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Timothy Vismor February 23, 2012
Abstract is document describes an overhead transmission line model that is useful for the analysis of large scale electric power systems. It establishes practical techniques for computing the series impedance and shunt admittance of arbitrary conductor con gurations. Consideration is given to computational aspects of computing transmission line impedance parameters.
Copyright © 1990-2012 Timothy Vismor
1 Approximation of P and Q in Carson’s Equations . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Carson’s Equations . . . . . 7 16 2 .4. . 2. . .2 Self Potential Unit Conversions . . . . . . 6 List of Tables 1 2 Range of the Constant k . 3. . . . . . . . .3.2 Impedance of an N Conductor Transmission Line . . . . . . 3 Shunt Admittance 3. . . . . . 2. . Impedance Unit Conversions . . . .1 Computation of k in the Series Approximation to P and Q . . . . . . .3.3 Shunt Admittance and Reactance Matrices . .3 Use of First Order Approximations to P and Q . . . . . . . . . . 4 Units of Measure . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES Contents 1 Introduction 2 Series Impedance 2. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . .1 Potential Coeﬃcient Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Linear Charge Density Along a Single Conductor 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. . . . .3 Unit Conversions Associated With GMR Terms . . 2. . . . 3. . . . 3. 2. . . . 2. . . .2 Constants in the P and Q Terms of Carson’s Equations 2. . .3. . . . . .3 Series Impedance Computations . .4 Shunt Admittance Computations . . . . . . . . .2 Capacitance of N Conductors . . . . . .4. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 14 15 List of Figures 1 Transmission Line Geometry . . . . . . . . . . .2 Accuracy of Approximations to P and Q . . . . .
e analysis is limited to overhead transmission lines. ese equations have been discussed and elaborated upon many times over the years. line geometry. Information about these conductors is transformed into parameters required for power system analysis as follows: • e fundamental data consists of a description of each conductor and how the conductors are arranged on their support structures. In the fundamental work on the subject. Carson(1926)  developed equations for the self impedance of a conductor with earth return and the mutual impedance of two conductors with common earth return.2 SERIES IMPEDANCE 1 Introduction Transmission and distribution lines consist of an arbitrary spatial arrangement of one or more conductors. • e impedance matrix is reduced to eliminate elements that are not required by the analysis. Clarke(1943) . e remainder of this document examines the rst two stages of this modeling process in detail. conductor geometry. conductor resistance. • e reduced impedance matrix is converted to symmetrical components when sequence impedances are required. Wagner and Evans(1933) . e current formulation of the problem draws from each of these sources but follows the exposition of Clarke(1943)  most closely. • Conductor and spacing information is converted into an impedance matrix representing the self and mutual impedances of the complete con guration. they can be transformed into a reduced impedance matrix. and Anderson(1987)  provide excellent complementary discussions of the topic. and earth conductivity. 2 Series Impedance e series impedance of an overhead transmission line is primarily a function of frequency. we examine techniques for transforming conductor parameters and con guration data into impedance and capacitance matrices. If sequence impedances are the only available information. at is. 3 .
𝑔𝑚𝑟𝑖 is the eﬀective radius (or geometric mean radius) of conductor 𝑖 in centimeters. the self-impedance 𝐙𝐢𝐢−𝐠 and mutual impedance 𝐙𝐢𝐣−𝐠 can be decomposed into their real and imaginary components 𝐙𝐢𝐢−𝐠 = 𝑅𝑖𝑖−𝑔 + 𝑗𝑋𝑖𝑖−𝑔 𝐙𝐢𝐣−𝐠 = 𝑅𝑖𝑗−𝑔 + 𝑗𝑋𝑖𝑗−𝑔 (3) (4) Collecting terms in Equation 1 and Equation 2 and comparing to Equation 3 and Equation 4. where 𝑓 is the frequency in cycles per second. 𝑟𝑖 is the internal resistance of conductor 𝑖. ℎ𝑖 is the height of conductor 𝑖 in centimeters.1 Carson’s Equations 2 SERIES IMPEDANCE 2. 𝑑𝑖𝑗 the distance between conductors 𝑖 and 𝑗 in centimeters. 𝐷𝑖𝑗 the distance between conductor 𝑖 and the image of conductor 𝑗 in centimeters. 𝜔 is 2𝜋𝑓 .2.1 Carson’s Equations Carson’s formulas are 𝐙𝐢𝐢−𝐠 = 𝑟𝑖 + 𝑗2𝜔𝑙𝑛 𝐙𝐢𝐣−𝐠 = 𝑗2𝜔𝑙𝑛 2ℎ𝑖 + 4𝜔(𝑃 + 𝑗𝑄) 𝑔𝑚𝑟𝑖 𝐷𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑗 + 4𝜔(𝑃 + 𝑗𝑄) (1) (2) where 𝐙𝐢𝐢−𝐠 is the self-impedance of conductor 𝑖 with ground return. 𝐙𝐢𝐣−𝐠 is the mutual impedance between conductors 𝑖 and 𝑗 with common ground return. Obviously. it is apparent that 𝑅𝑖𝑖−𝑔 = 𝑟𝑖 + 4𝜔𝑃 𝑅𝑖𝑗−𝑔 = 4𝜔𝑃 𝑋𝑖𝑖−𝑔 = 2𝜔𝑙𝑛 2ℎ𝑖 + 4𝜔𝑄 𝑔𝑚𝑟𝑗 𝐷𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑗 + 4𝜔𝑄 (5) (6) (7) (8) 𝑋𝑖𝑗−𝑔 = 2𝜔𝑙𝑛 4 .
