA was $orn on Jcto$er 9( 1IC4 at 4t. Boni"ace. 1e &arried +ose J#elette >or Ellette?( the da#ghter o" -et#is trader Antoine 6+atte7 J#elette and Angeli)#e Bottineau# 0hey had seven children born at /8ood Mountain and (a, +a,e# ,n 1I49( arcisse -arion was designated to serve on the .o#ncil o" Assini$oia( $#t 0overnor 4i&!son re"#sed to acce!t his no&ination. This :inni!eg -etis $lacks&ith was an o!!onent o" Lo#is +iel and( altho#gh he worked to s#!!ort the Legislative Asse&$l% o" Assini$oia the .o&!ensation .o&&ission awarded hi& _100 "or hardshi! d#ring the !eriod o" riel;s /rovisional 0overn&ent. ,n the earl% 1I40s( -arion $#ilt a wind&ill so#th o" the 4t. Boni"ace -ission .h#rch. L! #ntil the 1IC0s this was the onl% wind&ill on the east side o" the +ed +iver >eGce!t the one &#ch "#rther north at 4t. /eters. <istorian *illian Thomas writes of 8arie Dosalie 8arion: ,n this !a!er , wo#ld like to honor the wo&en who &ade the "irst ho&es in the :est. Their contri$#tion was so i&!ortant the% sho#ld not $e over@looked( $#t we "ind ver% little a$o#t the& in the records we have. , a&( however( going to &ention one wo&an who was t%!ical o" &an% in her genero#s hos!italit%( and her ho&e was "re)#entl% &entioned $% earl% historians. , a& re"erring to -ada&e arcisse -arion. The -arion ho&e was in 4t. Boni"ace. ,t see&ed that &ost newco&ers arriving there soon t#rned #! at the ho&e o" arcisse -arion. A&ong the& was +everend John Black( the "irst /res$%terian &inister in the +ed +iver settle&ent. R5orS "ort% %ears the 4elkirk 4ettlers had !ra%ed "or a &inister o" their own "aith( and when he arrived he was not eG!ected. -ada&e -arion entertained hi& #ntil he was rested and re"reshed. -r. -arion then took hi& to his new ho&e. A ver% good descri!tion o" the kind o" ho&e -ada&e -arion ke!t is given $% J. :. +adiger( 1ead .lerk o" the 1#dsonUs Ba% .o&!an%. 1e wrote: O,n a $ea#ti"#l setting o" trees( water and wild "lowers , reached a s!ot where a !eace"#l and cos% ho&e was standing. , knocked at the "ront door and was welco&ed $% a $rown@e%ed &aiden wearing a daint% &erino dress and a s!otless white !ina"ore. :ith a winning s&ile and an inviting co#rtes% she introd#ced &e to a tall( strong and health% gentle&an( the real t%!e o" a .anadian "ro& old 9#e$ec. A"ter a "ew in)#iries , was invited to have dinner with the "a&il%. There was the "ather( -. arcisse -arion( the &other( a tall( statel% wo&an( and their three da#ghters( Jose!hine( Elise and +osalie. A %o#ng &aid $% the na&e o" -aggie waited on ta$le. OA strict eti)#ette was dis!la%ed in the !re!aration and the serving o" the "ood@the latter done to !er"ection. , was a&#sed $% the "act that the head o" the "a&il% was not )#ite "a&iliar with the English lang#age( and this &ade &e reali*e how !er"ectl% the %o#ng ladies s!oke it. O, did a!!reciate their res!ect"#l and delicate &anners when necessar% errors in s!eech had to $e corrected( to &ake the &eaning clear. OJn leaving , eG!ressed &% s#r!rise( &% thanks and ad&iration to those , now n#&$er a&ong &% $est "riends in the :est. +eall% , co#ld not have "o#nd in &% own co#ntr% &ore re"ined or $etter ed#cated !eo!le than those , have &et here toda%.O

1E0

Jne can i&agine the in"l#ence o" s#ch a ho&e( and hono#r the wo&en who ke!t #! s#ch a standard.241

+ophia Thomas 8ason. >1I0C@1ID1?
4o!hie Tho&as was $orn circa 1I0C at +ed +iver( the third da#ghter o" 3r Tho&as Tho&as and his .ree wi"e 4arah. 1er older sister -ar% Ann was &arried to 0eorge Bird( the son o" Ja&es .#rtis Bird. 1er %o#nger sister Eli*a$eth &arried Jose!h Bird( 0eorge;s $rother. 1er "ather was a 1B. chie" "actor and governor o" the orthern 3e!art&ent. 4he was $a!ti*ed on ove&$er 10( 1I22 at 4t. John;s( +ed +iver. :hen 3r Tho&as died in 1I2I he le"t each o" his siG da#ghters b1(000 in < !er cent consolidated Bank o" England ann#ities. 4o!hia had the $ene"it o" a good #!$ringing( "irst in the ho&e o" the +everend 3avid Tho&as Jones( in whose tr#st she had $een !laced $% her "ather( and( a"ter Jones; death( in the ho&e o" the +everend :illia& .ockran. 4he received her ed#cation at the +ed +iver Acade&%. ,n 1I4<( an o""er &ade to her to $e a governess in the ladies; section o" the acade&%. 4he declined in order to &arr%( the +everend :illia& -ason( a :esle%an -ethodist &issionar%( on A#g#st 10( 1I4< at 4t. John;s. The co#!le was "irst !osted at the +ossville &ission( at orwa% 1o#se in 1I4<. This $eca&e their ho&e "or 11 %ears. At that ti&e +ossville &ission was in the charge o" the +everend Ja&es Evans( the inventor o" the s%lla$ic s%ste& o" writing the .ree lang#age. ,n the s#&&er o" 1I4C Evans le"t with his "a&il% $eca#se o" ill health. ,t th#s "ell to :illia& -ason to !ro!agate the 0os!el a&ong the ,ndians $% &eans o" the !rinted word. 4o!hia -ason;s a$ilit% to s!eak .ree was o" great assistance to her h#s$and. 4o!hia( hel!ed o#t at the ,ndian da% school( &ade visits to the ,ndian ho&es( as well as attending to the needs o" their large "a&il%( in s!ite o" rather "ragile health. ,n 1IC4 -ason le"t the -ethodist .h#rch( Aoined the .h#rch o" England. The% then &oved to Hork 5actor%. 5o#r %ears later the -asons sailed to England to s#!erintend the !rinting o" the ew Testa&ent in .ree s%lla$ics= when this was co&!leted in 1IC9( the% re&ained to see the Jld Testa&ent thro#gh the !ress. 4hortl% a"ter her arrival in England in 1ICI 4o!hia s#""ered a severe attack o" !le#ris%( and she contin#ed to have !#l&onar% a""lictions. 1er translating was "re)#entl% interr#!ted $% sei*#res o" !ain. ,n J#l%1ID1( she gave $irth to her ninth child. 4he contin#ed her work on he last o" the Jld Testa&ent $ooks and three &onths later was dead.
+e"erence Br#ce /eel( 64o!hia Tho&as.7 ,n 3ictiona ! of Canadian .io" aph!( 8ol. ,X >1ID1@1IE0?. Toronto: Lniversit% o" Toronto /ress( 19ED.

Catherine 8attes.
$%#

.illian Beynon -homas. /Some anitoba )omen )ho 0id 1irst -hings.2 Manitoba Historical Society Transactions, Series &, "o. %, #'%3-%4

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-Vtis c#rator and writer .atherine -attes lives in 4hilo( -anito$a and has roots in /ortage La /rairie. 4he co&!leted her BA at the Lniversit% o" :inni!eg in 199D and her -.A. in Art 1istor% in -ontreal at .oncordia Lniversit% >199I?. 4he was co@c#rator "or the art eGhi$it( ,ielisms( which a!!eared at the :inni!eg Art 0aller%( Jan#ar% 2C to -arch 1I( 2001( and 3#nlo! Art 0aller%( +egina also 2001. ,n this eGhi$it ten artists'o" -Vtis( 5irst ations( and E#ro@ .anadian ancestr%'!resent their own inter!retations o" this iconic "ig#re. 4he has worked as Ed#cation .oordinator "or the Art 0aller% o" 4o#thwestern -anito$a( and as a sessional lect#rer "or Brandon Lniversit%. ,n her !ractice( .atherine "oc#ses on A$original ,ss#es and Art( she has organi*ed or assisted in n#&ero#s eGhi$itions o" this t%!e= "or eGa&!le( Tattoonation >.o@.#rator( ation2 ation( -ontreal( 199E?( ,e# Co- llections9'i st Nations (hoto" aph! and E1hibition >Jrgani*er( 2000@ 2001( Lr$an 4ha&an 0aller%( :inni!eg with Boo&alli A$original Artists .o@o!erative( 4%dne%( A#stralia?. ,n 2002 the eGhi$it Lita 'ontaine# Without ,ese $ation o!ened at the :inni!eg Art 0aller%. A !#$lication o" this eGhi$ition was cataloged( c#ratorial essa% written $% .atherine -attes. 4he !re!ared an essa% on the 0o!ce and Joshim :ake"amic E1hibit "or 0aller% Jne Jne Jne( 4chool o" Art. 4he was a $oard &e&$er o" the Lr$an 4ha&an 0aller% in :inni!eg. .ath% has !resented critical art historical !a!ers at con"erences s#ch as the Learned 4ociet% o" .anada and the Lniversit% Art Association o" .anada. 4he has had articles !#$lished in &bo i"inal )oices( .o de C ossin"s and was a g#est editor "or ( ai ie 'i e;s: 'i st )oices 'i st Wo ds >8ol. 22( o. <( A#t#&n 2001?. .atherine contri$#ted a cha!ter= 6-etis /ers!ectives in .onte&!orar% Art(7 to the Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te( .anada -illenni#& B#rea# $ook !roAect Metis Le"ac! >/e&&ican /#$lications ,nc. 2001?.

Andrea 8enard. >$. 19E1?
Andrea -enard is a .anadian actress( !la%wright( and Aa** singer( $orn in 19E1 in 5lin 5lon( -anito$a and $ased in 4askatchewan. -enard( who is o" -Vtis descent( is $est known "or her work on the television series Moccasin 'lats >200<? in which she !la%ed a /olice J""icer with the +egina /olice 4ervice in the cit% o" +egina( 4askatchewan. 4he also had a starring role as .onsta$le Tara :heaton in the television series ,abbit 'all >200E@200I?. An acco&!lished Aa** singer( -enard wrote and co&!osed a one@wo&an( &#sical one act !la% entitled The )el$et 3e$il which o!ened to rave reviews in 199I. A so#ndtrack al$#& "eat#ring 1I songs was released in 2002 and the .B. &ade a "il& $ased #!on the !la% which aired in .anada in A!ril 200D. ,n 200C( -enard was "eat#red on the co&!ilation al$#&( ,eal 3i$as - To ch Li"ht )ol5 -- along with 1C other .anadian Aa** vocalists. -enardUs &#sic has $een #sed in a n#&$er o" T8 shows internationall%( &ost nota$l% her tong#e@in@cheek ode to gender !olitics( O," , :ere a -anO( which was "eat#red on an e!isode o" the series @uee as 'olk. ,n -a% 200C( -enard was one o" the headliners o" a s!ecial co&&and !er"or&ance "or 9#een Eli*a$eth ,, to &ark the 100th anniversar% o" 4askatchewan $eco&ing a !rovince o" .anada. -enardUs second .3( Simple Steps( was released on 3ece&$er <( 200C. ,n the "all o" 200C( she co#ld also $e seen in television advertise&ents "or 4askTelUs ,nternet service.

1enny 8c*eod 8eyer. >$. 19<I?
B% Jennine Bra#chi and Lawrence Barkwell.

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Jenn% is a -etis wo&an o" JAi$wa ancestr% who co&es "ro& the "ar&ing and tra!!ing area o" L#ndar( -anito$a. 1er !arents lived close to the land and she learned 6to walk in a good wa%7 "ro& her "ather AleGander -cLeod who was a traditional healer. 1er grand!arents( /ierre -cLeod >$. 1IC9? and Jane -onk&an >$. 1IC4? were original residents o" the -etis co&&#nit% o" Jak /oint( -anito$a. Their na&es a!!ear on the 1IE0s !#$lic notice $roadside listing the 6children o" 1al" Breed heads o" "a&ilies7 ad&itted "or scri! distri$#tion in the /arish o" 4t. La#rent. Jenn% and her late h#s$and 6+ed7 -e%er( and her da#ghter Jennine Bra#chi have $een driving "orces in the !reservation( !ro&otion and teaching o" the A$original 3ecorative Arts in general and -etis $eadworking and clothing design in !artic#lar. The !resentation $eaded -etis coats that Jenn% and Jennine &ake are highl% so#ght a"ter and these have $een !resented to /ri&e -inister /a#l -artin >at the Belowna Accord &eeting?( - A /resident A#dre% /oitras( --5;s 3avid .hartrand and to .anadian 4enator 4t. 0er&ain.
Beith 0o#let( Jenn% -e%er( 4herr% 5arrell +acette( Jennine Bra#chi( Alison Brown( and Bevin Brownlee( at the Lniversit% o" A$erdeen( -arischal -#se#&( A!ril( 200E. /hotogra!h $% eil .#rtis.

Jenn% has s!ent &ore than two decades assisting the -anito$a -#se#& in these c#lt#ral areas as a vol#nteer. The $eaded &oosehide Aacket she &ade "or her late h#s$and is on dis!la% at the -anito$a -#se#& and a !hotogra!h o" this Aacket is "eat#red on !age 21C in Metis Le"ac! )olume - >/e&&ican /#$lications and 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 2001?. 4he was co&&issioned $% the -anito$a -#se#& to &an#"act#re traditional A$original clothing "or the Boreal 5orrest 0aller% and she contri$#ted &an% o" her "a&il%;s ho#sehold treas#res "or the -etis Bitchen dis!la%.242 4he has !revio#sl% $een honored $% !resentation o" the 0olden Ea"le &%a d $% the ,ndigeno#s :o&en;s .ollective and the 8WC& Women of 3istinction &%a d >B#siness -anage&ent? in 19II. 4he has worked with the Brandon 4chool division to esta$lish high school credit co#rses on A$original c#lt#res and served on the $oards o" the Brandon H:.A@.o&&#nit% :o&en;s 4helter and the 3owntown B#siness ,&!rove&ent .entre. 4he worked as a vol#nteer .o#rt .o&&#nicator with the ,ndian and -etis 5riendshi! .entre. 1er $#siness in Brandon( the Brandon 1andicra"t 4ho! >19D9@19I2? was instr#&ental in !roviding work eG!erience

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An article a$o#t -e%er and her work with The -anito$a -#se#& can $e "o#nd in 'i st (e specti$e at www."irst!ers!ective.caP!rintYstor%.!h!d!atho200D0E24&e%er.

1E<

o!!ort#nities "or A$original st#dents. ,n :inni!eg she has $een a strong s#!!orter o" the -etis +eso#rce .entre. Jenn% has $een a co#nselor at $oth the -anito$a 1o&e "or 0irls and -anito$a 1o&e "or Bo%s. 5ro& 19I2@199E she was the /rod#ction -anager "or 5leece Line ,nd#stries in Brandon and had &#ch to do with this "ir&;s s#ccess as an A$original@$ased $#siness. Jn J#ne 1D( 2011 :a Ni :anichihk !resented a Bee!ing the 5ires B#rning Award to Jenn%. This award hono#rs +kiiOida -k%e or 6Big 1earted :o&en.7 Big 1earted :o&en eGe&!li"% the seven sacred laws o" honest%( co#rage( res!ect( h#&ilit%( sharing( caring and love $% sharing their knowledge( talents and eG!erience to hel! kee! their "a&ilies and co&&#nities strong.

Lorraine 5lorence -a%er( /h 3. >$. 19C<?
3r. -a%er is a -Vtis scholar( activist( and !oet $orn at The /as -anito$a to 3ora Lavallee and arcisse -a%er. 1er roots ste& "ro& the 5rench and .ree ations. 1er &aternal grand!arents -oise Lavallee and -arie 3#char&e originall% "ro& 4t A&$rose and 4t La#rent -B went north and "o#nded the -etis co&&#nit% o" /ine Bl#"" -anito$a 24< along with one o" -oise;s co#sins. A cairn has now $een erected to hono#r their &e&or%. Lorraine;s &other was raised at /ine Bl#"" #ntil "looding "or h%droelectric develo!&ent "orced the relocation o" this s&all -etis co&&#nit% to the /as and near$% .he&awawin +eserve. Lorraine;s ancestr% has a long histor% in .anada tracing $ack to the "irst Lavallee( 3#char&e and -eille#r( to enter the co#ntr% "ro& 5rance and the .ree wo&en the% &arried( to the ancestors "ro& 0rantown Rnow known as 4t 5rancis XavierS. Altho#gh raised in the cit% o" :inni!eg Lorraine contin#all% "o#nd wa%s to go north. ,n grade eleven she &oved to 4t A&$rose "or a %ear and later as a %o#ng &other she relocated to the /as. The death o" her %o#ngest child !reci!itated a &ove $ack to the cit%. A"ter %ears str#ggle( heartache and loss she ret#rned to school and s#ccess"#ll% earned a Bachelor o" Arts in 199<( "lowed $% an 1onors Bachelor o" Arts in 199C. ,n 199D she started a -aster;s 3egree "ro& Lakehead Lniversit%. ,n 199E she was the "irst !erson in .anada to receive a -aster;s degree in .anadian ative /hiloso!h% $e"ore &oving to Jregon where she co&!leted a doctorate degree in /hiloso!h% "ro& the Lniversit% o" Jregon. :hile working toward her degree she $eca&e an active &e&$er the ative 4t#dent Lnion and an AdA#nct "ac#lt% &e&$er "or the 3e!art&ent o" ,nternational 4t#dies. ,n addition( she held the !osition o" Assistant 3irector "or the .enter "or .#lt#ral "or ,ndigeno#s .#lt#ral which led to her !artici!ating in a three &onth cross c#lt#ral ed#cational to#r in 1anoi 8ietna&. 4ince then she has devoted her ti&e and energ% into creating awareness "or ,ndigeno#s c#lt#ral s#rvival.
24<

Thro#gho#t the 1I00s the -etis o" 5ond d# Lac >now 4t. La#rent? #sed the entire ,nterlake region o" -anito$a "or their h#nting tra!!ing and "ishing econo&%. The% #tili*ed the 3#ck Ba% area eGtensivel% and travelled "ro& there to the &#skrat &arshes A#st east o" The /as( -anito$a >!art o" the Territor% o" Beewatin at that ti&e?. This /ine Bl#"" ca&!ing site a!!ears as a na&ed site on a &a! in 1II4. Aro#nd 1910( so&e o" these -etis "a&ilies decided to !er&anentl% settle at /ine Bl#""( C0 &iles so#theast o" The /as along the 4askatchewan +iver. This gave the& eas% access to the reso#rces o" the 4#&&er$err% -arsh and the tra!!ing areas right down to 0rand +a!ids on the 4askatchewan +iver. ,t is re!orted that the -etis had a "ine st#rgeon "isher% on .edar Lake. This high gro#nd was also a sto!!ing !oint when travelling $etween the /as and .edar Lake. The "a&il% na&es co&&on to /ine Bl#"" were( .a&!$ell( .ha$o%er( .hartrand( 3#char&e( a$ess( A*#re( La&$ert( Bo#rgoise( Lagi&odiere( Bea#cha&! and Lavallee. The co&&#nit% had a s&all school "ro& 19<I to 1942. The $#ilding o" the 0rand +a!ids 3a& &eant the de&ise o" this co&&#nit% since the "looding destro%ed the "isher% and tra!!ing along the river and .edar Lake. -an% -etis lost $oth their "ishing nets and all o" their tra!s when the "ore$a% "looding $egan. The -etis had never received title to their land $eca#se the !rovince re"#sed to s#rve% that area.

1E4

Lorraine;s &otivation "or research centers on c#lt#ral s#rvival and how to $ring !eo!le together in &#t#al res!ect and dialog#e. 1er acade&ic research !ri&aril% involves the !hiloso!hical anal%sis o" h#&an !erce!tions and cross@c#lt#ral interactions( !artic#larl% how the% a""ect A$original wo&en;s lives. 4he has !resented widel% at #niversities in $oth .anada and the L4. Lorraine ret#rned to .anada in 2004 and took a teaching !osition at Brandon Lniversit% as an Assistant /ro"essor in ative 4t#dies. 4he advanced )#ickl% achieving $oth ten#re and !ro&otion in three %ears. 4he is c#rrentl% an Associate !ro"essor at Brandon Lniversit% where she holds the !ositions o" .hair o" ative 4t#dies and editor "or the Canadian Jou nal of Nati$e Studies5 4ince ret#rning to .anada she has activel% !#rs#ed her $elie" in c#lt#ral s#rvival work $eginning with her s#!!ort o" the -etis wo&en o" the 4o#thwest +egion. 4ince 200E she has $een the chair!erson "or a 4o#thwest +egion -etis :o&en where she !ro&otes c#lt#ral activities as well as !olitical endeavors. 4he loves teaching wo&en the art o" the 5lower !eo!le R$eadworkS. Bnowing "irst hand how di""ic#lt a #niversit% ed#cation can $e with !ersonal( "inancial and e&otional trials that &an% -etis st#dents "ace( she decided to honor those str#ggles $% initiating a c#lt#ral -etis 4t#dent 0rad#ation cere&on% to honor -etis st#dent;s s#ccesses at $oth Brandon Lniversit% and Assini$oine .ollege. Together with the -etis wo&en o" the 4o#th :est +egion the% have $een cele$rating with -etis 4t#dents since 200E. 4he is !ro#d to $e -etis and !ro&otes -etis .#lt#re whenever !ossi$le incl#ding !artici!ating %earl% with at -etis /avilion "or the Lie#tenant 0overnors 5estival in Brandon( to de&onstratingPteaching $eading at 0rand 8alle% local;s %earl% -etis "est( and acce!ts n#&ero#s invitations to s!eak at high schools and grade schools within so#thern -anito$a. 4he is the reci!ient o" a n#&$er o" awards incl#ding: • • • • • • • • • • 2004 K The Lniversit% o" Jregon J""ice o" ,nternational /rogra&s. ,nternational 4ervice Award "or o#tstanding leadershi! and lasting contri$#tion to the Lniversit% o" Jregon international co&&#nit%. 2002 K :ho;s :ho A&ong 4t#dents ,n A&erican Lniversities and .olleges. An award "or o#tstanding st#dent leaders( $ased on a$ove average acade&ic standing( co&&#nit% service( leadershi! a$ilit% and !otential "or contin#ed s#ccess. 2001 K 0rad#ate 4t#dent Award( Lniversit% J" Jregon Awards. 0rad#ate st#dents who have de&onstrated o#tstanding leadershi! and service. 2001 K EGcellence Award. The Lniversit% o" Jregon J""ice o" -#ltic#lt#ral A""airs. Acade&ic Achieve&ent( .o&&#nit% ,nvolve&ent and Leadershi! 4kills. 1999 @ La#rel research Award. .enter "or 4t#dies o" :o&en on 4ociet% Lniversit% o" Jregon. 1999 K EGcellence Award. The Lniversit% o" Jregon J""ice o" -#ltic#lt#ral A""airs( Acade&ic Achieve&ent( .o&&#nit% ,nvolve&ent and Leadershi! 4kills. 199I K 1999 5ighting 5#nd 5ellowshi!( Lniversit% o" Jregon. 199E K 199I 5ighting 5#nd 5ellowshi!( Lniversit% o" Jregon. 4he was a no&inee "or the Ho#ng :o&en;s .hristian Association;s 200I :o&en o" 3istinction Award. Brandon -anito$a.

1EC

1er acade&ic s#ccesses incl#de her "irst $ook: C ies ' om & Métis *ea t >:inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications ,nc.( 200E? and a second $ook c#rrentl% #nder contract with JG"ord /ress titled: (hilosoph! and &bo i"inal ,i"hts# C itical 3ialo"ues which she is co@editing with "ellow !hiloso!her and long ti&e "riend( 4andra To&sons. 4he has !#$lished cha!ters in two $ooks: 6The 4#rvival o" -Vtis :o&en: Thro#gh /oetr%7 in Métis *isto ies and -dentities# & T ibute to 0ab iel 3umont( 3enis 0agnon( 3enis .o&$et 2 Lise 0a$o#r%@3iallo >eds.? 4t. Boni"ace: /resses Lniversitaires de 4aint@Boni"ace( 2009 and a cha!ter titled 6 egotiating a 3i""erent Terrain: 0eogra!hical and Ed#cation .ross@Border 3i""ic#lties(7 ,n &c oss Cultu es &c oss .o de s# Canadian &bo i"inal and Nati$e &me ican Lite atu es/ edited $% /a#l 3e/as)#ale( E&&a La+oc)#e and +enata Eigen$rod( 2010. 1er acade&ic articles incl#de: • • • • • • 6:hose 4overeignt% Are :e Talking A$o#t7 (hilosoph! and &bo i"inal ,i"hts# C itical 3ialo"ues5 .o@editors: 4andra To&sons and Lorraine -a%er. 5orthco&ing 2010( JG"ord Lniversit% /ress. 6:hat 1a!!ened at Lakehead: The dile&&a o" +acis&( .orr#!tion or ,nco&!etenced7 5orthco&ing A&erican /hiloso!hical Association ewsletter( &me ican -ndians in (hilosoph! 8ol. 0I( #&$er 1 6A$original :o&en and Ed#cation: Jverco&ing a Legac% o" A$#se7 8ol.( 2D( 200E The Canadian Jou nal of Nati$e Studies5 6+et#rn to +eci!rocit%7: *!patia# & Jou nal of 'eminist (hilosoph! 8ol. 22.<( 4#&&er 200E. 6+e"lections on 8ine 3eloria Jr.7 A&erican /hiloso!hical Association ewsletter( &me ican -ndians in (hilosoph! 5all 200D( 8ol. 0D( #&$er 1. ?/honicating -other Earth7: A .riti)#e o" 3avid A$ra&;s Spell of the Sensuous# (e ception and Lan"ua"e in a Mo e-Than-*uman Wo ld5 Lorraine 5. Br#ndige >-a%er? and J. 3o#glas +a$$. &!aan"%ami2in# The -nte national Jou nal of -ndi"enous (hilosoph!5 8ol. 2( #&$er 1 winter 199I. !!. E9 K 9I. 6Lngrate"#l ,ndian7: .ontin#it% o" ative 8al#es. &!aan"%ami2in the -nte national Jou nal of -ndi"enous (hilosoph!5 8ol. 1( #&$er 1 s!ring 199E. !! 44@C4. 68isiting 4cholars !#rs#e iss#es in ative /hiloso!h%7 &"o a# Ne%slette fo Lakehead Uni$e sit! Staff and 'acult!5 5e$r#ar% 199E( 8ol.14( o. 2.

• •

1er !oetr% !#$lications incl#de: • • • 6-% 4%&!osi#&7: A&erican /hiloso!hical Association ewsletter( &me ican -ndians in (hilosoph! 8ol. 0E( #&$er 1 6-a&a 3on;t .r% 5or -e: B#tter"l% Editions( E#gene Jregon. 2001 5ro& .ries "ro& a -etis 1eart: 6-% 4ister 3o Ho# +e&e&$er7( 64cri!7( 1e% -etis -an7 eclectic: the Arts Edition7 2009. Brandon Lniversit%.

1er !#$lished Book +eviews incl#de: • • &ll +u ,elations# Nati$e St u""les fo Land and Life5 B% :inona La 3#ke. ,n( + "ani2ation ? En$i onment. 8ol. 1<( ,ss#e 2( J#ne 2000. omen of The 'i st Nations# (o%e / Wisdom and St en"th. Eds. .hristine -iller and /atricia .h#rchr%k with -arie 4&all"ace -ar#le( Brenda -an%"ingers( and .her%l 3eering. ,n Manitoba *isto !/ A#t#&n( #&$er <4( 199E.

1ED

4he is c#rrentl% researching and writing two &an#scri!ts: 6Tansi taisinisitohta&phk kitaskino: .ree /hiloso!h% awa Ba%pski%pci&owin7 >Translation: 1ow :e Lnderstand J#r :orld: .ree /hiloso!h% and 1istor%? "or 4L H /ress( and 6-anito$a;s 1eroines: -etis :o&en;s 4tories o" .o#rage 4trength and 3eter&ination.7

,li>abeth .ertrand 8itchell. >1ED1@1I2E?
Eli*a$eth was the -etis La#ra 4ecord o" the :ar o" 1I12. ,li>abeth was the da#ghter o" Jose!h La#rent Bertrand( a 5rench trader( and -arie Jose!h La&aire( a .hi!!ewa &other. 4he grew #! with Jttawa relatives at L;Ar$re .roche >.ross 8illage? near 5ort -ichil&ackinac. 1er "ather was a "#r trader at -icheli&akinac( !ossi$l% as earl% as 1ED0( certainl% $% 1ED4@1EDC. 1is wi"e was a native o" -ackinac. ,n 1EED( Eli*a$eth &arried British Ar&% s#rgeon 3avid -itchell. 4he ran retail trading $#siness "ro& 1I1D@1I2I while her $rothers were active in the "#r trade in 4o#thern -ichigan. 3#ring the :ar o" 1I12( her a$ilit% to recr#it native &ilitar% assistance won her a co&&endation and a &edal "ro& the British >awarded in 1I14?. 5ollowing the onset in 1I1C o" the A&erican r#le on -ackinac ,sland( the A&erican co&&ander( -aAor 1enr% /#th#""( !osted a notice "or her to sto! holding con"erences with her Jttawa kin. 244 :hen her kin"olk contin#ed to visit( he threatened to arrest her( $#t she esca!ed at night to 3r#&&ond ,sland. 4he ret#rned to her trade on -ackinac ,sland once A&erican "ears had s#$sided and her salon $eca&e a social h#$ o" the !alisade co&&#nit%. ,n "act( in 1I1D( she hosted the wedding o" Josette La"ra&$oise( da#ghter o" her "riend -adeleine La"ra&$oise >also a trader? to .a!tain BenAa&in /ierce $rother to the "#t#re /resident. 1er son Andrew $#ilt the "irst store in /enetang#ishene( and son 0eorge was the "irst 4#!erintendent o" 4chools there. 1er da#ghter Jessie was the wi"e o" the !ros!ero#s trader Lewis .raw"ord. .raw"ord was dee!l% involved in recr#iting ,ndians "or the British ca#se and -itchell hel!ed "#rnish s#!!lies. :hen war was declared( Eli*a$eth -itchell and her h#s$and acco&!anied the British and ,ndian "orce #nder .a!tain .harles +o$erts that s#r!rised and ca!t#red the garrison at 5ort -ichili&ackinac in the "irst action o" the war( on J#l% 1Eth( 1I12. 3#ring the winter o" 1I1<K14 3avid -itchell acco&!anied +o$ert 3ickson;s eG!edition to what is now :isconsin. ,n the s#&&er o" 1I14( when the A&ericans #ns#ccess"#ll% attacked -ackinac ,sland( Eli*a$eth -itchell activel% recr#ited ,ndian allies "or the British "ro& her Jttawa relatives at L;Ar$re .roche. As a token o" a!!reciation( the a#thorities granted her an allowance o" bC0 a %ear "or two %ears. The JAi$wa% also res!ected her highl%. ,n ove&$er o" 1I14( the% !resented her with a deed to +o#nd ,sland( their traditional $#r%ing gro#nd located hal" a &ile so#theast o" -ackinac. 4o#rce: !ichigan Pioneer Collections. /ol #. *ansing: 3ynkoop <allenbeck Crawford Co.2 !&H: pp %'%2 IH!$"& .

8arie Adele 8onetteE +ister 7aspard. >1II1@19D2?
244

6:hereas a certain Eli*;th -itchell #nder a !retense o" trading with the savages is and "or &an% %ears has $een( as it has $een re!resented to &e( in the ha$it o" holding her !rivate co#ncils with those #n"ort#nate del#ded /eo!le and o" advising with and !ers#ading the& to the ado!tion o" &eas#res inA#rio#s to their real interests and that o" the A&erican govern&ent K , there"ore "eel it to $e &% 3#t% here$% to "or$id the said Eli*a$eth -itchell to hold an% "#rther interco#rse with the ,ndians that &a% visit this island either directl% or indirectl%\7

1EE

Adele -onet was $orn on J#ne 12( 1II1( at 4t. Jose!h( the da#ghter o" -odeste -onet and 8irginie +itchot >the da#ghter o" Jose!h +ichot and -arg#erite -artel?. Adele;s !aternal grand!arents were -ichel -onet dit Belh#&e#r >$. 1I02? and Jose!hte Br#%ere. Adele;s si$lings were J#lie $orn 1IEI and Jaco$ 4te!hen $orn 1II<. -odeste -onet died s#ddenl% on 3ece&$er 9( 1II< at age << d#e to an accident. 1is da#ghters -arie Adele and her sister( J#lie( were then !laced in an or!hanage at 0raceville( -innesota where the% also attended school. Event#all% Adele went to live with a relative in :inni!eg. :hen the 4t. Boni"ace !astor noticed that Adele no longer attended .atechis& classes and had not %et &ade her "irst .o&&#nion( he insisted that her g#ardians !lace her #nder the care o" the 0re% #ns when Adele was 1< %ears old. -other 1a&el( the s#!erior at that ti&e !laced her as an aide in the kitchen. 4he had an older sister teach her classes at night. Adele was received into the novitiate o" the Little A#Giliar% 4isters on the <0 th ove&$er 1I99. 4he &ade her /ro"ession o" 8ows on J#l% <1( 1902. 4he is considered to $e the "irst -etis "ro& the T#rtle -o#ntainP 4t. Jose!h area to $eco&e a religio#s 4ister. 4he was then assigned to work "or several &onths in the "o#ndling 4ection o" the Tache 1os!ital. Then in 190< she was assigned to work at the ver% !oor -ission o" J#r Lad% o" the 4even 4orrows( at 5ort Totten( orth 3akota. 1ere she was !#t in charge o" the la#ndr%. Jn 3ece&$er 192D the ch#rch( school and other $#ildings o" the -ission were $#rned down eGce!t "or the la#ndr% roo& o" 4ister Adele -onet. 4he was then recalled to 4t. Boni"ace to the Tache 1os!ice >192E@19<1?( the hos!ital in 4t. Boni"ace and then 5ort 5rances( taking care o" la#ndr% and so&eti&es cooking. 4#$se)#entl% she was no&inated to go to the 4t. 8ital 4anatori#&( her last assign&ent( where she s!ent 22 %ears. Jn A!ril 1<( 19C<( she retired to the in"ir&ar% o" the /rovincial 1o#se and on J#l% <1( 19D2 she cele$rated her 3ia&ond J#$ilee. 4he died on ove&$er 1( 19D2.
,efe ence# St5 &nn4s Centennial *isto ! .ook( Belco#rt orth 3akota: T#rtle -o#ntain ,ndian 1istorical 4ociet%( .entennial Book .o&&ittee( 4tella 3avis @ .oordinator( 19IC: E<.

