Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208.

E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com 1.02 1.03
1.03.1

VERB FORMS ..................................................................................................................... 8 VERB CLASSIFICATION .................................................................................................... 8
Helping Verbs ........................................................................................................................................................8

1.03.1
1.03.1. B. 1.03.1. A. 1.03.2 1.03.2. B. 1.03.2. D. 1.03.2. E. 1.03.2. A.

HELPING VERBS DEFINITION....................................................................................... 9
Primary helping verbs (3 verbs)...........................................................................................................................9 Modal helping verbs (10 verbs) ....................................................................................................................9 Main Verbs........................................................................................................................................................... 10 Transitive and intransitive verbs ........................................................................................................................ 10 Linking verbs...................................................................................................................................................... 11 Dynamic and stative verbs................................................................................................................................. 11 Regular and irregular verbs............................................................................................................................. 10

1.03.2. C. 1.03.2. F. 2.
2.01

REGULAR VERBS .............................................................................................. 11 IRREGULAR VERBS ......................................................................................... 11

NOUNS.................................................................................................................................. 12
What are Nouns?....................................................................................................................................................... 12

2.02 2.02.1 2.02.2 2.02.3 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS.................................................................. 14 COUNTABLE NOUNS................................................................................................ 14 UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS .......................................................................................... 15 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE ............................... 15 PROPER NOUNS (NAMES) .............................................................................................. 16 USING CAPITAL LETTERS WITH PROPER NOUNS ...................................................... 16 PROPER NOUNS WITHOUT “THE”................................................................................. 16 PROPER NOUNS WITH “THE” ...................................................................................... 18 1

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com 2.07 POSSESSIVE’S ................................................................................................................. 19 POSSESSIVE’S............................................................................................................................ 19 3. 3.01 3.01.1 ADJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 20 DETERMINERS ................................................................................................................. 20 DETERMINERS: A, AN OR THE? ................................................................................. 21

DETERMINERS: A, AN OR THE? ............................................................................................... 21 3.01.2 3.01.3 3.02 3.02.1 DETERMINERS: EACH, EVERY.................................................................................... 22 DETERMINERS: SOME, ANY................................................................................... 23 ADJECTIVE ORDER ......................................................................................................... 24 ADJECTIVE BEFORE NOUN ........................................................................................ 24

ADJECTIVE BEFORE NOUN ...................................................................................................... 25 3.02.2 ADJECTIVE AFTER VERB............................................................................................ 25

ADJECTIVE AFTER VERB .......................................................................................................... 25 3.03 3.03.1 COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES ...................................................................................... 26 FORMATION OF COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES ......................................................... 26

FORMATION OF COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES ....................................................................... 26 3.03.2 3.04 USE OF COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES ..................................................................... 27 SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES........................................................................................... 28

SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES ..................................................................................................... 29 3.04.1 3.04.2 FORMATION OF SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES .......................................................... 29 USE OF SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES .................................................................. 31 2

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com 4. ADVERBS ............................................................................................................................. 31 4.01 ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY ............................................................................................ 32

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY ....................................................................................................... 33 5. 5.01 6. 6.01 ENGLISH PRONOUNS ......................................................................................................... 33 PERSONAL PRONOUNS.................................................................................................. 33 ENGLISH PREPOSITIONS ................................................................................................... 34 ENGLISH PREPOSITIONS LIST....................................................................................... 34

ENGLISH PREPOSITIONS LIST ................................................................................................. 35 6.02 ENGLISH PREPOSITION RULE ....................................................................................... 36

ENGLISH PREPOSITION RULE.................................................................................................. 37 6.03 PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE: AT, IN, ON ......................................................................... 37

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE: AT, IN, ON .................................................................................... 37 6.04 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME: AT, IN, ON ............................................................................. 39

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME: AT, IN, ON........................................................................................ 39 7. 7.01
7.01.2 7.01.1 7.01.3

CONJUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................. 40 CONJUNCTIONS DEFINITION ....................................................................................... 40
Form...................................................................................................................................................................... 41 Function .................................................................................................................................................................. 40 Position.................................................................................................................................................................... 41

7.02 7.03 8.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS .......................................................................... 41 SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS ..................................................................... 42 INTERJECTIONS .................................................................................................................. 43 3

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9.00 Table of English Tenses............................................................................................................................................ 45 Before you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are divided into three groups:.......................................................................................................................... 46 10.00 10.01 TENSES..................................................................................................................................................................... 48 Simple Present (Present Simple) – Introduction...................................................................................................... 50 Subject +verb(s, es) +object / complement.............................................................................................. 50

STRUCTURE 10.01.1

Simple Present - Use ............................................................................................................................................. 51

10.01.2 Simple Present - Form .......................................................................................................................................... 52 be......................................................................................................................................................................................... 52 have ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 All other verbs...................................................................................................................................................................... 53 10.02 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 12.0 Simple Present - Exceptions in Spelling.................................................................................................................... 54 Present Progressive - Introduction........................................................................................................................... 54 Present Progressive - Use .......................................................................................................................................... 55 Present Progressive - Form ....................................................................................................................................... 56 Present Progressive - Exceptions in Spelling ............................................................................................................ 56 Present Progressive - Short Forms............................................................................................................................ 57 Present Progressive - Signal Words .......................................................................................................................... 57 Present Perfect Simple .............................................................................................................................................. 58

STRUCTURE:Subject + [HAS / HAVE] + [past participle] + Object / Complement. ........................................... 58 12.01 Form of Present Perfect.......................................................................................................................................... 58 12.03 Use of Present Perfect ............................................................................................................................................ 58 12.04 Signal Words of Present Perfect ............................................................................................................................. 59 13.00 Present Perfect Progressive....................................................................................................................................... 59

STRUCTURE: Subject + [HAS / HAVE] + [BEEN] + [VERB+ing] Object / complement............................................. 59 13.01 Form of Present Perfect Progressive ....................................................................................................................... 59 13.03 Use of Present Perfect Progressive ......................................................................................................................... 60 13.04 Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive........................................................................................................... 60 14.00 Simple Past (Past Simple).......................................................................................................................................... 60

STRUCTURE: Subject + 2nd Form of the Verb + Object / complement. ....................................................................... 60 14.01 Form of Simple Past............................................................................................................................................... 60 14.03 Use of Simple Past................................................................................................................................................. 61 14.04 Signal Words of Simple Past .................................................................................................................................. 61 15.00 Past Progressive (Past Continuous)........................................................................................................................... 61

STRUCTURE:Subject + [WAS / WERE] + [VERB+ing] + Object / complement. ................................................ 61 15.01 Form...................................................................................................................................................................... 61 15.03 Use of Past Progressive .......................................................................................................................................... 62

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15.04 15.05 15.07 15.08 16.00 Signal Words of Past Progressive ........................................................................................................................... 62 Form of Past Perfect Simple................................................................................................................................... 62 Use of Past Perfect ................................................................................................................................................. 63 Signal Words ......................................................................................................................................................... 63 Past Perfect Progressive (Past Perfect Continuous).................................................................................................. 63

Structure: Subject + Had + Been + Verb ing + Object..................................................................................................... 63 16.01 Form...................................................................................................................................................................... 63 16.02 Use ........................................................................................................................................................................ 63 16.02 signal words........................................................................................................................................................... 64 17.00 Future I Simple will ................................................................................................................................................... 64 17.01 Form of will Future................................................................................................................................................ 64 17.02 Use of will Future .................................................................................................................................................. 64 17.03 Signal Words ......................................................................................................................................................... 64 17.04 Future I Simple going to............................................................................................................................................ 64 17.04.1 Form of going to Future...................................................................................................................................... 64 17.04.2 Use of going to Future....................................................................................................................................... 65 17.05 Signal Words ......................................................................................................................................................... 65 18.00 Future I Progressive (Future I Continuous) ............................................................................................................. 65 18.01 Form...................................................................................................................................................................... 65 18.02 Use ........................................................................................................................................................................ 65 18.03 Signal Words ......................................................................................................................................................... 65 18.04. Future II Simple.................................................................................................................................................... 65 18.04.1 Form .................................................................................................................................................................. 65 18.04.02 Use .................................................................................................................................................................... 66 18.04.03 Signal Words ..................................................................................................................................................... 66 19.00 Future II Progressive (Future II Continuous) .......................................................................................................... 66 19.01 Form...................................................................................................................................................................... 66 19.02 Use ........................................................................................................................................................................ 66 19.03 Signal Words ......................................................................................................................................................... 66

20.01 21.00

PRESENT CONDITIONAL:-........................................................................................... 66 PAST CONDITIONAL:-.................................................................................................. 68

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Thursday, July 27, 2006

1.00

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TODAY: -

1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

1.01. IMPORTANCE: English is generally acknowledged to be the world’s most important language. It is perhaps worth (value) glancing / take a quick look briefly at the basis for that evaluation. There are, after all, thousands of different languages in the world, and each will seem uniquely important to those who speak it as their native language, the language they acquired / obtain at their mother’s knee. But there are more objective standards of relative importance. One criterion (principle) is the number of speakers of the language. The second is the extent (degree / size) to which a language is geographically dispersed: (discrete / isolated) in how many continents and countries is it used or is knowledge of it necessary? The third one is its functional load: how extensive (wide) is the range of purposes for which it is used? In particular, to what extent is it the medium for highly valued cultural manifestations (sign / appearance) such as a science or a literature? The fifth one is the economic and political influence (power / effect) of the native speakers of the language. 1.02. THE USE OF ENGLISH: As we know that English is the worlds most widely used language. A distinction (difference) is often made that depends on how the language is learned: as a native language (or mother tongue), acquired when that speaker is a young child (generally in the home), or as a non-native language, acquired at some subsequent period. (following periods). Overlapping with this distinction is that between its use as a first language, the primary (first, basic) language of the speaker, and as an additional language. 1.03. THE INTERNATIONAL CHARACTER OF ENGLISH: English is pre-eminently (most excellent) the most international of languages. Though the name of the language may at once remind us of England, or we may associate (connect / unite) the language with the united states, one of the world’s superpowers, English caries less implications of political or cultural specificity than any other living tongue, such as Spanish and French being also notable in this respect. 1.04. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH: A single international language has long been thought to be the ideal for international communication. Artificially (unnaturally) constructed languages have never acquired sufficiently large numbers of supporters, although in principle such languages have the clear advantage that they put all learners on the same footing (all are non native speakers), thereby not giving an advantage to speakers of any particular language. During the last few decades English has come closest to being the single international language, having achieved a greater world spread than any other language in recorded history. Yet in recent years doubts have arisen whether it will ever reach the ideal of the single international language or, indeed, whether its use as an international language will continue at the present time.

Grammar
Grammar is the study and description of the inflexions and other formal features of a language by which one communicates the relationships between spoken or written words. Alternatively, it is a theory specifying 6

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com how to construct sentences of a language in preferred or prescribed forms, or the constructions themselves. In simple terms, grammar is the study of a language's syntax and inflexions. The use of grammar enables a person to control his or her subjects and predicates, verbs, clauses, and phrases sufficiently to be intelligible to those to whom he is speaking or writing. The use of grammar helps us to communicate to each other. However, grammar does not lead or precede a language. Instead, it follows a language. As a result, the grammar of a living language is in a state of constant change as it adapts to the changes in the common use of the language by educated citizens. Only the grammar of a dead language, such as Latin, is fixed and unchanging. Two examples serve to illustrate this point. During the Shakespearian period, the double comparative or superlative ("the most unhappiest day" of the year) was correct, although it is unacceptable today. Similarly, the use of "you wasn't' was considered to be correct a century later, although it would be associated with illiteracy or ignorance today. It is noun. According to the dictionary meaning, the word grammar means, the book that teaches rules for the use of words. In other words we can define the word grammar as follows: The rules that say how words are combined arranged and changed to show different meanings. Its adjective form is GRAMMATICAL. It means correct according to the rules of grammar.

