For DENSO Authorized ECD Service Dealer Only Diesel Injection Pump No.

E-03-01

SERVICE MANUAL
Common Rail System for NISSAN YD1-K2 Type Engine
Operation
June, 2003

00400013E

Foreword
To meet the high pressurization requirements for the engine to deliver cleaner exhaust gas emissions, lower fuel consumption and reduced noise, advanced electronic control technology is being adopted in the fuel injection system. This manual covers the electronic control model Common Rail system with HP3 pump for the NISSAN YD1-K2 type engine. Complex theories, special functions and components made by manufacturers other than DENSO are omitted from this manual. This manual will help the reader develop an understanding of the basic construction, operation and system configuration of the DENSO manufactured components and brief diagnostic information.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Product Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1-1. Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1-2. System Components Parts Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2-1. Features of System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2-2. Outline of System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Construction and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3-1. Description of Main Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3-2. Description of Control System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3-3. Various Types of Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4. DTC (Diagnosis Trouble Codes) Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4-1. About the Codes shown in the table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4-2. DTC (Diagnosis Trouble Code) Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5. External Wiring Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5-1. ECU External Wiring Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5-2. ECU Connector Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

1.

Product Application

1-1. Application
Vehicle Name PREMERA ALMERA TINO Vehicle Model ED HS HM Engine Model YD1-K2 Exhaust Volume 2.2L Reference Made in France

1-2. System Components Parts Number
Applicable Model Part Name DENSO Part ED 100 Supply pump Rail Injector O O O HS 100 O O O HS 82 O O HM 100 O O O HM 82 O O 294000-0121 095440-0420 095000-5130 095000-5180 275800-2193 275800-2203 275800-2440 275800-2450 275800-2322 275800-2332 275800-2340 275800-2350 275800-2363 275800-2373 275800-2380 275800-2390 949979-0090 949979-1190 16700 AW401 17520 AW400 16600 AW400 16600 BN800 23710 AW402 23710 AW407 23710 AW410 23710 AW415 23710 BN811 23710 BN816 23710 BN800 23710 BN805 23710 BU712 23710 BU717 23710 BU700 23710 BU705 23731 AW400 23731 AW410 Number Car Manufacturer Part Number Reference

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100kW Engine 82kW Engine Standard w/VDC w/ASCD w/ASCD, VDC Standard 100kW Engine w/VDC 82kW Engine 82kW Engine w/VDC Standard 100kW Engine w/VDC 82kW Engine 82kW Engine w/VDC


O


O


Engine ECU O O O O

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O O

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O O

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O O

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O O O O

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Crankshaft position sensor Cylinder recognition sensor O O

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O O

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O O

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O O

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-1-

2.

Outline
The common rail system was developed primarily to cope with exhaust gas regulations for diesel engines, and aimed for 1. further improved fuel economy; 2. noise reduction; and 3. high power output.

2-1. Features of System

A. System Characteristics
The common rail system uses a type of accumulation chamber called a rail to store pressurized fuel, and injectors that contain electronically controlled solenoid valves to spray the pressurized fuel into the cylinders. Because the engine ECU controls the injection system (including the injection pressure, injection rate, and injection timing), the injection system is unaffected by the engine speed or load. This ensures a stable injection pressure at all times, particularly in the low engine speed range, and dramatically decreases the amount of black smoke ordinarily emitted by a diesel engine during startup and acceleration. As a result, exhaust gas emissions are cleaner and reduced, and higher power output is achieved. a. Injection Pressure Control • Enables high-pressure injection even at low engine speeds. • Optimizes control to minimize particulate matter and NOx emissions. b. c. Injection Timing Control Enables finely tuned optimized control in accordance with driving conditions. Injection Rate Control Pilot injection control sprays a small amount of fuel before the main injection.

Common Rail System
Injection Pressure Control
Optimization, High pressurization Common rail system Injection pressure Injection timing

Injection Timing Control
Optimization Common rail system

Injection Rate Control
Injection rate Speed Pilot injection Main injection Crankshaft angle

Particulate

NOx

Injection Quantity Control
Conventional pump Speed Cylinder injection volume correction

Conventional pump Speed

Injection pressure

QD0734E

-2-

Comparison to the Conventional System In-line. rail QD2341E Engine ECU. supply pump Engine ECU. injector (TWV)*1 Engine ECU. injector (TWV)*1 Engine ECU. VE Pump High-pressure pipe Momentary high pressure Timer Governor System In-line pump Feed pump SCV (suction control valve) Nozzle Supply pump Usually high pressure Delivery valve Rail TWV Common rail system Injector Fuel tank VE pump Injection quantity control Injection timing control Rising pressure Distributor Injection pressure control Pump (governor) Pump (timer) Pump Pump Dependent upon speed and injection quantity Engine ECU. supply pump (SCV)*2 *1 TWV: Two Way Valve *2 SCV Suction Control Valve -3- .B.

Outline of System A.2-2. Main System Components Rail Engine coolant temperature sensor Supply pump EGR volume control valve Mass airflow sensor Glow relay Injector Glow plug Items are DENSO products. Variable nozzle turbocharger control actuator Park/neutral position switch Crankshaft position sensor Q000045E -4- .

b. injectors. Signals from the ECU determine the length of time and the timing in which current is applied to the injector. timing and pressure. and pumps the high pressure fuel to the rail. Operation a. and achieves optimal injection by effecting control in accordance with signals from the ECU. and stores the high-pressure fuel. The quantity of fuel discharged from the supply pump controls the pressure in the rail. The SCV (Suction Control Valve) in the supply pump effects this control in accordance with the command received from the ECU. rate and timing of the fuel that is injected from the injector. and ECU. Fuel temperature sensor Vehicle speed Accelerator opening Intake air pressure Intake air temperature Coolant temperature Crankshaft position Cylinder recognition sensor Intake airflow rate EDU Engine ECU Rail Rail pressure sensor Pressure discharge valve Injector Check valve Fuel temperature sensor Supply pump SCV (suction control valve) Fuel tank Q000046E C. Rail The rail is mounted between the supply pump and the injector. rail. d. -5- . as well as the EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Engine ECU The engine ECU calculates data received from the sensors to comprehensively control the injection quantity. c. Injector This injector replaces the conventional injection nozzle. Supply Pump (HP3) The supply pump draws fuel from the fuel tank. determines the quantity.B. Composition The common rail system consists primarily of a supply pump. This in turn.