Dose Anne Damsay 8onkman. >1III@19CC?
+ose Anne +a&sa% &arried :illia& -onk&an in 190D and the% had twelve children. +ose Anne was the da#ghter o" John +a&sa% and J#lia 3;Arcis. John +a&sa% has $eco&e "a&o#s in -anito$a histor% as the ,ndian h#nter who saved the newl% "or&ed ,celandic .olon% d#ring the s&all!oG e!ide&ic o" the 1IE0s. B% distri$#ting "ree &oose &eat and other "ood to the )#arantined settlers he is credited with saving EC lives. The -onk&ans were the "irst to settle and "ar& and "ish at -onk&an;s ,sland at Loon 4traits( -anito$a. ,n 191E( :illia&;s $rother Tho&as died and his wi"e died nine &onths later leaving "ive or!han children. +ose Anne and :illia& took on the task o" raising these children. The% alread% had seven children o" their own at this ti&e and then had "ive &ore. The% also cared "or +osie( the da#ghter "ro& :illia&;s "irst &arriage( along with two &ore grandchildren cared "or a"ter the death o" :illia&;s son :illia& Jr. The co#!le cared "or twent% children in total.

1EI

,efe ence# Monkman/ &nne5 Loon St aits# Lookin" .ack. Loon 4traits: A#thor( 1999.

5elagie .oucher 8orin. >1I0<@1902?
B% Leah 3orion. /elagie Bo#cher was the -etis da#ghter o" Jose!h Bo#cher a 5rench@.anadian and an #nna&ed 3ene wo&an she was $orn aro#nd 1I0< at /eace +iver. 1er "ather Jose!h was a vo%age#r "ro& -achiche who ca&e o#t west into the Atha$asca 3istrict #nder vo%age#r contract as a canoe &an( "isher&an( &iddle&an originall% with -actavish( 5ro$isher and .o&!an% aro#nd 1E9C. 1er "ather Jose!h Bo#cher event#all% worked eGtensivel% with the orth :est .o&!an% in the Atha$asca region at !laces s#ch as 5ort .hi!ew%an( 4lave Lake( and /eace +iver. /elagie started raising her "a&il% with -etis vo%ge#r Antoine -orin in the earl% 1I20s according to the c#sto& o" the co#ntr% in the ,le a .rosse area( known locall% as 4akitawak( $eca#se it was a !ri&aril% .ree@3ene@-etis trading s%ste&. 1er 3ene@-etis $ackgro#nd and &#ltiling#alis& wo#ld have $een #se"#l in the ,le a la .rosse trade s%ste&. /elagie $eca&e the &atriarchal leader o" a large -etis trading "a&il%. -ost o" her children &arried into other !ro&inent -etis trading "a&ilies residing in the ,le a la .rosse territor% s#ch as the Jo#rdain( Lali$erte( -a#rice( +o%( and 3elaronde "a&ilies. Antoine and /elagie eventall% got &arried $% the .atholic .h#rch at ,le a la .rosse in 1I4C. Together the% had "o#rteen children >4ara*ine( Antoine( +a!hael( Jad#le( /ierre( .%!rien( [e!hrin dit .atholi)#e( Ja&es( -arie( -agloire( 4o!hie( Lo#is( Ba!tiste( and Jaco$?. /elagie $irthed three da#ghters( seven sons( and "o#r children who died in child$irth. 1er h#s$and Antoine -orin was $orn in 1I04 at -askinonge( Lower .anada to Tho&as -orin and -arie@Therese A#$r%@5rancoe#r. Antoine ca&e o#t west as a vo%age#r. ,n 1ICC Antoine died at the age o" "i"t% "ive leaving /elagie as a widow. ,n her old age /elagie was cared "or $% &an% o" her own children and grandchildren. The 1II1 cens#s at 0reen Lake( 4askatchewan showed /elagie living in the ho&e o" /ierre@-arie -orin( her grandson. ,n 1I91 she was still living in 0reen Lake $#t in the ho&e o" her second %o#ngest son( Lo#is( who was &arried to -arg#erite Jo#rdain. The 1901.ens#s showed her living the ho&e o" /a#l 3eLaronde 4r. and 4o!hie -orin( one o" her da#ghters. 4he event#all% !assed awa% at 3evil;s Lake near Aldina in 4askatchewan at a!!roGi&atel% ninet% nine %ears o" age.
4o#rces: -acdo#gall. B. >2010?. +ne of the 'amil! # Metis Cultu e in Nineteenth-Centu ! No th%este n Saskatche%an. LB. /ress: 8anco#ver( B... Arna#lt( L. >2009?. C!p ien Mo in and his 3escendants. 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te: 4askatoon( 4B. 4t. Jnge( . >200E?. 6Earl% "ore"athers to the Atha$asca -etis: Long@ter& orth :est .o&!an% E&!lo%ees.7 ,n( The Lon" Jou ne! of a 'o "otten (eople# Metis -dentities and 'amil! *isto ies5 >Eds.? Lte Lakschke 2 3avid T. -c a$$. :ildred La#rier /ress: :aterloo( Jntario. 109@1D1.

.eatrice 8osioner. >$. 1949?
Beatrice >.#lleton? -osioner( a -anito$a -etis a#thor was $orn in 4t. Boni"ace( -anito$a( to Lo#is and -ar% .lara -osioner. Beatrice was the %o#ngest o" "o#r children in a d%s"#nctional and $roken ho&e. At age three she was taken awa% "ro& her !arents and raised in a series o"

1E9

"oster ho&es( awa% "ro& her "a&il% and -etis heritage. Ta#nted and increasingl% a$#sed( she $egan to den% her A$original heritage and e&$raced E#ro@.anadian val#es. 1er !ersonal identit% was $adl% da&aged as she &oved "ro& "oster ho&e to "oster ho&e. 4#ch eG!eriences destro%ed two o" her sisters who ended their lives in s#icide. 4he event#all% settled in Toronto( and trained as an acco#ntant( she never tho#ght that she wo#ld $eco&e a writer. 1owever( the !ain o" her sister;s s#icide &otivated her to $egin writing. 1er "irst novel( -n Sea ch of &p il ,aint ee was !#$lished in 19I<. .#lleton did not write the $ook "ro& an a#to$iogra!hical !ers!ective. 6,ts what &ost !eo!le think7 she sa%s( 6, wrote this $ook "or &%sel"= "or answers a"ter a second s#icide in &% "a&il%. , didn;t want to write a$o#t the real !eo!le aro#nd &e.7 >6A#thor .#lleton a 1ero(7 The 3 um( 8ol. < >2?( 2000: 1<?. .#lleton;s novel ill#strates the wa% in which a light@skinned -Vtis girl( "or who& assi&ilation into white societ% see&s a !ossi$ilit%( is convinced $% her teachers( "oster "a&il%( and social workers that ative !eo!le are res!onsi$le "or their own dise&!ower&ent and that their social !ositioning is #naltera$le. This $ook has $een #sed eGtensivel% in .anadian high schools in .anadian Literat#re 4t#dies. .#lleton also wrote Spi it of the White .ison and Unusual ' iendships# & Little .lack Cat and a Little White ,at 5children;s $ooks? and a "il& scri!t called Walke ( and Ni"ht of the T ickste ( a !la% "or the ational 5il& Board that was !rod#ced $% the ative Earth /er"or&ing Arts in the s!ring o" 1992. .#lleton worked as &anaging editor o" /e&&ican /#$lications at one ti&e and was a reci!ient o" -anito$a;s Jrder o" the B#""alo 1#nt in 19IC. 4he has acted as !la%wright@in@residence "or ative /er"or&ing Arts. >:ritten with contri$#tions "ro& the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te.?

Adelaide Caroline .ranconnier 8orrissette.
>1I<2@1919?
B% A&anda +o*%k. Adelaide was $orn on 4e!te&$er D( 1I<2 in 4t. Boni"ace -anito$a( to Jean Ba!tiste Branconnier and Elise Lo#ise Bea#che&in >$. 1E90?. Elise;s "ather( AndrV -illet dit Bea#che&in was $orn Jan#ar% 19( 1E91 in 9#e$ec( and her &other was an ,ndian wo&an.
Adelaide Branconnier -orrisette. /hoto co#rtes% o" +ose&ar% -orrisette +o*%k

Adelaide;s "ather( Jean Ba!tiste( was a vo%age#r with the orth :est .o&!an%. 1e signed a contract with the co&!an% in 1I04( and ca&e to the "orks o" the +ed +iver d#ring that ti&e. ,n 1I1C( he was ca!t#red and wo#nded at 5ort 0i$ralter $% the 1#dson Ba% .o&!an%. 1e was !laced on a shi!( The ( ince of Wales( and was sent to England to $e !rosec#ted. 1owever( d#ring this vo%age a second shi!( containing all the evidence and !rosec#tion doc#&ents( ca&e into tro#$le and sank. As a res#lt( Jean Ba!tiste was released and ret#rned to orth A&erica.

1I0

Adelaide was raised in 4t. Boni"ace and later resided in 4t. .harles Assini$oia. Adelaide was ver% religio#s thro#gho#t her li"eti&e. ,t is recalled that she waited on the $anks o" the +ed +iver in 4t. Boni"ace in order to greet the 0re% #ns #!on their arrival. Adelaide &arried Jean Ba!tiste -orrissette in 1IC1. ,t is recalled that she &et Jean Ba!tiste when on her wa% to ch#rch in 4t. Boni"ace. Adelaide was travelling $% horse and sled when her horse $eca&e "rightened and $olted awa%. Jean Ba!tiste was walking ahead o" her !art% and ca#ght the horse( the% were later &arried. Jean Ba!tiste was $orn in 1I19( the son o" Arsene -orrissette 4r. and TherVsV( an A$original wo&an. Adelaide and Jean Ba!tiste had eleven children and raised their "a&il% in Assini$oia in the road allowance co&&#nit% called :eak .it%. 24C Jean Ba!tiste worked "or the 1#dson Ba% .o&!an% as a la$o#rer on the $arges. Adelaide acted as &idwi"e "or the 4t. .harles area. 5ather .aron recalled that Adelaide had delivered &ost o" the $a$ies in the area. Adelaide died Jcto$er <1( 1919. >.ontri$#ted $% Adelaid;s great@great@great grandda#ghter( A&anda +o*%k.?

8arie Ann *edouF 8orrisette >1IC9@19D<?
-arie Ann was the da#ghter o" Jose!h Ledo#G and ,sa$elle Belanger. 4he &arried 0eorge -orrissette6/i@ka@ties7>$. 1ICI?( the son o" or$ert Jean -orrissette and Bets% Branconnier( in 1III. 1is $rother or$ert was &arried to J#dith 4tar$lanket( da#ghter o" .hie" 4tar$lanket >Antoine .hatelain?. -arie@Anne;s #ncles or$ert and A$raha& Belanger "o#ght in the +esistance 1er co#sin /ierre was also active in the 1IIC +esistance. 1er co#sin Lo#ise was &arried to A#g#stin La"ra&$oise( a &e&$er o" -#skeg Lake $and. 1e was killed d#ring the "ighting at 3#ck Lake. 1er co#sin 1elene was &arried to 8ital 3#&ont dit .a%ole a +esistance activist "ro& Jne Arrow;s $and. The Ledo#G wo&en were &arried to +esistance "ighters and had relatives in the -istawasis( 4tar$lanket( Jne Arrow and -#skeg Lake >/ete)#ake%? Bands. 0eorge and -arie@Ann lived on Bead%;s +eserve
/hoto contri$#ted $% John Arcand co!%right to the 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 8irt#al -#se#&.

and he is $#ried there. -arie@Ann was 2C %ears old d#ring the 1IIC +esistance at Batoche( when she was a cook "or the -etis troo!s.

Nancy Arcand 8orrisette2 >1910@19IE?
B% Leah 3orion and Blanche 0ehriger nVe -orrisette anc% Arcand was $orn to .ecile -onto#r and Jean Ba!tiste >Jld 4t. /ierre? Arcand. 1er !arents were $oth originall% "ro& the Batoche and 4t. Lo#is area. anc% had a ver% di""ic#lt li"e and did not have &#ch "or&al ed#cation or an% &one% to s!eak o". 4he was A#st less than "ive "eet tall and walked with a slight li&!. 4he had an air a$o#t her that gave the i&!ression o" dignit% that co&&anded the res!ect o" an%one who &et her. 4he was ver% serio#s in her &anner o" s!eaking and wo#ldn;t hesitate to let %o# know i" she didn;t agree with what %o# had to sa%. 4o&e !eo!le descri$ed her as a "e&ale 0a$riel 3#&ont. anc% s!oke the -ichi" lang#age and was $orn near 4t. Lo#is( 4askatchewan in a!!roGi&atel% 1910.
24C

4ee the 03, 8irt#al &#se#& entr% #nder :eak .it% "or "#rther in"or&ation.

1I1

1er &other( .ecile( died at a!!roGi&atel% age thirt% when anc% was "ive %ears old. -an% wo&en died %o#ng at that ti&e( #s#all% "ro& hard work and the scarcit% o" doctors. anc% told her da#ghter Blanche that she was allowed to go to school when she was nine %ears old. 1owever( $eca#se it was so hard to get cloth and $eca#se anc% hadn;t learned to sew %et( she still wore the coat her &other had &ade "or her when she was "ive and she was e&$arrassed to go to school. :ithin a &onth o" starting( however( she was &oved #! to the second grade. Then her "ather &ade her )#it( sa%ing she was needed to take care o" the ho#se. 4he later ta#ght hersel" to read. ,n 192I( at the age o" eighteen anc% Arcand &arried Jere&% -orrisette at 3e$den( 4askatchewan. Jere&% -orrisette was $orn on -arch 2D( 190D at -#skeg Lake +eserve. 1e event#all% lost his ,ndian stat#s in order to &ove o"" the reserve and "ind work. anc% and Jere&% settled and raised their "a&il% in the -etis road allowance co&&#nit% o" 4!ring 8alle%. The% grew #! living near other -etis "a&ilies s#ch as the .a&!$ell;s( Arcand;s( and Le&ire;s. Together the% had "o#rteen children: Bernadette( Elcide( .ecile( +oseanne( 0eorge( /a#l( Joe%( /hilli!( Leo( Hvonne( Blanche( and three children that !assed awa%. anc% highl% val#ed ed#cation and was ver% !ro#d to see her sons and da#ghters have access to ed#cation. anc% and Jere&% &ade a living o"" the land and its reso#rces. anc% and Jere&% were ver% e)#al in sharing this workload and did things as a tea&. The% h#nted( tra!!ed( and "ished to !rovide "or the "a&il%. Jere&% so&eti&es worked !icking !otatoes "or local "ar&ers to o$tain eGtra inco&e "or the "a&il%. ,t was o"ten necessar% "or Jere&% to leave the "a&il% in order to "ind work on the railroad or at local "ar&s. 3#ring the ti&e he was awa% anc% s#rvived $% h#nting and tra!!ing. /eo!le in the co&&#nit% res!ected her skill in looking a"ter the ani&als the% had. /eo!le that knew her s!oke o" how "earless she was when it ca&e to $reaking in horses. 4he was also known as a &idwi"e and !ossessed a large a&o#nt o" knowledge a$o#t traditional healing !lants. Jne o" anc%;s "avorite ho$$ies was &aking $lankets. The reason "or this was she didn;t have a $lanket when she was little. 4he #sed an old coat to wra! hersel" in and sle!t on the "loor. anc% sewed clothing and $lankets= her ra$$it "#r $lankets were eG)#isite. anc% and other -etis wo&en "ro& the area #sed to have large )#ilting $ees to &ake $lankets. The children recall that she alwa%s wore long dresses and &occasins. anc% -orrisette was a hardworking -etis wo&an. The children re&e&$er her !#shing a !low to $reak the land and s!ending long ho#rs tending the garden. 1er children also re&e&$er how !eo!le in the co&&#nit% collectivel% worked the "ields d#ring harvest ti&e so the "a&ilies wo#ld get all the work done. /overt% is relative= the "a&il% did not have &an% l#G#r% ite&s( $#t alwa%s had the $asics. anc% &aintained strong +o&an .atholic religio#s $elie"s all her li"e and never s&oked or drank. 4he $ro#ght #! a large "a&il% and had &an% grandchildren. The neigh$o#r;s children and co#sin;s children were alwa%s !resent at the ho#se. :hen the children were grown #! and gone and when her h#s$and !assed awa% she was !laced in a rest ho&e in 3#ck Lake( 4askatchewan. The reason she didn;t &ind sta%ing there was that the !erson that ran the !lace was her co#sin. This is where she !assed awa%( a "ew &iles "ro& where she was $orn. >.ontri$#ted $% Leah 3orion and Blanche 0ehriger nVe -orrisette( and the -etis +eso#rce .entre.?

Anastasie *andry Nault. >1I<2@1914?
1I2

Anastasie was the da#ghter o" Jose!h Landr% and 0enevieve Lalond. 4he &arried Andre a#lt so&eti&e $e"ore 1IC1. Anastasie was the &other o" +esistance activists a!oleon and Elie a#lt. 1er h#s$and was !resent on Jcto$er 11( 1ID9 when +iel and 1I -etis sto!!ed the s#rve%ors in 4t. or$ert. 1e died on 3ece&$er 1E( 1924 at 5ort 0arr%.

Andre a#lt( Anastasia Landr% and Jose!hte Lagi&odiere

8elanie2 ?8alvinaA /andal Nault >1I4<@1I9I?. 4!o#se( a!olVon a#lt( >1ICI@
19<1?.
-elanie was the da#ghter o" Antoine 8andal and -arg#erite Berthelette. ,n 1IEE( she &arried a!oleon a#lt at 4t. or$ert. The% &oved "ro& -anito$a to 4t. La#rent on the 4o#th 4askatchewan in the late 1IE0s. 1e o!erated a trading !ost. 1e o!erated a trading !ost there. ,n 1II<( 3a&ase .arriMre and a!oleon a#lt traveled "ro& Batoche to 4t. Boni"ace to attend the wedding o" +iel;s sister 1enriette to Jean -arie /oitras. At this ti&e the% disc#ssed the -etis land clai&s !ro$le&s in the 4askatchewan valle% with +iel. a!oleon was a strong s#!!orter o" +iel in 1IIC and was active d#ring the 1IIC +esistance at 3#ck Lake( To#rond;s .o#lee and Batoche. a#lt was a &e&$er o" .a!tain ,sidore 3#&ont;s co&!an%( one o" the 19 di2aines led $% 0a$riel 3#&ont d#ring the 1IIC -etis +esistance. 1e "o#ght alongside Jose!h 3elor&e at 3#ck Lake and also !artici!ated at To#rond;s .o#lee. 3#&ont notes that he and a!oleon a#lt set o#t at "o#r in the &o#rning to reconnoiter the ene&% ca&!. 3#ring the $attle at Batoche he led the "ighters on the west side o" the river that were res!onsi$le "or taking the orthcote o#t o" action. A"ter the "all o" Batoche he "led with his wi"e -Vlanie 8andal and two children to 4t. Johns( orth 3akota to avoid !rosec#tion. ,n north 3akota and -ontana a!oleon acted as 0a$riel 3#&ont;s inter!reter "or English.

1I<

ichol24D re!orted on these Batoche re"#gees to 3ewdne% on -a% E th( 1IID "ro& 4t. John;s( orth 3akota: This !lace is a$o#t "o#r &iles "ro& the Bo#ndar% line a$o#t "ive &iles west o" the east end o" the T#rtle -o#ntains. Jn the northside there are a great &an% 1al" Breeds settled aro#nd here( the% are &ostl% aro#nd the $ase o" the &o#ntain( living in s&all log ho&es covered with sods( 2 !lastered with &#d. The% are nearl% all "ro& -anito$a and the orth :est( the Breeds "ro& the orth :est are nearl% all located $etween the Bo#ndar% line 2 4t. Johns. The% do not see& to want to go $ack to the .anadian side o" the line. A great &an% o" the& want to sell o#t their clai&s here( the% sa% the% want to settle in -ontana. The a#lt $rothers > a!oleon and Andre? are there at !resent( the% le"t here a$o#t a &onth since. The% are eG!ected $ack here soon with !onies. There are a great &an% Breeds leaving here the% sa% tha% are going to -ontana 2 are going to ret#rn with here with !onies. The% are not taking their "a&ilies with the&. -elanie and a!oleon then &oved to 1avre( -ontana. 1e &arried "or a second ti&e to 1attie Jarvis in 190I at 0lasgow( -ontana. B% 1900 a!oleon and his "a&il% were living at 4t. -alo( -anito$a. 1e ret#rned to -ontana and died A!ril( 19<1 at 1avre. -elanie died in 1I9I at Jlga( orth 3akota. The !hotogra!h a$ove is o" -elanie 8andal with h#s$and a!oleon a#lt and their three children.

Ang;liBue Nolin >1EIE@1ID9? and 8arguerite Nolin >1EI0@1IDI?
B% Lorraine 5ree&an and Lawrence Barkwell. AngVli)#e olin( with the hel! o" her older sister( -arg#erite olin( ran one o" the "irst "or&al schools in the +ed +iver settle&ent. The school was created #nder the direction o" Bisho! /rovencher in Jan#ar% o" 1I29. There had $een other schools in the area "or A$original $o%s( $#t /rovencher "elt that it was i&!ortant to ed#cate the girls as well. AngVli)#e olin;s school !rovided ed#cation to 5irst ations and -Vtis girls o" 5rench( .ree( JAi$wa and 4cottish $ackgro#nds that lived near the +ed +iver settle&ent. This was the "irst esta$lished school "or girls. :o&en s#ch as AngVli)#e and -arg#erite olin and the wo&en o" the "e&ale religio#s orders s#ch as the 0re% #ns and the 4isters o" the 1ol% a&es o" Jes#s and -ar%( &ade an i&!ortant contri$#tion to the esta$lish&ent o" an ed#cation s%ste& "or the !rovince o" -anito$a. AngVli)#e and -arg#erite were ed#cated o#tside o" +ed +iver. The% ca&e "ro& 4a#lt 4ainte@-arie to +ed +iver with their !arents and sisters in 1I19. Their &other( -arie AngVli)#e( was -Vtis and their "ather( Jean@Ba!tiste( was a .anadien "#r trader and &erchant. 1e was well res!ected and held a !rivileged !osition in 4a#lt 4ainte@-arie( where the "a&il% had lived $e"ore co&ing to +ed +iver. Jean@Ba!tiste olin and -arie AngVli)#e .o#vret were &arried in 1EE0. The% had "ive da#ghters and "ive sons. The girls had received an eGcellent ed#cation in -ontreal and co&!leted st#dies with the 4isters o" the .ongregation o" otre@3a&e in Montreal. The Nolin family was a prominent one around Sault Sainte-Marie (they lived in what is now the USA). This is where Lord Selkirk first met them. Selkirk became impressed with the family and frequently suggested to the ailing Jean-Baptiste that he move his family to Red River. Lord

24D

ichol( 4t. John;s( to 3ewdne%. @@ -a% E @-a% <0( 1IID. @@ +e!ort on hal" $reeds in -ontana and 3akota. 3ewdne% /a!ers( !!. 1290@129E.

1I4

Selkirk and Father Joseph Provencher expressed the view that the two young women of the Nolin family could make a valuable contribution to the intellectual life of the settlement. /rovencher initiall% invited AngVli)#e to co&e and r#n the school. At "irst( her "ather re"#sed. 1e said that he needed his da#ghters to care "or hi& in his old age >he was I2?. :o&en were eG!ected to !#t their "a&ilies "irst( so AngVli)#e sta%ed ho&e. The !riorit% "or wo&en was the ho&e and "a&il% li"e( rather than going o#t and earning a living. 4ince Jean@Ba!tiste had other da#ghters at ho&e to care "or hi&( it see&s likel% that he si&!l% did not want AngVli)#e to work. :hen Jean@Ba!tiste olin died in 1I2D( /rovencher again invited AngVli)#e to co&e and teach. This ti&e she agreed( which s#ggests that she was interested in teaching and r#nning the school( $#t did not i&&ediatel% acce!t at "irst $eca#se o" the wishes o" her "ather. ,n 1I29 AngVli)#e and her sister -arg#erite o!ened the school to the -Vtis and 5irst ations children living near$%. The sisters learned how to sew and weave so that the% co#ld teach the girls these skills. AngVli)#e and -arg#erite ran the school "or "ive %ears( #ntil 1I<4. ,n 1I<4 the% $egan teaching at Baie 4t. /a#l >4t. E#stache?. Bisho! /rovencher assigned the sisters to assist 5ather Belco#rt in learning the ative lang#ages to co&&#nicate with the ,ndians. AngVli)#e and -arg#erite were "l#ent in 5rench( English( JAi$wa and .ree. Both sisters worked "or the neGt decade with 5ather Belco#rt. At the &ission the sisters hel!ed with the children as well as hel!ing 5ather Belco#rt !re!are an JAi$wa dictionar% along with school teGts. Belco#rt;s work wo#ld have $een set $ack "or %ears witho#t the hel! o" the olin sisters. Belco#rt had a &ore integrated a!!roach to ed#cation. 1e wanted to co&$ine the -Vtis and 5irst ation wa%s o" li"e with a .atholic ed#cation. The olins worked with Belco#rt "or the neGt ten %ears( teaching and hel!ing hi& with translation. ,n the 1I40s( AngVli)#e and -arg#erite le"t teaching and t#rned to "ar&ing. B% 1IC0( the 6-isses olin7 "ar&ed a "ew acres with stock o" horses( cattle( shee! with carts and a canoe. These two -etis wo&en &ade a &ost val#a$le contri$#tion to the +ed +iver "rontier. -arg#erite died in 4e!te&$er o" 1IDI. AngVli)#e died on -arch <0( 1ID9 at 4t. Boni"ace.

-sabella 1essie Anna NorBuay ( H#"$ ! '(
,sa$ella was $orn on J#ne 11( 1IDC( the da#ghter o" John or)#a% 24E >1I41@1II9? and Eli*a$eth 4etter24I >1I42@19<<?. ,n 1IEI( ,sa$ella;s "ather $eca&e the "irst -etis /re&ier o" -anito$a. John or)#a% served in the govern&ent #ntil 1II9 and "or twelve o" those %ears he was /re&ier. or)#a% "irst re!resented 1igh Bl#"" in the Legislative Asse&$l% o" -anito$a( 1IE0@E4( then he re!resented 4t. Andrews so#th and lived in that district. 1e was re@elected in the elections o" 1IEI( 1IE9( 1II< and 1IID.

24E

John was the second son o" John and ,sa$ella or)#a%. 1is !arents died when he was ver% %o#ng and he was ado!ted $% his grand"ather( Ja&es 4!ence. or)#a% died #neG!ectedl% on C J#l% 1II9. At the ti&e o" his death he was the onl% -LA who had contin#o#sl% held a seat in the Legislative Asse&$l% since its ince!tion. 24I Eli*a$eth;s "ather( 0eorge 4etter( was $orn in 1I1C at 5ort Ellice( the son o" -argaret 4!ence >-etis? and Andrew 4etter >Jrkne%&an?. Eli*a$eth;s &other( ,sa$ella Benned% >-etis?( was the da#ghter o" -ar% Aggath#s Bear >-etis? and AleGander Benned% >Jrkne%&an?.

1IC

Eli2abeth Sette No <ua! and dau"hte s/ Ca oline Ellen IMc&lliste J and -sabella Jessie &nne and " andson John No <ua! Mc&lliste 5 ,sa$elle was ed#cated at the 4t. Andrew;s !arish school( Jld 4t. -ar%;s Acade&%( and 4t. John;s Ladies .ollege. 4he &oved to :inni!eg with her "a&il% in 1IIC( living in a ho&e on 1allet 4treet near the +ed +iver. ,n 1900( she was a!!ointed Assistant /rovincial Li$rarian( #nder J. /. +o$ertson( in the -anito$a Legislative Li$rar%. 4he collected !hotogra!hs o" ever% &e&$er o" the !rovincial legislat#re since 1IE0( eGce!t "or two( and had the& "ra&ed "or dis!la% in the Legislative B#ilding. 4he died at :inni!eg on 19 J#ne 191C and was $#ried in 4t. John;s .athedral .e&eter%. 4cri! a""idavit "or or)#a%( Eli*a$eth= $orn: 5e$r#ar% 2( 1I42= h#s$and: John or)#a%= "ather: 0eorge 4etter Jr. >-Vtis?= &other: ,sa$ella Benned% >-Vtis?= clai& no: 2129= scri! no: 11002= date o" iss#e: Jct. 2( 1IED= a&o#nt: _1D0. 4cri! a""idavit "or or)#a%( John= $orn: -a% I( 1I41= "ather: John or)#a% >-Vtis?= &other: ,sa$ella 5irthwaite RsicS >-Vtis?= clai& no: 212I= scri! no: 11001= date o" iss#e: Jct. 2( 1IED= a&o#nt: _1D0. +e"erence: -14( 6,sa$ella or)#a%(7 on@line at: htt!:PPwww.&hs.&$.caPdocsP!eo!lePnor)#a%YiAa.sht&l

Ang;liBue 7odon 5arenteau. >1I1I@1I92?
AngVli)#e was the da#ghter o" Lo#ison 0odon( a vo%age#r with AleGandre 1enr% at /e&$ina in 1I01. 1er &other was Lo#ise a akota >Assini$oine? ,ndian. Angeli)#e was $orn circa 1I1I at 4t. Boni"ace. 4he died on 5e$r#ar% 2D( 1I92 at Batoche( age E4. 1er si$lings were Lo#is 0odon >$. 1I1D? who &arried Eli*a$eth ,saac= and Jose!hte 0odon( $orn in 1I20 at 4t. Boni"ace and &arried to Jean Ba!tiste -artel >$. 1I10?.

1ID

,n 1I<0 AngVli)#e &arried Jose!h 3odet /arentea# >$. 1I10?( the son o" Jose!h /arentea# 4r. and 4#*anne +ichard.249 1er h#s$and was !art o" the original 4t. La#rent on the so#th 4askatchewan +iver governing co&&ittee. ,n 1IEC( their "a&il% was living in the northern !art o" 4ection <0 at 4t. La#rent. At that ti&e Jose!h /arentea# identi"ied hi&sel" as a h#nter( "ar&er( and "reighter. At the ti&e o" the 1IIC -etis +esistance the h#ge 0odon@/arentea# clan was dee!l% involved in the str#ggle "or -etis rights. Beca#se Angeli)#e and her sons s!oke the akota >Assini$oine? lang#age( her sons were inter!reters on the Aoint $#""alo h#nts with the akota were o"ten sent as e&issaries to the akota >Assini$oine? "or &ilitar% assistance. 4even o" her sons( three sons@in@law and three o" her grandsons were active in the +esistance. 1er $rother@in@ law( /ierre /arentea# was the chair&an o" Lo#is +iel;s .o#ncil. This "a&il% tradition as activists contin#es into the &odern era. AngVli)#e;s great@grandsons 0ar% and +and% /arentea# were to $eco&e !residents o" the -etis 4ettle&ents o" Al$erta 0eneral .o#ncil. The children o" AngVli)#e 0odon and Jose!h /arentea#:

• • •

• • • •

Jean Ba!tiste( $orn in 1I<2( was &arried to 0a$riel 3#&ont;s sister /elagie. Jean Ba!tiste and A$raha& /arentea# received 1al" Breed 4cri! in -innesota !#rs#ant to the 1ID4 Treat% with the +ed Lake and /e&$ina .hi!!ewa Bands. ,n 1IEC the% received scri! st#$s "or 1D0 acres each= 4cri! F 442 "or A$raha& and 4cri! F 44< "or Jean Ba!tiste. 6/etit7 Lo#is( $orn in 1I<C( was &arried to 4#*anne 0rant in 1ICD at /e&$ina. Lo#is 4r. was a &e&$er o" .a!tain ,sidore 3#&ont;s .o&!an% d#ring the +esistance. Their sons( Lo#is and /atrice were active in the +esistance. Their da#ghter -arie was &arried to +esistance "ighter Jose!h J#ellette. 0a$riel( $orn in 1I<E( was &arried to AngVli)#e Laverd#re. 0a$riel was a &e&$er o" .a!tain ,sidore 3#&ont;s .o&!an% d#ring the +esistance. +osalie( $orn in 1I<E( was &arried to /hili!!e El*ear 0arie!%. AleGandre( $orn in 1I4C( was &arried to! /hilo&ene /atena#de. ,n the 1IE0s this "a&il% lived in Batoche. ,n the 1II0s AleGandre and his "a&il% were living at Battle"ord. AleGandre !rovided 0a$riel 3#&ont with sco#ting re!orts "ro& the Battle +iver area in 1IIC. J#dith( $orn in 1I4E( was &arried to ,sidore 3#&ont( 0a$riel 3#&ont;s elder $rother. A n#&$er o" her $rothers served in ,sidore 3#&ont;s .o&!an% d#ring the +esistance.. +a!hael( $orn in 1I4I( was &arried to 1enrietta 4&ith. +a!hael was a &e&$er o" .a!tain Antoine La"ontaine;s co&!an% d#ring the +esistance. Agnes( $orn in 1IC0( was &arried to /ierre 6Bea#@$lV7 Laverd#re. ,sidore 6:a$ash7 known as 6Le@noir7( was $orn in 1IC2( he was &arried to J#dith /lante. 3#ring the 1IIC +esistance ,sidore /arentea# and Lo#is Letendre were sent 120 &iles on snowshoe to the Eagle 1ills in the Battle +iver district to enlist akota >Assini$oine? rein"orce&ents. ,sidore was one o" the &en who rode to To#rond;s .o#lee to eGtricate the -etis soldiers who were tra!!ed there. A"ter the $attles( ,sidore and J#dith Aoined the 4!ring .reek -etis Band in -ontana. The% then settled !er&anentl% on

249

Jose!h;s si$lings were: Adelaide /arentea# >$. 1I1<? &arried Lo#is .a$ri 4&ith= /ierre 6/ierriche7 /arentea# >$. 1I1<? &arried -arie Anne .aron= -arie /arentea# >$. 1I1C? &arried BenAa&in Bea#che&in= Angeli)#e -arg#erite /arentea# >$. 1I22? &arried Jean Ba!tiste La"ra&$oise then &arried -oise La!ierre >$.1I<2?.