PARTS OF SPEECH
The 8 English Parts of Speech:
There are the words that you use to make a sentence. There are only 8 types of word and the most important is the verb! be, have, do, work Verbs Nouns Adjectives Adverbs Pronouns Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections 7 man, town, music a, the, 69, big loudly, well, often you, ours, some at, in, on, from and, but, though ah, dear, er, um

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1. Verb
1.01 What are Verbs? The verb is king in English. The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a one-word sentence with a verb, for example: "Stop!" You cannot make a one-word sentence with any other type of word. Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". This is partly true. Many verbs give the idea of action, of "doing" something. For example, words like run, fight, do and works all convey action. But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of "being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey state. A verb always has a subject. (In the sentence "Zarak speaks English", Zarak is the subject and speaks is the verb.) In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs are words that tell us what a subject does or is; they describe: Examples: Action State (Ahmad plays football.) (Naveed seems kind.)

1.02

Verb Forms

English verbs come in several forms. For example, the verb to sing can be: to sing, sing, sang, sung, singing or sings. This is a total of 6 forms. Not many, considering that some languages (French, for example) have more than 30 forms for an individual verb. English tenses may be quite complicated, but the forms that we use to make the tenses are actually very simple! With the exception of the verb to be, English main verbs have only 4, 5 or 6 forms. To be has 9 forms. Do not confuse verb forms with tenses. We use the different verb forms to make the tenses, but they are not the same thing.

1.03

Verb Classification

We divide verbs into two broad classifications: HELPING VERBS MAIN VERBS

1.03.1

Helping Verbs

Imagine that a stranger walks into your room and says:
• • •

I can. People must. The Earth will.

Do you understand anything? Has this person communicated anything to you? Probably not! That's because these verbs are helping verbs and have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical 8

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb. (The sentences in the above examples are therefore incomplete. They need at least a main verb to complete them.) There are only about 15 helping verbs.

1.03.1 Helping Verbs Definition
Helping verbs have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of a sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb (which has the real meaning). There are only about 15 helping verbs in English, and we divide them into two basic groups:

1.03.1. A. (10 verbs)

Modal helping verbs

We use modal helping verbs to "modify" the meaning of the main verb in some way. A modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility, and changes the main verb in that sense. These are the modal verbs:
• • • • • •

1.03.1. B. (3 verbs)

Primary helping verbs

can, could may, might will, would, shall, should must ought to

Here are examples using modal verbs:
• • • • •

These are the verbs be, do, and have. Note that we can use these three verbs as helping verbs or as main verbs. On this page we talk about them as helping verbs. We use them in the following cases:

I can't speak Chinese. Ahmad may arrive late. Would you like a cup of coffee? You should see a doctor. I really must go now.

be to make continuous tenses (He is watching TV.) o to make the passive (Small fish are eaten by big fish.)
o

have
o

to make perfect tenses (I have finished my homework.)

do to make negatives (I do not like you.) o to ask questions (Do you want some coffee?)
o

9

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com some coffee?) o to show emphasis (I do want you to pass your exam.) o to stand for a main verb in some constructions (He speaks faster than she does.)

1.03.2

Main Verbs

Now imagine that the same stranger walks into your room and says:
• • •

I teach. People eat. The Earth rotates.

Do you understand something? Has this person communicated something to you? Probably yes! Not a lot, but something. That's because these verbs are main verbs and have meaning on their own. They tell us something. Of course, there are thousands of main verbs.

Main verbs have meaning on their own. There are thousands of main verbs, and we can classify them in several ways:

1.03.2. A.

Regular and irregular verbs

1.03.2. B. Transitive and intransitive verbs
A transitive verb takes a direct object: Somebody killed the President. An intransitive verb does not have a direct object: He died. Many verbs, like speak, can be transitive or intransitive. Look at these examples: transitive:
• • •

This is more a question of vocabulary than of grammar. The only real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that they have different endings for their past tense and past participle forms. For regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: -ed. For irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart. regular verbs: base, past tense, past participle
• •

look, looked, looked work, worked, worked

I saw an elephant. We are watching TV. He speaks English.

irregular verbs: base, past tense, past participle
• • •

intransitive:

buy, bought, bought cut, cut, cut do, did, done

He has arrived.

Here are lists of regular verbs and irregular verbs. 10

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com intransitive:
• • •

Here are lists of regular verbs and irregular verbs.

He has arrived. John goes to school. She speaks fast.

1.03.2. C.

Regular Verbs

1.03.2. D.

Linking verbs

English regular verbs change their form very little (unlike irregular verbs). The past tense and past participle of regular verbs end in -ed, for example: work, worked, worked But you should note the following points: 1. Some verbs can be both regular and irregular, for example: learn, learned, learned learn, learnt, learnt 2. Some verbs change their meaning depending on whether they are regular or irregular, for example "to hang": to kill or die, by dropping with a rope around the neck to fix something (for example, a picture) at the top so that the lower part is free

A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject. Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>). Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs).
• • • • •

Ahmad is a teacher. (Ahmad = teacher) Tara is beautiful. (tara = beautiful) That sounds interesting. (that = interesting) The sky became dark. (the sky > dark) The bread has gone bad. (bread > bad)

regular

hang, hanged, hanged

1.03.2. E. Dynamic and stative verbs
Some verbs describe action. They are called "dynamic", and can be used with continuous tenses. Other verbs describe state (non-action, a situation). They are called "stative", and cannot normally be used with continuous tenses (though some of them can be used with continuous tenses with a change in meaning). dynamic verbs (examples):

irregular hang, hung, hung

3. The present tense of some regular verbs is the same as the past tense of some irregular verbs: regular found, founded, founded

irregular find, found, found

hit, explode, fight, run, go

stative verbs (examples):

1.03.2. F.

Irregular Verbs

be

Irregular verbs are an important feature of English. We use irregular verbs a lot when speaking, less when writing. Of course, the most 11

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com famous English verb of all, the verb "to be", is irregular. • be What is the difference between regular verbs and irregular verbs? • like, love, prefer, wish • impress, please, surprise • hear, see, sound Base Past Past • belong to, consist of, contain, Form Simple Participle include, need • appear, resemble, seem With regular verbs, the rule is simple... Often the above divisions can be mixed. For example, one verb could be irregular, transitive and dynamic; another verb could be regular, transitive and stative. finish The past simple and past participle always end in -ed: stop work finished stopped worked finished stopped worked

But with irregular verbs, there is no rule... Sometimes the verb changes completely: Sometimes there is "half" a change: Sometimes there is no change: sing buy cut sang bought cut sung bought cut

One good way to learn irregular verbs is to try sorting them into groups, as above.

2.

Nouns

It's not easy to describe a noun. In simple terms, nouns are "things" (and verbs are "actions"). Like food. Food (noun) is something you eat (verb). Or happiness. Happiness (noun) is something you want (verb). Or human being. A human being (noun) is something you are (verb).

2.01 What are Nouns?
The simple definition is: a person, place or thing. Here are some examples:
• • •

person: man, woman, teacher, Waleed, Naveed. place: home, office, town, countryside, America thing: table, car, banana, money, music, love, dog, monkey

The problem with this definition is that it does not explain why "love" is a noun but can also be a verb. 12

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com Another (more complicated) way of recognizing a noun is by its: 1. Ending 2. Position 3. Function 1. Noun Ending There are certain word endings that show that a word is a noun, for example:
• • • • •

-ity > nationality -ment > appointment -ness > happiness -ation > relation -hood > childhood

But this is not is not true for the word endings of all nouns. For example, the noun "spoonful" ends in -ful, but the adjective "careful" also ends in -ful. 2. Position in Sentence We can often recognize a noun by its position in the sentence. Nouns often come after a determiner (a determiner is a word like a, an, the, this, my, such):
• • • • • •

a relief an afternoon the doctor this word my house such stupidity

Nouns often come after one or more adjectives:
• • • • • •

a great relief a peaceful afternoon the tall, Indian doctor this difficult word my brown and white house such crass stupidity

3. Function in a Sentence Nouns have certain functions (jobs) in a sentence, for example:
• • •

Subject of verb: Doctors work hard. Object of verb: He likes coffee. Subject and object of verb: Teachers teach students. 13

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com But the subject or object of a sentence is not always a noun. It could be a pronoun or a phrase. In the sentence "My doctor works hard", the noun is "doctor" but the subject is "My doctor".

2.02

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

English nouns are often described as "countable" or "uncountable".

2.02.1 Nouns

Countable

When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:
• •

Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: "pen". We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:
• • • • •

I like oranges. Bottles can break.

We can use some and any with countable nouns:
• •

dog, cat, animal, man, person bottle, box, litre coin, note, dollar cup, plate, fork table, chair, suitcase, bag

I've got some dollars. Have you got any pens?

We can use a few and many with countable nouns:
• •

Countable nouns can be singular or plural:
• •

I've got a few dollars. I haven't got many pens.

My dog is playing. My dogs are hungry.

We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:

A dog is an animal.

When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it:
• •

I want an orange. (not I want orange.) Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)

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2.02.2 Nouns

Uncountable

We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:
• •

Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns:
• • • • • •

I've got some money. Have you got any rice?

We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:
• •

I've got a little money. I haven't got much rice.

music, art, love, happiness advice, information, news furniture, luggage rice, sugar, butter, water electricity, gas, power money, currency

We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:
• •

2.02.3 Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable
Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of meaning. Countable There are two hairs in my coffee! There are two lights in our bedroom. Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise. Have you got a paper to read? (= newspaper) Our house has seven rooms. We had a great time at the party. Macbeth is one of Shakespeare's hair Uncountable I don't have much hair. Close the curtain. There's too much light! It's difficult to work when there is too much noise.

This news is very important. Your luggage looks heavy.

We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". But we can say a something of:
• • •

a piece of news a bottle of water a grain of rice

light

noise

I want to draw a paper picture. Have you got some paper? room time work Is there room for me to sit here? Have you got time for a coffee? I have no money. I need ork!

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Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com Shakespeare's greatest works. need work!

2.03

Proper Nouns (Names)

A proper noun is the special word (or name) that we use for a person, place or organization, like John, Marie, London, France or Sony. A name is a noun, but a very special noun—a proper noun. Proper nouns have special rules. common noun man, boy woman, girl country, town company shop, restaurant month, day of the week book, film proper noun Ahmad Nadia England, London Ford, Sony Maceys, McDonalds January, Sunday War & Peace, Titanic

2.04

Using Capital Letters with Proper Nouns

We always use a Capital Letter for the first letter of a proper noun (name). This includes names of people, places, companies, days of the week and months. For example:
• • • • •

They like Zarak. (not *They like john.) I live in England. She works for Sony. The last day in January is a Monday. We saw Titanic in the Odeon Cinema

2.05

Proper Nouns without “THE”

16

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com We do not use “the” with names of people. For example: Bill (not *the Bill) Ahmad surnames full names Alam Zarak Ahmad Alam (Zarak) the president, the king the captain, the detective the doctor, the professor my uncle, your aunt President Karzai (not *the President Karzai) Captain Kirk, Detective Colombo Doctor Well, Dr Well, Professor Dolittle Uncle Khan, Aunt Sania Mr Naveed (not *the Mr Naveed), Mrs Karzai, Miss Sadia Look at these example sentences:
• • •

We do not use “the” with “President/Doctor/Mr etc + Name”:

first names

We do not normally use “the” with names of companies. For example:
• • •

Renault, Ford, Sony, EnglishCLUB.net General Motors, Air France, British Airways Naveed Brothers, Said & Son Ltd

We do not normally use “the” for shops, banks, hotels etc named after a founder or other person (with -’s or -s). For example: shops banks hotels, restaurants churches, cathedrals Harrods, Marks & Spencer, Maceys Barclays Bank Steve’s Hotel, Cheif, McDonalds St John’s Church, St Peter’s Cathedral

I wanted to speak to the doctor. I wanted to speak to Doctor Brown. Who was the president before President Kennedy?