Fuel System This system comprises the route through which diesel fuel flows from the fuel tank to the supply pump. and sends them to the actuators in order to achieve optimal conditions. E. c. The components of this system can be broadly divided into the following three types: (a) Sensors. and convert them into electrical signals. and is injected through the injector. The injection quantity and timing are determined by controlling the duration and the timing in which the current is applied to the TWV (Two-Way Valve) in the injector. b. (b) ECU. as well as the route through which the fuel returns to the tank via the overflow pipe. Sensors Detect the engine and driving conditions. the engine ECU controls the fuel injection system in accordance with the signals received from various sensors. Injection system control is undertaken by electronically controlling the actuators. Control System In this system. via the rail. light Q000047E -6- . Sensor Engine speed Crankshaft Position Sensor NE Cylinder recognition Cylider recognition sensor G Engine ECU Accelerator position sensor Load Actuator Injector •Injection quantity control •Injection timing control •Injection pressure control Supply pump (SCV) •Fuel pressure control Other sensors and switches EGR. Actuators Operate in accordance with electrical signals received from the ECU. The injection pressure is determined by controlling the SCV (Suction Control Valve) in the supply pump. air intake control relay. a. Engine ECU Performs calculations based on the electrical signals received from the sensors.D. and (c) Actuators.

sending it to the plunger chamber. and plungers). Injector Rail Discharge valve Intake valve Plunger Return spring Intake pressure Feed pressure High pressure Return pressure Return Fuel overflow Regulating valve Filter Camshaft Feed pump Fuel inlet Intake Fuel tank Fuel filter (with priming pump) QD0704E -7- . ring cam. • The engine drives the supply pump at a ratio of 1:2. The supply pump has a built-in feed pump (trochoid type). and feed pump. Construction and Operation 3-1. SCV (Suction Control Valve). The quantity of fuel supplied to the rail is controlled by the SCV. To rail SCV Fuel temperature sensor From fuel tank Q000048E • The two plungers are positioned vertically on the outer ring cam for compactness. Outline • The supply pump consists primarily of the pump body (eccentric cam. Description of Main Components A. The SCV is a normally opened type (the intake valve opens during de-energization). using signals from the engine ECU. fuel temperature sensor.3. and draws the fuel from the fuel tank. Supply Pump (HP3) a. • The internal camshaft drives the two plungers. and they pressurize the fuel sent to the plunger chamber and send it to the rail.

b. Supply Pump Exploded Diagram SCV Pump body Feed pump Ring cam Regulating valve Filter Drive shaft Plunger Q000049E -8- .

Drive shaft Eccentric cam Ring cam QD0706E • As the drive shaft rotates. the eccentric cam rotates in the eccentric state. and is fed into the rail. and the ring cam moves up and down while rotating. Supply pump interior Regulating valve Feed pump Overflow Fuel tank QD0705E SCV (Suction Control Valve) Intake valve Discharge valve Pumping portion (plunger) Rail d.c. Plunger Eccentric cam Ring cam Drive shaft QD0727E -9- . Supply Pump Internal Fuel Flow The fuel that is drawn from the fuel tank passes through the route in the supply pump as illustrated. Construction of Supply Pump • The eccentric cam is attached to the drive shaft. The eccentric cam is connected to the ring cam.

The feed pump is connected to the rear of the drive shaft. Plunger A Ring cam Feed pump Plunger B e. Due to the spring force. while Plunger A pumps it to the rail. the rotation of the eccentric cam causes the ring cam to push Plunger A upwards. Operation of the Supply Pump QD0728E As shown in the illustration below.• The plunger and the suction valve are attached to the ring cam. As a result. Plunger B is pulled in the opposite direction to Plunger A. Plunger B draws in fuel. Suction valve Plunger A Delivery valve Eccentric cam Ring cam SCV Plunger B Plunger A: complete compression Plunger B: complete intake Plunger A: begin intake Plunger B: begin compression Plunger A: begin compression Plunger B: begin intake Plunger A: complete intake Plunger B: complete compression QD0707E -10- .

moving the armature to the left side. the force of the return spring moves the cylinder to the right. Quantity decrease Outer rotor to Pump chamber Quantity decrease (fuel discharge) Inner rotor Intake port from Fuel tank b. (Full quantity intake and full quantity discharge) • When the SCV is ON. the return spring contracts. The armature moves the cylinder to the left side. • When current flows to the SCV. which is integrated in the supply pump. • With the SCV OFF. • By turning the SCV ON/OFF. draws fuel from the fuel tank and feeds it to the two plungers via the fuel filter and the SCV (Suction Control Valve). variable electromotive force is created in accordance with the duty ratio. the actuating load of the supply pump decreases. completely opening the fuel passage and supplying fuel to the plungers. Description of Supply Pump Components a. fuel is supplied in an amount corresponding to the actuation duty ratio. Feed Pump The trochoid type feed pump. Discharge port Quantity increase Quantity increase (fuel intake) QD0708E SCV Pump body Exterior view of SCV Cross-section of SCV Q000050E -11- . the feed pump draws fuel from its suction port and pumps it out through the discharge port.B. in order to control the quantity of fuel that is supplied to the high-pressure plunger. With the rotation of the inner rotor. closing the fuel passage (normally opened). and fuel is discharged by the plungers. • Because only the quantity of fuel that is required for achieving the target rail pressure is drawn in. This is done in accordance with the space that increases and decreases with the movement of the outer and inner rotors. SCV: Suction Control Valve • A linear solenoid type valve has been adopted. The ECU controls the duty ratio (the length of time that the current is applied to the SCV). changing the opening of the fuel passage and thus regulating the fuel quantity. The feed pump is driven by the drive shaft.