2. call them 𝑘 and 𝜃 .1. For self impedances 𝑘 = 4𝜋ℎ𝑖 √2𝜆𝑓 𝜃 = 0 (9) (10) For mutual impedances 𝑘 = 2𝜋𝐷𝑖𝑗 √2𝜆𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑠−1 (ℎ𝑖 + ℎ𝑗 ) 𝐷𝑖𝑗 (11) (12) 𝜃 = where 𝜆 is the earth conductivity in ab℧/cm3 .1 Carson’s Equations 2 SERIES IMPEDANCE 2.0386 + 𝑙𝑛 + 𝑘 − 𝜋𝑘2 2 𝑘 64 3√2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (4𝜃) (1. e rst few terms of the expansion of 𝑃 and 𝑄 follow: 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (2𝜃) (0.0895 + 𝑙𝑛 𝑘 ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (4𝜃) + 𝑘 − 𝑘4 − 𝑘4 384 384 45√2 3 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (3𝜃) 2 (14) 5 . However. Figure 1 de nes the line geometry associated with Equation 9 through Equation 12. 𝜃 is the angle de ned in Figure 1.6728 + 𝑙𝑛 𝑘 ) 𝜃𝑠𝑖𝑛 (2𝜃) 𝜋 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 2 𝑃 = − 𝑘 + 𝑘 + 𝑘2 8 16 16 3√2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (3𝜃) 𝜋𝑐𝑜𝑠 (4𝜃) + 𝑘3 − 𝑘4 1536 45√2 (13) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (2𝜃) 1 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑄 = − 0.1 Approximation of P and Q in Carson’s Equations e 𝑃 and 𝑄 terms in the preceding equations are de ned by Carson as an in nite series expressed in terms of two parameters. e form of 𝑃 and 𝑄 are the same for Equation 1 and Equation 2. the value of 𝑘 and 𝜃 diﬀer.
2.1 Carson’s Equations 2 SERIES IMPEDANCE Figure 1: Transmission Line Geometry 6 .
1391 0.Large double circuit transmission tower 10 Ω/m3 .1730 100 Ω/m3 1000 Ω/m3 100 ft .0386 + 𝑙𝑛 2 𝑘 is practice eﬀectively decouples the series impedance from the conductor’s height above ground.Resistivity of swampy ground 100 Ω/m3 .Resistivity of dry earth 2.3916 1.Resistivity of average damp earth 1000 Ω/m3 . let 𝑃 = 𝜋 8 (15) (16) 1 2 𝑄 = −0. and resistivities.7300 0. frequencies. According to Wagner and Evans(1933) .e.1.5471 0. it is common practice to ignore the higher order terms of the expansion of 𝑃 and 𝑄. Table 1 shows the wide applicability of these expressions for fundamental and harmonic analysis of power systems by examining values of 𝑘 for a range of geometries.2 Accuracy of Approximations to P and Q 2 SERIES IMPEDANCE Clarke(1943)  states that Equation 13 and Equation 14 exhibit less than one percent error for values of 𝑘 up to one.2.3 Use of First Order Approximations to P and Q At 60 Hz.4196 1.4401 0.1 Carson’s Equations 2.1. i.1327 0. this omission 7 .0419 0. Table 1: Range of the Constant k Distance 100 ft Frequency 60 Hz 660 Hz 1020 Hz 60 Hz 660 Hz 1020 Hz 60 Hz 660 Hz 1020 Hz Earth Resistivity 10 Ω/m3 k 0.