We do not use “the” with “Lake/Mount + Name”: the lake the mount Lake Victoria Mount Everest

We do not normally use “the” with names of places. For example: towns states, regions countries continents islands mountains Washington (not *the Washington), Paris, Tokyo Texas, Kent, Eastern Europe England, Italy, Afghanistan. Asia, Europe, North America Corsica Everest 17

Look at this example sentence:

We live beside Lake Victoria. We have a fantastic view across the lake.

We do not normally use “the” for roads, streets, squares, parks etc: streets etc Oxford Street, Trenholme Road, Fifth Avenue

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com mountains Everest streets etc squares etc Oxford Street, Trenholme Road, Fifth Avenue Trafalgar Square, Oundle Place, Piccadilly Circus

Exception! If a country name includes “States”, “Kingdom”, “Republic” etc, we use “the”: states the United States, the US, the United States of America, the USA

parks etc Central Park, Kew Gardens Many big, important buildings have names made of two words (for example, Kennedy Airport). If the first word is the name of a person or place, we do not normally use “the”: people places Kennedy Airport, Alexander Palace, St Paul’s Cathedral Kabul Airport, Public Station, Edinburgh Castle

kingdom the United Kingdom, the UK republic the French Republic

2.06 “THE”

Proper Nouns with

We normally use “the” with the following sorts of names: hotels, restaurants banks cinemas, theatres museums buildings newspapers organizations 18 the Roze Hotel, the Cheif Restaurant The Kabul Bank the Royal Theatre, the ABC Cinema the Kabul Museum, the National Gallery the White House, the Crystal Palace The Kabul Time, the Sunday Post the United Nations, the BBC, the

We normally use "the" for country names that include “States”, “Kingdom”, “Republic” etc: States the United States of America/the USA

Kingdom the United Kingdom/the UK Republic the French Republic

We normally use “the” for names of canals, rivers, seas and oceans: canals the Suez Canal

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com canals rivers seas oceans the Suez Canal The Kabul River, the Nile the Mediterranean Sea, the Mediterranean the Pacific Ocean, the Pacific the United Nations, the BBC, the European Union

organizations

We normally use “the” for names made with “…of…”:
• • • • • •

We normally use “the” for plural names of people and places: people (families, for example) countries island groups mountain ranges the Clintons the Afghanistan, the United States the Virgin Islands, the British Isles the Himalayas, the Alps

the Tower of London the Gulf of Siam the Tropic of Cancer the London School of Economics the Bank of France the Statue of Liberty

Look at these sentences:
• • •

I saw the Clintons today. It was Bill’s birthday. Trinidad is the largest island in the West Indies. Mount Everest is in the Himalayas.

2.07

Possessive’s

Possessive’s
When we want to show that something belongs 19

Proper Nouns (Names)
We very often use possessive 's with names:

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com When we want to show that something belongs to somebody or something, we usually add 's to a singular noun and an apostrophe ' to a plural noun, for example:
• •

We very often use possessive 's with names:
• • • •

the boy's ball (one boy) the boys' ball (two or more boys)

This is Ahmad's car. Where is Zarak's telephone? Who took Naveed's pen? I like Tara's hair.

Notice that the number of balls does not matter. The structure is influenced by the possessor and not the possessed. one ball more than one ball

When a name ends in s, we usually treat it like any other singular noun, and add 's:

This is Maryam's chair.

But it is possible (especially with older, classical names) to just add the apostrophe ':

one boy more than one boy

Who was Rehans' father?

the boy's ball

the boy's balls

Irregular Plurals
Some nouns have irregular plural forms without s (man > men). To show possession, we usually add 's to the plural form of these nouns: singular noun my child's Room the man's work the mouse's cage plural noun my children's Room the men's work the mice's cage

the boys' ball

the boys' balls

The structure can be used for a whole phrase:
• •

the man next door's mother (the mother of the man next door) the President of the USA's secretary (the secretary of the President of the USA)

a person's clothes people's clothes

3.

Adjectives

An adjective is a word that tells us more about a noun. (By "noun" we include pronouns and noun phrases.) An adjective "qualifies" or "modifies" a noun (a modern car). Adjectives can be used before a noun (I like Afghani food) or after certain verbs (It is hard). We can often use two or more adjectives together (a beautiful young Afghan lady).

3.01

Determiners
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Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com Determiners are words like the, an, my, some. They are grammatically similar. They all come at the beginning of noun phrases, and usually we cannot use more than one determiner in the same noun phrase. Articles:

a, an, the

Possessives:

my, your, his, her, our, their

Other determiners:
• • • • • • • • • •

each, every either, neither any, some, no much, many; more, most little, less, least few, fewer, fewest what, whatever; which, whichever both, half, all several enough

3.01.1

Determiners: A, An or The?
Look at these examples: the

Determiners: A, An or The?
When do we say "the Cat" and when do we say "a cat"? (On this page we talk only about singular, countable nouns.) The and a/an are called "articles". We divide them into "definite" and "indefinite" like this: Articles Definite Indefinite the a, an

a, an The capital of Afghanistan is Kabul. I have found the book that I lost. Have you cleaned the car? There are six eggs in the fridge. Please switch off the TV when you finish.
• •

• • • •

• • •

I was born in a town. Zarak had an omelette for lunch. Naveed ordered a drink. We want to buy an umbrella. Have you got a pen?

We use "definite" to mean sure, certain. "Definite" is particular.

Of course, often we can use the or a/an for the same word. It depends on the situation. Look at these 21

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com "Definite" is particular. We use "indefinite" to mean not sure, not certain. "Indefinite" is general. When we are talking about one thing in particular, we use the. When we are talking about one thing in general, we use a or an. Think of the sky at night. In the sky there is 1 moon and millions of stars. So normally we could say:
• •

word. It depends on the situation. Look at these examples:
• •

We want to buy an umbrella. (Any umbrella, not a particular umbrella.) Where is the umbrella? (We already have an umbrella. We are looking for our umbrella, a particular umbrella.)

I saw the moon last night. I saw a star last night.

3.01.2 Determiners: Each, Every
Each and every have similar but not always identical meanings. Each = every one separately Every = each, all

Each can be used in front of the verb:

The soldiers each received a medal.

Each can be followed by 'of':
• •

The President spoke to each of the soldiers. He gave a medal to each of them.

Every cannot be used for 2 things. For 2 things, each can be used:

He was carrying a suitcase in each hand.

Sometimes, each and every have the same meaning:
• •

Every is used to say how often something happens:
• •

Prices go up each year. Prices go up every year.

There is a plane to Kabul every day. The bus leaves every hour.

But often they are not exactly the same. 22

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com exactly the same. Each expresses the idea of 'one by one'. It emphasizes individuality. Every is half-way between each and all. It sees things or people as singular, but in a group or in general. Consider the following:
• •

Every artist is sensitive. Each artist sees things differently. Every soldier saluted as the President arrived. The President gave each soldier a medal.

3.01.3 Determiners: Some, Any
Some = a little, a few or a small number or amount Any = one, some or all Usually, we use some in positive (+) sentences and any in negative (-) and question (?) sentences. some any example 23

Look at these examples:
• • • • • • • •

He needs some stamps. I must go. I have some homework to do. I'm thirsty. I want something to drink. I can see somebody coming. He doesn't need any stamps. I can stay. I don't have any homework to do. I'm not thirsty. I don't want anything to drink. I can't see anybody coming.

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com some any example I have $10. I don't have $1 and I don't have $10 and I don't have $1,000,000. I have $0. Do you have $1 or $10 or $1,000,000?
• • • • •

I can't see anybody coming. Does he need any stamps? Do you have any homework to do? Do you want anything to drink? Can you see anybody coming?

+

I have some money. I don't have any money. Do you have any money?

-

We use any in a positive sentence when the real sense is negative.
• •

?

I refused to give them any money. (I did not give them any money) She finished the test without any difficulty. (she did not have any difficulty)

Sometimes we use some in a question, when we expect a positive YES answer. (We could say that it is not a real question, because we think we know the answer already.)
• •

Would you like some more tea? Could I have some sugar, please

3.02

Adjective Order

There are 2 basic positions for adjectives: 1. before the noun 2. after certain verbs (be, become, get, seem, look, feel, sound, smell, taste) adj. noun 1 I like 2 big cars. My car is big. verb adj.

3.02.1

Adjective Before Noun

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Adjective Before Noun
We sometimes use more than one adjective before the noun:
• •

Here is an example with opinion and fact adjectives:
adjectives determiner two opinion fact age nice old shape round color red candles noun

I like big black dogs. She was wearing a beautiful long red dress.

What is the correct order for two or more adjectives? 1. The general order is: opinion, fact:

When we want to use two color adjectives, we join them with "and":
• •

a nice Japani car (not a Japani nice car)

("Opinion" is what you think about something. "Fact" is what is definitely true about something.) 2. The normal order for fact adjectives is size, age, shape, color, material, origin:

Newspapers are usually black and white. She was wearing a long, blue and yellow dress.

a big, old, square, black, wooden Chinese table

3. Determiners usually come first, even though they are fact adjectives:
• • • • •

articles (a, the) Possessives (my, your...) Demonstratives (this, that...) Quantifiers (some, any, few, many...) numbers (one, two, three)

3.02.2

Adjective after Verb
subject verb adjective
• • •

Adjective after Verb
We can use an adjective after certain verbs. Even though the adjective comes after the verb, it does not describe the verb. It describes the subject of the verb (usually a noun or pronoun) 25

Ram is English. Because she had to wait, she became impatient. Is it getting dark?

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com verb. It describes the subject of the verb (usually a noun or pronoun). Look at the examples opposite:
• • • • • • •

Is it getting dark? The examination did not seem difficult. Your friend looks nice. This towel feels damp. That new film doesn't sound very interesting. Dinner smells good tonight. This milk tastes sour.

3.03

Comparative Adjectives

When we talk about two things, we can "compare" them. We can see if they are the same or different. Perhaps they are the same in some ways and different in other ways. We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences. In the example opposite, "bigger" is the comparative form of the adjective "big":

AA
The first A is bigger than the second A. In this lesson we will look first at how we make comparative adjectives, and then at how we use them:

3.03.1

Formation of Comparative Adjectives
Exception The following adjectives have irregular forms:
• • • •

Formation of Comparative Adjectives
There are two ways to make or form a comparative adjective:
• •

short adjectives: add "-er" long adjectives: use "more"

good > better well (healthy) > better bad > worse far > farther/further

Short adjectives

1-syllable 26

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1-syllable adjectives 2-syllable adjectives ending in -y

old, fast

happy, easy

Normal rule: add "-er" Variation: if the adjective ends in -e, just add -r Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant Variation: if the adjective ends in -y, change the y to i Long adjectives

old > older late > later

big > bigger

happy > happier

2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y all adjectives of 3 or more syllables

modern, pleasant

expensive, intellectual modern > more modern expensive > more expensive

Normal rule: use "more"

3.03.2 Use of Comparative Adjectives
We use comparative adjectives when talking about 2 things (not 3 or 10 or Diameter (km) 27

Earth

Mars Mars is smaller than Earth

12,760

6,790

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com talking about 2 things (not 3 or 10 or 1,000,000 things, only 2 things). Often, the comparative adjective is followed by "than". Look at these examples:

than Earth. Distance from Sun (million km) 150 228 Mars is more distant from the Sun. A day on Mars is slightly longer than a day on Earth. Mars has more moons than Earth. Mars is colder than Earth.

