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Published by Suman Gadwal

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Suman Gadwal on Sep 18, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Represent basic, enduring convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existence."


and behavior Influence perception and cloud objectivity 4-3 . motivation.Value Systems Represent a prioritizing of individual values by: Content – importance to the individual Intensity – relative importance with other values The hierarchy tends to be relatively stable Values are the foundation for attitudes.

Rokeach Value Survey Terminal values refers to desirable end-states of existence Goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental values refers to preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving the terminal values 4-4 .

active life)  A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution)  A world of peace (free of war and conflict)  A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts)  Equality (brotherhood. equal opportunity for all)  Family security (taking care of loved ones)  Freedom (independence.Examples of Terminal Values  A comfortable life (a prosperous life)  An exciting life (stimulating. free choice)  Happiness (contentedness) 4-5 .

joyful)  Clean (neat. aspiring)  Broad-minded (open-minded)  Capable (competent. efficient)  Cheerful (lighthearted. tidy)  Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)  Forgiving (willing to pardon others)  Helpful (working for the welfare of others)  Honest (sincere.Examples of Instrumental Values  Ambitious (hard working. truthful) 4-6 .

Job Satisfaction • Job satisfaction .evaluative statements.any intentional employee behavior that is potentially damaging to the organization or to individuals within the organization.an employee’s general attitude toward his or her job. • Attitudes . . either favorable or unfavorable. people. • Workplace misbehavior . concerning objects. or events.

that part of an attitude that’s made up of the beliefs. knowledge. • Behavioral component . • Affective component .that part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.that part of an attitude that’s the emotional or feeling part.Job Satisfaction • Cognitive component . . or information held by a person. opinions.

Sample Employee Attitude Survey .

. • Organizational commitment .the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in that organization.Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment • Job involvement . actively participates in it.the degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job. and considers his or her job performance to be important to selfworth.

.Organizational Commitment • Perceived employees’ organizational general belief support that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.

a process by which we give meaning to our environment by organizing and interpreting sensory impressions. .Perception Perception .

how the actions of individuals are perceived by others depends on what meaning (causation) we attribute to a given behavior.How We Perceive People Attribution Theory . – Internally caused behavior: under the individual’s control – Externally caused behavior: due to outside factors .

• Fundamental attribution error . • Self-serving bias .the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and to overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors. .the tendency of individuals to attribute their successes to internal factors while blaming personal failures on external factors.

After a short period. and you will only see only a single green dot rotating. the dots will remain only one color. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 14-15 . • However if you stare at the black '+' in the center. concentrate on the black '+' in the center of the picture. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education.Perception Exercise • If your eyes follow the movement of the rotating pink dot. • Now. all the pink dots will slowly disappear. the moving dot turns to green. pink.

• Stereotyping .Shortcuts Used in Judging Others • Assumed similarity .a general impression of an individual based on a single characteristic. . • Halo effect .judging a person on the basis of one’s perception of a group to which he or she belongs.the assumption that others are like oneself.

any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. • Learning is a continuous. life-long process. • The principles of learning can be used to shape behavior. • Theories of learning: – Operant conditioning – Social learning . • Almost all complex behavior is learned.Psychological Factors – Learning • Learning .

a theory of learning that says behavior is a function of its consequences – Operant behavior: voluntary or learned behaviors • Behavior that is rewarded (positively reinforced) is likely to be repeated.Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning . . • Behavior that is punished or ignored is less likely to be repeated.

Social Learning Social learning theory . .a theory of learning that says people can learn through observation and direct experience.


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