mutual reactance errors are more volatile. 2.2 Impedance of an N Conductor Transmission Line e two conductor problem of Section 2. 𝑅𝑖𝑗−𝑔 . 𝑖𝑛 are owing through the conductors. these tendencies are magni ed. If currents 𝑖1 . the voltage drop along conductor 𝑖 is 𝐕𝐢 = 𝑖1 𝑍𝑖1−𝑔 + ⋯ + 𝑖𝑖 𝑍𝑖𝑖−𝑔 + ⋯ + 𝑖𝑛 𝑍𝑖𝑛 (17) Similar equations can be constructed for all conductors in the group. 𝑓 = 60.e. However. and 𝑋𝑖𝑗−𝑔 are de ned by Equation 5 through Equation 8. and 𝐷𝑖𝑗 = 200 feet. e elements of the impedance matrix 𝐙𝐬𝐞𝐫𝐢𝐞𝐬 are computed using Carson’s equations: 𝐳𝐢𝐣 = 𝑅𝑖𝑖−𝑔 + 𝑗𝑋𝑖𝑖−𝑔 𝑅𝑖𝑗−𝑔 + 𝑗𝑋𝑖𝑗−𝑔 if 𝑖 = 𝑗 if 𝑖 ≠ 𝑗 (19) where 𝑅𝑖𝑖−𝑔 . i. Under similar circumstances. 𝐈 is the current vector. 𝐙𝐬𝐞𝐫𝐢𝐞𝐬 is the series impedance matrix. ⋯ . At higher harmonics.2. At commercial frequencies and low earth resistivities (𝜌 = 10). Expressing the complete set of 𝑛 voltage drop equations in matrix notation yields 𝐕 = 𝐙𝐬𝐞𝐫𝐢𝐞𝐬 𝐈 (18) where 𝐕 is the voltage vector. the rst order approximations may introduce resistance errors in the neighborhood of 10 per cent. the low order approximation of 𝑄 understates the mutual reactance by much as 4 per cent. 𝐘𝐬𝐞𝐫𝐢𝐞𝐬 = 𝐙−𝟏 𝐬𝐞𝐫𝐢𝐞𝐬 (20) 8 . 𝑖2 . 𝑋𝑖𝑖−𝑔 . For 𝜌 = 10. self reactance errors rarely exceed one per cent.2 Impedance of an N Conductor Transmission2 SERIES IMPEDANCE Line tends to overstate the computed resistance and understate the computed reactance.1 can be generalized to a group of 𝑛 conductors with a common ground return. e series admittance of the 𝑛 conductor con guration can be determined by inverting its impedance matrix.
𝑑 is a distance in centimeters. In the US.3. commonly published units) by substituting earth resistivity (Ω/m3 ) for conductivity and distance in conductor separation units for distance in centimeters as follows 𝑘 = 4𝜋𝑑(𝑢𝐶𝑆 → 𝑐𝑚) 2𝜆𝑓(𝜆 → 𝜌) 𝜌 (22) where 𝑢𝐶𝑆 is conductor separation unit. It is of the form 𝑘 = 4𝜋𝑑√2𝜆𝑓 (21) where 𝜆 is the earth conductivity in ab℧/cm3 . 𝜆 → 𝜌 is a constant converting ab℧/cm3 to Ω/m3 . 9 .3 Series Impedance Computations is discussion of overhead transmission line series impedance concludes with a brief dicussion of computing contant factors associated with the impedance matrix and reconciling units of measure while evaluating these constants. conductor separation is usually measured in feet.1 for details).2.e.1 Computation of k in the Series Approximation to P and Q e parameter 𝑘 appears in the series expansion which approximates the 𝑃 and 𝑄 terms of Carson’s equations (see Equation 9 and Equation 11 of Section 2. Assuming that the frequency and resitivity are constant for any set of impedance computations the bulk of the expression 4𝜋(𝑢𝑐𝑠 → 𝑐𝑚) 2𝜆𝑓(𝜆 → 𝜌) 𝜌 (23) is a constant which is computed once then stored for reuse. 𝑢𝐶𝑆 → 𝑐𝑚 is the number of centimeters in one conductor separation unit.3 Series Impedance Computations 2 SERIES IMPEDANCE 2.1. 2. is can be rewritten in terms of readily available quantities (i.