• • •

Ahmad is 1m80. He is tall. But Naveed is 1m85. He is taller than Ahmad. America is big. But Russia is bigger. I want to have a more powerful computer. Is French more difficult than English?

Length of day (hours)

24

25

If we talk about the two planets Earth and Mars, we can compare them as shown in the table opposite: Moons 1 2

Surface temperature 22 (°C)

-23

3.04

Superlative Adjectives

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Superlative Adjectives
A superlative adjective expresses the extreme or highest degree of a quality. We use a superlative adjective to describe the extreme quality of one thing in a group of things. In the example opposite, "biggest" is the superlative form of the adjective "big":

AC
B
A is the biggest. In this lesson we will look first at how we make superlative adjectives, and then at how we use them: Exception The following adjectives have irregular forms:
• • •

3.04.1 Formation of Superlative Adjectives
As with comparative adjectives, there are two ways to form a superlative adjective:
• •

good > the best bad > the worst far > the furthest

short adjectives: add "-est" long adjectives: use "most"

We also usually add 'the' at the beginning. Short adjectives 1-syllable adjectives 2-syllable adjectives ending in -y Normal rule: add "-est" Variation: if the adjective ends in -e, just add -st Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant old, fast happy, easy old > the oldest late > the latest

big > the biggest

29

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com consonant Variation: if the adjective ends in -y, change the y to i Long adjectives 2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y all adjectives of 3 or more syllables modern, pleasant expensive, intellectual modern > the most modern expensive > the most expensive happy > the happiest

Normal rule: use "most"

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3.04.2 Use of Superlative Adjectives
We use a superlative adjective to describe one thing in a group of three or more things. Look at these examples:

Earth Diameter (km)

Mars

Jupiter 142,800 Jupiter is the biggest. Jupiter is the most distant from the Sun. Jupiter has the shortest day. Jupiter has the most moons. Jupiter is the coldest

12,760 6,790

• •

Naveed is 1m75. Zarak is 1m80. Ahmad is 1m85. Ahmad is the tallest. Canada, China and Russia are big countries. But Russia is the biggest. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

Distance from 150 Sun (million km) Length of day (hours)

228

778

24

25

10

If we talk about the three planets Earth, Mars and Jupiter, we can use superlative adjectives as shown in the table opposite:

Moons

1

2

16

Surface temp. (°C)

22

-23

-150

4.

Adverbs

An adverb is a word that tells us more about a verb. An adverb "qualifies" or "modifies" a verb (The man ran quickly). But adverbs can also modify adjectives (Tara is really beautiful), or even other adverbs (It works very well).

Many different kinds of word are called adverbs. We can usually recognize an adverb by its: 1. Function (Job) 2. Form 3. Position 1. Function 31

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com The principal job of an adverb is to modify (give more information about) verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. In the following examples, the adverb is in bold and the word that it modifies is in italics.

Modify a verb: - Taj speaks loudly. (How does Taj speak?) - Khan lives locally. (Where does Khan live?) - She never smokes. (When does she smoke?) Modify an adjective: - He is really handsome. Modify another adverb: - She drives incredibly slowly.

But adverbs have other functions, too. They can:

Modify a whole sentence: - Obviously, I can't know everything. Modify a prepositional phrase: - It's immediately inside the door.

2. Form Many adverbs end in -ly. We form such adverbs by adding -ly to the adjective. Here are some examples:

quickly, softly, strongly, honestly, interestingly

But not all words that end in -ly are adverbs. "Friendly", for example, is an adjective. Some adverbs have no particular form, for example:

well, fast, very, never, always, often, still

3. Position Adverbs have three main positions in the sentence:

Front (before the subject): - Now we will study adverbs. Middle (between the subject and the main verb): - We often study adverbs. End (after the verb or object): - We study adverbs carefully.

4.01

Adverbs of Frequency
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Adverbs of Frequency
Adverbs of Frequency answer the question "How often?" or "How frequently?" They tell us how often somebody does something. Adverbs of frequency come before the main verb (except the main verb "to be"):
• • •

100% always usually frequently often 50% sometimes occasionally rarely seldom hardly ever 0% never

We usually go shopping on Saturday. I have often done that. She is always late.

Occasionally, sometimes, often, frequently and usually can also go at the beginning or end of a sentence:
• •

Sometimes they come and stay with us. I play tennis occasionally.

Rarely and seldom can also go at the end of a sentence (often with "very"):
• •

We see them rarely. John eats meat very seldom.

5.

English Pronouns

Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. We can use a pronoun instead of a noun. Pronouns are words like: he, you, ours, themselves, some, each... If we didn't have pronouns, we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. We would have to say things like:

Do you like the President? I don't like the President. The President is too pompous (showy).

With pronouns, we can say:

Do you like the President? I don't like him. He is too pompous.

5.01

Personal Pronouns

This summary of personal pronouns includes possessive adjectives for convenience and comparison.

33

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com pronouns number person 1st 2nd singular 3rd gender* m/f m/f m f n 1st plural 2nd 3rd m/f m/f m/f/n subject I you he she it we you they object possessive me you him her it us you them mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs reflexive myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves possessive adjectives my your his her its our your their

* m=male f=female n=neuter Examples: pronoun subject object possessive reflexive possessive adjective She likes homework. The teacher gave me some homework. This homework is yours. John did the homework himself. The teacher corrected our homework.

6.

English Prepositions

A preposition is a word governing, and usually coming in front of, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element, as in:
• •

She left before breakfast. What did you come for? (For what did you come?)

6.01

English Prepositions List
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English Prepositions List
There are about 150 prepositions in English. Yet this is a very small number when you think of the thousands of other words (nouns, verbs etc). Prepositions are important words. We use individual prepositions more frequently than other individual words. In fact, the prepositions of, to and in are among the ten most frequent words in English. Here is a short list of 70 of the more common one-word prepositions. Many of these prepositions have more than one meaning. Please refer to a dictionary for precise meaning and usage.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

in inside into like minus near of off on onto opposite outside over past per plus regarding round save since than through to toward towards under underneath unlike until up upon versus via with within

aboard about above across after against along amid among anti around as at before behind below beneath beside besides between beyond but by concerning considering despite down 35

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• • • • • • • •

down during except excepting excluding following for from

• • •

with within without

6.02

English Preposition Rule

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English Preposition Rule
There is one very simple rule about prepositions. And, unlike most rules, this rule has no exceptions. Rule A preposition is followed by a "noun". It is never followed by a verb. By "noun" we include:
• • • • •

Here are some examples: Subject + verb The food is She lives Tara is looking The letter is Pascal is used preposition on in for under to "noun" the table. Japan. you. your blue book. English people. working. coming.

noun (Naveed, money, love) proper noun (name) (Waleed, Zarak) pronoun (you, him, us) noun group (my first job) gerund (swimming)

A preposition cannot be followed by a verb. If we want to follow a preposition by a verb, we must use the "-ing" form which is really a gerund or verb in noun form. Quick Quiz: In the following sentences, why is "to" followed by a verb? That should be impossible, according to the above rule:
• •

She isn't used to I ate before

I would like to go now. He used to smoke.

6.03 Prepositions of Place: at, in, on Prepositions of Place: at, in, on
In general, we use:
• • •

Notice the use of the prepositions of place at, in and on in these standard expressions: at at home at work 37 at school in in a car in a taxi in a on on a bus on a train on a plane

at for a POINT in for an ENCLOSED SPACE on for a SURFACE

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com at POINT at the corner at the bus stop at the door at the top of the page at the end of the road at the entrance at the crossroads at the entrance in ENCLOSED SPACE in the garden in London in France in a box in my pocket in my wallet in a building in a car on SURFACE on the wall at college on the ceiling on the door on the cover on the floor on the carpet on the menu on a page at the bottom at the side at reception at the top in a helicopter in a boat in a lift (elevator) in the newspaper in the sky in a row in Oxford Street

at school at university

on a plane on a ship on a bicycle, on a motorbike on a horse, on an elephant on the radio, on television on the left, on the right on the way

Look at these examples:
• • • • • • • • • • • •

Waleed is waiting for you at the bus stop. The shop is at the end of the street. My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late. When will you arrive at the office? Do you work in an office? I have a meeting in New York. Do you live in Japan? The author's name is on the cover of the book. There are no prices on this menu. You are standing on my foot. There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall. I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London. 38

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6.04 Prepositions of Time: at, in, on Prepositions of Time: at, in, on
We use:
• • •

Notice the use of the preposition of time at in the following standard expressions: Expression at night at the weekend at Christmas/Easter at the same time at present Example The stars shine at night. I don't usually work at the weekend. I stay with my family at Christmas. We finished the test at the same time. He's not home at present. Try later.

at for a PRECISE TIME in for MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS on for DAYS and DATES in MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS in May in summer in the summer in 1990 in the 1990s in the next century in the Ice Age on

at

PRECISE TIME

DAYS and DATES

at 3 o'clock at 10.30am at noon at dinnertime at bedtime

on Sunday on Tuesdays on 6 March on 25 Dec. 2010 on Christmas Day on Independence Day on my birthday 39

Notice the use of the prepositions of time in and on in these common expressions: in in the morning in the mornings on on Tuesday morning on Saturday mornings

in the afternoon(s) on Sunday afternoons in the evening(s) on Monday evening

at sunrise

When we say last, next, every, this we do not also use at, in, on.

at sunset

I went to London last June. (not in last

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com on my birthday on New Year's Eve
• • • •

at sunset at the moment

in the Ice Age in the past/future

Look at these examples:
• • • • • • • • •

I went to London last June. (not in last June) He's coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday) I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter) We'll call you this evening. (not in this evening)

I have a meeting at 9am. The shop closes at midnight. Zarak went home at lunchtime. In Kabul, it often snows in January. Do you think we will go to Jupiter in the future? There should be a lot of progress in the next century. Do you work on Mondays? Her birthday is on 20 November. Where will you be on New Year's Day?

7.
7.01 Conjunctions Definition
A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence. Here are some example conjsunctions: Coordinating Conjunctions and but or nor for Subordinating Conjunctions

Conjunctions

7.01.1

Function

Conjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs":

although because 40

Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example: - Zarak and Aisha went up the hill. - The water was warm but I didn't go

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so although, because, since, unless

- Zarak and Aisha went up the hill. - The water was warm but I didn't go swimming. Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example: - I went swimming, although it was cold.

We can consider conjunctions from three aspects.

7.01.2

Form

Conjunctions have three basic forms:

7.01.3

Position

Single Word for example: and, but, because, although Compound (often ending with as or that) for example: provided that, as long as, in order that Correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective) for example: so...that

Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join. Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause.

In this lesson we will look in more detail at:

7.02 Coordinating Conjunctions
The short, simple conjunctions are called "coordinating conjunctions":

When a coordinating conjunction joins independent clauses, it is always correct to place a comma before the conjunction:

and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so

I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying Russian at university.

