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Additional Materials: Data Booklet OMR Answer Sheet Writing Paper Graph Paper READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST DO NOT open this booklet until you are told to do so.

3 October 2011 2 hours 45 min

Write your name and civics tutorial group in the spaces provided on the cover sheet on page 7. This paper consists of three sections A, B and C. Section A (15 marks) consists of 15 multiple-choice questions. Answers to this section are to be shaded on the OMR answer sheet provided. Section B (35 marks) consists of 4 structured questions. Answers to this section are to be written in the spaces provided in the question paper. Section C (40 marks) consists of 2 free-response questions. Answers to this section are to be written on the writing papers provided. You are to begin each question on a fresh sheet of paper. Attempt ALL questions.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. Writing your answers in pencil will be subjected to penalty. You are reminded of the need for good English and clear presentation in your answers.

This document consists of 17 printed pages.

(CH3)3N. 60Ni2+ will be deflected more than 58Ni2+. The weak covalent bond accounts for the lower melting point of iodine. Heating is required to overcome the high activation energy barrier of the reaction. with evolution of gas(es). there are four possible answers. In a magnetic field. 2 . C6Hy. 1 Thermal decomposition of ammonium dichromate(VI).Section A (15 marks) For each question. all volumes being measured at the same temperature and pressure. BF3. and D. A 120 B 109 C 107 D 105 5 A mixture of sodium and iodine will only react upon heating to form sodium iodide as shown by the equation below. the total volume of carbon dioxide and water vapour produced is 1300 cm3. 2Na(s) + I2(s)  2NaI(s) The melting points of iodine and sodium iodide are 114 C and 662 C respectively. Both 58Ni2+ and 60Ni2+ have the same number of electrons but different number of neutrons. After combustion. reacts with boron trifluoride. 60 2+ Ni has more protons than 58Ni2+. Choose the one you consider to be correct and record your choice on the OMR Answer Sheet provided. in a 1:1 ratio to form compound X. What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon? A C6H6 B C6H10 C C6H12 D C6H14 3 Ions of the two most common isotopes of the transition metal nickel are shown below: 58 Ni2+ 60 Ni2+ Which one of the following statements is correct? A B C D The electron arrangement of both 58Ni2+ and 60Ni2+ is 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2. (NH4)2Cr2O7. What are the gas(es) evolved in this decomposition? A B C D ammonia only nitrogen and oxygen nitrogen and steam nitrogen dioxide and oxygen 2 A mixture of a gaseous hydrocarbon. A. Predict the value of the C-N-C bond angle in compound X. Cr2O3. produces a greygreen solid chromium(III) oxide. 4 Trimethylamine. C. B. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A B C D Sodium iodide is an ionic compound with covalent character. and oxygen in stoichoimetric ratio has a total volume of 1050 cm3. Dissolving sodium iodide in water gives a colourless solution.

ethene and bromine were first dissolved separately in tetrachloromethane. CH4(g)  C(g) + 4H(g) HC≡CH(g)  2C(g) + 2H(g) What is the C≡C bond energy in kJ mol–1? A 410 B 420 C 820 D 840 ∆H = +1656 kJ mol–1 ∆H = +1648 kJ mol–1 7 Which one of the following sets of conditions would result in a reaction that is spontaneous at high temperatures but non-spontaneous at low temperatures? A B C D ∆H>0.6 Given the reactions. Various volumes of these solutions and tetrachloromethane were mixed and the time taken for the colour of bromine to disappear was recorded. ∆S>0 8 Ethene reacts with bromine in tetrachloromethane to form 1. Gas X has a smaller partial pressure than gas Y.2dibromoethane as shown by the equation. which deduction about the reactions is incorrect? A B C D It took 15 seconds (t4) for the colour of bromine to disappear in experiment 4. The rate of this reaction is directly proportional to the volume of bromine used. Gas Y has a molar mass that is twice that of gas X. Which one of the following statements is incorrect for the mixture of gases X and Y? A B C D On average. The results are shown in the table below: Expt 1 2 3 4 Volume of CH2=CH2 solution / cm3 20 12 20 40 Volume of Br2 solution / cm3 20 20 10 20 Volume of CCl4 / cm3 0 8 10 20 Time taken for colour of Br2 to disappear / s 15 25 15 t4 From the above results. ∆S<0 ∆H<0. 3 . molecules of gas X move faster than molecules of gas Y. CH2=CH2 + Br2  CH2BrCH2Br To find out the orders of reaction. The rate of this reaction is directly proportional to the time taken for the colour of bromine to disappear. 9 Equimolar amounts of two gases X and Y are mixed in a 1. Gas X makes less of a contribution to the average density of the mixture than gas Y. ∆S<0 ∆H<0. The kinetic energy distributions of the two gases are identical.00 dm3 container at room temperature and pressure. The volumes of tetrachloromethane were varied to keep the total volume constant for experiments 1 to 3. ∆S>0 ∆H>0.