(1) In case of short duty ON Short duty ON => large valve opening => maximum intake quantity Feed pump Plunger SCV Cylinder Large opening Cylinder Q000051E -12- .

(2) In case of long duty ON Long duty ON => small valve opening => minimum intake quantity Feed pump Plunger SCV Cylinder Small opening Cylinder Q000052E -13- .

The valve opens when pressure in the rail reaches approximately 200 MPa.C. Vcc (supply voltage) Vout (output voltage) GND (ground) +5V ECU Vout [V] 4. Pressure Limiter (made by another manufacturer) The pressure limiter relieves pressure by opening the valve if abnormally high pressure is generated.2 Vcc = 5V Pc sensor 1. It is a semi-conductor type pressure sensor that utilizes the characteristic whereby electrical resistance changes when pressure is applied to silicon. Rail Pressure (Pc) Sensor This sensor detects fuel pressure in the rail and sends a signal to the ECU. A rail pressure sensor and a pressure limiter are adopted in the rail. Outline • Stores pressurized fuel (0 to 180 MPa) that has been delivered from the supply pump and distributes the fuel to each cylinder injector. while the pressure limiter controls the fuel pressure in the rail.0 GND Vout Vcc 0 200 Rail pressure [MPa] Q000053E c. Rail a. Pressure limiter Rail pressure (Pc) sensor QC0018E b. Fuel leaked by the pressure limiter returns to the fuel tank. To the fuel tank Spring Ball (valve) Pc QC0020E -14- . and closes when pressure falls to approximately 50 MPa. • The rail pressure sensor (Pc sensor) detects the fuel pressure in the rail and sends a signal to the engine ECU. This ensures optimum combustion and reduces combustion noise.

in accordance with commands received from the ECU. Characteristics • A compact. Construction Solenoid valve Control chamber Pressurized fuel (from Rail) Command piston Valve spring Leak passage Pressure pin G Nozzle spring Seat area Nozzle needle Q000054E -15- . c.D. rate. energy-saving solenoid-control type TWV (Two-Way Valve) injector has been adopted. Injector a. Outline The injectors inject the high-pressure fuel from the rail into the combustion chambers at the optimum injection timing. • A hollow screw with a damper is fitted in the fuel leak pipe connection to improve the injection precision. b. and spray condition.

where the injection rate is also at the maximum level. After the fuel flows out. For this reason.d. The fuel that flows below the nozzle needle lifts the it upward. the spring force is stronger than the hydraulic pressure in the control chamber. pulling the command piston up. Thus. (2) Injection • When current is initially applied to the solenoid. • The fuel that flows past the outlet orifice flows to the leak pipe and below the command piston. the hydraulic pressure that is applied to the command piston causes the nozzle spring to compress. Operation The TWV solenoid valve opens and closes the outlet orifice to control the pressure in the control chamber. effectively closing the outlet orifice. causing the nozzle needle to close immediately and the injection to stop. the attraction of the solenoid pulls the TWV up. the pressure in the control chamber decreases. and as a result. fuel is not injected. effectively opening the outlet orifice and allowing the fuel to flow out of the control chamber. This causes the nozzle needle to rise and injection to start. Spring force > hydraulic pressure force Solenoid TWV Hydraulic pressure force from Rail Inlet orifice Control chamber Command piston Nozzle spring Spring force Attraction force > spring force Attraction force Spring force to Leak pipe from Rail Outlet orifice Nozzle needle No injection Injection Q000055E -16- . the nozzle reaches its maximum lift. the TWV falls. This closes the nozzle needle. which helps to improve the nozzle's opening and closing response. When current to the solenoid is turned OFF. the solenoid valve is pushed downward. and the start and end of injection. • When current continues to be applied to the solenoid. (1) No injection When no current is supplied to the solenoid.

e. Harness Connector with Correction Resistor A correction resistor is provided in the harness connector (4-pin connector) of each injector to minimize the variances in the injection volume among the cylinders (adjusted in the production line). Correction resistor Solenoid side Vehicle harness side Solenoid QD1167E -17- .

Engine Control System Diagram Malfunction indicator Glow light Park/neutral position switch ECU Cooling fan EGR cooler 11.5 cleaner Accelerator pedal released position switch Q000056E -18- .3-2. Description of Control System Components A.5 EGR volume control valve Fuel injector Fuel return Vaccum pump IG ST Battery Vaccum tank Cylinder recognition Catalyst sensor Charge air pressure sensor Rail fuel pressure sensor Rail Fuel temperature sensor Suction control valve Engine coolant temp. sensor Supply pump Glow plug Variable nozzle turbocharger Accelerator pedal position sensor Crankshaft position sensor Variable nozzle turbocharger control actuator Variable nozzle turbocharger control solenoid valve Charge air cooler Mass airflow sensor Air 14.