A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar. A coordinating conjunction shows that the elements it joins are similar in importance and structure:

However, if the independent clauses are short and wellbalanced, a comma is not really essential:

She is kind so she helps people.

+

When "and" is used with the last word of a list, a comma is optional: 41

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com optional: Look at these examples - the two elements that the coordinating conjunction joins are shown in square brackets [ ]:
• • • •

He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum. He drinks beer, whisky, wine and rum.

I like [tea] and [coffee]. [Zarak likes tea], but [Anthony likes coffee].

Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.

7.03 Subordinating Conjunctions
The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating conjunctions". Common subordinating conjunctions are:

A subordinating conjunction always comes at the beginning of a subordinate clause. It "introduces" a subordinate clause. However, a subordinate clause can sometimes come after and sometimes before a main clause. Thus, two structures are possible:

after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while

+
Zarak went swimming although it was raining.

A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate (dependent) clause to a main (independent) clause:

+ +
Look at this example: main or independent clause Zarak went swimming subordinate or dependent clause although subordinating 42 it was raining. Although it was raining, Zarak went swimming.

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com subordinating conjunction

8.
Hi! That's an interjection. :-)

Interjections
interjection meaning expressing pleasure expressing realization ah expressing resignation expressing surprise alas expressing grief or pity expressing pity dear expressing surprise example "Ah, that feels good." "Ah, now I understand." "Ah well, it can't be heped." "Ah! I've won!" "Alas, she's dead now." "Oh dear! Does it hurt?" "Dear me! That's a surprise!" "It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today." "What do you think of that, eh?" "Eh! Really?" "Let's go

Interjection is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written. The table shows some interjections with examples.

asking for repetition

eh

expressing enquiry expressing surprise inviting

43

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hello, hullo

hi

hmm

uh

uh-huh 44

expressing agreement

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com agreement go?" "Uhhuh." "85 divided by 5 is...um...17." "Well I never!" "Well, what did he say?"

um, umm

expressing hesitation expressing surprise introducing a remark

well

9.00

Table of English Tenses

Verb tenses are tools that English speakers use to express time in their language. You may find that many English tenses do not have direct translations in your language. Now it is important to know that what is TENSE. The word tense is taken from a LATIN word, TEMPUS and it means TIME, but in Grammar it means ACTION or ACTIVITY. 45

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Before you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are divided into three groups:
9.01 Group I: - Continuous Verbs
The first group, called "Continuous Verbs", contains most English verbs. These verbs are usually physical actions, which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses. Continuous Verbs to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch etc. Examples: I eat dinner every day. Correct I am eating dinner now. Correct

9.02

Group II: - Non-continuous Verbs

The second group, called "Non-continuous Verbs” is smaller. These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in "continuous" tenses. It is divided into the following three categories: * Abstract Verbs to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist... • Possession Verbs to possess, to own, to belong... * Emotion Verbs to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind... Examples: He is here now. Correct He is being here now. Not Correct He wants a drink now. Correct He is wanting a drink now. Not Correct

9.03

Group III: - Mixed Verbs

The third group, called "Mixed Verbs", is the smallest group. These verbs have more than one meaning. Some meanings behave like "Non-continuous Verbs", while other meanings behave like "Continuous Verbs."

9.03.1

Mixed Verbs

to have, to appear, to see, to hear, to feel, to weigh, to look ... List of Mixed Verbs with Examples and Definitions: to appear: Donna appears confused. Non-continuous Verb (Donna seems confused.) My favorite singer is appearing at the jazz club tonight. Continuous Verb (My favorite singer is giving a performance at the jazz club tonight.) to have: I have a dollar now. Non-continuous Verb 46

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com (I possess a dollar.) I am having fun now. Continuous Verb (I am experiencing fun now.) to hear: She hears the music. Non-continuous Verb (She hears the music with her ears.) She is hearing voices. Continuous Verb (To hear something others cannot hear. She is hearing voices in her mind.) to miss: John misses Sally. Non-continuous Verb (He is sad because she is not there.) Debbie is missing her favorite TV program. Continuous Verb (She is not there to see her favorite program.) to see: I see her. Non-continuous Verb (I see her with my eyes.) I am seeing the doctor. Continuous Verb (To visit or consult with a doctor, dentist, or lawyer.) I am seeing her. Continuous Verb (I am having a relationship with her.) He is seeing ghosts at night. Continuous Verb (To see something others cannot see. For example ghosts, aura, a vision of the future etc.) to smell: The coffee smells good. Non-continuous Verb (The coffee has a good smell.) I am smelling the flowers. Continuous Verb (I am sniffing the flowers.) to taste: The coffee tastes good. Non-continuous Verb (The coffee has a good taste.) I am tasting the cake. Continuous Verb (I am trying the cake to see what it tastes like.) to think: He thinks the test is easy. Non-continuous Verb (He considers the test to be easy.) She is thinking about the question. Continuous Verb (She is pondering the question, going over it in her mind.) to weigh: The table weighs a lot. Non-continuous Verb (The table has a great weight.) She is weighing herself. Continuous Verb (She is determining her weight.) Some Verbs Can Be Especially Confusing: to be: Joe is American. Non-continuous Verb (Joe is an American citizen.) Joe is being very American. Continuous Verb (Joe is behaving like a stereotypical American.) 47

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com Joe is being very rude. Continuous Verb (Joe is behaving very rudely. Usually he is not rude.) Joe is being very formal. Continuous Verb (Joe is behaving very formally. Usually he is not formal.) NOTICE: Only rarely is "to be" used in a continuous form. This is most commonly done when a person is temporarily behaving badly or stereotypically. It can also be used when someone's behavior is noticeably different. to feel: The massage feels great. Non-continuous Verb (The massage has a pleasing feeling.) I don't feel well today. Continuous or Non-continuous Verb I am not feeling well today. (I am a little sick.) NOTICE: Feel is very flexible and there is no difference in meaning in the two sentences above.)

10.00

TENSES.
tense Affirmative/Negative/Question Use
action in the present taking place once, never or several times facts actions taking place one after another action set by a timetable or schedule

Signal Words
always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually if sentences type I (If I talk, …)

Simple Present

A: He speaks. N: He does not speak. Q: Does he speak?

Present Progressive

A: He is speaking. N: He is not speaking. Q: Is he speaking?

action taking place in the moment of speaking action taking place only for a limited period of time action arranged for the future action in the past taking place once, never or several times actions taking place one after another action taking place in the middle of another action

at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now

Simple Past

A: He spoke. N: He did not speak. Q: Did he speak?

yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday if sentence type II (If I talked, …)

Past Progressive

A: He was speaking. N: He was not speaking. Q: Was he speaking?

action going on at a certain time in the past actions taking place at

when, while, as long as

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the same time action in the past that is interrupted by another action Present Perfect Simple A: He has spoken. N: He has not spoken. Q: Has he spoken? putting emphasis on the result action that is still going on action that stopped recently finished action that has an influence on the present action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking Present Perfect Progressive A: He has been speaking. N: He has not been speaking. Q: Has he been speaking? putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result) action that recently stopped or is still going on finished action that influenced the present Past Perfect Simple A: He had spoken. N: He had not spoken. Q: Had he spoken? action taking place before a certain time in the past sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration) Past Perfect Progressive A: He had been speaking. N: He had not been speaking. Q: Had he been speaking? action taking place before a certain time in the past sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action action in the future that cannot be influenced spontaneous decision assumption with regard to the future in a year, next …, tomorrow If-Satz Typ I (If you ask her, she will help you.) assumption: I think, probably, we might …, perhaps in one year, next week, tomorrow for, since, the whole day, all day already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day if sentence type III (If I had talked, …) all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Future I Simple

A: He will speak. N: He will not speak. Q: Will he speak?

Future I Simple

A: He is going to speak. N: He is not going to speak.

decision made for the

49

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(going to) Q: Is he going to speak? future conclusion with regard to the future A: He will be speaking. N: He will not be speaking. Q: Will he be speaking? action that is going on at a certain time in the future action that is sure to happen in the near future action that will be finished at a certain time in the future action taking place before a certain time in the future putting emphasis on the course of an action action that might take place action that might take place putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action action that might have taken place in the past action that might have taken place in the past puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action if sentences type III (If I had seen that, I would have helped.) by Monday, in a week in one year, next week, tomorrow

Future I Progressive

Future II Simple

A: He will have spoken. N: He will not have spoken. Q: Will he have spoken? A: He will have been speaking. N: He will not have been speaking. Q: Will he have been speaking?

Future II Progressive

for …, the last couple of hours, all day long

Conditional I Simple

A: He would speak. N: He would not speak. Q: Would he speak? A: He would be speaking. N: He would not be speaking. Q: Would he be speaking?

if sentences type II (If I were you, I would go home.)

Conditional I Progressive

Conditional II Simple

A: He would have spoken. N: He would not have spoken. Q: Would he have spoken? A: He would have been speaking. N: He would not have been speaking. Q: Would he have been speaking?

Conditional II Progressive

10.01 STRUCTURE

Simple Present (Present Simple) – Introduction Subject +verb(s, es) +object / complement.

Simple present is also called present simple or Present Indefinit.

50

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The simple present expresses an action in the present taking place once, never or several times. It is also used for actions that take place one after another and for actions that are set by a timetable or schedule. The simple present also expresses facts in the present.

10.01.1

Simple Present - Use
The sun never sets in the east or south or north, but always in the west.

facts (something is generally known to be true)

The sun sets in the west.
action in the present taking place once, never or several times

Colin plays football regularly - every Tuesday. In English, signal words are often used, e.g.: always, never, seldom, often, regularly, every Monday.

Colin always plays soccer on Tuesdays.
actions in the present taking place one after another

First one action takes place and then the other.

She takes her bag and leaves.

action set by a time table or schedule

51

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com Although the action takes place in the future, it takes place regularly and is set by a time table.

The train leaves at 9 pm.
verbs expressing states, possession, senses, emotions and mental activity

I love her.

When you love someone, that's a state, a fact or emotion, but not an action (like running for example). Whenever you want to express a state, possession, sense or emotions, use the simple form (not the progressive). The following words all belong to this group: be (state) believe (mental activity) belong (possession) hate (feeling and emotion) hear (senses) like (feeling and emotion) love (feeling and emotion) mean (mental activity) prefer (mental activity) remain (state) realize (mental activity) see (senses) seem (feeling and emotion) smell (senses) think (mental activity) understand (mental activity) want (feeling and emotion) wish (feeling and emotion)

10.01.2
be
Use:

Simple Present - Form

am with the personal pronoun II is with the personal pronouns he, she or it (or with the singular form of nouns) are with the personal pronouns we, you or they (or with the plural form of nouns)

example: I am hungry. affirmative negative question

I

I am.

I am not.

Am I?

he/she/it

He is.

He is not.

Is he?

52

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you/we/they You are. You are not. Are you?

have
Use: have with the personal pronouns I, you, we und they (or with the plural form of nouns) has with the personal pronouns he, she, it (or with the singular form of nouns)

example: I have a dog. / I have got a dog.
'have got' is mainly used in British English. You can also use 'have' on its own (especially in American English). In this case, however, you must form negative sentences and questions with the auxiliary verb 'do' (see 'All other verbs').

positive

negative

question

I/you/we/they

I have got. / I have.

I have not got. / I do not have.

Have I got? / Do I have?

he/she/it

He has got. / He has.