If impedances are expressed in Ω/𝑢𝐿𝐿 .2. i. i. i.1. 𝑙𝑛 2ℎ𝑖 𝑔𝑚𝑟𝑗 (28) is actually evaluated as 𝑙𝑛 2ℎ𝑖 𝑔𝑚𝑟𝑗 (𝑢𝐶𝑅 → 𝑢𝐶𝑆 ) (29) where 𝑢𝐶𝑅 → 𝑢𝐶𝑆 converts conductor radius units to conductor separation units.e.1) are also multiplied by half of this value.e.3. the conductor’s GMR must be converted to conductor separation units. line length is usually measured in miles.1 produce impedances in units of abΩ/cm. the terms 4𝜔𝑃 and 4𝜔𝑄 in Equation 5 through Equation 8 of Section 2. 2 ⋅ 2𝜋𝑓(𝑢𝑙𝑙 → 𝑐𝑚)(𝑎𝑏Ω → Ω) (27) Once again. both of these constants are calculated once then stored. In the US. 𝑢𝐿𝐿 → 𝑐𝑚 is the number of centimeters in one line length unit. 1 × 10−9 .e.1 is computed. these terms expand to 4𝜔(𝑢𝐿𝐿 → 𝑐𝑚)(𝑎𝑏Ω → Ω)𝑃 (24) and 4𝜔(𝑢𝐿𝐿 → 𝑐𝑚)(𝑎𝑏Ω → Ω)𝑄 (25) where 𝑢𝐿𝐿 is line length unit. 2.3 Series Impedance Computations 2 SERIES IMPEDANCE 2. both 𝑃 and 𝑄 are multiplied by the same factor 4 ⋅ 2𝜋𝑓(𝑢𝑙𝑙 → 𝑐𝑚)(𝑎𝑏Ω → Ω) (26) e rst terms of of the inductive reactance equations (Equation 7 and Equation 8 of Section 2. Factoring out a constant in this expression yields 10 .3 Unit Conversions Associated With GMR Terms When the logarithmic term in Equation 7 of Section 2. 𝑎𝑏Ω → Ω is a constant converting abΩ to Ω.3.2 Constants in the P and Q Terms of Carson’s Equations After 𝑃 and 𝑄 are computed. Assuming that the frequency is constant.
2ℎ𝑖 in Figure 1). e current discussion most closely follows the work of Anderson(1987) . the voltage of conductor 𝑖 to ground is 𝑉𝑖 = 𝑞1 𝑙𝑛 𝑑 𝑖1 + ⋯ + 𝑞𝑖 𝑙𝑛 𝑑𝑖𝑖 + ⋯ + 𝑞𝑛 𝑙𝑛 𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑖1 𝑖 𝑖𝑛 𝐷 𝐷 𝐷 2𝜋𝜖 (32) where 𝑞𝑖 is the charge of conductor 𝑖 in coulombs/meter. 𝑑𝑖 and 𝐷𝑖𝑖 or 𝑑𝑖𝑛 and 𝐷𝑖𝑛 ) of Equation 32 must be expressed in the same units. 11 . All of the references cited in Section 2 with regard to series impedance also touch upon the subject of self and mutual capacitance. Note: e distances associated with each logarithmic ratio (e.3 SHUNT ADMITTANCE 𝑙𝑛 𝑐ℎ𝑖 𝑔𝑚𝑟𝑗 (30) where 𝑐 = 2 𝑢𝐶𝑅 → 𝑢𝐶𝑆 (31) e factor 𝑐 is also calculated once and stored.g. 𝐷𝑖𝑗 is the distance between conductor 𝑖 and the image of conductor 𝑗 as illustrated in Figure 1.1 Linear Charge Density Along a Single Conductor Assuming that a group of 𝑛 conductors carrying linear charge densities 𝑞1 . 3 Shunt Admittance e capacitance of an overhead transmission line is primarily a function of conductor geometry and line geometry. 𝐷𝑖𝑖 is the distance between conductor 𝑖 and its image (i. 𝑑𝑖𝑗 is the distance between conductor 𝑖 and conductor 𝑗 . 𝑞𝑛 are located above the ground plane. 𝑑𝑖 is the radius of conductor 𝑖.e. 3. 𝑞2 . ⋯ . 𝜖 is the permittivity of the medium.