The high-speed actuation of the injector solenoid valve is made possible through the use of a high-voltage generating device (DC/DC converter). The Engine ECU sends signals to terminals B through E of the EDU in accordance with the signals from the sensors. Upon receiving these signals. The EDU has been adapted to support the high-speed actuation of the injectors. the EDU outputs signals to the injectors from terminals H through K.B. b. ECU (Electronic Control Unit) a. EDU Operation The high-voltage generating device converts the battery voltage into a high voltage. Battery +B A L COM [Schematic diagram] ECU Injector IJt CPU IJf EDU IJt#1 IJt#2 IJt#3 IJt#4 IJf B C D E F High voltage generating circuit H I Control circuit J K INJ#1 INJ#2 INJ#3 INJ#4 G GND M GND Q000057E -19- . [Outline diagram] Sensor Detection Engine ECU Calculation Actuator Actuation QC0028E • The EDU is contained inside the ECU. Outline • This is the command center that controls the fuel injection system and engine operation in general.

Crankshaft Position Sensor (NE) An NE pulsar attached to the crankshaft timing gear outputs a signal for detecting the crankshaft angle and engine speed. Description of Sensors a.C. and outputs a cylinder recognition signal so that the ECU can calculate fuel injection timing. Exterior Drawing NE+ NEVcc Circuit Diagram ECU Vcc Vcc NE+ NENE input circuit Q000058E b. Exterior View Diagram G+ GVcc Circuit Diagram ECU Vcc Vcc G+ GG input circuit Q000059E -20- . Cylinder Recognition Sensor (G) A cylinder recognition sensor (G pulsar) is attached to the supply pump timing gear.

74) (3.0±1.240) (0. and detects the fuel temperature.4) 15.811) (0.16) (5. • The detection component utilizes a thermistor.70) 2.1836) (0. Resistance Value Characteristics Temperature Resistance value (°C) (kΩ) -30 -20 -10 0 Thermistor 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 (25.428) 0.5 (9.1417) (0. Fuel Temperature Sensor (THF) • The fuel temperature sensor is mounted on the supply pump.1108) Q000060E Fuel temperature sensor -21- .584) (0.66) (1.45±0.318±0.15) (0.c.031 (0. sending a signal to the engine ECU.24 (1.

d. Fuel Injection Rate Control Function Pilot injection control injects a small amount of fuel before the main injection. Fuel Injection Quantity Control Function The fuel injection quantity control function replaces the conventional governor function. Various Types of Controls A. a. It controls the injection to an optimal timing based on the engine speed and the injection quantity.3-3. in order to realize both optimal injection and injection timing. It effects pressure feedback control so that the discharge volume matches the optimal (command) value set in accordance with the engine speed and the injection quantity. Fuel Injection Pressure Control Function (Rail Pressure Control Function) The fuel injection pressure control function (rail pressure control function) controls the discharge volume of the pump by measuring the fuel pressure at the rail pressure sensor and feeding it back to the ECU. It controls the fuel injection to an optimal injection quantity based on the engine speed and accelerator position signals. The engine ECU performs the necessary calculations in accordance with the sensors installed on the engine and the vehicle. b. Fuel Injection Timing Control Function The fuel injection timing control function replaces the conventional timer function. Outline This system effects fuel injection quantity and injection timing control more appropriately than the mechanical governor and timer used in the conventional injection pump. It then controls the timing and duration of time in which current is applied to the injectors. c. -22- .

Accelerator position Engine speed Smaller quantity Accelerator position Basic injection quantity Final injection quantity after correction Engine speed Maximum injection quantity Driver actuation timing calculation Injection quantity Individual cylinder correction Speed correction Injection pressure correction Mass airflow correction Intake air temperature correction Atmospheric pressure correction Cold operation maximum injection quantity correction Engine speed Q000061E c. The injection quantity is increased when the accelerator position signal is increased while the engine speed remains constant. Basic injection quantity Accelerator position Engine speed QC0038E -23- . and mass airflow corrections to the basic injection quantity that is calculated by the engine ECU. The smallest injection quantity is then used as the basis for the final injection quantity. b. to which various types of corrections are made. fuel temperature. Outline This control determines the fuel injection quantity by adding coolant temperature. based on the engine operating conditions and driving conditions. Basic Injection Quantity The basic injection quantity is determined by the engine speed (NE) and the accelerator position. Injection Quantity Calculation Method Injection quantity The basic injection quantity is obtained through the governor pattern calculated from the accelerator position and the engine speed.B. Fuel Injection Quantity Control a. The basic injection quantity is then compared to the maximum injection quantity obtained from the engine speed. intake air temperature.

Idle Speed Control (ISC) System This system controls the idle speed by regulating the injection quantity in order to match the actual speed to the target speed that is calculated by the engine ECU. Injection quantity Injection quantity Coolant temperature High Low Base injection quantity STA ON duration STA/ON Starting STA ON duration STA/ON Starting QC0040E f. Idle Vibration Reduction Control To reduce engine vibrations during idle. Starting Injection Quantity When the starter switch is turned ON. The base injection quantity and the inclination of the quantity increase/decrease change in accordance with the coolant temperature and the engine speed. Maximum Injection Quantity The maximum injection quantity is calculated by adding the mass airflow correction. and the coolant water temperature. The target speed varies according to the type of transmission (manual or automatic).d. this function compares the angle speeds (times) of the cylinders and regulates the injection quantity for the individual cylinders if there is a large the difference. the shift position. Basic maximum injection quantity Engine speed QC0039E e. intake air temperature correction. Angle speed #1 #3 #4 #2 #1 #3 #4 #2 Correction Crankshaft angle Crankshaft angle QC0043E -24- . the injection quantity is calculated in accordance with the starting base injection quantity and the starter ON time. whether the air conditioner is ON or OFF. g. in order to achieve a smooth engine operation. atmospheric pressure correction and the cold operation maximum injection quantity correction to the basic maximum injection quantity that is determined by the engine speed.