He has not got. / He does not have. Has he got? / Does he have?

All other verbs
Use: the infinite verb (play) with the personal pronouns I, you, we and they (or with the plural form of nouns) the verb + s (plays) with the personal pronouns he, she, it (or with the singular form of nouns)

affirmative

negative

question

Sub + B.Verb + Obj I/you/we/they I play.

Sub + Do Not + B.Verb + Obj I do not play.

Do + Sub + B.Verb + Obj +? Do I play?

Sub + Verb (s,es) + Obj he/she/it He plays.

Sub + Does Not + B.Verb + Obj He does not play.

Does + Sub + B.Verb + Obj +? Does he play?

10.01.3

Tips on how to form negative sentences and questions
53

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Negative sentences and questions are formed with the auxiliary verb 'do'. The 3rd person singular of 'do' is 'does'. This means that in negative sentences and questions the 's' of the main verb is placed behind 'do'.

10.02

Simple Present - Exceptions in Spelling

The 3rd person singular is usually formed by adding s. But there are a few exceptions to the rule:

The verbs can, may, might, must remain the same in all forms. So don't add s.
example: he can, she may, it must

Verbs ending in o or a sibilant (ch, sh, s, x) add es instead of s.
example: do - he does, wash - she washes

A final y after a consonant becomes ie before s.
example: worry - he worries
But: A final y after a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) is not modified.

example: play - he plays

11.00
STRUCTURE:

Present Progressive - Introduction
SUBJECT + [AM / IS / ARE] + [VERB+ing] + OBJECT / COMPLEMENT. BE VERBS HELPING V.

The present progressive puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action.

The present progressive is used for actions going on in the moment of speaking and for actions taking place only for a short period of time. It is also used to express development and actions that are arranged for the near future. Present progressive is also known as present continuous.

54

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11.01

Present Progressive - Use
The action is going on now. Signal words like now, at the moment are often used to emphasize that the action is taking place at the moment of speaking. Signal words are not really necessary, however, as this is already expressed by the tense itself. He is playing football.

Actions taking place at the moment of speaking (now)

Arrangements for the near future

In the example you can see that the tickets are already bought. So we are talking about an arrangement for the near future. To make clear that the action is not going on now, we usually use signal words like tonight, tomorrow, next Friday, at noon. I'm going to the theatre tonight.
Actions taking place only for a limited period of time

Jim is helping in his brother's firm this week.

Here we are talking about a time limit. Jim does not usually work in the firm; he is still at school and wants to earn some extra money during his holidays. To make clear that there is a time limit, we usually use signal words, e.g. this week/month/year.

Actions taking place around now (but not at the moment of speaking)

This action takes place around now and only for a limited period of time, but not at the moment of speaking. We don't have to use signal words here, but we often find signal words in such sentences, e.g. now, at the moment. I'm studying for my exams.
Development, changing situations

The sentence describes a development from one situation to another. Signal words are not that common here, only sometimes the change of situation is emphasized by using for example more and more. The population of China is rising very fast. 55

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11.02
Use:

Present Progressive - Form

Use a form of to be and the infinite verb plus -ing.

am with the personal pronoun I is with the personal pronouns he, she or it (or the singular form of nouns) are with the personal pronouns you, we, they (or the plural form of nouns)

affirmative

negative

question

Sub + am + verb+ing + obj I I am playing.

Sub + am not + verb+ing + obj I am not playing.

Am + Sub + verb+ing + obj +? Am I playing?

Sub + is + verb+ing + obj he, she, it He is playing.

Sub + is not + verb+ing + obj He is not playing.

Is + Sub + verb+ing + obj + ? Is he playing?

Sub + are + verb+ing + obj you, we, they You are playing.

Sub + are not + verb+ing + obj You are not playing.

Are + Sub + verb+ing + obj +? Are you playing?

Tips on how to form negative sentences and questions In negative sentences, we put not between the form of be and the verb. In questions, we simply swop the places of subject and the form of be.

11.03

Present Progressive - Exceptions in Spelling

A single, silent e at the end of the word is dropped before ing.
example: come - coming I am coming home. You are coming home. He is coming home.
But: ee at the end of the word is not changed

example: agree - agreeing

The final consonant after a short, stressed vowel is doubled before ing.
example: sit - sitting I am sitting on the sofa. You are sitting on the sofa. He is sitting on the sofa.

The letter l as final consonant after a vowel is always doubled before ing. 56

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example: travel - travelling I am travelling around. You are travelling around. He is travelling around.
Mind: This applies only for British English; in American English there is usually only one l.

An ie at the end of a word becomes y before ing.
example: lie - lying I am lying in bed. You are lying in bed. He is lying in bed.

11.04

Present Progressive - Short Forms
affirmative negative

I am playing. - I'm playing.

I am not playing. - I'm not playing.

He is playing. - He's playing.

He is not playing. - He's not playing. / He isn't playing.

We are playing. - We're playing.

We are not playing. - We're not playing. /We aren't playing.

11.05
11.05.1

Present Progressive - Signal Words
Actions taking place at the moment of speaking (now)

at the moment now / just now / right now Listen! Look!

11.05.2

Arrangements for the near future

in the morning / in the afternoon / in the evening at noon / tonight tomorrow next ...

11.05.03 11.05.04

Actions taking place only for a limited period of time Actions taking place around now (but not at the moment of speaking)

this week / this month / this year

at the moment now / just now / right now

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11.05.05

Development, changing situations

more and more

12.0

Present Perfect Simple

STRUCTURE:- Subject + [HAS / HAVE] + [past participle] + Object / Complement.
The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result.

12.01

Form of Present Perfect
Positive Negative Question

I / you / we / they

Sub + have +P.P + Obj I have spoken.

Sub + have not +P.P + Obj I have not spoken.

Have + Sub +P.P + Obj + ? Have I spoken?

he / she / it

Sub + has +P.P + Obj He has spoken.

Sub + has not +P.P + Obj He has not spoken.

Has + Sub +P.P + Obj + ? Has he spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.

12.02

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’
Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example

after a final e only add d

love – loved

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled

admit – admitted travel – travelled

final y after a consonant becomes I

hurry – hurried

12.03

Use of Present Perfect
puts emphasis on the result

Example: She has written five letters.

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action that is still going on

Example: School has not started yet. action that stopped recently Example: She has cooked dinner. finished action that has an influence on the present Example: I have lost my key. action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking Example: I have never been to Australia.

12.04

Signal Words of Present Perfect
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

13.00

Present Perfect Progressive
Subject + [HAS / HAVE] + [BEEN] + [VERB+ing] Object / complement.

STRUCTURE:

The present perfect progressive expresses an action that recently stopped or is still going on. It puts emphasis on the duration or course of the action.

13.01

Form of Present Perfect Progressive
Positive Negative Question

I / you / we / they

Sub + have + been + Verb ing + Obj I have been speaking.

Sub + have not+ been + Verb ing + Obj I have not been speaking.

Have+ sub + been + Verb ing + Obj + ? Have I been speaking?

he / she / it

Sub + has + been + Verb ing + Obj He has been speaking.

Sub + has not + been + Verb ing + Obj He has not been speaking.

Has + Sub + been + Verb ing + Obj Has he been speaking?

13.02

Exceptions in Spelling
Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example

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final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed) come – coming (but: agree – agreeing)

after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled

sit – sitting

l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English)

travel – travelling

final ie becomes y

lie – lying

13.03

Use of Present Perfect Progressive
puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result)

Example: She has been writing for two hours. action that recently stopped or is still going on Example: I have been living here since 2001. finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon.

13.04

Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive
all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week

14.00
STRUCTURE:

Simple Past (Past Simple)
Subject + 2nd Form of the Verb + Object / complement.

The simple past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action.

14.01

Form of Simple Past
Positive Negative Question

no differences

Sub + 2nd Verb + Obj I spoke.

Sub + did not + Verb + Obj I did not speak.

Did + Sub + B. Verb + Obj + ? Did I speak?

For irregular verbs, use the past form (see list of irregular verbs, 2nd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.

14.02

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’
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Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example

after a final e only add d

love – loved

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled

admit – admitted travel – travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i

hurry – hurried

14.03

Use of Simple Past
action in the past taking place once, never or several times

Example: He visited his parents every weekend. actions in the past taking place one after the other Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down. action in the past taking place in the middle of another action Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang. if sentences type II (If I talked, …) Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.

14.04

Signal Words of Simple Past
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …)

15.00 STRUCTURE:15.01 Form
Positive

Past Progressive (Past Continuous)
Subject + [WAS / WERE] + [VERB+ing] + Object / complement.

The past progressive puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past.

Negative

Question

I / he / she / it

Sub + was + verb ing + Obj I was speaking.

Sub + was not+ verb ing + Obj I was not speaking.

Was + Sub + verb ing + Obj + ? Was I speaking?

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you / we / they Sub + were + verb ing + Obj You were speaking. Sub + were not + verb ing + Obj You were not speaking. Were + Sub + verb ing + Obj +? Were you speaking?

15.02

Exceptions in Spelling
Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example

final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed)

come – coming (but: agree – agreeing)

after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled

sit – sitting

l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English)

travel – travelling

final ie becomes y

lie – lying

15.03

Use of Past Progressive
puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past

Example: He was playing football. two actions happening at the same time (in the past) Example: While she was preparing dinner, he was washing the dishes. action going on at a certain time in the past Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.

15.04 15.05

Signal Words of Past Progressive
when, while, as long as

Form of Past Perfect Simple
Positive Negative Question

no differences

I had spoken.

I had not spoken.

Had I spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the past participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.

15.06

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed
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Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed Example

after final e, only add d

love – loved

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel admit – admitted or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled travel – travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i

hurry – hurried

15.07

Use of Past Perfect

action taking place before a certain time in the past (putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration) Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack. Conditional Sentences Type III (condition that was not given in the past) Example: If I had seen him, I would have talked to him.

15.08

Signal Words
already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day (with reference to the past, not the present) If-Satz Typ III (If I had talked, …)

16.00

Past Perfect Progressive (Past Perfect Continuous)
Structure:
Subject + Had + Been + Verb ing + Object

The past perfect progressive puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action taking place before a certain time in the past.

16.01

Form
positive negative question

no differences

Sub + had + been + Verb ing + Obj He had been talking.

Sub + had not+ been + Verb ing + Obj He had not been talking.

Had + Sub + been + Verb ing + Obj Had he been talking?

16.02

Use
action taking place before a certain time in the past sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action

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16.02

signal words
for, since, the whole day, all day

17.00
influenced.

Future I Simple will

Will future expresses a spontaneous decision, an assumption with regard to the future or an action in the future that cannot be

17.01

Form of will Future
positive negative question

no differences

Sub + will + B. verb + Obj I will speak.

Sub + will not + B. verb + Obj I will not speak.

Will +Sub + B. verb + Obj + ? Will I speak?

17.02

Use of will Future
a spontaneous decision

example: Wait, I will help you. an opinion, hope, uncertainty or assumption regarding the future example: He will probably come back tomorrow. a promise example: I will not watch TV tonight. an action in the future that cannot be influenced example: It will rain tomorrow. conditional clauses type I example: If I arrive late, I will call you.

17.03

Signal Words
in a year, next …, tomorrow Vermutung: I think, probably, we might …, perhaps

17.04

Future I Simple going to

Going to future expresses a conclusion regarding the immediate future or an action in the near future that has already been planned or prepared.

17.04.1

Form of going to Future
positive negative question

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I I am going to speak. I am not going to speak. Am I going to speak?

you / we / they You are going to speak. You are not going to speak. Are you going to speak?

he / she / it

He is going to speak.

