6.

002

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

Inside the Digital Gate

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Review
The Digital Abstraction Discretize value 0, 1 Static discipline meet voltage thresholds sender VOH VOL receiver
VIH VIL
forbidden region

Specifies how gates must be designed

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Spring 2007.002 Circuits and Electronics. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 .edu/). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. course materials for 6. 6.mit.Review Combinational gate abstraction outputs function of input alone satisfies static discipline A B C NAND A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C 1 1 1 0 Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.

002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 . course materials for 6.lcs.edu/raw) being built at the Lab for Computer Science at MIT has about 3 million gates. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.mit. Spring 2007. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].mit.cag. Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang.002 Circuits and Electronics.edu/). MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. 6.For example: a digital circuit A B C A⋅ B Demo D ) D = ( ⋅ (A ⋅ B ) C 3 gates here A Pentium III class microprocessor is a circuit with over 4 million gates !! The RAW chip (http://www.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. 6.mit.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 .How to build a digital gate Analogy l ike power supply A ) itches w (like s taps B C if A=ON AND B=ON C has H20 else C has no H20 Use this insight to build an AND gate. Spring 2007.edu/). course materials for 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].002 Circuits and Electronics.

mit.How to build a digital gate OR gate A C B Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. course materials for 6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. Spring 2007.002 Circuits and Electronics.edu/).002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 . 6. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.

course materials for 6. 6. else C is off Key: “switch” device Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. Spring 2007. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Electrical Analogy C V + – A B Bulb C is ON if A AND B are ON. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].002 Circuits and Electronics.edu/).mit.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 .

Spring 2007.edu/).002 Circuits and Electronics.Electrical Analogy Key: “switch” device equivalent ckt in control in C =0 out in C out 3-Terminal device if C = 0 else C=1 out short circuit between in and out open circuit between in and out For mechanical switch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 .mit. 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. course materials for 6. control mechanical pressure Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang.

Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].002 Circuits and Electronics. Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.edu/).002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 . Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Consider RL VS RL VOUT IN + VS – VS = VOUT C OUT “1” C VS VOUT C =0 Truth table for C VOUT 0 1 1 0 VS VOUT C =1 Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. 6. course materials for 6.mit.

mit. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.edu/). Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].What about? VS VOUT Truth table for c1 c2 VO 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 c1 c2 VS Truth table for c1 c2 VO 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 VOUT c1 c2 Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. 6. course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics. Spring 2007.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 . Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

6.What about? can also build compound gates VS D A B C D = (A ⋅ B) + C Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.edu/). Spring 2007.002 Circuits and Electronics.mit. course materials for 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 . Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 .002 Circuits and Electronics. S : behave in a symmetric manner (for our needs) Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. 6. Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.mit.edu/). Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].The MOSFET Device Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor drain D G gate ≡ S source 3 terminal lumped element behaves like a switch G : control terminal D. course materials for 6.

mit.002 Circuits and Electronics.edu/). Spring 2007. course materials for 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 . Massachusetts Institute of Technology. iG r uc st Understand its operation by viewing it as a two-port element — D G S iDS + + vGS – D G vGS < VT off vDS – D iDS on S G vGS ≥ VT S VT ≈ 1V typically “Switch” model (S model) of the MOSFET Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].The MOSFET Device t ck ou book Che ext l the t s interna for it ture.

002 Circuits and Electronics.mit. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 .edu/).Demo Check the MOS device on a scope. i DS + + vGS – vDS – iDS vGS ≥ VT vGS < VT iDS vs vDS vDS Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. Spring 2007. 6. course materials for 6.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. RL. course materials for 6. B The abstract inverter gate representation hides the internal details such as power supply connections. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. etc. (When we build digital circuits.002 Circuits and Electronics. 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 . GND. the and are common across all gates!) Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang.A MOSFET Inverter VS = 5V RL vOUT B A IN A Note the power of abstraction.edu/).mit. Spring 2007.

edu/).Example vOUT 5V vIN vOUT 0V V T =1V v IN 5V The T1000 model laptop desires gates that satisfy the static discipline with voltage thresholds.5V 1: sender 5 4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.5V VOH = 4.5 V OH VIL = 0.1 1 VIH VIL 0.002 Circuits and Electronics.9 0.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 0 Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang.9V VIH = 4. Does out inverter qualify? VOL = 0.mit. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. .5 VOL 0: 0 0 Our inverter satisfies this. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].1V receiver 5 4. course materials for 6. Spring 2007. 6.

5V VIH = 3. 6. course materials for 6.5V VIH = 4.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 .002 Circuits and Electronics.5V no Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. Spring 2007.8V VOL = 0.g.edu/).5V yes x VIL = 1.E. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.mit.5V VOH = 4.5V VIL = 0.: Does our inverter satisfy the static discipline for these thresholds: VOL = 0.2V VOH = 4. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.

002 Circuits and Electronics.g.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 .Switch resistor (SR) model of MOSFET …more accurate MOS model D D G S D G RON G vGS < VT S vGS ≥ VT S e. course materials for 6. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. RON = 5 KΩ Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang.edu/). Spring 2007. 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].mit. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 . MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.SR Model of MOSFET D G S D D G S RON G vGS < VT vGS ≥ VT S MOSFET S model MOSFET SR model vGS ≥ VT iDS vGS < VT vDS iDS vGS ≥ VT 1 RON vGS < VT vDS Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. Spring 2007.edu/).002 Circuits and Electronics. 6. course materials for 6.mit.

VS such that: V R v = S ON ≤ V OL OUT R +R L ON vOUT vGS ≥ VT RON Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5 .002 Circuits and Electronics. Spring 2007. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. 6. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.edu/). RON.mit.Using the SR model RL VS RL vOUT IN + VS – VS = vOUT C OUT “1” C VS RL Truth table for vOUT RON C =0 C VOUT 0 1 1 0 VS RL C =1 Choose RL. course materials for 6.

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