Main and Pilot Injection Timing Control Main Injection Timing The engine ECU calculates the basic injection timing based on the engine speed the final injection quantity. engine speed. Top deadcenter Main injection Pilot injection Interval QC0044E c. b. (2) Pilot Injection Timing (Pilot Interval) Pilot injection timing is controlled by adding a pilot interval to the main injection timing. Fuel Injection Timing Control a. The pilot interval at the time the engine is started is calculated from the coolant temperature and speed. coolant temperature (map correction). (1) Outline Fuel injection timing is controlled by varying the timing in which current is applied to the injectors. (1) Injection Timing Calculation Method Outline of Control Timing 0 NE pulse 1 Actual TDC Pilot injection Solenoid valve control pulse Pilot injection timing Main injection timing Main injection Nozzle needle lift Pilot interval QD0382E (2) Injection Timing Calculation Method Engine speed Injection quantity Basic injection timing Corrections Main injection timing Intake air temperature correction Coolant temperature correction Atmospheric pressure correction Q000062E -25- . and adds various types of corrections in order to determine the optimal main injection timing.C. The pilot interval is calculated based on the final injection quantity.

the ignition lag. resulting in an explosive combustion at the time of main ignition. This increases both NOx and noise.D. prevent the explosive first-stage combustion. Other Controls • Limit maximum injection quantity • Gradual acceleration injection quantity • Gradual deceleration injection quantity • Post-acceleration damping injection quantity • Reference injection quantity • Fuel cutoff • EGR • Turbo control • Glow plug relay -26- . For this reason. the water temperature and the engine speed is calculated. Normal Injection Pilot Injection Injection rate Large first-stage combustion (NOx and noise) Small first-stage combustion Heat release rate -20 TDC 20 40 -20 TDC 20 40 QC0046E Crankshaft angle (deg) Crankshaft angle (deg) E. Fuel Injection Rate Control While the injection rate increases with the adoption of high-pressure fuel injection. and reduce noise and NOx. As a result. the calculation is based on the water temperature and the atmospheric pressure Rail pressure Final injection quantity Engine speed QC0047E F. pilot injection is provided to minimize the initial injection rate. the quantity of fuel that is injected until main ignition occurs increases. During the starting of the engine. Fuel Injection Pressure Control A value that is determined by the final injection quantity. cannot be shortened to less than a certain value. which is the delay from the start of injection to the beginning of combustion.

) Mass airflow sensor P0103 Mass airflow sensor circuit high input Excessively high voltage from the sensor to the ECM.) P0089 Fuel pump performance Fuel pressure is too much higher than the target value. About the Codes shown in the table • The "SAE" under the DTC code indicates the codes that are output when the STT (DST-1) is used.A.S. (The relation between the output voltage to the fuel pump and the input voltage from the fuel rail pressure sensor is outside the normal range. Timing chain Signal plate P0088 Fuel rail pressure too high Fuel pressure is exessively higher than the specified value. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. ECM cannot communicate for more than the specified time. DTC (Diagnosis Trouble Code) Table *1: The area with *1 are purely vehicle side. U1000 *1 Diagnostic Item CAN communication line Description of Diagnosis ECM cannot communicate with other control units.) • If multiple DTCs are output. Inspection Area Harness or connectors (CAN communication line is open or shorted) P0016 Crankshaft position-camshaft position correlation The correlation between the crankshaft position sensor signal and camshaft position sensor signal is outside the normal range. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. (SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers. 4-2. Fuel pump P0093 Fuel system leak "ECM detects a fuel system leak". Code No. they are shown in order starting with the lowest number.4 DTC (Diagnosis Trouble Codes) Table 4-1. and the "Light" indicates the codes that are output when the CHECK ENGINE warning light is used. U.) Mass airflow sensor P0112 Intake air temperature sensor circuit low input Excessively low voltage from the sensor to the ECM.) Fuel pump Fuel rail Fuel pipe Fuel rail pressure relief valve P0102 Mass airflow sensor circuit low input Excessively low voltage from the sensor to the ECM. Fuel pump Harness or connectors (The fuel pump circuit is open or shorted.) Intake air temperature sensor -27- . Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted.

) Engine coolant temperature sensor P0122 Accelerator pedal position sensor 1 circuit low input Excessively low voltage from the APP sensor 1 to the ECM.) Fuel rail pressure sensor P0193 Fuel rail pressure sensor circuit high input Excessively high voltage from the sensor to the ECM. ECM -28- . Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted.) Fuel pump temperature sensor P0192 Fuel rail pressure sensor circuit low input Excessively low voltage from the sensor to the ECM.) Intake air temperature sensor P0117 Engine coolant temperature sensor circuit low input Excessively low voltage from the sensor to the ECM. Harness or connectors (The APP sensor 1 circuit is open or shorted. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. Inspection Area Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted.) Accelerator pedal position sensor (Accelerator pedal position sensor 1) P0182 Fuel pump temperature sensor circuit low input Excessively low voltage from the sensor to the ECM.) Fuel rail pressure sensor P0200 Fuel injector power supply circuit ECM detects an excessively high/ low voltage from the fuel injection power source.) Fuel pump temperature sensor P0183 Fuel pump temperature sensor circuit high input Excessively high voltage from the sensor to the ECM.) Engine coolant temperature sensor P0118 Engine coolant temperature sensor circuit high input Excessively high voltage from the sensor to the ECM. Harness or connectors (The APP sensor 1 circuit is open or shorted. P0113 Diagnostic Item Intake air temperature sensor circuit high input Description of Diagnosis Excessively high voltage from the sensor to the ECM.) Accelerator pedal position sensor (Accelerator pedal position sensor 1) P0123 Accelerator pedal position sensor 1 circuit high input Excessively high voltage from the APP sensor 1 to the ECM. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted.Code No. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted.