He is not going to speak.

Is he going to speak?

17.04.2

Use of going to Future

an action in the near future that has already been planned or prepared example: I am going to study harder next year. a conclusion regarding the immediate future example: The sky is absolutely dark. It is going to rain.

17.05

Signal Words
in one year, next week, tomorrow

18.00
18.01

Future I Progressive (Future I Continuous)
Form

Future I progressive puts emphasis on the course of an action taking place in the future.

A: He will be talking. N: He will not be talking. Q: Will he be talking?

18.02

Use
action that is going on at a certain time in the future action that is sure to happen in the near future

18.03

Signal Words
in one year, next week, tomorrow

18.04.
18.04.1

Future II Simple
Form

Future II Simple expresses an action that will be finished at a certain time in the future.

A: He will have talked. N: He will not have talked. Q: Will he have talked?

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18.04.02 18.04.03

Use Signal Words

action that will be finished at a certain time in the future

by Monday, in a week

19.00

Future II Progressive (Future II Continuous)

Future II progressive puts emphasis on the course / duration of an action taking place before a certain time in the future. It can also be used to express an assumption regarding a future action. Future II progressive is not used very often as it can usually be replaced by future II simple.

19.01

Form
A: He will have been talking. N: He will not have been talking. Q: Will he have been talking?

19.02

Use
action taking place before a certain time in the future puts emphasis on the course of an action

19.03

Signal Words
for ..., the last couple of hours, all day long

20.00 CONDITIONALS:There are two kinds of Conditional: real and unreal. Real Conditional describes real-life situations. Unreal Conditional describes unreal, imaginary situations. Although the various Conditional forms might seem quite abstract at first, they are actually some of the most useful structures in English and are commonly included in daily conversations. If you want to use the Conditional Pages as a reference only and do not want to complete the tutorial,

20.01

PRESENT CONDITIONAL:FORM
[If / When ... SIMPLE PRESENT, ... SIMPLE PRESENT...] or [... SIMPLE PRESENT ... if / when ... SIMPLE PRESENT...]

20.01.1 USE The Present Real Conditional is used to talk about what you normally do in real-life situations. EXAMPLES: If I go to a friend's house for dinner, I usually take a bottle of wine or some flowers. When I have a day off from work, I often go to the beach. If the weather is nice, she walks to work. Jerry helps me with my homework when he has time. I read if there is nothing on TV. 66

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com What do you do when it rains? I stay at home. Where do you stay if you go to Sydney? I stay with my friends near the harbor.

20.01.2

IMPORTANT If / When

Both "if" and "when" are used in the Present Real Conditional. Using "if" suggests that something happens less frequently. Using "when" suggests that something happens regularly. EXAMPLES: When I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach. (I regularly have days off from work.) If I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach. (I rarely have days off from work.)

20.02 Present Unreal Conditional FORM
[If ... SIMPLE PAST... ... would + VERB...] or [... would + VERB ... if ... SIMPLE PAST...] 20.02.1 USE The Present Unreal Conditional is used to talk about what you would do in imaginary situations in general. EXAMPLES: If I had a car, I would drive to work. But I don't have a car. She would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesn't have much money. I would read more if I didn't have a TV. Mary would move to Japan if she spoke Japanese. If they worked harder, they would earn more money. What would you do if you won the lottery? I would travel. Where would you live if you moved to the U.S.? I would live in Seattle.

20.02.2

EXCEPTION If I were ...

In the Present Unreal Conditional, the form "was" is not considered grammatically correct. In written English or in testing situations, you should always use "were." However, in everyday conversation, "was" is often used. EXAMPLES: If he were French, he would live in Paris. If she were rich, she would buy a yacht. I would play basketball if I were taller. I would buy that computer if it were cheaper. I would buy that computer if it were cheaper. NOT CORRECT (But often said in conversation.)

20.02.3

EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs

There are some special Conditional forms for modal verbs in English: Would + can = could would + shall = should would + may = might The words "can," "shall" and "may" must be used in these special forms; they cannot be used with "would." EXAMPLES: 67

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com If I went to Egypt, I would can learn Arabic. NOT CORRECT If I went to Egypt, I could learn Arabic. CORRECT If she had time, she would may go to the party. NOT CORRECT If she had time, she might go to the party. CORRECT The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would." EXAMPLES: If I had more time, I would could exercise after work. NOT CORRECT If I had more time, I could exercise after work. CORRECT If he invited you, you really would should go. NOT CORRECT If he invited you, you really should go. CORRECT

20.02.4

IMPORTANT Only use "If"

Only the word "if" is used with the Present Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used. EXAMPLES: I would buy that computer when it were cheaper. NOT CORRECT I would buy that computer if it were cheaper. CORRECT

21.00

PAST CONDITIONAL:-

Past Real Conditional FORM [If / When ... SIMPLE PAST... ... SIMPLE PAST ...] or [... SIMPLE PAST... if / when ... SIMPLE PAST...]
21.01 USE The Past Real Conditional describes what you used to do in particular real life situations. It suggests that your habits have changed and you do not usually do these things today. EXAMPLES: If I went to a friend's house for dinner, I usually took a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore. When I had a day off from work, I often went to the beach. Now, I never get time off. If the weather was nice, she often walked to work. Now, she usually drives. Jerry always helped me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore. I usually read if there was nothing on TV. What did you usually do when it rained? I usually stayed at home.

21.01.1

IMPORTANT Used to

The form "Used to" is often used to emphasize that the past action was a habit. If you are not familiar with the form "Used to," EXAMPLES: 68

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com If I went to a friend’s house for dinner, I used to take a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore. When I had a day off from work, I used to go to the beach. Now, I never get time off. If the weather was nice, she used to walk to work. Now, she usually drives. Jerry used to help me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore. What did you do when it rained? I used to stay at home.

21.01.2

IMPORTANT If / When

Both "if" and "when" are used in the Past Real Conditional. Using "if" suggests that something happened less frequently. Using "when" suggests that something happened regularly. EXAMPLES: When I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach. (I regularly had days off from work.) If I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach. (I rarely had days off from work.)

21.02 Past Unreal Conditional FORM
[If ... PAST PERFECT... ... would have + PAST PARTICIPLE...] or [... would have + PAST PARTICIPLE ... if ... PAST PERFECT...] 21.02.1 USE The Past Unreal Conditional is used to talk about imaginary situations in the past. You can describe what you would have done differently or how something could have happened differently if circumstances had been different. EXAMPLES: If I had had a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn't have one, so I took the bus. She would have traveled around the world if she had had more money. But she didn't have much money, so she never traveled. I would have read more as a child if I hadn't had a TV. Unfortunately, I did have a TV, so I never read for entertainment. Mary would have gotten the job and moved to Japan if she had studied Japanese in school instead of French. If they had worked harder, they would have earned more money. Unfortunately, they were lazy and they didn't earn much. What would you have done if you had won the lottery last week? I would have traveled. What city would you have chosen if you had decided to move to the United States? I would have chosen Seattle.

21.02.2

EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs

There are some special Conditional forms for modal verbs in English: Would have + can = could have would have + shall = should have would have + may = might have The words "can," "shall" and "may" must be used in these special forms; they cannot be used with "would have." EXAMPLES: If I had gone to Egypt, I could have learned Arabic. CORRECT 69

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com If she had had time, she might have gone to the party. CORRECT The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include Conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would." EXAMPLES: If I had had more time, I would have could exercise after work. NOT CORRECT If I had had more time, I could have exercised after work. CORRECT If he had invited you, you would have might go. NOT CORRECT If he had invited you, you might have gone. CORRECT

21.02.3

IMPORTANT Only use "If"

Only the word "if" is used with the Past Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used. EXAMPLES: I would have bought that computer when it had been cheaper. NOT CORRECT I would have bought that computer if it had been cheaper. CORRECT Future Conditionals

22.00 Future Real Conditional FORM
[If / When ...SIMPLE PRESENT... ... SIMPLE FUTURE.] Or [... SIMPLE FUTURE... if / when ... SIMPLE PRESENT...] Notice that there is no future in the "If" or "When" clause. 22.01 USE The Future Real Conditional describes what you think you will do in a specific situation in the future. It is different from other real conditional forms because, unlike the present or the past, you do not know what will happen in the future. Although this form is called a "real conditional," you are usually imagining or guessing about the future. It is called "real" because it is still possible that the action might occur in the future. Carefully study the following examples and compare them to the Future Unreal Conditional described below. EXAMPLES: If I go to my friend's house for dinner tonight, I will take a bottle of wine or some flowers. (I am still not sure if I will go to his house or not.) When I have a day off from work, I am going to go to the beach. (I have to wait until I have a day off.) If the weather is nice, she is going to walk to work. (It depends on the weather.) Jerry will help me with my homework when he has time. (I have to wait until he has time.) I am going to read if there is nothing on TV. (It depends on the TV schedule.) What are you going to do if it rains? I am going to stay at home.

22.01.1

IMPORTANT If / When

Both "if" and "when" are used in the Future Real Conditional, but the use is different from other real conditionals. In the Future Real Conditional, "if" suggests that you do not know if something will happen or 70

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com not. "When" suggests that something will definitely happen at some point; we are simply waiting for it to occur. Notice also that the Simple Future is not used in "if' clauses or "when" clauses. EXAMPLES: When you call me, I will give you the address. (You are going to call me later, and at that time, I will give you the address.) If you call me, I will give you the address. (If you want the address, you can call me.)

22.02

Future Unreal Conditional FORM 1 (MOST COMMON FORM)
[If ... SIMPLE PAST... ... would + VERB...] or [... would + VERB ... if ... SIMPLE PAST...] Notice the form looks the same as Present Unreal Conditional.

22.02.1 USE The Future Unreal Conditional is used to talk about imaginary situations in the future. It is not as common as the Future Real Conditional because most English speakers leave open the possibility that anything MIGHT happen in the future. It is only used when a speaker needs to emphasize that something is impossible. EXAMPLES: If I had a day off from work next week, I would go to the beach. (I don't have a day off from work.) I am busy next week. If I had time, I would come to your party. (I can't come.) Jerry would help me with my homework tomorrow if he didn't have to work. (He does have to work tomorrow.)

22.03

FORM 2 (COMMON)

[If ... were VERB+ing... ... would be + VERB+ing...] or [... would be + VERB+ing ... if ... were VERB+ing...] 22.03.1 USE Form 2 of the Future Unreal Conditional is also used to talk about imaginary situations in the future. Native speakers use this form rather than Form 1 to emphasize that the Conditional form is a plan in the same way Present Continuous is used to indicate a plan in the future. To learn more about Present Continuous, Also notice in the examples below that this form can be used in the "If" Clause, the Result, or both parts of the sentence. EXAMPLES: If I were going to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. IN IF CLAUSE AND RESULT (I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.) If I were not visiting my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study. IF CLAUSE (I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow.) I am busy next week. If I had time, I would be coming to your party. RESULT (I am not going to come to your party.)

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22.04

FORM 3 (COMMON)

[If ... were going to VERB... ... would be + VERB+ing...] or [... would be + VERB+ing ... if ... were going to + VERB...] 22.04.1 USE Form 3 of the Future Unreal Conditional is also used to talk about imaginary situations in the future. Native speakers use this form rather than Form 1 to emphasize that the Conditional form is a plan or prediction in the same way "Going To" is used to indicate a plan or prediction. To learn more about Going To, In many sentences, Form 2 and Form 3 are interchangeable. Also notice in the examples below that this form can be used in the If Clause, the Result, or both parts of the sentence. NOTICE Form 3 is only different from Form 2 in the "If" Clause. EXAMPLES: If I were going to go to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. IN IF CLAUSE AND RESULT (I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.) If I were not going to visit my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study. IF CLAUSE (I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow.) I am busy next week. If I had time, I would be coming to your party. RESULT (I am not going to come to your party.)