1IE


• • •

the 5lathead territor% near 4t. ,gnati#s -ission in -ontana. Jne o" their da#ghters $eca&e a &e&$er o" the 5lathead Band. Joachi&( $orn in 1IC4( &arried Al!honsine 4&ith. Joachi& and three others were assigned to g#ard the 6Jld +iver +oad7 d#ring the siege o" Batoche. Leon@Esdras( was $orn in 1ICD( he was &arried to Elise 5isher. Leon was a &e&$er o" .a!tain Ba!tiste Bo#cher;s .o&!an% d#ring the 1IIC +esistance. +ose( was $orn in 1ICI( she was &arried to John +oss. llise( $orn in 1ID2( was &arried to 1enri 4&ith. 1er $rothers Joachi& and +a!hael were &arried to 1enri 4&ith;s sisters. All three o" the 4&ith $rothers were active in the +esistance.

1udith 5lante 5arenteau.
J#dith was the da#ghter o" Antoine /lante and AngVli)#e 3#&ont. 4he &arried ,sidore 6:a$ash7 /arentea#( >$. 1IC2? at 4t. Boni"ace on J#ne D( 1IE0. The% then settled in 4t. La#rent where their "irst child was $orn the "ollowing %ear. ,sidore;s older sister J#dith was &arried to 0a$riel 3#&ont;s $rother also na&ed ,sidore. 3#ring the 1IIC +esistance ,sidore /arentea# and Lo#is LetendrV were sent 120 &iles on snowshoes to the Eagle 1ills in the Battle +iver district to enlist Assini$oine rein"orce&ents. ,sidore was one o" the &en who rode to rein"orce the "ighters at To#rond;s .o#lee. ,n the written acco#nts o" this $attle he is re"erred to as 6le oir /arentea#7. 0a$riel 3#&ont re!orted that ,sidore arrived with a $#gg%( a 4io#G warrior and a hal"@$arrel o" !owder. A"ter the de"eat at Batoche Ba!tiste /arentea#( ,sidore /arentea#( /atrice Jose!h 5le#r%( Edo#ard 3#&ont and Jean 3#&ont all Aoined the 4!ring .reek -etis Band in -ontana. ,sidore and J#dith /arentea# event#all% settled in 5lathead territor% in -ontana at the 4t. ,gnati#s -ission. ,sidore and J#dith ret#rned to Batoche whenever the% co#ld. Their son Jose!h died in Batoche in 1I90 and the "a&il% was incl#ded in the .anadian .ens#s o" 1I91. ,sidore also s!ent the s#&&er o" 1I9< at his old ho&estead in Batoche. ,n his clai& to the +e$ellion Losses .o&&ission he stated that he had lost his entire ho&estead( a log ho#se( two sta$les( a "enced !ast#re "or "ive horses and "o#rteen head o" cattle. J#dith;s grandson( 3;Arc% -c ickle $eca&e a 0#ggenhei& 5ellow in 19D<( the "irst -etis to receive this hono#r. Later( he was to serve as the "o#nding director o" the ew$err% Li$rar%;s .enter "or the 1istor% o" the A&erican ,ndian( which was later na&ed a"ter hi& as the 3;Arc% -c ickle .enter. 1e is $elieved to have $een the "irst -etis #niversit% !ro"essor to teach in 4askatchewan. 1e was a "o#nding &e&$er o" the ational .ongress o" A&erican ,ndians. Two $#ildings are na&ed in his hono#r= The ew$err% Li$rar% 3;Arc% -c ickle .enter "or ative A&erican 1istor% and the 3;Arc% -c ickle Li$rar% at the 4alish Bootenai .ollege( 5lathead ,ndian +eservation( -ontana.

5;lagie 9umont 5arenteau. >1I<C@1I92?.
/Vlagie was the da#ghter o" ,sidore dit Eca!ow >A%@sa@!ow? 3#&ont and Lo#ise La"ra&$oise. 4he was 0a$riel 3#&ont;s sister. /Vlagie &arried Jean Ba!tiste /arentea# >$. 1I<2? on A#g#st 4( 1I<2 at 4t. or$ert. 4he was one o" the heroines o" Batoche.

1II

Jean Ba!tiste and his $rother A$raha& received 1al" Breed 4cri! !#rs#ant to the 1ID4 Treat% with the +ed Lake and /e&$ina Bands o" .hi!!ewa ,ndians. ,n 1IEC the% received scri! st#$s "or 1D0 acres( 4cri! F 442 "or A$raha& and F44< "or Jean Ba!tiste. This was a !lains $#""alo h#nting "a&il% who in s#$se)#ent %ears wintered near To#rond;s .o#lee with the other -etis traders and h#nters. Each s!ring the% wo#ld take "#rs to sell in :inni!eg and ret#rn to To#rond;s .o#lee in the "all. The "a&il% settled in 4t. La#rent >+iver Lot <0? in 1IE2. Ba!tiste was one o" 0a$riel 3#&ont;s closest "riends. .lo#tier;s Ao#rnal notes that John% was one o" the "ighters at 3#ck Lake >8ol. 1( !. EE?. Jean Ba!tiste was a &e&$er o" +iel;s EGovedate and "o#ght at Batoche. 1e was a &e&$er o" .a!tain Ba!tiste Bo#cher;s co&!an%( one o" the 19 di2aines led $% 0a$riel 3#&ont d#ring the 1IIC -etis +esistance. 1e was wo#nded d#ring $attle. 1e was not tried "or these activities as the "a&il% esca!ed to -ontana. The /arentea# "a&il% along with those o" Ba!tiste /arentea#( ,sidore /arentea#( /atrice Jose!h 5le#r%( Edo#ard 3#&ont and Jean 3#&ont Aoined the 4!ring .reek -etis Band in -ontana. Jean Ba!tiste is $#ried at 4t. Antoine de /ado#e .e&eter%. /elagie;s h#s$and was wo#nded in the "ighting. 1er son( Jean@Ba!tiste Jr. >$. 1ICI? was wo#nded d#ring $attle. Be"ore the "ighting $egan /Vlagie told 5ather 5o#r&ond: ," the !olice co&e , will s!ear the&( &e. , will treat the& like the $#""alo o" the !rairie( s!ear( and !#t the &eat in thin slices to dr%. 2C0 Three o" /Vlagie;s da#ghters were &arried to +esistance "ighters= L#cie &arried A$raha& -onto#r( -arie /Vlagie &arried 3a&ase .arriMre( and +osalie &arried /hili!!e 0arie!%. /Vlagie died on Jan#ar% 20( 1I92 at CD %ears o" age. 4he is $#ried at 4t. Antoine de /ado#e .e&eter%( Batoche.

5hilomene -skwesis 5atenaude 5arenteau.
/hilo&ene /atena#de was the da#ghter o" -ichel /atena#de and Jose!hte Bo#rassa. 4he &arried AleGandre /arentea# in 1IDD at 4t. Jose!h. ,n the 1IE0s the% lived in Batoche $#t in the 1II0s the% were living at Battle"ord. 1er sister -arie was &arried to AleGandre;s older $rother Jose!h. ,n A!ril o" 1IIC( she acco&!anied her h#s$and !art wa% d#ring his sco#ting eG!edition to Battle +iver on $ehal" o" +iel. At the telegra!h , saw thirt% >soldiers? in the distance( and when , got there , co#nted the tracks. There , saw two $lankets( one $l#e and one white. earer to &e , saw one( he was alone and was "l%ing as "ast as he co#ld go. , &ade "or the river( got down the hills( and tethered &% horse in so&e s&all &a!les. ,t is there , le"t &% "a&il%. And when , le"t the& , ca&e and ca&!ed in the sand $#ttes a little wa% "ro& the ca&!( and in the &orning , got on to! o" the $#tte and saw -iddleton;s ca&! on this side o" the river. Towards evening %esterda% , le"t the !lace. , wanted to cross the road in the o!en in order to reach a grove. -%
2C0

Jo#rnal o" A$$V .lo#tier t%!escri!t ( 8ol. 2( !age <( translation $% +ose@-arie .are%( /arks .anada( Batoche 1istoric 4ite.

1I9

wi"e $eca&e "aint and we cro#ched down there. The% did not see #s. Thence , went to -r. Belanger;s.2C1

8arie$*ouise 5erron2 ..A.2 ..,d.2 8. 0s Arts.
-arie@Lo#ise grew #! in a "a&il% which "or sociological reasons did not identi"% their -etis ancestr%. L!on discovering the dictation o" her great@great@grand"ather( Jean Ba!tiste LadVro#te( his role in the 1ID9@E0 +esistance( 2C2 and ancient "a&il% "olk tales all o" which her a#nt had collected and saved in a tr#nk !assed down to her( she $egan a recover% o" her -etis identit%. -s. /erron is c#rrentl% e&!lo%ed as the .hie" o" 4ta"" to the "ederal .o&&issioner o" J""icial Lang#ages. /revio#sl% she was 5ranco!hone Archivist at the 4askatchewan Archives Board "ro& 19IC to 1991. 4he then was on sta"" at the Li$rar% and Archives o" .anada. 4ince 1992( she develo!ed new service initiatives at the Li$rar% and Archives o" .anada( "irst as .hie" o" the 3ecentrali*ed Access J""ice( then as /roAect Leader /#$lic Access 4%ste&s( .hie" o" the 0enealog% and /ersonnel +ecords 4ection( and lastl% as .ontent 4!ecialist with the .0.. -arie@Lo#ise /erron has !resented and !#$lished !a!ers( in $oth English and 5rench( on 5renchP-Vtis "olksongs and "olktales( distant access to archival services( and the /erron@ Ladero#te@-arion@4t. Arna#d "a&ilies( her ancestors a&ong the +ed +iver >-anito$a? -Vtis. As a res#lt o" this work she a!!eared on glo$al T8;s (ast Li$es aired J#ne 2C( 200C. 4he contin#es her work as a vis#al artist( s!eciali*ing in watercolo#rs and &iGed &edia on canvas. -arie@Lo#ise contri$#ted a cha!ter on -etis "olklore to -etis Legac% 8ol#&e ,,: -ichi" .#lt#re( 1eritage and 5olkwa%s >0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te and /e&&ican /#$lications200D: 4D@C4?. This cha!ter 6L;Jrigine des canards gris(7 or 6The Jrigin o" the 0re% 3#cks7 has also a!!eared in the 5rench lang#age in 4askatchewan 1istor%( vol. 40( no. <( 19IE: 99@10I. ,t is one o" a n#&$er o" -etis "olk tales handed down $% seven generations in her "a&il% and told to her $% her a#nt Jose!hine /erron as 6one o" 0rand&a LadVro#te;s stories.7 4he was the a#thor >with 0illes Lesage and .la#de +o$erto? o" 6Les archives de la !resence "ranWais dans l;J#est .anadien(7 in Archives( 8ol#&e <D( ni&Vro 1( 2004@200C: 11E@1<C. 4he !resented the !a!er ?The O.landestinit% 9#estionJ in the +earch for -dentity Among Francophone 8etis 5eople: The Case of the *aderoute$5erron$8arion Family 7roupA at the ,nternational 5ederation o" Li$rar% Associations and ,nstit#tions I-'L&J 0enealog% and Local 1istor% "or All# Satellite ( eConfe ence/ B-L&u"ust 7GGA/ +tta%a/ Canada5

+usan *aFlesche 5icotte. >1IDC@191C?
,n 1II9( 4#san La5lesche gained the distinction o" $eing the "irst ative A&erican >-etis? wo&an to $eco&e a doctor o" &edicine. As a child( 4#san La 5lesche had watched a sick ,ndian
2C1 2C2

.4/( 8ol. 12<( o. 4<( !!. 2D@2E. These re&iniscences a!!eared as j -V&oires des tro#$les d# -anito$a 1ID9@E0 k( in the .ulletin de la Société histo i<ue de Sainte-.oniface( #&Vro 4( ltV 199E : E@2C.

190

wo&an die $eca#se the local white doctor wo#ld not give her care. 4he later credited this traged% as her ins!iration to train as a !h%sician( so she co#ld !rovide care "or the !eo!le she lived with on the J&aha +eservation. 4#san was $orn on the J&aha +eservation( the da#ghter o" Jose!h La5lesche >-etis? and -ar% 6Jne :o&an7 0ale >-etis?. 4#san;s &other( -ar% 0ale was the da#ghter o" &ilitar% o""icer and s#rgeon( 3r. John 0ale and his J&aha wi"e( ico&i >8oice o" the :aters?. ,t is interesting to note that 4#san;s "ather( Jose!h( $eca&e a chie" o" the J&ahas. As -etis( his children were all given land grants on the 0reat e&aha 1al" Breed Tract= however( &ost o" the& sold this land and lived on the J&aha reserve. 4#san was ed#cated at the reservation school a"ter which she and -arg#erite "ollowed their elder sister 4#sette to the Eli*a$eth ,nstit#te "or Ho#ng Ladies in ew Jerse%. 4he took three %ears there then ret#rned to teach at the /res$%terian -ission school. ,n 1II4( -arg#erite and 4#san ret#rned to the East and enrolled in the 1a&!ton >8irginia? or&al and Agric#lt#ral ,nstit#te( a school set #! "or Blacks and A&erican ,ndians. 4he grad#ated with hono#rs in 1IID and entered the :o&en;s -edical .ollege in /hiladel!hia the "ollowing Jcto$er. 4he again eGcelled and grad#ated at the to! o" her class in 1II9. 4he th#s earned the distinction o" $eing the "irst ative A&erican wo&an to $eco&e a doctor o" &edicine. 5ro& A#g#st o" 1II9 to Jcto$er o" 1I9<( she served on the J&aha +eservation in e$raska as !h%sician to her tri$e. A"ter grad#ation "ro& &edical school and #!on co&!letion o" a "o#r@&onth internshi! 4#san ret#rned to the J&aha +eservation and worked as a !h%sician at the local school. 4hortl% therea"ter she was a!!ointed as doctor "or the entire J&aha Agenc% >1II9@1I9<?. The work incl#ded advising( teaching and inter!reting and was overwhel&ing. ,n 1I9< she took leave to care "or her in"ir& &other. Additionall%( she was in ill health hersel". ,n s!ite o" this she anno#nced that she intended to &arr% 1enr% /icotte( the $rother o" .harles /icotte( her sister;s h#s$and. L!on co&!letion o" a "o#r@&onth internshi! she ret#rned to the J&aha +eservation and worked as a !h%sician at the local school. 4hortl% therea"ter she was a!!ointed as doctor "or the entire J&aha Agenc% >1II9@1I9<?. The work incl#ded advising( teaching and inter!reting and was overwhel&ing. ,n 1I9< she took leave to care "or her in"ir& &other. Additionall%( she was in ill health hersel". ,n s!ite o" this she anno#nced that she intended to &arr% 1enr% /icotte( the $rother o" .harles /icotte( her sister;s h#s$and. The% &arried in 1I94 and settled at Bancro"t( e$raska( where he "ar&ed and she !racticed &edicine. The% had two sons( .arl and /ierre. 1er h#s$and died in 190C and she took a s#$se)#ent a!!oint&ent as &issionar% to the J&aha on $ehal" o" the /res$%terian Board o" 1o&e -issions( in addition to her &edical !ractice. 4#san $eca&e !oliticall% active and in 1910 headed a delegation to :ashington to address the 4ecretar% o" the ,nterior on citi*enshi! "or the J&aha ,ndians. -eanwhile she advocated "or $etter health !ractices and !reventive health care. 4he ca&!aigned "or a hos!ital and the "acilit% o!ened in 191<. Lntil her death in 191C she was an ins!iration and role &odel to co#ntless %o#ng J&aha ,ndian and -etis wo&en. ,n 191<( two %ears $e"ore her death( she saw her li"eUs drea& "#l"illed when she o!ened a hos!ital in the reservation town o" :althill( e$raska. Toda% the hos!ital ho#ses a &#se#& dedicated to the work o" 3r. 4#san La 5lesche /icotte and the histor% o" the J&aha and :inne$ago tri$es.

191

4#san La5lesche -.3.

4hown $elow are the "irst and last !ages o" a letter "ro& /icotte to .o&&issioner o" ,ndian A""airs 5rancis E. Le#!!( ove&$er 1C( 190E >co#rtes% o" the ational Archives and +ecords Ad&inistration?. ,n this letter she notes that she is in !oor health and asks "or assistance to ste& the !lag#e o" t#$erc#losis that is a""ecting her !eo!le.

192

19<

,efe ence /arins( Ja&es :. 64#san La5lesche /icotte(7 in 0retchen -. Bataille >Editor?. Nati$e &me ican Women# & .io" aphical 3ictiona !. ew Hork: 0arland /#$lishing( 199<: 14E@149.

Christine 9umas 5ilon2 (1ID2@19C4?. 4!o#se( +a%&ond BarthVlV&i /ilon >1ID1@
194<?.
.hristine 3#&as and her h#s$and BarthVlV&i /ilon arrived at the -etis settle&ent o" Batoche in the s!ring o" 1II2. The% had recentl% &arried in the .athedral in 4t. Boni"ace( -anito$a. 1er widowed &other( 1enriette Landr% >1I22@1909?( acco&!anied her. -an% o" her $rothers and sisters had !receded the& to the new 6ho&eland.7 The %o#ng co#!le settled near their "a&il% and $egan $#ilding a co&"orta$le ho&e on their river lot on the 4o#th 4askatchewan +iver. BarthVlV&i !#rs#ed &iGed "ar&ing and s#!!le&ented the "a&il% inco&e with "reighting and car!entr% work. There were &an% hardshi!s $#t .hristine was reso#rce"#l and was o"ten asked to write !ersonal and $#siness letters "or relatives and neigh$o#rs. -&e. /ilon was !ro#d o" her "a&il%Us d#al .anadian and -etis heritage( a val#e which she instilled in her eight children: "ive $o%s and three girls( $orn $etween 1II< and 1904. These convictions and her strength in ti&es o" adversit% were revealed in a !oignant acco#nt o" her trials d#ring the 60#erre ationale7 at Batoche in 1IIC >re"erred to as the orth@:est +e$ellion in E#ro@.anadian literat#re?. 4he de"ended the actions o" the -etis leader( Lo#is +iel( a distant co#sin on the Landr% side( 6.e nUest !as Lo#is +iel &ais le go#verne&ent lache )#i est ven# en g#erre che* les !a#vres gens de la 4askatchewan.7 2C<

.hristine and her da#ghters( -&e. Adelaide +anger( .hristine /ilon and -&e. Jctavie Le!ine /hoto co#rtes% o" J&er +anger( 3#ck Lake.

.hristine and &ost o" the wo&en and children had so#ght re"#ge in d#go#ts and tents down $% the trenches= the advancing 0overn&ent troo!s had $#rned their new ho&e. 4he was cold( there was little "ood and a"ter the de$acle on -a% 12( she was "orced to "lee in the woods >-inatinas 1ill area? with her %o#ng 6$i$i7 >Lo#is( 1I &onths?. 4he was with -&e +iel >who had $een co#ghing $lood "or three da%s? and her two children. A"ter da%s o" hiding in the $#sh( the% walked the 1I &iles $ack to Batoche.... There( the% "o#nd a stra% cal"( which the% $#tchered and ate. 6+iel ret#rned three ti&es to sa% adie# to his "a&il% $e"ore he gave hi&sel" #!. ,t was so sad.7

2C<

5ro& a letter .hristine wrote to -onseigne#r /r#d;ho&&e in /rince Al$ert in 1IIC. A co!% o" this letter was given to Lawrence Barkwell $% her grandson( J&er +anger o" 3#ck Lake > ove&$er( 2009?.

194

.hristine and BarthVlV&i had lost ever%thing. 6All the ho#ses were $#rnt down when we ca&e $ack ho&e. o ho#se( no $ed( no covers. ,l no#s restait )#e le co#rage de .anadien et de -etis !o#r vivre.7 B#t the% !ersisted. A new ho&e was $#ilt( cro!s were sown and a second ho&estead was ac)#ired. .hristine and her 6cher &ari7 cele$rated their golden anniversar% in 19<2. ,nde!endent to the end( she died in a little ho#se neGt door to her da#ghter Adelaide at the age o" 92. >:ith contri$#tions $% 3iane /a%&ent.?

8onica 5inette. >$. 19EE?
-onica /inette was $orn on 5e$. C( 19EE at Langle% B... -onica received a ational A$original Achieve&ent Award in 2010 "or contri$#tion to s!ort. The 5o#ndation;s write@#! o" her achieve&ents sa%s: Bnown as the onl% A$original athlete at the 2004 and 200I Jl%&!ic 0a&es( -s. /inette hel!ed raise the !ro"ile o" the !entathlon in .anada. A !entathlete &#st eGcel in "ive disci!lines which incl#de !istol shooting( e!ee "encing( 200 & "reest%le swi&&ing( show A#&!ing and a < k& cross@co#ntr% r#n. -s. /inette was also the "irst .anadian "e&ale to ever )#ali"% "or the Jl%&!ics in the !entathlon ,n order to show !eo!le how -s. /inette !re!ares hersel" as an elite Jl%&!ic athlete( she agreed to do a doc#&entar% called The Jou ne! @ her Ao#rne% to the BeiAing Jl%&!ics. ,t &otivated her to devote &ore ti&e &entoring other %o#ng wo&en in the s!ort and hel!ing coach the .anadian J#niors to the :orld .ha&!ionshi!s in Taiwan. -onica has )#ali"ied "or the world cha&!ionshi!s ever% %ear since 2002( was the "irst "e&ale !entathlete to ever )#ali"% "or the Jl%&!ic 0a&es( and her 1< th !lace in Athens in 2004 was the highest a .anadian !entathlete has ever "inished in the Jl%&!ics( &ale or "e&ale. 4he was also the lone .anadian A$original athlete co&!eting in Athens. 4he has also had the $est world c#! and world c#! "inal res#lts o" an% .anadian !entathlete ever. ,n her "irst /an A&erican 0a&es( where she "inished Eth. ,n 200<( /inette also &ade it to the :orld .#! 5inal in Athens( "inishing in 1Dth s!ot. 4he i&!roved that to 10th !lace at two di""erent :orld .#!s in 2004. ,n her third :orld .ha&!ionshi! a!!earance( /inette i&!roved again to <<rd in 2004. That set the stage "or her ver% s#ccess"#l 1<th !lace "inish at the 2004 Jl%&!ic 0a&es. -onica contin#ed her !rogression $% winning the 0old &edal in the /an A&erican .ha&!ionshi!s in -eGico .it% in J#ne 200D and a silver &edal in the 200E /an A&erican 0a&es. J#ne 1( 200I( /inette was in B#da!est to co&!ete in the &odern !entathlon world cha&!ionshi!s. :hen she crossed the "inish line in 11th !lace( it was !erha!s her $est res#lt %et. ,n the 200I BeiAing Jl%&!ics she !laced 2E th. 4he received the British .ol#&$ia /re&ier;s Athletic Award in 2009.

19C

Audrey 9umont 5oitras. >$. 19C0?
A#dre% was $orn at Elk /oint( Al$erta( the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste 3#&ont and -a$el Binch. Jean Ba!tiste was $orn at the -etis co&&#nit% o" 4t. /a#l( Al$erta( he s!oke .ree( -ichi" and 5rench( and he worked as a tra!!er and "ar&er. 1er &other -a$el was "ro& England. ,n 199D( A#dre% /oitras $eca&e the "irst wo&an elected to the /residenc% o" the -etis ation o" Al$erta. A#dre%;s "a&il% is linked to that o" the "a&o#s 0a$riel 3#&ont( and 3#&ont;s s!irit is ver% &#ch alive in A#dre%. A#dre% was raised near the "ar&ing co&&#nit% o" Elk /oint( Al$erta. This is sit#ated near the -etis 4ettle&ent o" 5ishing Lake. 4he and her h#s$and 0ordon are d%na&ic !artici!ants at the co&&#nit% level. 0ordon /oitras is a descendant o" /ierre /oitras( a -etis "ro& 4t. 5ranWois Xavier who re!resented that !arish in the conventions o" 1ID9 and 1IE0 when he served on +iel;s .o#ncil at +ed +iver. A#dre% and 0ordon /oitras are s#ccess"#l in $oth their !#$lic and !rivate #ndertakings. 5or a n#&$er o" %ears the% ran a dr% cleaning "ranchise >-aster .leaners? o!erating as /oitras .leaners "ro& 19E9 to 1990. ,n the late 19I0s A#dre% ret#rned to school while still working. orthern Al$erta ,nstit#te o" Technolog% and $eca&e a .erti"ied Acco#ntant in

4he attended the 1990.

Jn the !#$lic service "ront the /oitras; were involved in the "o#nding o" -etis Local 1IIC. This local initiated str#ct#ral and organi*ational changes in the - A. A#dre% was one o" the ke% initiators in develo!ing the Al$erta -etis :o&en;s organi*ation. 4he was one o" the "o#nders o" -etis Local 999 and c#rrentl% a &e&$er o" -etis Local 20IC. Beca#se o" her skills and eG!ertise A#dre% was a!!ointed as the re!resentative o" Al$erta -etis :o&en to the 4election .o&&ittee o" A!eetogosan >-etis? -etis 3evelo!&ent ,nc. 1ere she acted as a ke% advisor in the a!!oint&ent !rocess "or the Tr#stees o" A!eetogosan >-etis? -etis 3evelo!&ent ,nc. 5ollowing her grad#ation "ro& the orthern Al$erta ,nstit#te o" Technolog%( A#dre% took the !osition o" 3irector o" 5inance "or the -etis ation o" Al$erta. 4#$se)#ent to that she s#ccess"#ll% ran "or the !residenc% in 199D. As a -etis leader( A#dre% works hard to $e "air and acco#nta$le( and to listen and act on the as!irations o" the -etis !eo!le. 4he was na&ed as one o" Al$erta;s C0 -ost ,n"l#ential /eo!le in the ninth ann#al listing o" Al$erta 8ent#re &aga*ine. A"ter 0erald -orin was s#s!ended "ro& the !residenc% o" the -etis ational .o#ncil on Jan#ar% 12( 200< A#dre% /oitras was elected as interi& /resident and ational s!okes!erson o" - . #ntil Jcto$er o" 200< when .lV&ent .hartier was elected to the !residenc%. ,n 200I( A#dre% /oitras was re@elected as /resident o" - A "or her "i"th consec#tive ter&. /oitras has led the -etis ation o" Al$erta in the role o" /rovincial /resident "or over twelve %ears.

19D

.ernice 7uibeault 5otoski. >194<@200D?
Bernice was $orn and raised in the s&all -anito$a -etis "ishing village o" /ine 3ock >on Lake :inni!eg?. 4he is the da#ghter o" 0ordon 0#i$ea#lt and -argaret .ollins. 1er grand!arents( AleGander >4and%? 0#i$ea#lt and Eva 4tevenson lived at Hork 5actor% and .h#rchill where 4and% was an 1B. e&!lo%ee "ro& 1IE< to 1I90. Bernice served --5 as a vol#nteer "or over 2D %ears and was a &e&$er o" the Board o" 3irectors "or over 14 %ears. 4he raised her sister;s $o% and "o#r children o" her own. Bernice also cared "or n#&ero#s "oster children( then was activel% !arenting 5irst ations children who &oved "ro& the north to +iverton to go to school. A"ter co&!leting ew .areers training Bernice worked "or 5a&il% 4ervices as a 1o&e Aid "or 2E %ears. 4he retired d#e to her dia$etes. Bernice was a "o#nder o" the +iverton ,ndian and -etis 5riendshi! .entre. 4he is known "or her !ride in $eing -etis and her love o" cooking. ,n -arch o" 200< she was awarded the Jrder o" the 4hawl $% -etis :o&en o" -anito$a.

Christine Kuintasket. >1IIC@19<D?
Bnown $% the !en na&e -o#rning 3ove( .hristine was $orn near Bonner;s 5err%( ,daho. 1er non@A$original "ather was Jose!h 9#intasket and her &other= L#c% 4t#tkin( was a 4alishan s!eaker "ro& the .olville .on"ederated Tri$es o" eastern :ashington 4tate. 4he colla$orated with her !#$lishers to !ortra% hersel" as ,ndian altho#gh she was -etis. ,n the &id@1I90s .hristine attended the 0oodwin -ission 4chool and was "orced to co&!lete her secondar% school ed#cation at 5ort 4!okane a"ter the &ission schools lost govern&ent "#nding. 4he contin#ed her ed#cation at the 5ort 4haw ,ndian 4chool in -ontana and then .algar% .ollege >191<@191C?. At school( .hristine &et 1ector -cLeod( a 5lathead ,ndian and the% were &arried in 1909. The% se!arated a"ter onl% a "ew %ears d#e to his violent and a$#sive $ehavio#r. B% 1912( she was living in /ortland and $egan writing her "irst novel. ,n 191C( she &et L#c#ll#s 8irgil -c:horter( a Haki&a $#siness&an and ,ndian +ights advocate. 1e was i&!ressed with her work and took on the role as her literar% &entor. Ln"ort#natel%( he inAected &an% o" his own ideas into her teGt in the !rocess o" editing. ,n 191E or 191I she $egan teaching on the ,nka&ee! Jkanogan +eserve near Jliver( British .ol#&$ia. ,n 1919( she &arried 5red 0aller( a .olvile o" :enatchi and white ancestr%. The% were o"ten e&!lo%ed as &igrant la$o#rers. :hile living on the .olvile +eserve( her interest t#rned to ,ndian "olklore( &ostl% at the insistence o" her &entor. 1er "irst $ook Co"e%ea/ The *alf .lood was not !#$lished #ntil 192E( so&e "i"teen %ears a"ter she co&!leted the "irst dra"t. 4#$se)#entl% -c:horter t#rned over the Ao$ o" editing .hristine;s ,ndian legends to a "riend( 1eister 3ean 0#ie( who worked "or a Haki&a news!a!er. 1er $ook o" Jkanogan 6"olklore7 "or&ed the $asis "or Co!ote Sto ies( !#$lished in 19<<.
,efe ences .irillo( 3eGter 5isher. 6-o#rning 3ove R.hristal( .hristine 9#intasket( 1#&ish#&aS.7 ,n 0retchen -. Bataille >Editor?. Nati$e &me ican Women# & .io" aphical 3ictiona ! . ew Hork: 0arland /#$lishing( 199<: 1EI@1E9. 1alverson( .athr%n. 6+ede"ining the 5rontier: -o#rning 3ove;s .ogewea( the 1al"@Blood: A 3e!iction o" the 0reat -ontana .attle +ange.7 &me ican -ndian Cultu e and ,esea ch Jou nal( 8ol. 21 >4?( 199E:10C@124. -iller( Ja%. >Editor? Mou nin" 3o$e# & Salishan &utobio" aph! . Lincoln( e$raska: Lniversit% o" e$raska /ress( 1990.