is heated to a constant temperature such that the equilibrium below is established. of oxygen in this equilibrium mixture? A 0.10 A pure sample of N2O4(l) is introduced into an evacuated vessel.33 D 0.17 B 0.20 C 0. of constant volume. What is the mole fraction. x. The vessel.40 11 How many isomers (including both structural isomers and stereoisomers) are possible for C4H8? A 3 B 4 C 5 D 6 12 The drug cortisone has the formula shown. how many other chiral centres are present in the cortisone molecule? A 0 B 1 C 2 D 3 4 . 2NO2(g) 2NO(g) + O2(g) The value of the pressure p is then found to be 20 % greater than if only NO2(g) were present. CH2OH CO CH3 OH O CH3 * * * O In addition to those chiral centres marked by an asterisk (*).

the forward reaction is exothermic. 5 . The ∆S of the reaction is zero. 15 Methylpropane was monochlorinated to form two products. In step (1) of the mechanism. one or more of the three numbered statements 1 to 3 may be correct.2.3. The ratio of 2-chloromethylpropane to 1-chloromethylpropane is 1 : 9.For each of the following questions. 14 Which of the following statements always apply to a reaction. which has reached equilibrium. The observed rate constant of the reaction decreases with increasing temperature. 2NO(g) + O2(g)  2NO2(g) The proposed mechanism for the reaction is: k1 (1) 2NO k–1 k2 N2O2 + O2  2NO2 N2O2 fast (2) slow What can be deduced from this information only? 1 2 3 The overall order of the reaction is 3. 13 The rate of the following reaction decreases with increasing temperature. Decide whether each of the statements is or is not correct (you may find it helpful to put a tick against the statements that you consider to be correct). Which of the following statements are correct? 1 2 3 Excess chlorine was used in this reaction. 2-chloromethylpropane and 1-chloromethylpropane. 2. 2 and 3 are correct B 1 and 2 only are correct C 2 and 3 only are correct D 1 only is correct No other combination of statements is used as a correct response. at constant pressure? 1 2 3 The concentrations of reactants and products remain constant.3-Tetramethylbutane was formed in trace amounts. The ∆G of the reaction is zero. The responses A to D should be selected on the basis of A 1.

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RAFFLES INSTITUTION 2011 Year 5 Promotion Examination H2 Chemistry COVER SHEET Name: ( ) CT Group: For Examiners’ Use Only Section A Q1 B Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 C Q2 / 20 Marks / 15 / 11 /9 /6 /9 / 20 Total / 90 Percentage / 100 7 .

H3 Explain why dilute nitric acid is used rather than dilute sulfuric acid. Reaction 1: BaO(s) + CO2(g)  BaCO3(s). H1 For Examiner’s Use It is difficult to directly measure the enthalpy change of the reaction. B1 Barium oxide reacts with carbon dioxide to form barium carbonate as shown in the following equation. Reaction 2: Reaction 3: (a) BaO(s) + 2HNO3(aq)  Ba(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l). H2 BaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq)  Ba(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l). Instead. Write a plan to determine H2. 8 . Answer all questions in the spaces provided in the question paper. FA2 and apparatus normally found in a school laboratory. You are given the following reagents:   3 g of barium oxide. include essential details of the experimental procedure.800 mol dm3 dilute nitric acid. [1] (b) The experimental procedures to determine H2 and H3 are similar.Section B (35 marks) This section consists of four questions. you should:   calculate suitable quantities of barium oxide and dilute nitric acid to be used. In your plan. enthalpy changes of the following reactions are found experimentally and H1 is then calculated from H2 and H3 using Hess’ Law. FA1 100 cm3 of 0. H1.