Turbocharger charger boost pressure.) Accelerator pedal position sensor (Accelerator pedal position sensor 2) P0223 Accelerator pedal position sensor 2 circuit high input Excessively high voltage from the APP sensor 2 to the ECM. Engine coolant was not added to the system using the proper filling method. 3 cylinder fuel injector circuit open An improper voltage signal is sent to the ECM by the No. 4 cylinder fuel injector circuit open An improper voltage signal is sent to the ECM by the No. Cooling fan system does not operate properly (overheating). Harness or connectors (The APP sensor 2 circuit is open or shorted. 3 cylinder fuel injector. 1 cylinder fuel injector circuit open Description of Diagnosis An improper voltage signal is sent to the ECM by the No.) Fuel injector #2 P0203 No. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. Inspection Area Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. 4 cylinder fuel injector. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted.) Fuel injector #4 P0217 Engine overheating Cooling fan does not operate properly (overheating). 2 cylinder fuel injector circuit open An improper voltage signal is sent to the ECM by the No. Harness or connectors (The APP sensor 2 circuit is open or shorted. P0201 Diagnostic Item No.) Fuel injector #3 P0204 No.) Cooling fan Radiator hose Radiator Radiator cap Water pump Thermostat P0222 Accelerator pedal position sensor 2 circuit low input Excessively low voltage from the APP sensor 2 to the ECM.Code No. Harness or connectors (The cooling fan circuit is open or shorted.) Fuel injector #1 P0202 No. Vacuum hose (YD22DDTi engine models) Turbocharger boost control solenoid valve (YD22DDTi engine models) -29- .) Accelerator pedal position sensor (Accelerator pedal position sensor 2) P0234 Turbocharger overboost condition ECM detects excessively high turbo. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. 2 cylinder fuel injector. 1 cylinder fuel injector.

) Accelerator pedal position sensor (Accelerator pedal position sensor 1) -30- . P0628 Fuel pump control circuit low input ECM detects a fuel pump control cir.) Fuel pump P0629 Fuel pump control circuit high input ECM detects a fuel pump control cir.Harness or connectors cuit is open or short to the ground. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. ECM ECM calculation function is malfunc.) Fuel pump P0642 Accelerator pedal position sensor 1 power supply circuit low ECM detects an excessively low APP sensor 1 power source.) Turbocharger boost sensor P0335 Crankshaft position sensor circuit Crankshaft position sensor signal is not detected by the ECM when the engine is running. Harness or connectors (The APP sensor 1 power supply circuit is open or shorted. Crankshaft position sensor Signal plate P0340 Camshaft position sensor circuit Camshaft position sensor signal is not detected by the ECM when the engine is running. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. Inspection Area Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted.) Camshaft position sensor P0341 Camshaft position sensor circuit range/performance Camshaft position sensor signal is not the normal pattern when the engine is running. P0237 Diagnostic Item Turbocharger boost sensor circuit low input Description of Diagnosis Excessively low voltage from the sensor to the ECM.) Crankshaft position sensor P0336 Crankshaft position sensor circuit range/performance Crankshaft position sensor signal is not the normal pattern when the engine is running.) Turbocharger boost sensor P0238 Turbocharger boost sensor circuit high input Excessively high voltage from the sensor to the ECM. Battery Battery terminal Alternator P0605 P0606 Engine control module (ROM) Engine control module (Processor) ECM ROM is malfunctioning. Harness or connectors (The sensor circuit is open or shorted. (The fuel pump circuit is open or shorted.Harness or connectors cuit is short to power source. (The fuel pump circuit is open or shorted.Code No. Camshaft position sensor Signal plate P0563 Battery voltage high Excessively high voltage from the battery to the ECM.ECM tioning.

Code No. 1 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor to the ECM.) Fuel injector adjustment resistor #3 -31- .) Accelerator pedal position sensor (Accelerator pedal position sensor 2) P0686 ECM relay circuit ECM detects ECM relay is stuck closed even if the ignition switch OFF.) ESP/TCS/ABS control unit Dead (Weak) battery P1260 No. Harness or connectors (The fuel injector adjustment resistor circuit is open or shorted. 3 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor to the ECM. Harness or connectors (The APP sensor 2 power supply circuit is open or shorted. P1212 *1 TCS communication line ECM cannot continuously receive information from the ESP/TCS/ABS control unit. 1 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor low input Excessively low voltage from the No.) Accelerator pedal position sensor (Accelerator pedal position sensor 1) P0652 Accelerator pedal position sensor 2 power supply circuit low ECM detects an excessively low APP sensor 2 power source.) Fuel injector adjustment resistor #1 P1262 No. Inspection Area Harness or connectors (The APP sensor 1 power supply circuit is open or shorted. Harness or connectors (The fuel injector adjustment resistor circuit is open or shorted. 1 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor to the ECM. 1 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor high input Excessively high voltage from the No. P0643 Diagnostic Item Accelerator pedal position sensor 1 power supply circuit high Description of Diagnosis ECM detects an excessively high APP sensor 1 power source.) ECM relay ESP/TCS/ABS control unit TCS related parts P1211 *1 TCS control unit ECM received malfunction information from the ESP/TCS/ABS control unit.) Fuel injector adjustment resistor #1 P1261 No. Harness or connectors (The CAN communication line is open or shorted. Harness or connectors (The fuel injector adjustment resistor circuit is open or shorted. Harness or connectors (The APP sensor 2 power supply circuit is open or shorted. 3 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor low input Excessively low voltage from the No.) Accelerator pedal position sensor (Accelerator pedal position sensor 2) P0653 Accelerator pedal position sensor 2 power supply circuit high ECM detects an excessively high APP sensor 2 power source. Harness or connectors (The ECM relay circuit is shorted.