19E

8ary Dichard( J-. >1940@2010?
-ar% +ichard was a -etis activist and !olitician in :inni!eg( -anito$a. -ar% was $orn to a -Vtis "a&il% in .a&!erville( -anito$a. 4he has long $een active in !ro&oting lang#age retention( ho#sing( training( c#lt#ral awareness and $#siness enter!rise a&ong and "or -anito$a;s a$original !o!#lation. 4he $eca&e the director o" the -anito$a Association o" ative Lang#ages in the 19I0s( and held this !osition "or al&ost a decade. ,n 199E( she was a!!ointed $% :inni!eg -a%or 4#san Tho&!son to co@chair the orth -ain Task 5orce( eGa&ining social !ro$le&s in north :inni!egUs a$original co&&#nit%. -ar% was active with the A$original .o#ncil o" :inni!eg and was the "irst .hie" EGec#tive J""icer >.EJ? o" Th#nder$ird 1o#se in north :inni!eg( which o!ened its doors in 2000. Altho#gh this was intended as a to#rist destination( it soon $eca&e !ri&aril% a social o#treach centre "or the &an% low@inco&e !ersons living in the area. Lnder +ichardUs leadershi!( Th#nder$ird 1o#se $eca&e active in !rogra&s to assist a$original %o#th esca!e solvent a$#se( gang li"e and the seG trade. 4he is no longer .EJ( $#t re&ains active with the organi*ation. +ichard is also a !ast !resident o" the A$original .o#ncil o" :inni!eg( and a "or&er eGec#tive director o" the ,ndian and -Vtis 5riendshi! .entre o" :inni!eg. 4he also owned the Tee!ee +esta#rant in :inni!eg. ,n 2000( she was na&ed to the Jrder o" -anito$a. 4he ca&!aigned "or the /rogressive .onservative /art% o" -anito$a in the 1999 !rovincial election( in the constit#enc% o" /oint 3o#glas. The winner was 0eorge 1ickes o" the ew 3e&ocratic /art%. The "ollowing %ear( +ichard crossed to the Li$eral /art% o" .anada and ran as that !art%Us candidate in :inni!eg orth .entre "or the 2000 "ederal election. ,n eG!laining this &ove( +ichard told a Winnipe" ' ee ( ess re!orter that she had long s#!!orted the /rogressive .onservatives at the !rovincial level and the Li$erals at the "ederal level. 4he "inished second against ew 3e&ocrat J#d% :as%l%cia@Leis. ,n 200<( -ar% received a ational A$original Achieve&ent Award >.o&&#nit% 4ervice?. ,n the 5o#ndation;s write@#! the% stated: -ar% +ichard can;t even think o" slowing down. 6, don;t have ti&e to retire(7 this -anito$a -Vtis( now in her D0s( sa%s cheer"#ll%. And that;s a good thing "or her !rovince( cit% and A$original !eo!les ever%where. To sa% she has worked tirelessl% "or A$original !eo!le over the %ears wo#ld $e #nderstating her acco&!lish&ents. The .EJ o" .ircle o" Li"e Th#nder$ird 1o#se in :inni!eg K to na&e A#st one o" her c#rrent activities K -s. +ichard;s e""orts have to#ched virt#all% ever% as!ect o" A$original li"e in her !rovince thro#gh "ive decades. 4he was the EGec#tive 3irector o" the ,ndian and -Vtis 5riendshi! .entre o" :inni!eg K the "irst o" its kind in .anada. That was A#st the $eginning. -s. +ichard( a "or&er /resident o" the A$original .o#ncil o" :inni!eg @@ was instr#&ental in ens#ring the s#rvival o" A$original lang#ages in -anito$a. 4he i&!le&ented the -anito$a Lang#age +etention /rogra&s d#ring al&ost a decade o" service as 3irector o" the -anito$a Association "or ative Lang#ages. 6:e were A#st $eco&ing aware o" lang#age loss $#t had no &aterials "or teaching(7 she sa%s toda% o" her work d#ring the 19I0s. 64o( we got Elders together with lang#age s!eakers and , raised the &one% to get the $ooks !rinted.7 These ed#cation kits ' &ade !ossi$le a"ter -s. +ichard raised hal"@a@&illion dollars ' are now

19I

availa$le in seven A$original lang#ages and so#ght a"ter $% school $oards and #niversities across the co#ntr%. 4he;s esta$lished ative ho#sing( training and c#lt#ral !roAects( $#ilt $ridges to the !rivate sector and esta$lished the !lans "or an A$original $#siness district in her cit%. B#ilder( doer( leader( !artner K that;s -ar% +ichard.

8arguerite 8onet dit .elhumeur Diel. >1ID1@1IID?. 4!o#se( Lo#is +iel.
B% Lorraine 5ree&an and A#dreen 1o#rie. -arg#erite was the wi"e o" Lo#is +iel and acco&!anied hi& to Batoche "ro& -ontana.. 4he was at her h#s$andUs side d#ring the $attle o" 1IIC #ntil +iel s#rrendered -a% 1C( to -iddleton;s sco#ts. .old and h#ngr%( -arg#erite and her children hid in caves near Batoche while awaiting word "ro& Lo#is. ,nstead Lo#is; $rother Jose!h a!!eared and took -arg#erite and her children to live with +iel;s &other in 4t. Boni"ace( -anito$a. :eakened $% the events o" Batoche and her h#s$and;s i&!rison&ent( the !re&at#re $irth and death o" her third child added to her grie". -arg#erite;s s#""ering contin#ed with Lo#is; eGec#tion "or his involve&ent in the +esistance o" 1IIC. A"ter his eGec#tion she sta%ed with his "a&il% in 4t. 8ital. 4he died o" t#$erc#losis in -a% o" 1IID( the "inal $low dealt to a greatl% di&inished eGistence. -arg#erite was $orn Jan#ar% 1C( 1ID1 at :hite 1orse /lains( 4t. 5ranWois Xavier to -arie -alaterre and Jean Ba!tiste -onet dit Bellh#&e#r. 1er "ather was a 9#e$ecer who &arried -arg#erite -alaterre. 1er &other was a .ree wo&an "ro& the 5ort Ellice area. -arg#erite s!ent her childhood at 5ort Ellice( near !resent da% 4t. La*are( -anito$a. Jean Bellh#&e#r and his "a&il% &oved to -ontana to earn a living h#nting $#""alo. Jne o" the &en who acco&!anied hi& on h#nting !arties was a handso&e %o#ng &an na&ed 3avid Lo#is +iel( who ca#ght the e%e o" the twent%@%ear@old -arg#erite >1II1?. Lo#is( who was )#ite taken with the %o#ng lad%( asked "or her hand in &arriage later that %ear. 5ro& his $asic descri!tion( she was so"t@s!oken( dark skinned( tall and )#ite good looking. B#t his attraction to her la% in her strength o" character. The% were &arried $% 6c#sto& o" the co#ntr%7 at 5lat .reek. The !rairie &arriage was !re"or&ed in 1II1( and 5ather 3a&iani K a Jes#it "ro& 4t. /eter;s -ission( -ontana( "or&all% &arried the& in -arch o" 1II2( at .arroll( -ontana. -arg#erite had her "irst child( a handso&e son na&ed Jean +iel( who had the e%es o" his &other( on -a% 9( 1II2. Their second child( -arie AngVli)#e( a !rett% $londe little girl( was $orn 4e!te&$er 1E( 1II<. -arg#erite was known to $e so"t s!oken( )#iet( !atient and is also said to have $een !etite and )#ite attractive. 4he took on the all res!onsi$ilit% o" a !lains wi"e: gathering "irewood( cooking( cleaning and str#ggling on ver% little &one% and "ood. 4he was alone &ost o" the ti&e with her children( while Lo#is was "ighting "or rights o" their !eo!le. Lo#is had a &ost devoted wi"e who worshi!!ed hi& $#t "eared the har& that co#ld $e"all their "a&il% at the hands o" his ene&ies. ,n J#ne 1II4( -arg#erite( Jean and AngVli)#e acco&!anied Lo#is to Batoche( 4askatchewan( in s!ite o" the loo&ing con"lict. 4he was at her h#s$andUs side d#ring the $attle o" 1IIC #ntil +iel s#rrendered -a% 1C( to -iddleton;s sco#ts. .old and h#ngr%( -arg#erite and her children hid in caves near Batoche while awaiting word "ro& Lo#is. ,nstead Lo#is; $rother Jose!h a!!eared and took -arg#erite and her children to live with +iel;s &other in 4t. Boni"ace( -anito$a. :eakened $% the events o" Batoche and her h#s$and;s i&!rison&ent( the !re&at#re $irth and death o" her third child added to her grie". -arg#erite;s s#""ering contin#ed with Lo#is;

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eGec#tion "or his involve&ent in the +esistance o" 1IIC. A"ter his eGec#tion she sta%ed with his "a&il% in 4t. 8ital. 4he died o" t#$erc#losis in -a% o" 1IID( the "inal $low dealt to a greatl% di&inished eGistence. 4he was $#ried $eside her $eloved Lo#is +iel in 4t. Boni"ace. Their da#ghter( -arie AngVli)#e died o" di!htheria in 1I9E A#st $e"ore she was to t#rn "o#rteen %ears old. Their son( Jean &arried La#ra .asa#lt( a da#ghter o" a 9#V$ec "a&il%. Jean died J#l% <1( 190I( at the age o" twent%@siG "ro& inA#ries res#lting "ro& a $#gg% accident. Jean and La#ra had no children. >:ith contri$#tions $% Lorraine 5ree&an and A#dreen 1o#rie.?

-arg#erite +iel;s 3eath .erti"icate >Lo#is +iel ,nstit#te 1istoric 3oc#&ents .ollection?

+arah Diel. >1I4I@1II<?
4arah( sister and so#l &ate o" Lo#is +iel( Aoined the Jrder o" the 0re% #ns( The 4isters o" .harit% in 1IDD and &ade her vows in 1IDI. 4he was the "irst -etis to enter this $ranch o" the order. A"ter teaching school in 4t. or$ert she ta#ght at ,le a la .rosse "ro& 1IE1 #ntil her death there in 1II<. 4he had al&ost died o" t#$erc#losis in ove&$er o" 1IE2 when her l#ngs he&orrhaged while teaching singing to so&e children. The last 4acra&ent was given to her. 1owever( her !astor( 5ather Legeard( so#ght to have his !atron saint intercede and a""ect a c#re. 1er s#$se)#ent &irac#lo#s recover% was attri$#ted to the intervention o" the Blessed -arg#erite@ -arie Alaco)#e. 4#$se)#entl% she changed her religio#s na&e to -arg#erite@-arie. 4he wrote o" the &iracle to her &other: 6Beloved -a&a( how glad %o# wo#ld have $een to see %o#r child rise #! "ro& the dead. The good Lord has $een genero#s\Let #s re)#ite love with 1is love "or o#r "a&il%( "or having chosen &e as the "irst -etis &issionar%(7

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Thro#gh the %ears 4arah and Lo#is contin#ed to corres!ond( she o"ten talked o" her wish that Lo#is wo#ld take the !riesthood. 1er letters a"ter his &arriage in A!ril o" 1II1( tell o" her deteriorating health and her !re&onition o" a!!roaching death. Then( on 3ece&$er 2E( 1II<( she died at age <4.

8elanie /andale Docheleau >1IC9 1IIC?. 4!o#se( Jean Ba!tiste +ochelea# Jr. >also
+ivard? >$. 1IC1?.
-elanie was the da#ghter o" Antoine 8andale and ,sa$elle Bea#che&in. 4he &arried Jean Ba!tiste +ochelea# Jr. at 4t. or$ert on Jcto$er 10( 1IED. 1e was arrested on -a% 12( 1IIC "or his !artici!ation in the +esistance $#t was released on !arole. -elanie died on J#ne <( 1IIC at Batoche( one o" the &an% wo&en who died d#e to the &isera$le living conditions d#ring the +esistance. 4he le"t a two@%ear old in"ant( .harles Al$ert.

Albertine *afferty Dodh. >19<1@200D?
B% Al$ert La""ert% Al$ertine La""ert% was $orn and raised in the -Vtis co&&#nit% o" 5ort /rovidence( :T. 5ort /rovidence is sit#ated on the $anks o" the -acken*ie +iver which also known as 3eh .ho in the local 4o#th 4lave% lang#age. Al$ertine !ri&aril% s!oke -acken*ie 3istrict -ichi"@5rench #ntil the age o" 1< when she $egan learning English. ,n 1940( Al$ertine;s !arents( Jose!h and .eline Laviolette@La""ert% &oved their "a&il% "ro& 5ort /rovidence to 5ort 4i&!son in the !#rs#it o" e&!lo%&ent. A descendant o" the earl% -acken*ie 3istrict -Vtis "a&ilies and the 3ene( Al$ertine &ade a signi"icant contri$#tion to her co&&#nit% in the orth. 4he served on &an% !#$lic $oards= incl#ding the 3eh .ho 1ealth( 4ocial 4ervices A#thorit% and the /a!al visit co@coordinating $oard in 19I4 and 19IE. 4he was also one o" the "o#nders o" the ative :o&en;s Association o" the :T in the 19E0;s. ,n the %ears that "ollowed the Association hel!ed ed#cate wo&en on "etal alcohol s%ndro&e( A,34( "a&il% violence( "oster !arenting and other iss#es o" i&!ortance to orthern "a&ilies and wo&en as n#rt#rers and caregivers. Al$ertine was also involved with the -Vtis ation in the orthwest Territories "ro& the 19E0s &aking signi"icant contri$#tions concerning -Vtis heritage( c#lt#re( "a&ilies( genealog% and co&&#nit% histor% in the -acken*ie +iver 3istrict. ,n the late 19E0s -rs. +odh served as the -Vtis Local /resident on and o"" again #ntil 2000( "or the 5ort 4i&!son -Vtis ation K Local o. C2 advocating -Vtis rights( and e)#alit% o" treat&ent "or -Vtis citi*ens on !ar with other a$original !eo!les. 3#ring this ti&e Al$ertine traveled across the orthwest Territories attending n#&ero#s !olitical &eetings and asse&$lies as well as national A$original &eetings in so#thern .anada as !art o" the orthwest Territories delegation. ,n 1994( Al$ertine was awarded the -Vtis ation;s Jrder o" the 4hawl( the highest hono#r that can $e $estowed #!on a -Vtis :o&an. ,n 2004( Al$ertine +odh was the reci!ient o" the :T :ise :o&en Award designated $% the :T 4tat#s o" :o&en .o#ncil. Al$ertine was well res!ected across the orth and is descri$ed $% her da#ghter as a 6"riend( con"idant( care@ giver( listener( leader( elder and healer.7 Al$ertine contin#ed give o" hersel" $% serving as a -Vtis Elder advisor #ntil her !assing in 200D.

Catherine *ena 5ascal Dondeau. >$. J#l% 1I( 1I49?
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.atherine was the 0rand@da#ghter o" .hie" Little 4hell ,,. .atherine was $orn on J#l% 1I( 1I49( the da#ghter o" -adeleine Little 4hell and 3an /ascal >&arried in 1I29?. .atherine &arried Jose!h +ondea# >d. 190E? on J#ne C( 1IDD at 5ort 0arr%. Jose!h received -etis 4cri! in 1IE<. +ondea#( Jose!h Jr. R+.L. 4cri! F94S q ational Archives( +0 EC( Entr% <D<( OList o" /ersons to :ho& 4cri! was ,ss#ed #nder +ed Lake 2 /e&$ina Treaties ...O 1al"$reed 4cri! o. 94 iss#ed 5e$r#ar% 12( 1IE<( #nder the A#thorit% o" 4ecretarial 3ecision( J#ne 12( 1IE2= delivered 5e$r#ar% 12( 1IE< ational Archives( +0 EC( Entr% <D4( OTreat% o" A!ril 12( 1ID4( +ed Lake and /e&$ina 1al"@Breeds(O 4cri! 4t#$s( #&$er 94 RcheckedS( dated 5e$r#ar% 12( 1IE<( 1D0 Acres( delivered 5e$r#ar% 12( 1IE<( iss#ed to Jose!h +ondea#( Jr.( delivered to Agent E./. 4&ith 0 and 'o ks *e ald( A!ril 2I( 19<C. /e&$ina orth 3akota: ,n this historic $order village lives -rs. .atherine Lena +ondea#( ID %ears old( grandda#ghter o" Little 4hell >,,?( noted .hie" o" the T#rtle -o#ntain .hi!!ewa in the earl% hal" o" the nineteenth cent#r%. 4he was $orn in a te!ee on the site o" 3#nseith( orth 3akota on J#l% 1I( 1I49( and her li"e has s!anned the long !eriod "ro& the late eG!loration era to the !resent= she lived the li"e o" an ,ndian &aid #ntil she was well along in her teens and in that ti&e her diet was con"ined al&ost eGcl#sivel% to !e&&ican. These "acts cloak her earl% li"e with ro&ance and &ake her &e&or% a rich storeho#se o" in"or&ation a$o#t that !eriod. 4he also has &e&ories o" 5ather Belco#rt in whose ho#se she lived at :alhalla in the 1IC0Us. OHes( , was $orn in a te!ee &ade o" $#""alo hides.O There was nothing aro#nd 3#nseith then $#t scattered ,ndian lodges. OB#""alo were n#&ero#s there when , was a little girl. Later , went to live with &% grand"ather( .hie" Little 4hell( near :alhalla. -% !arents went o#t on the $#""alo h#nts each "all. :e never had to go "arther than +olla to get all we wanted.O U-% &other( was a da#ghter o" Little 4hell. 1er English na&e was -adeleine. 4he had an ,ndian na&e which , have "orgotten. -% "ather was 3an /ascal( a 9#e$ec 5rench&an. -% "ather was awa% a great deal h#nting and tra!!ing and working as a vo%age#r and &other and , lived in grand"atherUs lodge. ,n the ,ndian ca&! we s#$sisted al&ost entirel% on !e&&ican( altho#gh in s#&&er we wo#ld "ind wild t#rni!s and so&e other wild vegeta$les and $erries. The .hi!!ewa had lived $etter &an% %ears earlier in -innesota $#t( driven o#t onto the !rairies and into the T#rtle -o#ntains. The% de!ended on the $#""alo "or "ood( clothing and shelter as the 4io#G did. O, had not tasted !otatoes( tea or co""ee( s#gar( !e!!er( &ilk( or $#tter #ntil we went to 5ort A$ercro&$ie at the ti&e o" the .ivil :ar when , was a$o#t 14 %ears old. 5ather Belco#rt set #! a "lo#r &ill at :alhalla in 1ICD and while , &#st have eaten so&e o" the

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$read &ade "ro& this "lo#r , do not re&e&$er it. , know that the "ine( white $read we had at 5ort A$ercro&$ie see&ed &arvelo#s to &e.O

-rs. +ondea# thinks her grand"ather( Little 4hell( died when she was a$o#t "o#r %ears old. 1e knew death was i&&inent and arranged "or .atherine enter the ho&e o" 5ather Belco#rt. 5ort#natel% her &other( -adeleine( was a$le to acco&!an% her as ho#sekee!er OB#t there wasnUt &#ch ho#sekee!ing to $e doneO .atherine ch#ckled. OThe !riest lived in a tin% log ho#se witho#t an% "loor and !iles o" $#""alo ro$es and $lankets served as $eds. ear$% was a larger log str#ct#re which served as a &ission and school. ,t stood on a slight e&inence A#st west o" :alhalla. There a$o#t C0 &iGed $loods and ,ndian children were ta#ght catechis& and there were so&e si&!le school lessons. , attended this school and , re&e&$er that 5ather Belco#rt was assisted $% two n#ns. All three were 5rench and as there were &an% 5rench &iGed $loods a&ong #s( &ost o" #s knew that lang#age $#t the !riest and the two sisters had &astered the .hi!!ewa lang#age alsoO. The records show that 5ather Belco#rt a$o#t this ti&e erected a &ission $#ilding 2I $% C0 "eet with a "#ll $ase&ent in which he lived. -rs. +ondea# re&e&$ers this str#ct#re $#t asserts that the others also eGisted. -rs. +ondea# recalls 5ather Belco#rt as a kindl%( active &an( who traveled a$o#t a great deal &inistering to his ,ndian charges. At that ti&e there was little contact with the older A&erican settle&ents. Jose!h +olette and Anton 0ingras( who had o!ened a store in 4t Jose!h( now :alhalla( or&an :. Bittson( .harles .avileer( :. 1. -oorhead and others &ade tri!s to 4t /a#l and 4t Anthon% $% oGcart or dog tea& $#t there was no stea&$oat tra""ic on the +ed +iver #ntil 1IC9 and little #ntil the E0Us.

20<

:hen -rs. +ondea# was a girl( ,ndians and &iGed $loods sold "#rs at 5ort 0arr%. :inni!eg did not eGist then. B#t the% co#ld o$tain little in the wa% o" s#!!lies( chie"l% g#ns and a&&#nition( altho#gh &an% ,ndians still #sed $ows and arrows. Tri!s to 5ort 0arr% were &ade with oGcarts and travois( the latter $eing a !ole( one end attached to a !on%Us side and the other dragging on the gro#nd. 5reight to $e carried was attached to the !ole high eno#gh to clear the gro#nd. 5ather Belco#rt was recalled to eastern .anada in 1IC9 and the .atherine ret#rned to the ,ndian ca&!. A "ew %ears later she acco&!anied her !arents to 5ort A$ercro&$ie where the wonders o" civili*ation were #n"olded $e"ore her in a startling arra%. Ol co#ld hardl% $elieve &% e%es when the clothes and dishes and "ood o" the white wo&en were shown to &eO -rs. +ondea# con"ided. O,t was all so #nreal to &e that , was $ewildered "or a whileO. -rs. +ondea# eG!lained that the seasonUs st%les did not interest ,ndian &aidens o" her ti&e. 4he said the wo&en and girls in the ca&! at which she lived wore waists and skirts and so&eti&es a one !iece gar&ent o" woolen cloth woven in a "or& si&ilar to $lanket &aterial. The ,ndians knew nothing o" the art o" knitting and wo&enUs stockings were leggings &ade o" the $lanket@like &aterial. At "irst the leggings were wra!!ed with stri!s o" hide or cloth and later $#ttons were o$tained "ro& the whites. -occasins and $eads co&!leted the cost#&e( eGce!t on certain occasions when gail% decorated skin s#its were worn There was a %o#ng 5rench vo%age#r at the "ort "ro& -ontreal a"ter a s#ita$le co#rtshi! the% were &arried at the "ort J#ne C(1IDD( $% 5ather Jenn% and went to live on a clai& taken $% the %o#ng h#s$and on the .he%enne +iver a$o#t 20 &iles west o" 5argo. A"ter a "ew %ears the h#s$and $eca&e $lind. 5i"t%@eight %ears ago the co#!le &oved to /e&$ina and there -rs. +ondea# s#!!orted her h#s$and and !rovided "or her children $% washing and !er"or&ing other &enial tasks. +ondea# died 2I %ears ago. J" the 12 children onl% "o#r are living @ -rs. L#c% Blondin( -rs. .aroline Bo#vette and Tho&as( o" /e&$ina( and 3an( 3evils Lake. -rs. +ondea# had one $rother( 5rank who lived in the ,ndian ca&!( and three hal"@ $rothers( Theodore( Jose!h and Lo#is. 4he is the onl% one o" the children living.
4o#rce: The Bo#vette 5a&il% :e$site= htt!:PPwww.$o#vette.co&P"a&il%P/A4.ALY.atherineYLenaY1I49P

Catherine 9elorme Doss >$. 1I2C?.
.atherine was the da#ghter o" Lr$aine 3elor&e 4r. and -adeleine 8ivier. 4he was &arried to 3onald >3aniel? +oss >his third wi"e?= her h#s$and was killed d#ring the last da% o" $attle at Batoche. 4he was one o" the heroines o" the 1IIC +esistance. .atherine and 3onald +oss had siG children. E&&an#el .ha&!agne gives the "ollowing acco#nt o" .atherine;s herois&: 6 3aniel +oss was on the hillside= and while there( he &akes the "ollowing declaration: ]:ait= %o# will see how , will kill a "ew o" the&.; B#t at the sa&e &o&ent( he is wo#nded. A -etis who saw hi& "all r#ns into 3. +oss;s wi"e while "leeing $% &eans o" the hill and tells her that her h#s$and is wo#nded.

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,n s!ite o" all the $#llets that are whi**ing $%( she goes to hi&. 1e asks her "or water. 4he goes and gets hi& so&e "ro& the river= he drinks it and dies. 1is wi"e withdraws and goes $ack into hiding a&ong the trees on the hillside72C4

-sabella 8ainville Doss. >1I0E@1IIC?
8etis Doots in Dainy Diver go back two centuries Ati"o"an Progress

$% Jessica 4&ith on A!ril 2<( 201<

.ELEB+AT, 0 JL+ /A4T Ed#cator 5ern /erkins( a direct descendant o" the "#r traders o" the +ain% +iver district( visited A14 T#esda%. 4he is dressed as her ancestor ,sa$ella -ainville( ative wi"e o" a 1#dson Ba% clerk( who is de!icted $% /erkins; h#s$and( -ark. The co#!le are Aoined $% Atikokan -Vtis .o#ncil chair -arlene 3avidson and the school $oard;s A$original Ed#cation de!art&ent;s :end% Jrchard.

The "#r trade K in which the +ain% +iver district !la%s an integral role K led to a relationshi! $etween ative and 8o%age#r c#lt#re that was initiall% one o" &#t#al tr#st and res!ect. That earl% !iece o" histor% &a% hold so&e lessons "or &odern ti&es( sa%s -Vtis ed#cator 5ern /erkins( who shared her C0 %ear Ao#rne% to discover her -Vtis roots with A14 st#dents. ow an ed#cation cons#ltant with the B.;s health services a#thorit%( /erkins shared her research o" local -Vtis histor% with schools across the district here( co#rtes% o" the +ain% +iver 3istrict 4chool Board;s A$original ed#cation de!art&ent. /erkins related the tale o" her great@great@great@great grand&other ,sa$ella -ainville( a ative wo&an who &arried 4cots&an .harles +oss( a 1#dson Ba% .o&!an% >1B.? clerk stationed at Lac la /l#ie >now 5ort5rances?. To $ring that stor% to li"e( /erkins e&$odied her ancestor $% wearing the cross@c#lt#ral gar$ t%!ical o" what she wore as a ]co#ntr% wi"e; o" a E#ro!ean: The long dress( shawl and hat t%!ical o" E#ro!ean wo&en o" the da%( co&$ined with a -Vtis sash.
2C4

4-1( !.C4 and also cited in +#d% :ie$e and Bo$ Beal >Editors?. Wa in the West# )oices of the 6AAE ,ebellion5 Toronto: -c.lelland and 4tewart Ltd.( 19IC: 12E.

20C

-arried at age 1C( ,sa$ella wo#ld event#all% $eco&e the "irst "e&ale ative landowner in 8ictoria. /erkins recalled how( as an 11@%ear@old in the 19D0s( she "irst heard a$o#t ,sa$ella and the "a&il%;s -Vtis ancestr% "ro& her &other( who ca#tioned her not to disc#ss her lineage with an%one. The reasond The ]D0s scoo!(; when the govern&ent was !lacing children with ative $lood in residential schools. 6-% &o& was reall% concerned the% wo#ld take &e awa% to a residential school(7 recalled /erkins( adding that !arents who re"#sed to allow their children to $e !laced in these schools co#ld $e Aailed. The "a&il% secret was o#t however( when /erkins; "ather( an a#thor and researcher( wrote a !iece a$o#t ,sa$ella -ainville which was !#$lished in a local &aga*ine. 6All o" a s#dden( when , was walking ho&e "ro& school( &% neigh$o#r "riends started calling &e na&es and so&e didn;t want to !la% with &e an%&ore.7 ,t was "ollowing the death o" her &other in 2004 that /erkins reali*ed that 6there was no one le"t to ask7 a$o#t her ative ancestr%. 4he $egan researching her "a&il% histor% "#rther and discovered ,sa$ella was originall% "ro& the +ain%+iver district. At age E( ,sa$ella;s "a&il% &oved to Lac la /l#ie $eca#se her "ather traded "#r with the 1B.. ,n 1I19( at age 1C( ,sa$ella was given in &arriage to +oss $% her "ather( Jose!h -ainville. The ]"#r trade &arriage; was a t%!ical wa% to strengthen a $#siness relationshi! $etween a "#r trader and the co&!an%( so&ething enco#raged $% the 1B.( said /erkins. ,sa$ella $eca&e a co#ntr% wi"e( and altho#gh it was an arranged &arriage( the #nion see&ed to $e at least a congenial one. Lnlike &an% 1B. re!s who wo#ld o"ten go on to &arr% a E#ro!ean wi"e and a$andon their A$original wi"e and children( +oss never did. The% had ten children together and d#e to +oss; work with the co&!an% he was o"ten gone on long canoe tri!s to !laces as "ar awa% as the west coast. ,sa$ella was "re)#entl% on her own "or as long as a %ear with their %o#ng children. :hile she wore the "iner% $e"itting an% co&!an% wi"e( like all A$original wo&en o" that ti&e she was skilled in living o"" the land K h#nting( tra!!ing( tanning( weaving( &aking &occasins( etc. K and was clearl% a !ractical wo&an. An incident in 1I2< ill#strates her to#ghness. :hile +oss was in 4elkirk( the co#!le;s son John was threatened $% kni"e@wielding "#r traders while &inding the Lac La /l#ie trading !ost. ,sa$ella chased o"" her son;s attackers( a &ove that earned her the res!ect o" the "ort;s 0overnor 0eorge 4i&!son( whose record o" the event has $een !reserved in the 1B. archives. The +oss "a&il% event#all% settled in 8ictoria( where their last child was $orn. A"ter .harles; death( ,sa$ella !#rchased a si*ea$le land holding there. ,t wo#ld a!!ear the co#ntr% &arriage worked o#t &#ch $etter "or ,sa$ella than "or 0overnor 4i&!son;s co#ntr% wi"e. The head o" the "ort was &arried to an A$original wo&an na&ed -argaret Ta%lor( with who& he had two children. ,n 1I<0 however( he ret#rned "ro& England with a %o#ng $ride( Lad% 5rances( and a$r#!tl% a$andoned -argaret and their children. 1e re@na&ed 5ort Lac la /l#ie a"ter his new $ride. Three %ears later( heart$roken a"ter the loss o" a child and "inding li"e in 5ort 5rances too r#gged( she ret#rned to England. The $etra%al o" -argaret incensed one 1B. e&!lo%ee who recorded his "eelings in a Ao#rnal entr%. 1e noted &ost at the "ort disa!!roved o" 4i&!son;s treat&ent o" his "irst wi"e. 1e added that the A$original !eo!le 6&ost however onl% ed#cated $% nat#re( lived &ore innocent lives and &ade $etter !arents( h#s$ands and "a&ilies than those who wo#ld call the&selves .hristians.7 The children o" the "#r trade K o""s!ring o" those co#ntr% &arriages( and o" #nions $etween A$originals and either the 5rench .anadian 8o%age#rs or the 4cottish settlers along the +ed +iver K wo#ld $eco&e the -Vtis. The% were known "or the ind#strio#s and cheer"#l nat#re( and $eca#se o" that and their love o" &#sic( -Vtis !addlers were !aid eGtra to sing to kee! #! the &orale o" the 8o%age#rs on the "#r trade tri!s( said /erkins.

20D

The% are now the onl% &iGed $lood !eo!le in the world to $e recogni*ed $% ever% level o" govern&ent as $eing a nation( /erkins told st#dents. ,t was onl% a"ter the "irst recognition o" the -Vtis in the 19I0s( that /erkins; &other to $egin to research the "a&il%;s &iGed $lood heritage( which now dates $ack siG generations. 6,t;s not a$o#t $lood )#ant#& K once %o#;re -Vtis( %o# alwa%s are. ,t never ends(7 said /erkins. ,ts $eginning( however( is what /erkins wanted st#dents to re&e&$er. 6+e&e&$er that this co#ntr% was $#ilt on the 5irst ations hel!ing the "#r trade= the% worked together and res!ected each other( and that;s the onl% wa% we can now &ove "orward K $% working together.7

,sa$ella died in 1IIC while $eing cared "or $% the 4isters o" 4t. Ann. 4he was $#ried on land that had once $elonged to her( within site o" her old ho&e( near the $a% that $ears her na&e in +oss Ba% .e&eter%.

20E

4he originall% ca&e to British .ol#&$ia with her h#s$and who was e&!lo%ed $% the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% as .hie" 5actor >.hie" Trader? who was in charge o" $#ilding 5ort 8ictoria( the head)#arters o" 1#dsonUs Ba% .o&!an% o!erations in British .ol#&$ia. The "ort was the $eginnings o" a settle&ent that grew into the &odern 8ictoria( the ca!ital cit% o" British .ol#&$ia. ,sa$ella +oss was the "irst wo&an to own !ro!ert% in British .ol#&$ia. A"ter her h#s$andUs death ,sa$ella $o#ght land "or a "ar& that now &akes #! the eastern two@thirds o" +oss Ba% .e&eter%( where she is $#ried. ot onl% is +oss Ba% na&ed "or her $#t she also na&ed 5o#l Ba%( tho#gh it was originall% s!elled O5owlO. ,sa$ella died at 4t. AnneUs convent in 1IIC at age EE %ears. ,n 1I19( at Lac la /l#ie( ,sa$ella &arried .harles +oss who was an 1B. .lerk. .hildren o" ,sa$ella -ainville and .harles +oss: • John +oss >1I2< @ 1ID<?( • :alter +oss >1I2E @ 1ICC?( • Eli*a$eth +oss :ren >1I29 @ 1IC9?( • .harles 1. +oss >1I<1 @ 190C?( • .atherine +oss -#rra% >1I<2 @ 191D?( • AleGander +oss >1I<D @ 1IED?( • 5rances +oss >1I<E @ 1910?( • -ar% A&elia +oss 1ess >1I40 @ 1II2?( • 5lora A&elia +oss >1I42 @ 1I9E?( • :illia& +oss >1I44 @ YYYY?. .harles +oss Aoined the 1B. as a clerk in 1I1I: 5ro& 1I1I K 1I19 he was a .lerk at orwa% 1o#se 5ro& 1I19 K 1I22 he was .lerk at Lac La /l#ie 5ro& 1I22 K 1I2< he was .lerk at Tho&!son +iver 5ro& 1I2< K 1I24 he was .lerk at 5ort AleGander >Bas de la +iviere? 5ro& 1I24 K 1I<0 he was .lerk at Ba$ines >5ort Bil&a#rs? ew .aledonia 5ro& 1I<0 @ 1I<l he was .lerk in charge at .onnoll% Lake( ew .aledonia 5ro& 1I<1 K 1I<2 he was .lerk at 5ort 4t. Ja&es( ew .aledonia ,n 1I<2 he was .lerk at -cLeod Lake 5ro& 1I<2 K 1I<< he was .lerk at 5ort .hi!ew%an( Atha$asca 5ro& 1I<< K 1I<C he was .lerk in charge at 5ort 8er&ilion( Atha$asca 5ro& 1I<C @ 1I<D he took a leave o" a$sence @ ret#rned to England on the /rince +#!ert "or &edical advice. 5ro& 1I<D @ 1I<E he was .lerk in charge at .#&$erland 1o#se( English +iver 5ro& 1I<E K 1I<I he was .lerk in charge at Bootena%( .ol#&$ia 5ro& 1I<I K 1I<9 he was .lerk in charge at .#&$erland( 4askatchewan 5ro& 1I<9 K 1I41 he was .lerk in charge at 5rasers Lake( ew .aledonia 5ro& 1I41 K 1I4< he was .lerk in charge at 5ort -cLo#ghlin( .ol#&$ia 5ro& 1I4< K 1I44 he was .hie" Trader in charge 4traits o" 3e 5#ca( .ol#&$ia ,n 1I44 he was .hie" Trader in charge 5ort 8ictoria( .ol#&$ia ,n 1I44( 2E J#ne( he died o" A!!endicitis

20I

,n 1I<2( 0eorge 4i&!son in his notes( ad&ired +oss;s ed#cation and cond#ct $#t took iss#e with his a!!earance and attit#de to $#siness >1B+4 GGG !. 22C?. 5ro& 1I<2 to 1I<C he was stationed east o" the +ockies #ntil he took a %ear;s leave o" a$sence in England and 4cotland $eca#se o" ill health. 1e ret#rned to orth A&erica in 1I<D and 5ort 8anco#ver in 1I<I. 1e then led a so#thern !art% to Trinidad Ba% where he "ailed to &eet #! with the -ichel La"ra&$oise !art%= he s#$se)#entl% he ret#rned to 8anco#ver to !er"or& s#ch d#ties s#ch as taking "ar& i&!le&ents to the .owlit* "ar&. Beca#se 3onald -anson was in ill health in 5ort -cLo#ghlin( +oss was sent there in 1I<I( and took charge in 1I<9. At the end o" 1I42 he was !ro&oted to .hie" Trader and when 5ort -cLo#ghlin was a$andoned in 1I4<( he went to so#thern 8anco#ver ,sland to erect 5ort 8ictoria where he re&ained in charge #ntil his death "ro& a!!endicitis.