) [2] (d) To determine H3. Show how these results could be used to determine H2. (Assume the specific heat capacity of all solutions = 4.18 J g–1 K–1. the temperature change is found to be T. the same experimental procedure in (b) is carried out for reaction 3. Explain why heat loss is a more significant problem in this experiment compared to reaction 2.For Examiner’s Use [5] (c) In an experiment which uses x g of FA1 and y cm3 of FA2 (in excess). [1] 9 .

For Examiner’s Use [2] [Total: 11] B2 Phosphine. PH3 + 2O2  H3PO4 (a) State the oxidation numbers for phosphorus in phosphine and phosphoric acid. H3PO4. State the bond angle. explain its shape in terms of the numbers and types of electron pairs it contains. It can react with oxygen to form the tribasic phosphoric acid.(e) With the help of an energy cycle. is a colourless poisonous toxic and flammable gas. as shown in the equation below. Oxidation number of P in phosphine : Oxidation number of P in phosphoric acid : ________ _______ [1] (b) Describe the shape of phosphine. show how H1 may be calculated from H2 and H3. PH3. [3] 10 .

[2] [Total: 9] B3 Metal phosphides react with acids to yield phosphine. Suggest possible reasons to account for phosphine’s low solubility in water and yet high solubility in organic solvents. However. in water. PH3. (a) Draw the dot-and-cross diagram for magnesium phosphide. For Examiner’s Use [3] B2 (d) The solubility of phosphine in water is low but high in most organic solvents. AlP. and magnesium phosphide. [1] 11 .(c) By considering the structure and bonding present in phosphine and phosphoric acid. Mg3P2. and metal salts. yield phosphine and insoluble compounds. explain why phosphine is a gas while phosphoric acid is a liquid at room temperature. aluminium phosphide.

(b) Predict. [1] [Total: 6] 12 . For Examiner’s Use [3] (c) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between aluminium phosphide and water. [1] (d) Suggest a reason to account for the formation of phosphine when metal phosphides react with water. if the melting point of magnesium phosphide is higher or lower than that of aluminium phosphide. with reasoning.

B4 The compound C5H12 exists as several isomeric forms. which exists as a pair of stereoisomers. State the type of stereoisomerism exhibited by A and draw a suitable diagram to illustrate this isomerism. (a) Bromine reacts with pentane in the presence of sunlight to give a mixture of monobrominated products with the molecular formula C5H11Br. For Examiner’s Use (ii) Describe the mechanism of the formation of A. [7] 13 . Among these is A. (i) Give the IUPAC name of A. labelling each step in the mechanism appropriately. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3. One such isomer is pentane.

Isomer CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3(l) (CH3)2CHCH2CH3(l) (CH3)4C(l) ∆Hc / kJ mol−1 3503 3509 3517 For Examiner’s Use The variation in ∆Hc values is due to the differences in the enthalpy change of vaporisation of the isomers. [2] [Total: 9] 14 . of three isomers of C5H12. Their results are given below.(b) A group of students conducted experiments to determine the standard enthalpy change of combustion. ∆Hc. Account for the differences in the enthalpy change of vaporisation.

Time. Begin each question on a fresh sheet of paper.18 1500 1. [1] Show that the final partial pressure of Cl2 upon completion of the decomposition at 700 K is approximately 2. the partial pressure of Cl2 increases as follows. was found by Steinkopf and Kühnel to be an effective agent in the nitration and chlorination of aromatic hydrocarbons. C1 Nitryl chloride. For the second step. nitryl chloride decomposes according to the following equation. For the first step. 2NO2Cl(g)  2NO2(g) + Cl2(g) 74. [2] (i) Plot a graph to show how the partial pressure of Cl2 changes during the first 3000 s of the reaction and determine the order of reaction with respect to NO2Cl.94 3000 2. At 700 K. NO2Cl.15 g of NO2Cl is placed in a 1 m3 sealed vessel at 700 K. the activation energy for the forward reaction is 240 kJ mol–1 and that of the reverse reaction is 30 kJ mol–1. In this experiment. [6] (c) (ii) (iii) (d) The decomposition reaction was found to follow a two-step mechanism as shown: Step 1: Step 2: (i) (ii) NO2Cl  NO2 + Cl NO2Cl + Cl  NO2 + Cl2 Deduce whether Step 1 or 2 is the rate determining step. stating its units.Section C (40 marks) This section consists of two questions. Decomposition occurs and the rate of reaction is followed by measuring the partial pressure of Cl2 at various times.62 Explain what is meant by the rate of reaction.30 ∞ 2.62 x 10–2 atm. Answer all questions from this section on the writing paper provided. the activation energy for the reverse reaction is 20 kJ mol–1. Write the rate equation for the reaction. An experimental study reported that the enthalpy change for the overall decomposition process is +205 kJ mol–1. [5] 15 .48 900 1. Draw a labelled energy profile diagram for the decomposition reaction. Calculate the rate constant for the reaction.68 2000 1. t / s Partial pressure of Cl2 x 10–2 / atm (a) (b) 0 0 300 0.