2 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor to the ECM. 4 cylinder fuel injector The valve built into No. 1 cylinder fuel injector does not close properly (stuck open) when the injector is not energized. 2 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor high input Excessively high voltage from the No. 3 cylinder fuel injector does not close properly (stuck open) when the injector is not energized.) Fuel injector adjustment resistor #3 P1264 No. 1 cylinder fuel injector The valve built into No. Fuel injector #2 P1270 No. Fuel pump -32- . 2 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor low input Excessively low voltage from the No. Fuel injector #1 P1269 No. 4 cylinder fuel injector does not close properly (stuck open) when the injector is not energized. Harness or connectors (The fuel injector adjustment resistor circuit is open or shorted.) Fuel injector adjustment resistor #2 P1268 No. Fuel injector #4 P1272 Fuel rail pressure relief valve open Fuel rail pressure relief valve is open. 3 cylinder fuel injector The valve built into No. 4 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor high input Excessively high voltage from the No. P1263 Diagnostic Item No. 4 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor low input Excessively low voltage from the No. 3 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor high input Description of Diagnosis Excessively high voltage from the No. Fuel injector #3 P1271 No. Harness or connectors (The fuel injector adjustment resistor circuit is open or shorted.) Fuel injector adjustment resistor #2 P1267 No. Harness or connectors (The fuel injector adjustment resistor circuit is open or shorted. 4 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor to the ECM.) Fuel injector adjustment resistor #4 P1265 No. Fuel rail pressure relief valve P1273 Fuel pump insufficient flow ECM detects an abnormal fuel pressure pulse. 4 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor to the ECM.) Fuel injector adjustment resistor #4 P1266 No. 3 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor to the ECM. 2 cylinder fuel injector The valve built into No. Harness or connectors (The fuel injector adjustment resistor circuit is open or shorted. 2 cylinder fuel injector does not close properly (stuck open) when the injector is not energized. 2 cylinder fuel injector adjustment resistor to the ECM. Inspection Area Harness or connectors (The fuel injector adjustment resistor circuit is open or shorted.Code No.

P2149 No.Code No.) Harness or connectors (Fuel injector circuit shorted.) Accelerator pedal position sensor P2146 No. P1614 -1617 *1 P2135 Immobi.) P2148 Fuel injector circuit high input ECM detects the fuel injector circuit is shorted to the power source. 2 signal correlation" The correlation between the APP sensor 1 signal and APP sensor 2 signal is outside the normal range. P2228 Barometric pressure sensor circuit low input Excessively low voltage from the barometric pressure sensor (builtinto ECM) to the ECM. ECM -33- . Harness or connectors (Fuel injector circuit shorted. related — — "Accelerator pedal position sensor 1. Harness or connectors (The fuel injector circuit is open. 2 and 3 cylinder fuel injectors. Harness or connectors (The fuel pump circuit is open or shorted.) Harness or connectors (The fuel injector circuit is open. Inspection Area Harness or connectors (The fuel pump circuit is open or shorted. 1 and 4 cylinder fuel injector power supply circuit open Improper voltage signal sent to the ECM by the No.) Fuel pump P1610 -1612. 1 and 4 cylinder fuel injectors. P1274 Diagnostic Item Fuel pump protection Description of Diagnosis Fuel pressure much higher than the target value.) P2147 Fuel injector circuit low input ECM detects the fuel injector circuit is shorted to the ground. ECM P2229 Barometric pressure sensor circuit high input Excessively high voltage from the barometric pressure sensor (builtinto ECM) to the ECM. 2 and 3 cylinder fuel injector power supply circuit open Improper voltage signal is sent to the ECM by the No. Harness or connectors (The APP sensor circuit is open or shorted.) Fuel pump P1275 Fuel pump exchange Fuel pressure much higher than the target value.

CE lamp 95 87 CAN1-H CAN1-L STARTER CUT SYSTEM STARTER MOTOR Speed Sensor AC Switch Glow Light Meter (for ED) OBD Light ABS unit Laser unit ACC unit VDC unit This information(SEC-E.5 External Wiring Diagram 5-1.BODY BODY EARTH Q000064E -34- . CAN system) is only for reference (Please check vehicle harness system) P2 EGR Motor 28 27 26 25 EGR #4 (B) EGR #3 (A) EGR #2 (B) EGR #1 (A) 99 107 108 STA-SW IG-SW IG-SW S OFF KEY IG ACC P3 INJECTOR CORRECTION 1 INJECTOR CORRECTION 2 INJECTOR CORRECTION 3 INJECTOR CORRECTION 4 37 59 60 61 62 78 4 5 43 42 24 23 Glow RLY RINJ1 RINJ2 RINJ3 RINJ4 A-GND INJ COMMON INJ COMMON INJ1 DRV TWV1 INJ1 DRV TWV1 INJ2 DRV TWV2 INJ2 DRV TWV2 INJ3 DRV TWV3 INJ3 DRV TWV3 INJ4 DRV TWV4 INJ4 DRV TWV4 POWER GND POWER GND POWER GND GND-C 40A for ceramic glow plugs BATTERY CYLINDER 1 CYLINDER 3 CYLINDER 4 41 40 Glow plugs CYLINDER 2 22 21 1 2 3 114 BODY EARTH ENG. ECU External Wiring Diagram A. Diagram 1 ECCS RLY (MAIN RLY) 121 119 120 105 113 6 BATT +BP +BP Main Relay Main Relay VNT VNT PWM Drive P2 P1 AIRCON RLY A/C COMP RFAN-L 58 59 RFAN-M MOTOR FAN Immobilizer SEC-E (Body Control Module) RFAN-L Fuel Consumption Calc.