Natalie Dostad$9esCarlais.
Artist atalie +ostad #ses stones as her canvas and a!!lies !aint she &akes o#t o" cr#shed stone and oGides to the stones to $ring o#t what she sees in the&. 4he sa%s that 64tones are the &essengers o" healing and strength.7 ,n 1990 she started her $#siness( ' om .eneath the Su face. 1er $est known work is located in :inni!eg at the historica "orks o" the +ed and Assini$oine +ivers. 1ere she has installed a ten ton &on#&ent to ative 4!irit#alit%( $alanced on three !oints. ,t re!resents the $alance o" $od%( &ind and s!irit.

.uffy +ainte$8arie. >$. 1941?
B#""% 4ainte@-arie is a -etisP ehi%aw "ro& 4askatchewan. 4he was or!haned as an in"ant and was ado!ted and raised in -aine. 1er ado!tive &other >!art -ic;&ah? s!ent &an% ho#rs teaching her ative histor%. ,n the $ook( The Metis (eople of Canada# & *isto ! >Al$erta 5ederation o" -etis 4ettle&ents?( B#""% is asked i" she tho#ght it was all right "or !eo!le to call her a 1al"@Breed. 4he said she did not want to $e called a 1al"@Breed $eca#se she is a 3o#$le@ Breed( with the $est o" two races in her. At age "o#r( B#""% $egan to !la% the !iano and write !oetr%. At siGteen( her "ather gave her a g#itar and she $egan to write her own songs. 4ainte@-arie st#died Jriental /hiloso!h% and was a #niversit% hono#rs st#dent. 4he is also an a#thor( artist and clothing designer( along with her considera$le singing and songwriting a$ilities. 4he is $est known "or her !eace anthe& 6The Lniversal 4oldier(7 and 6L! :here :e Belong(7 which won an Acade&% Award "or $est song in 19I2 >"ro& the &ovie( An J""icer and a 0entle&an?. 4he donates &an% o" her ro%alties to a "o#ndation she created "or ative ed#cation( the ihewan 5o#ndation.
,efe ence -c eil( Eli*a$eth. 6B#""% 4ainte@-arie(7 in 0retchen -. Bataille >Editor?. Nati$e &me ican Women# & .io" aphical 3ictiona !. ew Hork: 0arland /#$lishing( 199<: 224@22C.

,lsie 9orion +anderson. >$. 1941?
B% Leah 3orion Elsie -. 4anderson >3orion? was $orn on ove&$er 2( 1941 in the historic -etis co&&#nit% o" .#&$erland 1o#se( 4askatchewan. 4he was raised in the eGtended "a&il% s%ste& $% her &other .ecilia 3orion and three A#nt;s 1elen( -ariah( and Anne. Elsie has gro#nded hersel" in traditional knowledge and has $een a st#dent o" traditional teaching "or over thirt%@"ive %ears. 4he hersel" is a nat#ral leader and has ta#ght acade&ic co#rses

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s#ch as ,ndigeno#s /eo!les /hiloso!h%( :orld 8iew( the treat% &aking !rocess( treat% relationshi! and rights( 4!irit#al and nat#ral laws. Elsie has $een in"l#enced $% &an% Elders and has $een ado!ted in c#sto&ar% "ashion $% res!ected 4a#ltea#G Elder 3ann% -#s)#a. Elsie has had holistic training and is eG!erienced in r#nning worksho!s on to!ics s#ch as anger &anage&ent( "a&il% violence( conte&!orar% li"e skills( traditional li"e skills( !ro!osal writing( and c#rric#l#& develo!&ent. 4he is ver% !ro#d o" her work cond#cting research( and writing "or the develo!&ent o" a healing and traditional !arenting !rogra&. Elsie has a #ni)#e $lend o" traditional ed#cation co&$ined with "or&al &anagerial training. Elsie received her earl% "or&al ed#cation at .harle$ois 4chool in .#&$erland 1o#se. The co&&#nit% o""ered no higher that a grade nine ed#cation so in 19CD she &oved to /rince Al$ert( 4askatchewan to attend the Acade&ic /resentation de La -arie. ,n 19D1 she co&!leted the two@ %ear EGec#tive -anage&ent and Ad&inistration !rogra& at the ,nstit#te otre 3a&e de la /rovidence. This training led her to hold &an% !ositions s#ch as the EGec#tive 4ecretar% to the .lerk o" the town o" La /as -anito$a #ntil 19D4. ,n 19DC( she was the EGec#tive 4ecretar% to the !#$lisher o" the ( ince &lbe t 3ail! *e ald. ,n 19D9( she $egan as a secretar%Precorder "or the 5ederation o" 4askatchewan ,ndian ations >54, ?. 4hortl% a"ter that she worked as an ad&inistrator "or the /rince Al$ert 3istrict .hie"s. ,n 19E<@19I0( she worked "or the 54, and !la%ed an i&!ortant $ehind the scenes role "or the organi*ation. Between 19I0@19ID( she worked "or n#&ero#s !rogra&s within 54, . ,n 19IE she $eca&e a sel"@e&!lo%ed cons#ltant. Elsie;s cons#lting services are as diverse as her $#s% li"e. 4he has "illed her ti&e lect#ring "or #niversities( eval#ating social !rogra&s and services( develo!ing and delivering 5irst ation /#$lic Ad&inistration. 1er skills and a$ilities incl#de $eing a skilled orator and stor%teller. Elsie is a leader in her "a&il% and co&&#nit%. 4he is o"ten called in as an Elder to deal with di""ic#lt sit#ations. 4he is well res!ected "or her incredi$le &e&or% and a$ilit% to recall and share i&!ortant oral histor%. Elsie enAo%s &#sic and still "inds ti&e to sing and !la% g#itar with "a&il% and "riends. Elsie is "l#ent in the 4wa&!% .ree lang#age and is !ro#d o" the $#sh skills she learned growing #! in .#&$erland 1o#se. Elsie is also an acco&!lished writer and researcher she was ver% involved in rewriting and editing c#rric#l#& "or the 5irst ation 0overn&ent 4!ecialist Training /rogra&. 4o&e o" hr &ost &e&ora$le !ro"essional acco&!lish&ents in $eing a &e&$er o" a tea& that conce!t#ali*ed( develo!ed( negotiated "or and is ta$le shed the 4askatchewan ,ndian 5ederated .ollege and other 54, ed#cational and social !rogra&s. 4he is also a "o#nding &e&$er o" the 5irst ations 5or#&( an instit#te esta$lished "or develo!ing and !ro&otion o" 5irst ation /#$lic /olic%( training and cons#lting services. 4he is a !ro#d &other o" "o#r $o%s Ja&es( .#rtis( /err%( and Jason and a grand&other to &an%. 4he is a !i!e carrier and !ractioner o" traditional li"ewa%s. Elsie c#rrentl% lives in /rince Al$ert( 4askatchewan with her longti&e !artner 5or&er 54, .hie" 4ol 4anderson. >.ontri$#ted $% Elsie;s niece( Leah 3orion.?

Lolande Teillet +chick. >192I@200D?
Holande Teillet "ro& 4t. 8ital( -anito$a was one o" the "irst -etis wo&en to !la% !ro"essional $ase$all in the Lnited 4tates and is in the .oo!erstown Base$all 1all o" 5a&e. A

210

catcher( she was a .anadian &e&$er o" the All@A&erican 0irls Base$all Leag#e "ro& 194C to 194E. 4he !la%ed "or two %ears "or the 5ort :a%ne 3aisies. Holande Teillet is the da#ghter o" .a&ille Teillet and 4arah +iel. 1er grand"ather was Jose!h +iel the %o#nger $rother o" Lo#is +iel. The All@A&erican 0irls Base$all Leag#e sco#ted in .anada and siG -anito$a wo&en were selected. At the ti&e she was sco#ted Holande was !la%ing "or the 4t. 8ital Tigerettes. ,n 194C( her tea&( the 5ort :a%ne 3aisies( "inished second >D2@4E record? to the leag#e cha&!ion +ock"ord /eaches. The +ock"ord /eaches have $een i&&ortali*ed in the &ovie 6A Leag#e o" Their Jwn.7

All American 7irls 5rofessional .aseball *eague !"' Fort 3ayne 9aisies

Back(L@+: 1elen +a#ner >.ha!erone?( Agnes [#rkowski( Lillian Jackson( 8ivian Bellogg( A#dre% 1aine( 5a%e 3ancer( Bill :a&$sganss -anager?. -iddle(L@+: Arleene Johnson( ,rene +#hnke( /enn% JUBrian( 1elen .allaghan( Lolande Teillet. 5ront(L@+: Anna$elle Lee( Lavonne /aire( +#th Lessing( Bett% Tre**a( -argaret .allaghan.

Holande;s "ather( Jose!h +iel( &arried ElVanor /oitras on A!ril <0( 1II4 and was s#$se)#entl% &arried to A&anda /erra#lt in 1I94. 1e re&ained at the "a&il% ho&e in 4t. 8ital and "ar&ed. 1e was alwa%s active in +ed +iver -etis associations. .a&ille( Holande;s "ather( altho#gh not -etis was a ver% active &e&$er o" L;Lnion ationale -Vtisse 4aint@Jose!h d# -anito$a. 4he is the sister o" "or&er -anito$a -e&$er o" /arlia&ent( +oger Teillet. A catcher( Holande was a .anadian &e&$er o" the All@A&erican 0irls Base$all Leag#e "ro& 194C to 194E. The leag#e sco#ted in .anada and siG -anito$a wo&en were selected. At the ti&e she was sco#ted Holande was !la%ing "or the 4t. 8ital Tigerettes. Holande !la%ed "or the 5ort :a%ne >,llinois? 3aisies. ,n 194C her tea& "inished second >D2@4E record? to the leag#e cha&!ion +ock"ord /eaches. Holande notes that the% converted "ro& so"t$all !la%ers to hard$all. The $all #sed in the the All@A&erican 0irls Base$all Leag#e was so&ewhat larger than a reg#lation hard$all #sed $% the &en;s !ro"essional leag#es. >Editor;s note: this article is $ased on

211

interviews with Holande 4chick >neV Teillet? and her niece( well@known -etis law%er Jean Teillet.? Holande was ind#cted into the .anadian Base$all 1all o" 5a&e in J#ne o" 19II. Also in 19II( the ational Base$all 1all o" 5a&e in .oo!erstown( ew Hork hono#red the AA0BL with a !er&anent dis!la% and listed the na&es o" each !la%er. 4i&ilarl%( the -anito$a Base$all 1all o" "a&e ind#cted Holande in 19II. Holande died in :inni!eg on Jan#ar% 2D( 200D at age EI.

1ane 1ohnston +choolcraft. >1I00@1I42?
Jane Johnston was $orn on Jan#ar% <1( 1I00 in 4a#lt 4te. -arie in the #!!er !enins#la o" what is now the state o" -ichigan. 1er &other( +2ha"uscoda!%a!<ua!( was the da#ghter o" WauboOee"( a !ro&inent JAi$wa war chie" and civil leader "ro& what is now northern :isconsin. 1er "ather( John Johnston >1ED2@1I2I?( was a "#r trader who le"t Bel"ast( ,reland in 1E90. The Johnston "a&il% is "a&o#s in the 4a#lt 4te. -arie area( where the% were leaders in $oth the E#ro@ A&erican and the JAi$wa co&&#nities. Jane Johnston learned a$o#t &nishinaabe traditions "ro& her &other and her &otherUs "a&il%( and she learned a$o#t written literat#re "ro& her "ather and his large li$rar%. Johnson is the "irst known A&erican ,ndian literar% writer altho#gh #n!#$lished d#ring her li"eti&e. A -etis o" JAi$wa and ,rish@A&erican descent( she wrote her JAi$wa na&e as Ba&ewawage*hika)#a% >+babaam%e%e-"ii2hi"ok%e in &odern s!elling?( &eaning 6:o&an o" the 4o#nd +#shing Thro#gh the 4k%.7 4he lived &ost o" her li"e in 4a#lt 4te. -arie( -ichigan. 4he wrote !oetr% and traditional JAi$wa stories( and she translated JAi$wa songs into English. 4he &ostl% wrote in English( $#t she wrote several !oe&s in the JAi$wa lang#age. :hile she did not !#$lish her work( she lived a literar% li"e with her h#s$and. The% worked together closel% on his writing and on her writing. 1er !oetr% was generall% concerned with !rivate li"e. Jane 4choolcra"t;s writings have attracted considera$le interest "ro& scholars and st#dents( es!eciall% those concerned with A&erican ,ndian literat#re and histor%. Altho#gh .hristine 9#intasket. >1IIC@19<D?( kknown $% the !en na&e -o#rning 3ove is generall% recogni*ed as the "irst ative !#$lished writer( 4choolcra"t has $een recogni*ed as 6the "irst ative A&erican literar% writer( the "irst known ,ndian wo&an writer( the "irst known ,ndian !oet( the "irst known !oet to write !oe&s in a ative A&erican lang#age( and the "irst known A&erican ,ndian to write o#t traditional ,ndian stories.7 ,n 1I2< Jane &arried 1enr% +owe 4choolcra"t( who $eca&e a "o#nding "ig#re o" A&erican c#lt#ral anthro!olog%. 1e was a!!ointed ,ndian Agent to the -ichigan Territor% in 1I22. ,n 1I2D@1I2E( 1enr% !rod#ced a handwritten &aga*ine called The Lite a ! )o!a"e or Mu22enie"en/ which incl#ded so&e o" Jane;s writings. Jane and 1enr% 4choolcra"t &oved to -ackinac ,sland in 1I<<. The% had "o#r children >one was still$orn?. Their son :illia& 1enr% died o" cro#! at the age o" two. Jane 4choolcra"t wrote !oe&s eG!ressing her grie" a$o#t his loss. Another !oe&( written in JAi$wa( eG!resses her "eelings a"ter taking their children John and Jane to a distant $oarding school. ,n 1I41( when 1enr% lost his !osition as "ederal ,ndian agent( the 4choolcra"ts &oved to ew Hork .it%. Jane 4choolcra"t s#""ered "ro& "re)#ent illnesses and died in 1I42 while visiting a sister in .anada. 4he was $#ried at 4t. JohnUs Anglican .h#rch in what is now Ancaster( Jntario. ,n 200I( Jane Johnston 4choolcra"t was ind#cted into the -ichigan :o&enUs 1all o" 5a&e.

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:atherine 8orrisseau$+inclair (Animiki$Buay(.
Batherine 6Ani&iki7 -orrisea# is &arried to J#stice -#rra% 4inclair. Batherine co&es "ro& a -etis "a&il% which is descendant "ro& -ichel 3#&as a hero o" the 1IIC -etis +esistance. 1er $rother( Joe -orrissea# >retired? was the long@ti&e EGec#tive 3irector o" -anito$a;s A$original A""airs 4ecretariat. Batherine and -#rra% have "o#r children( -anon >-iskodagagin)#a%? Bea#drie( Ja&es > iigonwedo&? >and his !artner Lorena 4ekwan 5ontaine?( 3Vne >Beendigha%@gee*higo@)#a%?( 0a*heek >0a*hegwena$eek?( and one grandda#ghter 4arah > i&iAiien ii$ense? 5ontaine@ 4inclair.

0overnor 0eneral -icharlle Jean arrives at the "orks( and greets well@wishers with Batherine -orrissea#@4inclair and J#stice -#rra% 4inclair. Batherine and -#rra% esta$lished the A$inochi [hawa%ndako*h#win ,nc.( an JAi$wa% ,&&ersion #rser% 4chool !rogra& in :inni!eg( which delivers an ed#cational !rogra& co&!letel% in JAi$wa%. ,n the co&&#nit% she has also $een active with -other o" +ed ations :o&en;s .o#ncil o" -anito$a ,nc. >-J+ ?( Ba i Banichihk ,nc. and the :inni!eg 5o#ndation( as o#rishing /otential 0rants .o&&ittee .o@.hair.

8argaret Nahoway +inclair.
B% Leah 3orion.

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ahowa% was $orn near the /rince o" :ales 5ort a 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% >1B.? !ost. ahowa% was the da#ghter o" a .ree wo&an and a 1#dson;s Ba% &an and she was known "or her striking $l#e e%es. ahowa% and her &other &a% have considered the&selves 1o&eg#ard wo&en( 5ort :o&en( o" .o&!an% 3a#ghters. 4he is ver% likel% to $e a "o#rth generation 1o&eg#ard .ree@&iGed ancestr% wo&an. According to oral stories her traditional na&e ahowa% is said to &ean 6so#nding "ar o""( "aint(7 $eca#se as a %o#ng girl she s#rvived( "a&ine( a s&all !oG e!ide&ic( all right while in the t#r&oil o" "#r trade war"are. :riter 3onna 4#therland sa%s ahowa% also translates as( 6one !erson;s voice in the distance.7 1er christiani*ed na&e was -argaret. 4he &arried :illia& 4inclair >1EDD@1I1I? an Jrkne% 4cot who& worked "or the 1B. "or thirt% siG %ears. According to !ost records she loved to order $lack and green tea while her h#s$and !re"erred co""ee. Together the% had eleven children and &ost o" the 4inclair children co#ld read and write and all "ive da#ghters &arried literate &en working in the 1B. trade s%ste&. All her $o%s worked within the eGtensive 1B. trade s%ste& and &ost went over to E#ro!ean to receive their ed#cation. 1er children are /hoe$e >1E91?( .atherine >1E9C?( :illia& >199E?( John >1E99?( Jane >1I01?( Anne >1I02?( -ar% >1I04?( #nna&ed child >1I0D?( Ja&es >1I09?( Tho&as >1I10?( and .olin +o$ertson >1I1D?. ,n her later %ears ahowa% s!end the closing da%s o" her li"e at 4even Jaks( at the ho&e o" her da#ghter( -ar%. ahowa% loved to sit on a li&estone rock along the +ed +iver at 4t. Andrews !arish district waiting "or the Hork Boats to ret#rn ho&e "ro& the 1#dson;s Ba% ho!ing the% wo#ld $ring $ack her son who was sent awa% to $e ed#cated. Th#s( #!on her death her son .olin +o$ertson had a h#ge li&estone headstone !laced at her grave site.
Sou ce# 4#therland( 4. >200I?. Naho%a!# & 3istant )oice. :hite B#""alo Books: /eters"ield( -anito$a.

:athy *ee <odgson$+mith2 8. ,d.2 1. 9.
Bath% 1odgson 4&ith is the da#ghter o" Bathleen 1odgson and 1oward 4&ith. 1er &aternal -etis grand!arents( :illia& Arth#r 1odgson >$. 1I92? and 5lorence Lee .ook >$. 1I91? were "ro& the Lindsa%( 4t. .atherine;s( /rince Al$ert area o" 4askatchewan.2CC Bath% is a descendant o" 4#sannah 4hort >$. 1I1C? whose sister ,sa$elle >$. 1I04? and $rother@in@law AleGis 8ivier >$. 1E9D? were at the "a&o#s -etis Battle o" the 0rand .otea# in 1IC1. -etis law%er( ed#cator( writer and !hotogra!her( Bath% 1odgson@4&ith was !resident o" ,n"init% +esearch 3evelo!&ent and 3esign and now has her own law "ir& in 4askatoon. Bath% has an -.Ed. and was on the "ac#lt% o" 4L TE/. 1er 199E -.Ed. thesis at the Lniversit%
2CC

:ith historic roots in the /ortage la /rairie( +ed +iver 4ettle&ent( 5ort /ell%( and 5ort .#&$erland

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o" 4askatchewan was titled 64eeking 0ood and +ight +elations: 4t#dent /ers!ectives on the /edagog% o" Joe 3#)#ette 1igh 4chool.7 This was "ollowed@#! when she was a co@a#thor with .elia 1aig@Brown( +o$ert +egnier and Jo@Ann Archi$ald o" the $ook( Makin" the Spi it 3ance Within# Joe 3u<uette *i"h School and an &bo i"inal Communit! >Toronto: Ja&es Lori&er 2 .o&!an% Ltd.( 199E?. This $ook !rovides an in@de!th st#d% o" Joe 3#)#ette 1igh 4chool in 4askatoon( 4askatchewan. This school "or A$original st#dents has a co&&it&ent to A$original s!irit#alit% as its g#iding !rinci!le "or $oth c#rric#l#& and h#&an relations within the school. Bath% has r#n -ET4,( the e&!lo%&ent and training instit#te o" the -etis ation@ 4askatchewan. 4he also worked with the orthwest 4askatchewan -etis .o#ncil= as research director "or their st#dies to address the land #se concerns o" the -etis o" northwest 4askatchewan. 4he has $eco&e an eG!ert at collection o" oral histories as a &eans to doc#&ent land@#se occ#!anc% and &a!!ing. This work has res#lted in a 4ocial 4ciences and 1#&anities +esearch .o#ncil o" .anada grant "or _1 &illion >over "ive %ears? #nder the .o&&#nit%@ Lniversit% +esearch Alliance !rogra&. -ore recentl%( Bath% served as editor o" Ne% . eed Ma"a2ine. 4he contri$#ted &an% co&&#nit% !ro"iles and $iogra!hies2CD o" -etis !eo!le to this !#$lication as well as !rod#cing &an% eGcellent !hotogra!hic essa%s to co&!le&ent the stories. 4he has also served on the $oard o" directors o" 4ask.#lt#re ,nc. Bath% has worked as .hie" o" 4ta""( J""ice o" The /resident( -etis ational .o#ncil. 4he s#$se)#entl% co&!leted her law degree and o!erates 1odgson@ 4&ith Law in 4askatoon( 4askatchewan.

1ocelyne +oulodre.
-etis Ao#rnalist and $roadcaster( Jocel%ne 4o#lodre was the /resident and .EJ o" the .anadian .o#ncil "or A$original $#siness. 4he has held !ositions with Alliance 9#e$ec( the 0overn&ent o" .anada( Addiction +esearch 5o#ndation( the 0overn&ent o" Jntario and is the /resident o" the Board o" Anishnaw$e 1ealth in Toronto. 4he also serves on the .#lt#ral .o&&ission o" the -etis ation o" Jntario.

+ister -da +pence (+r. Catherine *abour;( >192<@200I?
B% ,da 4!ence( her niece.
4ister ,da 4!ence( J-,( was a &e&$er o" the religio#s congregation o" the -issionar% J$late 4isters o" 4t. Boni"ace "or D0 %ears. 1er &issionar% na&e was 4ister .atherine La$o#rV. 4he entered the congregation on A#g#st 21( 194D. 4he !rono#nced her "irst J$lation on 5e$r#ar% 1I( 19C0 and took her "inal vows on A#g#st 1I( 19CC. The !rolonged ti&e !eriod $etween entr% and "inal vows was $eca#se o" the re)#ire&ent at that ti&e that she $eco&e "l#ent in the 5rench lang#age. 4he alread% was "l#ent in JAi$wa% and English. Later on she wo#ld st#d% Latin( .ree( and 4io#G.

-etis co&&#nities.
2CD

4ee "or eGa&!le: 1odgson@4&ith( Bath%. 2002. 6Beith 0o#let: A /ro#d -Vtis and A Leader "or the /eo!le o" 4askatchewan(7 Ne% . eed Ma"a2ine >J#l%PA#g#st?: CKE.

21C

4ister ,da 4!ence with her !arents Jose!h 4!ence >1II<@19DD? and anc% .a&!$ell 4!ence >1IIE@19ED?( circa.19D0.

4ister 4!ence was a -etis wo&an o" 4cottishP.reePJAi$wa% descent. 1er "ather;s 4!ence s#rna&e co&es "ro& an Jrkne% 4!ence who worked "or the 1#dson Ba% .o&!an% at .#&$erland 1o#se( then in the orthwest Territories2CE. 1er &other;s &aiden .a&!$ell s#rna&e co&es "ro& a .a&!$ell "ro& 4cotland. 1er !arents $oth ca&e "ro& large "a&ilies and all her si$lings had large "a&ilies too( so she has n#&ero#s relatives. 5o#r $rothers and two sisters $esides hersel" s#rvived to ad#lthood. 1er $rothers are Ja&es 4!ence( 190I@19I9( his wi"e was Avena 3#char&e( Arsene 4!ence( 1910@19I2( his wi"e was Adeline .hartrand( E&ile 4!ence( 1914@2001( his wi"e was .la#dia
2CE

Jean Ba!tiste 4!ence 4r. >:eetcha&ash? was $orn in 1I0E( the son o" an Jrkne% 4!ence and a 4wa&!ee .ree wo&an. 1e died in A!ril 1II9 and was $#ried on his son Jean Ba!tiste 4!ence Jr.;s land( now the 4te +ose d# Lac .e&eter%( the "irst ad#lt grave there. The "irst "ive "a&ilies that settled $% the T#rtle +iver( 1IIE@I9( were his sons J. Ba!tiste 4!ence Jr.( >4ister ,da 4!ence;s grand"ather?( John 4!ence 4r. >4!ence Lake is na&ed a"ter hi&?( and Lo#ison 4!ence( and his grandsons who were $oth Ba!tiste;s sons( Jean Ba!tiste 4!ence >4a&? the $ig one( and Jean Ba!tiste 4!ence the s&all one. +e"erences: .a&!erville +. .h#rch records= -etis 4cri! +ecords and :estern Land 0rants data$ases( www.collectionscanada.gc.ca.

21D

3#char&e( and Ang#s 4!ence 1919@19IC( his wi"e was Antoinette [astre. 1er sisters are -ar% 4!ence( 1912@199C( her h#s$and was E&ile +anville( and 5lorence 4!ence( $. 192D( her h#s$and was 5red 1a%es. 4ister 4!ence co&!leted her Bachelor o" Teaching degree at Brandon( -anito$a( 19E0@19E<. or&an 5le#r% was attending Brandon Lniversit% at the sa&e ti&e. 1e sa%s( 6,da knew that , was a!!rehensive a$o#t starting at #niversit%( so she walked to school with &e on &% "irst da%. 4he also knew that , had no &one%( she gave &e _10( ,;ll never "orget that.7 4ister 4!ence ta#ght school "or 1D %ears( at the "ollowing J$late@r#n residential schools: -c,ntosh( Jntario >19C2@CI?( Lestock= 4askatchewan >19CI@C9?( .ross Lake( -anito$a >19D1@ D2?( and again Lestock( 4askatchewan >19D<@DC?. 4he ta#ght at the 3#ck Ba% 4chool( -anito$a >19DD@E0 and again in 19E4@ED?. ,n 19ED( she le"t the school s%ste& to $eco&e a ch#rch@$ased ad#lt ed#cator at .a&!erville and 3#ck Ba%. ,n 19I4 she $eca&e a /astoral Associate Ad#lt Ed#cator in 4agkeeng( 1ollow :ater and -anigotagan( -anito$a. The high !oint o" her li"e( in her own words( was when $% a series o" &iracles she got to go to +o&e to attend the J#ne 22( 19I0( $eati"ication o" Blessed Bateri Tekakwitha( the !atron saint o" the A$original +o&an .atholic /arish on 1o&e 4treet in :inni!eg. 4ister 4!ence got to sit right #! close to the 1ol% 5ather( /o!e John /a#l ,,. 4he was one o" the "ew allowed to greet the /o!e. :hat she said to the /o!e was what she wrote had $een in the de!th o" her heart all her li"e: 61ol% 5ather( !ra% that we &a% have ,ndian !riests in .anada and !ra% that we &a% have a -etis saint.7 Back ho&e she descri$ed her eG!erience( 6,t;s an enco#nter , shall never "orget and that , never tho#ght , wo#ld ever eG!erience on this side o" the earth.7 A"ter her tri! to +o&e in J#ne 19I0( 4ister 4!ence got to go to the 1ol% Land in ,srael.

Caroline Tait.
.aroline is -etis "ro& -ac3owall( 4askatchewan. 4he received her /h.3. "ro& the 3e!art&ents o" Anthro!olog% and 4ocial 4t#dies o" -edicine at -c0ill Lniversit% in 200<. .aroline has a Bachelor o" Arts degree "ro& -c0ill Lniversit% in anthro!olog% and a -aster;s o" Arts degree in &edical anthro!olog% "ro& the Lniversit% o" .ali"ornia at Berkele%. 3#ring 199C@199D acade&ic %ear( .aroline was a 5#l$right 4cholar and 8isiting 5ellow at 1arvard Lniversit% in the 3e!art&ents o" Anthro!olog% and 4ocial -edicine. .aroline is the !ast coordinator o" the ational etwork "or A$original -ental 1ealth +esearch "#nded $% the ,nstit#te "or A$original /eo!les 1ealth +esearch and co&!leted a !ostdoctoral "ellowshi! in the 3ivision o" 4ocial and Transc#lt#ral /s%chiatr%( 3e!art&ent o" /s%chiatr%( -c0ill Lniversit% in -a% 2004. 4he is !ast 8ice@chair o" the A$original :o&enUs 1ealth and 1ealing +esearch 0ro#!( a national gro#! o" A$original wo&en who are "#nded $% the :o&enUs 1ealth B#rea#( 1ealth .anada. ,n -a% 2004 she Aoined the ,ndigeno#s /eo!les; 1ealth +esearch .entre( 5irst ations Lniversit% o" .anada and the 3e!art&ent o" :o&enUs and 0ender 4t#dies( Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan as an Assistant /ro"essor. ,n 200E( .aroline Aoined the 3e!art&ent o" ative 4t#dies. .arolineUs research s!ans across orth A&erica( contrasting the .anadian and A&erican !#$lic health res!onses to s#$stance a$#se $% !regnant wo&en. 1er doctoral dissertation is entitled( ?The ti! o" the ice$erg: The 6&aking7 o" 5etal Alcohol 4%ndro&e in .anada.7 .aroline is also the a#thor o" ?A 4t#d% o" the 4ervice eeds o" /regnant Addicted :o&en in -anito$a(7 and ?5etal Alcohol 4%ndro&e a&ong .anadian A$original /eo!les: +eview and Anal%sis o" the ,ntergenerational *inks to Desidential +chools2A co&&issioned $% the A$original 1ealing 5o#ndation. 4o&e o" her !#$lications are listed $elow:

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• • •

Tait( .aroline L. >2009?. 6,s .anada 5ailing -etis .hildrend An EGa&ination o" the .hallenges and Barriers to ,&!roved 1ealth.7 ,n( .anadian L ,.E5 .o&&ittee( The State of the Wo ld;s Child en 7GG># &bo i"inal Child en;s *ealth5 Toronto: 2009: <0@<D. Tait( .aroline L. >200I?. 6A !ostcolonial !aradig& "or &ental health and addiction !rogra&&ing in A$original co&&#nities.7 (imatisi%in/ J#ne 200I.. Bir&a%er( La#rence J= Tait( .aroline L= 4i&!son( .ori. >200E?. 6The -ental 1ealth o" .anadian A$original /eo!les: Trans"or&ation o" ,dentit% and .o&&#nit%.7 Edited $% La#rence J. Bir&a%er and 0ail 8alaskakis. 8anco#ver: Lniversit% o" British .ol#&$ia /ress( "orthco&ing. Tait( .. L. >200E? 63isr#!tions in at#re( 3isr#!tions in 4ociet%: ,ndigeno#s /eo!les o" .anada and the 6-aking7 o" 5etal Alcohol 4%ndro&e.7 The Mental *ealth of Canadian &bo i"inal (eoples# T ansfo mations of -dentit! and Communit! . Edited $% La#rence Bir&a%er and 0ail 8alaskakis. 8anco#ver: Lniversit% o" British .ol#&$ia /ress( "orthco&ing. Tait( .aroline L. >200E?. 64i&&ering J#trage 3#ring an 6E!ide&ic7 o" 5etal Alcohol 4%ndro&e.7 Canadian Women Studies/les Cahie s de la 'emme;s . 2D >4? >:inter 200EP200I?.. Tait( .aroline L. >200E?. 6.anadian A$original :o&en and 1ealth.7 Jou nal of &bo i"inal <ealth. 8ol#&e 4 ,ss#e 1.