12 . 𝜖𝑟 is the relative permittivity of the medium (e. 𝐏 is the potential coeﬃcient matrix.3. Expressing the complete set of 𝑛 potential equations in matrix notation yields 𝐕 = 𝐏𝐐 (33) where 𝐕 is the voltage vector. 𝑞2 . 8. 𝐐 is the charge vector.1) can be constructed for all conductors in the group.g.2 Capacitance of N Conductors 3 SHUNT ADMITTANCE 3. e elements of the potential matrix (with units of F−1 m) are de ned as follows: ⎧ 𝑙𝑛 𝑑𝑖 ⎪ 𝑝𝑖𝑗 = ⎨ 2𝜋𝜖𝑖𝑖 𝐷 𝑙𝑛 ⎪ 𝑑𝑖𝑗 ⎩ 2𝜋𝜖 𝐷𝑖𝑖 if 𝑖 = 𝑗 if 𝑖 ≠ 𝑗 (34) Recall that the permittivity of a medium is often expressed as 𝜖 = 𝜖0 𝜖𝑟 (35) where 𝜖0 is the permittivity of free space (i.e. 1 for air). ⋯ . 𝑞𝑛 that are located above the ground plane. equations of the same form as Equation 32 (Section 3. the capacitance of the con guration is 𝐐 = 𝐂𝐕 (36) solving Equation 33 for the charge vector yields 𝐐 = 𝐏−𝟏 𝐕 (37) By inspection it is apparent that 𝐂 = 𝐏−𝟏 (38) e matrix 𝐂 is sometimes known as the capacitance coeﬃcients (or Maxwell’s coeﬃcients) of the line.8541853 × 10−12 F/m).2 Capacitance of N Conductors Given a group of 𝑛 conductors carrying linear charge densities 𝑞1 . In matrix notation.
3. Compute its capacitance matrix 𝐂 by inverting 𝐏. Multiplying Equation 36 by 𝑗𝜔 yields 𝑗𝜔𝐐 = 𝑗𝜔𝐂𝐕 (39) Recalling that the current phasor associated with a sinusoidal variation in charge is expressed as 𝐈 = 𝑗𝜔𝐐 (40) It is apparent that 𝐈 = 𝑗𝜔𝐂𝐕 (41) An alternate expression for the charging current is 𝐈 = 𝐘𝐬𝐡𝐮𝐧𝐭 𝐕 (42) erefore.3 Shunt Admittance and Reactance Matrices SHUNT ADMITTANCE 3 3. the charging admittance (which is pure susceptance) must be 𝐘𝐬𝐡𝐮𝐧𝐭 = 𝑗𝜔𝐂 (43) e preceding discussion suggests a computational procedure for determining the capacitive parameters of a conductor con guration: 1. 2.3 Shunt Admittance and Reactance Matrices If the charge density along the transmission line is sinusoidal rather than linear. Equation 36 is a phasor equation. Invert the the shunt admittance matrix 𝐘𝐬𝐡𝐮𝐧𝐭 to determine the capacitive reactance 𝐗𝐬𝐡𝐮𝐧𝐭 . Compute the con guration’s potential matrix 𝐏 using Equation 34. 4.3.4 Shunt Admittance Computations is discussion of overhead transmission line shunt admittance concludes with a brief dicussion of computing contant factors associated with the potential matrix and reconciling units of measure while evaluating these constants. Multiply the capacitance matrix 𝐂 by the scalar 𝑗𝜔 to obtain the shunt admittance matrix 𝐘𝐬𝐡𝐮𝐧𝐭 . 3. 13 .
4. the distance must be converted to conductor separation units and the diameter must be converted to a radius. Factoring out a constant in this expression 14 .1 Potential Coeﬃcient Unit Conversions 3 SHUNT ADMITTANCE e constant associated with the computation of potential coeﬃcients in Equation 34 depends only upon the medium in which the conductors reside. erefore.8541853 × 10 ⋅ 1 (44) To compute potential coeﬃcients in line length units rather than meters.79751087 × 1010 (45) which produces potential coeﬃcients with units F−1 ⋅ 𝑢𝐿𝐿 .3. Assuming that the conductors are suspended in air (𝜖𝑟 = 1). Assuming that the conductor’s diameter (in 𝑢𝐶𝐷 ) is readily available.79751087 × 1010 −12 2𝜋𝜖0 𝜖𝑟 2𝜋 ⋅ 8. is product is computed once and stored.4. 3.e. the computed logarithmic factor is ⎞ ⎛ 𝐷𝑖𝑖 ⎟ 𝑙𝑛 ⎜ 𝑑 ⎜ 𝑖 (𝑢 → 𝑢 ) ⎟ 𝐶𝑆 ⎠ ⎝ 2 𝐶𝐷 where 𝑢𝐶𝐷 → 𝑢𝐶𝑆 converts conductor diameter to conductor separation units. i.2 Self Potential Unit Conversions e self potential in Equation 34 is 𝑙𝑛 𝑑𝑖𝑖 𝑖 𝐷 2𝜋𝜖 When this term is computed.4 Shunt Admittance Computations 3. an additional conversion factor 𝑚 → 𝑢𝐿𝐿 is required. the numerator and denominator of the logarithmic factor must be in the same units. the multiplier in Equation 34 is actually 𝑚 → 𝑢𝐿𝐿 2𝜋𝜖 or (𝑚 → 𝑢𝐿𝐿 )1. the potential constant (in F−1 m) is 1 1 = = 1.