Diagram 2 CONSULT2 CONNECTOR A-VCC3 NE+ NE44 46 65 J1962 Crankshaft GST or CONSULT2 BODY GND Signal GND CAN-H K-Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 CAN-L IGN SW Line A-VCC4 G+ GSHIELD GND 45 47 66 67 Camshaft Ang J1962 Unswit BRAKE SW ISO-K (K-Line) 89 ISO K-line To Consult 2 BATT BRAKE SW Brake-SW1 A-VCC1 APS1 APS1GND A-VCC2 APS2 APS2GND SHIELD GND 100 82 83 84 90 91 92 85 AWU BRAKE LAMP SCV+ SCV- 10 29 SCV Common Rail Suction Pump FUEL TEMP FUEL TEMP RTN COOLANT TEMP COOLANT TEMP RTN 50 69 51 70 FUEL TEMP SENSOR COOLANT TEMP SENSOR PFUEL1 PFUEL2 A-VCC5 PFUEL RTN A-VCC6 BOOST SENSOR BOOST SENSOR RTN 48 49 63 68 64 52 71 SIG RAIL 5V PRESSURE GND SENSOR 5V BOOST SENSOR GND EXT AIR TEMP SENSOR Ext-Air-Temp-Sensor Ext-Air-Temp-RTN AMF SENSOR AMF RTN 55 74 54 73 SIG AMF GND SENSOR VB P1 Neut-SW Power STRG-SW 110 111 BODY EARTH BODY EARTH Q000065E -35- .B.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Pin Symbol P-GND P-GND P-GND Connections POWER GROUND POWER GROUND POWER GROUND No. ECU Connector Diagram A. ECU Connector Terminal Layout 81-pin connector (Engine side) 4 3 1 2 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 114 5 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 40-pin connector (Vehicle side) 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 119 117 115 120 118 116 121 Q000063E B. Terminal Connections No. 31 32 33 34 35 36 — — — SUCTION CONTROL VALVE — — — — — — — — — — INJECTION DRIVE 4 INJECTION DRIVE 4 INJECTION DRIVE 2 INJECTION DRIVE 2 STEP MOTOR A STEP MOTOR B~ STEP MOTOR A~ STEP MOTOR B SUCTION CONTROL VALVE — 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 AMF EXT-A-TMP — — — RINJ1 RINJ2 Pin Symbol — — — — — — — — — TWV3 TWV3 TWV1 TWV1 A-VCC3 A-VCC4 NE+ G+ PFUEL PFUEL THF THW BOOST — AMF SENSOR EXT-AIR-TEMP-SENSOR — — — INJECTOR CORRECTION 1 INJECTOR CORRECTION 2 Connections — — — — — — — — — INJECTION DRIVE 3 INJECTION DRIVE 3 INJECTION DRIVE 1 INJECTION DRIVE 1 SENSOR (POWER SUPPLY) SENSOR (POWER SUPPLY) CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR+ CYLINDER RECOGNITION SENSOR+ RAIL PRESSURE SENSOR RAIL PRESSURE SENSOR FUEL TEMP COOLANT TEMP BOOST SENSOR — COMMON 1 INJECTION COMMON COMMON 1 INJECTION COMMON VNT — — — SCV+ — — — — — — — — — — TWV4 TWV4 TWV2 TWV2 EGR#1 EGR#2 EGR#3 EGR#4 SCV— EVRV FOR VNT -36- .5-2.

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Pin Symbol APS2GND — — CAN1-H — — — STA-SW Connections SENSOR GROUND — — CAN COMMUNICATION — — — STARTER SW BRAKE SW1 100 BRK1 101 102 103 104 — — — — — — — — MAIN RELAY — IGNITION SW IGNITION SW — NEUT SW POWER STRG SW — MAIN RELAY SIGNAL GROUND — — — — BATTERY+ (MAIN RELAY) BATTERY+ (MAIN RELAY) BATTERY+ EGRLIFTRTN EGR LIFT SENSOR RTN AMFRTN EXT-A-RTN — — — A-GND AD5 AD6 AD7 A-VCC1 APS1 APS1GND S-GND — CAN1-L — K-LINE A-VCC2 APS2 AMF RTN EXT-AIR-TEMP-SENSOR RTN — — — INJECTOR CORRECTION RTN ANALOG INPUT OPTION ANALOG INPUT OPTION ANALOG INPUT OPTION SENSOR (POWER SUPPLY) ACCEL PEDAL SENSOR SENSOR GROUND SHIELD GROUND(APS) — CAN COMMUNICATION — KWP2000 K-LINE SENSOR (POWER SUPPLY) ACCEL PEDAL SENSOR 105 M-REL 106 — 107 IG-SW 108 IG-SW 109 110 N-SW 111 112 PS-SW — — 113 M-REL 114 C-GND 115 116 117 118 119 +BP 120 +BP 121 BATT — — — — -37- .No. 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 Pin Symbol RINJ3 RINJ4 A-VCC5 A-VCC6 NEGS-GND PFUELRTN THFRTN THWRTN BOOSTRTN Connections INJECTOR CORRECTION 3 INJECTOR CORRECTION 4 SENSOR (POWER SUPPLY) SENSOR (POWER SUPPLY) ENGINE SPEED SENSORCRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSORSHIELD GROUND SENSOR GROUND FUEL TEMP RTN COOLANT TEMP RTN BOOST SENSOR RTN No.

Aichi Prefecture. DENSO Corporation 1-1 Showa-cho. Kariya. Japan [DTP] .Published: June 2003 [Duplication prohibited without permission] Edited and published by: Service Department.

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