1ean Teillet2 .FA2 **.2 **8. >$. 19C<?
Jean Teillet( law%er( !ro"essional dancer and actor( artist( choreogra!her( acade&ic( and vol#nteer( is a -etis !atriot o" the highest order. ,t can $e said witho#t contradiction that the &#lti@talented Jean Teillet is the &ost res!ected !racticing -etis law%er in .anada. Jean Teillet is the great grand@niece o" Lo#is +iel and the niece o" +oger Teillet who was a Li$eral -/ and ca$inet &inister #nder !ri&e &inister Lester /earson. 4he is a "o#nding &e&$er o" the -Vtis ation o" Jntario and what has now $eco&e the National &bo i"inal Moot at the Lniversit% o" Toronto 5ac#lt% o" Law. 4he has $een called to the $ar in Jntario( B.( :T and -anito$a. 4he is a !artner o" the law "ir& o" /a!e 4alter Teillet. A "or&er &odern dancer( she le"t that !ro"ession to attend law school and !#rs#e a career in A$original +ights law. 4he was vice@!resident and secretar%@ treas#rer o" the ,ndigeno#s Bar Association o" .anada. As a legal cons#ltant to the -etis ational .o#ncil( Teillet has $een involved in the ongoing -etis legal $attles with the govern&ent o" .anada concerning -etis land rights( harvesting rights( co&&ercial harvesting( and sel"@ govern&ent. Jean Teillet was awarded the "irst ever Lincoln AleGander Award in 2002 $% the Law 4ociet% o" L!!er .anada. This award recogni*ed her o#tstanding contri$#tions and co&&it&ent to the legal !ro"ession and to co&&#nit% service. ,n 200C( she received the A$original J#stice Award "ro& the ative Law 4t#dents o" the Lniversit% o" Al$erta( which recogni*es her o#tstanding contri$#tions to A$original J#stice ,nitiatives. ,n 200E( the Lniversit% o" :indsor

21I

5ac#lt% o" Law created the Jean Teillet Access to J#stice 4cholarshi!. 1er !#$lication( the Metis La% Summa !( #!dated reg#larl% since 1999( is the $est availa$le reso#rce on the law with res!ect to -etis !eo!le. ,t is availa$le on the /a!e 4alter Teillet we$site at www.!stlaw.ca . 5or 2C %ears she worked in !ro"essional theatre as a dancer( writer( actor( teacher( choreogra!her and director( with Toronto 3ance Theatre( Toronto :orksho! /rod#ctions( 3ann% 0ross&an 3ance .o&!an%( Theatre London( 4t#dio 4even( .B+. +adio( and several other !er"or&ance organi*ations. 4he got her start as a teenager in :inni!eg writing and ta!ing dail% editorials at .+B. radio. eGt she worked as a !ro"essional dancer and actress in :inni!eg and Toronto and choreogra!hed "or theatre( incl#ding several !rod#ctions "or 0eorge L#sco&$e at Toronto :orksho! /rod#ctions. Teillet was a !rod#cer o" live staged events "or cor!orate and theatrical s!onsors s#ch as -aAor Leag#e Base$all( To%ota( Jntario /lace( Bellogg;s and Jwl T8. 4he also !rod#ced &#sicals( !#!!et shows( !la%s( dance and even a circ#s. The ven#es incl#ded theatres( stadi#&s( a#ditori#&s( schools and o#tdoor a&#se&ent !arks. 4he also !rod#ced records( $ooks( &#sical scores and &erchandise in s#!!ort o" these !rod#ctions. ,n a long career as a vis#al artist she has had several shows and her work is in !rivate collections in the Lnited 4tates and .anada. Jne o" her !ieces 6The Two +ow :a&!#& Belt7 hangs in the Law 4chool o" the Lniversit% o" Toronto. Jean was the lead law%er on the + vs /owle% -etis h#nting rights case( which she arg#ed $e"ore the 4#!re&e .o#rt o" .anada on -arch 1E( 200<. 4he was s#ccess"#l in this decade long $attle to rea""ir& -etis rights #nder 4ection <C o" the Constitution &ct o" 19I2( when the 4#!re&e .o#rt handed down their decision to den% the .rown;s a!!eal on 4e!te&$er 19( 200<. Jean is a !artner in the "ir& o" /a!e 4alter Teillet( Barristers and 4olicitors. 4he has $een called to the Bar in Jntario( B.( :T and -anito$a. ,n her words: 6The !ri&ar% "oc#s o" &% work as a law%er has $een to assist in the develo!&ent o" a health% s!ace "or A$original !eo!le within .anadian 4ociet%'a s!ace where A$original !eo!le will $e res!ected and val#ed as contri$#ting citi*ens o" .anada.7 Jean;s !ro $ono legal work and co&&#nit% involve&ent has $een eGtensive. Jean has written a$o#t the notion o" a !ardon or other eGoneration "or Lo#is +iel in 6EGoneration "or Lo#is +iel: -erc%( J#stice( or /olitical EG!edienc%d7 4he takes the view that eGoneration wo#ld likel% have little to do with the -etis !eo!le or the ca#se "or which +iel died. The interested reader can read her !a!er in the Saskatche%an La% ,e$ie%( 8ol#&e DE( 2004: <C9@<92. .hristi Belco#rt;s !ainting 6/ortrait o" Jean Teillet7 /art o" the 60reat -etis o" -% Ti&e7 series. 200C@200E. 1er scholarl% !#$lications incl#de: • • 6:hat -ight 1ave Been7 in Métis )o!a"eu ( 4e!te&$erPJcto$er 2002 K an article on the trial o" Lo#is +iel. 6+. v. /owle%: -Vtis 1arvesting +ights in .anada7( A#stralia( -ndi"enous La% .ulletin: Jcto$er 2001 K a case st#d% o" (o%le! and how it develo!ed A$original rights law in .anada $% eG!anding the law "or -Vtis.

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6-Vtis in 4earch o" +ecognition7 !#$lished $% the (itblado Lectu e Se ies $% the Law 4ociet% o" -anito$a( 2002? K recognition is a ke% conce!t "or all A$original !eo!le. ,t is the "o#ndation that is necessar% $e"ore rights can $e a""ir&ed or acco&&odated. The !a!er eGa&ines the lang#age iss#es( social theor% and the !olitical rights dialog#es that have evolved s#rro#nding the -Vtis in .anada. The ,ole of the ,e"ulato ! ,e"ime in &bo i"inal ,i"hts 3isputes in +nta io >200C? K this !a!er was !re!ared "or the ,!!erwash ,n)#ir%. /art o" this !a!er( with res!ect to the 19 th .ent#r% histor% o" the harvesting reg#lator% regi&e in Jntario( was co@a#thored with 3r. 5rank To#gh. The !a!er looks at the historical role o" the reg#lator% regi&e as well as how it has $een engaged in ver% recent events. The !a!er was !#$lished on the ,n)#ir%;s we$site at: www.i!!erwashin)#ir%.caP!olic%Y!artPindeG.ht&l. Métis La% Summa ! K this is an ann#all% #!dated >since 1999? s#&&ar% o" the law with res!ect to -Vtis. The MLS traces -Vtis cases $ack to the &id 1I00s. ,t incl#des scri! cases "ro& the earl% 1900s and harvesting decisions o" the Al$erta -Vtis 4ettle&ents Tri$#nal. ,t tracks all -Vtis cases as the% &ove thro#gh the co#rts. The MLS also !rovides a $rie" anal%sis o" A$original rights law as it a!!lies to -Vtis. The MLS incl#des a new section on cons#ltation and ad&inistrative tri$#nals. The Métis La% Summa ! is availa$le on the /a!e 4alter Teillet we$site( in /35 "or&at( at !stlaw.caPreso#rces . The MLS is also #sed in co#rses in the ative 4t#dies 3e!art&ent at the Lniversit% o" Ed&onton and $% the Lniversit% o" Toronto 5ac#lt% o" Law. SEGoneration "or Lo#is +iel: -erc%( J#stice or /olitical EG!edienc%[T Saskatche%an La% ,e$ie%( 8ol. DE>1?( 2004 at <C9. 6Jld and 3i""ic#lt 0rievances: EGa&ining the +elationshi! $etween the -Vtis and the .rown7 9 >2004? 24 Sup eme Cou t La% ,e$ie% >2d?: 291@<2<. 6:inds o" .hange: -Vtis +ights a"ter /owle%( Tak# and 1aida7 K in The Lon" Jou ne! of a 'o "otten (eople# Metis -dentities ? 'amil! *isto ies ( Lte Lischke and 3avid T. -c a$ >Eds.? :aterloo: :il"red La#rier /ress( 200E: CC@EI. 65ederal and /rovincial .rown J$ligations to the -etis7 in -etis@.rown +elations: +ights( ,dentit%( J#risdiction( and 0overnance >ed: 5rederica :ilson 2 -elanie -allet? !#$lished $% ,rwin Law in 200I. 6A Tale o" Two Agree&ents: ,&!le&enting 4ection C2>1? +e&edies "or the 8iolation o" -etis 1arvesting +ights7 in &bo i"inal La% Since 3el"amuuk% >Ed -aria -orellato( 9.? !#$lished $% .anada Law Books( 2009? 6The -etis o" the orthwest7 @ -asters Thesis( !#$lished $% Lniversit% o" Toronto( 200I.

• • •

Jean Teillet has given n#&ero#s lect#res in .anada and the Lnited 4tates. ,n .anada( at the Law 4ociet% o" L!!er .anada( at a con"erence o" the Jntario ative J#stices o" the /eace( at the ative 4t#dies 3e!art&ent in the Lniversit% o" Ed&onton( at the Learneds 4ociet%( "or the Law 4ociet% o" -anito$a( the .anadian Bar Association( .ontin#ing Legal Ed#cation o" B.( the -Vtis ation Ho#th Advisor% .o&&ission and several ti&es "or the ,ndigeno#s Bar Association= in .racow( /oland at the Jagiellonian Lniversit%= in ago%a Ja!an at EG!o 200C= in ,srael at the +#!!in Acade&ic .enter= and in the Lnited 4tates at the .anadian A&erican +esearch ,nstit#te con"erence in H. and at a -Vtis con"erence in -ontana. These lect#res #s#all% revolve aro#nd -Vtis and A$original rights and the relationshi! $etween A$original !eo!le and the govern&ents o" .anada. Jean has also lect#red at vario#s law schools across .anada incl#ding the "ac#lties o"

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law at the Lniversit% o" :indsor( the Lniversit% o" -anito$a( the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan( the Lniversit% o" Ed&onton( the Lniversit% o" Toronto( Hork Lniversit%( the Lniversit% o" Jttawa and the Lniversit% o" 8ictoria. These lect#res incl#de iss#es s#ch as: working !ro $ono( access to A#stice( the relationshi! $etween environ&ental law and A$original rights( -Vtis rights( a$original rights( and the role o" an a$original law%er.
+e"erence: +es#&e o" Jean Teillet at www.!stlaw.caPreso#rcesPJeanYTeillet@+es#&e.doc

Adelaide 8orin Thomas. >1I4E@19CE?
B% A#dreen 1o#rie Adelaide -orin( the da#ghter o" -etis !arents 0enevieve +o#iG >+o%? and /ierre -orin( was $orn at ,le N la .rosse in 1I4E. The "a&il% &oved to Brochet and there Adelaide &et dashing 0eorge >0eordie? Tho&as( $orn to a -etis "a&il% at Brochet in 1I40. 1e $eca&e 1#dsonUs Ba% 5actor at -oose 5actor%. The% were &arried at Brochet in 1ID4( at a ti&e when the .ivil :ar was still raging $etween the northern and so#thern Lnited 4tates. :ith the eGce!tion o" a "ew tri!s to 4elkirk $% Hork Boat( Adelaide s!ent &ost o" her li"e in the hard north. Adelaide lived to $e 110 %ears old. 64he &ade histor% K then o#tlived it.7 0eordie Tho&as died in 192E( at the age o" IE %ears old and is $#ried in the 4t. L#keUs Anglican ce&eter% at Balsa& Ba%( -anito$a. Lntil a$o#t 19C2( Adelaide lived alone in a tin% ho&e at Traverse Ba%( -anito$a. There she snared ra$$its and tra!!ed &#skrats to sell "or !rovisions. As she did al&ost one h#ndred %ears ago( Adelaide contin#ed to live o"" the land. 4he netted "ish when the water was o!en( and in winter drilled holes in the ice "or her catch. .lose at hand was a grove o" -a!le trees that Adelaide ta!!ed and $oiled down the sa!. ow al&ost a "orgotten art in -anito$a( &a!le s%r#! was a vital !art o" her eGistence= a "ew )#arts to her diet d#ring the %ear. 6The taste o" /e&&ican= the li"e o" the north=7 Adelaide wo#ld sa%= 6is still "resh in &% &o#th\7 ,le a la .rosse was a de!ot "or /e&&ican storage and Adelaide $eca&e an eG!ert at &aking the 6condensed7 "ood that was o"ten the onl% rations "or northern eG!lorers and tra!!ers. Adelaide o"ten shared her reci!e "or /e&&ican. 4he wo#ld dr% the lean !arts o" the &eat in the s#n( then !o#nded it into a !aste with a &iGt#re o" "at. The res#lt was a "lavored with acid@t%!e $erries s#ch as saskatoons. /e&&ican was tr#l% the li"e$lood o" the north. Adelaide lived near her sister@in@law 4o!hia Linklater@Tho&as >3aniel? at Traverse Ba%. The two wo&en shared a li"est%le and &ade long leather -etis coats. The coats were designed with "ringes and intricate $eadwork. A &iGt#re o" corn&eal and kerosene was #sed to clean the leather coats. 4o!hia also &ade ra$$it ro$es >$lankets? which she sold to the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% along with the -etis coats. The "leshing tools o" the two -etis wo&en were !art o" the 1#dsonUs Ba% .o&!an% .ollections and are now in the &#se#& collections at the -anito$a -#se#& o" -an and at#re in :inni!eg. ,n her later %ears( Adelaide lived with her da#ghter Jose!hine Jrvis at Traverse Ba%. +etiring earl% at "a&il% $irthda% cele$rations to the t#ne o" the +ed +iver Jig and over a cent#r% o" &e&ories( Adelaide died at 110 %ears o" agein in 19CE. 4he is $#ried at 4t. -argaretUs +o&an .atholic .h#rch ce&eter% at Traverse Ba%. >.ontri$#ted $% 0reat 0randda#ghter A#dreen 1o#rie o" 0rand -arais "ro& her recollections( those o" 1elen 1o#rie o" 4ton% /oint( the histor% o" the +.-. o" 4t. .le&ents( and &e&ories o" the wo&en in the "a&il%.?

+usette *aFlesche Tibbles. >1IC4@190<?

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,n the 1II0s( 4#sette La5leshe writing #nder the na&e 6Bright E%es(7 !#$lished what is $elieved to $e the "irst non@legend short stor% written $% a -etis. The stor%( 6 edawi7 was !#$lished in 4t. icholas( a children;s &aga*ine. 4#sette >,nsta Thea&$a or Bright E%es? was $orn on the J&aha +eservation( the -etis da#ghter o" Jose!h La5lesche and -ar% 0ale. Jose!h La5lesche was the son o" a /onca &other and a 5rench tra!!er@trader "ather. 1is &other was the sister o" /onca chie" 4tanding 0ri**l% Bear. 4#sette;s &other( -ar% 0ale( was the da#ghter o" &ilitar% o""icer and s#rgeon( 3r. John 0ale and his J&aha wi"e( ico&i >8oice o" the :aters?. ,t is interesting to note that 4#san;s "ather( Jose!h( $eca&e a chie" o" the J&ahas. As -etis( his children were all given land grants on the 0reat e&aha 1al" Breed Tract= however( &ost o" the& sold this land and lived on the J&aha reserve. 4#sette was ed#cated at the reservation school #ntil it closed in 1ID9. ,n 1IE2( she attended the Eli*a$eth ,nstit#te "or Ho#ng Ladies in ew Jerse%. 1er sister -arg#erite acco&!anied her there. 4he was an eGcellent st#dent and eGcellent writer= so&e o" her school essa%s were !#$lished in a ew Hork news!a!er $e"ore she grad#ated in 1IEC. 4he ret#rned to teach at the reservation $#t co#ld not o$tain a !osition #ntil 1IEE. 4he contin#ed at the school "or three %ears. The neGt %ears were distressing ones "or the ,ndians. ,n 1IEI( the neigh$o#ring /oncas were "orci$l% re&oved to ,ndian Territor% in Jklaho&a. This alar&ed the J&aha;s $eca#se the% "elt the% wo#ld $e neGt( "#rther the% had &an% relatives a&ong the /oncas. ,n the winter o" 1IEI( .hie" 4tanding Bear led his gro#! $ack to their traditional ho&e on the io$ara +iver. 1e was arrested and $ro#ght "or trial in 1IE9. 4#sette took #! the /onca ca#se and o""ered eG!ert testi&on% at his trial. This a!!earance and her s#$se)#ent re!orts on the aw"#l conditions a&ong the /onca !eo!le started her career as an orator( writer and advocate o" ,ndian rights. 3#ring 1IEI and 1IE9( 4#sette and her hal"@$rother 5rancis went East with 4tanding Bear to dra&ati*e the !light o" the /oncas to the !#$lic. Tho&as 1enr% Ti$$les( assistant editor o" the J&aha 1erald( organi*ed this to#r. 5or siG &onths the% s!oke to civic gro#!s( ,ndian +e"or& organi*ations and literar% cl#$s in A&erica;s largest cities "ro& ew Hork to .hicago. 4#sette $eca&e the star o" the to#r and her "a&e as an orator s!read. ,n 3ece&$er o" 1II0( she testi"ied $e"ore the L4 4enate on the re&oval o" the /onca. 1er "riendshi! with Ti$$les led to &arriage a"ter his wi"e died. 4he contin#ed to work "or ,ndian citi*enshi! >the% did not have the right to vote? and land rights( the% also lect#red in 4cotland and England. 4#sette was corres!ondent "or The +maha Wo ld *erald and contri$#ted to her h#s$and;s !o!#list !a!er( The -ndependent. 4he contin#ed her advocac% "or ,ndian !eo!le right #ntil her death in 190<.
,efe ence /arins( Ja&es :. 64#sette La5lesche Ti$$les(7 in 0retchen -. Bataille >Editor?. Nati$e &me ican Women# & .io" aphical 3ictiona !. ew Hork: 0arland /#$lishing( 199<: 1C0@1C2.

*oretta Todd. >$. 19D<?
Loretta Todd is an award@winning director( writer and !rod#cer who has $een called 6one o" .anadaUs s&artest( %o#ng directors.7 4he is a co&&anding !resence known "or her !ower"#l( vis#al stor%telling( the highest !rod#ction standards and !ro"essional de&eanor. -s. Todd is -etisP.ree( originall% "ro& orthern Al$erta. Loretta is the da#ghter o" 0eorge and J#d% Todd. Loretta was $orn in Ed&onton( Al$erta. 1er "ather( a .reeP-Vtis( le"t his co&&#nit% in northern Al$erta and travelled "ro& Ao$ to Ao$( working on oil rigs( in road constr#ction( and as a tra!!er. 1e and J#d% raised their eight children

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in Ed&onton and northern Al$erta. Loretta was the "o#rth o" 0eorge and J#d%Us children. Altho#gh her "a&il% str#ggled with !overt% and 0eorgeUs alcoholis&( Todd re&e&$ers her childhood as $eing "illed with stor%telling and art. 1er "ather wo#ld so&eti&es co&e ho&e and tell her stories( drawing horses on the walls "or ill#stration. 5a&il% gatherings were "illed with a#nts and #ncles >0eorge had 1D $rothers and sisters? who wo#ld dance and share stories. Todd le"t ho&e at the age o" 12( a"ter "inishing seventh grade. 1olding down a series o" Ao$s( "ro& waitress to $aker% e&!lo%ee to constr#ction worker( she grew #! )#ickl%. /regnant while still in her earl% teens( Todd was soon s#!!orting hersel" and an in"ant da#ghter( Ba&ala( while other girls her age were learning to navigate high school. B% 1I she )#ali"ied "or co&&#nit% college( where she discovered a gi"t "or writing. B% the ti&e she "inished school( she had gained signi"icant video&aking skills. 4he then "o#nd e&!lo%&ent with the "ederal govern&ent and vario#s ative organi*ations( Todd s#!ervised intervention !rogra&s( aiding ative %o#th in co!ing with dr#g and alcohol addiction( and hel!ed develo! and i&!le&ent $#siness !roAects on vario#s reserves. 4he also oversaw !re@e&!lo%&ent !rogra&s hel!ing ative wo&en to "ind Ao$s. At ti&es( she #sed video as a tool in these Ao$s as well. ToddUs "irst "#ll@length doc#&entar%( The Lea nin" (ath >1991?( co&$ines "irst@!erson testi&onials o" .anadian residential@school s#rvivors with ghostl%( at&os!heric re@enact&ents. *ands of *isto ! >199C? !rovides a $risk( !la%"#l !ortrait o" "o#r wo&en artists( and 'o "otten Wa io s >199D?( which was no&inated "or a 0enie award( re&e&$ers the :orld :ar ,, soldiers who risked their lives overseas onl% to ret#rn to "ind their land con"iscated. Toda! is a 0ood 3a! >1999? takes a &ore standard $iogra!hic a!!roach to the stor% o" the actor .hie" 3an 0eorge( and :aina!ssini -manistaisi%a# The (eople 0o +n >200<? eG!lores the re!atriation o" ative arti"acts. ToddUs work has $een recogni*ed with li"eti&e achieve&ent awards at the ,&agine AT,8E and Taos Talking /ict#re "estivals( and she has !artici!ated at the 4#ndance :riters La$.

1osephte 7ervais Tourond. >$. 1IC1?
Jose!hte was the da#ghter o" AleGis 0ervais and -adeleine 5agnant. 4he &arried Leo!old -c0illis in 1IE2( then &arried .aliGte To#rond on ove&$er C( 1II2 at Batoche. 4he was his second wi"e( his "irst wi"e( -arg#erite +oss 2CI had died in 1II0. Jose!hte;s sister .atherine was &arried to .aliGte;s $rother /ierre To#rond and sister -arie was later &arried to /atrice To#rond. .aliGte was killed on the last da% o" "ighting d#ring the 1IIC +esistance. Jose!hte was le"t with two s&all children to care "or and was !regnant with their third child. >Jean Ba!tiste $orn 4e!te&$er E( 1II<( .harles $orn Jcto$er 2<( 1II4 and -arg#erite s#$se)#entl% $orn on Jcto$er 20( 1IIC?.

1osephte 5aul Tourond. >1I<1@192I?
B% Lawrence Barkwell( Brenda /ercell and 1enri /a#lh#s. 1osephte was the daughter of 1ean .aptiste 5aul $orn 1E94 in the orth :est Territories and AngVli)#e 0odin >0odon? $orn 1I0C in the orth :est Territories. AngVli)#e was the da#ghter o" /ierre 0odin and 4#*anne >4io#G?. Jose!hte;s !aternal grand!arents
were Jose!h /a#l and Lo#ise >.ree?.

2CI

-arg#erite;s "ather was a &e&$er o" +iel;s .o#ncil >EGovedate? at Batoche. 1er "ather( $rother( and "ive #ncles were all active in the +esistance.

22<

Jose!hte /a#l &arried Jose!h To#rond at 4aint@5ranWois Xavier( on -a% C( 1IC0. 1e was the son o" Jose!h To#rond2C9 and .harlotte 0lad#. Jose!h To#rond and his two $rothers were with Lo#is +iel on Jcto$er 11( 1ID9 when +iel and 1I -etis sto!!ed the .anadian s#rve%ors in 4t. or$ert. Jose!hte and Jose!h raised their "a&il% o" ten children in the /arish o" 4aint@5ranWois Xavier where the% "ar&ed and ranched. ,n 1II2( Jose!hte and Jose!h &oved their "a&il% to the 4aint Antoine de /ado#e /arish in the Batoche area. The% settled near a creek that e&!tied into the 4o#th 4askatchewan +iver. ,t was called 6.o#lVe /oisson7 or 5ish .reek. 5ro& then on( the area wo#ld $e called 6To#rond;s .o#lVe.7 Jose!hte;s "a&il% was ver% concerned a$o#t the -etis land clai&s. 1er h#s$and Jose!h and sons( .aliGte( 5rancois( and /atrice all signed the 4e!te&$er 4( 1II2 !etition "ro& 4t. Antoine de /ado#e to /ri&e -in ister :ohn -# Macdonald
regarding the Metis land claims#

Jose!hte 6La ve#ve7 in "ront o" Ed&ond and Berthe Bo%er;s ho#se at Batoche

.hildren o" Jose!hte /a#l and Jose!h To#rond:

3avid was $orn 3ece&$er 12( 1IC1. 1e &arried 8irginie 5isher. 1e was a &e&$er o" Lo#is
+ielUs EGovedate d#ring the 1IIC +esistance. 1e was not tried "or these activities $eca#se the% esca!ed to -ontana. The% s#$se)#entl% took #! residence at T#rtle -o#ntain. Later he ret#rned to Batoche and died there on 4e!te&$er 11( 1I90. .aliGte( $orn A!ril 22( 1IC< at Baie 4t. /a#l= his "irst wi"e was -arg#erite +oss. 1e then &arried Jose!hte 0ervais in 1II2 at Batoche= the% had three children all $orn at 6To#rond;s .o#lVe7. .aliGte was killed at Batoche on -a% 12( 1IIC( the last da% o" "ighting.

2C9

Jose!h;s &other was +osalie Ladero#te >-Vtis?. 4he had &arried Jose!h To#rond( who( according to "a&il% lore( 6had co&e with his $rother "ro& the neigh$o#rhood o" .astle To#rond in 5rance to ho&estead along the +ed +iver near 4t. Boni"ace.7

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• •

/ierre( $orn 5e$r#ar% 1( 1ICC= he &arried .atherine 0ervais. 1e was !resent d#ring the "ighting
at 3#ck Lake and was a &e&$er o" .a!tain Ba!tiste 8andal 4r.;s .o&!an%. 1e was wo#nded in the thigh d#ring the "ighting at 6To#rond;s .o#lVe7. /atrice( $orn -arch 24( 1ICE= he was &arried to -arie 0ervais. /atrice To#rond and Jose!h 3elor&e served as !rinci!al lie#tenants to 0a$riel 3#&ont. 1e was convicted and sentenced to a conditional discharge. A"ter his release he lived at Alvena and was secretar% "or the TachV 4chool 3istrict. El*Var( $orn 4e!te&$er 1( 1IC9= &arried -arg#erite Breland and had two children. 1e was a &e&$er o" .a!tain Edo#ard 3#&ont;s co&!an% d#ring the +esistance. El*Var was killed on the last da% o" $attle at Batoche. 1e was $#ried in the 4t. Antoine de /ado#e .e&eter%( Batoche. 5ranWois was $orn A#g#st 21( 1ID1= he too received a conditional discharge "or his +esistance activities. .harles -Vnard( was $orn Jcto$er C( 1ID<= he "o#ght at Batoche and died o" cons#&!tion at age 21 on J#l% 19( 1IIC. -arie@ThVrMse was $orn Jan#ar% 1I( 1IDD( a"ter the destr#ction o" their ho&e d#ring $attle she "led with the others to the Bellev#e area. 4he s#$se)#entl% &arried a!oleon Jose!h 8enne on J#ne <0( 1IIE at Batoche. 4adl%( she died "ro& cons#&!tion at age 2C on A#g#st 2C( 1I91. -arie llise( grand&other to 1enri /a#lh#s( was $orn -arch 1I( 1IDI( she too "led to Bellev#e a"ter their ho&e was destro%ed. 4he s#$se)#entl% &arried +a!hael Bo%er( son o" :illia& Bo%er and J#lienne Bo#s)#et. +a!hael and llise are the great@grand!arents o" Brenda /ercell. 1%acinthe( was $orn -arch 1I( 1IE0. Ba$% 1%acinthe was nearl% three %ears old when he died on 5e$r#ar% 2( 1IE<. 1e is $#ried in 4aint@5ranWois Xavier.

• • • • • •

1enri /a#lh#s re!orts: ,n 1II2( Jose!hte and Jose!h &oved the "a&il% to the 4aint@Antoine@de@/ado#e /arish o" Batoche. The% settled near a creek that e&!tied into the 4o#th 4askatchewan +iver. ,t was called 6.o#lVe /oisson7 or 5ish .reek. 5ro& then on( the area wo#ld $e called 6To#rond;s .o#lVe7 $% the local co&&#nit%. The "a&il% ca&e with all their $elongings and ani&als. The livestock incl#ded a val#a$le stallion( eight% head o" cattle incl#ding a val#a$le thoro#gh$red $#ll. There was also a large )#antit% o" ho#sehold e""ects and i&!le&ents o" h#s$andr%. The "ollowing %ear( 1II<( traged% str#ck the "a&il%. Jose!h( the "ather( died on -a% 22 at the age o" CD %ears. ow that she lost her $eloved h#s$and( Jose!hte wo#ld now and "or the rest o" her 4C %ears o" li"e $e known a""ectionatel% as 6La ve#ve To#rond(7 >the widow To#rond?. ow she( with her three sons and two da#ghters still at ho&e( wo#ld have to !ress on and contin#e r#nning the "ar& and ranch. That sa&e %ear( 1II<( the "a&il%( a"ter Jose!h died( the "a&il% contin#ing on( $#ilt a large "ar&ho#se with all the ancillar% $#ildings necessar% to "ar& and ranch. The neGt %ear( 1II4( the% "enced the entire "ar& area. The "#t#re looked $right. A stor% in o#r "a&il% tells o" -other Jose!hte To#rond receiving a ver% i&!ortant g#est at her ho&e one da%. Lo#is +iel had $een s#&&oned to co&e and hel! with the !olitical insta$ilit% in the area. Jne o" the "irst !eo!le that he visited to seek s#!!ort was the &other o" all those %o#ng &en. 1e had had their s#!!ort d#ring the #nrest in -anito$a( and the% wo#ld s#rel% $ack hi& #! in his !lans here in the Batoche area. +iel wo#ld co&e to o""er his condolences to -ada&e To#rond "or the loss o" her h#s$and and to seek her enco#rage&ent and the !artici!ation o" her sons in his !lans to o!!ose the govern&ent. J#r 0rand&other llise( as the %o#ngest girl in the "a&il% at age 1D( was asked to !resent their disting#ished g#est a
token o" their res!ect "or hi& in the "or& o" a $o#)#et o" "lowers or so&e s#ch thing.

22C

-arg#erite;s To#rond Towson;s "ather was Arth#r To#rond. 1is "ather( ll*Var To#rond was killed in the Battle o" Batoche >-a% 9@12( 1IIC?. Arth#r was a $ig two@%ear old $o% at the ti&e( and 0rand&other told #s stories o" having to "lee and r#n with this $ig $o% in her ar&s or in tow( and how Lo#is +iel wo#ld take the $o% so&eti&es and r#n with hi& to hel! o#t. J#r 0rand&other wo#ld cr% when telling #s this and other stories a$o#t the re$ellion( and !artic#larl% how #nA#st the hanging o" Lo#is +iel was. Jose!hte To#rond had "led in a h#rr% and as the troo!s had entered her "ar& and ranch( the% $#rned
ever%thing( scattered or sla#ghtered the ani&als and !illaged all her val#a$le $elongings. This incl#ded her !recio#s horses and wagon. B#t she wo#ld have needed her &ode o" trans!ortation !artic#larl% "or the co&"ort and travel "or her aged &other and her sick son. 4he was "#rio#s( and $ravel% she walked across the ene&% line to the troo!s; enca&!&ent and de&anded her horse and wagon. The troo!s were so dis&a%ed at the co#rage and $raver% o" this C2@%ear old widow that the% !ro&!tl% hitched #! her horses and wagon( giving the& to her( and watched as she rode $ack to her !eo!le.

The troo!s stole and $#rned all her !ersonal e""ects( scattered her livestock( $#t even worse( on -a% 14( at the Battle o" Batoche( the% killed two o" her sons. .aliGte was <2 %ears@old and
El*Var was 2D %ears@old. 1er sick son .harles died two &onths later on J#l% 19( 1IIC at the age o" 22. ," onl% the d%ing wo#ld have sto!!ed there. B#t no( the "ollowing %ear 3avid( her oldest son died 4e!te&$er 11( 1IID at the age o" <4( and then /ierre died on -arch E( 1IIE. 1e was <2( and "o#r %ears later on A#g#st 1I( in 1I91( her !recio#s da#ghter -arie@ThVrMse( the wi"e o" a!olVon 8enne( died at the age o" 2C. ,n seven short %ears( she had lost siG sons and one da#ghter( all ver% %o#ng "ro& age 22 to 41. /atrice was the last o" this gro#! to die on 4e!te&$er 2I( 1I9I. All $#t .harles were &arried and the% had children. R +e&e&$er( she had alread% lost her son $a$% 1%acithne in 1IE< when he was threeS.