22.05

EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs

There are some special Conditional forms for modal verbs in English: Would + can = could would + shall = should would + may = might The words "can," "shall" and "may" must be used in these special forms; they cannot be used with "would." EXAMPLES: If I went to Egypt next year, I would can learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. NOT CORRECT If I went to Egypt next year, I could learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. CORRECT The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would." EXAMPLES: If I didn't have to work tonight, I would could go to the fitness center. NOT CORRECT If I didn't have to work tonight, I could go to the fitness center. CORRECT

22.05.1

IMPORTANT Only use "If"

Only the word "if" is used with the Past Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used. EXAMPLES: I would buy that computer tomorrow when it were cheaper. NOT CORRECT I would buy that computer tomorrow if it were cheaper. CORRECT

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Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com Compare Future Real Conditional and Future Unreal Conditional to help you understand the difference between the Future Real Conditional and the Future Unreal Conditional, compare the examples below, EXAMPLES: If you help me move tomorrow, I will buy you dinner. FUTURE REAL CONDITIONAL (I don't know if you can help me.) If you helped me move tomorrow, I would buy you dinner. FUTURE UNREAL CONDITIONAL (You can't help me, or you don't want to help me.)

Continuous Conditionals
Continuous Unreal Conditionals Those of you who have studied Verb Tense Tutorial should be familiar with Continuous verb tenses such as Present Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous, and Future Perfect Continuous. But many English learners are not aware of the fact that we can use continuousness in imaginary situations as well. Study the examples below to learn how to create Continuous Unreal Conditional sentences that will make you sound like a native speaker. Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous USE Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous is used to discuss imaginary situations which could be happening at this very moment. NOTICE Sometimes the continuous form is in the "If" Clause.

EXAMPLES: If the sun were shining, I would go to the beach. (Unfortunately, it is raining so I can't go.) If Sam were sitting here, we would be able to ask him the question ourselves. (But Sam is not sitting here. He is somewhere else.) We would be able to go sailing if the wind were blowing. (But there is no wind, so we can't go sailing.) NOTICE Sometimes the continuous form is in the Result. EXAMPLES: If I were in Hawaii, I would be lying on the beach. (But I am not in Hawaii.) If my grandfather were here, he would be talking about the war. (But he is not here.) I would be rafting down the Colorado River right now if my leg weren't broken. (But my leg is broken, so I am not there.) Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous USE Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous is used to discuss imaginary situations happening at a very specific time in the past or over a period of time in the past. NOTICE As in the examples above, sometimes the continuous form is in the "If" Clause and sometimes it is in the Result. The sentences below have been labeled to help remind you where the continuous form is being used. 73

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com EXAMPLES: If I had been talking to him when he said that, I would have punched him in the face. IF CLAUSE (But I wasn't talking to him when he said that.) If he had been standing near the house when the wall collapsed, it would have killed him. IF CLAUSE (Luckily he moved away before the wall fell.) If you had gone to his house last night, he would have been sitting on his couch in front of the TV. RESULT (But you didn't go to his house, so you didn't see what he was doing.) If she had missed her train, he would have been waiting for her at the station for hours. RESULT (Luckily, she caught her train and he didn't have to wait.) NOTICE Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous can be used like the Past Continuous in imaginary situations to emphasize interruptions or parallel actions in the past. EXAMPLES: If James had been crossing the street when the car ran the red light, it would have hit him. IF CLAUSE If Tom had been studying while Becky was making dinner, he would have finished his homework early and they could have gone to the movie. IF CLAUSE If James hadn't stopped to tie his shoe, he would have been crossing the street when the car ran the red light. RESULT If you had gone to their house last night, Bob would have been reading the news paper, Nancy would have been talking on the phone and the kids would have been watching TV. They always do the same things. RESULT NOTICE Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous can be used like Present Perfect Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous in imaginary situations to emphasize a duration of time. EXAMPLES: Scott said he had been studying Greek for more than five years. If he had been studying the language that long, I think he would have been able to interpret for us at the airport. IF CLAUSE Sarah claimed she had been waiting in the rain for more than twenty minutes by the time we arrived, but she wasn't even wet. If she had been waiting that long, I think she would have been totally drenched by the time we arrived. IF CLAUSE Terry's plane arrived ahead of schedule. If I hadn't decided to go to the airport early, she would have been waiting there for more than twenty minutes before I arrived. RESULT At the travel agency yesterday, I waited for more than an hour for somebody to help me. Finally, I got up and left. If I hadn't decided to leave, I would have been sitting there forever. RESULT Imagining About the Future + Continuous USE Future Unreal Conditional + Continuous can be used like the Future Continuous in imaginary situations to emphasize interruptions or parallel actions in the future. NOTICE The future form looks the same as the present form. The future is indicated with words such as "tomorrow," "next week" or "in a couple of days." EXAMPLES: If I were waiting there next week when he gets off the plane, he would be totally surprised. IF CLAUSE (But I will not be waiting there, so he won't be surprised.) 74

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com If he were staying in that hotel next week while the conference is being held, he might be able to meet some of the key speakers and tell them about our new product. IF CLAUSE (I don't think he will be able to stay at the hotel, so he won't be able to meet anybody there.) If I were able to go to the train station tonight to meet Sandra, I would be standing on the platform waiting for her when she arrives. RESULT (I won't be able to go to the train station so I will not be standing there when she arrives.) If you went over to Paul's house after work, he would probably be sitting there at his computer surfing the Internet. RESULT

25.00

Mixed Conditionals

Mixed Conditionals Those of you who have been following the Conditional Tutorial should now be familiar with Present, Past and Future Conditional verb forms. Sometimes Unreal Conditional sentences are "Mixed". This means that the time in the "If" Clause is not the same as the time in the Result. Study the examples below to learn how to mix conditional verb forms like a native speaker. Verbs in green are in the Present Unreal Conditional. Verbs in orange are in the Past Unreal Conditional. Verbs in purple are in the Future Unreal Conditional. Mixed Conditional Patterns

25.01

PAST PRESENT EXAMPLES:

If I had won the lottery, I would be rich. (But I didn't win the lottery in the past and I am not rich now.) If I had taken French in high school, I would have more job opportunities. (But I didn't take French in high school and I don't have many job opportunities.) If she had been born in the United States, she wouldn't need a visa to work here. (But she wasn't born in the United States and she does need a visa now to work here.)

25.02

PAST FUTURE EXAMPLES:

If she had signed up for the ski trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow. (But she didn't sign up for the ski trip last week and she isn't going to join us tomorrow.) If Mark had gotten the job instead of Joe, he would be moving to Shanghai. (But Mark didn't get the job instead of Joe and Mark is not going to move to Shanghai.) If Darren hadn't wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas, he would go to Mexico with us next month. (But Darren wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas and he won't go to Mexico with us next month.)

25.03

PRESENT PAST EXAMPLES:

If I were rich, I would have bought that Ferrari we saw yesterday. (But I am not currently rich and that is why I didn't buy the Ferrari yesterday.) If Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you. (But Sam doesn't speak Russian and that is why he didn't translate the letter.) 75

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com If I didn't have to work so much, I would have gone to the party last night. (But I have to work a lot and that is why I didn't go to the party last night.)

25.04

PRESENT FUTURE EXAMPLES:

If I didn't have so much vacation time, I wouldn't go with you on the cruise to Alaska next week. (But I do have a lot of vacation time and I will go on the trip next week.) If Cindy were more creative, the company would send her to New York to work on the new advertising campaign. (But Cindy is not creative and the company won't send her to New York to work on the new campaign.) If Dan weren't so nice, he wouldn't be tutoring you in math tonight. (But Dan is nice and he is going to tutor you tonight.)

25.05

FUTURE PAST EXAMPLES:

If I weren't going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at work. (But I am going to go on a business trip next week, and that is why I didn't accept that new assignment at work.) If my parents weren't coming this weekend, I would have planned a nice trip just for the two of us to Napa Valley. (But my parents are going to come this weekend, and that is why I didn't plan a trip for the two of us to Napa Valley.) If Donna weren't making us a big dinner tonight, I would have suggested that we go to that nice Italian restaurant. (But she is going to make us a big dinner tonight, and that is why I didn't suggest that we go to that nice Italian restaurant.)

25.06

FUTURE PRESENT EXAMPLES:

If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited. (But I am not going to go to that concert tonight and that is why I am not excited.) If Sandy were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous. (But Sandy is not going to give a speech tomorrow and that is why she in not nervous.) If Seb didn't come with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed. (But Seb will come with us to the desert and that is why everyone is so happy.)

25.06.1

"

Were to"

"Were to" in the Present FORM
[If... were to + VERB...] USE "Were to" can be used in the present to emphasize that the Conditional form is extremely unlikely or unthinkably horrible. Notice that this special form is only used in the "If" Clause. EXAMPLES: If she were to be rich, she would be horribly obnoxious. (It is very unlikely that she would be rich.) 76

Grammar: Part of Speech & Tenses Prepared by: Khushal Khan “Khugiani” Cell No. 0093-70-238830 Or 0092-345-9181208. E-mail: khushal_khugiani@yahoo.com If I were to have no friends, who would I spend my time with? (Having no friends is a horrible thought.) If Nathan were to be my boss, this job would be intolerable. (Nathan's being my boss is a horrible concept.)

25.06.1.A

"Were to" in the Future FORM
[If... were to + VERB...]

USE "Were to" can be used in the future to emphasize that the Conditional form is extremely unlikely or unthinkably horrible. Notice that this special form is only used in the "If" Clause EXAMPLES: If I were to lose my job, I would probably not find a new one quickly. (Loosing my job would be terrible.) If he were to fail his driving test, he would have to take it again. (He is not likely to fail his driving test.) If Sarah were to show up late to the birthday party, it would ruin the surprise. (Sarah will surely come on time.)

25.06.1.B

"Were to" in the Past FORM

[If... were to have + PAST PARTICIPLE...] USE "Were to" can be used in the past to emphasize that the Conditional form is extremely unlikely or unthinkably horrible. Notice that this special form is only used in the "If" Clause. EXAMPLES: If the fire were to have destroyed the building, it would have been a tragic cultural loss. (The thought of such a loss is too horrible to consider.) If the dam were to have burst, the entire town would have been destroyed. (Such destruction is too horrible to consider.)

1. "Imagination is the highest kite that one can fly." 2. "People see Allah everyday. They just don't recognize Him." 3. "The best thing to give to your enemy is forgiveness; to an opponent, tolerance; to a friend, your heart; to your child, a good example; to a father, deference; to your mother, conduct that will make her proud of you; to yourself, respect; to all men, charity." 4. "Age is strictly a case of mind over matter. If you don't mind, it doesn't matter." 5. "Let the world know you as you are, not as you think you should be, because sooner or later, if you are posing, you will forget the pose, and then where are you?" 6. "The way to love anything / anyone is to realize that it might be lost." 7. "No one is useless in this world, which lightens the burden of it to anyone else." 8. "I have not failed; I have only found 10,000 ways that will not work." 9. "Keep true; never be ashamed of doing right. Decide on what you think is right, and stick to it." 77

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