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Feedback Control Schemes

Feedback Control Schemes

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Published by D.Viswanath
Various feedback schemes explained
Various feedback schemes explained

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Published by: D.Viswanath on Sep 17, 2012
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03/04/2013

PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE CONTROLLERS

STRUCTURE OF A CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM

R

CONTROLLER

SYSTEM UNDER CONTROL

Y

SENSOR Note:1. 2. 3. 4.

Any system is subjected to two inputs - own input and control input. When the controller gain is zero, the output is not zero. Output becomes constant when control input becomes zero. Sensor is to reproduce faithfully the output of the system. Ideally the sensor gain should be unity.

PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTION OF MODEL BASED CONTROL SYSTEM 1. 2. Time domain performance measures by subjecting to step, pulse or ramp inputs. Example maximum overshoot, settling time, rise time, steady state error, dead time, disturbance response, decay ratio. Frequency domain performance measures by subjecting to sinusoidal or periodic signal inputs. Example – gain margin, phase margin, gain cross-over frequency, phase cross-over frequency, stability, and relative stability (robustness).

NOTATIONS R(s) – INPUT Y(s) – OUTPUT L(s) – DISTURBANCE G(s) – GAIN OF SYSTEM UNDER CONTROL GC(s) – CONTROLLER GAIN H(s) – SENSOR GAIN

CONTROL CONFIGURATIONS 1. SERIES COMPENSATION SCHEME:L(s) GC(s) G(s) Y(s)

R(s)

H(s)=1 CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE TO REFERENCE INPUT:-

Y(s) R(s)

GC(s)G(s) 1+ GC(s)G(s)

CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE INPUT:-

Y(s) L(s)

G(s) 1+ GC(s)G(s)

Advantages:1. Suitable for both tracking and regulatory systems. Output follows reference input for large values of Gc(s). 2. Excellent disturbance rejection for large values of Gc(s). Limitations:Disturbance input may produce unbounded output if plant G(s) is unstable or integrating system.

2.

FEEDBACK COMPENSATION SCHEME:L(s) GC1(s)=1 G(s) Y(s)

R(s)

GC2(s)

CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE TO REFERENCE INPUT:-

Y(s) R(s)

G(s) 1+ GC2(s)G(s)

CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE INPUT:-

Y(s) L(s)

G(s) 1+ GC2(s)G(s)

Advantages:1. Suitable for only regulatory systems (reference input = 0). 2. Excellent disturbance rejection for large values of Gc2(s). Limitations:Cannot be used for tracking systems since output will not change as per reference input if Gc2(s) is large (output will be attenuated similar to disturbance).

3. SERIES FEEDBACK COMPENSATION SCHEME:L(s) GC1(s) G(s) Y(s)

R(s)

GC2(s)

CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE TO REFERENCE INPUT:-

Y(s) R(s)

GC1(s)[G(s)/(1+ GC2(s)G(s))] 1+ GC1(s)[G(s)/(1+ GC2(s)G(s))]

Y(s) R(s) Y(s) R(s)

GC1(s)G(s) (1+ GC2(s)G(s))+ GC1(s)G(s)

GC1(s)G(s) 1+ G(s) ( GC1(s) + GC2(s))

CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE INPUT:-

Y(s) L(s)

G(s)/(1+ GC2(s)G(s)) 1+ GC1(s)[G(s)/(1+ GC2(s)G(s))]

Y(s) L(s) Y(s) L(s)

G(s) (1+ GC2(s)G(s))+ GC1(s)G(s)

G(s) 1+ G(s) ( GC1(s) + GC2(s))

Advantages:1. Suitable for both tracking and regulatory systems (reference input = 0). 2. Excellent disturbance rejection for large values of Gc2(s). 3. Gc2(s) can be designed for proper disturbance rejection of unstable and integrating systems also. Limitations:Not suitable for systems with time delay.

4. SETPOINT WEIGHTED COMPENSATION SCHEME:(Alternate form for Series Feedback Compensation Scheme)

L(s)

Y(s)

F(s) R(s)

GC(s)

G(s)

F(s) – Setpoint Filter Transfer Function This can be considered as an alternate form of series feedback compensation scheme when F(s) and Gc(s) are designed as follows:-

GC(s)

GC1(s) + GC2(s) 1+ GC(s)G(s) GC1(s) GC1(s) + GC2(s) 1+ GC(s)G(s)

F(s)

5. DEAD-TIME COMPENSATION SCHEME:- For systems with time delay. L(s) GC(s) G(s)
MODEL OF THE SYSTEM

Y(s)

R(s)

Gm(s)

e-θs
-

CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE TO REFERENCE INPUT:-

Y(s) R(s)

G(s) GC(s) 1+ GC(s)Gm(s)+G(s)GC(s)- Gm(s) e-θs GC(s)

Ideally G(s) = Gm(s) e-өs. Hence Y(s) R(s) G(s) GC(s) 1+ GC(s)Gm(s)

Advantages:1. Suitable for both tracking and regulatory systems (reference input = 0). 2. Suitable for systems with time delay. Limitations:Not suitable for unstable systems and integrating systems.

3. IMPROVED DEAD-TIME COMPENSATION SCHEME:(Also known as Advanced Smith Predictor Scheme)

L(s) + R(s) GC(s) G(s)
MODEL OF THE SYSTEM

Y(s)

Gc1(s)

Gm(s)

e-θs
-

Gc2(s)

CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE TO REFERENCE INPUT:-

Y(s) R(s)

G(s) GC(s) (1+GC2(s) Gm(s) e-θs ) (1+ [GC(s)+ GC1(s)]G(s))(1+G(s)GC2(s))+ GC(s)(G(s)- Gm(s) e-θs )

CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE INPUT:-

Y(s) L(s)

G(s) (1+ G(s) [GC(s) + GC1(s)] – GC(s) Gm(s) e-θs) (1+ [GC(s)+ GC1(s)]G(s))(1+G(s)GC2(s))+ GC(s)(G(s)- Gm(s) e-θs )

When model and plant are perfectly matched, then

Y(s) R(s)
And

G(s) GC(s) (1+ [GC(s)+ GC1(s)]G(s))

Y(s) L(s)

G(s) (1+ G(s)GC1(s)) (1+ [GC(s)+ GC1(s)]G(s))(1+G(s)GC2(s))

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