Jose!hte /a#l To#rond was $orn J#l% 1I<1 and died on 3ece&$er 1C( 192I at age 9E %ears.
4o#rces:


• • • •

1enri /a#lh#s( 6Jose!hte To#rond(7 Ne% . eed Ma"a2ine( 4!ringP4#&&er 200I: 1I@2C. 1enri /a#lh#s( !ersonal co&&#nications( 200I@2009. Brenda /ercell( !ersonal co&&#nications( 2012. -argaret To#rond Townson( !ersonal co&&#nication 200I. /hoto co#rtes% o" Brenda /ercell( "ro& Estelle Bo%er;s collection.

/irginie Fisher Tourond. >$. 1IC9?.
8irginie was $orn at 9#;A!!elle( the da#ghter o" 0eorge 5isher and E&elie Bo%er. 4he &arried 3avid To#rond( the oldest son o" Jose!h To#rond 4r. and Jose!hte /a#l at 4t. 5rancois Xavier in 1IEC. The% settled near To#rond;s .o#lee in 1II<. 3avid was a &e&$er o" +iel;s .o#ncil >EGovedate? at Batoche d#ring the 1IIC +esistance. 1e was not tried "or his +esistance activities having esca!ed to -ontana. The% then took #! residence at T#rtle -o#ntain( orth 3akota. The "a&il% later ret#rned to Batoche and 3avid died there on 4e!te&$er 11( 1I90. 8irginie s#$se)#entl% &arried a!oleon 1a&elin at Le$ret in 1I90. 8irginie gave $irth to a child( Lr$ain( on the night o" A!ril <0 or the &orning o" -a% 1( 1IIC in a tent sit#ated on a slo!e near Batoche;s .rossing. 4he was along with her &other@in@law. 4o "rightened were the% that the% did not dare have so&e light which co#ld have attracted the ene&%;s attention. 1owever( the% "inall% decided that so&e lighting was necessar%. 4#ch were the tragic circ#&stances s#rro#nding the child;s $irth.

22D

3#ring the $attle( or rather( several da%s later( the wo&en wo#ld change !laces constantl% so as to avoid the "ire o" the ene&%. The% wo#ld hide $ehind trees or in da&! holes. A"ter the $attle( while walking aro#nd the $oot% collected $% the ene&%( -rs. To#rond recogni*ed one o" her s#itcases which contained the ver% clothes she needed. 4he tried to gra$ it. 4o&e soldiers $r#tall% shoved her $ack. B#t since she s!oke English ver% well( she arg#ed with the& and answered the& shar!l%. An o""icer arrives who asks what is going on. 4he eG!lained to hi& that she had A#st had a $a$%= that she does not have an% clothes to change into= and that this s#itcase which $elongs to her contains what she needs. The o""icer i&&ediatel% gives it to her and a!!arentl%( he severel% !#nished the soldiers who had $een r#de to her. 3avid To#rond had not s#rrendered right awa%. 1e wanted to t#rn hi&sel" in at /rince Al$ert. 1e &et 5ather Andre who was ret#rning "ro& /rince Al$ert and who told hi&: 63on;t t#rn %o#rsel" in= go to the other side o" the $order. 2D0

Clarice Dose Trotchie. >$. 1942?
B% Jackie Trochie >Trottier? .larice +ose Trotchie was $orn in 5ort Belkna!( -ontana on J#ne Dth( 1942 to 0eorge Trotchie >Trottier? and -ar% Lo#ise Briere >Br#%ere?. As a girl( she was told she had $een na&ed a"ter her A#nt .lara a!les there"ore she ass#&ed her na&e was .lara. 4he never did #se her $irth na&e $#t instead went $% the na&es= .lara and 1aha( a nickna&e her $rother Jose!h aka .hic gave her since he co#ldn;t !rono#nce her na&e. The "a&il% o" Trotchie;s( &oved to 1elena in the 19C0s where she attended 4t. -ar%Us Ele&entar% and in 19D2( she grad#ated "ro& 1elena 4enior 1igh. 4he i&&ediatel% went to work "or Bl#e .ross Bl#e 4hield $#t decided she co#ld earn &ore &one% working with the "a&il% o#t in the ha% "ields in Townsend( -ontana $#cking $ales onto stone $oats. .lara !#t several o" the &ale e&!lo%ees to sha&e $eca#se she co#ld throw a DC@E0 !o#nd $ale seven "eet high. At 2<( .lara &arried 8a#ghn Anderson a "ar&er "ro& 4helle%( ,daho where she worked all winter r#nning a snow !low to raise eno#gh &one% to take her sister to 1awaii $#t the night $e"ore the% were to leave( her h#s$and #sed her savings to $#% a se&i@tr#ck to ha#l ha% to -ontana #ntil each o" the& "iled "or a ho&estead o" 1D0 acres. The% later sold land and &oved to work in :ashington and Alaska $#t when a "lood wi!ed o#t the s&all town o" +ig$% in ,daho the two &oved $ack and $#ilt a ho&e in +o$erts( ,daho. Being a "ar&er( 8a#ghn $o#ght so&e calves and started working "or other "ar&ers while .lara started a $#siness called Arrowhead .onstr#ction >her da#ghter owns Eagle 5eather .onstr#ction?. 4oon she had develo!ed a &#lti@&illion dollar o!eration and her h#s$and )#ickl% Aoined her in doing the la$or while she did the $ids and o""ice work. Both were e)#i!&ent o!erators and the% raised her da#ghter and son on the e)#i!&ent too and now that she is retired( the children have their own $#sinesses.

2D0

41-( !!. I2@I<.

22E

22I

8ary .ruyere Trotchie. >1911@19I2?:
B% Jackie Trotchie >Trottier? -etis "iddler -ar% Br#%ere >Briere? was $orn at :hitewater( -ontana( the da#ghter o" 0regoire Br#%ere and Al!honsine -ar% Allar%. 1er "ather was $orn in 1IE2 at 4t. 5rancois Xavier and her &other Al!honsine( the da#ghter o" Andre Allar% and Jose!hte -c0illis dit 1a&elin( was $orn in J#ne 1IEE at :ild 1orse Lake. -ar% &arried 0eorge Edward Trotchie the son o" Andre Trottier and 4#sie :allace= he was a descendant o" .harles Trottier who led the -etis "ighters "ro& /rairie +onde in the 1IIC -etis +esistance at Batoche. 1e was also a descendant o" Lrs#le La"ro&$oise Trottier whose $iogra!h% a!!ears $elow. -ar% showed an interest in "iddling "ro& a %o#ng age and was ta#ght $% her "ather and #ncles( Alec and 4a& Aller%. 4he also listened to .anadian -etis "iddlers( And% 3esAarlis and ed Landr% on the radio. 4he to#red as a !er"or&er with the .ecil ichols; 1awaiian 4how where she was "eat#red as a dancer and as the 6Lk#lele 9#een.7 -ar% $egan !la%ing the "iddle at the age o" "o#r. Beca#se her hands were too s&all to get aro#nd the neck o" the "iddle she ta!ed

229

s&all sticks on the end o" each "inger and th#s she co#ld !la%. -ar% $egan co&!eting in "iddle contests in the 19C0s and took &an% hono#rs over the neGt thirt% %ears( s#ch as the orthwest +egional 5iddle .ha&!ionshi! in 19D9 >"irst !lace( :o&en;s 3ivision?( the ational 5iddle .ontest in 19D9 >"irst !lace( :o&en;s 3ivision?. :ith this later win she was elected to the 5iddler;s 1all o" 5a&e in :eiser( ,daho.

=rsule *aframboise Trottier. >$. 1I42?. 4!o#se( .harles 6:ah!ass7 >+a$$it?
Trottier( >$. 1I<9?.
Lrs#le was $orn at 1avre( -ontana the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste La"ra&$oise and 4#*anne Bea#dr% dit 0a#dr%. 4he &arried .harles Trottier( the son o" Andre Trottier and -arg#erite 4t. 3enis( on A#g#st 21( 1ID0 at 4t. 5rancois Xavier. 1er h#s$and was a &e&$er o" +iel;s EGovedate. Lrs#la;s $rother( A#g#stin was living on the -#skeg Lake +eserve and was a .a!tain o" one o" the 19 co&!anies led $% 0a$riel 3#&ont d#ring the 1IIC -etis +esistance. 1is son Edo#ard also served in his .o&!an%. 1e was involved in the 1IIC +esistance at 3#ck Lake with 3#&ont and was killed there $% .ro*ier;s troo!s on -arch 2D( 1IIC. ,n 1IEI( .harles Trottier( A#g#stin La"ra&$oise and other -etis $#""alo h#nters at .%!ress 1ills wrote a !etition asking "or a s!ecial -etis reserve o" land. The% re)#ested a re@o!ening o" the $#""alo h#nt $etween ove&$er 14 th and 5e$r#ar% 1Cth each %ear and the granting o" -etis 6reserve7 land'A stri! o" land 1C0 &iles long along the A&erican $order $eginning where the /e&$ina +iver crosses the $order. This stri! was to $e "i"t% &iles "ro& so#th to north. This "a&il% esca!ed to -ontana a"ter 1IIC. The% lived with the gro#! that was s#staining the&selves $% c#tting wood "or 5ort 4haw. The% were acco&!anied $% their sons( +e&i( ,sidore and Jean Ba!tiste.

8adeleine 9eschamps Turcotte >$. 1IC9?
-adeleine was $orn at 4t. 5rancois Xavier( the da#ghter o" Jean Ba!tiste 3escha&!s and ,sa$elle 1enr% dit Aller%. 4he &arried oel or a!oleon T#rcotte >$. 1ICE? son o" Jean Ba!tiste T#rcotte and Angeli)#e /a)#in on -a% E( 1II< at 4t. ,gnace( :illow B#nch( 4askatchewan. a!oleon was $orn in 1IC1 at T#rtle -o#ntain > orth 3akota?. 1is "ather( Jean Ba!tiste T#rcotte and grand"ather 8ital T#rcotte were $oth signators o" the 1I92 Treat% o" the T#rtle -o#ntain .hi!!ewa Band. .hildren o" -adeleine 3escha&!s and oel T#rcotte= • -arie Lo#ise( $orn J#ne 2I( 1II< $etween +egina and :ood -o#ntain. 4he &arried Lo#is 3esAarlais. • Antoine( $orn circa 5e$r#ar% 1IIC= he &arried Adele 4tanding. -adeleine;s h#s$and a!oleon T#rcotte and her "ather( Jean Ba!tiste 3escha&!s( were $oth active in the 1IIC +esistance. 1er sister( ,sa$elle 3escha&!s( was &arried to +esistance activist 5ranWois 8andal.

2<0

A"ter the 1IIC $attles the T#rcotte;s were one o" the "a&ilies that "led to the T#rtle -o#ntain +eserve. The% are incl#ded in the Jcto$er 1I92 -c.#&$er .ens#s o" the T#rtle -o#ntain .hi!!ewa 1al"@Breeds. Jn the 1904 voter;s list o" -iGed Bloods o"" the +eservation a!oleon a!!ears as F 4CI >Band F 1012?. ,t is $elieved that the% lived in the 3#nsieth area. A"ter the "ighting ended -etis and ,ndian "a&ilies "led in all directions= north( west( east and so#th to orth 3akota and -ontana. B% 1IIE( there were an additional 100 ,ndians and 2<0 -etis living at T#rtle -o#ntain( orth 3akota. -etis who ca&e to T#rtle -o#ntain a"ter having !artici!ated in the second +iel +e$ellion. :ith +iel;s de"eat and death( and in &an% cases $eca#se the% had lost land in -anito$a( these !eo!le ret#rned to T#rtle -o#ntain as a !lace o" re"#ge. 2D1 5or these re"#gees( the ti&ing co#ldn;t have $een worse( d#e to severe winter stor&s and s#&&er dro#ghts 1C1 !eo!le at T#rtle -o#ntain died o" starvation d#ring the winter o" 1IID@1IIE.

Cheryl Troupe. >$. 19E2?
.her%l Tro#!e co&!leted a B.A. >1ono#rs? degree in ative 4t#dies in 2001 at the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan( where she received the Arts and 4cience .onvocation Award "or the -ost 3isting#ished 0rad#ate o" ative 4t#dies "or 2001. L!on co&!leting her st#dies( she $egan work with 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#teUs /#$lishing 3e!art&ent where she worked as a writer and researcher on vario#s co&&#nit%@$ased c#rric#l#& and research !roAects. ,n 200<( one o" her works( E1p essin" +u *e ita"e# Metis & tistic 3esi"ns won two 4askatchewan Book Awards in the 5irst /eo!les Ed#cation and 5irst /eo!les /#$lishing categories. .her%l was a contri$#tor to the $ook Metis Le"ac!/ )olume T%o# Michif Cultu e/ *e ita"e and 'olk%a!s/ $% L. J. Barkwell( L.-. 3orion and A. 1o#rie >Eds.? >4askatoon( 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( :inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications( 200E?. This $ook was short@listed "or the Ma "a et McWilliams &%a d "or writing in histor%. 1er cha!ter on 6-etis 3ecorative Arts7 adds to the work she !#$lished in E1p essing 4ur <eritage. 4he contin#es to work within the -etis co&&#nit% on vario#s co&&#nit% develo!&ent !roAects( &ost recentl% with the +egina 9#UA!!elle 1ealth +egion and the ,nstit#t 5ranWais. 4he has co&!leted an -.A. in ative 4t#dies at the Lnivesit% o" 4askatchewan where she eGa&ined the #r$ani*ation o" the -etis co&&#nit% in 4askatoon and the develo!&ent o" -etis social and !olitical instit#tions $% grassroots -etis leaders. 5or this( she received the 1oward and -arge Ada&s Award >200< and 2004?( The ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation -etis 5ellowshi! >2004? and a 4ocial 4ciences and 1#&anitites +esearch .o#ncil -asters 4cholarshi! >200C?. 1er thesis co&!leted in 2009 was entitled 6-etis :o&en: 4ocial 4tr#ct#re( Lr$ani*ation and /olitical Activis&( 1IC0@19I0.7

8uriel +tanley /enne.
B% A&anda +o*%k. ,n 19E<( -#riel was a!!ointed as one o" the "irst seven co&&issioners to the Al$erta 1#&an +ights .o&&ission. 4ince that ti&e( she has worked eGtensivel% to advance the "air and e)#al treat&ent o" A$original !eo!le within all levels o" societ%. -#riel is
2D1

4tanle% . -#rra%. 6The T#rtle -o#ntain .hi!!ewa( 1II2@190C.7 ,n Cent al &ntholo"! of No th 3akota *isto !# Jou nal of the No the n (lains. Bis&ark: 4tate 1istorical 4ociet% o" orth 3akota( 199D: C<.

2<1

a cha&!ion o" h#&an rights in the /rovince o" Al$erta. ,n hono#r o" her co&&it&ent and work in this area( she was !resented with the Al$erta 1#&an +ights Award on the 2C th anniversar% o" the Al$erta 1#&an +ights .o&&ission. -#riel has also worked eGtensivel% on $ehal" o" wo&en. :hile !resident o" the Al$erta 1#&an +ights .o&&ission( she hosted the &bo i"inal Women;s *uman ,i"hts S!mposium and the 0athe in" +u St en"th 9)iolence &"ainst &bo i"inal Women Confe ence in Ed&onton. 1er $ooklet( The ,i"hts (ath 9&lbe ta( has $een endorsed $% the Lnited ations; 1igh .o&&issioner "or 1#&an +ights. ,n 199D( she s!earheaded the !rod#ction o" a !#$lication on A$original h#&an rights and a $ooklet ai&ed at A$original %o#th. 4he recentl% esta$lished the 4ocial J#stice Award to hono#r individ#als who have done o#tstanding work "or A$original wo&en. -#riel 4tanle%@ 8enne has held a n#&$er o" !ositions incl#ding EGec#tive 3irector o" ative J#treach( .o&&#nit% +elations J""icer at Bechtel .anada( and -arketing J""icer at the ational 5il& Board o" .anada. 4he is the /resident and "o#nder o" the ,nstit#te "or the Advance&ent o" A$original :o&en. 5or her eGce!tional record o" eGcellence as a h#&an rights advocate( 4tanle% 8enne has received n#&ero#s awards( incl#ding the Bowden ative Brotherhood Award( the .anadian -erit Award and( the 199I Al$erta 1#&an +ights Award. 4he has $een the reci!ient o" the A!!reciation Award "ro& the ative .o#nseling 4ervices o" Al$erta( the -etis :o&an o" the Hear Award "ro& the :o&en o" the -etis ation( the 2002 9#een;s J#$ilee .o&&e&oration -edal( the A$original +ole -odel Li"eti&e Achieve&ent Award and in 2004( the ational A$original Achieve&ent Award "or J#stice and 1#&an +ights. ,n 200C 4tanle% 8enne received the 0overnor 0eneralUs Award in .o&&e&oration o" the /ersons .ase. ,n J#ne o" the sa&e %ear she was na&ed a -e&$er o" the Jrder o" .anada. ,n 5e$r#ar% 200E she was recogni*ed as a :o&an o" 8ision $% 0lo$al Television. ,n ove&$er 200E .anadian A&$assador -c ee recogni*ed her work at the Lnited ations citing her as a 61#&an +ights 3e"ender7 o" the h#&an rights iss#es !ertaining to A$original wo&en( children and "a&ilies. Jn 4e!te&$er 200I she was elected 8ice /resident o" the -Vtis ation o" Al$erta.

:atherena /ermette >$. 19EE?
Jn ove&$er 1<( 201<( Batherena 8er&ette won the 0overnor 0eneral;s Literar% Award "or /oetr%. Batherena 8er&ette is a -Vtis writer o" !oetr% and "iction. 1er work has a!!eared in several literar% &aga*ines and co&!ilations( *ome (lace U( ( ai ie 'i e Ma"a2ine( and *eute Sin Wi *ie / We & e *e e Toda!( a collection o" .anadian A$original writers( co&!iled and translated into 0er&an $% 1art&#t L#t* and st#dents o" 0rei"swald Lniversit%. -ost recentl% she has $een !#$lished in( The E1ile .ook of Nati$e 'iction and 3 ama >2011?( +the Ton"uesZMi1ed ,ace Women Speak +ut and Manito%apo%# &bo i"inal W itin"s f om the Land of Wate . 1er $ooks( Won;t E$e Lea n was !#$lished $% The -#ses .o. >2012? and No th End Lo$e Son"s was !#$lished $% L. 0ordon 4hilling"ord /#$lishing >2012?.

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8er&ette was the 2010@2011 writerscollective.org Blogger in +esidence and recentl% $egan grad#ate work in the !restigio#s -aster o" 5ine Arts .reative :riting !rogra& at the Lniversit% o" British .ol#&$ia. A &e&$er o" the A$original :riters .ollective o" -anito$a since 2004( 8er&ette lives in :inni!eg. 3innipeg poet wins prestigious literary award 3innipeg poet :atherena /ermette wins 7overnor 7eneralMs *iterary Award for MelegantM book of verse about much$maligned area of city B%: Bevin /rokosh :inni!eg 5ree /ress /osted: 11P14P201< 1:00 A-

8er&ette has $een writing !oetr% since she was 10( long eno#gh to know that !oets canUt eG!ect &#ch !#$lic acclai& or $ig !a%da%s like the _2C(000 that ca&e along with her win. OThe no&ination ca&e as a co&!lete s#r!rise(O sa%s the :est Broadwa% resident. OThe win is insane. , didnUt think it was in the cards. ,t wasnUt even on the radar. , donUt know what to think o" it %et. ,U& kind o" $asking in the glow. ,tUs a good da%.O

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The 10I@!age collection( !#$lished $% J. 0ordon 4hilling"ord( "oc#ses on 8er&etteUs eG!eriences growing #! in the orth End as a teen( and dealing with those &e&ories when she &oved $ack to the neigh$o#rhood as a &other o" two da#ghters. 1er verse is s!are and )#iet( %et !ower"#l. O, wanted to look closer at the !lace and sa% , know it doesnUt look the $est on the o#tside $#t i" %o# look closer itUs reall% $ea#ti"#l and a&a*ingl% strong(O she said. O:hat a!!ears to $e $roken is not $roke at all.O The "irst section o" !oe&s is do&inated $% !ieces a$o#t $irds( which she linked to wo&en she knows in the orth End. OThe $ird is a great i&age "or a orth End girl or indigeno#s wo&en( $eca#se the% a!!ear "ragile $#t $irds are intensel% strong(O said 8er&ette( who is co&!leting her &asterUs degree in creative writing at the Lniversit% o" British .ol#&$ia. OThe% have wide wings and can take o"" at an% &o&ent. O,U& de"initel% a $ird( &a%$e a s)#awking chicken at ti&es. , like to stretch &% wings so&eti&es and "l% awa%.O 1er literar% o#t!#t eGtends $e%ond !oetr% to a A#st@co&!leted childrenUs !ict#re@$ook series called The 4even Teaching 4tories and a collection o" short stories. :inning a !restigio#s award with her "irst $ook has her heartened a$o#t her writing "#t#re.

AngeliBue *e Doy /ieau. >d. 1ID2?
Angeli)#e !resents a good case st#d% o" how 5rench "#r trader &arriages to -etis or other ative wo&en "#rthered their careers. Angeli)#e was the da#ghter o" Jose!h Le +o%( a 5rench trader and his wi"e -arg#erite( who was the da#ghter o" Ah@ke@ne@!a@weh >4tanding Earth?( an i&!ortant -eno&inee tri$al leader "ro& the La Ba%e( :isconsin area. 1er &aternal #ncle( J@na#@ge@sa was a -eno&inee leader o" the /otawato&is at -ilwa#kee( :isconsin. ,n 1EID( Angeli)#e &arried Jac)#es 8iea# who was $orn -a% C( 1ECE at -ontreal. 1e was a orthwest 5#r .o&!an% e&!lo%ee who went to -ackinak with his $rother in 1EED. The% then went to the co&!an%;s !ost at La /ointe( on -adeline ,sland( and $% 1EI2( Jac)#es had $een !#t in charge o" this !ost. Jac)#es $eca&e clerk there when Jgilvie( 0illes!ie 2 .o&!an% o#t o" -ontreal o!ened a !ost at 0reen Ba%. 4#$se)#entl% he and his "a&il% esta$lished their "irst 6Aackni"e7 trading !ost at the &iGed -eno&inee@/otawato&i village at Bewa#nee. This is the "irst eGa&!le o" where Angeli)#e;s tri$al lineage !roved advantageo#s. Jac)#es le"t one o" his &en in charge and &oved so#th along the west shore o" Lake -ichigan. 1e esta$lished !osts at 0i$son and near ,ndian villages at what $eca&e 6Two +ivers(7 -anitowoc( and 4he$o%gan again &aking #se o" his wi"e;s connections and leaving &en at each location. 1e &oved on to esta$lish other sites( the &ost signi"icant $eing at the ancient -eno&inee village at !resent da% 4a#lkville( :isconsin. 1e( his "a&il% and ento#rage event#all% arrived in the -ilwa#kee har$o#r in A#g#st o" 1E9C. 1ere a large n#&$er o" /otawato&i( &an% who were relatives o" Angeli)#e war&l% welco&ed Jac)#es and his "a&il%. The% re&ained at that location "or the winter and contin#ed to

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s!end each winter there over the neGt three %ears. 4iG o" their eleven children wo#ld $e $orn at -ilwa#kee. Each -a% a"ter collecting "#rs and $#%ing as &#ch o" the ,ndian &a!le s#gar as the% co#ld( the 8iea#s le"t "or -ackinac. The Ao$ o" the clerks le"t $ehind was to !lant the !otatoes and corn that wo#ld s#stain the& thro#gh the neGt winter. 4i&ilarl%( the% wo#ld sto! at each o" the Aackni"e !osts on their wa% $ack to collect the "#rs and s#gar. The "a&il% alwa%s considered 0reen Ba%( where their "ar& was located on the west $ank o" the 5oG +iver( and where several o" their children had $een $orn( to $e their tr#e ho&e. Jac)#es died in 1IC2 at 9C %ears o" age. Angeli)#e died so&e ten %ears later at the ho&e o" her son Jose!h in Lawrence( :isconsin. Angeli)#e;s grandson( Jose!h J#nea# >son o" Josette? went on to $eco&e the co@"o#nder and na&esake o" J#nea#( Alaska.
,efe ence# Boat&an( John. OJac)#esO 8iea#: A 4on o" -ontreal and a 5ather o" E#ro!ean :isconsin @ Another /ers!ective on the 5rench and ative /eo!les.7 Lniversit% o" -ilwa#kee( 199E:

Lvonne /i>ina. B.Ed.( -.Ed.
Hvonne 8i*ina is a -Vtis wo&an "ro& 4askatchewan with roots in the historic -etis co&&#nities o" -anito$a. 4he is the great@great grandda#ghter o" :illia& 1alcro 2D2 and -argaret -onk&an a "a&il% that sheltered Lo#is +iel d#ring the 1IIC +esistance. A"ter the "ighting ended at Batoche -argaret 1alcro o" the 1alcro 4ettle&ent hid Lo#is +iel in her root cellar #ntil he s#rrendered to -iddleton;s sco#ts. ,n thanks he gave her a !resentation -etis sash. This sash is now held $% the -anito$a -etis 5ederation and can $e seen in the 4t. Boni"ace -#se#&. Hvonne grad#ated "ro& the 4askatchewan Lr$an ative Teacher Ed#cation /rogra& in /rince Al$ert and holds a Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan B. Ed. with 0reat 3istinction. Hvonne do#$le &aAored in ative 4t#dies and Biolog%( and has a love "or $oth :estern and ,ndigeno#s sciences. 4he ta#ght school in /rince Al$ert and at Beard%;s and Jke&asis 5irst ation( then went to work with her co&&#nit% at the -Vtis ational .o#ncil "or several %ears.

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1er "ather( 3ale 8i*ina;s &aternal grand!arents were +oderick 0eordie 1alcro >$. 1I90? and Edith 5raser# 0eordie was the son o" :illia& 1alcro $orn 3ece&$er 9( 1IC4 at the +ed +iver 4ettle&ent and -argaret -onk&an $orn 1ICC at 4t. Andrew;s +ed +iver. 3ale 8i*ina;s !aternal grand!arents were :illia& 8isna#gh dit 8i*ina and -arg#erite Jane 5idler >$. 1IEI?. -arg#erite was the da#ghter o" /eter 5idler $orn 1I24 at 4t. John;s +ed +iver and Theresa 4wain $orn 1I4C at /e&$ina. -arg#erite;s co#sin AleGandre 5idler >$. 1I<C? "o#ght in the 1IIC +esistance as a &e&$er o" .a!tain Ba!tiste 8andal 4r;s .o&!an%.

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,n 2004( she ret#rned to 4askatoon "ro& Jttawa where she had $een the 3irector o" Environ&ent "or the -Vtis ational .o#ncil. 4he co&!leted a -aster o" Ed#cation 3egree on the s#$Aect o" -Vtis Traditional Environ&ental Bnowledge. Hvonne worked as +esearcherP.oordinator( Environ&ent and at#ral +eso#rces( -etis ation@4askatchewan. Hvonne is the Associate 3irector o" the A$original Ed#cation +esearch .entre at the Lniversit% o" 4askatchewan. 4he is c#rrentl% working on a /h.3. in Environ&ent and 4#staina$ilit% iss#es concerning A$original /eo!les.

Christine 3elsh.
.hristine :elsh is a -etis "ro& 4askatchewan. 4he has worked in "il& "or over two decades. 1er earl% work incl#ded editing doc#&entaries and ed#cational "il&s "or agencies like T8 Jntario and the ational 5il& Board as well as "or inde!endent !rod#cers. 4he has lect#red and ta#ght eGtensivel%( and !#$lished several articles on the historical and conte&!orar% eG!eriences o" -etis wo&en. 4he Aoined the Lniversit% o" 8ictoria :o&en;s 4t#dies as an Associate /ro"essor in 199D.

3oc#&entar% "il&&aker .hristine :elsh is the great grand da#ghter o" or$ert :elsh and her great@great@great@grand&other was -argaret Ta%lor >$. 1I0C?. -argaret Ta%lor was the -etisse wi"e o" 4ir 0eorge 4i&!son. A"ter $earing hi& two sons( she was a$andoned $% 4i&!son when he &arried his English co#sin. -argaret then &arried a 5rench .anadien vo%age#r( A&a$le 1og#e. :elsh;s great grand!arents were a&ong the "irst -etis "a&ilies to settle on the "lats $eside -ission Lake near the !resent da% town o" Le$ret( 4askatchewan. :elsh grad#ated "ro& Lniversit% o" +egina( with a B.A. in 19ID. 4he has !rod#ced( written and directed "il&s "or &ore than <0 %ears. :elshUs "il& credits incl#de the 200D ational 5il&

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Board o" .anada doc#&entar% 5inding 3awn( a$o#t &#rdered and &issing .anadian A$original wo&en. This "il& won a 0old A#dience Award at the 200D a&nest% ,nternational 5il& 5estival. 4he c#rrentl% teaches co#rses in ,ndigeno#s wo&en;s st#dies and ,ndigeno#s cine&a. 4elected 5il&ogra!h%
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'indin" 3a%n( >200D? Ericksen( 4vend@Erik >/rod#cer?. R3oc#&entar%S. .anada. The ational 5il& Board o" .anada. The Sto ! of the Coast Salish :nitte s( >2000? 3arling Bovanik( 0. 2 :elsh( .. >/rod#cers?. R3oc#&entar%S. .anada. /rairie 0irl 5il&s and the ational 5il& Board o" .anada. :upe -sland# ,etu n to the *ealin" Ci cle( >199E? .a&!$ell( /eter . 2 :elsh( . >/rod#cers?. .a&!$ell( /eter . 2 :elsh( . >3irectors?. R3oc#&entar%S. .anada. 0#&$oot /rod#ctions. :eepe s of the 'i e/ >1994? 1erring( ,.( Johansson( 4.( -acdonald( J. 2 :elsh( .. >/rod#cers?. R3oc#&entar%S. .anada. J&ni 5il& /rod#ctions and the ational 5il& Board o" .anada. Women in the Shado%s( >1991? Johansson( 4. 2 :elsh( .. >/rod#cers?. Baile%( . >3irector?. R3oc#&entar%S. .anada. 3irection 5il&s and the ational 5il& Board o" .anada.

4elected /#$lications :elsh( .hristine. O:o&en in the 4hadows: +eclai&ing a -etis 1eritageO( 'eminisms in the Cinema( eds. L. /ietra!aola and A. Testa"erri. ,ndiana Lniversit% /ress( 199C( 2I@40. :elsh( .hristine. OListen with the ear to %o#r heart: a conversation a$o#t stor%( voice and $earing witnessO >with 4%lvia Jlson?( in Sc eenin" Cultu e# Const uctin" -ma"e and -dentit!( ed. 1eather orris icholson. LeGington Books( 200<.

1ennifer 3elsh.
3r. Jenni"er :elsh( BA >4askatchewan?( -/hil and 3/hil >JGon?( is a -etis acade&ic "ro& the 9#;A!!elle 8alle% in 4askatchewan. 4he is a lect#rer in ,nternational +elations at JG"ord Lniversit%. /revio#sl% she was Associate 3irector o" the /eace and .on"lict 4t#dies /rogra& at the Lniversit% o" Toronto( .adie#G 5ellow( /olic% /lanning 4ta""( 3e!art&ent o" 5oreign A""airs and ,nternational Trade( Jttawa >199<@1994? and Jean -onnet 5ellow( E#ro!ean Lniversit% ,nstit#te( 5lorence >1992@199<?. 1er latest !#$lication is &t *ome in the Wo ld# Canada in the 76st Centu ! > ew Hork: 1ar!er .ollins( 1994?.

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1osette *egac; 3ork >1I09@ 1I9D?
B% 0eorge and Terr% 0o#let
A 6co#ntr% wi"e7 in :estern .anada and the /aci"ic orthwest was an A$original wo&an who $eca&e the s!o#se o" a &an o" -Vtis or E#ro!ean ancestr% who was connected with the "#r trade. As the "#r trade &oved westward( it was nat#ral "or eG!lorers and "#r traders to enter into &arital #nions with A$original wo&en as there were no white wo&en in the west at that ti&e. Also since there was then no clerg% in this area( these #nions were &ade V la faWon du pa!s( i.e. in accordance with the c#sto& o" the co#ntr%. .o#ntr% wives $ro#ght inval#a$le attri$#tes and $ene"its to their relationshi!s with the vo%age#rs( eG!lorers( engagVs( and "#r traders. 3#e to their d#al A$original and white c#lt#res( co#ntr% wives "orged kinshi! ties $etween the ative tri$es and the "#r traders. Josette >so&eti&es called 4#*ette? LegacV :ork is an eGa&!le o" a -Vtis co#ntr% wi"e who( with her h#s$and John :ork( le"t a lasting &ark on the histor% o" the /rovince o" British .ol#&$ia.
Josette LegacV :ork >L+, !hoto archive F:- 2D?