[6] (iii) (iv) C2 Phosgene. stating its units. The student placed 5. CO(g) + Cl2(g) COCl2(g) (b) The equilibrium partial pressure of Cl2 inside the cylinder was found to be 3. Construct an energy cycle to determine the enthalpy change of formation of NO2(g) given that the Hf [N2O4(g)] = +9. explain why both the nitrogen–oxygen bonds in NO2 are of the same length.2 kJ mol–1 Draw the dot-and-cross diagram for NO2. deduce whether the enthalpy change for the synthesis of phosgene below is exothermic or endothermic. (a) Phosgene reacts readily with water to produce carbon dioxide gas and another gas. 2NO2(g)  N2O4(g) (e) (i) (ii) Hr = –57. (i) (ii) Calculate the value of Kp for the reaction at 423 K. The bond lengths of both the nitrogen–oxygen bonds in NO2 molecule were experimentally found to be 1.00 Initial partial pressure of Cl2 / atm 4. suggest the identity of the gas. is a colourless and toxic gas which was used during World War I as a chemical warfare agent that was responsible for the death of many thousands of people.00 3.00 4.05 atm of carbon monoxide gas and 4. By constructing an equation.2 kJ mol–1. Calculate the apparent molecular mass of the equilibrium mixture. NO2 dimerises to form N2O4 according to the following equation.20 x 10–10 m. With reference to your answer in (e) (i).00 6. which is responsible for the toxicity of phosgene during the hydrolysis reaction. W.The N–Cl bond in nitryl chloride can undergo homolytic fission to produce NO2 and Cl radicals. [1] A student attempted to prepare phosgene gas for use in the synthesis of an organic compound. [5] (c) The student carried out the synthesis of phosgene under variable conditions and obtained some data as shown in the table below: Experiment Initial partial pressure of CO / atm 3. COCl2. W.25 x 101 5.63 atm of chlorine gas in a reaction vessel at 423 K. At 295 K. Explain why the bond angle is greater than 120o.00 4. The bond angle in NO2 was found to be 134o. CO(g) + Cl2(g) COCl2(g) 16 .73 atm at 423 K.50 x 102 Y I II III (i) From the data given.00 Temperature /K 300 500 500 Kp / atm1 3.

a non-ideal gas.20 g of an unknown noble gas. From the ideal gas equation. [1] 1. phosgene.(ii) (iii) Hence. [5] (d) The rate of synthesis of phosgene can be increased by adding a catalyst. Hence. on the same axes. was observed to have a smaller molar volume than that of an ideal gas. derive an expression to show the relationship between density and pressure for gas X at a fixed temperature. occupies 1. [3] At a particular temperature and pressure. X. [5] (e) (f) (iii) E N D O F P A P E R  17 .05 x 104 cm3 at a constant pressure of 14. sketch the graphs of density against pressure for a fixed mass of gas X at 25 oC and at 100 oC. With the aid of a sketch of the Boltzmann distribution. explain how the presence of a catalyst increases the rate of the reaction. Suggest the value of Y for experiment III. X. Explain your answer. (i) (ii) Deduce the identity of the noble gas. state how the yield of phosgene can be increased by varying the temperature. Suggest why this is so. Assume that gas X behaves ideally.5 kPa at 25 oC.

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