𝑢𝐶𝑅 . conductor GMR is usually reported in feet. In US applications. • Line length units. are associated with eﬀective radius (GMR) measurements. the clear choice of unit for capacitive reactance is Ω⋅𝑢𝐿𝐿 . Note: In the context of the current discussion. • Conductor diameter units. 𝑢𝐶𝐷 . • Conductor radius units.4 UNITS OF MEASURE 𝐷 𝑙𝑛 𝑐 𝑖𝑖 𝑑𝑖 (46) where 𝑐 = 2 𝑢𝐶𝑅 → 𝑢𝐶𝑆 (47) e factor 𝑐 is computed once and saved. 4 Units of Measure A number of unit systems are involved in overhead transmission line impedance calculations. are associated with outside diameter measurements. Hence. 15 . line length is usually measured in miles. an additional factor may be required when converting capacitive reactance from computational units to commonly published units (ie. 𝑢𝐿𝐿 . the capacitive reactance found in American reference materials is often MΩ ⋅ 𝑢𝐿𝐿 or more speci cally MΩ⋅mile. An engineer provides data for the calculations in what we will refer to as the “user” unit system (also referred to as “generally available units” or “commonly published units” in other sections of this document). However. are associated with the length of a line section. e current section is intended to make their distinctions clear. are associated with conductor-to-conductor and conductor-to-image distances. conductor diameter is usually reported in inches. 𝑢𝐶𝑆 . conductor separation is usually measured in feet. User units may vary along the following lines: • Conductor separation units. In US utility applications. In American reference materials. In American reference materials. 10−6 for converting MΩ to Ω).
conductor radius unit 𝑢𝐶𝑆 . Wagner and R. e units in which impedance calculations are actually implemented are referred to as computation units. 1933. New York. Clarke. New York. Table 2: Impedance Unit Conversions Units Quantity Frequency Earth Resitivity k Resistance Inductive Reactance Potential Coeﬃcients Maxwell’s Coeﬃcients Capacitive Susceptance Capacitive Reactance Conductor Diameter Conductor GMR Conductor Separation Formulation Hz ab℧/cm3 abΩ/cm abΩ/cm abΩ/cm F−1 ⋅m F/m ℧/m Ω⋅m m cm cm Computational Hz Ω/m3 Ω/𝑢𝐶𝑆 Ω/𝑢𝐿𝐿 Ω/𝑢𝐿𝐿 F−1 ⋅ 𝑢𝐿𝐿 F/𝑢𝐿𝐿 ℧/𝑢𝐿𝐿 Ω ⋅ 𝑢𝐿𝐿 𝑢𝐶𝑆 𝑢𝐶𝑆 𝑢𝐶𝑆 User Hz Ω/m3 n/a Ω/𝑢𝐿𝐿 Ω/𝑢𝐿𝐿 n/a n/a n/a (M)Ω ⋅ 𝑢𝐿𝐿 𝑢𝐶𝐷 𝑢𝐶𝑅 𝑢𝐶𝑆 𝑢𝐶𝐷 . Symmetrical Components. 3  C. McGraw-Hill. 3. Evans.REFERENCES REFERENCES e units in which equations are expressed in this document are called problem formulation units. 7 16 . 1923. John Wiley & Sons.conductor diameter unit 𝑢𝐶𝑅 . Electric Circuit eory and Operational Calculus. 7  E. 1943. Table 2 describes these unit systems in detail.conductor separation unit 𝑢𝐿𝐿 . McGraw-Hill. Circuit Analysis of AC Power Systems. 3. Carson. New York.line length unit References  J.
3.. 11 17 . Pal Alto. CA. 1987. Anderson. Electric Power Research Institute. Rev.REFERENCES REFERENCES  J. Transmission Line Reference Book. 2nd ed.
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