Josette LegacV was $orn a$o#t 1I09 in the Jregon .o#ntr%. 1er &iGed@$lood lineage was derived "ro& her "ather /ierre LegacV 2D<( a 5rench .anadian vo%age#r and her &other( a e* /erce wo&an. 1er "ather was known as 6Jld /ierre7. ,n 1I2C Josette and John :ork were &arried V la faWon du pa!s at 5ort .olvile in the Jregon .o#ntr%. :ork was then the 1#dson;s Ba% .o&!an% >1B.? clerk in charge o" that 5ort. At the ti&e o" their co#ntr% &arriage he was in his earl% thirties( while his $ride was onl% siGteen %ears old. Josette and John event#all% had eleven children( three sons and eight da#ghters. Their &arital #nion lasted #ntil the da% o" John :ork;s death in 1ID1. :ork was $orn with the s#rna&e :ark a$o#t 1E92 in Ta#gh$o%ne( .o#nt% 3onegal( ,reland. At the age o" 22 he e&$arked "ro& the Jrkne% ,slands "or 1#dson Ba% to work "or the 1B.. Lntil 1I2<( he served in several areas o" +#!ert;s Land( incl#ding Hork 5actor% in !resent da% -anito$a. ,n that %ear he was trans"erred west o" the +ock% -o#ntains where he was to live the rest o" his li"e. 1e crossed the .ontinental 3ivide to the .ol#&$ia 3istrict with /eter 4kene Jgden( a "#r trader with the 1B.. Their !aths wo#ld cross "re)#entl% in the "#t#re. ,n the ,ndian .o#ntr%( Josette;s A$original $lood $ro#ght the sa&e advantages to her h#s$and as that which other co#ntr% wives $ro#ght to their &arital relationshi!s. This !roved !artic#larl% advantageo#s in their earl% da%s when Josette acco&!anied John on &an% o" his "#r@
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The eG!lorer 3avid Tho&!son sent a vo%age#r na&ed .harles La0asse >along with a &an na&ed LaBlanc? over the +ockies to winter with the B#tenai ,ndians in the winter o" 1I00. .harles La0asse was the $rother o" Oold /ierreO LegassePLegace who crossed the +ockies in 1I0E with 5inan -c3onald. The latter two settled down "or awhile with an ,ndian chie" and his "a&il% near !resent da% 4!okane( :ashington.

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trading vent#res. Their %o#ng children also traveled with the&. This was so even tho#gh the eG!editions so&eti&es entered into the territor% o" hostile atives( and "re)#entl% involved long and distant travel over &an% &onths. :ork was !ro&oted to .hie" Trader in charge o" the 4nake .o#ntr% EG!edition in 1I<0( re!lacing /eter 4kene Jgden. Jgden had s#cceeded AleGander +oss as leader o" these EG!editions. +oss had retired "ro& the 1B. and &oved to +ed +iver where he a#thored several $ooks incl#ding The ,ed ,i$e Settlement# -ts ,ise/ ( o" ess and ( esent State . ,t is likel% that the "ree trader identi"ied $% AleGander +oss as 6Jld /ierre7 in the 1I24 EG!edition that +oss led to the 4nake .o#ntr% was Josette;s "ather. Even tho#gh she was !regnant( John :ork took Josette and their children with hi& on the 1I<0@<1 EG!edition. 3#ring this co&$ined h#nting and "#r@trading tri! into the 4nake .o#ntr%( their da#ghter Letitia was $orn on J#ne 1C( 1I<1 in what was to $eco&e ,daho. Josette and the children also traveled with hi& and his crew the "ollowing %ear on another tra!!ing eG!edition. 3#ring this 1I<2@<< EG!edition the% went so#thward into what is now .ali"ornia. The dangers that the "#r traders and their "a&ilies so&eti&es enco#ntered on these eG!editions has $een doc#&ented in a letter "ro& 0eorge T. Allen >a clerk on the .ol#&$ia? to Ja&es 1argrave who was then in +#!ert;s Land. .oncerning one o" :ork;s eG!editions( the letter states in !art: 6Ho# have no do#$t heard that -r. :ork in his last tri! to the 4nake co#ntr% had so&e "ighting with the Black"eet 2 had so&e o" his !eo!le killed.7 ,n the "all o" 1I<4 :ork was sent to 5ort 4i&!son >!revio#sl% 5ort ass? on -cLo#ghlin Ba% in what is now orth :est British .ol#&$ia. 1e was !laced in charge o" the coastal trade( again s#cceeding /eter 4kene Jgden. Josette and their children sta%ed at 5ort 8anco#ver #ntil the% were re#nited with hi& at his new !osting. 3#ring her two %ear !eriod at 5ort 8anco#ver Josette wo#ld have sociali*ed with other co#ntr% wives at the 5ort. These incl#ded two other !ro&inent -Vtis wo&en( A&elia .onnoll% 3o#glas and -arg#erite :adin -cBa% -cLo#ghlin( the s!o#ses o" the to! two o""icials at the 5ort. A&elia was &arried to Ja&es 3o#glas who has $een re"erred to as the 65ather o" British .ol#&$ia7. -arg#erite;s h#s$and was 3r. John -cLo#ghlin who in 19CE was o""iciall% na&ed the 65ather o" Jregon7. 1owever in late 1I<D Josette and her %o#nger children Aoined John :ork in 5ort 4i&!son. Two older da#ghters were le"t $ehind to attend school. 3#ring the thirteen %ears that Josette was at 5ort 4i&!son( she gave $irth to siG o" their children K three $o%s and three girls. Josette( with her A$original $lood( was s%&!athetic to the native wo&en at her new location. According to . de Bertrand L#grin in her $ook The (ionee Women of )ancou$e -sland 6AFU-6ABB: B% !rece!t and eGa&!le( $% earnest teaching and loving care( she $egan to &ake her in"l#ence "elt. 4he ta#ght the little girls and the %o#ng wo&en to cook and to sew( to kee! the&selves and the other children neat and clean. As her in"l#ence grew in the co&&#nit%( she decided to #se it to !ers#ade the atives to give #! slaver%( a !ractice that was !revalent a&ong &an% in the area. 4he contri$#ted to a change in the views o" &an% o" the&. ,n their $ook . itish Columbia Ch onicle# 6LLA-6AFB( 0. /. 8. and 1elen B. Akrigg noted that s#s!ended "ro& the walls o" the living roo& o" the :ork ho&e at 5ort 4i&!son was a variet% o" st#""ed $irds. These writers eG!lained that Josette was 6an eG!ert taGider&ist7. The Akriggs also added that notwithstanding Josette was 6a hal"@,ndian "#r@trade wi"e7( she was treated with

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the de"erence d#e to a .hie" Trader;s wi"e. As an eGa&!le( Josette had sta"" to !re!are &eals "or her and her "a&il%. John :ork was devoted to Josette and his -Vtis children. Jn 5e$r#ar% 1C( 1I41 he wrote a letter to his old 1B. cohort Edward Er&atinger( who was then living in 4t. Tho&as( L!!er .anada. ,n it :ork wrote that Josette had given $irth to a son: \. like &ost old "ogies , a& )#ite !ro#d o" the little "ellow( , had given #! ho!es o" having a $o%\. The little :i"e and , get on ver% well( 4he is to &e an a""ectionate !artner si&!le and #ninstr#cted as she is and takes good care o" &% children 2 &%sel"R.S :e enAo% as great a share o" conA#gal ha!!iness as generall% "alls to the lot o" &arried !eo!le. ,n Man! Tende Ties 4%lvia 8an Birk( a leading a#thorit% on wo&en in "#r trade societ%( noted that John :ork o"ten a""ir&ed his 6\ estee& "or his -Vtis wi"e Josette LegacV.7 John :ork received a !ro&otion to .hie" 5actor in 1I4D and contin#ed his service with the 1B. at 5ort 4i&!son where he was in charge o" the coastal trade. ,n that sa&e %ear the 49 th !arallel $eca&e the international $o#ndar% "or the area west o" the +ock% -o#ntains. ,n addition to this !ro&otion( :ork was a!!ointed to the three@&an Board o" -anage&ent o" the 1B.;s .ol#&$ia 3istrict. :ith hi& as !art o" this tri#&virate were his long@ti&e associates .hie" 5actors Ja&es 3o#glas and /eter 4kene Jgden. John :ork was a re!lace&ent "or 3r. John -cLo#ghlin who had retired "ro& the 1B. and &oved to Jregon .it% in the :illa&ette 8alle%. There was an esta$lished -Vtis co&&#nit% o" &ainl% retired "#r@traders and their "a&ilies in this area that was called 5rench /rairie. Josette( John and their "a&il% lived in 5ort 4i&!son #ntil 1I49. ,n order that his %o#nger children co#ld attend school( he took Josette and the children to live in 5ort 8ictoria in that %ear. Lntil then the% had $een schooled at ho&e. ,n 8ictoria Josette renewed her old ac)#aintance with A&elia .onnoll% 3o#glas( her -Vtis "riend "ro& 5ort 8anco#ver. A&elia;s h#s$and Ja&es 3o#glas was then the 1B.;s .hie" 5actor at 5ort 8ictoria( and later $eca&e the 0overnor o" 8anco#ver ,sland. The close "riendshi! $etween Josette and A&elia at 5ort 8ictoria wo#ld last "or &an% %ears. otwithstanding that the% had $een &arried \ la faWon du pa!s "or 2< %ears( John and Josette had +everend +. J. 4taines &arr% the& in a religio#s cere&on% in 8ictoria on ove&$er D( 1I49. This &a% have $een &otivated $% the "act that 4taines was soon therea"ter to !reside at the weddings o" two o" their children. A short ti&e later their older da#ghters were &arried. 4arah &arried +oderick 5inla%son >who later $eca&e a .hie" 5actor o" the 1B.?= and Jane wed another 1B. o""icial 3r. :illia& 5raser Tol&ie. A"ter their da#ghters; weddings( John :ork ret#rned to 5ort 4i&!son as 3istrict -anager where he re&ained #ntil 1IC2. ,n the s#&&er o" that %ear he &oved to 8ictoria to reAoin Josette and the %o#nger children. The% !#rchased a large tract o" "ar&land on which the% $#ilt a s#$stantial ho&e which the% called 61illside7. ,t was located at a distance "ro& 5ort 8ictoria in what is toda% the 1illside 3istrict o" the .it% o" 8ictoria. Josette;s h#s$and carried on his "#nctions as a .hie" 5actor o" the 1B. and in 1ICI he was a!!ointed to the Board o" -anage&ent o" the 1B. head)#artered at 8ictoria. :ith hi& on this Board were AleGander 0rant 3allas >a son@in@law o" Ja&es 3o#glas? and 3#gald -actavish. /rior to that( :ork;s long@ti&e 1B. co&rade 0overnor Ja&es 3o#glas had a!!ointed hi& to the .o#ncil o" the .olon% o" 8anco#ver ,sland in 1IC<. This "#rther enhanced the stat#s o" Josette and John in 8ictoria;s societ%.

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Josette and John :ork entertained at their 1illside ho&e on &an% occasions. An English naval o""icer +ichard .harles -a%ne >a"ter who& -a%ne ,sland is na&ed? ca&e to 8ictoria in 1ICE as a s#rve%or. ,n his 'ou 8ea s in . itish Columbia and )ancou$e -sland( he wrote: ,n "ine weather( riding !arties o" the gentle&en and ladies o" the !lace were "or&ed( and we ret#rned generall% to a high tea or tea@dinner at -r. 3o#glas;s or -r. :ork;s( winding #! the !leasant evening with dance and song. Altho#gh .harles :ilson &ade de&eaning co&&ents a$o#t 6hal"@$reed7 wo&en in one !art o" his conte&!orar% diar%( this did not deter hi& "ro& acce!ting the hos!italit% o" Josette and John. Jn 4at#rda% 4e!te&$er <( 1IC9( he wrote 63irectl% , landed , started o"" to s!end the evening with the :orks 2 thank the& "or all their kindness \. The% got #! an i&!ro&!t# ho! i&&ediatel% 2 we danced till 4#nda% co&&enced \.7 /erha!s :ilson did not know o" Josette;s -Vtis lineage since he added 6The :orks are a$o#t the kindest !eo!le , ever ca&e across.7 :ilson also attended a large dinner !art% at the ho&e o" Josette and John :ork on Jan#ar% 2( 1ID0. 1is diar% entr% stated 6This evening ke!t as ew Hear;s 3a% \. There were a$o#t <0 at dinner \. :e danced awa% till 12 2 then all hands sat down to a s#&!t#o#s s#!!er 2 then set to work dancing again #ntil a ver% late ho#r.7 The !resence o" the attractive da#ghters o" Josette and John in 8ictoria did not take long to draw &ale s#itors to their 1illside ho&e. ,n d#e co#rse all o" their eight da#ghters were &arried( $#t their three sons died witho#t iss#e. ,n addition to the &arriages o" 4arah to +oderick 5inla%son and Jane to 3r. :illia& 5raser Tol&ie d#ring the winter o" 1I49@C0( -ar% :ork was &arried in 1ID0 to Ja&es Allen 0raha&e the .hie" .o&&issioner o" the 1B.. Jn 5e$r#ar% 1<th o" that sa&e %ear 4arah and +oderick 5inla%son hosted a !art%. .harles :ilson attended it and noted in his diar%: \. we had great "#n there( an old gentle&an !la%ing on the "iddle "or #s to dance to \. 4cotch reels and ,rish Aigs to an i&&ense eGtent. Josette and John;s %o#ngest da#ghter 4#*ette( who was $orn at 5ort 8ictoria in 1IC4( &arried Edward 0awler /rior in 1IEI. A"ter the death o" Josette;s son@in@law +oderick 5inla%son in 1I92( Edward re!laced his deceased $rother@in@law as one o" the tr#stees o" the :ork Estate. /rior was later to $eco&e /re&ier o" British .ol#&$ia in 1902 and Lie#tenant 0overnor o" the /rovince in 1919. Josette and John were the grand!arents o" a "#t#re /re&ier o" British .ol#&$ia. 4i&on 5raser Tol&ie was one o" the children $orn to their da#ghter Jane and her h#s$and :illia& 5raser Tol&ie. 4i&on was to $eco&e /re&ier o" the /rovince o" British .ol#&$ia on A#g#st 21( 192I. 1e served in that ca!acit% "or over "ive %ears. John :ork( Josette;s $eloved h#s$and "or over <D %ears( died in 8ictoria in 3ece&$er 1ID1. At the ti&e o" his death he was not onl% one o" the wealthiest &en and largest landowners in the .olon%( he was also one o" its &ost highl% res!ected citi*ens. Josette was a widow "or <C %ears. 4he lived o#t her li"e as a &atriarch o" 8ictoria societ% and contin#ed her long and close "riendshi! with her "ellow -Vtis Lad% A&elia .onnoll% 3o#glas. Their close ties ca&e to an end with the death o" A&elia on Jan#ar% I( 1I90. Josette was so&eti&es re"erred to as 4#*ette. Jn A#g#st 1I( 1IE4 she entered into an ,ndent#re with the +egistrar 0eneral o" British .ol#&$ia in which she signed her na&e 4#*ette :ork rather than Josette :ork. 1er signat#re was in good and legi$le handwriting. There is a !hotogra!h o" Josette in her later %ears in which she is sitting in a chair dressed like( and

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a!!earing si&ilar to( !ict#res o" 9#een 8ictoria "ro& the sa&e ti&e !eriod. ,n this !hotogra!h( her de&eanor is that o" a sel"@ass#red lad% and &atriarch. Jn Jan#ar% <0( 1I9D Josette died at the advanced age "or that ti&e o" IE %ears. 4he is $#ried in the +oss Ba% .e&eter% in 8ictoria. Jn her to&$stone her na&e a!!ears as 4#*ette :ork. Jn the da% a"ter her death the British .ol#&$ia Legislat#re !aid a s!ecial tri$#te to this -Vtis &atriarch. /re&ier John 1. T#rner stated that Josette was an honored !ioneer o" British .ol#&$ia. 1e re"erred to her s%&!ath% to those in sickness and in tro#$le and her kind works and charita$le actions. The Legislat#re then ado!ted the "ollowing resol#tion: That the -e&$ers o" this Legislat#re having heard with regret o" the death o" -rs. :ork( wi"e o" the late 1on. John :ork( a &e&$er o" the .o#ncil o" 8anco#ver;s ,sland "ro& 1IC< to 1ID1( who $e"ore her de&ise was the oldest resident o" British .ol#&$ia( and who will $e re&e&$ered "or her #se"#lness in !ioneer work and &an% good deeds( $eg to eG!ress their s%&!ath% with the relatives o" the deceased. Josette LegacV;s !ro&inence as a -Vtis !ioneer wo&an in :estern .anada is evidenced $% her $eing !ro"iled in the 3ictiona ! of Canadian .io" aph!. 1er li"e in British .ol#&$ia had s!anned several eras K "ro& "#r trade societ% o" the "rontier o#t!osts thro#gh colonial ti&es to !rovincial stat#s K "ro& wilderness da%s to civili*ation. Josette was a tr#e !ioneer who had !artici!ated in and contri$#ted to the growth o" the :est. Like her close "riend A&elia .onnoll% 3o#glas( Josette LegacV :ork was an o#tstanding -Vtis and .anadian wo&an.
,efe ences# Akrigg ( 0. /. 8. and 1elen B. Akrigg . itish Columbia Ch onicle# 6LLA-6AFB5 8anco#ver: 3iscover% /ress( 19EC. Er&atinger( Edward 6.orres!ondence J#tward7 B... Archives. 0la*e$rook( 0. /. de T. ed.( The *a " a$e Co espondence5 Toronto: .ha&!lain 4ociet%( Toronto( 19<I. 0o#let( 0eorge +.3. and Terr% 0o#let 6Josette LegacV :ork: /ioneer -Vtis -atriarch7 in The Métis in . itish Columbia# ' om 'u T ade +utposts to Colon!5 .algar%( Al$erta: 5a$Jo$ ,nc( 200I: 14I@ 1CC. L#grin/ . de Bertrand The (ionee Women of )ancou$e -sland 6AFU-6ABB5 8ictoria( B.( The :o&en;s .anadian .l#$ o" 8ictoria( 192I. -a%ne( +ichard .harles( 'ou 8ea s in . itish Columbia and )ancou$e -sland >John -#rra%( London( 1ID2?. +oss( AleGander The 'u *unte s of the 'a West >Lniversit% o" Jklaho&a /ress( or&an( Jklaho&a( 19CD? 4a&!son( :illia& +. 6:ork( John7( 3ictiona ! of Canadian .io" aph!/ 8ol. ,X. 4tanle%( 0eorge 5. ed.( Mappin" the ' ontie # Cha les Wilson;s 3ia ! of the Su $e! of the F> th (a allel/ 6AEA-B7( >-ac-illan o" .anada( Toronto( 19E0?. 8an Birk( 4%lvia >1? 6LegacV( Josette7 3ictiona ! of Canadian .io" aph!/ 8ol. X,,. >2? Man! Tende Ties# Women in 'u T ade Societ! 6BLG-6ALG >:atson 2 3w%er /#$lishing Ltd.( :inni!eg( 19I0?.

8arguerite (8argaret( <ead 3yckstandt. >191E@2004?
-argaret 1ead resided in .ran$err% /ortage. 4he was $orn on -a% 1C( 191E in The /as( the da#ghter o" 1arriet B#ck and 4tan :%ckstandt( a Belgian. 1er &aternal grand"ather was -atthew B#ck who had tra!!ed in the .ran$err% /ortage area in the late 1I00s. 1er "ather had co&e "ro& Belgi#& to work on the 1#dson;s Ba% Line +ailwa%. 1e le"t this Ao$ to $#% a s&all store and resta#rant in The /as. 1er &other was a widow with one child when she ca&e to work "or hi& and in 191D the% were &arried. ,n 1919( her &other $eca&e sick with in"l#en*a and her "ather sold the store. 1e then went to work "or The /as L#&$er .o&!an%. A"ter a "ew %ears the% &oved to +eed Lake with her grand "ather -athew B#ck( a -etis tra!!er. 5#rs had a ver% good

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!rice at that ti&e and her grand"ather asked her "ather to &ove to +eed Lake to tra! with hi&. At age seven -argaret was sent to the convent at The /as "or schooling as there were no schools at +eed Lake. 4he s!ent three %ears at this school and learned to read and write in 5rench. 6Toda% , re&e&$er onl% ver% little o" the 5rench that , had known as a child(7 she sa%s. :hen she was ten or eleven her "a&il% &oved "#rther north to B#rntwood Lake( $etween elson ho#se and /#katawagan. 1ere the% set #! a trading !ost and general store( and her "ather tra!!ed. -argaret and her &other wo#ld o!erate the store as he was awa% "or long !eriods on his tra!line. Ever% s#&&er the% wo#ld sta% in The /as or .ran$err% /ortage( then ret#rn to +eed Lake "or the other ten &onths o" the %ear. 1er &other wo#ld tend to !eo!le o" the co&&#nit% who were ill( taking &edicine "ro& the store s#ch as castor oil( ca&!horated oil and as!irins she wo#ld o"ten sta% all night with the&. 4he was also a &id@wi"e to the wo&en there. This is how -argaret learned how to hel! !eo!le and caring "or others has re&ained a val#e to this da%. At age eighteen( she &oved to .ran$err% /ortage where she &arried Al"red 1ead in 19<C. The% lived with her h#s$and;s !arents. ,n .ran$err% /ortage her h#s$and worked as a "isher&an. The "ollowing %ear the% &oved to 5lin 5lon and he got a Ao$ with the +.-/. A"ter their third child was $orn( he Aoined the Ar&% and he was overseas "or "ive %ears. A"ter -argaret;s %o#ngest da#ghter started high school( she started taking in children on a te&!orar% $asis #ntil "oster ho&es co#ld $e "o#nd. 4he was involved with the 5riendshi! .entre in 5lin 5lon. 4he also took a Ao$ with 4ocial 4ervices inter!reting in co#rt and was active in hel!ing the& "ind r#n awa% girls. At age "i"t%@one her h#s$and $eca&e ill( and a"ter co&ing o#t o" hos!ital( he ret#rned to school to $eco&e a car!entr% instr#ctor. 1e then took work at The /as( and the% &oved there. A"ter thier second %ear at The /as( she was elected to the $oard o" the 5riendshi! .entre and took a Ao$ "reelancing "or .B. in the .ree lang#age( $roadcasting in .h#rchill( Tho&!son and other northern areas. 4he was elected to the Board o" ative .o&&#nications in 19E0( and later $eca&e secretar% o" the $oard. The% also "or&ed their own --5 Local in the /as and her h#s$and took over John -orrissea#;s !osition when he &oved to :inni!eg and -argaret $eca&e a director o" The /as +egion o" --5. ,n all -argaret served on the $oards o" the 5riendshi! .entre( the 3etoG .entre( the .risis .entre( ative .lan Jrgani*ation( -etis :o&en;s Association and the -anito$a -etis 5ederation. ,n recognition o" this service she was recogni*ed $% --5 "or ,nternational :o&en;s Hear >19EC? and was !resented with an 1ono#rar% -e&$ershi! o" the -etis :o&en;s Association as 6:o&an o" the Hear7 in 19EI. A"ter her death on -a% 1E( 2004( the "a&il% wrote the "ollowing re&iniscences: -o& s!ent her earl% %ears on the tra! line with her !arents 1arriet and To& :%ckstandt and her grand"ather -atthew B#ck and grand&other Jeannie >who &ade the $est ra$$it skin $lankets? in the +eed Lake( elson 1o#se( /ine +oot and the /as areas. -o& was a strong and !ro#d -etis wo&an that lived her IE %ears in .ran$err% /ortage( The /as( and 5lin 5lon areas. 4he had a great love "or her "a&il% and "riends= this led to &an% o" her li"e;s acco&!lish&ents. -argaret was a !ioneer "or her ti&e( $eing the "irst A$original .ree wo&an who $roadcasted in orthern -anito$a on .B. +adio. 4he was ver% instr#&ental in esta$lishing the "irst .ree .risis Line in The /as. -o& was a "o#nding Board -e&$er o" +osaire 1o#se( The /as. 1er involve&ent in n#&ero#s organi*ations thro#gho#t the %ears de&onstrated her strong co&&it&ent to the growth o" the A$original .o&&#nit%. 4he was one o" the "o#nding $oard &e&$ers o" ative .o&&#nications ,nc. and contin#ed her &e&$ershi! "or 19 %ears. Jne o" her &ost recent acco&!lish&ents was to $e a

24<

&e&$er and Elder o" the :est Broadwa% A$original +esident 0ro#! and a &e&$er o" the -others o" the +ed ations. -argaret;s $elie" in the AA !rogra& gave her willingness to assist others in "inding the !ath o" so$riet%. ,n the 19D0s and E0s she traveled to n#&ero#s northern co&&#nities to !ass the &essage o" AA and the 12 4te! !rogra& in the .ree lang#age.
,efe ence -anito$a -etis 5ederation( ,eflections# 8este da! and Toda!( -anito$a -etis 5ederation /ress( 19E9: CC@ CI.

,lsie Lanik
Born in 5ort 5it*gerald in 191E( Elsie is a ver% well@res!ected Elder within the -Vtis co&&#nities o" the +egional -#nici!alit% o" :ood B#""alo. 4he has worked her entire 9C %ears to hel! others and $e a !ositive role &odel in the north. Elsie Hanik is res!ected thro#gho#t the region "or her advocac% and contri$#tions to a wide range o" enhance&ent initiatives( "ro& i&!roving health( ed#cation and recreational services to sharing and !reserving A$original heritage( c#lt#re and cra"ting. ElsieUs s!irit and #nwavering s#!!ort has $een a !illar to the st#dents in A$original Ed#cation at Be%ano .ollege. 4he has $een a &entor in a s#!!ort gro#! "or st#dents since 199E. 4he also lends her s#!!ort to the A$original !rogra&s and has o"ten $een called #!on to $less s!ecial cere&onies and "#nctions s#ch as A$original 3a%s( Arctic :inter 0a&es 2004 and &an% others. 4he was a 64tars o" Al$erta7 reci!ient in 200D. -rs. Hanik is a cherished Elder in the +egional -#nici!alit% o" :ood B#""alo co&&#nit%. Elsie was the "irst wo&an to $e a!!ointed as 4!irit#al 3irector o" orthern Al$ertaP :T. 4he was recogni*ed "or Li"eti&e Achieve&ent with the 0overnor 0eneralUs .o&&e&orative -edal on the occasion o" the 12Cth anniversar% o" .on"ederation. 4he also received the 4t. Jose!h .atholic .h#rch EGtension 4ociet% Award( given ann#all% to onl% one !erson in .anada "or contri$#tions to ch#rch and co&&#nit%. Elsie was raised $% the 0re% #ns and( a"ter her schooling( took over as the la% !erson in the ch#rch. Event#all%( she &oved to 5ort 4&ith where she worked a&ong the sick( aiding those with cons#&!tion and other illnesses.

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The "irst no&inee in the new :o&en o" ,ns!iration series( Elsie Hanik is !ict#red here at the 2010 Jl%&!ic torch cere&on% in 5ort -c-#rra%. Elsie is also known "or her vol#nteer work. 4he is the /resident "or the 8oice o" Al$erta ative :o&en >now the E49LJL organi*ation?( a 10@%ear &e&$er o" the Ho#ng J""enders Board( and !rovides reco&&endations "or co&&#nit% health on the #nee 1ealth A#thorit% Board in 5ort .hi!ew%an. 4he is also a h#ge advocate "or ed#cation and the i&!ortance o" s#ccess"#l A$original wo&en in $#siness'two to!ics she has s!ent ti&e disc#ssing with the ortheastern Al$erta A$original B#siness Association and the +egional A$original +ecognition Awards. 6, love !eo!le. , look at the heart and not the colo#r o" the skin. -% ai& in li"e is to $ring o#t the $est in !eo!le(7 said Elsie in a recent !ro"ile in the Be%ano .ollege A$original 8iew$ook. J#st a "ew o" Hanik;s achieve&ents incl#de the 0overnor 0eneral Award "or Li"eti&e Achieve&ent( the 4tars o" Al$erta 8ol#nteer :alk o" 5a&e( a $lessing "ro& /o!e John /a#l ,, "or her work within the .atholic .h#rch( and an 1ono#rar% 3i!lo&a "or A$original .hild and 5a&il% 4ervices "ro& Be%ano .ollege. 4he was also an Jl%&!ic torch $earer when it !assed thro#gh the region on the wa% to the 2010 8anco#ver winter ga&es. 0irls ,nc. o" orthern Al$erta and 4%ncr#de hono#red Elsie and 11 other :o&en o" ,ns!iration no&inees at the :o&en o" ,ns!iration 0ala( -a% 201<. +e"erence: htt!:PPwww.s%ncr#de.caP#sersP"older.as!d5older,3oI912

7race *edouF @oldy. >$. 19<<?
0race was $orn on 3ece&$er 1<( 19<< at .a&!erville( -B( the da#ghter o" Lo#is Ledo#G and 4elange /ang&an. 1er &aternal grand!arents were /atrice /ang&an and ,sa$elle Ledo#G. 1er !aternal grand!arents were 5eliG Ledo#G and -elvina +ichard. 0race s!eaks the -ichi"( .ree and 4a#ltea#G lang#ages. 1er !arents s!oke these lang#ages as well as 5rench. 0race can trace her -etis ancestr% $ack to Bostonais /ang&an and /ierre 5alcon. 0race attended .hrist the Bing 4chool in .a&!erville #! to grade eight. The% took school in English $#t retained their 4a#ltea#G lang#age $eca#se the ch#rch #sed 4a#ltea#G "or ser&ons( !ra%ers and h%&ns. 0race &arried 0as!ar [old% and had three children( two girls and a $o%. 4he has siG grandchildren and one great grandda#ghter. 0race worked "or seven %ears at the 4anatori#& at the /as in the kitchen and dining roo&. A"ter two %ears o" training she $eca&e a 1o&e Advisor "or orthern A""airs( a Ao$ she held "or ten %ears. 0race has $een involved with --5 "ro& its earliest da%s in the 19D0s when 5ort#nate 0#i$oche organi*ed the "irst local co#ncil in .a&!erville. 4he has served --5 in elective o""ice as 4!okes!erson o" -etis :o&en o" -anito$a. 0race has $een a !assionate advocate "or !reservation o" the -ichi" lang#age. 4he was an in"or&ant "or 3r. /eter Bakker 2D4 when he did his se&inal st#d% o" the -ichi" lang#age.

2D4

/eter Bakker. & Lan"ua"e of +u +%n# The 0enesis of Michif/ the Mi1ed C ee-' ench Lan"ua"e of the Canadian Metis( JG"ord Lniversit% /ress( 199E.

24C

5or over 12 %ears she has $een involved in the -anito$a -etis 5ederation;s -ichi" Lang#age /rogra&. 4he has !artici!ated in national heritage lang#age "oc#s gro#!s hosted $% 1eritage .anada as well as the ational -ichi" 4!eaker;s gro#! "or&ed in 200D. 5or a n#&$er o" %ears 0race has !artici!ated in a -ichi" lang#age i&&ersion !rogra&( !erha!s the onl% one in .anada. This #ni)#e !rogra& has $een i&!le&ented in .a&!erville( -B. Lang#age activist 1eather 4o#ter and two co&&#nit% elders( 0race [old% and +ita 5la&&and( &odeled the !rogra& on the -asters@A!!rentice /rogra& conce!t( an innovative and s#ccess"#l lang#age !rogra& originating in indigeno#s co&&#nities in .ali"ornia. 0race and +ita visited .ali"ornia to learn "ro& ative !eo!le who were act#all% delivering the !rogra&. ,t is a co&!lete i&&ersion !rogra& where the s!eakers( #s#all% elders( co&&it to teaching the lang#age on a one@on@one $asis in the ho&e and in the co&&#nit%. ,t is a co&&#nit%@centred a!!roach that allows s!eakers to e""ectivel% !ass on their lang#age to learners witho#t classroo&s( $ooks or lang#age eG!erts. 5o#r !eo!le have co&!leted this !rogra& to date. +ecentl%( Trish Logan( an e&!lo%ee o" the ational A$original 1ealth Jrgani*ation K -etis .ircle a!!renticed with 0race in this !rogra&. ,n 200<( 0race wrote Li Li$ +che Michif &!amiia%ina 9 The .ook of Michif ( a!e s . >.a&!erville( -anito$a: .a&!er@ ville -ichi" .ree +it#al Lang#age /roAect( 200<?. 4iGteen -ichi" !ra%ers are incl#ded in this $ooklet= it incl#des The Lord;s /ra%er( The A!ostle;s .reed( The 1ol% +osar%( The /ra%er to the 1ol% 4!irit( The Beatit#des and a Bedti&e /ra%er. All o" the translations are $% 0race. The do#$le vowel writing s%ste& "or -ichi" is #sed. 0race was a contri$#tor to the $ook Metis Le"ac!/ )olume T%o# Michif Cultu e/ *e ita"e and 'olk%a!s/ $% L. J. Barkwell( L.-. 3orion and A. 1o#rie >Eds.? 4askatoon( 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( :inni!eg: /e&&ican /#$lications( 200E. 4he !rovided two !ra%ers in the -ichi" lang#age( Ton (e iinaan >The Lord;s /ra%er? and :i"ichiiteiimitiinaann >1ail -ar%?. Jsvaldo Baigorria( a Ao#rnalist and researcher( teaching at the Lniversidad o" B#enos Aires( has #sed 0race;s !ra%ers in a collection o" +o&ance Lang#age !ra%ers. 4he can $e seen on the videos taken at the -ichi" lang#ages con"erences in 200D and 200I >03, 8irt#al -#se#& o" -etis .#lt#re and 1istor%? and also a!!ears in the Michif ,esou ce 0uide# Lii Michif Nii!anaan/ aan Michif biikish%anaan( La#ra B#rno#"( or&an 5le#r% and 0#% Lavallee >Eds.? 4askatoon: 0a$riel 3#&ont ,nstit#te( 200E.

24D

/hotogra!h: 0race at a -ichi" Lang#age .on"erence in :inni!eg( J#ne D@E( 2009. /hoto $% Lawrie Barkwell.

:o&en o" 3#ck Lake 4askatchewan >3#ck Lake 1istorical -#se#& 4ociet% F22I@!@E4? /hoto co#rtes% icole 0a#thier( 3#ck Lake +egional ,nter!retive .entre

24E

3#&as "a&il% gathering at 4t. La#rent 4askatchewan /hoto co#rtes% icole 0a#thier( 3#ck Lake +egional ,nter!retive .entre

Lo#isa -enchino o#tside a -etis log ho#se at 5ort or&an( T. >/hoto co#rtes% 8ictor La""ert% F 441?

24I

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