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INDIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM
Promotes the well being and standard of living of the people of a country Money and monetary benefits Mobilize the savings Promotes investment
Financial System of any country consists of financial markets, financial intermediation and financial instruments or financial products.
Mid 1960s to early 1990s Characterized by:
a. b. c. d. e.
Over controlled and rigid system Administered interest rates Industrial licensing & controls, quantitative restrictions and high tariffs Dominant public sector Limited competition High capital-output ratio
Banks and financial institutions acted as a deposit agencies Price discovery process was prevented Till 90s it was closed, highly regulated, and segmented system Government failed to generate resources for investment and public services
STEPS TAKEN – in a nutshell
Government liberalized the various sectors in the economy Economic Reforms initiated in June 1991.
Reforms in the fields of:
q q q q q
banking sector debt market foreign exchange market capital markets economic reforms
Reorientation of the economy Macro economic stability To increase competitive efficiency in the operations To remove structural rigidities and inefficiencies To attain a balance b/w thr goals of financial stability and integrated & efficient markets
THE STABILIZATION POLICIES
Aimed at reducing the balance of payments deficit by:
Reducing the rate of fiscal growth Curbing the excess demand on Indian foreign exchange reserves licensing
b. Monetary tightening c.
d. Reduced tariffs and abolishment of import e.
REFORMS IN THE BANKING SECTOR
AIM: bringing in international best practices in a phased manner in the areas of capital adequacy requirement, accounting, income recognition and provisions for risk exposure
Allowed public listing Increase capital through disinvestment Enhance competition Slashed rates of CRR & SLR
Impact of Reforms on the Banking Industry
It has been observed that the banking sector in India has provided a mixed response to the reforms initiated by the RBI and the Govt. of India since the 1991. The sector has responded very positively in the field of enhancing the role of market forces, regarding measures of prudential regulations of accounting, etc.. But at the same time the reform has failed to bring up a banking system which is at par with the international level and
Reduce the level of state ownership in banking Lift restrictions on foreign ownership of banks Speed up the development of electronic payments Separate the RBI’s regulatory and Central-bank functions Strengthen legal protections the insurance industry
Reforms in Debt Market
Dominated by “G-Secs” Publication of transactions maintain transparency Market stabilization scheme Significant reforms:- CCIL WDM NDS
Foreign exchange market reforms
Since 1950s Controlled strictly Partial convertibility announced in 199293 FERA replaced by FEMA in 1999 Authorized dealers were permitted to use innovative products:-Cross currency option Interest rate and currency
Reforms in Capital Market
Prior to 1991, Ministry of finance controlled the price and quantity of IPOs BSE members dominates the market The New Economic Policy led to a major change. SEBI was set up in 1988 and got the statutory powers in 1992
Allowing FII Incorporation of National Stock exchange Depositories Act Derivatives Trading
Dynamic Capital Market
Economic Reforms and Impact on India
Impressive acceleration in annual GDP growth Saved from being swept away during the Asian crisis “Goldilocks Globalization” Financially stabled economy
By: Punnet Ankit Janaki Varun Tanvi Ayush Taniya